WorldWideScience

Sample records for persistent parenchymal infiltrates

  1. Graves' Disease Patients with Persistent Hyperthyroidism and Diffuse Lymphoplasmacytic Infiltration in the Thyroid Show No Histopathological Compatibility with IgG4-Related Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eijun Nishihara

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease is a novel disease entity characterized by diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells and fibrosis into multiple organs. There is still controversy over whether some thyroid diseases are actually IgG4-related disease. The objective of this study was to elucidate the clinicopathological features of Graves' disease with diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in the thyroid.Among 1,484 Graves' disease patients who underwent thyroidectomy, we examined their histopathological findings including the degree of lymphoplasmacytic and fibrotic infiltration and levels of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the thyroid. Their clinical pictures were defined by laboratory and ultrasonographic evaluation.A total of 11 patients (0.74% showed diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in the stroma of the thyroid gland. Meanwhile, other patients showed variable lymphoid infiltration ranging from absent to focally dense but no aggregation of plasma cells in the thyroid gland. Based on the diagnostic criteria of IgG4-related disease, 5 of the 11 subjects had specifically increased levels of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the thyroid. Fibrotic infiltration was present in only 1 patient developing hypothyroidism after anti-thyroid drug treatment for 4 years, but not in the other 10 patients with persistent hyperthyroidism. Obliterative phlebitis was not identified in any of the 11 subjects. Thyroid ultrasound examination showed 1 patient developing hypothyroidism who had diffuse hypoechogenicity, but the other hyperthyroid patients had a coarse echo texture.In our study, Graves' disease patients with persistent hyperthyroidism who had diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells in the thyroid showed no concomitant fibrosis or obliterative phlebitis.

  2. Diffuse parenchymal lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Tomassetti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Between September 2015 and August 2016 there were >1500 publications in the field of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs. For the Clinical Year in Review session at the European Respiratory Society Congress that was held in London, UK, in September 2016, we selected only five articles. This selection, made from the enormous number of published papers, does not include all the relevant studies that will significantly impact our knowledge in the field of DPLDs in the near future. This review article provides our personal view on the following topics: early diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, current knowledge on the multidisciplinary team diagnosis of DPLDs and the diagnostic role of transbronchial cryobiopsy in this diagnostic setting, insights on the new entity of interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features, and new therapeutic approaches for scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease.

  3. Abdominal polytrauma and parenchymal organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krestan, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    The acute radiological diagnostics of polytrauma patients has become an essential part of the interdisciplinary treatment in the emergency room. The incidence of polytrauma patients with an injury severity score (ISS) > 16 is approximately 450 cases/million inhabitants/year in Europe. Injuries of the parenchymal organs are of utmost importance for the prognosis and treatment of these patients. The injury patterns are complex and a great deal of experience is necessary to be able to obtain the correct diagnosis within minutes. This review article deals with the radiological diagnostics and grading of the severity of injuries to the spleen, liver, pancreas and kidneys. The use of ultrasound for the evaluation of polytraumatized patients will be discussed. The most important trauma-associated findings for the above mentioned organs using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) will be described and illustrated by dedicated case findings. Ultrasound contrast agents can supply valuable, additional diagnostic information in the evaluation of polytraumatized patients. Computed tomography has become established as the most relevant imaging modality in severe trauma. Innovative organ-adapted and contrast application protocols improve the diagnostic performance of MDCT. The use of focused assessment sonography for trauma (FAST) scanning as a screening tool is in agreement with the other clinical disciplines of the trauma team. The use of MDCT is trauma-dependent and the classification of the severity of the different parenchymal organ injuries is ultimately decisive for further treatment and prognosis of trauma victims. (orig.) [de

  4. Pulmonary Hypertension in Parenchymal Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaris, Iraklis; Tsaknis, Georgios; Anthi, Anastasia; Orfanos, Stylianos E.

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) has been extensively investigated, although it represents a less common form of the pulmonary hypertension (PH) family, as shown by international registries. Interestingly, in types of PH that are encountered in parenchymal lung diseases such as interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and many other diffuse parenchymal lung diseases, some of which are very common, the available data is limited. In this paper, we try to browse in the latest available data regarding the occurrence, pathogenesis, and treatment of PH in chronic parenchymal lung diseases. PMID:23094153

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging in parenchymal neurocysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Just, M.; Higer, H.P.; Pfannenstiel, P.; Mergner, T.; Henne, W.

    1987-03-01

    MRI-findings in a case of parenchymal neurocysticercosis are presented. The changes of the lesions as a response to chemotherapy were monitored by MRI and CT. Problems of sensitivity (MRI vs. CT) and MRI differential diagnoses are discussed.

  6. Pulmonary parenchymal changes in the pediatric patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, G.O. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of the pediatric chest radiograph for parenchymal pathology is similar to that of the adult. This chapter focuses primarily on the radiographic changes of certain entities presenting to the pediatric intensive care unit (ICU), including airway diseases, pneumonia, pulmonary hemorrhage, and lung trauma, as well as problems related to general anesthesia and surgery

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging in parenchymal neurocysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, M.; Higer, H.P.; Pfannenstiel, P.; Mergner, T.; Henne, W.

    1987-01-01

    MRI-findings in a case of parenchymal neurocysticercosis are presented. The changes of the lesions as a response to chemotherapy were monitored by MRI and CT. Problems of sensitivity (MRI vs. CT) and MRI differential diagnoses are discussed. (orig.) [de

  8. Frontal parenchymal atrophy measures in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Laura; Zivadinov, Robert; Grop, Attilio; Zorzon, Marino

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether, in a cross-sectional study, the normalized measures of whole and regional brain atrophy correlate better with tests assessing the cognitive function than the absolute brain atrophy measures. The neuropsychological performances and disability have been assessed in 39 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). T1- and T2-lesion load (LL) of total brain and frontal lobes (FLs) were measured using a reproducible semiautomated technique. The whole brain volume and the regional brain parenchymal volume (RBPV) of FLs were obtained using a computerized interactive program, which incorporates semiautomated and automated segmentation processes. Normalized measures of brain atrophy, i.e., brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) and regional brain parenchymal fraction (RBPF) of FLs, were calculated. The scan-rescan, inter- and intrarater coefficient of variation (COV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) have been estimated. The RBPF of FLs showed an acceptable level of reproducibility which ranged from 1.7% for intrarater variability to 3.2% for scan-rescan variability. The mean ICC was 0.88 (CI 0.82-0.93). The RBPF of FLs demonstrated stronger magnitudes of correlation with neuropsychological functioning, disability and quantitative MRI lesion measures than RBPV. These differences were statistically significant: PColor Word Interference test, Pcognitive functions, whereas BPAV did not. The correlation analysis results were supported by the results of multiple regression analysis which showed that only the normalized brain atrophy measures were associated with tests exploring the cognitive functions. These data suggest that RBPF is a reproducible and sensitive method for measuring frontal parenchymal atrophy. The normalized measures of whole and regional brain parenchymal atrophy should be preferred to absolute measures in future studies that correlate neuropsychological performances and brain atrophy measures

  9. A Study on the Diagnostic Significance of Hepatoscintigram with Colloidal Gold in Parenchymal Liver Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Dong Ho; Lee, Min Ho; Kim, Mok Hyun

    1982-01-01

    Hapatoscintigram has been a useful diagnostic method for the liver disease since 1953, but reasonable diagnostic criteria for parenchymal liver diseases are not yet accurately established. For the purpose of searching for more advanced diagnostic criteria for various types of live diseases by the liver scan, a retrospective study was made of 272 cases who underwent both hepatoscintigram with 198 Au colloid and liver biopsy in Hanyang University Hospital from Jan, 1978 to Dec, 1981. The results were as follows: 1. Fuzzy margin (irregular indentation of the liver margin) in the hepatoscintigram was noted in 226 cases (97.79%) 2. Of 35 cases with fuzzy margin only, 28 cases (80%)revealed mild parenchymal liver disease, such as acute hepatitis or chronic persistent hepatitis by the liver biopsy. 3. Mottling change (209 cases) was always accomplished by fuzzy margin except only one case, and 31 cases (86.1%) of fuzzy and mottling cases (36 cases) showed mild parenchymal liver disease. 4. Configuration change (193 cases) was usually accompanied with other changes and especially 104 cases had configuration changed with fuzzy and mottling changes. 73 cases (88.445) of 86 cases with severe configuration changed revealed advanced parenchymal liver disease on biopsy. If liver scan showed mild configuration change, we could not decide the type of liver disease only liver scan, and so further studies are needed. 5. Splenic uptake was noted 34 cases (40.48%) of 84 cases with advanced parenchymal liver disease, and the degree of splenic uptake was for the most part moderate or severe; whereas splenic uptake was noted in 18 cases (16.51%) of the mild parenchymal liver disease (109 cases), and the degree of splenic uptake was largely mild.

  10. Acute pulmonary parenchymal densities in the adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.H.; Murphy, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    The thrust of the radiographic interpretation is to correlate the often non-specific appearance of any parenchymal density with its time-table of development, rate of change, distribution, and the patient's clinical status. Although this chapter contains separate sections on each major cause of acute pulmonary opacification, the intent of the chapter overall is their differential diagnosis. Before beginning to deal with acute pulmonary densities, it is stressed that acute densities can only be differentiated from chronic ones by reviewing preoperative or pre-existing studies. Without the baseline comparison film or reliable presumption of prior normalcy, the acuteness of a parenchymal density may not be apparent until later examinations reveal change or resolution. Also, as discussed is baseline pathology that is altered by the portable technique can be terribly confusing when attempting to evaluate a single isolated film in an acute clinical situation

  11. Parenchymal abnormalities associated with developmental venous anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Millan Ruiz, Diego; Gailloud, Philippe [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Delavelle, Jacqueline [Geneva University Hospital, Neuroradiology Section, Department of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Geneva (Switzerland); Yilmaz, Hasan; Ruefenacht, Daniel A. [Geneva University Hospital, Section of Interventional Neuroradiology, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Geneva (Switzerland); Piovan, Enrico; Bertramello, Alberto; Pizzini, Francesca [Verona City Hospital, Service of Neuroradiology, Verona (Italy)

    2007-12-15

    To report a retrospective series of 84 cerebral developmental venous anomalies (DVAs), focusing on associated parenchymal abnormalities within the drainage territory of the DVA. DVAs were identified during routine diagnostic radiological work-up based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (60 cases), computed tomography (CT) (62 cases) or both (36 cases). Regional parenchymal modifications within the drainage territory of the DVA, such as cortical or subcortical atrophy, white matter density or signal alterations, dystrophic calcifications, presence of haemorrhage or a cavernous-like vascular malformation (CVM), were noted. A stenosis of the collecting vein of the DVA was also sought for. Brain abnormalities within the drainage territory of a DVA were encountered in 65.4% of the cases. Locoregional brain atrophy occurred in 29.7% of the cases, followed by white matter lesions in 28.3% of MRI investigations and 19.3% of CT investigations, CVMs in 13.3% of MRI investigations and dystrophic calcification in 9.6% of CT investigations. An intracranial haemorrhage possibly related to a DVA occurred in 2.4% cases, and a stenosis on the collecting vein was documented in 13.1% of cases. Parenchymal abnormalities were identified for all DVA sizes. Brain parenchymal abnormalities were associated with DVAs in close to two thirds of the cases evaluated. These abnormalities are thought to occur secondarily, likely during post-natal life, as a result of chronic venous hypertension. Outflow obstruction, progressive thickening of the walls of the DVA and their morphological organization into a venous convergence zone are thought to contribute to the development of venous hypertension in DVA. (orig.)

  12. MR findings of degenerating parenchymal neurocysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yul; Chung, Eun A; Yang, Ik; Park, Hae Jung; Chung, Soo Young

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate MR imaging findings of degenerating parenchymal neurocysticercosis and to determine the characteristics which distinguish it from other brain diseases. MR imagings of 19 patients (56 lesions) of degenerating parenchymal neurocysticercosis were retrospectively evaluated, focusing on the size and location of lesions signal intensity patterns of cyst fluid and wall, the extent of the surrounding edema and features of contrast enhancement. Degenerating parenchymal neurocysticercosis was located in gray or subcortical while matter in 89.3% of 56 lesions (50/56) ; most of these (98.2%) were smaller than 2 cm in diameter. Cyst fluid signal was hyperintense relative to CSF on T1 and proton density weighted images (92.9%). A hypointense signal rim of the cyst wall was noted in the lesions on proton density (92.9%) and T2 weighted (98.2%) images, Surrounding edema was mostly mild. Peripheral rim enhancement was noted in all lesions, and this was frequently irregular and lobulated (67.9%) with a focal defect in the enhancing rim(41.1%). Findings which could be helpful in distinguishing degenerating parencymal neurocysticercosis from other brain diseases are as follows : small, superficial lesions ; hyperintense signal of the cyst fluid on T1 and proton density weighted images ; hypointense signal of the cyst wall on proton density and T2 weighted images ; relatively mild extent of surrounding edema, and peripheral rim enhancement which is frequently irregular and lobulated with a focal defect in the enhancing rim

  13. Imaging Characteristics of Venous Parenchymal Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoux, Audrey; Triquenot-Bagan, Aude; Andriuta, Daniela; Wallon, David; Guegan-Massardier, Evelyne; Leclercq, Claire; Martinaud, Olivier; Castier-Amouyel, Mélody; Godefroy, Olivier; Bugnicourt, Jean-Marc

    2017-12-01

    There are few published data on the patterns of parenchymal imaging abnormalities in a context of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). The objectives of the present study were to describe the patterns of parenchymal lesions associated with CVT and to determine the lesion sites. We included 44 consecutively hospitalized patients with CVT and parenchymal lesions on magnetic resonance imaging. The diagnosis of CVT had been confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance venography. Magnetic resonance imaging patterns for CVT were retrospectively analyzed with regard to the lesion's type, shape, and site. The most frequent stroke subtype was hemorrhagic ischemia (in 56.8% of cases), followed by intracerebral hematoma (in 22.72% of cases) and nonhemorrhagic ischemia (in 20.45% of cases). Although there were no significant differences between these 3 groups with regard to the clinical and radiological characteristics, we observed a nonsignificant trend ( P =0.08) toward a shorter time interval between hospital admission and magnetic resonance imaging for nonhemorrhagic stroke. The CVT parenchymal abnormalities were centered on 6 main foci and were related to the site of venous occlusion: (1) the inferior parietal lobule (n=20; 44.5%), associated mainly with occlusion of the transverse sinus (n=10) or pure cortical veins (n=10); (2) the inferior and posterior temporal regions (n=10; 22.75%), associated mainly with occlusion of the transverse sinus (n=9); (3) the parasagittal frontal region (n=6; 13.6%), associated mainly with occlusion of the superior sagittal sinus (n=4) or the transverse sinus (n=4); (4) the thalamus (n=5; 11.3%) associated with occlusion of the straight sinus (n=5); (5) the cerebellar hemisphere (n=2; 4.5%), associated in both cases with occlusion of the transverse sinus; and (6) the deep hemispheric regions (n=3; 6.8%), associated with occlusion of the superior sagittal sinus in all cases. Parenchymal lesions caused by CVT display specific

  14. Quantitative stratification of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushravya Raghunath

    Full Text Available Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs are characterized by widespread pathological changes within the pulmonary tissue that impair the elasticity and gas exchange properties of the lungs. Clinical-radiological diagnosis of these diseases remains challenging and their clinical course is characterized by variable disease progression. These challenges have hindered the introduction of robust objective biomarkers for patient-specific prediction based on specific phenotypes in clinical practice for patients with DPLD. Therefore, strategies facilitating individualized clinical management, staging and identification of specific phenotypes linked to clinical disease outcomes or therapeutic responses are urgently needed. A classification schema consistently reflecting the radiological, clinical (lung function and clinical outcomes and pathological features of a disease represents a critical need in modern pulmonary medicine. Herein, we report a quantitative stratification paradigm to identify subsets of DPLD patients with characteristic radiologic patterns in an unsupervised manner and demonstrate significant correlation of these self-organized disease groups with clinically accepted surrogate endpoints. The proposed consistent and reproducible technique could potentially transform diagnostic staging, clinical management and prognostication of DPLD patients as well as facilitate patient selection for clinical trials beyond the ability of current radiological tools. In addition, the sequential quantitative stratification of the type and extent of parenchymal process may allow standardized and objective monitoring of disease, early assessment of treatment response and mortality prediction for DPLD patients.

  15. Quantitative Stratification of Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Sushravya; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Maldonado, Fabien; Peikert, Tobias; Moua, Teng; Ryu, Jay H.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs) are characterized by widespread pathological changes within the pulmonary tissue that impair the elasticity and gas exchange properties of the lungs. Clinical-radiological diagnosis of these diseases remains challenging and their clinical course is characterized by variable disease progression. These challenges have hindered the introduction of robust objective biomarkers for patient-specific prediction based on specific phenotypes in clinical practice for patients with DPLD. Therefore, strategies facilitating individualized clinical management, staging and identification of specific phenotypes linked to clinical disease outcomes or therapeutic responses are urgently needed. A classification schema consistently reflecting the radiological, clinical (lung function and clinical outcomes) and pathological features of a disease represents a critical need in modern pulmonary medicine. Herein, we report a quantitative stratification paradigm to identify subsets of DPLD patients with characteristic radiologic patterns in an unsupervised manner and demonstrate significant correlation of these self-organized disease groups with clinically accepted surrogate endpoints. The proposed consistent and reproducible technique could potentially transform diagnostic staging, clinical management and prognostication of DPLD patients as well as facilitate patient selection for clinical trials beyond the ability of current radiological tools. In addition, the sequential quantitative stratification of the type and extent of parenchymal process may allow standardized and objective monitoring of disease, early assessment of treatment response and mortality prediction for DPLD patients. PMID:24676019

  16. Vascular parenchymal sources of upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savastano, S.; Feltrin, G.P.; Miotto, D.; Chiesura-Corona, M.; Rubaltelli, L.; Candiani, F.

    Fourteen cases of upper gastrointenstinal bleeding (UGIB) were reviewed: 6 (group A) were caused by pancreatitis, 3 (group B) by hemobilia, and 5 (group C) by rupture of esophageal varices due to arterioportal shunts. Elective endoscopy carried out in 7 patients in groups A and B was negative; in 2 actively bleeding patients in group A emergency endoscopy could not detect the source of hemorrhage. Endoscopy was carried out in 4 patients in group C for diagnosis and sclerosis, but severe hemorrhage recurred in spite of treatment. Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) were carried out prior to angiography in 5 and 4 patients, respectively, and always suggested a parenchymal lesion. All patients underwent angiography. Transcatheter control of the hemorrhage was attempted as an emergency in 2 patients (as a presurgical step in one); elective embolization was the treatment of choice for 8 patients, with good results in 6. This study suggests the usefulness of US and CT both in the detection of parenchymal lesions causing UGIB not clarified by endoscopy, and in the selection of patients for angiographic treatment.

  17. Vascular parenchymal sources of upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savastano, S.; Feltrin, G.P.; Miotto, D.; Chiesura-Corona, M.; Rubaltelli, L.; Candiani, F.

    1989-01-01

    Fourteen cases of upper gastrointenstinal bleeding (UGIB) were reviewed: 6 (group A) were caused by pancreatitis, 3 (group B) by hemobilia, and 5 (group C) by rupture of esophageal varices due to arterioportal shunts. Elective endoscopy carried out in 7 patients in groups A and B was negative; in 2 actively bleeding patients in group A emergency endoscopy could not detect the source of hemorrhage. Endoscopy was carried out in 4 patients in group C for diagnosis and sclerosis, but severe hemorrhage recurred in spite of treatment. Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) were carried out prior to angiography in 5 and 4 patients, respectively, and always suggested a parenchymal lesion. All patients underwent angiography. Transcatheter control of the hemorrhage was attempted as an emergency in 2 patients (as a presurgical step in one); elective embolization was the treatment of choice for 8 patients, with good results in 6. This study suggests the usefulness of US and CT both in the detection of parenchymal lesions causing UGIB not clarified by endoscopy, and in the selection of patients for angiographic treatment. (orig.)

  18. All-In-One: Advanced preparation of Human Parenchymal and Non-Parenchymal Liver Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Werner

    Full Text Available Liver cells are key players in innate immunity. Thus, studying primary isolated liver cells is necessary for determining their role in liver physiology and pathophysiology. In particular, the quantity and quality of isolated cells are crucial to their function. Our aim was to isolate a large quantity of high-quality human parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells from a single liver specimen.Hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, and stellate cells were isolated from liver tissues by collagenase perfusion in combination with low-speed centrifugation, density gradient centrifugation, and magnetic-activated cell sorting. The purity and functionality of cultured cell populations were controlled by determining their morphology, discriminative cell marker expression, and functional activity.Cell preparation yielded the following cell counts per gram of liver tissue: 2.0 ± 0.4 × 10(7 hepatocytes, 1.8 ± 0.5 × 10(6 Kupffer cells, 4.3 ± 1.9 × 10(5 liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, and 3.2 ± 0.5 × 10(5 stellate cells. Hepatocytes were identified by albumin (95.5 ± 1.7% and exhibited time-dependent activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes. Kupffer cells expressed CD68 (94.5 ± 1.2% and exhibited phagocytic activity, as determined with 1 μm latex beads. Endothelial cells were CD146(+ (97.8 ± 1.1% and exhibited efficient uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein. Hepatic stellate cells were identified by the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (97.1 ± 1.5%. These cells further exhibited retinol (vitamin A-mediated autofluorescence.Our isolation procedure for primary parenchymal and non-parenchymal liver cells resulted in cell populations of high purity and quality, with retained physiological functionality in vitro. Thus, this system may provide a valuable tool for determining liver function and disease.

  19. Understanding the Lung Abscess Microbiome: Outcomes of Percutaneous Lung Parenchymal Abscess Drainage with Microbiologic Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Christopher; Nadolski, Gregory J; Gade, Terence; Hunt, Stephen

    2017-06-01

    Lung parenchymal abscesses represent an uncommon pathology with high mortality if untreated. Although most respond well to antibiotics, the optimal therapy for persistent abscesses is unknown. The purpose of this study was to review the outcomes of percutaneous lung parenchymal abscess catheter drainage after broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy failure and correlate with patient microbiologic samples. Retrospective review of patients who underwent percutaneous lung abscess drainage at a tertiary hospital system from 2005 to 2015 was performed. In total, 19 procedures were identified on 16 different patients; six females and ten males. Mean patient age was 55 years (range 22-81). Median follow-up time was 7 months (range abscess cavity in 58% (11/19) or with non-draining abscess cavities in 21% (4/19) for a clinical success rate of 79%. Blood cultures demonstrated no growth in all cases, while 21% (4/19) of sputum or bronchoscopic cultures demonstrated growth. In comparison, the specimens from initial catheter placement isolated a causative organism in 95% (18/19) of case (p lung abscess after broad-spectrum antibiotics, percutaneous abscess drainage is highly sensitive for microbiologic sampling compared to sputum/bronchoscopic or blood cultures. Additionally, percutaneous drainage of lung parenchymal abscess cavities may promote resolution of the abscess with high rates of therapeutic success and low complications.

  20. Understanding the Lung Abscess Microbiome: Outcomes of Percutaneous Lung Parenchymal Abscess Drainage with Microbiologic Correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, Christopher; Nadolski, Gregory J.; Gade, Terence; Hunt, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    IntroductionLung parenchymal abscesses represent an uncommon pathology with high mortality if untreated. Although most respond well to antibiotics, the optimal therapy for persistent abscesses is unknown. The purpose of this study was to review the outcomes of percutaneous lung parenchymal abscess catheter drainage after broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy failure and correlate with patient microbiologic samples.Materials and MethodsRetrospective review of patients who underwent percutaneous lung abscess drainage at a tertiary hospital system from 2005 to 2015 was performed. In total, 19 procedures were identified on 16 different patients; six females and ten males. Mean patient age was 55 years (range 22–81). Median follow-up time was 7 months (range <1–78).ResultsTechnical success was 100%. There was one major complication, a pneumothorax. Follow-up was until tube removal or death in 100% of patients. Catheters were removed with resolution of the abscess cavity in 58% (11/19) or with non-draining abscess cavities in 21% (4/19) for a clinical success rate of 79%. Blood cultures demonstrated no growth in all cases, while 21% (4/19) of sputum or bronchoscopic cultures demonstrated growth. In comparison, the specimens from initial catheter placement isolated a causative organism in 95% (18/19) of case (p < 0.0001).ConclusionIn cases of persistent lung abscess after broad-spectrum antibiotics, percutaneous abscess drainage is highly sensitive for microbiologic sampling compared to sputum/bronchoscopic or blood cultures. Additionally, percutaneous drainage of lung parenchymal abscess cavities may promote resolution of the abscess with high rates of therapeutic success and low complications.

  1. Understanding the Lung Abscess Microbiome: Outcomes of Percutaneous Lung Parenchymal Abscess Drainage with Microbiologic Correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Christopher; Nadolski, Gregory J.; Gade, Terence; Hunt, Stephen, E-mail: Stephen.hunt@uphs.upenn.edu [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2017-06-15

    IntroductionLung parenchymal abscesses represent an uncommon pathology with high mortality if untreated. Although most respond well to antibiotics, the optimal therapy for persistent abscesses is unknown. The purpose of this study was to review the outcomes of percutaneous lung parenchymal abscess catheter drainage after broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy failure and correlate with patient microbiologic samples.Materials and MethodsRetrospective review of patients who underwent percutaneous lung abscess drainage at a tertiary hospital system from 2005 to 2015 was performed. In total, 19 procedures were identified on 16 different patients; six females and ten males. Mean patient age was 55 years (range 22–81). Median follow-up time was 7 months (range <1–78).ResultsTechnical success was 100%. There was one major complication, a pneumothorax. Follow-up was until tube removal or death in 100% of patients. Catheters were removed with resolution of the abscess cavity in 58% (11/19) or with non-draining abscess cavities in 21% (4/19) for a clinical success rate of 79%. Blood cultures demonstrated no growth in all cases, while 21% (4/19) of sputum or bronchoscopic cultures demonstrated growth. In comparison, the specimens from initial catheter placement isolated a causative organism in 95% (18/19) of case (p < 0.0001).ConclusionIn cases of persistent lung abscess after broad-spectrum antibiotics, percutaneous abscess drainage is highly sensitive for microbiologic sampling compared to sputum/bronchoscopic or blood cultures. Additionally, percutaneous drainage of lung parenchymal abscess cavities may promote resolution of the abscess with high rates of therapeutic success and low complications.

  2. Background parenchymal enhancement in preoperative breast MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, Satoko; Ishigaki, Satoko; Satake, Hiroko; Kawamura, Akiko; Kawai, Hisashi; Kikumori, Toyone; Naganawa, Shinji

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to assess the influence of background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on surgical planning performed using preoperative MRI for breast cancer evaluation. Between January 2009 and December 2010, 91 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients (mean age, 55.5 years; range, 30-88 years) who underwent preoperative bilateral breast MRI followed by planned breast conservation therapy were retrospectively enrolled. MRI was performed to assess the tumor extent in addition to mammography and breast ultrasonography. BPE in the contralateral normal breast MRI at the early dynamic phase was visually classified as follows: minimal (n=49), mild (n=27), moderate (n=7), and marked (n=8). The correlations between the BPE grade and age, menopausal status, index tumor size, changes in surgical management based on MRI results, positive predictive value (PPV) of MRI, and surgical margins were assessed. Patients in the strong BPE groups were significantly younger (p=0.002) and generally premenopausal (p<0.001). Surgical treatment was not changed in 67 cases (73.6%), while extended excision and mastectomy were performed in 12 cases (13.2%), each based on additional lesions on MRI. Six of 79 (7.6%) patients who underwent breast conservation therapy had tumor-positive resection margins. In cases where surgical management was changed, the PPV for MRI-detected foci was high in the minimal (91.7%) and mild groups (66.7%), and 0% in the moderate and marked groups (p=0.002). Strong BPE causes false-positive MRI findings and may lead to overly extensive surgery, whereas MRI may be beneficial in select patients with weak BPE.

  3. Relation between breast parenchymal pattern and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyeung Hee; Lee, Sung Yong; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1985-01-01

    Although the usefulness of mammography as a screening test for breast cancer is still in dispute, its use to patients over 50 years of age is valid. Since Wolfe first classified the breast parenchymal patterns of mammography into 4 patterns, many authors have adopted the criteria in studying the changes of the parenchymal patterns for certain ages and the risks for breast cancer of certain parenchymal patterns. Authors reviewed 49 cases of breast masses which diagnosed by mammography and by operation during the period from January 1978 to July 1983 at St. Mary Hospital, Catholic Medical College. The parenchymal tissue patterns were classified according to Wolfe into N1, P1, P2 and DY, Risk groups were classified into low risk group (N1, P1) and high group (P2, DY). On the basis of these criteria, benign and malignant disease were analyzed against the breast parenchymal patterns. The results and conclusions were as follows: 1. Age ranged from 16 years to 67 years with the most prevalent age being 4th and 5th decades. 2. Diagnoses were: fibroadenoma 17 cases, fibrous dysplasia 16 cases, ductal papilloma 3 cases, and cancer 13 cases. 3. Categorization of those 26 benign disease according to the Wolfe's criteria was: N1 6 cases, P1 10 cases, P2 9 cases and DY 11 cases. On the other hand, categorization of 13 cases of cancer was: N1 5 caes, P1 3 cases, P2 3 cases, and DY 2 cases. 4. Of 13 cases of cancer, 8 fell in the low risk group and remainder in the high risk group. There were no significant correlation between the parenchymal patterns and the incidence of breast cancer

  4. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  5. Normative ultrasound values of renal parenchymal thickness among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the ultrasound normative values of renal parenchymal thickness (RPT) among adults and correlate them with age ... Methods: This was a prospective clinic based study involving 310 normal adults (135 males and 175 females) scanned at ... kidneys and subjects in which three RPT measurements.

  6. Diagnostic utility of medical thoracoscopy in peripheral parenchymal pulmonary lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hatata

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: Among patients with peripheral parenchymal pulmonary lesions remaining undiagnosed after usual initial investigation and even transthoracic needle biopsies, thoracoscopy done under local anaesthesia is a rapid, safe, and well-tolerated procedure with an excellent diagnostic yield that is equivalent to that of thoracotomy.

  7. Parenchymal signal intensity in 3-T body MRI of dogs with hematopoietic neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Daniel A; Sharkey, Leslie C; Steward, Susan M; Bahr, Katherine L; Henson, Michael S; Ito, Daisuke; O'Brien, Timothy D; Jessen, Carl R; Husbands, Brian D; Borgatti, Antonella; Modiano, Jaime F

    2013-04-01

    We performed a preliminary study involving 10 dogs to assess the applicability of body MRI for staging of canine diffuse hematopoietic neoplasia. T1-weighted (before and after intravenous gadolinium), T2-weighted, in-phase, out-of-phase, and short tau inversion recovery pulse sequences were used. By using digital region of interest (ROI) and visual comparison techniques, relative parenchymal organ (medial iliac lymph nodes, liver, spleen, kidney cortex, and kidney medulla) signal intensity was quantified as less than, equal to, or greater than that of skeletal muscle in 2 clinically normal young adult dogs and 10 dogs affected with either B-cell lymphoma (n = 7) or myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 3). Falciform fat and urinary bladder were evaluated to provide additional perspective regarding signal intensity from the pulse sequences. Dogs with nonfocal disease could be distinguished from normal dogs according to both the visual and ROI signal-intensity relationships. In normal dogs, liver signal intensity on the T2-weighted sequence was greater than that of skeletal muscle by using either the visual or ROI approach. However in affected dogs, T2-weighted liver signal intensity was less than that of skeletal muscle by using either the ROI approach (10 of 10 dogs) or the visual approach (9 of 10 dogs). These findings suggest that the comparison of relative signal intensity among organs may have merit as a research model for infiltrative parenchymal disease (ROI approach) or metabolic effects of disease; this comparison may have practical clinical applicability (visual comparison approach) as well.

  8. Computerized tomography of renal parenchymal disturbance following nephrolithotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Ishizuka, Eiichi; Fukushima, Shuji.

    1983-01-01

    Staghorn calculi were removed by nephrolithotomy with the one-layer interrupted parenchymal suture method designed by Taguchi and renal parenchymal disturbance following the operation were evaluated by computerized tomography. Twenty kidneys in 17 cases were examined pre and postoperatively for changes in the incised and sutured part of the renal parenchyma. The postoperative CT scanning demonstrated the low density areas following enhancement and depression of the parenchyma. These changes were classified into the following 3 patterns: Type I-no changes were observed in the parenchyma, or a linear low density area was found (5 kidneys, 25.0%); type II-a long, narrow strip of low density area was found in accord with the excised and sutured part (5 kidneys, 25.0%); and type III-a wedge-shaped low density area or depression of the parenchyma was found (10 kidneys, 50.0%). The length of the parenchymal incision was analysed with reference to these patterns. The length of type I was significantly shorter than that of type II or III (p<0.05). Th e clamping time of the renal pedicle in type I was also shorter than that in type II and III, but the differences did not reach a statistically significant level. Type II pattern frequently was found shortly after the operation. It is, however, undeniable that type II may tramsform to type III. (J.P.N.)

  9. Infiltration SuDS Map

    OpenAIRE

    Dearden, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Infiltration SuDS are sustainable drainage systems (SuDS) that allow surface water to infiltrate to the ground. Examples include soakaways, infiltration basins, infiltration trenches and permeable pavements. Before planning to install Infiltration SuDS, the suitability of the ground should be assessed. The British Geological Survey has developed a bespoke Infiltration SuDS Map that enables a preliminary assessment of the suitability of the ground for infiltration SuDS. Th...

  10. Applications of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of parenchymal kidney disease in cats: 24 cases (1981-1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, P.A.; Johnston, G.R.; Feeney, D.A.; O'Brien, T.D.

    1988-01-01

    Renal sonograms from 24 cats with confirmed parenchymal kidney disease and from 1 cat with radiographic and palpable evidence of renal enlargement (but without identifiable histologic abnormalities) were evaluated to describe the ultrasonographic appearance of feline renal diseases and to determine the role of ultrasonographic examination in the clinical evaluation of these cases. In all cats with radiographic evidence of abnormal renal size or contour and when poor intraabdominal radiographic contrast precluded visualization of the kidneys, ultrasonography provided complementary information pertaining to location (cortical/medullary), extent, and distribution (focal/multifocal/diffuse) of disease. Ultrasonography also characterized these lesions as cystic (cavitating) or solid. The echo patterns were most specific for renal cysts. Infiltrative diseases did not have consistent patterns. Multifocal hypoechoic nodules, diffuse cortical hyper-echogenicity, and normal-appearing parenchyma were identified. In these instances, however, ultrasonography did define the extent of disease and narrowed the spectrum of differential considerations

  11. Pathophysiology of Pulmonary Hypertension in Chronic Parenchymal Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Inderjit; Ma, Kevin Cong; Berlin, David Adam

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension commonly complicates chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial lung disease. The association of chronic lung disease and pulmonary hypertension portends a worse prognosis. The pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension differs in the presence or absence of lung disease. We describe the physiological determinants of the normal pulmonary circulation to better understand the pathophysiological factors implicated in chronic parenchymal lung disease-associated pulmonary hypertension. This review will focus on the pathophysiology of 3 forms of chronic lung disease-associated pulmonary hypertension: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and sarcoidosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Relevance of Mast Cell Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Daniel S; Seger, Shanon; Bussmann, Christian; Pierlot, Gabin M; Groenen, Peter M A; Stalder, Anna K; Straumann, Alex

    2018-05-17

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic-inflammatory disease characterized clinically by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and histopathologically by a prominent eosinophilic inflammation. Despite eosinophils having histologically a pre-dominant position, their role in the immunopathogenesis of the disease is still questionable. Several other inflammatory cells are involved and may play a critical role as well. The purpose of this study was to characterize the mast cell infiltration, and to correlate it with clinical state of EoE. Using immunohistochemistry and quantitative morphometry, we extensively investigated eosinophils and mast cells in esophageal biopsies from patients with active EoE and from patients with EoE in remission, and compared the findings with healthy individuals. In EoE, epithelium and lamina propria were similarly infiltrated with eosinophils. In contrast, mast cells infiltration was limited to the epithelium, displaying a localized immune response. Interestingly, whereas epithelial mast cells and eosinophils were high in active EoE, some patients in remission e.g. normalized epithelial eosinophils, showed remaining high numbers of mast cells. Patient clustering supported 2 groups of patients in clinical remission, differentiating based on presence or absence of epithelial mast cells. Active EoE is characterized - in addition to the well-known tissue eosinophilia by a marked epithelium-restricted mast cell infiltration. Of interest, in a subgroup of patients, mast cell infiltration persisted despite clinical remission. To elucidate the clinical consequence of persistent epithelial mast cells infiltration further studies are required following patients in clinical remission longitudinally. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical availability of cholescintigraphy in evaluating diffuse liver parenchymal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hisao; Shimono, Reiko; Hamamoto, Ken; Ohshima, Kanji; Akamatsu, Koichi

    1988-01-01

    Technetium-99m N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan (PMT) cholescintigraphy has been performed in 46 consecutive patients with diffuse liver parenchymal diseases, including acute hepatitis (9), chronic hepatitis (17), and liver cirrhosis (20), and 18 controls. Blood clearance rate, liver uptake rate, liver excretion rate, and half time (T1/2) were determined from cardiac and hepatic time-activity curves. Regarding the four parameters, there were statistically significant differences between the control group and the groups of acute hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. Both blood clearance rate and liver uptake rate were well correlated with ICG-k values (r = 0.874 and r = 0.791, respectively). Liver excretion rate was most highly correlated with total serum bilirubin levels (r = 0.763), followed by ICG-k values. T1/2 was well correlated as well with total serum bilirubin levels. During the process where liver excretory ability was lowered in association with elevated serum bilirubin levels, threshold values for liver excretion rate appeared to be established. Cholescintigraphy may be of value in evaluating the pathophysiology of diffuse liver parenchymal diseases in that it is capable of quantitatively determining excretory function of hepatic cells. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Bronchoscopic cryobiopsy for the diagnosis of diffuse parenchymal lung disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Kropski

    Full Text Available Although in some cases clinical and radiographic features may be sufficient to establish a diagnosis of diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD, surgical lung biopsy is frequently required. Recently a new technique for bronchoscopic lung biopsy has been developed using flexible cryo-probes. In this study we describe our clinical experience using bronchoscopic cryobiopsy for diagnosis of diffuse lung disease.A retrospective study of subjects who had undergone bronchoscopic cryobiopsy for evaluation of DPLD at an academic tertiary care center from January 1, 2012 through January 15, 2013 was performed. The procedure was performed using a flexible bronchoscope to acquire biopsies of lung parenchyma. H&E stained biopsies were reviewed by an expert lung pathologist.Twenty-five eligible subjects were identified. With a mean area of 64.2 mm(2, cryobiopsies were larger than that typically encountered with traditional transbronchial forceps biopsy. In 19 of the 25 subjects, a specific diagnosis was obtained. In one additional subject, biopsies demonstrating normal parenchyma were felt sufficient to exclude diffuse lung disease as a cause of dyspnea. The overall diagnostic yield of bronchoscopic cryobiopsy was 80% (20/25. The most frequent diagnosis was usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP (n = 7. Three of the 25 subjects ultimately required surgical lung biopsy. There were no significant complications.In patients with suspected diffuse parenchymal lung disease, bronchoscopic cryobiopsy is a promising and minimally invasive approach to obtain lung tissue with high diagnostic yield.

  15. Facial infiltrative lipomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haloi, A.K.; Ditchfield, M.; Pennington, A.; Philips, R.

    2006-01-01

    Although there are multiple case reports and small series concerning facial infiltrative lipomatosis, there is no composite radiological description of the condition. Radiological evaluation of facial infiltrative lipomatosis using plain film, sonography, CT and MRI. We radiologically evaluated four patients with facial infiltrative lipomatosis. Initial plain radiographs of the face were acquired in all patients. Three children had an initial sonographic examination to evaluate the condition, followed by MRI. One child had a CT and then MRI. One child had abnormalities on plain radiographs. Sonographically, the lesions were seen as ill-defined heterogeneously hypoechoic areas with indistinct margins. On CT images, the lesions did not have a homogeneous fat density but showed some relatively more dense areas in deeper parts of the lesions. MRI provided better delineation of the exact extent of the process and characterization of facial infiltrative lipomatosis. Facial infiltrative lipomatosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis of vascular or lymphatic malformation when a child presents with unilateral facial swelling. MRI is the most useful single imaging modality to evaluate the condition, as it provides the best delineation of the exact extent of the process. (orig.)

  16. Urban Stormwater Infiltration Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geldof, Govert; Jacobsen, Per; Fujita, Shoichi

    1994-01-01

    In urban areas there are many problems with water management: combined sewer overflows, peak flows, man-induced droughts, consolidation of the soil, damage from frost penetration, etc. It is preferable to look at all these problems in relation to each other, according the concept of integrated...... water management. This paper focuses on the possibilities for urban stormwater infiltration. The results of three studies are presented. The first study concerns the flooding of the Shirako River in Tokyo. It is shown that with the help of stormwater infiltration the floods can be reduced remarkably....... The second study concerns combined sewer overflows and the discharge from treatment plants for catchments in Denmark and the Netherlands. When looking at the total yearly discharge from the combined sewer and the treatment plant, it is shown that infiltration is more effective than detention. The third study...

  17. Decline and infiltrated lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Arboleda Casas, Felipe; Duarte, Monica; Triana Harker, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the decline and infiltrated lung in a patient of 45 years, with diagnosis of arthritis rheumatoid from the 43 years, asymptomatic, without treatment, married, of the 15 to the 35 years of 3 to 10 cigarettes daily, she refers of 7 months of evolution episodes of moderate dyspnoea with exercises and dry cough with occasional mucous expectoration between others

  18. Diffuse infiltrative cardiac tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulati, Gurpreet S; Kothari, Shyam S

    2011-01-01

    We present the cardiac magnetic resonance images of an unusual form of cardiac tuberculosis. Nodular masses in a sheet-like distribution were seen to infiltrate the outer myocardium and pericardium along most of the cardiac chambers. The lesions showed significant resolution on antitubercular therapy

  19. Perfluorinated compounds in infiltrated river rhine water and infiltrated rainwater in coastal dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschauzier, Christian; Haftka, Joris; Stuyfzand, Pieter J; de Voogt, Pim

    2010-10-01

    Different studies have shown that surface waters contain perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the low ng/L range. Surface waters are used to produce drinking water and PFCs have been shown to travel through the purification system and form a potential threat to human health. The specific physicochemical properties of PFCs cause them to be persistent and some of them to be bioaccumulative and toxic in the environment. This study investigates the evolvement of PFC concentrations in Rhine water and rainwater during dune water infiltration processes over a transect in the dune area of the western part of The Netherlands. The difference between infiltrated river water and rainwater in terms of PFC composition was investigated. Furthermore, isomer profiles were investigated. The compound perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) was found at the highest concentrations of all PFCs investigated, up to 37 ng/L in infiltrated river water (71 ± 13% of ΣPFCs). This is in contrast with the predominant occurrence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) reported in literature. The concentrations of PFBS found in infiltrated river Rhine water were significantly higher than those in infiltrated rainwater. For perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) the opposite was found: infiltrated rainwater contained more than infiltrated river water. The concentrations of PFOA, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), PFBS, PFOS, and PFHxS in infiltrated river water showed an increasing trend with decreasing age of the water. The relative contribution of the branched PFOA and PFOS isomers to total concentrations of PFOA and PFOS showed a decreasing trend with decreasing age of the water.

  20. Abdominal polytrauma and parenchymal organs; Abdominelles Polytrauma und Parenchymorgane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krestan, C.R. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien AKH, Abteilung fuer Allgemeine Radiologie und Kinderradiologie, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    The acute radiological diagnostics of polytrauma patients has become an essential part of the interdisciplinary treatment in the emergency room. The incidence of polytrauma patients with an injury severity score (ISS) > 16 is approximately 450 cases/million inhabitants/year in Europe. Injuries of the parenchymal organs are of utmost importance for the prognosis and treatment of these patients. The injury patterns are complex and a great deal of experience is necessary to be able to obtain the correct diagnosis within minutes. This review article deals with the radiological diagnostics and grading of the severity of injuries to the spleen, liver, pancreas and kidneys. The use of ultrasound for the evaluation of polytraumatized patients will be discussed. The most important trauma-associated findings for the above mentioned organs using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) will be described and illustrated by dedicated case findings. Ultrasound contrast agents can supply valuable, additional diagnostic information in the evaluation of polytraumatized patients. Computed tomography has become established as the most relevant imaging modality in severe trauma. Innovative organ-adapted and contrast application protocols improve the diagnostic performance of MDCT. The use of focused assessment sonography for trauma (FAST) scanning as a screening tool is in agreement with the other clinical disciplines of the trauma team. The use of MDCT is trauma-dependent and the classification of the severity of the different parenchymal organ injuries is ultimately decisive for further treatment and prognosis of trauma victims. (orig.) [German] Die akute radiologische Diagnostik bei Polytraumapatienten ist in den letzten Jahren unerlaesslicher Bestandteil der interdisziplinaeren Versorgung im Schockraum geworden. Die Inzidenz von Polytraumata mit einem Injury Severity Score (ISS) > 16 betraegt in Europa ca. 450/Mio. Einwohner/Jahr. Verletzungen abdomineller Parenchymorgane sind von

  1. Dexamethasone-induced haptoglobin release by calf liver parenchymal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, H; Katoh, N; Miyamoto, T; Uchida, E; Yuasa, A; Takahashi, K

    1994-08-01

    Parenchymal cells were isolated from the liver of male calves, and monolayer cultures formed were treated with glucocorticoids to examine whether haptoglobin, appearance of which is associated with hepatic lipidosis (fatty liver) in cattle, is induced by steroid hormones. Without addition of dexamethasone, only trace amounts of haptoglobin were detected in culture medium. With addition of dexamethasone (10(-12) to 10(-4) M), considerable amounts of haptoglobin were released into the medium. Maximal release was observed at concentrations of 10(-8) to 10(-6) M dexamethasone. Haptoglobin release was similarly induced by cortisol, although the effect was less potent than that of dexamethasone. Actinomycin D (a known protein synthesis inhibitor) dose-dependently reduced amounts of haptoglobin released in response to 10(-8) M dexamethasone. Dexamethasone also induced annexin I, which is known to be synthesized in response to glucocorticoids. Dexamethasone treatment resulted in reduced protein kinase C activity in the cell cytosol, which has been shown to be an early event in dexamethasone-treated cells. Other than glucocorticoids, estradiol induced haptoglobin release, whereas progesterone was less effective. The association of haptoglobin with hepatic lipidosis can be reasonably explained by the fact that haptoglobin production by the liver is induced by glucocorticoids and estradiol, and these steroid hormones are triggers for development of hepatic lipidosis in cattle.

  2. Renal parenchymal damage on DMSA-scintigraphy in pelviureteric obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kullendorff, C.M.; Evander, E.

    1989-01-01

    During a 1.5 year period 21 children were investigated with 99-m-technetium dimercaptosuccini acid (DMSA) before operation for hydronephrosis due to pelviureteric obstruction. The age at investigation was 0.2-11.5 years. Fourty-two kidneys were examined. Hydronephrosis existed on the right side in 8 cases, left side in 9 and bilateral in 4 cases. Seventeen kidneys had no obstruction. The scintigraphy was interpreted as normal in 19 kidneys. Decreased isotope uptake was found in 23 kidneys and localized to the upper pole area in 19 kidneys. middle-lateral part in 7, lower pole area in 15 and the middle-medial part in 12 kidneys. There were no predominance for any part of the kidney to be affected by parenchymal damage. In 8 children investigated before the age of 1 year, 4 of 10 hydronephrotic kidneys revealed normal DMSA scintigram. DMSA scintigraphy delineates functioning renal parenchyma. It can be recommended as a routine method for evaluation of the renal parenchyma before surgery and for follow up studies in all ages of childhood

  3. Effect of the menstrual cycle on background parenchymal enhancement observed on breast MRIs in Korean women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Vivan Young Jean; KIm, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the menstrual cycle on background parenchymal enhancement observed on breast MRIs in Korean women, and to suggest an optimal period for scheduling breast MRIs. Between March and December 2012, 214 premenopausal breast cancer patients who underwent breast MRIs for preoperative evaluation were included. Levels of background parenchymal enhancement were retrospectively compared according to the menstrual cycle. There was no significant difference between levels of background parenchymal enhancement (minimal, mild, moderate, and marked) according to the weeks of the menstrual cycle. However, the 1st and 2nd week of the menstrual cycle showed a significantly higher proportion of patients with minimal background parenchymal enhancement than the 3rd and 4th week of the menstrual cycle (47.0% vs. 32.0%; p = 0.025). For screening purposes and for the follow-up of Korean breast cancer patients, breast MRIs should be performed during the 1st or 2nd week of the menstrual cycle

  4. Effect of the menstrual cycle on background parenchymal enhancement observed on breast MRIs in Korean women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Vivan Young Jean; KIm, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    To evaluate the effect of the menstrual cycle on background parenchymal enhancement observed on breast MRIs in Korean women, and to suggest an optimal period for scheduling breast MRIs. Between March and December 2012, 214 premenopausal breast cancer patients who underwent breast MRIs for preoperative evaluation were included. Levels of background parenchymal enhancement were retrospectively compared according to the menstrual cycle. There was no significant difference between levels of background parenchymal enhancement (minimal, mild, moderate, and marked) according to the weeks of the menstrual cycle. However, the 1st and 2nd week of the menstrual cycle showed a significantly higher proportion of patients with minimal background parenchymal enhancement than the 3rd and 4th week of the menstrual cycle (47.0% vs. 32.0%; p = 0.025). For screening purposes and for the follow-up of Korean breast cancer patients, breast MRIs should be performed during the 1st or 2nd week of the menstrual cycle.

  5. Bronchial Artery Embolization in the Management of Pulmonary Parenchymal Endometriosis with Hemoptysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kervancioglu, Selim; Andic, Cagatay; Bayram, Nazan; Telli, Cumali; Sarica, Akif; Sirikci, Akif

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary parenchymal endometriosis is extremely rare and usually manifests itself with a recurrent hemoptysis associated with the menstrual cycle. The therapies proposed for women with endometriosis consist of medical treatments and surgery. Bronchial artery embolization has become a well-established and minimally invasive treatment modality for hemoptysis, and to the best of our knowledge, it has not been reported in pulmonary endometriosis. We report a case of pulmonary parenchymal endometriosis treated with embolotheraphy for hemoptysis.

  6. Local recurrences after laparoscopic resections for renal parenchymal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. G. Alyaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Renal cancer constitutes 2–3 % of all tumors of the human body. Annually worldwide renal cancer morbidity increases by 2 %, about 90 % of cases are localized in the parenchyma.  Currently, treatment of localized forms of kidney cancer increasingly  incorporates kidney-preserving technologies.The objective is to evaluate the rate and causes of local renal cancer recurrence after laparoscopic resections of the organ for treatment of localized renal parenchymal cancer.Materials and methods. Retrospective analysis of 459 laparoscopic resections performed between June of 2011 to May of 2017 at the R. M. Fronstein Urology Clinic of the I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of Russia was performed.Results. Of 459 patients who underwent endoscopic surgical kidney resections with video, 399 patients were diagnosed with renal cancer during planned histological examination, among them 3 (0.75 %  patients had local recurrence. All patients were operated on with  laparoscopic access, in 1 case the surgery was complicated by  intraoperative bleeding which required conversion to nephrectomy. At the time of primary surgery, all patients with cancer recurrence were diagnosed with stage Т1b. Clear cell renal cell  carcinoma was verified in all patients by morphological examination,  and malignancy grade (nuclear differentiation per the Furman  grading system was 2 (in 2 patients and 3 (in 1 patient. In 2  patients, local recurrence was diagnosed 6 months after the surgery, in 1 patient – 12 months after the surgery. One case of local  recurrence in the area of previous resection was detected, in 1 case  dissemination of the process through paranephric tissue (apart from local recurrence was observed, and 1 case of recurrence in the bed of the removed kidney was diagnosed. All patients underwent repeat surgery in the clinic: 2 patients were operated on laparoscopically, 1  patient

  7. Effect of denoising on supervised lung parenchymal clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayamani, Padmapriya; Raghunath, Sushravya; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2012-03-01

    Denoising is a critical preconditioning step for quantitative analysis of medical images. Despite promises for more consistent diagnosis, denoising techniques are seldom explored in clinical settings. While this may be attributed to the esoteric nature of the parameter sensitve algorithms, lack of quantitative measures on their ecacy to enhance the clinical decision making is a primary cause of physician apathy. This paper addresses this issue by exploring the eect of denoising on the integrity of supervised lung parenchymal clusters. Multiple Volumes of Interests (VOIs) were selected across multiple high resolution CT scans to represent samples of dierent patterns (normal, emphysema, ground glass, honey combing and reticular). The VOIs were labeled through consensus of four radiologists. The original datasets were ltered by multiple denoising techniques (median ltering, anisotropic diusion, bilateral ltering and non-local means) and the corresponding ltered VOIs were extracted. Plurality of cluster indices based on multiple histogram-based pair-wise similarity measures were used to assess the quality of supervised clusters in the original and ltered space. The resultant rank orders were analyzed using the Borda criteria to nd the denoising-similarity measure combination that has the best cluster quality. Our exhaustive analyis reveals (a) for a number of similarity measures, the cluster quality is inferior in the ltered space; and (b) for measures that benet from denoising, a simple median ltering outperforms non-local means and bilateral ltering. Our study suggests the need to judiciously choose, if required, a denoising technique that does not deteriorate the integrity of supervised clusters.

  8. Parenchymal neurocysticercosis: follow-up and staging by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, J.L.; Visy, J.M.; Belin, C.; Gaston, A.; Goldlust, D.; Dumas, M.

    1997-01-01

    We describe the evolution of parenchymal cerebral cysticerci on MRI, to assess signs of early cyst degeneration. We studied 15 lesions in four treated and one untreated patient. MRI was performed before therapy and repeated in the 1st month after each course of anticysticercus drugs, every 4 months during the 1st year and then annually; the follow-up period was 8-48 months. Lesions were classified according to changes in four features: cyst content and capsule signal, gadolinium enhancement and oedema signal. We were able to recognise each of the pathological phases; five MRI stages were identified. Stage 1 showed oedema and/or nodular gadolinium enhancement in the tissue invasion phase; stage 2 was cerebrospinal fluid-like signal within a cyst in the vesicular phase; stage 3 showed a thick capsule with an impure liquid content signal and surrounding oedema, in the cystic phase; stage 4 showed the disappearance of the cyst fluid content signal in the degenerative phase; stage 5 showed a calcified lesion in the residual phase. Stage 1 lesions disappeared after therapy; the other progressed from one stage to another. Stage 4 indicated the end of viability of the parasite and determined the point after which treatment was useless. On T2-weighted images changes in the cyst content differed according to the history of the lesion; nodular low intensity followed the natural degeneration of the parasite and a mixed fluid signal with punctate low signal seemed to represent the specific result of therapy. MRI staging can help in the evaluation of indications for treatment and facilitate clinical therapeutic trials. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab

  9. Lung Parenchymal Assessment in Primary and Secondary Pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintcliffe, Oliver J; Edey, Anthony J; Armstrong, Lynne; Negus, Ian S; Maskell, Nick A

    2016-03-01

    The definition of primary spontaneous pneumothorax excludes patients with known lung disease; however, the assumption that the underlying lung is normal in these patients is increasingly contentious. The purpose of this study was to assess lung structure and compare the extent of emphysema in patients with primary versus secondary spontaneous pneumothorax and to patients with no pneumothorax in an otherwise comparable control group. We identified patients treated for pneumothorax by screening inpatient and outpatient medical records at one medical center in the United Kingdom. From this group, 20 patients had no clinically apparent underlying lung disease and were classified as having a primary spontaneous pneumothorax, and 20 patients were classified as having a secondary spontaneous pneumothorax. We assembled a control group composed of 40 subjects matched for age and smoking history who had a unilateral pleural effusion or were suspected to have a thoracic malignancy and had a chest computed tomography scan suitable for quantitative analysis. Demographics and smoking histories were collected. Quantitative evaluation of low-attenuation areas of the lung on computed tomography imaging was performed using semiautomated software, and the extent of emphysema-like destruction was assessed visually. The extent of emphysema and percentage of low-attenuation areas was greater for patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax than for control subjects matched for age and smoking history (median, 0.25 vs. 0.00%; P = 0.019) and was also higher for patients with secondary pneumothorax than those with primary spontaneous pneumothorax (16.15 vs. 0.25%, P pneumothorax who smoked had significantly greater low-attenuation area than patients with primary pneumothorax who were nonsmokers (0.7 vs. 0.1%, P = 0.034). The majority of patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax had quantifiable evidence of parenchymal destruction and emphysema. The exclusion of patients

  10. Relevance analysis of mammographic parenchymal patterns and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Rendong; Lv Xiangyang; Li Shaolin; Gao Ming; Miao Liqiong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Discussing the relativity of Mammographic parenchymal patterns and breast cancer, implementing the intervention treatment and regularly traces to the breast high dangerous crowd, in order to reduce the occurrence rate of beast cancer and the mortality rate. Methods: Mammary gland type was marked according to X ray on 500 breast cancer subjects and 1000 control subjects. Peri-cancer histological sections of the subtypes of the breast cancer group and histological section of the subtypes of the control group were studied contrastively to analyze the breast cancer risk index in every subtype and the occurrence rate in every age group. The types and the occurrence rates were counted. Results: (1)The lowest risk group: the subtypes with OR 0.3 and the cancer incidence rate ranging from 5% to 10% were IV b, II b, III b. (4)High-risk group: the subtypes with OR> 1 and the cancer incidence rate above 10% were III c, IV c. High dangerous age sections of breast cancer: 35 to 55 years old in IVc and IIIc (the age section of IIIc may lengthen to 60 years old), 31 to 50 years old in IVb, 50 to 60 years old in IIIb and IIb. Conclusion: IIIc and IVc belong to the high dangerous subtypes. People of these subtypes reach 67.4% of all breast cancer examples, so these people are the main subjects of the mammary gland general survey and tracing. Patient aged from 35 to 55 should be reexamined once a year. When necessary, the intervention treatment may be carried out to prevent breast cancer and to reduce the occurrence rate of beast cancer. Discovery and treatment in early phase can improve the breast cancer's survival quality, and reduce the mortality rate. (authors)

  11. Evaluation of breast parenchymal density with QUANTRA software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahwa, Shivani; Hari, Smriti; Thulkar, Sanjay; Angraal, Suveen

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate breast parenchymal density using QUANTRA software and to correlate numerical breast density values obtained from QUANTRA with ACR BI-RADS breast density categories. Two-view digital mammograms of 545 consecutive women (mean age - 47.7 years) were categorized visually by three independent radiologists into one of the four ACR BI-RADS categories (D1-D4). Numerical breast density values as obtained by QUANTRA software were then used to establish the cutoff values for each category using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis. Numerical breast density values obtained by QUANTRA (range - 7-42%) were systematically lower than visual estimates. QUANTRA breast density value of less than 14.5% could accurately differentiate category D1 from the categories D2, D3, and D4 [area under curve (AUC) on ROC analysis - 94.09%, sensitivity - 85.71%, specificity - 84.21%]. QUANTRA density values of <19.5% accurately differentiated categories D1 and D2 from D3 and D4 (AUC - 94.4%, sensitivity - 87.50%, specificity - 84.60%); QUANTRA density values of <26.5% accurately differentiated categories D1, D2, and D3 from category D4 (AUC - 90.75%, sensitivity - 88.89%, specificity - 88.621%). Breast density values obtained by QUANTRA software can be used to obtain objective cutoff values for each ACR BI-RADS breast density category. Although the numerical density values obtained by QUANTRA are lower than visual estimates, they correlate well with the BI-RADS breast density categories assigned visually to the mammograms

  12. MRI Background Parenchymal Enhancement Is Not Associated with Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bennani-Baiti

    Full Text Available Previously, a strong positive association between background parenchymal enhancement (BPE at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and breast cancer was reported in high-risk populations. We sought to determine, whether this was also true for non-high-risk patients.540 consecutive patients underwent breast MRI for assessment of breast findings (BI-RADS 0-5, non-high-risk screening (no familial history of breast cancer, no known genetic mutation, no prior chest irradiation, or previous breast cancer diagnosis and subsequent histological work-up. For this IRB-approved study, BPE and fibroglandular tissue FGT were retrospectively assessed by two experienced radiologists according to the BI-RADS lexicon. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to explore associations between BPE, FGT, age and final diagnosis of breast cancer. Subsequently, multivariate logistic regression analysis, considering covariate colinearities, was performed, using final diagnosis as the target variable and BPE, FGT and age as covariates.Age showed a moderate negative correlation with FGT (r = -0.43, p<0.001 and a weak negative correlation with BPE (r = -0.28, p<0.001. FGT and BPE correlated moderately (r = 0.35, p<0.001. Final diagnosis of breast cancer displayed very weak negative correlations with FGT (r = -0.09, p = 0.046 and BPE (r = -0.156, p<0.001 and weak positive correlation with age (r = 0.353, p<0.001. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, the only independent covariate for prediction of breast cancer was age (OR 1.032, p<0.001.Based on our data, neither BPE nor FGT independently correlate with breast cancer risk in non-high-risk patients at MRI. Our model retained only age as an independent risk factor for breast cancer in this setting.

  13. Parenchymal neurocysticercosis: follow-up and staging by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumas, J.L. [Dept. of Radiology, Hopital Avicenne, Bobigny (France)]|[Inst. of Tropical Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Limoges (France); Visy, J.M. [Dept. of Neurology, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris (France); Belin, C. [Dept. of Neurology, Hopital Avicenne, Bobigny (France); Gaston, A. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hopital Henri-Mondor, Creteil (France); Goldlust, D. [Dept. of Radiology, Hopital Avicenne, Bobigny (France); Dumas, M. [Inst. of Tropical Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Limoges (France)

    1997-01-01

    We describe the evolution of parenchymal cerebral cysticerci on MRI, to assess signs of early cyst degeneration. We studied 15 lesions in four treated and one untreated patient. MRI was performed before therapy and repeated in the 1st month after each course of anticysticercus drugs, every 4 months during the 1st year and then annually; the follow-up period was 8-48 months. Lesions were classified according to changes in four features: cyst content and capsule signal, gadolinium enhancement and oedema signal. We were able to recognise each of the pathological phases; five MRI stages were identified. Stage 1 showed oedema and/or nodular gadolinium enhancement in the tissue invasion phase; stage 2 was cerebrospinal fluid-like signal within a cyst in the vesicular phase; stage 3 showed a thick capsule with an impure liquid content signal and surrounding oedema, in the cystic phase; stage 4 showed the disappearance of the cyst fluid content signal in the degenerative phase; stage 5 showed a calcified lesion in the residual phase. Stage 1 lesions disappeared after therapy; the other progressed from one stage to another. Stage 4 indicated the end of viability of the parasite and determined the point after which treatment was useless. On T2-weighted images changes in the cyst content differed according to the history of the lesion; nodular low intensity followed the natural degeneration of the parasite and a mixed fluid signal with punctate low signal seemed to represent the specific result of therapy. MRI staging can help in the evaluation of indications for treatment and facilitate clinical therapeutic trials. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. DEEP INFILTRATING ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ribič-Pucelj

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometriosis is not considered a unified disease, but a disease encompassing three differ- ent forms differentiated by aetiology and pathogenesis: peritoneal endometriosis, ovarian endometriosis and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE. The disease is classified as DIE when the lesions penetrate 5 mm or more into the retroperitoneal space. The estimated incidence of endometriosis in women of reproductive age ranges from 10–15 % and that of DIE from 3–10 %, the highest being in infertile women and in those with chronic pelvic pain. The leading symptoms of DIE are chronic pelvic pain which increases with age and correlates with the depth of infiltration and infertility. The most important diagnostic procedures are patient’s history and proper gynecological examination. The diagnosis is confirmed with laparoscopy. DIE can affect, beside reproductive organs, also bowel, bladder and ureters, therefore adi- tional diagnostic procedures must be performed preopertively to confirm or to exclude the involvement of the mentioned organs. Endometriosis is hormon dependent disease, there- fore several hormonal treatment regims are used to supress estrogen production but the symptoms recurr soon after caesation of the treatment. At the moment, surgical treatment with excision of all lesions, including those of bowel, bladder and ureters, is the method of choice but requires frequently interdisciplinary approach. Surgical treatment significantly reduces pain and improves fertility in inferile patients. Conclusions: DIE is not a rare form of endometriosis characterized by chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Medical treatment is not efficient. The method of choice is surgical treatment with excision of all lesions. It significantly reduces pelvic pain and enables high spontaneus and IVF preg- nacy rates.Therefore such patients should be treated at centres with experience in treatment of DIE and with possibility of interdisciplinary approach.

  15. Diffuse infiltrative lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1984-01-01

    The authors discuss their approach to the diagnosis and management of patients with DILD. Gallium scans play a central role in this process. Not only do they help them decide whom to biopsy, but also where to biopsy. The scans can be used for the early detection of disease in a high-risk population, for following the progression and regression of disease, for the regulation of medication, and for the evaluation of therapy. Bronchoalveolar lung lavage appears to be equally sensitive. However, patients are less willing to undergo repeated fiberoptic bronchoscopies than lung scans. Both tests may prove useful, one complementing the other. Gallium imaging has also been utilized by the authors in select patients with questionable diffuse lung infiltrates roentgenographically or with a normal chest roentgenogram, chronic respiratory symptoms, and abnormal pulmonary function studies. An abnormal gallium lung scan in these clinical situations helps them select which patients have a diffuse active pulmonary process meriting transbronchial biopsies. This has proven to be of particular value in the management of older patients

  16. Macrophage-independent T cell infiltration to the site of injury-induced brain inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fux, Michaela; van Rooijen, Nico; Owens, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    We have addressed the role of macrophages in glial response and T cell entry to the CNS after axonal injury, by using intravenous injection of clodronate-loaded mannosylated liposomes, in C57BL6 mice. As expected, clodronate-liposome treatment resulted in depletion of peripheral macrophages which...... delay in the expansion of CD45(dim) CD11b(+) microglia in clodronate-liposome treated mice, but macrophage depletion had no effect on the percentage of infiltrating T cells in the lesion-reactive hippocampus. Lesion-induced TNFalpha mRNA expression was not affected by macrophage depletion, suggesting...... that activated glial cells are the primary source of this cytokine in the axonal injury-reactive brain. This identifies a potentially important distinction from inflammatory autoimmune infiltration in EAE, where macrophages are a prominent source of TNFalpha and their depletion prevents parenchymal T cell...

