WorldWideScience

Sample records for persistent skill shortages

  1. Skill Shortages in the Trades during Economic Downturns. Occasional Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Damian

    2011-01-01

    During the recent economic downturn, media and industry reports of skill shortages in the trades continued to appear. The intent of this paper is to examine the evidence for skill shortages in the trades persisting during the economic downturns over the last 20 years, using various indicators. These include employment growth, vacancy rates,…

  2. The nature, extent and effect of skills shortages on skills migration in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Rasool

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: South Africa is currently experiencing a serious shortage of skilled workers. It has a negative effect on South Africa’s economic prospects and on global participation in South Africa (SA. This skills shortage severely affects socioeconomic growth and development in SA. Research purpose: This study focuses on the causes and effects of the skills shortages in South Africa. Motivation for the study: The researchers undertook this study to highlight the role that skilled foreign workers can play in supplementing the shortage of skilled workers in South Africa. The shortage is partly because of the failure of the national education and training system to supply the economy with much-needed skills. Research design, approach and method: The researchers undertook a literature study to identify the nature, extent and effect of skills shortages in South Africa. They consulted a wide range of primary and secondary resources in order to acquire an in-depth understanding of the problem. The article explains the research approach and method comprehensively. It also outlines the research method the researchers used. Main findings: This study shows that several factors cause serious skills shortages in SA. Practical/managerial implications: The researchers mention only two significant implications. Firstly, this article provides a logical description of the nature, extent and effect of skills shortages on the economy. Secondly, it indicates clearly the implications of skills shortages for immigration policy. Contribution/value-add: This study confirms the findings of similar studies the Centre for Development and Enterprise (CDE conducted. Opening the doors to highly skilled immigrants can broaden the skills pool.

  3. Is Farm Management Skill Persistent?

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin; Paulson, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Farm management skills can affect farm managers' performance. In this article, farm management performance is analyzed based on yearly Illinois Farm Business Farm Management (FBFM) panel data across 6,760 farms from 1996 through 2011. Two out-of-sample measures of skill are used to analyze the ability of farm managers that consistently perform well over yearly and longer time horizons. Persistence tests show management skills are consistent and predictable. Results also suggest that the most ...

  4. Concerns for Skills Shortages in the 21st Century: A Review into the Construction Industry, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Watson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Construction Industry is now facing skills shortages in all trades. As an industry focused on the skill of its workforce, there is now concern the Australian standard in quality, workmanship, and productivity will inhibit both at national and international level.This research paper addresses the underlying, influential factors concerning skills shortages in the Australian construction industry. The influential factors addressed include funding, training statistics, employer expectations, financial limitations, Industrial Relations and immigration. Given the reference to skills shortages within the industry, and documented in related literature, if skills shortages are to continue to exist, their effect will impact upon the overall performance of construction companies throughout Australia.

  5. Enterprise Policies for Tackling the Digital Skills Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela BORISOV

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays as results of the turbulent crisis, economies are confronted with the effects of the financial crisis, consequently many European states members are faced with strategic challenges in decisions about personnel development. Some of industries have faced shortages in the digital skill attainment of the currently employed personnel, or short supply of IT-related personnel due to the inadequacy of new entrants on the labor market. These problems are encountered in several traditional industries affected too rapidly by the technological advance. Along to these aspects, there are other difficulties for employers and employees as well, such as structural changes in job offering in various sectors or disparity in the employees; age categories – because of high unemployment rates in youth for instance. These are complemented by fewer job opportunities for young individuals (eventually, graduates for the tertiary sector of formal education that fit according to their specializations or even new type of skills’ demand – much oriented on the digitalization. The paper intends to presents some empirical aspects raised from the statistical evidence useful to point out critical aspects in the domestic and eventually, European approach to entreprice policy, in developing proper curricula to empower the academic institutions to provide knowledge, to foster skills for current enrolled students. On short term already, the future workforce needs to be prepared for the digitalization of the professional activity, regardless the specific domain of work and, in this view; companies should be in the position to manage this potential crisis of the labour market.

  6. Skill shortages in health: innovative solutions using vocational education and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, S I; Johns, S S; Millar, P; Le, Q; Routley, G

    2007-01-01

    This article reports findings of a project funded by the Australian National Council for Vocational Education Research. The project explores solutions to current and projected skills shortages within the health and community services sector, from a vocational education and training perspective. Its purpose is to locate, analyse and disseminate information about innovative models of health training and service delivery that have been developed in response to skill shortages. The article begins with a brief overview of Australian statistics and literature on the structure of the national health workforce and perceived skill shortages. The impact of location (state and rurality), demographics of the workforce, and other relevant factors, on health skill shortages is examined. Drawing on a synthesis of the Australian and international literature on innovative and effective models for addressing health skill shortages and nominations by key stakeholders within the health sector, over 70 models were identified. The models represent a mixture of innovative service delivery models and training solutions from Australia, as well as international examples that could be transposed to the Australian context. They include the skill ecosystem approach facilitated by the Australian National Training Authority Skill Ecosystem Project. Models were selected to represent diversity in terms of the nature of skill shortage addressed, barriers overcome in development of the model, healthcare specialisations, and different customer groups. Key barriers to the development of innovative solutions to skills shortages identified were: policy that is not sufficiently flexible to accommodate changing workplace needs; unwillingness to risk take in order to develop new models; delays in gaining endorsement/accreditation; current vocational education and training (VET) monitoring and reporting systems; issues related to working in partnership, including different cultures, ways of operating

  7. Two Birds with One Social Policy Stone: Youth Employment and Regional Skills Shortages in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Joanne; Bertone, Santina; Grace, Marty; Broadbent, Robyn

    2007-01-01

    In June 2005, the Victorian State Government introduced the Regional Jobs Package (RJP)--a twelve-month pilot program that attempted to kill two social policy problems with one stone. The problems were youth unemployment and skills shortages in regional areas of Victoria, Australia. The intention of the RJP was to create a "win-win"…

  8. The Nature of the Current and Anticipated Shortage of Professional Skills and Qualities of Workers in the Russian Labor Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, Natal'ia

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the characteristics of the existing and expected deficit of professional skills and qualities of workers employed by Russian companies. Analyzed factors include generic skills, soft or behavioral skills, the influence of the qualification, and shortage on the effectiveness of the companies as a whole. The data is based on a…

  9. Respiratory metabolism and calorie restriction relieve persistent endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by calcium shortage in yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Busti, Stefano; Mapelli, Valeria; Tripodi, Farida; Sanvito, Rossella; Magni, Fulvio; Coccetti, Paola; Rocchetti, Marcella; Nielsen, Jens; Alberghina, Lilia; Vanoni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Calcium homeostasis is crucial to eukaryotic cell survival. By acting as an enzyme cofactor and a second messenger in several signal transduction pathways, the calcium ion controls many essential biological processes. Inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium concentration is carefully regulated to safeguard the correct folding and processing of secretory proteins. By using the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae we show that calcium shortage leads to a slowdown of cell growth and met...

  10. Skilled labour supply in the South African construction industry: The nexus between certification, quality of work output and shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola O. Windapo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Construction human resource management. Research purpose: The study examines the skilled labour supply in the South African construction industry and determines whether there is a relationship between trade certification, quality of work output and scarce labour skills. Motivation for the study: The rationale for the investigation is based on the view of scholars that a skilled labour shortage is preponderant in the South African construction industry even though there is a high level of youth unemployment in South Africa and that the perceived skills shortage contributes to a decrease in productivity and product quality. Research design, approach and method: The paper reviews relevant literature and employs a mixed method research approach in collecting empirical data from contracting companies within the Western Cape Province of South Africa that are listed on the Construction Industry Development Board contractor register. Main findings: The study demonstrated that there is no shortage of manpower, but there is a shortage of qualified or skilled tradesmen, such as electricians, plumbers, welders, fitters and carpenters, whose professions are more technical and require formal training and certification. The level of supply of skilled tradesmen is attributed to the lack of high-quality basic education, the state of the economy, compulsory certification of tradesmen and an ageing workforce. It was also found that there is a significant relationship between skilled labour shortages and the requirement that labour be certified and that work output is unsatisfactory when there is no certification requirement. Practical/managerial implications: Based on these findings, the study concludes that skilled labour shortages and poor work output quality continue to be experienced in the South African construction industry when workers are unable to obtain formal certification for informal work experience acquired through years of practice on

  11. Potential predictability and forecast skill in ensemble climate forecast: a skill-persistence rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yishuai; Rong, Xinyao; Liu, Zhengyu

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates the factors relationship between the forecast skills for the real world (actual skill) and perfect model (perfect skill) in ensemble climate model forecast with a series of fully coupled general circulation model forecast experiments. It is found that the actual skill for sea surface temperature (SST) in seasonal forecast is substantially higher than the perfect skill on a large part of the tropical oceans, especially the tropical Indian Ocean and the central-eastern Pacific Ocean. The higher actual skill is found to be related to the higher observational SST persistence, suggesting a skill-persistence rule: a higher SST persistence in the real world than in the model could overwhelm the model bias to produce a higher forecast skill for the real world than for the perfect model. The relation between forecast skill and persistence is further proved using a first-order autoregressive model (AR1) analytically for theoretical solutions and numerically for analogue experiments. The AR1 model study shows that the skill-persistence rule is strictly valid in the case of infinite ensemble size, but could be distorted by sampling errors and non-AR1 processes. This study suggests that the so called "perfect skill" is model dependent and cannot serve as an accurate estimate of the true upper limit of real world prediction skill, unless the model can capture at least the persistence property of the observation.

  12. Supporting Academic Persistence in Low-Skilled Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Susan; Thomson, Margareta Maria

    2013-01-01

    The current literature review explores the factors that contribute to academic persistence for adult learners. The aim of the study is to identify current research-based strategies aimed at supporting learner persistence, particularly for low-skilled adults. Elements of three theoretical frameworks, namely, expectancy-value theory (EVT), goal…

  13. University versus Practice: A Pilot Study to Identify Skills Shortages That Exist in First-Year Trainee Accountants in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Romburgh, Henriëtte; van der Merwe, Nico

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the skills shortages in first-year trainee accountants entering practice in South Africa and to recommend ways to address and overcome those shortages. Questionnaires were administered to registered audit firms in Gauteng Province to gather the perceptions of senior trainees, managers and partners on the skills…

  14. Collaborative ReTek exchange - An innovative solution to the skills and resource shortage in the nuclear industry - 16396

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, Corhyn

    2009-01-01

    A Different Approach to the Skills and Resource Shortage The Nuclear Industry has for many years been concerned about a skills and resource shortage. This has been due to a poor perception of the industry by those on the outside, highly competitive industries vying for the same resource pool, a steep retirement curve for highly qualified staff and a lack of graduates entering industry. Here in the UK the creation of the National Skill Academy for Nuclear (NSAN) has put in place a framework to record skills and look to accredit the training providers in the nuclear industry to ensure that the correct skills for the future are available. This has gone some way to solving the skills problem and developing a well recognised accredited system but what about resource - where are the additional qualified resources going to be found? Part of the Solution - A Resource Exchange. How do we solve the skills shortage? We come together as an industry and share the available resource through a collaborative resource exchange. It has been done before in the IT industry when rates for specialists hit Pounds 1500 per day and recruitment agencies were charging extortionate fees for providing temporary resource. ReTek Consulting have developed the ReTek Resource Exchange to provide a neutral collaborative platform across the supply chain; from large scale infrastructure companies and joint venture platforms through to small companies and independent consultants. Using the ReTek Exchange permanent staff are made available to work for others during periods of under-utilisation. Links with similar highly regulated industries enable further management of peaks and troughs and a growth in experienced nuclear professionals through focused training and development. The Benefits of the ReTek Exchange are: - Increased utilisation of your current workforce. - Shared cost of permanent staff. - Speedy access to staff available in your region. - Reduced need for contract or agency staff. - Access

  15. Potential predictability and forecast skill in ensemble climate forecast: the skill-persistence rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y.; Rong, X.; Liu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates the factors that impact the forecast skill for the real world (actual skill) and perfect model (perfect skill) in ensemble climate model forecast with a series of fully coupled general circulation model forecast experiments. It is found that the actual skill of sea surface temperature (SST) in seasonal forecast is substantially higher than the perfect skill on a large part of the tropical oceans, especially the tropical Indian Ocean and the central-eastern Pacific Ocean. The higher actual skill is found to be related to the higher observational SST persistence, suggesting a skill-persistence rule: a higher SST persistence in the real world than in the model could overwhelm the model bias to produce a higher forecast skill for the real world than for the perfect model. The relation between forecast skill and persistence is further examined using a first-order autoregressive model (AR1) analytically for theoretical solutions and numerically for analogue experiments. The AR1 model study shows that the skill-persistence rule is strictly valid in the case of infinite ensemble size, but can be distorted by the sampling error and non-AR1 processes.

  16. An endogenous relationship between wages, job opportunity, and skilled labor shortage in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yin Jien

    2010-01-01

    Norway's economy has gone through unprecedented growth in the past decade. The strong growth in GDP, employment, labor productivity, real wage, and labor immigration combines with increasing outflows from the labor force, such as early retirement scheme, sickness and disability, and old age retirement implies that Norway's labor market is tight. We hypothesize demographic changes and skilled and unskilled job composition affects tertiary education participation through wage premium and job ...

  17. Assessing the relationship between total factor productivity and foreign direct investment in an economy with a skills shortage: the case of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bonga-Bonga, Lumengo; Phume, Maphelane

    2017-01-01

    This paper assesses the relationship between total factor productivity (TFP) and foreign direct investment (FDI) in a country with skills shortage. South Africa is used as a case study. Literature is inconclusive on how FDI should affect TFP. This paper shows that it is important to account for the interactivity between FDI and human capital when assessing the effects of FDI on TFP. Moreover, the empirical results show that, contrary to countries with abundance of skills, in countries with sk...

  18. Sustaining supply of senior academic leadership skills in a shortage environment: a short review of a decade of dental experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Estie; Heitz-Mayfield, Lisa; Tennant, Marc

    2014-06-01

    For the past decade, and expected for the next decade, Australia faces a significant health workforce shortage and an acute maldistribution of health workforce. Against this background the governments at both national and state level have been increasing the training places for all health practitioners and trying to redress the imbalance through a strong regional focus on these developments. Dentistry has been an active participant in these workforce initiatives. This study examines the increasing demand for academics and discusses the existing pathways for increase, and also examines in detail the advantages of a sustainable, shared-model approach, using dentistry as a model for other disciplines. Three non-exclusive pathways for reform are considered: importation of academics, delayed retirement and the shared resource approach. Of the various solutions outlined in this review a detailed explanation of a cost-effective shared model of senior academic leadership is highlighted as a viable, sustainable model for ameliorating the shortage.

  19. Task Persistence Mediates the Effect of Children's Literacy Skills on Mothers' Academic Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikas, Eve; Silinskas, Gintautas

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study aimed at examining the relationship between children's task persistence, mothers' academic help, and the development of children's literacy skills (reading and spelling) at the beginning of primary school. The participants were 870 children, 682 mothers, and 53 class teachers. Data were collected three times--at the…

  20. Getting Skills Right: Assessing and Anticipating Changing Skill Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Digitalisation, globalisation, demographic shifts and other changes in work organisation are constantly reshaping skill needs. This can lead to persistent skill shortages and mismatch which are costly for individuals, firms and society in terms of lost wages and lower productivity and growth. These costs can be reduced through better assessment…

  1. Labour Shortages in Saskatchewan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Herbert Emery

    2013-01-01

    up the import of temporary foreign workers to fill short-term job vacancies: those workers have a way of dampening wage signals that would draw more permanent, and therefore desirable, workers to the province. What few things the province could be actively doing, it should do anyway. It should help retrain workers with skills in low-demand for jobs in higher demand. It should recruit migrants from other provinces and overseas to settle in Saskatchewan. It should carefully review its post-secondary education system to minimize drop-out rates from apprenticeship programs and to ensure it is training people to match the economy’s demands. And it should be finding ways to mobilize large portions of the population that could be working, yet aren’t, including underemployed males and Aboriginals, but also the elderly and disabled. If there is, indeed, a shortage somewhere in Saskatchewan’s future, having those people working can only help. But even if there is never a shortage, having large pools of potential labour sitting idle is something that will truly limit Saskatchewan’s economic potential.

  2. Persistent Performance of Fund Managers: An Analysis of Selection and Timing Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Ahmad Pandow

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The persistence in manager’s ability to select stocks and to time risk factors is a vital issue for accessing the performance of any asset management company. The fund manager who comes out successful today, whether the same will be able to sustain the performance in the future is a matter of concern to the investors and other stake holders. More than the stock picking ability of fund managers, one would be interested in knowing whether there is consistency in selectivity and timing performance or not. If a fund manager is able to deliver better performance consistently i.e. quarter-after-quarter or year-after-year, then the mangers’ performance in selecting the right type of stocks for the portfolio would be considered satisfactory. This paper has attempted to analyze the persistence in both stock selection and timing performance of mutual fund managers in India through Henriksson & Morton; Jenson, and Fama’s model over a period of five years. It is found that the fund managers present persistence in selection skills however, the sample funds haven’t shown progressive timing skills in Indian context.

  3. Motivational, Parental, and Cultural Influences on Achievement and Persistence in Basic Skills Mathematics at the Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, Donna E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to address the gap in the current literature on community college students in basic math courses by examining motivational, parental and cultural factors as predictors of achievement and persistence of students enrolled in basic skills mathematics courses at a community college. More specifically, this study…

  4. Addressing the labour shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemer, J. [Alberta Economic Development, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Labour shortages are an increasing concern for companies in Alberta, where the economy is booming. This presentation provided statistics on labour shortages and Alberta's labour force. Between 1995 and 2004, employment in Alberta increased by more than 433,000 jobs, and is predicted to grow, but the natural population increase in the province is only 19,600 per year. It is expected that by 2010, immigrants will account for all growth in Canada's labour force. By 2020, an additional $100 billion of capital will be invested in Alberta, which is competing for labour with every other industrialized economy in the world. This presentation included a series of graphs and charts depicting Canada's national unemployment rate by province; Alberta's unemployment rate; oil sands capital expenditure; regional workforce requirements; and new jobs in the oil sands industry from 1998 to 2010. Employment requirements by trade were also highlighted along with projected labour shortages in 16 different trades. The author recommended that better long-term labour supply and demand models are needed along with rationalization and streamlining of credentials systems. Other solutions to labour shortages may include the removal of barriers to interprovincial and foreign workers; education and training; enhanced productivity; industry collaboration; and maximization of the labour pool to include women and Aboriginal workers. tabs., figs.

  5. California Workforce: California Faces a Skills Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2011

    2011-01-01

    California's education system is not keeping up with the changing demands of the state's economy--soon, California will face a shortage of skilled workers. Projections to 2025 suggest that the economy will continue to need more and more highly educated workers, but that the state will not be able to meet that demand. If current trends persist,…

  6. Calculation and word problem-solving skills in primary grades - Impact of cognitive abilities and longitudinal interrelations with task-persistent behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jõgi, Anna-Liisa; Kikas, Eve

    2016-06-01

    Primary school math skills form a basis for academic success down the road. Different math skills have different antecedents and there is a reason to believe that more complex math tasks require better self-regulation. The study aimed to investigate longitudinal interrelations of calculation and problem-solving skills, and task-persistent behaviour in Grade 1 and Grade 3, and the effect of non-verbal intelligence, linguistic abilities, and executive functioning on math skills and task persistence. Participants were 864 students (52.3% boys) from 33 different schools in Estonia. Students were tested twice - at the end of Grade1 and at the end of Grade 3. Calculation and problem-solving skills, and teacher-rated task-persistent behaviour were measured at both time points. Non-verbal intelligence, linguistic abilities, and executive functioning were measured in Grade 1. Cross-lagged structural equation modelling indicated that calculation skills depend on previous math skills and linguistic abilities, while problem-solving skills require also non-verbal intelligence, executive functioning, and task persistence. Task-persistent behaviour in Grade 3 was predicted by previous problem-solving skills, linguistic abilities, and executive functioning. Gender and mother's educational level were added as covariates. The findings indicate that math skills and self-regulation are strongly related in primary grades and that solving complex tasks requires executive functioning and task persistence from children. Findings support the idea that instructional practices might benefit from supporting self-regulation in order to gain domain-specific, complex skill achievement. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Looming labour shortages challenge Alberta resource industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R.

    2005-07-01

    The shortage of skilled manpower that is threatening the viability of Alberta's resource industry is discussed. According to statistics compiled by the Canadian Resource Development the Canadian labour force grew by about 226,000 per year during the last quarter century; this will be reduced by about 125,000 per year during the current decade. It is forecast that by 2016, the annul growth will be near zero. To make up for this unprecedented shortfall, the annual rate of immigration required would have to be as high as 650,000 per year. The Alberta Chamber's Workforce Development Committee is aware of the urgency of the situation and is attempting to aggressively investigate the causes of the shortage of skilled labour and finding ways to deal with the problem. Current investigation appears to point the finger at the state of post-secondary education, most particularly the significantly higher underemployment among aboriginal youth and the likelihood that skills programs training developed to encourage First Nation's people would be the most effective way to help easing the growing labour shortage. Too few educational placement for students, a lack of adequate training equipment and financial resources in post-secondary institutions, and the variations in the quality of provincial educational standards receive the most blame, combined with a lack of awareness of employment opportunities or training programs, and the inability to migrate to high opportunity employment areas. A notable program addressing this issue is the Alberta Apprenticeship and Industry Training System which helps young people to start their apprenticeship training while still in high school, and encourage them to continue their training after graduation from high school. The federal government and other groups also encourage participation among Ab originals and work towards eliminating some of the underlying factors of labour shortages, including cultural biases, barriers to inter

  8. Nursing shortages and international nurse migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S J; Polsky, D; Sochalski, J

    2005-12-01

    The United Kingdom and the United States are among several developed countries currently experiencing nursing shortages. While the USA has not yet implemented policies to encourage nurse immigration, nursing shortages will likely result in the growth of foreign nurse immigration to the USA. Understanding the factors that drive the migration of nurses is critical as the USA exerts more pull on the foreign nurse workforce. To predict the international migration of nurses to the UK using widely available data on country characteristics. The Nursing and Midwifery Council serves as the source of data on foreign nurse registrations in the UK between 1998 and 2002. We develop and test a regression model that predicts the number of foreign nurse registrants in the UK based on source country characteristics. We collect country-level data from sources such as the World Bank and the World Health Organization. The shortage of nurses in the UK has been accompanied by massive and disproportionate growth in the number of foreign nurses from poor countries. Low-income, English-speaking countries that engage in high levels of bilateral trade experience greater losses of nurses to the UK. Poor countries seeking economic growth through international trade expose themselves to the emigration of skilled labour. This tendency is currently exacerbated by nursing shortages in developed countries. Countries at risk for nurse emigration should adjust health sector planning to account for expected losses in personnel. Moreover, policy makers in host countries should address the impact of recruitment on source country health service delivery.

  9. Economic Impacts of Power Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Ou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The electricity industry is a basic industry of the national economy. It has experienced several large-scale power shortages, hard power shortage and soft power shortage, which have brought a great threat to China’s sustainable economic development. To solve this problem better, it is necessary to make a quantitative assessment of the economic impacts of power shortage. The CGE model is commonly used for simulating economic shocks and policy effects. It describes supply, demand and equilibrium in different markets by simulating the economic mechanism through a set of equations. Once changed, the exogenous variables will affect a certain part of the system and then the whole system, leading to changes in quantities and prices. The equilibrium state will also change from one to another. A static CGE model is built in this paper, and the Social Accounting Matrix (SAM of eight sectors of China in 2007 is compiled, in order to simulate the economic impacts of hard power shortage and soft power shortage. Simulation results show that the negative effects of power shortage on economic development are very significant, and the effects vary in different sectors. Especially, under the background of hard power shortage, the industrial sector suffers most. The economic cost of power shortage is considerable, and the main reason for it is the specific administrative pricing system in China. The low electricity price in the long term will lead to insufficient construction and hard power shortage; moreover, that in the short run would result in soft power shortage. In order to solve the problem of power shortage completely, power system reform is inevitable.

  10. Deficits in Fine Motor Skills and Their Influence on Persistence among Gifted Elementary School Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeger, Heidrun; Ziegler, Albert

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the causes of underachievement in scholastic education. Whereas many studies have been able to show that motivational deficits provide an explanation for underachievement, little research has yet explored the possible influences of deficits in fine motor skills. The aim of our empirical study was, therefore, to investigate…

  11. Poor fine-motor and visuospatial skills predict persistence of pediatric-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder into adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Michael H; Sukhodolsky, Denis G; Dombrowski, Philip A; Panza, Kaitlyn E; Craiglow, Brittany G; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Leckman, James F; Peterson, Bradley S; Schultz, Robert T

    2011-09-01

    Half of pediatric-onset OCD cases remit by adulthood. Studies have demonstrated that initial response to pharmacotherapy, age of onset, prominent hoarding symptoms, and the presence of comorbid tic disorders are associated with long-term outcome. Our goal was to examine the association between childhood performance on neuropsychological testing and persistence of OCD into adulthood. Twenty-four children with OCD were followed for an average of 7.5 years into early adulthood. Neuropsychological performance in childhood (childhood performance on the Purdue pegboard task and the block design subscale of WISC-III was associated with persistence of OCD symptoms into adulthood. IQ, VMI, and nonverbal memory performance did not predict significantly the persistence of OCD. These results suggest that visuospatial and fine-motor skill deficits are predictive of poor long-term outcome in pediatric-onset OCD. Future longitudinal studies are needed to chart the course of these deficits relative to the course of symptoms in OCD and to determine whether the association of these neuropsychiatric deficits with long-term outcome is specific to pediatric-onset OCD or generalizes to other psychiatric disorders. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  12. Competence building capacity shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Wangensteen, Ivar; Bakken, Bjoern

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather conditions after

  13. Drug shortages: Implications for medical toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; Hawley, Kristy L; Zocchi, Mark; Fox, Erin; Pines, Jesse M; Nelson, Lewis S

    2015-07-01

    Drug shortages have significantly increased over the past decade. There are limited data describing how shortages impact medical toxicology of drugs. To characterize drug shortages affecting the management of poisoned patients. Drug shortage data from January 2001 to December 2013 were obtained from the University of Utah Drug Information Service. Shortage data for agents used to treat poisonings were analyzed. Information on drug type, formulation, reason for shortage, shortage duration, marketing, and whether the drug was available from a single source was collected. The availability of a substitute therapy and whether substitutes were in shortage during the study period were also investigated. Of 1,751 shortages, 141 (8.1%) impacted drugs used to treat poisoned patients, and as of December 2013, 21 (14.9%) remained unresolved. New toxicology shortages increased steadily from the mid-2000s, reaching a high of 26 in 2011. Median shortage duration was 164 days (interquartile range: 76-434). Generic drugs were involved in 85.1% of shortages and 41.1% were single-source products. Parenteral formulations were often involved in shortages (89.4%). The most common medications in shortage were sedative/hypnotics (15.6%). An alternative agent was available for 121 (85.8%) drugs; however, 88 (72.7%) alternatives were also affected by shortages at some point during the study period. When present, the most common reasons reported were manufacturing delays (22.0%) and supply/demand issues (17.0%). Shortage reason was not reported for 48.2% of drugs. Toxicology drug shortages are becoming increasingly prevalent, which can result in both suboptimal treatment and medication errors from using less familiar alternatives. Drug shortages affected a substantial number of critical agents used in the management of poisoned patients. Shortages were often of long duration and for drugs without alternatives. Providers caring for poisoned patients should be aware of current shortages and

  14. ROMANIAN TOURISM FACING LABOUR SHORTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Simon

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the main trends în the Romanian tourism sector andtheir impact on the labour market. The first part of the paper presents the main trends în the travel and tourismsector. The second part of the paper focuses on the challenges of the labour market în the hotel sector,highlighting essential aspect related to the declining of population, shortage of the workforce, emigration,financial compensations. The final part exposes few ideas and possible suggestions that can be applied into thetravel and tourism sector în order to better manage the multiple dimensions of growth.

  15. How to motivate adults with low literacy and numeracy skills to engage and persist in learning: A literature review of policy interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windisch, Hendrickje Catriona

    2016-06-01

    Low basic skills levels of adults are a complex policy problem which has neither straightforward causes nor solutions, and successful interventions are still relatively rare. Tackling serious literacy and numeracy weaknesses among adults is challenging, partly because the task itself is difficult, and partly because even if accomplished successfully, the returns on the investment (of expertise, time and money) are uncertain. The Survey of Adult Skills, an international investigation conducted in 22 member and two partner countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) as part of the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), has revealed that a considerable number of adults possess only limited literacy and numeracy skills. Governments now recognise the need to upskill these adults in order to maintain national prosperity. This literature review examines current evidence on policy interventions for adults with low literacy and numeracy proficiencies to pinpoint what has so far proven to motivate adults to join and persist in basic literacy and numeracy learning. The author identifies three approaches which seem promising in helping to address individual learners' needs: (1) adapting instruction to learners' needs by means of regular assessment (formative assessment); (2) complementary e-learning (blended learning); and (3) contextualisation of basic skills provision both at work and at home (workplace learning and family literacy). The central challenge is to put the evidence to work.

  16. Combating pharmacist shortage through labor certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswoswe, J J; Stewart, K R; Enigbokan, M; Egbunike, I; Jackson, D M

    1994-06-01

    Several solutions, ranging from increased technician duties to salary raises, automation, and increasing job satisfaction, have been presented in the literature as methods of assuaging the pharmacist shortage. Although a significant portion of pharmacy graduates from American pharmacy colleges are foreign nationals, no marketing strategies have been elucidated in the retention and recruitment of foreign nationals through labor certification. Labor certifications are generally approved by the Secretary of Labor if the following factors have been verified: 1) there are not sufficient United States workers who are able, willing, qualified, and available for employment; and 2) the employment of the foreign national will not adversely affect the wages and working conditions of U.S. workers similarly employed. When properly understood, the labor certification process is a test of the job market where foreigners, by virtue of their skills and qualifications, attain certification which subsequently leads to permanent residency (green card). The objective of this report is to elucidate the tedious yet effective method of retaining American-educated foreign nationals through labor certification.

  17. Nursing and Allied Health Shortages: TBR Responds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Treva

    Staff members of the Tennessee Board of Regents (TBR) and the Tennessee Higher Education Commission worked jointly to establish a task force to investigate and develop recommendations for addressing the workforce shortages in nursing and allied health in Tennessee. The investigation established that Tennessee already has a workforce shortage of…

  18. Drug shortage management in Alabama hospital pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver W. Holmes, III

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify effective strategies used by Alabama hospitals to manage drug shortages. Moreover, this study aims to determine if there are any relationships among hospital size, utilization of a standard policy for drug shortage management and perceived usefulness of standard procedures for drug shortages. Methods: A paper survey was mailed to 129 hospital pharmacies in Alabama (per the Alabama Hospital Association directory. The survey consisted of 5 demographic questions, questions involving perception of current medication shortages, sources of information about shorted drugs, and frequency of discussion at P&T committee meetings. Most importantly, the survey contained questions about the use of a standard policy for handling drug shortages, the effectiveness of the policy if one is used, and an open-ended question asking the recipient to describe the policy being used. Results: A response rate of 55% was achieved as 71 surveys were completed and returned. Approximately 70% of the survey respondents described the current drug shortage issue as a top priority in their pharmacy department. The pharmacy distributor served as the primary source of information regarding drug shortages for 45% of the facilities. There is a direct relationship between size of hospital and likelihood of utilization of a standard policy or procedure for drug shortage management among the sample. The smaller facilities of the sample perceived their management strategies as effective more frequently than the larger hospitals. Conclusion: Common components of effective management strategies included extensive communication of shortage details and the ability to locate alternative products. The use of portable technology (e.g., Smart phones and tablets along with mobile applications may emerge as popular means for communicating drug product shortage news and updates within a facility or healthcare system.   Type: Original Research

  19. Drug shortage management in Alabama hospital pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver W. Holmes III, Pharm.D. Candidate 2013

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify effective strategies used by Alabama hospitals to manage drug shortages. Moreover, this study aims to determine if there are any relationships among hospital size, utilization of a standard policy for drug shortage management and perceived usefulness of standard procedures for drug shortages.Methods: A paper survey was mailed to 129 hospital pharmacies in Alabama (per the Alabama Hospital Association directory. The survey consisted of 5 demographic questions, questions involving perception of current medication shortages, sources of information about shorted drugs, and frequency of discussion at P&T committee meetings. Most importantly, the survey contained questions about the use of a standard policy for handling drug shortages, the effectiveness of the policy if one is used, and an open-ended question asking the recipient to describe the policy being used.Results: A response rate of 55% was achieved as 71 surveys were completed and returned. Approximately 70% of the survey respondents described the current drug shortage issue as a top priority in their pharmacy department. The pharmacy distributor served as the primary source of information regarding drug shortages for 45% of the facilities. There is a direct relationship between size of hospital and likelihood of utilization of a standard policy or procedure for drug shortage management among the sample. The smaller facilities of the sample perceived their management strategies as effective more frequently than the larger hospitals.Conclusion: Common components of effective management strategies included extensive communication of shortage details and the ability to locate alternative products. The use of portable technology (e.g., Smart phones and tablets along with mobile applications may emerge as popular means for communicating drug product shortage news and updates within a facility or healthcare system.

  20. Internet-mediated physiotherapy and pain coping skills training for people with persistent knee pain (IMPACT - knee pain): a randomised controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Fiona; Hinman, Rana S; French, Simon; Rini, Christine; Keefe, Francis; Nelligan, Rachel; Abbott, J Haxby; Bryant, Christina; Staples, Margaret P; Dalwood, Andrew; Bennell, Kim L

    2014-08-13

    Persistent knee pain in people over 50 years of age is often attributable to knee osteoarthritis (OA), a common joint condition that causes physical and psychological dysfunction. Exercise and pain coping skills training (PCST) can help reduce the impact of persistent knee pain, however, access to health professionals who deliver these services can be challenging. With increasing access to the Internet, remotely delivered Internet-based treatment approaches may provide alternatives for healthcare delivery. This pragmatic randomised controlled trial will investigate whether an Internet-delivered intervention that combines PCST and physiotherapist-guided exercise (PCST + Ex) is more effective than online educational material (educational control) in people with persistent knee pain. We will recruit 148 people over 50 years of age with self-reported persistent knee pain consistent with knee OA from the Australian community. Following completion of baseline questionnaires, participants will be randomly allocated to access a 3-month intervention of either (i) online educational material, or (ii) the same online material plus an 8-module (once per week) Internet-based PCST program and seven Internet-delivered physiotherapy sessions with a home exercise programs to be performed 3 times per week. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 3 months and 9 months with the primary time point at 3 months. Primary outcomes are average knee pain on walking (11-point numeric rating scale) and self-reported physical function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index subscale). Secondary outcomes include additional measures of knee pain, health-related quality-of-life, perceived global change in symptoms, and potential moderators and mediators of outcomes including self-efficacy for pain management and function, pain coping attempts and pain catastrophising. Other measures of adherence, adverse events, harms, use of health services/co-interventions, and process

  1. Causes and Model Skill of the Persistent Intense Rainfall and Flooding in Paraguay during the Austral Summer 2015-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss-Gollin, J.; Munoz, A. G.; Pastén, M.

    2017-12-01

    During the austral summer 2015-16 severe flooding displaced over 150,000 people on the Paraguay River system in Paraguay, Argentina, and Southern Brazil. This flooding was out of phase with the typical seasonal cycle of the Paraguay River, and was driven by repeated intense rainfall events in the Lower Paraguay River basin. Using a weather typing approach within a diagnostic framework, we show that enhanced moisture inflow from the low-level jet and local convergence associated with baroclinic systems favored the development of mesoscale convective activity and enhanced precipitation. The observed circulation patterns were made more likely by the cross-timescale interactions of multiple climate mechanisms including the strong, mature El Niño event and an active Madden-Julien Oscillation in phases four and five. We also perform a comparison of the rainfall predictability using seasonal forecasts from the Latin American Observatory of Climate Events (OLE2) and sub-seasonal forecasts produced by the ECMWF. We find that the model output precipitation field exhibited limited skill at lead times beyond the synoptic timescale, but that a Model Output Statistics (MOS) approach, in which the leading principal components of the observed rainfall field are regressed on the leading principal components of model-simulated rainfall fields, substantially improves spatial representation of rainfall forecasts. Possible implications for flood preparedness are briefly discussed.

  2. Seasonal blood shortages can be eliminated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilcher, Ronald O; McCombs, Suzanne

    2005-11-01

    This review is designed to help readers understand seasonal blood shortages and provide solutions through the use of technology that can increase the number of red blood cell units collected and the use of recruitment and marketing initiatives that appeal to the increasingly diverse donor base. Seasonal shortages are, in reality, mostly shortages of group O red blood cells and occur most commonly during midsummer and early winter. The shortages occur primarily from increased use of group O red blood cells at times of decreased donor availability. While reducing the disproportionate use of red cells will help, blood centers can more quickly reduce the seasonal deficits by using automated red cell technology to collect double red blood cell units; targeted marketing programs to provide effective messages; seasonal advertising campaigns; and recognition, benefits, and incentives to enhance the donor motivation donation threshold. A multi-level approach to increasing blood donations at difficult times of the year can ensure that donations are increased at a time when regular donor availability is decreased. Seasonal blood shortages can be eliminated by understanding the nature of the shortages, why and when they occur, and using more sophisticated recruitment and marketing strategies as well as automated collection technologies to enhance the blood supply.

  3. Shortage of donation despite an adequate number of donors : A professional attitude?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, RJ; Niesing, J; Sieber-Rasch, MH; Willems, L; Kranenburg, K

    2003-01-01

    Background A major problem in the field of transplantation is the persistent shortage of donor organs and tissues for transplantation. This study was initiated to (1) chart the donor potential for organs and tissue in The Netherlands and (2) to identify factors influencing whether donation is

  4. "Dynamic Labor Shortage" In the Offing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Lawrence

    1982-01-01

    The United States is on the verge of a labor shortage that is partly the result of declining birth rates. An increase in work force participation by older adults, encouraged by reversals of early retirement and other policy changes, would be advantageous to employers, workers, and the economy. (Author/SK)

  5. The Minority Teacher Shortage: Fact or Fable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Richard M.; May, Henry

    2011-01-01

    This research examines national data on the status of the minority teacher shortage--the low proportion of minority teachers in comparison to the increasing numbers of students of color in schools. The authors show that efforts over recent decades to recruit more minority teachers, and place them in disadvantaged schools, have been very…

  6. Persistence of Elementary Programming Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Programming is recognised as one of seven grand challenges in computing education and attracts much attention in computing education research. Most research in the area concerns teaching methods, educational technology and student understanding/misconceptions. Typically, evaluation of learning outcome takes place during or immediately following…

  7. Persistence of elementary programming skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens Benned; Caspersen, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Programming is recognised as one of seven grand challenges in computing education and attracts much attention in computing education research. Most research in the area concerns teaching methods, educational technology and student understanding/misconceptions. Typically, evaluation of learning...... outcome takes place during or immediately following the educational activity. In this research, we conduct a qualitative investigation of sustainability of programming competence by studying the effect of recalling programming competence long time after the educational activity has taken place. Our...

  8. Portability of Technical Skills Across Occupations

    OpenAIRE

    Mukuni, Joseph Siloka

    2012-01-01

    In the literature, much has been reported about skill shortages in the labor market and many solutions have been suggested but most of them do not appear to work well for developing countries. This study investigated the place of portable technical skills as an option for addressing skill shortages, particularly in developing countries. The objective of the study was to determine whether different occupations have portable technical skills, which graduates of workforce development programs ca...

  9. A qualitative study of patient and provider perspectives on using web-based pain coping skills training to treat persistent cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rini, Christine; Vu, Maihan B; Lerner, Hannah; Bloom, Catherine; Carda-Auten, Jessica; Wood, William A; Basch, Ethan M; Voorhees, Peter M; Reeder-Hayes, Katherine E; Keefe, Francis J

    2018-04-01

    Persistent pain is common and inadequately treated in cancer patients. Behavioral pain interventions are a recommended part of multimodal pain treatments, but they are underused in clinical care due to barriers such as a lack of the resources needed to deliver them in person and difficulties coordinating their use with clinical care. Pain coping skills training (PCST) is an evidence-based behavioral pain intervention traditionally delivered in person. Delivering this training via the web would increase access to it by addressing barriers that currently limit its use. We conducted a patient pilot study of an 8-week web-based PCST program to determine the acceptability of this approach to patients and the program features needed to meet their needs. Focus groups with healthcare providers identified strategies for coordinating the use of web-based PCST in clinical care. Participants included 7 adults with bone pain due to multiple myeloma or metastasized breast or prostate cancer and 12 healthcare providers (4 physicians and 8 advanced practice providers) who treat cancer-related bone pain. Patients completed web-based PCST at home and then took part in an in-depth qualitative interview. Providers attended focus groups led by a trained moderator. Qualitative analyses identified themes in the patient and provider data. Patients reported strongly favorable responses to web-based PCST and described emotional and physical benefits. They offered suggestions for adapting the approach to better fit their needs and to overcome barriers to completion. Focus groups indicated a need to familiarize healthcare providers with PCST and to address concerns about overburdening patients. Providers would recommend the program to patients they felt could benefit. They suggested applying a broad definition of cancer pain and having various types of providers help coordinate program its use with clinical care. Web-based PCST was acceptable to patients and providers. Our findings suggest

  10. Calculation and Word Problem-Solving Skills in Primary Grades--Impact of Cognitive Abilities and Longitudinal Interrelations with Task-persistent Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jõgi, Anna-Liisa; Kikas, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Background: Primary school math skills form a basis for academic success down the road. Different math skills have different antecedents and there is a reason to believe that more complex math tasks require better self-regulation. Aims: The study aimed to investigate longitudinal interrelations of calculation and problem-solving skills, and…

  11. Nuclear industry prepares fore shortage of engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauker, Lynn.

    1991-01-01

    It is predicted that the Canadian nuclear industry will experience a shortage of qualified personnel within the next five to ten years. The reasons for this prediction are as follows: enrollment in engineering courses, particularly five courses in nuclear engineering has been declining; immigration can no longer be expected to fill the gap; the workforce is aging. Solutions may include promotional campaigns, student employment programs, and educating workers to a professional level

  12. Reducing Air Force Fighter Pilot Shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-31

    units). Pilot positions can be divided into two categories: absorbing and nonabsorbing. Absorbing positions are in operational units to which...Continued Attention to Aircrew Management Dynamics The primary source of stress in fighter- pilot management has been reductions in aircraft inventories...Fighter Pilot Shortages C O R P O R A T I O N Limited Print and Electronic Distribution Rights This document and trademark(s) contained herein are

  13. Forecasting the global shortage of physicians: an economic- and needs-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jenny X; Kinfu, Yohannes; Dal Poz, Mario R

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective Global achievements in health may be limited by critical shortages of health-care workers. To help guide workforce policy, we estimate the future demand for, need for and supply of physicians, by WHO region, to determine where likely shortages will occur by 2015, the target date of the Millennium Development Goals. Methods Using World Bank and WHO data on physicians per capita from 1980 to 2001 for 158 countries, we employ two modelling approaches for estimating the future global requirement for physicians. A needs-based model determines the number of physicians per capita required to achieve 80% coverage of live births by a skilled health-care attendant. In contrast, our economic model identifies the number of physicians per capita that are likely to be demanded, given each country’s economic growth. These estimates are compared to the future supply of physicians projected by extrapolating the historical rate of increase in physicians per capita for each country. Findings By 2015, the global supply of physicians appears to be in balance with projected economic demand. Because our measure of need reflects the minimum level of workforce density required to provide a basic health service that is met in all but the least developed countries, the needs-based estimates predict a global surplus of physicians. However, on a regional basis, both models predict shortages for many countries in the WHO African Region in 2015, with some countries experiencing a needs-based shortage, a demand-based shortage, or both. Conclusion The type of policy intervention needed to alleviate projected shortages, such as increasing health-care training or adopting measures to discourage migration, depends on the type of shortage projected. PMID:18670663

  14. Find Shortage Areas: HPSA & MUA/P by Address

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Find Shortage Areas: Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA) and Medically Underserved Area/Population (MUA/P) by Address tool helps you determine if a specific...

  15. Raising the Reading Skills of Secondary-Age Students with Severe and Persistent Reading Difficulties: Evaluation of the Efficacy and Implementation of a Phonics-Based Intervention Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffes, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The importance of reading skills to academic achievement, job acquisition and future success is well documented. Most of the research on reading interventions focuses on children in primary schools but many children start secondary school with very poor reading skills and schools require evidence-based interventions to support these children. The…

  16. Demand for Skills : Main Results of the Azerbaijan STEP Employer Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Rutkowski, Jan J.

    2015-01-01

    This note summarizes the main findings of the STEP Employer Skills Survey carried out in Azerbaijan in 2013. The note argues that there is a skills shortage in Azerbaijan. Azeri employers claim that it is difficult to find workers with required skills. The shortage is particularly pronounced in the case of modern, innovative firms, which tend to required more advanced skills. The education...

  17. Persistent myalgia following whiplash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2005-10-01

    Persistent myalgia following whiplash is commonly considered the result of poor psychosocial status, illness behavior, or failing coping skills. However, there is much evidence that persistent myalgia may be due to neurophysiologic mechanisms involving peripheral and central sensitization. Myofascial trigger points may play a crucial role in maintaining sensitization. Recent research suggests that the chemical environment of myofascial trigger points is an important factor. Several consequences are reviewed when central pain mechanisms and myofascial trigger points are included in the differential diagnosis and in the management of patients with persistent pain following whiplash.

  18. The nursing shortage: part way down the slippery slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowin, Leanne; Jacobsson, Denise

    2003-07-01

    The shortage of nurses has reached a crisis point for health care services. A number of issues including the effects of economic rationalism, generational differences, working conditions and nurse education are revisited in a discussion that aims to refuel the debate on workplace reform for nurses. Economic rationalism has altered the healthcare service landscape. Attempts to balance service delivery with workforce resources have led to possibly unforeseen changes. Highly skilled nurses are required in acute services, however resource allocation may prevent this. The nursing workforce is aging although the current nursing workforce consists of three generations: baby boomers, generation X and generation Y. There are significant ideological and work organisational differences between these generations leading to possible conflict between nurses. The pool of available nurses to fill employment vacancies is finite. Attracting overseas nurses to fill nurse vacancies will leave vacancies elsewhere and is not a long-term solution to the nursing shortage. Moreover, if the workplace has not addressed the reasons why nurses have left the health care workplace then there is a real danger of losing those recently attracted back into the workplace. Working conditions are a critical element within the retention puzzle. Job satisfaction dimensions such as autonomy and professional relationships are key components for improving working conditions. The final issue explored is the question of whether the tertiary education system is the most appropriate place in which to develop and educate nurses. It is suggested that workplace reforms should be the target of retention strategies rather than changes in the educational process of nursing.

