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Sample records for persistent chlamydia pneumoniae

  1. Evaluation of Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae as etiologic agents of persistent cough in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadowsky, Robert M; Castilla, Elias A; Laus, Stella; Kozy, Anita; Atchison, Robert W; Kingsley, Lawrence A; Ward, Joel I; Greenberg, David P

    2002-02-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae were evaluated as agents of persistent cough in adolescents and adults (n = 491). Tests of 473 respiratory specimens by culture or PCR or both identified four episodes (0.8%) of M. pneumoniae-associated illness and no episodes of C. pneumoniae illness, suggesting that these bacteria do not frequently cause persistent cough.

  2. A review of Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Fasting, H; Henneberg, E W

    1999-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium that causes acute upper and lower respiratory infections. Its distribution is worldwide. Seroepidemiological studies have shown an association between C. pneumoniae and atherosclerosis, and the risk of acute myocardial...

  3. Molecular biology of the Chlamydia pneumoniae surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Østergaard, Lars; Birkelund, Svend

    1997-01-01

    surface differs from that of Chlamydia trachomatis. In order to study the surface of C. pneumoniae we generated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against C. pneumoniae strain VR-1310 and selected 14 MAbs that reacted with the surface of C. pneumoniae. All MAbs reacted in immunoelectron microscopy...... with the surface of both whole C. pneumoniae VR-1310 elementary bodies and with purified sarcosyl extracted outer membrane complexes. However, only 2 of the MAbs reacted in immunoblotting with C. pneumoniae proteins and only with antigen that had not been heat treated in SDS-sample buffer. This indicates...

  4. [Chlamydia pneumoniae--etiology of ophthalmia neonatorum].

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    Krásný, J; Borovanská, J; Hrubá, D

    2003-07-01

    The authors observed mucous discharge in palpebral aperture, accompanied by a different degree of effusion of eyelids and chemosis of conjunctivae, particularly the tarsal ones, in 12 physiological newborns. Chlamydia pneumoniae proved to be the etiological agent in the newborn ophthalmia. The eye infection was not detected in the same period of time and in the same maternity hospital in the period of observation from September 1999 to March 2001. The detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae was performed in conjunctiva smears. The impression films on slides were examined by the method of indirect immunofluorescence with the use of specific monoclonal antibodies (medac, Germany). In the early stages the secretion included a sanguineous component, which was then changing into a mucoid or mucopurulent form. The character of conjunctival symptoms was changing in the course of inflammation. Effusion of the lower transitory fold (plica) was gradually accompanied by a picture of pseudofollicular changes on the tarsal conjunctiva. Clarithromycin in the form of syrup at daily doses of 15 mg/kg/day for the period of two weeks offered an efficient therapy of the affection. Control smears after 14 days were always negative and, at the same time, the pathological finding on the conjunctivae disappeared. The nasolacrimal obstruction was the only complication of this chlamydia infection, taking place in seven sucklings, i.e. in 58%. The passage through lacrimal drainage system reappeared in all the affected infants until they reached one year of age. The remaining question to be answered is the way the newborns encountered the infection. A nosocomial infection may be the case, but Chlamydia pneumoniae could also be present in the urogenital tract of mothers and transferred to the newborn via the birth canal similarly as is the case of Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The mode of infection deserves further investigation.

  5. Persistent airflow limitation in adult-onset nonatopic asthma is associated with serologic evidence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brinke, A.; van Dissel, J. T.; Sterk, P. J.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Rabe, K. F.; Bel, E. H.

    2001-01-01

    Persistent airflow limitation may develop in patients with asthma, particularly in adults with nonatopic (intrinsic) disease. Although the underlying mechanisms are still unknown, respiratory infections might be involved. We investigated the annual loss of lung function in relation to seropositivity

  6. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection-associated erythema multiforme

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    Shinsaku Imashuku

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a well-known correlation between Herpes simplex (HSV infection and erythema multiforme (EM. More recently, in Japan, it was found that Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp may promote the development of EM. All cases of Cp infection-associated EM that had been diagnosed in our clinic over the past two years (from 2011 to 2012 were analyzed. Cp infection was diagnosed on the basis of a significant increase (>2.00 in anti-Cp IgM titers, as measured by the HITAZYME-ELISA test. There were 7 cases of Cp-EM, one male and 6 females. Median age was 13 years (range 3-29 years. It is recommended that the possible involvement of Cp infection, besides HSV or Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections, should be considered in all cases of EM.

  7. Laboratory Diagnosis of Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections

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    Rosanna W Peeling

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important cause of respiratory illness. There is a need for accurate and rapid laboratory diagnostic methods that will lead to improved patient care, appropriate use of antimicrobial therapy and a better understanding of the epidemiology of this emerging pathogen. Culture is highly specific but is technically demanding, expensive, has a long turnaround time and its sensitivity is highly dependent on transport conditions. Antigen detection tests such as enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescent antibody assay, and molecular detection methods such as the polymerase chain reaction assay, may provide a rapid diagnosis without the requirement for stringent transport conditions. The results of these tests should be interpreted with caution until more thorough evaluation is available. Serology remains the method of choice. The limitations of different serological methods for the laboratory diagnosis of C pneumoniae are discussed.

  8. Atherogenic effects of Chlamydia pneumoniae: refuting the innocent bystander hypothesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selzman, C.H.; Netea, M.G.; Zimmerman, M.A.; Weinberg, A.; Reznikov, L.L.; Grover, F.L.; Dinarello, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Serologic evidence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and atherosclerosis was first demonstrated in patients with ischemic heart disease in 1988. Subsequently, the organism has been detected in several cardiovascular lesions. Outside of observational reports, few studies mechanistically

  9. Chlamydia pneumoniae hides inside apoptotic neutrophils to silently infect and propagate in macrophages.

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    Jan Rupp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intracellular pathogens have developed elaborate strategies for silent infection of preferred host cells. Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common pathogen in acute infections of the respiratory tract (e.g. pneumonia and associated with chronic lung sequelae in adults and children. Within the lung, alveolar macrophages and polymorph nuclear neutrophils (PMN are the first line of defense against bacteria, but also preferred host phagocytes of chlamydiae. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We could show that C. pneumoniae easily infect and hide inside neutrophil granulocytes until these cells become apoptotic and are subsequently taken up by macrophages. C. pneumoniae infection of macrophages via apoptotic PMN results in enhanced replicative activity of chlamydiae when compared to direct infection of macrophages, which results in persistence of the pathogen. Inhibition of the apoptotic recognition of C. pneumoniae infected PMN using PS- masking Annexin A5 significantly lowered the transmission of chlamydial infection to macrophages. Transfer of apoptotic C. pneumoniae infected PMN to macrophages resulted in an increased TGF-ss production, whereas direct infection of macrophages with chlamydiae was characterized by an enhanced TNF-alpha response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our data suggest that C. pneumoniae uses neutrophil granulocytes to be silently taken up by long-lived macrophages, which allows for efficient propagation and immune protection within the human host.

  10. Lead Discovery Strategies for Identification of Chlamydia pneumoniae Inhibitors

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    Leena Hanski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Throughout its known history, the gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae has remained a challenging target for antibacterial chemotherapy and drug discovery. Owing to its well-known propensity for persistence and recent reports on antimicrobial resistence within closely related species, new approaches for targeting this ubiquitous human pathogen are urgently needed. In this review, we describe the strategies that have been successfully applied for the identification of nonconventional antichlamydial agents, including target-based and ligand-based virtual screening, ethnopharmacological approach and pharmacophore-based design of antimicrobial peptide-mimicking compounds. Among the antichlamydial agents identified via these strategies, most translational work has been carried out with plant phenolics. Thus, currently available data on their properties as antichlamydial agents are described, highlighting their potential mechanisms of action. In this context, the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in the intracellular growth and survival of C. pneumoniae is discussed. Owing to the complex and often complementary pathways applied by C. pneumoniae in the different stages of its life cycle, multitargeted therapy approaches are expected to provide better tools for antichlamydial therapy than agents with a single molecular target.

  11. Lead Discovery Strategies for Identification of Chlamydia pneumoniae Inhibitors.

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    Hanski, Leena; Vuorela, Pia

    2016-11-28

    Throughout its known history, the gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae has remained a challenging target for antibacterial chemotherapy and drug discovery. Owing to its well-known propensity for persistence and recent reports on antimicrobial resistence within closely related species, new approaches for targeting this ubiquitous human pathogen are urgently needed. In this review, we describe the strategies that have been successfully applied for the identification of nonconventional antichlamydial agents, including target-based and ligand-based virtual screening, ethnopharmacological approach and pharmacophore-based design of antimicrobial peptide-mimicking compounds. Among the antichlamydial agents identified via these strategies, most translational work has been carried out with plant phenolics. Thus, currently available data on their properties as antichlamydial agents are described, highlighting their potential mechanisms of action. In this context, the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in the intracellular growth and survival of C . pneumoniae is discussed. Owing to the complex and often complementary pathways applied by C. pneumoniae in the different stages of its life cycle, multitargeted therapy approaches are expected to provide better tools for antichlamydial therapy than agents with a single molecular target.

  12. Pneumonia due to Chlamydia pecorum in a Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

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    Mackie, J T; Gillett, A K; Palmieri, C; Feng, T; Higgins, D P

    2016-11-01

    Chlamydiosis is a common infectious disease of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), but Chlamydia spp. have not yet been demonstrated to cause pneumonia in these animals. A juvenile male koala died following an episode of respiratory disease. At necropsy examination, the lung tissue was consolidated. Microscopical lesions in the lung included pyogranulomatous bronchopneumonia, proliferation of bronchiolar and alveolar epithelium and interstitial fibrosis. Hyperplastic bronchiolar epithelial cells contained aggregates of small basophilic punctate organisms, which were confirmed as chlamydiae by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Real-time polymerase chain reaction identified these as Chlamydia pecorum. This report provides the best evidence to date of chlamydial infection causing pneumonia in a koala, and the first evidence that C. pecorum is capable of infecting the bronchiolar epithelium of the koala. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Survival of Chlamydia pneumoniae following contact with various surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); Harreveld, S. (Sonja); Joulandan, S.A.M. (S. Ahmad Mousavi); R.J.A. Diepersloot (Rob); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractObjective: In this study, the survival and recovery of Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp) strains TW‐183, AR‐39, AR‐388 and CWL‐029 were measured after inoculation on glass, stainless steel, FormicaR laminate, paper, fabric and human skin. Methods: Inoculum in throat washes from healthy

  14. Chlamydia pneumoniae : studies on an emerging pathogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe Chlamydiae are characterized as bacteria because of the composition of their cell wall and their growth by binary division. However, they are obligate intracellular bacterial parasites of eukaryotic cells that have a unique replication cycle similar to Rickettsia. Chlamydial

  15. Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in Atherosclerotic Lesion Development through Oxidative Stress: A Brief Overview

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    Rosa Sessa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae, an obligate intracellular pathogen, is known as a leading cause of respiratory tract infections and, in the last two decades, has been widely associated with atherosclerosis by seroepidemiological studies, and direct detection of the microorganism within atheroma. C. pneumoniae is presumed to play a role in atherosclerosis for its ability to disseminate via peripheral blood mononuclear cells, to replicate and persist within vascular cells, and for its pro-inflammatory and angiogenic effects. Once inside the vascular tissue, C. pneumoniae infection has been shown to induce the production of reactive oxygen species in all the cells involved in atherosclerotic process such as macrophages, platelets, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells, leading to oxidative stress. The aim of this review is to summarize the data linking C. pneumoniae-induced oxidative stress to atherosclerotic lesion development.

  16. Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients

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    Dunya Fareed Salloom

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing spondylitis is a complex debilitating disease because its pathogenesis is not clear. This study aims at detecting some pathogenesis factors that lead to induce the disease. Chlamydia pneumoniae is one of these pathogenesis factors which acts as a triggering factor for the disease. The study groups included forty Iraqi Ankylosing spondylitis patients and forty healthy persons as a control group. Immunological and molecular examinations were done to detect Chlamydia. pneumoniae in AS group. The immunological results were performed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA to detect anti-IgG and anti-IgM antibodies of C. pneumoniae revealed that five of forty AS patients' samples (12.5% were positive for anti-IgG and IgM C. pneumoniae antibodies compared to controls which revealed seronegative. Molecular detection included 16srRNA and HSP-70 genes were to ensure the serological examination for detection of bacteria in the five blood samples which were positive; therefore, these results improved that C. pneumoniae played a role in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  17. Mycoplasma contamination of Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huniche, BS; Jensen, Lise Torp; Birkelund, Svend

    1998-01-01

    media, immunoblotting, polymerase chain reaction and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Two of the 6 ATCC isolates [ATCC VR1355 (TWAR strain 2043) and ATCC VR1356 (TWAR strain 2023)] were infected with Mycoplasma hominis and 1 isolate [ATCC VR2282 (TWAR strain TW183)] was contaminated with both...... Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma orale, whereas 3 of the ATCC isolates [ATCC VR1310, ATCC VR1360 (TWAR strain CM-1) and ATCC 53592 (TWAR strain AR39)] were not contaminated. The Finnish C. pneumoniae isolates Kajaani 6 and Parola were found to be contaminated with M. hominis and M. orale, respectively...

  18. [The influence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection on acute coronary syndromes].

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    Gajek, Jacek; Choroszy-Król, Irena; Zyśko, Dorota; Teryks-Wołyniec, Dorota; Halawa, Bogumił

    2003-07-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is one of the infectious factors the role of which is considered in the process of atherosclerosis and its complications. Of the study was to assess the incidence of Ch. pneumoniae infection in the patients with acute coronary events. The study was carried out in 36 patients, mean age 61.2 +/- 13.4 years, 27 men and 9 women hospitalised in our Department with the diagnosis of previous or recent acute myocardial infarction. The control group consisted of 19 subjects, aged 61.1 +/- 14.3 years, 10 men and 9 women hospitalised due to other reasons. In all studied patients during the first 24 hours venous blood was taken for the assessment of fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and titres of IgA and IgG anti-Ch. pneumoniae antibodies, and pharyngeal swabs were done for Ch. pneumoniae assessment. Positive swab tests were found in 19% of the patients, positive IgG titres in 80% and IgA in 64% of the patients. In the control group the corresponding values were 11, 79, 42%, respectively. In the patients with positive IgG titres, negative IgA titre result was observed in 21% and in the control group in 53% (p < 0.05). The CRP level was significantly higher in the studied patients than in the control group (24.2 vs 4.2 mg/l; p < 0.05). 1. The high percentage of positive serologic tests and rare positive results of pharyngeal swabs indicate a frequent contact with Ch. pneumoniae in human population. 2. Ch. pneumoniae infection exerts no significant influence on the unspecific markers of inflammation. 3. The higher frequency of seroconversion-positive IgG and negative IgA titres--in the control group indicates the role of prolonged or acute Ch. pneumoniae infection in the development or progression of coronary atherosclerosis and its complications.

  19. The Association Between Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection and Ischemic Stroke

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    Eini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Chlamydia pneumoniae has been linked with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases; however, data on stroke and cerebrovascular accidents are sparse. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the association between C. pneumoniae infection and ischemic stroke. Patients and Methods In a case-control study, 141 patients, admitted with ischemic stroke, were compared with gender and age-matched control subjects (n = 141. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, the presence of C. pneumoniae IgG and IgA in the patients’ sera was determined. The data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 15 and were compared between the two groups using T-test and chi square test. Results The mean ages of the case and control groups were 68.97 ± 12.29 and 66.95 ± 6.68 years old, respectively. The difference between these two groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.102. The seroprevalence of C. pneumoniae-specific IgG were 78.7% in the patients with stroke and 52.5% in the control group. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P = 0.0001. The seroprevalence of C. pneumoniae-specific IgA were 41.1% in the stroke and 15.6% in the control group. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P = 0.0001. Conclusions The results supported the hypothesis that serological evidence of C. pneumoniae infection may be associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke and cerebrovascular accident.

  20. Proteolytic cleavage of the Chlamydia pneumoniae major outer membrane protein in the absence of Pmp10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nicolai Stefan; Timmerman, E; Gevaert, K

    2007-01-01

    The genome of the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae contains 21 genes encoding polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmp). While no function has yet been attributed to the Pmps, they may be involved in an antigenic variation of the Chlamydia surface. It has previously been demonstrated...

  1. Methods for Real-Time PCR-Based Diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia abortus Infections in an Opened Molecular Diagnostic Platform.

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    Opota, Onya; Brouillet, René; Greub, Gilbert; Jaton, Katia

    2017-01-01

    The advances in molecular biology of the last decades have dramatically improved the field of diagnostic bacteriology. In particular, PCR-based technologies have impacted the diagnosis of infections caused by obligate intracellular bacteria such as pathogens from the Chlamydiacae family. Here, we describe a real-time PCR-based method using the Taqman technology for the diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia abortus infection. The method presented here can be applied to various clinical samples and can be adapted on opened molecular diagnostic platforms.

  2. Chlamydia pneumoniae acute liver infection affects hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism in mice.

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    Marangoni, Antonella; Fiorino, Erika; Gilardi, Federica; Aldini, Rita; Scotti, Elena; Nardini, Paola; Foschi, Claudio; Donati, Manuela; Montagnani, Marco; Cevenini, Monica; Franco, Placido; Roda, Aldo; Crestani, Maurizio; Cevenini, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae has been linked to atherosclerosis, strictly associated with hyperlipidemia. The liver plays a central role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Since in animal models C. pneumoniae can be found at hepatic level, this study aims to elucidate whether C. pneumoniae infection accelerates atherosclerosis by affecting lipid metabolism. Thirty Balb/c mice were challenged intra-peritoneally with C. pneumoniae elementary bodies and thirty with Chlamydia trachomatis, serovar D. Thirty mice were injected with sucrose-phosphate-glutamate buffer, as negative controls. Seven days after infection, liver samples were examined both for presence of chlamydia and expression of genes involved in inflammation and lipid metabolism. C. pneumoniae was isolated from 26 liver homogenates, whereas C. trachomatis was never re-cultivated (P triglycerides levels compared both with negative controls (P metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Isolation of Chlamydia abortus from a laboratory worker diagnosed with atypical pneumonia.

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    Ortega, Nieves; Caro, M Rosa; Gallego, M Carmen; Murcia-Belmonte, Antonio; Álvarez, Daniel; Del Río, Laura; Cuello, Francisco; Buendía, Antonio J; Salinas, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the aetiological agent of atypical pneumonia in human can sometimes be a tedious process, especially in cases where Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella species and Chlamydia pneumoniae are ruled out. In such cases, a correct anamnesis of the patient is basic to clarify which pathogens might have produced the infection. For this reason, health professionals including veterinarians and laboratory personnel working with zoonotic pathogens should keep their doctors informed. A human case of atypical pneumonia linked to Chlamydia abortus is reported. A 47-year-old male, a veterinarian researcher into chlamydiae, developed respiratory symptoms, breathing problems and high fever. Serological analyses ruled out the involvement of several respiratory pathogens, such as M. pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, Rickettsia conorii and C. pneumoniae, and Chlamydia abortus was identified as the possible aetiological agent of the infection. The isolation of C. abortus from the patient's sputum and subsequent molecular analysis confirmed the presence of this microorganism. As far as we know, although C. abortus has not been previously described as capable of causing pneumonia in humans, this is the first reported case of atypical pneumonia in which C. abortus is thought to have played an aetiological role.

  4. Isolation of Chlamydia abortus from a laboratory worker diagnosed with atypical pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Nieves; Caro, M. Rosa; Gallego, M. Carmen; Murcia-Belmonte, Antonio; ?lvarez, Daniel; del R?o, Laura; Cuello, Francisco; Buend?a, Antonio J.; Salinas, Jes?s

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying the aetiological agent of atypical pneumonia in human can sometimes be a tedious process, especially in cases where Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella species and Chlamydia pneumoniae are ruled out. In such cases, a correct anamnesis of the patient is basic to clarify which pathogens might have produced the infection. For this reason, health professionals including veterinarians and laboratory personnel working with zoonotic pathogens should keep their doctors informed. ...

  5. CHLAMYDIA PNEUMONIAE – THE PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES IN HEALTHY POPULATION AND IN PATIENTS WITH COMMUNITY ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA

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    Darja Keše

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. To determinate the prevalence rates of Chlamydia pneumoniae infections in Slovenia and to evaluate the importance of C. pneumoniae infections at patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP.Materials and methods. With the microimmunofluorescence test (micro-IF we evaluated the presence of C. pneumoniae specific antibodies in 1036 healthy subjects, in two periods of time, in 1991–93 and 1997–1998. We also tested the pair sera collected from 2118 patients with CAP between 1993–1999.Results. We demonstrated that C. pneumoniae infections are common in our population, as we detected IgG antibodies in 43.1% of healthy population. The prevalence rate of C. pneumoniae infections statistically significant increased in two periods of time. Acute C. pneumoniae infections were proved in 15.9% of all patients with CAP.Conclusions. C. pneumoniae is important respiratory pathogen also in our community. The infections are more common in older patients. Because C. pneumoniae like other Chlamydia species has tendency to cause chronic disease, it is reasonable to diagnose this bacterium in respiratory patients. It is also recommended to test convalescent sera at serologic laboratory diagnosis.

  6. Amalgamation of Chlamydia pneumoniae inclusions with lipid droplets in foam cells in human atherosclerotic plaque.

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    Bobryshev, Yuri V; Killingsworth, Murray C; Tran, Dihn; Lord, Reginald

    2008-07-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (Chlamydophila pneumoniae) infect macrophages and accelerates foam cell formation in in vitro experiments, but whether this might occur in human atherosclerosis is unknown. In the present study, we examined 17 carotid artery segments, obtained by endarterectomy, in which the presence of C. pneumoniae was confirmed by both polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of structures with the appearance of elementary, reticulate and aberrant bodies of C. pneumoniae in the cytoplasm of macrophage foam cells. The volume of the cytoplasm that was free from vacuoles and lipid droplets in C. pneumoniae-infected foam cells was dramatically reduced, and a phenomenon of the amalgamation of C. pneumoniae inclusions with lipid droplets was detected. Double immunohistochemistry showed that C. pneumoniae-infected foam cells contained a large number of oxidized low-density lipoproteins. The observations provide support to the hypothesis that C. pneumoniae could affect foam cell formation in human atherosclerosis.

  7. Growth in serum-free medium improves isolation of Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Maass, M; Essig, A; Marre, R; Henkel, W

    1993-01-01

    Infectivity titers were determined for eight Chlamydia pneumoniae strains simultaneously grown in serum-free and serum-supplemented cell culture media. Use of serum-free medium resulted in a 10- to 50-fold increase in the susceptibility of HL cells to chlamydial infection. Comparative primary isolation of a wild-type strain also produced higher inclusion counts in a serum-free environment. Serum-free cultivation is recommended to increase the efficiency of C. pneumoniae isolation from clinica...

  8. Relationship between Chlamydia pneumonia and helicobacter pylori with atherosclerosis

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    ali Pooria

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pooria A1, Maasoomi M2, Rafiee E3, Rezaee M4, Sabzi F5, Hossain Zadegan H6, Salehi M7, Mozaffari P8 1. Assistant Professor, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 2. Professor, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 3. Assistant Professor, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Department of Pathology 4. Associate Professor, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences 5. Assistant Professor, Department of Statistics, Faculty of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences 6. Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 7. Bsc in Nursing, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences 8. Instructor, Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and midwifery, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences Abstract Background: Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of deaths in the developed countries and causes one million mortalities per year in the USA. Smoking, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidemia, stress, and low activity are known to be the causes of atherosclerosis. The objective of this study is to confirm the relationship between chlamydia pneumonia (Cpn, as well as helicobacter pylori (Hp and atherosclerosis. Materials and methods: In this analytical case-control study two groups of patients were studied. The first group including 30 patients over 30 years old with coronary artery disease were operated using coronary artery bypass graft. The control group included 30 persons assessed with angiography and having normal coronary arteries. The data were collected and analyzed using statistical methods. Results: The two groups were similar in terms of IgA and IgG anti-Cpn, and IgG anti- Hp but they were statistically different concerning IgA anti-Hp which had more positive cases in the case group in comparison with the

  9. Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in a collection of captive snakes and response to treatment with marbofloxacin.

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    Rüegg, S R; Regenscheit, N; Origgi, F C; Kaiser, C; Borel, N

    2015-09-01

    In a collection of 58 snakes comprising predominantly Eurasian vipers in Switzerland, five snakes died unexpectedly during hibernation from 2009 to 2012. In one snake, organisms resembling chlamydiae were detected by immunohistochemistry in multiple histiocytic granulomas. Real-time quantitative PCR and microarray analysis were used to determine the presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in tissue samples and cloacal/choanal swabs from snakes in the collection; 8/53 (15.1%) of the remaining snakes were positive. Although one infected snake had suppurative periglossitis, infection with C. pneumoniae did not appear to be associated with specific clinical signs in snakes. Of seven snakes treated with 5 mg/kg marbofloxacin IM once daily, five became PCR negative for C. pneumoniae following treatment, whereas one animal remained positive and one snake was lost to follow-up. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Serological association of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Xueyu Chen

    Full Text Available We investigated the serological association of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with age-related macular degeneration (AMD.A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Association of Research in Vision and Ophthalmology abstracts were searched to identify studies investigating the serological association of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with age-related macular degeneration. The quality of original studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Heterogeneity was explored with meta-regression. The odds ratios (ORs and standardized mean differences (SMD of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection between AMD patients and controls were pooled.In total, 9 studies met the inclusion criteria using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale scores ranging from 4 to 9. There was heterogeneity among studies due to a difference in the study designs and measurement of exposure to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. The overall OR of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with AMD was 1.11 (95% confidence interval: 0.78-1.57, P = 0.56. The overall SMD of antibody titer between AMD and control was 0.43 (95% confidence interval: -0.12 to 0.99, P = 0.13.Evidence from the current published literature suggested no statistically significant association between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and AMD.

  11. Serological association of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueyu; Jhanji, Vishal; Chen, Chupeng; Chen, Haoyu

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the serological association of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Association of Research in Vision and Ophthalmology abstracts were searched to identify studies investigating the serological association of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with age-related macular degeneration. The quality of original studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Heterogeneity was explored with meta-regression. The odds ratios (ORs) and standardized mean differences (SMD) of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection between AMD patients and controls were pooled. In total, 9 studies met the inclusion criteria using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale scores ranging from 4 to 9. There was heterogeneity among studies due to a difference in the study designs and measurement of exposure to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. The overall OR of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with AMD was 1.11 (95% confidence interval: 0.78-1.57, P = 0.56). The overall SMD of antibody titer between AMD and control was 0.43 (95% confidence interval: -0.12 to 0.99, P = 0.13). Evidence from the current published literature suggested no statistically significant association between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and AMD.

  12. Searching for Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae in primary endodontic infections.

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    Rôças, Isabela N; Siqueira, José F

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to search samples from primary endodontic infections for the presence of two common human bacterial pathogens - Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Genomic DNA isolated from samples taken from 25 root canals of teeth with asymptomatic (chronic) apical periodontitis and 25 aspirates from acute apical abscess was initially amplified by the multiple displacement amplification approach and then used as template in species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of H. pylori and C. pneumoniae. All clinical samples were positive for the presence of bacterial DNA. However, no clinical sample was positive for either H. pylori or C. pneumoniae. Neither H. pylori nor C. pneumoniae were found in samples from primary endodontic infections. These findings suggest that these species are not candidate endodontic pathogens and that the necrotic root canal does not serve as a reservoir for these human pathogens in healthy patients.

  13. Chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and bronchial asthma: Is there a link?

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    Agarwal A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Besides well-defined environmental causes, accumulating evidence suggests that respiratory tract infections play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Among these Chlamydia pneumoniae infection has been discussed as possibly inducing the development of asthma. Methods: This study was designed to investigate the presence of anti chlamydial IgG, IgA, and IgM antibodies by ELISA in serum samples of 60 adults with a clinical history of asthma and 100 healthy age and sex matched controls. All the samples positive for Chlamydial genus specific IgG antibodies were then subjected to Chlamydia pneumoniae species specific IgG antibody ELISA. Results: The IgG anti chlamydial antibody-positivity rate in the patients with bronchial asthma (80% was significantly higher in all age groups than that in the healthy age and sex matched controls (59%. No significant association was observed for IgA and IgM anti chlamydial antibodies. C. pneumoniae species specific IgG antibody seroprevalence was also found to be significantly higher in all age groups in comparison to controls (61.66% vs 38%. Conclusions: Serological evidence of chronic infection with C. pneumoniae was more frequent in patients with asthma compared with control subjects. Our results support the correlation of bronchial asthma and chronic infection with C. pneumoniae in Indian population.

  14. Acute Glomerulonephritis in a Child with Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection: A Case Report

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    Giovanna Vitaliti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Infectious diseases seem to be an important and independent risk factor for renal failure, but the underlying mechanism of renal involvement during some kinds of infectious diseases is still unclear, even if the literature data report immunomediated and/or autoimmune mechanisms to explain the pathogenic relationship between the two diseases. In paediatric patients, Chlamydia pneumoniae is a rare cause of renal complications and it may manifest in several ways, mainly involving the respiratory system, even if also renal and glomerulalr complications, have been described. Case Diagnosis/Treatment. Herein we report a case of a 3-year-old child who developed an acute glomerulonephritis that was chronologically, clinically, and biologically related to a previous Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. On our knowledge, in the literature it is the youngest patient with renal involvement during course of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection ever reported. Conclusions. The present case supports the hypothesis of a rather close causal relationship between this infective agent and renal and glomerular symptoms occurred in this child, during an acute episode of respiratory disease.

  15. CHLAMYDIA PNEUMONIAE INFECTION AND CARDIAC RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH MYOCARDIAL INFECTION

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    Zohreh Azarkar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidences support the possible involvement of microorganisms such as Chlamydia pneumonia in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart diseases through a chronic inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between Chlamydia pneumoniae seropositivity with acute myocardial infarction and its related risk factors.    METHODS: In this case-control study, 88 patients admitted in CCU with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome, without a history of chronic diseases including cancers were selected as cases and 49 surgical patients without an evidence of cardiovascular disease according to clinical examinations and ECG were selected as controls. Demographic characteristics and background risk factors were obtained using a questionnaire by expert nurses. Venous blood sample was obtained from participants for measuring the anti Chlamydia IgG and IgM antibodies using ELISA method. The prevalence of antibodies was compared in both groups and its relation with coronary syndrome was evaluated.    RESULTS: 88 and 49 patients were enrolled in case and control groups, respectively. Mean age of patients and the controls was 14 ± 59.7 and 13 ± 56.9 years, respectively (P = 0.26. Anti Chlamydia IgG seropositivity rate was 63(71.9% and 23(46.9% in case and controlcontrol groups, respectively (P < 0.01; OR: 2.85; CI 95%: 1.38 - 5.9. Anti Chlamydia IgM was positive in 1 patient and 1 control. Anti Chlamydia IgG seropositivity rate was higher in patients older than 50 years old than those younger than 50 years old (OR: 2.83; CI 95%: 1.31 -1.14. There was a significant relation between BMI, smoking and Anti Chlamydia IgG seropositivity.    CONCLUSION: Considering the relation between anti Chlamydia antibody IgG seropositivity with BMI and myocardial infarction, it seems that appropriate diagnosis and treatment of these prone patients can be benefical.

  16. In situ detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae, C. trachomatis, and cytokines among cardiovascular diseased patients from the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Larissa S; Almeida, Núbia Caroline C; Freitas Queiroz, Maria Alice; Zaninotto, Marcelo M; Fuzii, Hellen T; Ribeiro-Silva, Alfredo; Vallinoto, Antonio Cr; Ishak, Marluísa Og; Quaresma, Juarez As; Ishak, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Chronic coronary artery disease has been associated, as a consequence of the local inflammatory reaction with previous or persistent infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae , which led to the investigation of the association of cardiovascular disease and previous infection with C. trachomatis and the role of cytokine profile (in situ) markers in the vascular system tissues. Sixty-nine biopsies were collected for immunohistochemical analysis for the presence of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β, and IL-10, in 16 fragments from atheromatous plaques, 32 aorta fragments, and 21 valve fragments, using a tissue microarray technique for paraffin embedded tissues. Most patients undergoing revascularization surgery were men >50 years, while those undergoing valve replacement were mostly women history of chronic coronary artery disease and the clinical history of the patients and cytokine dynamics in cardiac disease in the presence or absence of infectious agents.

  17. Shear Stress Enhances Chemokine Secretion from Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected Monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evani, Shankar J; Dallo, Shatha F; Murthy, Ashlesh K; Ramasubramanian, Anand K

    2013-09-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common respiratory pathogen that is considered a highly likely risk factor for atherosclerosis. C. pneumoniae is disseminated from the lung into systemic circulation via infected monocytes and lodges at the atherosclerotic sites. During transit, C. pneumoniae -infected monocytes in circulation are subjected to shear stress due to blood flow. The effect of mechanical stimuli on infected monocytes is largely understudied in the context of C. pneumoniae infection and inflammation. We hypothesized that fluid shear stress alters the inflammatory response of C. pneumoniae -infected monocytes and contributes to immune cell recruitment to the site of tissue damage. Using an in vitro model of blood flow, we determined that a physiological shear stress of 7.5 dyn/cm 2 for 1 h on C. pneumoniae -infected monocytes enhances the production of several chemokines, which in turn is correlated with the recruitment of significantly large number of monocytes. Taken together, these results suggest synergistic interaction between mechanical and chemical factors in C. pneumoniae infection and associated inflammation.

  18. Chlamydia pneumoniae and stroke: is there a direct relationship? Chlamydia pneumoniae e acidente vascular cerebral aterotrombótico: existe relação direta?

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    Rubens J. Gagliardi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible relationship between atherothrombotic stroke and Chlamydia pneumoniae. METHOD: 150 patients with carotid atherothrombosis were enrolled. The casuistic was divided in three groups: ischemic stroke (IS: 65 patients; transient ischemic attack (TIA: 26 patients; and control: 59. The IS or TIA onset was up to 30 days from the beginning of the study. Carotid atheromatoses was diagnosed by Doppler-ultrasonography. Patients with cardioembolic risk or non-atherothrombotic origin were excluded. Comparisons were done between the three groups, and within each group according to the different age sub-groups, to the main arteries affected, and to the atherogenic risk factors. Bacteria detection was done using polimerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Only one patient tested positive for C. pneumoniae belonging to the control group. CONCLUSION: These results do not suggest that C. pneumoniae participated in the onset of IS or TIA or that it has a role in carotid plaque destabilization.OBJETIVO: Investigar a possível relação entre Chlamydia pneumoniae e acidente vascular cerebral aterotrombótico (AVC. MÉTODO: 150 pacientes com aterotrombose carotídea foram estudados. A casuística foi dividida em 3 grupos: AVC: 65 pacientes; ataque isquêmico transitório (AIT: 26 pacientes e controles: 59. O início do AVC ou AIT era até 30 dias da inclusão no estudo. A ateromatose carotídea foi diagnosticada por ultrassonografia com Doppler. Os pacientes com risco cárdio-embólico ou sem evidência de aterotrombose foram excluídos. Foram estabelecidas comparações entre os 3 grupos e dentro de cada grupo, formado sub-grupos de acordo com diferentes idades, território arterial comprometido e fatores de risco. A detecção da bactéria foi feita por reação de polimerização em cadeia. RESULTADOS: Somente um paciente, pertencente ao grupo controle, teve resultado positivo. CONCLUSÃO: Estes achados não sugerem que a C. pneumoniae

  19. Community epidemiology of Chlamydia and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in LRTI in France over 29 months

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillat, Jacques; Flahault, Antoine; Barbeyrac, Bertille de; Orfila, Jeanne; Portier, Henri; Ducroix, Jean-Pierre; Bebear, Christiane; Mayaud, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Background: The role of Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) in lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) is still little known in community settings. Methods: In all, 3207 adult cases of LRTI (871 with pneumonia, and 2336 with acute bronchitis) were prospectively included in the ETIIC 1 ETIIC : ETude de l'Incidence des Infections respiratoires basses d'origine Communautaire dues a Chlamydia pneumoniae et Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Incidence of CP and MP in LRTI in community settings)program by 303 general practitioners and 24 hospital physicians in France between September 1997 and February 2000. The polymerase chain reaction and immunoassays were used to detect CP or MP in 3198 pharyngeal specimens obtained by gargling. Results: Of these 3198 patients, 232 (7.3%), were PCR-positive for CP and/or MP. Immunoassays were far less sensitive than PCRs (Se = 2 and 13% for MP and CP). Among the 2336 patients with acute bronchitis, PCR was positive for CP in 95 (4.1%), and for MP, in 54 (2.3%). Among the 671 patients with radiologically confirmed pneumonia, PCR was positive for CP in 23 (3.4%), and for MP in 49 (7.3%). CP and MP displayed significant geographic heterogeneity. Independent clinical determinants of positive PCR for CP and/or MP were age below 45 years, previous antimicrobial therapy (especially betalactams). Clinical signs were not of practical use in distinguishing accurately between etiologic diagnoses. Conclusions: CP or MP diagnosed by PCR were found in more than 7% of patients with LRTI in community settings with a significant geographical heterogeneity and significant temporal trends in the incidence

  20. Chlamydia

    Science.gov (United States)

    In men, chlamydia may cause symptoms similar to gonorrhea . Symptoms may include: Burning feeling during urination Discharge ... of sexually transmitted infection (STIs). Common STIs are gonorrhea, HIV, syphilis, hepatitis, and herpes . Even if you ...