  17. The soil apparent infiltrability observed with ponded infiltration experiment in a permanent grid of infiltration rings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votrubová, J.; Jelínková, V.; Němcová, R.; Tesař, Miroslav; Vogel, T.; Císlerová, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2010), s. 11898 ISSN 1607-7962. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2010. 02.05.2010-07.05.2010, Wienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1174 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : soil hydraulic conductivity * infiltration * infiltration ring Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  18. Multivariate analysis of diagnostic parameters derived from whole-kidney and parenchymal time-activity curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, H.; Mostbeck, A.; Samal, M.; Nimmon, C.C.; Staudenherz, A.; Dudczak, R.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: In a previous work, we have confirmed earlier reports that time-activity curves of renal cortex provide additional useful diagnostic information. The aim of this experiment was to support the finding quantitatively using multiple regression. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study, we have analyzed MAG3 renal data (90 kidneys in 57 children). Whole-kidney (WK) and parenchymal (PA) time-activity curves were extracted from 20 min pre-diuretic phase using standard WK and parenchymal fuzzy ROIs. Using multiple regression analysis, peak time, mean transit time, output efficiency, and four additional indices of residual activity in WK and PA ROIs were related to the maximum elimination rate (EM) of urine after the diuretic. The kidneys were divided into four groups according to the WK peak time (WKPT): WKPT longer than 0 (all kidneys), 5, 10, and 15 min. Results: Multiple correlation coefficients between the set of WK, PA, and WK+PA curve parameters (independent variables) and the log EM (dependent variable) for each group are summarized. Conclusions: Using pre-diuretic time-activity curves, it is possible to predict diuretic response. This can be useful when interpreting dubious results. Parenchymal curves predict diuretic response better than the whole-kidney curves. With increasing WKPT the whole-kidney curves become useless, while the parenchymal curves are still useful. Using both WK and PA curves produces the best results. This demonstrates that both WK and PA curves carry independent diagnostic information. The contribution obtained from the parenchymal curves certainly worth the difficulties and time required to draw additional ROIs. However, substantial efforts have to be given to the accurate and reproducible definition of parenchymal ROIs

  19. Effect of parenchymal stiffness on canine airway size with lung inflation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H Brown

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Although airway patency is partially maintained by parenchymal tethering, this structural support is often ignored in many discussions of asthma. However, agonists that induce smooth muscle contraction also stiffen the parenchyma, so such parenchymal stiffening may serve as a defense mechanism to prevent airway narrowing or closure. To quantify this effect, specifically how changes in parenchymal stiffness alter airway size at different levels of lung inflation, in the present study, we devised a method to separate the effect of parenchymal stiffening from that of direct airway narrowing. Six anesthetized dogs were studied under four conditions: baseline, after whole lung aerosol histamine challenge, after local airway histamine challenge, and after complete relaxation of the airways. In each of these conditions, we used High resolution Computed Tomography to measure airway size and lung volume at five different airway pressures (0, 12, 25, 32, and 45 cm H(2O. Parenchymal stiffening had a protective effect on airway narrowing, a fact that may be important in the airway response to deep inspiration in asthma. When the parenchyma was stiffened by whole lung aerosol histamine challenge, at every lung volume above FRC, the airways were larger than when they were directly challenged with histamine to the same initial constriction. These results show for the first time that a stiff parenchyma per se minimizes the airway narrowing that occurs with histamine challenge at any lung volume. Thus in clinical asthma, it is not simply increased airway smooth muscle contraction, but perhaps a lack of homogeneous parenchymal stiffening that contributes to the symptomatic airway hyperresponsiveness.

  20. Pollution from Urban Stormwater Infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Weyer, G.; Berry, C.

    1994-01-01

    Stormwater infiltration in urban areas gives cause for concern with regard to the risk of soil and groundwater pollution. Compared with conventional storm drainage, infiltration introduces different and widely unknown conditions governing the impacts and the fate of the pollutants......, and it is therefore difficult to assess the overall environmental impact. This paper gives a state of the art assessment of the water quality aspects of stormwater infiltration and proposes ways of managing the inherent problems. The major stormwater pollution sources are highlighted and the different processes...

  1. Bacterial persistence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Drug indifference versus persistence. Studies on the mode of ... is a special case of drug indifference, restricted to a small ... to his model (outlined in detail in Lewis 2008), treatment .... belong to the heat and cold shock response family; many.

  2. Wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancement peripheral to the hepatic hemangioma : two-phase spiral CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Won; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Ah Young; Lee, Hyun Ju; Song, Chi Sung; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2000-01-01

    To determine the incidence of hepatic hemangiomas associated with wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancements adjacent to the tumors as seen on two-phase spiral CT images obtained during the hepatic arterial phase and to characterize the two-phase spiral CT findings of those hemangiomas. One hundred and eight consecutive hepatic hemangiomas in 63 patients who underwent two-phase spiral CT scanning during an 11-month period were included in this study. Two-phase spiral CT scans were obtained during the hepatic arterial phase (30-second delay) and portal venous phase (65-second delay) after injection of 120 mL of contrast material at a rate of 3 mL/sec. We evaluated the frequency with which wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancement was adjacent to the hemangiomas during the hepatic arterial phase and divided hemangiomas into two groups according to whether or not wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancement was noted (Group A and Group B). The presence of such enhancement in hemangiomas was correlated with tumor size and the grade of intratumoral enhancement. In 24 of 108 hemangiomas, wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancement adjacent to hepatic tumors was seen on two-phase CT images obtained during the hepatic arterial phase. Mean hemangioma size was 22mm in group A and 24mm in group B. There was no statistically significant relationship between lesion size and the presence of wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancement adjacent to a hemangioma. In 91.7% and 100% of tumors in Group A, and in 9.6% and 17.8% in Group B, hemangiomas showed more than 50% intratumoral enhancement during the arterial and portal venous phase, respectively. Wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancements peripheral to hepatic hemangiomas was more frequently found in tumors showing more than 50% intratumoral enhancement during these two phases (p less than 0.01). Wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancements is not uncommonly seen adjacent to hepatic hemangiomas on two-phase spiral CT images obtained during the hepatic arterial phase. A

  3. Renal parenchymal function evaluated by scintillation camera renography before and after pyeloplasty for hydronephrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlgren, G.; Maansson, W.; White, T.

    1992-01-01

    Scintillation camera renography with Tc-DTPA was performed before and after pyeloplasty on 16 kidneys with urographic signs of pelviureteric obstruction causing hydronephrosis. Regional parenchymal renograms were generated, and the passage of Tc-DTPA through the parenchyma was measured and correlated to the change in separate glomerular filtration rate. Preoperative parenchymal passage of DTPA was significantly slower in kidneys with improved glomerular filtration rate after pyeloplasty than in those without such improvement. Postoperative passage of DTPA in parenchyma was almost identical with that in a reference series. This method seems to be clinically useful for evaluating cases of hydronephrosis and for predicting the outcome of pyeloplasty. (au)

  4. Very Low Cerebral Blood Volume Predicts Parenchymal Hematoma in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermitte, Laure; Cho, Tae-Hee; Ozenne, Brice

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Parenchymal hematoma (PH) may worsen the outcome of patients with stroke. The aim of our study was to confirm the relationship between the volume of very low cerebral blood volume (CBV) and PH using a European multicenter database (I-KNOW). A secondary objective was to exp......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Parenchymal hematoma (PH) may worsen the outcome of patients with stroke. The aim of our study was to confirm the relationship between the volume of very low cerebral blood volume (CBV) and PH using a European multicenter database (I-KNOW). A secondary objective...

  5. [Persistent diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, J A; Moreira, C; Fagundes Neto, U

    2000-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Persistent diarrhea has high impact on infantile morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. Several studies have shown that 3 to 20% of acute diarrheal episodes in children under 5 years of age become persistent. DEFINITION: Persistent diarrhea is defined as an episode that lasts more than 14 days. ETIOLOGY: The most important agents isolated in persistent diarrhea are: Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Salmonella, Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), Klebisiella and Cryptosporidium. CLINICAL ASPECTS: In general, the clinical characteristics of patients with persistent diarrhea do not change with the pathogenic agent. Persistent diarrhea seems to represent the final result of a several insults a infant suffers that predisposes to a more severe episode of diarrhea due to a combination of host factors and high rates of enviromental contamination. Therefore, efforts should be made to promptly treat all episodes of diarrhea with apropriate follow-up. THERAPY: The aim of the treatment is to restore hydroelectrolytic deficits and to replace losses until the diarrheal ceases. It is possible in the majority of the cases, using oral rehydration therapy and erly an appropriate type of diet. PREVENTION: It is imperative that management strategies also focus on preventive aspects. The most effective diarrheal prevention strategy in young infants worldwide is promotion of exclusive breast feeding.

  6. Eosinophilic infiltration in Korea: idiopathic?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    Eosinophilia is defined as the presence of more than 500 eosinophils/{mu}L in the peripheral blood, and may be accompanied by eosinophil infiltration in tissues. Focal eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs and liver is relatively common and is often associated with a parasitic infection, drug hypersensitivity, allergic diseases, collagen vascular diseased, and internal malignancies such as Hodgkin's disease, as well as cancer of the lung, stomach, pancreas or ovary. An eosinophilic abscess refers to a lesion of massive eosinophil infiltration and associated destroyed tissue, and an eosinophilic granuloma refers to a lesion consisting of central necrosis and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates with numerous eosinophils, a number of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and a palisade of epithelioid histiocytes and/or giant cells.

  7. Eosinophilic infiltration in Korea: idiopathic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophilia is defined as the presence of more than 500 eosinophils/μL in the peripheral blood, and may be accompanied by eosinophil infiltration in tissues. Focal eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs and liver is relatively common and is often associated with a parasitic infection, drug hypersensitivity, allergic diseases, collagen vascular diseased, and internal malignancies such as Hodgkin's disease, as well as cancer of the lung, stomach, pancreas or ovary. An eosinophilic abscess refers to a lesion of massive eosinophil infiltration and associated destroyed tissue, and an eosinophilic granuloma refers to a lesion consisting of central necrosis and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates with numerous eosinophils, a number of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and a palisade of epithelioid histiocytes and/or giant cells

  8. Background parenchymal enhancement on baseline screening breast MRI: impact on biopsy rate and short-interval follow-up.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hambly, Niamh M

    2011-01-01

    Background parenchymal enhancement on breast MRI refers to normal enhancement of the patient\\'s fibroglandular tissue. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of background parenchymal enhancement on short-interval follow-up, biopsy, and cancer detection rate on baseline screening MRI in a high-risk group.

  9. A MODFLOW Infiltration Device Package for Simulating Storm Water Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, Jan; Christensen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a MODFLOW Infiltration Device (INFD) Package that can simulate infiltration devices and their two-way interaction with groundwater. The INFD Package relies on a water balance including inflow of storm water, leakage-like seepage through the device faces, overflow, and change in storage. The water balance for the device can be simulated in multiple INFD time steps within a single MODFLOW time step, and infiltration from the device can be routed through the unsaturated zone to the groundwater table. A benchmark test shows that the INFD Package's analytical solution for stage computes exact results for transient behavior. To achieve similar accuracy by the numerical solution of the MODFLOW Surface-Water Routing (SWR1) Process requires many small time steps. Furthermore, the INFD Package includes an improved representation of flow through the INFD sides that results in lower infiltration rates than simulated by SWR1. The INFD Package is also demonstrated in a transient simulation of a hypothetical catchment where two devices interact differently with groundwater. This simulation demonstrates that device and groundwater interaction depends on the thickness of the unsaturated zone because a shallow groundwater table (a likely result from storm water infiltration itself) may occupy retention volume, whereas a thick unsaturated zone may cause a phase shift and a change of amplitude in groundwater table response to a change of infiltration. We thus find that the INFD Package accommodates the simulation of infiltration devices and groundwater in an integrated manner on small as well as large spatial and temporal scales. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  10. Persistent angina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, L.; Abildstrom, S. Z.; Hvelplund, Anders

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate persistent angina in stable angina pectoris with no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) compared to obstructive CAD and its relation to long-term anxiety, depression, quality of life (QOL), and physical functioning. We invited 357 patients (men = 191; women = 166; response rate 83......-obstructive CAD or normal coronary arteries than in patients with obstructive CAD. Persistent angina symptoms were associated with long-term anxiety, depression, impaired physical functioning, and QOL irrespective of the degree of CAD. Contrary to common perception, excluding obstructive CAD in stable angina does...... %) with no prior cardiovascular disease who had a first-time coronary angiography (CAG) in 2008-2009 due to suspected stable angina to participate in a questionnaire survey in 2011 with the Seattle Angina Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale as key elements. Long-term persistent angina (i...

  11. Copper uptake and retention in liver parenchymal cells isolated from nutritionally copper-deficient rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den G.J.; de Goeij, J.J.M.; Bock, I.; Gijbels, M.J.J.; Brouwer, A.; Lei, K.Y.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Copper uptake and retention were studied in primary cultures of liver parenchymal cells isolated from copper-deficient rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a copper-deficient diet (<1 mg Cu/kg) for 10 wk. Copper-deficient rats were characterized by low copper concentrations in plasma and liver,

  12. Copper uptake and retention in liver parenchymal cells isolated from nutritionally copper-deficient rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, G.J. van den; Goeij, J.J.M. de; Bock, I.; Gijbels, M.J.J.; Brouwer, A.; Lei, K.Y.; Hendruiks, H.F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Copper uptake and retention were studied in primary cultures of liver parenchymal cells isolated from copper-deficient rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a copper-deficient diet (< 1 mg Cu/kg) for 10 wk. Copper-deficient rats were characterized by low copper concentrations in plasma and liver,

  13. Bone marrow-derived versus parenchymal sources of inducible nitric oxide synthase in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zehntner, Simone P; Bourbonniere, Lyne; Hassan-Zahraee, Mina

    2004-01-01

    . These discrepancies may reflect balance between immunoregulatory and neurocytopathologic roles for NO. We investigated selective effects of bone marrow-derived versus CNS parenchymal sources of iNOS in EAE in chimeric mice. Chimeras that selectively expressed or ablated iNOS in leukocytes both showed significant...

  14. Parenchymal texture measures weighted by breast anatomy: preliminary optimization in a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastounioti, Aimilia; Keller, Brad M.; Hsieh, Meng-Kang; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2016-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests that quantitative descriptors of the parenchymal texture patterns hold a valuable role in assessing an individual woman's risk for breast cancer. In this work, we assess the hypothesis that breast cancer risk factors are not uniformly expressed in the breast parenchymal tissue and, therefore, breast-anatomy-weighted parenchymal texture descriptors, where different breasts ROIs have non uniform contributions, may enhance breast cancer risk assessment. To this end, we introduce an automated breast-anatomy-driven methodology which generates a breast atlas, which is then used to produce a weight map that reinforces the contributions of the central and upper-outer breast areas. We incorporate this methodology to our previously validated lattice-based strategy for parenchymal texture analysis. In the framework of a pilot case-control study, including digital mammograms from 424 women, our proposed breast-anatomy-weighted texture descriptors are optimized and evaluated against non weighted texture features, using regression analysis with leave-one-out cross validation. The classification performance is assessed in terms of the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic. The collective discriminatory capacity of the weighted texture features was maximized (AUC=0.87) when the central breast area was considered more important than the upperouter area, with significant performance improvement (DeLong's test, p-valuewomen's cancer risk evaluation.

  15. Propranolol inhibits the in vitro conversion of thyroxine into triiodothyronine by isolated rat liver parenchymal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, C. J.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Touber, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    A model for the in vitro study of the conversion of thyroxine into triiodothyronine using isolated rat liver parenchymal cells is described. Isolated liver cells (mean protein content 18 mg/ml) convert approximately 0.8% of 1.3 microM exogenously added T4 into T3 during thirty minutes incubation.

  16. Studies of renal parenchymal impairments with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) by diagnostic imaging methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohishi, Yukihiko; Machida, Toyohei; Tashiro, Kazuya; Wada, Tetsuro; Mochizuki, Atsushi; Torii, Shinichiro; Yoshigoe, Fukuo; Kawashima, Yoshio; Asano, Koji (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-05-01

    Renal parenchymal impairments with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) were studied by diagnostic imaging methods. The subjects were 25 patients with renal stones, and EDAP LT-01 (piezoelectric system) was used for the equipment of ESWL. The examination by MRI, X-ray CT and /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA scintigraphy using SPECT were performed before and after ESWL. To the 24 kidneys of 12 adult dogs, shock waves were fired in order to examine the experimental renal parenchymal impairments. After the treatment with ESWL, renal abnormal findings were obtained with MRI in 6 patients out of 11 (54.5%), with X-ray CT in 1 patient out of 12 (8.3%), and with the /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in 4 patients out of 6 (66.7%). In the inspections with X-ray CT and renal scintigraphy conducted in 4 weeks, it was noted that the conditions of patients were recovered to the states before ESWL was performed. Using the therapeutic doses of shock wave for humans, the renal parenchymal impairments in the kidney in dogs were normalized in 7 days. Although it has been considered that the degree of renal parenchymal impairments with ESWL treatment may be influenced by the kind of the equipment, frequency of shock waves and their strength, the extent of impairments were rather mild, and it was presumed that the impairments might be recovered on the images in 3 to 4 weeks at the latest. (author).

  17. Studies of renal parenchymal impairments with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) by diagnostic imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohishi, Yukihiko; Machida, Toyohei; Tashiro, Kazuya; Wada, Tetsuro; Mochizuki, Atsushi; Torii, Shinichiro; Yoshigoe, Fukuo; Kawashima, Yoshio; Asano, Koji

    1989-01-01

    Renal parenchymal impairments with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) were studied by diagnostic imaging methods. The subjects were 25 patients with renal stones, and EDAP LT-01 (piezoelectric system) was used for the equipment of ESWL. The examination by MRI, X-ray CT and 99m Tc-DMSA scintigraphy using SPECT were performed before and after ESWL. To the 24 kidneys of 12 adult dogs, shock waves were fired in order to examine the experimental renal parenchymal impairments. After the treatment with ESWL, renal abnormal findings were obtained with MRI in 6 patients out of 11 (54.5%), with X-ray CT in 1 patient out of 12 (8.3%), and with the 99m Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in 4 patients out of 6 (66.7%). In the inspections with X-ray CT and renal scintigraphy conducted in 4 weeks, it was noted that the conditions of patients were recovered to the states before ESWL was performed. Using the therapeutic doses of shock wave for humans, the renal parenchymal impairments in the kidney in dogs were normalized in 7 days. Although it has been considered that the degree of renal parenchymal impairments with ESWL treatment may be influenced by the kind of the equipment, frequency of shock waves and their strength, the extent of impairments were rather mild, and it was presumed that the impairments might be recovered on the images in 3 to 4 weeks at the latest. (author)

  18. Evaluation of extent of UTI related renal parenchymal damage in pediatric patient population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, A.R.; Charan, S.; Silva, I.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is important cause of morbidity in childhood. UTI may lead to involvement of renal parenchyma ranging from recoverable acute inflammation, renal scarring of Reflux nephropathy, hypertension and ultimately end stage renal disease. Hence, extent of renal parenchymal involvement bears prognostic significance in pediatric population. Laboratory and clinical parameters have inherent limitations in detecting and localizing renal parenchymal involvement in the settings of UTI. Objectives: The present study has been designed with the aim to determine the frequency and degree of renal parenchymal involvement in pediatric patients having urinary tract infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From May to December 2003, 33 consecutive children (65 Kidneys, 32-paired, I-solitary) aged one month to 12 years (mean age 3 years, 20M, 13F) with positive past history and culture documented urinary tract infection were enrolled in the study. They were subjected to Renal cortical scan using Tc-99m DMSA (20-100 MBq) on Dual detectors gamma camera (e.cam) fitted with LEHR collimator in anterior, posterior and posterior oblique projections. DMSA renal scans were interpreted as per Clarke's interpretation criteria. Renal ultrasound (RUS) and cystourethrogram (MCUG) were available in all the cases. Results: As per Clarke's classification, there were 19 children with no evidence of renal cortical involvement (Type-1). Renal parenchymal involvement found to be unilateral (Type-4 to Type-6) and bilateral (Type-7 and 8) in 8 and 6 children respectively. DMSA scan was abnormal in 20 of 65 kidneys (31%). MCUG was positive for presence of VUR in 34 kidneys (Group A) and negative for VUR in remaining 31 units (Group B). In Gp A, 18 of 34 kidneys (53%) showed renal parenchymal involvement on DMSA Scan. In Gp A, presence or absence of renal parenchymal damage on DMSA scan did not show any statistically significant difference in age, sex and grade of VUR. Whereas

  19. Ancillary lung parenchymal findings at spiral CT scanning in pulmonary embolism. Relationship to chest sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reissig, Angelika; Heyne, Jens-Peter; Kroegel, Claus

    2004-01-01

    Introduction/objective: The aim of the study was to compare findings of transthoracic sonography (TS) and of spiral computed tomography (sCT) in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods and patients: Peripheral parenchymal and pleural findings of TS and sCT were compared in 62 patients (25 females, 37 males; mean age 62.2 years) with suspected PE. Results: In 39 patients PE was established, of whose pleura-based lesions could be detected by TS in 30 patients and by sCT in 31 patients. Whilst in three of the patients parenchymal lesions were exclusively detected by sonography, no peripheral abnormalities could be discovered with either technique in five patients. Among the nine patients lacking peripheral abnormalities on sonography, four revealed peripheral lesions in sCT. In 23 patients without PE, peripheral consolidations at CT were detected in six patients whereas two showed lesions on TS. With respect to the appearance, pleura-based wedge-shaped consolidations were the main parenchymal alterations (82.4% at TS, 66.1% at sCT) as compared with non-wedge-shaped consolidations (17.6% at TS, 33.9% at sCT). Peripheral lesions were located preferentially within the lower lobes. In addition, both localised and basal pleural effusion associated with PE could be demonstrated in 58.9% at TS and in 23.1% by sCT. Discussions and conclusion: The study shows that in PE parenchymal and pleural changes are detectable by TS and sCT. If parenchymal findings are present at sCT, peripheral PE should be considered, even in the absence of directly visible emboli

  20. Background parenchymal enhancement in breast MRIs of breast cancer patients: Impact on tumor size estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Ji Eun; Kim, Sung Hun; Lee, Ah Won

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether the degree of background parenchymal enhancement affects the accuracy of tumor size estimation based on breast MRI. Methods: Three hundred and twenty-two patients who had known breast cancer and underwent breast MRIs were recruited in our study. The total number of breast cancer cases was 339. All images were assessed retrospectively for the level of background parenchymal enhancement based on the BI-RADS criteria. Maximal lesion diameters were measured on the MRIs, and tumor types (mass vs. non-mass) were assessed. Tumor size differences between the MRI-based estimates and estimates based on pathological examinations were analyzed. The relationship between accuracy and tumor types and clinicopathologic features were also evaluated. Results: The cases included minimal (47.5%), mild (28.9%), moderate (12.4%) and marked background parenchymal enhancement (11.2%). The tumors of patients with minimal or mild background parenchymal enhancement were more accurately estimated than those of patients with moderate or marked enhancement (72.1% vs. 56.8%; p = 0.003). The tumors of women with mass type lesions were significantly more accurately estimated than those of the women with non-mass type lesions (81.6% vs. 28.6%; p < 0.001). The tumor of women negative for HER2 was more accurately estimated than those of women positive for HER2 (72.2% vs. 51.6%; p = 0.047). Conclusion: Moderate and marked background parenchymal enhancement is related to the inaccurate estimation of tumor size based on MRI. Non-mass type breast cancer and HER2-positive breast cancer are other factors that may cause inaccurate assessment of tumor size

  1. Breast Cancer Risk Estimation Using Parenchymal Texture Analysis in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikejimba, Lynda C.; Kontos, Despina; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2010-01-01

    Mammographic parenchymal texture has been shown to correlate with genetic markers of developing breast cancer. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a novel x-ray imaging technique in which tomographic images of the breast are reconstructed from multiple source projections acquired at different angles of the x-ray tube. Compared to digital mammography (DM), DBT eliminates breast tissue overlap, offering superior parenchymal tissue visualization. We hypothesize that texture analysis in DBT could potentially provide a better assessment of parenchymal texture and ultimately result in more accurate assessment of breast cancer risk. As a first step towards validating this hypothesis, we investigated the association between DBT parenchymal texture and breast percent density (PD), a known breast cancer risk factor, and compared it to DM. Bilateral DBT and DM images from 71 women participating in a breast cancer screening trial were analyzed. Filtered-backprojection was used to reconstruct DBT tomographic planes in 1 mm increments with 0.22 mm in-plane resolution. Corresponding DM images were acquired at 0.1 mm pixel resolution. Retroareolar regions of interest (ROIs) equivalent to 2.5 cm 3 were segmented from the DBT images and corresponding 2.5 cm 2 ROIs were segmented from the DM images. Breast PD was mammographically estimated using the Cumulus scale. Overall, DBT texture features demonstrated a stronger correlation than DM to PD. The Pearson correlation coefficients for DBT were r = 0.40 (p 2 = 0.39) compared to DM (R 2 = 0.33). We attribute these observations to the superior parenchymal tissue visualization in DBT. Our study is the first to perform DBT texture analysis in a screening population of women, showing that DBT could potentially provide better breast cancer risk assessment in the future.

  2. Clinical significance of segmental parenchymal excretion delay on Tc-99m DISIDA hepatobiliary scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, D. Y.; Ryu, J. S.; Moon, D. H.; Lee, S. K.; Kim, M. H.; Lee, H. K.

    1998-01-01

    Segmental parenchymal excretion delay on Tc-99m DISIDA scan in caused by intrahepatic bile duct obstruction. However, the diagnostic value for intrahepatic bile duct obstruction is unknown. We conducted this study to assess the positive predictive value of segmental excretion delay for the diagnosis of intrahepatic bile duct obstruction, and additional benefit over other noninvasive radiologic studies. The study population consisted of 43 patients (48 scans) who showed segmental parenchymal excretion delay on Tc-99m DISIDA scan. The results of abdominal CT or ultrasonography, which was done within 1 month of Tc-99m DISIDA scan, were compared with scintigraphic findings. The etiology of segmental parenchymal excretion delay was determined by ERC or PTC in 31 scans, and follow-up studies in 13 scans. No causes were identified in 4 scans. The positive predictive value of segmental parenchymal excretion delay for intrahepatic bile duct obstruction was 92% (44/48). On the other hand, 13% (5/38) of CT and 28% (5/18) of ultrasonography were normal. In 18% *7/38) of CT and 17% (3/18) of ultrasonography, only intrahepatic bile duct dilatation was noted without any diagnostic findings of intrahepatic bile duct obstruction. Segmental parenchymal excretion delay on Tc-99m DISIDA scan had a high positive predictive value for the diagnosis of intrahepatic bile duct obstruction. Tc-99m DISIDA scan may be useful for the diagnosis of intrahepatic bile duct obstruction, especially in patients with nondiagnostic CT or ultrasonography. The diagnostic usefulness need to be confirmed by further prospective studies

  3. Ancillary lung parenchymal findings at spiral CT scanning in pulmonary embolism. Relationship to chest sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reissig, Angelika E-mail: angelika.reissig@med.uni-jena.de; Heyne, Jens-Peter; Kroegel, Claus

    2004-03-01

    Introduction/objective: The aim of the study was to compare findings of transthoracic sonography (TS) and of spiral computed tomography (sCT) in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods and patients: Peripheral parenchymal and pleural findings of TS and sCT were compared in 62 patients (25 females, 37 males; mean age 62.2 years) with suspected PE. Results: In 39 patients PE was established, of whose pleura-based lesions could be detected by TS in 30 patients and by sCT in 31 patients. Whilst in three of the patients parenchymal lesions were exclusively detected by sonography, no peripheral abnormalities could be discovered with either technique in five patients. Among the nine patients lacking peripheral abnormalities on sonography, four revealed peripheral lesions in sCT. In 23 patients without PE, peripheral consolidations at CT were detected in six patients whereas two showed lesions on TS. With respect to the appearance, pleura-based wedge-shaped consolidations were the main parenchymal alterations (82.4% at TS, 66.1% at sCT) as compared with non-wedge-shaped consolidations (17.6% at TS, 33.9% at sCT). Peripheral lesions were located preferentially within the lower lobes. In addition, both localised and basal pleural effusion associated with PE could be demonstrated in 58.9% at TS and in 23.1% by sCT. Discussions and conclusion: The study shows that in PE parenchymal and pleural changes are detectable by TS and sCT. If parenchymal findings are present at sCT, peripheral PE should be considered, even in the absence of directly visible emboli.

  4. Habit persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther Møller, Stig

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses an iterated GMM approach to estimate and test the consumption based habit persistence model of Campbell and Cochrane (1999) on the US stock market. The empirical evidence shows that the model is able to explain the size premium, but fails to explain the value premium. Further...

  5. Overview of chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Lowden, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is developing into a commercially important method for the fabrication of continuous filament ceramic composites. Current efforts are focused on the development of an improved understanding of the various processes in CVI and its modeling. New approaches to CVI are being explored, including pressure pulse infiltration and microwave heating. Material development is also proceeding with emphasis on improving the oxidation resistance of the interfacial layer between the fiber and matrix. This paper briefly reviews these subjects, indicating the current state of the science and technology.

  6. Acoustic building infiltration measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Raman, Ganesh

    2018-04-10

    Systems and methods of detecting and identifying a leak from a container or building. Acoustic pressure and velocity are measured. Acoustic properties are acquired from the measured values. The acoustic properties are converted to infiltration/leakage information. Nearfield Acoustic Holography (NAH) may be one method to detect the leakages from a container by locating the noise sources.

  7. Correlation between computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of parenchymal lung diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Miriam Menna; Rafful, Patricia Piazza [Department of Radiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rodrigues, Rosana Souza [Department of Radiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); D’Or Institute for Research and Education, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zanetti, Gláucia [Department of Radiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Hochhegger, Bruno [Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Souza, Arthur Soares [Department of Radiology, Medical School of Rio Preto (FAMERP) and Ultra X, São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Guimarães, Marcos Duarte [Department of Imaging, Hospital AC Camargo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is considered to be the gold standard method for the assessment of morphological changes in the pulmonary parenchyma. Although its spatial resolution is lower than that of CT, MRI offers the advantage of characterizing different aspects of tissue based on the degree of contrast on T1-weighted image (WI) and T2-WI. In this article, we describe and correlate the MRI and CT features of several common patterns of parenchymal lung disease (air trapping, atelectasis, bronchiectasis, cavitation, consolidation, emphysema, ground-glass opacities, halo sign, interlobular septal thickening, masses, mycetoma, nodules, progressive massive fibrosis, reverse halo sign and tree-in-bud pattern). MRI may be an alternative modality for the collection of morphological and functional information useful for the management of parenchymal lung disease, which would help reduce the number of chest CT scans and radiation exposure required in patients with a variety of conditions.

  8. Isolated unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia with accompanying pulmonary parenchymal findings on CT: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Surin; Cha, Yoon Ki; Kim, Jeung Sook; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Jeong, Yun Jeong [Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia or agenesis without congenital cardiovascular anomalies is rare in adults. We report a case of a 36-year-old man with isolated left unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia with recurrent hemoptysis. On computed tomography (CT), the left pulmonary artery showed hypoplasia with multiple collateral vessels seen in the mediastinum and the left hemithorax. Also, parenchymal bands and peripheral linear opacities were seen in the affected lung, which were probably due to chronic infarction induced by unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia. There are only a few reports focusing on the radiologic findings in the pulmonary parenchyma induced by unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia, such as parenchymal bands and peripheral linear opacities. Therefore we report this case, which focused on the CT findings in the pulmonary parenchyma due to isolated unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia.

  9. Isolated unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia with accompanying pulmonary parenchymal findings on CT: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Surin; Cha, Yoon Ki; Kim, Jeung Sook; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Jeong, Yun Jeong; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia or agenesis without congenital cardiovascular anomalies is rare in adults. We report a case of a 36-year-old man with isolated left unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia with recurrent hemoptysis. On computed tomography (CT), the left pulmonary artery showed hypoplasia with multiple collateral vessels seen in the mediastinum and the left hemithorax. Also, parenchymal bands and peripheral linear opacities were seen in the affected lung, which were probably due to chronic infarction induced by unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia. There are only a few reports focusing on the radiologic findings in the pulmonary parenchyma induced by unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia, such as parenchymal bands and peripheral linear opacities. Therefore we report this case, which focused on the CT findings in the pulmonary parenchyma due to isolated unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia

  10. Segmentation of brain parenchymal regions into gray matter and white matter with Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Chiaki; Yoshiura, Takashi; Yamashita, Yasuo; Magome, Taiki; Honda, Hiroshi; Arimura, Hidetaka; Toyofuku, Fukai; Ohki, Masafumi

    2010-01-01

    It is very difficult and time consuming for neuroradiologists to estimate the degree of cerebral atrophy based on the volume of cortical regions etc. Our purpose of this study was to develop an automated segmentation of the brain parenchyma into gray and white matter regions with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted MR images. Our proposed method consisted of extraction of a brain parenchymal region based on a brain model matching and segmentation of the brain parenchyma into gray and white matter regions based on a fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm. We applied our proposed method to MR images of the whole brains obtained from 9 cases, including 4 clinically AD cases and 5 control cases. The mean volume percentage of a cortical region (41.7%) to a brain parenchymal region in AD patients was smaller than that (45.2%) in the control subjects (p=0.000462). (author)

  11. MR angiographic and parenchymal evaluation of cerebral infaraction in sickle cell anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaryk, T.J.; Masaryk, A.M.; Ross, J.S.; Modic, M.T.; Wiznitzer, M.; Berman, B.

    1989-01-01

    Cerebral infarction is an important complication of sickle cell anemia, believed to be related to large-vessel stenoses/occlusion and/or capillary/venous sickling resulting in thrombosis. Identification of these complications (especially large-vessel arterial disease) is important in selecting patients for transfusion therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the suitability of combined three-dimensional Fourier transform time-of-flight MR angiographic and parenchymal T2-weighted spin-echo examinations for evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) complications of sickle cell anemia. Seven patients (age range, 5-14 years) were evaluated. Five had documented strokes while two had symptoms resembling those of transient ischemic attack. The preliminary data indicate that combined MR angiographic and parenchymal studies are capable of identifying those patients with sickle cell anemia complicated by large-vessel CNS occlusive disease and cerebral infarction and can be used as a noninvasive guide to therapy

  12. Effect of the settlement of sediments on water infiltration in two urban infiltration basins

    OpenAIRE

    LASSABATERE, Laurent; ANGULO JARAMILLO, R; GOUTALAND, David; LETELLIER, Laetitia; GAUDET, JP; WINIARSKI, Thierry; DELOLME, C

    2010-01-01

    The sealing of surfaces in urban areas makes storm water management compulsory. The suspended solids from surface runoff water accumulate in infiltration basins and may impact on water infiltration. This paper describes a study of the effect of the settlement of sedimentary layers on the water infiltration capacity of two urban infiltrations basins. In situ water infiltration experiments were performed (1) to quantify the effect of sediment on water infiltration at local scale and (2) to deri...

  13. Hilar Parenchymal Oversew: a novel technique for robotic partial nephrectomy hilar tumor renorrhaphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavali, Jaya Sai S; Nelson, Ryan; Maurice, Matthew J; Kara, Onder; Mouracade, Pascal; Dagenais, Julien; Reese, Jeremy; Bayona, Pilar; Haber, Georges-Pascal; Stein, Robert J

    2018-01-01

    A renorrhaphy technique which is effective for hemostasis but does not place undue tension on the branch vessels of the renal sinus remains one of the challenging steps after hilar tumor resection during robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN). The published V-hilar suture (VHS) technique is one option for reconstruction after an RPN involving the hilum. The objective of this video is to show a novel renorrhaphy technique, Hilar Parenchymal Oversew that has been effective for such cases. We present two cases of RPN for renal hilar tumors. The first case depicts use of the VHS renorrhaphy technique for a tumor that abuts the renal hilum along 20% of its diameter. The second case demonstrates tumor resection and reconstruction for a tumor that has >50% involvement of the hilum along its diameter. After tumor resection, individual sinus vessels can be selectively oversewn with 2-0 Vicryl suture on SH needle. The remaining exposed parenchyma is controlled using the Hilar Parenchymal Oversew technique with a #0 Vicryl on CT-1 needle. For the Hilar Parenchymal Oversew surgery operative time was 225 min, estimated blood loss was 140 ml, warm ischemia time was 19 minutes, and there were no intraoperative complications. Pathology was consistent with clear cell renal cancer with negative margins. Robotic partial nephrectomy with the Hilar Parenchymal Oversew technique is a good alternative to VHS renorrhaphy in the management of renal hilar tumors "bulging" into the renal sinus with >50% of the tumor diameter abutting the hilum. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  14. Size, node status and grade of breast tumours: association with mammographic parenchymal patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sala, E.; Solomon, L.; McCann, J. [Department of Community Medicine, Strangeways Research Laboratory, Worts Causeway, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Warren, R. [Cambridge and Huntingdon Breast Screening Service, Rosie Maternity Hospital, Robinson Way, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Duffy, S. [MRC-Biostatistics Unit, Institute of Public Health, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Luben, R. [Department of Clinical Gerontology, Strangeways Research Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Day, N. [Department of Community Medicine, Institute of Public Health, Robinson Way, Cambridge, CB2 2SR (United Kingdom)

    2000-01-01

    A case-control study was designed to assess the association of mammographic parenchymal patterns with the risk of in-situ and invasive breast cancer. In addition, the relationship between tumour characteristics and mammographic patterns were also investigated. A total of 875 patients with breast cancer were selected and matched with 2601 controls. Mammographic parenchymal patterns of breast tissue were assessed according to Wolfe's classification, and statistical analysis was by conditional logistic regression. Relative to the N1 pattern, the odds ratios of having an invasive breast cancer associated with the P2 and DY patterns were 1.8 and 1.4, respectively. In addition, the odd ratios of having an invasive grade 3 breast cancer associated with the P2 and DY patterns were 2.8 and 3.9, respectively. Relative to the combined N1/P1 pattern, the odd ratios of having a breast cancer smaller than 14 mm, 15-29 mm, or larger than 30 mm associated with the combined high-risk P2/DY pattern (P2 + DY) were 1.2, 1.6, and 2.0, respectively. Finally, women with the P2/DY pattern were twice as likely to have a breast cancer which had already spread to the axillary nodes, compared to women with women with the N1/P1 pattern (odds ratios of 2.1 and 1.4, respectively). Our results confirm previous findings suggesting that mammographic parenchymal patterns may serve as indicators of risk for breast cancer. Our results also suggest that mammographic parenchymal patterns are associated with the stage at which breast cancer is detected. (orig.)

  15. Size, node status and grade of breast tumours: association with mammographic parenchymal patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sala, E.; Solomon, L.; McCann, J.; Warren, R.; Duffy, S.; Luben, R.; Day, N.

    2000-01-01

    A case-control study was designed to assess the association of mammographic parenchymal patterns with the risk of in-situ and invasive breast cancer. In addition, the relationship between tumour characteristics and mammographic patterns were also investigated. A total of 875 patients with breast cancer were selected and matched with 2601 controls. Mammographic parenchymal patterns of breast tissue were assessed according to Wolfe's classification, and statistical analysis was by conditional logistic regression. Relative to the N1 pattern, the odds ratios of having an invasive breast cancer associated with the P2 and DY patterns were 1.8 and 1.4, respectively. In addition, the odd ratios of having an invasive grade 3 breast cancer associated with the P2 and DY patterns were 2.8 and 3.9, respectively. Relative to the combined N1/P1 pattern, the odd ratios of having a breast cancer smaller than 14 mm, 15-29 mm, or larger than 30 mm associated with the combined high-risk P2/DY pattern (P2 + DY) were 1.2, 1.6, and 2.0, respectively. Finally, women with the P2/DY pattern were twice as likely to have a breast cancer which had already spread to the axillary nodes, compared to women with women with the N1/P1 pattern (odds ratios of 2.1 and 1.4, respectively). Our results confirm previous findings suggesting that mammographic parenchymal patterns may serve as indicators of risk for breast cancer. Our results also suggest that mammographic parenchymal patterns are associated with the stage at which breast cancer is detected. (orig.)

  16. Focal parenchymal lesions in community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults: a clinico-radiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katchanov, Juri; Siebert, Eberhard; Klingebiel, Randolf; Endres, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Here, we analyzed the frequency, morphological pattern, and imaging characteristics of focal lesions as a consequence of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We hypothesized that diffusion-weighted imaging combined with contrast-enhanced imaging, serial scanning, and multimodal vascular studies would provide further insight into the pathological basis of such parenchymal lesions in bacterial meningitis. We reviewed clinical and imaging data (i.e., magnetic resonance tomography, magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomography angiography, digital subtraction angiography) of 68 adult patients admitted to our neurological intensive care unit between March 1998 and February 2009 with the diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We identified seven patients with parenchymal lesions. These lesions could be attributed to four morphological patterns: (1) territorial cerebral ischemia, (2) perforating vessels ischemia, (3) ischemia of presumed cardiac origin, and (4) isolated cortical lesions. Whereas the patterns (1) and (2) were associated with vasculopathy of large- and medium-sized vessels (as shown by cerebral vascular imaging), vessel imaging in (3) and (4) did not show abnormal findings. Our study implies that parenchymal lesions in acute bacterial meningitis are mainly ischemic and due to involvement of large-, medium-, and small-sized arteries of the brain. Diffusion-weighted imaging combined with conventional, CT-, or MR-based cerebral angiography revealed the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in the majority of patients. Furthermore, we detected two patients with isolated bilateral cortical involvement and normal vessel imaging. These lesions might represent ischemia due to the involvement of small pial and intracortical arteries. (orig.)

  17. Fibrocystic change of breast : relation with parenchymal pattern on mammogram and fibroadenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki Yeol; Cha, In Ho; Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Jung Hyuk [Korea Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    To determine the relationship between fibrocystic change and parenchymal pattern and fibroadenoma on mammogram. Mammograms of 135 patients with histologically- diagnosed fibrocystic disease after excisional biopsy were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with pathologic specimens. Classification of the parenchymal pattern was based on Wolfe's method. On mammogram, we observed abnormality in 88 out of the 135 cases;these latter consisted of 70 cases of DY, 30 of P2, 20 of P1, and 15 of Nl, following Wolfe's parenchymal patterns. Among the 88 abnormal cases we obseved 37 cases of mass with clear boundaries, five cases of mass with unclear boundaries, 22 with clustered microcalcifications, six with macrocalcifications and 18 with asymmetric dense breast. Histologic examination revealed a varying composition of stromal fibrosis, epithelial hyperplasia,cyst formation, apocrine metaplasia, etc. Histologically fibroadenomatoid change in 18 cases was appeared as a radiopaque mass on mammogram, especially in those cases where the change was well-defined, which were all except three. Fibrocystic disease was prevalent in Wolfe's P2 and DY patterns(about 80%). About 40% of fibrocystic change appearing as a well defined mass on mammogram showed fibroadenomatoid chage histologically and was difficult to differentiate from fibroadenoma. Fibrocystic disease should therefore be included in the differential diagnosis of a mass which on mammogram is well-defined.

  18. Fibrocystic change of breast : relation with parenchymal pattern on mammogram and fibroadenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Yeol; Cha, In Ho; Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Jung Hyuk

    1996-01-01

    To determine the relationship between fibrocystic change and parenchymal pattern and fibroadenoma on mammogram. Mammograms of 135 patients with histologically- diagnosed fibrocystic disease after excisional biopsy were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with pathologic specimens. Classification of the parenchymal pattern was based on Wolfe's method. On mammogram, we observed abnormality in 88 out of the 135 cases;these latter consisted of 70 cases of DY, 30 of P2, 20 of P1, and 15 of Nl, following Wolfe's parenchymal patterns. Among the 88 abnormal cases we obseved 37 cases of mass with clear boundaries, five cases of mass with unclear boundaries, 22 with clustered microcalcifications, six with macrocalcifications and 18 with asymmetric dense breast. Histologic examination revealed a varying composition of stromal fibrosis, epithelial hyperplasia,cyst formation, apocrine metaplasia, etc. Histologically fibroadenomatoid change in 18 cases was appeared as a radiopaque mass on mammogram, especially in those cases where the change was well-defined, which were all except three. Fibrocystic disease was prevalent in Wolfe's P2 and DY patterns(about 80%). About 40% of fibrocystic change appearing as a well defined mass on mammogram showed fibroadenomatoid chage histologically and was difficult to differentiate from fibroadenoma. Fibrocystic disease should therefore be included in the differential diagnosis of a mass which on mammogram is well-defined

  19. Normal parenchymal enhancement patterns in women undergoing MR screening of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Sanaz A.; Lin, Vicky C.; Giger, Maryellen L.; Li, Hui; Karczmar, Gregory S.; Newstead, Gillian M.

    2011-01-01

    To characterize the kinetic and morphological presentation of normal breast tissue on DCE-MRI in a large cohort of asymptomatic women, and to relate these characteristics to breast tissue density. 335 consecutive breast MR examinations in 229 asymptomatic women undergoing high-risk screening evaluations based on recommendations from the American Cancer Society including strong family history and genetic predisposition were selected for IRB-approved review (average age 49.2 ± 10.5 years). Breast tissue density was assessed on precontrast T 2 -weighted images. Parenchymal enhancement pattern (PEP) was qualitatively classified as minimal, homogeneous, heterogeneous or nodular. Quantitative analysis of parenchymal enhancement kinetics (PEK) was performed, including calculation of initial and peak enhancement percentages (E 1 , E peak ), the time to peak enhancement (T peak ) and the signal enhancement ratio (SER). 41.8% of examinations were classified as minimal, 13.7% homogeneous, 23.9% heterogeneous and 21.2% nodular PEP. Women with heterogeneously or extremely dense breasts exhibited a higher proportion of nodular PEP (44.2% (27/61)) and significantly higher E 1 , and E peak (p < 0.003) compared with those with less dense breasts. Qualitative and quantitative parenchymal enhancement characteristics vary by breast tissue density. In future work, the association between image-derived MR features of the normal breast and breast cancer risk should be explored. (orig.)

  20. Integrated Genomic Characterization of a Pineal Parenchymal Tumor of Intermediate Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yun Jee; Bi, Wenya Linda; Dubuc, Adrian M; Martineau, Louine; Ligon, Azra H; Berkowitz, Aaron L; Aizer, Ayal A; Lee, Eudocia Q; Ligon, Keith L; Ramkissoon, Shakti H; Dunn, Ian F

    2016-01-01

    Pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation (PPTIDs) are rare lesions. The differential diagnosis and management strategy for PPTIDs can be challenging because of the variable prognostic and pathologic characteristics of these tumors. A 24-year-old man presented with progressive headaches, gait abnormalities, and abulia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large T1-hypointense, T2-isointense, contrast-enhancing, partially cystic mass of the pineal and tectal region. Near-total resection was achieved in a 2-stage operation followed by focal and craniospinal irradiation and adjuvant chemotherapy. Immunohistochemical analysis including use of pineal lineage marker confirmed a diagnosis of PPTID. Targeted exome sequencing showed mutations in TSC1(L388P) and IKZF3(F206C), whereas high-resolution array cytogenetics revealed losses in chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 8, 10, 11, 17, and 20, leading to single-copy loss of PTEN and TP53. Pineal parenchymal tumors reflect a broad spectrum of malignancy potential and prognoses, which mandate better understanding of the disease mechanism for rational therapeutic strategies. We present a case of PPTID and report several mutations and chromosomal abnormalities previously unrecognized in this tumor subtype. Review of the literature highlights a need for surgical resection followed by adjuvant chemoradiation. Further investigation of these novel variants may improve understanding of the pathogenesis underlying pineal parenchymal tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of leukoaraiosis on parenchymal hemorrhage in elderly patients treated with thrombolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nighoghossian, Norbert; Cho, Tae-Hee; Cottaz, Vincent; Mechtouff, Laura; Derex, Laurent [Universite Lyon 1, Department of Stroke, Neurological Hospital, Lyon (France); Abbas, Fatima; Schott, Anne Marie [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Pole Information Medicale Evaluation Recherche, Lyon (France); Geraldo, Ana Filipa; Janecek, Elie; Hermier, Marc; Tisserand, Louis Guy; Amelie, Roxana; Chamard, Leila; Berthezene, Yves [Universite Lyon 1, Department of Neuroradiology, Neurological Hospital, Bron, Lyon (France); Bischoff, Magali; El Khoury, Carlos [RESUVAL Stroke Network, Lyon (France)

    2016-10-15

    Severity of vascular damage of white matter may predict hemorrhagic transformation (HT). We assess the relationship between leukoaraiosis (LA) severity and the type of hemorrhagic transformation in elderly patients treated with thrombolysis. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data and pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 180 consecutive ischemic stroke patients aged over 75 years. LA severity was graded according to the Fazekas scale, and acute diffusion-weighted-imaging (DWI) lesion volumes were semi-automatically outlined. Predictors of hemorrhagic infarction (HI) and parenchymal hemorrhage (PH) were identified using logistic regression analysis and exact multinomial logistic analysis. HT occurred in 31 patients (17 %). Baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Score (NIHSS; p = 0.008), severe LA (p = 0.02), and diffusion lesion volume (p = 0.02) were predictors of HT in univariable logistic regression. Adjusted to lesion volume and baseline NIHSS score, exact multinomial logistic analysis showed that severe LA was the only independent predictor of parenchymal hemorrhage (p = 0.03). In elderly patients, LA severity better predicts parenchymal hemorrhage than infarct size. (orig.)

  2. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Severely Impairs Brain Parenchymal Cerebrospinal Fluid Circulation in Nonhuman Primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulay, Romain; Flament, Julien; Gauberti, Maxime; Naveau, Michael; Pasquet, Nolwenn; Gakuba, Clement; Emery, Evelyne; Hantraye, Philippe; Vivien, Denis; Aron-Badin, Romina; Gaberel, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating form of stroke with neurological outcomes dependent on the occurrence of delayed cerebral ischemia. It has been shown in rodents that some of the mechanisms leading to delayed cerebral ischemia are related to a decreased circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain parenchyma. Here, we evaluated the cerebral circulation of the CSF in a nonhuman primate in physiological condition and after SAH. We first evaluated in physiological condition the circulation of the brain CSF in Macaca facicularis , using magnetic resonance imaging of the temporal DOTA-Gd distribution after its injection into the CSF. Then, animals were subjected to a minimally invasive SAH before an MRI evaluation of the impact of SAH on the brain parenchymal CSF circulation. We first demonstrate that the CSF actively penetrates the brain parenchyma. Two hours after injection, almost the entire brain is labeled by DOTA-Gd. We also show that our model of SAH in nonhuman primate displays the characteristics of SAH in humans and leads to a dramatic impairment of the brain parenchymal circulation of the CSF. The CSF actively penetrates within the brain parenchyma in the gyrencephalic brain, as described for the glymphatic system in rodent. This parenchymal CSF circulation is severely impaired by SAH. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. CT evaluation of pulmonary parenchymal injury due to blunt chest trauma and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimi, Hiroshi

    1990-01-01

    The CT findings of pulmonary parenchymal injury due to blunt chest trauma in 73 patients and their clinical significance were analyzed. CT was obtained within 6 hours after trauma. Findings were analyzed according to the number of injured segments and severity which was classified into three grades. A correlation was also made with arterial blood PaO 2 and thoracic complications. Pulmonary parenchymal injury was identified in multisegmental portions bilaterally in most cases. It was most frequently observed in the posterior portion of the lung such as segment 6. More than 50% of lesions were classified as Grade 1. Pulmonary laceration, defined as patchy density with the cavitary lesion (Grade 3), was noted in 9.2%. There was a good correlation between extent of pulmonary injury and degree of hypoxia. The correlation of pneumothorax was also found with extensive lesion and frequency of Grade 3 lesion. Cases with pulmonary laceration tend to have extensive injury, and be related to the degree of hypoxia. In conclusion, CT evaluation of pulmonary parenchymal injury is valuable not only for morphological evaluation but also for estimation of hypoxia. (author)

  4. CT evaluation of pulmonary parenchymal injury due to blunt chest trauma and its clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimi, Hiroshi (St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1990-10-01

    The CT findings of pulmonary parenchymal injury due to blunt chest trauma in 73 patients and their clinical significance were analyzed. CT was obtained within 6 hours after trauma. Findings were analyzed according to the number of injured segments and severity which was classified into three grades. A correlation was also made with arterial blood PaO{sub 2} and thoracic complications. Pulmonary parenchymal injury was identified in multisegmental portions bilaterally in most cases. It was most frequently observed in the posterior portion of the lung such as segment 6. More than 50% of lesions were classified as Grade 1. Pulmonary laceration, defined as patchy density with the cavitary lesion (Grade 3), was noted in 9.2%. There was a good correlation between extent of pulmonary injury and degree of hypoxia. The correlation of pneumothorax was also found with extensive lesion and frequency of Grade 3 lesion. Cases with pulmonary laceration tend to have extensive injury, and be related to the degree of hypoxia. In conclusion, CT evaluation of pulmonary parenchymal injury is valuable not only for morphological evaluation but also for estimation of hypoxia. (author).

  5. Focal parenchymal lesions in community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults: a clinico-radiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katchanov, Juri [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); University Hospital Charite, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Siebert, Eberhard; Klingebiel, Randolf [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neuroradiology, Berlin (Germany); Endres, Matthias [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Center for Stroke Research Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Here, we analyzed the frequency, morphological pattern, and imaging characteristics of focal lesions as a consequence of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We hypothesized that diffusion-weighted imaging combined with contrast-enhanced imaging, serial scanning, and multimodal vascular studies would provide further insight into the pathological basis of such parenchymal lesions in bacterial meningitis. We reviewed clinical and imaging data (i.e., magnetic resonance tomography, magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomography angiography, digital subtraction angiography) of 68 adult patients admitted to our neurological intensive care unit between March 1998 and February 2009 with the diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We identified seven patients with parenchymal lesions. These lesions could be attributed to four morphological patterns: (1) territorial cerebral ischemia, (2) perforating vessels ischemia, (3) ischemia of presumed cardiac origin, and (4) isolated cortical lesions. Whereas the patterns (1) and (2) were associated with vasculopathy of large- and medium-sized vessels (as shown by cerebral vascular imaging), vessel imaging in (3) and (4) did not show abnormal findings. Our study implies that parenchymal lesions in acute bacterial meningitis are mainly ischemic and due to involvement of large-, medium-, and small-sized arteries of the brain. Diffusion-weighted imaging combined with conventional, CT-, or MR-based cerebral angiography revealed the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in the majority of patients. Furthermore, we detected two patients with isolated bilateral cortical involvement and normal vessel imaging. These lesions might represent ischemia due to the involvement of small pial and intracortical arteries. (orig.)

  6. Action of DTPA on hepatic plutonium. II. DTPA-induced removal of monomeric plutonium from mouse liver parenchymal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Peterson, D.P.; Lindenbaum, A.

    1978-01-01

    Liver parenchymal cells were isolated 6 and 24 hr following the administration of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA, 0.25 mmole/kg) to mice previously injected with 239 Pu-citrate (4.4 μCi/kg). Isolated parenchymal cells contained 440 dpm Pu/10 6 cells at 24 hr after Pu injection, just prior to DTPA administration. The PU content decreased to 330 dpm/10 6 cells at 6 hr and 140 dpm/10 6 cells at 24 hr after DTPA administration. Thus DTPA induced a striking decrease in the Pu content of isolated liver parenchymal cells. Parenchymal cells isolated from control mice not treated with DTPA changed little in Pu content from 24 to 48 hr after Pu injection. By 24 hr after DTPA treatment, the decrease in the Pu content of isolated liver parenchymal cells could account for the DTPA-induced release of Pu from the intact liver. Thus in the liver DTPA appears to act preferentially on the Pu associated with parenchymal cells. Liver parenchymal cells isolated 6 hr after DTPA administration and containing 330 dpm Pu/10 6 cells were incubated in vitro in the absence of added DTPA. After 18 hr of incubation the cells contained 130 dpm Pu/10 6 cells. This level corresponds to the level observed in cells isolated 24 hr after DTPA administration. Cells isolated from untreated mice lost only 15% of their Pu content during a similar in vitro incubation. Thus, by 6 hr after DTPA administration to the mouse, isolated liver parenchymal cells appeared to retain their ability to release Pu in vitro with no need for additional exposure to DTPA. The physiological significance of this finding is discussed

  7. Symmetrical parahiliar infiltrated, cough and dyspnoea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Escalante, Hector

    2004-01-01

    It is the case a patient to who is diagnosed symmetrical parahiliar infiltrated; initially she is diagnosed lymphoma Hodgkin, treaty with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, but the X rays of the thorax demonstrated parahiliars and paramediastinals infiltrated

  8. Separation of Hepatic parenchymal and Intrahepatic bile duct isotope activity: Studies of parenchymal function and bile duct flow using dynamic Tc-99m HIDA SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, E.; Naslund, E.; Freedman, J.; Hultcrantz, R.; Slezak, P.; Jacobsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    Currently used liver function tests have several shortcomings. Most of them are either insensitive or non-specific. The ultimate liver function test is probably a dynamic study, using a test substance with exclusive hepatic elimination and bile excretion, detected by means of a non?invasive method enabling sampling from all relevant compartments. In this paper we describe a method which enables measurements of parenchymal function and bile flow in different liver segments. The study was performed on 20 healthy volunteers. Tc-99m HIDA was used as test substrate and repeated Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) registrations as sampling method. Following injection of 120 MBq of Tc-99m HIDA, twelve liver SPECT examinations were performed at 6-minute intervals. Duct-representing peaks on images were detected by cranio-caudal activity scanning. Sampling from parenchyma and bile ducts in liver segments 2 to 8 was performed on consecutive examinations, creating time-activity graphs for parenchyma and ducts. Quantitative analysis of parenchymal and duct curves was performed and the results obtained from the left and right-sided liver segments were compared. Maximum counts/voxel (C max ) of left-sided segments (mean=33.2) were significantly lower than the values from right-sided segments (mean=24.7) and flow of isotope from parenchyma to bile ducts was significantly slower on the left. Furthermore, bile flow in ducts draining left-sided segments was slower than flow on the right side as reflected in significantly longer excretion t 1/2 (28.9 compared to 25.2 minutes) and delayed t max . (21.7 compared to 17.0 minutes). It has been concluded that the new method could provide a differential analysis of tracer flow in the hepatic parenchyma and the bile ducts. This pilot study on normal subjects has revealed interesting differences in both parenchymal accumulation as well as biliary excretion between left and right-sided segments. However, the value of the method

  9. Xanthomatous infiltration of ankle tendons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelman, C.G.; Disler, D.G.; Kremer, J.M.; Jennings, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    We present a case of type II hyperbetalipoproteinemia in a patient whose diagnosis had been previously unrecognized, and who had previously been misdiagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis and later gout. Radiographic and MR imaging features of the patient's ankles were pronounced but otherwise typical of xanthomatous infiltration. Radiologic assessment can be useful in permitting a specific diagnosis to be made in patients with periarticular and tendinous swelling. (orig.). With 4 figs

  10. Persistent Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between representation and the represented is examined here through the notion of persistent modelling. This notion is not novel to the activity of architectural design if it is considered as describing a continued active and iterative engagement with design concerns – an evident....... It also provides critical insight into the use of contemporary modelling tools and methods, together with an examination of the implications their use has within the territories of architectural design, realisation and experience....... on this subject, this book makes essential reading for anyone considering new ways of thinking about architecture. In drawing upon both historical and contemporary perspectives this book provides evidence of the ways in which relations between representation and the represented continue to be reconsidered...

  11. Persistent Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The relationship between representation and the represented is examined here through the notion of persistent modelling. This notion is not novel to the activity of architectural design if it is considered as describing a continued active and iterative engagement with design concerns – an evident....... It also provides critical insight into the use of contemporary modelling tools and methods, together with an examination of the implications their use has within the territories of architectural design, realisation and experience....... on this subject, this book makes essential reading for anyone considering new ways of thinking about architecture. In drawing upon both historical and contemporary perspectives this book provides evidence of the ways in which relations between representation and the represented continue to be reconsidered...

  12. Application of spreadsheet to estimate infiltration parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Zakwan, Mohammad; Muzzammil, Mohammad; Alam, Javed

    2016-01-01

    Infiltration is the process of flow of water into the ground through the soil surface. Soil water although contributes a negligible fraction of total water present on earth surface, but is of utmost importance for plant life. Estimation of infiltration rates is of paramount importance for estimation of effective rainfall, groundwater recharge, and designing of irrigation systems. Numerous infiltration models are in use for estimation of infiltration rates. The conventional graphical approach ...

  13. Smoking and high-risk mammographic parenchymal patterns: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sala, Evis; Warren, Ruth; McCann, Jenny; Duffy, Stephen; Luben, Robert; Day, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    Current smoking was strongly and inversely associated with high-risk patterns, after adjustment for concomitant risk factors. Relative to never smokers, current smokers were significantly less likely to have a high-risk pattern. Similar results were obtained when the analysis was confined to postmenopausal women. Past smoking was not related to the mammographic parenchymal patterns. The overall effect in postmenopausal women lost its significance when adjusted for other risk factors for P2/DY patterns that were found to be significant in the present study, although the results are still strongly suggestive. The present data indicate that adjustment for current smoking status is important when evaluating the relationship between mammographic parenchymal pattern and breast cancer risk. They also indicate that smoking is a prominent potential confounder when analyzing effects of other risk factors such as obesity-related variables. It appears that parenchymal patterns may act as an informative biomarker of the effect of cigarette smoking on breast cancer risk. Overall, epidemiological studies [1,2,3,4] have reported no substantial association between cigarette smoking and the risk of breast cancer. Some studies [5,6,7] reported a significant increase of breast cancer risk among smokers. In recent studies that addressed the association between breast cancer and cigarette smoking, however, there was some suggestion of a decreased risk [8,9,10], especially among current smokers, ranging from approximately 10 to 30% [9,10]. Brunet et al [11] reported that smoking might reduce the risk of breast cancer by 44% in carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutations. Wolfe [12] described four different mammographic patterns created by variations in the relative amounts of fat, epithelial and connective tissue in the breast, designated N1, P1, P2 and DY. Women with either P2 or DY pattern are considered at greater risk for breast cancer than those with N1 or P1 pattern [12

  14. Influence of alcohol on brain volume in social drinkers: evaluation with MR-based intracranial-parenchymal ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Joo; Lee, Kyung Kyu; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kwon, Ho Jang; Kim, Jae Kyun

    2002-01-01

    To determine, by measuring the intracranial-parenchymal ratio at MR imaging, whether alcohol induces brain damage in social drinkers. One hundred and five male adults aged 20 or over were selected for this study. They inclued 41 non-drinkers, 43 mild to moderate social drinkers, nine heavy social drinkers and 12 alcoholics. Using a workstation, the intracranial-parenchymal ratio was measured at four levels of T1-weighted MR images: the fourth, third and lateral ventricle, and the level of the centrum semiovale. The mean ratios of all four levels (I-IV) were also calculated parenchymal ratios were compared between the four groups, and correlation between the amount of alcohol ingestion and the parenchymal ratio also determined. The parenchymal ratio at levels I-IV was 80.31±3.73% in non-drinkers, 79.38±4.39% in mild to moderate social drinkers, 80.92±3.64% in heavy social drinkers and 73.48±4.42% in alcoholics, The difference between alcoholics and the other three groups was statistically significant, but between non-drinkers and social drinkers was insignificant (ANOVA). Multiple regression analysis with control of the age factor revealed a decreased parenchymal ratio in mild to moderate and heavy social drinkers compared with non-drinkers, but without statistical significance. There was significant negative correlation between parenchymal ratio and amount of alcohol ingestion (pearson correlation). There was significant brain atrophy in alcoholics, but no significant difference between non-drinkers and social drinkers. We thus conclude that social drinking dose non induce significant alcohol-related brain atrophy

  15. Predicting local recurrence following breast-conserving treatment: parenchymal signal enhancement ratio (SER) around the tumor on preoperative MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Young; Cho, Nariya; Koo, Hye Ryoung; Yun, Bo La; Bae, Min Sun; Moon, Woo Kyung; Chie, Eui Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Background: The level of background parenchymal enhancement around tumor is known to be associated with breast cancer risk. However, there is no study investigating predictive power of parenchymal signal enhancement ratio (SER) around tumor for ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR). Purpose: To investigate whether the breast parenchymal SER around the tumor on preoperative dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is associated with subsequent IBTR in breast cancer patients who had undergone breast-conserving treatment. Material and Methods: Nineteen consecutive women (mean age, 44 years; range, 34-63 years) with breast cancer who developed IBTR following breast-conserving treatment and 114 control women matched for age, as well as T and N stages were included. We compared the clinicopathologic features of the two groups including nuclear grade, histologic grade, hormonal receptor status, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) status, lymphovascular invasion, negative margin width, use of adjuvant therapy, and parenchymal SER around the tumor on preoperative DCE-MRI. The SER was measured on a slice showing the largest dimension of the tumor. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent factors associated with IBTR. Results: In univariate analysis, ER negativity (odds ratio [OR] = 4.7; P = 0.040), PR negativity (OR = 4.0; P = 0.013), HER-2 positivity (OR = 3.6; P = 0.026), and a parenchymal SER greater than 0.53 (OR = 23.3; P = 0.011) were associated with IBTR. In multivariate analysis, ER negativity (OR = 3.8; P = 0.015) and a parenchymal SER greater than 0.53 (OR = 13.2; P = 0.040) on preoperative MRI were independent factors associated with IBTR. Conclusion: In addition to ER negativity, a higher parenchymal SER on preoperative MRI was an independent factor associated with subsequent IBTR in patients with breast cancer who had undergone breast-conserving treatment

  16. Microwave assisted chemical vapor infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devlin, D.J.; Currier, R.P.; Barbero, R.S.; Espinoza, B.F.; Elliott, N.