  19. Generic ICT Skills Profiles: Future Skills for Tomorrow's World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Co-operation Europe Ltd. (ICEL), Brussels, Belgium.

    This document describes generic skills profiles relevant to key jobs in information and communications technology (ICT). The profiles cover the main job areas for which the ICT industry is experiencing skills shortages. These types of information are provided for 18 generic job profiles: job description (vision, role, lifestyle); examples of job…

  20. Predictors of Academic Performance and School Engagement--Integrating Persistence, Motivation and Study Skills Perspectives Using Person-Centered and Variable-Centered Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Paulo A. S.; Dias, Paulo; Vaz, Filipa Machado; Vaz, Joao Machado

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing need for the integration of various theoretical perspectives on academic performance, especially the theories on educational persistence, and motivational theories. Recent models of students' engagement with school incorporate different dimensions of students, family and school. However, some authors are arguing that academic…

  1. Overview of allied health personnel shortages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, T W

    1991-01-01

    Upon learning that 95% of all fatal traffic accidents occur within three miles of one's home, an acquaintance moved to another residence four miles away and is still alive today. The world might be a much better place if most obstacles could be overcome this handily. Unfortunately, the problem of allied health personnel shortages appears to be more intractable. Because the situation is complicated in nature, it is most unlikely that any single remedy will suffice. Public and private interests have joined forces in many states, but it is abundantly clear that conventional market forces are unlikely to prevail. These forces usually focus on supply and demand. While shortages may cause entry-level salaries to rise, they do not stimulate academic institutions to increase their output nor will they affect the availability of research funding and/or doctoral training programs. Current market forces compel health facilities to engage in bidding wars for scarce manpower. Although individual job seekers may benefit, this practice does not increase the number of training program graduates. The federal government has a decisive role to play in assuring an adequate number of personnel to meet this nation's health care needs. Assistance is necessary in the form of providing entry- and advanced-level traineeships to accelerate the flow of part-time students pursuing doctorates, and to fund model student recruitment/retention projects. This role should encompass attracting students (particularly from minority and underserved portions of the population) to academic programs. The Disadvantaged Minority Health Improvement Act, PL 101-527 that was enacted in November 1990, contains only minimal provisions for allied health. Eligibility for student scholarship assistance is restricted to a small handful of allied health professions. Moreover, allied health is not eligible for the loan repayment program aimed at individuals who agree to serve on the faculty of health professions

  2. Identifying Areas of Primary Care Shortage in Urban Ohio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chung Liao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study considers both spatial and a-spatial variables in examining accessibility to primary healthcare in the three largest urban areas of Ohio (Cleveland, Columbus, and Cincinnati. Spatial access emphasizes the importance of geographic barriers between individuals and primary care physicians, while a-spatial variables include non-geographic barriers or facilitators such as age, sex, race, income, social class, education, living conditions and language skills. Population and socioeconomic data were obtained from the 2000 Census, and primary care physician data for 2008 was provided by the Ohio Medical Board. We first implemented a two-step method based on a floating catchment area using Geographic Information Systems to measure spatial accessibility in terms of 30-minute travel times. We then used principal component analysis to group various socio-demographic variables into three groups: (1 socioeconomic disadvantages, (2 living conditions, and (3 healthcare needs. Finally, spatial and a-spatial variables were integrated to identify areas with poor access to primary care in Cleveland, Columbus, and Cincinnati. KEYWORDS: Geographic information systems, healthcare access, spatial accessibility, primary care shortage areas

  3. Drugs, money, and power: the Canadian drug shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaposy, Chris

    2014-03-01

    This article describes the shortage of generic injectable medications in Canada that affected hospitals in 2012. It traces the events leading up to the drug shortage, the causes of the shortage, and the responses by health administrators, pharmacists, and ethicists. The article argues that generic drug shortages are an ethical problem because health care organizations and governments have an obligation to avoid exposing patients to resource scarcity. The article also discusses some options governments could pursue in order to secure the drug supply and thereby fulfill their ethical obligations.

  4. Desalination - A solution to water shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakaib, M.

    2005-01-01

    Pakistan as well as neighbouring countries are faced with critical water shortage for the last few decades. The demand for water has outstripped its supply making the availability of safe water sources an issue Also conflicts over water sharing are expected in many regions of the world. Thus, because of this looming crisis water problems are getting increasing attention all over the world. With the advancement of desalination technology many countries had resorted removal of salts from brackish and sea water as an alternative water supply and they are now viewing desalination as a future solution to problems of lack of water. Today, over 100 countries use desalting requirement. A total of 12,451 desalting units (of a unit size of 100 m/sup 3//d or more) with a total capacity of 22,735,000 m /d had been installed or contracted worldwide. Brackish water desalination plants contribute with 9,400,000 m3/d, whereas the capacity of the sea water plants had reached up to 13,300,000 m3/d. This paper will discuss the use of desalination to produce potable water from saline water for domestic or municipal purposes and also the available desalination techniques that have been developed over the years and have achieved commercial success. (author)

  5. The World Language Teacher Shortage: Taking a New Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Pete; Mason, Shannon

    2018-01-01

    Since the end of World War II, international leaders have made calls addressing the world language teacher shortage. For almost 70 years, such rhetoric has been advanced, yet world language teacher shortages remain in many countries such as Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In this article, the…

  6. Autobiographical memory specificity and the persistence of depressive symptoms in HIV-positive patients: rumination and social problem-solving skills as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanes, Paula K; Morse, Gene; Hsiao, Chiu-Bin; Simms, Leonard; Roberts, John E

    2012-01-01

    Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at elevated risk for depressive conditions, which in turn can negatively impact health-related behaviours and the course of illness. The present study tested the role of autobiographical memory specificity and its interaction with perceived stress in the persistence of depressive symptoms among dysphoric HIV-positive individuals. Additionally, we examined whether rumination and social problem solving mediated these effects. Results indicated that memory specificity moderated the impact of perceived stress, such that perceived stress was more strongly associated with follow-up depressive symptoms among those with greater memory specificity. Rumination, but not social problem solving, mediated this effect. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Effects of Adding an Internet-Based Pain Coping Skills Training Protocol to a Standardized Education and Exercise Program for People With Persistent Hip Pain (HOPE Trial): Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennell, Kim L; Rini, Christine; Keefe, Francis; French, Simon; Nelligan, Rachel; Kasza, Jessica; Forbes, Andrew; Dobson, Fiona; Abbott, J Haxby; Dalwood, Andrew; Vicenzino, Bill; Harris, Anthony; Hinman, Rana S

    2015-10-01

    Persistent hip pain in older people is usually due to hip osteoarthritis (OA), a major cause of pain, disability, and psychological dysfunction. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether adding an Internet-based pain coping skills training (PCST) protocol to a standardized intervention of education followed by physical therapist-instructed home exercise leads to greater reductions in pain and improvements in function. An assessor-, therapist-, and participant-blinded randomized controlled trial will be conducted. The study will be conducted in a community setting. The participants will be 142 people over 50 years of age with self-reported hip pain consistent with hip OA. Participants will be randomly allocated to: (1) a control group receiving a 24-week standardized intervention comprising an 8-week Internet-based education package followed by 5 individual physical therapy exercise sessions plus home exercises (3 times weekly) or (2) a PCST group receiving an 8-week Internet-based PCST protocol in addition to the control intervention. Outcomes will be measured at baseline and 8, 24, and 52 weeks, with the primary time point at 24 weeks. Primary outcomes are hip pain on walking and self-reported physical function. Secondary outcomes include health-related quality-of-life, participant-perceived treatment response, self-efficacy for pain management and function, pain coping attempts, pain catastrophizing, and physical activity. Measurements of adherence, adverse events, use of health services, and process measures will be collected at 24 and 52 weeks. Cost-effectiveness will be assessed at 52 weeks. A self-reported diagnosis of persistent hip pain will be used. The findings will help determine whether adding an Internet-based PCST protocol to standardized education and physical therapist-instructed home exercise is more effective than education and exercise alone for persistent hip pain. This study has the potential to guide clinical practice toward innovative

  8. Sustainable economic production quantity models for inventory systems with shortage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taleizadeh, Ata Allah; Soleymanfar, Vahid Reza; Govindan, Kannan

    2018-01-01

    optimal values of inventory system variables, we solve four independent profit maximization problems for four different situations. These proposed models include a basic model in which shortages are not allowed, and when shortages are allowed, the lost sale, full backordering and partial backordering...... (EPQ). The theoretical sustainable EOQ and EPQ models are basic models that ignore many real-life conditions such as the possibility of stock-out in inventory systems. In this paper, we develop four new sustainable economic production quantity models that consider different shortage situations. To find...

  9. Bacterial persistence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Drug indifference versus persistence. Studies on the mode of ... is a special case of drug indifference, restricted to a small ... to his model (outlined in detail in Lewis 2008), treatment .... belong to the heat and cold shock response family; many.

  10. [Persistent diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, J A; Moreira, C; Fagundes Neto, U

    2000-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Persistent diarrhea has high impact on infantile morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. Several studies have shown that 3 to 20% of acute diarrheal episodes in children under 5 years of age become persistent. DEFINITION: Persistent diarrhea is defined as an episode that lasts more than 14 days. ETIOLOGY: The most important agents isolated in persistent diarrhea are: Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Salmonella, Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), Klebisiella and Cryptosporidium. CLINICAL ASPECTS: In general, the clinical characteristics of patients with persistent diarrhea do not change with the pathogenic agent. Persistent diarrhea seems to represent the final result of a several insults a infant suffers that predisposes to a more severe episode of diarrhea due to a combination of host factors and high rates of enviromental contamination. Therefore, efforts should be made to promptly treat all episodes of diarrhea with apropriate follow-up. THERAPY: The aim of the treatment is to restore hydroelectrolytic deficits and to replace losses until the diarrheal ceases. It is possible in the majority of the cases, using oral rehydration therapy and erly an appropriate type of diet. PREVENTION: It is imperative that management strategies also focus on preventive aspects. The most effective diarrheal prevention strategy in young infants worldwide is promotion of exclusive breast feeding.

  11. What's the ROI for resolving the nursing faculty shortage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Karren; Kelley, Brian M

    2013-01-01

    The nursing faculty shortage will have a fundamental impact on the ability to produce nurses. For most nursing schools and states, however, concerns about the relative merits of different solutions to the nursing faculty shortage are misplaced. Without significantly increased visibility and definition, accompanied by a clear public, private, and health care organization return on investment (ROI), proposing solutions to the nursing faculty shortage is at best premature and at worst irrelevant. There is simply too much competition for resources to expect that a vaguely defined and invisible problem with no rationale for increased investment will receive sufficient support from critical decision makers and constituencies. First must come problem definition, visibility, and ROI. Only then can the case be made for implementing solutions to the nursing faculty shortage.

  12. Ethical framework for resource allocation during a drug supply shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jennifer L; Bean, Sally; Chidwick, Paula; Godkin, Dianne; Sibbald, Robert W; Wagner, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Drug supply shortages are common in health systems due to manufacturing and other delays. Frequently, shortages are successfully addressed through conservation and redistribution efforts, with limited impact on patient care. However, when Sandoz Canada Inc. announced in February 2012 that it was reducing production of a number of generic injectable drugs at its Quebec facility, the scope and magnitude of the drug supply shortage were unprecedented in Canada. The potential for an extreme scarcity of some drugs raised ethical concerns about patient care, including the need to limit access to some health services. In this article, the authors describe the development and implementation of an ethical framework to promote equitable access to drugs and healthcare services in the context of a drug supply shortage within and across health systems.

  13. Toward a Comprehensive Strategy for Addressing the Teacher Shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Willis D.

    1986-01-01

    The likely consequences of different educational policies affecting teacher supply and demand are examined in relation to the predicted teacher shortage. Includes a table describing 23 policies and practices of schools that attract qualified teachers. (MD)

  14. Securing the skills for a nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonser, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing concern regarding the loss of skills in some countries. There is also a negative trend in university entrants studying science and engineering. The labour market can respond to skills shortage. But we should not invent jobs just to retain skills. Capture and retention of knowledge is the key. We need to be able to explain clean-up as exciting and demanding of nuclear skills

  15. Can state-supported interprofessional coalitions cure preceptor shortages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, Lesli; Smith, Gigi; Garr, David; Hopla, Deborah; Kern, Donna

    2018-06-01

    The shortage of clinical preceptors compromises the current and future supply of healthcare providers and patient access to primary care. This article describes how an interprofessional coalition in South Carolina formed and sought government support to address the preceptor shortage. Some states have legislated preceptor tax credits and/or deductions to support the clinical education of future primary care healthcare providers. As a result of the coalition's work, a bill to establish similar incentives is pending in the South Carolina legislature.

  16. Strategies to address the nursing shortage in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboshaiqah, A

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the nursing shortage in Saudi Arabia and specifically the shortage of Saudi nurses in the healthcare workforce and to propose solutions. Literature published from 1993 to 2013 providing relevant information on the nursing shortage, cultural traditions and beliefs, and nursing education and policies in Saudi was accessed from multiple sources including Medline, CINAHL Plus and Google Scholar and from official Saudi government document and was reviewed. Saudi Arabia depends largely on an expatriate workforce, and this applies to nursing. Saudi Arabia is experiencing a nursing shortage in common with most countries in the world and a shortage of Saudi nationals, especially women, in the healthcare workforce. The world shortage of nursing is extrinsic to Saudi, but intrinsic factors include a poor image of the nursing profession in the country that is exacerbated by cultural factors. With the call for the Saudization of the workforce to replace the imported workforce by Saudi nationals, including nurses, through the 1992 Royal Decree, Saudi Arabia faces a problem in attracting and retaining Saudi nationals in the nursing workforce. Solutions are suggested that are aimed at improving the public image of nursing through education and the use of the media and improvements in the workplace by addressing working processes such as teamwork, ensuring adequate staffing levels and addressing some aspects of culture which may make working in nursing more compatible with being a Saudi national. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  17. Respiratory metabolism and calorie restriction relieve persistent endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by calcium shortage in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busti, Stefano; Mapelli, Valeria; Tripodi, Farida

    2016-01-01

    respiration. Calcium homeostasis, protein biosynthesis and the unfolded protein response are tightly intertwined and the consequences of facing calcium starvation are determined by whether cellular energy production is balanced with demands for anabolic functions. Our findings confirm that the connections...... reticulum (ER stress) triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) and generates a state of oxidative stress that decreases cell viability. These effects are severe during growth on rapidly fermentable carbon sources and can be mitigated by decreasing the protein synthesis rate or by inducing cellular...

  18. Persistent angina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, L.; Abildstrom, S. Z.; Hvelplund, Anders

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate persistent angina in stable angina pectoris with no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) compared to obstructive CAD and its relation to long-term anxiety, depression, quality of life (QOL), and physical functioning. We invited 357 patients (men = 191; women = 166; response rate 83......-obstructive CAD or normal coronary arteries than in patients with obstructive CAD. Persistent angina symptoms were associated with long-term anxiety, depression, impaired physical functioning, and QOL irrespective of the degree of CAD. Contrary to common perception, excluding obstructive CAD in stable angina does...... %) with no prior cardiovascular disease who had a first-time coronary angiography (CAG) in 2008-2009 due to suspected stable angina to participate in a questionnaire survey in 2011 with the Seattle Angina Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale as key elements. Long-term persistent angina (i...

  19. Path Toward Economic Resilience for Family Caregivers: Mitigating Household Deprivation and the Health Care Talent Shortage at the Same Time

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Melissa A.; Gunia, Brian; Martin, Emily J.; Foucar, Charles E.; Kundu, Tapas; Ragas, Daiva M.; Emanuel, Linda L.

    2013-01-01

    Rising costs and a workforce talent shortage are two of the health care industry’s most pressing challenges. In particular, serious illnesses often impose significant costs on individuals and their families, which can place families at an increased risk for multigenerational economic deprivation or even an illness–poverty trap. At the same time, family caregivers often acquire a wide variety of health care skills that neither these caregivers nor the health care industry typically use. As the...

  20. To have and to hold: personnel shortage in a Finnish healthcare organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Pia

    2010-07-01

    Retirements of baby boomers will create a talent shortage in Finnish health care. Concurrently, difficulties exist in recruiting new personnel. This paper provides an overview concerning the bottlenecks in talent management in a Finnish hospital, and finds solutions for recruitment and retention problems of healthcare professionals (nurses and physicians). Because the healthcare staffing shortage is worldwide, the results of this paper are also useful internationally. The research was a qualitative case study and the research method used was group interview. Background data was gathered from the public media and healthcare trade organisations. The bottlenecks of talent management in hospital organisation seem to relate to retaining actions of senior personnel. Concurrently, the organisation should develop new practices for attracting new personnel. Very few efforts on image marketing and recruitment have been done. The Internet has not been fully exploited and recruitment information has not been sent even to the neighbouring nursing college. Job rotation has not been used as a help in recruitment and competence development. Difficulties exist in transmitting tacit knowledge from a retiring nurse to a junior nurse. Leadership skills of the superior seem to be important when retaining and committing senior personnel. Recruitment and retention problems encourage organisations to develop new recruitment and commitment practices as well as management and leadership skills.

  1. Habit persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther Møller, Stig

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses an iterated GMM approach to estimate and test the consumption based habit persistence model of Campbell and Cochrane (1999) on the US stock market. The empirical evidence shows that the model is able to explain the size premium, but fails to explain the value premium. Further...

  2. A critical review of the nursing shortage in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, T; Namasivayam, P; Narudin, D A A

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes and critically reviews steps taken to address the nursing workforce shortage in Malaysia. To address the shortage and to build health care capacity, Malaysia has more than doubled its nursing workforce over the past decade, primarily through an increase in the domestic supply of new graduates. Government reports, policy documents and ministerial statements were sourced from the Ministry of Health Malaysia website and reviewed and analysed in the context of the scholarly literature published about the health care workforce in Malaysia and more generally about the global nursing shortage. An escalation in student numbers and the unprecedented number of new graduates entering the workforce has been associated with other impacts that have been responded to symptomatically rather than through workplace reform. Whilst growing the domestic supply of nurses is a critical key strategy to address workforce shortages, steps should also be taken to address structural and other problems of the workplace to support both new graduates and the retention of more experienced staff. Nursing shortages should not be tackled by increasing the supply of new graduates alone. The creation of a safe and supportive work environment is important to the long-term success of current measures taken to grow the workforce and retain nurses within the Malaysian health care system.

  3. An analysis of news flow on the nation's nurse shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, B J; Kalisch, P A; Clinton, J

    1981-09-01

    Using data from national newspaper clipping services, this article analyzes characteristics of 1978 news coverage of the nation's nurse shortage. Based on a content analysis of nearly 3,000 newspaper articles, findings revealed that 14 per cent of the articles mentioned problems of nurse supply. Articles on nurse shortage were most frequent in the Pacific, Mid-Atlantic and South-Atlantic states and occurred least in the West-North Central and East-South Central states. Articles mentioning nurse shortage were more frequently placed on page 1, associated with clinical nursing in hospital settings and explained as the result of maldistribution of nurses, poor salaries, deficient working conditions and lack of job satisfaction. The reading public was confronted with three major consequences of current and continued shortages in nursing: 1) decline in the availability and diversity of health services; 2) erosion in the quality of care offered the public and jeopardized patient welfare; and 3) escalating health care costs. Solutions to the nurse shortage appear to be closely tied to further expansion of the issue among the public, the initiation of remedial governmental action and timely relocation of scarce resources within the health care industry.

  4. Professional accountant’s perspective of skills required to move into management position

    OpenAIRE

    Kgapola, Mmaledimo Prudence

    2015-01-01

    In South Africa skills shortage is a predicament and so is the shortage of professional accountants. Another issue at hand is how educational institutions do not provide studies to equip students with the necessary skills to obtain entry level employment after they graduate. The markets and business environments changing almost every day and so do the skills set required by professional accountants. The purpose of the study is to assist professional accountants in defining the skills required...

  5. The nurse manager: job satisfaction, the nursing shortage and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Diane Randall; Dziegielewski, Sophia F

    2005-07-01

    A critical shortage of registered nurses exists in the United States and this shortage is expected to worsen. It is predicted that unless this issue is resolved, the demand for nursing services will exceed the supply by nearly 30% in 2020. Extensive analysis of this pending crisis has resulted in numerous recommendations to improve both recruitment and retention. The purpose of this article is to clearly outline the issues contributing to this problem, and to provide the nurse manager with information regarding specific influences on job satisfaction as it relates to job turnover and employee retention. To accomplish this, an analysis of the literature using both national and international sources is used to formulate the lessons learned as well as strategies and future courses of action designed to address this shortage.

  6. Parent-Implemented Behavioral Skills Training of Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Rebecca K.; King, Melissa L.; Fischetti, Anthony T.; Lake, Candice M.; Mathews, Therese L.; Warzak, William J.

    2017-01-01

    Impairment in social skills is a primary feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Research indicates that social skills are intimately tied to social development and negative social consequences can persist if specific social behaviors are not acquired. The present study evaluated the effects of behavioral skills training (BST) on teaching…

  7. Drug shortages in Israel: regulatory perspectives, challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzberg, Eyal; Ainbinder, Denize; Vishkauzan, Alla; Gamzu, Ronni

    2017-01-01

    Pharmaceutical drug shortages (DSs) are a global problem which presents challenges to countries around the world. Shortages of pharmaceutical products may have a direct detrimental impact on public health and patients' wellbeing by causing delayed, or even lack of, treatment. Moreover, DSs may force both patients and caregivers to use unfamiliar drugs, which could lead to medication errors. The objective of our study was to analyze DSs in Israel during the years 2013-2015, assessing their etiology and exploring the steps taken for their mitigation and prevention. The database of the Israeli Ministry of Health (MoH) on drug shortages contains all the DSs recorded in Israel since 2013, detailing the cause of the DS, its duration, steps taken in its' management and the availability of generic or therapeutic alternatives. Selected examples of DSs from the database are described in this paper in order to identify the causes of DSs, the scope of the problem and possible solutions. Additionally, we have reviewed the recent activities performed by European Medicine Agency (EMA) and the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in their efforts to minimize this problem. Several factors contributing towards DSs in Israel were identified, including quality problems in both the final drug product and in the raw materials, upgrades and improvements of the manufacturing process required by the MoH, manufacturing by a sole supplier, dramatic price decrease in off-patent medications causing the manufacturer to discontinue the distribution of the product in Israel, just-in-time inventory control, and others. One of the most important steps in managing drug shortages was identified to be early notification of the shortage by the Marketing Authorization Holder (MAH) to the MoH. In 2013, the Israeli MoH updated the regulation on drug shortages instructing MAHs on their obligation of early notification to the MoH. Furthermore, various steps dealing with marketing withdrawal of drugs

  8. Strategies for Developing a High-Skilled Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleezer, Catherine M.; Denny, Dan

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the human performance improvement and human resource development task of providing an organization with a skilled workforce. We begin by describing the U.S. demographic trends and the changing job skill requirements that will lead to a shortage of skilled workers and that highlight the importance of considering the various…

  9. Administration of the natural gas shortage in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluge, W [Koeln Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft

    1978-05-01

    The natural gas deficit is basically a consequence of the price policy of the U.S. government which keeps the prices of natural gas transported from one state to another subject to a maximum-price regulation. In the course of this development, the U.S. natural gas market has been characterized by three different types of shortage since the early seventies. There are regional differences in the administration of the shortage. Compared to the alternatives the rationing plan of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is the best solution from on overall economic point of view, but it is rather impracticable and hard to put through completely. Natural gas rationing in the USA did not prevent temporary production losses and unemployment due to shortage. If the maximum-price regulation policy for natural gas is continued, the supply deficit for this energy carrier will become even greater. If, as the National Energy Plan proposes, the maximum-price regulation for natural gas would also pertain to the intrastate market in the future, natural gas shortages would occur there, too.

  10. Shortage of Mathematics Teachers in Thai Basic Education Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncreobutr, Vichian; Rattanatumma, Tawachai

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the reasons for shortage of Mathematics teachers at Thai Basic Education level. This research is both quantitative and qualitative in nature. For the purpose of study, survey was conducted with senior high school students, in order to find out their willingness to pursue mathematics in Bachelor of…

  11. SREB Study Indicates Serious Shortage of Nursing Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA. Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing.

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing appointed an ad hoc committee to study the implications of nursing shortages for nursing education programs in the 16 SREB states and the District of Columbia. In May 2001, surveys were sent to 491 colleges and universities that prepare students for licensure…

  12. 7 CFR 3431.5 - Solicitation of veterinarian shortage situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Secretary reserves the right to solicit veterinarian shortage situations every year or every three years, as... of nominations that may be submitted by each State animal health official. (e) Nominations... the position is not secured. (f) Nominating Official. The State animal health official in each state...

  13. Energy network dispatch optimization under emergency of local energy shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Tianxing; Zhao, Chuanyu; Xu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    The consequence of short-time energy shortage under extreme conditions, such as earthquake, tsunami, and hurricane, may cause local areas to suffer from delayed rescues, widespread power outages, tremendous economic losses, and even public safety threats. In such urgent events of local energy shortage, agile energy dispatching through an effective energy transportation network, targeting the minimum energy recovery time, should be a top priority. In this paper, a novel methodology is developed for energy network dispatch optimization under emergency of local energy shortage, which includes four stages of work. First, emergency-area-centered energy network needs to be characterized, where the capacity, quantity, and availability of various energy sources are determined. Second, the energy initial situation under emergency conditions needs to be identified. Then, the energy dispatch optimization is conducted based on a developed MILP (mixed-integer linear programming) model in the third stage. Finally, the sensitivity of the minimum dispatch time with respect to uncertainty parameters is characterized by partitioning the entire space of uncertainty parameters into multiple subspaces. The efficacy of the developed methodology is demonstrated via a case study with in-depth discussions. -- Highlights: ► Address the energy network dispatch problem under emergency of local energy shortage. ► Minimize the energy restoration time for the entire energy network under emergency events. ► Develop a new MILP model and a sensitivity analysis method with respect to uncertainties.

  14. The Effect of Labor Supply Shortages on Asymmetric Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    facing restrictions in labor supply increase costs (and resources) less than companies operating with sufficient access to additional personnel. This leads to a more symmetrical cost behavior for increasing activity compared to decreasing activity. Additional analyses show that shortages in labor supply......, such as prior period slack creation or pessimistic managerial expectations with respect to future demand....

  15. Intergration in community relations: water shortage and social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The topography of the environment; few boreholes/wells; lack of pipe-borne water; lack of maintenance of boreholes; increase in population; and lack of projection for the future constitute reasons responsible for water shortage. On the other hand, disrupting queue; giving preference to friends to fetch water at the expense of ...

  16. The Impact of Water Shortages on Educational Delivery in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of the study was to investigate the impact of water shortages on educational delivery in selected schools in Harare East District. The population included school heads, teachers and pupils all drawn from selected schools of Harare East District. The sample consisted of five school heads, fifty teachers and one ...

  17. A management framework for training providers to improve skills development in the workplace

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    D.Ed. A skills revolution was launched in the South African workplace by the Department of Labour in 1998. Various skills development legislation were introduced to meet international standards, redress skills imbalances, curb skills shortages and improve the general skills in the current workforce. Training providers were the drivers of workplace training, yet are now displaced by skills authorities, such as the SET As, the ETQAs and SAQA. While the custody of skills development is placed...

  18. Persistent Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between representation and the represented is examined here through the notion of persistent modelling. This notion is not novel to the activity of architectural design if it is considered as describing a continued active and iterative engagement with design concerns – an evident....... It also provides critical insight into the use of contemporary modelling tools and methods, together with an examination of the implications their use has within the territories of architectural design, realisation and experience....... on this subject, this book makes essential reading for anyone considering new ways of thinking about architecture. In drawing upon both historical and contemporary perspectives this book provides evidence of the ways in which relations between representation and the represented continue to be reconsidered...

  19. Persistent Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The relationship between representation and the represented is examined here through the notion of persistent modelling. This notion is not novel to the activity of architectural design if it is considered as describing a continued active and iterative engagement with design concerns – an evident....... It also provides critical insight into the use of contemporary modelling tools and methods, together with an examination of the implications their use has within the territories of architectural design, realisation and experience....... on this subject, this book makes essential reading for anyone considering new ways of thinking about architecture. In drawing upon both historical and contemporary perspectives this book provides evidence of the ways in which relations between representation and the represented continue to be reconsidered...

  20. Skills Development and Transfer Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutshena, M.T.; Nkuna, K.K. [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor Pty (Ltd), P O Box 9394, Centurion, 0046 (South Africa); South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (South Africa); Thugwane, S.J. [South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (South Africa); Rasweswe, M.A. [South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (South Africa); Nuclear Energy Cooperation of South Africa, P O Box 582, PRETORIA 0001 (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    South Africa as a developing country is faced with numerous challenges amongst them is the shortage of skills in the working environment. Skills shortage has been aggravated by the retirement of the ageing skilled workforce and emigration of most experienced professionals to first world countries. Some professionals once they acquire the experience they opt out for a consultative business. This leaves a gap or void in the industries which can results into poor performance and quality, lessening of business standards and loosing competition. This challenge need to be attended to, because it will lead to hiring of consultants in most jobs or having many young and less experienced professionals and new graduates filling these gaps. The South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (SAYNPS) has developed a strategic plan to serve as a guideline on how these challenges mentioned above can be addressed [1]. The proposed strategy will be aligned with skills development in the line of work and should get support from the nuclear Industry. Young professionals and recent graduates are the most affected people who lack skills and shall benefit from these programmes. In order for skill development and transfer to be accomplished there should be a Skill Development and Transfer Strategy and procedures to be followed. (authors)

  1. Skills Development and Transfer Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutshena, M.T.; Nkuna, K.K.; Thugwane, S.J.; Rasweswe, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    South Africa as a developing country is faced with numerous challenges amongst them is the shortage of skills in the working environment. Skills shortage has been aggravated by the retirement of the ageing skilled workforce and emigration of most experienced professionals to first world countries. Some professionals once they acquire the experience they opt out for a consultative business. This leaves a gap or void in the industries which can results into poor performance and quality, lessening of business standards and loosing competition. This challenge need to be attended to, because it will lead to hiring of consultants in most jobs or having many young and less experienced professionals and new graduates filling these gaps. The South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (SAYNPS) has developed a strategic plan to serve as a guideline on how these challenges mentioned above can be addressed [1]. The proposed strategy will be aligned with skills development in the line of work and should get support from the nuclear Industry. Young professionals and recent graduates are the most affected people who lack skills and shall benefit from these programmes. In order for skill development and transfer to be accomplished there should be a Skill Development and Transfer Strategy and procedures to be followed. (authors)

  2. Future global manpower shortages in nuclear industries with special reference to india including remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh Hazra, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Radiation Protection Program of the Environmental Protection Agencies of countries employ scientists, engineers, statisticians, economists, lawyers, policy analysts, and public affairs professionals amongst others. These professionals aim to protect workers, the general public, and the environment from harmful radiation exposures and to provide the technical basis for radiation protection policies and regulations. Professionals include Health physicists, Bio statistician, Radio chemist, Radio ecologist, Radio biologist etc. With a large proportion of the population of the nuclear workforce of many countries now approaching retirement age, existing power plants of these countries will be hard pressed to find enough qualified professionals to support their operations. The potential shortage of skilled manpower not only affects utilities, but also impacts the entire nuclear infrastructure, including national laboratories, federal and state agencies, nuclear technology vendors and manufacturing companies, nuclear construction companies, and university nuclear engineering departments. Manpower requirements exist in the nuclear power industry, universities and research establishments, hospitals, government departments, general industry e.g. radiography, transport, instrumentation etc., specialist contractors, agencies and consultancies serving radiation protection. India is no exception. India has the world's 12 th largest economy. Assuming India's average growth rate p.a. of more than 5%, total GDP by 2050 will increase substantially which will require proportionate increase of manpower for all industries. Also chance of brain drain is very high from developing countries e.g. from India to developed countries because of much higher pay and better lifestyle as there will be shortage of manpower in developed countries as explained above. With population growth to be stabilized in future in India, the working age population may not increase in the year 2030

  3. A Shortage of Medical Residency Positions: Parallels with Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPaglia, Donna; Robiner, William N; Yozwiak, John A; Brosig, Cheryl; Cubic, Barbara; Leventhal, Gerald

    2015-12-01

    Physician shortages in the US are expected to intensify with the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. These shortages may negatively impact access to care, quality of care, and confidence in the system's ability to adequately provide for health needs in the US. Concerns regarding physician demand underscore how critical Graduate Medical Education funding is to preparing the physician workforce. In 2014 5.6 % of US medical school seniors did not match into residency. Psychology has faced longstanding training imbalance issues with a misalignment between the number of internship positions and the number of applicants. The authors summon attention to the damaging effects a training imbalance poses to a health care profession, its trainees, and ultimately the public it serves.

  4. U.S. vaccine and immune globulin product shortages, 2001-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziesenitz, Victoria C; Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; Zocchi, Mark S; Fox, Erin R; May, Larissa S

    2017-11-15

    Trends in shortages of vaccines and immune globulin products from 2001 through 2015 in the United States are described. Drug shortage data from January 2001 through December 2015 were obtained from the University of Utah Drug Information Service. Shortage data for vaccines and immune globulins were analyzed, focusing on the type of product, reason for shortage, shortage duration, shortages requiring vaccine deferral, and whether the drug was a single-source product. Inclusion of the product into the pediatric vaccination schedule was also noted. Of the 2,080 reported drug shortages, 59 (2.8%) were for vaccines and immune globulin products. Of those, 2 shortages (3%) remained active at the end of the study period. The median shortage duration was 16.8 months. The most common products on shortage were viral vaccines (58%), especially hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies, and varicella vaccines (4 shortages each). A vaccine deferral was required for 21 shortages (36%), and single-source products were on shortage 30 times (51%). The most common reason for shortage was manufacturing problems (51%), followed by supply-and-demand issues (7%). Thirty shortages (51%) were for products on the pediatric schedule, with a median duration of 21.7 months. Drug shortages of vaccines and immune globulin products accounted for only 2.8% of reported drug shortages within a 15-year period, but about half of these shortages involved products on the pediatric vaccination schedule, which may have significant public health implications. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Instructional Alignment of Workplace Readiness Skills in Career and Technical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sarah Jane

    2009-01-01

    The United States faces a skills shortage that goes beyond academic and technical skills. Employers report entry-level workers lack the necessary "soft" skills, also referred to as workplace readiness skills, needed for success in the workforce; thus, calling on educational institutions to make improvements in high school curriculum in…

  6. Water shortages and extreme events: a call for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Catriona; Odams, Sue; Murray, Virginia; Sellick, Matthew; Colbourne, Jeni

    2013-09-01

    Water shortages as a result of extreme weather events, such as flooding and severe cold, have the potential to affect significant numbers of people. Therefore, the need to build robust, coordinated plans based on scientific evidence is crucial. The literature review outlined in this short communication was conducted as part of a joint Drinking Water Inspectorate and Health Protection Agency (now Public Health England) report which aimed to review the scientific evidence base on extreme events, water shortages and the resulting health impacts. A systematic literature review was undertaken to identify published literature from both peer-reviewed and grey literature sources. The retrieved literature was then assessed using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network quality assessment. The authors found very few scientific studies. However, a great deal of valuable grey literature was retrieved and used by the research team. In total, six main themes of importance that were identified by the review and discussed included health impacts, water quantity and quality, alternative supplies, vulnerable groups, communication with those affected and the emergency response. The authors conclude that more research needs to be conducted on health impacts and extreme events water shortages in order to build the future knowledge base and development of resilience.

  7. Xenotransplantation: A Potential Solution to the Critical Organ Donor Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Howe Sim

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of allotransplantation as a treatment for end-stage organ failure has resulted in the need for an increasing number of organ donors. Attempts to meet this need include the use of organs from living related and unrelated donors, financial or other incentives for the donor family, and even the reuse of transplanted organs. Despite these initiatives, the supply of organs for transplantation still falls far short of the demand, as evidenced by longer waiting times for transplantation and decreasing transplantation rates. Even if Canada were able to increase its organ donor rate to that of Spain (40 to 50/million, where organ donation is governed by ‘presumed consent’ legislation, this would not alleviate the problem of donor shortage. Interest in xenotransplantation stems from the need to overcome this increasingly severe shortage of human organs. Indeed, some argue that xenotransplantation is the only potential way of addressing this shortage. As immunological barriers to xenotransplantation are better understood, those hurdles are being addressed through genetic engineering of donor animals and the development of new drug therapies. However, before xenotransplantation can be fully implemented, both the scientific/medical communities and the general public must seriously consider and attempt to resolve the many complex ethical, social and economic issues that it presents.

  8. PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS’ PERSPECTIVE OF SKILLS REQUIRED TO PROGRESS TO MANAGEMENT POSITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Fouché, J. P.; Kgapola, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    In South Africa, not only is the shortage in skills a general predicament, but so also is the shortage of professional accountants. The markets and business environments are changing almost every day and so do the skills sets required by professional accountants. The purpose of the study is to assist professional accountants in defining the skills required for management positions and to enable them to plan their careers better. A cross-sectional survey was used. The majority of participants ...

  9. Research on water shortage risks and countermeasures in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuxiang; Fang, Wenxuan; Wu, Ziqin

    2017-05-01

    In the paper, a grey forecasting model and a population growth model are established for forecasting water resources supply and demand situation in the region, and evaluating the scarcity of water resources thereof in order to solve the problem of water shortage in North China. A concrete plan for alleviating water resources pressure is proposed with AHP as basis, thereby discussing the feasibility of the plan. Firstly, water resources supply and demand in the future 15 years are predicted. There are four sources for the demand of water resources mainly: industry, agriculture, ecology and resident living. Main supply sources include surface water and underground water resources. A grey forecasting method is adopted for predicting in the paper aiming at water resources demands since industrial, agricultural and ecological water consumption data have excessive decision factors and the correlation is relatively fuzzy. Since residents' water consumption is determined by per capita water consumption and local population, a logistic growth model is adopted to forecast the population. The grey forecasting method is used for predicting per capita water consumption, and total water demand can be obtained finally. International calculation standards are adopted as reference aiming at water supply. The grey forecasting method is adopted for forecasting surface water quantity and underground water quantity, and water resources supply is obtained finally. Per capita water availability in the region is calculated by comparing the water resources supply and demand. Results show that per capita water availability in the region is only 283 cubic meters this year, people live in serious water shortage region, who will suffer from water shortage state for long time. Then, sensitivity analysis is applied for model test. The test result is excellent, and the prediction results are more accurate. In the paper, the following measures are proposed for improving water resources condition

  10. The social impacts of the energy shortage, behavioral and attitude shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    An analysis of the social impacts of the energy shortage; specifically, an : analysis of shifts in social behavior, or trip-making characteristics, and : shifts in social attitudes towards the energy shortage and conservation policies, : Data were ob...

  11. Marine and Maritime Sector Skills Shortages in the South West of England: Developing Regional Training Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Julian; Meethan, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Clustering theory assumes that companies gravitate towards each other on the basis of locally and regionally specific resources and supply chain characteristics, which lead in turn to innovation and high-value economic development. In line with such thinking, UK government policy has devolved certain functions to regional development agencies such…

  12. Overcoming the challenges of the skilled labour shortage through energy industry cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massitti, P. [Baker Hughes INTEQ, Calgary, AB (Canada); Goodman, G. [Goodman McDougall and Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Dalik, A.; Richardson, S. [RainTree Consulting, Calgary, AB (Canada); Gurevitch, J. [Halliburton, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This presentation described the unique workforce planning and recruitment challenges currently facing the petroleum services industry, and how they are being managed. It offered suggestions as to how energy companies can work more effectively with petroleum industry service providers to ensure that projects have the necessary human resources to staff projects. In particular, the paper referred to the challenge and feasibility of smoothing out drilling cycles throughout the year. The challenge facing the service and supply industry in planning and managing a workforce for Arctic development was also discussed.

  13. Satisfaction in nursing in the context of shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jennifer Craft; Lynn, Mary R

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes the central themes nurses identify as important to their overall evaluation of their work. In particular, this paper highlights how the context of the nursing shortage interacts with what nurses understand to be satisfying about their work. On the brink of a current and enduring nursing shortage in the US, this study provides Nurse Managers with an understanding of the dimensions of work satisfaction which they can then utilize to improve retention of incumbent nurses. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 currently employed nurses to explore the concepts that shape their work satisfaction. The nurses, 25 to 55 years old, were predominantly female and Associate Degree or Baccalaureate prepared. Nurses have both intrinsic and extrinsic satisfiers in their work. The traditional satisfiers (pay and benefits) are not the principle satisfiers of today's nurses. In the context of shortage, the aspects of nursing that are the most rewarding are the aspects that are most often sacrificed in the interest of 'getting the job done'. Nurses are finding it difficult to continue to do 'more with less' and are frustrated they are not able to provide the care they were educated to be able to deliver. The description of the dimensions of work satisfaction can provide insight for Nurse Managers and administrators who are interested in improving both recruitment and retention of nurses. Areas identified worthy of focus in retention efforts include: increasing autonomy; reallocating work in a more patient-centred way; creating systems to recognize achievement in the areas of mentoring nurses, educating patients and personal growth in practice; creating meaningful internal labour markets; and enhancing supervisor and administrative support. Managers and administrators should focus on the satisfiers nurses identify if they wish to retain nurses. The traditional focus on extrinsic rewards will not likely be sufficient to retain today's nurses. Retention

  14. 18 CFR 294.101 - Shortages of electric energy and capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... customers; and (ii) It will report any modifications to its contingency plans for accommodating shortages... REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 § 294.101 Shortages of electric energy and capacity. (a) Definition of... customers. (4) If a plan for accommodating any shortages of electric energy or capacity affecting its firm...

  15. A production inventory model with deteriorating items and shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta G.P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A continuous production control inventory model for deteriorating items with shortages is developed. A number of structural properties of the inventory system are studied analytically. The formulae for the optimal average system cost, stock level, backlog level and production cycle time are derived when the deterioration rate is very small. Numerical examples are taken to illustrate the procedure of finding the optimal total inventory cost, stock level, backlog level and production cycle time. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to demonstrate the effects of changing parameter values on the optimal solution of the system.

  16. The implication of the shortage of health workforce specialist on universal health coverage in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miseda, Mumbo Hazel; Were, Samuel Odhiambo; Murianki, Cirindi Anne; Mutuku, Milo Peter; Mutwiwa, Stephen N

    2017-12-01

    Globally, there is an acute shortage of human resources for health (HRH), and the greatest burden is borne by low-income countries especially in sub-Saharan Africa and some parts of Asia. This shortage has not only considerably constrained the achievement of health-related development goals but also impeded accelerated progress towards universal health coverage (UHC). Like any other low-income country, Kenya is experiencing health workforce shortage particularly in specialized healthcare workers to cater for the rapidly growing need for specialized health care (MOH Training Needs Assessment report (2015)). Efficient use of the existing health workforce including task shifting is under consideration as a short-term stop gap measure while deliberate efforts are being put on retention policies and increased production of HRH. The Ministry of Health (MOH) with support from the United States Agency for International Development-funded FUNZOKenya project and MOH/Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) project conducted a country-wide training needs assessment (TNA) to identify skill gaps in the provision of specialized health care in private and public hospitals in 46 out of Kenya's 47 counties between April and June 2015. A total of 99 respondents participated in the TNA. Structured questionnaires were used to undertake this assessment. The assessment sought to determine the extent of skill gaps on the basis of the national guidelines and as perceived by the County Directors of Health (CDH). The questionnaires were posted to and received by all the respondents a week prior to a face-to-face interview with the respondents for familiarization. Data analysis was done using SPSS statistical package. Overall, the findings revealed average skill gaps on selected specialists (healthcare professional whose practice is limited to a particular area, such as a branch of medicine, surgery, or nursing, especially, one who by virtue of advanced training is certified by a

  17. Skills training of junior medical students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-02

    Nov 2, 2013 ... Peer tutors enjoyed and benefited from this teaching method without it negatively affecting their own learning. Discussion. ... addressing the problem of skills training of junior medical students where there is a shortage of trained clinical teachers. AJHPE 2013 ... [1] Informal peer teaching usually takes place.

  18. Developing And Validating A Measure Of Monitoring And Evaluation For The South Africa Skills Development Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshilongamulenzhe Maelekanyo Christopher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As nations around the world grapple with the deepening challenge of skills crunch, policies, strategies and interventions are being devised to develop and retain a competitive workforce. South Africa is not spared from the global talent war, and the persistence of skills shortages across most economic sectors makes the country vulnerable economically and socially. Legislative instruments and strategies were formulated and implemented to ameliorate the situation, but scientific evidence suggests a looming crisis due to poor monitoring and evaluation systems regarding the success of these instruments and strategies. This study develops and validates a monitoring and evaluation (ME scale for the South African skills development context. A quantitative nonexperimental cross-sectional survey design was used to collect data from 557 participants. Data were analyzed using SPSS and AMOS software (version 23.0. The findings show that the ME scale is scientifically valid and reliable and can be used with confidence in the South African skills development context. The findings provide scope for a validation study on an independent sample, and an evaluation of structural invariance of the ME scale across sample subgroups.

  19. Inflow shortages in deregulated power markets - Reasons for concern?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bye, Torstein; Bruvoll, Annegrete; Aune, Finn Roar [Research Department, Statistics Norway, P.O. Box 8131 Dep., 0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2008-07-15

    In many countries hydropower constitutes a large share of the electricity producing capacity. In the earlier regulated electricity markets, production capacities exceeded demand due to security of supply concerns. The present deregulated markets base investments upon profitability alone, and security of supply issues are claimed to be less important. Market operators trust the pricing mechanism in competitive markets to clear. Then low inflow constitutes a less problem. Several markets, both under regulated and deregulated regimes, have faced serious droughts. Some of them have experienced problems with market clearance (Chile, Brazil, California) while other markets functioned well (The Nordic market). Important features to the market response are the flexibility of demand, the pattern of inflow shortage, the storage capacities, the possibility of trade between regions with different production technologies, and the market design and concentration. We apply an empirical based market model to simulate the effects under two inflow shortage scenarios in an international market with combined hydro and thermal capacities and restricted transmission capacities. We compare the scenarios with actual events and show that the model and the real market outcome are comparable. The simulations do not reveal any problems with the functioning of the market, which should calm down the anxiousness about security of supply in deregulated markets with stochastic energy supply. (author)

  20. Inflow shortages in deregulated power markets - Reasons for concern?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bye, Torstein; Bruvoll, Annegrete; Aune, Finn Roar

    2008-01-01

    In many countries hydropower constitutes a large share of the electricity producing capacity. In the earlier regulated electricity markets, production capacities exceeded demand due to security of supply concerns. The present deregulated markets base investments upon profitability alone, and security of supply issues are claimed to be less important. Market operators trust the pricing mechanism in competitive markets to clear. Then low inflow constitutes a less problem. Several markets, both under regulated and deregulated regimes, have faced serious droughts. Some of them have experienced problems with market clearance (Chile, Brazil, California) while other markets functioned well (The Nordic market). Important features to the market response are the flexibility of demand, the pattern of inflow shortage, the storage capacities, the possibility of trade between regions with different production technologies, and the market design and concentration. We apply an empirical based market model to simulate the effects under two inflow shortage scenarios in an international market with combined hydro and thermal capacities and restricted transmission capacities. We compare the scenarios with actual events and show that the model and the real market outcome are comparable. The simulations do not reveal any problems with the functioning of the market, which should calm down the anxiousness about security of supply in deregulated markets with stochastic energy supply

  1. Credit financing for deteriorating imperfect quality items with allowable shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Khanna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The outset of new technologies, systems and applications in manufacturing sector has no doubt lighten up our workload, yet the chance causes of variation in production system cannot be eliminated completely. Every produced/ordered lot may have some fraction of defectives which may vary from process to process. In addition the situation is more susceptible when the items are deteriorating in nature. However, the defective items can be secluded from the good quality lot through a careful inspection process. Thus, a screening process is obligatory in today’s technology driven industry which has the customer satisfaction as its only motto. Moreover, in order to survive in the current global markets, credit financing has been proven a very influential promotional tool to attract new customers and a good inducement policy for the retailers. Keeping this scenario in mind, the present paper investigates an inventory model for a retailer dealing with imperfect quality deteriorating items under permissible delay in payments. Shortages are allowed and fully backlogged. This model jointly optimizes the order quantity and shortages by maximizing the expected total profit. A mathematical model is developed to depict this scenario. Results have been validated with the help of numerical example. Comprehensive sensitivity analysis has also been presented.