  1. Asociación entre enfermedad cardiovascular y anticuerpos contra Chlamydia pneumoniae Association between cardiovascular disease and antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe de los A García-Elorriaga

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Precisar si existe asociación entre enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV y anticuerpos contra Chlamydia en población mexicana. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal, realizado en la Unidad de Investigación en Inmunología e Infectología -Hospital de Infectología del Centro Médico Nacional La Raza (CMNR- y en el Servicio de Cirugía Cardiovascular y Asistencia Circulatoria, del Hospital General del CMNR, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS, de agosto de 1998 a abril de 2000. Se determinaron anticuerpos IgG e IgM contra C. psittaci, C. trachomatis y C. pneumoniae mediante microinmunofluorescencia, en suero de 70 pacientes con ECV hospitalizados en el CMNR, mayores de 30 años, de uno u otro sexo, y se compararon con 140 sanos, pareados por edad y sexo. Se utilizaron muestras aleatorias simples, con un tamaño poblacional de 110, una prevalencia de 50% y un nivel de confianza de 99%. Para establecer la diferencia entre las proporciones de los títulos se utilizó ji cuadrada y se calculó la razón de momios. Resultados. El 94.3% (66/70 de los pacientes presentó IgG en contra de C. pneumoniae vs 37% (52/140 de los individuos sanos (pObjective. To evaluate the association between cardiovascular disease (CVD and antibodies against Chlamydia in Mexican population. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from August 1988 to April 2000, at the Immunology and Infectology Research Unit of Hospital de Infectología, Centro Médico Nacional La Raza (CMNR- and at the Cardiovascular Surgery and Circulatory Care, Hospital General CMNR, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS. Study subjects were 70 CVD hospitalized patients, older than 30 years, from both genders. Serum IgG and IgM antibodies against C. psitaccii, C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae were determined by microimmunofluorescence in study subjects and compared with those from 140 healthy individuals, matched by age and sex. Simple random sampling was used

  2. Comparison of koala LPCoLN and human strains of Chlamydia pneumoniae highlights extended genetic diversity in the species

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Candice M; Hovis, Kelley M; Bavoil, Patrik M; Myers, Garry SA; Carrasco, Jose A; Timms, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Chlamydia pneumoniae is a widespread pathogen causing upper and lower respiratory tract infections in addition to a range of other diseases in humans and animals. Previous whole genome analyses have focused on four essentially clonal (> 99% identity) C. pneumoniae human genomes (AR39, CWL029, J138 and TW183), providing relatively little insight into strain diversity and evolution of this species. Results We performed individual gene-by-gene comparisons of the recently sequ...

  3. Prediction of Chlamydia pneumoniae protein localization in host mitochondria and cytoplasm and possible involvements in lung cancer etiology: a computational approach

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    Aws Alshamsan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Collecting evidence suggests that the intercellular infection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in lungs contributes to the etiology of lung cancer. Many proteins of Chlamydia pneumoniae outmanoeuvre the various system of the host. The infection may regulate various factors, which can influence the growth of lung cancer in affected persons. In this in-silico study, we predict potential targeting of Chlamydia pneumoniae proteins in mitochondrial and cytoplasmic comportments of host cell and their possible involvement in growth and development of lung cancer. Various cellular activities are controlled in mitochondria and cytoplasm, where the localization of Chlamydia pneumoniae proteins may alter the normal functioning of host cells. The rationale of this study is to find out and explain the connection between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and lung cancer. A sum of 183 and 513 proteins were predicted to target in mitochondria and cytoplasm of host cell out of total 1112 proteins of Chlamydia pneumoniae. In particular, many targeted proteins may interfere with normal growth behaviour of host cells, thereby altering the decision of program cell death. Present article provides a potential connection of Chlamydia pneumoniae protein targeting and proposed that various targeted proteins may play crucial role in lung cancer etiology through diverse mechanisms.

  4. Smoking, season, and detection of chlamydia pneumoniae DNA in clinically stable COPD patients

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    Goldsmith Charles H

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence and role of Chlamydia pneumoniae in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD remain unclear. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from 100 outpatients with smoking-related, clinically stable COPD, and induced sputum was obtained in 62 patients. Results Patients had mean age (standard deviation of 65.8 (10.7 years, mean forced expiratory volume in one second of 1.34 (0.61 L, and 61 (61.0% were male. C. pneumoniae nucleic acids were detected by nested polymerase chain reaction in 27 (27.0%. Current smoking (odds ratio {OR} = 2.6, 95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.1, 6.6, P = 0.04, season (November to April (OR = 3.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 9.2, P = 0.007, and chronic sputum production (OR = 6.4, 95% CI: 1.8, 23.2, P = 0.005 were associated with detection of C. pneumoniae DNA. Conclusions Prospective studies are needed to examine the role of C. pneumoniae nucleic acid detection in COPD disease symptoms and progression.

  5. Chlamydia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... No single step can protect you from every single type of STI. Can women who have sex with women get chlamydia? Yes. ... Notice Language Assistance Available Accessibility Privacy Policy Disclaimers Freedom of Information Act ... A federal government website managed by the Office on Women's Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary ...

  6. Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus - a new in vitro model of chlamydial persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Nicole; Dumrese, Claudia; Ziegler, Urs; Schifferli, Andrea; Kaiser, Carmen; Pospischil, Andreas

    2010-07-27

    Chlamydiae induce persistent infections, which have been associated with a wide range of chronic diseases in humans and animals. Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) may result in generation of persistent chlamydial infections. To test this hypothesis, an in vitro model of dual infection with cell culture-adapted PEDV and Chlamydia abortus or Chlamydia pecorum in Vero cells was established. Infected cultures were investigated by immunofluorescence (IF), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and re-infection experiments. By IF, Chlamydia-infected cells showed normal inclusions after 39 hpi. Dual infections with Chlamydia abortus revealed a heterogenous mix of inclusion types including small inclusions consisting of aberrant bodies (ABs), medium-sized inclusions consisting of ABs and reticulate bodies and normal inclusions. Only aberrant inclusions were observable in dual infection experiments with Chlamydia pecorum and PEDV. TEM examinations of mixed infections with Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia pecorum revealed aberrant chlamydial inclusions containing reticulate-like, pleomorphic ABs, which were up to 2 microm in diameter. No re-differentiation into elementary bodies (EBs) was detected. In re-infection experiments, co-infected cells produced fewer EBs than monoinfected cells. In the present study we confirm that PEDV co-infection alters the developmental cycle of member species of the family Chlamydiaceae, in a similar manner to other well-described persistence induction methods. Interestingly, this effect appears to be partially species-specific as Chlamydia pecorum appears more sensitive to PEDV co-infection than Chlamydia abortus, as evidenced by TEM and IF observations of a homogenous population of aberrant inclusions in PEDV - Chlamydia pecorum co-infections.

  7. Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus - a new in vitro model of chlamydial persistence

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    Kaiser Carmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiae induce persistent infections, which have been associated with a wide range of chronic diseases in humans and animals. Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV may result in generation of persistent chlamydial infections. To test this hypothesis, an in vitro model of dual infection with cell culture-adapted PEDV and Chlamydia abortus or Chlamydia pecorum in Vero cells was established. Results Infected cultures were investigated by immunofluorescence (IF, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and re-infection experiments. By IF, Chlamydia-infected cells showed normal inclusions after 39 hpi. Dual infections with Chlamydia abortus revealed a heterogenous mix of inclusion types including small inclusions consisting of aberrant bodies (ABs, medium-sized inclusions consisting of ABs and reticulate bodies and normal inclusions. Only aberrant inclusions were observable in dual infection experiments with Chlamydia pecorum and PEDV. TEM examinations of mixed infections with Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia pecorum revealed aberrant chlamydial inclusions containing reticulate-like, pleomorphic ABs, which were up to 2 μm in diameter. No re-differentiation into elementary bodies (EBs was detected. In re-infection experiments, co-infected cells produced fewer EBs than monoinfected cells. Conclusions In the present study we confirm that PEDV co-infection alters the developmental cycle of member species of the family Chlamydiaceae, in a similar manner to other well-described persistence induction methods. Interestingly, this effect appears to be partially species-specific as Chlamydia pecorum appears more sensitive to PEDV co-infection than Chlamydia abortus, as evidenced by TEM and IF observations of a homogenous population of aberrant inclusions in PEDV - Chlamydia pecorum co-infections.

  8. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae in calcified nodules of aortic stenotic valves Mycoplasma pneumoniae e Chlamydia pneumoniae nos focos de calcificação de valva aórtica estenótica

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    Maria de Lourdes HIGUCHI

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Aortic Valve Stenosis (AVS has been explained as an atherosclerotic process of the valve as they often exhibit inflammatory changes with infiltration of macrophages, T lymphocytes and lipid infiltration. The present study investigated whether the bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP, detected previously in atherosclerotic plaques, are also present in AVS. Ten valves surgically removed from patients with AVS were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy. The mean and standard deviation of the percentage areas occupied by CP antigens and MP - DNA were respectively 6.21 +/- 5.41 and 2.27 +/- 2.06 in calcified foci; 2.8 +/- 3.33 and 1.78+/- 3.63 in surrounding fibrotic areas, and 0.21 +/- 0.17 and 0.12 +/- 0.13 in less injured parts of the valve. There was higher amount of CP and MP in the calcified foci and in the surrounded fibrosis than in more preserved valvular regions. In conclusion, the fact that there were greater amounts of CP and MP in calcification foci of AVS favors the hypothesis that AS is not an inevitable degenerative process due to aging, but rather that it may be a response to the presence of these bacteria, similarly to the morphology detected in atherosclerosis damage.Estenose da Valva Aórtica (EVA tem sido considerada como um processo aterosclerótico das valvas pois elas freqüentemente exibem alterações inflamatórias com acúmulo de macrófagos e linfócitos T, bem como infiltração de lípides. O presente estudo investigou se as bactérias Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP e Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP, detectadas previamente em placas ateroscleróticas, estavam presentes na EVA. Dez valvas removidas cirúrgicamente de pacientes com EVA foram analisadas pela imunohistoquímica, hibridização in situ e microscopia eletrônica. A média e desvio padrão das porcentagens de área ocupadas por antígenos de CP e de DNA do MP foram respectivamente de 6,21 +/- 5,41 e 2

  9. The Type III Secretion System-Related CPn0809 from Chlamydia pneumoniae.

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    Astrid C Engel

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae is an intracellular Gram-negative bacterium that possesses a type III secretion system (T3SS, which enables the pathogen to deliver, in a single step, effector proteins for modulation of host-cell functions into the human host cell cytosol to establish a unique intracellular niche for replication. The translocon proteins located at the top of the T3SS needle filament are essential for its function, as they form pores in the host-cell membrane. Interestingly, unlike other Gram-negative bacteria, C. pneumoniae has two putative translocon operons, named LcrH_1 and LcrH_2. However, little is known about chlamydial translocon proteins. In this study, we analyzed CPn0809, one of the putative hydrophobic translocators encoded by the LcrH_1 operon, and identified an 'SseC-like family' domain characteristic of T3S translocators. Using bright-field and confocal microscopy, we found that CPn0809 is associated with EBs during early and very late phases of a C. pneumoniae infection. Furthermore, CPn0809 forms oligomers, and interacts with the T3SS chaperone LcrH_1, via its N-terminal segment. Moreover, expression of full-length CPn0809 in the heterologous host Escherichia coli causes a grave cytotoxic effect that leads to cell death. Taken together, our data indicate that CPn0809 likely represents one of the translocon proteins of the C. pneumoniae T3SS, and possibly plays a role in the translocation of effector proteins in the early stages of infection.

  10. Decreased expression of liver X receptor-α in macrophages infected with Chlamydia pneumoniae in human atherosclerotic arteries in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobryshev, Yuri V; Orekhov, Alexander N; Killingsworth, Murray C; Lu, Jinhua

    2011-01-01

    In in vitro experiments, Chlamydia pneumoniae has been shown to infect macrophages and to accelerate foam cell formation. It has been hypothesized that the C. pneumoniae infection affects foam cell formation by suppressing the expression of liver X receptors (LXR), but whether such an event occurs in human atherosclerosis is not known. In this study we examined carotid artery segments, obtained by endarterectomy, in which the presence of C. pneumoniae was confirmed by both polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. The expression of LXR-α in macrophages infected with C. pneumoniae and macrophages that were not infected was compared using a quantitative immunohistochemical analysis. The analysis revealed a 2.2-fold reduction in the expression of LXR-α in C. pneumoniae-infected cells around the lipid cores in atherosclerotic plaques. In the cytoplasm of laser-capture microdissected cells that were immunopositive for C. pneumoniae, electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of structures with the appearance of elementary, reticulate and aberrant bodies of C. pneumoniae. We conclude that LXR-α expression is reduced in C. pneumoniae-infected macrophages in human atherosclerotic lesions which supports the hypothesis that C. pneumoniae infection might suppress LXR expression in macrophages transforming into foam cells. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Asociación entre enfermedad cardiovascular y anticuerpos contra Chlamydia pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Elorriaga Guadalupe de los A

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Precisar si existe asociación entre enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV y anticuerpos contra Chlamydia en población mexicana. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal, realizado en la Unidad de Investigación en Inmunología e Infectología -Hospital de Infectología del Centro Médico Nacional La Raza (CMNR- y en el Servicio de Cirugía Cardiovascular y Asistencia Circulatoria, del Hospital General del CMNR, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS, de agosto de 1998 a abril de 2000. Se determinaron anticuerpos IgG e IgM contra C. psittaci, C. trachomatis y C. pneumoniae mediante microinmunofluorescencia, en suero de 70 pacientes con ECV hospitalizados en el CMNR, mayores de 30 años, de uno u otro sexo, y se compararon con 140 sanos, pareados por edad y sexo. Se utilizaron muestras aleatorias simples, con un tamaño poblacional de 110, una prevalencia de 50% y un nivel de confianza de 99%. Para establecer la diferencia entre las proporciones de los títulos se utilizó ji cuadrada y se calculó la razón de momios. Resultados. El 94.3% (66/70 de los pacientes presentó IgG en contra de C. pneumoniae vs 37% (52/140 de los individuos sanos (p<0.001. Conclusiones. Existe una fuerte asociación entre anticuerpos IgG hacia C. pneumoniae y ECV.

  12. Severe Tryptophan Starvation Blocks Onset of Conventional Persistence and Reduces Reactivation of Chlamydia trachomatis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Ralf M.; Lee, Seung-Joon; Kavathas, Paula B.; Cresswell, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The intracellular survival of the bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis depends on protein synthesis by the microbe soon after internalization. Pharmacologic inhibition of bacterial translation inhibits early trafficking of the parasitophorous vacuole (inclusion) to the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) and promotes its fusion with lysosomes, which is normally blocked by Chlamydia. Depletion of cellular tryptophan pools by gamma interferon-inducible indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is believed to be the major innate immune mechanism controlling C. trachomatis infection in human cells, an action to which the bacteria can respond by converting into a nonreplicating but highly reactivatable persistent state. However, whether severe IDO-mediated tryptophan starvation can be sufficient to fully arrest the chlamydial life cycle and thereby counteract the onset of persistence is unknown. Here we demonstrate that at low exogenous tryptophan concentrations a substantial fraction of C. trachomatis bacteria fail to traffic to the MTOC or to switch into the conventional persistent state in gamma interferon-induced human cells. The organisms stay scattered in the cell periphery, do not retain infectivity, and display only low transcriptional activity. Importantly, the rate at which these aberrant Chlamydia bacteria become reactivated upon replenishment of cellular tryptophan pools is substantially lower. Thus, severe tryptophan depletion in cells with high IDO activity affects chlamydial development more rigorously than previously described. PMID:17724071

  13. In situ detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae, C. trachomatis, and cytokines among cardiovascular diseased patients from the Amazon region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitas LS

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Larissa S Freitas,1 Núbia Caroline C Almeida,1 Maria Alice Freitas Queiroz,1 Marcelo M Zaninotto,2 Hellen T Fuzii,3 Alfredo Ribeiro-Silva,4 Antonio CR Vallinoto,1 Marluísa OG Ishak,1 Juarez AS Quaresma,3 Ricardo Ishak1 1Virus Laboratory, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Para, 2Hospital of Clinic Gaspar Viana, 3Laboratory of Immunopathology, Nucleus of Tropical Medicine, Federal University of Para, Belém, 4Departament of Pathology, Medical School of Ribeirão Preto, University of Sao Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Background: Chronic coronary artery disease has been associated, as a consequence of the local inflammatory reaction with previous or persistent infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae, which led to the investigation of the association of cardiovascular disease and previous infection with C. trachomatis and the role of cytokine profile (in situ markers in the vascular system tissues. Methods: Sixty-nine biopsies were collected for immunohistochemical analysis for the presence of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β, and IL-10, in 16 fragments from atheromatous plaques, 32 aorta fragments, and 21 valve fragments, using a tissue microarray technique for paraffin embedded tissues. Results: Most patients undergoing revascularization surgery were men >50 years, while those undergoing valve replacement were mostly women <50 years. TNF-α was the most prevalent marker, detected in 91.7% (55/60 of the samples. The mean percent area stained was greater in patients infected with C. pneumoniae (3.81% vs 1.92%; p=0.0115 and specifically in the aorta (4.83% vs 2.25%; p=0.0025; C. trachomatis infection was higher in valves, and C. pneumoniae in plaques, both without statistical significance. There was no significant difference in the cytokine staining profile between patients previously infected with both species and uninfected patients. Conclusion: Although there was no difference in the cytokine profile between patients previously

  14. Identification of two novel genes encoding 97- to 99-kilodalton outer membrane proteins of Chlamydia pneumoniae.Infect Immun. 1999 Jan;67(1):375-83

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, K; Madsen, AS; Mygind, P

    1999-01-01

    Two genes encoding 97- to 99-kDa Chlamydia pneumoniae VR1310 outer membrane proteins (Omp4 and Omp5) with mutual similarity were cloned and sequenced. The proteins were shown to be constituents of the C. pneumoniae outer membrane complex, and the deduced amino acid sequences were similar to those...

  15. Effect of a Mycoplasma hominis-like Mycoplasma on the infection of HEp-2 cells by the TW-183 strain of Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, E A; Wadowsky, R M

    2000-02-01

    We isolated a Mycoplasma hominis-like mycoplasma from a stock culture of Chlamydia pneumoniae TW-183 obtained from the American Type Culture Collection and eradicated the contaminant by treating the stock suspension with a nonionic detergent, Igepal CA-630. The M. hominis-like mycoplasma neither inhibits nor enhances the infectivity of C. pneumoniae for HEp-2 cells.

  16. Effect of a Mycoplasma hominis-Like Mycoplasma on the Infection of HEp-2 Cells by the TW-183 Strain of Chlamydia pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Castilla, Elias A.; Wadowsky, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    We isolated a Mycoplasma hominis-like mycoplasma from a stock culture of Chlamydia pneumoniae TW-183 obtained from the American Type Culture Collection and eradicated the contaminant by treating the stock suspension with a nonionic detergent, Igepal CA-630. The M. hominis-like mycoplasma neither inhibits nor enhances the infectivity of C. pneumoniae for HEp-2 cells.

  17. Quantificação morfométrica de Chlamydia pneumoniae e Mycoplasma pneumoniae em aneurismas de aorta abdominal humana Morphometrical quantification of Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in human atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysms

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    Lucas José Tachotti Pires

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A inflamação aterosclerótica, com possível papel de agentes infecciosos, pode contribuir na patogênese dos aneurismas da aorta abdominal (AAA. O achado de Chamydia pneumoniae (CP nessas lesões, em estudos prévios, sem quantificação, variou de 0-100%. O objetivo é quantificar a presença de CP e de Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP nos AAA. MÉTODO: A espessura, o número de células positivas para CP detectadas por imunoperoxidase e a porcentagem de área ocupada por MP detectada por hibridização "in situ", nas três camadas da aorta, foram medidos com sistema de análise de imagens, em 10 aortas abdominais aneurismáticas. Usouse três grupos-controle: 1 amostras das mesmas aortas, fora do aneurisma, exceto se a dilatação tomasse toda a porção sub-renal da artéria (n=7; 2 aortas com aterosclerose grave, mas sem aneurismas (n=10; 3 aortas sem aterosclerose ou com grau leve da doença (n=10. Todos os espécimes foram obtidos em necropsias. Usou-se o teste de Wald para comparar os grupos; fixou-se o nível de significância em 5%. RESULTADOS: A íntima era mais fina e a média mais espessa nos casos normais que nos outros grupos (p0,05. Também se detectou MP em todos os grupos. Este agente predominou no grupo de pacientes com aterosclerose, mas sem aneurisma na íntima e na adventícia; entretanto, as diferenças entre os grupos não foram significativas (p>0,05. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos dados sugerem que os agentes enfocados não têm papel importante na patogênese dos AAA.OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerotic inflammation, with a possible role of infectious agents, could contribute to the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA. Finding of Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP in these lesions in previous, non-quantifying studies ranged from 0-100%. The objective is to quantify the presence of CP and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP in AAA. METHODS: Thickness, number of cells positive for CP by immunohistochemistry and percent area occupied by MP

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis responds to heat shock, penicillin induced persistence, and IFN-gamma persistence by altering levels of the extracytoplasmic stress response protease HtrA

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    Mathews Sarah A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular human pathogen, is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide and a leading cause of preventable blindness. HtrA is a virulence and stress response periplasmic serine protease and molecular chaperone found in many bacteria. Recombinant purified C. trachomatis HtrA has been previously shown to have both activities. This investigation examined the physiological role of Chlamydia trachomatis HtrA. Results The Chlamydia trachomatis htrA gene complemented the lethal high temperature phenotype of Escherichia coli htrA- (>42°C. HtrA levels were detected to increase by western blot and immunofluorescence during Chlamydia heat shock experiments. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed a likely periplasmic localisation of HtrA. During penicillin induced persistence of Chlamydia trachomatis, HtrA levels (as a ratio of LPS were initially less than control acute cultures (20 h post infection but increased to more than acute cultures at 44 h post infection. This was unlike IFN-γ persistence where lower levels of HtrA were observed, suggesting Chlamydia trachomatis IFN-γ persistence does not involve a broad stress response. Conclusion The heterologous heat shock protection for Escherichia coli, and increased HtrA during cell wall disruption via penicillin and heat shock, indicates an important role for HtrA during high protein stress conditions for Chlamydia trachomatis.

  19. Antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis heat shock proteins in women with tubal factor infertility are associated with prior infection by C. trachomatis but not by C. pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, K; Osser, S; Birkelund, Svend

    1999-01-01

    The antibody response to heat shock proteins 60 and 10 were studied in 163 patients with tubal factor infertility and in 163 age-matched pregnant women. The associations of these antibodies with specific antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis and to Chlamydia pneumoniae as well as with antibodies...... proteins and to C. trachomatis but no independent influence of antibodies to C. pneumoniae. No interaction between C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae suggesting a synergistic effect was found although the heat shock proteins from these two organisms are immunologically similar. Antibodies to the chlamydial...

  20. [Case of infectious mononucleosis with suspected primary coinfection with Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae and Epstein-Barr virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizuma, Toru

    2008-09-01

    A 26-year-old male was hospitalized with fever and pharyngeal pain. Liver dysfunction and an increase in the percentage of atypical lymphocytes in the peripheral blood were detected. Computed tomography showed pneumonia involving the right lung and synpneumonic pleural effusion. Serum immunological tests showed positive results for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgM and IgG antibodies and Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) IgM and IgA antibodies on admission. The pneumonia and pleural effusion were no longer detectable after a week of treatment with starting azithromycin. At 7 weeks after admission, the liver function test results returned to within normal limits, the serum became negative for EBV VCA IgM antibody, the C. pneumoniae IgM antibody titer decreased, and the C. pneumoniae IgA and IgG antibody titers increased. This case was suspected to have infectious mononucleosis caused by primary coinfection with C. pneumoniae and EBV.

  1. [Evaluation of association between an acute attack of childhood bronchial asthma and Chlamydia pneumoniae infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Liu, Xing-Lian; Xing, Fu-Qiang; Yang, Ju-Sheng; Tu, Hong

    2006-04-01

    To identify whether there is an association between an acute attack of childhood bronchial asthma and Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) infection. Serum specific antibodies IgM and IgG to CP were detected by ELISA in 120 asthmatic children with an acute attack and 82 healthy children. Anti-CP IgM was demonstrated in 22 cases (18.3%) and anti-CP IgG was demonstrated in 32 cases (26.7%) out of the 120 asthmatic patients. The incidence of CP infection in asthmatic children was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (3.7%) (P attack of asthma in 15 cases out of the 32 cases with CP infection, but 17 cases required glucocorticoid inhalation treatment together with anti-CP infection treatment (macrolide antibiotics, eg. azithromycin) for remission of asthma attack. There may be a link between an acute attack of childhood asthma and CP infection. It is thus necessary to detect the CP-specific antibodies in asthmatic children for proper treatment.

  2. Characterization of serine hydroxymethyltransferase GlyA as a potential source of D-alanine in Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedetti, Stefania; Bühl, Henrike; Gaballah, Ahmed; Klöckner, Anna; Otten, Christian; Schneider, Tanja; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Henrichfreise, Beate

    2014-01-01

    For intracellular Chlamydiaceae, there is no need to withstand osmotic challenges, and a functional cell wall has not been detected in these pathogens so far. Nevertheless, penicillin inhibits cell division in Chlamydiaceae resulting in enlarged aberrant bodies, a phenomenon known as chlamydial anomaly. D-alanine is a unique and essential component in the biosynthesis of bacterial cell walls. In free-living bacteria like Escherichia coli, penicillin-binding proteins such as monofunctional transpeptidases PBP2 and PBP3, the putative targets of penicillin in Chlamydiaceae, cross-link adjacent peptidoglycan strands via meso-diaminopimelic acid and D-Ala-D-Ala moieties of pentapeptide side chains. In the absence of genes coding for alanine racemase Alr and DadX homologs, the source of D-Ala and thus the presence of substrates for PBP2 and PBP3 activity in Chlamydiaceae has puzzled researchers for years. Interestingly, Chlamydiaceae genomes encode GlyA, a serine hydroxymethyltransferase that has been shown to exhibit slow racemization of D- and L-alanine as a side reaction in E. coli. We show that GlyA from Chlamydia pneumoniae can serve as a source of D-Ala. GlyA partially reversed the D-Ala auxotrophic phenotype of an E. coli racemase double mutant. Moreover, purified chlamydial GlyA had racemase activity on L-Ala in vitro and was inhibited by D-cycloserine, identifying GlyA, besides D-Ala ligase MurC/Ddl, as an additional target of this competitive inhibitor in Chlamydiaceae. Proof of D-Ala biosynthesis in Chlamydiaceae helps to clarify the structure of cell wall precursor lipid II and the role of chlamydial penicillin-binding proteins in the development of non-dividing aberrant chlamydial bodies and persistence in the presence of penicillin.

  3. Characterization of serine hydroxymethyltransferase GlyA as a potential source of D-alanine in Chlamydia pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania eDe Benedetti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available For intracellular Chlamydiaceae, there is no need to withstand osmotic challenges, and a functional cell wall has not been detected in these pathogens so far. Nevertheless, penicillin inhibits cell division in Chlamydiaceae resulting in enlarged aberrant bodies, a phenomenon known as chlamydial anomaly.D-alanine is a unique and essential component in the biosynthesis of bacterial cell walls. In free-living bacteria like Escherichia coli, penicillin-binding proteins such as monofunctional transpeptidases PBP2 and PBP3, the putative targets of penicillin in Chlamydiaceae, cross-link adjacent peptidoglycan strands via meso-diaminopimelic acid and D-Ala-D-Ala moieties of pentapeptide side chains. In the absence of genes coding for alanine racemase Alr and DadX homologs, the source of D-Ala and thus the presence of substrates for PBP2 and PBP3 activity in Chlamydiaceae has puzzled researchers for years. Interestingly, Chlamydiaceae genomes encode GlyA, a serine hydroxymethyltransferase that has been shown to exhibit slow racemization of D- and L- alanine as a side reaction in E. coli. We show that GlyA from Chlamydia pneumoniae can serve as a source of D-Ala. GlyA partially reversed the D-Ala auxotrophic phenotype of an E. coli racemase double mutant. Moreover, purified chlamydial GlyA had racemase activity on L-Ala in vitro and was inhibited by D-cycloserine, identifying GlyA, besides D-Ala ligase MurC/Ddl, as an additional target of this competitive inhibitor in Chlamydiaceae. Proof of D-Ala biosynthesis in Chlamydiaceae helps to clarify the structure of cell wall precursor lipid II and the role of chlamydial penicillin-binding proteins in the development of non-dividing aberrant chlamydial bodies and persistence in the presence of penicillin.

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse in women with persistent human papillomavirus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kirsten E; Thomsen, Louise T; Schmiedel, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Some studies suggest that Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) enhances cervical carcinogenesis; however, a possible confounding effect of persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was not addressed. We examined the potential role of CT infection in the development of subsequent cervical intraepithel...... intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) in women with prevalent HPV infection and in a subgroup of women with persistent HPV infection.......Some studies suggest that Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) enhances cervical carcinogenesis; however, a possible confounding effect of persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was not addressed. We examined the potential role of CT infection in the development of subsequent cervical...

  5. Pneumonia Atipikal

    OpenAIRE

    Budastra I Nyoman; Siadi Purniti Putu; Subanada Ida Bagus

    2016-01-01

    Pneumonia atipikal adalah pneumonia yang disebabkan oleh mikroorganisme yang tidak dapat diidentifikasi dengan teknik diagnostik standar pneumonia pada umumnya dan tidak menunjukkan respon terhadap antibiotik b-laktam. Mikroorganisme patogen penyebab pneumonia atipikal pada umumnya adalah Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, dan Legionella pneumophila. Manifestasi klinik, pemeriksaan laboratorium dan radiologis pneumonia atipikal menunjukkan gambaran tidak spesifik. Man...

  6. Characterization of hypothetical proteins Cpn0146, 0147, 0284 & 0285 that are predicted to be in the Chlamydia pneumoniae inclusion membrane

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    Liu Kaiyang

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although more than 100 Chlamydia pneumoniae hypothetical proteins have been predicted to be inclusion membrane proteins, only a few have been experimentally demonstrated to be in the inclusion membrane. Using antibodies raised with fusion proteins, we characterized four such hypothetical proteins encoded by two gene clusters (Cpn0146-147 and Cpn0284-285 in the C. pneumoniae genome. Results Cpn0146 and 0147 were detected in the inclusion membrane while Cpn0284 and 0285 inside inclusion and mainly associated with reticulate bodies although all four proteins contain an N-terminal bi-lobed hydrophobic region, a signature motif assigned to inclusion membrane proteins. These four hypothetical proteins were only detected in cells infected with C. pneumoniae but not other chlamydial species, with Cpn0147 at 6 hours and Cpn0146, 0284 & 0285 at 24 hours after infection. Cpn0146 & 147 but not Cpn0284 and 285 co-localized with a host cell endoplasmic reticulum marker, a property known to be possessed by some chlamydial inclusion membrane proteins, when expressed in the host cell cytosol via transgenes. However, the endoplasmic reticulum localization of the C. pneumoniae inclusion membrane proteins did not result in inhibition of the subsequent C. pneumoniae infection. Conclusion The hypothetical proteins Cpn0146 & 0147 were localized in the C. pneumoniae inclusion membrane while Cpn0284 & 0285 within the inclusion although all four were predicted to be Inc proteins, suggesting the need to experimentally characterize the predicted Inc proteins.

  7. Comparison of koala LPCoLN and human strains of Chlamydia pneumoniae highlights extended genetic diversity in the species

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    Carrasco Jose A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia pneumoniae is a widespread pathogen causing upper and lower respiratory tract infections in addition to a range of other diseases in humans and animals. Previous whole genome analyses have focused on four essentially clonal (> 99% identity C. pneumoniae human genomes (AR39, CWL029, J138 and TW183, providing relatively little insight into strain diversity and evolution of this species. Results We performed individual gene-by-gene comparisons of the recently sequenced C. pneumoniae koala genome and four C. pneumoniae human genomes to identify species-specific genes, and more importantly, to gain an insight into the genetic diversity and evolution of the species. We selected genes dispersed throughout the chromosome, representing genes that were specific to C. pneumoniae, genes with a demonstrated role in chlamydial biology and/or pathogenicity (n = 49, genes encoding nucleotide salvage or amino acid biosynthesis proteins (n = 6, and extrachromosomal elements (9 plasmid and 2 bacteriophage genes. Conclusions We have identified strain-specific differences and targets for detection of C. pneumoniae isolates from both human and animal origin. Such characterisation is necessary for an improved understanding of disease transmission and intervention.

  8. Comparison of koala LPCoLN and human strains of Chlamydia pneumoniae highlights extended genetic diversity in the species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Candice M; Hovis, Kelley M; Bavoil, Patrik M; Myers, Garry S A; Carrasco, Jose A; Timms, Peter

    2010-07-21

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a widespread pathogen causing upper and lower respiratory tract infections in addition to a range of other diseases in humans and animals. Previous whole genome analyses have focused on four essentially clonal (> 99% identity) C. pneumoniae human genomes (AR39, CWL029, J138 and TW183), providing relatively little insight into strain diversity and evolution of this species. We performed individual gene-by-gene comparisons of the recently sequenced C. pneumoniae koala genome and four C. pneumoniae human genomes to identify species-specific genes, and more importantly, to gain an insight into the genetic diversity and evolution of the species. We selected genes dispersed throughout the chromosome, representing genes that were specific to C. pneumoniae, genes with a demonstrated role in chlamydial biology and/or pathogenicity (n = 49), genes encoding nucleotide salvage or amino acid biosynthesis proteins (n = 6), and extrachromosomal elements (9 plasmid and 2 bacteriophage genes). We have identified strain-specific differences and targets for detection of C. pneumoniae isolates from both human and animal origin. Such characterisation is necessary for an improved understanding of disease transmission and intervention.

  9. Systems Biology Approaches for the Prediction of Possible Role of Chlamydia pneumoniae Proteins in the Etiology of Lung Cancer.