    1991-01-01

    A microwave assisted process for production of continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites is described. A simple apparatus combining a chemical vapor infiltration reactor with a conventional 700 W multimode oven is described. Microwave induced inverted thermal gradients are exploited with the ultimate goal of reducing processing times on complex shapes. Thermal gradients in stacks of SiC (Nicalon) cloths have been measured using optical thermometry. Initial results on the ''inside out'' deposition of SiC via decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane in hydrogen are presented. Several key processing issues are identified and discussed. 5 refs

  17. Vitamin A deficiency alters the pulmonary parenchymal elastic modulus and elastic fiber concentration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes Amey J

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bronchial hyperreactivity is influenced by properties of the conducting airways and the surrounding pulmonary parenchyma, which is tethered to the conducting airways. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is associated with an increase in airway hyperreactivity in rats and a decrease in the volume density of alveoli and alveolar ducts. To better define the effects of VAD on the mechanical properties of the pulmonary parenchyma, we have studied the elastic modulus, elastic fibers and elastin gene-expression in rats with VAD, which were supplemented with retinoic acid (RA or remained unsupplemented. Methods Parenchymal mechanics were assessed before and after the administration of carbamylcholine (CCh by determining the bulk and shear moduli of lungs that that had been removed from rats which were vitamin A deficient or received a control diet. Elastin mRNA and insoluble elastin were quantified and elastic fibers were enumerated using morphometric methods. Additional morphometric studies were performed to assess airway contraction and alveolar distortion. Results VAD produced an approximately 2-fold augmentation in the CCh-mediated increase of the bulk modulus and a significant dampening of the increase in shear modulus after CCh, compared to vitamin A sufficient (VAS rats. RA-supplementation for up to 21 days did not reverse the effects of VAD on the elastic modulus. VAD was also associated with a decrease in the concentration of parenchymal elastic fibers, which was restored and was accompanied by an increase in tropoelastin mRNA after 12 days of RA-treatment. Lung elastin, which was resistant to 0.1 N NaOH at 98°, decreased in VAD and was not restored after 21 days of RA-treatment. Conclusion Alterations in parenchymal mechanics and structure contribute to bronchial hyperreactivity in VAD but they are not reversed by RA-treatment, in contrast to the VAD-related alterations in the airways.

  18. Parenchymal abnormalities in cerebral venous thrombosis: findings of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Clecia Santos; Pellini, Marcos; Boasquevisque, Edson; Souza, Luis Alberto M. de

    2006-01-01

    Objective: to determine the frequency and localization of parenchymal abnormalities in cerebral venous thrombosis on magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography as well as their correlation with the territory and affected venous drainage. Materials and methods: retrospective analysis (1996 to 2004) of 21 patients (3 male and 18 female) age range between 3 and 82 years (mean 40 years, median 36 years) with clinical and radiological diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis on magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography in 2D PC, 3D PC and contrast-enhanced 3D TOF sequences. The statistical analysis was performed with the qui-square test. Four patients had follow-up exams and three patients underwent digital subtraction angiography. Results: main predisposing factors were: infection, use of oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy and collagenosis. Predominant symptoms included: focal deficit, headache, alteration of consciousness level and seizures. Most frequent parenchymal manifestations were: cortical/subcortical edema or infarct, venous congestion and collateral circulation, meningeal enhancement and thalamic and basal ganglia edema or infarct. Occlusion occurred mainly in superior sagittal, left transverse, left sigmoid and straight sinuses. Cavernous sinus and cortical veins thrombosis are uncommon events. Conclusion: cerebral venous thrombosis is an uncommon cause of stroke, with favorable prognosis because of its reversibility. Diagnosis is highly dependent on the radiologist capacity to recognize the presentations of this disease, principally in cases where the diagnosis is suggested by parenchymal abnormalities rather than necessarily by visualization of the thrombus itself. An accurate and rapid diagnosis allows an immediate treatment, reducing the morbidity and mortality rates. (author)

  19. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis with pulmonary parenchymal spread - report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Neto, Cesar Augusto de; Campos, Rubia Mara Correia; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes Santos

    2002-01-01

    The authors report the cases of two adolescent patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis with pulmonary parenchymal spread. Both patients presented very similar initial symptoms and clinical evolution. The patients developed larynx papillomas in childhood causing obstruction to airflow and required permanent tracheostomy after several resection and recurrence episodes. Long time after they developed recurrent pulmonary infections. In both cases the disease was diagnosed through clinical history and high resolution computed tomography that revealed papillomas in the trachea and solid or cavitary nodules in the lungs. (author)

  20. Carcinoma of the so-called empty breast and its relation to the Wolfe's parenchymal classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, E.; Eiter, H.; Taxer, F.

    1983-01-01

    Carcinoma in the ''empty breast'' in our experience is so common that we doubt Wolfe's conclusions in his classification of parenchymal patterns. Amongst patients over 60 years, almost 70% of carcinomas were situated in an ''empty'' parenchyma and they did not develop in a parechymal group above P1. Mammographically, the ''empty breast'' is the structureless fatty breast of older women after the menopause. Some authors believe that there is a lower incidence of carcinomas in this type of breast than in other types of parenchyma, such as those showing mastopathies. Our experience concerning carcinomas in involuted breasts is described. (orig.) [de

  1. Proton MR spectroscopic features according to change of hepatic parenchymal iron content after SPIO injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Chang Hae; Cho, Soon Gu; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Mi Young; Lee, Kyung Hee; Kim, Hyung Jin

    2001-01-01

    To determine the effect of iron on proton MR spectra ( 1 H-MRS) by evaluating changes in 1 H-MRS of the liver according to changes in hepatic parenchymal iron content. We evaluated serial changes in 1 H-MRS of the liver after intravenous infusion of SPIO in 40 rabbits. These were divided into eight groups of five, and in each group, respectively, 1 H-MRS and T2WI MR images were acquired prior to SPIO infusion, just after infusion, and at 15 minutes and 1, 2, 4, 24 and 96 hours after infusion. MR spectra were evaluated with particular attention ot the curve pattern observed at specific times after the infusion of SPIO, and the results were correlated with the signal intensity observed on T2WI images and the histologic giade of iron content of samples of resected liver parenchyma. As observed on T2WI, the mean signal intensity of rabbit liver in tis pre-SPIO infusion state, just after infusion, at 15 minutes, and at 1, 2, 4 and 96 hours after SPIO infusion was 121.3±15.5, 41.5±12.7, 30.3±7.9, 31.3±3.5, 33.6±9.4, 45.5±10.9, 80.3±15.7 and 110.4±22.9, respectively (p<0.05). Mean standard deviation of the ratio of the area of the peak (3.9-4.1 ppm)/lipid peak (1.3 ppm) peak at each of the above times except for the pre-infusion state was 1.10±0.13, 1.86±0.21, 1.80±0.30, 1.76±0.27, 1.74±0.20, 0.07±0.02 and 0.03±0.01, respectively (p<0.05). The hepatic parenchymal iron content increased rapidly from just after SPIO infusion, reaching its maximal level (as revealed by histologic specimens) at 15 minutes, sustaining this for up to 4 hours, and then decreasing gradually over periods of 24 and 96 hours. These results show that serial changes in patterns of MR spectra and the signal intensity seen on T2WI images correlate closely with changes in hepatic parenchymal iron content. Elevated hepatic parenchymal iron content leads to increases in the relative intensity of unknown peaks at around 4.0 ppm and decreases in the relative intensity of lipid peaks

  2. Differentation of mammographic parenchymal patterns and their relationship to cancer risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franken, T.; Boldt, I.

    1982-12-01

    A retrospective study of the mammograms of 11,020 womens was carried out; amongst these, 490 had carcinomas, including 51 so-called interval carcinomas. An attempt was made to test the suggestion advanced by Wolfe that certain dense types of parenchymal pattern on the mammogram are associated with a significantly increased carcinoma risk. We were unable to confirm Wolfe's suggestion. There is a slightly higher risk for pattern P2-DY, which cannot be used as the basis for future management of the patients. Attention is drawn to the risk of missing many carcinomas of the breast, if the suggestions made by Wolfe are followed.

  3. Infiltrating giant cellular blue naevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, A L; Monteiro, D A; De Pretto, O J

    2007-01-01

    Cellular blue naevi (CBN) measure 1-2 cm in diameter and affect the dermis, occasionally extending into the subcutaneous fat. The case of a 14-year-old boy with a giant CBN (GCBN) involving the right half of the face, the jugal mucosa and the lower eyelid with a tumour that had infiltrated the bone and the maxillary and ethmoidal sinuses is reported. Biopsies were taken from the skin, jugal mucosa and maxillary sinus. The following markers were used in the immunohistochemical evaluation: CD34, CD56, HMB-45, anti-S100, A-103, Melan A and MIB-1. The biopsy specimens showed a biphasic pattern affecting the lower dermis, subcutaneous fat, skeletal muscle, bone, jugal mucosa and maxillary sinus, but there was no histological evidence of malignancy. The tumour cells were CD34-, CD56-, HMB45+, anti-S100+ and A-103+. Melan A was focally expressed. No positive MIB-1 cells were identified. The present case shows that GCBN may infiltrate deeply, with no evidence of malignancy.

  4. Detection of parenchymal abnormalities in experimentally induced acute pyelonephritis in rabbits using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, CT, and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Ah; Kim, Bo Hyun; Kim, Seung Kwon; Seo, Jin Won [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Sung [Laboratory Animal Research Center, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    We evaluated the efficacy of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in detecting acute pyelonephritis (APN) using the rabbit kidney model and compared it with CT and MRI. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. In a total of 20 New Zealand White rabbits, APN was induced experimentally. CEUS, CT, and MRI were performed on the first, third, and seventh postoperative days. After imaging studies, the subjects were sacrificed and the pathological diagnosis of APN was confirmed in each animal by a pathologist. Imaging studies were obtained in eight animals, including eight CEUS, four computed tomography (CT), and four magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. CEUS depicted diffuse renal enlargement (7), diffuse heterogeneous parenchymal enhancement (6), and focal areas of decreased parenchymal enhancement (6). These findings were well correlated with the CT and MRI findings in five cases in which these studies were available. CT and MRI showed diffuse renal enlargement, diffuse heterogeneous parenchymal enhancement, focal areas of decreased parenchymal enhancement, focal contour bulging, and the finding of perinephric spread of infection. In a rabbit model, CEUS could depict the parenchymal lesions of APN similar to CT or MRI; however, it was limited in depicting the perinephric extension of inflammation.

  5. Enhanced activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 correlates with the degree of papillary thyroid carcinoma infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marečko, Ilona; Cvejić, Dubravka; Šelemetjev, Sonja; Paskaš, Svetlana; Tatić, Svetislav; Paunović, Ivan; Savin, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Aim To determine whether matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) may be a useful adjunctive tool for predicting unfavorable biological behavior of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) by evaluating the expression profile and proteolytic activity of MMP-9 in PTC by different techniques and correlating the findings with clinicopathological prognostic factors. Methods Immunohistochemical localization of MMP-9 was analyzed with antibodies specific for either total or active MMP-9. Activation ratios of MMP-9 were calculated by quantifying gel zymography bands. Enzymatic activity of MMP-9 was localized by in situ zymography after inhibiting MMP-2 activity. Results Immunostaining of total and active MMP-9 was observed in tumor tissue and occasionally in non-neoplastic epithelium. Only active MMP-9 was significantly associated with extrathyroid invasion, lymph-node metastasis, and the degree of tumor infiltration (P zymography revealed a correlation between the MMP-9 activation ratio and nodal involvement, extrathyroid invasion, and the degree of tumor infiltration. In situ zymography showed that gelatinases exerted their activity in tumor parenchymal and stromal cells. Moreover, after application of MMP-2 inhibitor, the remaining gelatinase activity, corresponding to MMP-9, was highest in cancers with the most advanced degree of tumor infiltration. Conclusions This is the first report suggesting that the evaluation of active MMP-9 by immunohistochemistry and determination of its activation ratio by gelatin zymography may be a useful adjunct to the known clinicopathological factors in predicting tumor behavior. Most important, in situ zimography with an MMP-2 inhibitor for the first time demonstrated a strong impact of MMP-9 activity on the degree of tumor infiltration during PTC progression. PMID:24778099

  6. Secondary infiltration of the central nervous system in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Maira Bueno da Silveira da Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of infiltration of the central nervous system after the initial treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in patients treated at Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo. METHODS: A total of 133 patients treated for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma from January 2001 to April 2008 were retrospectively analyzed in respect to the incidence and risk factors of secondary central nervous system involvement of lymphoma. Intrathecal prophylaxis was not a standard procedure for patients considered to be at risk. This analysis includes patients whether they received rituximab as first-line treatment or not. RESULTS: Nine of 133 (6.7% patients developed central nervous system disease after a mean observation time of 29 months. The median time to relapse or progression was 7.9 months after diagnosis and all but one patient died despite the treatment administered. Twenty-six (19.5% patients of this cohort received rituximab as first-line treatment and nine (7.1% received intrathecal chemoprophylaxis. Of the nine patients that relapsed, seven (77.7% had parenchymal central nervous system involvement; seven (77.7% had stage III or IV disease; one (11.1% had bone marrow involvement; two (22.2% had received intrathecal chemoprophylaxis; and 3 (33.3% had taken rituximab. In a multivariate analysis, the risk factors for this infiltration were being male, previous use of intrathecal chemotherapy and patients that were refractory to initial treatment. CONCLUSION: Central nervous system infiltration in this cohort is similar to that of previous reports in the literature. As this was a small cohort with a rare event, only three risk factors were important for this infiltration

  7. The lung parenchymal strip as a model of peripheral airway responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, C L; Black, J L; Berend, N

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-four patients scheduled for surgery for carcinoma of the lung were challenged with inhaled methacholine. A greater than 20% fall in the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) was recorded in nine of these patients. The PD20 (dose of methacholine producing a 20% fall in FEV1) values ranged from 0.6 to 5.6 mumol methacholine. Following surgery, lung tissue was prepared as lung parenchymal strips for in vitro studies. There was no correlation between in vivo airway responsiveness to methacholine (PD20) and in vitro sensitivity as measured by the EC50 (the concentration of agonist producing half the maximal tension [Tmax]) for carbachol (r = -0.17; n = 16) or histamine (r = 0.23; n = 24). The variation in in vivo and in vitro responsiveness was not due to the presence of inflammatory cells in the peripheral lung tissue. Of the 38 lung parenchymal strips studied with histamine, 17 demonstrated a variable relaxation response at low concentrations followed by contraction at higher concentrations. The presence or absence of this relaxation response could not be explained in terms of variable proportions of airway or vascular smooth muscle.

  8. [Parenchymal complications of the transplanted kidney: the role of color-Doppler imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Antonio; Clementi, Silvia; Clementi, Anna; Di Pietro, Fabio; Scarfia, Viviana R; Insalaco, Monica; Aucella, Filippo; Prencipe, Michele; Fiorini, Fulvio; Sicurezza, Elvia

    2012-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease, given the better quality of life of transplanted patients when compared to patients on maintenance dialysis. In spite of surgical improvements and new immunosuppressive regimens, part of the transplanted grafts still develop chronic dysfunction. Ultrasonography, both in B-mode and with Doppler ultrasound, is an important diagnostic tool in case of clinical conditions which might impair kidney function. Even though ultrasonography is considered fundamental in the diagnosis of vascular and surgical complications of the transplanted kidney, its role is not fully understood in case of parenchymal complications of the graft. The specificity of Doppler ultrasound is low both in case of acute complications such as acute tubular necrosis, drug toxicity and acute rejection, and in case of chronic conditions such as chronic allograft nephropathy. Single determinations of resistance indices present low diagnostic accuracy, which is higher in case of successive measurements performed during the follow-up of the graft. Modern techniques including tissue pulsatility index, maximal fractional area and contrast-enhanced ultrasound increase the diagnostic power of ultrasonography in case of parenchymal complications of the transplanted kidney.

  9. Enriched Endogenous Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Mice Ameliorate Parenchymal Cell Death After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Huixia; Yang, Zhen; Luo, Chuanming; Zeng, Haitao; Li, Peng; Kang, Jing X; Wan, Jian-Bo; He, Chengwei; Su, Huanxing

    2017-07-01

    Currently no effective therapies are available for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Early intervention that specifically provides neuroprotection is of most importance which profoundly influences the outcome of TBI. In the present study, we adopted a closed-skull mild TBI model to investigate potential roles of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) in protecting against TBI. Using two-photon laser scanning microscopy (2PLSM), parenchymal cell death and reactive oxidative species (ROS) expression were directly observed and recorded after TBI through a thinned skull bone window. Fat-1 mice with high endogenous ω-3 PUFAs significantly inhibited ROS expression and attenuated parenchymal cell death after compression injury during the early injury phase. Elevated generation of glutathione (GSH) and neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1) in the parenchyma of fat-1 mice could be the contributor to the beneficial role of ω-3 PUFAs in TBI. The results of the study suggest that ω-3 PUFAs is an effective neuroprotectant as an early pharmacological intervention for TBI and the information derived from this study may help guide dietary advice for those who are susceptible to repetitive mild TBI.

  10. Mammographic parenchymal patterns: value as a predictor of hormone dependency and survival in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, C.P.; Roebuck, E.J.; Williams, M.R.; Blamey, R.W.; Glaves, J.; Nicholson, R.I.; Griffiths, K.

    1985-01-01

    The relation between the parenchymal pattern of the breasts as demonstrated on a mammogram and the estrogen-receptor status of the primary tumor in 337 patients with operable invasive breast cancer has been studied. These factors have also been correlated with the response to endocrine therapy in 92 patients who subsequently developed secondary disease. It has been shown that patients with a DY pattern are more likely to develop tumors that are estrogen-receptor (ER) positive. Patients with secondary disease who have a DY pattern are more likely to respond to endocrine therapy. The DY pattern has been shown to be at least as good an indicator of the probability of response to endocrine therapy as the estrogen-receptor status, and a combination of the two factors better than either taken singly. In a series of 141 postmenopausal women, the DY pattern, as determined at the time of mastectomy, was associated with significantly improved survival. Mammographic parenchymal pattern could form the basis for selecting patients for endocrine therapy where no estrogen-receptor assay is available

  11. Potent spinal parenchymal AAV9-mediated gene delivery by subpial injection in adult rats and pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Miyanohara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective in vivo use of adeno-associated virus (AAV-based vectors to achieve gene-specific silencing or upregulation in the central nervous system has been limited by the inability to provide more than limited deep parenchymal expression in adult animals using delivery routes with the most clinical relevance (intravenous or intrathecal. Here, we demonstrate that the spinal pia membrane represents the primary barrier limiting effective AAV9 penetration into the spinal parenchyma after intrathecal AAV9 delivery. We develop a novel subpial AAV9 delivery technique and AAV9-dextran formulation. We use these in adult rats and pigs to show (i potent spinal parenchymal transgene expression in white and gray matter including neurons, glial and endothelial cells after single bolus subpial AAV9 delivery; (ii delivery to almost all apparent descending motor axons throughout the length of the spinal cord after cervical or thoracic subpial AAV9 injection; (iii potent retrograde transgene expression in brain motor centers (motor cortex and brain stem; and (iv the relative safety of this approach by defining normal neurological function for up to 6 months after AAV9 delivery. Thus, subpial delivery of AAV9 enables gene-based therapies with a wide range of potential experimental and clinical utilizations in adult animals and human patients.

  12. Application of spreadsheet to estimate infiltration parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zakwan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Infiltration is the process of flow of water into the ground through the soil surface. Soil water although contributes a negligible fraction of total water present on earth surface, but is of utmost importance for plant life. Estimation of infiltration rates is of paramount importance for estimation of effective rainfall, groundwater recharge, and designing of irrigation systems. Numerous infiltration models are in use for estimation of infiltration rates. The conventional graphical approach for estimation of infiltration parameters often fails to estimate the infiltration parameters precisely. The generalised reduced gradient (GRG solver is reported to be a powerful tool for estimating parameters of nonlinear equations and it has, therefore, been implemented to estimate the infiltration parameters in the present paper. Field data of infiltration rate available in literature for sandy loam soils of Umuahia, Nigeria were used to evaluate the performance of GRG solver. A comparative study of graphical method and GRG solver shows that the performance of GRG solver is better than that of conventional graphical method for estimation of infiltration rates. Further, the performance of Kostiakov model has been found to be better than the Horton and Philip's model in most of the cases based on both the approaches of parameter estimation.

  13. Thematic issue on soil water infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infiltration is the term applied to the process of water entry into the soil, generally by downward flow through all or part of the soil surface. Understanding of infiltration concept and processes has greatly improved, over the past 30 years, and new insights have been given into modeling of non-un...

  14. Role of slope on infiltration: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidelli, Renato; Saltalippi, Carla; Flammini, Alessia; Govindaraju, Rao S.

    2018-02-01

    Partitioning of rainfall at the soil-atmosphere interface is important for both surface and subsurface hydrology, and influences many events of major hydrologic interest such as runoff generation, aquifer recharge, and transport of pollutants in surface waters as well as the vadose zone. This partitioning is achieved through the process of infiltration that has been widely investigated at the local scale, and more recently also at the field scale, by models that were designed for horizontal surfaces. However, infiltration, overland flows, and deep flows in most real situations are generated by rainfall over sloping surfaces that bring in additional effects. Therefore, existing models for local infiltration into homogeneous and layered soils and those as for field-scale infiltration, have to be adapted to account for the effects of surface slope. Various studies have investigated the role of surface slope on infiltration based on a theoretical formulations for the dynamics of infiltration, extensions of the Green-Ampt approach, and from laboratory and field experiments. However, conflicting results have been reported in the scientific literature on the role of surface slope on infiltration. We summarize the salient points from previous studies and provide plausible reasons for discrepancies in conclusions of previous authors, thus leading to a critical assessment of the current state of our understanding on this subject. We offer suggestions for future efforts to advance our knowledge of infiltration over sloping surfaces.

  15. Modeling snowmelt infiltration in seasonally frozen ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhathoki, S.; Ireson, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    In cold regions, freezing and thawing of the soil govern soil hydraulic properties that shape the surface and subsurface hydrological processes. The partitioning of snowmelt into infiltration and runoff has also important implications for integrated water resource management and flood risk. However, there is an inadequate representation of the snowmelt infiltration into frozen soils in most land-surface and hydrological models, creating the need for improved models and methods. Here we apply, the Frozen Soil Infiltration Model, FroSIn, which is a novel algorithm for infiltration in frozen soils that can be implemented in physically based models of coupled flow and heat transport. In this study, we apply the model in a simple configuration to reproduce observations from field sites in the Canadian prairies, specifically St Denis and Brightwater Creek in Saskatchewan, Canada. We demonstrate the limitations of conventional approaches to simulate infiltration, which systematically over-predict runoff and under predict infiltration. The findings show that FroSIn enables models to predict more reasonable infiltration volumes in frozen soils, and also represent how infiltration-runoff partitioning is impacted by antecedent soil moisture.

  16. C-arm flat detector computed tomography parenchymal blood volume imaging: the nature of parenchymal blood volume parameter and the feasibility of parenchymal blood volume imaging in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamran, Mudassar; Byrne, James V.

    2015-01-01

    C-arm flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) parenchymal blood volume (PBV) measurements allow assessment of cerebral haemodynamics in the neurointerventional suite. This paper explores the feasibility of C-arm computed tomography (CT) PBV imaging and the relationship between the C-arm CT PBV and the MR-PWI-derived cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) parameters in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) patients developing delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Twenty-six patients with DCI following aneurysmal SAH underwent a research C-arm CT PBV scan using a biplane angiography system and contemporaneous MR-PWI scan as part of a prospective study. Quantitative whole-brain atlas-based volume-of-interest analysis in conjunction with Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman tests was performed to explore the agreement between C-arm CT PBV and MR-derived CBV and CBF measurements. All patients received medical management, while eight patients (31 %) underwent selective intra-arterial chemical angioplasty. Colour-coded C-arm CT PBV maps were 91 % sensitive and 100 % specific in detecting the perfusion abnormalities. C-arm CT rPBV demonstrated good agreement and strong correlation with both MR-rCBV and MR-rCBF measurements; the agreement and correlation were stronger for MR-rCBF relative to MR-rCBV and improved for C-arm CT PBV versus the geometric mean of MR-rCBV and MR-rCBF. Analysis of weighted means showed that the C-arm CT PBV has a preferential blood flow weighting (∼60 % blood flow and ∼40 % blood volume weighting). C-arm CT PBV imaging is feasible in DCI following aneurysmal SAH. PBV is a composite perfusion parameter incorporating both blood flow and blood volume weightings. That PBV has preferential (∼60 %) blood flow weighting is an important finding, which is of clinical significance when interpreting the C-arm CT PBV maps, particularly in the setting of acute brain ischemia. (orig.)

  17. C-arm flat detector computed tomography parenchymal blood volume imaging: the nature of parenchymal blood volume parameter and the feasibility of parenchymal blood volume imaging in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamran, Mudassar; Byrne, James V. [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    C-arm flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) parenchymal blood volume (PBV) measurements allow assessment of cerebral haemodynamics in the neurointerventional suite. This paper explores the feasibility of C-arm computed tomography (CT) PBV imaging and the relationship between the C-arm CT PBV and the MR-PWI-derived cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) parameters in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) patients developing delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Twenty-six patients with DCI following aneurysmal SAH underwent a research C-arm CT PBV scan using a biplane angiography system and contemporaneous MR-PWI scan as part of a prospective study. Quantitative whole-brain atlas-based volume-of-interest analysis in conjunction with Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman tests was performed to explore the agreement between C-arm CT PBV and MR-derived CBV and CBF measurements. All patients received medical management, while eight patients (31 %) underwent selective intra-arterial chemical angioplasty. Colour-coded C-arm CT PBV maps were 91 % sensitive and 100 % specific in detecting the perfusion abnormalities. C-arm CT rPBV demonstrated good agreement and strong correlation with both MR-rCBV and MR-rCBF measurements; the agreement and correlation were stronger for MR-rCBF relative to MR-rCBV and improved for C-arm CT PBV versus the geometric mean of MR-rCBV and MR-rCBF. Analysis of weighted means showed that the C-arm CT PBV has a preferential blood flow weighting (∼60 % blood flow and ∼40 % blood volume weighting). C-arm CT PBV imaging is feasible in DCI following aneurysmal SAH. PBV is a composite perfusion parameter incorporating both blood flow and blood volume weightings. That PBV has preferential (∼60 %) blood flow weighting is an important finding, which is of clinical significance when interpreting the C-arm CT PBV maps, particularly in the setting of acute brain ischemia. (orig.)

  18. Preliminary report on digitalization of renal microangiograms used in analysing renal parenchymal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, M; Kaneko, M

    1983-01-01

    Glomerulography is a useful method for the angiographic diagnosis of various renal parenchymal diseases. A new system for digitalization of the glomerulogram has been developed using a high resolution television camera and a CT computer. We describe the fundamental procedures involved in the clinical application of digital glomerulography by applying this method to a renal microangiogram of a cow. This new method aids a clearer understanding of the detailed microvasculatures by providing better magnification and storage and allowing for further processing of the original analogue images. With a computer printout of any part of the glomerulogram also possible, an estimation of the glomerular counts and their distribution can now be given for any unit of cross-sectional area of the renal cortex.

  19. Quantifying parenchymal tethering in a finite element simulation of a human lung slice under bronchoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Barbara J; Donovan, Graham M; Sneyd, James; Tawhai, Merryn H

    2012-08-15

    Airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), a hallmark of asthma, is a highly complex phenomenon characterised by multiple processes manifesting over a large range of length and time scales. Multiscale computational models have been derived to embody the experimental understanding of AHR. While current models differ in their derivation, a common assumption is that the increase in parenchymal tethering pressure P(teth) during airway constriction can be described using the model proposed by Lai-Fook (1979), which is based on intact lung experimental data for elastic moduli over a range of inflation pressures. Here we reexamine this relationship for consistency with a nonlinear elastic material law that has been parameterised to the pressure-volume behaviour of the intact lung. We show that the nonlinear law and Lai-Fook's relationship are consistent for small constrictions, but diverge when the constriction becomes large. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantitative consensus of supervised learners for diffuse lung parenchymal HRCT patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Sushravya; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2013-03-01

    Automated lung parenchymal classification usually relies on supervised learning of expert chosen regions representative of the visually differentiable HRCT patterns specific to different pathologies (eg. emphysema, ground glass, honey combing, reticular and normal). Considering the elusiveness of a single most discriminating similarity measure, a plurality of weak learners can be combined to improve the machine learnability. Though a number of quantitative combination strategies exist, their efficacy is data and domain dependent. In this paper, we investigate multiple (N=12) quantitative consensus approaches to combine the clusters obtained with multiple (n=33) probability density-based similarity measures. Our study shows that hypergraph based meta-clustering and probabilistic clustering provides optimal expert-metric agreement.

  1. MR imaging assessment of cerebral vascular disease: A combination of angiographic and parenchymal techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaryk, T.J.; Modic, M.T.; Ross, J.S.; Ruggieri, P.; Laub, G.; Haacke, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    This study tested the accuracy and clinical utility of a three-dimensional MR angiographic technique of the cervical carotids in combination with a routine spin-echo examination of the brain as a screening examination for cerebrovascular disease in 23 patients. The technique used a fast low-angle shot sequence with a reduced echo time and voxel size, gradient refocusing, and time of flight effects to minimize signal loss secondary to phase dispersion and maximize vessel contrast. Subsequent multiplanar three-dimensional reconstructions were obtained at 5 0 increments about the z-axis via ray-tracing linear thresholding algorithms. Examinations were compared with IV/IA-digital subtraction angiography or Doppler US as the objective of accuracy. Results of this ongoing study indicate that an MR angiographic screening examination can be coupled with routine brain MR imaging with only a 10-14 minute extension of examination time, providing both a vascular and a parenchymal evaluation

  2. Late lung parenchymal changes on HRCT in children with mycoplasma pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soo Hyeon; Kim, Joung Sook; Yoon, Jung Hee; Hur, Gham; Kim, Chang Gun [Inje Univ. Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    To evaluate late lung parenchymal change, as seen on high-resolution CT(HRCT) in children with mycoplasma pneumonia. Twenty-three patients [15 boys and 8 girls aged two to 13 (mean, 6) years] with mycoplasma pneumonia underwent HRCT four to 39 (mean, 10) months after initial infection. Using increased mycoplasma antibody titer( > 1;640) mycoplasma pneumonia was diagnosed, and patients were divided into two groups : high titer group (antibody titer > 1:5120), and lower titer group ( < 1:5120). CT scans were performed using 2mm collimation and 5-10mm interval from apex to diaphragm. In seven patients who were cooperative, both inspiratory scans were obtained at a window width of 1600 HU and level of 700. HRCT findings of mosaic low attenuations and changes in bronchioles and bronchial walls were assessed by three radiologists and correlated with initial chest radiographic findings. On HRCT, 17 of 23 patients (74%) demonstrated abnormal findings. These included mosaic attenuation of lung density alone in 11 of 17 patients (65%), mosaic attenuation associated with bronchiectasis in five(29%), and bronchiectasis only in one(6%). Mosaic attenuation was more accentuated on expiratory scans than on inspiratory. These findings were obtained in 10 of 12 high titer group and in 7 of 11 in the lower titer group. In 15 of 23 patients(65%), involved areas seen on HRCT exactly corresponded with initially involved areas seen on chest radiographs (CXR). Two patients in whom findings on initial CXR were normal showed mosaic attenuation on HRCT. Six patients in whom such findings were abnormal showed normal findings on HRCT, a fact which reflected their complete recovery. The most common late parenchymal change in mycoplasma pneumonia, as seen on HRCT, was mosaic attenuation of lung density followed by bronchiectasis. The latter is presumably due to bronchiolitis obliterans, a well-known complication. We believe that HRCT is very useful for the evaluation of long-term sequelae of

  3. A syndrome of severe idiopathic pulmonary parenchymal disease with pulmonary hypertension in Pekingese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Köster LS

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Liza S Köster,1 Robert M Kirberger2 1Section of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Integrative Mammalian Research (IMR Center, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine (RUSVM, Basseterre, St Kitts, West Indies; 2Diagnostic Imaging Section, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa Abstract: This paper describes 35 Pekingese dogs with a syndrome characterized by dyspnea, cyanosis, episodic syncope, soft pulmonary “Velcro” crackles, pulmonary hypertension (PH, and computed tomography and radiographic changes consistent with pulmonary parenchymal disease. The medical data base was searched with the criteria “Pekingese” and “syncope” or “dyspnea” or “tachypnea” or “pulmonary hypertension”, over a 36-month period. Inclusion criteria were echocardiographic changes consistent with noninvasive diagnosis of PH, either subjectively by B-mode or objectively by Doppler. Dogs were excluded (n=106 if there were insufficient or poor-quality radiographic or echocardiographic records or if diseases other than chronic pulmonary disease were found to be the etiology. The records of 35 dogs met these criteria and presented with a respiratory crises preceded by a history of chronic exercise intolerance and episodic syncope. The average age was 14.5 years (range: 7–19 years, with 21 males and 14 females. Most of the dogs had an interstitial lung pattern with radiographic evidence of right heart enlargement. There was a 77% (n=27 mortality and a median survival of 60 days (interquartile range: 9–210 days. This study highlights a cor pulmonale syndrome from PH due to chronic pulmonary parenchymal disease, with a grave prognosis, in middle-aged to geriatric population of Hong Kong Pekingese. Keywords: computed tomography, interstitial lung disease, dog, syncope

  4. Late lung parenchymal changes on HRCT in children with mycoplasma pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo Hyeon; Kim, Joung Sook; Yoon, Jung Hee; Hur, Gham; Kim, Chang Gun

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate late lung parenchymal change, as seen on high-resolution CT(HRCT) in children with mycoplasma pneumonia. Twenty-three patients [15 boys and 8 girls aged two to 13 (mean, 6) years] with mycoplasma pneumonia underwent HRCT four to 39 (mean, 10) months after initial infection. Using increased mycoplasma antibody titer( > 1;640) mycoplasma pneumonia was diagnosed, and patients were divided into two groups : high titer group (antibody titer > 1:5120), and lower titer group ( < 1:5120). CT scans were performed using 2mm collimation and 5-10mm interval from apex to diaphragm. In seven patients who were cooperative, both inspiratory scans were obtained at a window width of 1600 HU and level of 700. HRCT findings of mosaic low attenuations and changes in bronchioles and bronchial walls were assessed by three radiologists and correlated with initial chest radiographic findings. On HRCT, 17 of 23 patients (74%) demonstrated abnormal findings. These included mosaic attenuation of lung density alone in 11 of 17 patients (65%), mosaic attenuation associated with bronchiectasis in five(29%), and bronchiectasis only in one(6%). Mosaic attenuation was more accentuated on expiratory scans than on inspiratory. These findings were obtained in 10 of 12 high titer group and in 7 of 11 in the lower titer group. In 15 of 23 patients(65%), involved areas seen on HRCT exactly corresponded with initially involved areas seen on chest radiographs (CXR). Two patients in whom findings on initial CXR were normal showed mosaic attenuation on HRCT. Six patients in whom such findings were abnormal showed normal findings on HRCT, a fact which reflected their complete recovery. The most common late parenchymal change in mycoplasma pneumonia, as seen on HRCT, was mosaic attenuation of lung density followed by bronchiectasis. The latter is presumably due to bronchiolitis obliterans, a well-known complication. We believe that HRCT is very useful for the evaluation of long-term sequelae of

  5. Relation between small airways disease and parenchymal destruction in surgical lung specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, L N; Kramps, J A; Stijnen, T; Sterk, P J; Weening, J J; Dijkman, J H

    1990-01-01

    The relation between small airways disease and parenchymal destruction was investigated in lungs and lobes removed at surgery from 27 patients aged 15-70 years. Eight of the 27 patients were life-long non-smokers. The degree of small airways disease was assessed by semi-quantitative grading (SAD score) and by measuring diameter and wall thickness of membranous bronchioles. Parenchymal destruction was measured in three ways. Firstly, the number of alveolar attachments on membranous bronchioles per millimetre of circumference (AA/mm) was counted; the number of broken attachments was subtracted from the total AA/mm to give the numbers of intact attachments (normal AA/mm). Secondly, a point counting technique was used to give a destructive index (DI). Thirdly, the mean linear intercept (Lm) was determined. Total and normal AA/mm correlated negatively with the SAD score of membranous bronchioles (rs = -0.48 and -0.51) and with wall thickness (rs = -0.37 and -0.45) and DI correlated with wall thickness (rs = 0.5) and with the SAD score of respiratory bronchioles (rs = 0.53). Lm did not correlate with indices of small airway disease and total and normal AA/mm did not correlate with diameter. Multiple regression analyses showed that the correlation of total AA/mm with the SAD score of membranous and respiratory bronchioles and with wall thickness were not confounded by age or smoking. It is concluded that small airways disease is related to destruction of peribronchiolar alveoli, and it is postulated that small airways disease has a direct role in the causation of centrilobular emphysema. PMID:2315880

  6. Managed aquifer recharge of treated wastewater: water quality changes resulting from infiltration through the vadose zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, Elise; Toze, Simon; Patterson, Bradley; Higginson, Simon

    2011-11-01

    Secondary treated wastewater was infiltrated through a 9 m-thick calcareous vadose zone during a 39 month managed aquifer recharge (MAR) field trial to determine potential improvements in the recycled water quality. The water quality improvements of the recycled water were based on changes in the chemistry and microbiology of (i) the recycled water prior to infiltration relative to (ii) groundwater immediately down-gradient from the infiltration gallery. Changes in the average concentrations of several constituents in the recycled water were identified with reductions of 30% for phosphorous, 66% for fluoride, 62% for iron and 51% for total organic carbon when the secondary treated wastewater was infiltrated at an applied rate of 17.5 L per minute with a residence time of approximately four days in the vadose zone and less than two days in the aquifer. Reductions were also noted for oxazepam and temazepam among the pharmaceuticals tested and for a range of microbial pathogens, but reductions were harder to quantify as their magnitudes varied over time. Total nitrogen and carbamazepine persisted in groundwater down-gradient from the infiltration galleries. Infiltration does potentially offer a range of water quality improvements over direct injection to the water table without passage through the unsaturated zone; however, additional treatment options for the non-potable water may still need to be considered, depending on the receiving environment or the end use of the recovered water. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Comparative Study of Peripheral Immune Responses to Taenia solium in Individuals with Parenchymal and Subarachnoid Neurocysticercosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskra Tuero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Taenia solium to modulate the immune system likely contributes to their longevity in the human host. We tested the hypothesis that the nature of the immune response is related to the location of parasite and clinical manifestations of infection.Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were obtained from untreated patients with neurocysticercosis (NCC, categorized as having parenchymal or subarachnoid infection by the presence of cysts exclusively within the parenchyma or in subarachnoid spaces of the brain, and from uninfected (control individuals matched by age and gender to each patient. Using multiplex detection technology, sera from NCC patients and controls and cytokine production by PBMC after T. solium antigen (TsAg stimulation were assayed for levels of inflammatory and regulatory cytokines. PBMC were phenotyped by flow cytometry ex vivo and following in vitro stimulation with TsAg.Sera from patients with parenchymal NCC demonstrated significantly higher Th1 (IFN-γ/IL-12 and Th2 (IL-4/IL-13 cytokine responses and trends towards higher levels of IL-1β/IL-8/IL-5 than those obtained from patients with subarachnoid NCC. Also higher in vitro antigen-driven TNF-β secretion was detected in PBMC supernatants from parenchymal than in subarachnoid NCC. In contrast, there was a significantly higher IL-10 response to TsAg stimulation in patients with subarachnoid NCC compared to parenchymal NCC. Although no differences in regulatory T cells (Tregs frequencies were found ex vivo, there was a trend towards greater expansion of Tregs upon TsAg stimulation in subarachnoid than in parenchymal NCC when data were normalized for the corresponding controls.T. solium infection of the subarachnoid space is associated with an enhanced regulatory immune response compared to infection in the parenchyma. The resulting anti-inflammatory milieu may represent a parasite strategy to maintain a permissive environment in the host or diminish

  8. Model and calculations for net infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, S.W.; Long, A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a conceptual model for calculating net infiltration is developed and implemented. It incorporates the following important factors: viability of climate for the next 10,000 years, areal viability of net infiltration, and important soil/plant factors that affect the soil water budget of desert soils. Model results are expressed in terms of occurrence probabilities for time periods. In addition the variability of net infiltration is demonstrated both for change with time and differences among three soil/hydrologic units present at the site modeled

  9. Prediction of snowmelt infiltration into frozen soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Y.X.; Gray, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    A numerical model is presented, based on the local volume averaging formulation of transport phenomena in porous media, for simulating meltwater infiltration into unsaturated, frozen soil. With the defined flow and freezing boundary conditions at the snow-soil interface, using the concept of a surface local averaging volume, the time variation in profiles of temperature, liquid/ice content, infiltration/percolation rates, and rate of phase change in upper soil layers are predicted. In addition to a parametric analysis, model estimates of infiltration are compared with quantities calculated from field measurements of soil moisture changes and temperature during snow cover ablation, showing a reasonable agreement

  10. CT imaging spectrum of infiltrative renal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, David H; De Alba, Luis; Migliaro, Matias; Previgliano, Carlos H; Sangster, Guillermo P

    2017-11-01

    Most renal lesions replace the renal parenchyma as a focal space-occupying mass with borders distinguishing the mass from normal parenchyma. However, some renal lesions exhibit interstitial infiltration-a process that permeates the renal parenchyma by using the normal renal architecture for growth. These infiltrative lesions frequently show nonspecific patterns that lead to little or no contour deformity and have ill-defined borders on CT, making detection and diagnosis challenging. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to describe the CT imaging findings of various conditions that may manifest as infiltrative renal lesions.

  11. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J

    2012-01-01

    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...

  12. Improved parenchymal liver enhancement with extended delay on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI in patients with parenchymal liver disease: associated clinical and imaging factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esterson, Y.B.; Flusberg, M.; Oh, S.; Mazzariol, F.; Rozenblit, A.M.; Chernyak, V.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To establish the effect of prolonged hepatobiliary phase (HBP) delay time on hepatic enhancement in patients with parenchymal liver disease (PLD). Materials and methods: Gadoxetate disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations with HBP were obtained after 20- (HBP-20) and 30-minute (HBP-30) delays in patients with PLD. For each patient, the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, total and direct bilirubin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), prothrombin time (PT), and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) were recorded. Signal intensities of the liver, main portal vein, and spleen on pre-contrast, HBP-20, and HBP-30 were documented. Signal intensities were used to calculate liver relative enhancement (LRE), liver–spleen index (LSI), and liver–portal vein index (LPI) for HBP-20 and HBP-30. Improved hepatic enhancement was considered if two or more indices were higher on HBP-30 than HBP-20. A logistic regression model was constructed with improved hepatic enhancement as the outcome. Results: One hundred and twenty-nine patients underwent 142 MRIs. Mean LRE, LSI, and LPI each increased from HBP-20 to HBP-30 (p = 0.004, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). Seventy-two point five percent of cases demonstrated improved hepatic enhancement. The odds ratios for improved hepatic enhancement were 0.85 for MELD score (p = 0.02) and 3.2 for the 3 T scanner (p = 0.02), adjusted for age and sex. Conclusion: Increasing HBP delay to 30 minutes improves hepatic enhancement in patients with PLD, particularly if using a 3 T scanner. This effect is attenuated with higher MELD scores. -- Highlights: •Increasing hepatobiliary phase delay improves hepatic enhancement in liver disease. •This effect is enhanced if using a 3T scanner. •This effect is attenuated with higher MELD scores

  13. Persistent candidemia in major burn patients: radiologic findings of the thorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eil Seong; Lee, Kwan Seop; Kang, Ik Won [Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-04-01

    To describe radiologic findings of burn-associated persistent candidemia of the thorax. This study included 42 patients with major burns in whom blood culture had shown the presence for more than 24 hours of persistent candidemia. The duration of positive culture for candidiasis ranged from two to 67 days(mean, 15 days). Radiographic(n=42) and thin-section CT findings(n=13) were retrospectively analyzed. The onset, pattern, size, distribution and persistence of parenchymal abnormalities as well as the presence or absence of pleural effusions, mediastinal lymphadenopathy and cardiomegaly were assessed. On chest radiographs, positive findings were noticed in 61.9%(26/42) and on thin-section CT, in 76.9%(10/13). The most frequent radiographic finding was pulmonary nodule(s), observed in 14 patients(33.3%); in 13, these were bilateral. Bronchovascular bundle thickening(n=6, 14.3%), consolidation(n=4, 9.5%), cardiomegaly(n=6, 14.3%) and pleural effusion(n=4, 9.5%) were also observed. Those lesions appeared eight to 129 days(mean, 33 days) after the burn. Radiographic abnormalities persisted for seven to 115(mean, 35) days, regardless of the treatment. Thin-section CT showed parenchymal abnormalities in 10/13 patients(76.9%) and subpleural nodules of less than 1cm in diameter and without halo in all patients. Cardiomegaly, pleural effusion and mediastinal adenopathy were observed on CT in 5(38.5%), 4(30.8%) and 2(15.4%) of the 13 patients, respectively. In a high proportion of patients with burn-associated candidemia, chest radiograph and thin-section CT findings were positive. The most frequent radiographic parenchymal abnormality was multiple bilateral nodules.

  14. Persistent candidemia in major burn patients: radiologic findings of the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eil Seong; Lee, Kwan Seop; Kang, Ik Won

    1997-01-01

    To describe radiologic findings of burn-associated persistent candidemia of the thorax. This study included 42 patients with major burns in whom blood culture had shown the presence for more than 24 hours of persistent candidemia. The duration of positive culture for candidiasis ranged from two to 67 days(mean, 15 days). Radiographic(n=42) and thin-section CT findings(n=13) were retrospectively analyzed. The onset, pattern, size, distribution and persistence of parenchymal abnormalities as well as the presence or absence of pleural effusions, mediastinal lymphadenopathy and cardiomegaly were assessed. On chest radiographs, positive findings were noticed in 61.9%(26/42) and on thin-section CT, in 76.9%(10/13). The most frequent radiographic finding was pulmonary nodule(s), observed in 14 patients(33.3%); in 13, these were bilateral. Bronchovascular bundle thickening(n=6, 14.3%), consolidation(n=4, 9.5%), cardiomegaly(n=6, 14.3%) and pleural effusion(n=4, 9.5%) were also observed. Those lesions appeared eight to 129 days(mean, 33 days) after the burn. Radiographic abnormalities persisted for seven to 115(mean, 35) days, regardless of the treatment. Thin-section CT showed parenchymal abnormalities in 10/13 patients(76.9%) and subpleural nodules of less than 1cm in diameter and without halo in all patients. Cardiomegaly, pleural effusion and mediastinal adenopathy were observed on CT in 5(38.5%), 4(30.8%) and 2(15.4%) of the 13 patients, respectively. In a high proportion of patients with burn-associated candidemia, chest radiograph and thin-section CT findings were positive. The most frequent radiographic parenchymal abnormality was multiple bilateral nodules

  15. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow

  16. Dosimetric implications of the infiltrated injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castronovo, F.P.; McKusick, K.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Following inadvertent infiltration of a radiopharmaceutical, there is variable and uncertain uptake in target tissue. Concomitantly, there is also a concern for the radiation dose to the infiltrated site. This investigation determined the clearance and radiation burdens from various radiopharmaceutical infiltrates in a rat model. Nine separate sites were studied for: Tc-99m microspheres; Tc-99m MDP; Ga-67 citrate; and Tl-201 chloride. Following sc injection on the shaven posteriors of anesthetized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, gamma camera and computer data were collected up to 24 hours. The resulting data were expressed semilogarithmically as the mean (N = 9) of the ''% retained at site'' as a f(time) after injection. Nonparticulate agents showed a tri-exponential release pattern from each site, whereas the microspheres remained for an extended period of time. Using these pharma-cokinetic curves, the % remaining at each site for various times, and rems/mCi per lcc infiltrate was determined

  17. Caesarean section wound infiltration with ropivacaine versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caesarean section wound infiltration with ropivacaine versus placebo: Survey of chronic pelvic pain after 4 years' follow-up. ... South African Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ...

  18. Quick test for infiltration of arable soils

    OpenAIRE

    Liebl, Boris; Spiegel, Ann-Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    The quick test makes the consequences of soil compaction on water infiltration and the yield of agricultural crops visible. It promotes an understanding of the effects of soil compaction and the importance of soil-conserving cultivation.

  19. Hemiparesy, disartry, adenopathy and pulmonary infiltrated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Triana Harker, Ricardo; Castaneda del Gordo, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Hemiparesy, disartry, adenopathy and pulmonary infiltrated, in-patient of 72 years, masculine sex who consults for pain in the right inferior member of 6 months of evolution, decrease of the force in the right and moderate disartry

  20. Ceramic composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinton, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Composites consisting of silicon carbide matrices reinforced with continuous ceramic fibers are being developed for high-temperature structural applications. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques are very effective in fabricating composites with high strengths and exceptional fracture toughness. Mechanical properties of infiltrated composites are controlled by the strength of the interfacial bond between the fibers and matrix. This paper describes two CVD techniques and reviews the models being developed to better understand and control the infiltration process

  1. Tunable Beam Diffraction in Infiltrated Microstructured Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosberg, Christian Romer; Bennet, Francis H.; Neshev, Dragomir N.

    We experimentally study beam propagation in two dimensional photonic lattices in microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with high index liquids. We demonstrate strongly tunable beam diffraction by dynamically varying the coupling between individual lattice sites.......We experimentally study beam propagation in two dimensional photonic lattices in microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with high index liquids. We demonstrate strongly tunable beam diffraction by dynamically varying the coupling between individual lattice sites....

  2. Detection of lymphomatous infiltration in the bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, M. O.; Santos, A. O.; Costa, S.C.; Ramos, C.D.; Etchebehere, E.C.S.C.; Metze, I.L.; Barbosa, M.N.S.; Souza, C.A.; Camargo, E.E.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The scintillographic follow-up of patients with lymphoma is obtained by making whole body research (WBR) with gallium-67. However, the abnormal accumulation of this pharmaceutical in the long bones is not an specific for lymphomatous infiltration and can be representative of hematopoietic expansion of bone marrow, as well. The differential diagnosis can be done using bone scintillography (BS) and bone marrow scintillography (BMS). We present a case where the diagnosis of lymphomatous infiltration indicated by the WBR with gallium-67, was confirmed by the BS and BMS. Male patient, 57 years old, with diagnosis of a high level malignant non-Hodgkin lymphoma, was submitted to the WBR with gallium-67 during the chemotherapy. The gallium-67 was high uptaked in the third distal of the right femur and in the proximal of the right tibia. One month after finishing the chemotherapy, a new WBR with gallium-67 shows the persistence of the high uptake in the same areas and the appearance of new ones in the third distal of the left femur. The study was complemented with BS and BMS. The BS revealed high uptake in focal areas, in the same regions where high uptake of gallium-67 has been detected in the study, after chemotherapy. The BMS showed absence of functioning bone marrow in these areas reducing the probability of medullar expansion. The absence of answering to the chemotherapy has been verified, changing the patient behavior and prognostic. The BMS with colloidal Tc-99m sulfur in this patient was useful for the differential diagnosis between medullar expansion and lymphomatous medullar infiltration

  3. Influence of Surface Biosolids Application on Infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Zartman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosolids from waste water treatment facilities applied to soils not only add plant nutrients, but also increase infiltration and decrease runoff and erosion. Wet biosolids from New York, NY, were surface applied at 0 to 90 Mg ha−1 dry weight to soils near El Paso, Tex. Simulated rainfall intensities of 16.4 cm hr−1 for 30 minutes applied to 0.5 m2 soil plots yielded initial infiltration rates of ~16 cm hr−1 for all plots. Biosolids applications extended the duration of the initially high infiltration rates. After 30 minutes, infiltration rates for bare soil were 3 cm hr−1 without and 10 cm hr−1 with 90 Mg biosolids ha−1. Applied biosolids, plant litter, surface gravel, and plant base contributed surface cover, which absorbed raindrop energy and reduced erosion. Biosolids increased cumulative infiltration on the vegetated, wet soils more than for the dry or bare soils. Biosolids increased cumulative infiltration from 2 to 6 cm on a bare gravelly soil and from 9.3 to 10.6 cm on a vegetated soil.

  4. Fever, petechiae, and pulmonary infiltrates in an immunocompromised Peruvian man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, C. S.; Dobuler, K. J.; Bia, F. J.

    1987-01-01

    The diagnostic considerations raised by immunocompromised patients with opportunistic infection continue to expand. When such patients harbor latent or persistent infection acquired in a tropical environment, the diagnostic challenge is even greater. The Infectious Disease Service at Yale-New Haven Hospital was asked to see a middle-aged man from Peru with known T-cell lymphoma who had recently completed a course of chemotherapy. He presented to the hospital with fever, petechial skin rash, pulmonary infiltrates, and neutropenia. Ultimately this case illustrated the necessity for careful evaluation of such patients, looking, in particular, for evidence of opportunistic parasitic infection. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:3424876

  5. Persistent Aerial Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc

  6. Comparison of parenchymal phase of hepatobiliary gammagraphy with radiocolloid liver gammagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimacek, J; Stupakova, E; Takacs, J

    1985-08-01

    A comparison was performed of the parenchymal phase of hepatobiliary gammagraphy (HBG) with radiocolloid gammagraphy (RCG) in 148 patients to assess the importance of both methods depending on the nature of the liver disease. Gammagraphic changes were mostly identical (43.9%), changes notable in HBG rather than RCG were more frequent (29.1%) than changes more marked in RCG (17.6%). Changes appearing only in HBG or only in RCG had the same frequency (4.7% each). The same results in both kinds of examination (identical findings) in all patients occurred only in metastases of malignant tumours of the liver, i.e., in these cases both examinations had the same diagnostic value. In HBG of hepatocellular carcinoma the defect found in RCG was supplemented in 1/4 of the patients, which shows high specificity in combination of both types of examination from the point of view of differential diagnosis. In mechanical jaundice and chronic hepatitis HBG is of greater importance and should be preferred to RCG. In acute hepatitis and further undifferentiated chronic hepatopathies most changes were identical for both HBG and RCG, but the relatively higher incidence of more notable changes with HBG made it preferrable to RCG. In liver cirrhosis RCG was more important.

  7. Diffuse parenchymal lung disease in a case of chronic arsenic exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Bhattacharya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old housewife, the resident of rural part of West Bengal, presented with gradually progressive exertional dyspnea associated with a dry cough for last 3 years clinical features were suggestive of diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD. Her chest X-ray posteroanterior view and high resolution computed tomography scan of the thorax showed bilateral patchy ground glass opacities and reticulonodular pattern. Search for the etiology revealed classical skin findings of chronic arsenic exposure in the form of generalized darkening and thickening of skin and keratotic lesions over the palms and soles and classical raindrop pigmentation over leg which was present for last 7 years subsequently her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, hair, nail, and drinking water showed significant amount of arsenic contamination. By exclusion of all known causes of DPLD, we concluded that it was a case of DPLD due to chronic arsenic exposure. To the best of our knowledge, only few case report of DPLD in chronic arsenicosis has been reported till date.

  8. Perforin-2 is essential for intracellular defense of parenchymal cells and phagocytes against pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Ryan M; de Armas, Lesley R; Shiratsuchi, Motoaki; Fiorentino, Desiree G; Olsson, Melissa L; Lichtenheld, Mathias G; Morales, Alejo; Lyapichev, Kirill; Gonzalez, Louis E; Strbo, Natasa; Sukumar, Neelima; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Plano, Gregory V; Munson, George P; Tomic-Canic, Marjana; Kirsner, Robert S; Russell, David G; Podack, Eckhard R

    2015-01-01

    Perforin-2 (MPEG1) is a pore-forming, antibacterial protein with broad-spectrum activity. Perforin-2 is expressed constitutively in phagocytes and inducibly in parenchymal, tissue-forming cells. In vitro, Perforin-2 prevents the intracellular replication and proliferation of bacterial pathogens in these cells. Perforin-2 knockout mice are unable to control the systemic dissemination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or Salmonella typhimurium and perish shortly after epicutaneous or orogastric infection respectively. In contrast, Perforin-2-sufficient littermates clear the infection. Perforin-2 is a transmembrane protein of cytosolic vesicles -derived from multiple organelles- that translocate to and fuse with bacterium containing vesicles. Subsequently, Perforin-2 polymerizes and forms large clusters of 100 Å pores in the bacterial surface with Perforin-2 cleavage products present in bacteria. Perforin-2 is also required for the bactericidal activity of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and hydrolytic enzymes. Perforin-2 constitutes a novel and apparently essential bactericidal effector molecule of the innate immune system. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06508.001 PMID:26402460

  9. Impact of menopausal status on background parenchymal enhancement and fibroglandular tissue on breast MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Valencia; Gu, Yajia; Kaplan, Jennifer B.; Morris, Elizabeth A.; Brooks, Jennifer D.; Pike, Malcolm C.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of menopausal status on the background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) on breast MRI. Retrospective review identified 1,130 women who underwent screening breast MRI between July and November 2010. In 28 of these women, breast MRI was performed both at one time point while pre- and one time point while post-menopausal (median interval 49 months). Two independent readers blinded to menopausal status used categorical scales to rate BPE (minimal/mild/moderate/marked) and FGT (fatty/scattered/heterogeneously dense/dense). Consensus was reached when there was disagreement. The sign test was used to assess changes in rating categories, and the Spearman rank and Fisher's exact tests were used to measure correlations and associations between variables. Significant proportions of women demonstrated decreases in BPE and FGT on post-menopausal breast MRI (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0009). BPE category was unchanged in 39 % (11/28) and decreased in 61 % (17/28) of women. FGT category was unchanged in 61 % (17/28) and decreased in 39 % (11/28) of women. Age, reason for menopause, or interval between MRIs had no significant impact on changes in BPE and FGT. On MRI, BPE, and FGT decrease after menopause in significant proportions of women; BPE decreases more than FGT. (orig.)

  10. Breast MRI background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) correlates with the risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telegrafo, Michele; Rella, Leonarda; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Angelelli, Giuseppe; Moschetta, Marco

    2016-02-01

    To investigate whether background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and breast cancer would correlate searching for any significant difference of BPE pattern distribution in case of benign or malignant lesions. 386 patients, including 180 pre-menopausal (group 1) and 206 post-menopausal (group 2), underwent MR examination. Two radiologists evaluated MR images classifying normal BPE as minimal, mild, moderate or marked. The two groups of patients were subdivided into 3 categories based on MRI findings (negative, benign and malignant lesions). The distribution of BPE patterns within the two groups and within the three MR categories was calculated. The χ2 test was used to evaluate BPE type distribution in the three patient categories and any statistically significant correlation of BPE with lesion type was calculated. The Student t test was applied to search for any statistically significant difference between BPE type rates in group 1 and 2. The χ2 test demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the distribution of BPE types in negative patients and benign lesions as compared with malignant ones (p0.05). Normal BPE could correlate with the risk of breast cancer being such BPE patterns as moderate and marked associated with patients with malignant lesions in both pre and post-menopausal women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of background parenchymal enhancement on breast cancer detection with magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telegrafo, M; Rella, L; Stabile Ianora, A A; Angelelli, G; Moschetta, M

    2016-03-01

    To investigate whether background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) may influence the sensitivity of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (DCE-MR) imaging in breast cancer detection. A total of 180 consecutive women with 194 breast cancers underwent MR imaging examination. Women were assigned to two different groups depending on the degree of BPE. Group 1 consisted of women with minimal or mild BPE and group 2 of women with moderate or marked BPE. The distributions of histotypes of tumors within the two groups were compared using the χ(2) test. Difference in sensitivities of DCE-MR imaging for tumor detection between the two groups was searched for using the Student t-test. No differences in terms of distributions of histotypes of tumors between the two groups of women were found (P=0.5). The 11% difference in sensitivity of DCE-MR imaging for tumor detection between group 1 (91/92; 99%; 95% CI: 94-100%) and group 2 (90/102; 88%; 95% CI: 80-94%) was statistically significant (P=0.0058). The sensitivity of DCE-MR imaging is significantly lower in women with moderate and marked BPE as compared with women with minimal and mild BPE regardless of cancer histotype. BPE could represent a limitation for breast MR imaging interpretation and should be indicated in MR imaging reports. Copyright © 2015 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Background parenchymal enhancement in breast MRI before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: correlation with tumour response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preibsch, H.; Wanner, L.; Bahrs, S.D.; Wietek, B.M.; Nikolaou, K.; Wiesinger, B. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Siegmann-Luz, K.C. [Diagnostic Center for Breast Cancer and Screening Mammography Brandenburg Ost, Koenigs Wusterhausen (Germany); Oberlecher, E.; Hahn, M. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tuebingen (Germany); Staebler, A. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Institute of Pathology and Neuropathology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    To correlate the decrease in background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and tumour response measured with MRI in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). One hundred and forty-six MRI examinations of 73 patients with 80 biopsy-proven breast cancers who underwent breast MRI before and after NAC were retrospectively analysed. All images were reviewed by two blinded readers, who classified BPE into categories (BEC; 1 = minimal, 2 = mild, 3 = moderate, 4 = marked) before and after NAC. Histopathological and morphological tumour responses were analysed and compared. The distribution of BEC 1/2/3/4 was 25/46/18/11 % before and 78/20/2/0 % after NAC. On average, BPE decreased by 0.87 BEC. Cohen's kappa showed substantial agreement (k = 0.73-0.77) before and moderate agreement (k = 0.43-0.60) after NAC and moderate agreement (k = 0.62-0.60) concerning the change in BEC. Correlating the change in BPE with tumour response, the average decrease in BEC was 1.3 in cases of complete remission, 0.83 in cases with partial response, 0.85 in cases with stable disease and 0.40 in cases with progressive disease. Correlation analysis showed a significant correlation between the decrease in BEC and tumour response (r = -0.24, p = 0.03). BPE decreased by, on average, 0.87 BEC following NAC for breast cancer. The degree of BPE reduction seemed to correlate with tumour response. (orig.)

  13. Procalcitonin for the early prediction of renal parenchymal involvement in children with UTI: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotoula, Aggeliki; Gardikis, Stefanos; Tsalkidis, Aggelos; Mantadakis, Elpis; Zissimopoulos, Athanassios; Kambouri, Katerina; Deftereos, Savvas; Tripsianis, Gregorios; Manolas, Konstantinos; Chatzimichael, Athanassios; Vaos, George

    2009-01-01

    In order to establish the most reliable marker for distinguishing urinary tract infections (UTI) with and without renal parenchymal involvement (RPI), we recorded the clinical features and admission leukocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and serum procalcitonin (PCT) in 57 children (including 43 girls) aged 2-108 months admitted with a first episode of UTI. RPI was evaluated by Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy within 7 days of admission. To establish cut-off points for ESR, CRP, and PCT, we used receiver operating characteristics curves and compared the area under the curve for ESR, CRP, and PCT. Twenty-seven children were diagnosed as having RPI based on positive renal scintigraphy. A body temperature of >38 degrees C, a history of diarrhea, and poor oral intake were more common in patients with RPI. ESR, CRP, and PCT, but not leukocyte count, were significantly higher in patients with RPI (P UTI than ESR and CRP. Using a cut-off value of 0.85 ng/ml, PCT had the best performance, with sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 89%, 97%, 96%, and 91% respectively. Serum PCT is a better marker than ESR, CRP, and leukocyte count for the early prediction of RPI in children with a first episode of UTI.

  14. Slice simulation from a model of the parenchymous vascularization to evaluate texture features: work in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Y; Bézy-Wendling, J; Duvauferrier, R; Coatrieux, J L

    1999-03-01

    To demonstrate the usefulness of a model of the parenchymous vascularization to evaluate texture analysis methods. Slices with thickness varying from 1 to 4 mm were reformatted from a 3D vascular model corresponding to either normal tissue perfusion or local hypervascularization. Parameters of statistical methods were measured on 16128x128 regions of interest, and mean values and standard deviation were calculated. For each parameter, the performances (discrimination power and stability) were evaluated. Among 11 calculated statistical parameters, three (homogeneity, entropy, mean of gradients) were found to have a good discriminating power to differentiate normal perfusion from hypervascularization, but only the gradient mean was found to have a good stability with respect to the thickness. Five parameters (run percentage, run length distribution, long run emphasis, contrast, and gray level distribution) were found to have intermediate results. In the remaining three, curtosis and correlation was found to have little discrimination power, skewness none. This 3D vascular model, which allows the generation of various examples of vascular textures, is a powerful tool to assess the performance of texture analysis methods. This improves our knowledge of the methods and should contribute to their a priori choice when designing clinical studies.

  15. Pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: Interactions between Liver Parenchymal and Nonparenchymal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Magee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common type of chronic liver disease in the Western countries, affecting up to 25% of the general population and becoming a major health concern in both adults and children. NAFLD encompasses the entire spectrum of fatty liver disease in individuals without significant alcohol consumption, ranging from nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and cirrhosis. NASH is a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and hepatic disorders with the presence of steatosis, hepatocyte injury (ballooning, inflammation, and, in some patients, progressive fibrosis leading to cirrhosis. The pathogenesis of NASH is a complex process and implicates cell interactions between liver parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells as well as crosstalk between various immune cell populations in liver. Lipotoxicity appears to be the central driver of hepatic cellular injury via oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. This review focuses on the contributions of hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells to NASH, assessing their potential applications to the development of novel therapeutic agents. Currently, there are limited pharmacological treatments for NASH; therefore, an increased understanding of NASH pathogenesis is pertinent to improve disease interventions in the future.

  16. Role of Transbronchial Lung Cryobiopsies in Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Diseases: Interest of a Sequential Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Bondue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Transbronchial lung cryobiopsies (TBLCs are a promising diagnostic tool in the setting of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs. However, no comparison with surgical lung biopsy (SLB in the same patient is available. Methods. The diagnostic yield and safety data of TBLCs, as well as the result of SLB performed after TBLCs, were analysed in a multicentric Belgian study. A SLB was performed after TBLCs in absence of a definite pathological diagnosis or if a NSIP pattern was observed without related condition identified following multidisciplinary discussion. Results. Between April 2015 and November 2016, 30 patients were included. Frequent complications included pneumothorax (20% and bleeding (severe 7%, moderate 33%, and mild 53%. There was no mortality. The overall diagnostic yield was 80%. A SLB was performed in six patients (three without definite histological pattern and three with an NSIP. The surgical biopsy changed the pathological diagnosis into a UIP pattern in five patients and confirmed a NSIP pattern in one patient. Conclusion. TBLCs are useful in the diagnostic work-up of DPLDs avoiding a SLB in 80% of the patients. However, surgical biopsies, performed as a second step after TBLCs because of an indefinite diagnosis or a NSIP pattern, provide additional information supporting the interest of a sequential approach in these patients.