  2. Optimal Intermittent Operation of Water Distribution Networks under Water Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad Solgi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Under water shortage conditions, it is necessary to exercise water consumption management practices in water distribution networks (WDN. Intermittent supply of water is one such practice that makes it possible to supply consumption nodal demands with the required pressure via water cutoff to some consumers during certain hours of the day. One of the most important issues that must be observed in this management practice is the equitable and uniform water distribution among the consumers. In the present study, uniformity in water distribution and minimum supply of water to all consumers are defined as justice and equity, respectively. Also, an optimization model has been developed to find an optimal intermittent supply schedule that ensures maximum number of demand nodes are supplied with water while the constraints on the operation of water distribution networks are also observed. To show the efficiency of the proposed model, it has been used in the Two-Loop distribution network under several different scenarios of water shortage. The optimization model has been solved using the honey bee mating optimization algorithm (HBMO linked to the hydraulic simulator EPANET. The results obtained confirm the efficiency of the proposed model in achieving an optimal intermittent supply schedule. Moreover, the model is found capable of distributing the available water in an equitable and just manner among all the consumers even under severe water shoratges.

  3. Is There a Shortage of Obstetrician-Gynecologists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonehocker, Jody; Muruthi, Joyce; Rayburn, William F

    2017-03-01

    Projections of supply and demand for obstetricians-gynecologists suggest a current minimal or modest shortage that will worsen in the future. The US adult female population is expected to increase by more than 20% by 2045 and represents a key driver for increased demand for health care services. The annual number of obstetrician-gynecologists (ob-gyn) residency graduates has increased negligibly, whereas the proportion accepted into fellowships increased steadily, reducing those in general practice. The gradual increase in proportion of ob-gyns who are women coincides with desires for more work-life balance and earlier retirement from clinical practice. As the supply of advanced practice providers of women's health services grows, the need for more ob-gyns could be less to meet the projected demand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A strategy to address the nursing faculty shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Barbara J; Sheets, Ingrid

    2009-07-01

    This article describes one university's experience in creating a master's geriatric clinical nurse specialist-nurse educator program to address the nursing faculty shortage and the need for geriatric clinical nurse specialists. The successes and challenges are outlined, and curricular ideas that may be beneficial to other nursing programs also are presented. This program has enhanced the university's pool of clinical instructors, increased its ability to provide services to older adults, and allowed faculty to instruct and focus undergraduates in the distinctions of geriatric nursing care. The biggest challenges faced were marketing and recruitment of nurses; these challenges were addressed, and possible solutions are offered. The most immediate benefit of this program was the generation of geriatric clinical nurse specialists.

  5. Is there a shortage of neurosurgeons in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, Judy; Slane, Steve; Dery, Beth; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A; Couldwell, William T

    2013-08-01

    Neurosurgical workforce decision-making is typically driven by the 1 neurosurgeon per 100,000 population ratio proposed in 1977 in the Study on Surgical Services for the United States report. The actual ratio has always been higher than suggested. We evaluated whether the 1:100,000 ratio from the Study on Surgical Services for the United States report is still valid, whether there are enough neurosurgeons in the United States to meet patient needs, and whether demand is driven by patient need. For our analysis, the distribution of practicing US neurosurgeons was merged with census data to yield density indices of neurosurgeons by state; a survey assessing practice characteristics was e-mailed to practicing neurosurgeons; and a compilation of job advertisements for US neurosurgeons was evaluated. Multivariant statistical analyses yielded inconclusive results regarding patient demand because existing data sets are not designed to establish patient demand and many neurosurgeons are subspecialized. The data indicated that the ratio of neurosurgeons to total US population is 1:65,580. In the survey responses, neurosurgeon-to-patient ratios varied dramatically by state and were inconsistently correlated with whether neurosurgeons indicated they were overworked or underworked. The 305 job advertisements may indicate a shortage. Twenty-four percent of advertising practices indicated that they are recruiting only for emergency department coverage, and an additional 26% indicated that they might not be recruiting if not for the need for emergency coverage. Demand ratios should be reevaluated by region and subspecialty to consider changes in neurosurgery practice. A "shortage" in the employment market may reflect factors other than patient need.

  6. The knowledge status EFFEKT: Efficiency shortage. Basis for further research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Grande, Ove S.

    2002-02-01

    This report gives a survey of results from the ''Norges forskningsraad'' ( The Norwegian Research Council) program EFFEKT (1996-2000) and some other relevant projects. The report focuses on areas relevant to the efficiency shortage problems and is made as a part of the foundation for the start of the competence project ''Competence Building - Capacity Shortage''. The challenge is to find adequate solutions that satisfies the demands from market participants, systems operators and market actors. This mainly contains problems of both operational and long term strategic character which primarily touches the following main areas: Peak load coverage, operating security and reserves, network capacity and environmental aspects. The results are reported under these headings from several relevant projects. The major challenges in the future will be: 1) Development of mechanisms that bring the right incentives for improved use of the flexibility in the end consumption. 2) Adaptation of the market and organisational conditions in order to improve the consumer flexibility. 3) Further development of the incentive structures for the network owners and systems operators so that the existing transferring capacity is used as well as possible and the macro economic development of the network is encouraged. 4) Profit estimations and financing of larger co-originated connections particularly across the country borders, in deregulated power markets. Particularly the first two challenges are probably a condition for the deregulated power markets as the Nordic one, shall be able to survive in the long run. In an appendix main data studied in the projects as a basis for this report, are referred

  7. China's water shortage could shake world food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L R; Halweil, B

    1998-01-01

    This report indicates the global concern about China's water shortages and describes basin supplies, global availability of grain, and reasons for water losses. There is little precise data on how land productivity will be affected by declines in irrigation. Reports from the "China Daily" indicate that the 1995 grain harvest in Shandong province declined by 2.7 million tons (food for 9 million people) due to water failures of the Yellow River. A delegate at the 1998 National People's Congress pointed out that rural villages nationwide had shortages of 30 billion cu. m and losses of 20 million tons of grain production. About 70% of grain harvests rely on irrigation. Water demand for residential use and industrial use is likely to increase and compete with farm use. One unlikely option is to divert irrigation water to cities as needed and import grain. The entire agricultural, energy, and industrial economies need to be made more water efficient. Agriculture will need to produce more water efficient crops and livestock products and less water intensive energy supplies. Another alternative is to divert water from one location to another. Water pricing could reinforce efficiency of use. Use of composting toilets could reduce human residential water demand. Urban capacity building should rely on separate industrial and residential wastewater systems. Investing in technologies for industry can reduce water demand among paper and steel producers. The fastest growing grain market is in North Africa and the Middle East. Trends in principal grain exporting countries with 85% of global exports indicate no growth in grain production for export since 1980.

  8. Fuzzy inventory model for deteriorating items, with time depended demand, shortages, and fully backlogging

    OpenAIRE

    Wasim Akram Mandal; Sahidul Islam

    2016-01-01

    In this paper analyzes fuzzy inventory system for deterioration item with time depended demand. Shortages are allowed under fully backlogged. Fixed cost, deterioration cost, shortages cost, holding cost are the cost considered in this model. Fuzziness is applying by allowing the cost components (holding cost, deterioration, shortage cost, holding cost, etc). In fuzzy environment it considered all required parameter to be triangular fuzzy numbers. One numerical solution of the model is obtaine...

  9. Price signals and end consumer flexibility in shortage situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunnes, Arngrim; Grande, Ove S.

    2002-08-01

    following alternatives: 1) Fixed part + loss part + energy part which is only active in shortage periods. 2) Fixed part + loss part + effect part which is only active in shortage periods. 3) Discontinued tariff with 15 minutes warning period

  10. Exploring incentives for RNs to return to practice: a partial solution to the nursing shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Joanne C; Tadych, Rita A; Kao, Chia-Chan

    2007-01-01

    Although many have suggested strategies to resolve the nursing shortage, few have considered inactive RNs. This pilot study investigated reasons why nurses leave the practice, the type of work environment and resources necessary to entice RNs to return to practice, and the specific skills required to assist RNs in feeling confident and competent to return to practice. Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory was used to study motivation and hygiene factors enticing RNs to practice. A screening questionnaire was sent to 1,004 randomly selected RNs in Missouri to determine who were licensed but not practicing. Fifty-two full questionnaires were mailed and 33 (63%) were returned. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS, whereas qualitative data were coded and analyzed using manifest content analysis. The lack of motivators such as recognition of one's work and achievements was one reason why RNs left the practice. The hygiene factors of money, improved working conditions, refresher courses, and health insurance would motivate RNs to return to practice. Those wishing to entice inactive nurses to practice will need to offer sign-on bonuses or make the hourly wages and benefits package very competitive. This study indicates that nurses value flexible working hours, part-time opportunities, consideration of family lives, and positive relationships with administrators.

  11. The future of the nurse shortage: will wage increases close the gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetz, Joanne; Given, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    In recent years the U.S. media have been reporting a shortage of registered nurses (RNs). In theory, labor-market shortages are self-correcting; wage increases will bring labor markets into equilibrium, and policy intervention is not necessary. In this paper we develop a simple forecasting model and ask the question: How high must RN wages rise in the future to end the RN shortage? We find that inflation-adjusted wages must increase 3.2-3.8 percent per year between 2002 and 2016, with wages cumulatively rising up to 69 percent, to end the shortage. Total RN expenditures would more than double by 2016.

  12. Understanding the pediatric dermatology workforce shortage: mentoring matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admani, Shehla; Caufield, Maura; Kim, Silvia S; Siegfried, Elaine C; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon

    2014-02-01

    To target pediatric dermatologists directly in order to evaluate their current demographics and the most important motivating factors that influenced their career choice. Pediatric dermatology is one of the pediatric subspecialties with an inadequate supply to meet current patient needs. A survey was designed to evaluate the training pathway, employment status, participation in teaching, and clinical practice characteristics of pediatric dermatologists. The survey was administered to attendants of the 2010 Society for Pediatric Dermatology annual meeting. Any remaining board certified pediatric dermatologists who had not previously responded were queried via Survey Monkey. There was a 71% response rate. The majority chose a career in pediatric dermatology early, often prior to starting a dermatology residency. The vast majority of respondents noted mentorship as the most important influence on their decision to pursue a career in pediatric dermatology. The most common obstacles cited by respondents were financial hardship and resistance of some dermatology programs to accept applicants previously trained in pediatrics. Our survey provides evidence to support the importance of early exposure to the field and, most importantly, to committed pediatric dermatologists who can serve as mentors. This information may be helpful in approaching solutions to the workforce shortage in the field of pediatric dermatology. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy shortages in Europe? strategic meetings on energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derdevet, M.

    2005-01-01

    On the RTE's initiative, the Economic and Social Council welcome the first 'Strategic Meetings on Energy Security' event on July 11, 2005. With its 'Energy Shortages in Europe?' subtitle, the convention was in line with the topical issue of oil price increases. Opening the convention, Hubert Bouchet, the vice-president of the Research and Technology Productive Activities section of the Economic and Social Council (CES) stated that with its 400 million citizens, Europe uses over 2 500 tWh of electricity a year, and that its demand for primary energy is growing, making it the largest importer of energy in the world and the top second user after the United States. The trend should continue at least until 2030. H Bouchet also stress that though the worlds is using increasing amounts of energy, over 1.5 billion people do not have access to modern energy sources. Therefore, there are huge needs. There were four round-tables introducing rich debates with the room. The first one was about the issue of the 'energy market: the end of overcapacity', and the second one, dedicated so secure supplies, was titled: 'An ill adapted regulatory framework and European context'. In the afternoon, exchanges covered 'Strategies to prepare the energy offer for new stakes' and 'Major strategies for France and Europe'. (author)

  14. Solve the organ shortage: let the bidding begin!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevorkian, J

    2001-01-01

    Commercialization of transplantable human organs is the only sure way to end the crisis of their supply. This is best accomplished by implementing a free, non-profit, nationwide, ultimately global online auction market. It should be independent of the current United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) system dealing solely with altruistic donation, and of governmental, sectarian, academic, and other bureaucratic control. The operation of such an auction is described with a hypothetical example. An included provision guarantees equity for poor, uninsured, and indigent recipients. Money accrued can be substantial, and would be disbursed by established formula, with major portions going to donors' families and to special funds to be used to bid for the poor and to defray costs incurred by them. As the organ shortage eases, bid prices should drop, resulting perhaps in eventual altruistic donation. Objections to commericalization based on ethics, bodily sanctity, inequity, pecuniary greed, and the slippery slope tocsin are nullified by cogent arguments and examples. The current situation has worsened despite so-called required request laws, proposed token payments to cover funeral expenses for donor families, and extensive media advertising to spur altruistic donation. Prohibitive national and state laws must be rescinded for the sake of more than 60,000 patients now on lengthening waiting lists. A profession committed to saving lives is duty-bound to endorse, help implement, and participate in an auction system dedicated to that end.

  15. On the electricity shortage, price and electricity theft nexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, Faisal

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan is facing severe electricity shortfall of its history since 2006. Several measures have been implemented in order to mitigate electricity shortage. The focus has been on raising the installed capacity of electricity generation and transmission. The present policy results in expensive thermal electricity generation mostly using expensive and environmentally hazardous furnace oil and inability of utilities to recover their cost of supply although there is unprecedented rise in electricity tariffs. This study concentrates on the electricity demand and traces the relationship between electricity shortfalls, tariff rate and electricity theft in the background of recent electricity crisis using the data for the period 1985–2010. We employed the Granger causality test through error correction model and out-of-sample causality through variance decomposition method. Empirical evidence shows that electricity theft greatly influences electricity shortfalls through lowering investment and inefficient use of electricity. The study concludes that electricity crisis cannot be handled without combating rampant electricity theft in the country. - Highlights: ► The study investigates relationship among electricity outages, price and electricity theft. ► It employed Johansen approach, ECM and variance decomposition analysis. ► Empirical evidence shows that electricity theft causes outages and rising tariff rates. ► Variance decomposition analysis results are slightly different from ECM

  16. The Economy of Persistence: Mario the Tailor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence Black

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mario Conte has had a tailor shop in King Street, Newtown since the mid 1960s. Taking an interview with Mario as its point of departure, this article describes the persistence of a skilled worker whose practices and techniques remain the same in a world that has long changed. While inattentive to what rules might be used to decorate a shop window, Mario continues to make and sew in the way that he learnt in post-war Italy. Mario’s persistence could be described as all the skills and other elements that need to be in place to keep him working, in particular the tradition of tailoring techniques he has remained true to over the last fifty years. The hand stitching of his tailoring is like a metronome of that persistence.

  17. Leadership Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Cathleen; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Lists skills identified by the Leadership Development Task Force as being critical skills for a leader. Discussion focuses on information managing skills, including problem solving, decision making, setting goals and objectives; project management; and people managing skills, including interpersonal communications, conflict management, motivation,…

  18. Medicine shortages in Australia: causes, impact and management strategies in the community setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yee Xi; Moles, Rebekah J; Chaar, Betty B

    2016-10-01

    Background Medicine shortages are an ongoing global problem. The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) dedicated a website for monitoring of medicine shortages in Australia in May 2014, as part of the Medicine Shortage Information Initiative. This study aimed to explore the views of pharmacists regarding medicine shortages in the community setting and the impact of the TGA website in Australia. Setting Community pharmacies in New South Wales, Australia. Method Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with community pharmacists. Data collected were analysed thematically utilising the framework analysis method. Main outcome measure Qualitative analysis conducted using the framework approach. Results Findings clearly indicated that medicine shortages were experienced on a regular basis, but most participants were unaware of the TGA website. Medicine shortages reportedly impacted both pharmacists and consumers; and various workarounds were undertaken to manage the issue. The "price disclosure policy" was found to be a prominent contributing factor in emerging shortages. Suggestions were made for ways to improve the growing occurrence of shortages. Conclusion Overall, the study found that there was a lack of familiarity with the TGA website, despite experiencing regular shortages of medicines in practice. Also highlighted, was the importance of pharmacists prioritising patient care over business decisions. To reduce prescribing of out-of-stock medicines notifying doctors about shortages was also considered important, to allow for early action to be taken at higher levels of the supply chain. Findings of this study may help direct future policy-making around the world, as medicine shortages is a problem shared by healthcare providers in most countries around the world.

  19. Persistent Aerial Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc

  20. Water Management Strategies against Water Shortage in the Alps (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, C.

    2009-12-01

    and anthropogenic scenarios. Innovative measures of mitigation and adaptation should predict and prevent future water shortages.

  1. Can alternative sugar sources buffer pollinators from nectar shortages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner-Gee, Robin; Dhami, Manpreet K; Paulin, Katherine J; Beggs, Jacqueline R

    2014-12-01

    Honeydew is abundant in many ecosystems and may provide an alternative food source (a buffer) for pollinators during periods of food shortage, but the impact of honeydew on pollination systems has received little attention to date. In New Zealand, kānuka trees (Myrtaceae: Kunzea ericoides (A. Rich) Joy Thompson) are often heavily infested by the endemic honeydew-producing scale insect Coelostomidia wairoensis (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Coelostomidiidae) and the period of high honeydew production can overlap with kānuka flowering. In this study, we quantified the sugar resources (honeydew and nectar) available on kānuka and recorded nocturnal insect activity on infested and uninfested kānuka during the flowering period. Insects were abundant on infested trees, but flowers on infested trees received fewer insect visitors than flowers on uninfested trees. There was little evidence that insects had switched directly from nectar-feeding to honeydew-feeding, but it is possible that some omnivores (e.g., cockroaches) were distracted by the other honeydew-associated resources on infested branches (e.g., sooty molds, prey). Additional sampling was carried out after kānuka flowering had finished to determine honeydew usage in the absence of adjacent nectar resources. Moths, which had fed almost exclusively on nectar earlier, were recorded feeding extensively on honeydew after flowering had ceased; hence, honeydew may provide an additional food source for potential pollinators. Our results show that honeydew resources can impact floral visitation patterns and suggest that future pollinator studies should consider the full range of sugar resources present in the study environment.

  2. A Microeconomic Model of the Personnel Shortage in Public Rehabilitation Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jared C.; Millington, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    There is a well-documented, growing shortage of rehabilitation counseling professionals in the public sector. Using microeconomics principles, a theoretical model is offered to account for the personnel shortage and propose potential solutions to recruit and retain rehabilitation counselors in the public sector. Suggestions for rehabilitation…

  3. AACJC/Metropolitan Life Foundation Registered Nurse Shortage Project: Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, James F.

    The American Association of Community and Junior Colleges's Nurse Shortage Project was designed to alleviate the nurse shortage by helping community colleges improve recruitment, retention, and graduation in nursing programs through direct mini-grants, with a special emphasis on Tech Prep/Associate Degree initiatives between secondary schools and…

  4. 19 CFR 18.6 - Short shipments; shortages; entry and allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short shipments; shortages; entry and allowance...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT General Provisions § 18.6 Short shipments; shortages; entry and allowance. (a) When there has been a short shipment and the short-shipped...

  5. Assessment of serious water shortage in the Icelandic water resource system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Harpa; Madsen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    there will be a shortage of electrical power. This is politically acceptable as long as it only touches heavy industries but not power deliveries to the common market. Empty or near empty reservoirs cause power shortage that will be felt by homeowners and businesses, until spring thaw sets in and inflow to the reservoirs...

  6. Path toward economic resilience for family caregivers: mitigating household deprivation and the health care talent shortage at the same time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Melissa A; Gunia, Brian; Martin, Emily J; Foucar, Charles E; Kundu, Tapas; Ragas, Daiva M; Emanuel, Linda L

    2013-10-01

    Rising costs and a workforce talent shortage are two of the health care industry's most pressing challenges. In particular, serious illnesses often impose significant costs on individuals and their families, which can place families at an increased risk for multigenerational economic deprivation or even an illness-poverty trap. At the same time, family caregivers often acquire a wide variety of health care skills that neither these caregivers nor the health care industry typically use. As these skills are marketable and could be paired with many existing medical certifications, this article describes a possible "path toward economic resilience" (PER) through a program whereby family caregivers could find meaningful employment using their new skills. The proposed program would identify ideal program candidates, assess and supplement their competencies, and connect them to the health care industry. We provide a set of practical steps and recommended tools for implementation, discuss pilot data on the program's appeal and feasibility, and raise several considerations for program development and future research. Our analysis suggests that this PER program could appeal to family caregivers and the health care industry alike, possibly helping to address two of our health care system's most pressing challenges with one solution.

  7. Defining Primary Care Shortage Areas: Do GIS-based Measures Yield Different Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Michael R; Mellor, Jennifer M; Millones, Marco

    2018-02-12

    To examine whether geographic information systems (GIS)-based physician-to-population ratios (PPRs) yield determinations of geographic primary care shortage areas that differ from those based on bounded-area PPRs like those used in the Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA) designation process. We used geocoded data on primary care physician (PCP) locations and census block population counts from 1 US state to construct 2 shortage area indicators. The first is a bounded-area shortage indicator defined without GIS methods; the second is a GIS-based measure that measures the populations' spatial proximity to PCP locations. We examined agreement and disagreement between bounded shortage areas and GIS-based shortage areas. Bounded shortage area indicators and GIS-based shortage area indicators agree for the census blocks where the vast majority of our study populations reside. Specifically, 95% and 98% of the populations in our full and urban samples, respectively, reside in census blocks where the 2 indicators agree. Although agreement is generally high in rural areas (ie, 87% of the rural population reside in census blocks where the 2 indicators agree), agreement is significantly lower compared to urban areas. One source of disagreement suggests that bounded-area measures may "overlook" some shortages in rural areas; however, other aspects of the HPSA designation process likely mitigate this concern. Another source of disagreement arises from the border-crossing problem, and it is more prevalent. The GIS-based PPRs we employed would yield shortage area determinations that are similar to those based on bounded-area PPRs defined for Primary Care Service Areas. Disagreement rates were lower than previous studies have found. © 2018 National Rural Health Association.

  8. Are radioisotope shortages a thing of the past?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peykov, Pavel; Cameron, Ron [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    2014-10-15

    Since June 2009, the NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) have examined the causes of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc supply shortages and developed a policy approach, including principles and supporting recommendations to address those causes. The NEA has also reviewed the global {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc supply situation periodically, using the most up-to-date data from supply chain participants, to highlight periods of reduced supply and underscore the case for implementing the HLG-MR policy approach in a timely and globally-consistent manner. In 2012, the NEA released a {sup 99}Mo supply and demand update for the period up to 2030 (A Supply and Demand Update of the Molybdenum-99 Market, OECD/NEA, 2012), identifying periods of low supply relative to demand. This paper presents the preliminary results from an updated {sup 99}Mo supply and demand forecast, focusing on the potentially critical 2015-2020 period, when two major {sup 99}Mo producers (the NRU reactor in Canada and the OSIRIS reactor in France) are scheduled to cease {sup 99}Mo irradiations. On the demand side, the NEA had previously released a study with the results from a global survey of future demand for {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc (OECD-NEA, 2011), devising a scenario based on a data assessment by an expert advisory group. In the current analysis, the expected demand growth rate and total demand have been modified, based on the latest information from supply chain participants. On the supply side, the NEA has updated the list of current and planned new {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc irradiation and processing projects. The modelling results incorporate revisions to production start/end dates, potential additional projects, and impacts of converting to the use of low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets on {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc capacity and production. The supply forecast horizon (2015 to 2020) has been chosen to reflect upcoming, important changes in global production capacity

  9. Are radioisotope shortages a thing of the past?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peykov, Pavel; Cameron, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Since June 2009, the NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) have examined the causes of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc supply shortages and developed a policy approach, including principles and supporting recommendations to address those causes. The NEA has also reviewed the global 99 Mo/ 99m Tc supply situation periodically, using the most up-to-date data from supply chain participants, to highlight periods of reduced supply and underscore the case for implementing the HLG-MR policy approach in a timely and globally-consistent manner. In 2012, the NEA released a 99 Mo supply and demand update for the period up to 2030 (A Supply and Demand Update of the Molybdenum-99 Market, OECD/NEA, 2012), identifying periods of low supply relative to demand. This paper presents the preliminary results from an updated 99 Mo supply and demand forecast, focusing on the potentially critical 2015-2020 period, when two major 99 Mo producers (the NRU reactor in Canada and the OSIRIS reactor in France) are scheduled to cease 99 Mo irradiations. On the demand side, the NEA had previously released a study with the results from a global survey of future demand for 99 Mo/ 99m Tc (OECD-NEA, 2011), devising a scenario based on a data assessment by an expert advisory group. In the current analysis, the expected demand growth rate and total demand have been modified, based on the latest information from supply chain participants. On the supply side, the NEA has updated the list of current and planned new 99 Mo/ 99m Tc irradiation and processing projects. The modelling results incorporate revisions to production start/end dates, potential additional projects, and impacts of converting to the use of low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets on 99 Mo/ 99m Tc capacity and production. The supply forecast horizon (2015 to 2020) has been chosen to reflect upcoming, important changes in global production capacity - the planned shutdowns in Canada and France, and the expected

  10. Current Situation, Determinants, and Solutions to Drug Shortages in Shaanxi Province, China: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Caijun; Wu, Lina; Cai, Wenfang; Zhu, Wenwen; Shen, Qian; Li, Zongjie; Fang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Drug shortages were a complex global problem. The aim of this study was to analyze, characterize, and assess the drug shortages, and identify possible solutions in Shaanxi Province, western China. A qualitative methodological approach was conducted during May-June 2015 and December 2015-January 2016. Semi-structured interviews were performed to gather information from representatives of hospital pharmacists, wholesalers, pharmaceutical producers, and local health authorities. Thirty participants took part in the study. Eight traditional Chinese medicines and 87 types of biologicals and chemicals were reported to be in short supply. Most were essential medicines. Five main determinants of drug shortages were detected: too low prices, too low market demands, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) issues, materials issues, and approval issues for imported drugs. Five different solutions were proposed by the participants: 1) let the market decide the drug price; 2) establish an information platform; 3) establish a reserve system; 4) enhance the communication among the three parties in the supply chain; and 5) improve hospital inventory management. Western China was currently experiencing a serious drug shortage. Numerous reasons for the shortage were identified. Most drug shortages in China were currently because of "too low prices." To solve this problem, all of the stakeholders, especially the government, needed to participate in managing the drug shortages.

  11. How does a shortage of physicians impact on the job satisfaction of health centre staff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxén, Ulla; Jaatinen, Pekka T; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to determine how a shortage of physicians at Finnish health centres has affected the job satisfaction of the entire staff. A questionnaire was posted to 2848 employees working with patients at health centres in the Finnish provinces of Satakunta and Varsinais-Suomi. The information concerning the shortage of physicians at health centres was taken from research undertaken by the Finnish Medical Association in October 2003. The health centres were divided into four groups according to the severity of the shortage. The questionnaire was returned by 1447 employees. The staff at health centres with the most severe shortage of physicians were less satisfied with the management of the organization. Employees at health centres with a minor shortage of physicians were more satisfied with the quality of services in their operational unit. The shortage of physicians had no impact on staff satisfaction regarding the operation of their work unit, the strain of dealing with issues within their work environment, feelings of stress, the strain of working under pressure that they experienced, or interest in finding a new job. The majority of healthcare employees are satisfied and motivated in their work. The shortage of physicians has only a slightly negative impact on their satisfaction.

  12. Online Availability and Safety of Drugs in Shortage: A Descriptive Study of Internet Vendor Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K

    2012-01-01

    Background Unprecedented drug shortages announced by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have severely affected therapeutic access, patient safety, and public health. With continued shortages, patients may seek drugs online. Objective To assess the prevalence of online marketing for current FDA shortage drugs and potential patient safety risks. Methods We performed a descriptive study of the prevalence of online marketing for shortage drugs—that is, offers for sale of each drug, including characteristics of online drug sellers and intermediary sites marketing these drugs. Results Of the 72 FDA shortage-listed drugs, 68 (94%) were offered for sale online. We found 291 offers for these drugs, the vast majority (n = 207, 71.1%) by online drug sellers selling direct to consumers. Intermediary sites included data aggregators (n = 22, 8%), forum links (n = 23, 8%), and personal page data links (n = 34, 12%), as well as Flickr social media links (n = 5, 2%), all advertising drugs without a prescription. Of the 91 online drug sellers identified, 31 (34%) had more than 1 shortage drug offered for sale, representing most (n = 148, 71%) of all online drug seller sales offers. The majority of these online drug sellers (n = 21, 68%) were on the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP) Not Recommended Sites list. Finally, for shortage drugs with an online drug seller (n = 58, 85%), 53 (91%) had at least one site on the Not Recommended list and 21 (36%) had only sites on the Not Recommended list. Conclusions FDA shortage drugs are widely marketed over the Internet. Suspect online drug sellers and intermediaries dominate these sales offers. As a critical risk management issue, patients, providers, and policymakers should be extremely cautious in procuring shortage drugs through Internet sourcing. PMID:22321731

  13. Online availability and safety of drugs in shortage: a descriptive study of internet vendor characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bryan A; Mackey, Tim K

    2012-02-09

    Unprecedented drug shortages announced by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have severely affected therapeutic access, patient safety, and public health. With continued shortages, patients may seek drugs online. To assess the prevalence of online marketing for current FDA shortage drugs and potential patient safety risks. We performed a descriptive study of the prevalence of online marketing for shortage drugs-that is, offers for sale of each drug, including characteristics of online drug sellers and intermediary sites marketing these drugs. Of the 72 FDA shortage-listed drugs, 68 (94%) were offered for sale online. We found 291 offers for these drugs, the vast majority (n = 207, 71.1%) by online drug sellers selling direct to consumers. Intermediary sites included data aggregators (n = 22, 8%), forum links (n = 23, 8%), and personal page data links (n = 34, 12%), as well as Flickr social media links (n = 5, 2%), all advertising drugs without a prescription. Of the 91 online drug sellers identified, 31 (34%) had more than 1 shortage drug offered for sale, representing most (n = 148, 71%) of all online drug seller sales offers. The majority of these online drug sellers (n = 21, 68%) were on the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP) Not Recommended Sites list. Finally, for shortage drugs with an online drug seller (n = 58, 85%), 53 (91%) had at least one site on the Not Recommended list and 21 (36%) had only sites on the Not Recommended list. FDA shortage drugs are widely marketed over the Internet. Suspect online drug sellers and intermediaries dominate these sales offers. As a critical risk management issue, patients, providers, and policymakers should be extremely cautious in procuring shortage drugs through Internet sourcing.

  14. Delaware Technical & Community College's response to the critical shortage of Delaware secondary science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Nancy S.

    This executive position paper examines the critical shortage of Delaware high school science teachers and Delaware Technical & Community College's possible role in addressing this shortage. A concise analysis of economic and political implications of the science teacher shortage is presented. The following topics were researched and evaluated: the specific science teacher needs for Delaware school districts; the science teacher education program offerings at Delaware universities and colleges; the Alternative Route to Teacher Certification (ARTC); and the state of Delaware's scholarship response to the need. Recommendations for Delaware Tech's role include the development and implementation of two new Associate of Arts of Teaching programs in physics secondary science education and chemistry secondary science education.

  15. Interpersonal Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barakat NG

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTIONInterpersonal skills are becoming more and more a necessity in the medical profession. The expectation from health care professionals is beyond just knowledge of the medical facts. To practice medicine effectively, doctors need to develop interpersonal skills in communication, leadership, management, teaching and time management. All of these are vital tools and are becoming increasingly essential subjects in teaching both undergraduate students and postgraduate doctors. However, a degree of self-motivation and personal initiative is needed to develop these skills. In this article, I will give an overview on interpersonal skills and will be follow this by a series of articles, in future issues, dealing with these skills.

  16. Is Storage a Solution to End Water Shortage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2009-12-01

    Water shortage is a problem of supply and demand. Some authors refer to it as Water Scarcity. The author has discussed this in his previous presentation at the 2008 AGU International Conference. Part of it is reproduced here for purposes of clarification. It is important to recognize that water is essential for the survival of all life on earth. Many water-rich states have thought of water conservation as an art that is practiced mainly in the arid states. But one has to recite the famous quote: “You will never miss water till the well runs dry.” Researchers have also concluded that quantity deficiency experienced by groundwater supplies are affecting many communities around the world. Furthermore federal regulations pertaining to the quality of potable or drinking water have become more stringent (Narayanan, 2008). One must observe that water conservation schemes and efficient utilization practices also benefit the environment to a large extent. These water conservation practicies indeed have a short payback period althought it may seem that there is a heavy initial investment is required. Research scientists have studied MARR (Mean Annual River Runoff) pattern over the years and have arrived at some significant conclusions. Vörsömarty and other scientists have indicated that water scarcity exists when the demand to supply ratio exceeds the number 0.4. (Vörsömarty, 2005). Furthermore other researchers claim to have documented a six-fold increase in water use in the United States during the last century. It is interesting to note that the population of the United States has hardly doubled during the last century. This obviously, is indicative of higher living standards. Nevertheless, it also emphasizes an urgent need for establishing a strong, sound, sensible and sustainable management program for utilizing the available water supplies efficiently (Narayanan, 2008). Author of the 1998 book, Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity, Dr. Sandra Postel predicts big

  17. Nursing around the world: a perspective on growing concerns and the shortage of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vance DE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available David E VanceThe University of Alabama School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: Many of us think of nurses as people who provide direct care to us and our loved ones. And that is true. Images of a selfless person such as Florence Nightingale during the Crimean War running from one wounded soldier to another providing care inspires the imagination of what a nurse is and can be. Based on that image, a nurse is anyone who cares (and from a spiritual or philosophical perspective, that may be true. But nursing as a profession is so much more. nurse is someone with a very selective skill set that can only be developed and honed by intense training, education, and discipline while being used in a proscribed ethical manner. With such a combination of skills, ethics, and caring, nurses are the backbone of health care settings, tending to the individual needs of the patients; however, many nurses also function outside such traditional settings and perform numerous functions. Nurses are educators and provide data to the public designed to improve health literacy and promote physical and mental wellness. Nurses are computer and organizational specialists who provide hospitals and institutions with the technologies for keeping, maintaining, and analyzing records. Nurses are clergy, psychologists, and philosophers providing a direction and a moral compass in how to are for patients and each other. Nurses are researchers investigating everything from developing medication for Alzheimer's disease to improving crop yields to reduce hunger. Finally, nurses are advocates and leaders petitioning for justice and beneficence of all regardless of gender, age, race, religion, sexual orientation, and nationality; and as such, nursing is political and has a global impact. Nursing is global in nature and is facing global, as well as country specific, problems. The purpose of this editorial is to provide a brief overview of what

  18. Case Study: Meeting the Demand for Skilled Precision Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom, Chris; Shore, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to demonstrate how science and engineering graduates can be recruited and trained to Masters level in precision engineering as an aid to reducing the skills shortage of mechanical engineers in UK industry. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes a partnership between three UK academic institutions and industry,…

  19. Reading screening mammograms - Attitudes among radiologists and radiographers about skill mix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Lena Westphal; Brodersen, John

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Because of shortage of personnel for the Danish mammography screening programme, the aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes of radiologists and radiographers towards a future implementation of radiographers reading screening mammograms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven...... of managers, and improved working relations. Organization related obstacles: shortage of radiographers and negative attitudes of managers. Professional related possibilities: positive experience with skill mix. Professional related obstacles: worries about negative consequences for the training...... and financial consequences of skill mix. Despite of this all radiologists and radiographers experienced with skill mix were strong advocates for reading radiographers....

  20. Global Skills and Mobility Challenges and Possibilities for VET: A Crossborder Cross-Sectoral Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Roslyn; O'Hanlon-Rose, Terry

    2011-01-01

    The complex interplay of technological advances, global demographic trends and macroeconomic forces has seen the emergence of global markets, economies, supply chains and labour markets. The use of skilled migration policy and initiatives for many countries feeling the effects of aging populations and skill shortages adds another dimension to this…

  1. Factors Other Than Climate Change, Main Drivers of 2014/15 Water Shortage in Southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Friederike E. L.; Coelho, Caio A. S.; King, Andrew; Coughlan de Perez, Erin; Wada, Yoshihide; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Haarsma, Rein; Haustein, Karsten; Uhe, Peter; van Aalst, Maarten; hide

    2015-01-01

    Southeast Brazil experienced profound water shortages in 2014/15. Anthropogenic climate change is not found to be a major influence on the hazard, whereas increasing population and water consumption increased vulnerability.

  2. Association between shortage of energy supply and nuclear gene mutations leading to carcinomatous transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DU, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria use glycolysis, an oxygen-independent metabolic pathway, whereas energy metabolism in the evolved eukaryotic cell is performed via oxidative phosphorylation, with all eukaryotic cell activities depending upon high energy consumption. However, in cancer cells evolving from eukaryotic cells, the energy metabolism switches from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. The shortage of energy supply induces cancer cells to acquire specific characteristics. Base pair renewal is the most energy-consuming process in the cell, and shortage of energy supply may lead to errors in this process; the more prominent the shortage in energy supply, the more errors are likely to occur in base pair renewal, resulting in gene mutations and expression of cancer cell characteristics. Thus, shortage of energy supply is associated with carcinomatous transformation.

  3. Marketing nursing as a profession: integrated marketing strategies to address the nursing shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Mark John; Finch, Linda; Birnbaum, Dee

    2010-07-01

    The nursing shortage in the United States is at a crisis level characterized by critical shortages of highly trained nurses and of nursing faculty. Key issues in addressing these shortages include awareness and image-building, along with enhanced outreach programs. Although these issues are related to marketing theory, most studies in this area are based on a vocational choice model. This study was grounded in marketing theory and the results offer a new perspective for addressing the nursing shortage. In-depth interviews conducted with 31 first-year nursing students indicated that there were two distinct segments among nursing students: traditionals and instrumentals. Traditionals were attracted to nursing as a helping profession while instrumentals were interested in career-related rewards such as variety, mobility, and compensation. These findings were discussed in terms of building awareness and marketing programs for nursing students that are integrated across schools of nursing, private foundations and public agencies.

  4. [Reasons for General Practitioner Shortage – a Comparison Between France and Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerny, Thomas; Rosemann, Thomas; Tandjung, Ryan; Chmiel, Corinne

    2016-05-25

    Both France and Switzerland face a general practitioner (GP) shortage. What differences or parallels exist between the two countries with regard to the causes for this shortage? What conclusions might be drawn from a systematic comparison? Literature review with qualitative and semi-quantitative content analysis. Parallels exist in the comparing categories work contents, working structure, income and social status, medical school formation, private life, psychological motives. Differences are found in the categories biography and social selection, medical socialisation, residency. In Switzerland, residency is not uniformly structured, rarely institutionally organised and contains only few elements specific to general medicine. In France, medical socialisation not only exalts the specialists, but also strongly devaluates the GPs. By systematic analysis and comparison of both countries' pertinent literature, France and Switzerland can deepen their understanding of GP shortage. This paper identifies possible fields of action from medical school through residency up to workplace conditions that are pivotal in addressing the shortage of GPs.

  5. Comparative decision models for anticipating shortage of food grain production in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Manojit; Mitra, Subrata Kumar

    2018-01-01

    This paper attempts to predict food shortages in advance from the analysis of rainfall during the monsoon months along with other inputs used for crop production, such as land used for cereal production, percentage of area covered under irrigation and fertiliser use. We used six binary classification data mining models viz., logistic regression, Multilayer Perceptron, kernel lab-Support Vector Machines, linear discriminant analysis, quadratic discriminant analysis and k-Nearest Neighbors Network, and found that linear discriminant analysis and kernel lab-Support Vector Machines are equally suitable for predicting per capita food shortage with 89.69 % accuracy in overall prediction and 92.06 % accuracy in predicting food shortage ( true negative rate). Advance information of food shortage can help policy makers to take remedial measures in order to prevent devastating consequences arising out of food non-availability.

  6. Demographics of antibiotic persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollerova, Silvia; Jouvet, Lionel; Steiner, Ulrich

    Persister cells, cells that can survive antibiotic exposure but lack heritable antibiotic resistance, are assumed to play a crucial role for the evolution of antibiotic resistance. Persistence is a stage associated with reduced metabolic activity. Most previous studies have been done on batch...... even play a more prominent role for the evolution of resistance and failures of medical treatment by antibiotics as currently assumed....

  7. Addressing the Importance and Scale of the U.S. Teacher Shortage. UCEA Policy Brief 2018-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Andrene; Quinn, Daniel J.; Fuller, Edward; Barnes, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Teacher shortages pose a major challenge for state policy makers, district leaders, and school leaders. Importantly, however, the severity of the shortage differs by the particular dynamics of state- and local- teacher labor markets with some regions and states experiencing more severe shortages than others. This brief examines the elements of the…

  8. Impact of Antibiotic Shortage on H. Pylori Treatment: A Step-Wise Approach for Pharmacist Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M. Lamb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current drug shortage crisis involving multiple oral antibiotics has significantly impacted preferred therapeutic options for treatment of H.pylori infection. Pharmacists may help alleviate the impact of this shortage through a proposed step-wise approach which includes proper inventory management, verification of indication, evaluation of regimen, therapeutic monitoring, and communication with patients and providers regarding alternative therapy or symptomatic relief.   Type: Original Research

  9. Labor Health Shortage and Future Prospects for the Medical Workforce in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Zouag, Nada; Driouchi, Ahmed; Achehboune, Amale

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper looks at the current situation of health deficits and shortages in Morocco with a focus on the roles of medical education and prospects for the health workforce for the period 2010-2030. The attained results from both trend description and simulations of patterns show major shortages relative to the needs. The existence of these trends appeals for further cooperation in the areas of health care through emphasis on medical education and research. These outcomes appear to be...

  10. Impact of Antibiotic Shortage on H. Pylori Treatment: A Step-Wise Approach for Pharmacist Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Lloyd, Pharm.D., BCPS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current drug shortage crisis involving multiple oral antibiotics has significantly impacted preferred therapeutic options for treatment of H.pylori infection. Pharmacists may help alleviate the impact of this shortage through a proposed step-wise approach which includes proper inventory management, verification of indication, evaluation of regimen, therapeutic monitoring, and communication with patients and providers regarding alternative therapy or symptomatic relief.

  11. Policy Measures to Alleviate Foreign Currency Liquidity Shortages under Aggregate Risk with Moral Hazard

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Fujiki

    2010-01-01

    During the recent global financial crisis, some central banks introduced two innovative cross-border operations to deal with the problems of foreign currency liquidity shortages: domestic liquidity operations using cross-border collaterals and operations for supplying foreign currency based on standing swap lines among central banks. We show theoretically that central banks improve the efficiency of equilibrium under foreign currency liquidity shortages by those two innovative temporary polic...

  12. [Demography and labor shortage. Future challenges of labor market policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, J

    2013-03-01

    For demographic reasons, the German labor force will decrease dramatically and it will be much older on average. However, labor demand, especially for qualified workers, is expected to remain high. This paper focuses on the possibilities of expanding the labor force by increasing the participation rates of women and older persons. Herein, the change in the labor force is decomposed with respect to population and labor participation and, moreover, the effects of higher participation rates are simulated. The decomposition and simulation scenarios are based on data published by the Institute for Employment Research. The analysis clearly reveals that the effect of a considerably higher labor participation of women and older workers will disappear over time when the working-age population shrinks more and more. In addition, individuals who are currently unemployed or out of the labor force are not skilled enough. Since it seems difficult to get more qualified workers in the short and even in the medium term, improving the conditions for women and older people to take up jobs should be tackled soon. This includes investments in education and health care.

  13. [The evolution of nursing shortage and strategies to face it: a longitudinal study in 11 hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringhetta, Francesca; Dal Ponte, Adriana; Palese, Alvisa

    2012-01-01

    To describe the perception of the evolution of nursing shortage from 2000 to 2009 according to Nursing Coordinators and the strategies to face it. Nursing coordinators of 11 hospitals or districts of Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trentino Alto Adige and Veneto regions were interviewed in 2000, 2004 and 2009 to collect data and assess their perception on nurses' shortage. In the first interview the medium gap between staff planned and in service was -5.4%; in 2004 -9.4% and in 2009 -3.3%. The shortage, once with a seasonal trend is now constant and appreciated in all the wards. In years 2000 and 2004 on average 5 strategies to face the shortage were implemented, in 2009 7. No systematic strategies have been used with the exception of the unification of wards, mainly during summer for letting people go on holydays. According to Nursing Coordinators the effects of the shortage are already observable (although not quantified) on patients and nurses. The nurses' shortage has been one of the challenges of the last 10 years. Its causes have changed but not the strategies implemented.

  14. Effective and persistent changes in household energy-saving behaviors: Evidence from post-tsunami Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimi, Toshio; Kajitani, Yoshio; Chang, Stephanie E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Some households’ adaptations to electricity shortage can be new efficient habits. • The electricity shortage in Japan was used as a natural experiment. • Some behaviors contributed to 2–4% electricity savings and persisted for two years. • Behaviors requiring frequency and discomfort cannot be effective or persistent. • Lowering the electricity-usage level of appliances might be a promising behavior. - Abstract: This paper focuses on households’ development of new energy-efficient habits as demonstrated in the context of a major electricity shortfall event. Energy conservation policies should encourage households to take measures that are actually effective in reducing energy consumption and that can be sustained over long periods of time. Few studies, however, have empirically examined what types of energy-saving measures are actually effective and persistent. The electricity shortages following the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear disaster provided an opportunity to examine this question. A web survey of households in Japan was implemented to obtain data on metered electricity use in the summers of 2010–2013, household behaviors for electricity savings, and household socioeconomic attributes. Regression analysis was conducted to explain the effectiveness and persistence of energy saving behaviors. Results indicate that most households took several electricity-saving measures after the disaster to adapt to the electricity shortage. Certain types of measures led to 2–4% savings in electricity consumption (per measure) and persisted for two years. The effective and persistent electricity-saving measures tended to be those that did not require either frequent efforts or considerable discomfort. Findings suggest that electricity-saving behaviors requiring infrequent effort and little discomfort can become engrained as new habits or lifestyles. In particular, one promising measure may be to lower the electricity

  15. Introduction: Persistent Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This introduction to 'Persistent Modelling – an extended role for architectural representation' identifies how the book probes the relationship between representation and the represented, in an architectural context. It discusses how the book presents an examination and discussion of historical......, familiar contemporary and, perhaps, not so familiar emerging manifestations of this relation. What persists from this probing, fully intact, is that representation and the represented remain inextricably related in our contemporary and emerging practices. What comes into focus is that the nature...