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    Shahanavaj Khan

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has recently supported the association of bacterial infection with the growth and development of cancers, particularly in organs that are constantly exposed to bacteria such as the lungs, colon, cervical cancer etc. Our in silico study on the proteome of Chlamydia pneumoniae suggests an unprecedented idea of the etiology of lung cancer and have revealed that the infection of C. pneumoniae is associated with lung cancer development and growth. It is reasonable to assume that C. pneumoniae transports its proteins within host-intracellular organelles during infection, where they may work with host-cell proteome. The current study was performed for the prediction of nuclear targeting protein of C. pneumoniae in the host cell using bioinformatics predictors including ExPASy pI/Mw tool, nuclear localization signal (NLS mapper, balanced sub cellular localization predictor (BaCeILo, and Hum-mPLoc 2.0. We predicted 47/1112 nuclear-targeting proteins of C. pneumoniae connected with several possible alterations in host replication and transcription during intracellular infection. These nuclear-targeting proteins may direct to competitive interactions of host and C. pneumoniae proteins with the availability of same substrate and may be involved as etiological agents in the growth and development of lung cancer. These novel findings are expected to access in better understanding of lung cancer etiology and identifying molecular targets for therapy.

  10. Is there any relationship between asthma and asthma attack in children and atypical bacterial infections; Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annagür, Ali; Kendirli, S G; Yilmaz, M; Altintas, D U; Inal, A

    2007-10-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease characterized by variable airway obstruction and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. There are many factors affecting the development and severity of childhood asthma such as genetic predisposition, atopy, environmental factors, obesity, diet, socioeconomic status, and infectious triggers. In the present study we aimed to investigate the frequency of Mycdoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Helicobacter pylori infections in asthmatic children. We investigated also whether there is a relationship between these agents and asthma attacks. Seventy-nine asthmatic children (46 males, aged 5-15 years) were included in study. The study group was divided into two groups: group 1 consisted of 37 children with asthma attacks and group 2 consisted of 42 children with stable asthma. As a control group we studied 36 healthy children. Pulmonary function tests, skin prick tests for common allergens were performed; serum total IgE, phadiatop, specific IgM and IgG antibody levels (ELISA) for M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae and H. pylori were measured in all patients. Mycoplasma IgM and Chlamidia IgM were positive in 8.1% (3 patients) and 18.9% (7 patients) of group 1 patients, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference for Mycoplasma IgM (p = 0.031) and Chlamidia IgM (p = 0.03) between group1 and other two groups. We have not found significant difference for M. pneumoniae IgG, C. pneumoniae IgG and H. pylori IgM and IgG among groups. M. Pneumoniae and C. Pneumoniae may play a role in development of asthma exacerbations in childhood. We could not find a relationship between H. Pylori and asthma.

  11. Association between Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies and wheezing in young children and the influence of sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normann, E; Gnarpe, J; Wettergren, B; Janson, C; Wickman, M; Nordvall, L

    2006-12-01

    The proposed association between Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) infection and wheezing needs further clarification. Serum samples obtained from 1581 children aged 4 years in a population based cohort were tested for antibodies to Cpn and IgE antibodies to common allergens. Data on environmental factors and disease were collected prospectively from birth. The occurrence of IgG antibodies to Cpn at 4 years of age was associated with reported wheezing at different ages; however, these findings were most often not significant. In girls, the occurrence of anti-Cpn IgG was associated with wheezing at the ages of 1, 2, and 4 years (odds ratios (ORs) 3.41 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.46 to 7.96), 2.13 (95% CI 1.02 to 4.44), and 2.01 (95% CI 1.14 to 3.54), respectively), and even higher ORs were observed for each age category when only high level antibody responses to Cpn were analysed. At the time of blood sampling the association between anti-Cpn IgG and wheezing was restricted to girls without atopic sensitisation (OR 2.39 (95% CI 1.25 to 4.57). No associations with wheezing were detected in boys, in whom IgE sensitisation was inversely associated with the presence of anti-Cpn IgG (OR 0.49 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.90)). This study suggests an association between evidence of earlier Cpn infection and a history of wheezing in young girls. Infection with Cpn may be an important risk factor for wheezing and possibly for non-atopic asthma, predominantly in girls.

  12. No evidence of parvovirus B19, Chlamydia pneumoniae or human herpes virus infection in temporal artery biopsies in patients with giant cell arteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Tarp, B; Obel, N

    2002-01-01

    conditions. DNA was extracted from frozen biopsies and PCR was used to amplify genes from Chlamydia pneumoniae, parvovirus B19 and each of the eight human herpes viruses: herpes simplex viruses HSV-1 and 2, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, varicella zoster virus and human herpes viruses HHV-6, -7 and -8......OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have suggested that infective agents may be involved in the pathogenesis of giant cell arteritis (GCA), in particular Chlamydia pneumoniae and parvovirus B19. We investigated temporal arteries from patients with GCA for these infections as well as human herpes viruses....... RESULTS: In all 30 biopsies, PCR was negative for DNAs of parvovirus B19, each of the eight human herpes viruses and C. pneumoniae. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of DNA from parvovirus B19, human herpes virus or C. pneumoniae in any of the temporal arteries. These agents do not seem to play a unique...

  13. The association of metabolic syndrome and Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus type 1: The Persian Gulf Healthy Heart Study

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    Pazoki Raha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome together with insulin resistance and their consequences are basic factors in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Chronic infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1, cytomegalovirus (CMV, and Chlamydia pneumoniae are associated with the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The infectious aspects of metabolic syndrome have not been investigated. Methods In a cross-sectional, population-based study, we used National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-Adult Treatment Panel (ATP-III criteria in 1791 subjects, aged 25 years and over, selected by cluster random sampling in three Iranian ports in the northern Persian Gulf. Sera were analyzed for IgG antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae, HSV-1, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori and CMV using ELISA. Results In multiple logistic regression analysis, of the infectious agents, CMV [OR = 1.81 (1.05–3.10; p = 0.03], H. pylori [OR = 1.50 (1.12–2.00; p = 0.007] and Chlamydia pneumoniae [OR = 1.69 (1.27–2.25; p Conclusion The metabolic syndrome, which occurs very frequently in the general population, has a significant association with prior infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus type 1. Hypothesis about participation of infection in pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome should be investigated.

  14. Specific serum immunoglobulin g to chlamydia pneumoniae in healthy children and adults (south-east of iran)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemati, M.; Ali, S.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumonia) is an obligate intracellular bacterium and recognized as a risk factor for several diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis and arthritis. The aim of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of C. pneumonia in healthy subjects in different age groups. Methods: The serum levels of anti C. pneumonia IgG were measured by using of ELISA. Results: Totally, 630 subjects (164 children and 466 adults) were included into study. The sero-prevalence and the mean titer of anti C. pneumonia antibody were 11.3% and 14.48 ± 2.18 RU/mL; at age = 10 years, 15% and 17.47 ± 2.40 RU/mL at age 11-20 years, 21% and 25.15 ± 4.56 RU/mL at age 21-30 years group, 40% and 53.77 ± 6.40 RU/mL at age 31-40 years, 94% and 146.41 ± 8.95 RU/mL at age 41-50 years, 98% and 153.59+-10.38 RU/mL at age 51-60 years, 96% and 138.80 ± 12.78 RU/mL at age 61-70 years, respectively. The differences of the sero-prevalence and the mean titer of anti C. pneumonia antibody between age groups were significant (p<0.0001). The sero-prevalence and the mean titer of anti C. pneumonia antibody were 11.6% and 14.33 ± 1.49 RU/mL in children and 65.5% and 97.40 ± 4.46 RU/mL in adults. The sero-prevalence and the mean titer of anti C. pneumonia antibody were significantly higher in adults in comparison with those in children (p<0.0001). Conclusion: These findings showed that the sero-prevalence and titer of anti C. pneumonia IgG were increased with advanced ages and were higher in adults as compared to children. (author)

  15. Prevalência de Chlamydia Pneumoniae e Mycoplasma Pneumoniae em diferentes formas da doença coronariana Prevalencia de Chlamydia Pneumoniae y Mycoplasma Pneumoniae en diferentes formas de la enfermedad coronaria Prevalence of Chlamydia Pneumoniae and Mycoplasma Pneumoniae in different forms of coronary disease

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    Irineu Luiz Maia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Vários agentes infecciosos foram investigados desde que se demonstrou a associação entre infecção e aterosclerose, porém os resultados desses estudos são conflitantes. OBJETIVO: Testar a associação entre títulos séricos de anticorpos anti-Chlamydia e anti-Mycoplasma em diferentes formas de síndromes coronarianas agudas (SCA. MÉTODOS: Cento e vinte e seis pacientes foram divididos em quatro grupos: SCA com elevação do segmento ST (32 pacientes, SCA sem elevação do segmento ST (30 pacientes, doença arterial coronariana crônica (30 pacientes e doadores de sangue sem doença coronariana conhecida (34 pacientes - grupo-controle. Nos primeiros dois grupos, amostras de soro foram coletadas na admissão (primeiras 24 horas de hospitalização e após 6 meses de seguimento. Nos outros dois grupos, colheu-se apenas uma amostra basal. Em todas as amostras, anticorpos IgG anti-Chlamydia e anti-Mycoplasma foram dosados por imunofluorescência indireta. RESULTADOS: Diferenças significativas foram observadas entre a medida basal e após 6 meses de seguimento nos pacientes com infarto do miocárdio com elevação do segmento ST, tanto para Chlamydia (650±115,7 vs. 307±47,5, p = 0,0001 quanto para Mycoplasma (36,5±5,0 vs. 21,5±3,5, p = 0,0004. Os grupos com SCA tiveram níveis séricos de anticorpos anti-Chlamydia e anti-Mycoplasma mais altos na dosagem basal, em relação aos pacientes com doença arterial coronariana crônica e grupo-controle, mas as diferenças obtidas não tiveram significância estatística. CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo mostrou associação entre os títulos de anticorpos anti-Chlamydia e anti-Mycoplasma na fase aguda dos pacientes com angina instável ou infarto do miocárdio.FUNDAMENTO: Se han investigado diversos agentes infecciosos desde que se evidenció la asociación entre infección y aterosclerosis, sin embargo esos estudios ofrecen resultados conflictivos. OBJETIVO: Probar la asociación entre

  16. Molecular biology of Chlamydia pneumoniae surface proteins and their role in immunopathogenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Boesen, Thomas; Hjernø, Karin

    1999-01-01

    present on the surface of the bacteria, we analyzed what components are present on the C pneumoniae surface. We identified a family of proteins, the GGAI or Omp4-15 proteins, of which at least 3 are present on the surface of C pneumoniae. We immunized rabbits with recombinant GGAI proteins and used...

  17. Construction of a highly flexible and comprehensive gene collection representing the ORFeome of the human pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae

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    Maier Christina J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn is the leading intracellular human pathogen responsible for respiratory infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis. Basic and applied research in pathogen biology, especially the elaboration of new mechanism-based anti-pathogen strategies, target discovery and drug development, rely heavily on the availability of the entire set of pathogen open reading frames, the ORFeome. The ORFeome of Cpn will enable genome- and proteome-wide systematic analysis of Cpn, which will improve our understanding of the molecular networks and mechanisms underlying and governing its pathogenesis. Results Here we report the construction of a comprehensive gene collection covering 98.5% of the 1052 predicted and verified ORFs of Cpn (Chlamydia pneumoniae strain CWL029 in Gateway® ‘entry’ vectors. Based on genomic DNA isolated from the vascular chlamydial strain CV-6, we constructed an ORFeome library that contains 869 unique Gateway® entry clones (83% coverage and an additional 168 PCR-verified ‘pooled’ entry clones, reaching an overall coverage of ~98.5% of the predicted CWL029 ORFs. The high quality of the ORFeome library was verified by PCR-gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing, and its functionality was demonstrated by expressing panels of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli and by genome-wide protein interaction analysis for a test set of three Cpn virulence factors in a yeast 2-hybrid system. The ORFeome is available in different configurations of resource stocks, PCR-products, purified plasmid DNA, and living cultures of E. coli harboring the desired entry clone or pooled entry clones. All resources are available in 96-well microtiterplates. Conclusion This first ORFeome library for Cpn provides an essential new tool for this important pathogen. The high coverage of entry clones will enable a systems biology approach for Cpn or host–pathogen analysis. The high yield of

  18. GroEL1, a heat shock protein 60 of Chlamydia pneumoniae, impairs neovascularization by decreasing endothelial progenitor cell function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Wen Lin

    Full Text Available The number and function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs are sensitive to hyperglycemia, hypertension, and smoking in humans, which are also associated with the development of atherosclerosis. GroEL1 from Chlamydia pneumoniae has been found in atherosclerotic lesions and is related to atherosclerotic pathogenesis. However, the actual effects of GroEL1 on EPC function are unclear. In this study, we investigate the EPC function in GroEL1-administered hind limb-ischemic C57BL/B6 and C57BL/10ScNJ (a toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 mutation mice and human EPCs. In mice, laser Doppler imaging, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the degree of neo-vasculogenesis, circulating level of EPCs, and expression of CD34, vWF, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS in vessels. Blood flow in the ischemic limb was significantly impaired in C57BL/B6 but not C57BL/10ScNJ mice treated with GroEL1. Circulating EPCs were also decreased after GroEL1 administration in C57BL/B6 mice. Additionally, GroEL1 inhibited the expression of CD34 and eNOS in C57BL/B6 ischemic muscle. In vitro, GroEL1 impaired the capacity of differentiation, mobilization, tube formation, and migration of EPCs. GroEL1 increased senescence, which was mediated by caspases, p38 MAPK, and ERK1/2 signaling in EPCs. Furthermore, GroEL1 decreased integrin and E-selectin expression and induced inflammatory responses in EPCs. In conclusion, these findings suggest that TLR4 and impaired NO-related mechanisms could contribute to the reduced number and functional activity of EPCs in the presence of GroEL1 from C. pneumoniae.

  19. Identification of Sphingomyelinase on the Surface of Chlamydia pneumoniae: Possible Role in the Entry into Its Host Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuula A. Peñate Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recently suggested a novel mechanism, autoendocytosis, for the entry of certain microbes into their hosts, with a key role played by the sphingomyelinase-catalyzed topical conversion of sphingomyelin to ceramide, the differences in the biophysical properties of these two lipids providing the driving force. The only requirement for such microbes to utilize this mechanism is that they should have a catalytically active SMase on their outer surface while the target cells should expose sphingomyelin in the external leaflet of their plasma membrane. In pursuit of possible microbial candidates, which could utilize this putative mechanism, we conducted a sequence similarity search for SMase. Because of the intriguing cellular and biochemical characteristics of the poorly understood entry of Chlamydia into its host cells these microbes were of particular interest. SMase activity was measured in vitro from isolated C. pneumoniae elementary bodies (EB and in the lysate from E. coli cells transfected with a plasmid expressing CPn0300 protein having sequence similarity to SMase. Finally, pretreatment of host cells with exogenous SMase resulting in loss plasma membrane sphingomyelin attenuated attachment of EB.

  20. A potential role of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajonuma, Louis Chukwuemeka

    2010-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are among the most common human infections that not only impact oral health but also are associated with adverse systemic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, stroke, diabetes, and respiratory diseases. Periodontal diseases is a chronic severe inflammatory process of the gingiva leading to the destruction of tooth-supporting structures, alveolar bone, and subsequently tooth loss due to bacteria infection. While it has been reported that several oral biofilm-forming bacteria might be involved, the role of C. pneumoniae infection in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease remains unknown. The present hypothesis proposes that C. pneumoniae is involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. This will lead to a better understanding of the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease, better treatment strategy and savings on total health care costs.

  1. Serological study of Bordetella Pertussis, Mycoplasma Pneumonia and Chlamydia Pneumonia in Iranian hajj pilgrims with prolonged cough illnesses: A follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimian, Masoud; HosseiniB, Mahdi

    2017-11-01

    Hajj pilgrimage is the biggest and longest mass gathering in the Muslim world. Annually, about 50% of more than 2.5 million pilgrims participating in this ritual get involved in severe devastating coughs. Most coughs continue, so the pilgrims turn back home and transmit them to family members and other people. Despite the high prevalence of coughs for many years, what causes them remains unknown. Considering the pertussis-like clinical picture of the so-called "hajj coughs", the researchers conducted a study to measure antibodies against three known common atypical bacteria, namely Bordetella Pertussis, Chlamydia Pneumonia and Mycoplasma Pneumonia. The study was done on three out of eleven groups of pilgrims from Yazd province, central Iran. The sample was selected randomly and consisted of 202 pilgrims who completed an informed consent. Their blood samples were taken, and the plasma was separated and then stored at -70 °C. After turning back from the journey, the pilgrims had their second blood samples taken. As many as 52 pilgrims failed to come for the second sampling, and two samples were broken during transportation. The final analysis was performed on the remaining 148 pairs of samples. Antibodies were already elevated in many pilgrims before the journey probably due to their old age (causing more exposure to pathogens) or unplanned pertussis vaccination. After their return, antibody elevation was only mild, again probably due to the old age of the participants (i.e. due to their weaker immune systems). Some antibodies even fell down without any known reason. In this study, previous hajj journey was assumed as a prophylactic factor, due to acquisition of immunity. Coughs with a prolonged pertussis-like picture were also presumed to be more related than other types of coughs to atypical pathogens. Statistical tests showed that the history of previous journeys had no prophylactic effect. Also, no correlation was found between the clinical pictures of coughs

  2. C-reactive protein and anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies as risk factors of cardiovascular death in incident patients on peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Ramón; Frías, Yolanda; de Ventura, Maria Jesús; Rodríguez, Ernesto; Hurtado, María Elena; Alcántara, Guadalupe; Vázquez, Roberto; Ortiz, Ruth; Salcedo, Mario; Rios, Maria Elena; Kaji, Julio; Amato, Dante

    2003-01-01

    Recently it has been pointed out that inflammation and infections caused by germs such as Chlamydia pneumoniae are independent cardiovascular risk factors for the general population, but information about these relationships in dialysis patients is scarce. This work was done to analyze the association of C-reactive protein (CRP) and IgG anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies (anti-Chlp-IgG) as independent cardiovascular risk factors in incident patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Single-cohort, prospective observational study. Three CAPD centers from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, and one from the Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado, Mexico. A cohort of 75 adult incident patients on CAPD, without clinical signs of congestive heart failure, coronary heart disease, or peripheral arterial insufficiency. No restrictions for age, gender, or cause of renal failure were applied. Mortality. Demographic variables, body composition by electrical bioimpedance, serum glucose, urea, creatinine, lipids, homocysteine, nutritional markers (albumin, prealbumin, and transferrin), CRP, and anti-Chlp-IgG were measured and registered at the time of the first admission. When a patient died, the cause of death was determined by review of the clinical chart. Mean follow-up time was 10.25 patient-months. There were 14 cardiovascular deaths. CRP was positive (> 10 mg/L) in 64% of the patients, and anti-Chlp-IgG in 64%; 29% of the patients were positive for both markers. The relative risk for cardiovascular mortality was 6.23 for patients positive for either CRP or anti-Chlp-IgG, and increased to 9.52 when both markers were positive. Multivariate analysis revealed that CRP and anti-Chlp-IgG were stronger cardiovascular death predictors than age, diabetes, and nutritional status. These data suggest that inflammation and the presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infections are important predictors of cardiovascular death in

  3. Prevalence of chlamydia infection using chlamydia antigen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background and Objectives: Tubal disease is often associated with persistent chlamydia trachomatis infection. The objective detection of this infection depends on tissue culture which is time consuming and expensive. Serologic techniques for chlamydia detection have been documented. While this may be rapid, ...

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Trichomonas vaginalis Infections in Men With Nongonococcal Urethritis: Predictors and Persistence After Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seña, Arlene C.; Lensing, Shelly; Rompalo, Anne; Taylor, Stephanie N.; Martin, David H.; Lopez, Laureen M.; Lee, Jeannette Y.; Schwebke, Jane R.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) are sexually transmitted infections (STIs) associated with nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). We assessed their predictors and persistence after treatment. Methods. We analyzed data from an NGU treatment trial among symptomatic heterosexual men aged 16–45 years from STI clinics. Nucleic acid amplification tests detected CT, MG, and TV at baseline and at 1 and 4 weeks after therapy. Associations between variables and STI detection were investigated. Results. Among 293 participants, 44% had CT, 31% had MG, and 13% had TV at baseline. In multivariate analysis, CT infection was associated with young age and STI contact. Young age was also associated with MG, and having ≥1 new partner was negatively associated with TV. We detected persistent CT in 12% and MG in 44% of participants at 4 weeks after therapy, which were associated with signs and symptoms of NGU. Persistent CT was detected in 23% of participants after azithromycin treatment vs 5% after doxycycline treatment (P = .011); persistent MG was detected in 68% of participants after doxycycline vs 33% after azithromycin (P = .001). All but 1 TV infection cleared after tinidazole. Conclusions. Persistent CT and MG after treatment of NGU are common, and were associated with clinical findings and drug regimen. PMID:22615318

  5. Chlamydia pneumoniae is genetically diverse in animals and appears to have crossed the host barrier to humans on (at least two occasions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice M Mitchell

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common human and animal pathogen associated with a wide range of diseases. Since the first isolation of C. pneumoniae TWAR in 1965, all human isolates have been essentially clonal, providing little evolutionary insight. To address this gap, we investigated the genetic diversity of 30 isolates from diverse geographical locations, from both human and animal origin (amphibian, reptilian, equine and marsupial. Based on the level of variation that we observed at 23 discreet gene loci, it was clearly evident that the animal isolates were more diverse than the isolates of human origin. Furthermore, we show that C. pneumoniae isolates could be grouped into five major genotypes, A-E, with A, B, D and E genotypes linked by geographical location, whereas genotype C was found across multiple continents. Our evidence strongly supports two separate animal-to-human cross species transfer events in the evolutionary history of this pathogen. The C. pneumoniae human genotype identified in the USA, Canada, Taiwan, Iran, Japan, Korea and Australia (non-Indigenous most likely originated from a single amphibian or reptilian lineage, which appears to have been previously geographically widespread. We identified a separate human lineage present in two Australian Indigenous isolates (independent geographical locations. This lineage is distinct and is present in Australian amphibians as well as a range of Australian marsupials.

  6. Effect of treatment for Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori on markers of inflammation and cardiac events in patients with acute coronary syndromes: South Thames Trial of Antibiotics in Myocardial Infarction and Unstable Angina (STAMINA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Adam F M; Mendall, Michael A; Kaski, Juan-Carlos; Edger, Tracey M; Risley, Paul; Poloniecki, Jan; Camm, A John; Northfield, Timothy C

    2002-09-03

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae is associated with coronary heart disease. We conducted an intervention study using antibiotics against these bacteria in patients with acute coronary syndromes to determine whether antibiotics reduce inflammatory markers and adverse cardiac events. Patients (n=325) admitted with acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina (acute coronary syndromes) were randomized to receive a 1-week course of 1 of 3 treatment regimens: (1) placebo; (2) amoxicillin (500 mg twice daily), metronidazole (400 mg twice daily), and omeprazole (20 mg twice daily); or (3) azithromycin (500 mg once daily), metronidazole (400 mg twice daily), and omeprazole (20 mg twice daily). Serum fibrinogen, white cell count, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured at study entry and at 1, 3, and 12 months during follow-up. Cardiac death and readmission with acute coronary syndrome were considered clinical end points. Patients were followed for 1 year. C-reactive protein levels were reduced (P=0.03) in unstable angina patients receiving amoxicillin, and fibrinogen was reduced in both patient groups receiving antibiotics (P=0.06). There were 17 cardiac deaths and 71 readmissions with acute coronary syndrome. No difference in frequency or timing of end points was observed between the 2 antibiotic groups. At 12 weeks, there was a 36% reduction in all end points in patients receiving antibiotics compared with placebo (P=0.02). This reduction persisted during the 1-year follow-up. Neither C pneumoniae nor H pylori antibody status was significantly related to response to treatment. Antibiotic treatment significantly reduced adverse cardiac events in patients with acute coronary syndromes, but the effect was independent of H pylori or C pneumoniae seropositivity.

  7. Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Liana Sousa [UNESP; Tanni, Suzana Erico; Godoy, Irma de [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    Pneumonia is an infectious disease with great morbidity and mortality worldwide. According to the current guidelines recommendations the authors reviewed the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). In this paper will be presented data about etiology, clinics and diagnostic tools. © Copyright Moreira Jr. Editora.

  8. Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Liana Sousa [UNESP; Do Vale, Simone Alves [UNESP; Godoy, Irma de [UNESP; Tanni, Suzana Erico [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    Pneumonia is an infectious disease with great morbidity and mortality worldwide. According to the current guidelines recommendations the authors reviewed the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP). In this paper will be also presented data about etiology, clinics and diagnostic tools. © Copyright Moreira Jr. Editora.

  9. Environmental persistence of OXA-48-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a French intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantel, Alix; Richaud-Morel, Brigitte; Cazaban, Michel; Bouziges, Nicole; Sotto, Albert; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe

    2016-03-01

    The spread of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative rods is an emerging global problem. This study describes the epidemiologic features of an outbreak caused by an environmental reservoir of OXA-48-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae caused by persistence of the bacteria during 20 months in an intensive care unit in France. This report emphasizes the importance of early environmental screening to interrupt the transmission of carbapenemase-producingEnterobacteriaceae. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may have received extra vaccinations and disease-preventing antibiotics to help prevent pneumonia and other infections caused by bacteria. ... patients are hospitalized, treatment might include intravenous (IV) antibiotics ... Can I Help Myself Feel Better? If your doctor has prescribed ...

  11. The associaty of Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori Herpes simplex virus type 1 and Cytomegalovirus in the northern Persian Gulf population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdad Kayedi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is not known whether infection by a specific pathogens is associated with type 2. We examined the association between chronic infection with four pathogens (Chlaydia pneumonia, Helicopacter pylori, Herpes simplex virus type 1 and cytomegalovirus and type 2 diabetes mellitus in a general Iranian population, in the northern Persian Gulf. Materials and Methods : In a population-based study of men and women aged >25 years, a random sample of 1754 (49.2 % males, 50.8 % females subjects were evaluated. Sera were analyzed for immunoglobulin G antibodies to C. pneumoniae, HSV-1, H. pylori, and CMV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was defined according to criteria of American Diabetes association. Results: A total of 150 (8.6% subjects had type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the diabetic group, 42% were seropositive for C. pneumoniae, 64.7% for H. pylori, 92.9% for HSV-1 and 94.7% for CMV. In multiple logistic regression analyses, seropositivity for C.pneumoniae (OR=0.89, CI: 0.60-1.34, P=0.602, H. pylori(OR= 0.95, CI: 0.64-1.41, P= 0.808, HSV-1(OR= 1.76, CI: 0.86-3.62, P=0.120 ,CMV(OR=0.99, CI: 0.43-2.27, P=0.982 did not show a significant independent association with type 2 diabetes mellitus after adjustment for age, sex, chronic low-grade inflammation, and cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion: There was not a strong association between type 2 dibetes mellitus and prior infection with viral and bacterial pathogens that had been previously correlated with coronary artery disease as well as carotid atherosclerosis.

  12. Evaluation of five DNA extraction methods for purification of DNA from atherosclerotic tissue and estimation of prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in tissue from a Danish population undergoing vascular repair

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    Lindholt Jes S

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date PCR detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA in atherosclerotic lesions from Danish patients has been unsuccessful. To establish whether non-detection was caused by a suboptimal DNA extraction method, we tested five different DNA extraction methods for purification of DNA from atherosclerotic tissue. Results The five different DNA extraction methods were tested on homogenate of atherosclerotic tissue spiked with C. pneumoniae DNA or EB, on pure C. pneumoniae DNA samples and on whole C. pneumoniae EB. Recovery of DNA was measured with a C. pneumoniae-specific quantitative real-time PCR. A DNA extraction method based on DNA-binding to spin columns with a silica-gel membrane (DNeasy Tissue kit showed the highest recovery rate for the tissue samples and pure DNA samples. However, an automated extraction method based on magnetic glass particles (MagNA Pure performed best on intact EB and atherosclerotic tissue spiked with EB. The DNeasy Tissue kit and MagNA Pure methods and the highly sensitive real-time PCR were subsequently used on 78 atherosclerotic tissue samples from Danish patients undergoing vascular repair. None of the samples were positive for C. pneumoniae DNA. The atherosclerotic samples were tested for inhibition by spiking with two different, known amounts of C. pneumoniae DNA and no samples showed inhibition. Conclusion As a highly sensitive PCR method and an optimised DNA extraction method were used, non-detection in atherosclerotic tissue from the Danish population was probably not caused by use of inappropriate methods. However, more samples may need to be analysed per patient to be completely certain on this. Possible methodological and epidemiological reasons for non-detection of C. pneumoniae DNA in atherosclerotic tissue from the Danish population are discussed. Further testing of DNA extraction methods is needed as this study has shown considerable intra- and inter-method variation in DNA recovery.

  13. [Comparison of echocardiographic findings in AVS patients with and without high IgG, IgM, IgA titers against Chlamydia pneumoniae during 12 months' observation of AVS natural course].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierszcz, Jolanta; Dubiel, Jacek S; Krzysiek, Józef; Sztefko, Krystyna; Galicka-Latała, Danuta; Roman, Pfitzner; Podolec, Piotr; Wodniecki, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Comparison of echocardiographic findings in AVS patients with and without high IgG, IgM, IgA titers against Chlamydia pneumoniae during 12 months' observation of AVS natural course. 60 AVS patients who did not agree for operational treatment were divided into group A (30 patients with high IgG titer) group B (30 patients with low IgG titer), group C (22 patients with high IgA titer) group D (38 patients with low IgA titer), group E (7 patients with high IgM titer), group F (53 patients with low IgA titer) Antibodies titers and echocardiographic scans were carried out every 12 months. There were more (p AVS deterioration in group A compared to group B. Group A patients had lower left ventricle posteriori wall systolic diameter compared to group B. There were no differences in echocardiographic parameters between group C and D. Mean ejection fraction was lower and mean right atrium diameter was higher in group E compared to group F. The results may suggest link between Chlamydia pneumoniae and deterioration of AVS.

  14. Detección de Chlamydia pneumoniae en tejido aórtico humano: amplificación del gen kdtA e hibridación in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Guzmán

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La ateroesclerosis es la principal causa de enfermedad coronaria y cerebrovascular, las cuales, a su vez, son las causas más comunes de mortalidad y morbilidad en el mundo occidental. Publicaciones recientes sugieren que ciertos microorganismos infecciosos podrían jugar un papel importante en la génesis y progresión de la aterosclerosis. De acuerdo con reportes seroepidemiológicos y de detección directa, Chlamydia pneumoniae podría ser el candidato más plausible. No obstante, no se ha determinado su papel específico en el proceso aterogénico, por lo cual en los últimos años ha surgido la necesidad de explorar diversas técnicas de detección de C. pneumoniae en arterias. Objetivo. El propósito de este estudio fue investigar la presencia de C. pneumoniae en muestras de tejido aórtico de catorce pacientes sometidos a cirugía de reemplazo aórtico, utilizando la amplificación del gen kdtA por PCR acoplada a un ensayo de hibridación in vitro. Materiales y métodos. De cada uno de catorce segmentos de aorta se obtuvo una muestra al azar para la extracción de ADN y la detección de C. pneumoniae por PCR-hibridación in vitro. Resultados. Doce (85,7% de catorce muestras de tejido de aorta resultaron positivas para C. pneumoniae. Conclusión. Los resultados encontrados en este estudio sugieren que la presencia de C. pneumoniae es frecuente en el tipo de muestras analizado. En estudios posteriores resultaría importante examinar si esta proporción se mantiene en una muestra poblacional mayor.

  15. Characterization of a secreted Chlamydia protease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, A.C.; Vandahl, B.B.; Larsen, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that are important human pathogens. The Chlamydia genomes contain orthologues to secretion apparatus proteins from other intracellular bacteria, but only a few secreted proteins have been identified. Most likely, effector proteins are secreted in order...... to promote infection. Effector proteins cannot be identified by motif or similarity searches. As a new strategy for identification of secreted proteins we have compared 2D-PAGE profiles of [35S]-labelled Chlamydia proteins from whole lysates of infected cells to 2D-PAGE profiles of proteins from purified...... Chlamydia. Several secretion candidates from Chlamydia trachomatis D and Chlamydia pneumoniae were detected by this method. Two protein spots were identified among the candidates. These represent fragments of the 'chlamydial protease- or proteasome-like activity factor' (CPAF) and were clearly present in 2D...

  16. Different presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae, herpes simplex virus type 1, human herpes virus 6, and Toxoplasma gondii in schizophrenia: meta-analysis and analytical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez-Fernández J

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available José Gutiérrez-Fernández,1 Juan de Dios Luna del Castillo,2 Sara Mañanes-González,1 José Antonio Carrillo-Ávila,1 Blanca Gutiérrez,3 Jorge A Cervilla,3 Antonio Sorlózano-Puerto1 1Department of Microbiology, 2Department of Statistics and Operation Research, 3Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Neurosciences and CIBERSAM, School of Medicine and Biohealth Research Institute (Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria IBS-Granada, University of Granada, Granada, Spain Abstract: In the present study we have performed both a meta-analysis and an analytical study exploring the presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae, herpes simplex virus type 1, human herpes virus 6, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in a sample of 143 schizophrenic patients and 143 control subjects. The meta-analysis was performed on papers published up to April 2014. The presence of serum immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. The detection of microbial DNA in total peripheral blood was performed by nested polymerase chain reaction. The meta-analysis showed that: 1 C. pneumoniae DNA in blood and brain are more common in schizophrenic patients; 2 there is association with parasitism by T. gondii, despite the existence of publication bias; and 3 herpes viruses were not more common in schizophrenic patients. In our sample only anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G was more prevalent and may be a risk factor related to schizophrenia, with potential value for prevention. Keywords: meta-analysis, analytical study, Chlamydia pneumoniae, herpes simplex virus type 1, human herpes virus 6, Toxoplasma gondii, schizophrenia

  17. Prevalence of chlamydia in patients attending gynecological clinics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the cultured samples 230 were positive for Chlamydia trachomatis and 99 positive to Chlamydia pneumoniae. Statistical analysis using the student\\'s t test at 95% confidence interval shows that there was no significant difference between the number of females and males that presented themselves for screening.

  18. A case of laryngeal palsy and persistent aspiration pneumonia following radiotherapy for laryngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Kazunari; Tayama, Niro; Mizuno, Masahiro; Niimi, Seiji.

    1997-01-01

    A 80-year-old man developed impairment in his laryngeal movement, vocal fold fixation and severe misdeglutition after radiotherapy for laryngeal carcinoma. Despite of several surgical treatments for aspiration pneumonia, the misdeglutition did not cease because of the stiffness in his larynx until a laryngectomy was finally performed. The resected larynx showed marked fibrosis, and it was considered as a late complication of radiotherapy. The treatment course in this difficult case is discussed. (author)

  19. Genomic Relatedness of Chlamydia Isolates Determined by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, Adam; Morré, Servaas A.; Van Den Brule, Adriaan J. C.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.; Ossewaarde, Jacobus M.

    1999-01-01

    The genomic relatedness of 19 Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates (17 from respiratory origin and 2 from atherosclerotic origin), 21 Chlamydia trachomatis isolates (all serovars from the human biovar, an isolate from the mouse biovar, and a porcine isolate), 6 Chlamydia psittaci isolates (5 avian isolates and 1 feline isolate), and 1 Chlamydia pecorum isolate was studied by analyzing genomic amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints. The AFLP procedure was adapted from a previously...