  17. Renal artery and parenchymal changes after renal denervation: assessment by magnetic resonance angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, Margreet F.; Vink, Eva E.; Blankestijn, Peter J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Doormaal, Pieter Jan van; Habets, Jesse; Vonken, Evert-Jan; Leiner, Tim [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Beeftink, Martine M.A.; Verloop, Willemien L.; Voskuil, Michiel [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Cardiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bots, Michiel L. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Fadl Elmula, Fadl Elmula M. [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine and Department of Cardiology, Ullevaal, Oslo (Norway); Hammer, Frank [Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Hoffmann, Pavel [Oslo University Hospital, Section for Interventional Cardiology, Department of Cardiology, Ullevaal, Oslo (Norway); Jacobs, Lotte; Staessen, Jan A. [University of Leuven, Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Leuven (Belgium); Mark, Patrick B.; Taylor, Alison H. [University of Glasgow, Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Persu, Alexandre; Renkin, Jean [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Pole of Cardiovascular Research, Institut de Recherche Experimentale et Clinique, Brussels (Belgium); Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Cardiology Department, Brussels (Belgium); Roditi, Giles [Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Spiering, Wilko [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Vascular Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Collaboration: on behalf of the European Network COordinating research on Renal Denervation (ENCOReD) Consortium

    2017-09-15

    Relatively little is known about the incidence of long-term renal damage after renal denervation (RDN), a potential new treatment for hypertension. In this study the incidence of renal artery and parenchymal changes, assessed with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) after RDN, is investigated. This study is an initiative of ENCOReD, a collaboration of hypertension expert centres. Patients in whom an MRA was performed before and after RDN were included. Scans were evaluated by two independent, blinded radiologists. Primary outcome was the change in renal artery morphology and parenchyma. MRAs from 96 patients were analysed. Before RDN, 41 renal anomalies were observed, of which 29 mostly mild renal artery stenoses. After a median time of 366 days post RDN, MRA showed a new stenosis (25-49% lumen reduction) in two patients and progression of pre-existing lumen reduction in a single patient. No other renal changes were observed and renal function remained stable. We observed new or progressed renal artery stenosis in three out of 96 patients, after a median time of 12 months post RDN (3.1%). Procedural angiographies showed that ablations were applied near the observed stenosis in only one of the three patients. (orig.)

  18. Brain parenchymal damage in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder - A multimodal MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pache, F.; Paul, F. [Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine and Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center and Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Zimmermann, H.; Lacheta, A.; Papazoglou, S.; Kuchling, J.; Wuerfel, J.; Brandt, A.U. [Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine and Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center and Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Finke, C. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Berlin (Germany); Hamm, B. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Ruprecht, K. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Scheel, M. [Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine and Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center and Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    To investigate different brain regions for grey (GM) and white matter (WM) damage in a well-defined cohort of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) patients and compare advanced MRI techniques (VBM, Subcortical and cortical analyses (Freesurfer), and DTI) for their ability to detect damage in NMOSD. We analyzed 21 NMOSD patients and 21 age and gender matched control subjects. VBM (GW/WM) and DTI whole brain (TBSS) analyses were performed at different statistical thresholds to reflect different statistical approaches in previous studies. In an automated atlas-based approach, Freesurfer and DTI results were compared between NMOSD and controls. DTI TBSS and DTI atlas based analysis demonstrated microstructural impairment only within the optic radiation or in regions associated with the optic radiation (posterior thalamic radiation p < 0.001, 6.9 % reduction of fractional anisotropy). VBM demonstrated widespread brain GM and WM reduction, but only at exploratory statistical thresholds, with no differences remaining after correction for multiple comparisons. Freesurfer analysis demonstrated no group differences. NMOSD specific parenchymal brain damage is predominantly located in the optic radiation, likely due to a secondary degeneration caused by ON. In comparison, DTI appears to be the most reliable and sensitive technique for brain damage detection in NMOSD. (orig.)

  19. Impact of menopausal status on background parenchymal enhancement and fibroglandular tissue on breast MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Valencia [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Breast Imaging Section, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Gu, Yajia [Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Fudan University, Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai (China); Kaplan, Jennifer B.; Morris, Elizabeth A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Breast Imaging Section, New York, NY (United States); Brooks, Jennifer D.; Pike, Malcolm C. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-12-15

    To evaluate the effect of menopausal status on the background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) on breast MRI. Retrospective review identified 1,130 women who underwent screening breast MRI between July and November 2010. In 28 of these women, breast MRI was performed both at one time point while pre- and one time point while post-menopausal (median interval 49 months). Two independent readers blinded to menopausal status used categorical scales to rate BPE (minimal/mild/moderate/marked) and FGT (fatty/scattered/heterogeneously dense/dense). Consensus was reached when there was disagreement. The sign test was used to assess changes in rating categories, and the Spearman rank and Fisher's exact tests were used to measure correlations and associations between variables. Significant proportions of women demonstrated decreases in BPE and FGT on post-menopausal breast MRI (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0009). BPE category was unchanged in 39 % (11/28) and decreased in 61 % (17/28) of women. FGT category was unchanged in 61 % (17/28) and decreased in 39 % (11/28) of women. Age, reason for menopause, or interval between MRIs had no significant impact on changes in BPE and FGT. On MRI, BPE, and FGT decrease after menopause in significant proportions of women; BPE decreases more than FGT. (orig.)

  20. Tc-99m erythromycin lactobionate inhalation scintigraphy in parenchymal lung diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durak, Hatice E-mail: hdurak@kordon.deu.edu.tr; Aktogu, Serir; Degirmenci, Berna; Sayit, Elvan; Ertay, Tuerkan; Dereli, Sevket

    1999-08-01

    We have investigated Technetium 99m erythromycin lactobionate (Tc 99m EL) clearance from the lungs after inhalation, in the presence of an alveolitis. Eighteen patients (6 sarcoidosis, 7 idiopathic fibrosis, and 5 miliary tuberculosis) were imaged after the patients inhaled 1,110 MBq of Tc 99m EL. Clearance half time for the first 45 min, for 24 h, and retention at 24 h correlated with percentage of lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) (r=.729, r=.883, and r=.826, respectively). There was a positive correlation between peripheral penetration (PP) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) (r=.806) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (r=.781). Retention was more marked in sarcoidosis compared with tuberculosis (0.025parenchymal lung diseases. Retention of Tc 99m EL may be related to number of BAL cells or presence of a lymphocytic alveolitis. Long residency time of Tc 99m EL in the lungs implies that erythromycin can also be administered by inhalation for therapeutic purposes.

  1. Brain parenchymal damage in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder - A multimodal MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pache, F.; Paul, F.; Zimmermann, H.; Lacheta, A.; Papazoglou, S.; Kuchling, J.; Wuerfel, J.; Brandt, A.U.; Finke, C.; Hamm, B.; Ruprecht, K.; Scheel, M.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate different brain regions for grey (GM) and white matter (WM) damage in a well-defined cohort of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) patients and compare advanced MRI techniques (VBM, Subcortical and cortical analyses (Freesurfer), and DTI) for their ability to detect damage in NMOSD. We analyzed 21 NMOSD patients and 21 age and gender matched control subjects. VBM (GW/WM) and DTI whole brain (TBSS) analyses were performed at different statistical thresholds to reflect different statistical approaches in previous studies. In an automated atlas-based approach, Freesurfer and DTI results were compared between NMOSD and controls. DTI TBSS and DTI atlas based analysis demonstrated microstructural impairment only within the optic radiation or in regions associated with the optic radiation (posterior thalamic radiation p < 0.001, 6.9 % reduction of fractional anisotropy). VBM demonstrated widespread brain GM and WM reduction, but only at exploratory statistical thresholds, with no differences remaining after correction for multiple comparisons. Freesurfer analysis demonstrated no group differences. NMOSD specific parenchymal brain damage is predominantly located in the optic radiation, likely due to a secondary degeneration caused by ON. In comparison, DTI appears to be the most reliable and sensitive technique for brain damage detection in NMOSD. (orig.)

  2. Inter-observer agreement according to three methods of evaluating mammographic density and parenchymal pattern in a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Rikke Rass; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Nielsen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    , Tabár's PIV and PV and the upper two quartiles (within density range) of PMD. The relative risk of breast cancer was estimated using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, which were compared between the two readers. RESULTS: Substantial inter-observer agreement was seen......, respectively. Inter-reader variability showed different impact on the relative risk of breast cancer estimated by the two readers on a multiple-category scale, however, not on a high/low-risk scale. Tabár's pattern IV demonstrated the highest ORs of all density patterns investigated. CONCLUSIONS: Our study......BACKGROUND: Mammographic breast density and parenchymal patterns are well-established risk factors for breast cancer. We aimed to report inter-observer agreement on three different subjective ways of assessing mammographic density and parenchymal pattern, and secondarily to examine what potential...

  3. Renal Parenchymal Hypoxia in Young Children in the Period of Complete Remission of Acute Uncomplicated Pyelonephritis without Renal Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Lukianenko

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions. To predict the formation and for the purpose of early diagnosis of renal parenchymal hypoxia and the processes of nephrothelial membrane destruction in young children with pyelonephritis, it is recommended to use such markers, as indicators of urine ability to prevent crystal formation, daily excretion of salts, excretion of lipid peroxidation products and polar lipids in the urine. It is recommended to apply the methods to correct these changes.

  4. Vascular and parenchymal amyloid pathology in an Alzheimer disease knock-in mouse model: interplay with cerebral blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei; Guo, Qinxi; Inoue, Taeko; Polito, Vinicia A; Tabuchi, Katsuhiko; Hammer, Robert E; Pautler, Robia G; Taffet, George E; Zheng, Hui

    2014-08-09

    Accumulation and deposition of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) in the brain is a central event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Besides the parenchymal pathology, Aβ is known to undergo active transport across the blood-brain barrier and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a prominent feature in the majority of AD. Although impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been implicated in faulty Aβ transport and clearance, and cerebral hypoperfusion can exist in the pre-clinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is still unclear whether it is one of the causal factors for AD pathogenesis, or an early consequence of a multi-factor condition that would lead to AD at late stage. To study the potential interaction between faulty CBF and amyloid accumulation in clinical-relevant situation, we generated a new amyloid precursor protein (APP) knock-in allele that expresses humanized Aβ and a Dutch mutation in addition to Swedish/London mutations and compared this line with an equivalent knock-in line but in the absence of the Dutch mutation, both crossed onto the PS1M146V knock-in background. Introduction of the Dutch mutation results in robust CAA and parenchymal Aβ pathology, age-dependent reduction of spatial learning and memory deficits, and CBF reduction as detected by fMRI. Direct manipulation of CBF by transverse aortic constriction surgery on the left common carotid artery caused differential changes in CBF in the anterior and middle region of the cortex, where it is reduced on the left side and increased on the right side. However these perturbations in CBF resulted in the same effect: both significantly exacerbate CAA and amyloid pathology. Our study reveals a direct and positive link between vascular and parenchymal Aβ; both can be modulated by CBF. The new APP knock-in mouse model recapitulates many symptoms of AD including progressive vascular and parenchymal Aβ pathology and behavioral deficits in the absence of APP overexpression.

  5. TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT NO. 1: CLIMATE AND INFILTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2004-05-01

    For the past 20 years, extensive field, laboratory, and modeling investigations have been performed at Yucca Mountain, which have led to the development of a number of conceptual models of infiltration and climate for the Yucca Mountain region around the repository site (Flint, A.L. et al. 2001; Wang and Bodvarsson 2003). Evaluating the amount of infiltrating water entering the subsurface is important, because this water may affect the percolation flux, which, in turn, controls seepage into the waste emplacement drifts and radionuclide transport from the repository to the water table. Forecasting of climatic data indicates that during the next 10,000 years at Yucca Mountain, the present-day climate should persist for 400 to 600 years, followed by a warmer and much wetter monsoon climate for 900 to 1,400 years, and by a cooler and wetter glacial-transition climate for the remaining 8,000 to 8,700 years. The analysis of climatic forecasting indicates that long-term climate conditions are generally predictable from a past climate sequence, while short-term climate conditions and weather predictions may be more variable and uncertain. The use of past climate sequences to bound future climate sequences involves several types of uncertainties, such as (1) uncertainty in the timing of future climate, (2) uncertainty in the methodology of climatic forecasting, and (3) uncertainty in the earth's future physical processes. Some of the uncertainties of the climatic forecasting are epistemic (reducible) and aleatoric (irreducible). Because of the size of the model domain, INFIL treats many flow processes in a simplified manner. For example, uptake of water by roots occurs according to the ''distributed model'', in which available water in each soil layer is withdrawn in proportion to the root density in that layer, multiplied by the total evapotranspirative demand. Runoff is calculated simply as the excess of precipitation over a sum of infiltration

  6. TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT NO. 1: CLIMATE AND INFILTRATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NA

    2004-01-01

    For the past 20 years, extensive field, laboratory, and modeling investigations have been performed at Yucca Mountain, which have led to the development of a number of conceptual models of infiltration and climate for the Yucca Mountain region around the repository site (Flint, A.L. et al. 2001; Wang and Bodvarsson 2003). Evaluating the amount of infiltrating water entering the subsurface is important, because this water may affect the percolation flux, which, in turn, controls seepage into the waste emplacement drifts and radionuclide transport from the repository to the water table. Forecasting of climatic data indicates that during the next 10,000 years at Yucca Mountain, the present-day climate should persist for 400 to 600 years, followed by a warmer and much wetter monsoon climate for 900 to 1,400 years, and by a cooler and wetter glacial-transition climate for the remaining 8,000 to 8,700 years. The analysis of climatic forecasting indicates that long-term climate conditions are generally predictable from a past climate sequence, while short-term climate conditions and weather predictions may be more variable and uncertain. The use of past climate sequences to bound future climate sequences involves several types of uncertainties, such as (1) uncertainty in the timing of future climate, (2) uncertainty in the methodology of climatic forecasting, and (3) uncertainty in the earth's future physical processes. Some of the uncertainties of the climatic forecasting are epistemic (reducible) and aleatoric (irreducible). Because of the size of the model domain, INFIL treats many flow processes in a simplified manner. For example, uptake of water by roots occurs according to the ''distributed model'', in which available water in each soil layer is withdrawn in proportion to the root density in that layer, multiplied by the total evapotranspirative demand. Runoff is calculated simply as the excess of precipitation over a sum of infiltration and water storage in the

  7. Assessment of the relationship between lung parenchymal destruction and impaired pulmonary perfusion on a lobar level in patients with emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia; Ley, Sebastian; Eberhardt, Ralf; Weinheimer, Oliver; Fink, Christian; Puderbach, Michael; Eichinger, Monika; Herth, Felix; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the relationship between lung parenchymal destruction and impaired pulmonary perfusion on a lobar level using CT and MRI in patients with emphysema. Material and methods: Forty-five patients with severe emphysema (GOLD III and IV) underwent inspiratory 3D-HRCT and contrast-enhanced MR-perfusion (1.5T; 3.5 mm x 1.9 mm x 4 mm). 3D-HRCT data was analyzed using a software for detection and visualization of emphysema. Emphysema was categorized in four clusters with different volumes and presented as overlay on the CT. CT and lung perfusion were visually analyzed for three lobes on each side using a four-point-score to grade the abnormalities on CT (1: predominantly small emphysema-clusters to 4: >75% large emphysema-clusters) and MRI (1: normal perfusion to 4: no perfusion). Results: A total of 270 lobes were evaluated. At CT, the score was 1 for 9 lobes, 2 for 43, 3 for 77, and 4 for 141 lobes. At MRI, the score was 1 for 13 lobes, 2 for 45, 3 for 92, and 4 for 120 lobes. Matching of lung parenchymal destruction and reduced perfusion was found in 213 lobes (weighted kappa = 0.8). The score was higher on CT in 44, and higher on MRI in 13 lobes. Conclusion: 3D-HRCT and 3D MR-perfusion show a high lobar agreement between parenchymal destruction and reduction of perfusion in patients with severe emphysema

  8. The assessment of renal cortex and parenchymal volume using automated CT volumetry for predicting renal function after donor nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Yosuke; Sadahira, Takuya; Araki, Motoo; Wada, Koichiro; Tanimoto, Ryuta; Ariyoshi, Yuichi; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Masami; Watanabe, Toyohiko; Nasu, Yasutomo

    2018-04-01

    Contrast-enhanced CT is necessary before donor nephrectomy and is usually combined with a Tc-99m-mercapto-acetyltriglycine (MAG3) scan to check split renal function (SRF). However, all transplant programs do not use MAG3 because of its high cost and exposure to radiation. We examined whether CT volumetry of the kidney can be a new tool for evaluating SRF. Sixty-three patients underwent live donor nephrectomy. Patients without a 1.0 mm slice CT or follow-up for volumetry was analyzed at 1, 3, and 12 months post nephrectomy. Strong correlations were observed preoperatively in a Bland-Altman plot between SRF measured by MAG3 and either CT cortex or parenchymal volumetry. In addition, eGFR after donation correlated with SRF measured by MAG3 or CT volumetry. The correlation coefficients (R) for eGFR Mag3 split were 0.755, 0.615, and 0.763 at 1, 3 and 12 months, respectively. The corresponding R values for cortex volume split were 0.679, 0.638, and 0.747. Those for parenchymal volume split were 0.806, 0.592, and 0.764. Measuring kidney by CT volumetry is a cost-effective alternative to MAG3 for evaluating SRF and predicting postoperative donor renal function. Both cortex and parenchymal volumetry were similarly effective.

  9. Retinol and retinyl esters in parenchymal and nonparenchymal rat liver cell fractions after long-term administration of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, M.; Blomhoff, R.; Helgerud, P.; Solberg, L.A.; Berg, T.; Norum, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption reduces the liver retinoid store in man and rat. We have studied the effect of ethanol on some aspects of retinoid metabolism in parenchymal and nonparenchymal liver cells. Rats fed 36% of total energy intake as ethanol for 5-6 weeks had the liver retinoid concentration reduced to about one-third, as compared to pair-fed controls. The reduction in liver retinoid affected both the parenchymal and the nonparenchymal cell fractions. Plasma retinol level was normal. Liver uptake of injected chylomicron [3H]retinyl ester was similar in the experimental and control group. The transport of retinoid from the parenchymal to the nonparenchymal cells was not found to be significantly retarded in the ethanol-fed rats. Despite the reduction in total retinoid level in liver, the concentrations of unesterified retinol and retinyl oleate were increased in the ethanol fed rats. Hepatic retinol esterification was not significantly affected in the ethanol-fed rats. Since our study has demonstrated that liver uptake of chylomicron retinyl ester is not impaired in the ethanol-fed rat, we suggest that liver retinoid metabolism may be increased

  10. Meningeal infiltration in recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, V.F.H.; Fan, Y.-F.

    2000-01-01

    Permeative infiltration of the meninges appears to be a distinct form of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The present report of eight patients with recurrent NPC illustrates meningeal infiltration following basal foramina extension. Seven of the eight patients (88%) showed jugular foramen involvement. Three patients had concomitant infiltration of the foramen magnum. There was one patient showing spread through the foramen lacerum. Only four (50%) of these patients had clinically detectable tumour in the nasopharynx, while the other half showed deep submucosal recurrence with endoscopically unremarkable findings. Permeative meningeal infiltration appears to be a distinct form of NPC recurrence. It is important to recognize this phenomenon so as to optimize the treatment options. The imaging studies were reviewed and the following features were recorded: local nasopharyngeal recurrence, the manner of intracranial spread and site of meningeal infiltration. Four patients had only MRI, two had only CT and two patients had both CT and MRI. The presence or absence of intracranial tumour before treatment was also recorded. Two observers reviewed the images and results were arrived at by consensus. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  11. DMPD: Functions of anaphylatoxin C5a in rat liver: direct and indirect actions onnonparenchymal and parenchymal cells. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nnonparenchymal and parenchymal cells. Schieferdecker HL, Schlaf G, Jungermann K, Gotze O. Int Immunopharmac...chymal cells. Authors Schieferdecker HL, Schlaf G, Jungermann K, Gotze O. Publication Int Immunopharmacol. 2

  12. Infiltration and redistribution of water in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroosnijder, L.

    1976-01-01

    The flow of the liquid phase through a soil can be predicted from pressure gradients. Different ways of predicting infiltration for irrigation of a basin were compared: numerical approximation; semi-analytical and analytical. A partly empirical equation was developed for description of rate of infiltration, after examination of existing equations. Under certain conditions, infiltration was influenced by under or over pressure of the trapped gas phase and by swelling of clays. Complex models for redistribution were of little value in practice, since they could not be generalized and required too many physical data about the soil. A scheme was developed that grouped techniques for estimating physical properties of soil, according to cost and expertise required. A new experimental technique based on gamma transmission is described for estimating the physical properties of the soil. (Auth.)

  13. Copper infiltrated high speed steels based composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madej, M.; Lezanski, J.

    2003-01-01

    High hardness, mechanical strength, heat resistance and wear resistance of M3/2 high speed steel (HSS) make it an attractive material. Since technological and economical considerations are equally important, infiltration of high-speed steel skeleton with liquid cooper has proved to be a suitable technique whereby fully dense material is produced at low cost. Attempts have been made to describe the influence of the production process parameters and alloying additives, such as tungsten carbide on the microstructure and mechanical properties of copper infiltrated HSS based composites. The compositions of powder mixtures are 100% M3/2, M3/2+10% Wc, M3/2=30% WC. The powders were uniaxially cold compacted in a cylindrical die at 800 MPa. The green compacts were sintered in vacuum at 1150 o C for 60 minutes. Thereby obtained porous skeletons were subsequently infiltrated with cooper, by gravity method, in vacuum furnace at 1150 o C for 15 minutes. (author)

  14. Analysis of Rainfall Infiltration Law in Unsaturated Soil Slope

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Gui-rong; Qian, Ya-jun; Wang, Zhang-chun; Zhao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In the study of unsaturated soil slope stability under rainfall infiltration, it is worth continuing to explore how much rainfall infiltrates into the slope in a rain process, and the amount of rainfall infiltrating into slope is the important factor influencing the stability. Therefore, rainfall infiltration capacity is an important issue of unsaturated seepage analysis for slope. On the basis of previous studies, rainfall infiltration law of unsaturated soil slope is analyzed. Considering t...

  15. Reversible fatty infiltration of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostel, F.; Hauger, W.

    1987-01-01

    Case studies show that acute pancreatitis occurring independently or combined with a preceding abuse of alcohol may be the cause of fatty infiltration of the liver. These fat areas can evolve in a very short time and provoke in the case of focal incidence diagnostic problems of differentiation against abscesses of metastases. Due to this fact and because of the rapid reversibility of the fatty infiltration under therapy, the safest method to clarify the situation consists of short-term CT controls. (orig.) [de

  16. Statistical methods towards more efficient infiltration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, T; Krebs, P

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive knowledge about the infiltration situation in a catchment is required for operation and maintenance. Due to the high expenditures, an optimisation of necessary measurement campaigns is essential. Methods based on multivariate statistics were developed to improve the information yield of measurements by identifying appropriate gauge locations. The methods have a high degree of freedom against data needs. They were successfully tested on real and artificial data. For suitable catchments, it is estimated that the optimisation potential amounts up to 30% accuracy improvement compared to nonoptimised gauge distributions. Beside this, a correlation between independent reach parameters and dependent infiltration rates could be identified, which is not dominated by the groundwater head.

  17. Lack of association between parenchymal neurocysticercosis and HLA Class I and Class II antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Picchioni Bompeixe

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis, caused by encysted larvae of the tapeworm Taenia solium, is the most common infection of the central nervous system and a major public health problem in many countries. Prevalence in the region of Curitiba, located in the southern Brazilian State of Paraná, is one of the highest in the world. The genetics of host susceptibility to neurocysticercosis (NCC is still obscure. To investigate if major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes influence individual susceptibility to NCC, we performed a case-control association analysis. Fifty-two Caucasoid patients and 149 matched controls were typed for antigens of the HLA-A, B, C, DR and DQ loci. All patients had computerized tomography and clinical features compatible with parenchymal NCC. Indirect immunofluorescence of cerebrospinal fluid showed that 19 (37% of the patients presented anti-cysticercus antibodies at titers ³ 1:10. Frequencies of HLA specificities in the whole group of patients and in the subgroup with antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid were compared to those of the control group. No significant difference was found. These results do not support the hypothesis of HLA gene participation in susceptibility to parenchymal neurocysticercosis.A neurocisticercose, causada pelo cisticerco, a larva do cestóide Taenia solium, é a infecção mais comum do sistema nervoso central e constitui importante problema de saúde pública em muitos países. A sua prevalência na região de Curitiba, localizada no Estado do Paraná, foi estimada em 9%, situando-se entre as mais elevadas do mundo. Os aspectos genéticos de suscetibilidade à neurocisticercose (NCC ainda são pouco conhecidos. Com o objetivo de investigar se genes do MHC influenciam a suscetibilidade individual à NCC, realizamos uma análise de associação caso-controle. Cinqüenta e dois pacientes caucasóides e 149 indivíduos-controle pareados foram tipados para antígenos dos locos HLA-A, B, C, DR e DQ. Todos os

  18. Impact of fibroglandular tissue and background parenchymal enhancement on diffusion weighted imaging of breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iacconi, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.iacconi@tin.it [Breast Unit, USL1 Massa-Carrara, Piazza Monzoni 2, Carrara 54033 (Italy); Thakur, Sunitha B., E-mail: thakurs@mskcc.org [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Dershaw, David D., E-mail: dershawd@mskcc.org [Department of Radiology – Breast Imaging Center, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Brooks, Jennifer, E-mail: brooksj@mskcc.org [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 307 East 63rd Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Fry, Charles W., E-mail: charles_fry@nymc.edu [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Morris, Elizabeth A., E-mail: morrise@mskcc.org [Department of Radiology – Breast Imaging Center, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Aim of the paper is to evaluate if the amount of fibroglandular breast tissue (FGT) and the background enhancement(BPE) influence the detection of lesions and their quantitative analysis in diffusion weighted imaging(DWI) • The structure of the breast, including both FGT and BPE, as well as the menopausal status of the patient are not a relevant factor for lesion identification in DWI. • Quantitative analysis of normal breast is not uniform and is influenced by the amount of fibroglandular tissue,while there is no influence of background parenchymal enhancement. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the influence of the amount of fibroglandular breast tissue (FGT) and background-parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on lesion detection, quantitative analysis of normal breast tissue and of breast lesions on DWI. Materials and methods: IRB approved this retrospective study on focal findings at contrast-enhanced (CE) breast MR and DWI performed during July–December 2011. Patients with cysts, previous irradiation, silicone implants and current chemotherapy were excluded. DWI with fat suppression was acquired before dynamic acquisition (b factors: 0.1000 s/mm{sup 2}) using 1.5 and 3 T scanners. Using correlation with dynamic and T2 images, ROIs were drawn free-hand within the borders of any visible lesion and in contralateral normal breast. Fisher's exact test to evaluate visibility and Wilcoxon-rank-sum test for comparison of ADC values were used. The amount of FGT and BPE was visually assessed by concurrent MRI. Analysis was stratified by menopausal status. Results: 25/127 (20%) lesions were excluded for technical reasons. 65/102 (64%) lesions were visible on DWI (median diameter: 1.85 cm). Mass lesions (M) were more visible (43/60 = 72%) than non-mass enhancement (NME) (22/42 = 52%) and malignant lesions were more visible (55/72 = 76%) than benign (10/30 = 33%). BPE and FGT did not influence visibility of M (p = 0.35 and p = 0.57 respectively) as well

  19. Changes of renal sinus fat and renal parenchymal fat during an 18-month randomized weight loss trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelicha, Hila; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Shelef, Ilan; Gepner, Yftach; Tsaban, Gal; Tene, Lilac; Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Bilitzky, Avital; Komy, Oded; Cohen, Noa; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Sarusi, Benjamin; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Haviv, Yosef S; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2018-08-01

    Data regarding the role of kidney adiposity, its clinical implications, and its dynamics during weight-loss are sparse. We investigated the effect of long-term weight-loss induced intervention diets on dynamics of renal-sinus-fat, an ectopic fat depot, and %renal-parenchymal-fat, lipid accumulation within the renal parenchyma. We randomized 278 participants with abdominal obesity/dyslipidemia to low-fat or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate diets, with or without exercise. We quantified renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat by whole body magnetic-resonance-imaging. Participants (age = 48 years; 89% men; body-mass-index = 31 kg/m 2 ) had 86% retention to the trial after 18 months. Both increased renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat were directly associated with hypertension, and with higher abdominal deep-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue and visceral-adipose-tissue (p of trend vs. baseline) but not %renal-parenchymal-fat (-1.7%; p = 0.13 vs. baseline) significantly decreased, and similarly across the intervention groups. Renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat changes were correlated with weight-loss per-se (p < 0.05). In a model adjusted for age, sex, and visceral-adipose-tissue changes, 18 months reduction in renal-sinus-fat associated with decreased pancreatic, hepatic and cardiac fats (p < 0.05 for all) and with decreased cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) (β = 0.13; p = 0.05), triglycerides/HDL-c (β = 0.13; p = 0.05), insulin (β = 0.12; p = 0.05) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (β = 0.24; p = 0.001), but not with improved renal function parameters or blood pressure. Decreased intake of sodium was associated with a reduction in %renal-parenchymal-fat, after adjustment for 18 months weight-loss (β = 0.15; p = 0.026) and hypertension (β = 0.14; p = 0.04). Renal-sinus-fat and renal-parenchymal-fat are fairly related to weight-loss. Decreased renal-sinus-fat is associated with improved hepatic

  20. Relationship between Background Parenchymal Enhancement on High-risk Screening MRI and Future Breast Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Lars J; Saha, Ashirbani; Ghate, Sujata V; Kim, Connie; Soo, Mary Scott; Yoon, Sora C; Mazurowski, Maciej A

    2018-03-27

    To determine if background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on screening breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in high-risk women correlates with future cancer. All screening breast MRIs (n = 1039) in high-risk women at our institution from August 1, 2004, to July 30, 2013, were identified. Sixty-one patients who subsequently developed breast cancer were matched 1:2 by age and high-risk indication with patients who did not develop breast cancer (n = 122). Five fellowship-trained breast radiologists independently recorded the BPE. The median reader BPE for each case was calculated and compared between the cancer and control cohorts. Cancer cohort patients were high-risk because of a history of radiation therapy (10%, 6 of 61), high-risk lesion (18%, 11 of 61), or breast cancer (30%, 18 of 61); BRCA mutation (18%, 11 of 61); or family history (25%, 15 of 61). Subsequent malignancies were invasive ductal carcinoma (64%, 39 of 61), ductal carcinoma in situ (30%, 18 of 61) and invasive lobular carcinoma (7%, 4of 61). BPE was significantly higher in the cancer cohort than in the control cohort (P = 0.01). Women with mild, moderate, or marked BPE were 2.5 times more likely to develop breast cancer than women with minimal BPE (odds ratio = 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-4.8, P = .005). There was fair interreader agreement (κ = 0.39). High-risk women with greater than minimal BPE at screening MRI have increased risk of future breast cancer. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of Background Parenchymal Enhancement at Contrast-enhanced Spectral Mammography and Breast MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogani, Julie; Morris, Elizabeth A; Kaplan, Jennifer B; D'Alessio, Donna; Goldman, Debra; Moskowitz, Chaya S; Jochelson, Maxine S

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To assess the extent of background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) at contrast material-enhanced (CE) spectral mammography and breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, to evaluate interreader agreement in BPE assessment, and to examine the relationships between clinical factors and BPE. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective, institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant study. Two hundred seventy-eight women from 25 to 76 years of age with increased breast cancer risk who underwent CE spectral mammography and MR imaging for screening or staging from 2010 through 2014 were included. Three readers independently rated BPE on CE spectral mammographic and MR images with the ordinal scale: minimal, mild, moderate, or marked. To assess pairwise agreement between BPE levels on CE spectral mammographic and MR images and among readers, weighted κ coefficients with quadratic weights were calculated. For overall agreement, mean κ values and bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The univariate and multivariate associations between BPE and clinical factors were examined by using generalized estimating equations separately for CE spectral mammography and MR imaging. Results Most women had minimal or mild BPE at both CE spectral mammography (68%-76%) and MR imaging (69%-76%). Between CE spectral mammography and MR imaging, the intrareader agreement ranged from moderate to substantial (κ = 0.55-0.67). Overall agreement on BPE levels between CE spectral mammography and MR imaging and among readers was substantial (κ = 0.66; 95% confidence interval: 0.61, 0.70). With both modalities, BPE demonstrated significant association with menopausal status, prior breast radiation therapy, hormonal treatment, breast density on CE spectral mammographic images, and amount of fibroglandular tissue on MR images (P spectral mammographic and MR images. © RSNA, 2016.

  2. A comparison of deconvolution and the Rutland-Patlak plot in parenchymal renal uptake rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shakhrah, Issa A

    2012-07-01

    Deconvolution and the Rutland-Patlak (R-P) plot are two of the most commonly used methods for analyzing dynamic radionuclide renography. Both methods allow estimation of absolute and relative renal uptake of radiopharmaceutical and of its rate of transit through the kidney. Seventeen patients (32 kidneys) were referred for further evaluation by renal scanning. All patients were positioned supine with their backs to the scintillation gamma camera, so that the kidneys and the heart are both in the field of view. Approximately 5-7 mCi of (99m)Tc-DTPA (diethylinetriamine penta-acetic acid) in about 0.5 ml of saline is injected intravenously and sequential 20 s frames were acquired, the study on each patient lasts for approximately 20 min. The time-activity curves of the parenchymal region of interest of each kidney, as well as the heart were obtained for analysis. The data were then analyzed with deconvolution and the R-P plot. A strong positive association (n = 32; r = 0.83; R (2) = 0.68) was found between the values that obtained by applying the two methods. Bland-Altman statistical analysis demonstrated that ninety seven percent of the values in the study (31 cases from 32 cases, 97% of the cases) were within limits of agreement (mean ± 1.96 standard deviation). We believe that R-P analysis method is expected to be more reproducible than iterative deconvolution method, because the deconvolution technique (the iterative method) relies heavily on the accuracy of the first point analyzed, as any errors are carried forward into the calculations of all the subsequent points, whereas R-P technique is based on an initial analysis of the data by means of the R-P plot, and it can be considered as an alternative technique to find and calculate the renal uptake rate.

  3. MR elastography in primary sclerosing cholangitis: correlating liver stiffness with bile duct strictures and parenchymal changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookwalter, Candice A; Venkatesh, Sudhakar K; Eaton, John E; Smyrk, Thomas D; Ehman, Richard L

    2018-04-07

    To determine correlation of liver stiffness measured by MR Elastography (MRE) with biliary abnormalities on MR Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and MRI parenchymal features in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Fifty-five patients with PSC who underwent MRI of the liver with MRCP and MRE were retrospectively evaluated. Two board-certified abdominal radiologists in agreement reviewed the MRI, MRCP, and MRE images. The biliary tree was evaluated for stricture, dilatation, wall enhancement, and thickening at segmental duct, right main duct, left main duct, and common bile duct levels. Liver parenchyma features including signal intensity on T2W and DWI, and hyperenhancement in arterial, portal venous, and delayed phase were evaluated in nine Couinaud liver segments. Atrophy or hypertrophy of segments, cirrhotic morphology, varices, and splenomegaly were scored as present or absent. Regions of interest were placed in each of the nine segments on stiffness maps wherever available and liver stiffness (LS) was recorded. Mean segmental LS, right lobar (V-VIII), left lobar (I-III, and IVA, IVB), and global LS (average of all segments) were calculated. Spearman rank correlation analysis was performed for significant correlation. Features with significant correlation were then analyzed for significant differences in mean LS. Multiple regression analysis of MRI and MRCP features was performed for significant correlation with elevated LS. A total of 439/495 segments were evaluated and 56 segments not included in MRE slices were excluded for correlation analysis. Mean segmental LS correlated with the presence of strictures (r = 0.18, p duct strictures. Segments with increased LS show T2 hyperintensity, DWI hyperintensity, and post-contrast hyperenhancement. Global liver stiffness shows a moderate correlation with number of segmental strictures and significantly correlates with spleen stiffness, splenomegaly, and varices.

  4. Parameter optimization of parenchymal texture analysis for prediction of false-positive recalls from screening mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Shonket; Keller, Brad M.; Chen, Jinbo; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2016-03-01

    This work details a methodology to obtain optimal parameter values for a locally-adaptive texture analysis algorithm that extracts mammographic texture features representative of breast parenchymal complexity for predicting falsepositive (FP) recalls from breast cancer screening with digital mammography. The algorithm has two components: (1) adaptive selection of localized regions of interest (ROIs) and (2) Haralick texture feature extraction via Gray- Level Co-Occurrence Matrices (GLCM). The following parameters were systematically varied: mammographic views used, upper limit of the ROI window size used for adaptive ROI selection, GLCM distance offsets, and gray levels (binning) used for feature extraction. Each iteration per parameter set had logistic regression with stepwise feature selection performed on a clinical screening cohort of 474 non-recalled women and 68 FP recalled women; FP recall prediction was evaluated using area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and associations between the extracted features and FP recall were assessed via odds ratios (OR). A default instance of mediolateral (MLO) view, upper ROI size limit of 143.36 mm (2048 pixels2), GLCM distance offset combination range of 0.07 to 0.84 mm (1 to 12 pixels) and 16 GLCM gray levels was set. The highest ROC performance value of AUC=0.77 [95% confidence intervals: 0.71-0.83] was obtained at three specific instances: the default instance, upper ROI window equal to 17.92 mm (256 pixels2), and gray levels set to 128. The texture feature of sum average was chosen as a statistically significant (p<0.05) predictor and associated with higher odds of FP recall for 12 out of 14 total instances.

  5. Association between mammogram density and background parenchymal enhancement of breast MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei, Faranak; Danala, Gopichandh; Wang, Yunzhi; Zarafshani, Ali; Qian, Wei; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2018-02-01

    Breast density has been widely considered as an important risk factor for breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between mammogram density results and background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) of breast MRI. A dataset involving breast MR images was acquired from 65 high-risk women. Based on mammography density (BIRADS) results, the dataset was divided into two groups of low and high breast density cases. The Low-Density group has 15 cases with mammographic density (BIRADS 1 and 2), while the High-density group includes 50 cases, which were rated by radiologists as mammographic density BIRADS 3 and 4. A computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme was applied to segment and register breast regions depicted on sequential images of breast MRI scans. CAD scheme computed 20 global BPE features from the entire two breast regions, separately from the left and right breast region, as well as from the bilateral difference between left and right breast regions. An image feature selection method namely, CFS method, was applied to remove the most redundant features and select optimal features from the initial feature pool. Then, a logistic regression classifier was built using the optimal features to predict the mammogram density from the BPE features. Using a leave-one-case-out validation method, the classifier yields the accuracy of 82% and area under ROC curve, AUC=0.81+/-0.09. Also, the box-plot based analysis shows a negative association between mammogram density results and BPE features in the MRI images. This study demonstrated a negative association between mammogram density and BPE of breast MRI images.

  6. A fully automated system for quantification of background parenchymal enhancement in breast DCE-MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufuk Dalmiş, Mehmet; Gubern-Mérida, Albert; Borelli, Cristina; Vreemann, Suzan; Mann, Ritse M.; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2016-03-01

    Background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) observed in breast dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has been identified as an important biomarker associated with risk for developing breast cancer. In this study, we present a fully automated framework for quantification of BPE. We initially segmented fibroglandular tissue (FGT) of the breasts using an improved version of an existing method. Subsequently, we computed BPEabs (volume of the enhancing tissue), BPErf (BPEabs divided by FGT volume) and BPErb (BPEabs divided by breast volume), using different relative enhancement threshold values between 1% and 100%. To evaluate and compare the previous and improved FGT segmentation methods, we used 20 breast DCE-MRI scans and we computed Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) values with respect to manual segmentations. For evaluation of the BPE quantification, we used a dataset of 95 breast DCE-MRI scans. Two radiologists, in individual reading sessions, visually analyzed the dataset and categorized each breast into minimal, mild, moderate and marked BPE. To measure the correlation between automated BPE values to the radiologists' assessments, we converted these values into ordinal categories and we used Spearman's rho as a measure of correlation. According to our results, the new segmentation method obtained an average DSC of 0.81 0.09, which was significantly higher (p<0.001) compared to the previous method (0.76 0.10). The highest correlation values between automated BPE categories and radiologists' assessments were obtained with the BPErf measurement (r=0.55, r=0.49, p<0.001 for both), while the correlation between the scores given by the two radiologists was 0.82 (p<0.001). The presented framework can be used to systematically investigate the correlation between BPE and risk in large screening cohorts.

  7. Early fibrinogen degradation coagulopathy: a predictive factor of parenchymal hematomas in cerebral rt-PA thrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuhong; Berthiller, Julien; Trouillas, Paul; Derex, Laurent; Diallo, Laho; Hanss, Michel

    2015-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to systematically determine the correlations between the post-thrombolytic changes of hemostasis parameters and the occurrence of early intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In 72 consecutive patients with cerebral infarcts treated with rt-PA, plasma levels of fibrinogen, plasminogen, alpha2-antiplasmin, factor XIII, fibrin(ogen) degradation products (FDPs) and d-Dimers were measured at baseline, 2 and 24h after thrombolysis. Correlations were studied between the hemostasis events and early (less than 24h) hemorrhagic infarcts (HIs) or parenchymatous hematomas (PH). Of 72 patients, 6 patients (8.3%) had early PHs, 11 (15.3%) had early HIs, and 55 (76.4%) had no bleeding. Early HIs were not linked to any hemostasis parameter at any time. Univariate comparison of patients having early PHs with non-bleeding patients showed hemostasis abnormalities at 2h: high FDP (p=0.01), high Log FDP (p=0.01), low fibrinogen (p=0.01), and low Log fibrinogen (p=0.01). Logistic regression adjusted for age, NIHSS and diabetes confirmed these 2hour predictors: Log FDP (OR: 7.50; CI: 1.26 to 44.61, p=0.03), and Log fibrinogen (OR: 19.32; CI: 1.81 to 205.98, p=0.01). The decrease in fibrinogen less than 2g/L multiplies the odds of early PH by a factor 12.82. An early fibrinogen degradation coagulopathy involving an increase of FDP and a massive consumption of circulating fibrinogen is predictive of early parenchymal hematomas, indicating the occurrence of a particularly intense lysis of circulating fibrinogen. These results, if confirmed by future studies, suggest that early assays of fibrinogen and FDP may be useful in predicting the risk of post-thrombolytic intracerebral hematoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Background parenchymal enhancement over exam time in patients with and without breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsaether, Amy; Pujara, Akshat C; Elias, Kristin; Pysarenko, Kristine; Gudi, Anjali; Dodelzon, Katerina; Babb, James S; Gao, Yiming; Moy, Linda

    2017-01-01

    To compare background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) over time in patients with and without breast cancer. This retrospective Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant study included 116 women (25-84 years, mean 54 years) with breast cancer who underwent breast magnetic resonance imaging at 3T between 1/2/2009 and 12/29/2009 and 116 age and date-of-exam-matched women without breast cancer (23-84 years, mean 51 years). Two independent, blinded readers (R1, R2) recorded BPE (minimal, mild, moderate, marked) at three times (100, 210, and 320 seconds postcontrast). Subsequent cancers were diagnosed in 9/96 control patients with follow up (12.6-93.0 months, mean 63.6 months). Exact Mann-Whitney, Fisher's exact, and McNemar tests were performed. Mean BPE was not found to be different between patients with and without breast cancer at any time (P = 0.36-0.64). At time 2 as compared with time 1, there were significantly more patients, both with and without breast cancer, with BPE >minimal (R1: 90 vs. 41 [P mild (R1: 59 vs. 10 [P breast cancer were significant only for R2 and ranged up to 7.67 (1.49, 39.5; P mild at time 2. BPE changes between the first and second postcontrast scans and stabilizes thereafter in most patients. Further investigation into the most clinically relevant timepoint for BPE assessment is warranted. 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:74-83. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. Use of bipolar radiofrequency in parenchymal transection of the liver, pancreas and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Madhava; Spalding, Duncan; Jiao, Long; Habib, Nagy

    2012-01-01

    Intraoperative blood loss has been shown to be an important factor correlating with increased morbidity and mortality in oncological surgery. Despite technological advances in parenchymal transection devices, bleeding remains the single most important complication. To address this, we designed and developed a bipolar radiofrequency (RF) device, the Habib 4X (Angiodynamics, Inc., Queensbury, N.Y., USA), which was initially used specifically for liver resections. A search using Medline, Embase and Google™ Scholar was performed for the period January 2001 to August 2011. The following Mesh terms were used: 'bipolar radiofrequency', 'Habib 4X', 'laparoscopic', 'liver resection', 'partial nephrectomy' and 'distal pancreatectomy'. The references of the studies included were also reviewed. Series from our centre were excluded. There were seven series published, reporting a total of 188 liver resections [113 minor (Habib 4X) device over this period. The median blood loss reported ranged from 15 to 427 ml with a transfusion rate of 0-14% In addition, five series of partial nephrectomies were also identified, reporting a total of 149 (45 open and 104 laparoscopic) cases. Hilar clamping was not used in any of the cases, and the mean blood loss reported was 100-337 ml whilst the transfusion rate ranged from 0 to 7.1%. There was only one published series of distal pancreatectomies; these were laparoscopic and included 14 patients. This review of bipolar RF-assisted liver resections, partial nephrectomies and distal pancreatectomies reported in the literature to date shows that there are significant advantages in using this device in these types of operation. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Quantitative CT scans of lung parenchymal pathology in premature infants ages 0-6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, David R; Walkup, Laura L; Stein, Jill M; Crotty, Eric J; Rattan, Mantosh S; Hossain, Md Monir; Brody, Alan S; Woods, Jason C

    2018-03-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common, heterogeneous disease in premature infants. We hypothesized that quantitative CT techniques could assess lung parenchymal heterogeneity in BPD patients across a broad age range and demonstrate how pathologies change over time. A cross-sectional, retrospective study of children age 0-6 years with non-contrast chest CT scans was conducted. BPD subjects met NICHD/NHLBI diagnostic criteria for BPD and were excluded for congenital lung/airway abnormalities or other known/suspected pulmonary diagnoses; control subjects were not premature and had normal CT scan findings. Radiologic opacities, lucencies, and spatial heterogeneity were quantified via: 1) thresholding using CT-attenuation (HU); 2) manual segmentation; and 3) Ochiai reader-scoring system. Clinical outcomes included BPD severity by NICHD/NHLBI criteria, respiratory support at NICU discharge, wheezing, and respiratory exacerbations. Heterogeneity (standard deviation) of lung attenuation in BPD was significantly greater than in controls (difference 36.4 HU [26.1-46.7 HU], P < 0.001); the difference between the groups decreased 0.58 HU per month of age (0.08-1.07 HU per month, P = 0.02). BPD patients had greater amounts of opacities and lucencies than controls except with automated quantification of lucencies. Cross-sectionally, lucencies per Ochiai score and opacities per manual segmentation decreased with time. No approach measured a statistically significant relationship to BPD clinical severity. Opacities, lucencies, and overall heterogeneity of lungs via quantitative CT can distinguish BPD patients from healthy controls, and these abnormalities decrease with age across BPD patients. Defining BPD severity by clinical outcomes such as respiratory support at several time points (vs a single time point, per current guidelines) may be meaningful. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The relationships between clinical variables and renal parenchymal disease in pediatric clinically suspected urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Lim Byun

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the significance of clinical signs and laboratory findings as predictors of renal parenchymal lesions and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR in childhood urinary tract infection (UTI. Methods : From July 2005 to July 2008, 180 patients admitted with a first febrile UTI at the Pediatric Department of Konkuk University Hospital were included in this study. The following were the clinical variables: leukocytosis, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP, positive urine nitrite, positive urine culture, and fever duration both before and after treatment. We evaluated the relationships between clinical variables and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scan and voiding cystourethrography (VCUG results. Results : VCUG was performed in 148 patients; of them, 37 (25.0% had VUR: 18 (12.2% had low-grade (I-II VUR, and 19 (10.5% had high-grade (III-V VUR. Of the 95 patients who underwent DMSA scanning, 29 (30.5% had cortical defects, of which 21 (63.6% had VUR: 10 (30.3%, low-grade (I-II VUR; and 11 (33.3%, high-grade VUR. Of the 57 patients who were normal on DMSA scan, 8 (14.0% had low-grade VUR and 6 (10.5% had high-grade VUR. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the DMSA scan in predicting high-grade VUR were 64.7%, 69.9%, 33.3%, and 89.5%, respectively. Leukocytosis, elevated CRP, and prolonged fever (?#243;6 hours after treatment were significantly correlated with the cortical defects on DMSA scans and high-grade VUR. Conclusion : Clinical signs, including prolonged fever after treatment, elevated CRP, and leukocytosis, are positive predictors of acute pyelonephritis and high-grade VUR.

  12. Featured Article: Isolation, characterization, and cultivation of human hepatocytes and non-parenchymal liver cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Elisa; Kegel, Victoria; Zeilinger, Katrin; Hengstler, Jan G; Nüssler, Andreas K; Seehofer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Primary human hepatocytes (PHH) are considered to be the gold standard for in vitro testing of xenobiotic metabolism and hepatotoxicity. However, PHH cultivation in 2D mono-cultures leads to dedifferentiation and a loss of function. It is well known that hepatic non-parenchymal cells (NPC), such as Kupffer cells (KC), liver endothelial cells (LEC), and hepatic stellate cells (HSC), play a central role in the maintenance of PHH functions. The aims of the present study were to establish a protocol for the simultaneous isolation of human PHH and NPC from the same tissue specimen and to test their suitability for in vitro co-culture. Human PHH and NPC were isolated from tissue obtained by partial liver resection by a two-step EDTA/collagenase perfusion technique. The obtained cell fractions were purified by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. KC, LEC, and HSC contained in the NPC fraction were separated using specific adherence properties and magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS®). Identified NPC revealed a yield of 1.9 × 106 KC, 2.7 × 105 LEC and 4.7 × 105 HSC per gram liver tissue, showing viabilities >90%. Characterization of these NPC showed that all populations went through an activation process, which influenced the cell fate. The activation of KC strongly depended on the tissue quality and donor anamnesis. KC became activated in culture in association with a loss of viability within 4–5 days. LEC lost specific features during culture, while HSC went through a transformation process into myofibroblasts. The testing of different culture conditions for HSC demonstrated that they can attenuate, but not prevent dedifferentiation in vitro. In conclusion, the method described allows the isolation and separation of PHH and NPC in high quality and quantity from the same donor. PMID:25394621

  13. Effects of enalapril on urinary protein excretion of essential and renal parenchymal hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzucca, N.; Falciani, C.; Morini, V.; Bigazzi, R.; Paparatto, P.; Setti, G.P.; Bianchi, S.; Baldari, G.; Valteriani, C.; Chiapponi, I.

    1988-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibiting drugs are able to reduce urinary protein excretion in experimental hypertension and in hypertensive patients with diabetes. Fifteen essential (group I) and six renal parenchymal (group II) mild or moderate hypertensive patients were treated with the ACE inhibitor Enalapril in monotherapy or in combination with a diuretic. Twenty-four hour urinary protein excretion was measured by means of colorimetric and RIA methods. All patients of group I had a significant decrease of arterial pressure with Enalapril alone and this reduction was dosage dependent. Three out of six patients of group II required the addition of diuretic to achieve a good pressure control. Serum creatinine values were stable in group I, while one patient of group II, who already had high baseline creatinine levels, showed an impairment of renal function requiring discontinuation of therapy. Twenty-four hour urinary protein excretion did not change in group I, while after two months of therapy a significant decrease was observed in group II (P<0.05), which was even more evident after 4 months (P<0.03). In this group a good correlation between MAP and proteinuria was observed. Finally, compared to the colorimetric method, RIA method seems to be more sensitive to assess the variations under Enalapril treatment. In conclusion, Enalapril is an effective drug in patients with moderate or mild hypertension. Caution must be exercised in administering Enalapril to patients with severe renal failure. Also in hypertensive patients with mild renal failure ACE inhibition appears to induce an antiproteinuric effect during long term therapy. This fact could be related to an improved hemodynamic intraglomerular status due to the renal effects of the drug. Finally urinary albumin RIA method seems to be more sensitive than colorimetric evaluation to follow-up the variations of proteinuria under Enalapril treatment

  14. Alterations of parenchymal microstructure, neuronal connectivity and cerebrovascular resistance at adolescence following mild to moderate traumatic brain injury in early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Maxime; Li, Ying; Santhakumar, Vijayalakshmi; Hyder, Fahmeed; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Kannurpatti, Sridhar

    2018-06-01

    TBI is a leading cause of morbidity in children. To investigate outcome of early developmental TBI during adolescence, a rat model of fluid percussion injury was developed, where previous work reported deficits in sensorimotor behavior and cortical blood flow at adolescence. 1 Based on the non-localized outcome, we hypothesized that multiple neurophysiological components of brain function, namely neuronal connectivity, synapse/axonal microstructural integrity and neurovascular function are altered and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods could be used to determine regional alterations. Adolescent outcomes of developmental TBI were studied 2-months after injury, using functional MRI (fMRI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). fMRI based resting state functional connectivity (RSFC), representing neural connectivity, was significantly altered between sham and TBI. RSFC strength decreased in the cortex, hippocampus and thalamus accompanied by decrease in the spatial extent of their corresponding RSFC networks and inter-hemispheric asymmetry. Cerebrovascular reactivity to arterial CO2 changes diminished after TBI across both hemispheres, with a more pronounced decrease in the ipsilateral hippocampus, thalamus and motor cortex. DTI measures of fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), reporting on axonal and microstructural integrity of the brain, indicated similar inter-hemispheric asymmetry, with highest change in the ipsilateral hippocampus and regions adjoining the ipsilateral thalamus, hypothalamus and amygdala. TBI-induced corpus callosal microstructural alterations indicated measurable changes in inter-hemispheric structural connectivity. Hippocampus, thalamus and select cortical regions were most consistently affected in multiple imaging markers. The multi-modal MRI results demonstrate cortical and subcortical alterations in neural connectivity, cerebrovascular resistance and parenchymal microstructure in the adolescent brain

  15. Cyclic biogeochemical processes and nitrogen fate beneath a subtropical stormwater infiltration basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Andrew M; Chang, Ni-Bin; Wanielista, Martin P

    2012-05-15

    A stormwater infiltration basin in north-central Florida, USA, was monitored from 2007 through 2008 to identify subsurface biogeochemical processes, with emphasis on N cycling, under the highly variable hydrologic conditions common in humid, subtropical climates. Cyclic variations in biogeochemical processes generally coincided with wet and dry hydrologic conditions. Oxidizing conditions in the subsurface persisted for about one month or less at the beginning of wet periods with dissolved O(2) and NO(3)(-) showing similar temporal patterns. Reducing conditions in the subsurface evolved during prolonged flooding of the basin. At about the same time O(2) and NO(3)(-) reduction concluded, Mn, Fe and SO(4)(2-) reduction began, with the onset of methanogenesis one month later. Reducing conditions persisted up to six months, continuing into subsequent dry periods until the next major oxidizing infiltration event. Evidence of denitrification in shallow groundwater at the site is supported by median NO(3)(-)-N less than 0.016 mg L(-1), excess N(2) up to 3 mg L(-1) progressively enriched in δ(15)N during prolonged basin flooding, and isotopically heavy δ(15)N and δ(18)O of NO(3)(-) (up to 25‰ and 15‰, respectively). Isotopic enrichment of newly infiltrated stormwater suggests denitrification was partially completed within two days. Soil and water chemistry data suggest that a biogeochemically active zone exists in the upper 1.4m of soil, where organic carbon was the likely electron donor supplied by organic matter in soil solids or dissolved in infiltrating stormwater. The cyclic nature of reducing conditions effectively controlled the N cycle, switching N fate beneath the basin from NO(3)(-) leaching to reduction in the shallow saturated zone. Results can inform design of functionalized soil amendments that could replace the native soil in a stormwater infiltration basin and mitigate potential NO(3)(-) leaching to groundwater by replicating the biogeochemical

  16. Cyclic biogeochemical processes and nitrogen fate beneath a subtropical stormwater infiltration basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Chang, Ni-Bin; Wanielista, Martin P.

    2012-01-01

    A stormwater infiltration basin in north–central Florida, USA, was monitored from 2007 through 2008 to identify subsurface biogeochemical processes, with emphasis on N cycling, under the highly variable hydrologic conditions common in humid, subtropical climates. Cyclic variations in biogeochemical processes generally coincided with wet and dry hydrologic conditions. Oxidizing conditions in the subsurface persisted for about one month or less at the beginning of wet periods with dissolved O2 and NO3- showing similar temporal patterns. Reducing conditions in the subsurface evolved during prolonged flooding of the basin. At about the same time O2 and NO3- reduction concluded, Mn, Fe and SO42- reduction began, with the onset of methanogenesis one month later. Reducing conditions persisted up to six months, continuing into subsequent dry periods until the next major oxidizing infiltration event. Evidence of denitrification in shallow groundwater at the site is supported by median NO3-–N less than 0.016 mg L-1, excess N2 up to 3 mg L-1 progressively enriched in δ15N during prolonged basin flooding, and isotopically heavy δ15N and δ18O of NO3- (up to 25‰ and 15‰, respectively). Isotopic enrichment of newly infiltrated stormwater suggests denitrification was partially completed within two days. Soil and water chemistry data suggest that a biogeochemically active zone exists in the upper 1.4 m of soil, where organic carbon was the likely electron donor supplied by organic matter in soil solids or dissolved in infiltrating stormwater. The cyclic nature of reducing conditions effectively controlled the N cycle, switching N fate beneath the basin from NO3- leaching to reduction in the shallow saturated zone. Results can inform design of functionalized soil amendments that could replace the native soil in a stormwater infiltration basin and mitigate potential NO3- leaching to groundwater by replicating the biogeochemical conditions under the observed basin.

  17. The removal of microorganisms and organic micropollutants from wastewater during infiltration to aquifers after irrigation of farmland in the Tula Valley, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Alma; Maya, Catalina [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 D.F. (Mexico); Gibson, Richard [Instituto de Geografia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 D.F. (Mexico); Jimenez, Blanca, E-mail: bjimenezc@iingen.unam.mx [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-05-15

    The Tula Valley receives untreated wastewater from Mexico City for agricultural irrigation, half of which infiltrates to aquifers from where drinking water is extracted. Samples of wastewater and infiltrated water from three areas of the valley were analyzed for microorganisms, organic micropollutants, and some basic parameters. Concentrations of microorganisms in the infiltrated water were generally very low but the incidence of fecal coliforms (present in 68% of samples), somatic bacteriophages (36%), Giardia spp. (14%), and helminth eggs (8%) suggested a health risk. Organic micropollutants, often present at high concentrations in the wastewater, were generally absent from the infiltrated water except carbamazepine which was in 55% of samples (up to 193 ng/L). There was no correlation between carbamazepine concentrations and the presence of microorganisms but highest concentrations of carbamazepine and boron coincided. A treatment such as nanofiltration would be necessary for the infiltrated water to be a safe potable supply. - Highlights: > Wastewater from Mexico City used for crop irrigation infiltrates to aquifers. > Infiltration through the soil removes many contaminants. > Occasional contamination of infiltrated water with microorganisms occurs. > Carbamazepine is widely present in the infiltrated water. > Safe use of this water for drinking would need nanofiltration or another treatment. - Water extracted from aquifers fed by wastewater used for irrigation may contain microorganisms and persistent polar organic micropollutants and requires treatment to be a potable supply.

  18. The removal of microorganisms and organic micropollutants from wastewater during infiltration to aquifers after irrigation of farmland in the Tula Valley, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, Alma; Maya, Catalina; Gibson, Richard; Jimenez, Blanca

    2011-01-01

    The Tula Valley receives untreated wastewater from Mexico City for agricultural irrigation, half of which infiltrates to aquifers from where drinking water is extracted. Samples of wastewater and infiltrated water from three areas of the valley were analyzed for microorganisms, organic micropollutants, and some basic parameters. Concentrations of microorganisms in the infiltrated water were generally very low but the incidence of fecal coliforms (present in 68% of samples), somatic bacteriophages (36%), Giardia spp. (14%), and helminth eggs (8%) suggested a health risk. Organic micropollutants, often present at high concentrations in the wastewater, were generally absent from the infiltrated water except carbamazepine which was in 55% of samples (up to 193 ng/L). There was no correlation between carbamazepine concentrations and the presence of microorganisms but highest concentrations of carbamazepine and boron coincided. A treatment such as nanofiltration would be necessary for the infiltrated water to be a safe potable supply. - Highlights: → Wastewater from Mexico City used for crop irrigation infiltrates to aquifers. → Infiltration through the soil removes many contaminants. → Occasional contamination of infiltrated water with microorganisms occurs. → Carbamazepine is widely present in the infiltrated water. → Safe use of this water for drinking would need nanofiltration or another treatment. - Water extracted from aquifers fed by wastewater used for irrigation may contain microorganisms and persistent polar organic micropollutants and requires treatment to be a potable supply.

  19. Plasmacytoma Infiltrating Leiomyoma in Multiple Myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-19

    REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01/19/2018 Poster 01/19/2018-01/21/2018 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Plasmacytoma...Infiltrating Leiomyoma in Multiple Myeloma Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Capt Eden, Rina Se. TASK NUMBER Sf

  20. Sewage Effluent Infiltrates Frozen Forest Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred Ray Harris

    1976-01-01

    Secondarily treated sewage effluent, applied at the rate of 1 and 2 inches per week, infiltrated a frozen Sparta sand soil forested with jack pine and scrub oak. Maximum frost depth in treated plots averaged 60 cm and in check plots averages 35 cm. Nitrogen was mobile with some accumulation. Phosphorus was absorbed.

  1. An Infiltration Exercise for Introductory Soil Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarick, K. A.; Ippolito, J. A.; Butters, G.; Sorge, G. M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the largest challenges in teaching introductory soil science is explaining the dynamics of soil infiltration. To aid students in understanding the concept and to further engage them in active learning in the soils laboratory course, we developed an exercise using Decagon Mini-Disk Infiltrometers with a tension head (h[subscript o]) of 2 cm.…

  2. Postoperative Analgesia using Bupivacaine Wound Infiltration with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Effective management of postcesarean section (CS) pain is important for the well‑being of mother and child; even in limited‑resource areas, there are drug options which can be explored to achieve this. Aim: This study aimed to compare the analgesic effects of a combination of bupivacaine wound infiltration with ...

  3. water infiltration, conductivity and runoff under fallow

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurements of runoff was done during the long rains of. 2003 and short rains of 2004. Infiltration was invariably higher under agroforestry systems (P<0.001) than sole cropping, particularly under Alnus and Calliandra systems. A similar pattern was observed for saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat), which was greater in ...

  4. Transient Point Infiltration In The Unsaturated Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buecker-Gittel, M.; Mohrlok, U.

    The risk assessment of leaking sewer pipes gets more and more important due to urban groundwater management and environmental as well as health safety. This requires the quantification and balancing of transport and transformation processes based on the water flow in the unsaturated zone. The water flow from a single sewer leakage could be described as a point infiltration with time varying hydraulic conditions externally and internally. External variations are caused by the discharge in the sewer pipe as well as the state of the leakage itself. Internal variations are the results of microbiological clogging effects associated with the transformation processes. Technical as well as small scale laboratory experiments were conducted in order to investigate the water transport from an transient point infiltration. From the technical scale experiment there was evidence that the water flow takes place under transient conditions when sewage infiltrates into an unsaturated soil. Whereas the small scale experiments investigated the hydraulics of the water transport and the associated so- lute and particle transport in unsaturated soils in detail. The small scale experiment was a two-dimensional representation of such a point infiltration source where the distributed water transport could be measured by several tensiometers in the soil as well as by a selective measurement of the discharge at the bottom of the experimental setup. Several series of experiments were conducted varying the boundary and initial con- ditions in order to derive the important parameters controlling the infiltration of pure water from the point source. The results showed that there is a significant difference between the infiltration rate in the point source and the discharge rate at the bottom, that could be explained by storage processes due to an outflow resistance at the bottom. This effect is overlayn by a decreasing water content decreases over time correlated with a decreasing infiltration

  5. Investigation plan for infiltration experiment in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, A.; Lindgren, S.; Ikonen, A.

    2008-11-01

    A three-year field experiment to investigate potential changes in pH and redox conditions, and in buffering capacity as well as the hydrogeochemical processes related to groundwater infiltration is designed for implementation in the vicinity of ONKALO. The idea is to monitor the major infiltration flow path from the ground surface into the upper part of ONKALO at about 50 to 100 m depth depending on the observations made during the experiment. The geochemical evolution of the groundwater is strongly affected by infiltration from the surface. In natural conditions in Olkiluoto most of the geochemical reactions occur along the first few tens of metres of the flow path, in an interface between anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The dissolved aggressive agents, CO 2 and O 2 , of the infiltrating water are consumed and the hydrogeochemistry stabilises on neutral and anaerobic conditions due to weathering processes. As a consequence of this evolution, reaction fronts are formed in the flow channels between acid-neutral and aerobic-anaerobic interfaces. The construction of ONKALO may, however, increase the hydraulic gradient and flow into bedrock, which can move these fronts to deeper depths and decrease the buffering capacity of the rock fractures against surficial water infiltration. Detailed integration of hydrogeochemical (including microbiology), geological and hydrogeological studies is essential for a successful experiment. Accurate hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological data that will be collected during this experiment are used in coupled modelling exercises (P/O studies in site reports), which will be carried out to evaluate the movements of the reaction fronts and the buffering capacity of Olkiluoto bedrock against surficial water infiltration. Good quality information is also necessary for calibrating predictive calculations for the safety case estimating future evolution of the site. In addition to the geochemical targets, the experiment can be used in

  6. A simple analytical infiltration model for short-duration rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaiwen; Yang, Xiaohua; Liu, Xiaomang; Liu, Changming

    2017-12-01

    Many infiltration models have been proposed to simulate infiltration process. Different initial soil conditions and non-uniform initial water content can lead to infiltration simulation errors, especially for short-duration rainfall (SHR). Few infiltration models are specifically derived to eliminate the errors caused by the complex initial soil conditions. We present a simple analytical infiltration model for SHR infiltration simulation, i.e., Short-duration Infiltration Process model (SHIP model). The infiltration simulated by 5 models (i.e., SHIP (high) model, SHIP (middle) model, SHIP (low) model, Philip model and Parlange model) were compared based on numerical experiments and soil column experiments. In numerical experiments, SHIP (middle) and Parlange models had robust solutions for SHR infiltration simulation of 12 typical soils under different initial soil conditions. The absolute values of percent bias were less than 12% and the values of Nash and Sutcliffe efficiency were greater than 0.83. Additionally, in soil column experiments, infiltration rate fluctuated in a range because of non-uniform initial water content. SHIP (high) and SHIP (low) models can simulate an infiltration range, which successfully covered the fluctuation range of the observed infiltration rate. According to the robustness of solutions and the coverage of fluctuation range of infiltration rate, SHIP model can be integrated into hydrologic models to simulate SHR infiltration process and benefit the flood forecast.

  7. Demographics of antibiotic persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollerova, Silvia; Jouvet, Lionel; Steiner, Ulrich

    Persister cells, cells that can survive antibiotic exposure but lack heritable antibiotic resistance, are assumed to play a crucial role for the evolution of antibiotic resistance. Persistence is a stage associated with reduced metabolic activity. Most previous studies have been done on batch...... even play a more prominent role for the evolution of resistance and failures of medical treatment by antibiotics as currently assumed....