  16. Medical Supplies Shortages and Burnout among Greek Health Care Workers during Economic Crisis: a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachiotis, George; Kourousis, Christos; Kamilaraki, Maria; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K.; Dounias, George; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Greece has been seriously affected by the economic crisis. In 2011 there were reports of 40% reduction to public hospital budgets. Occasional shortages of medical supplies have been reported in mass media. We attempted to pivotally investigate the frequency of medical supplies shortages in two Greek hospital units of the National Health System and to also assess their possible impact on burnout risk of health care workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study (n=303) of health care workers in two Greek hospitals who were present at the workplace during a casually selected working day (morning shift work). The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used as the measure of burnout. An additional questionnaire was used about demographics, and working conditions (duration of employment, cumulative night shifts, type of hospital including medical supplies shortages and their impact on quality of healthcare. The prevalence of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment was 44.5%, 43.2% and 51.5%, respectively. Medical supply shortages were significantly associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. This finding provides preliminary evidence that austerity has affected health care in Greece. Moreover, the medical supply shortages in Greek hospitals may reflect the unfolding humanitarian crisis of the country. PMID:24688306

  17. Shortage of psychotropic medications in community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia: Causes and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ruthia, Yazed Sulaiman; Mansy, Wael; Barasin, Mohammad; Ghawaa, Yazeed Mohammad; AlSultan, Mohammed; Alsenaidy, Mohammad A; Alhawas, Solaiman; AlGhadeer, Sultan

    2017-07-01

    Background: Patients with mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, who seek medical care in private psychiatric clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, have recently expressed concerns to doctors about difficulty in filling psychotropic medications, such as Amitriptyline and Aripiprazole, at retail community pharmacies. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a shortage of some commonly prescribed psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia, and if so, to explore the possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications. Methods: The availability of 28 commonly prescribed psychotropic medications was checked in multiple retail community pharmacies in 4 different regions of Saudi Arabia. Further, potential reasons behind the shortage of some psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies were also explored. Results: Amitriptyline, Amoxapine, Aripiprazole, Bupropion, Buspirone, Duloxetine, Haloperidol, Hydroxyzine, Lithium, Prochlorperazine, Procyclidine, Promethazine, Thioridazine, Trazodone, and Trifluoperazine were unavailable in over half of the 248 community pharmacies surveyed. Four possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications were reported by 31 pharmacists working in different retail community pharmacies' purchasing departments, with a majority (58.06%) reporting the primary reason for a shortage of these medications that they are slow-moving items with low profit margins. Conclusions: The findings of this study should expedite the reform process in both the Ministry of Health and the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) to publish and enforce an essential list of medications for retail community pharmacies, which should include the most commonly prescribed psychotropic medications.

  18. Professional Role Confidence and Gendered Persistence in Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Cech, Erin; Rubineau, Brian; Seron, Caroll; Silbey, Susan S.

    2011-01-01

    Social psychological research on gendered persistence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professions is dominated by two explanations: women leave because they perceive their family plans to be at odds with demands of STEM careers, and women leave due to low self-assessment of their skills in STEM’s intellectual tasks, net of their performance. This study uses original panel data to examine behavioral and intentional persistence among students who enter an engineering...

  19. Unpredictable drug shortages: an ethical framework for short-term rationing in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosoff, Philip M

    2012-01-01

    Periodic and unexpected shortages of drugs, biologics, and even medical devices have become commonplace in the United States. When shortages occur, hospitals and clinics need to decide how to ration their available stock. When such situations arise, institutions can choose from several different allocation schemes, such as first-come, first-served, a lottery, or a more rational and calculated approach. While the first two approaches sound reasonable at first glance, there are a number of problems associated with them, including the inability to make fine, individual patient-centered decisions. They also do not discriminate between what kinds of patients and what types of uses may be more deserving or reasonable than others. In this article I outline an ethically acceptable procedure for rationing drugs during a shortage in which demand outstrips supply.

  20. Persistent and recurrent hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Carole; Paladino, Nunzia Cinzia; Lowery, Aoife; Castinetti, Fréderic; Taieb, David; Sebag, Fréderic

    2017-06-01

    Despite remarkable progress in imaging modalities and surgical management, persistence or recurrence of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) still occurs in 2.5-5% of cases of PHPT. The aim of this review is to expose the management of persistent and recurrent hyperparathyroidism. A literature search was performed on MEDLINE using the search terms "recurrent" or "persistent" and "hyperparathyroidism" within the past 10 years. We also searched the reference lists of articles identified by this search strategy and selected those we judged relevant. Before considering reoperation, the surgeon must confirm the diagnosis of PHPT. Then, the patient must be evaluated with new imaging modalities. A single adenoma is found in 68% of cases, multiglandular disease in 28%, and parathyroid carcinoma in 3%. Others causes (<1%) include parathyromatosis and graft recurrence. The surgeon must balance the benefits against the risks of a reoperation (permanent hypocalcemia and recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy). If surgery is necessary, a focused approach can be considered in cases of significant imaging foci, but in the case of multiglandular disease, a bilateral neck exploration could be necessary. Patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes are at high risk of recurrence and should be managed regarding their hereditary pathology. The cure rate of persistent-PHPT or recurrent-PHPT in expert centers is estimated from 93 to 97%. After confirming the diagnosis of PHPT, patients with persistent-PHPT and recurrent-PHPT should be managed in an expert center with all dedicated competencies.

  1. Skills core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Laura

    Constantly changing technology and increasing competition mean that private companies are aggressively seeking new employees with high levels of technological literacy, good judgment, and communication and team-building skills. Industry also needs workers educated in science, math, engineering, and technology. But which of these skills are most important? Researchers at Indian River Community College at Fort Pierce, Fla., will attempt to answer that question with an NSF grant of nearly $1 million.

  2. Are word-of-mouth communications contributing to a shortage of nephrology nurses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, William A

    2014-01-01

    Nephrology nurse shortages have historically been viewed as a subset of the overall nursing supply in the United States. Not-here-to-fore considered as a contributing factor are the effects of word-of-mouth and Internet-based word-of-mouth communications from nurses who have had disappointing work experiences in hemodialysis clinics. This article discusses the potential effects of word-of-mouse communications and posits that negative word-of-mouse communications may discourage new and experienced nurses from considering the specialty of nephrology nursing, thus contributing to a nephrology nursing shortage.

  3. [Shortage of physicians in anaesthesiology and intensive care medicine - Causes, consequences and solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papenfuß, Tim; Roch, Carmen

    2012-05-01

    74% of all hospitals had vacant positions in 2011, also departments of anaesthesiology and intensive care medicine. More than 50% of these departments work with locums. There are couple of reasons for the shortage of physicians. The consequences in anaesthesiology and intensive care medicine can result in qualitative and financial loss. To solve the shortage of physicians one has to solve the reasons. Main reasons are increasing feminization of medical profession and part-time-work, work-life-balance and a poor specialised education. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Approaches to tenofovir and abacavir drug shortages in South Africa: A guide for clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Schowalter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shortages of the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI abacavir and tenofovir have been reported recently at health facilities across South Africa. The Society issued the following clinical advice to healthcare providers experiencing shortages on 29 March 2012. These recommendations are intended only as a guide to clinical therapy, based on expert consensus and best available evidence. Treatment decisions for patients should be made by their responsible clinicians, with due consideration for individual circumstances. S Afr J HIV Med 2012;13(2:56-57.

  5. Renewable energy strategies to overcome power shortage in Kurdistan Region of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Din Salar Salah Muhy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility of applying renewable energy strategies in Kurdistan Region of Iraq to overcome the shortage of electricity supply. Finding alternative renewable sources could overcome the problem. The renewable energy will reduce CO2 emission in the cities which considers the main source of pollution. That will participate in reducing the effect of global warming. The study tries to investigate the direct solar renewable energy through two of the main renewable energy categories to produce electricity based on a survey of literature review. Photovoltaic and wind power technologies are possible to be conducted in the region to overcome power shortage.

  6. Utah’s oldest show the most concern for future water shortages

    OpenAIRE

    Baji, Viviane

    2016-01-01

    Utah is set to double in population by 2050. It is unclear whether current water supplies will be able to accommodate the needs of the future growth. Young people will be in their prime when water shortage predictions come to fruition, so it is important to know how concerned they are about the water issues that will affect them. An understanding of the relationship between age and water shortage concern may also contribute to the development of social science theories relating age and enviro...

  7. Order Level Inventory Models for Deteriorating Seasonable/Fashionable Products with Time Dependent Demand and Shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Skouri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An order level inventory model for seasonable/fashionable products subject to a period of increasing demand followed by a period of level demand and then by a period of decreasing demand rate (three branches ramp type demand rate is considered. The unsatisfied demand is partially backlogged with a time dependent backlogging rate. In addition, the product deteriorates with a time dependent, namely, Weibull, deterioration rate. The model is studied under the following different replenishment policies: (a starting with no shortages and (b starting with shortages. The optimal replenishment policy for the model is derived for both the above mentioned policies.

  8. Persistent luminescence nanothermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Rodríguez, Emma; López-Peña, Gabriel; Montes, Eduardo; Lifante, Ginés; García Solé, José; Jaque, Daniel; Diaz-Torres, Luis Armando; Salas, Pedro

    2017-08-01

    Persistent phosphorescence nanoparticles emitting in the red and near-infrared spectral regions are strongly demanded as contrast nanoprobes for autofluorescence free bioimaging and biosensing. In this work, we have developed Sr4Al14O25:Eu2+, Cr3+, Nd3+ nanopowders that produce persistent red phosphorescence peaking at 694 nm generated by Cr3+ ions. This emission displays temperature sensitivity in the physiological temperature range (20-60 °C), which makes these nanoparticles potentially useful as fluorescence (contactless) nanothermometers operating without requiring optical excitation. Nd3+ ions, which act as shallow electron traps for the red Cr3+ persistent emission, also display infrared emission bands, extending the fluorescence imaging capability to the second biological window. This unique combination of properties makes these nanoparticles multifunctional luminescent probes with great potential applications in nanomedicine.

  9. The Policy Implications of a Regional Case Study: Skills Shortages and Provision in the Welsh Automotive and Electronics Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrill, Antje

    2002-01-01

    Responses from 22 automotive/electronics small businesses in Wales were compared with a 1996 survey. Results show that government initiatives such as Modern Apprenticeships had limited impact on small businesses. Barriers to training such as time, cost, and motivation also appeared, suggesting that mere availability of training programs does not…

  10. Persistent genital arousal disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eibye, Simone; Jensen, Hans Mørch

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a woman suffering from persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) after paroxetine cessation. She was admitted to a psychiatric department and diagnosed with agitated depression. Physical investigation showed no gynaecological or neurological explanation; however, a pelvic MRI...

  11. Persistent organic pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dungen, van den M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Wild caught fish, especially marine fish, can contain high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). In the Netherlands, especially eel from the main rivers have high POP levels. This led to a ban in 2011 on eel fishing due to health concerns. Many of the marine POPs have been related to

  12. Contributions to Persistence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Dong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Persistence theory discussed in this paper is an application of algebraic topology (Morse Theory [29] to Data Analysis, precisely to qualitative understanding of point cloud data, or PCD for short. PCD can be geometrized as a filtration of simplicial complexes (Vietoris-Rips complex [25] [36] and the homology changes of these complexes provide qualitative information about the data. Bar codes describe the changes in homology with coefficients in a fixed field. When the coefficient field is ℤ2, the calculation of bar codes is done by ELZ algorithm (named after H. Edelsbrunner, D. Letscher, and A. Zomorodian [20]. When the coefficient field is ℝ, we propose an algorithm based on the Hodge decomposition [17]. With Dan Burghelea and Tamal K. Dey we developed a persistence theory which involves level sets discussed in Section 4. We introduce and discuss new computable invariants, the “relevant level persistence numbers” and the “positive and negative bar codes”, and explain how they are related to the bar codes for level persistence. We provide enhancements and modifications of ELZ algorithm to calculate such invariants and illustrate them by examples.

  13. Is corruption really persistent?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldadyo, H.; de Haan, J.

    Theoretical and empirical research on corruption generally concludes that corruption is persistent. However, using International Country Risk Guide data for the period 1984-2008 for 101 countries, we find strong evidence that corruption changes over time. In the present study, corruption levels of

  14. Scarce skills expatriates in South African universities: Rhetoric and realities of the “Messianic” academics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokoko Sebola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the reason for the continued scarce skills shortage, despite the recruitment of expatriates in academic institutions as an intervention measure. It argues that while the Human Resources Departments in South African universities motivate for the appointment of expatriates in the development of scarce skills, little monitoring is done to determine the effectiveness of this objective and, often, no performance instrument exists for such personnel. As such, the scarce skills to be developed continue to be wanting in the country. This article is conceptual and uses literature to argue about the hypothetical relation between the lack of a monitoring tool for expatriates and the continued scarce skills problems that universities cannot address. It concludes that the continued lack of a performance-monitoring instrument in South African universities for contracted expatriates will not solve the skills shortage problem experienced in South Africa.

  15. China's large-scale power shortages of 2004 and 2011 after the electricity market reforms of 2002: Explanations and differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming, Zeng; Song, Xue; Lingyun, Li; Yuejin, Wang; Yang, Wei; Ying, Li

    2013-01-01

    Since the electricity market reforms of 2002, two large-scale power shortages, one occurring in 2004 and one in 2011, exerted a tremendous impact on the economic development of China and also gave rise to a fierce discussion regarding electricity system reforms. In this paper, the background and the influence scale of the two power shortages are described. Second, reasons for these two large-scale power shortages are analyzed from the perspectives of power generation, power consumption and coordination of power sources and grid network construction investments. Characteristics of these two large-scale power shortages are then summarized by comparatively analyzing the performance and the formation of the reasons behind these two large-scale power shortages. Finally, some effective measures that take into account the current status of electricity market reforms in China are suggested. This paper concludes that to eliminate power shortages in China, both the supply and the demand should be considered, and these considerations should be accompanied by supervisory policies and incentive mechanisms. - Highlights: • Reasons of these two large-scale power shortages are analyzed. • Characteristics of these two large-scale power shortages are summarized. • Some effective measures to eliminate power shortage are suggested

  16. 76 FR 5131 - Solicitation of Nomination of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... Science; National Institute of Food and Agriculture; U.S. Department of Agriculture; STOP 2220; 1400... and State Allocation Method 4. State Allocation of Nominations 5. FY 2011 Shortage Situation..., Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1997 (NARETPA). This law established a new Veterinary Medicine Loan...

  17. Exploring Future Water Shortage for Large River Basins under Different Water Allocation Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Dan; Yao, Mingtian; Ludwig, Fulco; Kabat, Pavel; Huang, He Qing; Hutjes, Ronald W.A.; Werners, Saskia E.

    2018-01-01

    Climate change and socio-economic development increase variations in water availability and water use in the Pearl River Basin (PRB), China. This can potentially result in conflicts over water resources between water users, and cause water shortage in the dry season. To assess and manage water

  18. The Congruence of Vocational Interests and the Workplace Environment: Reducing the Language Teacher Shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    There is a shortage of second/foreign language (S/FL) teachers in many parts of the world, and the rates of attrition are cause for alarm in North America. Canadian and US teachers' (N = 323) were administered the Self-Directed Search vocational interest inventory and the Coping in Stressful Situations scale. Results from this quantitative study…

  19. 76 FR 45268 - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to Addressing Drug Shortage; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ...] Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to Addressing Drug Shortage; Public Workshop AGENCY... Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop regarding the approach of the Center for Drug Evaluation and..., and to gain additional insight from, professional societies, patient advocates, industry, consumer...

  20. The strategic relevance of manufacturing technology: An overall quality concept to promote innovation preventing drug shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzitta, Michele; Ponti, Mauro; Bruno, Giorgio; Cois, Giancarlo; D'Arpino, Alessandro; Minghetti, Paola; Mendicino, Francesca Romana; Perioli, Luana; Ricci, Maurizio

    2017-01-10

    Manufacturing is the bridge between research and patient: without product, there is no clinical outcome. Shortage has a variety of causes, in this paper we analyse only causes related to manufacturing technology and we use shortage as a paradigm highliting the relevance of Pharmaceutical Technology. Product and process complexity and capacity issues are the main challenge for the Pharmaceutical Industry Supply chain. Manufacturing Technology should be acknowledged as a R&D step and as a very important matter during University degree in Pharmacy and related disciplines, promoting collaboration between Academia and Industry, measured during HTA step and rewarded in terms of price and reimbursement. The above elements are not yet properly recognised, and manufacturing technology is taken in to consideration only when a shortage is in place. In a previous work, Panzitta et al. proposed to perform a full technology assessment at the Health Technological Assessment stage, evaluating three main technical aspects of a medicine: manufacturing process, physicochemical properties, and formulation characteristics. In this paper, we develop the concept of manufacturing appraisal, providing a technical overview of upcoming challenges, a risk based approach and an economic picture of shortage costs. We develop also an overall quality concept, not limited to GMP factors but broaden to all elements leading to a robust supply and promoting technical innovation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Morale, Participation and Shortage in White-Majority and White-Minority Schools: Principals' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.; Fuller Hamilton, Asia N.

    2017-01-01

    Prior research has shown that teacher-centred factors such as teacher participation in decision making, teacher morale, and shortage of teaching staff, can affect school performance. In this study we examined how these factors differ between White-majority and White-minority schools both before and after controlling for school characteristics such…

  2. Effects of Staff Participation, Morale, and Shortage on Organisational Performance: An International Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.; Asrar-ul-Haq, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Prior research has suggested that staff-centred organisational factors such as participation, morale and shortage can have a significant effect on organisational outcomes. However, relatively little attention has been paid to cross-country examination of these relationships specifically for educational organisations such as schools, colleges, and…

  3. 41 CFR 101-26.307 - Processing overages, shortages, and damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... United States, when other than GSA or DOD pays the transportation charges. (b) Reporting discrepancies or..., shortages, and damages. (a) Transportation-type discrepancies shall be processed in accordance with the instructions in subpart 101-40.7 when the discrepancies are the fault of the carrier and occur while the...

  4. Shortage of uranium already in the 1980's: expand Ranstad at once

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, G

    1975-11-14

    The extraction of uranium at Ranstad must be increased and the construction of thermal nuclear power stations limited until enough breeder reactors are available. A shortage of uranium is expected for the 1980's. Deposits of uranium ore in various countries are tabulated and their yields and cost of extraction stated.

  5. Applying the International Medical Graduate Program Model to Alleviate the Supply Shortage of Accounting Doctoral Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    HassabElnaby, Hassan R.; Dobrzykowski, David D.; Tran, Oanh Thikie

    2012-01-01

    Accounting has been faced with a severe shortage in the supply of qualified doctoral faculty. Drawing upon the international mobility of foreign scholars and the spirit of the international medical graduate program, this article suggests a model to fill the demand in accounting doctoral faculty. The underlying assumption of the suggested model is…

  6. Forecasting the shortage of neurosurgeons in Iran using a system dynamics model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Rafiei

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Shortage of neurosurgeons in some areas of the country relates to maldistribution of the specialists. Accordingly, there is a need to reconsider the allocation system for health professionals within the country instead of increasing the overall number of acceptance quota in training positions.

  7. 78 FR 23742 - Nomination Form of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Institute of Food and Agriculture Nomination Form of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) AGENCY: National Institute... information collection for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP). This notice initiates a 30...

  8. Stakeholders' Perceptions on Shortage of Healthcare Workers in Primary Healthcare in Botswana: Focus Group Discussions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oathokwa Nkomazana

    Full Text Available An adequate health workforce force is central to universal health coverage and positive public health outcomes. However many African countries have critical shortages of healthcare workers, which are worse in primary healthcare. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of healthcare workers, policy makers and the community on the shortage of healthcare workers in Botswana.Fifteen focus group discussions were conducted with three groups of policy makers, six groups of healthcare workers and six groups of community members in rural, urban and remote rural health districts of Botswana. All the participants were 18 years and older. Recruitment was purposive and the framework method was used to inductively analyse the data.There was a perceived shortage of healthcare workers in primary healthcare, which was believed to result from an increased need for health services, inequitable distribution of healthcare workers, migration and too few such workers being trained. Migration was mainly the result of unfavourable personal and family factors, weak and ineffective healthcare and human resources management, low salaries and inadequate incentives for rural and remote area service.Botswana has a perceived shortage of healthcare workers, which is worse in primary healthcare and rural areas, as a result of multiple complex factors. To address the scarcity the country should train adequate numbers of healthcare workers and distribute them equitably to sufficiently resourced healthcare facilities. They should be competently managed and adequately remunerated and the living conditions and rural infrastructure should also be improved.

  9. The Nursing Shortage Impact on Job Outcome (The Case in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Shammika Senani Mudihanselage Hellerawa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The nursing shortage is a common problem throughout the world. Nurses form the largest proportion of the healthcare system and play a significant role in providing direct patient care. Considering the importance of the role of nurses in the healthcare system, it is important to investigate how nursing shortage effects the quality of patient care, nurses’ job satisfaction and their work stress. A study was conducted to investigate the correlation between these at the Polonnaruwa District General Hospital in Sri Lanka with a random sample of nurses working in the hospital and using a self-administered questionnaire. This study uses an explanatory research design. The statistical analysis confirmed a positive relationship between nurse shortage and workload. It also shows a significant positive relationship between workload and the quality of patient care. Furthermore, a negative relationship was observed between workload and the quality of patient care. In addition, this study calculates the mean effect of emotional intelligence of these factors, and a significant correlation is found between emotional intelligence and workload as well as work stress. There is a firm evidence that in Sri Lanka, nursing shortage influences the workload of the employee, finally affecting the quality of patient care. In addition, the study recognized the capability of nurses to manage their emotions as well as emotions of others, which has increased their tolerance to control psychological stress in performing their duty. This study confirms that nurse’s emotional intelligence act as a partial oderating variable for job outcomes of nurses.

  10. Responding to teacher shortages : Relationships among mobility experiences, attitudes, and intentions of Dutch teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geffen, R.E.; Poell, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    From all over the world there have been calls from governmental institutions to address a shortage of high quality teachers. As changing jobs generates new experiences, job mobility could be a way for teachers to adhere to the government’s call to develop themselves into the teaching force needed.

  11. Responding to teacher shortages: relationships among mobility experiences, attitudes, and intentions of Dutch teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geffen, R.E.; Poell, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    From all over the world there have been calls from governmental institutions to address a shortage of high quality teachers. As changing jobs generates new experiences, job mobility could be a way for teachers to adhere to the government’s call to develop themselves into the teaching force needed.

  12. [Application of the xenogenic acellular dermal matrix membrane application used in the postoperative tissue shortage repair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yanxia; Yan, Liying; Zhang, Shaoqiang; Shao, Yuan; Yao, Xiaobao; Li, Honghui; Zhao, Ruimin; Zhao, Qian; Zhang, Pengfei; Yang, Qi

    2014-09-01

    To observe the short-term and long-term curative effect of the xenogenic acellular dermal matrix membrane (or joint muscle flap transfer) application used in the 82 cases postoperative tissue shortage repair that after the head neck carcinoma resection. To held the 82 cases head neck carcinoma postoperative mucosa shortage repaired after resection by the xenogenic acellular dermal matrix membrane (or joint muscle flap transfer), 65 cases mucosa shortage wound be directly covered by the repair membrane and the other 17 cases mucosa shortage wound be repaired by the tranfered muscle tissue flap with the repair membrane covered; 53 cases underwent additional postoperative radiotherapy between 2-4 weeks and follow-up in 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 48, 60 months and observed the operation site repair process through the electronic laryngoscope, observed the patients respiration, swallow, phonation function. Seventy-seven cases patients operation incision reached I phase healing standard, another 5 cases patients operation incision reached II phase healing standard because of the wound infection and fully-recovered through the local wound drainage,dressing process. All the patients tracheal cannula,the stomach tube be extubated successfully and without the local cicatricial constriction occurred. Seventy-eight cases follow up period reached 1 year including 53 cases who underwent postoperative radiotherapy, 49 cases follow up period reached 3 years including 32 cases who underwent postoperative radiotherapy, 14 cases follow up period reached 5 years including 12 cases who underwent postoperative radiotherapy. The patients with static local lesions discovered no reaction such as exclusion, allergy. The application of xenogenic acellular dermal matrix membrane (or joint muscle flap transfer used in in the postoperative tissue shortage repair that after the head neck carcinoma resection have several advantage such as comparatively easily implementation, operation safety

  13. New Jersey's natural gas shortage: a policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecil, J.L.; Morell, D.

    1976-12-01

    The public policy problems associated with New Jersey's natural gas shortage are extremely complex and rather difficult to examine. They involve a blend of technology, politics and economics; of regulatory mandates and profit-motivated initiatives; of Federal and state interaction and conflict. To understand the state's gas shortage and to lay the basis for recommending measures to deal with it, information about the basic technology, the organization of the gas industry, the national regulatory posture, and the possible causes of the gas shortage encompasses Part I of the overall study. In Part II, the analysis turns from the national level to a direct examination of New Jersey's gas situation. In Part III, Chapter VIII, the following are considered: the state's supply of natural gas, distribution of these supply volumes within New Jersey by the four major gas utilities, and gas consumption patterns within the state as a whole and then for each major consuming sector (electric utility, industrial, commercial, and residential). This chapter concludes with an analysis of the impacts of the gas shortage to date in New Jersey, and of its probable effects in the near-term. In the final chapter, some tentative conclusions and broad suggestions are advanced for public policies to mitigate the gravity of the state's position with respect to natural gas. Analysis proceeds, in turn, through consideration of possible state actions in several areas: increasing total interstate gas supplies; increasing New Jersey's share of whatever national total exists; making greater (or more effective) use of alternate fuels; and moderating demand for gas through aggressive conservation policies. Some short-term measures to cope better with whatever level of gas shortage exists in the state at any particular time are suggested. 151 references. (MCW)

  14. Civil Society and Residents’ Coping Strategies with Water Shortages and Household Food Insecurity in Gweru, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winmore Kusena

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Domestic water shortages are distressing many urban areas in developing countries and require well planned and sustainable coping strategies in order to bequeath citizens decent lives. The objectives of this paper were to identify water related civil society groups present in Gweru; reveal devised coping strategies to combat water shortages and household food insecurity; and challenges faced by civil society and residents in obtaining sustainable coping strategies. A survey was conducted through interviews, questionnaires and observations as data collection instruments. The findings show that residents relied on borehole drilled in their respective areas by the municipality, Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs and through individual initiatives. Although public boreholes were available, they were found at an average of only two in a given residential area, regardless of its population. Residents also collected water in containers during late hours of the night or early hours of the day. Gweru residents in addition devised strategies to cope with household food insecurity caused by water shortages and high monthly water bills. Combined with the aforementioned water shortage coping strategies, the stratagem by residents included coming up with payment plans, denying city personnel access into their premises for water disconnection; and self-reconnection in the event of disconnection. Community gardens initiated by Non-Governmental Organisations and food imports from neighbouring countries were some of the adaptive mechanisms dealing with household food insecurity. However, despite resolute efforts by civil society and residents to muddle through water supply and food security challenges, the city needs financial aid to enhance service provision that does not solely relying on residents. Financial injection and investment in sustainable alternative water sources for the city’s multiple uses will go a long way in solving the water shortages and

  15. Persistent Hiccups Following Stapedectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidonis I

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We report a case of a 37 year-old man who developed persistent hiccups after elective stapedectomy. Method and Results: The diagnostic approach is discussed as well as the non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic treatments and overall management. The aim is to stress that there is a variety of potential factors that can induce hiccups perioperatively and in cases like this a step by step approach must be taken. Conclusion: Persistent hiccups are very rare following stapedectomy, control of them is crucial for the successful outcome. The trigger may be more than one factors and the good response to treatment may be due to dealing successfully with more than one thing.

  16. Persistent facial pain conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forssell, Heli; Alstergren, Per; Bakke, Merete

    2016-01-01

    Persistent facial pains, especially temporomandibular disorders (TMD), are common conditions. As dentists are responsible for the treatment of most of these disorders, up-to date knowledge on the latest advances in the field is essential for successful diagnosis and management. The review covers...... TMD, and different neuropathic or putative neuropathic facial pains such as persistent idiopathic facial pain and atypical odontalgia, trigeminal neuralgia and painful posttraumatic trigeminal neuropathy. The article presents an overview of TMD pain as a biopsychosocial condition, its prevalence......, clinical features, consequences, central and peripheral mechanisms, diagnostic criteria (DC/TMD), and principles of management. For each of the neuropathic facial pain entities, the definitions, prevalence, clinical features, and diagnostics are described. The current understanding of the pathophysiology...

  17. Persistent Model #2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Tensegrity structures and Inflatable membranes can be considered analogous. They can both be described as pressure based systems in which a coherent envelope is tensioned through compressive force in order to achieve a state of self-equilibrium. Persistent Model #2 is a full-scale speculative pro...... Modelling and a sustained critical investigation of the roles digital tools can play in extending the ways in which we think, design, realise and experience architecture....

  18. Intergenerational Top Income Persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Bonke, Jens; Hussain, M. Azhar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate intergenerational top earnings and top income mobility in Denmark. Access to administrative registers allowed us to look at very small fractions of the population. We find that intergenerational mobility is lower in the top when including capital income in the income...... measure— for the rich top 0.1% fathers and sons the elasticity is 0.466. Compared with Sweden, however, the intergenerational top income persistence is about half the size in Denmark....

  19. Numeric invariants from multidimensional persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skryzalin, Jacek [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carlsson, Gunnar [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)

    2017-05-19

    In this paper, we analyze the space of multidimensional persistence modules from the perspectives of algebraic geometry. We first build a moduli space of a certain subclass of easily analyzed multidimensional persistence modules, which we construct specifically to capture much of the information which can be gained by using multidimensional persistence over one-dimensional persistence. We argue that the global sections of this space provide interesting numeric invariants when evaluated against our subclass of multidimensional persistence modules. Lastly, we extend these global sections to the space of all multidimensional persistence modules and discuss how the resulting numeric invariants might be used to study data.

  20. Organ donor shortage in the Netherlands; Definition of the potential donor pool and the role of family refusal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frazer-Jansen, N.E.

    2012-01-01

    The shortage of post-mortem organ donors in the Netherlands is a prominent problem for patients on the waiting list for organ transplantation. As long as there is a shortage of suitable organs for transplantation, the need to identify bottlenecks in the organ donation process is crucial to further

  1. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Veterinary Professional(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Veterinary Professional(s) G Appendix G to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Pt. 5, App. G Appendix G to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Veterinary Professional(s) Part I—Geographic Areas A. Criteria for Food Animal Veterinary Shortage. A geographic area will...

  2. Analysing monthly sectorial water use and its influence on salt intrusion induced water shortage in urbanized deltas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Mingtian; Yan, Dan; Kabat, Pavel; Huang, Heqing; Hutjes, Ronald W.A.; Werners, Saskia E.

    2016-01-01

    Urbanizing delta regions face seasonal water shortages induced by rising salt intrusion. Decreasing river discharge is readily listed as the major cause of water shortage events. Yet, observations of river discharge often fail to support this attribution. Evidence of the association between

  3. Water shortage risk assessment considering large-scale regional transfers: a copula-based uncertainty case study in Lunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xueping; Liu, Yinzhu; Sun, Bowen

    2018-06-05

    The risk of water shortage caused by uncertainties, such as frequent drought, varied precipitation, multiple water resources, and different water demands, brings new challenges to the water transfer projects. Uncertainties exist for transferring water and local surface water; therefore, the relationship between them should be thoroughly studied to prevent water shortage. For more effective water management, an uncertainty-based water shortage risk assessment model (UWSRAM) is developed to study the combined effect of multiple water resources and analyze the shortage degree under uncertainty. The UWSRAM combines copula-based Monte Carlo stochastic simulation and the chance-constrained programming-stochastic multiobjective optimization model, using the Lunan water-receiving area in China as an example. Statistical copula functions are employed to estimate the joint probability of available transferring water and local surface water and sampling from the multivariate probability distribution, which are used as inputs for the optimization model. The approach reveals the distribution of water shortage and is able to emphasize the importance of improving and updating transferring water and local surface water management, and examine their combined influence on water shortage risk assessment. The possible available water and shortages can be calculated applying the UWSRAM, also with the corresponding allocation measures under different water availability levels and violating probabilities. The UWSRAM is valuable for mastering the overall multi-water resource and water shortage degree, adapting to the uncertainty surrounding water resources, establishing effective water resource planning policies for managers and achieving sustainable development.

  4. A review of strategies to address the shortage of science and mathematics educators in grades 10-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magano, Florence Lesedi

    the problem of Mathematics and Science teacher shortage in Grades 10 to 12, their success, challenges and factors internal to the Department of Education that may deter Provincial Education Departments from achieving their objectives. The findings revealed that Provincial Education Departments (PEDs) do take heed of strategies developed by the national Department of Basic Education (DBE). However implementation is far removed from the original intention and no significant impact results. Although the reasons are not always obvious from this study, a few important aspects did emerge. First, the strategy developed may not be popular with a particular province - employing foreign teachers is a case in point. Secondly, focusing on just a number of schools to improve their results (e.g. as with the Dinaledi schools) may meet with resistance from educators and teachers unions. Thirdly, creating bursaries for initial teacher education in certain key areas can only be successful if the number of teachers in need is known. Finally, even the best strategies are doomed if post provisioning and appointment of staff are dealt with by different stakeholders. Based on the findings, it is recommended that both the DBE and PEDs ensure that quality education management information is collected and maintained. Information that is reliable and accurate will inform planning and key decisions to ensure that the supply of teachers is based on a specific need. As such, deficiencies in skills that are in short supply such as Science and Mathematics can be averted and better opportunities can be created for new teacher graduates. While an improved performance of learners in these subjects is requisite for related study fields at universities, the Dinaledi schools must be adequately supported and such a model applied to other schools. The employment of foreign teachers on short-term contracts does not create stability in schools, therefore, their employment must be standardised. (Abstract

  5. Planning ahead : although Canada could experience a shortage of some 300,000 workers within the next 20 years, long-term strategies can help companies cope : part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D.

    2006-12-15

    This article is the first in a 2-part series examining the current labour shortage in the energy industry. Factors that are expected to exacerbate the shortage were reviewed, as well as some of the steps that the petroleum industry is now taking to manage labour challenges in the future. A critical talent crisis is expected to occur in the next 5 to 10 years as baby boomers plan to retire, and fewer graduates are expected to enter the marketplace. While some organizations have responded to shortages by merely offering high salaries to employees, many oil and gas companies are now looking to develop the skills and capabilities of employees in order to retain them. In addition, employers are attempting to strengthen social networks within their organizations by providing coaching and mentoring programs. A recent report published by the Conference Board of Canada has suggested that the oil and gas industry can improve manpower shortages by improving training programs; attracting more immigrants; and creating better mechanisms for recognizing foreign credentials and prior learning assessments. Many organizations are successfully using internal referral programs to hire employees with the appropriate skill levels. Petro-Canada is now using electronic recruiting methods to draw upon a wider resource pool and is currently building relationships with key post-secondary institutions as well as providing programs to give educational awards to students. Devon Canada has recently implemented an employee referral program and has also focused on improving conditions at its Jackfish steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) project at Fort McMurray by hiring certified chefs, installing satellite televisions and providing top-notch recreation facilities. 2 figs.

  6. Inflation persistence and flexible prices

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Dittmar; William T. Gavin; Finn E. Kydland

    2004-01-01

    If the central bank follows an interest rate rule, then inflation is likely to be persistence, even when prices are fully flexible. Any shock, whether persistent or not, may lead to inflation persistence. In equilibrium, the dynamics of inflation are determined by the evolution of the spread between the real interest rate and the central bank’s target. Inflation persistence in U.S. data can be characterized by a vector autocorrelation function relating inflation and deviations of output from ...

  7. Forecasting Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    for the third and fourth day precipitation forecasts. A marked improvement was shown for the consensus 24 hour precipitation forecast, and small... Zuckerberg (1980) found a small long term skill increase in forecasts of heavy snow events for nine eastern cities. Other National Weather Service...and maximum temperature) are each awarded marks 2, 1, or 0 according to whether the forecast is correct, 8 - *- -**■*- ———"—- - -■ t0m 1 MM—IB I

  8. Who will educate our nurses? A strategy to address the nurse faculty shortage in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerolamo, Angela M; Overcash, Amy; McGovern, Jennifer; Roemer, Grace; Bakewell-Sachs, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The nurse faculty shortage hampers the capacity of the nursing workforce to respond to the demands of the evolving health care system. As a strategy to address the shortage in New Jersey, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation implemented the New Jersey Nursing Initiative Faculty Preparation Program to prepare nurses for the faculty role. This article highlights program implementation successes and challenges, scholar and faculty perceptions of the program, and provides recommendations for others interested in preparing nurse faculty. This evaluation uses data from scholar surveys and focus groups, interviews with grantees, and grantee reports. Findings suggest that a program that includes generous monetary support, socialization to the nurse faculty role, and formal education courses produces graduates who readily assume a faculty position and are committed to at least a part-time career in nursing education. This evaluation emphasizes the need to carefully design programs that integrate faculty preparation and advanced clinical training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Exacerbating Staff Shortages and Student Dissatisfaction? The Impact of AACSB Accreditation on Faculty Recruitment in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Lightbody

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Australian accounting schools are widely perceived to be experiencing a staffing shortage. Many accountingschools are now seeking AACSB accreditation. There has been no consideration in the accounting literatureof how such accreditation might impact on the future ability of accounting schools to attract the ex-practiceaccountants that have traditionally comprised the majority of their faculty recruits. To examine suchimplications, this paper presents an interpretive case study of an Australian business school which is in theprocess of applying for AACSB accreditation. The paper argues that an implication of the increasinglyinflexible work environment driven by AACSB accreditation may be that academia becomes a less attractiveworkplace for ex-practitioner faculty. This may further exacerbate existing academic staff shortages andreduce diversity and professional knowledge within accounting schools, with consequent implications forteaching, student engagement, and industry engagement. This in turn may have long term ramifications forthe ability of the universities to attract students and thus earn the tuition fees on which they currently rely.

  10. Inventory Model for Deteriorating Items Involving Fuzzy with Shortages and Exponential Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Vijai Stanly

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the fuzzy inventory model for deteriorating items for power demand under fully backlogged conditions. We define various factors which are affecting the inventory cost by using the shortage costs. An intention of this paper is to study the inventory modelling through fuzzy environment. Inventory parameters, such as holding cost, shortage cost, purchasing cost and deterioration cost are assumed to be the trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. In addition, an efficient algorithm is developed to determine the optimal policy, and the computational effort and time are small for the proposed algorithm. It is simple to implement, and our approach is illustrated through some numerical examples to demonstrate the application and the performance of the proposed methodology.

  11. Dealing with labor shortages in long-term care: a marketing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S T

    1990-01-01

    A recent analysis of data from the Bureau of Labor statistics raise serious implications for the long-term care industry. The human resource problems faced by managers in long-term care will escalate into a fullblown crisis by the end of this century. This will result from a decrease in the number of young workers available to work in unskilled and semiskilled occupations. The effect of this shortage will be exaggerated by an expansion of other sectors of the service industry. Long-term care facilities will be forced to compete with the fast food and retail industry as well as other sectors of the health industry for scarce workers. This article briefly examines the causes, consequences of this problem and suggests several strategies to mitigate the effect of the coming labor shortage.

  12. International cooperation and shortage of doctors: an analysis of the interaction between Brazil, Angola and Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Sandra Mara Campos; Oliveira, Felipe Proenço de; Matos, Mateus Falcão Martins; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco; Delduque, Maria Celia

    2017-07-01

    The shortage of doctors, especially in remote areas, is a critical issue for the development of national health systems and has thus been the focus of a number of international cooperation projects. An exploratory and qualitative study was conducted to examine cooperation between Brazil, Angola and Cuba. A nonsystematic literature review was conducted of selected open access articles and official documents addressing relevant health cooperation initiatives. Previously selected characteristics of actions designed to redress the shortage of doctors were compared. It was concluded that the interactions between the three countries were fruitful and potentially beneficial for the health of the population of these countries. South-South cooperation between these countries showed positive results in the educational and regulatory dimensions and adopted a non-dependence perspective that seeks to strengthen endogenous capacity, which are important factors for evaluating the structural components of health systems.

  13. United States Registered Nurse Workforce Report Card and Shortage Forecast: A Revisit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Tai, Daniel; Pforsich, Hugh; Lin, Vernon W

    This is a reevaluation of registered nurse (RN) supply and demand from 2016 to 2030 using a previously published work forecast model and grading methodology with more recent workforce data. There will be a shortage of 154 018 RNs by 2020 and 510 394 RNs by 2030; the South and West regions will have higher shortage ratios than Northeast and Midwest regions. This reflects a nearly 50% overall improvement when compared with the authors' prior study, and the low-performing states have improved from 18 "D" and 12 "F" grades as published earlier to 13 "D" and 1 "F" in this study. Although progress has been made, efforts to foster the pipelines for improving the nursing workforce need to be continued.

  14. To favor survival under food shortage, the brain disables costly memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaçais, Pierre-Yves; Preat, Thomas

    2013-01-25

    The brain regulates energy homeostasis in the organism. Under resource shortage, the brain takes priority over peripheral organs for energy supply. But can the brain also down-regulate its own consumption to favor survival? We show that the brain of Drosophila specifically disables the costly formation of aversive long-term memory (LTM) upon starvation, a physiological state required for appetitive LTM formation. At the neural circuit level, the slow oscillations normally triggered in two pairs of dopaminergic neurons to enable aversive LTM formation were abolished in starved flies. Transient artificial activation of these neurons during training restored LTM formation in starved flies but at the price of a reduced survival. LTM formation is thus subject to adaptive plasticity that helps survival under food shortage.

  15. Reflections on Student Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Tinto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Feature for this issue Reflections on Student Persistence has been prepared by Professor Vincent Tinto, Distinguished University Professor Emeritus at Syracuse University, United States of America (USA and a longtime friend and supporter of STARS. Vincent explores the case for motivation to be considered as a significant aspect of the tertiary student psyche by drawing on theoretical frameworks, research and practical experiences related to the issue. He synthesises this extensive, detailed, rich but often somewhat impenetrable data into a trilogy of clear and credible key dimensions of the motivation construct student self efficacy, sense of belonging and perceived value of the curriculum. This interpretation of the literature is a personal but informed reflection and is a timely piece which highlights the breadth and profundity of the presentations at this year's conference in Adelaide, Australia where students in all their diversity are central to our focus on enhancing the student experience. In this opening article, Vincent refers directly to the STARS papers selected for this Conference issue of the Journal which also address the importance of student persistence, self-efficacy and building the sense of belonging within their own institutional communities (Fernandes, Ford, Rayner & Pretorius; Kahu, Nelson, & Picton; McFarlane, Spes-Skrbis & Taib; Naylor; Smallhorn. Echoing his position on social justice and his advocacy for underserved students, Vincent reminds us that educational equity gaps still exist, and he encourages us to see the issue of persistence through the eyes of the students to support their perseverance and completion and thereby help reduce educational disadvantage.

  16. Geometric representation of the mean-variance-skewness portfolio frontier based upon the shortage function

    OpenAIRE

    Kerstens, Kristiaan; Mounier, Amine; Van de Woestyne, Ignace

    2008-01-01

    The literature suggests that investors prefer portfolios based on mean, variance and skewness rather than portfolios based on mean-variance (MV) criteria solely. Furthermore, a small variety of methods have been proposed to determine mean-variance-skewness (MVS) optimal portfolios. Recently, the shortage function has been introduced as a measure of efficiency, allowing to characterize MVS optimalportfolios using non-parametric mathematical programming tools. While tracing the MV portfolio fro...

  17. The insurance of bulk oil cargoes and adjustment of shortage claims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavendale, R.

    1993-01-01

    Shortage claims discussed in this article include those due to a definite disaster such as a fire, those due to cargo contamination and storage, and those identified in documentation as occurring between loading and unloading. The principal types of cover are examined, and the distinction between gross and net quantities, claim documentation, the petroleum measurement tables, and guaranteed out turn cover are described in detail. (UK)

  18. Potential Ways to Address Shortage Situations of 99Mo/99mTc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filzen, Leah M; Ellingson, Lacey R; Paulsen, Andrew M; Hung, Joseph C

    2017-03-01

    99m Tc, the most common radioisotope used in nuclear medicine, is produced in a nuclear reactor from the decay of 99 Mo. There are only a few aging nuclear reactors around the world that produce 99 Mo, and one of the major contributors, the National Research Universal (Canada), ceased production on October 31, 2016. The National Research Universal produced approximately 40% of the world's 99 Mo supply, so with its shut down, shortages of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc are expected. Methods: Nuclear pharmacies and nuclear medicine departments throughout the United States were contacted and asked to provide their strategies for coping with a shortage of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc. Each of these strategies was evaluated on the basis of its effectiveness for conserving 99m Tc while still meeting the needs of the patients. Results: From the responses, the following 6 categories of strategies, in order of importance, were compiled: contractual agreements with commercial nuclear pharmacies, alternative imaging protocols, changes in imaging schedules, software use, generator management, and reduction of ordered doses or elimination of backup doses. Conclusion: The supply chain of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc is quite fragile; therefore, being aware of the most appropriate coping strategies is crucial. It is essential to build a strong collaboration between the nuclear pharmacy and nuclear medicine department during a shortage situation. With both nuclear medicine departments and nuclear pharmacies implementing viable strategies, such as the ones proposed, the amount of 99m Tc available during a shortage situation can be maximized. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  19. The shortage of medical workers in Sub-Saharan Africa and substitution policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgain, Arnaud; Pieretti, Patrice; Zou, Benteng

    2011-01-01

    Substitution policies are strategies sometimes chosen in Sub-Saharan Africa for curtailing the shortage of health professionals especially caused by the outflow of medical personnel. The aim of our contribution is to propose a way to assess the merits and drawbacks of substitution policies by developing a simple growth model of healthcare productivity with medical brain drain. Within this framework, we use a medical care production function of the CES type which aggregates low and high specia...