  20. Residence of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis within polymicrobial biofilm promotes antibiotic resistance and bacterial persistence in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Antonia C; Pang, Bing; King, Lauren B; Tan, Li; Murrah, Kyle A; Reimche, Jennifer L; Wren, John T; Richardson, Stephen H; Ghandi, Uma; Swords, W Edward

    2014-04-01

    Otitis media (OM) is an extremely common pediatric ailment caused by opportunists that reside within the nasopharynx. Inflammation within the upper airway can promote ascension of these opportunists into the middle ear chamber. OM can be chronic/recurrent in nature, and a wealth of data indicates that in these cases, the bacteria persist within biofilms. Epidemiological data demonstrate that most cases of OM are polymicrobial, which may have significant impact on antibiotic resistance. In this study, we used in vitro biofilm assays and rodent infection models to examine the impact of polymicrobial infection with Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) on biofilm resistance to antibiotic treatment and persistence in vivo. Consistent with prior work, M. catarrhalis conferred beta-lactamase-dependent passive protection from beta-lactam killing to pneumococci within polymicrobial biofilms. Moreover, pneumococci increased resistance of M. catarrhalis to macrolide killing in polymicrobial biofilms. However, pneumococci increased colonization in vivo by M. catarrhalis in a quorum signal-dependent manner. We also found that co-infection with M. catarrhalis affects middle ear ascension of pneumococci in both mice and chinchillas. Therefore, we conclude that residence of M. catarrhalis and pneumococci within the same biofilm community significantly impacts resistance to antibiotic treatment and bacterial persistence in vivo. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in enteroendocrine cells and macrophages of the small bowel in patients with severe irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandström Gunnar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and immune activation have repeatedly been suggested as pathogentic factors in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. The driving force for immune activation in IBS remains unknown. The aim of our study was to find out if the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia could be involved in the pathogenesis of IBS. Methods We studied 65 patients (61 females with IBS and 42 (29 females healthy controls in which IBS had been excluded. Full thickness biopsies from the jejunum and mucosa biopsies from the duodenum and the jejunum were stained with a monoclonal antibody to Chlamydia lipopolysaccharide (LPS and species-specific monoclonal antibodies to C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae. We used polyclonal antibodies to chromogranin A, CD68, CD11c, and CD117 to identify enteroendocrine cells, macrophages, dendritic, and mast cells, respectively. Results Chlamydia LPS was present in 89% of patients with IBS, but in only 14% of healthy controls (p C. trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP. Staining for C. pneumoniae was negative in both patients and controls. Chlamydia LPS was detected in enteroendocrine cells of the mucosa in 90% of positive biopsies and in subepithelial macrophages in 69% of biopsies. Biopsies taken at different time points in 19 patients revealed persistence of Chlamydia LPS up to 11 years. The odds ratio for the association of Chlamydia LPS with presence of IBS (43.1; 95% CI: 13.2-140.7 is much higher than any previously described pathogenetic marker in IBS. Conclusions We found C. trachomatis antigens in enteroendocrine cells and macrophages in the small bowel mucosa of patients with IBS. Further studies are required to clarify if the presence of such antigens has a role in the pathogenesis of IBS.

  2. Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Syphilis Home For Patients Search FAQs Chlamydia, ... and Syphilis FAQ071, December 2016 PDF Format Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Syphilis Gynecologic Problems What is a sexually ...

  3. Chlamydia and sudden infant death syndrome. A study of 166 SIDS and 30 control cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, Jytte; Lundemose, A G; Gregersen, M

    1990-01-01

    .04). Chlamydia trachomatis is an agent of pneumonia in 1-4 month-old infants who have acquired the disease from an infected cervix during birth, but other chlamydia species are also capable of causing pneumonia. The lung sections of the 32 chlamydia positive SIDS cases did not show typical histological signs......Chlamydia inclusions could be demonstrated by an immunofluorescence assay in formalin-fixed lung sections in 32 of 166 cases (19.4%) of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and in the lungs of only 1 of 30 infants with a known cause of death (3.3%). The difference is statistically significant (P = 0...... of pneumonia. Even though chlamydia inclusions were detected in the lungs of 32 SIDS cases a causal relation between chlamydia infection and SIDS could not be demonstrated....

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis in non-specific urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terho, P

    1978-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 58.5% of 159 patients with non-specific urethritis (NSU) using irradiated McCoy cell cultures. Patients with persistent Chlamydia-positive NSU remained Chlamydia-positive each time they were examined before treatment and patients with Chlamydia-negative NSU remained Chlamydia-negative during the course of the illness. Neither the duration of symptoms of urethritis nor a history of previous urethritis affected the chlamydial isolation rate significantly. Of 40 patients with severe discharge 30 (75%) harboured C. trachomatis. One-third of the Chlamydia-positive patients had a severe urethral discharge, while this was present in only 15% of Chlamydia-negative patients. Complications--such as conjunctivitis, arthritis, and epididymitis--were more severe in men with Chlamdia-positive NSU than in those with Chlamydia-negative NSU. Of 64 men matched for sexual promiscuity but without urethritis, none harboured C. trachomatis in his urethra. This differs significantly (P less than 0.001) when compared with patients with NSU. C. trachomatis was isolated from the urogenital tract in 24 (42%) out of 57 female sexual contacts of patients with NSU. The presence of C. trachomatis in the women correlated significantly (P less than 0.001) with the isolation of the agent from their male contacts. These findings give further evidence for the aetiological role of C. trachomatis in non-specific urethritis and its sexual transmission. PMID:678958

  5. Persistence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae sequence types in spite of a control program for enzootic pneumonia in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overesch, Gudrun; Kuhnert, Peter

    2017-09-15

    Enzootic pneumonia (EP) in pigs caused by Mycoplasma (M.) hyopneumoniae has successfully been combatted in Switzerland. A control program was fully implemented in 2004 which is based on total depopulation strategies of affected fattening farms as well as partial depopulation on breeding farms. Thereby, the number of cases has dropped drastically from more than 200 in 2003 to two cases in 2013. Currently monitoring is done based on clinical observation and subsequent diagnostic of coughing pigs. Moreover, in case of more than 10% gross pathological lesions per slaughter batch laboratory confirmation for EP is compulsory. Despite these strict measures it was not possible to eliminate M. hyopneumoniae from Swiss pig production. In fact, during the last few years the number of EP cases has slightly increased. Therefore, genotyping of the involved M. hyopneumoniae strains was conducted in order to elucidate possible sources and routes of infection. All available and typeable samples from totally 22 cases during the period 2014-2016 were investigated by extended multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 16 cases, including eight from 2014, five from 2015 and three from 2016 could thereby be included in the study. MLST revealed that the majority of cases in 2014/2015 were due to two major spread scenarios, i.e. two M. hyopneumoniae sequence types, each scenario involving six individual production farms in five to six different Cantons (states), respectively. Moreover, by comparison of archived sequences some sequence types were observed over ten years demonstrating their persistence over a long time and the possible partial failure of elimination measures in Switzerland. Insufficient sanitation on affected farms and subsequent animal transport of symptomless infected pigs could lead to recurrent cases. Wild boar harbor identical strains found with EP but solid data are missing to assign a role as reservoir to this wild animal. Implementing a monitoring scheme for M

  6. Multi locus sequence typing of Chlamydia reveals an association between Chlamydia psittaci genotypes and host species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Dickx, Veerle; Beeckman, Delphine S A; Jolley, Keith A; Keijzers, Wendy C; Vretou, Evangelia; Maiden, Martin C J; Vanrompay, Daisy; van der Ende, Arie

    2010-12-02

    Chlamydia comprises a group of obligate intracellular bacterial parasites responsible for a variety of diseases in humans and animals, including several zoonoses. Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases such as trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. Chlamydia psittaci, causing zoonotic pneumonia in humans, is usually hosted by birds, while Chlamydia abortus, causing abortion and fetal death in mammals, including humans, is mainly hosted by goats and sheep. We used multi-locus sequence typing to asses the population structure of Chlamydia. In total, 132 Chlamydia isolates were analyzed, including 60 C. trachomatis, 18 C. pneumoniae, 16 C. abortus, 34 C. psittaci and one of each of C. pecorum, C. caviae, C. muridarum and C. felis. Cluster analyses utilizing the Neighbour-Joining algorithm with the maximum composite likelihood model of concatenated sequences of 7 housekeeping fragments showed that C. psittaci 84/2334 isolated from a parrot grouped together with the C. abortus isolates from goats and sheep. Cluster analyses of the individual alleles showed that in all instances C. psittaci 84/2334 formed one group with C. abortus. Moving 84/2334 from the C. psittaci group to the C. abortus group resulted in a significant increase in the number of fixed differences and elimination of the number of shared mutations between C. psittaci and C. abortus. C. psittaci M56 from a muskrat branched separately from the main group of C. psittaci isolates. C. psittaci genotypes appeared to be associated with host species. The phylogenetic tree of C. psittaci did not follow that of its host bird species, suggesting host species jumps. In conclusion, we report for the first time an association between C. psittaci genotypes with host species.

  7. Multi locus sequence typing of Chlamydia reveals an association between Chlamydia psittaci genotypes and host species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Pannekoek

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia comprises a group of obligate intracellular bacterial parasites responsible for a variety of diseases in humans and animals, including several zoonoses. Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases such as trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. Chlamydia psittaci, causing zoonotic pneumonia in humans, is usually hosted by birds, while Chlamydia abortus, causing abortion and fetal death in mammals, including humans, is mainly hosted by goats and sheep. We used multi-locus sequence typing to asses the population structure of Chlamydia. In total, 132 Chlamydia isolates were analyzed, including 60 C. trachomatis, 18 C. pneumoniae, 16 C. abortus, 34 C. psittaci and one of each of C. pecorum, C. caviae, C. muridarum and C. felis. Cluster analyses utilizing the Neighbour-Joining algorithm with the maximum composite likelihood model of concatenated sequences of 7 housekeeping fragments showed that C. psittaci 84/2334 isolated from a parrot grouped together with the C. abortus isolates from goats and sheep. Cluster analyses of the individual alleles showed that in all instances C. psittaci 84/2334 formed one group with C. abortus. Moving 84/2334 from the C. psittaci group to the C. abortus group resulted in a significant increase in the number of fixed differences and elimination of the number of shared mutations between C. psittaci and C. abortus. C. psittaci M56 from a muskrat branched separately from the main group of C. psittaci isolates. C. psittaci genotypes appeared to be associated with host species. The phylogenetic tree of C. psittaci did not follow that of its host bird species, suggesting host species jumps. In conclusion, we report for the first time an association between C. psittaci genotypes with host species.

  8. What is the mechanism for persistent coexistence of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colijn, Caroline; Cohen, Ted; Fraser, Christophe; Hanage, William; Goldstein, Edward; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Dagan, Ron; Lipsitch, Marc

    2010-01-01

    The rise of antimicrobial resistance in many pathogens presents a major challenge to the treatment and control of infectious diseases. Furthermore, the observation that drug-resistant strains have risen to substantial prevalence but have not replaced drug-susceptible strains despite continuing (and even growing) selective pressure by antimicrobial use presents an important problem for those who study the dynamics of infectious diseases. While simple competition models predict the exclusion of one strain in favour of whichever is ‘fitter’, or has a higher reproduction number, we argue that in the case of Streptococcus pneumoniae there has been persistent coexistence of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant strains, with neither approaching 100 per cent prevalence. We have previously proposed that models seeking to understand the origins of coexistence should not incorporate implicit mechanisms that build in stable coexistence ‘for free’. Here, we construct a series of such ‘structurally neutral’ models that incorporate various features of bacterial spread and host heterogeneity that have been proposed as mechanisms that may promote coexistence. We ask to what extent coexistence is a typical outcome in each. We find that while coexistence is possible in each of the models we consider, it is relatively rare, with two exceptions: (i) allowing simultaneous dual transmission of sensitive and resistant strains lets coexistence become a typical outcome, as does (ii) modelling each strain as competing more strongly with itself than with the other strain, i.e. self-immunity greater than cross-immunity. We conclude that while treatment and contact heterogeneity can promote coexistence to some extent, the in-host interactions between strains, particularly the interplay between coinfection, multiple infection and immunity, play a crucial role in the long-term population dynamics of pathogens with drug resistance. PMID:19940002

  9. Atypical pathogens and challenges in community-acquired pneumonia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atypical organisms such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila are implicated in up to 40 percent of cases of community-acquired pneumonia. Antibiotic treatment is empiric and includes coverage for both typical and atypical organisms. Doxycycline, a fluoroquinolone with ...

  10. Emerging role of Chlamydia and Chlamydia-like organisms in adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, David; Regan, Lesley; Greub, Gilbert

    2008-02-01

    This review considers the roles of Chlamydia spp. and newly identified Chlamydia-like organisms in miscarriage, stillbirths and preterm labour in both animals and humans. The cause of miscarriage, stillbirth and preterm labour often remains unexplained. Intracellular bacteria that grow either poorly or not at all on media used routinely to detect human pathogens could be the aetiological agents of these obstetrical conditions. There is growing evidence that Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila psittaci and Chlamydophila pneumoniae infections may result in adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans and/or animals. Waddlia, a Chlamydia-like organism first isolated from an aborted bovine, has emerged as an agent of abortion in cattle. Recently, Waddlia was also implicated in human foetal death. Moreover, Parachlamydia acanthamoebae is also abortigenic in ruminants. Whether additional novel Chlamydia-like organisms, such as Protochlamydia amoebophila, Neochlamydia hartmanellae, Criblamydia sequanensis, Rhabdochlamydia crassificans and Simkania negevensis, are involved in foetal loss or premature delivery remains to be determined. This review provides an update on the consequences of chlamydial infection during pregnancy and summarizes current evidence suggesting that some Chlamydia-related organisms are probably emerging obstetrical pathogens.

  11. Unusual coexistence of opportunistic lung infections in a human immunodeficiency virus positive patient suffering from persistent Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ponces Bento

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well-established that HIV patients are at high risk of opportunistic infections (OI, like the ones caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii, a worldwide pathogen implicated in interstitial pneumonia (PcP. We present a case of a newly diagnosed HIV-1 patient with multiple OI, including a persistent form of PcP, an invasive aspergillosis (IA, cytomegalovirus and Mycobacterium xenopi lung infection. We describe the combination of laboratorial screening, surgery and antimicrobial therapy which were crucial for patient recovery. Resumo: Como é sabido, nos doentes com infeção por vírus da imunodeficiência humana (VIH existe um alto risco de ocorrência de infeções oportunistas (IO, tais como as infeções por Pneumocystis jirovecii, um agente patogénico com distribuição mundial, que provoca pneumonia intersticial (PPc. Apresentamos um caso de um doente recém-diagnosticado com infeção por VIH-1 e múltiplas IO pulmonares, incluindo uma forma persistente de PPc, aspergilose invasiva (AI, e infeções por citomegalovírus e por Mycobacterium xenopi. Descrevemos a combinação de fatores cruciais para a recuperação do doente, que incluíram a obtenção de dados laboratoriais, intervenção cirúrgica e múltipla terapêutica antimicrobiana. Keywords: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia (PcP, Opportunistic infections, Lungs, Palavras-chave: Vírus da imunodeficiência humana (VIH, Pneumonia por Pneumocystis jirovecii (PPc, Infeções oportunistas, Pulmões

  12. Analysis of the humoral immune response to Chlamydia outer membrane protein 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, P; Christiansen, Gunna; Persson, K

    1998-01-01

    The humoral immune response to Chlamydia outer membrane protein 2 (Omp2) was studied. Omp2 is a highly genus-conserved structural protein of all Chlamydia species, containing a variable N-terminal fragment. To analyze where the immunogenic parts were localized, seven highly purified truncated...... fusion proteins constituting different regions of the protein were produced (Chlamydia pneumoniae-Omp2aa23-aa93, Chlamydia psittaci-Omp2aa23-aa94, and Chlamydia trachomatis-Omp2aa23-aa84, aa87-aa547, aa23-aa182, aa167-aa434, aa420-aa547). By an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with serologically defined...... patient sera, Omp2 was found to be a major immunogen of both C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis infections (P species-specific anti-Omp2 immunoglobulins were detected....

  13. Chlamydia species-dependent differences in the growth requirement for lysosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scot P Ouellette

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Genome reduction is a hallmark of obligate intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia, where adaptation to intracellular growth has resulted in the elimination of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes. Accordingly, chlamydiae rely heavily on the host cell for nutrients yet their specific source is unclear. Interestingly, chlamydiae grow within a pathogen-defined vacuole that is in close apposition to lysosomes. Metabolically-labeled uninfected host cell proteins were provided as an exogenous nutrient source to chlamydiae-infected cells, and uptake and subsequent labeling of chlamydiae suggested lysosomal degradation as a source of amino acids for the pathogen. Indeed, Bafilomycin A1 (BafA1, an inhibitor of the vacuolar H(+/ATPase that blocks lysosomal acidification and functions, impairs the growth of C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae, and these effects are especially profound in C. pneumoniae. BafA1 induced the marked accumulation of material within the lysosomal lumen, which was due to the inhibition of proteolytic activities, and this response inhibits chlamydiae rather than changes in lysosomal acidification per se, as cathepsin inhibitors also inhibit the growth of chlamydiae. Finally, the addition of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of eukaryotic protein synthesis, compromises the ability of lysosomal inhibitors to block chlamydial growth, suggesting chlamydiae directly access free amino acids in the host cytosol as a preferred source of these nutrients. Thus, chlamydiae co-opt the functions of lysosomes to acquire essential amino acids.

  14. The molecular biology and diagnostics of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend

    1992-01-01

    The rapid development of biotechnological methods provides the potential of dissecting the molecular structure of microorganisms. In this review the molecular biology of chlamydia is described. The genus Chlamydia contains three species C. trachomatis, C. psittaci, and C. pneumonia which all...... are important human pathogens. Chlamydia is obligate intracellular bacteria with a unique biphasic life cycle. The extracellularly chlamydial elementary bodies (EB) are small, metabolic inactive, infectious particles with a tight outer cell membrane. After internalization into host cells the chlamydial...... of chlamydia have not yet been found. The adhesin(s) is unknown, and no factor of importance for the inhibition of fusion between phagosome and host cell lysosomes has been described. A protein similar to the mip gene product of Legionella pneumofila may be a possible candidate for a pathogenicity factor...

  15. The radiological appearance of bacterial pneumonias and their differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.H.; Fabel, H.; Medizinische Hochschule Hannover

    1985-01-01

    Under the influence of antibiotic therapy, bacterial pneumonias have undergone a remarkable change in the last few decades. Individual forms of pneumonia can be distinguished morphologically by their localization, the way in which they spread, their limitations, and their course. Clinically, opportunistic bacterial infections predominate. Increasingly, secondary pneumonias are observed in poststenotic areas, areas of infarction, in hypostatic areas, after aspiration, and in previously damaged lobes. Radiologic criteria for differentiating from atypical pneumonias (viruses, mycoplasmas and chlamydia) are discussed. (orig.) [de

  16. Understanding Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Pneumonia Learn About Pneumonia Pneumonia is a common lung infection caused by ... vaccinated and practicing good health habits What Is Pneumonia? Pneumonia is an infection in one or both ...

  17. Future of human Chlamydia vaccine: potential of self-adjuvanting biodegradable nanoparticles as safe vaccine delivery vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Rajnish; Verma, Richa; Dixit, Saurabh; Igietseme, Joseph U; Black, Carolyn M; Duncan, Skyla; Singh, Shree R; Dennis, Vida A

    2018-03-01

    There is a persisting global burden and considerable public health challenge by the plethora of ocular, genital and respiratory diseases caused by members of the Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Chlamydia. The major diseases are conjunctivitis and blinding trachoma, non-gonococcal urethritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, tubal factor infertility, and interstitial pneumonia. The failures in screening and other prevention programs led to the current medical opinion that an efficacious prophylactic vaccine is the best approach to protect humans from chlamydial infections. Unfortunately, there is no human Chlamydia vaccine despite successful veterinary vaccines. A major challenge has been the effective delivery of vaccine antigens to induce safe and effective immune effectors to confer long-term protective immunity. The dawn of the era of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles and the adjuvanted derivatives may accelerate the realization of the dream of human vaccine in the foreseeable future. Areas covered: This review focuses on the current status of human chlamydial vaccine research, specifically the potential of biodegradable polymeric nanovaccines to provide efficacious Chlamydia vaccines in the near future. Expert commentary: The safety of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles-based experimental vaccines with or without adjuvants and the array of available chlamydial vaccine candidates would suggest that clinical trials in humans may be imminent. Also, the promising results from vaccine testing in animal models could lead to human vaccines against trachoma and reproductive diseases simultaneously.

  18. Sen debut af neonatal pneumoni forårsaget af Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Birgitte Johanne; Hermansen, Mette Nortman

    2013-01-01

    A newborn colonized with Chlamydia trachomatis will often show symptoms of conjunctivitis and/or pneumonia. We report a case of interstitial pneumonia caused by C. trachomatis in a 2-month-old boy admitted with RSV. We point to the importance of C. trachomatis in the differential diagnostics...

  19. Activity of synthetic peptides against Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Manuela; Cenacchi, Giovanna; Biondi, Roberta; Papa, Valentina; Borel, Nicole; Vecchio Nepita, Edoardo; Magnino, Simone; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Levi, Aurora; Franco, Octavio L

    2017-11-01

    The in vitro activity of six synthetic peptides against 36 strains of Chlamydia from different origins was investigated. Clavanin MO (CMO) proved to be the most active peptide, reducing the inclusion number of all Chlamydia strains from eight different species tested by ≥50% at 10 µg mL -1 . Mastoparan L showed an equal activity against C. trachomatis, C. pneumoniae, C. suis, and C. muridarum, but did not exert any inhibitory effect against C. psittaci, C. pecorum, C. abortus, and C. avium even at 80 µg mL -1 . These data suggest that CMO could be a promising compound in the prevention and treatment of chlamydial infections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The prevalence and clinical significance of Chlamydia infection in island and mainland populations of Victorian koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jade L S; Lynch, Michael; Anderson, Garry A; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Legione, Alistair; Gilkerson, James R; Devlin, Joanne M

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia infection is known to impact the health of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, but the clinical significance of Chlamydia infections in Victorian koalas is not well described. We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia infection and assessed associated health parameters in two Victorian koala populations known to be Chlamydia positive. The same testing regimen was applied to a third Victorian population in which Chlamydia had not been detected. We examined 288 koalas and collected samples from the urogenital sinus and conjunctival sacs. Detection and differentiation of Chlamydia species utilized real-time PCR and high-resolution melting curve analysis. Chlamydia pecorum was detected in two populations (prevalences: 25% and 41%, respectively) but only from urogenital sinus swabs. Chlamydia was not detected in the third population. Chlamydia pneumoniae was not detected. Chlamydia pecorum infection was positively associated with wet bottom (indicating chronic urinary tract disease) in one Chlamydia-positive population and with abnormal urogenital ultrasound findings in the other Chlamydia-positive population. The prevalence of wet bottom was similar in all populations (including the Chlamydia-free population), suggesting there is another significant cause (or causes) of wet bottom in Victorian koalas. Ocular disease was not observed. This is the largest study of Chlamydia infection in Victorian koalas, and the results suggest the potential for epidemiologic differences related to Chlamydia infections between Victorian koalas and koalas in Queensland and NSW and also between geographically distinct Victorian populations. Further studies to investigate the genotypes of C. pecorum present in Victorian koalas and to identify additional causes of wet bottom in koalas are indicated.

  1. Chlamydia infections in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other types of STIs. Most common STIs are: Gonorrhea HIV/AIDS Syphilis Hepatitis Herpes Even if you ... you from passing the STIs back and forth. Gonorrhea often occurs with chlamydia. Therefore, treatment for gonorrhea ...

  2. Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... sheet Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) – CDC fact sheet Gonorrhea – CDC fact sheet STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis ( ...

  3. Chlamydia and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-02

    This women's health podcast focuses on chlamydia, its severe health consequences for women if left untreated, and the importance of annual chlamydia screening.  Created: 4/2/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 4/2/2009.

  4. Synthesis of protein in host-free reticulate bodies of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia trachomatis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, T.P.; Miceli, M.; Silverman, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Synthesis of protein by the obligate intracellular parasitic bacteria Chlamydia psittaci (6BC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (serovar L2) isolated from host cells (host-free chlamydiae) was demonstrated for the first time. Incorporation of [ 35 S]methionine and [ 35 S]cysteine into trichloroacetic acid-precipitable material by reticulate bodies of chlamydiae persisted for 2 h and was dependent upon a exogenous source of ATP, an ATP-regenerating system, and potassium or sodium ions. Magnesium ions and amino acids stimulated synthesis; chloramphenicol, rifampin, oligomycin, and carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (a proton ionophore) inhibited incorporation. Ribonucleoside triphosphates (other than ATP) had little stimulatory effect. The optimum pH for host-free synthesis was between 7.0 and 7.5. The molecular weights of proteins synthesized by host-free reticulate bodies closely resembled the molecular weights of proteins synthesized by reticulate bodies in an intracellular environment, and included outer membrane proteins. Elementary bodies of chlamydiae were unable to synthesize protein even when incubated in the presence of 10 mM dithiothreitol, a reducing agent which converted the highly disulfide bond cross-linked major outer membrane protein to monomeric form

  5. Evidence for Chlamydia in wild mammals of the Serengeti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospischil, Andreas; Kaiser, Carmen; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans; Hilbe, Monika; Vaughan, Lloyd; Borel, Nicole

    2012-10-01

    Only limited information is available on the presence of Chlamydiaceae in wildlife, a deficit that is particularly acute concerning mammalian wildlife in Africa. In a retrospective analysis of organ material from an earlier study on wild mammals from the Seregenti National Park, 521 samples from 54 animals of 14 mammalian species were investigated. The presence of Chlamydiaceae was analyzed using molecular methods and immunohistochemistry. Chlamydial DNA was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues from large ruminants (African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, n=4) and a large predator (spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta, n=1). Microarray results revealed Chlamydia abortus in all cases, confirmed by sequencing of selected samples, and a mixed infection with Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia pneumoniae in an African buffalo. This is the first report of Chlamydiaceae in African wildlife of the Serengeti area.

  6. [Chlamydia trachomatis infection in mother and child; the importance of a complete history and efficient interdisciplinary communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naafs, Jolanda C; Kleinhout, Mirjam Y

    2016-01-01

    General practitioners and paediatricians are frequently confronted with coughing infants. The age of the infant, the history of both mother and child, as well as the current maternal condition may provide important diagnostic information. A 4-week-old male infant was referred to the paediatrician with a persistent cough. He was admitted to hospital with dyspnoea and need for supplemental oxygen. Meanwhile, his mother was admitted with unexplained abdominal pain and elevated laboratory inflammation markers. Her history revealed an ectopic pregnancy. The infant's condition, for which the initial differential diagnosis was viral bronchiolitis or whooping cough, deteriorated. His medical history revealed a purulent conjunctivitis. Chlamydia trachomatis PCR turned out to be positive in both mother and child. C. trachomatis pneumonia is a common, yet often overlooked cause of cough in infants. This clinical lesson emphasises the importance of a complete history and efficient communication between medical specialists.

  7. Pneumonia Nosokomial

    OpenAIRE

    Keliat, E.N; Abidin, Alwinsyah; Lubis, Nursyamsiah

    2017-01-01

    Pada masa yang lalu pneumonia diklasifikasikan sebagai pneumonia tipikal yang disebabkan oleh Str. Pneumonia daan atipikal yang disebabkan kuman atipik seperti halnya M. pneumonia. Kemudian ternyata manifestasi dari patogen lain seperti H. influenza, S. aureus dan bakteri Gram negatif memberikan sindrom klinik yang identik dengan pneumonia oleh Str E.N Keliat

  8. Chlamydia infection across host species boundaries promotes distinct sets of transcribed anti-apoptotic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua eMessinger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae, obligate intracellular bacteria, cause significant human and veterinary associated diseases. Having emerged an estimated 700-million years ago, these bacteria have twice adapted to humans as a host species, causing sexually transmitted infection (C. trachomatis and respiratory associated disease (C. pneumoniae. The principle mechanism of host cell defense against these intracellular bacteria is the induction of cell death via apoptosis. However, in the arms race of co-evolution, Chlamydiae have developed mechanisms to promote cell viability and inhibit cell death. Herein we examine the impact of Chlamydiae infection across multiple host species on transcription of anti-apoptotic genes. We found mostly distinct patterns of gene expression (Mcl1 and cIAPs elicited by each pathogen-host pair indicating Chlamydiae infection across host species boundaries does not induce a universally shared host response. Understanding species specific host-pathogen interactions is paramount to deciphering how potential pathogens become emerging diseases.

  9. In vitro activity of a partially purified and characterized bark extract of Castanea sativa Mill. (ENC®) against Chlamydia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Valentina; Ginocchietti, Laura; Budriesi, Roberta; Micucci, Matteo; Costa, Roberta; Biondi, Roberta; Cevenini, Roberto; Chiarini, Alberto; Aldini, Rita; Donati, Manuela; Pollini, Gian Matteo; Cenacchi, Giovanna

    2017-01-01

    Castanea sativa Mill (ENC®), containing tannins against 33 Chlamydia strains, was compared to SMAP-29 with inhibitory effect against C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae. The ENC® activity against Chlamydia spp. was evaluated determining the lowest concentration to achieve more than half reduction of intact chlamydial inclusions versus controls. ENC® reduced all Chlamydia strains tested at 1 µg/mL, while SMAP-29 induced reductions of C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae infectivity at 10 µg/mL. A great reduction of C. trachomatis, C. pneumoniae, and C. abortus infectivity was achieved with a 10 µg/mL ENC® concentration, whereas their infectivity was almost inhibited at 100 µg/mL ENC® concentration.

  10. The Chlamydia psittaci genome: a comparative analysis of intracellular pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Anja; Schöfl, Gerhard; Saluz, Hans Peter

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydiaceae are a family of obligate intracellular pathogens causing a wide range of diseases in animals and humans, and facing unique evolutionary constraints not encountered by free-living prokaryotes. To investigate genomic aspects of infection, virulence and host preference we have sequenced Chlamydia psittaci, the pathogenic agent of ornithosis. A comparison of the genome of the avian Chlamydia psittaci isolate 6BC with the genomes of other chlamydial species, C. trachomatis, C. muridarum, C. pneumoniae, C. abortus, C. felis and C. caviae, revealed a high level of sequence conservation and synteny across taxa, with the major exception of the human pathogen C. trachomatis. Important differences manifest in the polymorphic membrane protein family specific for the Chlamydiae and in the highly variable chlamydial plasticity zone. We identified a number of psittaci-specific polymorphic membrane proteins of the G family that may be related to differences in host-range and/or virulence as compared to closely related Chlamydiaceae. We calculated non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rate ratios for pairs of orthologous genes to identify putative targets of adaptive evolution and predicted type III secreted effector proteins. This study is the first detailed analysis of the Chlamydia psittaci genome sequence. It provides insights in the genome architecture of C. psittaci and proposes a number of novel candidate genes mostly of yet unknown function that may be important for pathogen-host interactions.

  11. The Chlamydia psittaci genome: a comparative analysis of intracellular pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Voigt

    Full Text Available Chlamydiaceae are a family of obligate intracellular pathogens causing a wide range of diseases in animals and humans, and facing unique evolutionary constraints not encountered by free-living prokaryotes. To investigate genomic aspects of infection, virulence and host preference we have sequenced Chlamydia psittaci, the pathogenic agent of ornithosis.A comparison of the genome of the avian Chlamydia psittaci isolate 6BC with the genomes of other chlamydial species, C. trachomatis, C. muridarum, C. pneumoniae, C. abortus, C. felis and C. caviae, revealed a high level of sequence conservation and synteny across taxa, with the major exception of the human pathogen C. trachomatis. Important differences manifest in the polymorphic membrane protein family specific for the Chlamydiae and in the highly variable chlamydial plasticity zone. We identified a number of psittaci-specific polymorphic membrane proteins of the G family that may be related to differences in host-range and/or virulence as compared to closely related Chlamydiaceae. We calculated non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rate ratios for pairs of orthologous genes to identify putative targets of adaptive evolution and predicted type III secreted effector proteins.This study is the first detailed analysis of the Chlamydia psittaci genome sequence. It provides insights in the genome architecture of C. psittaci and proposes a number of novel candidate genes mostly of yet unknown function that may be important for pathogen-host interactions.

  12. Chlamydiae in febrile children with respiratory tract symptoms and age-matched controls, Ghana

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    H. Bühl

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Chlamydiales order are obligate intracellular pathogens causing acute and chronic infectious diseases. Chlamydiaceae are established agents of community- and zoonotically acquired respiratory tract infections, and emerging pathogens among the Chlamydia-related bacteria have been implicated in airway infections. The role of both in airway infections in Africa is underexplored. We performed a case -control study on the prevalence of Chlamydiaceae and Chlamydia-related emerging pathogens in children with febrile respiratory tract infections in West Africa, Ghana. Using a pan-Chlamydiales broad-range real-time PCR, we detected chlamydial DNA in 11 (1.9% of 572 hospitalized febrile children with respiratory tract symptoms and in 24 (4.3% of 560 asymptomatic age-matched controls (p 0.03. Chlamydiaceae were found to be common among both symptomatic and healthy Ghanaian children, with Chlamydia pneumoniae being the most prevalent species. Parachlamydiaceae were detected in two children without symptoms but not in the symptomatic group. We identified neither Chlamydia psittaci nor Simkania negevensis but a member of a new chlamydial family that shared 90.2% sequence identity with the 16S rRNA gene of the zoonotic pathogen Chlamydia pecorum. In addition, we found a new Chlamydia-related species that belonged to a novel family sharing 91.3% 16S rRNA sequence identity with Candidatus Syngnamydia venezia. The prevalence and spectrum of chlamydial species differed from previous results obtained from children of other geographic regions and our study indicates that both, Chlamydiaceae and Chlamydia-related bacteria, are not clearly linked to clinical symptoms in Ghanaian children. Keywords: Children, Chlamydia, Chlamydia-related bacteria, febrile respiratory tract infection, Ghana

  13. Pneumonia (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs caused by an infection. Many different organisms can cause it, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Pneumonia is a common illness that affects millions of ...

  14. Rocking pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Rijkers, Ger T.; Rodriguez Gomez, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Ever since Chuck Berry coined the term “rocking pneumonia” in his 1956 song “Roll over Beethoven”, pneumonia has been mentioned frequently in modern blues and rock songs. We analyzed the lyrics of these songs to examine how various elements of pneumonia have been represented in popular music, specifically the cause of pneumonia, the risk groups, comorbidity (such as the boogie woogie flu), the clinical symptoms, and treatment and outcome. Up to this day, songwriters suggest that pneumonia is ...

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis serotype A infections in the Amazon region of Brazil: prevalence, entry and dissemination

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    Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chlamydia infection is associated with debilitating human diseases including trachoma, pneumonia, coronary heart disease and urogenital diseases. Serotypes of C. trachomatis show a fair correlation with the group of diseases they cause, and their distribution follows a well-described geographic pattern. Serotype A, a trachoma-associated strain, is known for its limited dissemination in the Middle East and Northern Africa. However, knowledge on the spread of bacteria from the genus Chlamydia as well as the distribution of serotypes in Brazil is quite limited. METHODS: Blood samples of 1,710 individuals from ten human population groups in the Amazon region of Brazil were examined for antibodies to Chlamydia using indirect immunofluorescence and microimmunofluorescence assays. RESULTS: The prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydia ranged from 23.9% (Wayana-Apalai to 90.7% (Awa-Guaja with a mean prevalence of 50.2%. Seroreactivity was detected to C. pneumoniae and to all serotypes of C. trachomatis tested; furthermore, we report clear evidence of the as-yet-undescribed occurrence of serotype A of C. trachomatis. CONCLUSIONS: Specific seroreactivity not only accounts for the large extent of dissemination of C. trachomatis in the Amazon region of Brazil but also shows an expanded area of occurrence of serotype A outside the epidemiological settings previously described. Furthermore, these data suggest possible routes of Chlamydia introduction into the Amazon region from the massive human migration that occurred during the 1,700s.