  8. River water infiltration enhances denitrification efficiency in riparian groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauth, Nico; Musolff, Andreas; Knöller, Kay; Kaden, Ute S; Keller, Toralf; Werban, Ulrike; Fleckenstein, Jan H

    2018-03-01

    Nitrate contamination in ground- and surface water is a persistent problem in countries with intense agriculture. The transition zone between rivers and their riparian aquifers, where river water and groundwater interact, may play an important role in mediating nitrate exports, as it can facilitate intensive denitrification, which permanently removes nitrate from the aquatic system. However, the in-situ factors controlling riparian denitrification are not fully understood, as they are often strongly linked and their effects superimpose each other. In this study, we present the evaluation of hydrochemical and isotopic data from a 2-year sampling period of river water and groundwater in the riparian zone along a 3rd order river in Central Germany. Based on bi- and multivariate statistics (Spearman's rank correlation and partial least squares regression) we can show, that highest rates for oxygen consumption and denitrification in the riparian aquifer occur where the fraction of infiltrated river water and at the same time groundwater temperature, are high. River discharge and depth to groundwater are additional explanatory variables for those reaction rates, but of minor importance. Our data and analyses suggest that at locations in the riparian aquifer, which show significant river water infiltration, heterotrophic microbial reactions in the riparian zone may be fueled by bioavailable organic carbon derived from the river water. We conclude that interactions between rivers and riparian groundwater are likely to be a key control of nitrate removal and should be considered as a measure to mitigate high nitrate exports from agricultural catchments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sonographic assessment of normal renal parenchymal and medullary pyramid thicknesses among children in Enugu, Southeast, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eze, C.U.; Akpan, V.P.; Nwadike, I.U.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Renal parenchymal thickness (RPT) and renal medullary pyramid thickness (MPT) are important renal size parameters. This study was aimed at establishing normograms for RPT and MPT with respect to age and somatometric parameters among children. Methods: This was a cross sectional study done in Enugu, Nigeria between May 2013 and April 2014. The subjects were 512 children aged 1–17 years scanned with ultrasound equipment with 3.5 MHz and 5 MHz curvilinear transducers. The RPT was measured perpendicularly to the long axis of the kidney from the medullary papilla to the renal capsule and MPT was measured from the apex to the base of the medullary pyramid on the same plane. The age and somatometric parameters of the subjects were recorded. Results: The mean ± SD of RPT and MPT for the right kidney were 12.62 ± 1.67 mm and 7.10 ± 0.92 mm and the left kidney were 12.81 ± 1.7 and 7.23 ± 0.94 mm respectively. There was a significant difference between the right and left RPT and MPT (p < 0.05). The right and left RPT correlated strongly with age, body surface area (BSA), height, and weight but moderately with body mass index (BMI). A moderate positive correlation was observed between MPT and age, BSA, height, and weight. However, a weak correlation was observed between MPT and BMI. Conclusion: Normograms of RPT and MPT in relation to age could be useful for grading hydronephrosis in children. - Highlights: • Sonography of RPT and MPT at the anterior longitudinal axis of the kidney is simple. • RPT and MPT Measurements are reliable within and between experienced sonographers. • No significant gender differences in RPT and MPT values exist in this study. • Significant differences exist between the right and left RPT and MPT measurements. • Normative values of RPT and MPT in relation to age in children are useful.

  10. Background parenchymal enhancement on breast MRI and mammographic breast density: correlation with tumour characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.Y.; Choi, N.; Yang, J.-H.; Yoo, Y.B.; Park, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationship between mammographic breast density (MGD) and background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) at breast MRI and histopathological features of invasive breast cancers. Materials and methods: A total of 178 women with unilateral invasive breast cancer who preoperatively underwent mammography and breast MRI were included in the study. Two radiologists rated MGD and BPE according to BI-RADS criteria in consensus. The relationship between MGD and BPE was investigated, and compared with histopathological features of invasive breast cancers according to the level of MGD and BPE. Results: At MRI, there is no significant difference in the distribution of MGD and BPE of the contralateral breast in women with invasive breast cancer according to menopausal status (p=0.226, 0.384). Women with high MGD (>50% glandular) were more likely to have oestrogen-receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer (p=0.045) and progesterone receptor (PR)-positive breast cancer (p=0.020). With regard to BPE, PR positivity correlated with moderate or marked BPE with borderline significance (p=0.054). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that women with high MGD were less likely to have triple-negative (i.e., a cancer that is ER negative, PR negative, and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 [HER2] negative) breast cancer compared with ER (+)/HER2 (−) cancer (OR=0.231, 95% CI: 0.070, 0.760; p=0.016). No association between the histological tumour characteristics and BPE was observed. Conclusion: In women with invasive breast cancer, high MGD is associated with ER positivity of the invasive breast cancer. However, at MRI, BPE of the contralateral breast seems to be independent of tumour characteristics. -- Highlights: •There is no difference in distribution of MGD and BPE of contralateral breast on MRI. •High MGD is associated with ER positivity of the invasive breast cancer. •BPE of the contralateral breast on MRI is independent of tumor

  11. Quantification of neonatal lung parenchymal density via ultrashort echo time MRI with comparison to CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higano, Nara S; Fleck, Robert J; Spielberg, David R; Walkup, Laura L; Hahn, Andrew D; Thomen, Robert P; Merhar, Stephanie L; Kingma, Paul S; Tkach, Jean A; Fain, Sean B; Woods, Jason C

    2017-10-01

    To demonstrate that ultrashort echo time (UTE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can achieve computed tomography (CT)-like quantification of lung parenchyma in free-breathing, non-sedated neonates. Because infant CTs are used sparingly, parenchymal disease evaluation via UTE MRI has potential for translational impact. Two neonatal control cohorts without suspected pulmonary morbidities underwent either a research UTE MRI (n = 5; 1.5T) or a clinically-ordered CT (n = 9). Whole-lung means and anterior-posterior gradients of UTE-measured image intensity (arbitrary units, au, normalized to muscle) and CT-measured density (g/cm 3 ) were compared (Mann-Whitney U-test). Separately, a diseased neonatal cohort (n = 5) with various pulmonary morbidities underwent both UTE MRI and CT. UTE intensity and CT density were compared with Spearman correlations within ∼33 anatomically matched regions of interest (ROIs) in each diseased subject, spanning low- to high-density tissues. Radiological classifications were evaluated in all ROIs, with mean UTE intensities and CT densities compared in each classification. In control subjects, whole-lung UTE intensities (0.51 ± 0.04 au) were similar to CT densities (0.44 ± 0.09 g/cm 3 ) (P = 0.062), as were UTE (0.021 ± 0.020 au/cm) and CT (0.034 ± 0.024 [g/cm 3 ]/cm) anterior-posterior gradients (P = 0.351). In diseased subjects' ROIs, significant correlations were observed between UTE and CT (P ≤0.007 in each case). Relative differences between UTE and CT were small in all classifications (4-25%). These results demonstrate a strong association between UTE image intensity and CT density, both between whole-lung tissue in control patients and regional radiological pathologies in diseased patients. This indicates the potential for UTE MRI to longitudinally evaluate neonatal pulmonary disease and to provide visualization of pathologies similar to CT, without sedation/anesthesia or ionizing radiation

  12. Intraoperative ultrasound in determining the extent of resection of parenchymal brain tumors - a comparative study with computed tomography and histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacko, A.G.; Rajshekhar, V.; Kumar, N.K.S.; Athyal, R.; Chacko, G.

    2003-01-01

    Radical excision of parenchymal brain tumours is generally associated with a better long-term outcome; however, it is difficult to ascertain the extent of resection at surgery. We used intra-operative ultrasound [IOUS] to help detect residual tumour and define the tumour-brain interface. Thirty-five patients with parenchymal brain lesions including 11 low-grade and 22 high-grade tumours and 2 inflammatory granulomata were included in the study. The IOUS was used to localize tumours not seen on the surface, define their margins and assess the extent of resection at the end of surgery. Multiple samples from the tumour-brain interface which were reported as tumour or normal tissue an IOUS were submitted to histopathology. The IOUS findings were compared with a postoperative contrast enhanced computed tomogram [CT] and with histopathology. All tumours irrespective of histology were hyperechoic an IOUS. IOUS was useful in localizing those tumours not seen on the surface of the brain. In 71.4 % of cases IOUS was useful in defining their margins, however in the remaining cases the margins were ill-defined. The tumour margins were ill-defined in those treated previously by radiation. With regard to the extent of excision, after excluding the cases who were irradiated, it was found that in the 28 patients who had parenchymal neoplasms, there was concordance between the ultrasound findings and the postoperative CT scan in 23 cases. Of the 79 samples taken from the tumor-brain interface which were reported as tumour on ultrasound, 66 had histopathological evidence of tumour while 13 samples were negative for tumour. On the other hand, in the tissue sent from 17 sites where the IOUS showed no residual tumour, 2 were positive for tumour on histopathology while 15 were negative. In conclusion, IOUS is a cheap and useful real-time tool for localizing tumours not seen on the brain surface, for defining their margins and for determining the extent of resection. (author)

  13. Primary Angiitis of the Central Nervous System: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Spectrum of Parenchymal, Meningeal, and Vascular Lesions at Baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulouis, Grégoire; de Boysson, Hubert; Zuber, Mathieu; Guillevin, Loïc; Meary, Eric; Costalat, Vincent; Pagnoux, Christian; Naggara, Olivier

    2017-05-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system remains challenging. To report an overview and pictorial review of brain magnetic resonance imaging findings in adult primary angiitis of the central nervous system and to determine the distribution of parenchymal, meningeal, and vascular lesions in a large multicentric cohort. Adult patients from the French COVAC cohort (Cohort of Patients With Primary Vasculitis of the Central Nervous System), with biopsy or angiographically proven primary angiitis of the central nervous system and brain magnetic resonance imaging available at the time of diagnosis were included. A systematic imaging review was performed blinded to clinical data. Sixty patients met inclusion criteria. Mean age was 45 years (±12.9). Patients initially presented focal deficit(s) (83%), headaches (53%), cognitive disorder (40%), and seizures (38.3%). The most common magnetic resonance imaging finding observed in 42% of patients was multiterritorial, bilateral, distal acute stroke lesions after small to medium artery distribution, with a predominant carotid circulation distribution. Hemorrhagic infarctions and parenchymal hemorrhages were also frequently found in the cohort (55%). Acute convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage was found in 26% of patients and 42% demonstrated pre-eminent leptomeningeal enhancement, which is found to be significantly more prevalent in biopsy-proven patients (60% versus 28%; P =0.04). Seven patients had tumor-like presentations. Seventy-seven percent of magnetic resonance angiographic studies were abnormal, revealing proximal/distal stenoses in 57% and 61% of patients, respectively. Adult primary angiitis of the central nervous system is a heterogenous disease, with multiterritorial, distal, and bilateral acute stroke being the most common pattern of parenchymal lesions found on magnetic resonance imaging. Our findings suggest a higher than previously thought prevalence of hemorrhagic transformation and other hemorrhagic

  14. Persistent myalgia following whiplash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2005-10-01

    Persistent myalgia following whiplash is commonly considered the result of poor psychosocial status, illness behavior, or failing coping skills. However, there is much evidence that persistent myalgia may be due to neurophysiologic mechanisms involving peripheral and central sensitization. Myofascial trigger points may play a crucial role in maintaining sensitization. Recent research suggests that the chemical environment of myofascial trigger points is an important factor. Several consequences are reviewed when central pain mechanisms and myofascial trigger points are included in the differential diagnosis and in the management of patients with persistent pain following whiplash.

  15. Sequential infiltration synthesis for advanced lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Tseng, Yu-Chih; Peng, Qing

    2017-10-10

    A plasma etch resist material modified by an inorganic protective component via sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) and methods of preparing the modified resist material. The modified resist material is characterized by an improved resistance to a plasma etching or related process relative to the unmodified resist material, thereby allowing formation of patterned features into a substrate material, which may be high-aspect ratio features. The SIS process forms the protective component within the bulk resist material through a plurality of alternating exposures to gas phase precursors which infiltrate the resist material. The plasma etch resist material may be initially patterned using photolithography, electron-beam lithography or a block copolymer self-assembly process.

  16. Passive Microwave Observation of Soil Water Infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; Schmugge, Thomas J.; Rawls, Walter J.; ONeill, Peggy E.; Parlange, Marc B.

    1997-01-01

    Infiltration is a time varying process of water entry into soil. Experiments were conducted here using truck based microwave radiometers to observe small plots during and following sprinkler irrigation. Experiments were conducted on a sandy loam soil in 1994 and a silt loam in 1995. Sandy loam soils typically have higher infiltration capabilities than clays. For the sandy loam the observed brightness temperature (TB) quickly reached a nominally constant value during irrigation. When the irrigation was stopped the TB began to increase as drainage took place. The irrigation rates in 1995 with the silt loam soil exceeded the saturated conductivity of the soil. During irrigation the TB values exhibited a pattern that suggests the occurrence of coherent reflection, a rarely observed phenomena under natural conditions. These results suggested the existence of a sharp dielectric boundary (wet over dry soil) that was increasing in depth with time.

  17. Pollutant removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollutant removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with/without intermittent ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ... wastewater infiltration systems (SWISs) with and without intermittent aeration, ...

  18. Diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma invading subarachnoid space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kase S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Satoru Kase1, Kazuhiko Yoshida1, Shigenobu Suzuki2, Koh-ichi Ohshima3, Shigeaki Ohno4, Susumu Ishida11Department of Ophthalmology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo; 2Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo; 3Section of Ophthalmology, Okayama Medical Center, Okayama; 4Department of Ocular Inflammation and Immunology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, JapanAbstract: We report herein an unusual case of diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma involving the brain, which caused a patient’s death 27 months after enucleation. An eight-year-old boy complained of blurred vision in his right eye (OD in October 2006. Funduscopic examination showed optic disc swelling, dense whitish vitreous opacity, and an orange-colored subretinal elevated lesion adjacent to the optic disc. Fluorescein angiography revealed hyperfluorescence in the peripapillary region at an early-phase OD. Because the size of the subretinal lesion and vitreous opacity gradually increased, he was referred to us. His visual acuity was 20/1000 OD on June 20, 2007. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy showed a dense anterior vitreous opacity. Ophthalmoscopically, the subretinal orange-colored area spread out until reaching the mid peripheral region. A B-mode sonogram and computed tomography showed a thick homogeneous lesion without calcification. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed a markedly enhanced appearance of the underlying posterior retina. Enucleation of the right eye was performed nine months after the initial presentation. Histopathology demonstrated retinal detachment and a huge choroidal mass invading the optic nerve head. The tumor was consistent with diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. The patient died due to brain involvement 27 months after enucleation. Ophthalmologists should be aware that diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma may show an unfavorable course if its diagnosis is delayed

  19. Horizontal infiltration and trace element measurements for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory investigations of horizontal infiltration were carried out on three Zaria soils (Samaru, Tudun Wada and the Kubanni river basin Fadama wet-land soils) in Nigeria, which are principally alfisols. Diffusivity was found to be -77.5 x 10 -2 cm 2 s-1, -8.4 x 10 -2 cm 2 s-1 and -117.0 x 10 -2 cm 2 s-1 respectively for the ...

  20. Corneal ring infiltration in contact lens wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Tabatabaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To report a case of atypical sterile ring infiltrates during wearing soft silicone hydrogel contact lens due to poor lens care. A 29-year-old woman presented with complaints of pain, redness, and morning discharge. She was wearing soft silicone hydrogel contact lens previously; her current symptoms began 1 week before presentation. On examination, best-corrected visual acuity was 20/40 in that eye. Slit-lamp examination revealed dense, ring-shaped infiltrate involving both the superficial and deep stromal layers with lucid interval to the limbus, edema of the epithelium, epithelial defect, and vascularization of the superior limbus. Cornea-specific in vivo laser confocal microscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 2 Rostock Cornea Module, HRT 2-RCM, Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Dossenheim, Germany revealed Langerhans cells and no sign of Acanthamoeba or fungal features, using lid scraping and anti-inflammatory drops; her vision completely recovered. We reported an atypical case of a sterile corneal ring infiltrate associated with soft contact lens wearing; smear, culture, and confocal microscopy confirmed a sterile inflammatory reaction.

  1. Management of white spots: resin infiltration technique and microabrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hye Son

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report compared the effectiveness of resin infiltration technique (Icon, DMG with microabrasion (Opalustre, Ultradent Products, Inc. in management of white spot lesions. It demonstrates that although neither microabrasion nor resin infiltration technique can remove white spot lesions completely, resin infiltration technique seems to be more effective than microabrasion. Therefore resin infiltration technique can be chosen preferentially for management of white spot lesions and caution should be taken for case selection.

  2. The cause of fever and pulmonary infiltrate: a difficult etiological diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahjat Barakat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult-onset Still’s disease is a rare condition that typically presents itself with intermittent fever, arthralgia and salmon colored rash. The involvement of the in lung is less common and very rare. Diagnosis is relatively difficult because of the presence of non-specific symptoms and the lack of serological markers specific to the disease. We report the case of a patient having a pulmonary infiltrate/infiltration compatible with pneumonia, cutaneous/skin rash and persistence of fever with multiple admissions to the Emergency Room due to the failure of treatment with antibiotics. After an appropriate work-up, a diagnosis of adult-onset Still’s disease was made.

  3. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Ru-Jeng; Wu, Tzong-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a severe pulmonary disorder which occurs one in every 500 live births. About 10–50% of the victims will die of the problem and 7–20% of the survivors develop long term impairments such as hearing deficit, chronic lung disease, and intracranial bleed. Most of the adult survivors show evidence of augmented pulmonary vasoreactivity suggesting a phenotypical change. Several animal models have been used to study the pathophysiology and help to develop new therapeutic modality for PPHN. The etiology of PPHN can be classified into three groups: [A] abnormally constricted pulmonary vasculature due to parenchymal diseases; [B] hypoplastic pulmonary vasculature; [C] normal parenchyma with remodeled pulmonary vasculature. Impaired vasorelaxation of pulmonary artery and reduced blood vessel density in lungs are two characteristic findings in PPHN. Medical treatment includes sedation, oxygen, mechanical ventilation, vasorelaxants (inhaled nitric oxide, inhaled or intravenous prostacyclin, intravenous prostaglandin E1, magnesium sulfate), and inotropic agents. Phosphodiesterase inhibitor has recently been studied as another therapeutic agent for PPHN. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) inhibitor has been studied in animal and a case of premature infant with PPHN successfully treated with ET-I inhibitor has been reported in the literature. Surfactant has been reported as an adjunct treatment for PPHN as a complication of meconium aspiration syndrome. Even with the introduction of several new therapeutic modalities there has no significant change in survival rate. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenator is used when medical treatment fails and patient is considered to have a recoverable cause of PPHN. PMID:23537863

  4. Introduction: Persistent Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This introduction to 'Persistent Modelling – an extended role for architectural representation' identifies how the book probes the relationship between representation and the represented, in an architectural context. It discusses how the book presents an examination and discussion of historical......, familiar contemporary and, perhaps, not so familiar emerging manifestations of this relation. What persists from this probing, fully intact, is that representation and the represented remain inextricably related in our contemporary and emerging practices. What comes into focus is that the nature...

  5. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Infiltration/inflow analysis. 35.927-1... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.927-1 Infiltration/inflow analysis. (a) The infiltration/inflow analysis shall demonstrate the nonexistence or...

  6. Evaluation of some infiltration models and hydraulic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighi, F.; Gorji, M.; Shorafa, M.; Sarmadian, F.; Mohammadi, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation of infiltration characteristics and some parameters of infiltration models such as sorptivity and final steady infiltration rate in soils are important in agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate some of the most common models used to estimate final soil infiltration rate. The equality of final infiltration rate with saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) was also tested. Moreover, values of the estimated sorptivity from the Philips model were compared to estimates by selected pedotransfer functions (PTFs). The infiltration experiments used the doublering method on soils with two different land uses in the Taleghan watershed of Tehran province, Iran, from September to October, 2007. The infiltration models of Kostiakov-Lewis, Philip two-term and Horton were fitted to observed infiltration data. Some parameters of the models and the coefficient of determination goodness of fit were estimated using MATLAB software. The results showed that, based on comparing measured and model-estimated infiltration rate using root mean squared error (RMSE), Hortons model gave the best prediction of final infiltration rate in the experimental area. Laboratory measured Ks values gave significant differences and higher values than estimated final infiltration rates from the selected models. The estimated final infiltration rate was not equal to laboratory measured Ks values in the study area. Moreover, the estimated sorptivity factor by Philips model was significantly different to those estimated by selected PTFs. It is suggested that the applicability of PTFs is limited to specific, similar conditions. (Author) 37 refs.

  7. Analysis of rainfall infiltration law in unsaturated soil slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gui-rong; Qian, Ya-jun; Wang, Zhang-chun; Zhao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In the study of unsaturated soil slope stability under rainfall infiltration, it is worth continuing to explore how much rainfall infiltrates into the slope in a rain process, and the amount of rainfall infiltrating into slope is the important factor influencing the stability. Therefore, rainfall infiltration capacity is an important issue of unsaturated seepage analysis for slope. On the basis of previous studies, rainfall infiltration law of unsaturated soil slope is analyzed. Considering the characteristics of slope and rainfall, the key factors affecting rainfall infiltration of slope, including hydraulic properties, water storage capacity (θs - θr), soil types, rainfall intensities, and antecedent and subsequent infiltration rates on unsaturated soil slope, are discussed by using theory analysis and numerical simulation technology. Based on critical factors changing, this paper presents three calculation models of rainfall infiltrability for unsaturated slope, including (1) infiltration model considering rainfall intensity; (2) effective rainfall model considering antecedent rainfall; (3) infiltration model considering comprehensive factors. Based on the technology of system response, the relationship of rainfall and infiltration is described, and the prototype of regression model of rainfall infiltration is given, in order to determine the amount of rain penetration during a rain process.

  8. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of renal parenchymal damage by 99mTc-DMSA planar and SPECT scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kazuo; Yamashita, Tetsufumi; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Nonomura, Katsuya; Furudate, Masayori; Koyanagi, Tomohiko

    1995-01-01

    The initial 99m Tc-DMSA studies carried out over a four year period in 229 patients with various heterogenic causes of lower urinary tract abnormalities were reviewed. Anatomical damage to the renal parenchyma was graded by means of planar and SPECT studies into a six group classification proposed by Monsour et al.: grade 0 (normal), I (equivocal), II (single defect), III (more than 2 defects), IV (contracted or small) and V (no visualization). Parenchymal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA was quantitated from planar images at 2 hours postinjection by a computer assisted gamma camera method. SPECT studies could enhance the pick-up rate for parenchymal uptake defects by a factor of 1.5 in comparison with planar imaging. The incidence of anatomical damage to the renal parenchyma increased with a high radiological grade for VUR, and renal uptake per injection dose of 99m Tc-DMSA by the individual kidney significantly decreased in grades III and IV of the anatomical classification. These data revealed that 99m Tc-DMSA planar is still useful for evaluating gross structural damage and for quantitative evaluation of the kidney with computer assistance. SPECT scintigraphy is more effective in disclosing anatomical damage to the renal parenchyma than planar, although it needs further discussion as to whether SPECT may increase sensitivity with minimal or no adverse affect on specificity. (author)

  9. Convolutional neural network approach for enhanced capture of breast parenchymal complexity patterns associated with breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oustimov, Andrew; Gastounioti, Aimilia; Hsieh, Meng-Kang; Pantalone, Lauren; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2017-03-01

    We assess the feasibility of a parenchymal texture feature fusion approach, utilizing a convolutional neural network (ConvNet) architecture, to benefit breast cancer risk assessment. Hypothesizing that by capturing sparse, subtle interactions between localized motifs present in two-dimensional texture feature maps derived from mammographic images, a multitude of texture feature descriptors can be optimally reduced to five meta-features capable of serving as a basis on which a linear classifier, such as logistic regression, can efficiently assess breast cancer risk. We combine this methodology with our previously validated lattice-based strategy for parenchymal texture analysis and we evaluate the feasibility of this approach in a case-control study with 424 digital mammograms. In a randomized split-sample setting, we optimize our framework in training/validation sets (N=300) and evaluate its descriminatory performance in an independent test set (N=124). The discriminatory capacity is assessed in terms of the the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operator characteristic (ROC). The resulting meta-features exhibited strong classification capability in the test dataset (AUC = 0.90), outperforming conventional, non-fused, texture analysis which previously resulted in an AUC=0.85 on the same case-control dataset. Our results suggest that informative interactions between localized motifs exist and can be extracted and summarized via a fairly simple ConvNet architecture.

  10. Can MRI replace DMSA in the detection of renal parenchymal defects in children with urinary tract infections?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavanagh, Eoin C.; Ryan, Stephanie; McCourbrey, Siobhan; O' Connor, Rachel; Donoghue, Veronica [Children' s University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); Awan, Atif [Children' s University Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Dublin (Ireland)

    2005-03-01

    Renal parenchymal defects may be a consequence of urinary tract infections (UTI) in childhood. MRI is a non-radiation imaging modality compared with DMSA scanning. To compare DMSA with MRI for the detection of renal parenchymal defects in children presenting for radiological investigation after a first UTI. Both DMSA and MRI were performed at the same appointment in 37 children (aged 4 months-13 years; mean 4.5 years) with a history of UTI. Both planar and SPECT DMSA were performed. MRI of the kidneys employed axial and coronal T1-, T2- and fat-saturated T1-weighted (T1-W) sequences. Some children had imaging after IV contrast medium. The coronal fat-saturated T1-W sequence was the best sequence and it detected all the findings on MRI. MRI had a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 87% for the detection of a scarred kidney using DMSA as the gold standard. MRI diagnosed pyelonephritis in two children that had been interpreted as scarring on DMSA. Renal MRI using a single, coronal, fat-saturated T1-W sequence is a rapid, accurate and minimally invasive technique for the detection of renal scarring that does not employ ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  11. Enhanced iron removal from liver parenchymal cells in experimental iron overload: liposome encapsulation of HBED and phenobarbital administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Y.E.; Cerny, E.A.; Lau, E.H.; Carnes, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    The effectiveness of N,N'-bis[2-hydroxybenzyl]-ethylene-diamine-N,N'-diacetic acid (HBED) in removing radioiron introduced into the parenchymal cells of mouse liver as 59 Fe-ferritin has been investigated. The effectiveness of HBED, an iron chelator of low water solubility, has also been compared with that of desferrioxamine (DF), an iron chelator of high water solubility and currently in clinical use for treatment of transfusional iron overload. Using the 59 Fe excretion as the measure of effectiveness of chelation therapy and a standardized single chelator dose of 25 mg/kg, they have found that: (1) a saline suspension of HBED, prepared by sonication and given intraperitoneally to mice, promotes a small but significant increase in excretion of radioiron compared to the untreated controls, whereas DF, in its free form, is ineffective; (2) HBED encapsulated in lipid bilayers of liposomes and given intravenously is superior to nonencapsulated HBED; (3) DF encapsulated in small unilamellar liposomes is ineffective in removing iron given in the form of ferritin; (4) administration of phenobarbital in drinking water, at a concentration of 1 g/liter, induces a 30%-55% increase of iron excretion from untreated control mice and also from mice given HBED either in liposome-encapsulated or nonencapsulated form. HBED is superior to DF for removal of storage iron from liver parenchymal cells and liposomes are useful carriers for iron chelators of low water solubility

  12. Fine-needle percutaneous transhepatic parenchymal portal venography by using carbon dioxide: a pilot study in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Fei; Hernandez, Javier; Crisostomo, Veronica; Pineda, Luis-Fernando; Lima, Juan Rafael; Uson, Jesus; Maynar, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in fine-needle percutaneous transhepatic parenchymal portal venography and its potential clinical applications. Three Belgian landrace pigs received fine-needle percutaneous transhepatic parenchymal portal venography by using CO 2 as a contrast agent. Under fluoroscopic and B-mode ultrasonic guidance, right or left lobe of liver was punctured with a 22-G Chiba needle, through which CO 2 was injected with a dedicated CO 2 injector at injection rate of 20 ml/s for 20 ml, 40 ml/s for 40 ml, 40 ml/s for 60 ml, and 40 ml/s for 80 ml, respectively. The portal venograms were obtained by use of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) system with animal in supine position. In one pig transarterial portal venography was performed, in addition, using iodinated contrast agent. The portal vein was visualized in each run of venography. Optimal images of portal tree structure up to four-order branches were obtained in all those with CO 2 injection rate of 40 ml/s, which appeared much better in quality than those obtained by cranial mesenteric arteriography with iodinated contrast agent. No extravasation of CO 2 , liver laceration, or any other complication occurred during the procedures. The technique we proposed demonstrated optimal portography, which appeared to be safe, minimally invasive, less time-consuming, cost-effective, and easy to perform, with great potential in clinical applications. (orig.)

  13. Can MRI replace DMSA in the detection of renal parenchymal defects in children with urinary tract infections?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavanagh, Eoin C.; Ryan, Stephanie; McCourbrey, Siobhan; O'Connor, Rachel; Donoghue, Veronica; Awan, Atif

    2005-01-01

    Renal parenchymal defects may be a consequence of urinary tract infections (UTI) in childhood. MRI is a non-radiation imaging modality compared with DMSA scanning. To compare DMSA with MRI for the detection of renal parenchymal defects in children presenting for radiological investigation after a first UTI. Both DMSA and MRI were performed at the same appointment in 37 children (aged 4 months-13 years; mean 4.5 years) with a history of UTI. Both planar and SPECT DMSA were performed. MRI of the kidneys employed axial and coronal T1-, T2- and fat-saturated T1-weighted (T1-W) sequences. Some children had imaging after IV contrast medium. The coronal fat-saturated T1-W sequence was the best sequence and it detected all the findings on MRI. MRI had a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 87% for the detection of a scarred kidney using DMSA as the gold standard. MRI diagnosed pyelonephritis in two children that had been interpreted as scarring on DMSA. Renal MRI using a single, coronal, fat-saturated T1-W sequence is a rapid, accurate and minimally invasive technique for the detection of renal scarring that does not employ ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  14. Presence of adenovirus species C in infiltrating lymphocytes of human sarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kosulin

    Full Text Available Human adenoviruses are known to persist in T-lymphocytes of tonsils, adenoids and intestinal tract. The oncogenic potential of different adenovirus types has been widely studied in rodents, in which adenovirus inoculation can induce multiple tumors such as undifferentiated sarcomas, adenocarcinomas and neuroectodermal tumors. However, the oncogenic potential of this virus has never been proven in human subjects. Using a highly sensitive broad-spectrum qRT-PCR, we have screened a set of different human sarcomas including leiomyosarcoma, liposarcoma and gastro intestinal stroma tumors. Primers binding the viral oncogene E1A and the capsid-coding gene Hexon were used to detect the presence of adenovirus DNA in tumor samples. We found that 18% of the tested leiomyosarcomas and 35% of the liposarcomas were positive for the presence of adenovirus DNA, being species C types the most frequently detected adenoviruses. However, only in one sample of the gastro intestinal stroma tumors the virus DNA could be detected. The occurrence of adenovirus in the tumor sections was confirmed by subsequent fluorescence in-situ-hybridization analysis and co-staining with the transcription factor Bcl11b gives evidence for the presence of the virus in infiltrating T-lymphocytes within the tumors. Together these data underline, for the first time, the persistence of adenovirus in T-lymphocytes infiltrated in muscular and fatty tissue tumor samples. If an impaired immune system leads to the viral persistence and reactivation of the virus is involved in additional diseases needs further investigation.

  15. The Relationship Between Intestinal Iron Absorption and Hepatic Parenchymal Cell Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mok Hyun; Hahn, Shin Suck [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1971-09-15

    more, or the liver was irradiated with a single dose of 12,000 rads or more. The results of liver function tests which done simultaneously remained within normal limit except SGOT and SGPR which were somewhat increased. 3. In each case, there has been good correlation between the extent of liver cell damage and degree of increased iron absorption rate or serum iron level. 4. The method of liver damage appeared to make no obvious difference in the pattern of iron deposit in liver. This may be partly due to the fact that tissue specimens were obtained too late, for by this time the elevated serum iron level had returned within normal range and the pathological changes were almost healed. 5. The possible factors and relationship between intestinal iron absorption and hepatic parenchymal cell damage has been discussed.

  16. The Relationship Between Intestinal Iron Absorption and Hepatic Parenchymal Cell Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mok Hyun; Hahn, Shin Suck

    1971-01-01

    more, or the liver was irradiated with a single dose of 12,000 rads or more. The results of liver function tests which done simultaneously remained within normal limit except SGOT and SGPR which were somewhat increased. 3. In each case, there has been good correlation between the extent of liver cell damage and degree of increased iron absorption rate or serum iron level. 4. The method of liver damage appeared to make no obvious difference in the pattern of iron deposit in liver. This may be partly due to the fact that tissue specimens were obtained too late, for by this time the elevated serum iron level had returned within normal range and the pathological changes were almost healed. 5. The possible factors and relationship between intestinal iron absorption and hepatic parenchymal cell damage has been discussed.

  17. Adductor canal block with local infiltrative analgesia compared with local infiltrate analgesia for pain control after total knee arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Qiujuan; Dai, Weiwei; Zhao, Dongfeng; Wu, Ji; Huang, Chunshui; Zhao, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficiency and safety of the combined adductor canal block with peri-articular infiltration versus periarticular infiltration alone for pain control after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods: PubMed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify articles comparing the combined adductor canal block with peri-articular infiltration and periarticular infiltration alone for pain control after TK...

  18. Identifying biogeochemical processes beneath stormwater infiltration ponds in support of a new best management practice for groundwater protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Chang, Ni-Bin; Wanielista, Martin P.; Xuan, Zhemin; Schirmer, Mario; Hoehn, Eduard; Vogt, Tobias

    2011-01-01

     When applying a stormwater infiltration pond best management practice (BMP) for protecting the quality of underlying groundwater, a common constituent of concern is nitrate. Two stormwater infiltration ponds, the SO and HT ponds, in central Florida, USA, were monitored. A temporal succession of biogeochemical processes was identified beneath the SO pond, including oxygen reduction, denitrification, manganese and iron reduction, and methanogenesis. In contrast, aerobic conditions persisted beneath the HT pond, resulting in nitrate leaching into groundwater. Biogeochemical differences likely are related to soil textural and hydraulic properties that control surface/subsurface oxygen exchange. A new infiltration BMP was developed and a full-scale application was implemented for the HT pond. Preliminary results indicate reductions in nitrate concentration exceeding 50% in soil water and shallow groundwater beneath the HT pond.

  19. Efficacy of long-term intralesional triamcinolone in Morbihan's disease and its possible association with mast cell infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiogka, Aikaterini; Koller, Josef

    2018-04-23

    Morbihan's disease is characterized by chronic persistent facial edema of the upper half of the face, absence of typical diagnostic findings, and refractoriness to treatment. A 44-year-old man was diagnosed with Morbihan's disease based on clinical signs and histopathology, which showed dermal edema in upper dermis, discrete lymphocytic infiltrate without granulomatous reaction, and mast cell infiltration. After long-term therapy with intralesional triamcinolone a remarkable objective and subjective clinical response was observed. Reported cases of Morbihan's disease are reviewed, with respect to their treatment and histopathological findings. Mast cell infiltration has been observed on histopathology in most patients who responded to intralesional triamcinolone, suggesting a possible marker of response. The long-lasting response seen in our case indicates the efficacy of intralesional triamcinolone in this rare condition. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Aquifer recharge from infiltration basins in a highly urbanized area: the river Po Plain (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masetti, M.; Nghiem, S. V.; Sorichetta, A.; Stevenazzi, S.; Santi, E. S.; Pettinato, S.; Bonfanti, M.; Pedretti, D.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the extensive urbanization in the Po Plain in northern Italy, rivers need to be managed to alleviate flooding problems while maintaining an appropriate aquifer recharge under an increasing percentage of impermeable surfaces. During the PO PLain Experiment field campaign in July 2015 (POPLEX 2015), both active and under-construction infiltration basins have been surveyed and analyzed to identify appropriate satellite observations that can be integrated to ground based monitoring techniques. A key strategy is to have continuous data time series on water presence and level within the basin, for which ground based monitoring can be costly and difficult to be obtained consistently.One of the major and old infiltration basin in the central Po Plain has been considered as pilot area. The basin is active from 2003 with ground based monitoring available since 2009 and supporting the development of a calibrated unsaturated-saturated two-dimensional numerical model simulating the infiltration dynamics through the basin.A procedure to use satellite data to detect surface water change is under development based on satellite radar backscatter data with an appropriate incidence angle and polarization combination. An advantage of satellite radar is that it can observe surface water regardless of cloud cover, which can be persistent during rainy seasons. Then, the surface water change is correlated to the reservoir water stage to determine water storage in the basin together with integrated ground data and to give quantitative estimates of variations in the local water cycle.We evaluated the evolution of the infiltration rate, to obtain useful insights about the general recharge behavior of basins that can be used for informed design and maintenance. Results clearly show when the basin becomes progressively clogged by biofilms that can reduce the infiltration capacity of the basin by as much as 50 times compared to when it properly works under clean conditions.

  1. Comparison of infiltration models in NIT Kurukshetra campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balraj; Sihag, Parveen; Singh, Karan

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the performance of infiltration models used to calculate the infiltration rate of the soils. Ten different locations were chosen to measure the infiltration rate in NIT Kurukshetra. The instrument used for the experimentation was double ring infiltrometer. Some of the popular infiltration models like Horton's, Philip's, Modified Philip's and Green-Ampt were fitted with infiltration test data and performance of the models was determined using Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), coefficient of correlation (C.C) and Root mean square error (RMSE) criteria. The result suggests that Modified Philip's model is the most accurate model where values of C.C, NSE and RMSE vary from 0.9947-0.9999, 0.9877-0.9998 to 0.1402-0.6913 (mm/h), respectively. Thus, this model can be used to synthetically produce infiltration data in the absence of infiltration data under the same conditions.

  2. Persistent and recurrent hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Carole; Paladino, Nunzia Cinzia; Lowery, Aoife; Castinetti, Fréderic; Taieb, David; Sebag, Fréderic

    2017-06-01

    Despite remarkable progress in imaging modalities and surgical management, persistence or recurrence of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) still occurs in 2.5-5% of cases of PHPT. The aim of this review is to expose the management of persistent and recurrent hyperparathyroidism. A literature search was performed on MEDLINE using the search terms "recurrent" or "persistent" and "hyperparathyroidism" within the past 10 years. We also searched the reference lists of articles identified by this search strategy and selected those we judged relevant. Before considering reoperation, the surgeon must confirm the diagnosis of PHPT. Then, the patient must be evaluated with new imaging modalities. A single adenoma is found in 68% of cases, multiglandular disease in 28%, and parathyroid carcinoma in 3%. Others causes (<1%) include parathyromatosis and graft recurrence. The surgeon must balance the benefits against the risks of a reoperation (permanent hypocalcemia and recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy). If surgery is necessary, a focused approach can be considered in cases of significant imaging foci, but in the case of multiglandular disease, a bilateral neck exploration could be necessary. Patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes are at high risk of recurrence and should be managed regarding their hereditary pathology. The cure rate of persistent-PHPT or recurrent-PHPT in expert centers is estimated from 93 to 97%. After confirming the diagnosis of PHPT, patients with persistent-PHPT and recurrent-PHPT should be managed in an expert center with all dedicated competencies.

  3. Warmed local anesthetic reduces pain of infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, J A; McDougall, E P

    1996-01-01

    The effect of warming local anesthetic on the amount of pain experienced during local infiltration was tested by comparing equal volumes of 40 degrees C- and 21 degrees C-infiltrates in each of 26 subjects. Six subjects were patients undergoing excision of two benign asymptomatic nevi in separate locations, and 20 subjects were healthy adult volunteers who were injected in bilateral antebrachial sites. The warmed and room temperature solutions were randomized to each side, so that each subject received both temperature injections in random order. All subjects and the injector were blinded. The rate of injection was time-controlled (0.05 ml/sec). Following both injections, subjects were asked to rate the pain experienced at each site. In addition, the subject was asked if there was no difference, a slight difference, or a substantial difference between the two sites. A two-tailed paired t-test was used to analyze the mean difference in pain scores for all subjects. Paired analysis of the pain scores for each subject eliminated intersubject variance of pain tolerance. The mean difference in pain score between the room temperature and warmed solutions was +1.5 (p < 0.0001). Of the 21 subjects (81%) who found the warmed solution less painful, 11 (52%) found the difference to be significant, while 10 (48%) found the difference to be slight. Two subjects (8%) found no difference between the two, while 3 subjects (11%) found the colder solution slightly less painful. We conclude that warming local anesthetic to 40 degrees C prior to subcutaneous injection is a simple, inexpensive means of reducing the pain of local infiltration.

  4. Persistent luminescence nanothermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Rodríguez, Emma; López-Peña, Gabriel; Montes, Eduardo; Lifante, Ginés; García Solé, José; Jaque, Daniel; Diaz-Torres, Luis Armando; Salas, Pedro

    2017-08-01

    Persistent phosphorescence nanoparticles emitting in the red and near-infrared spectral regions are strongly demanded as contrast nanoprobes for autofluorescence free bioimaging and biosensing. In this work, we have developed Sr4Al14O25:Eu2+, Cr3+, Nd3+ nanopowders that produce persistent red phosphorescence peaking at 694 nm generated by Cr3+ ions. This emission displays temperature sensitivity in the physiological temperature range (20-60 °C), which makes these nanoparticles potentially useful as fluorescence (contactless) nanothermometers operating without requiring optical excitation. Nd3+ ions, which act as shallow electron traps for the red Cr3+ persistent emission, also display infrared emission bands, extending the fluorescence imaging capability to the second biological window. This unique combination of properties makes these nanoparticles multifunctional luminescent probes with great potential applications in nanomedicine.

  5. Demonstration of an infiltration evaluation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, J.D.; Gee, G.W.; Kincaid, C.T.; Nichols, W.M.; Bresler, E.

    1990-07-01

    An Infiltration Evaluation Methodology (IEM) was developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a consistent, well formulated approach for evaluating drainage through engineered covers at low-level radioactive waste (LLW) sites. The methodology is designed to help evaluate the ability of proposed waste site covers to minimize drainage for LLW site license applications and for sites associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) program. The objective of this methodology is to estimate the drainage through an engineered burial site cover system. The drainage estimate can be used as an input to a broader performance assessment methodology currently under development by the NRC. The methodology is designed to simulate, at the field scale, significant factors and hydrologic conditions which determine or influence estimates of infiltration, long-term moisture content profiles, and drainage from engineered covers and barriers. The IEM developed under this study acknowledges the uncertainty inherent in soil properties and quantifies the influence of such uncertainty on the estimates of drainage in engineered cover systems at waste disposal sites. 6 refs., 1 fig

  6. [Treatment of lymphangioma with OK-432 infiltration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, J; Cáceres, F; Vargas, P

    2012-10-01

    The management of lymphangioma using sclerotherapy has proven to be an effective therapeutic. Our aim was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of OK-432 (Picibanil) in patients with lymphagioma. The study was performed from November 2010 to July 2011. Fifteen patients of both genders were diagnosed with lymphangioma, 12 days to 12 years old. All patients were infiltrated with OK-432. The studied variables were: previous surgery, localization, type of lymphangioma, number of effective injections, reduction of mass valued as excellent (100% reduction), good (reduction > 50%) and bad (reduction < 50%), presence of recurrence and complications. 40% of pacients had prior surgery and 53.3% were located in the cervical-face region. The type of macrocystic lymphangioma was present in 40% of the series, mixed type in 46.6% and microcystic type in 13.4%. The number of effective infiltrations were 3. In 6 cases (40%) the result was excellent in 5 cases (33.4%) the result was good and in 4 cases (26.6%). We had 1 recurrence (6.6%) and we haven't had complications. Injection of OK-432 in macrocystic lymphangioma and mixed had a safe therapeutic modality with satisfactory results. So it is a valid alternative to conventional surgery.

  7. Investigation of infiltration and indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    A multitask study was performed in the State of New York to provide information for guiding home energy conservation programs while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. During the study, the statistical distribution of radon concentrations inside 2,400 homes was determined. The relationships among radon levels, house characteristics, and sources were also investigated. The direct impact that two specific air infiltration reduction measures--caulking and weatherstripping of windows and doors, and installation of storm windows and storm doors--have on house air leakage was investigated in 60 homes. The effect of house age on the impact of weatherization was also evaluated. Indoor and outdoor measurements of NO 2 , CO, SO 2 , and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) were made for 400 homes to determine the effect of combustion sources on indoor air quality and to characterize the statistical distribution of the concentrations. Finally, the combustion source data were combined with the information on air infiltration reduction measures to estimate the potential impact of these measures on indoor air quality

  8. A review of scientific topics and literature in abdominal radiology in Germany. Pt. 2. Abdominal parenchymal organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenacher, L. [Diagnostik Muenchen-Diagnostic Imaging Centre (Germany); Juchems, M.S. [Konstanz Hospital (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Holzapfel, K. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Kinner, S.; Lauenstein, T.C. [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Wessling, J. [Clemens Hospital Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Schreyer, A.G. [University Hospital Regenburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2016-03-15

    The working group for abdominal and gastrointestinal diagnosis is a group of the German Radiological Society (DRG) focusing clinically and scientifically on the diagnosis and treatment of the gastrointestinal tract as well as the parenchymal abdominal organs. In this article we give an up-to-date literature review of scientific radiological topics especially covered by German radiologists. The working group experts cover the most recent relevant studies concerning liver-specific contrast media with an emphasis on a new classification system for liver adenomas. Additionally studies regarding selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) are reviewed. For the pancreas the most important tumors are described followed by an introduction to the most recently introduced functional imaging techniques. The manuscript concludes with some remarks on recent studies and concerning chronic pancreatitis as well as autoimmune pancreatitis.

  9. Persistent genital arousal disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eibye, Simone; Jensen, Hans Mørch

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a woman suffering from persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) after paroxetine cessation. She was admitted to a psychiatric department and diagnosed with agitated depression. Physical investigation showed no gynaecological or neurological explanation; however, a pelvic MRI...

  10. Persistent organic pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dungen, van den M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Wild caught fish, especially marine fish, can contain high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). In the Netherlands, especially eel from the main rivers have high POP levels. This led to a ban in 2011 on eel fishing due to health concerns. Many of the marine POPs have been related to

  11. Contributions to Persistence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Dong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Persistence theory discussed in this paper is an application of algebraic topology (Morse Theory [29] to Data Analysis, precisely to qualitative understanding of point cloud data, or PCD for short. PCD can be geometrized as a filtration of simplicial complexes (Vietoris-Rips complex [25] [36] and the homology changes of these complexes provide qualitative information about the data. Bar codes describe the changes in homology with coefficients in a fixed field. When the coefficient field is ℤ2, the calculation of bar codes is done by ELZ algorithm (named after H. Edelsbrunner, D. Letscher, and A. Zomorodian [20]. When the coefficient field is ℝ, we propose an algorithm based on the Hodge decomposition [17]. With Dan Burghelea and Tamal K. Dey we developed a persistence theory which involves level sets discussed in Section 4. We introduce and discuss new computable invariants, the “relevant level persistence numbers” and the “positive and negative bar codes”, and explain how they are related to the bar codes for level persistence. We provide enhancements and modifications of ELZ algorithm to calculate such invariants and illustrate them by examples.

  12. Is corruption really persistent?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldadyo, H.; de Haan, J.

    Theoretical and empirical research on corruption generally concludes that corruption is persistent. However, using International Country Risk Guide data for the period 1984-2008 for 101 countries, we find strong evidence that corruption changes over time. In the present study, corruption levels of

  13. Computerized analysis of mammographic parenchymal patterns for assessing breast cancer risk: Effect of ROI size and location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hui; Giger, Maryellen L.; Huo Zhimin; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Lan Li; Weber, Barbara L.; Bonta, Ioana

    2004-01-01

    The long-term goal of our research is to develop computerized radiographic markers for assessing breast density and parenchymal patterns that may be used together with clinical measures for determining the risk of breast cancer and assessing the response to preventive treatment. In our earlier studies, we found that women at high risk tended to have dense breasts with mammographic patterns that were coarse and low in contrast. With our method, computerized texture analysis is performed on a region of interest (ROI) within the mammographic image. In our current study, we investigate the effect of ROI size and ROI location on the computerized texture features obtained from 90 subjects (30 BRCA1/BRCA2 gene-mutation carriers and 60 age-matched women deemed to be at low risk for breast cancer). Mammograms were digitized at 0.1 mm pixel size and various ROI sizes were extracted from different breast regions in the craniocaudal (CC) view. Seventeen features, which characterize the density and texture of the parenchymal patterns, were extracted from the ROIs on these digitized mammograms. Stepwise feature selection and linear discriminant analysis were applied to identify features that differentiate between the low-risk women and the BRCA1/BRCA2 gene-mutation carriers. ROC analysis was used to assess the performance of the features in the task of distinguishing between these two groups. Our results show that there was a statistically significant decrease in the performance of the computerized texture features, as the ROI location was varied from the central region behind the nipple. However, we failed to show a statistically significant decrease in the performance of the computerized texture features with decreasing ROI size for the range studied

  14. Micropatterned co-culture of hepatocyte spheroids layered on non-parenchymal cells to understand heterotypic cellular interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Hidenori; Sasaki, Kohei; Okimura, Saya; Nagamura, Masako; Nakasone, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Microfabrication and micropatterning techniques in tissue engineering offer great potential for creating and controlling cellular microenvironments including cell–matrix interactions, soluble stimuli and cell–cell interactions. Here, we present a novel approach to generate layered patterning of hepatocyte spheroids on micropatterned non-parenchymal feeder cells using microfabricated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels. Micropatterned PEG-hydrogel-treated substrates with two-dimensional arrays of gelatin circular domains (ϕ = 100 μm) were prepared by photolithographic method. Only on the critical structure of PEG hydrogel with perfect protein rejection, hepatocytes were co-cultured with non-parenchymal cells to be led to enhanced hepatocyte functions. Then, we investigated the mechanism of the functional enhancement in co-culture with respect to the contributions of soluble factors and direct cell–cell interactions. In particular, to elucidate the influence of soluble factors on hepatocyte function, hepatocyte spheroids underlaid with fibroblasts (NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts) or endothelial cells (BAECs: bovine aortic endothelial cells) were compared with physically separated co-culture of hepatocyte monospheroids with NIH3T3 or BAEC using trans-well culture systems. Our results suggested that direct heterotypic cell-to-cell contact and soluble factors, both of these between hepatocytes and fibroblasts, significantly enhanced hepatocyte functions. In contrast, direct heterotypic cell-to-cell contact between hepatocytes and endothelial cells only contributed to enhance hepatocyte functions. This patterning technique can be a useful experimental tool for applications in basic science, drug screening and tissue engineering, as well as in the design of artificial liver devices. (paper)

  15. Objective Assessment of the Severity of Patients Suffering from Fall from Height with Combined Injuries of the Abdominal Parenchymal Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdukhakim Khadjibaev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, fall from a height (FFH has been a relatively frequent cause of injury and death in the urban environment. The purpose of this study was to optimize the risk stratification of FFH victims with combined injuries of the abdominal organs by using Injury Severity Score (ISS scale. The study included 111 patients (aged between 15 and 80 years injured by FFH. All the falls were accidental and occurred mainly among males (82%. The height of the fall ranged from 2 to 5 meters. Combined injuries were found in 98 patients and isolated injuries in 13 patients. The combination of the 6 injured body regions was identified in 5 patients, 5 regions in 17, 4 in 35, 3 in 23, and 2 in 18. The abdomen trauma was most commonly associated with the following injured body regions: head and neck-chest-extremities and pelvis (13.3%, head and neck-chest-extremities (12.2%, and head and neck-chest-pelvis (9.2%. Among the combined injuries of the abdomen, ruptures of parenchymal organs (liver, spleen and kidneys were predominant. To assess the severity of the injury, the ISS scale was applied. The injuries of abdominal parenchymal organs were evaluated according to the AAST (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma classification. Comparative analysis of the assessment of the severity of a patient's condition according to the traditional scale and the ISS scale showed that the ISS scale promotes the active and timely detection of the extremely severe and terminal condition in patients with injuries due to FFH with combined trauma of the abdominal organs. Objective assessment of the severity of trauma and the dominant injury region allows determining the optimal treatment algorithm and predicting the outcome of the injury.

  16. Non-neoplastic parenchymal changes in kidney cancer and post-partial nephrectomy recovery of renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Wassim M; Chen, Ling Y; Cordon, Billy H; Mashni, Joseph; Sjoberg, Daniel D; Bernstein, Melanie; Russo, Paul

    2015-09-01

    To explore the association of non-neoplastic parenchymal changes (nNPC) with patients' health and renal function recovery after partial nephrectomy (PN). This retrospective review identified 800 pT1a patients who underwent PN at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center from 2007 to 2012. Pathology reports were reviewed for nNPC graded as mild or severe: vascular sclerosis (VS), glomerulosclerosis (GS), and fibrosis/scarring. Correlations between nNPC and known preoperative predictors of renal function [age, sex, African-American race, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, body mass index, coronary artery disease, and hypertension (HTN)] were assessed using Spearman's rank correlation (ρ). Multivariable linear regression, adjusted for the described known preoperative risk predictors, was performed to evaluate whether the parenchymal features were able to predict 6-month postoperative eGFR. In this study, 46 % of tumors had benign surrounding parenchyma. We noted statistically significant yet weak associations of VS with age (ρ = 0.19; p < 0.001), ASA (ρ = 0.09; p < 0.001), preoperative eGFR (ρ = -0.14; p < 0.001), and HTN (ρ = 0.14; p < 0.001). GS also significantly correlated with HTN, but the correlation was again small (ρ = 0.12; p < 0.001). After adjusting for known risk predictors, only GS was a significant predictor of 6-month postoperative eGFR. When compared with no GS, mild and severe GS were negatively associated with a decrease of 4.9 and 10.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in 6-month postoperative eGFR, respectively. Presence of VS and GS correlated with patients' baseline health, and presence of GS predicted postoperative renal function recovery.

  17. Protocol for Isolation of Primary Human Hepatocytes and Corresponding Major Populations of Non-parenchymal Liver Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Elisa; Zeilinger, Katrin; Seehofer, Daniel; Damm, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Beside parenchymal hepatocytes, the liver consists of non-parenchymal cells (NPC) namely Kupffer cells (KC), liver endothelial cells (LEC) and hepatic Stellate cells (HSC). Two-dimensional (2D) culture of primary human hepatocyte (PHH) is still considered as the "gold standard" for in vitro testing of drug metabolism and hepatotoxicity. It is well-known that the 2D monoculture of PHH suffers from dedifferentiation and loss of function. Recently it was shown that hepatic NPC play a central role in liver (patho-) physiology and the maintenance of PHH functions. Current research focuses on the reconstruction of in vivo tissue architecture by 3D- and co-culture models to overcome the limitations of 2D monocultures. Previously we published a method to isolate human liver cells and investigated the suitability of these cells for their use in cell cultures in Experimental Biology and Medicine1. Based on the broad interest in this technique the aim of this article was to provide a more detailed protocol for the liver cell isolation process including a video, which will allow an easy reproduction of this technique. Human liver cells were isolated from human liver tissue samples of surgical interventions by a two-step EGTA/collagenase P perfusion technique. PHH were separated from the NPC by an initial centrifugation at 50 x g. Density gradient centrifugation steps were used for removal of dead cells. Individual liver cell populations were isolated from the enriched NPC fraction using specific cell properties and cell sorting procedures. Beside the PHH isolation we were able to separate KC, LEC and HSC for further cultivation. Taken together, the presented protocol allows the isolation of PHH and NPC in high quality and quantity from one donor tissue sample. The access to purified liver cell populations could allow the creation of in vivo like human liver models. PMID:27077489

  18. Endothelial Mineralocorticoid Receptor Mediates Parenchymal Arteriole and Posterior Cerebral Artery Remodeling During Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Otero, Janice M; Fisher, Courtney; Downs, Kelsey; Moss, M Elizabeth; Jaffe, Iris Z; Jackson, William F; Dorrance, Anne M

    2017-12-01

    The brain is highly susceptible to injury caused by hypertension because the increased blood pressure causes artery remodeling that can limit cerebral perfusion. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonism prevents hypertensive cerebral artery remodeling, but the vascular cell types involved have not been defined. In the periphery, the endothelial MR mediates hypertension-induced vascular injury, but cerebral and peripheral arteries are anatomically distinct; thus, these findings cannot be extrapolated to the brain. The parenchymal arterioles determine cerebrovascular resistance. Determining the effects of hypertension and MR signaling on these arterioles could lead to a better understanding of cerebral small vessel disease. We hypothesized that endothelial MR signaling mediates inward cerebral artery remodeling and reduced cerebral perfusion during angiotensin II (AngII) hypertension. The biomechanics of the parenchymal arterioles and posterior cerebral arteries were studied in male C57Bl/6 and endothelial cell-specific MR knockout mice and their appropriate controls using pressure myography. AngII increased plasma aldosterone and decreased cerebral perfusion in C57Bl/6 and MR-intact littermates. Endothelial cell MR deletion improved cerebral perfusion in AngII-treated mice. AngII hypertension resulted in inward hypotrophic remodeling; this was prevented by MR antagonism and endothelial MR deletion. Our studies suggest that endothelial cell MR mediates hypertensive remodeling in the cerebral microcirculation and large pial arteries. AngII-induced inward remodeling of cerebral arteries and arterioles was associated with a reduction in cerebral perfusion that could worsen the outcome of stroke or contribute to vascular dementia. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Impaired virus control and severe CD8+ T-cell-mediated immunopathology in chimeric mice deficient in gamma interferon receptor expression on both parenchymal and hematopoietic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichsen, Pernille; Bartholdy, Christina; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard

    2005-01-01

    be capable of responding to IFN-gamma, but expression of the relevant receptor on non-T cells could be experimentally controlled. Only when the IFN-gamma receptor is absent on both radioresistant parenchymal and bone marrow-derived cells will chimeric mice challenged with a highly invasive, noncytolytic...

  20. In vivo regulation of scavenger receptor BI and the selective uptake of high density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters in rat liver parenchymal and Kupffer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluiter, K.; van der Westhuijzen, D. R.; van Berkel, T. J.

    1998-01-01

    High density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters (HDL-CE) are selectively taken up by liver parenchymal cells without parallel apolipoprotein uptake. This selective uptake route forms an important step in the so-called reverse cholesterol transport. Scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) is the only known HDL

  1. Multi-detector CT urography: effect of oral hydration and contrast medium volume on renal parenchymal enhancement and urinary tract opacification - a quantitative and qualitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szolar, Dieter H.; Tillich, Manfred; Preidler, Klaus W.

    2010-01-01

    To assess the effect of oral hydration and contrast-medium volume on renal enhancement and urinary tract opacification in multi-detector CT urography. A total of 192 patients were assigned to different protocols with varying doses of contrast agent with and without oral hydration. The attenuation was measured in the renal parenchyma in the unenhanced, nephrographic and excretory phase, and in the urinary tract in excretory phase imaging, respectively. Opacification of the urinary tract was graded on volume rendered images. Oral hydration did not significantly alter renal parenchymal enhancement in both the nephrographic and the excretory phase (p > 0.001), but significantly decreased mean attenuation of the urinary tract in the excretory phase (p ≤ 0.001), and improved continuous opacification of all ureter segments (p < 0.01). Higher volumes of contrast medium improved renal parenchymal enhancement (p ≤ 0.001) and continuous opacification of the urinary tract (p ≤ 0.01). Oral hydration leads to lower attenuation values in the urinary tract but improves the continuous opacification of the tract. Increase in contrast medium volume leads to higher renal parenchymal enhancement as well as to an increased continuous opacification of the urinary tract. Decrease in contrast medium volume cannot be compensated for by oral hydration in terms of parenchymal enhancement. (orig.)

  2. Experimental and modelling studies of infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giudici, M.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation describes a study of infiltration in the unsaturated soil with the objective of estimating the recharge to a phreatic aquifer. The study area is at the border of the city of Milan (Northern Italy), which draws water for both domestic and industrial purposes from ground water resources located beneath the urban area. The rate of water pumping from the aquifer system has been varying during the XX century, depending upon the number of inhabitants and the development of industrial activities. This caused variations with time of the depth of the water table below the ground surface and in turn some emergencies: the two most prominent episodes correspond to the middle '70s, when the water table in the city centre was about 30 m below the undisturbed natural conditions, and to the last decade, when the water table has raised at a rate of approximately 1 m/year and caused infiltrations in deep constructions (garages and building foundations, the underground railways, etc.). We have developed four ground water flow models at different scales, which share some characteristics: they are based on quasi-3D approximation (horizontal flow in the aquifers and vertical flow in the aquitards), conservative finite-differences schemes for regular grid with square cells in the horizontal plane and are implemented with proprietary computer codes. Among the problems that were studied for the development of these models, I recall some numerical problems, related to the behaviour of the phreatic aquifer under conditions of strong exploitation. Model calibration and validation for ModMil has been performed with a two-stage process, i.e., using some of the available data for model calibration and the remaining data for model validation. The application of geophysical exploration techniques, in particular seismic and geo-electrical prospecting, has been very useful to complete the data and information on the hydro-geological structure obtained from stratigraphic logs

  3. Method of forming catalyst layer by single step infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdes, Kirk; Lee, Shiwoo; Dowd, Regis

    2018-05-01

    Provided herein is a method for electrocatalyst infiltration of a porous substrate, of particular use for preparation of a cathode for a solid oxide fuel cell. The method generally comprises preparing an electrocatalyst infiltrate solution comprising an electrocatalyst, surfactant, chelating agent, and a solvent; pretreating a porous mixed ionic-electric conductive substrate; and applying the electrocatalyst infiltration solution to the porous mixed ionic-electric conductive substrate.

  4. Light propagation in Liquid-infiltrated Microstructured Optical Fibres”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is focussed on studying the possibilities of tuning and optimizing the performance of infiltrated waveguides in systems where nonlinear optical effects are exploited. Infiltrated systems where either nonlinear temporal or spatial effects come into play have been...... considered. First a general introduction to the basic principles used throughout the work is given. It is then shown how infiltrated waveguides can be used for manipulating dispersive and diffractive properties of light propagartion....

  5. Stormwater infiltration and the 'urban karst' - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Jeremie; Fletcher, Tim D.; Costelloe, Justin F.; Burns, Matthew J.

    2017-09-01

    The covering of native soils with impervious surfaces (e.g. roofs, roads, and pavement) prevents infiltration of rainfall into the ground, resulting in increased surface runoff and decreased groundwater recharge. When this excess water is managed using stormwater drainage systems, flow and water quality regimes of urban streams are severely altered, leading to the degradation of their ecosystems. Urban streams restoration requires alternative approaches towards stormwater management, which aim to restore the flow regime towards pre-development conditions. The practice of stormwater infiltration-achieved using a range of stormwater source-control measures (SCMs)-is central to restoring baseflow. Despite this, little is known about what happens to the infiltrated water. Current knowledge about the impact of stormwater infiltration on flow regimes was reviewed. Infiltration systems were found to be efficient at attenuating high-flow hydrology (reducing peak magnitudes and frequencies) at a range of scales (parcel, streetscape, catchment). Several modelling studies predict a positive impact of stormwater infiltration on baseflow, and empirical evidence is emerging, but the fate of infiltrated stormwater remains unclear. It is not known how infiltrated water travels along the subsurface pathways that characterise the urban environment, in particular the 'urban karst', which results from networks of human-made subsurface pathways, e.g. stormwater and sanitary sewer pipes and associated high permeability trenches. Seepage of groundwater into and around such pipes is possible, meaning some infiltrated stormwater could travel along artificial pathways. The catchment-scale ability of infiltration systems to restore groundwater recharge and baseflow is thus ambiguous. Further understanding of the fate of infiltrated stormwater is required to ensure infiltration systems deliver optimal outcomes for waterway flow regimes.

  6. Wound infiltration with local anesthetic after abdominal surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Z.; Ahmad, R.; Haider, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to compare the effect of analgesia with local wound infiltration with 20ml of 0.5% bupivacaine in post operative wounds with the control group having no infiltration. Patients were mobilized much earlier than in the control group while the demand of analgesics was considerably delayed in the study group. No any complications was noticed during local infiltration of wounds after abdominal surgery and is, therefore, applicable in routine surgery. (author)

  7. Infiltration in reclaimed mined land ameliorated with deep tillage treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, S.K.; Cowsert, P.T.

    1997-01-01

    Reclamation of mined land with heavy machinery can result in soil compaction, which increases soil bulk density and reduces porosity, water infiltrability, root elongation and crop productivity. This paper examines the effect on infiltration in reclaimed surface mined land of a deep tillage treatment, and the subsequent changes in infiltration after the amelioration. The experiment was conducted at the Horse Creek Mine near Conant, Ferry County, IL, USA

  8. Reactive Melt Infiltration Of Silicon Into Porous Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Donald R.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    1994-01-01

    Report describes study of synthesis of silicon carbide and related ceramics by reactive melt infiltration of silicon and silicon/molybdenum alloys into porous carbon preforms. Reactive melt infiltration has potential for making components in nearly net shape, performed in less time and at lower temperature. Object of study to determine effect of initial pore volume fraction, pore size, and infiltration material on quality of resultant product.

  9. Pollutant infiltration and ground water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Following a short overview of hazard potentials for ground water in Germany, this book, which was compiled by the technical committee of DVWK on ground water use, discusses the natural scientific bases of pollutant movement to and in ground water. It points out whether and to what extent soil/ground water systems can be protected from harmful influences, and indicates relative strategies. Two zones are distinguished: the unsaturated zone, where local defence and remedial measures are frequently possible, and the saturated zone. From the protective function of geological systems, which is always pollutant-specific, criteria are derived for judging the systems generally, or at least regarding entire classes of pollutants. Finally, the impact of the infiltration of pollutants into ground water on its use as drinking water is pointed out and an estimate of the cost of remedial measures is given. (orig.) [de

  10. Research of Rainwater Infiltration in Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudáková Gabriela

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Today precipitation water in the majority of built up and other sealed surface areas no longer reach the water circulation system via natural routes. This can lead to long-term changes to the soil and water resources, reduce the natural local regeneration of the groundwater and have effects on the chemical and biological conditions above and below the ground surface. Reasonable rainwater management leads to maintain or recover a sound and sustainable water cycle. The purpose of this paper is to present objectives and monitoring of a drainage project in Eastern Slovakia, in Kosice city. The paper focuses on percolation facilities in the research area of campus of Technical University and measurements connected with rainwater infiltration.