  20. The NNP/DNP shortage: transforming neonatal nurse practitioners into DNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, Jana L; Kenner, Carole A

    2009-01-01

    Neonatal nurse practitioners (NNPs) represent a high-demand specialty practice that is especially targeted for US secondary and tertiary care neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). NNPs make primary decisions about the caregiving of high-risk newborns at the time of admission, throughout hospitalization, at transfer, and at discharge that require an advanced knowledge base in neonatology as well as NICU clinical experience. NNPs prepared at the master's level are currently in very short supply, with some estimates suggesting that for each NNP who graduates, there are 80 positions open across the country. Even with the present shortage, due to the high cost of NNP education, NNP programs are diminishing and those that are remaining are not graduating a sufficient number of new NNPs each year to keep up with the demand. To add to the basic shortage problem, in 2004 the American Association of Colleges of Nursing decided that by 2015, the terminal degree for all nurse practitioners should move from the master's degree to the doctor of nursing practice (DNP) degree. That decision added a minimum of 12 months of full-time education to the advanced education requirements for nurse practitioners. What impact will the decision to require a DNP degree have on NNP specialty practice? Will even more NNP programs close because of faculty shortages of NNPs prepared at the DNP level? If a worse shortage occurs in the number of NNPs prepared to practice in NICUs, will physician assistants or other nonphysician clinicians who meet the need for advanced neonatal care providers replace NNPs? What steps, if any, can nursing take to ensure that NNP specialty practice is still needed and survives after supplementing the DNP requirement to NNP education?

  1. Persistent marine debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the distribution of persistent marine debris, adrift on world oceans and stranded on beaches globally, is reviewed and related to the known inputs and transport by the major surface currents. Since naturally occurring processes eventually degrade petroleum in the environment, international measures to reduce the inputs have been largely successful in alleviating oil pollution on a global, if not on a local, scale. Many plastics, however, are so resistant to natural degradation that merely controlling inputs will be insufficient, and more drastic and costly measures will be needed to cope with the emerging global problem posed by these materials

  2. Persistent postsurgical pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads Utke; Bischoff, Joakim Mutahi

    2014-01-01

    The prevalences of severe persistent postsurgical pain (PPP) following breast cancer surgery (BCS), groin hernia repair (GHR), and lung cancer surgery (LCS) are 13, 2, and 4-12 %, respectively. Estimates indicate that 80,000 patients each year in the U.S.A. are affected by severe pain...... duration of surgery, repeat surgery, more invasive surgical techniques, and intraoperative nerve lesion have been associated with PPP. One of the most consistent predictive factors for PPP is high intensity acute postsurgical pain, but also psychological factors including anxiety, catastrophizing trait...

  3. Term Structure Persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Abbritti, M. (Mirko); Gil-Alana, L.A. (Luis A.); Lovcha, Y. (Yuliya); Moreno, A. (Antonio)

    2012-01-01

    Stationary I(0) models employed in yield curve analysis typically imply an unrealistically low degree of volatility in long-run short-rate expectations due to fast mean reversion. In this paper we propose a novel multivariate affine term structure model with a two-fold source of persistence in the yield curve: Long-memory and short-memory. Our model, based on an I(d) specification, nests the I(0) and I(1) models as special cases and the I(0) model is decisively rejected by the data. Our model...

  4. Persistence of Salmonid Redds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, J. M.; Buxton, T.; Fremier, A. K.; Hassan, M. A.; Yager, E.

    2013-12-01

    The construction of redds by spawning salmonids modifies fluvial processes in ways that are beneficial to egg and embryo survival. Redd topography induces hyporheic flow that oxygenates embryos incubating within the streambed and creates form drag that reduces bed mobility and scour of salmonid eggs. Winnowing of fine material during redd construction also coarsens the streambed, increasing bed porosity and hyporheic flow and reducing bed mobility. In addition to the biological benefits, redds may influence channel morphology by altering channel hydraulics and bed load transport rates depending on the size and extent of redds relative to the size of the channel. A key question is how long do the physical and biological effects of redds last? Field observations indicate that in some basins redds are ephemeral, with redd topography rapidly erased by subsequent floods, while in other basins, redds can persist for years. We hypothesize that redd persistence is a function of basin hydrology, sediment supply, and characteristics of the spawning fish. Hydrology controls the frequency and magnitude of bed mobilizing flows following spawning, while bed load supply (volume and caliber) controls the degree of textural fining and consequent bed mobility after spawning, as well as the potential for burial of redd features. The effectiveness of flows in terms of their magnitude and duration depend on hydroclimate (i.e., snowmelt, rainfall, or transitional hydrographs), while bed load supply depends on basin geology, land use, and natural disturbance regimes (e.g., wildfire). Location within the stream network may also influence redd persistence. In particular, lakes effectively trap sediment and regulate downstream flow, which may promote long-lived redds in stream reaches below lakes. These geomorphic controls are modulated by biological factors: fish species (size of fish controls size of redds and magnitude of streambed coarsening); life history (timing of spawning and

  5. Forecasting the shortage of neurosurgeons in Iran using a system dynamics model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei, Sima; Daneshvaran, Arman; Abdollahzade, Sina

    2018-01-01

    Shortage of physicians particularly in specialty levels is considered as an important issue in Iran health system. Thus, in an uncertain environment, long-term planning is required for health professionals as a basic priority on a national scale. This study aimed to estimate the number of required neurosurgeons using system dynamic modeling. System dynamic modeling was applied to predict the gap between stock and number of required neurosurgeons in Iran up to 2020. A supply and demand simulation model was constructed for neurosurgeons using system dynamic approach. The demand model included epidemiological, demographic, and utilization variables along with supply model-incorporated current stock of neurosurgeons and flow variables such as attrition, migration, and retirement rate. Data were obtained from various governmental databases and were analyzed by Vensim PLE Version 3.0 to address the flow of health professionals, clinical infrastructure, population demographics, and disease prevalence during the time. It was forecasted that shortage in number of neurosurgeons would disappear at 2020. The most dominant determinants on predicted number of neurosurgeons were the prevalence of neurosurgical diseases, the rate for service utilization, and medical capacity of the region. Shortage of neurosurgeons in some areas of the country relates to maldistribution of the specialists. Accordingly, there is a need to reconsider the allocation system for health professionals within the country instead of increasing the overall number of acceptance quota in training positions.

  6. Causes of shortage and delay in material supply: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Yap, Y. H.; Ramli, N. R.; Dullah, M. A.; Shamsuddin, M. S. W.

    2017-11-01

    Shortage and delay in materials supply is argued to be one of the most important factors that lead to delay in construction project delivery globally. However, the relevant underlying reasons vary from country to country. As such, this paper summarises the outcomes of a study that targeted identifying causes of shortage and delay in materials supply in Brunei Darussalam. The study was conducted through fifteen semi-structured interviews of contractors and materials suppliers in Brunei. The study identified six causes of shortageof materials and nine causes of delay in materials supply in Brunei. The most importantcausefor shortage of materials relates to the origin or availability of construction materials. On the other hand, the most influential cause of delay in material supply was found to be poor materials procurement and inventory management system, which has other underlying reasons such as late identification of the type of materials needed. The observations are expected to help in formulating or reviewing relevant policies, in order to ensure on-time project delivery.

  7. A New Way for Incorporating GCM Information into Water Shortage Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Beom Seo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change information is essential for water resources management planning, and the majority of research available uses the global circulation model (GCM data to project future water balance. Despite the fact that the results of various GCMs are still heterogeneous, it is common to utilize GCM values directly in climate change impact assessment models. To mitigate these limitations, this study provides an alternative methodology, which uses GCM-based data to assign weights on historical scenarios rather than to directly input their values into the assessment models, thereby reducing the uncertainty involved in the direct use of GCMs. Therefore, the real innovation of this study is placed on the use of a new probability weighting scheme with multiple GCMs rather than on the direct input of GCM-driven data. Applied to make future projections of the water shortage in the Han River basin of Korea, the proposed methodology produced conservative but realistic projection results (15% increase compared to the existing methodologies, which projected a dramatic increase (144% in water shortage over 10 years. As a result, it was anticipated that the amount of water shortages in the Han River basin would gradually increase in the next 90 years, including a 57% increase in the 2080s.

  8. Persistence extends reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun

    2017-04-01

    One key potential explanation for the evolution of cooperation is conditional cooperation. This allows cooperation to evolve for cooperators who switch their behavior on the basis of information about the opponent's behavior or reputation. However, information about the opponent's behavior or reputation is sometimes unavailable, and previous studies have assumed that a player cooperates with some default probability when no information about the opponent's previous behavior or reputation is available. This default probability has been interpreted as the player's "optimism". Here, we make use of the fact that even if a player cannot observe the opponent's previous behavior or reputation, he may still condition his future behavior based on his own past behavior and in such a case, he can behave persistently. In this paper, we especially consider the case where information about the opponent's "behavior" is sometimes absent and the iterated prisoner's dilemma game between the same two individuals is played. Here, we examine the evolution of strategies that can refer to the own behavior in the previous round. Using evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) analysis and analyzing replicator dynamics, we find that conditioning his future behavior based on his own past behavior is beneficial for the evolution. Persistence facilitates the evolution of cooperation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  10. Dynamics of Undergraduate Student Generic Problem-Solving Skills Captured by a Campus-Wide Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klegeris, Andis; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Hurren, Heather; Spielman, Lindsay Joy; Stuart, Maegan; Bahniwal, Manpreet

    2017-01-01

    The ability to effectively problem solve is a highly valued competency expected of university graduates, independent of their area of study. Evaluation of problem-solving skill (PSS) development is hindered by a shortage of available tools for monitoring student progress and by lack of defined instructional strategies for development of these…

  11. Knowledge and Understanding of 21st Century Skills through Educator Externships: Programs in Southern New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Cayouette, Lizann R.

    2010-01-01

    An acute shortage of a competent, highly-skilled workforce faces the United States workplace. Studies and reports from 1983 to present, repeatedly state that the education system in the United States must change to prepare the emergent workforce for success in the 21st century global challenges of both post-secondary education and the workplace.…

  12. Leveraging Human Resource Development Expertise to Improve Supply Chain Managers' Skills and Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinger, Alexander E.; Ellinger, Andrea D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There is an ongoing shortage of talented supply chain managers with the necessary skills and business-related competencies to manage increasingly complex and strategically important supply chain processes. The purpose of this paper is to propose that organizations can create and maintain competitive advantage by leveraging the expertise…

  13. Unlocking the Potential to Influence Government Skills Policy: A Case Study of the UK Construction Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Arthur; Raiden, Ani; Naylor, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Despite a series of national policy initiatives aimed at addressing skills shortages in a number of sectors, little evidence of longer-term change is apparent. This paper examines concerns expressed by small businesses that their local views are not sought or considered when national training policies and initiatives are either being developed or…

  14. Longitudinal effects of induction on teaching skills and attrition rates of beginning teacher

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; van de Grift, Wim; Maulana, Ridwan

    The teaching profession faces a shortage as well as a decline of teaching skills. A possible way to mitigate this is to implement evidence-based induction arrangements. Seventy-one schools with 338 beginning secondary education teachers were randomly allocated to an experimental or a control group.

  15. Is The Water Shortage Crisis Really One of the Most Dangerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2010-12-01

    Author of the 1998 book, Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity, Dr. Sandra Postel predicts big water availability problems as populations of so-called “water-stressed” countries jump perhaps six fold over the next 30 years. The author has reported on this in his previous AGU presentations. In the next four decades, more than half of the world’s population will have to deal with sever water shortages. The United States has been blessed with several large fresh water lakes. In spite of having this fresh water supply, some states like Arizona could be facing sever fresh water shortages in the next couple of decades. Sid Wilson, general manager of the Central Arizona Project has indicated "It's not a question of if there is a water shortage anymore. It is in reality, when there will be a water shortage. " Several states share water from the Colorado river. The river has limited water supply to cater to the needs of Arizona, Nevada, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming. World Health Organization, NASA, Department of the Interior, NOAA and several organizations have observed that there is a real water shortage crisis. This is because the world’s population has tripled in the twentieth century. This has resulted in a six-fold increase of water usage. Fresh water supply is limited. This is because water cannot be replaced with an alternative. It is important to observe that petroleum can be replaced with alternative fuel resources. It is necessary to recognize that fact that irrigation necessitates almost 65% to 70% of water withdrawal. Industry may utilize about 20% and domestic consumption is about 10% Evaporation from reservoirs is also a major factor, depending upon the climate and environment. Therefore there is an urgent need for all the countries to establish a strong, sound, sensible and sustainable management program for utilizing the available water supplies efficiently (Narayanan, 2008). References: Narayanan, Mysore. (2008). Hydrology, Water

  16. Towards risk-based drought management in the Netherlands: quantifying the welfare effects of water shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vat, Marnix; Femke, Schasfoort; Rhee Gigi, Van; Manfred, Wienhoven; Nico, Polman; Joost, Delsman; den Hoek Paul, Van; Maat Judith, Ter; Marjolein, Mens

    2016-04-01

    It is widely acknowledged that drought management should move from a crisis to a risk-based approach. A risk-based approach to managing water resources requires a sound drought risk analysis, quantifying the probability and impacts of water shortage due to droughts. Impacts of droughts are for example crop yield losses, hydropower production losses, and water shortage for municipal and industrial use. Many studies analyse the balance between supply and demand, but there is little experience in translating this into economic metrics that can be used in a decision-making process on investments to reduce drought risk. We will present a drought risk analysis method for the Netherlands, with a focus on the underlying economic method to quantify the welfare effects of water shortage for different water users. Both the risk-based approach as well as the economic valuation of water shortage for various water users was explored in a study for the Dutch Government. First, an historic analysis of the effects of droughts on revenues and prices in agriculture as well as on shipping and nature was carried out. Second, a drought risk analysis method was developed that combines drought hazard and drought impact analysis in a probabilistic way for various sectors. This consists of a stepwise approach, from water availability through water shortage to economic impact, for a range of drought events with a certain return period. Finally, a local case study was conducted to test the applicability of the drought risk analysis method. Through the study, experience was gained into integrating hydrological and economic analyses, which is a prerequisite for drought risk analysis. Results indicate that the risk analysis method is promising and applicable for various sectors. However, it was also found that quantification of economic impacts from droughts is time-consuming, because location- and sector-specific data is needed, which is not always readily available. Furthermore, for some

  17. Concise Approach for Determining the Optimal Annual Capacity Shortage Percentage using Techno-Economic Feasibility Parameters of PV Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghoul, M. A.; Ali, Amer; Kannanaikal, F. V.; Amin, N.; Sopian, K.

    2017-11-01

    PV power systems have been commercially available and widely used for decades. The performance of a reliable PV system that fulfils the expectations requires correct input data and careful design. Inaccurate input data of the techno-economic feasibility would affect the size, cost aspects, stability and performance of PV power system on the long run. The annual capacity shortage is one of the main input data that should be selected with careful attention. The aim of this study is to reveal the effect of different annual capacity shortages on the techno-economic feasibility parameters and determining the optimal value for Baghdad city location using HOMER simulation tool. Six values of annual capacity shortage percentages (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5%), and wide daily load profile range (10 kWh - 100 kWh) are implemented. The optimal annual capacity shortage is the value that always "wins" when each techno-economic feasibility parameter is at its optimal/ reasonable criteria. The results showed that the optimal annual capacity shortage that reduces significantly the cost of PV power system while keeping the PV system with reasonable technical feasibility is 3%. This capacity shortage value can be carried as a reference value in future works for Baghdad city location. Using this approach of analysis at other locations, annual capacity shortage can be always offered as a reference value for those locations.

  18. Does Classmate Ability Influence Students' Social Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Empirically, the link between classmate ability and individual-level student achievement has been established. And yet, within the scope of this body of literature, there is a dearth of studies examining if a relationship also persists between classmate ability and non-achievement outcomes--that is, social skills. This article fills this research…

  19. Rich Language Learning Environment and Young Learners' Literacy Skills in English

    OpenAIRE

    Artini, Luh Putu

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed at developing rich language learning environment to help elementary school students develop their literacy skills in English. Shortage of professional English teachers in primary school, limited time allocation, as well as the lack of tools and facilities that support English language teaching and learning for young learners had resulted in students’low literacy skills in English. It was tried out in six primary schools across Bali involving 12 teachers and 520 students. T...

  20. Is physical water scarcity a new phenomenon? Global assessment of water shortage over the last two millennia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kummu, Matti; Varis, Olli; Ward, Philip J; De Moel, Hans

    2010-01-01

    In this letter we analyse the temporal development of physical population-driven water scarcity, i.e. water shortage, over the period 0 AD to 2005 AD. This was done using population data derived from the HYDE dataset, and water resource availability based on the WaterGAP model results for the period 1961-90. Changes in historical water resources availability were simulated with the STREAM model, forced by climate output data of the ECBilt-CLIO-VECODE climate model. The water crowding index, i.e. Falkenmark water stress indicator, was used to identify water shortage in 284 sub-basins. Although our results show a few areas with moderate water shortage (1000-1700 m 3 /capita/yr) around the year 1800, water shortage began in earnest at around 1900, when 2% of the world population was under chronic water shortage ( 3 /capita/yr). By 1960, this percentage had risen to 9%. From then on, the number of people under water shortage increased rapidly to the year 2005, by which time 35% of the world population lived in areas with chronic water shortage. In this study, the effects of changes in population on water shortage are roughly four times more important than changes in water availability as a result of long-term climatic change. Global trends in adaptation measures to cope with reduced water resources per capita, such as irrigated area, reservoir storage, groundwater abstraction, and global trade of agricultural products, closely follow the recent increase in global water shortage.

  1. Motor Skill Learning and Corticospinal Excitability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse

    Background Motor skill learning (MSL) is the persistent increase in performance of a skill obtained through practice. This process is associated with changes throughout the central nervous system. One of these is a change in corticospinal excitability (CSE) assessable with Transcranial Magnetic...... a novel visuomotor skill. I hypothesized that changes in CSE accompanying long-term motor practice relate to the process of learning rather than repetitive practice on an acquired skill and investigated this by incrementally increasing task difficulty and thus postponing saturation of learning....... Furthermore, we aimed to investigate the feasibility of applying paired associative stimulation to the investigation of learning-dependent motor cortical plasticity by comparing the transient increase in CSE accompanying motor skill learning to the associative plasticity induced by pairing electrical motor...

  2. Caliber-Persistent Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Araújo Pinho Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Caliber-persistent artery (CPLA of the lip is a common vascular anomaly in which a main arterial branch extends to the surface of the mucous tissue with no reduction in its diameter. It usually manifests as pulsatile papule, is easily misdiagnosed, and is observed more frequently among older people, suggesting that its development may involve a degenerative process associated with aging; CPLA is also characterized by the loss of tone of the adjacent supporting connective tissue. Although the diagnosis is clinical, high-resolution Doppler ultrasound is a useful noninvasive tool for evaluating the lesion. This report describes the case of a 58-year-old male patient who complained of a lesion of the lower lip with bleeding and recurrent ulceration. The patient was successfully treated in our hospital after a diagnosis of CPLA and is currently undergoing a clinical outpatient follow-up with no complaints.

  3. An annoying persistent cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cipollini

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cough is a stressful condition and can lead to extensive investigations. We report a case of a 48-year-old woman who had suffered from persistent chronic cough for more than 3 months. She had been treated with cough suppressant. However, her cough was not alleviated by these treatments, and the patient was referred to our hospital. She did not exhibit typical gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD symptoms heartburn and regurgitation. Esophagoscopy did not disclose reflux esophagitis. The patient was treated with a proton-pump inhibitor, which markedly alleviated her cough. Chronic cough due to GERD was diagnosed. Although the diagnosis of chronic cough due to GERD is not easy when traditionally symptoms are not present, our case report underscores the importance of this association to the differential diagnosis of chronic cough. In these cases a relatively simple test as high dose proton pump-inhibitors trial may be useful to confirm GERD related cough.

  4. New daily persistent headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Tyagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New daily persistent headache (NDPH is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment.

  5. Persistent idiopathic facial pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarbjerg, Stine; Wolfram, Frauke; Heinskou, Tone Bruvik

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Persistent idiopathic facial pain (PIFP) is a poorly understood chronic orofacial pain disorder and a differential diagnosis to trigeminal neuralgia. To address the lack of systematic studies in PIFP we here report clinical characteristics and neuroimaging findings in PIFP. Methods...... pain 7 (13%), hypoesthesia 23 (48%), depression 16 (30%) and other chronic pain conditions 17 (32%) and a low prevalence of stabbing pain 21 (40%), touch-evoked pain 14 (26%) and remission periods 10 (19%). The odds ratio between neurovascular contact and the painful side was 1.4 (95% Cl 0.4–4.4, p = 0.......565) and the odds ratio between neurovascular contact with displacement of the trigeminal nerve and the painful side was 0.2 (95% Cl 0.0–2.1, p = 0.195). Conclusion: PIFP is separated from trigeminal neuralgia both with respect to the clinical characteristics and neuroimaging findings, as NVC was not associated...

  6. Reading screening mammograms – Attitudes among radiologists and radiographers about skill mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Lena Westphal; Brodersen, John

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Because of shortage of personnel for the Danish mammography screening programme, the aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes of radiologists and radiographers towards a future implementation of radiographers reading screening mammograms. Materials and methods: Seven combined phenomenological and hermeneutical interviews with radiographers and radiologists were performed. Stratified selection was used for sampling of informants. The interviews were analysed against theory about quality, organization and profession. Results: Quality related possibilities: radiographers do routinely measure the performance quality, radiographers obtain sufficient reading qualifications, and skill mix improves quality. Quality related obstacles: radiologists do not routinely measure performance quality. Organization related possibilities: shortage of radiologists, positive attitudes of managers, and improved working relations. Organization related obstacles: shortage of radiographers and negative attitudes of managers. Professional related possibilities: positive experience with skill mix. Professional related obstacles: worries about negative consequences for the training of radiologists, and resistance against handing over tasks to another profession. Conclusion: Attitudes towards radiographers reading screening mammograms are attached to either quality-, organisational or professional perspectives. Radiographers are capable of learning to read mammograms at sufficient performance level but routine measurement of performance quality is essential. Resistance against skill mix may be caused by an emotionally conditioned fear of losing demarcations. The main motive for skill mix is improvement of the utilization of resources. No evidence was found regarding the organisational and financial consequences of skill mix. Despite of this all radiologists and radiographers experienced with skill mix were strong advocates for reading radiographers.

  7. Persistent Aerial Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-04-13

    In this thesis, we propose a new aerial video dataset and benchmark for low altitude UAV target tracking, as well as, a photo-realistic UAV simulator that can be coupled with tracking methods. Our benchmark provides the rst evaluation of many state of-the-art and popular trackers on 123 new and fully annotated HD video sequences captured from a low-altitude aerial perspective. Among the compared trackers, we determine which ones are the most suitable for UAV tracking both in terms of tracking accuracy and run-time. We also present a simulator that can be used to evaluate tracking algorithms in real-time scenarios before they are deployed on a UAV "in the field", as well as, generate synthetic but photo-realistic tracking datasets with free ground truth annotations to easily extend existing real-world datasets. Both the benchmark and simulator will be made publicly available to the vision community to further research in the area of object tracking from UAVs. Additionally, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by \\'handing over the camera\\' from one UAV to another. We integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  8. Is Fly in/Fly out (FIFO) a viable interim solution to address remote medical workforce shortages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Stephen A

    2012-01-01

    are able to readily adjust when circumstances move from stability through change, and have strong communication skills, cope well with FIFO work. The author's employer actively supports his FIFO work arrangements. Although FIFO presents challenges and is not for everyone, it may be time for organisations providing medical care to remote Australia to further consider this option. Allowing mid-career doctors experienced in remote medicine to continue remote clinical practice when they move to the city for family reasons would provide an immediate benefit to remote communities. Notwithstanding the challenges, perhaps it is time to consider the option of FIFO to address ongoing workforce shortages?

  9. The Gravity of High-Skilled Migration Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaika, Mathias; Parsons, Christopher R

    2017-04-01

    Combining unique, annual, bilateral data on labor flows of highly skilled immigrants for 10 OECD destinations between 2000 and 2012, with new databases comprising both unilateral and bilateral policy instruments, we present the first judicious cross-country assessment of policies aimed to attract and select high-skilled workers. Points-based systems are much more effective in attracting and selecting high-skilled migrants than requiring a job offer, labor market tests, and shortage lists. Offers of permanent residency, while attracting the highly skilled, overall reduce the human capital content of labor flows because they prove more attractive to non-high-skilled workers. Bilateral recognition of diploma and social security agreements foster greater flows of high-skilled workers and improve the skill selectivity of immigrant flows. Conversely, double taxation agreements deter high-skilled migrants, although they do not alter overall skill selectivity. Our results are robust to a variety of empirical specifications that account for destination-specific amenities, multilateral resistance to migration, and the endogeneity of immigration policies.

  10. Beyond chance? The persistence of performance in online poker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier J D Potter van Loon

    Full Text Available A major issue in the widespread controversy about the legality of poker and the appropriate taxation of winnings is whether poker should be considered a game of skill or a game of chance. To inform this debate we present an analysis into the role of skill in the performance of online poker players, using a large database with hundreds of millions of player-hand observations from real money ring games at three different stakes levels. We find that players whose earlier profitability was in the top (bottom deciles perform better (worse and are substantially more likely to end up in the top (bottom performance deciles of the following time period. Regression analyses of performance on historical performance and other skill-related proxies provide further evidence for persistence and predictability. Simulations point out that skill dominates chance when performance is measured over 1,500 or more hands of play.

  11. Making Whole-Child Education the Norm: How Research and Policy Initiatives Can Make Social and Emotional Skills a Focal Point of Children's Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Emma; Weiss, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    The importance of so-called noncognitive skills--which include abilities and traits such as critical thinking skills, problem solving skills, social skills, persistence, creativity, and self-control--manifests itself in multiple ways throughout life. This policy brief, which focuses on a set of skills that can and should be taught in schools, is…

  12. Soft skills, hard skills, and individual innovativeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendarman, Achmad Fajar; Cantner, Uwe

    2018-01-01

    of Indonesian firms from different industries are used from an online survey on manager and worker perceptions related to individual innovation performance on the one hand and individual skills on the other hand. The results show that soft skills and hard skills are significantly and positively associated...... with individual level innovativeness. However, no complementarity (positive interaction effect) is found between soft skills and hard skills....

  13. Optimal skill distribution under convex skill costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Cheuk Leung

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies optimal distribution of skills in an optimal income tax framework with convex skill constraints. The problem is cast as a social planning problem where a redistributive planner chooses how to distribute a given amount of aggregate skills across people. We find that optimal skill distribution is either perfectly equal or perfectly unequal, but an interior level of skill inequality is never optimal.

  14. Recent food shortage is associated with leprosy disease in Bangladesh: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiena G Feenstra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leprosy is remaining prevalent in the poorest areas of the world. Intensive control programmes with multidrug therapy (MDT reduced the number of registered cases in these areas, but transmission of Mycobacterium leprae continues in most endemic countries. Socio-economic circumstances are considered to be a major determinant, but uncertainty exists regarding the association between leprosy and poverty. We assessed the association between different socio-economic factors and the risk of acquiring clinical signs of leprosy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a case-control study in two leprosy endemic districts in northwest Bangladesh. Using interviews with structured questionnaires we compared the socio-economic circumstances of recently diagnosed leprosy patients with a control population from a random cluster sample in the same area. Logistic regression was used to compare cases and controls for their wealth score as calculated with an asset index and other socio-economic factors. The study included 90 patients and 199 controls. A recent period of food shortage and not poverty per se was identified as the only socio-economic factor significantly associated with clinical manifestation of leprosy disease (OR 1.79 (1.06-3.02; p = 0.030. A decreasing trend in leprosy prevalence with an increasing socio-economic status as measured with an asset index is apparent, but not statistically significant (test for a trend: OR 0.85 (0.71-1.02; p = 0.083. CONCLUSIONS: Recent food shortage is an important poverty related predictor for the clinical manifestation of leprosy disease. Food shortage is seasonal and poverty related in northwest Bangladesh. Targeted nutritional support for high risk groups should be included in leprosy control programmes in endemic areas to reduce risk of disease.

  15. Land-Water-Food Nexus and Indications of Crop Adjustment for Water Shortage Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Ren, D.; Zhou, X.

    2017-12-01

    Agriculture places the greatest demand on water resources, and increasing agricultural production is worsening a global water shortage. Reducing the cultivation of water-consuming crops may be the most effective way to reduce agricultural water use. However, when also taking food demand into consideration, sustaining the balance between regional water and food securities is a growing challenge. This paper addresses this task for regions where water is unsustainable for food production (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region for example), by (i) assessing the different effects of wheat and maize on water use; (ii) analyzing virtual water and virtual land flows associated with food imports and exports between Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and elsewhere in China; (iii) identifying sub-regions where grain are produced using scarce water resources but exported to other regions. (iv) analyzing the potentiality for mitigating water shortage via Land-Water-Food Nexus. In the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, the study reveals that 29.76 bn m3 of virtual water (10.81 bn m3 of blue virtual water) are used by wheat and maize production and nearly 2 million ha of cropland using 8.77 bn m3 of virtual water overproduced 12 million ton of maize for external food consumption. As an importing-based sub-region with high population density, Beijing and Tianjin (BT) imported mostly grain (wheat and maize) from Shandong (SD). Whereas, Hebei (HB), as an exporting-based sub-region with sever water shortage, overproduced too much grain for other regions (like Central area), which aggravated water crisis. To achieve Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei's integrated and sustainable development, HB should not undertake the breadbasket role for BT but pay more attention to groundwater depletion. The analysis of the Land-Water-Food Nexus indicates how shifts in the cultivated crops can potentially solve the overuse of water resources without adverse effect on food supply, and provides meaningful information to support policy

  16. A fuzzy inventory model with acceptable shortage using graded mean integration value method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranya, R.; Varadarajan, R.

    2018-04-01

    In many inventory models uncertainty is due to fuzziness and fuzziness is the closed possible approach to reality. In this paper, we proposed a fuzzy inventory model with acceptable shortage which is completely backlogged. We fuzzily the carrying cost, backorder cost and ordering cost using Triangular and Trapezoidal fuzzy numbers to obtain the fuzzy total cost. The purpose of our study is to defuzzify the total profit function by Graded Mean Integration Value Method. Further a numerical example is also given to demonstrate the developed crisp and fuzzy models.

  17. Notes from the field: national shortage of isoniazid 300 mg tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    On November 16, 2012, the Illinois State tuberculosis (TB) program notified CDC's Division of Tuberculosis Elimination of a national shortage of 300 mg tablets of the antituberculosis medication isoniazid (INH). Subsequently, other state TB programs (e.g., California, Indiana, Maryland, New York, Virginia, and Wisconsin) reported difficulty obtaining INH 300 mg tablets. Other programs (e.g., San Diego) have experienced difficulties obtaining at least one of the commercially available anti-TB preparations containing the combination of rifampin and INH (IsonaRif [VersaPharm]).

  18. Investing in human capital: an academic-service partnership to address the nursing shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rebecca Culver; Allison-Jones, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The well-documented shortage of nurses and the impact of educational preparation of nurses on patient care outcomes provide a compelling argument for the need to increase the number of registered nurses and to advance their educational preparation. This article describes the application of human capital theory in a creative venture between a health system and a school of nursing that has demonstrated success in addressing these issues. A tuition advancement program was developed to support interested personnel in attaining the associate degree in nursing and to support current RNs in attaining the baccalaureate degree. The venture included support for graduate preparation of nurses interested in becoming faculty.

  19. Alarm bells [Power supply shortage in the Northeast in the 1990's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, M.

    1989-01-01

    This article addresses the differing opinions of the Department of Energy(US DOE) and the leaders of the Senate Energy Committee versus utilities and state regulators on whether there will be a power-supply shortage in the Northeast in the 1990's and what should be done to avoid it. Also addressed is where the whole utility industry stands regarding decisions by regulators and governing bodies on competition, independent power plants, transmission and wholesale sales of power and building new nuclear plants

  20. Energy markets: a glut or shortage?; Les marches de l'energie: abondance ou penurie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandil, C. [Agence International de l' Energie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-08-01

    Although fossil fuels do not risk being exhausted soon, the specter of scarcity is haunting the oil market. This market has fallen victim to a historical shortage of investments and a rising demand that is less elastic than expected. Moreover, higher oil prices seem to have no effect on investment decisions, nor on consumer behavior. Should we resignedly accept prices rising up to one or even two hundred dollars a barrel? And should we passively accept having poor countries pay for the thoughtlessness of wealthy lands? (author)

  1. Persistent homology of complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, Danijela; Maletić, Slobodan; Rajković, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Long-lived topological features are distinguished from short-lived ones (considered as topological noise) in simplicial complexes constructed from complex networks. A new topological invariant, persistent homology, is determined and presented as a parameterized version of a Betti number. Complex networks with distinct degree distributions exhibit distinct persistent topological features. Persistent topological attributes, shown to be related to the robust quality of networks, also reflect the deficiency in certain connectivity properties of networks. Random networks, networks with exponential connectivity distribution and scale-free networks were considered for homological persistency analysis

  2. Rarity and persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Geerat J; Grosberg, Richard K

    2018-01-01

    Rarity is a population characteristic that is usually associated with a high risk of extinction. We argue here, however, that chronically rare species (those with low population densities over many generations across their entire ranges) may have individual-level traits that make populations more resistant to extinction. The major obstacle to persistence at low density is successful fertilisation (union between egg and sperm), and chronically rare species are more likely to survive when (1) fertilisation occurs inside or close to an adult, (2) mate choice involves long-distance signals, (3) adults or their surrogate gamete dispersers are highly mobile, or (4) the two sexes are combined in a single individual. In contrast, external fertilisation and wind- or water-driven passive dispersal of gametes, or sluggish or sedentary adult life habits in the absence of gamete vectors, appear to be incompatible with sustained rarity. We suggest that the documented increase in frequency of these traits among marine genera over geological time could explain observed secular decreases in rates of background extinction. Unanswered questions remain about how common chronic rarity actually is, which traits are consistently associated with chronic rarity, and how chronically rare species are distributed among taxa, and among the world's ecosystems and regions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  3. East European energy. Romania's energy needs persist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Elliott C.; Denman, Sara B.; Kutnick, Bruce; Schultz, John R.; Foley Hinnen, Patricia; Bylsma, Peter J.

    1992-08-01

    Romania's economic growth and development have been hampered by declining domestic energy production and disrupted fuel imports, creating an energy shortage. Consequently, homes and businesses lack sufficient light and heat, and industrial output has fallen. In order to ensure sufficient energy supplies in the future, Romania is taking steps to decentralize its state-owned energy industries, modernize its outdated facilities and equipment, diversify its fuel sources, and eliminate its inefficient production practices. To accomplish these objectives, Romania needs substantial foreign trade and investment, according to Romanian officials. However, despite government efforts to reform the energy sector and improve the business climate, impediments to U.S. trade with and investment in Romania persist. These barriers include lack of a comprehensive energy strategy, underdeveloped legal and business infrastructures, uncertain economic and political conditions, and the absence of U.S. most-favored-nation trade status. Recent efforts by the Romanian and U.S. governments to overcome the barriers to most-favored-nation status have led to progress in this area. U.S. government and international agencies have initiated a variety of efforts to assist Romania's energy sector. For example, the Agency for International Development (AID) funded an Emergency Energy Program; the U.S. Trade and Development Program is evaluating requests to fund several feasibility studies in the power generation sector; and the Department of Commerce offers energy-related information exchanges and trade missions to Romania. International organizations such as the World Bank and the European Investment Bank have also granted loans for energy sector development projects in Romania

  4. Significance of single lung transplantation in the current situation of severe donor shortage in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Ryo; Chen-Yoshikawa, Toyofumi F; Hijiya, Kyoko; Motoyama, Hideki; Aoyama, Akihiro; Menju, Toshi; Sato, Toshihiko; Sonobe, Makoto; Date, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Although bilateral lung transplantation is the procedure of choice internationally, single lung transplantation is preferred in Japan because of the severe donor shortage except in cases of contraindications to single lung transplantation. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of single lung transplant recipients and outcomes of this procedure at one of the largest lung transplant centers in Japan. Between April 2002 and May 2015, 57 cadaveric lung transplantations (33 single and 24 bilateral) were performed in Kyoto University Hospital. The clinical characteristics of the lung transplant recipients and outcomes of these procedures, including overall survival and postoperative complications, were investigated. Overall, the 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 86, 77, and 72 %, respectively, with a median follow-up period of 1.9 years. There was no significant difference in survival between patients who underwent single lung transplantations and those who underwent bilateral lung transplantations (p = 0.92). The median waiting time was significantly shorter for single lung transplant patients than for bilateral lung transplant patients (p = 0.02). Native lung complications were seen in 14 out of 33 patients (42 %) who underwent single lung transplantation. There was no significant difference in survival between patients with and without postoperative native lung complications. Single lung transplantation has been performed with acceptable outcomes in our institution. In the current situation of severe donor shortage in Japan, single lung transplantation can remain the first choice of treatment except in cases of contraindications to single lung transplantation.

  5. Addressing a Yellow Fever Vaccine Shortage - United States, 2016-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Mark D; Angelo, Kristina M; Ritchey, Julian; Greenberg, David P; Muhammad, Riyadh D; Brunette, Gary; Cetron, Martin S; Sotir, Mark J

    2017-05-05

    Recent manufacturing problems resulted in a shortage of the only U.S.-licensed yellow fever vaccine. This shortage is expected to lead to a complete depletion of yellow fever vaccine available for the immunization of U.S. travelers by mid-2017. CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and Sanofi Pasteur are collaborating to ensure a continuous yellow fever vaccine supply in the United States. As part of this collaboration, Sanofi Pasteur submitted an expanded access investigational new drug (eIND) application to FDA in September 2016 to allow for the importation and use of an alternative yellow fever vaccine manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur France, with safety and efficacy comparable to the U.S.-licensed vaccine; the eIND was accepted by FDA in October 2016. The implementation of this eIND protocol included developing a systematic process for selecting a limited number of clinic sites to provide the vaccine. CDC and Sanofi Pasteur will continue to communicate with the public and other stakeholders, and CDC will provide a list of locations that will be administering the replacement vaccine at a later date.

  6. The shortages of nurses in NSW: a motivation hygiene approach to identifying problems and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, E; Dwyer, L

    1988-01-01

    For a number of years public hospitals in NSW have experienced high turnover figures for nursing staff and have been unable to recruit sufficient numbers of registered nurses back into hospital employment. This paper outlines factors on both the demand and the supply side which contribute to the present shortage. It then goes on to argue that a greater appreciation of the causes of the shortage, and strategies for its resolution, can be gained by presenting the issues from the perspective of Herzberg's Motivation--Hygiene Theory. 'Motivation' factors, providing satisfaction to nurses, include achievement and recognition, the work itself, responsibility, advancement and potential for personal growth. 'Hygiene' factors, producing dissatisfaction, include physical working conditions, employer policies and administrative practices, interpersonal relations, salary. Discussion of the issues from this perspective indicates that strategies to resolve the crisis must proceed on two fronts. Continuing efforts must be made to promote job satisfaction among nurses while at the same time reducing the incidence of factors promoting job dissatisfaction.

  7. Reduce, reuse and recycle: a green solution to Canada's medical isotope shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, R; Ross, C; Wells, R G

    2014-05-01

    Due to the unforeseen maintenance issues at the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at Chalk River and coincidental shutdowns of other international reactors, a global shortage of medical isotopes (in particular technetium-99m, Tc-99m) occurred in 2009. The operation of these research reactors is expensive, their age creates concerns about their continued maintenance and the process results in a large amount of long-lived nuclear waste, whose storage cost has been subsidized by governments. While the NRU has since revived its operations, it is scheduled to cease isotope production in 2016. The Canadian government created the Non-reactor based medical Isotope Supply Program (NISP) to promote research into alternative methods for producing medical isotopes. The NRC was a member of a collaboration looking into the use of electron linear accelerators (LINAC) to produce molybdenum-99 (Mo-99), the parent isotope of Tc-99m. This paper outlines NRC's involvement in every step of this process, from the production, chemical processing, recycling and preliminary animal studies to demonstrate the equivalence of LINAC Tc-99m with the existing supply. This process stems from reusing an old idea, reduces the nuclear waste to virtually zero and recycles material to create a green solution to Canada's medical isotope shortage. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Successful importation of cytarabine into the United States during a critical national drug shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunnisett-Dritz, Dee

    2012-08-15

    The importation of cytarabine into the United States during a critical national drug shortage is described. In March 2011, the hospital pharmacy team at an acute care hospital was struggling to supply cytarabine for four specific patients, all of whom needed critical maintenance therapy after induction. Cytarabine was not available from any source in the United States, and the team had no realistic projected release dates for back orders. Idis UK, a pharmaceutical distributor, was asked to identify available drug and eventually found an unrestricted source of cytarabine in Switzerland. Once available drug was identified, a price quote for the supply amount was written for our consideration. This was inspected carefully to ensure that the drug, strength, dosage form, and any other ingredients listed were indeed what were expected. The pharmacy department worked with the hospital's department of finance and accounting to submit the necessary financial paperwork. Payment was electronically sent to the distributor before the drug was shipped. Before the order for cytarabine was placed, the associated risks and benefits were assessed. The patients provided consent to treatment with the unapproved product. Acceptance of the price quote and instructions to order the drug were e-mailed to the distributor. The necessary documentation was completed and included with the shipment. The importation process, from initial inquiries to delivery, took 21 days. The importation of cytarabine amid a drug shortage required a complex process that involved the efforts of an overseas distributor, the cooperation of multiple health professionals, and meticulous attention to detail.

  9. Impact of canal water shortages on groundwater in the Lower Bari Doab Canal system in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakir, A.S.; Rehman, H.U.; Khan, N.M.; Qazi, A.U.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents rigorous analysis of shortage of canal water supplies, crop water requirements, and groundwater use and its quality in the command of Lower Bari Doab Canal, Pakistan. The annual canal water supplies are 36% less than the crop water requirements. This shortage further increases to 56% if actual canal supplies (averaged over last ten years) are compared with the crop water requirement. The groundwater levels are depleting at the rate of 30 to 40 cm per year in most parts of the LBDC command and this tendency of lowering may increase in future due to further increase in crop water requirements. The analysis of data for the last seven years indicate that quality of groundwater in most parts of LBDC command is generally good (64% of the area) or marginally acceptable (28%) for irrigation use. However, declining trends in groundwater quality are visible and can create long term sustain ability problems if proper remedial actions are not taken well in time. (author)

  10. Coordinating vendor-buyer decisions for imperfect quality items considering trade credit and fully backlogged shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Aditi; Gautam, Prerna; Jaggi, Chandra K.

    2016-03-01

    Supply chain management has become a critical issue for modern business environments. In today's world of cooperative decision-making, individual decisions in order to reduce inventory costs may not lead to an overall optimal solution. Coordination is necessary among participants of supply chain to achieve better performance. There are legitimate and important efforts from the vendor to enhance the relation with buyer; one such effort is offering trade credit which has been a driver of growth and development of business between them. The cost of financing is a core consideration in effective financial management, in general and in context of business. Also, due to imperfect production a vendor may produce defective items which results in shortages. Motivated with these aspects, an integrated vendor-buyer inventory model is developed for imperfect quality items with allowable shortages; in which the vendor offers credit period to the buyer for payment. The objective is to minimize the total joint annual costs incurred by the vendor and the buyer by using integrated decision making approach. The expected total annual integrated cost is derived and a solution procedure is provided to find the optimal solution. Numerical analysis shows that the integrated model gives an impressive cost reduction, in comparison to independent decision policies by the vendor and the buyer.

  11. Motivational indicators of protective behaviour in response to urban water shortage threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankad, Aditi; Greenhill, Murni; Tucker, David; Tapsuwan, Sorada

    2013-05-01

    The present study examined the role of protection motivation variables in predicting rainwater tank adoption among urban householders. A regression analysis found that subjective knowledge, threat appraisal, response efficacy, response costs, subjective norms and social norms significantly predicted adaptive behavioural intentions (F(6, 399) = 50.769, p accounted for 43% of the variance in intentions to install a rainwater tank as a protective measure against future water shortages. Results further indicated that several variables uniquely contributed to the prediction of rainwater tank adoption (listed in order of relative contribution: response efficacy, threat appraisal, response costs, subjective knowledge and subjective norms). This suggests that people who perceive there is a real water shortage threat, and believe that rainwater tanks are effective in relieving the threat and require minimal or manageable effort to obtain, are more likely to install a tank on their property as a protective measure. Implications of these results are discussed from a research and policy perspective. Recommendations for future motivational research in the area of urban decentralised system acceptance and adoption are presented.

  12. Predicted shortage of vascular surgeons in the United Kingdom: A matter for debate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, D W; Beard, J D; Shearman, C P; Wyatt, M G

    2016-10-01

    Vascular surgery became a new independent surgical specialty in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2013. In this matter for debate we discuss the question, is there a "shortage of vascular surgeons in the United Kingdom?" We used data derived from the "Vascular Surgery United Kingdom Workforce Survey 2014", NHS Employers Electronic Staff Records (ESR), and the National Vascular Registry (NVR) surgeon-level public report to estimate current and predict future workforce requirements. We estimate there are approximately 458 Consultant Vascular Surgeons for the current UK population of 63 million, or 1 per 137,000 population. In several UK Regions there are a large number of relatively small teams (3 or less) of vascular surgeons working in separate NHS Trusts in close geographical proximity. In developed countries, both the number and complexity of vascular surgery procedures (open and endovascular) per capita population is increasing, and concerns have been raised that demand cannot be met without a significant expansion in numbers of vascular surgeons. Additional workforce demand arises from the impact of population growth and changes in surgical work-patterns with respect to gender, working-life-balance and 7-day services. We predict a future shortage of Consultant Vascular Surgeons in the UK and recommend an increase in training numbers and an expansion in the UK Consultant Vascular Surgeon workforce to accommodate population growth, facilitate changes in work-patterns and to create safe sustainable services. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The persistence of depression score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, J.; de Graaf, R.; Ormel, J.; Nolen, W. A.; Grobbee, D. E.; Burger, H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To construct a score that allows prediction of major depressive episode (MDE) persistence in individuals with MDE using determinants of persistence identified in previous research. Method: Data were derived from 250 subjects from the general population with new MDE according to DSM-III-R.

  14. Persist and cope: New Zealand women in computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Hunter

    Full Text Available New Zealand has a thriving computing industry but further growth is hampered by a skills shortage. A lack of women in the industry exacerbates this problem. Women are under-represented in the industry, and those who do take up computing careers experience conditions of discrimination and marginalisation. This paper reports on a qualitative study of the strategies used by women to cope with their marginalisation. Using multi-sited ethnographic methodology, data were collected using semi-structured interviews with twenty-nine computing professionals. Despite some women denying any marginalisation, all were found to employ some form of coping strategy. Seven different strategies were identified. The women interviewed were more inclined to join organisations directly relating to their roles rather than support initiatives which might improve conditions for women.

  15. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Student Core Curriculum ACS/ASE Medical Student Simulation-Based Surgical Skills Curriculum Cancer Education Cancer Education ... Home Skills Kit supports patients with educational and simulation materials to learn and practice the skills needed ...