  16. Serological diagnosis of Chlamydia infections: proposal of a cost-effective approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Ciarrocchi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by genus Chlamydia are challenging for phisicians, as a results of a complicated pathogenesis and a variable clinical picture. Furthermore, potential sequelae following Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci infections are of clinical relevant interest. Serodiagnosis is a clue tool when the direct antigen research or the bacteria fragments detection is impaired. Some serological tests such as the ELISA or the indirect micro-immunofluorescence methods are routinely performed. To improve the diagnostic efficiency of these tests, a selective coating of specie-specific reactive antigens on microwells or on microscopic slides is proposed.A highly selective coating is essential to generate a specific immune response for each Chlamydia species and high levels of distinct IgA, IgG, IgM antibody classes.The goal of serology is the diagnostic value of results, therefore the correct choice of the best screening and confirmation test is of extreme relevance due to the clinical impact of results for the therapeutical approach and management of acute and chronic infections. In conclusion, a quantitative specific anti-Chlamydia IgG and IgA antibody detection is a useful method to improve the follow up of complicated chronic clinical sequelae.

  17. Comprehensive in silico prediction and analysis of chlamydial outer membrane proteins reflects evolution and life style of the Chlamydiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers Garry

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria comprising some of the most important bacterial pathogens of animals and humans. Although chlamydial outer membrane proteins play a key role for attachment to and entry into host cells, only few have been described so far. We developed a comprehensive, multiphasic in silico approach, including the calculation of clusters of orthologues, to predict outer membrane proteins using conservative criteria. We tested this approach using Escherichia coli (positive control and Bacillus subtilis (negative control, and applied it to five chlamydial species; Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia muridarum, Chlamydia (a.k.a. Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydia (a.k.a. Chlamydophila caviae, and Protochlamydia amoebophila. Results In total, 312 chlamydial outer membrane proteins and lipoproteins in 88 orthologous clusters were identified, including 238 proteins not previously recognized to be located in the outer membrane. Analysis of their taxonomic distribution revealed an evolutionary conservation among Chlamydiae, Verrucomicrobia, Lentisphaerae and Planctomycetes as well as lifestyle-dependent conservation of the chlamydial outer membrane protein composition. Conclusion This analysis suggested a correlation between the outer membrane protein composition and the host range of chlamydiae and revealed a common set of outer membrane proteins shared by these intracellular bacteria. The collection of predicted chlamydial outer membrane proteins is available at the online database pCOMP http://www.microbial-ecology.net/pcomp and might provide future guidance in the quest for anti-chlamydial vaccines.

  18. The Number, Organization, and Size of Polymorphic Membrane Protein Coding Sequences as well as the Most Conserved Pmp Protein Differ within and across Chlamydia Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lent, Sarah; Creasy, Heather Huot; Myers, Garry S A; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    Variation is a central trait of the polymorphic membrane protein (Pmp) family. The number of pmp coding sequences differs between Chlamydia species, but it is unknown whether the number of pmp coding sequences is constant within a Chlamydia species. The level of conservation of the Pmp proteins has previously only been determined for Chlamydia trachomatis. As different Pmp proteins might be indispensible for the pathogenesis of different Chlamydia species, this study investigated the conservation of Pmp proteins both within and across C. trachomatis,C. pneumoniae,C. abortus, and C. psittaci. The pmp coding sequences were annotated in 16 C. trachomatis, 6 C. pneumoniae, 2 C. abortus, and 16 C. psittaci genomes. The number and organization of polymorphic membrane coding sequences differed within and across the analyzed Chlamydia species. The length of coding sequences of pmpA,pmpB, and pmpH was conserved among all analyzed genomes, while the length of pmpE/F and pmpG, and remarkably also of the subtype pmpD, differed among the analyzed genomes. PmpD, PmpA, PmpH, and PmpA were the most conserved Pmp in C. trachomatis,C. pneumoniae,C. abortus, and C. psittaci, respectively. PmpB was the most conserved Pmp across the 4 analyzed Chlamydia species. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Orchitis and Epididymitis in Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) Infected With Chlamydia pecorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, S D; Deif, H H; McKinnon, A; Theilemann, P; Griffith, J E; Higgins, D P

    2015-11-01

    Although Chlamydia causes disease of the urethra and prostate of male koalas, its impact on the testis and epididymis has not been examined. This study describes chronic-active and granulomatous orchitis and epididymitis with interstitial fibrosis associated with infection by Chlamydia pecorum in 2 of 18 adult male koalas being euthanized at a koala hospital, 8 of which also had chlamydial prostatitis. By immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy, chlamydial inclusions were demonstrated within Sertoli cells directly associated with mild inflammation surrounding intact seminiferous and epididymal tubules, marked pyogranulomatous inflammation around disrupted tubules, replacement of tubules by interstitial fibrosis, and aspermia. The presence of C. pecorum but not Chlamydia pneumoniae was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction of formalin-fixed tissues of the left and right testes and right epididymis in 1 animal. This is the first report of orchitis and epididymitis in a koala infected with C. pecorum. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Pneumonia Pneumosistis

    OpenAIRE

    I Wayan Gustawan; BNP Arhana; Putu Siadi Purniti; IB Subanada; K Dewi Kumara Wati

    2016-01-01

    Pneumonia pnemosistis merupakan penyebab kesakitan yang serius dan kematian pada kasus gangguan sistem imun. Pneumonia pnemosistis merupakan infeksi oportunistik tersering pada kasus yang terinfeksi HIV, leukemia dan anak yang menerima transplantasi organ. Organisme penyebab adalah Pneumocystis carinii. Manifestasi klinis berupa gangguan pernapasan disertai penyakit dasarnya. Diagnosis pasti ditegakkan dengan ditemukannya organisme dalam pemeriksaan mikroskopis. Pengobatan secara ...

  1. The prevalence and identity of Chlamydia-specific IgE in children with asthma and other chronic respiratory symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Katir K

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have confirmed the presence of viable Chlamydia in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid of pediatric patients with airway hyperresponsiveness. While specific IgG and IgM responses to C. pneumoniae are well described, the response and potential contribution of Ag-specific IgE are not known. The current study sought to determine if infection with Chlamydia triggers the production of pathogen-specific IgE in children with chronic respiratory diseases which might contribute to inflammation and pathology. Methods We obtained BAL fluid and serum from pediatric respiratory disease patients who were generally unresponsive to corticosteroid treatment as well as sera from age-matched control patients who saw their doctor for wellness checkups. Chlamydia-specific IgE was isolated from BAL and serum samples and their specificity determined by Western blot techniques. The presence of Chlamydia was confirmed by species-specific PCR and BAL culture assays. Results Chlamydial DNA was detected in the BAL fluid of 134/197 (68% patients. Total IgE increased with age until 15 years old and then decreased. Chlamydia-specific IgE was detected in the serum and/or BAL of 107/197 (54% patients suffering from chronic respiratory disease, but in none of the 35 healthy control sera (p p = 0.0001 tested positive for Chlamydia-specific IgE. Asthmatic patients had significantly higher IgE levels compared to non-asthmatics (p = 0.0001. Patients who were positive for Chlamydia DNA or culture had significantly higher levels of serum IgE compared to negative patients (p = 0.0071 and p = 0.0001 respectively. Only 6 chlamydial antigens induced Chlamydia-specific IgE and patients with C. pneumoniae-specific IgE had significantly greater levels of total IgE compared to C. pneumoniae-specific IgE negative ones (p = 0.0001. Conclusions IgE antibodies play a central role in allergic inflammation; therefore production of Chlamydia

  2. Processing of Chlamydia abortus polymorphic membrane protein 18D during the chlamydial developmental cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelhouse, Nick M; Sait, Michelle; Aitchison, Kevin; Livingstone, Morag; Wright, Frank; McLean, Kevin; Inglis, Neil F; Smith, David G E; Longbottom, David

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia possess a unique family of autotransporter proteins known as the Polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps). While the total number of pmp genes varies between Chlamydia species, all encode a single pmpD gene. In both Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) and C. pneumoniae, the PmpD protein is proteolytically cleaved on the cell surface. The current study was carried out to determine the cleavage patterns of the PmpD protein in the animal pathogen C. abortus (termed Pmp18D). Using antibodies directed against different regions of Pmp18D, proteomic techniques revealed that the mature protein was cleaved on the cell surface, resulting in a100 kDa N-terminal product and a 60 kDa carboxy-terminal protein. The N-terminal protein was further processed into 84, 76 and 73 kDa products. Clustering analysis resolved PmpD proteins into three distinct clades with C. abortus Pmp18D, being most similar to those originating from C. psittaci, C. felis and C. caviae. This study indicates that C. abortus Pmp18D is proteolytically processed at the cell surface similar to the proteins of C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae. However, patterns of cleavage are species-specific, with low sequence conservation of PmpD across the genus. The absence of conserved domains indicates that the function of the PmpD molecule in chlamydia remains to be elucidated.

  3. Processing of Chlamydia abortus polymorphic membrane protein 18D during the chlamydial developmental cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick M Wheelhouse

    Full Text Available Chlamydia possess a unique family of autotransporter proteins known as the Polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps. While the total number of pmp genes varies between Chlamydia species, all encode a single pmpD gene. In both Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae, the PmpD protein is proteolytically cleaved on the cell surface. The current study was carried out to determine the cleavage patterns of the PmpD protein in the animal pathogen C. abortus (termed Pmp18D.Using antibodies directed against different regions of Pmp18D, proteomic techniques revealed that the mature protein was cleaved on the cell surface, resulting in a100 kDa N-terminal product and a 60 kDa carboxy-terminal protein. The N-terminal protein was further processed into 84, 76 and 73 kDa products. Clustering analysis resolved PmpD proteins into three distinct clades with C. abortus Pmp18D, being most similar to those originating from C. psittaci, C. felis and C. caviae.This study indicates that C. abortus Pmp18D is proteolytically processed at the cell surface similar to the proteins of C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae. However, patterns of cleavage are species-specific, with low sequence conservation of PmpD across the genus. The absence of conserved domains indicates that the function of the PmpD molecule in chlamydia remains to be elucidated.

  4. Chlamydia sequelae cost estimates used in current economic evaluations: does one-size-fit-all?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Koh Jun; Soldan, Kate; Jit, Mark; Dunbar, J Kevin; Woodhall, Sarah C

    2017-02-01

    Current evidence suggests that chlamydia screening programmes can be cost-effective, conditional on assumptions within mathematical models. We explored differences in cost estimates used in published economic evaluations of chlamydia screening from seven countries (four papers each from UK and the Netherlands, two each from Sweden and Australia, and one each from Ireland, Canada and Denmark). From these studies, we extracted management cost estimates for seven major chlamydia sequelae. In order to compare the influence of different sequelae considered in each paper and their corresponding management costs on the total cost per case of untreated chlamydia, we applied reported unit sequelae management costs considered in each paper to a set of untreated infection to sequela progression probabilities. All costs were adjusted to 2013/2014 Great British Pound (GBP) values. Sequelae management costs ranged from £171 to £3635 (pelvic inflammatory disease); £953 to £3615 (ectopic pregnancy); £546 to £6752 (tubal factor infertility); £159 to £3341 (chronic pelvic pain); £22 to £1008 (epididymitis); £11 to £1459 (neonatal conjunctivitis) and £433 to £3992 (neonatal pneumonia). Total cost of sequelae per case of untreated chlamydia ranged from £37 to £412. There was substantial variation in cost per case of chlamydia sequelae used in published chlamydia screening economic evaluations, which likely arose from different assumptions about disease management pathways and the country perspectives taken. In light of this, when interpreting these studies, the reader should be satisfied that the cost estimates used sufficiently reflect the perspective taken and current disease management for their respective context. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Association of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Serostatus With Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men: The HPV in Men Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, Catharina Johanna; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Papenfuss, Mary R.; da Silva, Roberto José Carvalho; Villa, Luisa Lina; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Nyitray, Alan G.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studies in women indicate that some sexually transmitted infections promote human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence and carcinogenesis. Little is known about this association in men; therefore, we assessed whether Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection and herpes simplex virus type 2

  6. Aspiration pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Images Pneumococci organism Bronchoscopy Lungs Respiratory system References Musher DM. Overview of pneumonia. In: Goldman L, Schafer ... University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

  7. Pneumocystis Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... among 16 patients after kidney transplantation. Journal of clinical microbiology 2008;46:966-71. Pifer LL, Hughes WT, ... diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: a meta-analysis. Clinical microbiology and infection 2013;19:39-49. CDC. Pneumocystis ...

  8. Hydrocarbon pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pneumonia is caused by drinking or breathing in gasoline , kerosene , furniture polish , paint thinner, or other oily ... Arterial blood gas monitoring Breathing support, including oxygen, inhalation treatment, breathing tube and ventilator (machine), in severe ...

  9. Persistence of Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 as the predominant clone of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in post-acute-care hospitals in Israel, 2008-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Amos; Hussein, Omar; Ben-David, Debby; Masarwa, Samira; Navon-Venezia, Shiri; Schwaber, Mitchell J; Carmeli, Yehuda

    2015-01-01

    To study the molecular characteristics of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in post-acute-care hospitals (PACHs) in Israel and to analyse the temporal changes between 2008 and 2013. CPE isolates were obtained during two cross-sectional, point prevalence national surveys of PACHs in Israel performed in 2008 and 2013. Surveillance cultures were collected by streaking rectal swabs onto selective media. Isolates were identified to species level and tested for blaKPC, blaNDM and blaOXA-48 by PCR and by the Carba NP test. Molecular typing was done by PCR for the pilv-l gene, designed for the ST258 KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-KP) clone, BOX-PCR and MLST. The prevalence of CPE carriage in the first survey was 184/1147 (16%); all of the isolates were KPC-KP. The prevalence of CPE carriage in the second survey was 127/1287 (9.9%); of these isolates, 113 (89%) were KPC-KP, 9 (7%) were other KPC-producing species and 5 (4%) were NDM- and OXA-48-producing CPE (n = 1 and 4, respectively). The proportion of the KPC-KP population represented by the ST258 clone increased from 120/184 (65%) in 2008 to 91/113 (80%) in 2013. In 58% (71/122) of the KPC-CPE carriers identified in the 2013 survey, the source of acquisition was determined to be the PACH itself. All four OXA-48 CPE were acquired either directly or indirectly from patients arriving from the Palestinian Authority or Syria. Despite the decreased prevalence of CPE in Israeli PACHs, and the emergence of new types of CPE, the KPC-KP ST258 clone remains the predominant clone represented. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Chlamydia pneumoniae, systemic inflammation and the risk of venous thrombosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maraha, B.; Peeters, M.F.; Aken, B.E. van; Heijer, M. den

    2002-01-01

    Inflammatory mediators are involved in activation of the coagulation system, and elevated plasma concentrations of IL-6 and IL-8 are associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis. Using serologic and molecular biologic tests, we investigated in a case-control study on patients with

  11. Ironing Out the Unconventional Mechanisms of Iron Acquisition and Gene Regulation in Chlamydia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick D. Pokorzynski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, along with its close species relatives, is known to be strictly dependent upon the availability of iron. Deprivation of iron in vitro induces an aberrant morphological phenotype termed “persistence.” This persistent phenotype develops in response to various immunological and nutritional insults and may contribute to the development of sub-acute Chlamydia-associated chronic diseases in susceptible populations. Given the importance of iron to Chlamydia, relatively little is understood about its acquisition and its role in gene regulation in comparison to other iron-dependent bacteria. Analysis of the genome sequences of a variety of chlamydial species hinted at the involvement of unconventional mechanisms, being that Chlamydia lack many conventional systems of iron homeostasis that are highly conserved in other bacteria. Herein we detail past and current research regarding chlamydial iron biology in an attempt to provide context to the rapid progress of the field in recent years. We aim to highlight recent discoveries and innovations that illuminate the strategies involved in chlamydial iron homeostasis, including the vesicular mode of acquiring iron from the intracellular environment, and the identification of a putative iron-dependent transcriptional regulator that is synthesized as a fusion with a ABC-type transporter subunit. These recent findings, along with the noted absence of iron-related homologs, indicate that Chlamydia have evolved atypical approaches to the problem of iron homeostasis, reinvigorating research into the iron biology of this pathogen.

  12. Etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized patients in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ali, Musa K.; Batchoun, R. G.; Al-Nour, Tariq M.

    2006-01-01

    To ascertain the causative organisms of community acquired pneumonia (Cap) in Jordanian patients requiring hospital admission. A prospective study of both adults and children admitted to Princess Basma and Princess Rahma Teaching Hospitals in Irbid, Jordan with a diagnosis of CAP over a 6-month period from April to October 2002. A total of 35 adult patients were admitted with a mean age of 47 years, and 63 children with a mean age of 3 years. A pathogen was isolated from 25 (71%) adults, and from 17 (27%) children, and sputum cultures gave the best diagnostic yield. In adults Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common isolate (26%), followed by Chlamydia pneumoniae (23%), Haemophilus influenzae (17%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (9%), and Legionella pneumophila and Klebsiella pneumoniae (6%) each. Seven of the 9 gram negative isolates were from patients with some co morbid illness. While in children, Chlamydia pneumoniae was the most common (14%), followed by Mycoplasma pneumoniae (6%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3%) each. Streptococcus pneumoniae and atypical microorganisms are the most common cause of CAP in previously healthy adults; while in those with associated co morbid illness, gram negative organisms are the likely cause. In children, the overall detection rate of causative organisms was low with atypical microorganisms being the most common. (author)

  13. A case of lymphogranuloma venereum of 20 years' duration. Isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis from perianal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, M; Rotmensch, H H; Eylan, E; Rubinstein, A; Ginsberg, R; Liron, M

    1980-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from perianal lesions in a patient in whom lymphogranuloma venereum had been diagnosed 20 years previously. Treatment with tetracycline resulted in a pronounced improvement. Although C trachomatis is known to persist for a long time in the host, isolation of the micro-organism from infected tissues after such a prolonged period has not previously been reported. Images PMID:7427708

  14. Chlamydia Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/chlamydiatest.html Chlamydia Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Chlamydia Test? Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually ...

  15. Multi Locus Sequence Typing of Chlamydia Reveals an Association between Chlamydia psittaci Genotypes and Host Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Dickx, Veerle; Beeckman, Delphine S. A.; Jolley, Keith A.; Keijzers, Wendy C.; Vretou, Evangelia; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Vanrompay, Daisy; van der Ende, Arie

    2010-01-01

    Chlamydia comprises a group of obligate intracellular bacterial parasites responsible for a variety of diseases in humans and animals, including several zoonoses. Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases such as trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity.

  16. Pneumonia necrotizante

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Coutinho; Nuno Príncipe

    2015-01-01

    A pneumonia adquirida na comunidade (PAC) é causa frequente de re-curso a Serviços de Urgência (SU), sendo a principal causa de sépsis em cuidados intensivos de adultos, com significativa morbi-mortalidade.1Uma das suas complicações, a pneumonia necrotizante, sendo rara, é grave e caracterizada por liquefação e necrose com cavitação do tecido pulmonar em áreas de consolidação parenquimatosa

  17. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120 Chlamydia... and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to chlamydia in serum. Additionally...

  18. From genomes to genotypes: molecular epidemiological analysis of Chlamydia gallinacea reveals a high level of genetic diversity for this newly emerging chlamydial pathogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Weina; Jelocnik, Martina; Li, Jing; Sachse, Konrad; Polkinghorne, Adam; Pannekoek, Yvonne; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Gong, Jiansen; You, Jinfeng; Wang, Chengming

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia (C.) gallinacea is a recently identified bacterium that mainly infects domestic chickens. Demonstration of C. gallinacea in human atypical pneumonia suggests its zoonotic potential. Its prevalence in chickens exceeds that of C. psittaci, but genetic and genomic research on C. gallinacea is

  19. Chlamydia control in Europe: literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Low, N; S, Redmond; Alexander, K

    Executive summary The literature reviews in this report bring together published evidence about the prevalence and reproductive tract complications of chlamydia infection, and about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of chlamydia screening interventions. Population prevalence of chlamydia...... in EU/EEA Member States • Ten EU/EEA Member States have conducted population-based cross-sectional surveys to measure the prevalence of chlamydia infection in a nationally representative sample of the population or in a subnational sample of the population. Fourteen EU/EEA Member States have conducted...... cross-sectional surveys using non-population-based sampling methods. Three EU/EEA Member States have no studies estimating chlamydia positivity or prevalence. • Estimates of chlamydia prevalence in population-based studies varied by country, sex, age group, national or sub-national coverage...

  20. Screening on urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busse, Reinhard

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Around 92 million urogenital infections are caused yearly by Chlamydia trachomatis worldwide [1]. The overall incidence of sexually transmitted diseases is increasing, as shown by the increases in the number of reported cases of syphilis and gonorrhea [2]. Chlamydia trachomatis infections are associated with various serious diseases in women, men and newborns, which could be, at least partially, avoided by means of early diagnosis and therapy. The Federal Joint Committee - responsible for decision-making concerning the benefit package of the German Social Health Insurance - has publicly announced the starting of deliberations on the issue of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. Research Questions: The leading question to be answered is whether screening for Chlamydia trachomatis should be included in the German benefit basket. The aim of this report is to provide a summary of the available evidence concerning the issue of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. Methods: The summary of published scientific evidence, including HTA reports, systematic reviews, guidelines and primary research is represented. The synthesis follows the structure given by the criteria of Wilson and Jungner [3] for the introduction of screening in a population: relevance of the condition, availability of an adequate test, effectiveness of screening, acceptance of the programme, and economical issues. A literature search was conducted for each aspect of the synthesis and the evidence has been summarised in evidence tables. Results: We identified five HTA reports from three European agencies [4], [5], [6], [7] and one from the USA [8]. In addition, we identified four guidelines from Northamerica [9], [10], [11], [12] and one from Europe [13]. A total of 56 primary research publications were included: relevance of the disease (n=26, availability of test (n=1, effectiveness of screening (n=11, acceptance of the programme (n=11, economical issues (n=7. Discussion

  1. Prevent Pneumonia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-06

    CDC’s Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB).   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  2. Prevalence of Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection among Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduate students of ... manage and associated with severe sequelae. Key Words: – Prevalence; Chlamydia trachomatis; ... genital infection during pregnancy increases the risk of spontaneous abortion, premature delivery and ...

  3. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection among Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection was investigated among 100 women attending infertility clinics and compared with another subset of 100 pregnant women who served as control. Chlamydia trachomatis antigen detection cassette supplied by Biomil Diagnostics was used to detect the presence of ...

  4. Genital chlamydia trachomatis infection among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. There is little information about this infection in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduates of University of Port Harcourt and ...

  5. Identification of Phylogenetic Position in the Chlamydiaceae Family for Chlamydia Strains Released from Monkeys and Humans with Chlamydial Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Karaulov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of the comparative analysis concerning relatedness and evolutional difference of the 16S–23S nucleotide sequences of the middle ribosomal cluster and 23S rRNA I domain, and based on identification of phylogenetic position for Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydia trichomatis strains released from monkeys, relatedness of the above stated isolates with similar strains released from humans and with strains having nucleotide sequences presented in the GenBank electronic database has been detected for the first time ever. Position of these isolates in the Chlamydiaceae family phylogenetic tree has been identified. The evolutional position of the investigated original Chlamydia and Chlamydophila strains close to analogous strains from the Gen-Bank electronic database has been demonstrated. Differences in the 16S–23S nucleotide sequence of the middle ribosomal cluster and 23S rRNA I domain of plasmid and nonplasmid Chlamydia trachomatis strains released from humans and monkeys relative to different genotype groups (group B-B, Ba, D, Da, E, L1, L2, L2a; intermediate group-F, G, Ga have been revealed for the first time ever. Abnormality in incA chromosomal gene expression resulting in Chlamydia life development cycle disorder, and decrease of Chlamydia virulence can be related to probable changes in the nucleotide sequence of the gene under consideration

  6. Diagnostic Procedures to Detect Chlamydia trachomatis Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Meyer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The intracellular life style of chlamydia and the ability to cause persistent infections with low-grade replication requires tests with high analytical sensitivity to directly detect C. trachomatis (CT in medical samples. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs are the most sensitive assays with a specificity similar to cell culture and are considered the method of choice for CT detection. In addition, NAATs can be performed on various clinical specimens that do not depend on specific transport and storage conditions, since NAATs do not require infectious bacteria. In the case of lower genital tract infections, first void urine and vaginal swabs are the recommended specimens for testing males and females, respectively. Infections of anorectal, oropharyngeal and ocular epithelia should also be tested by NAAT analysis of corresponding mucosal swabs. In particular, anorectal infections of men who have sex with men (MSM should include evaluation of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV by identification of genotypes L1, L2 or L3. Detection of CT antigens by enzyme immunoassay (EIAs or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs are unsuitable due to insufficient sensitivity and specificity. Recent PCR-based RDTs, however, are non-inferior to standard NAATs, and might be used at the point-of-care. Serology finds application in the diagnostic work-up of suspected chronic CT infection but is inappropriate to diagnose acute infections.

  7. CT characteristics of peripheral organizing pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seong Oh; Choi, Chul Soon; Kim, Myung Joon; Lee, Kyung Soo; Choi, Hyung Sik; Jun, Young Hwan; Park, Yong Koo

    1988-01-01

    Diagnostic dilemma of persistent mass-forming parenchymal opacity in the lung periphery occurs occasionally in the realm of diagnostic radiology. Until recently, literature on the role of computed tomography in peripheral organizing pneumonia, which is difficult to differentiate from malignancy, has little been published. We experienced one case of pathologically proven organizing pneumonia diagnosed preoperatively by chest CT. When it comes to solitary peripheral mass density in the lung, we think that CT can be proved useful in the diagnosis of benign organizing pneumonia by showing regular and smoothly corrugate margin, peripheral contrast enhancement with inner low density, and air-trapping by intervening normal lung parenchyma.

  8. When is pneumonia not pneumonia?

    OpenAIRE

    Sasegbon, Ayodele

    2015-01-01

    A 34-year-old man was admitted to hospital via the accident and emergency department with severe right-sided abdominal pain and raised inflammatory markers. His pain settled with analgaesia and he was discharged with a course of oral co-amoxiclav. He was readmitted to the hospital 7���days later reporting cough and shortness of breath. His chest X-ray showed a raised right hemi-diaphragm, presumed consolidation and a right-sided effusion. As a result, he was treated for pneumonia. Despite ant...

  9. Fierce competition between Toxoplasma and Chlamydia for host cell structures in dually infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Julia D; de Beaumont, Catherine; Carrasco, Jose A; Ehrenman, Karen; Bavoil, Patrik M; Coppens, Isabelle

    2013-02-01

    The prokaryote Chlamydia trachomatis and the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, two obligate intracellular pathogens of humans, have evolved a similar modus operandi to colonize their host cell and salvage nutrients from organelles. In order to gain fundamental knowledge on the pathogenicity of these microorganisms, we have established a cell culture model whereby single fibroblasts are coinfected by C. trachomatis and T. gondii. We previously reported that the two pathogens compete for the same nutrient pools in coinfected cells and that Toxoplasma holds a significant competitive advantage over Chlamydia. Here we have expanded our coinfection studies by examining the respective abilities of Chlamydia and Toxoplasma to co-opt the host cytoskeleton and recruit organelles. We demonstrate that the two pathogen-containing vacuoles migrate independently to the host perinuclear region and rearrange the host microtubular network around each vacuole. However, Toxoplasma outcompetes Chlamydia to the host microtubule-organizing center to the detriment of the bacterium, which then shifts to a stress-induced persistent state. Solely in cells preinfected with Chlamydia, the centrosomes become associated with the chlamydial inclusion, while the Toxoplasma parasitophorous vacuole displays growth defects. Both pathogens fragment the host Golgi apparatus and recruit Golgi elements to retrieve sphingolipids. This study demonstrates that the productive infection by both Chlamydia and Toxoplasma depends on the capability of each pathogen to successfully adhere to a finely tuned developmental program that aims to remodel the host cell for the pathogen's benefit. In particular, this investigation emphasizes the essentiality of host organelle interception by intravacuolar pathogens to facilitate access to nutrients.

  10. Evaluation of patients with dry eye disease for conjunctival Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Maha Mohssen; Khattab, Rania Abdelmonem; Mahran, Magda H; Elborgy, Ebrahim S

    2016-01-01

    To determine the possibility of the development of dry eye disease (DED) as a result of persistent infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in the conjunctiva of patients. This study was conducted on 58 patients of age range 20-50y, diagnosed with DED confirmed by Schirmer I test and tear breakup time. The non-dry eye control group included 27 subjects of the same age. Ocular specimens were collected as conjunctival scrapings and swabs divided into three groups: the first used for bacterial culture, the second and third taken to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum by direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in 65.5% and 76% of DED patients by DFA and PCR methods respectively. Ureaplasma urealyticum was found in 44.8% of DED infected patients using the PCR method. Both organisms were identified in only 37.9% of DED patients found to be infected. Control subjects had a 22% detection rate of Chlamydia trachomatis by DFA assay versus a 7% detection rate by PCR; while Ureaplasma urealyticum was detected in 3.7% of the controls by PCR method. The conjunctival culture revealed that gram positive microorganisms represented 75% of isolates with coagulase negative Staphylococci the most common (50%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (20%), whereas gram negative microorganisms occurred in 25% of cases, isolating Moraxella spp. as the most frequent organism. Our results tend to point out that Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum were detected in a moderate percentage of patients with DED, and could be a fair possibility for its development. PCR is more reliable in detecting Chlamydia trachomatis than DFA technique. The presence of isolated conjunctival bacterial microflora can be of some potential value.

  11. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Malhotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females. Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals is required to prevent the spread of the disease and severe sequelae. Traditionally, tissue culture was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, with the availability of newer diagnostic techniques particularly molecular methods which are not only highly sensitive and specific but are cost-effective also, the diagnosis has became fast and easy. The purpose of this review is to study the various aspects of genital C. trachomatis infection. Also the advances related to the clinical picture, various diagnostic modalities, prevention, treatment, drug resistance and control measures will be dealt with.

  12. Pneumonia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Pneumonia KidsHealth / For Parents / Pneumonia What's in this article? ... the Doctor? Print en español Neumonía What Is Pneumonia? Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs . The ...

  13. The Seropositivity Rate of Atypical Agents in Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhan Karakoc Gunes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the IgM antibody positivities of atypical pneumonia agents in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP, and to compare the results with controls. The serum samples which were collected from 87 adult patients and 21 healthy controls have been investigated by a commercial ELISA (Pneumobact ELISA IgM, Vircell, Spain in which four different atypical pneumonia agents were fixed onto a slide. In the patients group, IgM positivity rates for the agents were as follows, respectively; 2.3% for Legionella pneumophila, 56.3% Chlamydia pneumoniae, 33.3% for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 9.2% for Coxiella burnetii. The rates of IgM positivities in the control group varied 7% for all of the agents except M. Pneumoniae and C. Pneumoniae and 2 of these controls were positive for L. Pneumophila IgM, one was positive for C. Burnetii IgM. According to the statistical evaluation, there were significant differences for IgM seropositivities to Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia Pneumoniae,between the patient and the control groups (p0.05. We showed that the seropositivity rate of atypical agents in patients with CAP was significantly higher when compared to healthy control group. This result suggests us, atypical agents might be responsible in CAP patients in a great amount. Furthermore, our study also suggests that clinical and radiological findings are not useful for discriminating atypical from typical pneumonia. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 279-284

  14. Mycoplasmal pneumonia in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, H.; Lengerke, H.J. v.

    1987-10-01

    Roentgenographic findings of bilateral interstitial pneumonia without segmental consolidation and with regional lymphadenitis, which occurs after infancy, are always suggestive of pneumonia from Mycoplasma pneumoniae, as this is one of the most frequent types of pneumonia in children. M. pneumonia can be presumed by the discrepancy between the extensive roentgenographic findings and the generally good condition of the patient. Before therapy is decided upon it is important to know what the etiology is.

  15. NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  16. NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  17. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients attending infertility and sexually transmitted diseases clinic (STD) in Kano, North Western Nigeria. ... A higher percentage of the patients (95.2%) were not aware of the existence of ...

  18. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sexually transmitted diseases clinic (STD) in Kano, North Western Nigeria. ... A higher percentage of the patients (95.2%) were not aware of the existence of ... Key words: Chlamydia trachomatis, Prevalence, risk factors, Infertility, STD, Kano.

  19. NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  20. Analysis of Polymorphic Membrane Protein Expression in Cultured Cells Identifies PmpA and PmpH of Chlamydia psittaci as Candidate Factors in Pathogenesis and Immunity to Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lent, Sarah; De Vos, Winnok H; Huot Creasy, Heather; Marques, Patricia X; Ravel, Jacques; Vanrompay, Daisy; Bavoil, Patrik; Hsia, Ru-Ching

    2016-01-01

    The polymorphic membrane protein (Pmp) paralogous families of Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia abortus are putative targets for Chlamydia vaccine development. To determine whether this is also the case for Pmp family members of C. psittaci, we analyzed transcription levels, protein production and localization of several Pmps of C. psittaci. Pmp expression profiles were characterized using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), immunofluorescence (IF) and immuno-electron microscopy (IEM) under normal and stress conditions. We found that PmpA was highly produced in all inclusions as early as 12 hpi in all biological replicates. In addition, PmpA and PmpH appeared to be unusually accessible to antibody as determined by both immunofluorescence and immuno-electron microscopy. Our results suggest an important role for these Pmps in the pathogenesis of C. psittaci, and make them promising candidates in vaccine development.

  1. Prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci and Other Chlamydia Species in Wild Birds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, Marta; Piasecki, Tomasz; Wieliczko, Alina

    2015-11-01

    Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease occurring in humans, poultry, and exotic birds. It has been suggested that some wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for Chlamydia, especially Chlamydia psittaci. Whereas C. psittaci is the predominant chlamydial agent in birds, in the present study we have determined the prevalence of different species of Chlamydia among selected wild bird species in Poland using a rapid and sensitive real-time PCR method. In total, 369 free-living birds from 35 bird species and 15 orders were examined. Samples from 27 birds (7.3%) were positive for chlamydial DNA in the PCR; 22 positive samples (81.5%) belonged to C. psittaci, three to Chlamydia trachomatis (11.1%), and two (7.4%) classified only to the genus Chlamydia. Most of C. psittaci-positive samples belonged to five orders: Anseriformes, Columbiformes, Gruiformes, Phasianiformes, and Passeriformes. All C. trachomatis samples were obtained from Eurasian coots (Gruiformes). Two Chlamydia-positive samples not classified to any Chlamydia species were obtained from a common wood pigeon (Columbiformes) and a common buzzard (Accipitriformes). Detection of C. psittaci and C. trachomatis in free-living bird populations force to think on significance of birds as reservoir of varied Chlamydia species and their epidemiological importance.