  11. Forested infiltration areas (FIA; principles, experiences, perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mezzalira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the origin and the main features of a Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR measure known as Forested Infiltration Area (FIA, conceived by Veneto Agricoltura in 2007 and currently implemented at 7 pilot sites over the Vicenza Upper Plain in the Veneto region, with the financial and technical support of several public and private partners. In particular the outputs of the first recharge season (2013-2014 of two demonstrative FIA are presented and discussed (plants realized in 2013 by Consorzio di Bonifica Brenta within the framework of the Life Project AQUOR. The main peculiarities of the FIA measures are the multifunctionality guaranteed by the integration of hydraulic and biologic aspects, the high environmental compatibility and the friendly design and management.

  12. Water infiltration into exposed fractured rock surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, T.C.; Evans, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Fractured rock media are present at many existing and potential waste disposal sites, yet characterization data and physical relationships are not well developed for such media. This study focused on water infiltration characteristics of an exposed fractured rock as an approach for defining the upper boundary condition for unsaturated-zone water percolation and contaminant transport modeling. Two adjacent watersheds of 0.24 and 1.73 ha with slopes up to 45% were instrumented for measuring rainfall and runoff. Fracture density was measured from readily observable fracture traces on the surface. Three methods were employed to evaluate the rainfall-runoff relationship. The first method used the annual totals and indicated that only 22.5% of rainfall occurred as runoff for the 1990-1991 water year, which demonstrates a high water intake rate by the exposed fracture system. The second method employed total rainfall and runoff for individual storms in conjunction with the commonly used USDA Soil Conservation Service curve number method developed for wide ranges of soils and vegetation. Curve numbers between 75 and 85 were observed for summer and winter storms with dry antecedent runoff conditions, while values exceeded 90 for wet conditions. The third method used a mass-balance approach for four major storms, which indicated that water intake rates ranged from 2.0 to 7.3 mm h -1 , yielding fracture intake velocities ranging from 122 to 293 m h -1 . The three analyses show the complexity of the infiltration process for fractured rock. However, they contribute to a better understanding of the upper boundary condition for predicting contaminant transport through an unsaturated fractured rock medium. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  13. Immune Infiltration in Invasive Lobular Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmedt, Christine; Salgado, Roberto; Fornili, Marco; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Van den Eynden, Gert; Zoppoli, Gabriele; Rothé, Françoise; Buisseret, Laurence; Garaud, Soizic; Willard-Gallo, Karen; Brown, David; Bareche, Yacine; Rouas, Ghizlane; Galant, Christine; Bertucci, François; Loi, Sherene; Viale, Giuseppe; Di Leo, Angelo; Green, Andrew R; Ellis, Ian O; Rakha, Emad A; Larsimont, Denis; Biganzoli, Elia; Sotiriou, Christos

    2018-02-20

    Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) is the second most common histological subtype of breast cancer after invasive ductal cancer (IDC). Here, we aimed at evaluating the prevalence, levels, and composition of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and their association with clinico-pathological and outcome variables in ILC, and to compare them with IDC. We considered two patient series with TIL data: a multicentric retrospective series (n = 614) and the BIG 02-98 study (n = 149 ILC and 807 IDC). We compared immune subsets identified by immuno-histochemistry in the ILC (n = 159) and IDC (n = 468) patients from the Nottingham series, as well as the CIBERSORT immune profiling of the ILC (n = 98) and IDC (n = 388) METABRIC and The Cancer Genome Atlas patients. All ILC/IDC comparisons were done in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative tumors. All statistical tests were two-sided. TIL levels were statistically significantly lower in ILC compared with IDC (fold-change = 0.79, 95% confidence interval = 0.70 to 0.88, P lobular series, although they did not reach statistical significance in the latter. The Nottingham series revealed that the levels of intratumoral but not total CD8+ were statistically significantly lower in ILC compared with IDC. Comparison of the CIBERSORT profiles highlighted statistically significant differences in terms of immune composition. This study shows differences between the immune infiltrates of ER-positive/HER2-negative ILC and IDC in terms of prevalence, levels, localization, composition, and clinical associations.

  14. Survival after cystectomy in infiltrating bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandron, E.; Desrez, G.; Chatelain, C.

    1998-01-01

    We reviewed the results of infiltrating bladder cancer treated by radical cystectomy to evaluate cancer treated by radical cystectomy to evaluate survival. Between January 1989 and December 1992, a total of 58 consecutive cystectomies or anterior pelvic exenterations performed on 48 men and 10 women (mean age 63.2 years) in our department were retrospectively evaluated. Four patients were lost to follow-up and the mean follow-up was 72 months. Pathologic staging was as follows: stage pTO,A,1: 13.5%, stage pT2: 17.5%, stage pT3a: 12%, stage pT3b: stage pT4: 21%. The year probability of the overall survival was 60% for pT2-p T3a patients, 15% for pT3b patients, and 9% for pT4 patients, respectively. Overall, 53.5% of patients died of cancer, 7.5% of intercurrent disease, and 39% were alive. The cancer related death rate was 12% for pT2-pT3a patients, and 82% for pT3b-pT4 patients. The 5- year probability of specific survival was 80% for pT2-pT3a patients, 15% for pT3b patients and 9% for pT4 patients, respectively. Infiltrating bladder cancer still has a high mortality rate. Radical cystectomy may be considered to be a curative procedure for stages pT2 and pT3a. Adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy seem necessary at stages pT3 and pT4. Preoperative criteria need to be better defined to reduce understanding. (authors)

  15. Water infiltration into homogeneous soils: a new concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfredni, S.

    1977-10-01

    A new concept for the analytical description of the process of water infiltration into homogeneous soils is presented. The concept uses a new definition of a 'gravitational diffusivity' which permits the generalization of both cases, horizontal and vertical infiltration. The efficiency of the new concept in describing the infiltration process, for short and intermediate times, is proved through experimental data obtained during water infiltration into air-dry soil columns. Its advantages are discussed comparing soil water contents predicted by the numerical solution proposed by PHILLIP (1955, 1957) [pt

  16. Persistent Hiccups Following Stapedectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidonis I

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We report a case of a 37 year-old man who developed persistent hiccups after elective stapedectomy. Method and Results: The diagnostic approach is discussed as well as the non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic treatments and overall management. The aim is to stress that there is a variety of potential factors that can induce hiccups perioperatively and in cases like this a step by step approach must be taken. Conclusion: Persistent hiccups are very rare following stapedectomy, control of them is crucial for the successful outcome. The trigger may be more than one factors and the good response to treatment may be due to dealing successfully with more than one thing.

  17. Persistent facial pain conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forssell, Heli; Alstergren, Per; Bakke, Merete

    2016-01-01

    Persistent facial pains, especially temporomandibular disorders (TMD), are common conditions. As dentists are responsible for the treatment of most of these disorders, up-to date knowledge on the latest advances in the field is essential for successful diagnosis and management. The review covers...... TMD, and different neuropathic or putative neuropathic facial pains such as persistent idiopathic facial pain and atypical odontalgia, trigeminal neuralgia and painful posttraumatic trigeminal neuropathy. The article presents an overview of TMD pain as a biopsychosocial condition, its prevalence......, clinical features, consequences, central and peripheral mechanisms, diagnostic criteria (DC/TMD), and principles of management. For each of the neuropathic facial pain entities, the definitions, prevalence, clinical features, and diagnostics are described. The current understanding of the pathophysiology...

  18. Persistent Model #2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Tensegrity structures and Inflatable membranes can be considered analogous. They can both be described as pressure based systems in which a coherent envelope is tensioned through compressive force in order to achieve a state of self-equilibrium. Persistent Model #2 is a full-scale speculative pro...... Modelling and a sustained critical investigation of the roles digital tools can play in extending the ways in which we think, design, realise and experience architecture....

  19. Intergenerational Top Income Persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Bonke, Jens; Hussain, M. Azhar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate intergenerational top earnings and top income mobility in Denmark. Access to administrative registers allowed us to look at very small fractions of the population. We find that intergenerational mobility is lower in the top when including capital income in the income...... measure— for the rich top 0.1% fathers and sons the elasticity is 0.466. Compared with Sweden, however, the intergenerational top income persistence is about half the size in Denmark....

  20. Numeric invariants from multidimensional persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skryzalin, Jacek [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carlsson, Gunnar [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)

    2017-05-19

    In this paper, we analyze the space of multidimensional persistence modules from the perspectives of algebraic geometry. We first build a moduli space of a certain subclass of easily analyzed multidimensional persistence modules, which we construct specifically to capture much of the information which can be gained by using multidimensional persistence over one-dimensional persistence. We argue that the global sections of this space provide interesting numeric invariants when evaluated against our subclass of multidimensional persistence modules. Lastly, we extend these global sections to the space of all multidimensional persistence modules and discuss how the resulting numeric invariants might be used to study data.

  1. Depth of Intestinal Wall Infiltration and Clinical Presentation of Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis: Evaluation of 553 Consecutive Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Roberto; Lisi, Giorgio; Pesci, Anna; Ceccaroni, Marcello; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Gentile, Irene; Rettore, Lorenzo; Ruffo, Giacomo

    2018-02-01

    Intestinal involvement in endometriosis was first described by Sampson in 1922. The reported incidence ranges between 3% and 37% in patients diagnosed with endometriosis. In literature, there are few studies that correlate the severity of endometriosis (in terms of intestinal infiltration) and its clinical presentation. The aim of this study was to review the correlation between the severity of symptoms, the depth of intestinal wall infiltration, and lymph node involvement in our tertiary referral center. We retrospectively analyzed 553 patients who had undergone intestinal resection for deep infiltrating endometriosis at our institution (Sacro Cuore Negrar Hospital) between 2004 and 2009. Based on intestinal wall infiltration, we divided patients into three groups (Group A: intestinal infiltration that reaches the muscle layer, Group B: infiltration to the submucosa, and Group C: endometriosis reaches the mucosa). Symptoms, intestinal stenosis, and positive lymph nodes were compared in the three groups with the chi-square test. No statistical correlation was found between symptoms and the intestinal wall infiltrations. The three groups were also compared on the basis of positive visceral lymph nodes and we did find a statistical difference (P = .05) in the lymph node count in the two main groups. There seems to be no statistically significant difference in symptoms between patients with different degrees of infiltration. Although visceral lymph node involvement has been occasionally described in literature, we found that it is related to submucosal infiltration.

  2. Evaluating the Infiltration Performance of Eight Dutch Permeable Pavements Using a New Full-Scale Infiltration Testing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris Boogaard

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Permeable pavements are a type of sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS technique that are used around the world to infiltrate and treat urban stormwater runoff and to minimize runoff volumes. Urban stormwater runoff contains significant concentrations of suspended sediments that can cause clogging and reduce the infiltration capacity and effectiveness of permeable pavements. It is important for stormwater managers to be able to determine when the level of clogging has reached an unacceptable level, so that they can schedule maintenance or replacement activities as required. Newly-installed permeable pavements in the Netherlands must demonstrate a minimum infiltration capacity of 194 mm/h (540 l/s/ha. Other commonly used permeable pavement guidelines in the Netherlands recommend that maintenance is undertaken on permeable pavements when the infiltration falls below 0.50 m/d (20.8 mm/h. This study used a newly-developed, full-scale infiltration test procedure to evaluate the infiltration performance of eight permeable pavements in five municipalities that had been in service for over seven years in the Netherlands. The determined infiltration capacities vary between 29 and 342 mm/h. Two of the eight pavements show an infiltration capacity higher than 194 mm/h, and all infiltration capacities are higher than 20.8 mm/h. According to the guidelines, this suggests that none of the pavements tested in this study would require immediate maintenance.

  3. Inflation persistence and flexible prices

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Dittmar; William T. Gavin; Finn E. Kydland

    2004-01-01

    If the central bank follows an interest rate rule, then inflation is likely to be persistence, even when prices are fully flexible. Any shock, whether persistent or not, may lead to inflation persistence. In equilibrium, the dynamics of inflation are determined by the evolution of the spread between the real interest rate and the central bank’s target. Inflation persistence in U.S. data can be characterized by a vector autocorrelation function relating inflation and deviations of output from ...

  4. A Case of Persistent Hiccup after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Grifoni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 79-year-old man, with history of recent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, came to our attention for persistent hiccup, dysphonia, and dysphagia. Noninvasive imaging studies showed a nodular lesion in the right hepatic lobe with transdiaphragmatic infiltration and increased tracer uptake on positron emission tomography. Suspecting a malignant lesion and given the difficulty of performing a percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, the patient underwent surgery. Histological analysis of surgical specimen showed biliary gallstones surrounded by exudative inflammation, resulting from gallbladder rupture and gallstones spillage as a complication of the previous surgical intervention. This case highlights the importance of considering such rare complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  5. Characteristics of water infiltration in layered water repellent soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrophobic soil can influence soil water infiltration, but information regarding the impacts of different levels of hydrophobicity within a layered soil profile is limited. An infiltration study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of hydrophobicity and the position of the hyd...

  6. Water infiltration in an ultisol after cultivation of common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida do Nascimento dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Water infiltration in the soil is an important hydrological process that occurs at the interface of the soil-atmosphere system; thus, the soil management practice used has a strong influence on this process. The aim of this study was to evaluate water infiltration in the soil and compare equations for estimating the water infiltration rate in an Ultisol after harvesting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under simulated rainfall. Field tests with a rainfall simulator were carried out in three soil management systems: minimum tillage (MT, conventional tillage (CT, and no tillage (NT. In NT, four levels of plant residue on the soil surface were evaluated: 0, 3, 6, and 9 t ha-1. The models of Kostiakov-Lewis, Horton, and Philip were used to estimate the infiltration rate. In the MT system, the final infiltration rate was 54 mm h-1, whereas in the CT and NT systems with up to 3 t ha-1 of plant residue on the soil surface, the rate was near 17 mm h-1. In addition, the results indicated that in the NT system the infiltration rate increased with plant residue coverage greater than 6 t ha-1, i.e., there was a positive correlation between plant cover and the water infiltration rate. The Horton model was the most suitable in representing the water infiltration process in the soil. Therefore, this model can be recommended for estimation of this variable regardless of the soil tillage system used.

  7. A METHOD AND AN ELECTRODE PRODUCED BY INFILTRATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to electrodes having Gd and Pr -doped cerium oxide (CGPO)backbones infiltrated with Sr -doped LaCoO3 (LSC) and a method to manufacture them. Pr ions have been introduced into a prefabricated CGO backbone by infiltrating Pr nitrate solution followed by high temperatur...

  8. Unidirectional infiltration method to produce crown for dental prosthesis application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontes, F.H.D.; Taguchi, S.P.; Machado, J.P.B.; Santos, C.

    2009-01-01

    Alumina ceramics have been used in dental prosthesis because it is inert, presents higher corrosion and shear resistance when compared to metals, excellent aesthetic, and mechanical resistance. In this work it was produced an infrastructure material for applications in dental crowns, obtained by glass infiltration in alumina preform. Various oxides, among that, rare-earth oxide produced by Xenotime, were melted at 1450 deg C and heat treatment at 700 deg C to obtain the glass (REglass). The alumina was pre-sintered at 1100 deg C cut and machined to predetermine format (unidirectional indirect infiltration) and finally conducted to infiltration test. The alumina was characterized by porosity (Hg-porosity and density) and microstructure (SEM). The glass wettability in alumina was determined as function of temperature, and the contact angle presented a low value (θ<90 deg), showing that glass can be infiltrated spontaneously in alumina. The infiltration test was conducted at glass melting temperature, during 30, 60, 180, 360 minutes. After infiltration, the samples were cut in longitudinal section, ground and polished, and analyzed by XRD (crystalline phases), SEM (microstructure) and EDS (composition).The REglass presents higher infiltration height when compared to current processes (direct infiltration), and homogeneous microstructure, showing that it is a promising method used by prosthetics and dentists. (author)

  9. Interpretation of ponded infiltration data using numerical experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohnal Michal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ponded infiltration experiment is a simple test used for in-situ determination of soil hydraulic properties, particularly saturated hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity. It is known that infiltration process in natural soils is strongly affected by presence of macropores, soil layering, initial and experimental conditions etc. As a result, infiltration record encompasses a complex of mutually compensating effects that are difficult to separate from each other. Determination of sorptivity and saturated hydraulic conductivity from such infiltration data is complicated. In the present study we use numerical simulation to examine the impact of selected experimental conditions and soil profile properties on the ponded infiltration experiment results, specifically in terms of the hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity evaluation. The effect of following factors was considered: depth of ponding, ring insertion depth, initial soil water content, presence of preferential pathways, hydraulic conductivity anisotropy, soil layering, surface layer retention capacity and hydraulic conductivity, and presence of soil pipes or stones under the infiltration ring. Results were compared with a large database of infiltration curves measured at the experimental site Liz (Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic. Reasonably good agreement between simulated and observed infiltration curves was achieved by combining several of factors tested. Moreover, the ring insertion effect was recognized as one of the major causes of uncertainty in the determination of soil hydraulic parameters.

  10. Surface stability analysis of dikes subject to overtopping and infiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karim, U. F.A.; Tran, Q.T.; Meij, R.

    2015-01-01

    The key contribution of this paper is the coupling of hydraulic loading conditions due to wave overtopping with slope stability of the surface layer of earthen flood protection embankments. Overtopping wave conditions impact overtopping discharges and infiltration time, and thereby the infiltration

  11. Seasonal variation of infiltration capacities of soils in western Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Johnson; Robert L. Beschta

    1981-01-01

    Infiltration capacities were 50 percent greater during fall than during summer for forest soils of western Oregon. These results contrast with those measured in other studies. In forested areas, investigators should be aware of potentially large seasonal changes in infiltration capacities. Such seasonal changes may exceed effects due to applied treatments (logging,...

  12. Interpretation of ponded infiltration data using numerical experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dohnal, M.; Vogel, T.; Dušek, J.; Votrubová, J.; Tesař, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 3 (2016), s. 289-299 ISSN 0042-790X Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : ponded infiltration experiment * two-parameter infiltration equation * three-dimensional axisymmetric dualcontinuum model * preferential flow Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 1.654, year: 2016

  13. Unidirectional infiltration method to produce crown for dental prosthesis application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontes, F.H.D.; Taguchi, S.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EEL/DEMAR/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Borges Junior, L.A. [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Machado, J.P.B. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Santos, C. [ProtMat Materiais Avancados, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Alumina ceramics have been used in dental prosthesis because it is inert, presents higher corrosion and shear resistance when compared to metals, excellent aesthetic, and mechanical resistance. In this work it was produced an infrastructure material for applications in dental crowns, obtained by glass infiltration in alumina preform. Various oxides, among that, rare-earth oxide produced by Xenotime, were melted at 1450 deg C and heat treatment at 700 deg C to obtain the glass (REglass). The alumina was pre-sintered at 1100 deg C cut and machined to predetermine format (unidirectional indirect infiltration) and finally conducted to infiltration test. The alumina was characterized by porosity (Hg-porosity and density) and microstructure (SEM). The glass wettability in alumina was determined as function of temperature, and the contact angle presented a low value (θ<90 deg), showing that glass can be infiltrated spontaneously in alumina. The infiltration test was conducted at glass melting temperature, during 30, 60, 180, 360 minutes. After infiltration, the samples were cut in longitudinal section, ground and polished, and analyzed by XRD (crystalline phases), SEM (microstructure) and EDS (composition).The REglass presents higher infiltration height when compared to current processes (direct infiltration), and homogeneous microstructure, showing that it is a promising method used by prosthetics and dentists. (author)

  14. Analysis and integrated modelling of groundwater infiltration to sewer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Balling, Jonas Dueholm; Larsen, Uffe Bay Bøgh

    2016-01-01

    Infiltration of groundwater to sewer systems is a problem for the capacity of the system as well as for treatment processes at waste water treatment plants. This paper quantifies the infiltration of groundwater to a sewer system in Frederikshavn Municipality, Denmark, by measurements of sewer flo...

  15. Modeling a ponded infiltration experiment at Yucca Mountain, NV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, D.B.; Guertal, W.R.; Flint, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository for high level radioactive waste. As part of the site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, a field-scale ponded infiltration experiment was done to help characterize the hydraulic and infiltration properties of a layered dessert alluvium deposit. Calcium carbonate accumulation and cementation, heterogeneous layered profiles, high evapotranspiration, low precipitation, and rocky soil make the surface difficult to characterize.The effects of the strong morphological horizonation on the infiltration processes, the suitability of measured hydraulic properties, and the usefulness of ponded infiltration experiments in site characterization work were of interest. One-dimensional and two-dimensional radial flow numerical models were used to help interpret the results of the ponding experiment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of a ponded infiltration experiment done around borehole UE25 UZN number-sign 85 (N85) at Yucca Mountain, NV. The effects of morphological horizons on the infiltration processes, lateral flow, and measured soil hydaulic properties were studied. The evaluation was done by numerically modeling the results of a field ponded infiltration experiment. A comparison the experimental results and the modeled results was used to qualitatively indicate the degree to which infiltration processes and the hydaulic properties are understood. Results of the field characterization, soil characterization, borehole geophysics, and the ponding experiment are presented in a companion paper

  16. Soil infiltration characteristics in the Tarim River floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overflow from rivers play an important role for ecological conservation in Tarim Basin, however, there was limited information on infiltration from overflow of the Tarim River. The objective of this study was to investigate steady infiltration rate for three types of land use (forest, shrub and bare...

  17. Relationship between Microcalcification and infiltration in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Tai Que; Jeon, Mal Soon; Kim, Yang Sook

    1990-01-01

    Microcalcification is one of the most common findings in breast cancer and most of cases with microcalcification only reveal non infiltrating type of cancer and better prognosis. We analysed 70 cases of breast cancer pathologically proved among 2,115 patients that underwent xermammography from 1983. 10.1 to 1989. 7. 30 and studied relationship between xerographic findings and nature of infiltration in breast cancer. The results were as follows: 1. Among 2,115 patients which were performed xeromammography, 70 cases were pathologically proved breast cancer and incident was 3.3%. 2. Incidence of breast cancer in terms of age was 0.2% in third decade. 1.2% in fourth decade, 4.4% in fifth decade, 14.3% in sixth decade, 15 % over seventh decade. Of total 70 patients, 51 cases were included over fifth decade. 3. Xeromammgraphy findings were classified microcalcification only, mass only, microcalcification with mass. Incidence of xerography findings such as microcalcification only (22%) was less than that of mass density (78%). 4. In 16 cases of microcalcification only. Incidence below 50 years (75%) were more than that over 50 (25%). 5. Infiltrating breast cancers (67%) were more than non-infiltrating breast cancer (33%) and number of non-infiltrating breast cancer with xerographic findings of microcalcification only (56%) was no more than that of infiltrating breast cancer (44%) but number of infiltrating breast cancer with mass (75%) was much more than non-infiltrating breast cancer (25%)

  18. Alveolar occupation infiltrations, eosinophilia in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hincapie Diaz, Gustavo Adolfo; Yama Mosquera, Erica; Guevara, Jairo

    2006-01-01

    A case of a patient of 25 years old is shown with the antecedent of no potable water consumption who entered for having pulmonary symptoms, fever, presence of alveolar occupation infiltrations and eosinophilia in peripheral blood treatment with antiparasitary started with a significant improvement of the symptoms, infiltrations and eosinophilia. It is considered eosinophilic pneumonia diagnostic by parasitary infection (Loefffers Syndrome)

  19. Alveolar occupation infiltrations, eosinophilia in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hincapie Diaz, Gustavo Adolfo; Yama Mosquera, Erica; Guevara, Jairo

    2006-01-01

    A case of a patient of 25 years old is shown with the antecedent of no potable water consumption who entered for having pulmonary symptoms. Fever, presence of alveolar occupation infiltrations and eosinophilia in peripheral blood a treatment with antiparasitary started with a significant improvement of the symptoms, infiltrations and eosinophilia. it is considered eosinophilic pneumonia diagnostic by parasitary infection (Loeffler's syndrome)

  20. Reflections on Student Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Tinto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Feature for this issue Reflections on Student Persistence has been prepared by Professor Vincent Tinto, Distinguished University Professor Emeritus at Syracuse University, United States of America (USA and a longtime friend and supporter of STARS. Vincent explores the case for motivation to be considered as a significant aspect of the tertiary student psyche by drawing on theoretical frameworks, research and practical experiences related to the issue. He synthesises this extensive, detailed, rich but often somewhat impenetrable data into a trilogy of clear and credible key dimensions of the motivation construct student self efficacy, sense of belonging and perceived value of the curriculum. This interpretation of the literature is a personal but informed reflection and is a timely piece which highlights the breadth and profundity of the presentations at this year's conference in Adelaide, Australia where students in all their diversity are central to our focus on enhancing the student experience. In this opening article, Vincent refers directly to the STARS papers selected for this Conference issue of the Journal which also address the importance of student persistence, self-efficacy and building the sense of belonging within their own institutional communities (Fernandes, Ford, Rayner & Pretorius; Kahu, Nelson, & Picton; McFarlane, Spes-Skrbis & Taib; Naylor; Smallhorn. Echoing his position on social justice and his advocacy for underserved students, Vincent reminds us that educational equity gaps still exist, and he encourages us to see the issue of persistence through the eyes of the students to support their perseverance and completion and thereby help reduce educational disadvantage.

  1. Volume-controlled histographic analysis of pulmonary parenchyma in normal and diffuse parenchymal lung disease: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyo Yong; Lee, Jongmin; Kim, Jong Seob; Won, Chyl Ho; Kang, Duk Sik; Kim, Myoung Nam

    2000-01-01

    located in an area of higher density. Using a home-made histographic analysis system which included a lung volume controller, patients with diffuse parenchymal lung disease could be distinguished from normal contros. The method may be useful for the diagnosis and follow up of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. (author)

  2. Volume-controlled histographic analysis of pulmonary parenchyma in normal and diffuse parenchymal lung disease: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyo Yong; Lee, Jongmin; Kim, Jong Seob; Won, Chyl Ho; Kang, Duk Sik [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myoung Nam [The University of Iowa (United States)

    2000-06-01

    located in an area of higher density. Using a home-made histographic analysis system which included a lung volume controller, patients with diffuse parenchymal lung disease could be distinguished from normal contros. The method may be useful for the diagnosis and follow up of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. (author)

  3. Role of digital tomosynthesis and dual energy subtraction digital radiography in detection of parenchymal lesions in active pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Madhurima; Sandhu, Manavjit Singh; Gorsi, Ujjwal; Gupta, Dheeraj; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Digital tomosynthesis and dual energy subtraction digital radiography are modifications of digital radiography. • These modalities perform better than digital radiography in detection of parenchymal lesions in active pulmonary tuberculosis. • Digital tomosynthesis has a sensitivity of 100% in detection of cavities. • Centrilobular nodules seen on CT in active pulmonary tuberculosis, were also demonstrated on digital tomosynthesis in our study. • Digital tomosynthesis can be used for diagnosis and follow up of patients in pulmonary tuberculosis, thereby reducing the number of CT examinations. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the role of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) and dual energy subtraction digital radiography (DES-DR) in detection of parenchymal lesions in active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and to compare them with digital radiography (DR). Materials and methods: This prospective study was approved by our institutional review committee. DTS and DES-DR were performed in 62 patients with active pulmonary TB within one week of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) study. Findings of active pulmonary TB, that is consolidation, cavitation and nodules were noted on digital radiography (DR), DTS and DES-DR in all patients. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of all 3 modalities was calculated with MDCT as reference standard. In addition presence of centrilobular nodules was also noted on DTS. Results: Our study comprised of 62 patients (33 males, 29 females with age range 18–82 years). Sensitivity and specificity of DTS for detection of nodules and cavitation was better than DR and DES-DR. Sensitivity and specificity of DTS for detection of consolidation was comparable to DR and DES-DR. DES-DR performed better than DR in detection of nodules and cavitation. DTS was also able to detect centrilobular nodules with sensitivity and specificity of 57.4% and 86.5% respectively. Conclusion: DTS and DES-DR perform better

  4. Role of digital tomosynthesis and dual energy subtraction digital radiography in detection of parenchymal lesions in active pulmonary tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Madhurima, E-mail: madhurimashrm88@gmail.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, PGIMER, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Sandhu, Manavjit Singh, E-mail: manavjitsandhu@yahoo.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, PGIMER, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Gorsi, Ujjwal, E-mail: ujjwalgorsi@gmail.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, PGIMER, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Gupta, Dheeraj, E-mail: dheeraj1910@gmail.com [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, PGIMER, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Khandelwal, Niranjan, E-mail: khandelwaln@hotmail.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, PGIMER, Chandigarh 160012 (India)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Digital tomosynthesis and dual energy subtraction digital radiography are modifications of digital radiography. • These modalities perform better than digital radiography in detection of parenchymal lesions in active pulmonary tuberculosis. • Digital tomosynthesis has a sensitivity of 100% in detection of cavities. • Centrilobular nodules seen on CT in active pulmonary tuberculosis, were also demonstrated on digital tomosynthesis in our study. • Digital tomosynthesis can be used for diagnosis and follow up of patients in pulmonary tuberculosis, thereby reducing the number of CT examinations. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the role of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) and dual energy subtraction digital radiography (DES-DR) in detection of parenchymal lesions in active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and to compare them with digital radiography (DR). Materials and methods: This prospective study was approved by our institutional review committee. DTS and DES-DR were performed in 62 patients with active pulmonary TB within one week of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) study. Findings of active pulmonary TB, that is consolidation, cavitation and nodules were noted on digital radiography (DR), DTS and DES-DR in all patients. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of all 3 modalities was calculated with MDCT as reference standard. In addition presence of centrilobular nodules was also noted on DTS. Results: Our study comprised of 62 patients (33 males, 29 females with age range 18–82 years). Sensitivity and specificity of DTS for detection of nodules and cavitation was better than DR and DES-DR. Sensitivity and specificity of DTS for detection of consolidation was comparable to DR and DES-DR. DES-DR performed better than DR in detection of nodules and cavitation. DTS was also able to detect centrilobular nodules with sensitivity and specificity of 57.4% and 86.5% respectively. Conclusion: DTS and DES-DR perform better

  5. Sialendoscope-assisted transoral removal of hilo-parenchymal sub-mandibular stones: surgical results and subjective scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaccio, P; Gaffuri, M; Rossi, V; Pignataro, L

    2017-04-01

    It has been suggested that a conservative trans-oral approach to proximal and hilo-parenchymal submandibular stones (HPSMS) is a valid alternative to the more frequently used sialadenectomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical, ultrasonographic and patients' subjective outcomes of results of the trans-oral removal of HPSMS. Between January 2003 and September 2015, sialendoscope-assisted trans-oral surgery was used to remove symptomatic, large (> 7 mm), fixed and palpable HPSMS from 479 patients under general anaesthesia. All patients were followed clinically and ultrasonographically to investigate symptom relief and recurrence of stones, and were telephonically interviewed to assess saliva-related subjective outcomes with a questionnaire. Stones were successfully removed from 472 patients (98.5%); the seven failures (1.5%) concerned pure parenchymal stones. One year after the procedure, 408 patients (85.1%) were symptom free, 59 (12.3%) had recurrent obstructive symptoms and 12 (2.6%) had recurrent infections. Of the 54 patients who developed a recurrent stone (11.2%), 52 underwent a second procedure: 29 interventional sialendoscopies, two sialendoscope-assisted intra-corporeal pneumatic lithotripsy, eight secondary transoral surgery to remove residual stones, six a cycle of extra-corporeal lithotripsy and seven submandibular sialadenectomy. Most patients (75.2%) reported mild surgery-related pain. The symptoms of 454 patients (94.8%) improved after adjunctive treatment and, at the end of follow-up, the affected gland was preserved in 98.5% of patients. A sialendoscope-assisted trans-oral removal of large HPSMS is a safe, effective, conservative surgical procedure, and functional preservation of the main duct and parenchyma of the obstructed gland allows sialendoscopic access through the natural ostium in case of recurrence. Combining a trans-oral approach with other minimally invasive, conservative procedures ensures symptomatic relief and salivary

  6. Persistent marine debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the distribution of persistent marine debris, adrift on world oceans and stranded on beaches globally, is reviewed and related to the known inputs and transport by the major surface currents. Since naturally occurring processes eventually degrade petroleum in the environment, international measures to reduce the inputs have been largely successful in alleviating oil pollution on a global, if not on a local, scale. Many plastics, however, are so resistant to natural degradation that merely controlling inputs will be insufficient, and more drastic and costly measures will be needed to cope with the emerging global problem posed by these materials

  7. Persistent postsurgical pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads Utke; Bischoff, Joakim Mutahi

    2014-01-01

    The prevalences of severe persistent postsurgical pain (PPP) following breast cancer surgery (BCS), groin hernia repair (GHR), and lung cancer surgery (LCS) are 13, 2, and 4-12 %, respectively. Estimates indicate that 80,000 patients each year in the U.S.A. are affected by severe pain...... duration of surgery, repeat surgery, more invasive surgical techniques, and intraoperative nerve lesion have been associated with PPP. One of the most consistent predictive factors for PPP is high intensity acute postsurgical pain, but also psychological factors including anxiety, catastrophizing trait...

  8. Term Structure Persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Abbritti, M. (Mirko); Gil-Alana, L.A. (Luis A.); Lovcha, Y. (Yuliya); Moreno, A. (Antonio)

    2012-01-01

    Stationary I(0) models employed in yield curve analysis typically imply an unrealistically low degree of volatility in long-run short-rate expectations due to fast mean reversion. In this paper we propose a novel multivariate affine term structure model with a two-fold source of persistence in the yield curve: Long-memory and short-memory. Our model, based on an I(d) specification, nests the I(0) and I(1) models as special cases and the I(0) model is decisively rejected by the data. Our model...

  9. Persistence of Salmonid Redds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, J. M.; Buxton, T.; Fremier, A. K.; Hassan, M. A.; Yager, E.

    2013-12-01

    The construction of redds by spawning salmonids modifies fluvial processes in ways that are beneficial to egg and embryo survival. Redd topography induces hyporheic flow that oxygenates embryos incubating within the streambed and creates form drag that reduces bed mobility and scour of salmonid eggs. Winnowing of fine material during redd construction also coarsens the streambed, increasing bed porosity and hyporheic flow and reducing bed mobility. In addition to the biological benefits, redds may influence channel morphology by altering channel hydraulics and bed load transport rates depending on the size and extent of redds relative to the size of the channel. A key question is how long do the physical and biological effects of redds last? Field observations indicate that in some basins redds are ephemeral, with redd topography rapidly erased by subsequent floods, while in other basins, redds can persist for years. We hypothesize that redd persistence is a function of basin hydrology, sediment supply, and characteristics of the spawning fish. Hydrology controls the frequency and magnitude of bed mobilizing flows following spawning, while bed load supply (volume and caliber) controls the degree of textural fining and consequent bed mobility after spawning, as well as the potential for burial of redd features. The effectiveness of flows in terms of their magnitude and duration depend on hydroclimate (i.e., snowmelt, rainfall, or transitional hydrographs), while bed load supply depends on basin geology, land use, and natural disturbance regimes (e.g., wildfire). Location within the stream network may also influence redd persistence. In particular, lakes effectively trap sediment and regulate downstream flow, which may promote long-lived redds in stream reaches below lakes. These geomorphic controls are modulated by biological factors: fish species (size of fish controls size of redds and magnitude of streambed coarsening); life history (timing of spawning and

  10. Squamous cell carcinoma following radiation therapy for the infiltrative thymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Shinji; Kitao, Takeshi

    1992-01-01

    This report represents one case of infiltrative thymoma followed by squamous cell carcinoma of the lungs. A 69-year-old man suffered from infiltrative thymoma which reduced by the radiation therapy. Seven years later its replase and the onset of squamous cell carcinoma were found simultaneously. Infiltrative thymoma metastasized not only to the mediastinum but also to the liver and bronchus. Squamous cell carcinoma developed in the right upper lobe. In spite of chemotherapy against them, the patient died. There are many cases in which infiltrative thymoma is accompanied by squamous cell carcinoma of the lung simultaneously; however, secondary onset of squamous cell carcinoma after the radiation therapy of infiltrative thymoma is rare. Secondary carcinogenesis of this case was considered to be closely related with immunological abnormalities caused by thymoma, effects of radiation, smoking and so on. (author)

  11. Radiology and pathology correlation in common infiltrative cardiomyopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varzeshi, Neda; Hansen, Mark; Rezaee, Amir; Slaughter, Richard; Dixon, Natalie; Duhig, Edwina

    2012-01-01

    Infiltrative cardiomyopathies generally pose a diagnostic dilemma as current diagnostic tools are imprecise. Invasive endomyocardial biopsy is considered as the gold standard however it has some limitations. Recently cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is emerging as an excellent technique in diagnosing infiltrative cardiomyopathies and is increasingly being used. Characteristic pathologic and radiologic findings in most common infiltrative cardiomyopathies (amyloid, sarcoid and Fabry's) are discussed and correlated with relative CMR and histologic examples. There is fairly good correlation between the non-invasive radiologic and the invasive histologic findings in common infiltrative cardiomyopathies. Non-invasive CMR with its high sensitivity and specificity has an excellent role in establishing the diagnosis and improving the prognosis of common infiltrative cardiomyopathies.

  12. Quasilinear infiltration from an elliptical cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Warrick, Arthur W.

    2008-08-01

    We develop analytic solutions to the linearized steady-state Richards equation for head and total flowrate due to an elliptic cylinder cavity with a specified pressure head boundary condition. They are generalizations of the circular cylinder cavity solutions of Philip [Philip JR. Steady infiltration from circular cylindrical cavities. Soil Sci Soc Am J 1984;48:270-8]. The circular and strip sources are limiting cases of the elliptical cylinder solution, derived for both horizontally- and vertically-aligned ellipses. We give approximate rational polynomial expressions for total flowrate from an elliptical cylinder over a range of sizes and shapes. The exact elliptical solution is in terms of Mathieu functions, which themselves are generalizations of and computed from trigonometric and Bessel functions. The required Mathieu functions are computed from a matrix eigenvector problem, a modern approach that is straightforward to implement using available linear algebra libraries. Although less efficient and potentially less accurate than the iterative continued fraction approach, the matrix approach is simpler to understand and implement and is valid over a wider parameter range.

  13. Psoas Muscle Infiltration Masquerading Distant Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel A. Gharaibeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant metastasis to the psoas muscle is rare. We report a case that clinically mimicked psoas abscess that was subsequently proven to be from metastatic disease secondary to adenocarcinoma of the duodenum. A 62-year-old male presented with a seven-month history of right lower quadrant abdominal pain and progressive dysphagia. CT scan of abdomen-pelvis revealed a right psoas infiltration not amenable to surgical drainage. Patient was treated with two courses of oral antibiotics without improvement. Repeated CT scan showed ill-defined low-density area with inflammatory changes involving the right psoas muscle. Using CT guidance, a fine needle aspiration biopsy of the right psoas was performed that reported metastatic undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. Patient underwent upper endoscopy, which showed a duodenal mass that was biopsied which also reported poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. In this case, unresponsiveness to medical therapy or lack of improvement in imaging studies warrants consideration of differential diagnosis such as malignancy. Iliopsoas metastases have shown to mimic psoas abscess on their clinical presentation and in imaging studies. To facilitate early diagnosis and improve prognosis, patients who embody strong risk factors and symptoms compatible with underlying malignancies who present with psoas imaging concerning for abscess should have further investigations.

  14. Pulmonary infiltration with eosinophils in 14 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, B.M.; Thoday, K.L.; Henfrey, J.I.; Simpson, J.W.; Burnie, A.G.; Mooney, C.T.

    1991-01-01

    Pulmonary infiltration with eosinophils was diagnosed in 14 dogs, whose age ranged from three months to 13 years. The predominant clinical sign was coughing. Dyspnoea, tachypnoea and pruritus were also observed. An absolute circulating eosinophilia was seen in eight dogs and basophilia in five dogs. Thoracic radiographic changes were variable and were not diagnostic. Bronchoscopic evidence of mild to severe bronchitis was present in 12 dogs. Abnormal numbers of eosinophils were found in bronchoalveolar lavage samples and, or, bronchial washings in all 14 cases, but no significant bacteria were recovered. Respiratory compliance was measured in five dogs and was abnormal in three. Faecal examination for helminth parasites was carried out in four cases, a large ascarid burden being identified in one. Intradermal skin testing was carried out in three dogs but was negative in all cases. Complete remission of signs was achieved with prednisolone in 12 cases with six dogs requiring continuous or repeated treatment. Three dogs died as a direct consequence of progression of the disease

  15. Infiltrated TiC/Cu composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frage, N.; Froumin, N.; Rubinovich, L.; Dariel, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    One approach for the fabrication of ceramic-metal composites is based on the pressureless impregnation of a porous ceramic preform by a molten metal. Molten Cu does not react with TiC and the wetting angle is close to 90 o . Nonetheless, molten Cu readily impregnates partially sintered TiC preforms. A model that describes the dependence of the critical contact angle for spontaneous impregnation by molten metals in partially sintered preforms on the level of densification and on the morphology of the particles was developed. For high aspect ratios of the particles forming the preform, wetting angles close to 90 o still allow impregnation by the molten metal. The results of the model were confirmed by infiltration of partially sintered TiC preforms with molten Cu and by fabrication of the TiC/Cu composites with various ceramic-to metal ratios. Decreasing of the metal content in the composite from 50 vol.% to 10 vol.% leads to a hardness increase from 250 to 1800 HV, and to the decrease of the bending strength from 960 to 280 MPa. The resistivity of these TiC/Cu composites decreases from 142 ohm cm to 25 ohm cm. (author)

  16. Atrazine distribution measured in soil and leachate following infiltration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurath, Susan K; Sadeghi, Ali M; Shirmohammadi, Adel; Isensee, Allan R; Torrents, Alba

    2004-01-01

    Atrazine transport through packed 10 cm soil columns representative of the 0-10 cm soil horizon was observed by measuring the atrazine recovery in the total leachate volume, and upper and lower soil layers following infiltration of 7.5 cm water using a mechanical vacuum extractor (MVE). Measured recoveries were analyzed to understand the influence of infiltration rate and delay time on atrazine transport and distribution in the column. Four time periods (0.28, 0.8, 1.8, and 5.5 h) representing very high to moderate infiltration rates (26.8, 9.4, 4.2, and 1.4 cm/h) were used. Replicate soil columns were tested immediately and following a 2-d delay after atrazine application. Results indicate atrazine recovery in leachate was independent of infiltration rate, but significantly lower for infiltration following a 2-d delay. Atrazine distribution in the 0-1 and 9-10 cm soil layers was affected by both infiltration rate and delay. These results are in contrast with previous field and laboratory studies that suggest that atrazine recovery in the leachate increases with increasing infiltration rate. It appears that the difference in atrazine recovery measured using the MVE and other leaching experiments using intact soil cores from this field site and the rain simulation equipment probably illustrates the effect of infiltrating water interacting with the atrazine present on the soil surface. This work suggests that atrazine mobilization from the soil surface is also dependent on interactions of the infiltrating water with the soil surface, in addition to the rate of infiltration through the surface soil.

  17. Characterizing Heterogeneity in Infiltration Rates During Managed Aquifer Recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawer, Chloe; Parsekian, Andrew; Pidlisecky, Adam; Knight, Rosemary

    2016-11-01

    Infiltration rate is the key parameter that describes how water moves from the surface into a groundwater aquifer during managed aquifer recharge (MAR). Characterization of infiltration rate heterogeneity in space and time is valuable information for MAR system operation. In this study, we utilized fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) observations and the phase shift of the diurnal temperature signal between two vertically co-located fiber optic cables to characterize infiltration rate spatially and temporally in a MAR basin. The FO-DTS measurements revealed spatial heterogeneity of infiltration rate: approximately 78% of the recharge water infiltrated through 50% of the pond bottom on average. We also introduced a metric for quantifying how the infiltration rate in a recharge pond changes over time, which enables FO-DTS to be used as a method for monitoring MAR and informing maintenance decisions. By monitoring this metric, we found high-spatial variability in how rapidly infiltration rate changed during the test period. We attributed this variability to biological pore clogging and found a relationship between high initial infiltration rate and the most rapid pore clogging. We found a strong relationship (R 2  = 0.8) between observed maximum infiltration rates and electrical resistivity measurements from electrical resistivity tomography data taken in the same basin when dry. This result shows that the combined acquisition of DTS and ERT data can improve the design and operation of a MAR pond significantly by providing the critical information needed about spatial variability in parameters controlling infiltration rates. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  18. Spatial and temporal infiltration dynamics during managed aquifer recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racz, Andrew J; Fisher, Andrew T; Schmidt, Calla M; Lockwood, Brian S; Los Huertos, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Natural groundwater recharge is inherently difficult to quantify and predict, largely because it comprises a series of processes that are spatially distributed and temporally variable. Infiltration ponds used for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) provide an opportunity to quantify recharge processes across multiple scales under semi-controlled conditions. We instrumented a 3-ha MAR infiltration pond to measure and compare infiltration patterns determined using whole-pond and point-specific methods. Whole-pond infiltration was determined by closing a transient water budget (accounting for inputs, outputs, and changes in storage), whereas point-specific infiltration rates were determined using heat as a tracer and time series analysis at eight locations in the base of the pond. Whole-pond infiltration, normalized for wetted area, rose rapidly to more than 1.0 m/d at the start of MAR operations (increasing as pond stage rose), was sustained at high rates for the next 40 d, and then decreased to less than 0.1 m/d by the end of the recharge season. Point-specific infiltration rates indicated high spatial and temporal variability, with the mean of measured values generally being lower than rates indicated by whole-pond calculations. Colocated measurements of head gradients within saturated soils below the pond were combined with infiltration rates to calculate soil hydraulic conductivity. Observations indicate a brief period of increasing saturated hydraulic conductivity, followed by a decrease of one to two orders of magnitude during the next 50 to 75 d. Locations indicating the most rapid infiltration shifted laterally during MAR operation, and we suggest that infiltration may function as a "variable source area" processes, conceptually similar to catchment runoff. © 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  19. Persistence extends reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun

    2017-04-01

    One key potential explanation for the evolution of cooperation is conditional cooperation. This allows cooperation to evolve for cooperators who switch their behavior on the basis of information about the opponent's behavior or reputation. However, information about the opponent's behavior or reputation is sometimes unavailable, and previous studies have assumed that a player cooperates with some default probability when no information about the opponent's previous behavior or reputation is available. This default probability has been interpreted as the player's "optimism". Here, we make use of the fact that even if a player cannot observe the opponent's previous behavior or reputation, he may still condition his future behavior based on his own past behavior and in such a case, he can behave persistently. In this paper, we especially consider the case where information about the opponent's "behavior" is sometimes absent and the iterated prisoner's dilemma game between the same two individuals is played. Here, we examine the evolution of strategies that can refer to the own behavior in the previous round. Using evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) analysis and analyzing replicator dynamics, we find that conditioning his future behavior based on his own past behavior is beneficial for the evolution. Persistence facilitates the evolution of cooperation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  1. Fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor muscles is not a feature of chronic, insidious-onset neck pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J. [Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Department of Physical Therapy, Rueckert-Hartman School for Health Professions, Regis University, Denver, Colorado (United States); Centre for Magnetic Resonance, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)], E-mail: jelltt@regis.edu; Sterling, M. [Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Noteboom, J.T. [Department of Physical Therapy, Rueckert-Hartman School for Health Professions, Regis University, Denver, Colorado (United States); Darnell, R. [Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Galloway, G. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Jull, G. [Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)

    2008-06-15

    Aim: To investigate the presence of fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor musculature in patients with insidious-onset neck pain to better understand the possible pathophysiology underlying such changes in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Materials and methods: A sample of convenience of 23 women with persistent insidious-onset neck pain (mean age 29.2 {+-} 6.9 years) was recruited for the study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify fatty infiltration in the cervical extensor musculature. Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST; pressure and thermal pain thresholds) was performed as sensory features are present in chronic whiplash. Self-reported pain and disability, as well as psychological distress, were measured using the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), respectively. Results: Measures were compared with those of a previous dataset of chronic whiplash patients (n = 79, mean age 29.7 {+-} 7.8 years). Using a classification tree, insidious-onset neck pain was clearly identified from whiplash (p < 0.001), based on the presence of MRI fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor musculature (0/102 individuals) and altered temperature thresholds (cold; 3/102 individuals). Conclusion: Fatty infiltrates in the cervical extensor musculature and widespread hyperalgesia were not features of the insidious-onset neck pain group in this study; whereas these features have been identified in patients with chronic WAD. This novel finding may enable a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological processes in patients with chronic whiplash.

  2. Fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor muscles is not a feature of chronic, insidious-onset neck pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.; Sterling, M.; Noteboom, J.T.; Darnell, R.; Galloway, G.; Jull, G.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the presence of fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor musculature in patients with insidious-onset neck pain to better understand the possible pathophysiology underlying such changes in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Materials and methods: A sample of convenience of 23 women with persistent insidious-onset neck pain (mean age 29.2 ± 6.9 years) was recruited for the study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify fatty infiltration in the cervical extensor musculature. Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST; pressure and thermal pain thresholds) was performed as sensory features are present in chronic whiplash. Self-reported pain and disability, as well as psychological distress, were measured using the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), respectively. Results: Measures were compared with those of a previous dataset of chronic whiplash patients (n = 79, mean age 29.7 ± 7.8 years). Using a classification tree, insidious-onset neck pain was clearly identified from whiplash (p < 0.001), based on the presence of MRI fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor musculature (0/102 individuals) and altered temperature thresholds (cold; 3/102 individuals). Conclusion: Fatty infiltrates in the cervical extensor musculature and widespread hyperalgesia were not features of the insidious-onset neck pain group in this study; whereas these features have been identified in patients with chronic WAD. This novel finding may enable a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological processes in patients with chronic whiplash

  3. The effects of hemorrhagic parenchymal infarction on the establishment of sensori-motor structural and functional connectivity in early infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arichi, T.; Edwards, A.D.; Counsell, S.J.; Mondi, V.; Tusor, N.; Merchant, N.; Allievi, A.G.; Burdet, E.; Chew, A.T.; Martinez-Biarge, M.; Cowan, F.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize alterations of structural and functional connectivity within the developing sensori-motor system in infants with focal perinatal brain injury and at high risk of cerebral palsy. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were used to study the developing functional and structural connectivity framework in six infants born prematurely at term equivalent age. This was first characterised in three infants without focal pathology, which was then compared to that derived from three infants with unilateral haemorrhagic parenchymal infarction and a subsequent focal periventricular white matter lesion who developed later haemiparesis. Functional responses to passive hand movement were in the contralateral perirolandic cortex, regardless of focal pathology. In infants with unilateral periventricular injury, afferent thalamo-cortical tracts appeared to have developed compensatory trajectories which circumvented areas of damage. In contrast, efferent corticospinal tracts showed marked asymmetry at term equivalent age following focal brain injury. Sensori-motor network analysis suggested that inter-hemispheric functional connectivity is largely preserved despite pathology and that impairment may be associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Following focal perinatal brain injury, altered structural and functional connectivity is already present and can be characterized with MRI at term equivalent age. The results of this small case series suggest that these techniques may provide valuable new information about prognosis and the pathophysiology underlying cerebral palsy. (orig.)

  4. The effects of hemorrhagic parenchymal infarction on the establishment of sensori-motor structural and functional connectivity in early infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arichi, T.; Edwards, A.D. [Kings College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Perinatal Imaging and Health, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College London, Department of Bioengineering, London (United Kingdom); Counsell, S.J.; Mondi, V.; Tusor, N.; Merchant, N. [Kings College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Perinatal Imaging and Health, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Allievi, A.G.; Burdet, E. [Imperial College London, Department of Bioengineering, London (United Kingdom); Chew, A.T. [Kings College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Perinatal Imaging and Health, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Paediatrics, London (United Kingdom); Martinez-Biarge, M.; Cowan, F.M. [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Paediatrics, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    The objective of the study was to characterize alterations of structural and functional connectivity within the developing sensori-motor system in infants with focal perinatal brain injury and at high risk of cerebral palsy. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were used to study the developing functional and structural connectivity framework in six infants born prematurely at term equivalent age. This was first characterised in three infants without focal pathology, which was then compared to that derived from three infants with unilateral haemorrhagic parenchymal infarction and a subsequent focal periventricular white matter lesion who developed later haemiparesis. Functional responses to passive hand movement were in the contralateral perirolandic cortex, regardless of focal pathology. In infants with unilateral periventricular injury, afferent thalamo-cortical tracts appeared to have developed compensatory trajectories which circumvented areas of damage. In contrast, efferent corticospinal tracts showed marked asymmetry at term equivalent age following focal brain injury. Sensori-motor network analysis suggested that inter-hemispheric functional connectivity is largely preserved despite pathology and that impairment may be associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Following focal perinatal brain injury, altered structural and functional connectivity is already present and can be characterized with MRI at term equivalent age. The results of this small case series suggest that these techniques may provide valuable new information about prognosis and the pathophysiology underlying cerebral palsy. (orig.)

  5. Severe cerebral hypovolemia on perfusion CT and lower body weight are associated with parenchymal haemorrhage after thrombolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsetsou, S.; Eskandari, A.; Michel, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne CHUV, Department of Neurology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Amiguet, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Lausanne (Switzerland); Meuli, R.; Maeder, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Jiang, B.; Wintermark, M. [Stanford University and Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Haemorrhagic transformation of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and particularly parenchymal haemorrhage (PH) remains a feared complication of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). We aimed to identify clinical and perfusion CT (PCT) variables which are independently associated with PHs. In this observational cohort study, based on the Acute Stroke Registry Analysis of Lausanne (ASTRAL) from 2003 to December 2013, we selected patients with AIS involving the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory who were thrombolysed within 4.5 h of symptoms' onset and who had a good quality baseline PCT at the beginning of IVT. In addition to demographic, clinical, laboratory and non-contrast CT data, volumes of salvageable tissue and ischemic core on PCT, as well as absolute CBF and CBV values within the ischemic regions were compared in patients with and without PH in multivariate analysis. Of the 190 included patients, 24 (12.6%) presented a PH (11 had PH1 and 13 had PH2). In multivariate analysis of the clinical and radiological variables, the lowest CBV in the core and lower body weight was both significantly associated with PH (p = 0.009 and p = 0.024, respectively). In thrombolysed MCA strokes, maximal hypoperfusion severity depicted by lowest CBV values in the core region and lower body weight are independently correlated with PH. This information, if confirmed in other case series, may add to the stratification of revascularisation decisions in patients with a perceived high PH risk. (orig.)

  6. Repeated surgeries in invasive lobular breast cancer with preoperative MRI: Role of additional carcinoma in situ and background parenchymal enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preibsch, H; Richter, V; Bahrs, S D; Hattermann, V; Wietek, B M; Bier, G; Kloth, C; Blumenstock, G; Hahn, M; Staebler, A; Nikolaou, K; Wiesinger, B

    2017-05-01

    Analysing the influence of additional carcinoma in situ (CIS) and background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) in preoperative MRI on repeated surgeries in patients with invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) of the breast. Retrospective analysis of 106 patients (mean age 58.6±9.9years) with 108 ILC. Preoperative tumour size as assessed by MRI, mammography and sonography was recorded and compared to histopathology. In contrast-enhanced MRI, the degree of BPE was categorised by two readers. The influence of additionally detected CIS and BPE on the rate of repeated surgeries was analysed. Additional CIS was present in 45.4% of the cases (49/108). The degree of BPE was minimal or mild in 80% of the cases and moderate or marked in 20% of the cases. In 17 cases (15.7%) at least one repeated surgery was performed. In n=15 of these cases, repeated surgery was performed after BCT (n=9 re-excisions, n=6 conversions to mastectomy), in n=2 cases after initial mastectomy. The initial surgical procedure (p=0.008) and additional CIS (p=0.046) significantly influenced the rate of repeated surgeries, while tumour size, patient age and BPE did not (p=ns). Additional CIS was associated with a higher rate of repeated surgeries, whereas BPE had no influence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Caliceal clubbing and adjacent parenchymal scarring (always reflux nephropathy) as a cause of end-stage renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, H.S.; Dorph, S.; Copenhagen Univ., Herlev

    1986-01-01

    Various clinical and laboratory aspects in 15 kidney transplanted patients with urographic evidence of caliceal clubbing and adjacent parenchymal scarring in their native kidneys are reported. These lesions were found in 16 per cent of our series of kidney transplantations; below 35 years of age it was the second most frequent disease. In 9 of these patients severe vesicoureteral reflux had been demonstrated. In the remaining 6 patients reflux nephropathy was only a tentative diagnosis based on a striking similarity in the radiographs and in several clinical findings. Nine patients had symptoms (mainly related to urinary tract infection) from 1 to 17 years before diagnosis/urography, in 5 as early as the first year of life. Recurrent urinary tract infection and renal impairment were the most frequent disorders leading to the diagnosis. Replacement therapy was initiated at an average age of 32.7 years. Following renal transplantation urinary tract infection was documented in 37 per cent of patients whether the patient had been bilaterally nephrectomized or not. (orig)

  8. Iron content and acid phosphatase activity in hepatic parenchymal lysosomes of patients with hemochromatosis before and after phlebotomy treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleton, M.I.; de Bruijn, W.C.; van Blokland, W.T.; Marx, J.J.; Roelofs, J.M.; Rademakers, L.H.

    1988-01-01

    Lysosomal structures in liver parenchymal cells of 3 patients with iron overload and of 3 subjects without iron-storage disorders were investigated. A combination of enzyme cytochemistry--with cerium as a captive ion to demonstrate lysosomal acid phosphatase activity--and electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) was used. We were able (1) to define and quantify lysosomal structures as lysosomes, siderosomes, or residual bodies, (2) to quantify the amount of iron and cerium simultaneously in these structures, and (3) to evaluate a possible relation between iron storage and enzyme activity. With histopathologically increased iron storage, the number of siderosomes had increased at the cost of lysosomes, with a corresponding increase in acid phosphatase activity in both organelles. In histopahtologically severe iron overload, however, acid phosphatase activity was low or not detectable and most of the iron was stored in residual bodies. After phlebotomy treatment, the number of siderosomes had decreased in favor of the lysosomes, approaching values obtained in control subjects, and acid phosphatase activity was present in all iron-containing structures. In this way a relationship between iron storage and enzyme activity was established. The iron content of the individual lysosomal structures per unit area had increased with histopathologically increased iron storage and had decreased after phlebotomy treatment. From this observation, it is concluded that the iron status of the patient is not only reflected by the amount of iron-containing hepatocytes but, as well, by the iron content lysosomal unit area

  9. Histological examination of pancreatic parenchymal changes induced by an experimental fractionated local exposition to X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, L [Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Budapest. Orvosradiologiai Kutato Csoport

    1976-11-01

    After exposition to a total dose of 8,000 R delivered with 16 fractions, the pancreatic parenchymal changes in rats were investigated using histological and histochemical techniques. The observations were performed from the first to the 150th day following the last fraction. During the period of acute changes (1st to 15th day), the most part of the acini is morphologically intact, many smaller or greater necrotic foci, however, are to be seen. This is partly due to the enzymes with cytolytic effects, coming from the damaged smaller ducts and from glandular acini. The formation of the other part of the necrobiotic foci originates not only from direct radiation injury, but also from the capillary lesion by radiation. The injury to the wall of greater ducts induces edema, inflammations, dilatation of efferent ductules and stasis, all this leading consequently to an atrophy of the acini associated with the efferent ducts. During the period of chronical changes (50th to 150th day), the number of capillaries diminishes, the necrobiotic foci are multiplied especially in places where no capillaries are visible. This clearly emphasizes the role of the pathological reasons for capillary lesions. The regenerative phenomena occur only to a lesser extent, being confined to the efferent ducts. The extension of the necrotic zones together with the insignificant regeneration leads to a gradual destruction of the tissular substance. It is concluded that the radiosensitivity of the organ can only be determined, if its acute and chronical changes are known.

  10. A new technique for hepatic parenchymal transection using an articulating bipolar 5 cm radiofrequency device: results from the first 100 procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hideo; Akyuz, Muhammet; Aksoy, Erol; Aucejo, Federico; Quintini, Cristiano; Miller, Charles; Fung, John; Berber, Eren

    2018-04-13

    Parenchymal transection(PT) still remains a challenge in liver resection. The outcomes of the first experience of a novel vessel-sealer for hepatic transection were assessed. A bipolar articulating vessel-sealer (Caiman ® , Aesculap Inc., Center Valley, PA) was used in 100 liver resections through both open (OLR) and laparoscopic (LLR) approaches. All data were prospectively collected into an IRB-approved department database, and clinical, surgical and perioperative parameters were analyzed. Fifty patients underwent OLR and 50 patients underwent LLR. Eighty hepatectomies were performed for malignancy. Median number of tumors was 1, with the largest focus measuring an average of 5.1 cm. Forty-nine of the procedures were major liver resections. Parenchymal transection time was 29.9 ± 3.1 min in OLR and 29.9 ± 3.6 min in LLR. Median estimated blood loss was 300 cc (Inter-quartile range (IQR) 100-575 cc). Median hospital stay was 6 days for open and 3 days for laparoscopic procedures. Ninety-day complication rate was 8% without any mortality. Bile leak rate was 4%. Staplers were used for parenchymal transection in 16 cases. This study introduces a new multifunctional device into the armamentarium of the liver surgeon. In our experience, this device facilitated the parenchymal transection by adding speed and consolidating the amount of instrumentation used in liver resection without increasing complications. Copyright © 2018 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identifying Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Using Background Parenchymal Enhancement Heterogeneity on Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI: A Pilot Radiomics Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Wang

    Full Text Available To determine the added discriminative value of detailed quantitative characterization of background parenchymal enhancement in addition to the tumor itself on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE MRI at 3.0 Tesla in identifying "triple-negative" breast cancers.In this Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective study, DCE-MRI of 84 women presenting 88 invasive carcinomas were evaluated by a radiologist and analyzed using quantitative computer-aided techniques. Each tumor and its surrounding parenchyma were segmented semi-automatically in 3-D. A total of 85 imaging features were extracted from the two regions, including morphologic, densitometric, and statistical texture measures of enhancement. A small subset of optimal features was selected using an efficient sequential forward floating search algorithm. To distinguish triple-negative cancers from other subtypes, we built predictive models based on support vector machines. Their classification performance was assessed with the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC using cross-validation.Imaging features based on the tumor region achieved an AUC of 0.782 in differentiating triple-negative cancers from others, in line with the current state of the art. When background parenchymal enhancement features were included, the AUC increased significantly to 0.878 (p<0.01. Similar improvements were seen in nearly all subtype classification tasks undertaken. Notably, amongst the most discriminating features for predicting triple-negative cancers were textures of background parenchymal enhancement.Considering the tumor as well as its surrounding parenchyma on DCE-MRI for radiomic image phenotyping provides useful information for identifying triple-negative breast cancers. Heterogeneity of background parenchymal enhancement, characterized by quantitative texture features on DCE-MRI, adds value to such differentiation models as they are strongly associated with the triple-negative subtype

  12. [Is therapy with local infiltrations feasible in primary care consultations?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña Loarte, J E; Pérez Franco, J; Sánchez Sánchez, G

    1999-01-01

    To study the feasibility of local infiltration in primary care consultations. Before-and-after intervention study. Two clinics at an urban health centre. Patients diagnosed with pathology of tender areas and treated with corticosteroid infiltration between May 1997 and May 1998. Corticoid infiltration plus local anaesthetic. Weekly check-up. Analysis of the variables: sex, age, diagnosis, time elapsed between indication and start of treatment, subjective assessment of pain before and after treatment (VRS scale), number of infiltrations per patient, side-effects. Evaluation of overall and individual effectiveness. 41 patients were infiltrated. Average age was 58. Most common pathologies were: rotary joint tendinitis (48.7%), anserine bursitis (24.4%), plantar fasciitis (7.3%). Average number of infiltrations per pathology: 1.3. Mean waiting time: 3.5 days. Comparison of pain by means of VRS (range 0-5) before and after treatment used the Wilcoxon test, with a statistically significant difference and p < 0.001 (z = -5.5109). For 35 patients (85.4%), pain was solved very well (values 0 and 1 on the VRS). For 3 patients (7.3%), improvement was moderate; and for 3 (7.3%) there was no improvement. 1. Treatment with local infiltration of corticosteroids is effective in dealing with pain, and is an alternative to treatment with NSAIDs. 2. It is feasible in primary care, and there are many advantages if the general practitioner employs this therapeutic technique.

  13. Controls on the variability of net infiltration to desert sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; McKinney, Tim S.; Zhdanov, Michael S.; Watt, Dennis E.

    2007-01-01

    As populations grow in arid climates and desert bedrock aquifers are increasingly targeted for future development, understanding and quantifying the spatial variability of net infiltration becomes critically important for accurately inventorying water resources and mapping contamination vulnerability. This paper presents a conceptual model of net infiltration to desert sandstone and then develops an empirical equation for its spatial quantification at the watershed scale using linear least squares inversion methods for evaluating controlling parameters (independent variables) based on estimated net infiltration rates (dependent variables). Net infiltration rates used for this regression analysis were calculated from environmental tracers in boreholes and more than 3000 linear meters of vadose zone excavations in an upland basin in southwestern Utah underlain by Navajo sandstone. Soil coarseness, distance to upgradient outcrop, and topographic slope were shown to be the primary physical parameters controlling the spatial variability of net infiltration. Although the method should be transferable to other desert sandstone settings for determining the relative spatial distribution of net infiltration, further study is needed to evaluate the effects of other potential parameters such as slope aspect, outcrop parameters, and climate on absolute net infiltration rates.

  14. Caliber-Persistent Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Araújo Pinho Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Caliber-persistent artery (CPLA of the lip is a common vascular anomaly in which a main arterial branch extends to the surface of the mucous tissue with no reduction in its diameter. It usually manifests as pulsatile papule, is easily misdiagnosed, and is observed more frequently among older people, suggesting that its development may involve a degenerative process associated with aging; CPLA is also characterized by the loss of tone of the adjacent supporting connective tissue. Although the diagnosis is clinical, high-resolution Doppler ultrasound is a useful noninvasive tool for evaluating the lesion. This report describes the case of a 58-year-old male patient who complained of a lesion of the lower lip with bleeding and recurrent ulceration. The patient was successfully treated in our hospital after a diagnosis of CPLA and is currently undergoing a clinical outpatient follow-up with no complaints.

  15. An annoying persistent cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cipollini

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cough is a stressful condition and can lead to extensive investigations. We report a case of a 48-year-old woman who had suffered from persistent chronic cough for more than 3 months. She had been treated with cough suppressant. However, her cough was not alleviated by these treatments, and the patient was referred to our hospital. She did not exhibit typical gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD symptoms heartburn and regurgitation. Esophagoscopy did not disclose reflux esophagitis. The patient was treated with a proton-pump inhibitor, which markedly alleviated her cough. Chronic cough due to GERD was diagnosed. Although the diagnosis of chronic cough due to GERD is not easy when traditionally symptoms are not present, our case report underscores the importance of this association to the differential diagnosis of chronic cough. In these cases a relatively simple test as high dose proton pump-inhibitors trial may be useful to confirm GERD related cough.