  16. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Overview The skills kit contains: A booklet with information on the operation, home skills such as emptying and changing a pouch, problem solving, and home management. A DVD with demonstration of each skill Stoma ...

  17. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Careers at ACS Careers at ACS About ACS Career Types Working at ACS ... American College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills Program Ostomy Home Skills ...

  18. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ACS Careers at ACS About ACS Career Types Working at ACS ... Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills Program Ostomy Home Skills Program Adult Ostomy ...

  19. Persistence, resistance, resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsadka, Maayan

    form of musical consumption and experience. The three pieces draw lines connecting different aspects of persistence, resistance, and resonance.

  20. Land-Water-Food Nexus and indications of crop adjustment for water shortage solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dandan; Yang, Yonghui; Yang, Yanmin; Richards, Keith; Zhou, Xinyao

    2018-06-01

    While agriculture places the greatest demand on water resources, increasing agricultural production is worsening a global water shortage. Reducing the cultivation of water-consuming crops may be the most effective way to reduce agricultural water use. However, when also taking food demand into consideration, sustaining the balance between regional water and food securities is a growing challenge. This paper addresses this task for regions where water is unsustainable for food production (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region for example) by: (i) assessing the different effects of wheat and maize on water use; (ii) analyzing virtual water and virtual land flows associated with food imports and exports between Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and elsewhere in China; (iii) identifying sub-regions where grain is produced using scarce water resources but exported to other regions; and (iv) analyzing the potentiality for mitigating water shortage via Land-Water-Food Nexus. In the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, the study reveals that 29.76 bn m 3 of virtual water (10.81 bn m 3 of blue virtual water) are used by wheat and maize production and 8.77 bn m 3 of virtual water used in nearly 2 million ha of cropland to overproduce 12 million ton of maize for external food consumption. As an importing-based sub-region with high population density, Beijing & Tianjin imported mostly grain (wheat and maize) from Shandong Province. Then, Hebei Province, as an exporting-based sub-region with severe water shortage, overproduced too much grain for other regions, which aggravated the water crisis. To achieve an integrated and sustainable development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, Hebei Province should stop undertaking the breadbasket role for Beijing & Tianjin and pay more attention to groundwater depletion. The analysis of the Land-Water-Food Nexus indicates how shifts in cultivated crops can potentially solve the overuse of water resources without adverse effects on food supply

  1. Addressing the primary care physician shortage in an evolving medical workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhan Shaheen E

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care physicians have been shown to play an important role in the general health of the communities in which they serve. In spite of their importance, however, there has been a decrease in the number of physicians interested in pursuing primary care fields, while the proportion of specialists continues to increase. The prediction of an overall physician shortage only augments this issue in the US, where this uneven distribution is particularly evident. As such, serious effort to increase the number of practicing primary care physicians is both necessary and beneficial for meeting this country's health care needs. Discussion There are several factors at play which contribute to the decrease in the number of practicing physicians in primary specialties. Lifestyle concerns, such as schedule and income, as well as the lack of prestige associated with this field seem to be among the most prevalent reasons cited for the diminishing interest. Multifaceted concerns such as these, however, are difficult to adequately invalidate; doing so would not only require a great deal research, but also a good deal of time – a resource which is in short supply given the current physician shortage being faced. Thus, a more immediate solution may lie in the increased recruitment and continued support of those individuals who are already associated with primary care service. This is particularly relevant given the Association of American Medical College's goal of increasing medical school enrollment by 15% over the next 10 years. Several groups have been shown to be large contributors to primary care in the US. Here, we focus on three such groups: minority students, International Medical Graduates (IMGs and Osteopathic Physicians (DOs. Although these groups are highly diverse individually, they all share the distinction of being underutilized in regard to the current primary care shortages faced. Thus, through more fully accentuating these

  2. Drug tendering: drug supply and shortage implications for the uptake of biosimilars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dranitsaris G

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available George Dranitsaris,1 Ira Jacobs,2 Carol Kirchhoff,3 Robert Popovian,4 Lesley G Shane5 1Augmentium Pharma Consulting Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Global Medical Affairs, Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, 3Global Technology Services, Biotechnology and Aseptic Sciences Group, Pfizer Inc, Chesterfield, MO, 4US Government Relations, Pfizer Inc, Washington, DC, 5Outcomes and Evidence, Global Health and Value, Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Due to the continued increase in global spending on health care, payers have introduced a number of programs, policies, and agreements on pharmaceutical pricing in order to control costs. While incentives to increase generic drug use have achieved significant savings, other cost-containment measures are required. Tendering is a formal procedure to purchase medications using competitive bidding for a particular contract. Although useful for cost containment, tendering can lead to decreased competition in a given market. Consequently, drug shortages can occur, resulting in changes to treatment plans to products that may have lower efficacy and/or an increased risk of adverse effects. Therefore, care must be taken to ensure that tendering does not negatively impact patient care or the health care system. A large and expanding portion of total pharmaceutical expenditure is for biologic therapies. These agents have revolutionized the treatment of many diseases, including cancer and inflammatory conditions; however, patient access to biologic drugs can be limited due to availability, insurance coverage, and cost. As branded biologic therapies reach the end of patent- and data-protection periods, biosimilars are being approved as lower-cost alternatives. Biosimilars are products that are highly similar to the originator product with no clinically meaningful differences in terms of safety, purity, or potency. As more biosimilars receive regulatory approval and adoption increases, these therapies are expected to have an

  3. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma Advanced Trauma Life Support Advanced Trauma Operative Management Basic Endovascular Skills for Trauma Disaster Management and Emergency ...

  4. Using data to help increase STEM retention rates for at-risk students; Student expectations and skill building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, D. E.; Jones, G.; Heaney, A.

    2013-12-01

    Retention in the STEM fields is often a focus for higher education due to a shortage of trained workforce members. In particular, much effort has been spent on first year retention rates and introductory level courses under the assumption that students are more likely to drop out of STEM majors early in their higher education degree progress. While the retention rates of women, minorities, and low income students have been a priority by both the National Science Foundation and the private sector, we are interested in at-risk first year students for this study. The University of Wyoming Synergy Program's goal is to promote academic success and retention for underprepared and at-risk students by creating a series of first semester curricula as theme-based college transition skills courses that are paired with English courses. This creates a cohort group of courses for the students with increased communication between instructors at the same time allowing greater development of student social networks. In this study we are highlighting the results of the STEM students as compared with other at-risk participants in the program. The Synergy Program enrolls approximately 144 students each year with pre- and post-course surveys that directly measure which college skills students select as important as well as student expectations of the amount of time required for STEM courses. Follow-up surveys track the same queries for students who persist to their junior and senior year. In addition, instructors complete a summative survey about skills they find important to student success and individual student's challenges and successes with a variety of skills. Our results show a large gap in skills between those identified as important by students and those identified by their instructors. Expectations for the amount of time required to complete work for STEM courses and the reported time spent on course work are not constant when progressing throughout college. This analysis

  5. Estimating Demand for and Supply of Pediatric Preventive Dental Care for Children and Identifying Dental Care Shortage Areas, Georgia, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shanshan; Gentili, Monica; Griffin, Paul M; Griffin, Susan O; Harati, Pravara; Johnson, Ben; Serban, Nicoleta; Tomar, Scott

    Demand for dental care is expected to outpace supply through 2025. The objectives of this study were to determine the extent of pediatric dental care shortages in Georgia and to develop a general method for estimation that can be applied to other states. We estimated supply and demand for pediatric preventive dental care for the 159 counties in Georgia in 2015. We compared pediatric preventive dental care shortage areas (where demand exceeded twice the supply) designated by our methods with dental health professional shortage areas designated by the Health Resources & Services Administration. We estimated caries risk from a multivariate analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data and national census data. We estimated county-level demand based on the time needed to perform preventive dental care services and the proportion of time that dentists spend on pediatric preventive dental care services from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Pediatric preventive dental care supply exceeded demand in Georgia in 75 counties: the average annual county-level pediatric preventive dental care demand was 16 866 hours, and the supply was 32 969 hours. We identified 41 counties as pediatric dental care shortage areas, 14 of which had not been designated by the Health Resources & Services Administration. Age- and service-specific information on dental care shortage areas could result in more efficient provider staffing and geographic targeting.

  6. Minding the gap: World Bank's assistance to power shortage mitigation in the developing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffner, G.; Maurer, L.; Sarkar, A.; Wang, X. [The World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington DC 20433 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    This paper describes the World Bank's technical assistance and lending efforts in support of developing countries facing power shortages. The paper reviews the World Bank's experience in helping governments to mitigate power shortages in Africa, South Asia, East Asia, and Latin America regions. The paper stresses the need to consider each power ''crunch'' on an individual basis, and describes the process used in diagnosing a shortage situation and prescribing mitigation strategies. Several brief case studies are presented, including Botswana, Brazil, Uganda, and South Africa. The political and customer-centric dimensions of power shortage mitigation are briefly described, with suggestions for minimizing the socio-economic impacts of power shortages on the urban and rural poors. The paper concludes that an integrated supply-demand portfolio approach works best, and within the portfolio a mix of market-based rationing, emergency mobilization of customer-owned generation, interruptible rates, load control, and energy efficient lighting should be sought. Although the best formulation will vary according to market structure, demand composition, and nature of the crisis, World Bank practitioners have found one program that works almost everywhere to produce fast and effective results - mass market Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) replacement programs. (author)

  7. Is there a 'pig cycle' in the labour supply of doctors? How training and immigration policies respond to physician shortages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnicki, Xavier; Moullan, Yasser

    2018-03-01

    Many OECD countries are faced with the considerable challenge of a physician shortage. This paper investigates the strategies that OECD governments adopt and determines whether these policies effectively address these medical shortages. Due to the amount of time medical training requires, it takes longer for an expansion in medical school capacity to have an effect than the recruitment of foreign-trained physicians. Using data obtained from the OECD (2014) and Bhargava et al. (2011), we constructed a unique country-level panel dataset that includes annual data for 17 OECD countries on physician shortages, the number of medical school graduates and immigration and emigration rates from 1991 to 2004. By calculating panel fixed-effect estimates, we find that after a period of medical shortages, OECD governments produce more medical graduates in the long run but in the short term, they primarily recruit from abroad; however, at the same time, certain practising physicians choose to emigrate. Simulation results show the limits of recruiting only abroad in the long term but also highlight its appropriateness for the short term when there is a recurrent cycle of shortages/surpluses in the labour supply of physicians (pig cycle theory). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Demonstration project: Load management on the user side at power shortages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindskoug, Stefan

    2005-10-01

    The risk for power shortages during extreme cold weather has increased in Sweden. Comments are made that high electricity spot prices are important for holding down the demand. Through the consumers' higher price sensitivity, the electricity system can be operated with lower reserve capacity. The objective of the demonstration project is to show methods for reducing the electricity demand at the national level at high spot prices. An important prerequisite is that the measures must be profitable for all parties involved. Four separate studies were made, two concerning households, one industry and one for the district heating sector. The conclusion from the studies is that load management on the customer's side is an economic alternative to investment in new production capacity

  9. PS-109 Barriers and facilitators to implementing drug changes caused by drug tenders and shortages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Rikke Mie; Christrup, Lona Louring; Clemmensen, Marianne H

    2015-01-01

    . Purpose To identify barriers and facilitators for implementing drug changes due to drug tenders and shortages in Danish public hospitals. Material and methods Six focus group interviews were conducted at three hospitals in different regions of the country. At each hospital two focus group interviews were...... thematically through content analysis. Results Barriers Identified included: frequent changes of labelling, packages and drug names. Furthermore, implementing drug changes requires extra resources and finance. Technologies such as computerised physician order entry and barcode scanning systems were perceived...... as potential facilitators, but also as barriers in cases where the quality and implementation of the systems were not adequate. Facilitators included: hospital pharmacy services and lower drug prices. Furthermore recommendations on generic prescription, optimisation of the tendering process and support...

  10. Physical therapy workforce shortage for aging and aged societies in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraiwong, Ratchanok; Vongsirinavarat, Mantana; Soonthorndhada, Kusol

    2014-07-01

    According to demographic changes, the size of the aging population has rapidly increased. Thailand has been facing the "aging society" since 2005 and the "aged society" has been projected to appear by the year 2025. Increased life expectancy is associated with health problems and risks, specifically chronic diseases and disability. Aging and aged societies and related specific conditions as stroke require the provision of services from health professionals. The shortage of the physical therapy workforce in Thailand has been reported. This study investigated the size of physical therapy workforce required for the approaching aging society of Thailand and estimated the number of needed physical therapists, specifically regarding stroke condition. Evidently, the issue of the physical therapy workforce to serve aging and aged societies in Thailand requires advocating and careful arranging.

  11. Medical isotope shortage 2009-2010 and future options NRU, SLOWPOKE and MAPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilborn, J. [Deep River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The 15 month shutdown of NRU and the unexpected termination of the AECL/Nordion MAPLE project caused a world-wide shortage of medical isotopes. After the recent repair of NRU, AECL is confident that it could continue operating safely and reliably as a multi-purpose reactor until 2021 or longer. There is convincing evidence that the restoration of the MAPLE reactors is technically feasible, but it is highly improbable that a 10 MW MAPLE production reactor can ever be cost-effective. However, conversion of the present 10 MW reactors to 3 MW, without major changes to the structural hardware, warrants serious consideration. Finally, even the 20 kW SLOWPOKE reactor could produce useful quantities of Mo-99. If the present fuel rods were replaced with a small tank containing a solution of low-enriched uranyl sulphate in water, three of these liquid core reactors could supply all of Canada. (author)

  12. Medical isotope shortage 2009-2010 and future options NRU, SLOWPOKE and MAPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilborn, J.

    2013-01-01

    The 15 month shutdown of NRU and the unexpected termination of the AECL/Nordion MAPLE project caused a world-wide shortage of medical isotopes. After the recent repair of NRU, AECL is confident that it could continue operating safely and reliably as a multi-purpose reactor until 2021 or longer. There is convincing evidence that the restoration of the MAPLE reactors is technically feasible, but it is highly improbable that a 10 MW MAPLE production reactor can ever be cost-effective. However, conversion of the present 10 MW reactors to 3 MW, without major changes to the structural hardware, warrants serious consideration. Finally, even the 20 kW SLOWPOKE reactor could produce useful quantities of Mo-99. If the present fuel rods were replaced with a small tank containing a solution of low-enriched uranyl sulphate in water, three of these liquid core reactors could supply all of Canada. (author)

  13. [Remedy for shortage or risk for national security? The search for oil in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Lea; Gisler, Monika

    2014-03-01

    Over several decades, geologists, entrepreneurs, politicians, and public authorities dealt with a potential petroleum occurrence in Switzerland. They provided scientific expertise, granted concessions, invested capital and sank bore holes. Although the endeavour was never successful economically, it reveals how closely related geopolitical situations and the exploitation of natural resources were. This article investigates the search for crude oil in Switzerland from the 1930s until the 1960s, combining a history of science and technology perspective with a history of the political regulations and economic considerations concerning the extractive industry. It traces the changing fears and hopes about potential oil occurrences in Switzerland: From an investment to overcome future shortages, to the risk of imperial desires if oil would be found in abundance.

  14. EOQ Model for Delayed Deteriorating Items with Shortages and Trade Credit Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sundararajan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a deterministic inventory model for deteriorating items under the condition of permissible delay in payments with constant demand rate is a function of time which differs from before and after deterioration for a single item. Shortages are allowed and completely backlogged which is a function of time. Under these assumptions, this paper develops a retailer's model for obtaining an optimal cycle length and ordering quantity in deteriorating items of an inventory model. Thus, our objective is retailer's cost minimization problem to nd an optimal replenishment policy under various parameters. The convexity of the objective function is derived and the numerical examples are provided to support the proposed model. Sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution with respect to major parameters of the model is included and the implications are discussed.

  15. The global health workforce shortage: role of surgeons and other providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, George F; Ricketts, Thomas C; Charles, Anthony; King, Jennifer; Fraher, Erin P; Meyer, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The debate over the status of the physician workforce seems to be concluded. It now is clear that a shortage of physicians exists and is likely to worsen. In retrospect it seems obvious that a static annual production of physicians, coupled with a population growth of 25 million persons each decade, would result in a progressively lower physician to population ratio. Moreover, Cooper has demonstrated convincingly that the robust economy of the past 50 years correlates with demand for physician services. The aging physician workforce is an additional problem: one third of physicians are over 55 years of age, and the population over the age of 65 years is expected to double by 2030. Signs of a physician and surgeon shortage are becoming apparent. The largest organization of physicians in the world (119,000 members), the American College of Physicians, published a white paper in 2006 titled, "The Impending Collapse of Primary Care Medicine and Its Implications for the State of the Nation's Health Care" [37]. The American College of Surgeons, the largest organization of surgeons, has published an article on access to emergency surgery [38], and the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies of Science has published a book on the future of emergency care (Fig. 10). The reports document diminished involvement and availability of emergency care by general surgeons, neurologic surgeons, orthopedists, hand surgeons, plastic surgeons, and others. The emergency room has become the primary care physician after 5 PM for much of the population. A survey done by the Commonwealth Fund revealed that less than half of primary care practices have an on-call arrangement for after-hours care. Other evidence of evolving shortage are reports of long wait times for appointments, the hospitalist movement, and others. The policies for the future should move beyond dispute over whether or not a shortage exists. The immediate need is for the United States, as a society, to commit to

  16. Fatty liver disease and lifestyle in youngsters: diet, food intake frequency, exercise, sleep shortage and fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Francesca M; Martines, Giuseppe Fabio; Brischetto, Daniela; Catalano, Daniela; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Trovato, Guglielmo M

    2016-03-01

    Fatty liver is associated with alcohol habits and/or overweight/obesity. We challenged several lifestyle features associated with fatty liver and, particularly, with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Among them, sleep shortage as a result of nightlife habits and a preference for plus-size fashion were assessed. The latter consists of fashionable plus-sized clothing for actual individuals' size and reflects a frequent attitude of some social or age groups, conceivably indicating more global and widespread trend and behaviour. We studied a group of 708 non-diabetic youngsters, 458 women and 250 men, 21.72 ± 3.71 years old (range 15-35 years), referred for minor digestive ailments for clinical assessment, ultrasound detection of fatty liver and nutritional counselling. Details of personal history regarding lifestyle, food intake frequency and alcohol intake, dietary and physical exercise profile, sleep duration and clothing preferences were recorded. The prevalence of NAFLD in this cohort of youngsters is 67/708 (9.4%). Even if it is quantitatively very low in both groups, the average alcohol intake, always below 20 g/day, is greater in NAFLD subjects (5.83 ± 4.32 g) vs. subjects with normal liver (2.02 ± 3.20 g). The number of meals/day and adherence to a Mediterranean diet profile are smaller in NAFLD subjects. By multiple regression, BMI, sedentary life, plus-sized clothing for their actual size, sleep shortage and lower frequency of daily food intake are associated with the presence of NAFLD. Onset and continuation of fatty liver disease, beyond food and exercise quantity and quality, with their effects on obesity, may also be associated with other aspects of lifestyle. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Human resources for health in southeast Asia: shortages, distributional challenges, and international trade in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanachitra, Churnrurtai; Lindelow, Magnus; Johnston, Timothy; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Lorenzo, Fely Marilyn; Huong, Nguyen Lan; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; dela Rosa, Jennifer Frances

    2011-02-26

    In this paper, we address the issues of shortage and maldistribution of health personnel in southeast Asia in the context of the international trade in health services. Although there is no shortage of health workers in the region overall, when analysed separately, five low-income countries have some deficit. All countries in southeast Asia face problems of maldistribution of health workers, and rural areas are often understaffed. Despite a high capacity for medical and nursing training in both public and private facilities, there is weak coordination between production of health workers and capacity for employment. Regional experiences and policy responses to address these challenges can be used to inform future policy in the region and elsewhere. A distinctive feature of southeast Asia is its engagement in international trade in health services. Singapore and Malaysia import health workers to meet domestic demand and to provide services to international patients. Thailand attracts many foreign patients for health services. This situation has resulted in the so-called brain drain of highly specialised staff from public medical schools to the private hospitals. The Philippines and Indonesia are the main exporters of doctors and nurses in the region. Agreements about mutual recognition of professional qualifications for three groups of health workers under the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Framework Agreement on Services could result in increased movement within the region in the future. To ensure that vital human resources for health are available to meet the needs of the populations that they serve, migration management and retention strategies need to be integrated into ongoing efforts to strengthen health systems in southeast Asia. There is also a need for improved dialogue between the health and trade sectors on how to balance economic opportunities associated with trade in health services with domestic health needs and equity issues. Copyright © 2011

  18. Reduce, reuse and recycle: A green solution to Canada's medical isotope shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galea, R.; Ross, C.; Wells, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the unforeseen maintenance issues at the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at Chalk River and coincidental shutdowns of other international reactors, a global shortage of medical isotopes (in particular technetium-99m, Tc-99m) occurred in 2009. The operation of these research reactors is expensive, their age creates concerns about their continued maintenance and the process results in a large amount of long-lived nuclear waste, whose storage cost has been subsidized by governments. While the NRU has since revived its operations, it is scheduled to cease isotope production in 2016. The Canadian government created the Non-reactor based medical Isotope Supply Program (NISP) to promote research into alternative methods for producing medical isotopes. The NRC was a member of a collaboration looking into the use of electron linear accelerators (LINAC) to produce molybdenum-99 (Mo-99), the parent isotope of Tc-99m. This paper outlines NRC’s involvement in every step of this process, from the production, chemical processing, recycling and preliminary animal studies to demonstrate the equivalence of LINAC Tc-99m with the existing supply. This process stems from reusing an old idea, reduces the nuclear waste to virtually zero and recycles material to create a green solution to Canada's medical isotope shortage. - Highlights: • Commercial power electron accelerators are realistic option to produce 99 Mo. • Could cover national demand of Canada. • Demonstrate LINAC- 99 Mo as environmental and economical solution to isotope crisis. • Demonstrate LINAC- 99m Tc to be clinically equivalent to current fission- 99m Tc supply

  19. Effective Factors on Shortage of Breastfeeding According to Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorat, Fereshteh; Nejatbakhsh, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Mohammad; Namazi, Nazli

    2016-05-01

    Support for breastfeeding is a public health priority. One of the major factors that can negatively affect breastfeeding is the lack of breast milk. There are many instructions on the subject of breast milk in Iranian traditional medicine resources. This article attempts to investigate causes and reasons for the lack of breast milk from the perspective of the great scholars in this field. This study reviews the literature based on the Iranian traditional medicine. The literature review included traditional medicine resources and a survey of reputable databases using keywords such as "morzae", "sady", "pestan", "sheer", "sheerkhar", and "hifzossehhe". The content analysis was used after collecting data. According to the viewpoint stated in traditional medicine literature, the primary substance for milk production is blood that transforms to milk after crossing the breast glandular tissue. The main causes of milk shortage can be classified into four categories, namely food-related factors, factors related to blood impaired, factors related to breast tissue and psychological and physical factors. One of the main reasons for milk shortage is the impaired quality and quantity of food. Appropriate mizaj of breast tissue is required for adequate milk production as it develops sufficient ability to absorb and transform the substance into milk. On the other hand, the ability of breast tissue is greatly influenced by the main organs of the body, particularly the heart; being the core of understanding psychological factors. Thus, psychological factors can have a significant effect on the process of milk production. Due to the importance of breastfeeding, reflection on other viewpoints, such as those mentioned in Iranian traditional medicine, could pave the way towards new research areas. It could also steer policies towards an extra focus on breastfeeding by mothers.

  20. Engaging rural preceptors in new longitudinal community clerkships during workforce shortage: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weston Kathryn M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In keeping with its mission to produce doctors for rural and regional Australia, the University of Wollongong, Graduate School of Medicine has established an innovative model of clinical education. This includes a 12-month integrated community-based clerkship in a regional or rural setting, offering senior students longitudinal participation in a 'community of practice' with access to continuity of patient care experiences, continuity of supervision and curriculum, and individualised personal and professional development. This required developing new teaching sites, based on attracting preceptors and providing them with educational and physical infrastructure. A major challenge was severe health workforce shortages. Methods Before the new clerkship started, we interviewed 28 general practitioners to determine why they engaged as clerkship preceptors. Independent researchers conducted semi-structured interviews. Responses were transcribed for inductive qualitative content analysis. Results The new model motivated preceptors to engage because it enhanced their opportunities to contribute to authentic learning when compared with the perceived limitations of short-term attachments. Preceptors appreciated the significant recognition of the value of general practice teaching and the honour of major involvement in the university. They predicted that the initiative would have positive effects on general practitioner morale and improve the quality of their practice. Other themes included the doctors' commitment to their profession, 'handing on' to the next generation and helping their community to attract doctors in the future. Conclusions Supervisors perceive that new models of clinical education offer alternative solutions to health care education, delivery and workforce. The longitudinal relationship between preceptor, student and community was seen as offering reciprocal benefits. General practitioners are committed to refining

  1. Teriparatide Induced Delayed Persistent Hypercalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirosshan Thiruchelvam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Teriparatide, a recombinant PTH, is an anabolic treatment for osteoporosis that increases bone density. Transient hypercalcemia is a reported side effect of teriparatide that is seen few hours following administration of teriparatide and resolves usually within 16 hours of drug administration. Persistent hypercalcemia, although not observed in clinical trials, is rarely reported. The current case describes a rare complication of teriparatide induced delayed persistent hypercalcemia.

  2. Persistence in the Cryptocurrency Market

    OpenAIRE

    Caporale, Guglielmo Maria; Gil-Alaña, Luis A.; Plastun, Alex

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines persistence in the cryptocurrency market. Two different long-memory methods (R/S analysis and fractional integration) are used to analyse it in the case of the four main cryptocurrencies (BitCoin, LiteCoin, Ripple, Dash) over the sample period 2013-2017. The findings indicate that this market exhibits persistence (there is a positive correlation between its past and future values), and that its degree changes over time. Such predictability represents evidence of market ine...

  3. Addressing Canada's Commercialization Crisis and Shortage of Venture Capital: Will the Federal Government’s Solution Work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Hurwitz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lack of funding is a major challenge to innovation in Canada’s emerging technology industry. This article will focus on this supply-side challenge within the complex venture capital ecosystem and discuss: i the current shortage of venture capital available to commercialize Canada’s R&D; ii the causes and consequences of that venture capital shortage; iii how the federal government will address this shortage through its innovative 2013 Venture Capital Action Plan, which commits $400 million and seeks to raise at least another $800 million from outside investors; and iv how a separate decision in the federal 2013 budget to phase out federal tax credits for labour-sponsored venture capital funds could imperil the 2013 Venture Capital Action Plan.

  4. Investigation on Prefabricated Building System Skilled Component Installers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Rezuana Buyung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the face of an increasingly challenging era of globalization, skills and new equipments which includes prefabricated building components, known as Industrialized Building System (IBS has been introduced towards achievement of sustainable construction. IBS is a construction system in which the components are manufactured in a factory, on or off site, positioned and assembled into complete structures with minimal additional site work. IBS requires high construction precision and needs a higher skill level of workers. Compared to the conventional construction method, the skill level of IBS workers is more demanding. Although there are a lot benefits in implementing IBS, the construction industry still not rapidly implementing IBS. The IBS method still considered new and even though there are a lot of benefits it still faces barriers. In an IBS construction, the role of the contractor is shifted from a builder to an assembler on the site. Therefore, this requires the contractor to be prepared technologically with IBS knowledge and skills. It is generally perceived that the number of skilled IBS installers in Malaysia is still low even though the system has been implemented for a long time. This research is carried out to find out whether the existing number of IBS installer is sufficient. Primary data was collected by carrying out interviews with the contractors at the IBS construction site in Penang Island in order to get the contractor’s feedback regarding this issue. Meanwhile, the secondary data was collected from government agencies to get the number of existing IBS installer and the number of IBS projects done in government projects. The results from this study indicated that not all categories of skill workers are in shortage. However, the number of precast concrete installer is in a critical shortage.

  5. Logistics management skills development: A Zimbabwean case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus N. Cronjé

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since logistics emerged as an applied discipline during the latter part of the 20th century, there has been an increased need for skills development in logistics and supply chain management. However, literature suggests a general shortage of educated and skilled logistics and supply chain managers worldwide. Objectives: The purpose of this article was to benchmark an in-house training programme in logistics management in the beverage industry of Zimbabwe with international best practice. Method: A case study approach was followed focusing on the programme curriculum, content and delivery. The article reports on the nature and effectiveness of the programme. The curriculum was benchmarked with skills requirements identified in literature. Relevance was evaluated based on participant perceptions over a period of 3 years using questionnaires with both closed- and open-ended questions. Results: Findings suggested that the programme offering is in line with international practice whilst it also addresses particular issues in Third World countries. Participants perceived the programme as being practical and valuable for enhancing their job performance and career development. Conclusion: The article provides a framework for evaluating logistics training programmes. Future research could include an evaluation that measures changes in on-the-job behaviour of participants.

  6. Effects of a power shortage in the Tokyo metropolitan area on awareness of nuclear power generation and power savings behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, Atsuko

    2004-01-01

    The shutdown of a number of nuclear power stations of the Tokyo Electric Power Company in the summer of 2003 caused a power shortage problem in the Tokyo Metropolitan area. To examine the effects of the power shortage, in September 2003 a survey was conducted in the service areas of the Kansai Electric Power Company (Kansai region) and the Tokyo Electric Power Company (Kanto region). This survey was part of a wider opinion survey begun in 1993 concerning nuclear power generation. The results of the September 2003 survey are as follows: The degree of recognition of the power shortage problem in the Metropolitan area was high, with 40% of respondents in the Kansai region and nearly 70% in the Kanto region understanding that the shortage was caused by the shutdown of several nuclear power station. The overall awareness of nuclear power generation was little affected in both the Kansai and Kanto regions, though the sense of a shortage of the generating capacity had been raised slightly. Once respondents knew about the power shortage problem, they estimated the likelihood of an occurrence of large-scale service interruption to be low, nearly at an even chance, and they had been only slightly worried about it, essentially viewing the problem optimistically. In the Kanto region, where public relations activities for power savings had been actively pursued, the frequency of experiencing exposure to such public relations activities was remarkably higher than in the Kansai region. The relation between exposure to public relations activities for power savings and power savings behavior was analyzed using quantification method II. Analysis results suggest that public relations activities for power savings in the Kanto region had the effect of urging power savings behavior. However, the difference in the rate of putting power savings behavior into practice was small between the Kanto and Kansai regions, indicating that public relation activities for power savings in the Kanto

  7. The role of the uncertainty in assessing future scenarios of water shortage in alluvial aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Emanuele; Camici, Stefania; Brocca, Luca; Moramarco, Tommaso; Guyennon, Nicolas; Preziosi, Elisabetta

    2015-04-01

    There are many evidences that the combined effects of variations in precipitation and temperature due to climate change can result in a significant change of the recharge to groundwater at different time scales. A possible reduction of effective infiltration can result in a significant decrease, temporary or permanent, of the availability of the resource and, consequently, the sustainable pumping rate should be reassessed. In addition to this, one should also consider the so called indirect impacts of climate change, resulting from human intervention (e.g. augmentation of abstractions) which are feared to be even more important than the direct ones in the medium term: thus, a possible increase of episodes of shortage (i.e. the inability of the groundwater system to completely supply the water demand) can result both from change in the climate forcing and change in the demand. In order to assess future scenarios of water shortage a modelling chain is often used. It includes: 1) the use of General Circulation Models to estimate changes in temperature and precipitation; 2) downscaling procedures to match modeling scenarios to the observed meteorological time series; 3) soil-atmosphere modelling to estimate the time variation of the recharge to the aquifer; 4) groundwater flow models to simulate the water budget and piezometric head evolution; 5) future scenarios of groundwater quantitative status that include scenarios of demand variation. It is well known that each of these processing steps is affected by an intrinsic uncertainty that propagates through the whole chain leading to a final uncertainty on the piezometric head scenarios. The estimate of such an uncertainty is a key point for a correct management of groundwater resources, in case of water shortage due to prolonged droughts as well as for planning purposes. This study analyzes the uncertainty of the processing chain from GCM scenarios to its impact on an alluvial aquifer in terms of exploitation

  8. The nursing shortage ... will we become an endangered species or near extinction in the new millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanford, A; Hardesty, P

    1998-12-01

    In conclusion, it is obvious to each of us that the nursing shortage issue is complex. There are no simple solutions. In the acute care arena we can expect to see the usual recruitment wars using sign-on bonuses, increased salaries for per diem staff, internship programs and all sorts of methods used in the past to recruit needed staff. It is that sort of crisis management and short term thinking that has plagued the profession in the past. These are bandaid efforts especially in light of the factors of supply vs demand with short-term quick fixes. There must be, however, more efforts towards addressing the long-term issues such as wage compression, differentiated practice and pay, effective models of care delivery, educating the public about nursing, and public/government funding more nursing education and research at all levels. There may need to be a federal subsidy for nursing education and recruitment included to affect the magnitude of this potential societal problem. The profession is at a crossroads. One thing is certain however, this nursing shortage is different and will get worse before it gets better. Let's not let the demand for nurses become so large and supply become so small that we are an endangered species or near extinction in the new millennium. What will be the scenario for nurses in 2050? Are we, as the largest healthcare profession, so complacent about our continued existence that we are at a point of paralysis? Are we in such a state of deep depression in response to current changing environment that we will allow ourselves to be devoured by our predators. Are we cannibalistic as we eat our young and chew on our own unresolved internal issues with a lack of action? Are we septic as a result of our own self-inflicted professional wounds? Our profession must become immediately aware of our possibly tenuous future. We must work together as a community of nurses to strategically address the areas of recruitment, education, retention and

  9. The Latino Physician Shortage: How the Affordable Care Act Increases the Value of Latino Spanish-Speaking Physicians and What Efforts Can Increase Their Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daar, David A; Alvarez-Estrada, Miguel; Alpert, Abigail E

    2018-02-01

    The United States Latino population is growing at a rapid pace and is set to reach nearly 30% by 2050. The demand for culturally and linguistically competent health care is increasing in lockstep with this growth; however, the supply of doctors with skills and experience suited for this care is lagging. In particular, there is a major shortage of Latino Spanish-speaking physicians, and the gap between demand and supply is widening. The implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has increased the capacity of the US healthcare system to care for the growing Latino Spanish-speaking population, through health insurance exchanges, increased funding for safety net institutions, and efforts to improve efficiency and coordination of care, particularly with Accountable Care Organizations and the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program. With these policies in mind, the authors discuss how the value of Latino Spanish-speaking physicians to the healthcare system has increased under the environment of the ACA. In addition, the authors highlight key efforts to increase the supply of this physician population, including the implementation of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals Act, premedical pipeline programs, and academic medicine and medical school education initiatives to increase Latino representation among physicians.

  10. Missed diagnosis-persistent delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseem Mehra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Delirium is in general considered as an acute short lasting reversible neuropsychiatric syndrome. However, there is some evidence to suggest that in a small proportion of cases delirium may be a chronic or persistent condition. However, making this diagnosis requires clinical suspicion and ruling other differential diagnosis. In this report, we present a case of a 55-year-old man who had cognitive symptoms, psychotic symptoms and depressive symptoms along with persistent hypokalemia and glucose intolerance. He was seen by 3 psychiatrists with these symptoms and was initially diagnosed as having depressive disorder and later diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (current episode mania, and psychosis were considered by the third psychiatrist. However, despite the presence of persistent neurocognitive deficits, evening worsening of symptoms, hypokalemia and glucose intolerance diagnosis of delirium was not suspected.

  11. Interim Canadian recommendations for the use of a fractional dose of yellow fever vaccine during a vaccine shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Summary This statement outlines interim recommendations intended for use during yellow fever vaccine shortages only. The recommendations differ from the standard recommendations for yellow fever vaccination in the Canadian Immunization Guide and in the Committee to Advise on Tropical Medicine and Travel (CATMAT) Statement for Travellers and Yellow Fever. PMID:29770023

  12. Teacher Shortages in Urban Schools: The Role of Traditional and Alternative Certification Routes in Filling the Voids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jennifer C.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the impact of teacher recruitment approaches via university-based and alternative certification programs. Asserts that traditional and alternative certification efforts are by themselves limited in their potential to address the problem of teacher shortages in urban schools. Suggests that an organizational view of schools, which looks…

  13. Assessing the Special Education Faculty Shortage: The Crisis in California--A Statewide Study of the Professoriate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Susan; Eliot, Michael; Hood, Jolene; Driggs, Max; Mori, Ayako; Johnson, Theresa

    2005-01-01

    This article examines several questions related to the faculty shortage in special education. Using California as a case, the authors address these questions: (1) What were the personal and professional characteristics of current special education faculty preparing special education credential and doctoral candidates?; (2) What were the…

  14. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Pharmacy Professional(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Pharmacy Professional(s) F Appendix F to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., App. F Appendix F to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Pharmacy... of pharmacy professional(s) if the following three criteria are met: 1. The area is a rational area...

  15. Vulnerability of U.S. water supply to shortage: a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano Foti; Jorge A. Ramirez; Thomas C. Brown

    2012-01-01

    Comparison of projected future water demand and supply across the conterminous United States indicates that, due to improving efficiency in water use, expected increases in population and economic activity do not by themselves pose a serious threat of large-scale water shortages. However, climate change can increase water demand and decrease water supply to the extent...

  16. Trafficking in human beings as an enterprise: : Highlighting key questions about data shortage on the business side

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraszkiewicz, J.; Watson, H; Wadwa, K.; de Hert, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers face a shortage of data on the business side of human trafficking. This inevitably leads to problems when trying to combat this crime. Questions such as: who is involved in trafficking, how do they operate, what is their relationship with organised crime groups (or other

  17. Reduce shortage with self-reservation policy for a manufacturer paying both fixed and variable stockout expenditure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, B.; Wu, A.

    2017-01-01

    This study considers a single item make-to-stock system with continuous-time production and inventory controls to meet bulk demand with an exponential inter-arrival time. A key issue in this system is the non-convex shortage cost consisting of fixed and variable expenditures when the demand is not

  18. Is physical water scarcity a new phenomenon? Global assessment of water shortage over the last two millennia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kummu, M.S.; Ward, P.J.; de Moel, H.; Varis, O.

    2010-01-01

    In this letter we analyse the temporal development of physical population-driven water scarcity, i.e. water shortage, over the period 0 AD to 2005 AD. This was done using population data derived from the HYDE dataset, and water resource availability based on the WaterGAP model results for the period

  19. Metaphorical expressions used in Swedish news media narratives to portray the shortage of nurses and their working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, Helena; Stier, Jonas

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study is to uncover and reveal how nurses as a profession and their working conditions are dramatized and portrayed in Swedish media narratives about the shortage of nurses. The media is an arena where stakeholders can air their views of the healthcare sector in general and the situation for nurses in particular. The focus in this study is the debate in Sweden on the shortage of nurses. Qualitative discursive study. A discourse analysis of media narratives about nurses and their working conditions published in several Swedish newspapers from 2009-2014. 1779 articles were included in the study. A selection (113 articles) of these articles was further analysed using a qualitative discursive psychological approach. Nurses are portrayed as being good, concerned about and critical of healthcare managers and politicians for not taking action. The accused actors justify their actions by partially accepting or displacing responsibility. The shortage of nurses is framed as a social problem - a threat to patients' safety. Seven different types of metaphorical expression frame the problem as inevitable, beyond control, abstract, an individual and collegial problem and nurses as replaceable. In addition, nurses and patients are dehumanized and no-one is held responsible. This study analyses the role of the media in emphasizing the seriousness or obscurity of the problem and possible solutions to it. Alternative narratives are needed to re-frame the nursing shortage and to find sustainable solutions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Career and Technical Education Teacher Shortage: A Successful Model for Recruitment and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, Thomas; Nwoke, Godfrey I.

    2011-01-01

    The role of Career and Technical Education (CTE) as a major source of skilled workers for the American economy and a vital component of American education is well established. Several recent studies show that when CTE programs combine rigorous academic standards and industry-based technical content, the result is higher academic achievement and…

  1. Energy Savings Lifetimes and Persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Ian M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Billingsley, Megan A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This technical brief explains the concepts of energy savings lifetimes and savings persistence and discusses how program administrators use these factors to calculate savings for efficiency measures, programs and portfolios. Savings lifetime is the length of time that one or more energy efficiency measures or activities save energy, and savings persistence is the change in savings throughout the functional life of a given efficiency measure or activity. Savings lifetimes are essential for assessing the lifecycle benefits and cost effectiveness of efficiency activities and for forecasting loads in resource planning. The brief also provides estimates of savings lifetimes derived from a national collection of costs and savings for electric efficiency programs and portfolios.

  2. Are health professionals responsible for the shortage of organs from deceased donors in Malaysia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Zada L Zainal; Ming, Wee Tong; Loch, Alexander; Hilmi, Ida; Hautmann, Oliver

    2013-02-01

    The rate of organ donations from deceased donors in Malaysia is among the lowest in the world. This may be because of the passivity among health professionals in approaching families of potential donors. A questionnaire-based study was conducted amongst health professionals in two tertiary hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Four hundred and sixty-two questionnaires were completed. 93.3% of health professionals acknowledged a need for organ transplantation in Malaysia. 47.8% were willing to donate their organs (with ethnic and religious differences). Factors which may be influencing the shortage of organs from deceased donors include: nonrecognition of brainstem death (38.5%), no knowledge on how to contact the Organ Transplant Coordinator (82.3%), and never approaching families of a potential donor (63.9%). There was a general attitude of passivity in approaching families of potential donors and activating transplant teams among many of the health professionals. A misunderstanding of brainstem death and its definition hinder identification of a potential donor. Continuing medical education and highlighting the role of the Organ Transplant Coordinator, as well as increasing awareness of the public through religion and the media were identified as essential in improving the rate of organ donations from deceased donors in Malaysia. © 2012 The Authors Transplant International © 2012 European Society for Organ Transplantation. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Enhancing nurse satisfaction: an exploration of specialty nurse shortage in a region of NHS England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Keith; Wilde, Rebecca; Shutes, Karl

    2018-03-22

    This article offers nurse managers guidance on analysing, managing and addressing a potentially dissatisfied nursing workforce, focusing on three priority shortage specialties: emergency care, paediatrics and cardiology. The aim of the study was to explore to what extent registered nurses and healthcare assistants, referred to collectively here as 'nursing staff', are satisfied with teamworking opportunities, continuing professional development (CPD) opportunities and workplace autonomy. A survey questionnaire was developed to evaluate three derived determinants of nurse satisfaction: team working, CPD and autonomy. The NHS West Midlands region was the focus given that it is among the poorest performing regions outside London in filling nursing posts. Overall, nursing staff respondents were satisfied with teamworking, CPD and autonomy, which challenges the perception that nurses in NHS England are dissatisfied with these satisfaction determinants. The findings give a complex picture of nurse satisfaction; for example a large minority of respondents were dissatisfied with their ability to carry out duties as they see fit. When developing management systems to investigate, manage and enhance nurse satisfaction, nurse managers must recognise the complexity and subtleties of determining factors. This will increase as nursing becomes more specialised. Subsequently, nurse managers need to work closely with staff at higher education institutions and other professional agencies to commission appropriate professional development. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  4. [Physician Shortage: How to Prevent Generation Y From Staying Away - Results of a Nationwide Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasch, R; Engelhardt, M; Förch, M; Merk, H; Walcher, F; Fröhlich, S

    2016-04-01

    Medical students' attitudes and expectations about their future working life are changing. To hire the best talents from Generation Y, hospitals must pay attention to these factors to make working in patient care more attractive. However, little detailed knowledge about the professional and career expectations of today's medical students is available to date. In a nationwide online survey, a total of 9079 medical students from all German medical faculties returned the questionnaire. Twenty-one questions related to future career choices and work satisfaction, followed by 21 questions dealing with reasons for not working in patient care. Factor analysis yielded five factors: work-life balance, career, professional needs, working atmosphere, and prestige. A correlation analysis between these factors and respondents' socio-demographic data revealed significant correlations with sex, specialty choice, and marital/parental status. A correlation analysis with "reasons for not working in patient care" revealed that work-life balance, career, professional needs, and working atmosphere had high priority for both sexes. It is crucial to collect data on the work satisfaction of Generation Y, whose members are motivated and willing to perform in today's highly demanding work environment. However, sex-dependent/independent expectations must be met to make the medical profession more attractive, to overcome the Germany-wide shortage of physicians, and to attract young doctors to the hospitals. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Optimal replenishment policy for fuzzy inventory model with deteriorating items and allowable shortages under inflationary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaggi Chandra K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops an inventory model to determine ordering policy for deteriorating items with constant demand rate under inflationary condition over a fixed planning horizon. Shortages are allowed and are partially backlogged. In today’s wobbling economy, especially for long term investment, the effects of inflation cannot be disregarded as uncertainty about future inflation may influence the ordering policy. Therefore, in this paper a fuzzy model is developed that fuzzify the inflation rate, discount rate, deterioration rate, and backlogging parameter by using triangular fuzzy numbers to represent the uncertainty. For Defuzzification, the well known signed distance method is employed to find the total profit over the planning horizon. The objective of the study is to derive the optimal number of cycles and their optimal length so to maximize the net present value of the total profit over a fixed planning horizon. The necessary and sufficient conditions for an optimal solution are characterized. An algorithm is proposed to find the optimal solution. Finally, the proposed model has been validated with numerical example. Sensitivity analysis has been performed to study the impact of various parameters on the optimal solution, and some important managerial implications are presented.

  6. The workforce for health in a globalized context--global shortages and international migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluttis, Christoph; Bishaw, Tewabech; Frank, Martina W

    2014-01-01

    The 'crisis in human resources' in the health sector has been described as one of the most pressing global health issues of our time. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the world faces a global shortage of almost 4.3 million doctors, midwives, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. A global undersupply of these threatens the quality and sustainability of health systems worldwide. This undersupply is concurrent with globalization and the resulting liberalization of markets, which allow health workers to offer their services in countries other than those of their origin. The opportunities of health workers to seek employment abroad has led to a complex migration pattern, characterized by a flow of health professionals from low- to high-income countries. This global migration pattern has sparked a broad international debate about the consequences for health systems worldwide, including questions about sustainability, justice, and global social accountabilities. This article provides a review of this phenomenon and gives an overview of the current scope of health workforce migration patterns. It further focuses on the scientific discourse regarding health workforce migration and its effects on both high- and low-income countries in an interdependent world. The article also reviews the internal and external factors that fuel health worker migration and illustrates how health workforce migration is a classic global health issue of our time. Accordingly, it elaborates on the international community's approach to solving the workforce crisis, focusing in particular on the WHO Code of Practice, established in 2010.