  2. Multi locus sequence typing of Chlamydiales: clonal groupings within the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Morelli, Giovanna; Kusecek, Barica; Morré, Servaas A; Ossewaarde, Jacobus M; Langerak, Ankie A; van der Ende, Arie

    2008-02-28

    The obligate intracellular growing bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases like trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Several serovars and genotypes have been identified, but these could not be linked to clinical disease or outcome. The related Chlamydophila pneumoniae, of which no subtypes are recognized, causes respiratory infections worldwide. We developed a multi locus sequence typing (MLST) scheme to understand the population genetic structure and diversity of these species and to evaluate the association between genotype and disease. A collection of 26 strains of C. trachomatis of different serovars and clinical presentation and 18 strains of C. pneumoniae were included in the study. For comparison, sequences of C. abortus, C. psittaci, C. caviae, C. felis, C. pecorum (Chlamydophila), C. muridarum (Chlamydia) and of Candidatus protochlamydia and Simkania negevensis were also included. Sequences of fragments (400 - 500 base pairs) from seven housekeeping genes (enoA, fumC, gatA, gidA, hemN, hlfX, oppA) were analysed. Analysis of allelic profiles by eBurst revealed three non-overlapping clonal complexes among the C. trachomatis strains, while the C. pneumoniae strains formed a single group. An UPGMA tree produced from the allelic profiles resulted in three groups of sequence types. The LGV strains grouped in a single cluster, while the urogenital strains were distributed over two separated groups, one consisted solely of strains with frequent occurring serovars (E, D and F). The distribution of the different serovars over the three groups was not consistent, suggesting exchange of serovar encoding ompA sequences. In one instance, exchange of fumC sequences between strains of different groups was observed. Cluster analyses of concatenated sequences of the Chlamydophila and Chlamydia species together with those of Candidatus Protochlamydia amoebophila and Simkania negevensis resulted in a tree identical to that

  3. Multi locus sequence typing of Chlamydiales: clonal groupings within the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langerak Ankie A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The obligate intracellular growing bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases like trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Several serovars and genotypes have been identified, but these could not be linked to clinical disease or outcome. The related Chlamydophila pneumoniae, of which no subtypes are recognized, causes respiratory infections worldwide. We developed a multi locus sequence typing (MLST scheme to understand the population genetic structure and diversity of these species and to evaluate the association between genotype and disease. Results A collection of 26 strains of C. trachomatis of different serovars and clinical presentation and 18 strains of C. pneumoniae were included in the study. For comparison, sequences of C. abortus, C. psittaci, C. caviae, C. felis, C. pecorum (Chlamydophila, C. muridarum (Chlamydia and of Candidatus protochlamydia and Simkania negevensis were also included. Sequences of fragments (400 – 500 base pairs from seven housekeeping genes (enoA, fumC, gatA, gidA, hemN, hlfX, oppA were analysed. Analysis of allelic profiles by eBurst revealed three non-overlapping clonal complexes among the C. trachomatis strains, while the C. pneumoniae strains formed a single group. An UPGMA tree produced from the allelic profiles resulted in three groups of sequence types. The LGV strains grouped in a single cluster, while the urogenital strains were distributed over two separated groups, one consisted solely of strains with frequent occurring serovars (E, D and F. The distribution of the different serovars over the three groups was not consistent, suggesting exchange of serovar encoding ompA sequences. In one instance, exchange of fumC sequences between strains of different groups was observed. Cluster analyses of concatenated sequences of the Chlamydophila and Chlamydia species together with those of Candidatus Protochlamydia amoebophila and Simkania

  4. Recurrent Pneumonia due to Double Aortic Arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sedighi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pneumonia is one of the most common infections during childhood. In children with recurrent bacterial pneumonia complete evaluation for underlying factors is necessary. The most common underlying diseases include: antibody deficiencies , cystic fibrosis , tracheoesophageal fistula and increased pulmonary blood flow. Vascular ring and its pressure effect is a less common cause of stridor and recurrent pneumonia. Congenital abnormalities in aortic arch and main branches which form vascular ring around esophagus and trachea with variable pressure effect cause respiratory symptoms such as stridor , wheezing and recurrent pneumoniaCase Report: A 2 year old boy was admitted in our hospital with respiratory distress and cough . Chest x-Ray demonstrated right lobar pneumonia. He had history of stridor and wheezing from neonatal period and hospitalization due to pneumonia for four times. The patient received appropriate antibiotics. Despite fever and respiratory distress improvement, wheezing continued. Review of his medical documents showed fixed pressure effect on posterior aspect of esophagus in barium swallow. In CT angiography we confirmed double aortic arch.Conclusion: Double aortic arch is one of the causes of persistant respiratory symptom and recurrent pneumonia in children for which fluoroscopic barium swallow is the first non-invasive diagnostic method.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(1:70-74

  5. Pneumonia - adults (community acquired)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pneumocystis jiroveci can cause pneumonia in people whose immune system is not working well, especially people with advanced HIV infection. Viruses , such as the flu virus, are also a common cause of pneumonia. ...

  6. FastStats: Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Utilization Therapeutic Drug Use Electronic Medical Records Health Expenditures Health Insurance Coverage Immunization Long Term Care Adult ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Pneumonia National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute: Pneumonia National Institute of ...

  7. Pneumonia - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000017.htm Pneumonia in adults - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have pneumonia, which is an infection in your lungs. In ...

  8. Pneumonia - children - community acquired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchopneumonia - children; Community-acquired pneumonia - children; CAP - children ... Viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in infants and children. Ways your child can get CAP include: Bacteria and viruses living in the nose, sinuses, or mouth may spread ...

  9. What Is Walking Pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different from regular pneumonia? Answers from Eric J. Olson, M.D. Walking pneumonia is an informal term ... be treated with an antibiotic. With Eric J. Olson, M.D. Goldman L, et al., eds. Mycoplasma ...

  10. Radiology of bacterial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilar, Jose; Domingo, Maria Luisa; Soto, Cristina; Cogollos, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is commonly encountered in clinical practice. Radiology plays a prominent role in the evaluation of pneumonia. Chest radiography is the most commonly used imaging tool in pneumonias due to its availability and excellent cost benefit ratio. CT should be used in unresolved cases or when complications of pneumonia are suspected. The main applications of radiology in pneumonia are oriented to detection, characterisation and follow-up, especially regarding complications. The classical classification of pneumonias into lobar and bronchial pneumonia has been abandoned for a more clinical classification. Thus, bacterial pneumonias are typified into three main groups: Community acquired pneumonia (CAD), Aspiration pneumonia and Nosocomial pneumonia (NP).The usual pattern of CAD is that of the previously called lobar pneumonia; an air-space consolidation limited to one lobe or segment. Nevertheless, the radiographic patterns of CAD may be variable and are often related to the causative agent. Aspiration pneumonia generally involves the lower lobes with bilateral multicentric opacities. Nosocomial Pneumonia (NP) occurs in hospitalised patients. The importance of NP is related to its high mortality and, thus, the need to obtain a prompt diagnosis. The role of imaging in NP is limited but decisive. The most valuable information is when the chest radiographs are negative and rule out pneumonia. The radiographic patterns of NP are very variable, most commonly showing diffuse multifocal involvement and pleural effusion. Imaging plays also an important role in the detection and evaluation of complications of bacterial pneumonias. In many of these cases, especially in hospitalised patients, chest CT must be obtained in order to better depict these associate findings

  11. Radiology of bacterial pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilar, Jose E-mail: vilar_jlu@gva.es; Domingo, Maria Luisa; Soto, Cristina; Cogollos, Jonathan

    2004-08-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is commonly encountered in clinical practice. Radiology plays a prominent role in the evaluation of pneumonia. Chest radiography is the most commonly used imaging tool in pneumonias due to its availability and excellent cost benefit ratio. CT should be used in unresolved cases or when complications of pneumonia are suspected. The main applications of radiology in pneumonia are oriented to detection, characterisation and follow-up, especially regarding complications. The classical classification of pneumonias into lobar and bronchial pneumonia has been abandoned for a more clinical classification. Thus, bacterial pneumonias are typified into three main groups: Community acquired pneumonia (CAD), Aspiration pneumonia and Nosocomial pneumonia (NP).The usual pattern of CAD is that of the previously called lobar pneumonia; an air-space consolidation limited to one lobe or segment. Nevertheless, the radiographic patterns of CAD may be variable and are often related to the causative agent. Aspiration pneumonia generally involves the lower lobes with bilateral multicentric opacities. Nosocomial Pneumonia (NP) occurs in hospitalised patients. The importance of NP is related to its high mortality and, thus, the need to obtain a prompt diagnosis. The role of imaging in NP is limited but decisive. The most valuable information is when the chest radiographs are negative and rule out pneumonia. The radiographic patterns of NP are very variable, most commonly showing diffuse multifocal involvement and pleural effusion. Imaging plays also an important role in the detection and evaluation of complications of bacterial pneumonias. In many of these cases, especially in hospitalised patients, chest CT must be obtained in order to better depict these associate findings.

  12. Detection of Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Lundemose, JB; Birkelund, Svend

    1989-01-01

    A procedure to detect Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue is described. Monoclonal antibodies against a genus specific chlamydia epitope were used in immunofluorescence to detect chlamydia inclusions in formalin-fixed tissue sections. Lung sections from chlamydia-infected mice were....... Background and non-specific fluorescence were reduced by treating the tissue sections with trypsin, rabbit serum and Evans blue counterstain. Besides giving an exact diagnosis at autopsy, the method provides the possibility of determining the occurrence of chlamydia infections in various tissues, based...

  13. Effects of vaginal lactobacilli in Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastromarino, Paola; Di Pietro, Marisa; Schiavoni, Giovanna; Nardis, Chiara; Gentile, Massimo; Sessa, Rosa

    2014-07-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that abnormal vaginal flora lacking lactobacilli facilitates the acquisition of several sexually transmitted diseases including Chlamydia trachomatis. C. trachomatis, the most common bacterial agent of genital infections worldwide, can progress from the lower to upper reproductive tract and induce severe sequelae. The ability of C. trachomatis to develop into a persistent form has been suggested as key pathogenetic mechanism underlying chronic infections and sequelae. The aim of our study was to investigate the C. trachomatis interaction with vaginal microbiota analyzing the effects of Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis and L. salivarius) on the different phases of C. trachomatis developmental cycle. In addition, the effect of lactobacilli on persistent chlamydial forms induced by HSV-2 coinfection has also been evaluated. Our results demonstrated significant inhibition of C. trachomatis multiplication by vaginal lactobacilli. L. brevis was significantly more effective than L. salivarius (pinfection cycle suggesting that the ability of lactobacilli to protect from infection is strain-dependent. Lactobacilli had an adverse effect on elementary chlamydial bodies (pvaginal microbiota can reduce the risk of acquiring C. trachomatis infection and counteract the development of persistent chlamydial forms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Immunoelectron microscopy of lipopolysaccharide in Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) specific for Chlamydia trachomatis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and major outer membrane protein (MOMP) were used for immunoelectron microscopy analysis. MAb specific for MOMP showed strong reaction with the chlamydial surface, whereas MAb specific for LPS showed strong...... association of gold particles with the periphery of the chlamydial body. After fixation of the chlamydia cells, the reactivity was, however, similar to the anti-MOMP reactivity. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that MAb specific for LPS could remove LPS from the chlamydial membrane....

  15. Clinical and imaging features of neonatal chlamydial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yongli; Peng Yun; Sun Guoqiang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical and imaging features of chlamydial pneumonia in newborns. Methods: Medical records,chest X-Ray and CT findings of 17 neonates with chlamydia pneumonia were reviewed. The age was ranged from 9.0 to 28.0 days with mean of (16.8 ± 5.8) days. There were 11 males and 6 females. Sixteen were full term infants and one was born post term. All babies were examined with chest X-ray film, and 13 patients also underwent chest CT scan. Serologic test using immunofluorescence method for Chlamydia IgG and IgM antibodies were performed in all patients. Results: All newborns presented with cough but without fever. Positive results of the serologic tests were demonstrated. Chest films showed bilateral hyperventilation in 10 patients, diffuse reticular nodules in 10 patients including nodules mimicking military tuberculosis in 7 patients, and accompanying consolidation in 9 patients. CT features included interstitial reticular nodules in 13 patients with size, density, and distribution varied. Subpleural nodules (11 patients) and fusion of nodules (10 patients) predominated. Bilateral hyperinflation was found in 10 patients, which combined with infiltration in 12 patients, thickening of bronchovascular bundles in 10 patients, and ground glass sign in 5 patients. No pleural effusion and lymphadenopathy was detected in any patient. Conclusions: Bilateral hyperinflation and diffuse interstitial reticular nodules were the most common imaging features of neonatal chlamydial pneumonia. The main clinical characteristic of neonatal chlamydial pneumonia is respiratory symptoms without fever, which is helpful to its diagnosis. (authors)

  16. streptococcus pneumoniae , klebsiella pneumoniae proteus vulgaris

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2-20mm) on Streptococcus pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris when compared to the ... The result from this preliminary study suggests that the plant contains active compounds that .... Veterinary and Medical Laboratory Technology, Vom,. Jos.

  17. Chemical cross-linking of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1988-01-01

    Purified elementary bodies (EBs) of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 were analyzed by chemical cross-linking with disuccinimidyl selenodipropionate. The effect of the cross-linking was analyzed by immunoblotting sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated components which...

  18. CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS IgG ANTIBODIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... humans caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. .... more people were living inside the school hostel in FCETU (45; 45.0%) .... seroprevalence than their counterparts with less risky behaviours ..... Janet S.B, Stephen A.M. Medical Microbiology 24th Edition, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. USA, ...

  19. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in symptomatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a ubiquitous human pathogen that is responsible for the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Studies show that polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is more sensitive than cellular culture for detection of C. trachomatis infections. The aim of this study is to compare different ...

  20. Typing of lymphogranuloma venereum Chlamydia trachomatis strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christerson, Linus; de Vries, Henry J. C.; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Henrich, Birgit; Hoffmann, Steen; Schachter, Julius; Thorvaldsen, Johannes; Vall-Mayans, Martí; Klint, Markus; Herrmann, Björn; Morré, Servaas A.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed by multilocus sequence typing 77 lymphogranuloma venereum Chlamydia trachomatis strains from men who have sex with men in Europe and the United States. Specimens from an outbreak in 2003 in Europe were monoclonal. In contrast, several strains were in the United States in the 1980s,

  1. Typing of Lymphogranuloma Venereum Chlamydia trachomatis Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christerson, Linus; de Vries, Henry J.C.; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Henrich, Birgit; Hoffmann, Steen; Schachter, Julius; Thorvaldsen, Johannes; Vall-Mayans, Martí; Klint, Markus; Morré, Servaas A.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed by multilocus sequence typing 77 lymphogranuloma venereum Chlamydia trachomatis strains from men who have sex with men in Europe and the United States. Specimens from an outbreak in 2003 in Europe were monoclonal. In contrast, several strains were in the United States in the 1980s, including a variant from Europe. PMID:21029543

  2. Fibrosing organising pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, Brooke; Rassl, Doris

    2013-10-01

    Organising pneumonia (otherwise referred to as bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia) is characterised histologically by plugs of granulation tissue, which are present predominantly within small airways, alveolar ducts and peri-bronchiolar alveoli. This pattern is not specific for any disorder or cause, but is one type of inflammatory response to pulmonary injury, which may be seen in a wide variety of clinical conditions. Typically, organising pneumonia responds very well to corticosteroid treatment; however, a small percentage of patients appear to develop progressive fibrosis.

  3. A comparative ultrastructural and molecular biological study on Chlamydia psittaci infection in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency and non-alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency emphysema versus lung tissue of patients with hamartochondroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogilevski Grigori

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiales are familiar causes of acute and chronic infections in humans and animals. Human pulmonary emphysema is a component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and a condition in which chronic inflammation manifested as bronchiolitis and intra-alveolar accumulation of macrophages is common. It is generally presumed to be of infectious origin. Previous investigations based on serology and immunohistochemistry indicated Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection in cases of COPD. Furthermore, immunofluorescence with genus-specific antibodies and electron microscopy suggested involvement of chlamydial infection in most cases of pulmonary emphysema, but these findings could not be verified by PCR. Therefore, we examined the possibility of other chlamydial species being present in these patients. Methods Tissue samples from patients having undergone lung volume reduction surgery for advanced alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD, n = 6 or non-alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency emphysema (n = 34 or wedge resection for hamartochondroma (n = 14 were examined by transmission electron microscopy and PCR. Results In all cases of AATD and 79.4% of non-AATD, persistent chlamydial infection was detected by ultrastructural examination. Intra-alveolar accumulation of macrophages and acute as well as chronic bronchiolitis were seen in all positive cases. The presence of Chlamydia psittaci was demonstrated by PCR in lung tissue of 66.7% AATD vs. 29.0% non-AATD emphysema patients. Partial DNA sequencing of four positive samples confirmed the identity of the agent as Chlamydophila psittaci. In contrast, Chlamydophila pneumoniae was detected only in one AATD patient. Lung tissue of the control group of non-smokers with hamartochondroma was completely negative for chlamydial bodies by TEM or chlamydial DNA by PCR. Conclusions These data indicate a role of Chlamydophila psittaci in pulmonary emphysema by linking this chronic inflammatory process

  4. Penicillin G-Induced Chlamydial Stress Response in a Porcine Strain of Chlamydia pecorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory Ann Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pecorum causes asymptomatic infection and pathology in ruminants, pigs, and koalas. We characterized the antichlamydial effect of the beta lactam penicillin G on Chlamydia pecorum strain 1710S (porcine abortion isolate. Penicillin-exposed and mock-exposed infected host cells showed equivalent inclusions numbers. Penicillin-exposed inclusions contained aberrant bacterial forms and exhibited reduced infectivity, while mock-exposed inclusions contained normal bacterial forms and exhibited robust infectivity. Infectious bacteria production increased upon discontinuation of penicillin exposure, compared to continued exposure. Chlamydia-induced cell death occurred in mock-exposed controls; cell survival was improved in penicillin-exposed infected groups. Similar results were obtained both in the presence and in the absence of the eukaryotic protein translation inhibitor cycloheximide and at different times of initiation of penicillin exposure. These data demonstrate that penicillin G induces the chlamydial stress response (persistence and is not bactericidal, for this chlamydial species/strain in vitro, regardless of host cell de novo protein synthesis.

  5. Laser therapy in women genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection complicated with PID and infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinzan, Daniela; Paiusan, Lucian; Smeu, Claudia-Ramona

    2018-04-01

    Genital Chlamydia Trachomatis infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections with more than 50 million new cases occurred globally every year. Underdiagnosed and untreated, it can generate long term severe complications including PID, infertility, ectopic pregnancy and chronic pelvic pain. Among 20 patients diagnosed with PID and infertility in our medical office during one year, we selected a study group of 10 patients with genital Chlamydia Trachomatis infection. The diagnostic methods used were anamnesis, clinical examination, Pap smear, bacteriological and serological tests, ultra sound examination. The group of patients selected was monitored for one year. The treatment took into account general measures for both partners and specific measures (antibiotic treatment and focused laser therapy). The initial group was split in two, group A treated only with antibiotics and group B treated with both antibiotics and laser therapy. All the 5 patients of group B presented an improvement of the clinical manifestations and 3 of them ended up with pregnancy. On the other hand, in group B, only one patient manifested total disappearance of pains and the infertility persisted for all. It is noteworthy that the association of laser therapy in the treatment of Chlamydia Trachomatis infection has brought significant improvement in the inflammatory processes of internal genitalia (PID) and in the fertility of the couple.

  6. Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Health and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Pneumonia Pneumonia Symptoms, Causes, and Risk Factors Anyone can get ... risk for pneumonia. What Are the Symptoms of Pneumonia? Pneumonia symptoms can vary from mild to severe, ...

  7. A novel synthetic peptide microarray assay detects Chlamydia species-specific antibodies in animal and human sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Konrad; Rahman, Kh Shamsur; Schnee, Christiane; Müller, Elke; Peisker, Madlen; Schumacher, Thomas; Schubert, Evelyn; Ruettger, Anke; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Ehricht, Ralf

    2018-03-16

    Serological analysis of Chlamydia (C.) spp. infections is still mainly based on micro-immunofluorescence and ELISA. To overcome the limitations of conventional serology, we have designed a novel microarray carrying 52 synthetic peptides representing B-cell epitopes from immunodominant proteins of all 11 chlamydial species. The new assay has been validated using monospecific mouse hyperimmune sera. Subsequently, serum samples from cattle, sheep and humans with a known history of chlamydial infection were examined. For instance, the specific humoral response of sheep to treatment with a C. abortus vaccine has been visualized against a background of C. pecorum carriership. In samples from humans, dual infection with C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae could be demonstrated. The experiments revealed that the peptide microarray assay was capable of simultaneously identifying specific antibodies to each Chlamydia spp. The actual assay represents an open platform test that can be complemented through future advances in Chlamydia proteome research. The concept of the highly parallel multi-antigen microarray proven in this study has the potential to enhance our understanding of antibody responses by defining not only a single quantitative response, but also the pattern of this response. The added value of using peptide antigens will consist in unprecedented serodiagnostic specificity.

  8. Free-living and captive turtles and tortoises as carriers of new Chlamydia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitura, Agata; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Zaręba, Kinga; Zając, Magdalena; Laroucau, Karine; Szymańska-Czerwińska, Monika

    2017-01-01

    A variety of Chlamydia species belonging to the Chlamydiaceae family have been reported in reptilian hosts but scarce data about their occurrence in turtles and tortoises are available. In this study, research was conducted to acquire information on invasive alien species (IAS) of turtles and indigenous turtles and tortoises, living both free and in captivity, as possible reservoirs of Chlamydiaceae. Analysis of specimens (pharyngeal and cloacal swabs and tissues) from 204 turtles and tortoises revealed an overall Chlamydiaceae prevalence of 18.3% and 28.6% among free-living and captive animals respectively, with variable levels of shedding. Further testing conducted with a species-specific real-time PCR and microarray test was unsuccessful. Subsequently sequencing was applied to genotype the Chlamydiaceae-positive samples. Almost the full lengths of the 16S rRNA and ompA genes as well as the 16S-23S intergenic spacer (IGS) and 23S rRNA domain I were obtained for 14, 20 and 8 specimens respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA amplicons revealed two distinct branches. Group 1 (10 specimens), specific to freshwater turtles and reported here for the first time, was most closely related to Chlamydia (C.) pneumoniae strains and the newly described Candidatus C. sanzinia. Group 2 (four specimens), detected in Testudo spp. samples, showed highest homology to C. pecorum strains but formed a separate sub-branch. Finally, molecular analysis conducted on positive samples together with their geographical distribution in places distant from each other strongly suggest that Group 1 specimens correspond to a new species in the Chlamydiaceae family. In-depth studies of Chlamydia spp. from turtles and tortoises are needed to further characterise these atypical strains and address arising questions about their pathogenicity and zoonotic potential.

  9. Asymptomatic endemic Chlamydia pecorum infections reduce growth rates in calves by up to 48 percent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Poudel

    Full Text Available Intracellular Chlamydia (C. bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. More frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infections in cattle. We investigated the impact of these naturally acquired infections in a cohort of 51 female Holstein and Jersey calves from birth to 15 weeks of age. In biweekly sampling, we measured blood/plasma markers of health and infection and analyzed their association with clinical appearance and growth in dependence of chlamydial infection intensity as determined by mucosal chlamydial burden or contemporaneous anti-chlamydial plasma IgM. Chlamydia 23S rRNA gene PCR and ompA genotyping identified only C. pecorum (strains 1710S, Maeda, and novel strain Smith3v8 in conjunctival and vaginal swabs. All calves acquired the infection but remained clinically asymptomatic. High chlamydial infection associated with reduction of body weight gains by up to 48% and increased conjunctival reddening (P<10(-4. Simultaneously decreased plasma albumin and increased globulin (P<10(-4 suggested liver injury by inflammatory mediators as mechanisms for the growth inhibition. This was confirmed by the reduction of plasma insulin like growth factor-1 at high chlamydial infection intensity (P<10(-4. High anti-C. pecorum IgM associated eight weeks later with 66% increased growth (P = 0.027, indicating a potential for immune protection from C. pecorum-mediated growth depression. The worldwide prevalence of chlamydiae in livestock and their high susceptibility to common feed-additive antibiotics suggests the possibility that suppression of chlamydial infections may be a major contributor to the growth promoting effect of feed-additive antibiotics.

  10. Free-living and captive turtles and tortoises as carriers of new Chlamydia spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Mitura

    Full Text Available A variety of Chlamydia species belonging to the Chlamydiaceae family have been reported in reptilian hosts but scarce data about their occurrence in turtles and tortoises are available. In this study, research was conducted to acquire information on invasive alien species (IAS of turtles and indigenous turtles and tortoises, living both free and in captivity, as possible reservoirs of Chlamydiaceae. Analysis of specimens (pharyngeal and cloacal swabs and tissues from 204 turtles and tortoises revealed an overall Chlamydiaceae prevalence of 18.3% and 28.6% among free-living and captive animals respectively, with variable levels of shedding. Further testing conducted with a species-specific real-time PCR and microarray test was unsuccessful. Subsequently sequencing was applied to genotype the Chlamydiaceae-positive samples. Almost the full lengths of the 16S rRNA and ompA genes as well as the 16S-23S intergenic spacer (IGS and 23S rRNA domain I were obtained for 14, 20 and 8 specimens respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA amplicons revealed two distinct branches. Group 1 (10 specimens, specific to freshwater turtles and reported here for the first time, was most closely related to Chlamydia (C. pneumoniae strains and the newly described Candidatus C. sanzinia. Group 2 (four specimens, detected in Testudo spp. samples, showed highest homology to C. pecorum strains but formed a separate sub-branch. Finally, molecular analysis conducted on positive samples together with their geographical distribution in places distant from each other strongly suggest that Group 1 specimens correspond to a new species in the Chlamydiaceae family. In-depth studies of Chlamydia spp. from turtles and tortoises are needed to further characterise these atypical strains and address arising questions about their pathogenicity and zoonotic potential.

  11. Secondary acute pneumonias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.C.; Rybakova, N.I.; Vinner, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Pathological changes, promoting the development of secondary pneumonias, are investigated. To this group belong: blood circulation disturbance in small circle, bronchial passability disturbance, aspiration of liquids, gases and vapors, infections and purulent processes, intoxications, injuries, operative interference. Roetgenologic symptomatics of each secondary acute pneumonia form is presented in detail

  12. What Is Pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pneumonia. Pulse oximetry. For this test, a small sensor is attached to your finger or ear. The sensor uses light to estimate how much oxygen is ... brain injury, swallowing problem, or excessive use of alcohol or drugs. Aspiration pneumonia can cause lung abscesses. ...

  13. Detection of respiratory bacterial pathogens causing atypical pneumonia by multiplex Lightmix® RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karoline; Springer, Burkard; Imkamp, Frank; Opota, Onya; Greub, Gilbert; Keller, Peter M

    2018-04-01

    Pneumonia is a severe infectious disease. In addition to common viruses and bacterial pathogens (e.g. Streptococcus pneumoniae), fastidious respiratory pathogens like Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Legionella spp. can cause severe atypical pneumonia. They do not respond to penicillin derivatives, which may cause failure of antibiotic empirical therapy. The same applies for infections with B. pertussis and B. parapertussis, the cause of pertussis disease, that may present atypically and need to be treated with macrolides. Moreover, these fastidious bacteria are difficult to identify by culture or serology, and therefore often remain undetected. Thus, rapid and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens causing atypical pneumonia is crucial. We performed a retrospective method evaluation study to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the new, commercially available Lightmix ® multiplex RT-PCR assay that detects these fastidious bacterial pathogens causing atypical pneumonia. In this retrospective study, 368 clinical respiratory specimens, obtained from patients suffering from atypical pneumonia that have been tested negative for the presence of common agents of pneumonia by culture and viral PCR, were investigated. These clinical specimens have been previously characterized by singleplex RT-PCR assays in our diagnostic laboratory and were used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the respiratory multiplex Lightmix ® RT-PCR. The multiplex RT-PCR displayed a limit of detection between 5 and 10 DNA copies for different in-panel organisms and showed identical performance characteristics with respect to specificity and sensitivity as in-house singleplex RT-PCRs for pathogen detection. The Lightmix ® multiplex RT-PCR assay represents a low-cost, time-saving and accurate diagnostic tool with high throughput potential. The time-to-result using an automated DNA extraction device for respiratory specimens followed by multiplex RT-PCR detection was

  14. Cicatricial organising pneumonia mimicking a fibrosing interstitial pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churg, Andrew; Wright, Joanne L; Bilawich, AnaMaria

    2018-04-01

    Organising pneumonia (OP) is composed of loose granulation tissue plugs in distal airspaces; these disappear with steroid treatment. Recently a variant labelled 'cicatricial' OP has been described in which the granulation tissue organised to much denser fibrous tissue but still retained the usual pattern of OP. Here we report 10 patients thought to have an interstitial lung disease, and who on biopsy had a variant of cicatricial OP characterised by linear bands or small nodular masses of dense fibrous tissue that does not resemble ordinary OP. The bands/nodules were usually distributed randomly but occasionally resembled fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia in local areas. Small foci of loose granulation tissue at the edge of the fibrotic bands sometimes mimicked fibroblast foci. Recognisable conventional OP was always present, but often in very small amounts. Four cases, including one patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, showed formation of bone in the fibrotic bands and nodules. On computerised tomography (CT) scan of the chest some cases looked like typical OP, but some demonstrated only irregularly distributed linear opacities, sometimes with associated calcification. Follow-up imaging on six cases showed that the process either markedly improved or remained stable over time; no case had progressive disease. Cicatricial OP with this pathological pattern represents an uncommon form of OP that appears to be a generally benign process which may have persisting linear opacities on CT scan but that does not progress; however, it can be confused on biopsy and CT with a fibrosing interstitial pneumonia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Azithromycin, fluoroquinolone and chloramphenicol resistance of non-chlamydia conjunctival bacteria in rural community of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayeh Abera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine profiles of non-chlamydia conjunctival bacteria and their antimicrobial susceptibility from adults who underwent trachomatous trichiasis surgery in rural areas of Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in rural districts in West Gojjam administrative zone. Conjunctival swabs were collected during surgery and transported using Stuart transport broth (Oxoid, UK. Antibiotic susceptibility of conjunctival isolates was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion method. Results: Non-chlamydia pathogenic bacteria were recovered from conjunctiva of 438 (31% participants before treatment. The isolated conjunctival bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Streptococcus group (A, C, F and G, Enterococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella spp., Escherichia coli, Citrobacter spp., Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacter spp. Overall, resistance rates of 57.8% to azithromycin and 68.5% to chloramphenicol were found. However, 86-94.4% sensitivity was demonstrated to ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. Moderate sensitivity rates (61.8-78.4% were observed to ceftriaxone, tetracycline and cotrimoxazole. Conclusion: Fluoroquinolones that have activity against the majority of bacterial isolates were potent at in vitro. However, unacceptably high levels of resistance to azithromycin and chloramphenicol in rural community indicated a need for further study and antimicrobial resistance surveillance.

  16. Brain biopsy for diagnosis of chlamydia encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Voznyuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the case of encephalitis associated with chlamydia infection of central nervous system. The diagnostic protocol of the patient included: a careful observation of somatic and neurological status, laboratory tests of blood and cerebrospinal fluid, neurovisualization. The results of the diagnostic protocol suggest that laboratory tests blood and cerebrospinal fluid possess low sensitivity and specificity. The MRI study has revealed the localization and inflammatory character of the changes in brain tissue; it has also helped to choose the most favorable area for the stereotaxic biopsy. The obtained tissue was evaluated by means of light (immunohistochemistry and electronic microscopy. The active chlamydia infection was estimated. The subsequent antibacterial etiotropic therapy resulted in the regression of the neurologic symptoms and remission.The intravitalpathomorphology study of the brain could be recommended for the management of the severe encephalitis of the unknown origin. 

  17. Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Blomqvist

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. Methods: DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. Results and conclusion: The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis Mip-like protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Rousch, DA; Birkelund, Svend

    1992-01-01

    A 27 kDa Chlamydia trachomatis Mip-like protein with homology of a 175-amino-acid C-terminal fragment to the surface-exposed Legionella pneumophila mip-gene product has previously been described. In this paper the entire chlamydia Mip-like sequence of C. trachomatis serovar L2 (lymphogranuloma...... venereum (LGV) biovar) is presented. The sequence shows high similarity to the legionella Mip protein and its C-terminal region, like that of the legionella Mip, has high amino acid similarity to eukaryotic and prokaryotic FK506-binding proteins. The chlamydial mip-like gene was detected by polymerase...... chain reaction (PCR) in other C. trachomatis serovars and by sequencing of the mip-like genes of serovars B and E (trachoma biovar) was shown to be highly conserved within the two major biovars of C. trachomatis. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies raised against the recombinant Mip-like protein failed...

  19. Chlamydia and Male Lower Urinary Tract Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young-Suk; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Of the chlamydia species that can cause infections in humans, C. trachomatis is responsible for lower urinary tract diseases in men and women. C. trachomatis infections are prevalent worldwide, but current research is focused on females, with the burden of disease and infertility sequelae considered to be a predominantly female problem. However, a role for this pathogen in the development of male urethritis, epididymitis, and orchitis is widely accepted. Also, it can cause complications such ...

  20. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in Enugu, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeme, A C; Ezegwui, H U; Ikeako, L C; Agbata, I; Agbata, E

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia infections in women cause pelvic inflammatory disease, which often results in devastating consequences of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, or chronic pelvic pain. The infection is largely asymptomatic. To determine the seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria. A population-based prospective study comprising female residents of Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria. Indirect solid phase enzyme immunoassay of Chlamydia antibodies was done using ImmunoComb C0. Trachomatis IgG Kit (Orgenics). The population comprised 136 female undergraduate students and 150 non-student women. The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis in the population studied was 29.4%. The percentage of subjects who admitted to be having multiple sexual partners was higher among the student population (71.2%) compared to those from the non-student population (28.8%). The highest percentage of seroprevalence was 28 (33.3%) in the age group of 20-24 years for the student population and 18 (21.4%) in the age group of 25-29 years for the non-student population. The highest seroprevalence of C. trachomatis antibodies (69.0%) in both populations was observed in females without any history of infection. Females that had pelvic inflammatory disease, sexually transmitted infection, and secondary infertility assayed for C. trachomatis had seroprevalence levels of 19%, 9.5%, and 2.4%, respectively. There was a positive correlation between positive Chlamydia assay and the type of subject population (student or non-student) with r2 value of 1.55 at P Nigeria.

  1. The influence of persistent pathogens on circulating levels of inflammatory markers: a cross-sectional analysis from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szklo Moyses

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic inflammation is linked to cardiovascular risk, but the influence of persistent pathogens, which are conventionally dichotomously categorized, on circulating levels of inflammatory markers is not clear. Antibody levels of pathogens have not been examined in relation to inflammation. Methods Using data from a subsample of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we examined circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP and fibrinogen in relation to five common persistent pathogens: cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus-1, Hepatitis A virus, Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae. We tested the hypothesis that the number of seropositive pathogens (based on conventional cut-off points would not be as sensitive a marker of inflammation as immune response measured by antibody levels to pathogens. Results High antibody response to multiple pathogens showed graded and significant associations with IL-6 (p Conclusions High antibody response to pathogens was a more consistent marker of inflammatory outcomes compared to seropositivity alone and high antibody response to multiple pathogens was a stronger marker compared to any single pathogen.

  2. Pneumonia a Varicella zoster Varicella zoster pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Ferreira Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A varicela é uma doença infecto contagiosa comum na infância, ocorrendo pouco mais de 2% dos casos em adultos. Desde a década de 80 que a sua incidência nos adultos tem vindo a aumentar, dos quais apenas 7% são seronegativos¹. A pneumonia a Varicella zoster, se bem que rara, constitui a complicação mais grave e mais frequente no adulto. Os autores apresentam um caso clínico ilustrativo de pneumonia a Varicella zoster num adulto fumador e imunocompetente e fazem uma breve revisão teórica sobre o tema.Varicella (chickenpox is a common contagious infection of childhood, with fewer than 2% of the cases occurring in adults. Since the early 1980s the incidence of chickenpox in adults has been increasing and only 7% of them are seronegative for Varicella zoster antibodies. Pneumonia, although rare, is the most common and serious complication of chickenpox infection in adults. The authors present an illustrative case of varicella pneumonia in an immunocompetent adult with smoking habits and make a brief thematic review.