  16. New daily persistent headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Tyagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New daily persistent headache (NDPH is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment.

  17. Persistent idiopathic facial pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarbjerg, Stine; Wolfram, Frauke; Heinskou, Tone Bruvik

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Persistent idiopathic facial pain (PIFP) is a poorly understood chronic orofacial pain disorder and a differential diagnosis to trigeminal neuralgia. To address the lack of systematic studies in PIFP we here report clinical characteristics and neuroimaging findings in PIFP. Methods...... pain 7 (13%), hypoesthesia 23 (48%), depression 16 (30%) and other chronic pain conditions 17 (32%) and a low prevalence of stabbing pain 21 (40%), touch-evoked pain 14 (26%) and remission periods 10 (19%). The odds ratio between neurovascular contact and the painful side was 1.4 (95% Cl 0.4–4.4, p = 0.......565) and the odds ratio between neurovascular contact with displacement of the trigeminal nerve and the painful side was 0.2 (95% Cl 0.0–2.1, p = 0.195). Conclusion: PIFP is separated from trigeminal neuralgia both with respect to the clinical characteristics and neuroimaging findings, as NVC was not associated...

  18. Anomalous behaviors during infiltration into heterogeneous porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarão Reis, F. D. A.; Bolster, D.; Voller, V. R.

    2018-03-01

    Flow and transport in heterogeneous porous media often exhibit anomalous behavior. A physical analog example is the uni-directional infiltration of a viscous liquid into a horizontal oriented Hele-Shaw cell containing through thickness flow obstacles; a system designed to mimic a gravel/sand medium with impervious inclusions. When there are no obstacles present or the obstacles form a multi-repeating pattern, the change of the length of infiltration F with time t tends to follow a Fickian like scaling, F ∼t1/2 . In the presence of obstacle fields laid out as Sierpinski carpet fractals, infiltration is anomalous, i.e., F ∼ tn, n ≠ 1/2. Here, we study infiltration into such Hele-Shaw cells. First we investigate infiltration into a square cell containing one fractal carpet and make the observation that it is possible to generate both sub (n 1/2) diffusive behaviors within identical heterogeneity configurations. We show that this can be explained in terms of a scaling analysis developed from results of random-walk simulations in fractal obstacles; a result indicating that the nature of the domain boundary controls the exponent n of the resulting anomalous transport. Further, we investigate infiltration into a rectangular cell containing several repeats of a given Sierpinski carpet. At very early times, before the liquid encounters any obstacles, the infiltration is Fickian. When the liquid encounters the first (smallest scale) obstacle the infiltration sharply transitions to sub-diffusive. Subsequently, around the time where the liquid has sampled all of the heterogeneity length scales in the system, there is a rapid transition back to Fickian behavior. An explanation for this second transition is obtained by developing a simplified infiltration model based on the definition of a representative averaged hydraulic conductivity.

  19. Carbon-14 tracer studies in the metabolism of isolated rat-liver parenchymal cells under conditions of gluconeogenesis from lactate and pyruvate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muellhofer, G.; Mueller, C.; Stetten, C. von; Gruber, E.

    1977-01-01

    In rat liver perfusion experiments under conditions of gluconeogenesis from lactate and pyruvate, 14 C-labeling patterns of metabolites with (1- 14 C)-labeled and (2- 14 C)-labeled lactate or pyruvate. [ 14 C]bicarbonate and [1- 14 C]octanoate as tracers have been obtained which do not agree with generally assumed reaction schemes. The experiments have been repeated with incubations of isolated rat-liver parenchymal cells. The results demonstrate that the discrepancies between expected and analysed 14 C-labeling patterns of metabolites were still existent. From this observation, it may be concluded that 14 C-labelling patterns of metabolites are indicative for the existence of still unknown metabolic relationships in liver parenchymal cells. Furthermore, the results of our experiments prove that conclusions based on the exclusive analysis of metabolite levels are of limited value for studying intracellular events, because of uncharacterized compartmentations, which become evident in 14 C-tracer studies. It cannot be answered by our studies whether the apparent existence of differently labelled species of citrate, oxoglutarate, or acetyl-CoA represent intracellular compartmentation, or whether it is the result of metabolic heterogeneity of liver parenchym cells. (orig.) [de

  20. Effect of hepatocyte growth factor on radiation response of HeLa, V79, CHO and primary cultured parenchymal hepatocyte in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hideya; Inoue, Takehiro; Nose, Takayuki; Murayama, Shigeyuki; Teshima, Teruki; Ozeki, Syuji; Koizumi, Masahiko; Inoue, Toshihiko.

    1996-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a multipotent cytokine enhancing regeneration of injured organs as liver, kidney and lung after injury. HGF enhances proliferation of various type of cells, inhibits proliferation of carcinoma cells, enhances motility of epithelial cells. We examined three cell lines (CHO, HeLa, V79) and primary cultured normal rat parenchymal hepatocytes to determine the effect of HGF on radiation response. HGF diminished survival of CHO and V79 cells determined by colony formation assay, whereas no significant change of survival was found in HeLa cells. No synergistic changes of survival were found when these three cell lines were irradiated with the addition of HGF. Thus, HGF did not enhance the radiation effect. We also analyzed the impact of irradiation with HGF on primary cultured normal rat parenchymal hepatocytes. At first, the release of glutamic-oxaloacetic amino-transaminase (GOT) in the supernatant was estimated. Irradiation (40 Gy) with or without HGF did not change GOT release in acute phase by 4 days after irradiation compared with the unirradiated control. Second, the DNA synthesis of rat parenchymal hepatocytes was analyzed using radioactive iodine-labeled deoxyuridine incorporation. HGF counteracted the suppression of DNA synthesis induced by irradiation. Thus, HGF may act as a mitogen even for irradiation-damaged normal cells. (author)

  1. Persistent Aerial Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-04-13

    In this thesis, we propose a new aerial video dataset and benchmark for low altitude UAV target tracking, as well as, a photo-realistic UAV simulator that can be coupled with tracking methods. Our benchmark provides the rst evaluation of many state of-the-art and popular trackers on 123 new and fully annotated HD video sequences captured from a low-altitude aerial perspective. Among the compared trackers, we determine which ones are the most suitable for UAV tracking both in terms of tracking accuracy and run-time. We also present a simulator that can be used to evaluate tracking algorithms in real-time scenarios before they are deployed on a UAV "in the field", as well as, generate synthetic but photo-realistic tracking datasets with free ground truth annotations to easily extend existing real-world datasets. Both the benchmark and simulator will be made publicly available to the vision community to further research in the area of object tracking from UAVs. Additionally, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by \\'handing over the camera\\' from one UAV to another. We integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  2. High Performance Infiltrated Backbones for Cathode-Supported SOFC's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Vanesa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2014-01-01

    The concept of using highly ionic conducting backbones with subsequent infiltration of electronically conducting particles has widely been used to develop alternative anode-supported SOFC's. In this work, the idea was to develop infiltrated backbones as an alternative design based on cathode......, microstructural characterization and electrochemical testing are discussed. Data on polarization resistance, Rp, are obtained from impedance spectra recorded on quasi-symmetrical cells (YSZ backbones/YSZ/LSM-YSZ (screen printed)). The backbones are infiltrated with LSM and compared to a standard LSM-YSZ screen...

  3. Inactivation of VHSV by infiltration and salt under experimental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Jørgensen, Claus; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    At the moment the only legal method in Denmark to sanitize wastewater from fish cutting plants is by infiltration. To evaluate the inactivation effect of infiltration on VHSV an experimental examination was initiated. A column packed with gravel as top- and bottom layer (total of 22 cm) and a mid...... be a valuable method to sanitize VHSV infected water. Changes in temperature, pH, earth types in the area used for infiltration etc. may change the virus reduction, though. As some of the fish cutting plants are also smoking rainbow trout fillets, the question arose whether a brine solution will inactivate VHSV...

  4. On-site infiltration of road runoff using pervious pavements with subjacent infiltration trenches as source control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fach, S; Dierkes, C

    2011-01-01

    The focus in this work was on subsoil infiltration of stormwater from parking lots. With regard to operation, reduced infiltration performance due to clogging and pollutants in seepage, which may contribute to contaminate groundwater, are of interest. The experimental investigation covered a pervious pavement with a subjacent infiltration trench draining an impervious area of 2 ha. In order to consider seasonal effects on the infiltration performance, the hydraulic conductivity was measured tri-monthly during monitoring with a mobile sprinkling unit. To assess natural deposits jointing, road bed, gravel of infiltration trenches and subsoil were analysed prior to commencement of monitoring for heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic and mineral oil type hydrocarbons. Furthermore, from 22 storm events, water samples of rainfall, surface runoff, seepage and ground water were analysed with regard to the above mentioned pollutants. The study showed that the material used for the joints had a major impact on the initial as well as the final infiltration rates. Due to its poor hydraulic conductivity, limestone gravel should not be used as jointing. Furthermore, it is recommended that materials for the infiltration facilities are ensured free of any contaminants prior to construction. Polycyclic aromatic and mineral oil type hydrocarbons were, with the exception of surface runoff, below detection limits. Heavy metal concentrations of groundwater were with the exception of lead (because of high background concentrations), below the permissible limits.

  5. Comparison of infiltration capacity of permanent grassland and arable land during the 2011 growing season

    OpenAIRE

    Tomáš Mašíček; F. Toman; M. Vičanová

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare the rate of infiltration and cumulative infiltration in permanent grassland (PG) and in arable land over the course of the 2011 growing season. The measurement of water infiltration into soil was conducted via ponded infiltration method based on the use of two concentric cylinders in field conditions. Kostiakov equations were applied to evaluate the ponded infiltration. Based on field measurements, the dependence of infiltration rate (v) on time (t) was de...

  6. The effect of polyacrylamide (PAM) applications on infiltration, runoff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... reduced surface runoff and soil losses, but increased infiltration rates. The effectiveness of ... Soil and water conservation is essential for sustaining food production and ...... Earth Surface Processes, 4:241-255. McIntyre DS ...

  7. The effect of polyacrylamide (PAM) applications on infiltration, runoff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) application to soils is an effective soil conservation practice for reducing runoff and soil losses caused by erosion. It also increases the infiltration rate of soils. The objective of this study was conducted to ...

  8. Infiltration Variability in Agricultural Soil Aggregates Caused by Air Slaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenkova, L.; Urik, M.

    2018-04-01

    This article reports on variation in infiltration rates of soil aggregates as a result of phenomenon known as air slaking. Air slaking is caused by the compression and subsequent escape of air captured inside soil aggregates during water saturation. Although it has been generally assumed that it occurs mostly when dry aggregates are rapidly wetted, the measurements used for this paper have proved that it takes place even if the wetting is gradual, not just immediate. It is a phenomenon that contributes to an infiltration variability of soils. In measuring the course of water flow through the soil, several small aggregates of five agricultural soils were exposed to distilled water at zero tension in order to characterize their hydraulic properties. Infiltration curves obtained for these aggregates demonstrate the effect of entrapped air on the increase and decrease of infiltration rates. The measurements were performed under various moisture conditions of the A-horizon aggregates using a simple device.

  9. Calibration and validation of a general infiltration model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Surendra Kumar; Ranjan Kumar, Shashi; Singh, Vijay P.

    1999-08-01

    A general infiltration model proposed by Singh and Yu (1990) was calibrated and validated using a split sampling approach for 191 sets of infiltration data observed in the states of Minnesota and Georgia in the USA. Of the five model parameters, fc (the final infiltration rate), So (the available storage space) and exponent n were found to be more predictable than the other two parameters: m (exponent) and a (proportionality factor). A critical examination of the general model revealed that it is related to the Soil Conservation Service (1956) curve number (SCS-CN) method and its parameter So is equivalent to the potential maximum retention of the SCS-CN method and is, in turn, found to be a function of soil sorptivity and hydraulic conductivity. The general model was found to describe infiltration rate with time varying curve number.

  10. Fabrication and optical characterization of gold-infiltrated silica opals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenjiang; Sun Gang; Tang Fangqiong; Tam, W.Y.; Li Jensen; Chan, C T; Sheng Ping

    2005-01-01

    We report the fabrication of metal-infiltrated silica opals for optical studies. Highly mono-dispersed silica microspheres are fabricated and assembled by a force packing method to form opals with large domain sizes. The opals are then infiltrated with gold by an electroplating technique. The optical properties of the infiltrated opals in the visible range are studied and model calculations based on a multiple-scattering formalism are used to interpret the experimental results. The calculated position of the directional gap of the silica opal agrees very well with experimental observation. We found that the optical properties of the infiltrated sample can be explained using a model system in which the voids in the silica opal are partially filled with Au and the surface of the slab is covered with a thin layer of Au

  11. Temporal nonlinear beam dynamics in infiltrated photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennet, Francis; Rosberg, Christian Romer; Neshev, Dragomir N.

    Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) offer a new way of studying light propagation in periodic and discrete systems. A wide range of available fiber structures combined with the ease of infiltration opens up a range of novel experimental opportunities for optical detection and bio...... the evolution of the fiber output beam in the few micro or milliseconds after the beam is turned on. The characterization of the temporal behavior of the thermal nonlinear response provides important information about the nonlocality associated with heat diffusion inside the fiber, thus enabling studies of long...... and technological potential of liquid-infiltrated PCFs it is important to understand the temporal dynamics of nonlinear beam propagation in such structures. In this work we consider thermally induced spatial nonlinear effects in infiltrated photonic crystal fibers. We experimentally study the temporal dynamics...

  12. Simulation of Groundwater Mounding Beneath Hypothetical Stormwater Infiltration Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, Glen B.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater mounding occurs beneath stormwater management structures designed to infiltrate stormwater runoff. Concentrating recharge in a small area can cause groundwater mounding that affects the basements of nearby homes and other structures. Methods for quantitatively predicting the height and extent of groundwater mounding beneath and near stormwater Finite-difference groundwater-flow simulations of infiltration from hypothetical stormwater infiltration structures (which are typically constructed as basins or dry wells) were done for 10-acre and 1-acre developments. Aquifer and stormwater-runoff characteristics in the model were changed to determine which factors are most likely to have the greatest effect on simulating the maximum height and maximum extent of groundwater mounding. Aquifer characteristics that were changed include soil permeability, aquifer thickness, and specific yield. Stormwater-runoff variables that were changed include magnitude of design storm, percentage of impervious area, infiltration-structure depth (maximum depth of standing water), and infiltration-basin shape. Values used for all variables are representative of typical physical conditions and stormwater management designs in New Jersey but do not include all possible values. Results are considered to be a representative, but not all-inclusive, subset of likely results. Maximum heights of simulated groundwater mounds beneath stormwater infiltration structures are the most sensitive to (show the greatest change with changes to) soil permeability. The maximum height of the groundwater mound is higher when values of soil permeability, aquifer thickness, or specific yield are decreased or when basin depth is increased or the basin shape is square (and values of other variables are held constant). Changing soil permeability, aquifer thickness, specific yield, infiltration-structure depth, or infiltration-structure shape does not change the volume of water infiltrated, it changes the

  13. Implementations and interpretations of the talbot-ogden infiltration model

    KAUST Repository

    Seo, Mookwon; Cerwinsky, Derrick; Gahalaut, Krishan Pratap Singh; Douglas, Craig C.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between surface and subsurface hydrology flow systems is important for water supplies. Accurate, efficient numerical models are needed to estimate the movement of water through unsaturated soil. We investigate a water infiltration

  14. Persistent homology of complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, Danijela; Maletić, Slobodan; Rajković, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Long-lived topological features are distinguished from short-lived ones (considered as topological noise) in simplicial complexes constructed from complex networks. A new topological invariant, persistent homology, is determined and presented as a parameterized version of a Betti number. Complex networks with distinct degree distributions exhibit distinct persistent topological features. Persistent topological attributes, shown to be related to the robust quality of networks, also reflect the deficiency in certain connectivity properties of networks. Random networks, networks with exponential connectivity distribution and scale-free networks were considered for homological persistency analysis

  15. Topical anesthetic versus lidocaine infiltration in arteriovenous fistula cannulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha George

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: End stage renal disease (ESRD patients on maintenance hemodialysis undergo arterio-venous fistula (AVF cannulation prior to each hemodialysis session for blood access. Prior to cannulation lidocaine infiltration is done, which is often perceived as painful. Eutectic mixture of local anesthetic (EMLA has been found to significantly reduce pain associated with radial artery cannulation compared with lidocaine infiltration. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of EMLA compared to infiltration of lidocaine in hemodialysis patients for AVF cannulation. Materials and Methods: A single-centre, crossover study of patients with an AVF on regular maintenance hemodialysis was performed in the dialysis unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital. The site of AVF, number of attempts for AVF cannulation and cannula insertion time were recorded. The patients were asked about the acceptability of application of the anesthetic, delay between anesthetic and cannulation and to score the pain on cannulation. Results: Fifty patients were included in the study. With the visual analog scale, pain score on infiltration was 4.8. Pain score on cannulation after topical application was 2.9 and after infiltration, 2.0. The number of attempts for cannulation and the cannula insertion time were similar. Anesthesia was more stressful in the injectable group rather than the topical group (P < 0.001. Delay between anesthetic and cannulation was unacceptable in the topical group (P < 0.001. Patient compliance was better during infiltration compared to topical (P < 0.005. Mean pain score during infiltration of anesthetic was significantly higher than cannulation pain after either anesthetic, although pain on cannulation was higher in the topical group (P < 0.001. Conclusions: EMLA offers a suitable alternative to lidocaine infiltration for patients using AVF for blood access.

  16. Nutrient Release from Disturbance of Infiltration System Soils during Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel P. Treese; Shirley E. Clark; Katherine H. Baker

    2012-01-01

    Subsurface infiltration and surface bioretention systems composed of engineered and/or native soils are preferred tools for stormwater management. However, the disturbance of native soils, especially during the process of adding amendments to improve infiltration rates and pollutant removal, may result in releases of nutrients in the early life of these systems. This project investigated the nutrient release from two soils, one disturbed and one undisturbed. The disturbed soil was collected i...

  17. Cermet materials prepared by combustion synthesis and metal infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Joseph B.; Dunmead, Stephen D.; Halverson, Danny C.; Landingham, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    Ceramic-metal composites (cermets) are made by a combination of self-propagating high temperature combustion synthesis and molten metal infiltration. Solid-gas, solid-solid and solid-liquid reactions of a powder compact produce a porous ceramic body which is infiltrated by molten metal to produce a composite body of higher density. AlN-Al and many other materials can be produced.

  18. Pulmonary infiltrates during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjeldsøe-Nielsen, Hans; Gjeraa, Kirsten; Berthelsen, Birgitte G

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to describe the frequency of pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray (CXR) during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia at a single centre in Denmark.......The primary aim of this study was to describe the frequency of pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray (CXR) during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia at a single centre in Denmark....

  19. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Matlin, W.M.; Liaw, P.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally, several improvements are being made to the furnace that will reduce the complexity and cost of the process. These improvements include the incorporation of free standing preforms, cast mandrels, and simpler graphite heating elements.

  20. Numerical simulation of vertical infiltration for leaching fluid in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinxuan; Shi Weijun; Zhang Weimin

    1998-01-01

    Based on the analysis of movement law of leaching fluid in breaking and leaching experiment in situ, the movement of leaching fluid can be divided into two main stages in the leaching process in situ: Vertical Infiltration in unsaturation zone and horizontal runoff in saturation zone. The corresponding mathematics models are sep up, and the process of vertical infiltration of leaching fluid is numerically simulated

  1. Utility of the whole-kidney and parenchymal time-activity curves for a prediction of diuretic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samal, M.; Mostbeck, A.; Bergmann, H.; Nimmon, C.C.; Staudenherz, A.; Dudczak, R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In a retrospective study, MAG3 dynamic renal data (90 kidneys in 57 children) have been analyzed with the aim to test a prediction of diuretic response. Whole-kidney (WK) and parenchymal (PA) curves were extracted from 20 min pre-diuretic phase using standard and fuzzy ROIs. Peak time (PT), half time (HT), ratio of the curve value in 20th min to the curve maximum (RM), mean transit time (TT), and output efficiency (OE) were calculated for each curve. With PA curves, also the transit time index (PI) was calculated. The curve parameters were compared with the maximum elimination rate of urine after diuretic (EM) using paired correlation and Fisher's linear discriminate function. The highest correlation was found between ln EM and OE-PA (0.61), RM-PA (-0.58), TT-PA (-0.57), and PI (-0.57). Best diagnostic accuracy in prediction of EM ≤ 7 % (a sign of obstruction) was obtained with OE-PA (87 %), PI (87 %), and both PT-PA and RM-PA (83 %). Parameters of WK curves had higher sensitivity, those of PA curves higher specificity. Most parameters had a high predictive value of negative result (NPV > 90 %) but low predictive value of positive result (PPV < 50 %). Best discrimination of low EM was obtained with a combination of both WK and PA parameters (diagnostic accuracy of 90 %). Using PA curves in kidneys with late PT-WK made possible to increase the diagnostic accuracy from 70 - 80 % (with WK parameters only) to 95 %. Our results demonstrate that PA curves carry additional clinical information and may help to predict and Interpret a diuretic response especially in kidneys with late peak of the WK curves. (author)

  2. Sporadic meningioangiomatosis-associated atypical meningioma mimicking parenchymal invasion of brain: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Bo-ning

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Meningioangiomatosis is a rare hamartomatous lesion or meningiovascular malformation in brain. In extremely rare condition, meningioma may occur together with meningioangiomatosis, and only 19 cases have been described in English literature until now. We now report a case of meningioangiomatosis-associated meningioma with atypical and clear cell variant. A 34-year-old man presented a 3-month history of progressive numbness and weakness of his left lower extremity. He had no stigmata of neurofibromatosis type 2. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed multifocal lesions in the right frontoparietal lobe. The lesions were totally removed. Microscopically, parts of lesions were atypical and clear cell meningioma corresponding to WHO grade II. The adjacent brain parenchyma showed the histological features of meningioangiomatosis. Neoplastic cells in atypical meningioma area were immunoreactive to epithelial membrane antigen (EMA with high MIB-1 index of up to 20%. However, the spindle cells in meningioangiomatosis area were negative for EMA with low MIB-1 index of up to 1%. The diagnosis of atypical meningioma associated with sporadic meningioangiomatosis was made. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a meningioangiomatosis-associated meningioma with atypical and clear cell variant component to be described. The patient had been followed-up for 11 months without adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy. No tumor recurrence was found during this period. Meningioangiomatosis-associated meningioma is more likely to occur in younger patients and histologically to mimic parenchymal invasion of brain. We suggest that postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy should be given careful consideration to avoid over-treatment due to erroneously interpret as malignant meningioma.

  3. Visualization of morphological parenchymal changes in emphysema: Comparison of different MRI sequences to 3D-HRCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia; Ley, Sebastian; Eberhardt, Ralf; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Heussel, Claus Peter

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Thin-section CT is the modality of choice for morphological imaging the lung parenchyma, while proton-MRI might be used for functional assessment. However, the capability of MRI to visualize morphological parenchymal alterations in emphysema is undetermined. Thus, the aim of the study was to compare different MRI sequences with CT. Materials and methods: 22 patients suffering from emphysema underwent thin-section MSCT serving as a reference. MRI (1.5 T) was performed using three different sequences: T2-HASTE in coronal and axial orientation, T1-GRE (VIBE) in axial orientation before and after application of contrast media (ce). All datasets were evaluated by four chest radiologists in consensus for each sequence separately independent from CT. The severity of emphysema, leading type, bronchial wall thickening, fibrotic changes and nodules was analyzed visually on a lobar level. Results: The sensitivity for correct categorization of emphysema severity was 44%, 48% and 41% and the leading type of emphysema was identical to CT in 68%, 55% and 60%, for T2-HASTE, T1-VIBE and T1-ce-VIBE respectively. A bronchial wall thickening was found in 43 lobes in CT and was correctly seen in MRI in 42%, 33% and 26%. Of those 74 lobes presented with fibrotic changes in CT were correctly identified by MRI in 39%, 35% and 58%. Small nodules were mostly underdiagnosed in MRI. Conclusion: MRI matched the CT severity classification and leading type of emphysema in half of the cases. All sequences showed a similar diagnostic performance, however a combination of HASTE and ce-VIBE should be recommended.

  4. Genetic polymorphisms in Toll-like receptors among pediatric patients with renal parenchymal infections of different clinical severities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hui Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although several studies have suggested single gene defects or variations in the genes associated with host immune response could confer differences in susceptibility to urinary pathogen invasion, no studies have examined the genetic polymorphisms in various toll-like receptors (TLRs that activate innate immune responses in pediatric renal parenchymal infections of different clinical severities, namely acute pyelonephritis and the clinically more severe disease, acute lobar nephronia. METHODOLOGY: Patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for acute pyelonephritis (APN and acute lobar nephronia (ALN without underlying diseases or structural anomalies, except for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR, were enrolled. Genotyping of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the genes encoding TLR-1, TLR-2, TLR-4, TLR-5, and TLR-6 was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight-based mini-sequencing analysis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 16 SNPs were selected for genotyping. Analysis of 96 normal and 48 patients' samples revealed that only four SNPs had heterozygosity rates >0.01. These SNPs were selected for further investigation. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was satisfied for the observed genotype frequencies. Statistically significant differences in the genotype frequency of TLR-2 (rs3804100, T1350C between controls and ALN or (APN+ALN combined group were identified using the recessive model with the correction for multiple-SNP testing. Further genotype pattern frequency analysis in TLR-2 SNPs (rs3804099 and rs3804100 showed significantly reduced occurrence of the rare allele homozygote (CC+CC in the no-VUR subgroup of APN and ALN cases. CONCLUSIONS: As the inflammatory responses in ALN patients are more severe than those in APN patients (higher CRP levels, longer duration of fever after antibiotic treatment, these findings suggest that the genetic variant in TLR-2 (rs3804100, T1350C may protect the host from

  5. Evaluation of the process of recycling and renal parenchymal injury after eswl with metabolites excreted in the urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Cavit; Dogan, Serkan; Saydam, Gulsevim; Kocak, Mehmet Zait; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan

    2013-01-01

    To show renal parenchymal injury depending on extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). The patients with one renal stone and in whom ESWL is planned among the patients in whom renal stone was determined. Their 24-h urine samples were collected just before and after the ESWL treatment. Cit (citrate), UrA (uric acid), RBP (retinol-binding protein), NAG (N-acetyl-β-Đ-glucosaminidase), Cr (creatinine), Na (sodium), K (potassium), P (phosphor), Ca (calcium), and Cl (chlorine) metabolites excreted in urine were evaluated after urine samples were taken on the study day. Changes in the metabolites excreted; the number, frequency, and duration of ESWL shock wave; the energy; and the body mass index were recorded. The results for p ESWL were applied to a total of 20 patients. When metabolites excreted in the urine before (B1E) and after (A1E) the first session of ESWL, and before (B2E) and after (A2E) the second session of ESWL, were evaluated, no statistically significant result for Ca and Cl excretion was noted. For NAG and Cr, a significant difference was observed in terms of metabolite excretion between B1E and B2E. For other metabolites, we saw that there is no difference between B1E and B2E. While a significant metabolite change was observed for RBP, NAG, Cr, and Na as long as A1E and A2E ESWL session number increases, other metabolites were not significant. Shock waves induce significant damage to the renal and adjacent tissues as indicated by a significant increase in cell-escaped enzymes and electrolytes and the extent of damage depends on the energy and the number of shock wave exposure.

  6. Rarity and persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Geerat J; Grosberg, Richard K

    2018-01-01

    Rarity is a population characteristic that is usually associated with a high risk of extinction. We argue here, however, that chronically rare species (those with low population densities over many generations across their entire ranges) may have individual-level traits that make populations more resistant to extinction. The major obstacle to persistence at low density is successful fertilisation (union between egg and sperm), and chronically rare species are more likely to survive when (1) fertilisation occurs inside or close to an adult, (2) mate choice involves long-distance signals, (3) adults or their surrogate gamete dispersers are highly mobile, or (4) the two sexes are combined in a single individual. In contrast, external fertilisation and wind- or water-driven passive dispersal of gametes, or sluggish or sedentary adult life habits in the absence of gamete vectors, appear to be incompatible with sustained rarity. We suggest that the documented increase in frequency of these traits among marine genera over geological time could explain observed secular decreases in rates of background extinction. Unanswered questions remain about how common chronic rarity actually is, which traits are consistently associated with chronic rarity, and how chronically rare species are distributed among taxa, and among the world's ecosystems and regions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  7. Mechanisms of water infiltration into conical hydrophobic nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Zhao, Jianbing; Yin, Chun-Yang; Culligan, Patricia J; Chen, Xi

    2009-08-14

    Fluid channels with inclined solid walls (e.g. cone- and slit-shaped pores) have wide and promising applications in micro- and nano-engineering and science. In this paper, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the mechanisms of water infiltration (adsorption) into cone-shaped nanopores made of a hydrophobic graphene sheet. When the apex angle is relatively small, an external pressure is required to initiate infiltration and the pressure should keep increasing in order to further advance the water front inside the nanopore. By enlarging the apex angle, the pressure required for sustaining infiltration can be effectively lowered. When the apex angle is sufficiently large, under ambient condition water can spontaneously infiltrate to a certain depth of the nanopore, after which an external pressure is still required to infiltrate more water molecules. The unusual involvement of both spontaneous and pressure-assisted infiltration mechanisms in the case of blunt nanocones, as well as other unique nanofluid characteristics, is explained by the Young's relation enriched with the size effects of surface tension and contact angle in the nanoscale confinement.

  8. Linking denitrification and infiltration rates during managed groundwater recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Calla M; Fisher, Andrew T; Racz, Andrew J; Lockwood, Brian S; Huertos, Marc Los

    2011-11-15

    We quantify relations between rates of in situ denitrification and saturated infiltration through shallow, sandy soils during managed groundwater recharge. We used thermal methods to determine time series of point-specific flow rates, and chemical and isotopic methods to assess denitrification progress. Zero order denitrification rates between 3 and 300 μmol L(-1) d(-1) were measured during infiltration. Denitrification was not detected at times and locations where the infiltration rate exceeded a threshold of 0.7 ± 0.2 m d(-1). Pore water profiles of oxygen and nitrate concentration indicated a deepening of the redoxocline at high flow rates, which reduced the thickness of the zone favorable for denitrification. Denitrification rates were positively correlated with infiltration rates below the infiltration threshold, suggesting that for a given set of sediment characteristics, there is an optimal infiltration rate for achieving maximum nitrate load reduction and improvements to water supply during managed groundwater recharge. The extent to which results from this study may be extended to other managed and natural hydrologic settings remains to be determined, but the approach taken in this study should be broadly applicable, and provides a quantitative link between shallow hydrologic and biogeochemical processes.

  9. The persistence of depression score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, J.; de Graaf, R.; Ormel, J.; Nolen, W. A.; Grobbee, D. E.; Burger, H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To construct a score that allows prediction of major depressive episode (MDE) persistence in individuals with MDE using determinants of persistence identified in previous research. Method: Data were derived from 250 subjects from the general population with new MDE according to DSM-III-R.

  10. Associations between inflammatory cells infiltrating the ethmoid sinus mucosa, and nasal polyp size and grade of ethmoid sinus opacification on CT images in chronic sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imajima, Naotoshi; Watanabe, So; Furuta, Atsuko; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Naohiro; Mochizuki, Yuichiro; Suzaki, Harumi

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the types and numbers of inflammatory cells that infiltrated the ethmoid sinus mucosa in cases of chronic sinusitis in order to identify any associations with nasal polyp size and the grade of ethmoid sinus opacification on computer tomography images. The subjects were patients with chronic sinusitis who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery. Seventeen subjects also had bronchial asthma as a complication (six with aspirin-induced asthma, 11 with another form of asthma) and 24 did not have bronchial asthma as a complication (16 with allergic rhinitis, 8 with chronic sinusitis alone). The nasal polyps in the patients with bronchial asthma were significantly larger than those in the patients without bronchial asthma. Investigation of the numbers of infiltrating inflammatory cells according to polyp size revealed significantly more eosinophils as polyp size increased. In addition, infiltration of significantly more mast cells was observed when the polyps were large. Assessment of the grade of opacification of the ethmoid sinuses on computer tomography images showed a significantly higher grade of opacification in the patients with bronchial asthma than in the patients without bronchial asthma. Comparisons between the grade of opacification of the ethmoid sinuses and the number of infiltrating inflammatory cells revealed significantly more infiltrating eosinophils and mast cells in the patients with intense ethmoid sinus opacification. The above findings suggest that eosinophils and mast cells play a major role in forming the persistent inflammation of the sinus mucosa and nasal polyp tissue of patients with chronic sinusitis complicated by bronchial asthma. (author)

  11. Persistence, resistance, resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsadka, Maayan

    form of musical consumption and experience. The three pieces draw lines connecting different aspects of persistence, resistance, and resonance.

  12. Regulation of CTL responses to MHC-restricted class I peptide of the gp70 tumour antigen by splenic parenchymal CD4+ T cells in mice failing immunotherapy with DISC-mGM-CSF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Murrium; Rees, Robert C; McArdle, Stephanie E; Li, Geng; Mian, Shahid; Entwisle, Claire; Loudon, Peter; Ali, Selman A

    2005-07-20

    Direct intratumour injection of the disabled infectious single-cycle-herpes simplex virus-encoding murine granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (DISC-HSV-mGM-CSF) into established colon carcinoma CT26 tumours induced complete tumour rejection in up to 70% of treated animals (regressors), while the remaining mice developed progressive tumours (progressors). This murine Balb/c model was used to dissect the cellular mechanisms involved in tumour regression or progression following immunotherapy. CTLs were generated by coculturing lymphocytes and parenchymal cells from the same spleens of individual regressor or progressor animals in the presence of the relevant AH-1 peptide derived from the gp70 tumour-associated antigens expressed by CT26 tumours. Tumour regression was correlated with potent CTL responses, spleen weight and cytokine (IFN-gamma) production. Conversely, progressor splenocytes exhibited weak to no CTL activity and poor IFN-gamma production, concomitant with the presence of a suppressor cell population in the progressor splenic parenchymal cell fraction. Further fractionation of this parenchymal subpopulation demonstrated that cells inhibitory to the activation of AH-1-specific CTLs, restimulated in vitro with peptide, were present in the nonadherent parenchymal fraction. In vitro depletion of progressor parenchymal CD3+/CD4+ T cells restored the CTL response of the cocultured splenocytes (regressor lymphocytes and progressor parenchymal cells) and decreased the production of IL-10, suggesting that CD3+CD4+ T lymphocytes present in the parenchymal fraction regulated the CTL response to AH-1. We examined the cellular responses associated with tumour rejection and progression, identifying regulatory pathways associated with failure to respond to immunotherapy. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Quantitative background parenchymal uptake on molecular breast imaging and breast cancer risk: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Carrie B; Geske, Jennifer R; Swanson, Tiffinee N; Mammel, Alyssa N; Lake, David S; Manduca, Armando; Conners, Amy Lynn; Whaley, Dana H; Scott, Christopher G; Carter, Rickey E; Rhodes, Deborah J; O'Connor, Michael K; Vachon, Celine M

    2018-06-05

    Background parenchymal uptake (BPU), which refers to the level of Tc-99m sestamibi uptake within normal fibroglandular tissue on molecular breast imaging (MBI), has been identified as a breast cancer risk factor, independent of mammographic density. Prior analyses have used subjective categories to describe BPU. We evaluate a new quantitative method for assessing BPU by testing its reproducibility, comparing quantitative results with previously established subjective BPU categories, and determining the association of quantitative BPU with breast cancer risk. Two nonradiologist operators independently performed region-of-interest analysis on MBI images viewed in conjunction with corresponding digital mammograms. Quantitative BPU was defined as a unitless ratio of the average pixel intensity (counts/pixel) within the fibroglandular tissue versus the average pixel intensity in fat. Operator agreement and the correlation of quantitative BPU measures with subjective BPU categories assessed by expert radiologists were determined. Percent density on mammograms was estimated using Cumulus. The association of quantitative BPU with breast cancer (per one unit BPU) was examined within an established case-control study of 62 incident breast cancer cases and 177 matched controls. Quantitative BPU ranged from 0.4 to 3.2 across all subjects and was on average higher in cases compared to controls (1.4 versus 1.2, p Quantitative BPU was strongly correlated with subjective BPU categories (Spearman's r = 0.59 to 0.69, p quantitative BPU measure, assessed by intraclass correlation, was 0.92 and 0.98, respectively. Quantitative BPU measures showed either no correlation or weak negative correlation with mammographic percent density. In a model adjusted for body mass index and percent density, higher quantitative BPU was associated with increased risk of breast cancer for both operators (OR = 4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-10.1, and 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.7). Quantitative

  14. Background parenchymal uptake on molecular breast imaging as a breast cancer risk factor: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Carrie B; Scott, Christopher G; Conners, Amy Lynn; Whaley, Dana H; Rhodes, Deborah J; Carter, Rickey E; O'Connor, Michael K; Hunt, Katie N; Brandt, Kathleen R; Vachon, Celine M

    2016-04-26

    Molecular breast imaging (MBI) is a functional test used for supplemental screening of women with mammographically dense breasts. Additionally, MBI depicts variable levels of background parenchymal uptake (BPU) within nonmalignant, dense fibroglandular tissue. We investigated whether BPU is a risk factor for breast cancer. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of 3027 eligible women who had undergone MBI between February 2004 and February 2014. Sixty-two incident breast cancer cases were identified. A total of 179 controls were matched on age, menopausal status, and MBI year. Two radiologists blinded to case status independently assessed BPU as one of four categories: photopenic, minimal to mild, moderate, or marked. Conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the associations (OR) of BPU categories (moderate or marked vs. minimal to mild or photopenic) and breast cancer risk, adjusted for other risk factors. The median age was 60.2 years (range 38-86 years) for cases vs. 60.2 years (range 38-88 years) for controls (p = 0.88). Women with moderate or marked BPU had a 3.4-fold (95 % CI 1.6-7.3) and 4.8-fold (95 % CI 2.1-10.8) increased risk of breast cancer, respectively, compared with women with photopenic or minimal to mild BPU, for two radiologists. The results were similar after adjustment for BI-RADS density (OR 3.3 [95 % CI 1.6-7.2] and OR 4.6 [95 % CI 2.1-10.5]) or postmenopausal hormone use (OR 3.6 [95 % CI 1.7-7.7] and OR 5.0 [95 % CI 2.2-11.4]). The association of BPU with breast cancer remained in analyses limited to postmenopausal women only (OR 3.8 [95 % CI 1.5-9.3] and OR 4.1 [95 % CI 1.6-10.2]) and invasive breast cancer cases only (OR 3.6 [95 % CI 1.5-8.8] and OR 4.4 [95 % CI 1.7-11.1]). Variable BPU was observed among women with similar mammographic density; the distribution of BPU categories differed across density categories (p factor for breast cancer. Among women with dense breasts, who comprise

  15. Analysis of infiltration through mill tailings using a bromide tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, G.J.; Stephens, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Infiltration of precipitation into tailings impoundments as a means of recharge to underlying materials is often considered insignificant, particularly in arid and semi-arid environments. A series of experiments was performed to investigate the behavior of infiltrated precipitation into tailing soils, by the use of a bromide tracer. A bromide tracer was applied to the surface of columns driven into the tailings to monitor downward advancement of tracer-laden water. Controlled laboratory experiments on the behavior of the bromide tracer under varying precipitation events and initial soil moisture contents were also conducted. Results indicate that a definite downward migration of infiltrated precipitation occurs, particularly with large magnitude precipitation events, and that, eventually, some fraction of the infiltrated precipitation may continue downward below the zone affected by evaporation. The use of an artificially applied bromide tracer to monitor depth of infiltration of precipitation is a simple, safe technique that can provide valuable information for long-term tailings management strategies at low cost

  16. Durability and Performance of High Performance Infiltration Cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Alfred Junio; Søgaard, Martin; Hjalmarsson, Per

    2013-01-01

    The performance and durability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes consisting of a porous Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) infiltrated with nitrates corresponding to the nominal compositions La0.6Sr0.4Co1.05O3-δ (LSC), LaCoO3-δ (LC), and Co3O4 are discussed. At 600°C, the polarization resistance, Rp......, varied as: LSC (0.062Ωcm2)cathode was found to depend on the infiltrate firing temperature and is suggested to originate...... of the infiltrate but also from a better surface exchange property. A 450h test of an LSC-infiltrated CGO cathode showed an Rp with final degradation rate of only 11mΩcm2kh-1. An SOFC with an LSC-infiltrated CGO cathode tested for 1,500h at 700°C and 0.5Acm-2 (60% fuel, 20% air utilization) revealed no measurable...

  17. Sensitivity of MRI in detecting alveolar infiltrates. Experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederer, J.; Busse, I.; Grimm, J.; Reuter, M.; Heller, M.; Muhle, C.; Freitag, S.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: An experimental study using porcine lung explants and a dedicated chest phantom to evaluate the signal intensity of artificial alveolar infiltrates with T 1 - and T 2 -weighted MRI sequences. Material and Methods: 10 porcine lung explants were intubated, transferred into the cavity of a MRI-compatible chest phantom and inflated by continuous evacuation of the artificial pleural space. All lungs were examined with MRI at 1.5 T before and after intra-tracheal instillation of either 100 or 200 ml gelatine-stabilised liquid to simulate alveolar infiltrates. MR-examination comprised gradient echo (2D- and 3D-GRE) and fast spin echo sequences (T 2 -TSE and T 2 -HASTE). The signal intensity of lung parenchyma was evaluated at representative cross sections using a standardised scheme. Control studies were acquired with helical CT. Results: The instilled liquid caused patchy confluent alveolar infiltrates resembling the findings in patients with pneumonia or ARDS. CT revealed typical ground-glass opacities. Before the application of the liquid, only T 2 -HASTE and T 2 -TSE displayed lung parenchyma signals with a signal/noise ratio of 3.62 and 1.39, respectively. After application of the liquid, both T 2 -weighted sequences showed clearly visible infiltrates with an increase in signal intensity of approx. 30% at 100 ml (p 2 -weighted sequences detects artificial alveolar infiltrates with high signal intensity and may be a highly sensitive tool to detect pneumonia in patients. (orig.) [de

  18. Characterization of infiltration rates from landfills: supporting groundwater modeling efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo-Young, Horace; Johnson, Barnes; Johnson, Ann; Carson, David; Lew, Christine; Liu, Salley; Hancocks, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the literature to characterize infiltration rates from landfill liners to support groundwater modeling efforts. The focus of this investigation was on collecting studies that describe the performance of liners 'as installed' or 'as operated'. This document reviews the state of the science and practice on the infiltration rate through compacted clay liner (CCL) for 149 sites and geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) for 1 site. In addition, it reviews the leakage rate through geomembrane (GM) liners and composite liners for 259 sites. For compacted clay liners (CCL), there was limited information on infiltration rates (i.e., only 9 sites reported infiltration rates.), thus, it was difficult to develop a national distribution. The field hydraulic conductivities for natural clay liners range from 1 x 10(-9) cm s(-1) to 1 x 10(-4) cm s(-1), with an average of 6.5 x 10(-8) cm s(-1). There was limited information on geosynthetic clay liner. For composite lined and geomembrane systems, the leak detection system flow rates were utilized. The average monthly flow rate for composite liners ranged from 0-32 lphd for geomembrane and GCL systems to 0 to 1410 lphd for geomembrane and CCL systems. The increased infiltration for the geomembrane and CCL system may be attributed to consolidation water from the clay.

  19. CT of chronic infiltrative lung disease: Prevalence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimi, Hiroshi; Kang, Eun-Young; Kwong, S. [Univ. of British Columbia and Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre (Canada)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of mediastinal lymph node enlargement at CT in patients with diffuse infiltrative lung disease. The study was retrospective and included 175 consecutive patients with diffuse infiltrative lung diseases. Diagnoses included idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 61), usual interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular disease (CVD) (n = 20), idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) (n = 22), extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) (n = 17), and sarcoidosis (n = 55). Fifty-eight age-matched patients with CT of the chest performed for unrelated conditions served as controls. The presence, number, and sites of enlarged nodes (short axis {ge}10 mm in diameter) were recorded. Enlarged mediastinal nodes were present in 118 of 175 patients (67%) with infiltrative lung disease and 3 of 58 controls (5%) (p < 0.001). The prevalence of enlarged nodes was 84% (46 of 55) in sarcoidosis, 67% (41 of 61) in IPF, 70% (14 of 20) in CVD, 53% (9 of 17) in EAA, and 36% (8 of 22) in BOOP. The mean number of enlarged nodes was higher in sarcoidosis (mean 3.2) than in the other infiltrative diseases (mean 1.2) (p < 0.001). Enlarged nodes were most commonly present in station 10R, followed by 7, 4R, and 5. Patients with infiltrative lung disease frequently have enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. However, in diseases other than sarcoid, usually only one or two nodes are enlarged and their maximal short axis diameter is <15 mm. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Laboratory testing on infiltration in single synthetic fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Claudia; Pastore, Nicola; Li, Jiawei; Giasi, Concetta I.; Li, Ling

    2017-04-01

    An understanding of infiltration phenomena in unsaturated rock fractures is extremely important in many branches of engineering for numerous reasons. Sectors such as the oil, gas and water industries are regularly interacting with water seepage through rock fractures, yet the understanding of the mechanics and behaviour associated with this sort of flow is still incomplete. An apparatus has been set up to test infiltration in single synthetic fractures in both dry and wet conditions. To simulate the two fracture planes, concrete fractures have been moulded from 3D printed fractures with varying geometrical configurations, in order to analyse the influence of aperture and roughness on infiltration. Water flows through the single fractures by means of a hydraulic system composed by an upstream and a downstream reservoir, the latter being subdivided into five equal sections in order to measure the flow rate in each part to detect zones of preferential flow. The fractures have been set at various angles of inclination to investigate the effect of this parameter on infiltration dynamics. The results obtained identified that altering certain fracture parameters and conditions produces relevant effects on the infiltration process through the fractures. The main variables influencing the formation of preferential flow are: the inclination angle of the fracture, the saturation level of the fracture and the mismatch wavelength of the fracture.

  1. Tunable photoluminescence of porous silicon by liquid crystal infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Qinglan; Xiong Rui; Huang Yuanming

    2011-01-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) of porous silicon films has been investigated as a function of the amount of liquid crystal molecules that are infiltrated into the constricted geometry of the porous silicon films. A typical nematic liquid crystal 4-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl was employed in our experiment as the filler to modify the PL of porous silicon. It is found that the originally red PL of porous silicon films can be tuned to blue by simply adjusting the amount of liquid crystal molecules in the microchannels of the porous films. The chromaticity coordinates are calculated for the recorded PL spectra. The mechanism of the tunable PL is discussed. Our results have demonstrated that the luminescent properties of porous silicon films can be efficiently tuned by liquid crystal infiltration. - Highlights: → Liquid crystal infiltration can tune the photoluminescence of porous silicon. → Red emission of porous silicon can be switched to blue by the infiltration. → Chromaticity coordinates are calculated for the tuned emissions. → White emission is realized for porous silicon by liquid crystal infiltration.

  2. Trench infiltration for managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, V.M.; Watt, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock is increasingly being utilized to enhance resources and maintain sustainable groundwater development practices. One such target is the Navajo Sandstone, an extensive regional aquifer located throughout the Colorado Plateau of the western United States. Spreading-basin and bank-filtration projects along the sandstone outcrop's western edge in southwestern Utah have recently been implemented to meet growth-related water demands. This paper reports on a new cost-effective surface-infiltration technique utilizing trenches for enhancing managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. A 48-day infiltration trench experiment on outcropping Navajo Sandstone was conducted to evaluate this alternative surface-spreading artificial recharge method. Final infiltration rates through the bottom of the trench were about 0.5 m/day. These infiltration rates were an order of magnitude higher than rates from a previous surface-spreading experiment at the same site. The higher rates were likely caused by a combination of factors including the removal of lower permeability soil and surficial caliche deposits, access to open vertical sandstone fractures, a reduction in physical clogging associated with silt and biofilm layers, minimizing viscosity effects by maintaining isothermal conditions, minimizing chemical clogging caused by carbonate mineral precipitation associated with algal photosynthesis, and diminished gas clogging associated with trapped air and biogenic gases. This pilot study illustrates the viability of trench infiltration for enhancing surface spreading of managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. ?? 2010.

  3. Parenchymal abnormalities in cerebral venous thrombosis: findings of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography; Alteracoes parenquimatosas na trombose venosa cerebral: aspectos da ressonancia magnetica e da angiorressonancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Clecia Santos; Pellini, Marcos [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: csferreira@superig.com.br; Boasquevisque, Edson [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Patologia; Souza, Luis Alberto M. de [Hospital da Beneficencia Portuguesa do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Imagem. Setor de Ressonancia Magnetica

    2006-09-15

    Objective: to determine the frequency and localization of parenchymal abnormalities in cerebral venous thrombosis on magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography as well as their correlation with the territory and affected venous drainage. Materials and methods: retrospective analysis (1996 to 2004) of 21 patients (3 male and 18 female) age range between 3 and 82 years (mean 40 years, median 36 years) with clinical and radiological diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis on magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography in 2D PC, 3D PC and contrast-enhanced 3D TOF sequences. The statistical analysis was performed with the qui-square test. Four patients had follow-up exams and three patients underwent digital subtraction angiography. Results: main predisposing factors were: infection, use of oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy and collagenosis. Predominant symptoms included: focal deficit, headache, alteration of consciousness level and seizures. Most frequent parenchymal manifestations were: cortical/subcortical edema or infarct, venous congestion and collateral circulation, meningeal enhancement and thalamic and basal ganglia edema or infarct. Occlusion occurred mainly in superior sagittal, left transverse, left sigmoid and straight sinuses. Cavernous sinus and cortical veins thrombosis are uncommon events. Conclusion: cerebral venous thrombosis is an uncommon cause of stroke, with favorable prognosis because of its reversibility. Diagnosis is highly dependent on the radiologist capacity to recognize the presentations of this disease, principally in cases where the diagnosis is suggested by parenchymal abnormalities rather than necessarily by visualization of the thrombus itself. An accurate and rapid diagnosis allows an immediate treatment, reducing the morbidity and mortality rates. (author)

  4. Design-based stereological analysis of the lung parenchymal architecture and alveolar type II cells in surfactant protein A and D double deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, A; Allen, L; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2005-01-01

    Alveolar epithelial type II cells synthesize and secrete surfactant. The surfactant-associated proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D), members of the collectin protein family, participate in pulmonary immune defense, modulation of inflammation, and surfactant metabolism. Both proteins are known to have......, but the mean volume of a single lamellar body remains constant. These results demonstrate that chronic deficiency of SP-A and SP-D in mice leads to parenchymal remodeling, type II cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and disturbed intracellular surfactant metabolism. The design-based stereological approach...

  5. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis with pulmonary parenchymal spread - report of two cases; Papilomatose respiratoria recorrente com disseminacao pulmonar - relato de dois casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Neto, Cesar Augusto de; Campos, Rubia Mara Correia [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: rubiacampos@ig.com.br; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes Santos [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Pneumologia

    2002-04-01

    The authors report the cases of two adolescent patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis with pulmonary parenchymal spread. Both patients presented very similar initial symptoms and clinical evolution. The patients developed larynx papillomas in childhood causing obstruction to airflow and required permanent tracheostomy after several resection and recurrence episodes. Long time after they developed recurrent pulmonary infections. In both cases the disease was diagnosed through clinical history and high resolution computed tomography that revealed papillomas in the trachea and solid or cavitary nodules in the lungs. (author)

  6. Clinical effectiveness of local application of beclomethasone dipropionate dry powder for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis with eosinophil infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeno, Sachio; Takeda, Kazumasa; Nishi, Yasuyuki; Ishino, Takashi; Hirakawa, Katsuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with eosinophil infiltration is characterized by unrestrained proliferation of eosinophils that form clusters in the mucus where they release toxic granules. The mechanisms by which eosinophilic inflammation damages the epithelium and contributes to recurrent acute exacerbations in the disease have not been fully elucidated. Local or systematic administration of glucocorticoids is considered to be potent treatment strategy to prevent relapse of nasal poyposis. In the present study, we assessed whether topical instillation of beclomethasone dipropionate dry powder onto the paranasal sinus improved the post-operative nasal symptoms and radiological sinus scores in patients with CRS after appropriate surgical intervention. Eighteen CRS patients with eosinophil infiltration who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery were recruited. The patients were treated with 800 μg beclomethasone every two weeks using an application device at least for 2 months. We found an improvement in the endoscopic appearance scores in 91.4% of patients who received beclomethasone. The result was better than that obtained from the previous study treated with conventional post-operative therapy (71.7%). Significant decreases in the averaged CT scores for the paranasal sinuses were noted from 5.62 to 1.93 after treatment. We consider that topical use of beclomethasone dry powder is effective for the post-surgical treatment of CRS with eosinophil infiltration through the control of the inflammatory process that persists in the nasal cavity. (author)

  7. Performance Improvement of an Inhomogeneous Cathode by Infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyed-Vakili, S. V.; Graves, Christopher R.; Babaei, A.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is considerably influenced by the microstructure and chemical composition of cathode materials. Porous La0.85Sr0.15FeO3– Ce0.9Gd0.1O2 composite electrodes were infiltrated by La0.6Sr0.4CoO3 and La0.6Sr0.4FeO3. The effects of infiltration loading...... performance of the electrodes. The electrochemical results revealed that the polarization resistance of the cathodes significantly was decreased by infiltration from 2.59 to 0.034 Ω cm2 measured at 670 °C. The best electrode performance was achieved at a calcination temperature of 770 °C. It was also found...

  8. CT appearance of focal fatty infiltration of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halvorsen, R.A.; Korobkin, M.; Ram, P.C.; Thompson, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is an entity that may be confused with liver metastasis on computed tomography (CT). The imaging results and medical records of 16 patients with CT appearance suggestive of focal fatty liver were reviewed, three of whom had the simultaneous presence of metastitic liver disease. Focal fatty liver often has a distinctive appearance with CT, usually with a nonspherical shape, absence of mass effect, and density close to water. Liver metastases are usually round or oval, and unless cystic or necrotic, they have CT attenuation values closer to normal liver parenchyma than water. A radionuclide liver scan almost always resolves any confusion about the differential diagnosis of focal fatty liver: a well defined focus of photon deficiency is due to neoplasm rather than focal fatty infiltration. Sonography sometimes helps to confirm the CT impression, but may be misleading if the diagnosis of focal or diffuse fatty infiltration is not suspected before the examination

  9. Effect of rainfall infiltration into unsaturated soil using soil column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, A.; Mukhlisin, M.; Jaafar, O.

    2018-02-01

    Rainfall especially in tropical region caused infiltration to the soil slope. The infiltration may change pore water pressure or matric suction of the soil. The event of rainfall infiltration into soil is a complex mechanism. Therefore, the main objectives of this research paper is to study the influence of rainfall intensity and duration that changed pore water pressure to soil. There are two types of soils used in this study; forest soil and kaolin. Soil column apparatus is used for experiments. Rainfall were applied to the soil and result for 3, 6, 12, 24, 72, 120 and 168 hours were retrieved. Result shows that for the both types of soil, the negative pore water pressures were increased during wetting process and gradually decreased towards drying process. The results also show that pore water pressure at top part was increased greatly as the wetting process started compared to the middle and bottom part of the column.

  10. Improved infiltration of stem cells on electrospun nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabani, Iman; Haddadi-Asl, Vahid; Seyedjafari, Ehsan; Babaeijandaghi, Farshad; Soleimani, Masoud

    2009-01-01

    Nanofibrous scaffolds have been recently used in the field of tissue engineering because of their nano-size structure which promotes cell attachment, function, proliferation and infiltration. In this study, nanofibrous polyethersulfone (PES) scaffolds was prepared via electrospinning. The scaffolds were surface modified by plasma treatment and collagen grafting. The surface changes then investigated by contact angle measurements and FTIR-ATR. The results proved grafting of the collagen on nanofibers surface and increased hydrophilicity after plasma treatment and collagen grafting. The cell interaction study was done using stem cells because of their ability to differentiate to different kinds of cell lines. The cells had normal morphology on nanofibers and showed very high infiltration through collagen grafted PES nanofibers. This infiltration capability is very useful and needed to make 3D scaffolds in tissue engineering.

  11. Bilateral pulmonary infiltrates in association with disseminated actinomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dontfraid, F; Ramphal, R

    1994-07-01

    The most common infectious cause of bilateral upper-lobe pulmonary disease is tuberculosis. However, we recently encountered a patient with bilateral apical infiltrates and multiple soft-tissue abscesses caused by Actinomyces odontolyticus. Other findings included fever, weight loss, and leukocytosis, and the patient's only known source of immunosuppression was a long history of alcoholism. There was no history of diabetes, steroid use, or other chronic underlying disease. The diagnosis was made by culture of drainage fluid from one abscess. Therapy with intravenous penicillin G led to rapid clinical improvement and reduction in the infiltrates. To our knowledge, the presentation of pulmonary infection, with bilateral apical infiltrates due to A. odontolyticus has not been previously reported in the medical literature.

  12. Water infiltration in an aquifer recharge basin affected by temperature and air entrapment

    OpenAIRE

    Loizeau Sébastien; Rossier Yvan; Gaudet Jean-Paul; Refloch Aurore; Besnard Katia; Angulo-Jaramillo Rafael; Lassabatere Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Artificial basins are used to recharge groundwater and protect water pumping fields. In these basins, infiltration rates are monitored to detect any decrease in water infiltration in relation with clogging. However, miss-estimations of infiltration rate may result from neglecting the effects of water temperature change and air-entrapment. This study aims to investigate the effect of temperature and air entrapment on water infiltration at the basin scale by conducting successive infiltration c...

  13. Teriparatide Induced Delayed Persistent Hypercalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirosshan Thiruchelvam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Teriparatide, a recombinant PTH, is an anabolic treatment for osteoporosis that increases bone density. Transient hypercalcemia is a reported side effect of teriparatide that is seen few hours following administration of teriparatide and resolves usually within 16 hours of drug administration. Persistent hypercalcemia, although not observed in clinical trials, is rarely reported. The current case describes a rare complication of teriparatide induced delayed persistent hypercalcemia.

  14. Persistence in the Cryptocurrency Market

    OpenAIRE

    Caporale, Guglielmo Maria; Gil-Alaña, Luis A.; Plastun, Alex

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines persistence in the cryptocurrency market. Two different long-memory methods (R/S analysis and fractional integration) are used to analyse it in the case of the four main cryptocurrencies (BitCoin, LiteCoin, Ripple, Dash) over the sample period 2013-2017. The findings indicate that this market exhibits persistence (there is a positive correlation between its past and future values), and that its degree changes over time. Such predictability represents evidence of market ine...

  15. Cyclic sciatica caused by infiltrative endometriosis: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yekeler, Ensar; Kumbasar, Basak; Tunaci, Atadan; Barman, Ahmet; Tunaci, Mehtap [Department of Radiology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, 34390, Capa, Istanbul (Turkey); Bengisu, Ergin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Yavuz, Ekrem [Department of Pathology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, 34390, Capa, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2004-03-01

    Endometriosis, an important gynecological disorder of reproductive women, affects most commonly the ovaries and less frequently the gastrointestinal tract, chest, urinary tract, and soft tissues. Endometriosis classically appears on MRI as a mass with a large cystic component and variable signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted images due to the presence of variable degradation of hemorrhagic products. Endometriosis in an atypical location, an infiltrative appearance and without cystic-hemorrhagic components has rarely been described. We report on a 33-year-old woman with cyclic sciatica due to histologically documented infiltrative endometriosis involving the area of the left sciatic notch. (orig.)

  16. Cyclic sciatica caused by infiltrative endometriosis: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yekeler, Ensar; Kumbasar, Basak; Tunaci, Atadan; Barman, Ahmet; Tunaci, Mehtap; Bengisu, Ergin; Yavuz, Ekrem

    2004-01-01

    Endometriosis, an important gynecological disorder of reproductive women, affects most commonly the ovaries and less frequently the gastrointestinal tract, chest, urinary tract, and soft tissues. Endometriosis classically appears on MRI as a mass with a large cystic component and variable signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted images due to the presence of variable degradation of hemorrhagic products. Endometriosis in an atypical location, an infiltrative appearance and without cystic-hemorrhagic components has rarely been described. We report on a 33-year-old woman with cyclic sciatica due to histologically documented infiltrative endometriosis involving the area of the left sciatic notch. (orig.)

  17. High Performance Infiltrated Backbones for Cathode-Supported SOFC's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Vanesa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2014-01-01

    A four-step infiltration method has been developed to infiltrate La0.75Sr0.25MnO3+δ (LSM25) nanoparticles into porous structures (YSZ or LSM-YSZ backbones). The pore size distribution in the backbones is obtained either by using PMMA and/or graphites as pore formers or by leaching treatment of sa...... of samples with Ni remained in the YSZ structure at high temperatures. All impregnated backbones, presented Rs comparable to a standard screen printed cathode, which proves that LSM nanoparticles forms a pathway for electron conduction....

  18. Nodular focal fatty infiltration of the liver: CT appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.E.; Silverman, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is a well recognized entity generally characterized by a nonspherical, low-density area without significant mass effect. CT usually distinguishes this from focal liver processes such as abscess or metastasis by its sharply marginated, geographic pattern and lack of mass effect on hepatic and portal veins. Recently, the authors formed a CT scan of the liver in one patient in whom fatty infiltration appeared nodular or rounded. The clinical presentation and radiographic and pathologic features form the basis of this report

  19. Diffuse metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma into skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundt, W.; Braunschweig, R.; Reiser, M.

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is one of the most unusual sites of metastasis from any malignancy. We report a patient with rapidly progressive contractures due to metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma of unknown origin into the skeletal muscle. This 61-year-old man presented with a 1-month history of rapidly evolving, painful restriction of mobility of his right arm and his legs. Computed tomography showed diffuse metastatic nodules in all muscles, particularly in the hip abductors. Muscle biopsy revealed extensive infiltration of the muscle with carcinoma cells. (orig.)

  20. Peri-optic nerve infiltration during leukaemic relapse: MRI diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madani, A.; Christophe, C. [Department of Imaging, Hopital Universitaire des Enfants Reine Fabiola, Brussels (Belgium); Ferster, A.; Dan, B. [Department of Paediatrics, Hopital Universitaire des Enfants Reine Fabiola, Brussels (Belgium)

    2000-01-01

    Background. A 10-year-old boy with a history of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), but without previous evidence of central nervous system involvement, presented with seizures 3 years after complete remission. Materials and methods. MRI showed bilateral enlargement of the optic nerves despite normal ophthalmological examination. Results. Only the third cerebrospinal fluid examination showed 2 % blasts without concomitant bone-marrow infiltration. Enlargement of the optic nerves was consistent with bilateral leukaemic peri-optic nerve infiltration. The appearances returned to normal after chemotherapy. Conclusion. The optic nerves are a potential site of relapse in patients with systemic and meningeal ALL, even in the absence of ophthalmological signs. (orig.)

  1. SIMULATION OF NET INFILTRATION FOR MODERN AND POTENTIAL FUTURE CLIMATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.A. Heveal

    2000-01-01

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes enhancements made to the infiltration model documented in Flint et al. (1996) and documents an analysis using the enhanced model to generate spatial and temporal distributions over a model domain encompassing the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone, the average depth below the ground surface (at a given location) from which water is removed by evapotranspiration. The estimates of net infiltration are used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale 3-dimensional Unsaturated-Zone Ground Water Flow and Transport (UZ flow and transport) Model (CRWMS M and O 2000a). The UZ flow and transport model is one of several process models abstracted by the Total System Performance Assessment model to evaluate expected performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in terms of radionuclide transport (CRWMS M and O 1998). The net-infiltration model is important for assessing potential repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow and transport model that is used to generate flow fields for evaluating potential radionuclide transport through the unsaturated zone. Estimates of net infiltration are provided as raster-based, 2-dimensional grids of spatially distributed, time-averaged rates for three different climate stages estimated as likely conditions for the next 10,000 years beyond the present. Each climate stage is represented using a lower bound, a mean, and an upper bound climate and corresponding net-infiltration scenario for representing uncertainty in the characterization of daily climate conditions for each climate stage, as well as potential climate variability within each climate stage. The set of nine raster grid maps provide

  2. Diffuse metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma into skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hundt, W.; Braunschweig, R.; Reiser, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    Skeletal muscle is one of the most unusual sites of metastasis from any malignancy. We report a patient with rapidly progressive contractures due to metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma of unknown origin into the skeletal muscle. This 61-year-old man presented with a 1-month history of rapidly evolving, painful restriction of mobility of his right arm and his legs. Computed tomography showed diffuse metastatic nodules in all muscles, particularly in the hip abductors. Muscle biopsy revealed extensive infiltration of the muscle with carcinoma cells. (orig.) With 4 figs., 21 refs.