  7. Economic benefits of sharing and redistributing influenza vaccines when shortages occurred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-I

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent influenza outbreak has been a concern for government health institutions in Taiwan. Over 10% of the population is infected by influenza viruses every year, and the infection has caused losses to both health and the economy. Approximately three million free vaccine doses are ordered and administered to high-risk populations at the beginning of flu season to control the disease. The government recommends sharing and redistributing vaccine inventories when shortages occur. While this policy intends to increase inventory flexibility, and has been proven as widely valuable, its impact on vaccine availability has not been previously reported. This study developed an inventory model adapted to vaccination protocols to evaluate government recommended polices under different levels of vaccine production. Demands were uncertain and stratified by ages and locations according to the demographic data in Taiwan. When vaccine supply is sufficient, sharing pediatric vaccine reduced vaccine unavailability by 43% and overstock by 54%, and sharing adult vaccine reduced vaccine unavailability by 9% and overstock by 15%. Redistributing vaccines obtained greater gains for both pediatrics and adults (by 75%). When the vaccine supply is in short, only sharing pediatric vaccine yielded a 48% reduction of unused inventory, while other polices do not improve performances. When implementing vaccination activities for seasonal influenza intervention, it is important to consider mismatches of demand and vaccine inventory. Our model confirmed that sharing and redistributing vaccines can substantially increase availability and reduce unused vaccines.

  8. The workforce for health in a globalized context – global shortages and international migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluttis, Christoph; Bishaw, Tewabech; Frank, Martina W.

    2014-01-01

    The ‘crisis in human resources’ in the health sector has been described as one of the most pressing global health issues of our time. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the world faces a global shortage of almost 4.3 million doctors, midwives, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. A global undersupply of these threatens the quality and sustainability of health systems worldwide. This undersupply is concurrent with globalization and the resulting liberalization of markets, which allow health workers to offer their services in countries other than those of their origin. The opportunities of health workers to seek employment abroad has led to a complex migration pattern, characterized by a flow of health professionals from low- to high-income countries. This global migration pattern has sparked a broad international debate about the consequences for health systems worldwide, including questions about sustainability, justice, and global social accountabilities. This article provides a review of this phenomenon and gives an overview of the current scope of health workforce migration patterns. It further focuses on the scientific discourse regarding health workforce migration and its effects on both high- and low-income countries in an interdependent world. The article also reviews the internal and external factors that fuel health worker migration and illustrates how health workforce migration is a classic global health issue of our time. Accordingly, it elaborates on the international community's approach to solving the workforce crisis, focusing in particular on the WHO Code of Practice, established in 2010. PMID:24560265

  9. Economic benefits of sharing and redistributing influenza vaccines when shortages occurred.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-I Chen

    Full Text Available Recurrent influenza outbreak has been a concern for government health institutions in Taiwan. Over 10% of the population is infected by influenza viruses every year, and the infection has caused losses to both health and the economy. Approximately three million free vaccine doses are ordered and administered to high-risk populations at the beginning of flu season to control the disease. The government recommends sharing and redistributing vaccine inventories when shortages occur. While this policy intends to increase inventory flexibility, and has been proven as widely valuable, its impact on vaccine availability has not been previously reported.This study developed an inventory model adapted to vaccination protocols to evaluate government recommended polices under different levels of vaccine production. Demands were uncertain and stratified by ages and locations according to the demographic data in Taiwan.When vaccine supply is sufficient, sharing pediatric vaccine reduced vaccine unavailability by 43% and overstock by 54%, and sharing adult vaccine reduced vaccine unavailability by 9% and overstock by 15%. Redistributing vaccines obtained greater gains for both pediatrics and adults (by 75%. When the vaccine supply is in short, only sharing pediatric vaccine yielded a 48% reduction of unused inventory, while other polices do not improve performances.When implementing vaccination activities for seasonal influenza intervention, it is important to consider mismatches of demand and vaccine inventory. Our model confirmed that sharing and redistributing vaccines can substantially increase availability and reduce unused vaccines.

  10. The relationship of motor skills and social communicative skills in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine; Ulrich, Dale A

    2013-07-01

    Motor skill deficits are present and persist in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; Staples & Reid, 2010). Yet the focus of intervention is on core impairments, which are part of the diagnostic criteria for ASD, deficits in social communication skills. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the functional motor skills, of 6- to 15-year-old children with high-functioning ASD, predict success in standardized social communicative skills. It is hypothesized that children with better motor skills will have better social communicative skills. A total of 35 children with ASD between the ages of 6-15 years participated in this study. The univariate GLM (general linear model) tested the relationship of motor skills on social communicative skills holding constant age, IQ, ethnicity, gender, and clinical ASD diagnosis. Object-control motor skills significantly predicted calibrated ASD severity (p skills have greater social communicative skill deficits. How this relationship exists behaviorally, needs to be explored further.

  11. Persistence Mechanisms of Conjugative Plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Hansen, Lars H.; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Are plasmids selfish parasitic DNA molecules or an integrated part of the bacterial genome? This chapter reviews the current understanding of the persistence mechanisms of conjugative plasmids harbored by bacterial cells and populations. The diversity and intricacy of mechanisms affecting the suc...

  12. On persistently positively expansive maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Arbieto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we prove that any C¹-persistently positively expansive map is expanding. This improves a result due to Sakai (Sakai 2004.Neste artigo, mostramos que todo mapa C¹-persistentemente positivamente expansivo e expansor. Isto melhora um resultado devido a Sakai (Sakai 2004.

  13. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Congress Educational Program Events and Special Activities Resources Housing and Travel Exhibitors Media Information Clinical Congress 2017 ... Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma Advanced Trauma Life Support Advanced Trauma Operative Management Basic Endovascular Skills ...

  14. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... login or create account first) Skills Kits Broadcast Rights for Hospitals Ostomy Home Skills Hospital Quality Improvement Package The standardized interactive program has been developed by the ...

  15. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at ACS ACS and Veterans Diversity at ACS Benefits ... Profile Shop ( 0 ) Cart Donate American College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills ...

  16. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... JACS Jobs Events Find a Surgeon Patients and Family Contact My Profile Shop ( 0 ) Cart Donate American College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills Program Ostomy Home ...

  17. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kit contains: A booklet with information on the operation, home skills such as emptying and changing a pouch, problem solving, and home management. A DVD with demonstration of each skill Stoma ...

  18. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Surgeon Specific Registry Trauma Education Trauma Education Trauma Education Advanced Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma Advanced Trauma Life Support Advanced Trauma Operative Management Basic Endovascular Skills for Trauma Disaster Management and Emergency ...

  19. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Trauma Education Achieving Zero Preventable Deaths Trauma Systems Conference Advanced Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma Advanced Trauma Life Support Advanced Trauma Operative Management Basic Endovascular Skills for Trauma Disaster Management and ...

  20. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mentoring for Excellence in Trauma Surgery Advanced Trauma Life Support Verification, Review, and Consultation Program for Hospitals ... Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma Advanced Trauma Life Support Advanced Trauma Operative Management Basic Endovascular Skills ...

  1. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stay Up to Date with ACS Association Management Jobs Events Find a Surgeon Patients and Family Contact My Profile Shop ( 0 ) Cart Donate American College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills ...

  2. Acquiring Psychomotor Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padelford, Harold E.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses levels of psychomotor skill acquisition: perceiving, motivating, imitating, performing, adapting, and innovating. How these skills interact and how they affect the learner's ability to learn are examined. (CT)

  3. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Specific Registry Surgeon Specific Registry News and Updates Account Setup Resources and FAQs Features of the SSR ... Today Ostomy Home Skills Kit (login or create account first) Skills Kits Broadcast Rights for Hospitals Ostomy ...

  4. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Up to Date with ACS Association Management JACS Jobs Events Find a Surgeon Patients and Family Contact My Profile Shop ( 0 ) Cart Donate American College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills ...

  5. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ACS ACS and Veterans Diversity at ACS Benefits ... Profile Shop ( 0 ) Cart Donate American College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills ...

  6. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... skills such as emptying and changing a pouch, problem solving, and home management. A DVD with demonstration of each skill Stoma Practice Model Stoma supplies (measurement guide, marking ...

  7. Neural processes underlying cultural differences in cognitive persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; Qu, Yang; Lin, Lynda C

    2017-08-01

    Self-improvement motivation, which occurs when individuals seek to improve upon their competence by gaining new knowledge and improving upon their skills, is critical for cognitive, social, and educational adjustment. While many studies have delineated the neural mechanisms supporting extrinsic motivation induced by monetary rewards, less work has examined the neural processes that support intrinsically motivated behaviors, such as self-improvement motivation. Because cultural groups traditionally vary in terms of their self-improvement motivation, we examined cultural differences in the behavioral and neural processes underlying motivated behaviors during cognitive persistence in the absence of extrinsic rewards. In Study 1, 71 American (47 females, M=19.68 years) and 68 Chinese (38 females, M=19.37 years) students completed a behavioral cognitive control task that required cognitive persistence across time. In Study 2, 14 American and 15 Chinese students completed the same cognitive persistence task during an fMRI scan. Across both studies, American students showed significant declines in cognitive performance across time, whereas Chinese participants demonstrated effective cognitive persistence. These behavioral effects were explained by cultural differences in self-improvement motivation and paralleled by increasing activation and functional coupling between the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and ventral striatum (VS) across the task among Chinese participants, neural activation and coupling that remained low in American participants. These findings suggest a potential neural mechanism by which the VS and IFG work in concert to promote cognitive persistence in the absence of extrinsic rewards. Thus, frontostriatal circuitry may be a neurobiological signal representing intrinsic motivation for self-improvement that serves an adaptive function, increasing Chinese students' motivation to engage in cognitive persistence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  8. Perspectives of employability skills

    OpenAIRE

    ANNE LOUISE NEWTON

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated the different perspectives held by young people, employers and policy makers around Employability Skills and it examined how young people learnt these skills. This study draws young peoples’ perspectives into the research around Employability Skills and highlights the way in which social and cultural capital mediate their development. The research points to a model to re-vision employability skills which recognises the many ways in which they are learnt, over time a...

  9. Persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kis Boisen

    2012-01-01

    The note shows an example of an architure for buildin g stand-alone program, where the programming language is object oriented and the databas system is a relational database system. Together with the notes is an example program.......The note shows an example of an architure for buildin g stand-alone program, where the programming language is object oriented and the databas system is a relational database system. Together with the notes is an example program....

  10. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ostomy Home Skills Program Ostomy Home Skills Program Adult Ostomy Pediatric Ostomy Programa de Destrezas para manejo Doméstico de Ostomía Ostomy Home Skills Program Adult Ostomy Pediatric Ostomy Programa de Destrezas para manejo ...

  11. School Leadership Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between what is currently understood about skills for school leadership and the need for a greater understanding of those skills. The importance of developing leadership skills to improve school performance and effectiveness is great. In the field of school leadership, most leaders…

  12. Teaching Organizational Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakunas, Boris; Holley, William

    2004-01-01

    Kerr and Zigmond (1986) found that 67 percent of all high school teachers surveyed viewed organizational skills as crucial for student success in school. How can teachers get their students to agree? One way is to teach organizational skills just as they would teach writing or computation skills. Explain and demonstrate what students are to do,…

  13. Forecasting Japan's Physician Shortage in 2035 as the First Full-Fledged Aged Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Rui; Matsumura, Tomoko; Murashige, Naoko; Kodama, Yuko; Minayo, Satoru; Imai, Kohzoh; Kami, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Japan is rapidly becoming a full-fledged aged society, and physician shortage is a significant concern. The Japanese government has increased the number of medical school enrollments since 2008, but some researchers warn that this increase could lead to physician surplus in the future. It is unknown how many physicians will be required to accommodate future healthcare needs. Materials and Methods We simulated changes in age/sex composition of the population, fatalities (the number of fatalities for the consecutive five years), and number of physicians from 2010 to 2035. Two indicators were defined: fatalities per physician and fatalities by physician working hour, based on the data of the working hours of physicians for each tuple of sex and age groups. We estimated the necessary number of physicians in 2035 and the number of new physicians to maintain the indicator levels in 2010. Results The number of physicians per 1,000 population is predicted to rise from 2·00 in 2010 to 3·14 in 2035. The number of physicians aged 60 years or older is expected to increase from 55,375 (20% of physicians) to 141,711 (36%). In 2010 and 2035, fatalities per physician were 23·1 and 24·0 for the total population, and 13·9 and 19·2 for 75 years or older, respectively. Fatalities per physician working hour are predicted to rise from 0·128 to 0·138. If working hours are limited to 48 hours per week in 2035, the number of fatalities per physician working hour is expected to be 0·196, and the number of new physicians must be increased by 53% over the current pace. Discussion The number of physicians per population continues to rise, but the estimated supply will not fulfill the demand for healthcare in the aging society. Strategies to increase the number of physicians and improve working conditions are urgently needed. PMID:23233868

  14. The basic construction materials industry and today’s vast housing shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oteiza, I.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents some of the aspects of the major challenge facing world-wide building: humanity's daunting shortage of basic housing, monographically focusing on what this means for the basic building materials industry. These needs have created the greatest demand ever for ex-novo solutions and an exponential increase in slum rehabilitation and improvement, translated here into the need for construction materials and more specifically, cement, as the emblematic component of buildings.El trabajo aborda en forma documentada, algunos aspectos del mayor de los retos que tiene planteado a nivel cosmopolita el sector de la edificación: las ingentes necesidades de habitabilidad básica que padece la humanidad, centrándose en forma monográfica en lo que ello supone para la industria de materiales básicos de edificación. Necesidades que se traducen en la mayor demanda histórica de soluciones ex-novo y en el aumento exponencial de rehabilitación y mejora de tugurios, que los autores traducen en necesidades de materiales de construcción, y de forma más concreta, de cemento, como material emblemático de la edificación.El trabajo, mediante el análisis de casos, muestra la muy diferente repercusión que tienen los materiales sobre los presupuestos finales de lo ejecutado, según se trate del mundo desarrollado (MD o de países en vías de desarrollo (PVD. Por otra parte, estudia la incidencia general del sector 'informal' de la construcción, concluyendo que éste, en muchos países, es el consumidor mayoritario de materiales -specialmente cemento-y que a nivel mundial los PVD lo son tanto en producción como en consumo.

  15. The FDA Unapproved Drugs Initiative: An Observational Study of the Consequences for Drug Prices and Shortages in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ravi; Dhruva, Sanket S; Fox, Erin R; Ross, Joseph S

    2017-10-01

    Hundreds of drug products are currently marketed in the United States without approval from the FDA. The 2006 Unapproved Drugs Initiative (UDI) requires manufacturers to remove these drug products from the market or obtain FDA approval by demonstrating evidence of safety and efficacy. Once the FDA acts against an unapproved drug, fewer manufacturers remain in the market, potentially enabling drug price increases and greater susceptibility to drug shortages. There is a need for systematic study of the UDI's effect on prices and shortages of all targeted drugs. To examine the clinical evidence for approval and association with prices and shortages of previously unapproved prescription drugs after being addressed by the UDI. Previously unapproved prescription drugs that faced UDI regulatory action or with at least 1 product that received FDA approval through manufacturers' voluntary compliance with the UDI between 2006 and 2015 were identified. The clinical evidence was categorized as either newly conducted clinical trials or use of previously published literature and/or bioequivalence studies to demonstrate safety and efficacy. We determined the change in average wholesale price, presence of shortage, and duration of shortage for each drug during the 2 years before and after UDI regulatory action or approval through voluntary compliance. Between 2006 and 2015, 34 previously unapproved prescription drugs were addressed by the UDI. Nearly 90% of those with a drug product that received FDA approval were supported by literature reviews or bioequivalence studies, not new clinical trial evidence. Among the 26 drugs with available pricing data, average wholesale price during the 2 years before and after voluntary approval or UDI action increased by a median of 37% (interquartile range [IQR] = 23%-204%; P Innovation; from the Blue Cross Blue Shield Association to better understand medical technology evidence generation; from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to

  16. The Persistence of Gender Differences in Political Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TÀNIA VERGE MESTRE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role of individual resources, situational factors, and the socialization process in the persistence of a gender gap in political dispositions, principally in political interest. We pay special attention to situational factors, especially those related to the time devoted to housework and caring responsibilities. Despite the growing participation of women in the labor market and increasingly comparable levels of male and female educational attainment, the enduring unequal sexual division of household tasks reduces women?s time availability as well as the pool of skills, resources and social networks which could foster their political engagement, thus helping to sustain the gender gap in political interest.

  17. Search along persistent random walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Benjamin M

    2008-01-01

    Optimal search strategies and their implementations in biological systems are a subject of active research. Here we study a search problem which is motivated by the hunt of sperm cells for the egg. We ask for the probability for an active swimmer to find a target under the condition that the swimmer starts at a certain distance from the target. We find that success probability is maximal for a certain level of fluctuations characterized by the persistence length of the swimming path of the swimmer. We derive a scaling law for the optimal persistence length as a function of the initial target distance and search time by mapping the search on a polymer physics problem

  18. Improving Fine Motor Skills in Young Children: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carol G.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Primary Movement programme on the fine motor skills of children in an early years setting in an area of high social disadvantage. Primary Movement is a programme which can be used as an early intervention technique to help children inhibit persistent primary reflexes that have been shown to…

  19. A Socio-Environmental Case for Skill in Outdoor Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the crisis of sustainability, this paper revisits understandings of human--environment relations established through skill-based outdoor activities that are used commonly among adventure recreation, education, and tourism. Reconsidering a predominant focus on risk and a persistent tension between technical and environmental…

  20. Women Match Men when Learning a Spatial Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Ian; Yu, Jingjie Jessica; Feng, Jing; Marshman, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Meta-analytic studies have concluded that although training improves spatial cognition in both sexes, the male advantage generally persists. However, because some studies run counter to this pattern, a closer examination of the anomaly is warranted. The authors investigated the acquisition of a basic skill (spatial selective attention) using a…

  1. Improvement of Clinical Skills through Pharmaceutical Education and Clinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Junko

    2017-01-01

    Professors and teaching staff in the field of pharmaceutical sciences should devote themselves to staying abreast of relevant education and research. Similarly those in clinical pharmacies should contribute to the advancement of pharmaceutical research and the development of next generation pharmacists and pharmaceuticals. It is thought that those who work in clinical pharmacies should improve their own skills and expertise in problem-finding and -solving, i.e., "clinical skills". They should be keen to learn new standard treatments based on the latest drug information, and should try to be in a position where collecting clinical information is readily possible. In the case of pharmacists in hospitals and pharmacies, they are able to aim at improving their clinical skills simply through performing their pharmaceutical duties. On the other hand, when a pharmaceutical educator aims to improve clinical skills at a level comparable to those of clinical pharmacists, it is necessary to devote or set aside considerable time for pharmacist duties, in addition to teaching, which may result in a shortage of time for hands-on clinical practice and/or in a decline in the quality of education and research. This could be a nightmare for teaching staff in clinical pharmacy who aim to take part in such activities. Nonetheless, I believe that teaching staff in the clinical pharmacy area could improve his/her clinical skills through actively engaging in education and research. In this review, I would like to introduce topics on such possibilities from my own experiences.

  2. Persistent Authentication in Smart Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Syska; Kirschmeyer, Martin; Jensen, Christian D.

    2008-01-01

    present a proof-of-concept implementation of the proposed mechanism, which employs camera based tracking with a single stationary 3D camera that uses the "time of flight" principle. A preliminary evaluation of the proposed mechanism indicates that persistent authentication is technically possible...... with the proposed hardware. The proposed model is sufficiently general to allow the addition of more cameras or supplemental tracking technologies, which will improve the robustness and scalability of the proposed mechanism....

  3. Long memory and changing persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Robinson; Sibbertsen, Philipp

    We study the empirical behaviour of semi-parametric log-periodogram estimation for long memory models when the true process exhibits a change in persistence. Simulation results confirm theoretical arguments which suggest that evidence for long memory is likely to be found. A recently proposed test...... by Sibbertsen and Kruse (2009) is shown to exhibit noticeable power to discriminate between long memory and a structural change in autoregressive parameters....

  4. How persistent is civilization growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    In a recent study (Garrett, 2011), I described theoretical arguments and empirical evidence showing how civilization evolution might be considered from a purely physical basis. One implication is that civilization exhibits the property of persistence in its growth. Here, this argument is elaborated further, and specific near-term forecasts are provided for key economic variables and anthropogenic CO2 emission rates at global scales. Absent some external shock, civilization wealth, energy cons...

  5. The crisis in leadership in the context of the nursing shortage and the increasing prevalence of nursing unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balogh-Robinson LL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Latisha L Balogh-RobinsonMarist College, School of Global and Professional Programs, Poughkeepsie, NY, USAAbstract: Developing nurse leaders in a unionized environment presents unique challenges that are beyond those traditionally experienced in nonunion settings. This literature review examines multiple factors contributing to increasing nursing union membership, including population aging, the nursing shortage, and the relationship between leadership and staff engagement. Current trends in succession planning and leadership development are also highlighted. Job dissatisfaction related to the inability to provide quality care in the context of a protracted nursing shortage and current health care trends is identified as the driver in nursing union growth. The discussion that follows assumes current trends in nursing unionization will continue and proposes that adversarial relationships between management and union nurses will further amplify the dearth in leadership by reducing the pool of nurses willing to leave the union for nonunion leadership roles.Keywords: succession planning, baby boomer, staff engagement, population aging

  6. Determinants of skilled birth attendants for delivery in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Y R; Lyons, K; Skinner, J; van Teijlingen, E R

    2010-01-01

    This review is to explore the factors affecting the uptake of skilled birth attendants for delivery and the issues associated with women's role and choices of maternal health care service for delivery in Nepal. Literature was reviewed across the globe and discussed in a Nepalese context. Delivery by Skilled Birth Attendance serves as an indicator of progress towards reducing maternal mortality worldwide, the fifth Millennium Development Goal. Nepal has committed to reducing its maternal mortality by 75% by 2015 through ensuring accessibility to the availability and utilisation of skilled care at every birth. The literature suggests that several socio-economic, cultural and religious factors play a significant role in the use of Skilled Birth Attendance for delivery in Nepal. Availability of transportation and distance to the health facility; poor infrastructure and lack of services; availability and accessibility of the services; cost and convenience; staff shortages and attitudes; gender inequality; status of women in society; women's involvement in decision making; and women's autonomy and place of residence are significant contributing factors for uptake of Skilled Birth Attendance for delivery in Nepal. The review found more quantitative research studies exploring the determinants of utilisation of the maternal health services during pregnancy in Nepal than qualitative studies. Findings of quantitative research show that different social demographic, economic, socio-cultural and religious factors are responsible for the utilisation of maternal health services but very few studies discussed how and why these factors are responsible for utilisation of skilled birth attendants in pregnancy. It is suggested that there is need for more qualitative research to explore the women's role and choice regarding use of skilled birth attendants services and to find out how and why these factors are responsible for utilisation of skilled birth attendants for delivery

  7. The role of metabolism in bacterial persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Amato

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial persisters are phenotypic variants with extraordinary tolerances toward antibiotics. Persister survival has been attributed to inhibition of essential cell functions during antibiotic stress, followed by reversal of the process and resumption of growth upon removal of the antibiotic. Metabolism plays a critical role in this process, since it participates in the entry, maintenance, and exit from the persister phenotype. Here, we review the experimental evidence that demonstrates the importance of metabolism to persistence, highlight the successes and potential for targeting metabolism in the search for anti-persister therapies, and discuss the current methods and challenges to understand persister physiology.

  8. Elments constintute teachers’ teaching skills

    OpenAIRE

    Hoa, H.; Lам, P.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers’ pedagogical activities are constituted by many skills such as teaching skills, education skills, and skills of performing varied pedagogical ac- tivities. Each skill is formed from a variety of specifi c skills. Approaching teachers’ teaching skills based on pedagogical operation base can help us establish methods and develop skills for teachers. By doing so, we can assist teachers to enhance their teaching competence contributing to teaching quality improvement in schools

  9. Soft skills and dental education

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, M. A. G.; Abu Kasim, N. H.; Naimie, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Soft skills and hard skills are essential in the practice of dentistry. While hard skills deal with technical proficiency, soft skills relate to a personal values and interpersonal skills that determine a person's ability to fit in a particular situation. These skills contribute to the success of organisations that deal face-to-face with clients. Effective soft skills benefit the dental practice. However, the teaching of soft skills remains a challenge to dental schools. This paper discusses ...

  10. Water shortage and drought monitoring in Bačka region (Vojvodina, North Serbia: Setting-up measurement stations network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Mlađen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage and drought, as the most important hydro-climatic hazards, cause significant damages in case of most continents including SE Europe. An experimental field established in Bačka region (Vojvodina Autonomous Province, North Serbia for the purpose of droughts/water shortage monitoring and remote sensing under ongoing IPA project 'Water shortage hazard and adaptive water management strategies in the Hungarian-Serbian cross-border region' (WAHASTRAT. The main objective of this project is to determine water shortage con­flicts on a local and regional level, and to reveal the frequency, extent and severity of future hydro-cli­matic hazards. The locations of eight measurement stations selected on the principle of representativeness in term of terrain configuration and soil cover. An area in which measurement stations were placed, covers about 1000 km2 (12% of total area of Bačka and includes geomorphic units which reliable represent the relief of the whole Bačka region. Measurement stations were placed on 4 out of 5 most common soil types in the Bačka and Vojvodina: chernozem, alluvial soils, smonitza and saline and alkali soils. A measurement equipment system was constructed for the requirements of the WAHASTRAT project. The aim was to design a user-friendly and affordable IT solution, which would enable continuous re­mote monitoring of meteorological parameters and soil moisture. Independent solar-powered meas­urement stations are able to automatically measure air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, wind di­rection, precipitation and soil moisture.

  11. Extent and effects of recurrent shortages of purified-protein derivative tuberculin skin test antigen solutions - United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    Two purified-protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin skin test (TST) antigen solutions are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA): Tubersol (Sanofi Pasteur Limited) and Aplisol (JHP Pharmaceuticals, LLC). Tubersol was out of production in late 2012 through April 2013. Shortages of Aplisol have resulted from increased demand as practitioners have sought a substitute for Tubersol. Tubersol production resumed in May 2013, and supplies had been nearly restored by early June. However, in mid-July, state tuberculosis (TB) control officials notified CDC of difficulty obtaining Tubersol and Aplisol. Sanofi Pasteur notified FDA of a temporary delay in the availability of tuberculin in the 10-dose and 50-dose presentations. In mid-October, the 10-dose presentation was being returned to market, on allocation, which means that historical purchasing practices determine the amount that customers are allotted. In late October, the 50-dose presentation was being returned to market, also on allocation, one vial per historical customer per month. Supplies are forecast to approach normal during January 2014, after distributors have restored their supply chains. A compensatory surge in testing after deferment of testing during the periods of shortage might cause further temporary instability of supplies. In mid-August 2013, officials in 29 of 52 U.S. jurisdictions noted a shortage of at least one PPD TST antigen solution in health departments to the extent that it interrupted activities. This report includes a summary of the extent and effects of the shortages and a reiteration of advice on how to adapt to them.

  12. UTILIZATION OF ACUTE CARE NURSE PRACTITIONERS TO COMBAT PHYSICIAN SHORTAGES IN THE MILITARY TRAUMA SYSTEM: WORKING TOWARDS IMPROVED OUTCOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    repeatedly deployed, potentially leading to burnout or difficulties with post-traumatic stress .36 Some of this burden could be relieved with the use of an...1 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY UTILIZATION OF ACUTE CARE NURSE PRACTITIONERS TO COMBAT PHYSICIAN SHORTAGES IN THE...providers such as nurse practitioners to aid in achieving patient care goals, there is little published to support their use in the military

  13. The analysis on the extreme water shortage event in Hangzhou in 1247 AD and its natural and social backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haolong

    2017-04-01

    Yangtze River Delta locating in the north subtropics of China, is famous for numerous rivers and lakes. Because of East Asian monsoon rainfall, flood is always the most primary disaster in this area during the past 2000 years. However, there were also several extreme water shortage events in the history. Example in Hangzhou in 1247 AD was such a typical year in the area. In the paper, the severity of this extreme event and the closely tied spatiotemporal variation of drought in Yangtze River Delta was quantitatively analyzed on the basis of documentary records during Southern Song Dynasty. Furtherly, its natural and social backgrounds was discussed. The result s are summarized as follows: 1) Wells, canals and West Lake of Hangzhou dried up in 1247 AD. The water level of canals was about 1.32-2.64 m lower than that in the normal year. The reduction of storage capacity in West Lake was 21 million stere or so. 2) The droughts in Yangtze River Delta was moderate on the whole, but that in the west of Zhejiang Province was severe. The drought in Hangzhou lasted from the 2nd lunar month to the end of this year. 3) The water shortage event was closely related to the quick going north and farther northern location of summer rain belt. The descending sea-level weakening the tide in Qiantang River, can also reduce the supply of water resources. 4) The quick growth of urban population, excessive aquaculture, and ineffective government supervision played an important social role in the process of this event. In the all, this extreme water shortage event was the result of both natural and social factors. This research is very helpful for the futuristic water resource forecast in Yangtze River Delta, and it also affords us lessons on the risk management and heritage conservation that merit attention. Key Words: Hangzhou, 1247 AD, water shortage, canal, West Lake, natural factors, social factors

  14. Development of a novel information and communication technology system to compensate for a sudden shortage of emergency department physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kumiko; Nakada, Taka-Aki; Fukuma, Hiroshi; Nakao, Shota; Masunaga, Naohisa; Tomita, Keisuke; Matsumura, Yosuke; Mizushima, Yasuaki; Matsuoka, Tetsuya

    2017-01-23

    A sudden shortage of physician resources due to overwhelming patient needs can affect the quality of care in the emergency department (ED). Developing effective response strategies remains a challenging research area. We created a novel system using information and communication technology (ICT) to respond to a sudden shortage, and tested the system to determine whether it would compensate for a shortage. Patients (n = 4890) transferred to a level I trauma center in Japan during 2012-2015 were studied. We assessed whether the system secured the necessary physicians without using other means such as phone or pager, and calculated fulfillment rate by the system as a primary outcome variable. We tested for the difference in probability of multiple casualties among total casualties transferred to the ED as an indicator of ability to respond to excessive patient needs, in a secondary analysis before and after system introduction. The system was activated 24 times (stand-by request [n = 12], attendance request [n = 12]) in 24 months, and secured the necessary physicians without using other means; fulfillment rate was 100%. There was no significant difference in the probability of multiple casualties during daytime weekdays hours before and after system introduction, while the probability of multiple casualties during night or weekend hours after system introduction significantly increased compared to before system introduction (4.8% vs. 12.9%, P improvement in the ability to respond to sudden excessive patient needs in multiple causalities. A novel system using ICT successfully secured immediate responses from needed physicians outside the hospital without increasing user workload, and increased the ability to respond to excessive patient needs. The system appears to be able to compensate for a shortage of physician in the ED due to excessive patient transfers, particularly during off-hours.

  15. Avoiding a Pilot Retention Death Spiral: The Pilot Shortage and DOD’s Challenge to Maintain an Effective Fighting Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-09

    public oversight.”79 His comments apply equally well to the Air Force or the Navy. Anecdotal evidence provided by an anonymous survey on social media ...Master’s Thesis 31 July 2017- 09 APRIL 2018 Avoiding a Pilot Retention Death Spiral: The Pilot Shortage and DOD’s Challenge to Maintain an Effective ...DOD’S CHALLENGE TO MAINTAIN AN EFFECTIVE FIGHTING FORCE by Nathan Thompson Lieutenant Colonel, United States Air Force

  16. Employability Skills Valued by Employers as Important for Entry-Level Employees with and without Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Song; Zhang, Dalun; Pacha, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities face persistent challenges in gaining meaningful employment. One of the barriers to successful employment is a lack of employability skills. The purpose of this study was to identify employability skills that employers value as being important and to examine whether employers have different expectations for…

  17. Faculty Teaching Skills and Their Influence on the College Student Departure Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braxton, John M.; Bray, Nathaniel J.; Berger, Joseph B.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the influence of student perceptions of faculty teaching skills on social integration, subsequent institutional commitment, and student departure decisions. Using path analysis to consider this link, the findings demonstrate a significant influence of faculty teaching skills on student persistence. Theoretical and practical implications…

  18. System Schema Analysis of County Economy Talents Shortages Based on the Perspective of Returning-home Entrepreneurship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    According to the discussion of domestic scholars on county talents,we know that the researches concerning county human resources mainly focus on discussing the problems such as the total amount,distribution,quality and introduction of county talents though the analysis of coordination between talents and county economic development,and the research of relationship between industry adjustment and talents need.However,there have no relevant documents about the analysis and discussion of county talents problems based on system schema theory.In view of this reality,on the basis of the introduction of the system schema theory propounded by management guru Peter Senge,we conduct the feedback schema analysis of the restricted factors of talents shortages during county economic development;establish the growth limits schema of county talents system;analyze the functioning mechanism of the total amount,distribution,quality and introduction of county talents on the development of county economy;discuss the relationship between the individual quality,social relation and emotional need of returning-home start-up,and talents resource shortage;propose the countermeasures and suggestions to mitigate the shortage of county talents,in order to optimize the allocation of county human resources,and promote the county’s economic development.

  19. Supply shortage forecast in Ontario: The significance of demand-side management (DSM); its tools and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, S.

    2004-01-01

    Aspects of the recent report by the Ontario Electricity Conservation and Supply Task Force and Independent Market Operator which forecasts acute power supply shortages in Ontario, are discussed. Immediate action is recommended to avert the problem. The principal recommendation concerns the adoption of Demand Side Management as a tool to reduce the widening gap between supply and demand, citing supply shortage, imports, high prices, deregulated market and environmental concerns as the driving forces which push for the adoption of DSM. It is claimed that DSM, through its tools such as Demand/Load Response Programs and Time-of-Use rates has the capacity to create the necessary balance between supply and demand more efficiently, and in a more timely fashion than supply side management. The demand for adoption of DSM is justified on the basis of a careful examination of the magnitude and significance of each of the driving forces affecting the electricity supply in Ontario, as well as the benefits and techniques of DSM designed to manage power shortages. Energy Conservation and Efficiency and Demand/Load Response Programs are discussed as the principal DSM techniques, while Dynamic/Real Time Pricing, Time-of-Use Rates, Automated /Smart Metering, Web-based/Communication Systems, Reliability-based Programs, Market/Price-based programs, and Types of Load Control are described as the principal tools used by DSM. DSM program approaches and strategies are also reviewed, along with a brief list of successful examples of DSM applications. 3 figs

  20. Supply shortage forecast in Ontario: The significance of demand-side management (DSM); its tools and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, S.

    2004-06-01

    Aspects of the recent report by the Ontario Electricity Conservation and Supply Task Force and Independent Market Operator which forecasts acute power supply shortages in Ontario, are discussed. Immediate action is recommended to avert the problem. The principal recommendation concerns the adoption of Demand Side Management as a tool to reduce the widening gap between supply and demand, citing supply shortage, imports, high prices, deregulated market and environmental concerns as the driving forces which push for the adoption of DSM. It is claimed that DSM, through its tools such as Demand/Load Response Programs and Time-of-Use rates has the capacity to create the necessary balance between supply and demand more efficiently, and in a more timely fashion than supply side management. The demand for adoption of DSM is justified on the basis of a careful examination of the magnitude and significance of each of the driving forces affecting the electricity supply in Ontario, as well as the benefits and techniques of DSM designed to manage power shortages. Energy Conservation and Efficiency and Demand/Load Response Programs are discussed as the principal DSM techniques, while Dynamic/Real Time Pricing, Time-of-Use Rates, Automated /Smart Metering, Web-based/Communication Systems, Reliability-based Programs, Market/Price-based programs, and Types of Load Control are described as the principal tools used by DSM. DSM program approaches and strategies are also reviewed, along with a brief list of successful examples of DSM applications. 3 figs.

  1. Measuring the Impact of the Home Health Nursing Shortage on Family Caregivers of Children Receiving Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Meaghann S; Wichman, Brittany; Bace, Sue; Schroeder, Denice; Vail, Catherine; Wichman, Chris; Macfadyen, Andrew

    2018-06-01

    The national nursing shortage translates into a gap in home nursing care available to children with complex, chronic medical conditions and their family caregivers receiving palliative care consultations. A total of 38 home health nursing surveys were completed by families receiving pediatric palliative care consultation services at a freestanding children's hospital in the Midwest. The gap in the average number of nursing hours allotted versus received was 40 h/wk per family, primarily during evening hours. Parents missed an average of 23 hours of employment per week to provide hands-on nursing care at home, ranking stress regarding personal employment due to nursing shortage at 6.2/10. Families invested an average of 10 h/mo searching for additional nursing coverage and often resorted to utilizing more than 6 different home nurse coverage personnel per month. Families reported multiple delays to hospital discharges (mean, 15 days per delay) due to inability to find home nursing coverage. Respiratory technology and lack of Medicaid coverage ( P home nursing access. This study examines how the pediatric home nursing shortage translates into a lived experience for families with children with complex medical conditions receiving palliative care.

  2. Energy supply problems seen persisting in former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the former Soviet Union's energy crisis likely will persist through the end of the 1990s. However, rising natural gas and coal production may marginally ease the nation's fuel shortage at least by 1994. Especially important in easing energy problems in the new Commonwealth of Independent States will be conservation in industrial and domestic sectors, says a study published by the Moscow weekly Ekonomika i Zhizn (Economics and Life). C.I.S. oil flow is expected to fall again this year. But the study shows higher capital investment including foreign funds, improved technology, replacement of worn out equipment, better management, and market oriented prices could enable crude and condensate production to hold virtually steady at about 10 million b/d during 1995-2000. Without required changes, C.I.S. oil production could fall to about 9.2 million b/d by 1995 before recovering slightly to about 9.5 million b/d in 2000, the study shows

  3. Model of inventory replenishment in periodic review accounting for the occurrence of shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Krzyżaniak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the development of alternative concepts of goods flow management, the inventory management under conditions of random variations of demand is still an important issue, both from the point of view of inventory keeping and replenishment costs and the service level measured as the level of inventory availability. There is a number of inventory replenishment systems used in these conditions, but they are mostly developments of two basic systems: reorder point-based and periodic review-based. The paper deals with the latter system. Numerous researches indicate the need to improve the classical models describing that system, the reason being mainly the necessity to adapt the model better to the actual conditions. This allows a correct selection of parameters that control the used inventory replenishment system and - as a result - to obtain expected economic effects. Methods: This research aimed at building a model of the periodic review system to reflect the relations (observed during simulation tests between the volume of inventory shortages and the degree of accounting for so-called deferred demand, and the service level expressed as the probability of satisfying the demand in the review and the inventory replenishment cycle. The following model building and testing method has been applied: numerical simulation of inventory replenishment - detailed analysis of simulation results - construction of the model taking into account the regularities observed during the simulations - determination of principles of solving the system of relations creating the model - verification of the results obtained from the model using the results from simulation. Results: Presented are selected results of calculations based on classical formulas and using the developed model, which describe the relations between the service level and the parameters controlling the discussed inventory replenishment system. The results are compared to the simulation

  4. Wilted cucumber plants infected by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum do not suffer from water shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuming; Wang, Min; Li, Yingrui; Gu, Zechen; Ling, Ning; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2017-09-01

    Fusarium wilt is primarily a soil-borne disease and results in yield loss and quality decline in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). The main symptom of fusarium wilt is the wilting of entire plant, which could be caused by a fungal toxin(s) or blockage of water transport. To investigate whether this wilt arises from water shortage, the physiological responses of hydroponically grown cucumber plants subjected to water stress using polyethylene glycol (PEG, 6000) were compared with those of plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Parameters reflecting plant water status were measured 8d after the start of treatment. Leaf gas exchange parameters and temperature were measured with a LI-COR portable open photosynthesis system and by thermal imaging. Chlorophyll fluorescence and chloroplast structures were assessed by imaging pulse amplitude-modulated fluorometry and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Cucumber water balance was altered after FOC infection, with decreased water absorption and hydraulic conductivity. However, the responses of cucumber leaves to FOC and PEG differed in leaf regions. Under water stress, measures of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) and chlorophyll fluorescence indicated that the leaf edge was more seriously injured, with a higher leaf temperature and disrupted leaf water status compared with the centre. Here, abscisic acid (ABA) and proline were negatively correlated with water potential. In contrast, under FOC infection, membrane damage and a higher temperature were observed in the leaf centre while ABA and proline did not vary with water potential. Cytologically, FOC-infected cucumber leaves exhibited circular chloroplasts and swelled starch grains in the leaf centre, in which they again differed from PEG-stressed cucumber leaves. This study illustrates the non-causal relationship between fusarium wilt and water transport blockage. Although leaf wilt occurred in both water stress and FOC infection, the

  5. Cognitive Skill in Medicine: An Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cnossen, Fokie; Lanzer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Cognition encompasses all processes from perception to action including attention and memory, reasoning, and decision making. Therefore, all skills (perceptual skills, motor skills, diagnosing skill, medical skills) are cognitive skills. Cognitive skills are supported by two types of knowledge:

  6. Skills and Competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasios Orinos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a study aimed to investigate the requirements of the business sector in light of the skills and competencies students should have in order to be recruited. In this fashion, the study intended to measure the importance of the skills and competencies sought by the business world, revealing ways through which students can develop such skills. This project portrayed that, some of the required classes will certainly give students a strong theoretical background but they will neither completely prepare this student with all possible skills or competencies nor provide the student with any practical experience that will enable him/her to be more competitive when entering the business market. In some classes, however, like Public Speaking, which is designed to teach presentation skills, successful students are able to build good communication and interpersonal skills. Additionally, an English writing class will certainly attempt to provide them with strong writing skills, and a business class will possibly demand reading skills. Moreover, a calculus and a statistics class will provide basic arithmetic/mathematical skills. However, through this project it is proven that all of these classes will neglect the indoctrination of creative thinking in students, or make students believe in their own self-worth (self-esteem skills; the courses will also fail to develop the sense of urgency, drive and determination that students should possess not just to compete but also to survive in a business world.

  7. MOOCs and Persistence: Definitions and Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brent J.; Baker, Rachel B.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter argues for redefining the term "persistence" as it relates to MOOCs and considers how different measures produce different results in the research; it closes with a review of research on persistence in MOOCs.

  8. Persistence and drug tolerance in pathogenic yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Rasmus Kenneth; Regenberg, Birgitte; Folkesson, Sven Anders

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we briefly summarize the current understanding of how fungal pathogens can persist antifungal treatment without heritable resistance mutations by forming tolerant persister cells. Fungal infections tolerant to antifungal treatment have become a major medical problem. One mechanism...

  9. Educating Tomorrow’s STEM Leaders in Third-Space Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Pradhan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Companies worldwide are facing an acute shortage of qualified graduates in STEM disciplines, in particular those with more non-technical skills, such as teamwork, innovative thinking, communication, adaptability and emotional intelligence. A top U.S. university calls it the missing “third space” set of skills beyond hard business and technical knowledge. Recent findings of neuroscience affirm the critical role of emotions, “heart” intelligence and mind-body links in learning and cognition. A core foundation of the “third skills set” is mindfulness based emotional intelligence, consistent with ancient Eastern wisdom traditions. The author passionately believes we have to think outside-the-box to bring such skills into the education of STEM graduates in Asia as well as around the world.

  10. Skills, Franchise and Industrialization

    OpenAIRE

    Boschini, Anne

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the skill distribution is proposed as being fundamental for technological transitions, besides the economic and political variables normally considered. The setting is an endogenous growth model with non-overlapping generations, where agents are heterogeneous with respect to wealth, skills and political power. It is shown that the skill distributionis as imporant as the initial wealth distribution and the type of political regime in determining the subsequent economic developmen...

  11. Physical trust-based persistent authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fujita, Masahiro; Jensen, Christian D.; Arimura, Shiori

    2015-01-01

    propose a new type of persistent authentication, called Persistent Authentication Based On physical Trust (PABOT). PABOT uses a context of “physical trust relationship” that is built by visual contact between users, and thus can offer a persistent authentication mechanism with better usability and higher...

  12. Distributed Persistent Identifiers System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Golodoniuc

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The need to identify both digital and physical objects is ubiquitous in our society. Past and present persistent identifier (PID systems, of which there is a great variety in terms of technical and social implementation, have evolved with the advent of the Internet, which has allowed for globally unique and globally resolvable identifiers. PID systems have, by in large, catered for identifier uniqueness, integrity, and persistence, regardless of the identifier’s application domain. Trustworthiness of these systems has been measured by the criteria first defined by Bütikofer (2009 and further elaborated by Golodoniuc 'et al'. (2016 and Car 'et al'. (2017. Since many PID systems have been largely conceived and developed by a single organisation they faced challenges for widespread adoption and, most importantly, the ability to survive change of technology. We believe that a cause of PID systems that were once successful fading away is the centralisation of support infrastructure – both organisational and computing and data storage systems. In this paper, we propose a PID system design that implements the pillars of a trustworthy system – ensuring identifiers’ independence of any particular technology or organisation, implementation of core PID system functions, separation from data delivery, and enabling the system to adapt for future change. We propose decentralisation at all levels — persistent identifiers and information objects registration, resolution, and data delivery — using Distributed Hash Tables and traditional peer-to-peer networks with information replication and caching mechanisms, thus eliminating the need for a central PID data store. This will increase overall system fault tolerance thus ensuring its trustworthiness. We also discuss important aspects of the distributed system’s governance, such as the notion of the authoritative source and data integrity

  13. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Residence Clinical Trials Methods Course Health Services Research Methods Course Surgeon Specific Registry Trauma Education Trauma Education Trauma Education Advanced Surgical Skills for ...

  14. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Online Guide to Choosing a Surgical Residency Practice Management Workshops Patients and Family Patient Education Patient Education Patients Medical Professionals Skills Programs Find ...

  15. Motor skills and calibrated autism severity in young children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine; Ulrich, Dale A

    2014-04-01

    In addition to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), motor skill deficits are present, persistent, and pervasive across age. Although motor skill deficits have been indicated in young children with autism, they have not been included in the primary discussion of early intervention content. One hundred fifty-nine young children with a confirmed diagnosis of ASD (n = 110), PDD-NOS (n = 26), and non-ASD (n = 23) between the ages of 14-33 months participated in this study.1 The univariate general linear model tested the relationship of fine and gross motor skills and social communicative skills (using calibrated autism severity scores). Fine motor and gross motor skills significantly predicted calibrated autism severity (p motor skills have greater social communicative skill deficits. Future directions and the role of motor skills in early intervention are discussed.

  16. Use of relaxation skills in differentially skilled athletes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kudlackova, K.; Eccles, D. W.; Dieffenbach, K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the use of relaxation skills by differentially skilled athletes in relation to the deliberate practice framework. Design: Differentially skilled athletes completed a survey about their use of relaxation skills. Method: 150 athletes representing three skill levels (recreational, college, and professional) completed the deliberate relaxation for sport survey, which assessed relaxation on three deliberate practice dimensions (relevancy, concentration, and ...

  17. Exploring persistence in science in CEGEP: Toward a motivational model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Rebecca A.