  3. Computed tomographic study on Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Koba, Hiroyuki; Mori, Takuji; Mori, Masaki; Tsunematsu, Kazunori; Natori, Hiroshi; Asakawa, Mitsuo; Suzuki, Akira; Doi, Mikio.

    1985-01-01

    Serologically proven 21 patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia that showed infiltrative shadows on chest radiograms were studied by computed tomography (CT). Localization of the lesion and the fashion of its progression through the lung were analyzed. Following 3 loci were defined on the basis of the investigations of critical analysis of the chest radiograms, and of radiopathological analysis of the experimental animal model of mycoplasmal pneumonia with soft X-ray image. I: Peribronchial and periarterial interstitium. II: Bronchiole and its surroundings. III: Lung parenchyma, on hilar area as IIIh, on marginal area as IIIm. Even in the early phase of this disease, radiopathological findings on CT have been distributed in all loci mentioned above. The Shadow disappeared from locus III approximately 14th day from the onset. The shadow have remained, however, loci I, II for a long period. Those findings suggest that locus I and II are one of the major focus of Mycoplasma neumoniae pneumonia. Volume loss in the locus III was observed 78 % of the cases at 28th day from the onset. The shadow on locus IIIh was more prominent than locus IIIm. Reported analytical method with CT could be widely applied to disclose a radiopathological details in other infectious diseases of the lung. (author)

  4. Comparison of the population excess fraction of Chlamydia trachomatis infection on pelvic inflammatory disease at 12-months in the presence and absence of Chlamydia testing and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Bethan; Turner, Katy M.E.; Leung, Stella

    2017-01-01

    Background: The impact of Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) control on the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is theoretically limited by the proportion of PID caused by chlamydia. We estimate the population excess fraction (PEF) of treated chlamydia infection on PID at 12-months...... in settings with widespread chlamydia control (testing and treatment) and compare this to the estimated PEF of untreated chlamydia. Methods: We used two large retrospective population-based cohorts of women of reproductive age from settings with widespread chlamydia control to calculate the PEF of treated...... chlamydia on PID at 12-months. We undertook a systematic review to identify further studies that reported the risk of PID in women who were tested for chlamydia (infected and uninfected). We used the same method to calculate the PEF in eligible studies then compared all estimates of PEF. Results...

  5. Seroevidence Of Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection In Infertile Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the lack of information concerning the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in male infertility, it has become imperative to analyse the quality of semen of male with seroevidence of antibody to Chlamydia trachomatis infection. A total of 156 male patients attending the Human Reproduction Research Programme/Invitro ...

  6. The production of labelled gammaglobulin for the detection of chlamydia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, G.; Dimitrova, Zl.; Martinov, Sv.

    1981-01-01

    It was concluded that the main condition for the production of high titer labelled gammaglobulins was to obtain purified and concentrated Chlamydial antigens and use these with an adjuvant. To indicate Chlamydia in testing the conjugates it is essential to prepare standart test lamellas infected at high multiplicity of purified and concentrated Chlamydia. (authors)

  7. [Mycoplasma pneumoniae meningoencephalitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambonie, G; Sarran, N; Leboucq, N; Luc, F; Bongrand, A F; Slim, G; Lassus, P; Fournier-Favre, S; Montoya, F; Astruc, J; Rieu, D

    1999-03-01

    Severe central nervous system diseases, such as encephalitis, have been reported in association with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections. After an ENT infection, a 9-year-old boy with Down's syndrome developed encephalitis revealed by an acute alteration in consciousness. Head computed tomography showed, after 2 weeks, an infiltration in the basal ganglia region. The diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae encephalitis was made; recovery was complete in a few weeks. Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection should be considered in all cases of acute encephalopathy; yet the pathogenesis of the disorder is unknown and the treatment uncertain.

  8. Republished: Fibrosing organising pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, Brooke; Rassl, Doris

    2014-08-01

    Organising pneumonia (otherwise referred to as bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia) is characterised histologically by plugs of granulation tissue, which are present predominantly within small airways, alveolar ducts and peri-bronchiolar alveoli. This pattern is not specific for any disorder or cause, but is one type of inflammatory response to pulmonary injury, which may be seen in a wide variety of clinical conditions. Typically, organising pneumonia responds very well to corticosteroid treatment; however, a small percentage of patients appear to develop progressive fibrosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Acute interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuervo M, Francisco; Carrillo Bayona, Jorge; Ojeda, Paulina

    2004-01-01

    The paper refers to a 71 year-old patient, to who is diagnosed acute interstitial pneumonia; with square of 20 days of evolution of cough dry emetizant, fever, general uneasiness, migraine, progressive dyspnoea and lost of weight

  10. Severe asthma exacerbation: role of acute Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentini, Roberto; Tarsia, Paolo; Canetta, Ciro; Graziadei, Giovanna; Brambilla, Anna Maria; Aliberti, Stefano; Pappalettera, Maria; Tantardini, Francesca; Blasi, Francesco

    2008-05-30

    Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae are associated with acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma (AEBA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between these acute bacterial infections and the severity of AEBA. We prospectively analysed consecutive patients admitted to the Emergency Department with acute asthma exacerbation. In every patient peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurement was performed on admission, and spirometry during follow-up. Serology for Chlamydophila and Mycoplasma pneumoniae was performed on admission and after 4-8 weeks. Fifty-eight patients completed the study. Acute atypical infections (AAI) was observed in 22/58 cases; we found single acute C. pneumoniae in 19 cases, single acute M. pneumoniae in 2 cases, and double acute infection in one case. Functional impairment on admission was greater in patients with AAI than in patients without AAI (PEF 205 +/- 104 L/min vs 276 +/- 117 p = 0.02) and persisted until visit 2 (FEV1% 76.30 +/- 24.54 vs FEV1% 92.91 +/- 13.89, p = 0.002). Moreover, the proportion of patients who presented with severe AEBA was significantly greater in the group with AAI than in the group without AAI (15/22 vs 12/36, p = 0.01; OR 4.29, 95% CI 1.38-13.32). Our data suggest an association between acute atypical infection and a more severe AEBA.

  11. Severe asthma exacerbation: role of acute Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappalettera Maria

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae are associated with acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma (AEBA. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between these acute bacterial infections and the severity of AEBA. Methods We prospectively analysed consecutive patients admitted to the Emergency Department with acute asthma exacerbation. In every patient peak expiratory flow (PEF measurement was performed on admission, and spirometry during follow-up. Serology for Chlamydophila and Mycoplasma pneumoniae was performed on admission and after 4–8 weeks. Results Fifty-eight patients completed the study. Acute atypical infections (AAI was observed in 22/58 cases; we found single acute C. pneumoniae in 19 cases, single acute M. pneumoniae in 2 cases, and double acute infection in one case. Functional impairment on admission was greater in patients with AAI than in patients without AAI (PEF 205 ± 104 L/min vs 276 ± 117 p = 0.02 and persisted until visit 2 (FEV1% 76.30 ± 24.54 vs FEV1% 92.91 ± 13.89, p = 0.002. Moreover, the proportion of patients who presented with severe AEBA was significantly greater in the group with AAI than in the group without AAI (15/22 vs 12/36, p = 0.01; OR 4.29, 95% CI 1.38–13.32. Conclusion Our data suggest an association between acute atypical infection and a more severe AEBA.

  12. Pneumonia a Varicella zoster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Ferreira Santos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A varicela é uma doença infecto contagiosa comum na infância, ocorrendo pouco mais de 2% dos casos em adultos. Desde a década de 80 que a sua incidência nos adultos tem vindo a aumentar, dos quais apenas 7% são seronegativos1. A pneumonia a Varicella zoster, se bem que rara, constitui a complicação mais grave e mais frequente no adulto.Os autores apresentam um caso clínico ilustrativo de pneumonia a Varicella zoster num adulto fumador e imunocompetente e fazem uma breve revisão teórica sobre o tema. Abstract: Varicella (chickenpox is a common contagious infection of childhood, with fewer than 2% of the cases occurring in adults. Since the early 1980s the incidence of chickenpox in adults has been increasing and only 7% of them are seronegative for Varicella zoster antibodies. Pneumonia, although rare, is the most common and serious complication of chickenpox infection in adults.The authors present an illustrative case of varicella pneumonia in an immunocompetent adult with smoking habits and make a brief thematic review. Palavras-chave: Varicela, pneumonia, ARDS, Key-words: Chickenpox, pneumonia, ARDS

  13. A cross sectional study on Dutch layer farms to investigate the prevalence and potential risk factors for different Chlamydia species.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, Marloes; van der Goot, Jeanet A; Fijten, Helmi; van der Giessen, Joke W; Kuijt, Eric; Maassen, Catharina B M; van Roon, Annika; Wit, Ben; Koets, Ad P; Roest, Hendrik I J

    2018-01-01

    In poultry several Chlamydia species have been detected, but Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia gallinacea appear to be most prevalent and important. Chlamydia psittaci is a well-known zoonosis and is considered to be a pathogen of poultry. Chlamydia gallinacea has been described more recently. Its

  14. A cross sectional study on Dutch layer farms to investigate the prevalence and potential risk factors for different Chlamydia species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, Marloes; Goot, van der Jeanet A.; Fijten, Helmi; Giessen, van der Joke W.; Kuijt, Eric; Maassen, Catharina B.M.; Roon, van Annika; Wit, Ben; Koets, Ad P.; Roest, Hendrik I.J.

    2018-01-01

    In poultry several Chlamydia species have been detected, but Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia gallinacea appear to be most prevalent and important. Chlamydia psittaci is a well-known zoonosis and is considered to be a pathogen of poultry. Chlamydia gallinacea has been described more recently. Its

  15. Can Chlamydia abortus be transmitted by embryo transfer in goats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseikria, M; Pellerin, J L; Rodolakis, A; Vorimore, F; Laroucau, K; Bruyas, J F; Roux, C; Michaud, S; Larrat, M; Fieni, F

    2016-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine (i) whether Chlamydia abortus would adhere to or penetrate the intact zona pellucida (ZP-intact) of early in vivo-derived caprine embryos, after in vitro infection; and (ii) the efficacy of the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) washing protocol for bovine embryos. Fifty-two ZP-intact embryos (8-16 cells), obtained from 14 donors were used in this experiment. The embryos were randomly divided into 12 batches. Nine batches (ZP-intact) of five embryos were incubated in a medium containing 4 × 10(7)Chlamydia/mL of AB7 strain. After incubation for 18 hours at 37 °C in an atmosphere of 5% CO2, the embryos were washed in batches in 10 successive baths of a phosphate buffer saline and 5% fetal calf serum solution in accordance with IETS guidelines. In parallel, three batches of ZP-intact embryos were used as controls by being subjected to similar procedures but without exposure to C. abortus. The 10 wash baths were collected separately and centrifuged for 1 hour at 13,000 × g. The washed embryos and the pellets of the 10 centrifuged wash baths were frozen at -20 °C before examination for evidence of C. abortus using polymerase chain reaction. C. abortus DNA was found in all of the infected batches of ZP-intact embryos (9/9) after 10 successive washes. It was also detected in the 10th wash fluid for seven batches of embryos, whereas for the two other batches, the last positive wash bath was the eighth and the ninth, respectively. In contrast, none of the embryos or their washing fluids in the control batches were DNA positive. These results report that C. abortus adheres to and/or penetrates the ZP of in vivo caprine embryos after in vitro infection, and that the standard washing protocol recommended by the IETS for bovine embryos, failed to remove it. The persistence of these bacteria after washing makes the embryo a potential means of transmission of the bacterium during embryo transfer from

  16. Marcadores inflamatórios e anticorpos anti-chlamydia em pacientes com síndrome metabólica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosecler Riethmuller Franco

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A síndrome metabólica está associada ao aumento de risco de eventos cardiovasculares. Marcadores inflamatórios e anticorpos anti-Chlamydia têm sido relacionados ao desenvolvimento e à progressão da aterosclerose e dos eventos cardiovasculares. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os marcadores inflamatórios interleucina-6 (IL-6 e fator de necrose tumoral-alfa (TNF-α e os anticorpos anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae em pacientes com síndrome metabólica (SM, com e sem eventos cardiovasculares. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal constituído por 147 indivíduos. Desses, 100 (68% com SM e sem eventos cardiovasculares; e 47 (32% com SM e com eventos cardiovasculares. Dos indivíduos que sofreram eventos cardiovasculares, 13 (6,11% apresentam infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM, e dez (4,7%, acidente vascular cerebral (AVC. O diagnóstico da SM foi determinado pelos critérios do NCEP-ATPIII. RESULTADOS: A média de idade dos sujeitos com eventos cardiovasculares foi de 61,26 ± 8,5 e de 59,32 ± 9,9 nos indivíduos sem esses eventos (p=0,279, havendo predomínio do sexo feminino. O grupo com SM e sem evento apresentou maior peso, altura, IMC e circunferência abdominal. Para os indivíduos com eventos cardiovasculares (p=0,001, os marcadores inflamatórios IL-6 e TNF-α e a doença vascular periférica foram significativamente maiores. Obtiveram-se níveis elevados de anticorpos IgG para Chlamydia pneumoniae no grupo SM, sem eventos e de IgA no grupo com eventos quando comparados os dois grupos. Com relação ao IAM e ao AVC, os anticorpos anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae não demonstraram significância estatística, comparados ao grupo sem eventos cardiovasculares. Associação foi observada com o uso de estatinas, hipoglicemiantes orais, injetáveis e anti-inflamatórios não esteroidais no grupo com esses eventos. CONCLUSÃO: Marcadores inflamatórios encontram-se significativamente elevados em pacientes com SM, com IAM e AVC. Anticorpos anti-Chlamydia n

  17. Novel overlapping coding sequences in Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Klaus Thorleif; Petersen, Lise; Falk, Søren

    2006-01-01

    that are in agreement with the primary annotation. Forty two genes from the primary annotation are not predicted by EasyGene. The majority of these genes are listed as hypothetical in the primary annotation. The 15 novel predicted genes all overlap with genes on the complementary strand. We find homologues of several...... of the novel genes in C. trachomatis Serovar A and Chlamydia muridarum. Several of the genes have typical gene-like and protein-like features. Furthermore, we confirm transcriptional activity from 10 of the putative genes. The combined evidence suggests that at least seven of the 15 are protein coding genes...

  18. Chlamydia in canine or feline coronary arteriosclerotic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sostaric-Zuckermann, Ivan C; Borel, Nicole; Kaiser, Carmen; Grabarevic, Zeljko; Pospischil, Andreas

    2011-09-09

    There are numerous reports linking Chlamydia infection to human coronary atherosclerosis. However, there is a lack of data regarding this correlation in dogs and cats, and there are no reports investigating coronary arteriosclerosis and Chlamydia in these species. The aim of the present study was to examine whether there is a correlation between canine and feline spontaneous atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. Archived histopathological samples of dogs (n = 16) and cats (n = 13) with findings of atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis in heart tissue were examined for the presence of Chlamydiaceae using real-time PCR, ArrayTube Microarray and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, arteriosclerotic lesions of all cases were histologically classified and graded. Both canine atherosclerotic cases, and all 14 canine arteriosclerotic cases were negative for Chlamydia. Only one of the 13 arteriosclerotic feline cases was positive for Chlamydia by real-time PCR, revealing C. abortus by ArrayTube Microarray. To our knowledge, this is the first description of C. abortus in a cat. Overall, the type and grade of canine and feline arteriosclerotic lesions revealed similarities, and were predominantly moderate and hyperplastic. These findings suggest that there is no obvious correlation between canine and feline coronary arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. In order to draw final conclusions about the correlation between Chlamydia and canine atherosclerosis, examination of more samples is required.

  19. Chlamydia in canine or feline coronary arteriosclerotic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabarevic Zeljko

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are numerous reports linking Chlamydia infection to human coronary atherosclerosis. However, there is a lack of data regarding this correlation in dogs and cats, and there are no reports investigating coronary arteriosclerosis and Chlamydia in these species. The aim of the present study was to examine whether there is a correlation between canine and feline spontaneous atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. Archived histopathological samples of dogs (n = 16 and cats (n = 13 with findings of atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis in heart tissue were examined for the presence of Chlamydiaceae using real-time PCR, ArrayTube Microarray and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, arteriosclerotic lesions of all cases were histologically classified and graded. Results Both canine atherosclerotic cases, and all 14 canine arteriosclerotic cases were negative for Chlamydia. Only one of the 13 arteriosclerotic feline cases was positive for Chlamydia by real-time PCR, revealing C. abortus by ArrayTube Microarray. To our knowledge, this is the first description of C. abortus in a cat. Overall, the type and grade of canine and feline arteriosclerotic lesions revealed similarities, and were predominantly moderate and hyperplastic. Conclusions These findings suggest that there is no obvious correlation between canine and feline coronary arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. In order to draw final conclusions about the correlation between Chlamydia and canine atherosclerosis, examination of more samples is required.

  20. Spontaneous pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis RNA clearance. A cross-sectional study followed by a cohort study of untreated STI clinic patients in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, Martijn S.; van der Loeff, Maarten F. Schim; Morré, Servaas A.; van Dam, Alje P.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) might contribute to ongoing chlamydia transmission, yet data on spontaneous clearance duration are rare. We examined the prevalence, spontaneous clearance, chlamydial DNA concentration and genotypes of pharyngeal chlamydia among clinic patients

  1. Community-acquired pneumonia - a clinical approach to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to pneumonia acquired within the general community. CAP remains a common and ... patients.2 The exact incidence of atypical pathogens as a cause of CAP in South Africa is ... nor specific enough to use in clinical practice. There is a ..... resolve within 14 days but non-respiratory symptoms such as fatigue may persist for ...

  2. FATAL UREAPLASMAL PNEUMONIA AND SEPSIS IN A NEWBORN-INFANT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRUS, F; VANWAARDE, WM; SCHOOTS, C; OETOMO, SB

    Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated in pure culture from blood tracheal aspirate and lung tissue in a newborn infant, who died of a severe pneumonia within 48 h after birth. The clinical course was characterized by persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Post-mortem examination

  3. Pneumonia in the immunocompetent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J H; McDonald, G; Alton, H; Gordon, S B

    2010-12-01

    Pneumonia is an acute inflammation of the lower respiratory tract. Lower respiratory tract infection is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Pneumonia is most common at the extremes of life. Predisposing factors in children include an under-developed immune system together with other factors, such as malnutrition and over-crowding. In adults, tobacco smoking is the single most important preventable risk factor. The commonest infecting organisms in children are respiratory viruses and Streptoccocus pneumoniae. In adults, pneumonia can be broadly classified, on the basis of chest radiographic appearance, into lobar pneumonia, bronchopneumonia and pneumonia producing an interstitial pattern. Lobar pneumonia is most commonly associated with community acquired pneumonia, bronchopneumonia with hospital acquired infection and an interstitial pattern with the so called atypical pneumonias, which can be caused by viruses or organisms such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Most cases of pneumonia can be managed with chest radiographs as the only form of imaging, but CT can detect pneumonia not visible on the chest radiograph and may be of value, particularly in the hospital setting. Complications of pneumonia include pleural effusion, empyema and lung abscess. The chest radiograph may initially indicate an effusion but ultrasound is more sensitive, allows characterisation in some cases and can guide catheter placement for drainage. CT can also be used to characterise and estimate the extent of pleural disease. Most lung abscesses respond to medical therapy, with surgery and image guided catheter drainage serving as options for those cases who do not respond.

  4. The laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max A Chernesky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower genital tract infections with Chlamydia trachomatis are predominantly asymptomatic in men and women. Diagnostic technology has provided several approaches to the diagnosis of C trachomatis. Outside of cells, Chlamydia can die or degrade without optimal storage and transportation. Because some of the other assays perform better on certain specimen types, it is important for laboratories to recognize these differences and provide advice to physicians and nurses collecting patient specimens, with the objective of diagnosing lower genital tract infections to prevent transmission and upper tract damage. Most invasive specimens, such as cervical or urethral swabs, may be collected for culture, antigen or nucleic acid detection. Noninvasive samples such as first-void urine and vaginal swabs can be easily collected by the patient; these samples must be tested by more sensitive nucleic acid amplification tests. These newer investigative strategies should enable implementation of screening programs to identify and treat partners. Serology has not been particularly useful for the diagnosis of acute C trachomatis infections in adults. Presently, it appears that antibiotic-resistant C trachomatis is not a clinical problem. Laboratories providing C trachomatis diagnosis require participation in continuous quality improvement programs.

  5. The added value of chlamydia screening between 2008-2010 in reaching young people in addition to chlamydia testing in regular care; an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Liere, Geneviève; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole; van Bergen, Jan; Götz, Hannelore M.; Stals, Frans; Hoebe, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Internet-based Chlamydia Screening Implementation (chlamydia screening programme) was introduced in the Netherlands in 2008-2010 to detect and treat asymptomatic infections and to limit ongoing transmission through annual testing and treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis in young people

  6. [Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda Solas, V; Pérez Benito, A; Domingo Puiggros, M; Larramona Carrera, H; Segura Porta, F; Fontanals Aymerich, D

    2002-11-01

    Streptococcus pneumonia is the most common bacterial cause of community-acquired pneumonia in children. The reference standard for etiological diagnosis is isolation of S. pneumoniae from blood Since the advent of conjugate vaccines, disease caused by this organism can now be prevented. Many studies have been performed of the global incidence of invasive pneumococcal infections and of pneumococcal meningitis but few studies investigated bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia and its complications in children. To determine the incidence, patient characteristics, clinical signs, laboratory data, percentage and days of hospitalization, response to antibiotic treatment, antibiotic resistance, complications and causal serogroups of bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia in our environment in order to estimate requirements for systematic vaccination programs. From January 1990 to May 2001, data on all pediatric cases of invasive pneumococcal infections diagnosed in our hospital were collected. Several characteristics of patients with bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia were analyzed. Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia was diagnosed in patients with positive blood or pleural fluid cultures for S. pneumoniae and radiographically evident pulmonary infiltrate. The incidence of both types of pneumonia were determined according to population census data. All S. pneumonia strains were sent to the Pneumococci Reference Laboratory of the Instituto Carlos III in Madrid for serotyping. We estimated the serotype coverage of the pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine according to the serotypes included in this vaccine and their distribution. Forty cases of bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia were diagnosed, yielding an incidence of 17,10 and 5 cases per 10(5) children aged less than 2, 4 and 15 years old respectively. The mean age was 50 months and 43% were aged less than 4 years. Peaks occurred in January, March, April and May. A total of 77.5% of the patients were admitted to hospital and the

  7. Corticosteroids for pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Anat; Skalsky, Keren; Avni, Tomer; Carrara, Elena; Leibovici, Leonard; Paul, Mical

    2017-12-13

    Pneumonia is a common and potentially serious illness. Corticosteroids have been suggested for the treatment of different types of infection, however their role in the treatment of pneumonia remains unclear. This is an update of a review published in 2011. To assess the efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in the treatment of pneumonia. We searched the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS on 3 March 2017, together with relevant conference proceedings and references of identified trials. We also searched three trials registers for ongoing and unpublished trials. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed systemic corticosteroid therapy, given as adjunct to antibiotic treatment, versus placebo or no corticosteroids for adults and children with pneumonia. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. We estimated risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and pooled data using the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect model when possible. We included 17 RCTs comprising a total of 2264 participants; 13 RCTs included 1954 adult participants, and four RCTs included 310 children. This update included 12 new studies, excluded one previously included study, and excluded five new trials. One trial awaits classification.All trials limited inclusion to inpatients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), with or without healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP). We assessed the risk of selection bias and attrition bias as low or unclear overall. We assessed performance bias risk as low for nine trials, unclear for one trial, and high for seven trials. We assessed reporting bias risk as low for three trials and high for the remaining 14 trials.Corticosteroids significantly reduced mortality in adults with severe pneumonia (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.40 to 0

  8. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falguera, M; Ramírez, M F

    2015-11-01

    This article not only reviews the essential aspects of community-acquired pneumonia for daily clinical practice, but also highlights the controversial issues and provides the newest available information. Community-acquired pneumonia is considered in a broad sense, without excluding certain variants that, in recent years, a number of authors have managed to delineate, such as healthcare-associated pneumonia. The latter form is nothing more than the same disease that affects more frail patients, with a greater number of risk factors, both sharing an overall common approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  9. Pediatric Round Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yen-Lin; Wu, Ping-Sheng; Tsai, Li-Ping; Tsai, Wen-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    “Round pneumonia” or “spherical pneumonia” is a well-characterized clinical entity that seems to be less addressed by pediatricians in Taiwan. We herein report the case of a 7-year-old boy who presented with prolonged fever, cough, and chest X-rays showing a well-demarcated round mass measuring 5.9 × 5.6 × 4.3 cm in the left lower lung field, findings which were typical for round pneumonia. The urinary pneumococcal antigen test was positive, and serum anti-Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibody titer...

  10. Postviral Complications: Bacterial Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasso, Jason E; Deng, Jane C

    2017-03-01

    Secondary bacterial pneumonia after viral respiratory infection remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Susceptibility is mediated by a variety of viral and bacterial factors, and complex interactions with the host immune system. Prevention and treatment strategies are limited to influenza vaccination and antibiotics/antivirals respectively. Novel approaches to identifying the individuals with influenza who are at increased risk for secondary bacterial pneumonias are urgently needed. Given the threat of further pandemics and the heightened prevalence of these viruses, more research into the immunologic mechanisms of this disease is warranted with the hope of discovering new potential therapies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia Vaccination Programs for Young Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-19

    Dr. Kwame Owusu-Edusei discusses the importance of chlamydia vaccine development.  Created: 6/19/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/22/2015.

  12. In vivo activities of Baicalin against Chlamydia trachomatis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-15

    Rasmussen et al., 1997). The infectivity of the chlamydia was expressed as the number of inclusion forming units. Baicalin (HPLC Content > 98.0%) from Chongqing Green Valley. Bio-tech Co. LTD. (Chongqing, China).

  13. NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia trachomatis infection to Coccidioidomycosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia trachomatis infection to Coccidioidomycosis - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases...

  14. Bacterial persistence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Drug indifference versus persistence. Studies on the mode of ... is a special case of drug indifference, restricted to a small ... to his model (outlined in detail in Lewis 2008), treatment .... belong to the heat and cold shock response family; many.

  15. Peripheral Neuropathy in Chlamydia Reactive Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Syniachenko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Relevance. Peripheral neuropathy (PNP in urogenital chlamydia reactive arthritis (CRA is described as single observations, and many clinical and pathogenetic aspects of this lesion of the nervous system remain unclear. Objective of the study: to evaluate the incidence and nature of the clinical course of PNP in CRA, the connection of the nerve and joint injuries, to explore the questions of pathogenetic constructions of this neuropathy, to identify risk factors. Material and methods. We observed 101 patients with CRA, mean age of them was 32 years, disease duration — 4 years, and the male to female ratio — 1 : 1. In 90 % of CRA cases, Chlamydia trochamatis was found in prostatic secretions, in scraps from the urethra, the cervix, the vaginal wall, in 83 % — positive serologic tests for chlamydia infection. Results. Signs of PNP in CRA were in 19 % of patients in the ratio of mononeuropathy to polyneuropathy as 1 : 1, with motor, sensory and mixed disorders in a ratio of 1 : 3 : 6, the presence of autonomic changes in every second patient and more frequent distal localization of the process in the hands, which is influenced by the severity of the articular syndrome, high levels of antichlamydia antibodies in the blood, and the axonal and demyelinating indicators of electroneuromyography — by the severity of urogenital lesions and the presence of Guillain-Barre syndrome. A high rate of arthritis progression is a prognosis-negative sign of PNP course in patients with CRA. The pathogenic constructions of PNP involve the inflammatory immune proteins, disturbances of vascular endothelial function and physicochemical surface rheological pro­perties of the serum. Conclusion. PNP takes place in every fifth patient with CRA, correlates with clinical and laboratory signs of joint disease, and in the future will be useful to identify actively this pathology of the nervous system for the subsequent timely rehabilitation, and CRA

  16. Inflammasome activation in ruminant cells infected with Chlamydia abortus

    OpenAIRE

    Doull, Laura Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia abortus is the most common known infectious cause of ovine abortion worldwide but is rarely linked with bovine abortion. The reasons for this differential pathogenesis are unknown but may involve differences in innate immune recognition and immune responsiveness. This is supported by the observation that chlamydial abortion in sheep is associated with an inflammatory cytokine/chemokine cascade that is not commonly observed in cattle. Studies with other Chlamydia speci...

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis’ struggle to keep its host alive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara S. Sixt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the phylum Chlamydiae infect a diverse range of eukaryotic host species, including vertebrate animals, invertebrates, and even protozoa. Characteristics shared by all Chlamydiae include their obligate intracellular lifestyle and a biphasic developmental cycle. The infectious form, the elementary body (EB, invades a host cell and differentiates into the replicative form, the reticulate body (RB, which proliferates within a membrane-bound compartment, the inclusion. After several rounds of division, RBs retro-differentiate into EBs that are then released to infect neighboring cells. The consequence of this obligatory transition between replicative and infectious forms inside cells is that Chlamydiae absolutely depend on the viability and functionality of their host cell throughout the entire infection cycle. We recently conducted a forward genetic screen in Chlamydia trachomatis, a common sexually transmitted human pathogen, and identified a mutant that caused premature death in the majority of infected host cells. We employed emerging genetic tools in Chlamydia to link this cytotoxicity to the loss of the protein CpoS (Chlamydia promoter of survival that normally localizes to the membrane of the pathogen-containing vacuole. CpoS-deficient bacteria also induced an exaggerated type-1 interferon response in infected cells, produced reduced numbers of infectious EBs in cell culture, and were cleared faster from the mouse genital tract in a transcervical infection model in vivo. The analysis of this CpoS-deficient mutant yielded unique insights into the nature of cell-autonomous defense responses against Chlamydia and highlighted the importance of Chlamydia-mediated control of host cell fate for the success of the pathogen.

  18. [Persistent diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, J A; Moreira, C; Fagundes Neto, U

    2000-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Persistent diarrhea has high impact on infantile morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. Several studies have shown that 3 to 20% of acute diarrheal episodes in children under 5 years of age become persistent. DEFINITION: Persistent diarrhea is defined as an episode that lasts more than 14 days. ETIOLOGY: The most important agents isolated in persistent diarrhea are: Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Salmonella, Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), Klebisiella and Cryptosporidium. CLINICAL ASPECTS: In general, the clinical characteristics of patients with persistent diarrhea do not change with the pathogenic agent. Persistent diarrhea seems to represent the final result of a several insults a infant suffers that predisposes to a more severe episode of diarrhea due to a combination of host factors and high rates of enviromental contamination. Therefore, efforts should be made to promptly treat all episodes of diarrhea with apropriate follow-up. THERAPY: The aim of the treatment is to restore hydroelectrolytic deficits and to replace losses until the diarrheal ceases. It is possible in the majority of the cases, using oral rehydration therapy and erly an appropriate type of diet. PREVENTION: It is imperative that management strategies also focus on preventive aspects. The most effective diarrheal prevention strategy in young infants worldwide is promotion of exclusive breast feeding.

  19. Chlamydia abortus YhbZ, a truncated Obg family GTPase, associates with the Escherichia coli large ribosomal subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkinghorne, Adam; Vaughan, Lloyd

    2011-01-01

    The stringent stress response is vital for bacterial survival under adverse environmental conditions. Obligate intracellular Chlamydia lack key stringent response proteins, but nevertheless can interrupt the cell cycle and enter stasis or persistence upon amino acid starvation. A possible key protein retained is YhbZ, a homologue of the ObgE guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) superfamily connecting the stringent stress response to ribosome maturation. Curiously, chlamydial YhbZ lacks the ObgE C-terminal domain thought to be essential for binding the large ribosomal subunit. We expressed recombinant Chlamydia abortus YhbZ and showed it to be a functional GTPase, with similar activity to other Obg GTPase family members. As Chlamydia are resistant to genetic manipulation, we performed heterologous expression and gradient centrifugation experiments in Escherichia coli and found that, despite the missing C-terminal domain, C. abortus YhbZ co-fractionates with the E. coli 50S large ribosomal subunit. In addition, overexpression of chlamydial YhbZ in E. coli leads to growth defects and elongation, as reported for other Obg members. YhbZ did not complement an E. coli obgE temperature-sensitive mutant, indicating the C-terminal acidic domain may have an additional role. This data supports a role for YhbZ linking the chlamydial stress response to ribosome function and cellular growth. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Imaging of cavitary necrosis in complicated childhood pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodina, M.; Schnyder, P.; Gudinchet, F.; Hanquinet, S.; Cotting, J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the chest radiographs (CR) and CT imaging features and sequential findings of cavitary necrosis in complicated childhood pneumonia. Among 30 children admitted in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit for persistent or progressive pneumonia, respiratory distress or sepsis despite adequate antibiotic therapy, a study group of 9 children (5 girls and 4 boys; mean age 4 years) who had the radiographic features and CT criteria for cavitary necrosis complicated pneumonia was identified. The pathogens identified were Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=4), Aspergillus (n=2), Legionella (n=1), and Staphylococcus aureus (n=1). Sequential CR and CT scans were retrospectively reviewed. Follow-up CR and CT were evaluated for persistent abnormalities. Chest radiographs showed consolidations in 8 of the 9 patients. On CT examination, cavitary necrosis was localized to 1 lobe in 2 patients and 7 patients showed multilobar or bilateral areas of cavitary necrosis. In 3 patients of 9, the cavitary necrosis was initially shown on CT and visualization by CR was delayed by a time span varying from 5 to 9 days. In all patients with cavities, a mean number of five cavities were seen on antero-posterior CR, contrasting with the multiple cavities seen on CT. Parapneumonic effusions were shown by CR in 3 patients and in 5 patients by CT. Bronchopleural fistulae were demonstrated by CT alone (n=3). No purulent pericarditis was demonstrated. The CT scan displayed persistent residual pneumatoceles of the left lower lobe in 2 patients. Computed tomography is able to define a more specific pattern of abnormalities than conventional CR in children with necrotizing pneumonia and allows an earlier diagnosis of this rapidly progressing condition. Lung necrosis and cavitation may also be associated with Aspergillus or Legionella pneumonia in the pediatric population. (orig.)

  1. Exogenous lipid pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernasconi, A.; Gavelli, G.; Zompatori, M.; Galleri, C.; Zanasi, A.; Fabbri, M.; Bazzocchi, F.

    1988-01-01

    Exogenous lipid pneumonia (ELP) is caused by the aspiration of animal, vegetal or, more often, mineral oils. Even though it may also be acute, ELP is most frequently a chronic disease, affecting people with predisposing factors, such as neuromuscular disorders, structural abnormalities and so on; very often exogenous lipid pneumonia is found in tracheotomized patients. The pathology of lipid pneumonia is a chronic inflammatory process evolving in foreign-body-like reaction, and eventually in ''end-stage lung'' condition. Clinically, most patients are asymptomatic; few cases only present with cough, dyspnea and chest pain. Eight cases of ELP, studied over the past 3 years, are described in this paper. All the patients were examined by chest radiographs and standard tomograms; 3 patients underwent CT. X-ray features were mono/bilateral consolidation of the lower zones, with air bronchogram and variable reduction in volume. CT density was not specific for fat tissue. In all cases the diagnosis was confirmed at biopsy. In 5 patients, followed for at least one year, clinical-radiological features showed no change. Thus, complications of ELP (especially malignant evolution) could be excluded. The authors conclude that lipid pneumonia must be considered in differential diagnosis of patients with history of usage of oils and compatible X-ray findings. The usefulness of an accurate follow-up is stressed

  2. Bacteremia with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J S; Jensen, T G; Kolmos, H J

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a hospital-based cohort study among adult patients with first-time Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia (SPB) from 2000 through 2008. Patients were identified in a population-based bacteremia database and followed up for mortality through the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS...