  3. SIMULATION OF NET INFILTRATION FOR MODERN AND POTENTIAL FUTURE CLIMATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Heveal

    2000-06-16

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes enhancements made to the infiltration model documented in Flint et al. (1996) and documents an analysis using the enhanced model to generate spatial and temporal distributions over a model domain encompassing the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone, the average depth below the ground surface (at a given location) from which water is removed by evapotranspiration. The estimates of net infiltration are used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale 3-dimensional Unsaturated-Zone Ground Water Flow and Transport (UZ flow and transport) Model (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The UZ flow and transport model is one of several process models abstracted by the Total System Performance Assessment model to evaluate expected performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in terms of radionuclide transport (CRWMS M&O 1998). The net-infiltration model is important for assessing potential repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow and transport model that is used to generate flow fields for evaluating potential radionuclide transport through the unsaturated zone. Estimates of net infiltration are provided as raster-based, 2-dimensional grids of spatially distributed, time-averaged rates for three different climate stages estimated as likely conditions for the next 10,000 years beyond the present. Each climate stage is represented using a lower bound, a mean, and an upper bound climate and corresponding net-infiltration scenario for representing uncertainty in the characterization of daily climate conditions for each climate stage, as well as potential climate variability within each climate stage. The set of nine raster grid maps provide spatially

  4. Antibiotic Therapy for Acute Infiltrate-Complicated Calculous Cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Nesterenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to summarize the results of treatment in 442 patients of various ages with acute calculous cholecystitis complicated by a compact perivesical infiltrate.Materials and methods. Bile from all the patients was bacteriologically studied. The implication of various antibiotics in limiting perivesical fat inflammation was determined.Results. The importance of decompressive treatments for complicated calculous cholecystitis has been ascertained. The advantages of microcholecystostomy have been revealed. There is evidence that it is expedient to use third-forth-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and dioxidine in the combined treatment of destructive calculous cholecystitis complicated by an infiltrate

  5. WATER INFILTRATION IN TWO CULTIVATED SOILS IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Infiltration is the passage of water through the soil surface, influenced by the soil type and cultivation and by the soil roughness, surface cover and water content. Infiltration absorbs most of the rainwater and is therefore crucial for planning mechanical conservation practices to manage runoff. This study determined water infiltration in two soil types under different types of management and cultivation, with simulated rainfall of varying intensity and duration applied at different times, and to adjust the empirical model of Horton to the infiltration data. The study was conducted in southern Brazil, on Dystric Nitisol (Nitossolo Bruno aluminoférrico húmico and Humic Cambisol (Cambissolo Húmico alumínico léptico soils to assess the following situations: simulated rains on the Nitisol from 2001 to 2012 in 31 treatments, differing in crop type, sowing direction, type of soil opener on the seeder, amount and type of crop residue and amount of liquid swine manure applied; on the Cambisol, rains were simlated from 2006 to 2012 and 18 treatments were evaluated, differing in crop, seeding direction and crop residue type. The constant of the water infiltration rate into the soil varies significantly with the soil type (30.2 mm h-1 in the Nitisol and 6.6 mm h-1 in the Cambisol, regardless of the management system, application time and rain intensity and duration. At the end of rainfalls, soil-water infiltration varies significantly with the management system, with the timing of application and rain intensity and duration, with values ranging from 13 to 59 mm h-1, in the two studied soils. The characteristics of the sowing operation in terms of relief, crop type and amount and type of crop residue influenced soil water infiltration: in the Nitisol, the values of contour and downhill seeding vary between 27 and 43 mm h-1, respectively, with crop residues of corn, wheat and soybean while in the Cambisol, the variation is between 2 and 36 mm h-1

  6. In Patients with a Soft Pancreas, a Thick Parenchyma, a Small Duct, and Fatty Infiltration Are Significant Risks for Pancreatic Fistula After Pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Motokazu; Takahashi, Shinichiro; Kojima, Motohiro; Kobayashi, Tatsushi; Gotohda, Naoto; Konishi, Masaru

    2017-05-01

    This study sought to characterize soft and hard pancreatic textures radiologically and histologically, and to identify specific risks in a soft pancreas associated with postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) formation after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Consecutive 145 patients who underwent PD at a single institution between January 2010 and May 2013 were studied. Pancreatic consistency was intraoperatively judged as soft or hard. Pancreatic configuration was assessed using preoperative CT. Histologic components of the pancreatic stump were evaluated using a morphometric analysis. Clinicopathologic parameters were then analyzed for the risk of clinically relevant POPF. Compared with patients with a hard pancreas (n = 66), those with a soft pancreas (n = 79) had a smaller main pancreatic duct (MPD) diameter and a larger parenchymal thickness on CT, had a smaller fibrosis ratio and a larger lobular ratio histologically, and developed clinically relevant POPF more frequently (P pancreas, an MPD diameter pancreas, a thick parenchyma, a small MPD, and fatty infiltration were strongly associated with clinically relevant POPF after PD.

  7. Measurement of the apparent diffusion coefficient in paediatric mitochondrial encephalopathy cases and a comparison of parenchymal changes associated with the disease using follow-up diffusion coefficient measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uysal, Fatma, E-mail: afatmauysal@gmail.com [Dokuz Eylül University, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Izmir (Turkey); Çakmakçı, Handan, E-mail: handan.cakmakci@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylül University, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Izmir (Turkey); Yiş, Uluç, E-mail: ulucyis@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylül University, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Izmir (Turkey); Ellidokuz, Hülya, E-mail: hulyaellidokuz@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylül University, Department of Medical Statistics, Izmir (Turkey); Hız, Ayşe Semra, E-mail: aysesemrahiz@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylül University, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Izmir (Turkey)

    2014-01-15

    Objectives: To reveal the contribution of MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to the diagnosis of mitochondrial encephalopathy (ME) and to evaluate the parenchymal changes associated with this disease in the involved parenchymal areas using the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) parameter. Methods: Ten patients who had undergone MRI and DWI analysis with a pre-diagnosis of neurometabolic disease, and who were subsequently diagnosed with ME in laboratory and/or genetic studies, were included in our study. ADC values were compared with a control group composed of 20 patients of similar age with normal brains. Evaluations involved measurements made in 20 different areas determined on the ADC map. The dominance or contribution of ADC coefficient measurements to the conventional sequences was compared with the controls. Results: In the first examination, an increase in both diffusion and ADC values was detected in six cases and diffusion restriction and a decrease in ADC values in three patients. While an increase in both diffusion and ADC values was demonstrated in four cases, there was diffusion restriction and a decrease in ADC values in three cases in the control examinations. Conclusions: DWI provides information that complements conventional MRI sequences in the diagnosis of ME.

  8. Three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MRI using an intravascular contrast agent for detection of traumatic intra-abdominal hemorrhage and abdominal parenchymal injuries: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weishaupt, D.; Ruehm, S.G.; Patak, M.A.; Schmidt, M.; Debatin, J.F.; Hetzer, F.H.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of 3D MRI in conjunction with an intravascular contrast agent to spiral contrast-enhanced CT, regarding the detection of abdominal parenchymal injuries as well as peritoneal hemorrhage in an animal model. Liver and kidney injuries were created surgically in six female pigs under general anesthesia. All pigs underwent contrast-enhanced spiral CT and 3D MR imaging following administration of an intravascular contrast agent (NC100150 Injection). Two readers rated their confidence independently on MR and CT data sets using a five-point scale for the presence of organ injury and hemoperitoneum. Autopsy findings served as standard of reference. Sensitivity and specificity for MR in detecting hepatic and renal injuries as well as hemoperitoneum was 100 %. Computed tomography was less accurate with sensitivity and specificity values of 90 and 94 %, respectively. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis revealed a higher confidence when interpretation was based on MR images. In an animal model 3D MR imaging in conjunction with an intravascular contrast agent proved highly accurate in detecting and localizing parenchymal injuries to the upper abdomen as well as in detecting intraperitoneal blood collections. (orig.)

  9. Radiation-induced changes in production of prostaglandins Fsub(2α), E, and thromboxane B2 in guinea pig parenchymal lung tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steel, L.K.; Catravas, G.N.

    1982-01-01

    At 1 hour to 4 days after unilateral exposure of guinea pigs to a single dose (0.5, 1.5, or 3.0 Gy) of gamma-radiation, changes were detected in prostaglandin and thromboxane concentrations in parenchymal lung tissues. At 1-3 hours after exposure, tissue levels of PGFsub(2α), PGE, and thromboxane B 2 were significantly elevated in animals receiving 3.0 Gy, with the magnitude of alteration revealing a radiation dose effect. By 24 hours, tissue prostaglandin and thromboxane levels returned to near control values. Lung tissue synthesis of prostaglandins in response to H-1 receptor stimulation by the exogenous addition of histamine revealed similar radiation dose effects. The carboxylic acid ionophore A23187, exogenously applied to lung tissues, revealed a transient peak of increased sensitivity to ionophore stimulation for TxB 2 synthesis at 24 hours and for PGFsub(2α) at 72 hours post-irradiation. The data suggest that significant alterations in prostaglandin and thromboxane concentrations in parenchymal lung tissues occur following irradiation, in a dose-dependent manner, and that altered responsiveness to H-1 receptor stimulation and divalent cation transport also occur

  10. Radiation-induced changes in production of prostaglandins Fsub(2. cap alpha. ), E, and thromboxane B/sub 2/ in guinea pig parenchymal lung tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steel, L K; Catravas, G N [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (USA)

    1982-11-01

    At 1 hour to 4 days after unilateral exposure of guinea pigs to a single dose (0.5, 1.5, or 3.0 Gy) of gamma-radiation, changes were detected in prostaglandin and thromboxane concentrations in parenchymal lung tissues. At 1-3 hours after exposure, tissue levels of PGFsub(2..cap alpha..), PGE, and thromboxane B/sub 2/ were significantly elevated in animals receiving 3.0 Gy, with the magnitude of alteration revealing a radiation dose effect. By 24 hours, tissue prostaglandin and thromboxane levels returned to near control values. Lung tissue synthesis of prostaglandins in response to H-1 receptor stimulation by the exogenous addition of histamine revealed similar radiation dose effects. The carboxylic acid ionophore A23187, exogenously applied to lung tissues, revealed a transient peak of increased sensitivity to ionophore stimulation for TxB/sub 2/ synthesis at 24 hours and for PGFsub(2..cap alpha..) at 72 hours post-irradiation. The data suggest that significant alterations in prostaglandin and thromboxane concentrations in parenchymal lung tissues occur following irradiation, in a dose-dependent manner, and that altered responsiveness to H-1 receptor stimulation and divalent cation transport also occur.

  11. Intrapancreatic Parenchymal Injection of Cells as a Useful Tool for Allowing a Small Number of Proliferative Cells to Grow In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Sato

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In vivo inoculation of cells such as tumor cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS/embryonic stem (ES cells into immunocompromised mice has been considered as a powerful technique to evaluate their potential to proliferate or differentiate into various cell types originating from three germ cell layers. Subcutaneous grafting and grafting under the kidney capsule have been widely used for this purpose, but there are some demerits such as the requirement of a large number of tumor cells for inoculation and frequent failure of tumorigenesis. Therefore, grafting into other sites has been explored, including intratesticular or intramuscular grafting as well as grafting into the cochleae, liver, or salivary glands. In this study, we found that intrapancreatic parenchymal injection of cells is useful for allowing a small number of cells (~15 × 103 cells or ~30 cell clumps μL−1·site−1 to proliferate and sometimes differentiate into various types of cells. It requires only surgical exposure of the pancreas over the dorsal skin and subsequent injection of cells towards the pancreatic parenchyma under dissecting microscope-based observation using a mouthpiece-controlled glass micropipette. We now name this technology “intrapancreatic parenchymal cell transplantation (IPPCT”, which will be useful, especially when only a small number of cells or colonies are available.

  12. Relationships (II) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with ventilatory functions indices for parenchymal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Taro; Suganuma, Narufumi; Hering, Kurt G; Vehmas, Tapio; Itoh, Harumi; Akira, Masanori; Takashima, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Harukazu; Kusaka, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) is used to screen and diagnose respiratory illnesses. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we investigated the relationship between subject characteristics and parenchymal abnormalities according to ICOERD, and the results of ventilatory function tests (VFT). Thirty-five patients with and 27 controls without mineral-dust exposure underwent VFT and HRCT. We recorded all subjects' occupational history for mineral dust exposure and smoking history. Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities (Items) grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). High-resolution computed tomography showed that 11 patients had RO; 15 patients, IR; and 19 patients, EM. According to the multiple regression model, age and height had significant associations with many indices ventilatory functions such as vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). The EM summed grades on the upper, middle, and lower zones of the right and left lungs also had significant associations with FEV1 and the maximum mid-expiratory flow rate. The results suggest the ICOERD notation is adequate based on the good and significant multiple regression modeling of ventilatory function with the EM summed grades.

  13. Relation between Mammographic Parenchymal Patterns and Breast Cancer Risk: Considering BMI, Compressed Breast Thickness and Age of Women in Tabriz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnati, Parinaz; Alizadeh, Hamed; Hoda, Haleh

    2016-01-01

    Mammographic density determined according paranchymal patterns is a risk factor for breast cancer and its relationships with body and other breast characteristics of women is important. The purpose of the present study was to correlate breast parenchymal patterns and mammography abnormality findings with women's BMI, compressed breast thickness (CBT) and age in Tabriz city, Iran. From 1,100 mammograms interpreted by radiologists, breast parenchymal was classified into four categories from Types 1 (mostly fatty) through 4 (mostly fibroglandular tissue). Age, BMI, and CBT were recorded and their relation with risk for the development of breast abnormalities in mammograms was analyzed. In women with a mean age of 45.8±8.63 years 17.7% were in the high density group (Type 3 and 4). A comparison of four types of breast paranchymal with BMI, CBT and age showed inverse relations to breast density. Abnormal mammographic findings were 25.8% of all reported mammograms with a circular mass (12.7%) as the most common abnormality. About 21% abnormal cases were in less than 40 years. Increasing of BMI had significant relation with breast abnormality but in CBT was not observed. Measurement of women's body characteristics is useful for assistance in mammography diagnosis as well as selection of imaging instrument by high sensitivity for following patient in future. The effects of age, CBT and BMI groups on the breast paranchymal were significant.

  14. Evaluation of Surface Infiltration Testing Procedures in Permeable Pavement Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ASTM method (ASTM C1701) for measuring infiltration rate of in-place pervious concrete provides limited guidance on how to select testing locations, so research is needed to evaluate how testing sites should be selected and how results should be interpreted to assess surface ...

  15. Evaluation of infiltrations from Yeso reservoir, using no conventional techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grilli D-F, Alejandro; Espinoza F, Diana; Olavarria R, Jose M.; Pollastri J, Alberto; Aguirre D, Evelyn; Moya V, Pedro

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this work was to measure with the aid of natural isotope technique the speed flow of the water filtrating from Yeso reservoir. The hydrochemistry and temperature of water has also proved to be an excellent tracer and has allowed the identification of the infiltration zone of an important fraction of the seepage

  16. Buccal Infiltration versus Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Mandibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... the changes in the patients' heart rates were compared between the groups. The obtained data were evaluated statistically. ... The increase in the heart rate of the patients was significantly higher in the buccal infiltration ..... in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. J Neurosci 1992;12:2104‑11. 4. Tortamano IP ...

  17. Water Infiltration in Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite : Fast and Inconspicuous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Christian; Glaser, Tobias; Plogmeyer, Marcel; Sendner, Michael; Doering, Sebastian; Bakulin, Artem A.; Brzuska, Carlo; Scheer, Roland; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Kowalsky, Wolfgang; Pucci, Annemarie; Lovrincic, Robert

    2015-01-01

    While the susceptibility of CH3NH3PbI3 to water is well-documented, the influence of water on device performance is not well-understood. Herein, we use infrared spectroscopy to show that water infiltration into CH3NH3PbI3 occurs much faster and at a humidity much lower than previously thought. We

  18. Effect of age of permeable pavements on their infiltration function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, Floris; Lucke, Terry; Beecham, Simon

    This study describes field investigations designed to compare the infiltration capacities of 55 permeable pavement systems installed in the Netherlands and in Australia. The ages of the pavements varied from 1 to 12 years. Using infiltrometer testing, the performance of the pavements has been

  19. Hydrologic impact of urbanization with extensive stormwater infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel modeling analysis of a 40-year-long dataset to examine the impact of urbanization, with widespread stormwater infiltration, on groundwater levels and the water balance of a watershed. A dataset on the hydrologic impact of urbanization with extensive stormwater...

  20. Buccal Infiltration versus Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Mandibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the success rates of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) and buccal infiltration anesthesia of mandibular second premolar with irreversible pulpitis and to evaluate the level of patient discomfort with these methods. Matherials and Methods: Forty patients, who.

  1. Infiltration and runoff losses under fallowing and conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fallowing and conservation agriculture are sustainable farming practices that can be used for soil and water conservation. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effects of different conservation agriculture practices on rainfall infiltration and soil and water losses across 4 sites, using simulated rainfall. The study ...

  2. Areal variation and chemical modification of weathered shale infiltration characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxmoore, R.J.; Spalding, B.P.; Munro, I.M.

    1981-01-01

    Spatial variability of infiltration into a weathered shale subsoil was evaluated at a site proximal to one used for shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Double-ring infiltometers were installed at 48 locations on a 2- by 2-m grid after the removal of 1 to 2 m of soil (Litz-Sequoia association, Typic Hapludults). Infiltration rates were measured before and during the 0- to 20- and 239- to 259-day periods following treatment with solutions of NaOH, KOH, NaF, NaAlO 2 , and Na 2 SiO 3 at rates of 151 equivalents/m 2 . None of these chemical treatments significantly altered infiltration rate, indicating that chemical modification of soil exchange properties may be achieved without inducing hydrologic disturbance in these subsoils. A semivariogram analysis of infiltration data showed that areal variability was random; any spatial patterning must therefore occur at a smaller scale than 2 m

  3. Effects of termites on infiltration in crusted soil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mando, A.; Stroosnijder, L.; Brussaard, L.

    1996-01-01

    In northern Burkina Faso (West Africa), a study was undertaken to explore the possibilities of restoring the infiltration capacity of crusted soils through the stimulation of termite activity. Treatments consisted of the application of a mulch of a mixture of wood and straw without insecticides

  4. Effects of white grubs on soil water infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-López, A A; Rodríguez-Palacios, E; Alarcón-Gutiérrez, E; Geissert, D; Barois, I

    2015-04-01

    Water infiltration rates k were measured in mesocosms with soil and "white grubs" of Ancognatha falsa (Arrow) (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae). Three third instars of A. falsa and three adult earthworms Pontoscolex corethrurus were selected, weighted, and introduced into the mesocosms setting three treatments: soil + A. falsa, soil + P. corethrurus, and control (soil without any macroorganism). The experiment had a completely random design with four replicates per treatment (n = 4). The infiltration rates of soil matrix were assessed in each mesocosms with a minidisk tension infiltrometer. Six measurements were made along the experiment. Results showed that larvae of A. falsa promoted a higher water infiltration in the soil, compared to the control. On day 7, k values were similar among treatments, but k values after 28 days and up to 100 days were much higher in the A. falsa treatment (k = 0.00025 cm s(-1)) if compared to control (k = 0.00011 cm s(-1)) and P. corethrurus (k = 0.00008 cm s(-1)) treatments. The k values were significantly higher in the presence of larvae of A. falsa compared to the control and P. corethrurus treatments. The larvae of A. falsa are potential candidates for new assays on soil water infiltration with different tensions to evaluate the role of pores and holes created by the larvae on soils.

  5. Application of the rainfall infiltration breakthrough (RIB) model for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of the rainfall infiltration breakthrough (RIB) model for groundwater recharge estimation in west coastal South Africa. ... the data from Oudebosch with different rainfall and groundwater abstraction inputs are simulated to explore individual effects on water levels as well as recharge rate estimated on a daily basis.

  6. Shallow infiltration processes in arid watersheds at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L. Hevesi, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    A conceptual model of shallow infiltration processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was developed for use in hydrologic flow models to characterize net infiltration (the penetration of the wetting front below the zone influenced by evapotranspiration). The model categorizes the surface of the site into four infiltration zones. These zones were identified as ridgetops, sideslopes, terraces, and active channels on the basis of water-content changes with depth and time. The maximum depth of measured water-content change at a specific site is a function of surface storage capacity, the timing and magnitude of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and the degree of saturation of surficial materials overlying fractured bedrock. Measured water-content profiles for the four zones indicated that the potential for net infiltration is higher when evapotranspiration is low (i.e winter, cloudy periods), where surface concentration of water is likely to occur (i.e. depressions, channels), where surface storage capacity is low, and where fractured bedrock is close to the surface

  7. Sequential infiltration synthesis for enhancing multiple-patterning lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Tseng, Yu-Chih

    2017-06-20

    Simplified methods of multiple-patterning photolithography using sequential infiltration synthesis to modify the photoresist such that it withstands plasma etching better than unmodified resist and replaces one or more hard masks and/or a freezing step in MPL processes including litho-etch-litho-etch photolithography or litho-freeze-litho-etch photolithography.

  8. Implementations and interpretations of the talbot-ogden infiltration model

    KAUST Repository

    Seo, Mookwon

    2014-11-01

    The interaction between surface and subsurface hydrology flow systems is important for water supplies. Accurate, efficient numerical models are needed to estimate the movement of water through unsaturated soil. We investigate a water infiltration model and develop very fast serial and parallel implementations that are suitable for a computer with a graphical processing unit (GPU).

  9. Infiltration on mountain slopes: a comparison of three environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol P. Harden*; P. Delmas Scruggs

    2003-01-01

    Water is well established as a major driver of the geomorphic change that eventually reduces mountains to lower relief landscapes. Nonetheless, within the altitudinal limits of continuous vegetation in humid climates, water is also an essential factor in slope stability. In this paper, we present results from field experiments to determine infiltration rates at...

  10. Effect of high thermal expansion glass infiltration on mechanical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work studies the effect on the mechanical properties of alumina-10 wt% zirconia (3 mol% yttria stabilized) composite by infiltrating glass of a higher thermal expansion (soda lime glass) on the surface at high temperature. The glass improved the strength of composite at room temperature as well as at high temperature.

  11. 40 CFR 35.2120 - Infiltration/Inflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rainfall induced peak inflow rate results or will result in chronic operational problems during storm... during periods of high groundwater, the applicant shall build the project including sufficient capacity to transport and treat any existing infiltration. However, if the applicant believes any specific...

  12. Porcelain veneer post-bonding crack repair by resin infiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresnigt, Marco; Magne, Michel; Magne, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Ceramic laminate veneer restorations are indicated in several clinical situations. Indirect restorations are usually chosen if the less-invasive options - bleaching, resin infiltration, or composite resin restorations - are not possible, or when it is too difficult to achieve an esthetically

  13. Three-dimensional micro structured nanocomposite beams by microfluidic infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebel, L L; Paez, O A; Therriault, D; Aïssa, B; El Khakani, M A

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) micro structured beams reinforced with a single-walled carbon nanotube (C-SWNT)/polymer nanocomposite were fabricated using an approach based on the infiltration of 3D microfluidic networks. The 3D microfluidic network was first fabricated by the direct-write assembly method, which consists of the robotized deposition of fugitive ink filaments on an epoxy substrate, forming thereby a 3D micro structured scaffold. After encapsulating the 3D micro-scaffold structure with an epoxy resin, the fugitive ink was liquefied and removed, resulting in a 3D network of interconnected microchannels. This microfluidic network was then infiltrated by a polymer loaded with C-SWNTs and subsequently cured. Prior to their incorporation in the polymer matrix, the UV-laser synthesized C-SWNTs were purified, functionalized and dispersed into the matrix using a three-roll mixing mill. The final samples consist of rectangular beams having a complex 3D skeleton structure of C-SWNT/polymer nanocomposite fibers, adapted to offer better performance under flexural solicitation. Dynamic mechanical analysis in flexion showed an increase of 12.5% in the storage modulus compared to the resin infiltrated beams. The nanocomposite infiltration of microfluidic networks demonstrated here opens new prospects for the achievement of 3D reinforced micro structures

  14. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes for the treatment of metastatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geukes Foppen, M H; Donia, M; Svane, I M

    2015-01-01

    five years, treatment with immunotherapy (anti CTLA-4, anti PD-1, or the combination of these antibodies) has shown very promising results and was able to improve survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. Adoptive cell therapy using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes is yet another, but highly...

  15. Effect of age of permeable pavements on their infiltration function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terry Lucke; ir. Floris Boogaard; Simon Beecham

    2013-01-01

    This study describes field investigations designed to compare the infiltration capacities of 55 permeable pavement systems installed in the Netherlands and in Australia. The ages of the pavements varied from 1 to 12 years. Using infiltrometer testing, the performance of the pavements has been

  16. Standardized assessment of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tramm, Trine; Di Caterino, Tina; Jylling, Anne-Marie B

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In breast cancer, there is a growing body of evidence that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) may have clinical utility and may be able to direct clinical decisions for subgroups of patients. Clinical utility is, however, not sufficient for warranting the implementation of a new...

  17. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) from patients with glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhenjiang; Meng, Qingda; Bartek, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) may represent a viable source of T cells for the biological treatment of patients with gliomas. Glioma tissue was obtained from 16 patients, tumor cell lines were established, and TILs were expanded in 16/16 cases using a combination of IL-2/IL-15/IL-21...

  18. Use of thermal data to estimate infiltration, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeCain, Gary D.; Kurzmack, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Temperature and pressure monitoring in a vertical borehole in Pagany Wash, Yucca Mountain, Nevada, measured disruptions of the natural gradients associated with the February, 1998, El Nino precipitation events. The temperature and pressure disruptions indicated infiltration and percolation through the 12.1 m of Pagany Wash alluvium and deep percolation to greater than 35.2 m into the Yucca Mountain Tuff

  19. Genomic signatures characterize leukocyte infiltration in myositis muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Leukocyte infiltration plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of myositis, and is highly associated with disease severity. Currently, there is a lack of: efficacious therapies for myositis; understanding of the molecular features important for disease pathogenesis; and potential molecular biomarkers for characterizing inflammatory myopathies to aid in clinical development. Methods In this study, we developed a simple model and predicted that 1) leukocyte-specific transcripts (including both protein-coding transcripts and microRNAs) should be coherently overexpressed in myositis muscle and 2) the level of over-expression of these transcripts should be correlated with leukocyte infiltration. We applied this model to assess immune cell infiltration in myositis by examining mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in muscle biopsies from 31 myositis patients and 5 normal controls. Results Several gene signatures, including a leukocyte index, type 1 interferon (IFN), MHC class I, and immunoglobulin signature, were developed to characterize myositis patients at the molecular level. The leukocyte index, consisting of genes predominantly associated with immune function, displayed strong concordance with pathological assessment of immune cell infiltration. This leukocyte index was subsequently utilized to differentiate transcriptional changes due to leukocyte infiltration from other alterations in myositis muscle. Results from this differentiation revealed biologically relevant differences in the relationship between the type 1 IFN pathway, miR-146a, and leukocyte infiltration within various myositis subtypes. Conclusions Results indicate that a likely interaction between miR-146a expression and the type 1 IFN pathway is confounded by the level of leukocyte infiltration into muscle tissue. Although the role of miR-146a in myositis remains uncertain, our results highlight the potential benefit of deconvoluting the source of

  20. Infiltration processing of metal matrix composites using coated ceramic particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Patino, Carlos Alberto

    2001-07-01

    A new process was developed to fabricate particulate metal matrix composites (MMCs). The process involves three steps: (1) modifying the particulate surface by metal coating, (2) forming a particulate porous compact; and (3) introducing metal into the channel network by vacuum infiltration. MMCs with different reinforcements, volume fractions, and sizes can be produced by this technique. Powders of alumina and silicon carbide were successfully coated with nickel and copper in preparation for infiltration with molten aluminum. Electroless Ni and Cu deposition was used since it enhances the wettability of the reinforcements for composite fabrication. While Cu deposits were polycrystalline, traces of phosphorous co-deposited from the electroless bath gave an amorphous Ni-P coating. The effect of metal coating on wetting behavior was evaluated at 800°C on plain and metal-coated ceramic plates using a sessile drop technique. The metallic films eliminated the non-wetting behavior of the uncoated ceramics, leading to equilibrium contact angles in the order of 12° and below 58° for Ni and Cu coated ceramics, respectively. The spreading data indicated that local diffusion at the triple junction was the governing mechanism of the wetting process. Precipitation of intermetallic phases in the drop/ceramic interface delayed the formation of Al4C3. Infiltration with molten Al showed that the coated-particulates are suitable as reinforcing materials for fabricating MMCs, giving porosity-free components with a homogeneously distributed reinforcing phase. The coating promoted easy metal flow through the preform, compared to the non-infiltration behavior of the uncoated counterparts. Liquid state diffusion kinetics due to temperature dependent viscosity forces controlled the infiltration process. Microstructural analysis indicated the formation of intermetallic phases such as CuAl 2, in the case of Cu coating, and Ni2Al3 and NiAl 3 when Ni-coated powders were infiltrated. The

  1. Magnesium based composites fabricated by low pressure infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, P.; Micski, A.; Savage, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    Magnesiumbased fiber composites have been produced by so called low pressure infiltration. The initial material consist of 'saffil' pre-forms and two magnesium alloys, Mg-9Al-1Zn and WE 54 (approximate composition Mg-5Y-1.5Nd-2(Tb,Er,Dy,Gd)-0.5Zr), and pure magnesium. The preforms consists of 10-30 vol% of short fibers linked together by SiO 2 or Al 2 O 3 . Three different routes have been tested in the search for a good low pressure infiltration method. The experiments cover corrosion testing in NaCl-solution, sliding wear, abrasion and erosion testing. Of the tested infiltration methods the best results were obtained in a resistance heated evacuable furnace, in which the metal was molted in a steel crucible and the preform was conveyed into the melt under protective atmosphere. The infiltration takes place at atmospheric pressure and the cooling is performed in a sealed tube in air. The microscopy studies shows that low pressure infiltrated composites contain considerable amounts of porosity in distinction from those fabricated by squeeze casting. The corrosion test has shown that in the tested environment the alloy WE 54 has good corrosion resistance while Mg-9Al-1Zn and pure magnesium show low corrosion resistance. The influence of fibres in the matrix seems to be very small. Both magnesium and the alloy Mg-9Al-1Zn show for two body abrasion an almost linear improvement of abrasion resistance with increased fiber content. Pure magnesium shows decreasing erosion resistance with increasing fibre content. The Mg-9Al-1Zn-alloy appears to show a maximum in erosion resistance at 10 vol% fibers. In sliding wear the materials show an optimum initial and steady state wear resistance at a fiber content of about 10%. In general Al 2 O 3 -binder gives better wear resistance than SiO 2 -binder. Tensile testing was performed on low pressure infiltrated and squeeze cast composites with WE 54 matrix. It shows that the low pressure infiltrated composites are inferior to those

  2. Structure of Al-CF composites obtained by infiltration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dolata-Grosz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the composites obtained in infiltration processes 2D and 3D carbon preform by liquid Al alloy have been presented in thispaper. An aluminum alloy with silicon and manganese AlSi9Mn (trimal 37-TR37 was applied in the researches. As the reinforcementused carbon perform prepared with various protective barriers such as the nickel coating, the coating of silicon carbide and pyrolyticcarbon coating. Carbon preforms was prepared at the Institute for Lightweight Structures and Polymer Technology (ILK TU Dresden andat the Institute of Technology and Ceramic Systems (Fraunhofer-IKTS. The process of infiltration of carbon perform by liquid aluminiumalloy was carried out using a pressure-vacuum infiltration on the Degussa press and gas-pressure infiltration (GPI in an autoclavedesigned and built at the Department of Materials Technology at the Silesian University of Technology. The obtained composites werecharacterized by a regular shape, with no surface casting defects. The best connection of components was observed in AlSi9Mn/Cf(Nicomposite, obtained by gas-pressure infiltration method (GPI. On metallographic specimens, good interface between fibres and thealuminium matrix were observed. The obtained research results justify the application of nickel coatings on the fibres. During the failurecrack propagated across fiber. There was no presence of aluminum carbide on the fiber-matrix. It can be assumed that the composite willbe characterized by the good mechanical properties. However, this requires further experimental verification planned in the next stage of research, in the project realized within the DFG program: "3D textile reinforced aluminium matrix composites for complex loadingsituations in lightweight automobile and machine parts".

  3. Modelling of the chemical state in groundwater infiltration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zysset, A.

    1993-01-01

    Groundwater is replenished by water stemming either from precipitations, lakes or rivers. The area where such an infiltration occurs is characterized by a change in the environmental conditions, such as a decrease of the flow velocity and an increase in the solid surface marking the boundary of the flow field. With these changes new chemical processes may become relevant to the transport behavior of contaminants. Since the rates of chemical processes usually are a function of the concentrations of several species, an understanding of infiltration sites may require a multicomponent approach. The present study aims at formulating a mathematical model together with its numerical solution for groundwater infiltration sites. Such a model should improve the understanding of groundwater quality changes related to infiltrating contaminants. The groundwater quality is of vital interest to men because at many places most of the drinking water originates from groundwater. In the first part of the present study two partial models are formulated: one accounting for the transport in a one-dimensional, homogeneous and saturated porous medium, the other accounting for chemical reactions. This second model is initially stated for general kinetic systems. Then, it is specified for two systems, namely for a system governed only by reactions which are fast compared to the transport processes and for a system with biologically mediated redox reactions of dissolved substrates. In the second part of the study a numerical solution to the model is developed. For this purpose, the two partial models are coupled. The coupling is either iterative as in the case of a system with fast reactions or sequential as in all other cases. The numerical solutions of simple test cases are compared to analytical solutions. In the third part the model is evaluated using observations of infiltration sites reported in the literature. (author) figs., tabs., 155 refs

  4. Unconfined aquifer response to infiltration basins and shallow pump tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostendorf, David W.; DeGroot, Don J.; Hinlein, Erich S.

    2007-05-01

    SummaryWe measure and model the unsteady, axisymmetric response of an unconfined aquifer to delayed, arbitrary recharge. Water table drainage follows the initial elastic aquifer response, as modeled for uniform, instantaneous recharge by Zlotnik and Ledder [Zlotnik, V., Ledder, G., 1992. Groundwater flow in a compressible unconfined aquifer with uniform circular recharge. Water Resources Research 28(6), 1619-1630] and delayed drainage by Moench [Moench, A.F., 1995. Combining the Neuman and Boulton models for flow to a well in an unconfined aquifer. Ground Water 33(3), 378-384]. We extend their analyses with a convolution integral that models the delayed response of an aquifer to infiltration from a circular infiltration basin. The basin routes the hydrograph to the water table with a decay constant dependent on a Brooks and Corey [Brooks, R.H., Corey, A.T., 1966. Properties of porous media affecting fluid flow. Journal of the Irrigation and Drainage Division ASCE 92(2), 61-88] unsaturated permeability exponent. The resulting closed form model approaches Neuman's [Neuman, S.P., 1972. Theory of flow in unconfined aquifers considering delayed response of the water table. Water Resources Research 8(4), 1031-1045] partially penetrating pump test equation for a small source radius, instantaneous, uniform drainage and a shallow screen section. Irrigation pump data at a well characterized part of the Plymouth-Carver Aquifer in southeastern Massachusetts calibrate the small source model, while infiltration data from the closed drainage system of State Route 25 calibrate the infiltration basin model. The calibrated permeability, elasticity, specific yield, and permeability exponent are plausible and consistent for the pump and infiltration data sets.

  5. Physical studies of porphyrin-infiltrated opal crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabataityte, J. [Semiconductor Physics Institute, Gostauto 11, LT 01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)], E-mail: julija@pfi.lt; Simkiene, I.; Babonas, G.-J.; Reza, A. [Semiconductor Physics Institute, Gostauto 11, LT 01108 Vilnius (Lithuania); Baran, M.; Szymczak, R. [Institute of Physics, PAN, PL 02668, Warsaw (Poland); Vaisnoras, R.; Rasteniene, L. [Vilnius Pedagogical University, LT 08106, Vilnius (Lithuania); Golubev, V.; Kurdyukov, D. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, 194021, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2007-09-15

    Artificial opals made of silica spheres and infiltrated with aqueous solution of iron porphyrin (FeTPPS) possessing the absorption band in a visible spectral range were studied. The structural, optical and magnetic properties of composite structures were investigated. Bulk samples of opal structure were obtained by sedimentation technique from colloidal solution of SiO{sub 2} spheres of diameter 240 and 245 nm. The structure of the samples was examined by atomic force microscopy. The properties of photonic crystals were demonstrated by optical measurements in transmission and reflection modes. The stop band was observed in the region 510-550 nm. In samples annealed at 900 deg. C the width of the stop band increased to {approx} 70 nm. Aqueous solutions of FeTPPS of concentration {approx} 1.0 mM and various pH-values were used for infiltration. The infiltration has led to a change of photonic characteristics, position of the stop band and dependence on light incidence angle. The absorption bands typical of FeTPPS were observed in the vicinity of the stop band. The photonic properties of infiltrated opal structures were determined to depend on the acidity of aqueous solution, which was used in technological procedure. Magnetic properties of FeTPPS-infiltrated opal samples, which have been studied at 5-300 K in magnetic fields up to 5 T, were discussed. From magnetic measurements it followed that magnetic Fe-Fe interactions have practically vanished in hybrid samples and Fe centers should be treated as isolated ones.

  6. Physical studies of porphyrin-infiltrated opal crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabataityte, J.; Simkiene, I.; Babonas, G.-J.; Reza, A.; Baran, M.; Szymczak, R.; Vaisnoras, R.; Rasteniene, L.; Golubev, V.; Kurdyukov, D.

    2007-01-01

    Artificial opals made of silica spheres and infiltrated with aqueous solution of iron porphyrin (FeTPPS) possessing the absorption band in a visible spectral range were studied. The structural, optical and magnetic properties of composite structures were investigated. Bulk samples of opal structure were obtained by sedimentation technique from colloidal solution of SiO 2 spheres of diameter 240 and 245 nm. The structure of the samples was examined by atomic force microscopy. The properties of photonic crystals were demonstrated by optical measurements in transmission and reflection modes. The stop band was observed in the region 510-550 nm. In samples annealed at 900 deg. C the width of the stop band increased to ∼ 70 nm. Aqueous solutions of FeTPPS of concentration ∼ 1.0 mM and various pH-values were used for infiltration. The infiltration has led to a change of photonic characteristics, position of the stop band and dependence on light incidence angle. The absorption bands typical of FeTPPS were observed in the vicinity of the stop band. The photonic properties of infiltrated opal structures were determined to depend on the acidity of aqueous solution, which was used in technological procedure. Magnetic properties of FeTPPS-infiltrated opal samples, which have been studied at 5-300 K in magnetic fields up to 5 T, were discussed. From magnetic measurements it followed that magnetic Fe-Fe interactions have practically vanished in hybrid samples and Fe centers should be treated as isolated ones

  7. Seismic tomography Technology for the Water Infiltration Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descour, J.

    2001-01-01

    NSA Engineering, Inc., conducted seismic tomography surveys in Niche No.3 in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and Alcove No.8 in the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) cross drift as part of the Infiltration Experiment being conducted in Niche No.3. NSA Engineering is a direct support contractor to the Yucca Mountain Project. This report documents the work performed from August 14 through 30, 2000, prior to the beginning of the infiltration experiment. The objective of the seismic tomography survey was to investigate the flow path of water between access drifts and more specifically to (Kramer 2000): (1) Conduct a baseline seismic tomography survey prior to the infiltration experiment; (2) Produce 2-D and 3-D tomographic images of the rock volume between Alcove No.8 and Niche No.3; (3) Correlate tomography results with published structural and lithological features, and with other geophysical data such as ground penetrating radar (GPR); and (4) Results of this survey will form a baseline with which to compare subsequent changes to the rock mass. These changes may be as a result of the water infiltration tests that could be conducted in Alcove No.8 in 2001. The scope of this reported work is to use the velocity tomograms to: (a) assess the structures and lithologic features within the surveyed area and/or volume between the two access drifts; and (b) provide information on the structural state of the rock mass as inferred by the velocity signatures of the rock prior to the beginning of the infiltration experiment

  8. Missed diagnosis-persistent delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseem Mehra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Delirium is in general considered as an acute short lasting reversible neuropsychiatric syndrome. However, there is some evidence to suggest that in a small proportion of cases delirium may be a chronic or persistent condition. However, making this diagnosis requires clinical suspicion and ruling other differential diagnosis. In this report, we present a case of a 55-year-old man who had cognitive symptoms, psychotic symptoms and depressive symptoms along with persistent hypokalemia and glucose intolerance. He was seen by 3 psychiatrists with these symptoms and was initially diagnosed as having depressive disorder and later diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (current episode mania, and psychosis were considered by the third psychiatrist. However, despite the presence of persistent neurocognitive deficits, evening worsening of symptoms, hypokalemia and glucose intolerance diagnosis of delirium was not suspected.

  9. Evaluating the infiltration performance of eight Dutch permeable pavements using a new full-scale infiltration testing method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, Floris; Lucke, Terry; van de Giesen, Nick; van de Ven, Frans

    2014-01-01

    Permeable pavements are a type of sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) technique that are used around the world to infiltrate and treat urban Stormwater runoff and to minimize runoff volumes. Urban stormwater runoff contains significant concentrations of suspended sediments that can cause

  10. Evaluating the Infiltration Performance of Eight Dutch Permeable Pavements Using a New Full-Scale Infiltration Testing Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, F.C.; Lucke, T.; Van de Giesen, N.C.; Van de Ven, F.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Permeable pavements are a type of sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) technique that are used around the world to infiltrate and treat urban stormwater runoff and to minimize runoff volumes. Urban stormwater runoff contains significant concentrations of suspended sediments that can cause

  11. Observations on infiltration of silicon carbide compacts with an aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, R.; Rohatgi, P. K.

    1992-01-01

    The melt infiltration of ceramic particulates permits an opportunity to observe such fundamental materials phenomena as nucleation, dynamic wetting and growth in constrained environments. Experimental observations are presented on the infiltration behavior and matrix microstructures that form when porous compacts of platelet-shaped single crystals of alpha- (hexagonal) silicon carbide are infiltrated with a liquid 2014 Al alloy. The infiltration process involved counter gravity infiltration of suitably tamped and preheated compacts of silicon carbide platelets under an external pressure in a special pressure chamber for a set period, then by solidification of the infiltrant metal in the interstices of the bed at atmospheric pressure.

  12. Soil property control of biogeochemical processes beneath two subtropical stormwater infiltration basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Andrew M; Wanielista, Martin P; Chang, Ni-Bin; Harris, Willie G; Xuan, Zhemin

    2012-01-01

    Substantially different biogeochemical processes affecting nitrogen fate and transport were observed beneath two stormwater infiltration basins in north-central Florida. Differences are related to soil textural properties that deeply link hydroclimatic conditions with soil moisture variations in a humid, subtropical climate. During 2008, shallow groundwater beneath the basin with predominantly clayey soils (median, 41% silt+clay) exhibited decreases in dissolved oxygen from 3.8 to 0.1 mg L and decreases in nitrate nitrogen (NO-N) from 2.7 mg L to soils (median, 2% silt+clay), aerobic conditions persisted from 2007 through 2009 (dissolved oxygen, 5.0-7.8 mg L), resulting in NO-N of 1.3 to 3.3 mg L in shallow groundwater. Enrichment of δN and δO of NO combined with water chemistry data indicates denitrification beneath the clayey basin and relatively conservative NO transport beneath the sandy basin. Soil-extractable NO-N was significantly lower and the copper-containing nitrite reductase gene density was significantly higher beneath the clayey basin. Differences in moisture retention capacity between fine- and coarse-textured soils resulted in median volumetric gas-phase contents of 0.04 beneath the clayey basin and 0.19 beneath the sandy basin, inhibiting surface/subsurface oxygen exchange beneath the clayey basin. Results can inform development of soil amendments to maintain elevated moisture content in shallow soils of stormwater infiltration basins, which can be incorporated in improved best management practices to mitigate NO impacts. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. Energy Savings Lifetimes and Persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Ian M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Billingsley, Megan A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This technical brief explains the concepts of energy savings lifetimes and savings persistence and discusses how program administrators use these factors to calculate savings for efficiency measures, programs and portfolios. Savings lifetime is the length of time that one or more energy efficiency measures or activities save energy, and savings persistence is the change in savings throughout the functional life of a given efficiency measure or activity. Savings lifetimes are essential for assessing the lifecycle benefits and cost effectiveness of efficiency activities and for forecasting loads in resource planning. The brief also provides estimates of savings lifetimes derived from a national collection of costs and savings for electric efficiency programs and portfolios.

  14. Nutrient transport and transformation beneath an infiltration basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, D.M.; Rolston, D.E.; Bradner, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to examine nutrient transport and transformation beneath an infiltration basin used for the disposal of treated wastewater. Removal of nitrogen from infiltrating water by denitrification was negligible beneath the basin, probably because of subsurface aeration as a result of daily interruptions in basin loading. Retention of organic nitrogen in the upper 4.6 m of the unsaturated zone (water table depth of approximately 11 m) during basin loading resulted in concentrations of nitrate as much as 10 times that of the applied treated wastewater, following basin 'rest' periods of several weeks, which allowed time for mineralization and nitrification. Approximately 90% of the phosphorus in treated wastewater was removed within the upper 4.6 m of the subsurface, primarily by adsorption reactions, with abundant iron and aluminum oxyhydroxides occurring as soil coatings. A reduction in the flow rate of infiltrating water arriving at the water table may explain the accumulation of relatively coarse (>0.45 ??m), organic forms of nitrogen and phosphorus slightly below the water table. Mineralization and nitrification reactions at this second location of organic nitrogen accumulation contributed to concentrations of nitrate as much as three times that of the applied treated wastewater. Phosphorus, which accumulated below the water table, was immobilized by adsorption or precipitation reactions during basin rest periods.Field experiments were conducted to examine nutrient transport and transformation beneath an infiltration basin used for the disposal of treated wastewater. Removal of nitrogen from infiltrating water by denitrification was negligible beneath the basin, probably because of subsurface aeration as a result of daily interruptions in basin loading. Retention of organic nitrogen in the upper 4.6 m of the unsaturated zone (water table depth of approximately 11 m) during basin loading resulted in concentrations of nitrate as much as 10

  15. Vadose Zone Infiltration Rates from Sr isotope Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, K.; Maher, K.; DePaolo, D. J.; DePaolo, D. J.; Conrad, M.

    2001-12-01

    Predicting infiltration rates and recharge through the vadose zone in arid regions is difficult and hence developing methods for the measurement of infiltration rates is important. We have been investigating the use of Sr isotope measurements for determining infiltration at the 200 Area plateau on the Hanford reservation in central Washington. In this context, infiltration affects the transport of contaminants to the water table as well as recharge of the groundwater system. Using Sr isotopes for this purpose requires drill core and water samples from the vadose zone, although leaches of the cores can substitute for water samples. Complementary information, including some constraints on regional recharge, can also be obtained using water samples from groundwater monitoring wells. The VZ method is based on the fact that the Sr isotope ratio of soil water just below the surface is often set by dissolution of aeolian material including carbonate, and this ratio is different from the average value in the deeper underlying vadose zone rock matrix. As water infiltrates, the Sr isotopic composition of the water changes toward the rock values as a result of Sr released from the rocks by weathering reactions. The rate of change with depth of the Sr isotope ratio of the vadose zone water is a function ultimately of q/R; the ratio of the infiltration flux (q) to the bulk rock weathering rate (R). Where it is possible to evaluate R, q can be estimated. As data accumulate it may be possible to improve the calibration of the method. At Hanford the vadose zone rock material is mostly unconsolidated sand, silt, and gravel of broadly granitic composition, which constitute the Hanford and Ringold formations. Annual precipitation is about 160 mm/yr. Drilling and coring of a ca. 70m hole to the water table in 1999 as part of the Hanford groundwater monitoring program, in a relatively undisturbed area of the site, allowed us to generate a unique Sr isotope data set. The Sr isotope

  16. Relative contributions of transient and steady state infiltration during ephemeral streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Kyle W.; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Hoffmann, John P.; Fleming, John B.

    2006-01-01

    Simulations of infiltration during three ephemeral streamflow events in a coarse‐grained alluvial channel overlying a less permeable basin‐fill layer were conducted to determine the relative contribution of transient infiltration at the onset of streamflow to cumulative infiltration for the event. Water content, temperature, and piezometric measurements from 2.5‐m vertical profiles within the alluvial sediments were used to constrain a variably saturated water flow and heat transport model. Simulated and measured transient infiltration rates at the onset of streamflow were about two to three orders of magnitude greater than steady state infiltration rates. The duration of simulated transient infiltration ranged from 1.8 to 20 hours, compared with steady state flow periods of 231 to 307 hours. Cumulative infiltration during the transient period represented 10 to 26% of the total cumulative infiltration, with an average contribution of approximately 18%. Cumulative infiltration error for the simulated streamflow events ranged from 9 to 25%. Cumulative infiltration error for typical streamflow events of about 8 hours in duration in is about 90%. This analysis indicates that when estimating total cumulative infiltration in coarse‐grained ephemeral stream channels, consideration of the transient infiltration at the onset of streamflow will improve predictions of the total volume of infiltration that may become groundwater recharge.

  17. Diffuse malignant lymphoma type B with optic chiasm infiltration, visual disturbances, hypopituitarism, hyperprolactinaemia and diabetes insipidus. Case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolanowski, M.; Kuliszkiewicz-Janus, M.; Sokolska, V.

    2006-01-01

    The case is reported of a 55-year-old man with diffuse malignant lymphoma type B associated with transient optic chiasm infiltration and visual disturbances but with persistent hypopituitarism, hyperprolactinaemia and diabetes insipidus. The patient was administered chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Repeated MR and CT scans showed optic chiasm infiltration, which disappeared in the course of the chemotherapy but then recurred, changed its appearance and finally disappeared again. In the meantime visual disturbances occurred and disappeared during the therapy. Hypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus and hyperprolactinaemia were diagnosed and replacement therapy was administered. Later on abdominal pain occurred, and a CT scan revealed bilateral kidney masses and enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes. These were diffuse malignant lymphoma with regional lymphonodulitis in histology. Finally, hydrothorax and hydroretroperitoneum were diagnosed. The patient died as a result of systemic complications of the disease. The length of survival time documented following the hypothalamochiasmatic infiltration and diagnosis of lymphoma makes the case an unusual one for patients with CNS lymphoma. Hormonal disturbances accompanying the suprasellar region infiltration are very important from the practical point of view. (author)

  18. Persistence Mechanisms of Conjugative Plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Hansen, Lars H.; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Are plasmids selfish parasitic DNA molecules or an integrated part of the bacterial genome? This chapter reviews the current understanding of the persistence mechanisms of conjugative plasmids harbored by bacterial cells and populations. The diversity and intricacy of mechanisms affecting the suc...

  19. On persistently positively expansive maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Arbieto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we prove that any C¹-persistently positively expansive map is expanding. This improves a result due to Sakai (Sakai 2004.Neste artigo, mostramos que todo mapa C¹-persistentemente positivamente expansivo e expansor. Isto melhora um resultado devido a Sakai (Sakai 2004.

  20. Persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kis Boisen

    2012-01-01

    The note shows an example of an architure for buildin g stand-alone program, where the programming language is object oriented and the databas system is a relational database system. Together with the notes is an example program.......The note shows an example of an architure for buildin g stand-alone program, where the programming language is object oriented and the databas system is a relational database system. Together with the notes is an example program....

  1. Measurement of gas transport properties for chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, T.L.; Hablutzel, N. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    1996-12-01

    In the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process for fabricating ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), transport of gas phase reactant into the fiber preform is a critical step. The transport can be driven by pressure or by concentration. This report describes methods for measuring this for CVI preforms and partially infiltrated composites. Results are presented for Nicalon fiber cloth layup preforms and composites, Nextel fiber braid preforms and composites, and a Nicalon fiber 3-D weave composite. The results are consistent with a percolating network model for gas transport in CVI preforms and composites. This model predicts inherent variability in local pore characteristics and transport properties, and therefore, in local densification during processing; this may lead to production of gastight composites.

  2. Water Infiltration and Hydraulic Conductivity in Sandy Cambisols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bens, Oliver; Wahl, Niels Arne; Fischer, Holger

    2006-01-01

    from pure Scots pine stands towards pure European beech stands. The water infiltration capacity and hydraulic conductivity (K) of the investigated sandy-textured soils are low and very few macropores exist. Additionally these pores are marked by poor connectivity and therefore do not have any...... of the experimental soils. The results indicate clearly that soils play a crucial role for water retention and therefore, in overland flow prevention. There is a need to have more awareness on the intimate link between the land use and soil properties and their possible effects on flooding.......Soil hydrological properties like infiltration capacity and hydraulic conductivity have important consequences for hydrological properties of soils in river catchments and for flood risk prevention. They are dynamic properties due to varying land use management practices. The objective...

  3. Fatty infiltration of the liver: evaluation by proton spectroscopic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiken, J.P.; Lee, J.K.; Dixon, W.T.

    1985-01-01

    The reliability of proton spectroscopic imaging in evaluating fatty infiltration of the liver was investigated in 35 subjects (12 healthy volunteers and 23 patients with fatty livers). With this modified spin-echo technique, fatty liver could be separated from normal liver both visually and quantitatively. On the opposed image, normal liver had an intermediate signal intensity, greater than that of muscle, whereas fatty liver had a lower signal intensity, equal to or less than that of muscle. In normal livers, the lipid signal fraction was less than 10%, while in fatty livers it was greater than 10% and usually exceeded 20%. With this technique, nonuniform fatty infiltration of the liver can be differentiated from hepatic metastases, and the technique may prove useful in the differentiation of some hepatic disorders

  4. Model for solid oxide fuel cell cathodes prepared by infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Alfred Junio; Søgaard, Martin; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2017-01-01

    A 1-dimensional model of a cathode has been developed in order to understand and predict the performance of cathodes prepared by infiltration of La0.6Sr0.4Co1.05O3-δ (LSC) into porous backbones of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO). The model accounts for the mixed ionic and electronic conductivity of LSC......, ionic conductivity of CGO, gas transport in the porous cathode, and the oxygen reduction reaction at the surface of percolated LSC. Geometrical variations are applied to reflect a changing microstructure of LSC under varying firing temperatures. Using microstructural parameters obtained from detailed...... scanning electron microscopy and simulations of the measured polarization resistances, an expression for the area specific resistance (rp) associated with the oxygen exchange on the surface of the infiltrated LSC particles was extracted and compared with literature values. A series of microstructural...

  5. Impact of climate variations on Managed Aquifer Recharge infiltration basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquero, Felix; Stefan, Catalin

    2017-04-01

    KEYWORDS: Managed Aquifer Recharge, field scale infiltration unit, climatic conditions, numerical model Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is a technique that is gaining more attention as a sustainable alternative for areas where water scarcity is increasing. Main concept relies on facilitating the vertical infiltration of a source of fresh water (river water, rainwater, reclaimed water, etc). The groundwater acts as storage of water for further use in the future, for example in times of water scarcity. In some MAR types the soil itself can be used even as a filter for the removal of specific organic and inorganic compounds. In order to promote the benefits of MAR in different zones of the globe with variable climate conditions, including the effects of climate change, a numerical model (HYDRUS 2D/3D) is being set up. Coupled with the model a field-scale rapid infiltration unit (4m x 5m x 1.5m) was constructed with the capacity to log different MAR key parameters in the soil (tension, water content, temperature and electrical conductivity) in space and time. These data will feed the model for its calibration using specific hydrogeological characteristics of the packing material and hydraulic characteristics of the infiltrated fluid. The unit is located in the city of Pirna (German), 200 m north from the Elbe River where the groundwater level varies seasonally between 6 and 9 m below the ground surface. Together with the field scale rapid infiltration unit, a set of multi-parametric sensors (measuring in time: water stage, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and temperature) in six monitoring wells, located on the basin surroundings, were installed. The purpose of these sensors is to estimate, via tracer experiments, the time that the infiltrated water needed to reach the groundwater and the flow speed in which it travelled once it reached the saturated zone. Once calibrated, the model will be able to estimate the flow behaviour under variable climate conditions

  6. Control of water infiltration through SLB trench covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    A technique for control of water infiltration into waste burial trenches is described. Initial results show the procedure to be very promising. In essence, the technique combines engineered or positive control of run-off, along with a vegetative cover, and is named bioengineering management. To investigate control of infiltration, lysimeters are being used to make complete water balance measurements. The studies are underway at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky, low-level waste burial site. Where the original Maxey Flats site closure procedure is followed, it is necessary to pump large amounts of water out of the lysimeters to prevent the water table from rising closer than 2 meters from the surface. Using the fescue grass bioengineering management procedure, no pumping is required. Encouraged by the initial findings in the rather small-scale lysimeters, a large scale demonstration of the bioengineering management technique has been initiated in Beltsville, Maryland. 6 references, 14 figures

  7. Porcelain veneer post-bonding crack repair by resin infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresnigt, Marco; Magne, Michel; Magne, Pascal

    Ceramic laminate veneer restorations are indicated in several clinical situations. Indirect restorations are usually chosen if the less-invasive options - bleaching, resin infiltration, or composite resin restorations - are not possible, or when it is too difficult to achieve an esthetically pleasing result in the long term. Bonded indirect partial restorations are highly dependent on their adhesive interface, as these thin restorations have a relatively low cohesive strength. Therefore, preservation of sound enamel, conditioning of the restorations and of the substrate, and luting procedures are of paramount importance for a successful outcome. Even when utmost care is taken during every step of the procedure, failures such as fractures, chipping, or marginal discoloration and defects sometimes occur. Only very few of these cases of failure are presented or are a subject of interest. In this case presentation, a fracture repair is performed using an infiltration technique with a resin composite material.

  8. An orthotopic glioblastoma mouse model maintaining brain parenchymal physical constraints and suitable for intravital two-photon microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, Clément; Stanchi, Fabio; Rougon, Geneviève; Debarbieux, Franck

    2014-04-21

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive form of brain tumors with no curative treatments available to date. Murine models of this pathology rely on the injection of a suspension of glioma cells into the brain parenchyma following incision of the dura-mater. Whereas the cells have to be injected superficially to be accessible to intravital two-photon microscopy, superficial injections fail to recapitulate the physiopathological conditions. Indeed, escaping through the injection tract most tumor cells reach the extra-dural space where they expand abnormally fast in absence of mechanical constraints from the parenchyma. Our improvements consist not only in focally implanting a glioma spheroid rather than injecting a suspension of glioma cells in the superficial layers of the cerebral cortex but also in clogging the injection site by a cross-linked dextran gel hemi-bead that is glued to the surrounding parenchyma and sealed to dura-mater with cyanoacrylate. Altogether these measures enforce the physiological expansion and infiltration of the tumor cells inside the brain parenchyma. Craniotomy was finally closed with a glass window cemented to the skull to allow chronic imaging over weeks in absence of scar tissue development. Taking advantage of fluorescent transgenic animals grafted with fluorescent tumor cells we have shown that the dynamics of interactions occurring between glioma cells, neurons (e.g. Thy1-CFP mice) and vasculature (highlighted by an intravenous injection of a fluorescent dye) can be visualized by intravital two-photon microscopy during the progression of the disease. The possibility to image a tumor at microscopic resolution in a minimally compromised cerebral environment represents an improvement of current GBM animal models which should benefit the field of neuro-oncology and drug testing.

  9. Preparation of TiC/Ni3Al Composites by Upward Melt Infiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    TiC/Ni3Al composites have been prepared using upward infiltration method. The densificstion was performed by both Ni3Al melt filling and TiC sintering during the infiltration. The dissolution of TiC in liquid Ni3Al has been evidenced by finding Ni3(Al,Ti)C after fast cooling in the TiC/Ni3Al composites. The dissolution may be responsible for the infiltration and sintering. Compared with downward infiltration, the upward infiltration brought about higher strength and fracture toughness and shorter infiltration time. TiC/20 vol. pct Ni3Al composite processed by upward infiltration had a flexural strength of 1476 Mpa with a statistic Weibull modulus of 20.2 and a fracture toughness of 20.4 Mpa(m). Better mechanical properties may be attributed to melt unidirectional movement in upward infiltration.

  10. A randomized, controlled trial comparing local infiltration analgesia with epidural infusion for total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karen Vestergaard; Bak, Marie; Christensen, Birgitte Viebæk

    2010-01-01

    There have been few studies describing wound infiltration with additional intraarticular administration of multimodal analgesia for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In this study, we assessed the efficacy of wound infiltration combined with intraarticular regional analgesia with epidural infusion...

  11. Determining the extent of groundwater interference on the performance of infiltration trenches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2015-01-01

    Infiltration trenches are widely used in stormwater management, but their capacity decreases when installed in areas with shallow groundwater where infiltration is limited by groundwater drainage. Here the hydrological performance of single infiltration trenches in areas with shallow water tables...... is quantified in terms of their capability to reduce peak flow, peak volume and annual stormwater runoff volume. To simulate the long term hydrological performance of infiltration trenches two different models are employed. The models continuously simulate infiltration rates from infiltration trenches using...... to quantify the impact of parameter variability for each scenario. Statistical analysis of the continuous long term model simulations was used to quantify the hydrological performance of infiltration trenches. Results show that infiltration trenches are affected by groundwater when there is an unsaturated...

  12. Description of the G-A Infiltration Model Using Chu and Chow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    conditions and divided the infiltration into two stages of before ponding and during ... been paid attention to for calculation of the excess rain in unsteady rainfall ..... Serrano S. E.(2001), Explicit Solution to Green and. Ampt Infiltration Equation.

  13. Bulk vs wedge shape layering techniques in V class cavities: marginal infiltration evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Giudice Roberto

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: Considering the limitation related to the technique used for the infiltration analysis in small V class cavities, the infiltration score is not influenced by the different stratification techniques.

  14. Effect of insulin on albumin production and incorporation of 14C-leucine into proteins in isolated parenchymal liver cells from normal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, J; Gluud, C N

    1975-01-01

    the immunologically determined increment in the incubation medium was 1.7 +/- 0.2 mug albumin/min per g liver wet wt. This is about 30% of the rate of production in the perfused liver. Addition of insulin (10(-6)-10(-10) M) enhanced albumin production (50-17%), and incorporation of 14C-leucine both into albumin (50......Parenchymal rat liver cells were isolated by a modification of the collagenase method of Quistorff, Bondesen and Grunnet. The cells secreted albumin into the medium and incorporated 14C-leucine both into cell proteins and proteins secreted into the medium. Albumin production measured from......-8%), secreted proteins (40-9%) and cell proteins (20-8%). Insulin does not increase the production of albumin by depleting the cells. The effect of insulin on albumin production is compatible with an effect on the rate of synthesis as the specific activity of albumin is unaffected by addition of insulin....

  15. MR-imaging of the breast at 0.5 Tesla: menstrual-cycle dependency of parenchymal contrast enhancement in healthy volunteers with oral contraceptive use?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, J.; Welger, J.; Krupski, G.; Adam, G.; Lisboa, B.W.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: To evaluate changes of contrast medium enhancement of the breast parenchyma due to menstrual cycle in healthy volunteers with oral contraceptive use in MR-imaging of the breast. Material and Methods: 15 healthy volunteers (age: 22 - 36, mean 28,2) without breast disease were examined two times during one menstrual cycle (days 7 - 14 and days 21 - 2). Two volunteers were examined only in the second part of the cycle (days 21 - 2). All volunteers used oral contraceptives for more than 6 month continuously. Examinations were performed with a 0,5 T magnet (dynamic 3D-gradient echo protocol with subtraction postprocessing). We evaluated the number of enhancing foci and the parenchymal contrast medium enhancement during the different phases of the cycle by region of interest. Results: Only a total of two enhancing foci were found in 2 of 17 volunteers. Time/signal intensity diagrams in these both cases were not suspicious ( [de

  16. Un caso de infeccion humana por cisticerco racemoso cerebral de localizacion parenquimatosa en Valdivia, Chile A case of human cerebral infection by parenchymal racemose cysticercus in Valdivia, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ortega

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso clínico de infección por cisticerco racemoso cerebral de localización parenquimatosa en un paciente de la ciudad de Valdivia (Chile cuyo diagnóstico definitivo se efectuó a través del estudio morfológico del parásito. Se discute brevemente la escasa frecuencia de la localización parenquimatosa del cisticerco racemoso, así como su diagnóstico diferencial con otros estados larvarios de cestodos que desarrollan en el sistema nervioso.A clinical case of cerebral infection by parenchymal racemose cysticercus, diagnosed by means of morphological characteristics in a patient of Valdivia city is described. The rare frequency of parenquimal location of racemose cysticercus as well as its differential diagnosis with other larval stages of cestodes that develop in the brain and its treatment are discussed.

  17. Opportunistic use of a Foley catheter to provide a common electrocautery with a water-irrigating channel for hepatic parenchymal transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuzo; Yoshioka, Masato; Watanabe, Go; Uchinami, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    High-tech surgical energy devices that are used during a single surgery have increased in number and the expense for such disposable units is by no means negligible. We developed a handmade water-irrigating monopolar electrocautery using a Foley catheter to perform liver parenchymal transection. A commonly used 20-24 Fr Foley catheter was cut at a length of about 8 cm. The shaft of the 5 mm ball electrode measuring 13.5 cm in length was then inlaid into the urine drainage channel. The target tissues were cauterized without making an eschar, thereby preventing the adhesion of the electrode to the tissues. A ball electrode with our handmade water irrigation sheath can be made in only a few minutes at a very low cost, using common medical supplies and yielding satisfactory effects comparable to the use of specialized high-tech devices.

  18. Pituitary infiltration by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aral Ferihan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pituitary adenomas represent the most frequently observed type of sellar masses; however, the presence of a rapidly growing sellar tumor, diabetes insipidus, ophthalmoplegia and headaches in an older patient strongly suggests metastasis to the pituitary. Since the anterior pituitary has a great reserve capacity, metastasis to the pituitary and pituitary involvement in lymphoma are usually asymptomatic. Whereas diabetes insipidus is the most frequent symptom, patients can present with headaches, ophthalmoplegia and bilateral hemianopsia. Case presentation A 70-year-old woman with no previous history of malignancy presented with headaches, right oculomotor nerve palsy and diabetes insipidus. As magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sellar mass involving the pituitary gland and infundibular stalk, which also extended into the right cavernous sinus and sphenoid sinus, the patient underwent an immediate transsphenoidal decompression surgery. Her prolactin was 102.4 ng/ml, whereas her gonadotropic hormone levels were low. A low level of urine osmolality after overnight water deprivation, along with normal plasma osmolality suggested diabetes insipidus. Histological examination revealed that the mass had been the infiltration of a high grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma involving respiratory system epithelial cells. Paranasal sinus computed tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging of the thorax and abdomen were performed. Since magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal any abnormality, after paranasal sinus computed tomography was performed, we concluded that the primary lymphoma originated from the sphenoid sinus and infiltrated the pituitary. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy to the sellar area were planned, but the patient died and her family did not permit an autopsy. Conclusion Lymphoma infiltration to the pituitary is difficult to differentiate from pituitary adenoma, meningioma and other sellar lesions. To plan the

  19. Optic nerve infiltration by acute lymphoblastic leukemia: MRI contribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Maria de Fatima; Braga, Flavio Tulio [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Paulista School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rocha, Antonio Jose da [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, Servico de Diagnostico por Imagem, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lederman, Henrique Manoel [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Division of Diagnostic Imaging in Pediatrics, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2005-08-01

    We describe the clinical presentation and imaging features of a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that was complicated by optic nerve infiltration. The clinical and diagnostic characteristics of this complication must be recognized so that optimal therapy can be started to prevent blindness. MR imaging is useful in early detection and should be performed in any leukemic patient with ocular complaints, even during remission. (orig.)

  20. Optic nerve infiltration by acute lymphoblastic leukemia: MRI contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Maria de Fatima; Braga, Flavio Tulio; Rocha, Antonio Jose da; Lederman, Henrique Manoel

    2005-01-01

    We describe the clinical presentation and imaging features of a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that was complicated by optic nerve infiltration. The clinical and diagnostic characteristics of this complication must be recognized so that optimal therapy can be started to prevent blindness. MR imaging is useful in early detection and should be performed in any leukemic patient with ocular complaints, even during remission. (orig.)