    There is currently a shortage of science teachers in North America and continually decreasing rates of enrollment in science programs. Science continues to be the academic domain that sees the highest attrition rates, particularly for women. The purpose of the present study was to examine male and female students' experiences in mathematics and science courses during a crucial time in their academic development in an attempt to explain the high attrition rates in science between the last year of high school and the first year of CEGEP (junior college). In line with self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), as well as achievement-goal theory (Pintrich & Schunk, 1996) and research on academic emotions, the study examined the relation between a set of motivational variables (i.e., perceptions of autonomy-support, self-efficacy, achievement goals, and intrinsic motivation), affect, achievement, and persistence. A secondary objective was to test a motivational model of student persistence in science using structural equation modeling (SEM). The sample consisted of 603 male and 706 female students from four English-language CEGEPs in the greater Montreal area. Just prior to beginning CEGEP, participants completed a questionnaire that asked about the learning environment in high school mathematics and science classes as well as student characteristics including sources of motivation, personal achievement goals, and feelings of competence. All students expressed an initial interest in pursuing a career in science by enrolling in optional advanced mathematics and science courses during high school. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to examine differences among male and female students across the variables measured. Structural equation modeling was used to test the validity of a questionnaire designed specifically to gather information about CEGEP students' experiences with mathematics and science, and to evaluate the fit of a model designed to reflect the

  18. New-found fundamentals of bacterial persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kint, Cyrielle I; Verstraeten, Natalie; Fauvart, Maarten; Michiels, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Persister cells display tolerance to high doses of bactericidal antibiotics and typically comprise a small fraction of a bacterial population. Recently, evidence was provided for a causal link between therapy failure and the presence of persister cells in chronic infections, underscoring the need for research on bacterial persistence. A series of recent breakthroughs have shed light on the multiplicity of persister genes, the contribution of gene expression noise to persister formation, the importance of active responses to antibiotic tolerance and heterogeneity among persister cells. Moreover, the development of in vivo model systems has highlighted the clinical relevance of persistence. This review discusses these recent advances and how this knowledge fundamentally changes the way in which we will perceive the problem of antibiotic tolerance in years to come. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Workforce Trauma and EMS Cancer and Research Health Information Technology Scope of Practice Pediatric Issues Other Federal Legislative ... Overview The skills kit contains: A booklet with information on the ... and home management. A DVD with demonstration of each skill Stoma ...

  20. Your skills are important

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    An ambitious project to compile a skills database, known as the Skills and Talents Inventory (STI), was launched at the beginning of this year. The STI is a vital tool for various aspects of human resources management. The Weekly Bulletin has interviewed Mr Andre John Naudi, CERN's Director of Finance and Human Resources, who was the initiator of the project.

  1. Elementary TIG Welding Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, John E., III

    The text was prepared to help deaf students develop the skills needed by an employed welder. It uses simplified language and illustrations to present concepts which should be reinforced by practical experience with welding skills. Each of the 12 lessons contains: (1) an information section with many illustrations which presents a concept or…

  2. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  3. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Ostomy Home Skills Kit supports patients with educational and simulation materials to learn and practice the skills needed for optimal postoperative recovery. The kit supports the entire surgical team with quality, comprehensive education. The standardized interactive program has been ...

  4. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact My Profile Shop ( 0 ) Cart Donate American College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills ... facs.org Copyright © 1996-2018 by the American College of Surgeons, Chicago, IL 60611-3295 | Privacy Policy | Terms of Use

  5. Measuring internet skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Research that considers Internet skills often lacks theoretical justifications and does not go beyond basic button knowledge. There is a strong need for a measurement framework that can guide future research. In this article, operational definitions for measuring Internet skills are proposed,

  6. learning and soft skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2000-01-01

    Learning of soft skills are becoming more and more necessary due to the complexe development of modern companies and their environments. However, there seems to be a 'gap' between intentions and reality regarding need of soft skills and the possiblities to be educated in this subject in particular...

  7. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Use Patient Opioid Use Position Statements and Task Force Patient Education Initiatives Advocacy and Health Policy Updates Selected Research ... at ACS ACS and Veterans Diversity at ACS Benefits ... Profile Shop ( 0 ) Cart Donate American College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills ...

  8. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... de Destrezas para manejo Doméstico de Ostomía Ostomy Home Skills Program Adult Ostomy Pediatric Ostomy Programa de Destrezas para manejo Doméstico de Ostomía The Ostomy Home Skills Kit supports patients with educational and simulation ...

  9. Ageing and skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desjardins, Richard; Warnke, Arne Jonas

    The relationship between ageing and skills is becoming an important policy issue, not least in the context of population ageing. Data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) will potentially add considerably to the understanding of the relationship between...... ageing and foundation skills. In particular, the fact that data from the 1994-1998 International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) and the 2003-2007 Adult Literacy and Lifeskills Survey (ALL) will be linked with PIAAC offers a unique opportunity to examine trends over time at the cohort level for a wide range...... of countries. Specifically, repeated measures will enable an analysis of whether there is skill gain and skill loss over the lifespan of cohorts and overtime between cohorts. This is especially important because age-skill profiles observed on the basis of a single cross-section are difficult to interpret...

  10. Persistent cough in an adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, M T; Harper, G; Chen, J

    1999-12-01

    Jessica, a 14-year-old girl with a history of asthma, went to her pediatrician's office because of a persistent cough. She had been coughing for at least 3 months with occasional cough-free periods of less than a few days. The cough was nonproductive and was not accompanied by fever, rhinorrhea, or facial or chest pain. Jessica and her mother observed that the cough increased with exercise and typically was not present during sleep. She has used two metered-dose inhalers--albuterol and cromolyn--without any change in the cough pattern. For the past 5 years, Jessica has had mild asthma responsive to albuterol. She enjoys running on the cross-country team, soccer, and dancing. She is an average student and denies any change in academic performance. She has never been hospitalized or had an emergency department visit for asthma or pneumonia. There has been no recent travel or exposure to a person with a chronic productive cough, tobacco smoke, or a live-in pet. Jessica lives with her mother and younger sister in a 10-year-old, carpeted apartment without any evidence of mold or recent renovation. In the process of taking the history, the pediatrician noticed that Jessica coughed intermittently, with two or three coughs during each episode. At times, the cough was harsh; at other times, it was a quiet cough, as if she were clearing her throat. She was cooperative, without overt anxiety or respiratory distress. After a complete physical examination with normal findings, the pediatrician interviewed Jessica and her mother alone. Jessica's parents had been divorced for the past 6 years. She lived with her mother but visited her father, and his new family with two young children, every weekend. She spoke about this arrangement comfortably and said that she loved her father and mother but didn't like the tension she experienced at her father's home. "I don't like adults arguing when kids are around." When asked why she thought the cough persisted so long, she commented in a

  11. Is There a Moral Skill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotz, Ignacio L.

    1989-01-01

    The nature of skill, distinguished from habit, is sketched. Moral skill is defined as the skill, born of genetically rooted talent, which masterminds subsidiary skills into moral action (action conforming to certain moral principles). Training this skill is possible, but results will be uneven because talent varies. (IAH)

  12. Not-so-Soft Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Much recent discussion about the skills needed to secure Britain's economic recovery has focused on skills for employability. However, too often, these fundamental skills are understood in narrow functional or vocational terms. So-called "soft skills", what Penelope Tobin, in her 2008 paper "Soft Skills: the hard facts", terms "traits and…

  13. Technetium99m shortage: Practical solutions to manage lack of the radio-isotope in nuclear medicine departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biechlin-Chassel, M.L.; Francois-Joubert, A.; Bolot, C.; Desruet, M.D.; Bourrel, F.; Pelegrin, M.; Couret, I.; Lao, S.; Quelven, I.

    2010-01-01

    Technetium 99m ( 99m Tc) shortage crisis regularly affect nuclear medicine activity and oblige the community to find solutions in order to perform most of the prescribed exams and avoid systematic substitutions by other non-nuclear medicine techniques. Firstly, some practical solutions can be set up in radiopharmacy departments such as using more than two generators together, realizing fractionated elutions, preparing radiopharmaceuticals with elutions providing from different generators.. Then, it could be interesting to have a reflexion in nuclear medicine departments to convene patients the days when 99m Tc supply is sufficient, to pool some exams or to make substitutions with more available isotopes. (authors)

  14. Outcomes analysis of an alternative formulation of PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin in recurrent epithelial ovarian carcinoma during the drug shortage era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger JL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Jessica L Berger, Ashlee Smith, Kristin K Zorn, Paniti Sukumvanich, Alexander B Olawaiye, Joseph Kelley, Thomas C Krivak Magee-Womens Hospital, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Background: In response to the critical shortage of Doxil®, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA allowed temporary importation of non-FDA-approved second-generation liposomal doxorubicin, Lipo-Dox®. Lipo-Dox utilizes a different liposomal particle than Doxil and demonstrates different pharmacokinetic properties. Its use has never been evaluated in a North American population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of Lipo-Dox at Magee-Womens Hospital, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, for patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer who were treated during the Doxil shortage. Methods: Patients treated with Lipo-Dox from January 2012 to December 2012 were identified retrospectively. Disease response was defined radiographically by RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors or biochemically by CA-125 level if measurable disease was not present. Survival was defined from the start date of Lipo-Dox until the date of progression or death. Toxicity was assessed by the Gynecologic Oncology Group common toxicity criteria. Results: Eighteen patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer who received Lipo-Dox were identified. These patients had a median of three prior treatment regimens. The median number of Lipo-Dox cycles given was 3.5 (range 1–8. No patients had a complete or partial response. Two patients had stable disease over a mean follow-up of 144.5 days. Fourteen patients had progressive disease, with a median time to progression of 82 days. Progression was based on CA-125 in four patients and RECIST in the remainder. Nine patients died from the disease. Conclusion: Although this represents a small, pretreated population, there were no clinical

  15. Interference with the clinical independence of doctors in hospitals faced with a shortage of resources: what should doctors do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuoid-Mason, D J

    2014-11-01

    In the face of interference with their clinical independence in hospitals with a shortage of resources, what should doctors do? The question can be answered by considering: (i) the constitutional right to healthcare and emergency treatment; (ii) the common-law position regarding unlawful homicide and the doctrine of 'superior orders'; (iii) the ethical rules of the Health Professions Council of South Africa; and (iv) whether there is any protection for doctors who refuse to carry out unprofessional, unethical or unlawful directives from their superiors. While this article focuses on the public sector, some of the legal principles, where relevant, apply equally to doctors in the private sector.

  16. Copper and Zinc Deficiency in a Patient Receiving Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition During a Shortage of Parenteral Trace Element Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Eric; Dotson, Bryan

    2015-11-01

    Drug shortages in the United States, including parenteral nutrition (PN) components, have been common in recent years and can adversely affect patient care. Here we report a case of copper and zinc deficiency in a patient receiving PN during a shortage of parenteral trace element products. The management of the patient's deficiencies, including the use of an imported parenteral multi-trace element product, is described. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  17. PERSISTENCE AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN NATURAL SCIENCES STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr I Krupnov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the results of empirical study of the association between variables of persistence and academic achievement in foreign languages. The sample includes students of the Faculty of Physics, Mathematics and Natural Science at the RUDN University ( n = 115, divided into 5 subsamples, two of which are featured in the present study (the most and the least successful students subsamples. Persistence as a personality trait is studied within A.I. Krupnov’s system-functional approach. A.I. Krupnov’s paper-and-pencil test was used to measure persistence variables. Academic achievement was measured according to the four parameters: Phonetics, Grammar, Speaking and Political vocabulary based on the grades students received during the academic year. The analysis revealed that persistence displays different associations with academic achievement variables in more and less successful students subsamples, the general prominence of this trait is more important for unsuccessful students. Phonetics is the academic achievement variable most associated with persistence due to its nature, a skill one can acquire through hard work and practice which is the definition of persistence. Grammar as an academic achievement variable is not associated with persistence and probably relates to other factors. Unsuccessful students may have difficulties in separating various aspects of language acquisition from each other which should be taken into consideration by the teachers.

  18. Persistent homology and string vacua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirafici, Michele [Center for Mathematical Analysis, Geometry and Dynamical Systems,Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa,Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques,Le Bois-Marie, 35 route de Chartres, F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-03-08

    We use methods from topological data analysis to study the topological features of certain distributions of string vacua. Topological data analysis is a multi-scale approach used to analyze the topological features of a dataset by identifying which homological characteristics persist over a long range of scales. We apply these techniques in several contexts. We analyze N=2 vacua by focusing on certain distributions of Calabi-Yau varieties and Landau-Ginzburg models. We then turn to flux compactifications and discuss how we can use topological data analysis to extract physical information. Finally we apply these techniques to certain phenomenologically realistic heterotic models. We discuss the possibility of characterizing string vacua using the topological properties of their distributions.

  19. Coping with persistent environmental problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varjopuro, Riku; Andrulewicz, Eugeniusz; Brandt, Urs Steiner

    2014-01-01

    to a decision to taking action and several years further for actual implementation. Ecosystem responses to measures illustrate that feedback can keep the ecosystem in a certain state and cause a delay in ecosystem response. These delays can operate on decadal scales. Our aim in this paper...... involved in the implementation are keys to improve understanding of the systemic delays. The improved understanding is necessary for the adaptive management of a persistent environmental problem. In addition to the state of the environment, the monitoring and analysis should be targeted also......; (2) implementation delay: the time from the launch of a policy to the actual implementation; (3) ecosystem delay: the time difference between the implementation and an actual measurable effects. A policy process is one characterized by delays. It may take years from problem identification...

  20. Bilateral persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Tarun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of bilateral persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV in a 3-month-old male infant, who had bilateral leukokoria, is presented. The child was referred for imaging with a clinical suspicion of retinoblastoma. Gray-scale ultrasound evaluation revealed an echogenic band in the posterior segment of both globes, extending from the posterior surface of the lens capsule to the optic disc. Doppler examination revealed the presence of arterial flow in the band in both globes. Associated echogenic hemorrhage was also seen, which was confirmed by computed tomography. Most cases of PHPV are sporadic and unilateral, and bilateral PHPV is rare. The imaging features in this case suggest the diagnosis of bilateral PHPV and differentiate it from retinoblastoma. This entity, although infrequent, should be considered in the differential diagnosis while evaluating bilateral leukokoria.

  1. Persistence of antimuscarinic drug use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brostrøm, Søren; Hallas, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Evidence suggests antimuscarinic drugs for the overactive-bladder syndrome only confer modest improvements in quality of life. We wanted to describe the persistence of therapy, including an extended analysis beyond the 1-year follow-up employed in other studies. METHODS: All prescriptions...... for drugs in ATC category G04BD were retrieved for the period 1999-2006 from a regional database with complete capture of all reimbursed prescriptions. Kaplan-Meyer curves were generated for duration of treatment for each substance and analyzed for determinants of termination. RESULTS: With the exception...... of trospium chloride, all drugs had continuation rates of less than 50% at 6 months, less than 25% at 1 year, and less than 10% at 2 years and longer. Trospium chloride, however, exhibited continuation rates of 46% at 6 months, 36% at 1 year, 22% at 2 years, and 16% at 3 years. CONCLUSIONS: In a setting...

  2. Dematerialization: Variety, caution, and persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausubel, Jesse H; Waggoner, Paul E

    2008-09-02

    Dematerialization, represented by declining consumption per GDP of energy or of goods, offers some hope for rising environmental quality with development. The declining proportion of income spent on staples as affluence grows, which income elasticity <1.0 measures, makes dematerialization widespread. Further, as learning improves efficiency of resource use, the intensity of environmental impact per production of staples often declines. We observe that combinations of low income elasticity for staples and of learning by producers cause a variety of dematerializations and declining intensities of impact, from energy use and carbon emission to food consumption and fertilizer use, globally and in countries ranging from the United States and France to China, India, Brazil, and Indonesia. Because dematerialization and intensity of impact are ratios of parameters that may be variously defined and are sometimes difficult to estimate, their fluctuations must be interpreted cautiously. Nevertheless, substantial declining intensity of impact, and especially, dematerialization persisted between 1980 and 2006.

  3. Cognitive Skills in Medicine: An Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cnossen, Fokie

    2015-01-01

    Cognition encompasses all processes from perception to action including attention and memory, reasoning, and decision making. Therefore, all skills (perceptual skills, motor skills, diagnosing skill, medical skills) are cognitiveskills. Cognitive skills are supported by two types of knowledge:

  4. Wages and Skills Utilization: Effect of Broad Skills and Generic Skills on Wages in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Catherine R.; Ng, Michael Chi Man; Sung, Johnny; Loke, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Many people go for training to upgrade their skills which is hoped to pave the way for better pay. But what are the kinds of skills that really affect wages? Employers have emphasized the value of generic skills such as interpersonal and communication skills, teamwork and problem solving. Does possession of these skills translate to at least the…

  5. YOUTH EMPLOYMENT AND ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILLS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apusigah

    enterprise development, community development ... estimates that by the year 2015 there will be three billion people in the world who .... skills such as technical skills and business management skills (Hisrich and .... Technical/Vocational 12.

  6. Presentation skills for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, Mark

    2015-02-20

    This article emphasises the importance of effective presentation skills. Such skills allow nurses to share knowledge and expertise and to communicate clearly in a range of workplace scenarios. Nurses are increasingly being asked to present in formal and informal situations, such as conferences, poster presentations, job interviews, case reports and ward-based teaching. This article explores the principles underpinning the development of these skills, discusses the situations in which they could be applied and demonstrates how nurses might improve and develop as presenters.

  7. Improve your communication skills

    CERN Document Server

    Barker, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Excellent communication skills are vital in today's workplace. Whether keeping the interest of a large audience, impressing a potential employer or simply winning the argument at an important meeting, sounding the part is key. This fourth edition of Improve Your Communication Skills is full of practical advice on all aspects of verbal and non-verbal communication. It gives vital tips on improving conversations and building rapport with colleagues, learning the skills of persuasion, and writing effective emails, letters and reports. This editionincludes new information focusing on communicating across borders and virtual teams and a new chapter on managing difficult conversations."

  8. Rethinking generic skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Canning

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a critical analysis of the notion of generic or transversal skillscontained with European Union policy discourses. The author presents a conceptualframework that challenges the idea that generic skills are universal, transferable andautonomous. An alternative analysis is put forward that argues the case forcontextualising skills and knowledge within particular understandings and cultures thatare more collective than individualistic in nature. The arguments are framed withinwider cross-disciplinary debates in linguistics, geosemiotics and social-cultural theoryand build upon an earlier paper exploring core skills in the UK (Canning, 2007.

  9. Floorball game skills (evaluation criteria)

    OpenAIRE

    Chlumský, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Title: Playing skills in floorball (evaluation criteria). Target: To create a list of playing skills which an ideal player should demonstrate. Find and verify the evaluation criteria of these skills and inspire trainers to develop these skills in the best way. Methods: Informal interviews, individually structured interviews, analysis and verification of data, pilot testing. Results: Defined playing skills in floorball, developed scale of values of floorball playing skills, creation of exercis...

  10. Selection of an evaluation index for water ecological civilizations of water-shortage cities based on the grey rough set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. Y.; Zhu, J. W.; Xie, J. C.; Liu, J. L.; Jiang, R. G.

    2017-08-01

    According to the characteristics and existing problems of water ecological civilization of water-shortage cities, the evaluation index system of water ecological civilization was established using a grey rough set. From six aspects of water resources, water security, water environment, water ecology, water culture and water management, this study established the prime frame of the evaluation system, including 28 items, and used rough set theory to undertake optimal selection of the index system. Grey correlation theory then was used for weightings in order that the integrated evaluation index system for water ecology civilization of water-shortage cities could be constituted. Xi’an City was taken as an example, for which the results showed that 20 evaluation indexes could be obtained after optimal selection of the preliminary framework of evaluation index. The most influential indices were the water-resource category index and water environment category index. The leakage rate of the public water supply pipe network, as well as the disposal, treatment and usage rate of polluted water, urban water surface area ratio, the water quality of the main rivers, and so on also are important. It was demonstrated that the evaluation index could provide an objectively reflection of regional features and key points for the development of water ecology civilization for cities with scarce water resources. It is considered that the application example has universal applicability.

  11. Persistence of stapedial artery: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Bruna Vilaca de; Gaiotti, Juliana Oggioni; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira; Ribeiro, Marcelo Almeida; Motta, Emilia Guerra Pinto Coelho; Moreira, Wanderval

    2013-01-01

    Persistent stapedial artery is a rare congenital anomaly that occurs by a failure in the involution of such artery. Most patients with persistent stapedial artery are asymptomatic. The imaging diagnosis is made principally by means of multidetector computed tomography. In the present case, persistent stapedial artery was an incidental computed tomography finding. The authors discuss the embryogenesis, computed tomography findings and the importance of an early diagnosis of such anomaly. (author)

  12. Dualities in persistent (co)homology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Silva, Vin; Morozov, Dmitriy; Vejdemo-Johansson, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    We consider sequences of absolute and relative homology and cohomology groups that arise naturally for a filtered cell complex. We establish algebraic relationships between their persistence modules, and show that they contain equivalent information. We explain how one can use the existing algorithm for persistent homology to process any of the four modules, and relate it to a recently introduced persistent cohomology algorithm. We present experimental evidence for the practical efficiency of the latter algorithm

  13. Systemic Measures and Legislative and Organizational Frameworks Aimed at Preventing or Mitigating Drug Shortages in 28 European and Western Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochenek, Tomasz; Abilova, Vafa; Alkan, Ali; Asanin, Bogdan; de Miguel Beriain, Iñigo; Besovic, Zeljka; Vella Bonanno, Patricia; Bucsics, Anna; Davidescu, Michal; De Weerdt, Elfi; Duborija-Kovacevic, Natasa; Fürst, Jurij; Gaga, Mina; Gailīte, Elma; Gulbinovič, Jolanta; Gürpınar, Emre U.; Hankó, Balázs; Hargaden, Vincent; Hotvedt, Tor A.; Hoxha, Iris; Huys, Isabelle; Inotai, Andras; Jakupi, Arianit; Jenzer, Helena; Joppi, Roberta; Laius, Ott; Lenormand, Marie-Camille; Makridaki, Despina; Malaj, Admir; Margus, Kertu; Marković-Peković, Vanda; Miljković, Nenad; de Miranda, João L.; Primožič, Stanislav; Rajinac, Dragana; Schwartz, David G.; Šebesta, Robin; Simoens, Steven; Slaby, Juraj; Sović-Brkičić, Ljiljana; Tesar, Tomas; Tzimis, Leonidas; Warmińska, Ewa; Godman, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Drug shortages have been identified as a public health problem in an increasing number of countries. This can negatively impact on the quality and efficiency of patient care, as well as contribute to increases in the cost of treatment and the workload of health care providers. Shortages also raise ethical and political issues. The scientific evidence on drug shortages is still scarce, but many lessons can be drawn from cross-country analyses. The objective of this study was to characterize, compare, and evaluate the current systemic measures and legislative and organizational frameworks aimed at preventing or mitigating drug shortages within health care systems across a range of European and Western Asian countries. The study design was retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive, and observational. Information was gathered through a survey distributed among senior personnel from ministries of health, state medicines agencies, local health authorities, other health or pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement authorities, health insurance companies and academic institutions, with knowledge of the pharmaceutical markets in the 28 countries studied. Our study found that formal definitions of drug shortages currently exist in only a few countries. The characteristics of drug shortages, including their assortment, duration, frequency, and dynamics, were found to be variable and sometimes difficult to assess. Numerous information hubs were identified. Providing public access to information on drug shortages to the maximum possible extent is a prerequisite for performing more advanced studies on the problem and identifying solutions. Imposing public service obligations, providing the formal possibility to prescribe unlicensed medicines, and temporary bans on parallel exports are widespread measures. A positive finding of our study was the identification of numerous bottom-up initiatives and organizational frameworks aimed at preventing or mitigating drug shortages. The

  14. Immediate and longer term impact of the varicella shortage on children 18 and 24 months of age in a community population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmerman Rick

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the impact of the recent varicella vaccine shortage. To assess the temporal trend in varicella vaccine administration before 18 and 24 months of age in a community cohort of children prior to, during and after the recent varicella vaccine shortage. And to compare the temporal trends in varicella vaccinations to trends of an older, more widely accepted vaccine, the MMR. Methods Community population-based birth cohorts were identified who were eligible for the varicella vaccination before, during and after the 2001 to 2002 varicella vaccine shortage. Only children (84% of all who remained in the community through their second birthday were included. For each child in the cohort, the medical records and immunization registry records from both medical facilities in the county were reviewed to identify the dates and sites for all varicella immunizations given. In addition to varicella immunizations, the dates of all MMR vaccinations were recorded. Additional data abstracted included the child's birth date, gender and dates of any recognized cases of chickenpox up through age 24 months. Results Of the 2,512 children in the birth cohorts, 50.8% were boys. In the three cohorts combined, 81.1% of the boys and 79.3% of the girls (p = 0.30 received the varicella vaccine by age 24 months. The pre-shortage community rate of varicella immunization was 79.7% by 24 months of age. During the varicella vaccine shortage, the rate of varicella immunization by 24 months fell to 77.2%. Only 6 additional children received a "catch-up" immunization by 36 months of age. In the post shortage period the community 24-month immunization rate rebounded to a level higher than the pre-shortage rate 84.0%. During the almost three years of observation, the MMR immunization rate by age 24 months was constant (87%. Conclusion The varicella shortage was associated with an immediate drop in the 24-month varicella immunizations rate but

  15. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Choosing a Surgical Residency Education Modules Practice Management Workshops Patients and Family Patient Education Patient Education ... Trauma Advanced Trauma Life Support Advanced Trauma Operative Management Basic Endovascular Skills for Trauma Disaster Management and ...

  16. Ostomy Home Skills Program

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    Full Text Available ... and Family Patient Education Patient Education Patients Medical Professionals Skills Programs Find a Treatment Center Patient Safety ... Involved Get Involved SurgeonsVoice American College of Surgeons Professional Association State Legislative Action Center Leadership & Advocacy Summit ...

  17. Ostomy Home Skills Program

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    Full Text Available ... for Hospitals Ostomy Home Skills Hospital Quality Improvement Package The standardized interactive program has been developed by the American College of Surgeons ... and Associates Medical Students International Surgeons ...

  18. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with demonstration of each skill Stoma Practice Model Stoma supplies (measurement guide, marking pen, scissors, sample pouch) Ostomy self-care checklist Evaluation (Complete the Ostomy Patient Survey . We ...

  19. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Patients Medical Professionals Skills Programs Find a Treatment Center Patient Safety Resources About the Patient Education ... Surgeons (ASCRS), American Urological Association (AUA), Certified Enterostomal Therapy Nurses (CETN), and the United Ostomy Associations of ...

  20. Entrepreneurial Integration Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Florian; Schriber, Svante; King, David R.

    2016-01-01

    on 116 acquisitions, we find that entrepreneurial integration skills can display both advantages and disadvantages. While it helps to realize expected and serendipitous synergies, it can also trigger employee uncertainty due to decreased transparency. In supplementary analysis, we show measures...

  1. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... AUA), Certified Enterostomal Therapy Nurses (CETN), and the United Ostomy Associations of America (UOAA). The skills kit ... AUA), Certified Enterostomal Therapy Nurses (CETN), and the United Ostomy Associations of America (UOAA). Back to Top ...

  2. Ostomy Home Skills Program

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    Full Text Available ... Resources Online Guide to Choosing a Surgical Residency Practice Management Workshops Patients and Family Patient Education Patient Education Patients Medical Professionals Skills Programs Find a Treatment Center Patient ...

  3. CIEEM Skills Gap Project

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the research conducted for the Chartered Institute for Ecology and Environmental Management to identify skills gaps within the profession. It involved surveys of professionals, conference workshops and an investigation into the views of employers regarding graduate recruitment.

  4. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ASCRS), American Urological Association (AUA), Certified Enterostomal Therapy Nurses (CETN), and the United Ostomy Associations of America (UOAA). Program Overview The skills kit contains: A booklet with information on the ...

  5. Robot skills for manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Rath; Nalpantidis, Lazaros; Andersen, Rasmus Skovgaard

    2016-01-01

    -asserting robot skills for manufacturing. We show how a relatively small set of skills are derived from current factory worker instructions, and how these can be transferred to industrial mobile manipulators. General robot skills can not only be implemented on these robots, but also be intuitively concatenated...... products are introduced by manufacturers. In order to compete on global markets, the factories of tomorrow need complete production lines, including automation technologies that can effortlessly be reconfigured or repurposed, when the need arises. In this paper we present the concept of general, self...... in running production facilities at an industrial partner. It follows from these experiments that the use of robot skills, and associated task-level programming framework, is a viable solution to introducing robots that can intuitively and on the fly be programmed to perform new tasks by factory workers....

  6. Skilled Nursing Facility PPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Section 4432(a) of the Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997 modified how payment is made for Medicare skilled nursing facility (SNF) services. Effective with cost...

  7. Ostomy Home Skills Program

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    Full Text Available ... Safety Resources About the Patient Education Program The Recovery Room Choosing Wisely Educational Programs Educational Programs Educational ... and practice the skills needed for optimal postoperative recovery. The kit supports the entire surgical team with ...

  8. TEACHING INTERPERSONAL SKILLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas

    2009-01-01

    of the examination. This study aims at presenting and reviewing a practical approach to teaching of interpersonal skills, referred to as the Social Risk Analysis, which has been applied and integrated into the curriculum of two engineering courses. The Social Risk Analysis encourages and imposes a critical review......In addition to the traditional learning outcomes for technical disciplinary knowledge, the CDIO-syllabus also specifies personal and interpersonal learning outcomes. The argument for teaching interpersonal skills rest upon the team-based working environment that is typical for engineers, where...... knowledge and skills in teamwork, leadership, and communications are highly required. Thus, the practice of interpersonal skills need to be implemented in engineering teaching, not only in terms of learning objectives, but realised in practical teaching activities and as an integrated part...

  9. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ASE Resident Prep Curriculum ACS/ASE Medical Student Core Curriculum ACS/ASE Medical Student Simulation-Based Surgical Skills Curriculum Cancer Education Cancer Education Cancer Education Cancer Programs Conference: Learn. ...

  10. Ostomy Home Skills Program

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    Full Text Available ... CME Accreditation PartnerCME Joint Providership Program Verification of Knowledge and Skills Academy of Master Surgeon Educators Academy ... Online Guide to Choosing a Surgical Residency Practice Management Workshops Patients and Family Patient Education Patient Education ...

  11. Ostomy Home Skills Program

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    Full Text Available ... You Want to Be a Surgeon Resident Resources Teaching Resources Online Guide to Choosing a Surgical Residency Practice Management Workshops Patients and Family Patient Education Patient Education Patients Medical Professionals Skills Programs Find ...

  12. Ostomy Home Skills Program

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    Full Text Available ... Systems Consultation Program Trauma Education Achieving Zero Preventable Deaths Conference Publications and Posters National Trauma System Injury ... Education Trauma Education Trauma Education Achieving Zero Preventable Deaths Trauma Systems Conference Advanced Surgical Skills for Exposure ...

  13. Skills for Effective Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, Dick; Ehly, Stewart

    1984-01-01

    Discusses counselor skills that promote effective consultation. Reviews research on effective school consultation and presents a five-stage model which involves phasing in, problem identification, implementation, evaluation, and termination. Provides recommendations for the process and products of consultation. (JAC)

  14. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available JACS Jobs Events Find a Surgeon Patients and Family Contact My Profile Shop ( 0 ) Cart Donate Become ... a Surgical Residency Practice Management Workshops Patients and Family Patient Education Patient Education Patients Medical Professionals Skills ...

  15. Ostomy Home Skills Program

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    Full Text Available ... Trauma and EMS Cancer and Research Health Information Technology Scope of Practice Pediatric Issues Other Federal Legislative ... The Ostomy Home Skills Kit supports patients with educational and simulation materials to learn and practice the ...

  16. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nurses (CETN), and the United Ostomy Associations of America (UOAA). Program Overview The skills kit contains: A ... Nurses (CETN), and the United Ostomy Associations of America (UOAA). Back to Top Find A Surgeon Find ...

  17. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Be a Surgeon Resident Resources Teaching Resources Online Guide to Choosing a Surgical Residency Practice Management Workshops Patients and Family Patient Education Patient Education Patients Medical Professionals Skills Programs Find ...

  18. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ACS/ASE Medical Student Core Curriculum ACS/ASE Medical Student Simulation-Based Surgical Skills Curriculum Cancer Education Cancer Education Cancer Education Cancer Programs Conference: Learn. ...

  19. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Online Guide to Choosing a Surgical Residency Practice Management Workshops Patients and Family Patient Education Patient Education ... Trauma Advanced Trauma Life Support Advanced Trauma Operative Management Basic Endovascular Skills for Trauma Disaster Management and ...

  20. Drought Persistence Errors in Global Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, H.; Gudmundsson, L.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2018-04-01

    The persistence of drought events largely determines the severity of socioeconomic and ecological impacts, but the capability of current global climate models (GCMs) to simulate such events is subject to large uncertainties. In this study, the representation of drought persistence in GCMs is assessed by comparing state-of-the-art GCM model simulations to observation-based data sets. For doing so, we consider dry-to-dry transition probabilities at monthly and annual scales as estimates for drought persistence, where a dry status is defined as negative precipitation anomaly. Though there is a substantial spread in the drought persistence bias, most of the simulations show systematic underestimation of drought persistence at global scale. Subsequently, we analyzed to which degree (i) inaccurate observations, (ii) differences among models, (iii) internal climate variability, and (iv) uncertainty of the employed statistical methods contribute to the spread in drought persistence errors using an analysis of variance approach. The results show that at monthly scale, model uncertainty and observational uncertainty dominate, while the contribution from internal variability is small in most cases. At annual scale, the spread of the drought persistence error is dominated by the statistical estimation error of drought persistence, indicating that the partitioning of the error is impaired by the limited number of considered time steps. These findings reveal systematic errors in the representation of drought persistence in current GCMs and suggest directions for further model improvement.

  1. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Workforce Trauma and EMS Cancer and Research Health Information Technology Scope of Practice Pediatric Issues Other Federal Legislative Issues Regulatory Issues Regulatory Issues Regulatory Issues Stop Overregulating My OR ... Rectal Surgeons (ASCRS), American Urological Association (AUA), Certified Enterostomal Therapy Nurses (CETN), and the United Ostomy Associations of America (UOAA). The skills kit contains: A booklet with information on the operation, home skills such as emptying ...

  2. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Workforce Trauma and EMS Cancer and Research Health Information Technology Scope of Practice Pediatric Issues Other Federal Legislative Issues Regulatory Issues Regulatory Issues Regulatory Issues Stop Overregulating My OR ... American Urological Association (AUA), Certified Enterostomal Therapy Nurses (CETN), and the United Ostomy Associations of America (UOAA). Program Overview The skills kit contains: A booklet with information on the operation, home skills such as emptying ...

  3. Translating Romans: some persistent headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. du Toit

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Translating Romans: some persistent headaches Gone are the days when it was axiomatic that expertise in biblical languages automatically qualified one as a Bible translator. In 1949, Ronald Knox, who for nine years conscientiously struggled with translating the Bible for his generation, published a booklet under the title The trials of a translator. At that stage Bible translation as the subject of scientific study was still in its infancy. Since then, research into the intricacies of communicating the biblical message in an authentic but understandable manner, has made significant progress (cf. Roberts, 2009. However, the frustrations of Bible translators, first of all to really understand what the biblical authors wanted to convey to their original addressees, and then to commu-nicate that message to their own targeted readers in a meaningful way, have not disappeared. In fact, the challenge to meet the vary-ing requirements of the multiple kinds of translation that are present-ly in vogue, has only increased.

  4. Energy savings: persuasion and persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eijadi, David; McDougall, Tom; Leaf, Kris; Douglas, Jim; Steinbock, Jason; Reimer, Paul [The Weidt Group, Minnetonka, MN (United States); Gauthier, Julia [Xcel Energy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Wild, Doug; Richards McDaniel, Stephanie [BWBR Architects, Inc., Saint Paul, MN (United States)

    2005-07-01

    In this study, the architects, sponsoring utility and energy simulation specialist joined together to investigate the persistence of energy savings in three completed projects: a college library; a municipal transportation facility; and a hospital. The primary question being 'How well did the design decisions made with the help of simulation analysis translate into building operations over several years?' Design simulation and metered performance data are compared for specific energy-saving strategies. The paper provides a brief overview of the basis of selection of the three projects, the energy design assistance methods employed and the decisions made, along with their savings expectations. For each case, design characteristics, modelling assumptions, selected strategies and actual metered performance are outlined. We find evidence of appropriate levels of energy conservation, but they are not the absolute values predicted. In each case, the discrepancies between modelling assumptions and final construction or operating procedures are identified, examined and rectified. The paper illustrates that while owners are saving energy, they are not always getting the full savings potential for what they install. The paper concludes with a re-examination of the overall process. It evaluates the potential for additional savings of individual technologies and related larger utility incentives to design teams and building owners.

  5. Open knot-tying skills: residents skills assessed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Empel, P.J.; Verdam, M.G.E.; Huirne, J.A.; Bonjer, H.J.; Meijerink, W.J.; Scheele, F.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Open knot-tying and suturing skills are fundamental surgical skills, founding many alternative knot-tying techniques. It is therefore mandatory for residents to possess adequate basic open knot-tying skills. The aim of this study was to compare an objective assessment of open knot-tying skills

  6. Teaching Advanced Leadership Skills in Community Service (ALSCS) to medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Adam O; Calleson, Diane; Bearman, Rachel; Steiner, Beat D; Frasier, Pamela Y; Slatt, Lisa

    2009-06-01

    Inadequate access to health care, lack of health insurance, and significant health disparities reflect crises in health care affecting all of society. Training U.S. physicians to possess not only clinical expertise but also sufficient leadership skills is essential to solve these problems and to effectively improve health care systems. Few models in the undergraduate medical curriculum exist for teaching students how to combine needed leadership competencies with actual service opportunities.The Advanced Leadership Skills in Community Service (ALSCS) selective developed in response to the shortage of leadership models and leadership training for medical students. The ALSCS selective is designed specifically to increase students' leadership skills, with an emphasis on community service. The selective integrates classroom-based learning, hands-on application of learned skills, and service learning. More than 60 medical students have participated in the selective since inception. Short-term outcomes demonstrate an increase in students' self-efficacy around multiple dimensions of leadership skills (e.g., fundraising, networking, motivating others). Students have also successfully completed more than a dozen leadership and community service projects. The selective offers an innovative model of a leadership-skills-based course that can have a positive impact on leadership skill development among medical school students and that can be incorporated into the medical school curriculum.

  7. The Change of Planned Happenstance Skills and Its Association with Career-Related Variables during School-to-Work Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, NaYeon; Yaung, Huk; Noh, Hyunkyung; Jang, Sun Hee; Lee, Bora

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined how planned happenstance skills (i.e., curiosity, flexibility, persistence, optimism, and risk-taking) changed during school-to-work transition and how career-related variables were associated with the initial levels and change rates of planned happenstance skills. In a sample of 307 South Korean college students, all…

  8. Risk Assessment in Relation to the Effect of Climate Change on Water Shortage in the Taichung Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, J.; Chang, L.; Ho, C.; Niu, M.

    2010-12-01

    Rapid economic development has stimulated a worldwide greenhouse effect and induced global climate change. Global climate change has increased the range of variation in the quantity of regional river flows between wet and dry seasons, which effects the management of regional water resources. Consequently, the influence of climate change has become an important issue in the management of regional water resources. In this study, the Monte Carlo simulation method was applied to risk analysis of shortage of water supply in the Taichung area. This study proposed a simulation model that integrated three models: weather generator model, surface runoff model, and water distribution model. The proposed model was used to evaluate the efficiency of the current water supply system and the potential effectiveness of two additional plans for water supply: the “artificial lakes” plan and the “cross-basin water transport” plan. A first-order Markov Chain method and two probability distribution models, exponential distribution and normal distribution, were used in the weather generator model. In the surface runoff model, researchers selected the Generalized Watershed Loading Function model (GWLF) to simulate the relationship between quantity of rainfall and basin outflow. A system dynamics model (SD) was applied to the water distribution model. Results of the simulation indicated that climate change could increase the annual quantity of river flow in the Dachia River and Daan River basins. However, climate change could also increase the difference in the quantity of river flow between wet and dry seasons. Simulation results showed that in current system case or in the additional plan cases, shortage status of water for both public and agricultural uses with conditions of climate change will be mostly worse than that without conditions of climate change except for the shortage status for the public use in the current system case. With or without considering the effect of

  9. Contribution of Oral Language Skills, Linguistic Skills, and Transcription Skills to Chinese Written Composition among Fourth-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Pui-sze; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the contribution of oral language skills, linguistic skills, and transcription skills to Chinese written composition among Grade 4 students in Hong Kong. Measures assessing verbal working memory, oral language skills, linguistic skills (i.e., syntactic skills and discourse skills), transcription skills (i.e.,…

  10. Let your communication skills equal your clinical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarais, Ann; Baum, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Relating effectively with patients is among the most valued skills of clinical care. Honing your communication skills is an art that every physician needs to learn and understand. In this era of increased volume of patients there is a tendency to lose sight of the importance of having good communication skills. This article will review 11 suggestions for letting your communication skills equal your clinical skills.

  11. Causes of skill in seasonal predictions of the Arctic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Chen, Mingyue

    2017-11-01

    Based on an analysis of hindcasts from a seasonal forecast system, complemented by the analysis of a large ensemble of AMIP simulations, possible causes for skillful prediction of the winter Arctic Oscillation (AO) on a seasonal time-scale are analyzed. The possibility that the recent increase in AO skill could be due to model improvements, or due to changes in the persistence characteristics of the AO, is first discounted. The analysis then focuses on exploring the possibility that the recent increase in prediction skill in AO may be due to sampling variations or could have physical causes. Temporal variations in AO skill due entirely to sampling alone cannot be discounted as this is a fundamental constraint on verifications over a short time-series. This notion is supported from theoretical considerations, and from the analysis of the temporal variations in the perfect model skill where substantial variations in skill due to sampling alone are documented. As for the physical causes, the analysis indicates possible links in the prediction skill of AO with the SST forcing from the tropics, particularly related to the SST variations associated with the Trans-Niño Index (TNI). Interannual and low frequency variations in the TNI could have contributed to similar temporal variations in AO skill. For example, a dominance of central Pacific El Niño events after 2000 (a reflection of low-frequency variations in TNI) coincided with an increase in the prediction skill of AO. The analysis approach and results provide an avenue for further investigations; for example, model simulations forced with the SST pattern associated with the TNI, to establish or reaffirm causes for AO skill.

  12. Mastering NServiceBus and persistence

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for developers, designers, and architects alike who wish to build C# NServiceBus enterprise architectures and learn how ESB persists data and messages to help them attain their goals. No prior knowledge of persistence in NServiceBus is required.

  13. Is bacterial persistence a social trait?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Gardner

    Full Text Available The ability of bacteria to evolve resistance to antibiotics has been much reported in recent years. It is less well-known that within populations of bacteria there are cells which are resistant due to a non-inherited phenotypic switch to a slow-growing state. Although such 'persister' cells are receiving increasing attention, the evolutionary forces involved have been relatively ignored. Persistence has a direct benefit to cells because it allows survival during catastrophes-a form of bet-hedging. However, persistence can also provide an indirect benefit to other individuals, because the reduced growth rate can reduce competition for limiting resources. This raises the possibility that persistence is a social trait, which can be influenced by kin selection. We develop a theoretical model to investigate the social consequences of persistence. We predict that selection for persistence is increased when: (a cells are related (e.g. a single, clonal lineage; and (b resources are scarce. Our model allows us to predict how the level of persistence should vary with time, across populations, in response to intervention strategies and the level of competition. More generally, our results clarify the links between persistence and other bet-hedging or social behaviours.

  14. The Persistence of Mutual Fund Performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Grinblatt, Mark; Titman, Sheridan

    1992-01-01

    This paper analyzes how mutual fund performance relates to past performance. These tests are based on a multiple portfolio benchmark that was formed on the basis of securities characteristics. The authors find evidence that differences in performance between funds persist over time and that this persistence is consistent with the ability of fund managers to earn abnormal returns. Copyright 1992 by American Finance Association.

  15. Modelling asymmetric persistence over the business cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Paap (Richard)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWe address the issue of time varying persistence of shocks to macroeconomic time series variables by proposing a new and parsimonious time series model. Our model assumes that this time varying persistence depends on a linear combination of lagged explanatory variables, where this

  16. A model for persistency of egg production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossman, M.; Gossman, T.N.; Koops, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of our study were to propose a new definition for persistency of egg production and to develop a mathematical model to describe the egg production curve, one that includes a new measure for persistency, based on the proposed definition, for use as a selection criterion to improve

  17. Lymphogranuloma venereum causing a persistent genital ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Terrence; Lee, Yer; Pandori, Mark; Jain, Vivek; Cohen, Stephanie Elise

    2014-04-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted cause of inguinal lymphadenopathy and proctocolitis. We report a patient with a persistent genital ulcer due to LGV (serovar L2b), an unusual presentation among US men who have sex with men. Lymphogranuloma venereum should be considered when evaluating persistent genital ulcers, and LGV-specific testing should be sought.

  18. Persistent Identifiers as Boundary Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, M. A.; Fox, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    In 1989, Leigh Star and Jim Griesemer defined the seminal concept of `boundary objects'. These `objects' are what Latour calls `immutable mobiles' that enable communication and collaboration across difference by helping meaning to be understood in different contexts. As Star notes, they are a sort of arrangement that allow different groups to work together without (a priori) consensus. Part of the idea is to recognize and allow for the `interpretive flexibility' that is central to much of the `constructivist' approach in the sociology of science. Persistent Identifiers (PIDs) can clearly act as boundary objects, but people do not usually assume that they enable interpretive flexibility. After all, they are meant to be unambiguous, machine-interpretable identifiers of defined artifacts. In this paper, we argue that PIDs can fill at least two roles: 1) That of the standardized form, where there is strong agreement on what is being represented and how and 2) that of the idealized type, a more conceptual concept that allows many different representations. We further argue that these seemingly abstract conceptions actually help us implement PIDs more effectively to link data, publications, various other artifacts, and especially people. Considering PIDs as boundary objects can help us address issues such as what level of granularity is necessary for PIDs, what metadata should be directly associated with PIDs, and what purpose is the PID serving (reference, provenance, credit, etc.). In short, sociological theory can improve data sharing standards and their implementation in a way that enables broad interdisciplinary data sharing and reuse. We will illustrate this with several specific examples of Earth science data.

  19. Mathematical Skills and Motor Life Skills in Toddlers: Do Differences in Mathematical Skills Reflect Differences in Motor Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reikerås, Elin; Moser, Thomas; Tønnessen, Finn Egil

    2017-01-01

    This study examines possible relations between early mathematical skills and motor life skills in 450 toddlers aged two years and nine months. The study employs baseline data from the longitudinal Stavanger Project--The Learning Child. The children's mathematical skills and motor life skills were assessed by structured observation in the natural…

  20. Employability Skills Assessment Tool Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abd; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini; Puvanasvaran, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Research nationally and internationally found that technical graduates are lacking in employability skills. As employability skills are crucial in outcome-based education, the main goal of this research is to develop an Employability Skill Assessment Tool to help students and lecturers produce competent graduates in employability skills needed by…