  3. Intratracheal infection as an efficient route for testing vaccines against Chlamydia abortus in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, D; Salinas, J; Buendía, A J; Ortega, N; del Río, L; Sánchez, J; Navarro, J A; Gallego, M C; Murcia-Belmonte, A; Cuello, F; Caro, M R

    2015-09-01

    Pregnant ewes have been widely used to test vaccines against Chlamydia abortus. However, this model entails many disadvantages such as high economic costs and long periods of pregnancy. The murine model is very useful for specific studies but cannot replace the natural host for the later stages of vaccine evaluation. Therefore, a non-pregnant model of the natural host might be useful for a vaccine trial to select the best vaccine candidates prior to use of the pregnant model. With this aim, two routes of infection were assessed in young non-pregnant sheep, namely, intranasal (IN) and intratracheal (IT). In addition, groups of non-vaccinated sheep and sheep immunised with an inactivated vaccine were established to investigate the suitability of the model for testing vaccines. After the experimental infection, isolation of the microorganism in several organs, with pathological and immunohistochemical analyses, antibody production assessment and investigation by PCR of the presence of chlamydia in the vagina or rectum were carried out. Experimental IT inoculation of C. abortus induced pneumonia in sheep during the first few days post-infection, confirming the suitability of the IT route for testing vaccines in the natural host. The course of infection and the resulting pathological signs were less severe in vaccinated sheep compared with non-vaccinated animals, demonstrating the success of vaccination. IN infection did not produce evident lesions or demonstrate the presence of chlamydial antigen in the lungs and cannot be considered an appropriate model for testing vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Postabortal endometritis and isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbacci, M B; Spence, M R; Kappus, E W; Burkman, R C; Rao, L; Quinn, T C

    1986-11-01

    A prospective study of 505 unselected women presenting for induced abortion was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and to determine if cervical isolation of C trachomatis before abortion increases the risk of postabortal endometritis. A comparison of direct fluorescent antibody (slide) test with tissue culture for diagnosing C trachomatis infection also was evaluated in this population. C trachomatis was identified by culture in 89 patients (17.6%) and by direct slide test in 85 patients (16.8%). Six of 17 patients with postabortal endometritis were culture positive for C trachomatis, with a significant correlation between C trachomatis infection and development of endometritis observed (P less than .05). These data suggest C trachomatis may play an important role in postabortal endometritis.

  5. Damage/Danger Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs Modulate Chlamydia pecorum and C. trachomatis Serovar E Inclusion Development In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory Ann Leonard

    Full Text Available Persistence, more recently termed the chlamydial stress response, is a viable but non-infectious state constituting a divergence from the characteristic chlamydial biphasic developmental cycle. Damage/danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs are normal intracellular components or metabolites that, when released from cells, signal cellular damage/lysis. Purine metabolite DAMPs, including extracellular ATP and adenosine, inhibit chlamydial development in a species-specific manner. Viral co-infection has been shown to reversibly abrogate Chlamydia inclusion development, suggesting persistence/chlamydial stress. Because viral infection can cause host cell DAMP release, we hypothesized DAMPs may influence chlamydial development. Therefore, we examined the effect of extracellular ATP, adenosine, and cyclic AMP exposure, at 0 and 14 hours post infection, on C. pecorum and C. trachomatis serovar E development. In the absence of de novo host protein synthesis, exposure to DAMPs immediately post or at 14 hours post infection reduced inclusion size; however, the effect was less robust upon 14 hours post infection exposure. Additionally, upon exposure to DAMPs immediately post infection, bacteria per inclusion and subsequent infectivity were reduced in both Chlamydia species. These effects were reversible, and C. pecorum exhibited more pronounced recovery from DAMP exposure. Aberrant bodies, typical in virus-induced chlamydial persistence, were absent upon DAMP exposure. In the presence of de novo host protein synthesis, exposure to DAMPs immediately post infection reduced inclusion size, but only variably modulated chlamydial infectivity. Because chlamydial infection and other infections may increase local DAMP concentrations, DAMPs may influence Chlamydia infection in vivo, particularly in the context of poly-microbial infections.

  6. Impact of antiseptics on Chlamydia trachomatis growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Párducz, L; Eszik, I; Wagner, G; Burián, K; Endrész, V; Virok, D P

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is a frequent dysbiosis, where the normal lactobacillus-dominated flora is replaced by an anaerob/aerob polymicrobial flora. Bacterial vaginosis increases the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STI) including the most frequent Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Intravaginal antiseptics are part of the bacterial vaginosis treatment, and ideally they should also inhibit the bacterial vaginosis-related STI. Therefore, we tested the antichlamydial activity of four antiseptics: iodine aqueous solution, povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine and borax. First, we measured the impact of antiseptics on the viability of the HeLa cervical epithelial cells, and calculated the maximum nontoxic concentrations. Next, we infected the cells with C. trachomatis preincubated for 1 h with the particular antiseptic. The chlamydial growth was measured by direct quantitative PCR (qPCR) of the infected cells. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine were 3·91 and 97 μg ml(-1) respectively; however, the MIC of chlorhexidine was close to its maximum nontoxic concentration. The iodine aqueous solution and the borax showed no antichlamydial activity. Our in vitro studies showed that chlorhexidine and particularly povidone-iodine are potentially able to limit the bacterial vaginosis-related C. trachomatis infection. We measured the antichlamydial effects of various antiseptics. These antiseptics are being used for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis, but their effect on the bacterial vaginosis-related sexually transmitted infections, particularly the most frequent Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) infections has not been investigated. We showed that povidone-iodine (Betadine) inhibited the chlamydial growth in concentrations that was not toxic to the epithelial cells. We concluded that due to its additional antichlamydial effect, povidone-iodine could be a preferable antiseptic in bacterial vaginosis treatment.

  7. Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia: CT features in 16 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Inho; Kim, Tae Sung; Yoon, Hye-Kyung [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2006-03-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the computed tomography (CT) features of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings of 16 patients (M:F=9:7, age range 1-74 years, median 9 years) with serologically proven Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia and with chest CT scan available. Two distinctive patterns of CT features of M. pneumoniae pneumonia were noted between the paediatric (age <18 years) and the adult (age {>=}18 years) groups. The pediatric group (n=11) showed lobar or segmental consolidation (100%) with frequent pleural effusion (82%) and regional lymphadenopathy (82%) and mild volume decrease of the involved lobe (73%), while four of the five adult patients showed diffuse and/or multifocal, centrilobular or peribronchovascular areas of ground-glass attenuation (80%) with a lobular distribution, and frequent thickening of interlobular septa (60%) and the bronchial walls (40%) were also detected at high-resolution CT. The CT finding of a lobar or segmental consolidation with a parapneumonic effusion seen in our children with M. pneumoniae pneumonia was similar to that of bacterial lobar pneumonia. In contrast, the CT findings noted in our adult patients consisted of a mixture of a bacterial bronchopneumonia pattern and a viral interstitial pneumonia pattern. (orig.)

  8. Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia: CT features in 16 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Inho; Kim, Tae Sung; Yoon, Hye-Kyung

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the computed tomography (CT) features of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings of 16 patients (M:F=9:7, age range 1-74 years, median 9 years) with serologically proven Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia and with chest CT scan available. Two distinctive patterns of CT features of M. pneumoniae pneumonia were noted between the paediatric (age <18 years) and the adult (age ≥18 years) groups. The pediatric group (n=11) showed lobar or segmental consolidation (100%) with frequent pleural effusion (82%) and regional lymphadenopathy (82%) and mild volume decrease of the involved lobe (73%), while four of the five adult patients showed diffuse and/or multifocal, centrilobular or peribronchovascular areas of ground-glass attenuation (80%) with a lobular distribution, and frequent thickening of interlobular septa (60%) and the bronchial walls (40%) were also detected at high-resolution CT. The CT finding of a lobar or segmental consolidation with a parapneumonic effusion seen in our children with M. pneumoniae pneumonia was similar to that of bacterial lobar pneumonia. In contrast, the CT findings noted in our adult patients consisted of a mixture of a bacterial bronchopneumonia pattern and a viral interstitial pneumonia pattern. (orig.)

  9. Persistent angina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, L.; Abildstrom, S. Z.; Hvelplund, Anders

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate persistent angina in stable angina pectoris with no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) compared to obstructive CAD and its relation to long-term anxiety, depression, quality of life (QOL), and physical functioning. We invited 357 patients (men = 191; women = 166; response rate 83......-obstructive CAD or normal coronary arteries than in patients with obstructive CAD. Persistent angina symptoms were associated with long-term anxiety, depression, impaired physical functioning, and QOL irrespective of the degree of CAD. Contrary to common perception, excluding obstructive CAD in stable angina does...... %) with no prior cardiovascular disease who had a first-time coronary angiography (CAG) in 2008-2009 due to suspected stable angina to participate in a questionnaire survey in 2011 with the Seattle Angina Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale as key elements. Long-term persistent angina (i...

  10. Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Infections among Ethnic Groups in Paramaribo, Suriname; Determinants and Ethnic Sexual Mixing Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, Jannie J.; Bom, Reinier J. M.; Grünberg, Antoon W.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Sabajo, Leslie O. A.; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection (chlamydia) in Suriname. Suriname is a society composed of many ethnic groups, such as Creoles, Maroons, Hindustani, Javanese, Chinese, Caucasians, and indigenous Amerindians. We estimated determinants for

  11. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia abortus infection in free-ranging white yaks in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Si-Yuan; Huang, Si-Yang; Yin, Ming-Yang; Tan, Qi-Dong; Liu, Guang-Xue; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhou, Ji-Zhang; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Background Chlamydia is gram-negative obligate bacteria which causes a wide variety of diseases in humans and animals. To date, there are a few reports about the seroprevalence of Chlamydia and the risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection in yaks in the world. In this study, 974 blood samples were collected from white yaks (Bos grunniens) in Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County, Gansu province, northwest China from June 2013 to April 2014. Results Antibodies against Chlamydia abortus wer...

  12. Pneumonia in bighorn sheep: Risk and resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassirer, E. Frances; Manlove, Kezia R.; Almberg, Emily S.; Kamath, Pauline; Cox, Mike; Wolff, Peregrine L.; Roug, Annette; Shannon, Justin M.; Robinson, Rusty; Harris, Richard B.; Gonzales, Ben J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Hudson, Peter J.; Cross, Paul C.; Dobson, Andrew; Besser, Thomas E.

    2018-01-01

    Infectious disease was an important driver of historic declines and extirpations of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in North America and continues to impede population restoration and management. Domestic sheep have long been linked to pneumonia outbreaks in bighorn sheep and this association has now been confirmed in 13 captive commingling experiments. However, ecological and etiological complexities still hinder our understanding and control of the disease. We provide an overview of the current state of knowledge about the biology and management of respiratory disease in bighorn sheep and propose strategies for moving forward. Epizootic pneumonia in bighorn sheep is polymicrobial. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, a bacterium host-specific to Caprinae and commonly carried by healthy domestic sheep and goats appears to be a necessary primary agent. All-age epizootics following introduction of M. ovipneumoniae along with other pathogens into bighorn sheep populations are usually severe (median mortality 47%) but fatality rates vary widely, from 15 – 100%. Disease severity may be influenced by the strain of M. ovipneumoniae, by secondary bacterial and viral pathogens, and by factors affecting transmission and host immunity. Once introduced, M. ovipneumoniae can persist in bighorn sheep populations for decades. Carrier dams transmit the pathogen to their susceptible lambs, triggering fatal pneumonia outbreaks in nursery groups, which limits recruitment and slows or prevents population recovery. The result is that demographic costs of pathogen persistence often outweigh the impacts of the initial invasion and die-off. There is currently no effective vaccine or antibiotic for domestic or wild sheep and to date, no management actions have been successful in reducing morbidity, mortality, or disease spread once pathogen invasion has occurred. Molecular-based strain typing suggests that spillover of M. ovipneumoniae into bighorn sheep populations from domestic small ruminants

  13. Lycopene Inhibits Propagation of Chlamydia Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naylia A. Zigangirova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiaceae is a family of obligate intracellular pathogenic bacteria with similar developmental cycles and cell biology responsible for a wide range of diseases in different hosts including genital and eye inflammatory diseases, arthritis, and inflammatory diseases of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. In the present paper, we report that lycopene, one of the main dietary carotenoids, which is present in tomato and some other fruits, has a strong inhibitory effect on C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae infections in alveolar macrophages. This finding was documented by both immunofluorescence analysis and electron microscopy. It was noted that lycopene treatment inhibited intracellular phase of the chlamydial developmental cycle and resulted in a significant loss of infectious progeny. The antichlamydial effect of lycopene was also confirmed in a clinical setting. There was a significant reduction of IgG antibodies against C. pneumoniae in the serum of volunteers treated for a month with oral ingestion of 7 mg of lycopene. Additional studies are needed to further explore the antichlamydial activity of lycopene and its possible effect on C. pneumoniae in relation to antichlamydial activity of lycopene to mechanisms of atherosclerosis.

  14. Penicillin kills Chlamydia following the fusion of bacteria with lysosomes and prevents genital inflammatory lesions in C. muridarum-infected mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Dumoux

    Full Text Available The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia exists as two distinct forms. Elementary bodies (EBs are infectious and extra-cellular, whereas reticulate bodies (RBs replicate within a specialized intracellular compartment termed an 'inclusion'. Alternative persistent intra-cellular forms can be induced in culture by diverse stimuli such as IFNγ or adenosine/EHNA. They do not grow or divide but revive upon withdrawal of the stimulus and are implicated in several widespread human diseases through ill-defined in vivo mechanisms. β-Lactam antibiotics have also been claimed to induce persistence in vitro. The present report shows that upon penicillin G (pG treatment, inclusions grow as fast as those in infected control cells. After removal of pG, Chlamydia do not revert to RBs. These effects are independent of host cell type, serovar, biovar and species of Chlamydia. Time-course experiments demonstrated that only RBs were susceptible to pG. pG-treated bacteria lost their control over host cell apoptotic pathways and no longer expressed pre-16S rRNA, in contrast to persistent bacteria induced with adenosine/EHNA. Confocal and live-video microscopy showed that bacteria within the inclusion fused with lysosomal compartments in pG-treated cells. That leads to recruitment of cathepsin D as early as 3 h post pG treatment, an event preceding bacterial death by several hours. These data demonstrate that pG treatment of cultured cells infected with Chlamydia results in the degradation of the bacteria. In addition we show that pG is significantly more efficient than doxycycline at preventing genital inflammatory lesions in C. muridarum-C57Bl/6 infected mice. These in vivo results support the physiological relevance of our findings and their potential therapeutic applications.

  15. Habit persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther Møller, Stig

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses an iterated GMM approach to estimate and test the consumption based habit persistence model of Campbell and Cochrane (1999) on the US stock market. The empirical evidence shows that the model is able to explain the size premium, but fails to explain the value premium. Further...

  16. Klebsiella pneumoniae Invasive Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Evangelista

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae invasive syndrome (KPIS is a rare clinical condition characterized by primary liver abscess associated with metastatic infection. Most case reports are from Southeast Asia, with only one case described in Portugal. The Authors present the case of a 44-year-old man with a history of fever, dry cough and cervicalgia. A thoracic computed tomography (CT scan showed multiple pulmonary and hepatic nodules, suggestive of metastatic malignancy. Both blood cultures and bronchoalveolar lavage were positive for Klebsiella pneumoniae. Imaging studies were repeated during his hospital stay, showing a reduction in both number and volume of identified lesions, thus revealing their infectious nature. This case illustrates how much this entity can mimic other illnesses.

  17. Exploring Chlamydia Positivity among Females on College Campuses, 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Melissa A.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Torrone, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Describe chlamydia positivity among young women tested at college health centers by student characteristics: age, race/ethnicity, and institution type. Participants: During 2008-2010, colleges participating in a national infertility prevention program provided chlamydia testing data from females aged 18-24. Methods: Chlamydia positivity…

  18. Community-acquired pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poetter-Lang, S.; Herold, C.J.

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is often not possible based only on the clinical symptoms and biochemical parameters. For every patient with the suspicion of CAP, a chest radiograph in two planes should be carried out. Additionally, a risk stratification for the decision between outpatient therapy or hospitalization is recommended. Based on the evaluation of the different radiological patterns as well as their extent and distribution, a rough allocation to so-called pathogen groups as well as a differentiation between viral and bacterial infections are possible; however, because different pathogens cause different patterns an accurate correlation is not feasible by relying purely on imaging. The radiological findings serve as proof or exclusion of pneumonia and can also be used to evaluate the extent of the disease (e.g. monolobular, multilobular, unilateral or bilateral). In cases of prolonged disease, suspicion of complications (e.g. pleural effusion or empyema, necrotizing pneumonia or abscess) or comorbid conditions (e.g. underlying pulmonary or mediastinal diseases) computed tomography is an important diagnostic tool in addition to chest radiography. Ultrasound is often used to diagnose pleural processes (e.g. parapneumonic effusion or pleural empyema). (orig.) [de

  19. Pneumonia in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Tow Keang; Siow, Wen Ting

    2018-01-01

    Pneumonia in the tropics poses a heavy disease burden. The complex interplay of climate change, human migration influences and socio-economic factors lead to changing patterns of respiratory infections in tropical climate but also increasingly in temperate countries. Tropical and poorer countries, especially South East Asia, also bear the brunt of the global tuberculosis (TB) pandemic, accounting for almost one-third of the burden. But, as human migration patterns evolve, we expect to see more TB cases in higher income as well as temperate countries, and rise in infections like scrub typhus from ecotourism activities. Fuelled by the ease of air travel, novel zoonotic infections originating from the tropics have led to global respiratory pandemics. As such, clinicians worldwide should be aware of these new conditions as well as classical tropical bacterial pneumonias such as melioidosis. Rarer entities such as co-infections of leptospirosis and chikungunya or dengue will need careful consideration as well. In this review, we highlight aetiologies of pneumonia seen more commonly in the tropics compared with temperate regions, their disease burden, variable clinical presentations as well as impact on healthcare delivery. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  20. Dysuria in the Emergency Department: Missed Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan D. Wilbanks

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The clinical presentation of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection (chlamydia in women is often indistinguishable from a urinary tract infection. While merited in the setting of dysuria, emergency department (ED clinicians do not routinely test for chlamydia in women. The primary aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency of chlamydia testing among women presenting to the ED with dysuria. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of women 19-25 years of age presenting with dysuria to an urban ED and who had been coded with urinary tract infection (UTI as their primary diagnosis (ICD-9 599.0 from October 2005 to March 2011. We excluded women who were pregnant, had underlying anatomical or neurological urinary system pathology, had continuation of symptoms from UTI or a sexually transmitted infection (STI diagnosed elsewhere, or were already on antibiotics for a UTI or STI. We identified the rates of sexual history screening, pelvic examination and chlamydia assay testing and evaluated predictors using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Of 280 women with dysuria and a UTI diagnosis, 17% were asked about their sexual history, with 94% reporting recent sexual activity. Pelvic examination was performed in 23%. We were unable to determine the overall chlamydia prevalence as only 20% of women in the cohort were tested. Among the 20% of women tested for chlamydia infection, 21% tested positive. Only 42% of chlamydia-positive women were prescribed treatment effective for chlamydia (azithromycin or doxycycline at their visit; the remaining were prescribed UTI treatment not effective against chlamydia. Predictors of sexual history screening included vaginal bleeding (OR 5.4, 95% CI=1.5 to 19.6 and discharge (OR 2.8, 95% CI=1.1 to 6.9. Predictors of a pelvic examination being performed included having a complaint of vaginal discharge (OR 11.8, 95% CI=4.2 to 32.9, a sexual history performed (OR 2.5, 95% CI=1.1 to 5

  1. Clinicoroentgenological control in chronic pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamilyaev, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive clinicoroentgenological study was used to examine 494 patients with chronic pneumonia. Morphological and functional changes observed in the pulmonary pare and functional changes observed in the pulmonary parenchyma and bronchial tree were studied. Types of pneumosclerosis, tigns of exacerbation of chronic pneumonia and abscess formation, morphological and functional disorders of bronchial penetrability in the pneumonic zone were described. Three forms of chronic pneumonia: bronchial, bronchiectatic and abscessing are signled out. The bronchial form is subdivided into chronic pneumonia with chronic bronchitis without deformity and wi.th deforming chronic bronchitis. In the bronchiectatic form pneumonia can be with cylindrical, saccular and cyst-like bronchiectasia. The general diagnosis of chronic pneumonia is established clinically depending on type and variants in 89-94% of cases, by X-ray and sonographic findings in all patients; types and variants of disease are most frequently defined after bronchography

  2. [Chlamydia trachomatis and urogenital mycoplasms in nonconococcal urethritis in men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesić, Sonja; Vukićević, Jelica; Gvozdenović, Eleonora; Skiljević, Dusan; Janosević, Slobodanka; Medenica, Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Nongonococcal urethritis is the most common sexually transmitted infection in men, with vast majority of the etiological agents such as Chlamydia trachomatis, followed by urogenital mycoplasmas. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in nongonococcal urethritis in men, and to examine infections associated with these agents. Material and methods 299 sexually active, heterosexual men with nongonococcal urethritis were included into the study. Urethral samples were taken with a dacron swab placed into the urethra up to 2-3 cm. The Direct immunofluorescence technique was performed for identification of Chlamydia trachomatis. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis were detected with Mycoplasma IST assay. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in 22.75%, Uraeplasma urealyticum in 21.08% and Mycoplasma hominis in 8.02% cases. We found no significant differences in prevalence between Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticym (p > 0.05). Monoinfections were found in 51.85% with significantly higher rate (p urethritis with prevalence of 51.85% in monoinfections and 11.70% in associated infections. In 36.45% of cases the etiology of urethritis was not elucidated. These results suggest that more sensitive diagnostic tool should be applied when searching for the derailed etiology of nongonococcal urethritis.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL PNEUMONIA (FRIEDLANDER TYPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, W R; Walker, I C

    1915-12-01

    The foregoing experiments show that in cats a definite lobar pneumonia may be caused by Bacillus mucosus capsulatus. Judging both from the clinical course and from the pathological findings, this form of pulmonary infection differs from the usual pneumococcus types of pneumonia and closely resembles the so called Friedländer's bacillus or Bacillus pneumonioe in man. In all instances in which a lobar pneumonia was found after the injection of the bacillus, a similar organism was recovered from the lung, and in no case was this associated with other organisms. The course of the disease in cats is very short, the animals developing early symptoms of profound toxemia. In 87 per cent of the animals showing a lobar pneumonia positive blood cultures were obtained. The pathological findings, judging from the early stages of the disease, are subject to considerable variation. In some instances the process may suggest a pseudolobar or confluent lobular distribution. In these cases the lung has a mottled, marble-like appearance. In the majority of cases, however, the process gave a more homogeneous appearance, suggesting a diffuse and uniform distribution. Foci of hemorrhage were not uncommon in both. Such areas cause the mottled appearance sometimes found. In all instances the consolidated lung presents a greater infiltration of tissue than is usually seen in other types of experimental pneumonia. Although the exudate as seen on the cut surface may be abundant and especially viscid in character, this is not present in most cases. The cut surface of the consolidated lung does not present a granular appearance. The histological findings are also subject to considerable variation. In most instances the infundibular and alveolar spaces are completely filled with an exudate made up chiefly of polymorphonuclear cells. Associated with these are the capsulated bacilli, large vacuolated mononuclear phagocytic cells, and red blood cells, and occasionally small amounts of fibrin. The

  4. A prospective study of the psychosocial impact of a positive Chlamydia trachomatis laboratory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sami L; Stoner, Bradley P; Zaidi, Akbar A; Buckel, Christina; Tran, Molly; Leichliter, Jami S; Berman, Stuart M; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2011-11-01

    Few data exist on potential harms of chlamydia screening. We assessed the psychosocial impact of receiving a positive Chlamydia trachomatis test result. We prospectively studied women ≥16 years of age undergoing chlamydia testing in 2 Midwestern family planning clinics. We surveyed women at baseline and about 1 month after receiving test results, using 9 validated psychosocial scales/subscales and chlamydia-specific questions. Changes in scale scores were calculated for each woman. Mean percent changes in scores for chlamydia-positive and -negative women were compared using a t test. We enrolled 1807 women (response rate, 84%). Of the 1688 women with test results, 149 (8.8%) tested positive. At follow-up, chlamydia-positive women (n = 71) had a 75% increase in anxiety about sexual aspects of their life on the Multidimensional Sexual Self-Concept Questionnaire (P < 0.001), significantly greater than the 26% increase among 280 randomly selected chlamydia-negative women (P = 0.02). There were no differences for the other 8 scales/subscales, including general measures of anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. Chlamydia-positive women were more likely than chlamydia-negative women to be "concerned about chlamydia" (80% vs. 40%, P < 0.001) and to report breaking up with a main partner (33% vs. 11%, P < 0.001) at follow-up. Women testing positive reported a range of chlamydia-specific concerns. Chlamydia-positive women had significant increases in anxiety about sex and concern about chlamydia, but did not have marked changes in more general measures of psychosocial well-being about 1 month after diagnosis. Chlamydia diagnoses were associated with some disruption of relationships with main partners. Chlamydia-specific concerns may guide counseling messages to minimize psychosocial impact.

  5. Relapsing bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia and chronic sarcoidosis in an atopic asthmatic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonelli, C; Roggeri, A; Cavazza, A; Zompatori, M; Zucchi, L

    2008-03-01

    Asthma is thought to be a Th2 disease while sarcoidosis is considered a Th1 granulomatous disorder. Organising pneumonia is a histologic pattern of lung injury. When it has no recognisable cause it is defined as cryptogenic organising pneumonia. We herein report the case of a patient with recurrent and steroid sensitive organising pneumonia associated with chronic sarcoidosis in an atopic, moderate persistent asthmatic patient. Each disease has been documented with transbronchial biopsies and recurrence of organising pneumonia was suggested by clinical features and by follow up HRCT which shows distinctive signs even in associated disease. Steroids are the mainstay of therapy for these disorders and especially for the consolidated processes typical of organising pneumonia but prognostic indices for relapse and progression are lacking.

  6. Four cases of radiation pneumonia after breast conservative therapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horii, Rie; Fukuuchi, Atushi; Nishi, Tsunehiro

    1997-01-01

    Between 1983 and 1996, a series of 240 patients with early stage breast cancer were treated with breast conservative treatment, and 201 patients of them all received irradiation at a dose of 46-60 Gy to the affected breast. Among the 201 patients who received breast irradiation, four (2.0%) patients experienced radiation pneumonia. These four patients with radiation pneumonia presented with coughing from 7 to 20 weeks after irradiation. Chest X-ray film revealed interstitial pneumonia in a lung field where coincided with the irradiated field in them. Three out of four patients demanded steroids, but all patients got well within 4 months. Radiation pneumonia following conservative surgery and radiotherapy for breast cancer is an infrequent complication, but attention should be paid to radiation pneumonia if the patient suffers from persistent coughing after radiotherapy. (author)

  7. Burden of Severe Pneumonia, Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Pneumonia Deaths in Indian States: Modelling Based Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Habib; Jit, Mark; Heymann, David L; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The burden of severe pneumonia in terms of morbidity and mortality is unknown in India especially at sub-national level. In this context, we aimed to estimate the number of severe pneumonia episodes, pneumococcal pneumonia episodes and pneumonia deaths in children younger than 5 years in 2010. We adapted and parameterized a mathematical model based on the epidemiological concept of potential impact fraction developed CHERG for this analysis. The key parameters that determine the distribution of severe pneumonia episode across Indian states were state-specific under-5 population, state-specific prevalence of selected definite pneumonia risk factors and meta-estimates of relative risks for each of these risk factors. We applied the incidence estimates and attributable fraction of risk factors to population estimates for 2010 of each Indian state. We then estimated the number of pneumococcal pneumonia cases by applying the vaccine probe methodology to an existing trial. We estimated mortality due to severe pneumonia and pneumococcal pneumonia by combining incidence estimates with case fatality ratios from multi-centric hospital-based studies. Our results suggest that in 2010, 3.6 million (3.3-3.9 million) episodes of severe pneumonia and 0.35 million (0.31-0.40 million) all cause pneumonia deaths occurred in children younger than 5 years in India. The states that merit special mention include Uttar Pradesh where 18.1% children reside but contribute 24% of pneumonia cases and 26% pneumonia deaths, Bihar (11.3% children, 16% cases, 22% deaths) Madhya Pradesh (6.6% children, 9% cases, 12% deaths), and Rajasthan (6.6% children, 8% cases, 11% deaths). Further, we estimated that 0.56 million (0.49-0.64 million) severe episodes of pneumococcal pneumonia and 105 thousand (92-119 thousand) pneumococcal deaths occurred in India. The top contributors to India's pneumococcal pneumonia burden were Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan in that order. Our results

  8. Burden of Severe Pneumonia, Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Pneumonia Deaths in Indian States: Modelling Based Estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Farooqui

    Full Text Available The burden of severe pneumonia in terms of morbidity and mortality is unknown in India especially at sub-national level. In this context, we aimed to estimate the number of severe pneumonia episodes, pneumococcal pneumonia episodes and pneumonia deaths in children younger than 5 years in 2010. We adapted and parameterized a mathematical model based on the epidemiological concept of potential impact fraction developed CHERG for this analysis. The key parameters that determine the distribution of severe pneumonia episode across Indian states were state-specific under-5 population, state-specific prevalence of selected definite pneumonia risk factors and meta-estimates of relative risks for each of these risk factors. We applied the incidence estimates and attributable fraction of risk factors to population estimates for 2010 of each Indian state. We then estimated the number of pneumococcal pneumonia cases by applying the vaccine probe methodology to an existing trial. We estimated mortality due to severe pneumonia and pneumococcal pneumonia by combining incidence estimates with case fatality ratios from multi-centric hospital-based studies. Our results suggest that in 2010, 3.6 million (3.3-3.9 million episodes of severe pneumonia and 0.35 million (0.31-0.40 million all cause pneumonia deaths occurred in children younger than 5 years in India. The states that merit special mention include Uttar Pradesh where 18.1% children reside but contribute 24% of pneumonia cases and 26% pneumonia deaths, Bihar (11.3% children, 16% cases, 22% deaths Madhya Pradesh (6.6% children, 9% cases, 12% deaths, and Rajasthan (6.6% children, 8% cases, 11% deaths. Further, we estimated that 0.56 million (0.49-0.64 million severe episodes of pneumococcal pneumonia and 105 thousand (92-119 thousand pneumococcal deaths occurred in India. The top contributors to India's pneumococcal pneumonia burden were Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan in that order. Our

  9. Burden of Severe Pneumonia, Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Pneumonia Deaths in Indian States: Modelling Based Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Habib; Jit, Mark; Heymann, David L.; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The burden of severe pneumonia in terms of morbidity and mortality is unknown in India especially at sub-national level. In this context, we aimed to estimate the number of severe pneumonia episodes, pneumococcal pneumonia episodes and pneumonia deaths in children younger than 5 years in 2010. We adapted and parameterized a mathematical model based on the epidemiological concept of potential impact fraction developed CHERG for this analysis. The key parameters that determine the distribution of severe pneumonia episode across Indian states were state-specific under-5 population, state-specific prevalence of selected definite pneumonia risk factors and meta-estimates of relative risks for each of these risk factors. We applied the incidence estimates and attributable fraction of risk factors to population estimates for 2010 of each Indian state. We then estimated the number of pneumococcal pneumonia cases by applying the vaccine probe methodology to an existing trial. We estimated mortality due to severe pneumonia and pneumococcal pneumonia by combining incidence estimates with case fatality ratios from multi-centric hospital-based studies. Our results suggest that in 2010, 3.6 million (3.3–3.9 million) episodes of severe pneumonia and 0.35 million (0.31–0.40 million) all cause pneumonia deaths occurred in children younger than 5 years in India. The states that merit special mention include Uttar Pradesh where 18.1% children reside but contribute 24% of pneumonia cases and 26% pneumonia deaths, Bihar (11.3% children, 16% cases, 22% deaths) Madhya Pradesh (6.6% children, 9% cases, 12% deaths), and Rajasthan (6.6% children, 8% cases, 11% deaths). Further, we estimated that 0.56 million (0.49–0.64 million) severe episodes of pneumococcal pneumonia and 105 thousand (92–119 thousand) pneumococcal deaths occurred in India. The top contributors to India’s pneumococcal pneumonia burden were Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan in that order. Our

  10. Bronchiolitis Obliterans with Organizing Pneumonia (BOOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What can you tell me about cryptogenic organizing pneumonia? Answers from Teng Moua, M.D. Previously called bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) is a rare lung ...

  11. Marcadores inflamatórios e anticorpos anti-chlamydia em pacientes com síndrome metabólica Marcadores inflamatorios y anticuerpos anti-chlamydia en pacientes con síndrome metabólico Inflammatory markers and antichlamydial antibodies in patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosecler Riethmuller Franco

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A síndrome metabólica está associada ao aumento de risco de eventos cardiovasculares. Marcadores inflamatórios e anticorpos anti-Chlamydia têm sido relacionados ao desenvolvimento e à progressão da aterosclerose e dos eventos cardiovasculares. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os marcadores inflamatórios interleucina-6 (IL-6 e fator de necrose tumoral-alfa (TNF-α e os anticorpos anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae em pacientes com síndrome metabólica (SM, com e sem eventos cardiovasculares. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal constituído por 147 indivíduos. Desses, 100 (68% com SM e sem eventos cardiovasculares; e 47 (32% com SM e com eventos cardiovasculares. Dos indivíduos que sofreram eventos cardiovasculares, 13 (6,11% apresentam infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM, e dez (4,7%, acidente vascular cerebral (AVC. O diagnóstico da SM foi determinado pelos critérios do NCEP-ATPIII. RESULTADOS: A média de idade dos sujeitos com eventos cardiovasculares foi de 61,26 ± 8,5 e de 59,32 ± 9,9 nos indivíduos sem esses eventos (p=0,279, havendo predomínio do sexo feminino. O grupo com SM e sem evento apresentou maior peso, altura, IMC e circunferência abdominal. Para os indivíduos com eventos cardiovasculares (p=0,001, os marcadores inflamatórios IL-6 e TNF-α e a doença vascular periférica foram significativamente maiores. Obtiveram-se níveis elevados de anticorpos IgG para Chlamydia pneumoniae no grupo SM, sem eventos e de IgA no grupo com eventos quando comparados os dois grupos. Com relação ao IAM e ao AVC, os anticorpos anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae não demonstraram significância estatística, comparados ao grupo sem eventos cardiovasculares. Associação foi observada com o uso de estatinas, hipoglicemiantes orais, injetáveis e anti-inflamatórios não esteroidais no grupo com esses eventos. CONCLUSÃO: Marcadores inflamatórios encontram-se significativamente elevados em pacientes com SM, com IAM e AVC. Anticorpos anti-Chlamydia n

  12. Spatio-temporal dynamics of pneumonia in bighorn sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassirer, E Frances; Plowright, Raina K; Manlove, Kezia R; Cross, Paul C; Dobson, Andrew P; Potter, Kathleen A; Hudson, Peter J

    2013-05-01

    1. Bighorn sheep mortality related to pneumonia is a primary factor limiting population recovery across western North America, but management has been constrained by an incomplete understanding of the disease. We analysed patterns of pneumonia-caused mortality over 14 years in 16 interconnected bighorn sheep populations to gain insights into underlying disease processes. 2. We observed four age-structured classes of annual pneumonia mortality patterns: all-age, lamb-only, secondary all-age and adult-only. Although there was considerable variability within classes, overall they differed in persistence within and impact on populations. Years with pneumonia-induced mortality occurring simultaneously across age classes (i.e. all-age) appeared to be a consequence of pathogen invasion into a naïve population and resulted in immediate population declines. Subsequently, low recruitment due to frequent high mortality outbreaks in lambs, probably due to association with chronically infected ewes, posed a significant obstacle to population recovery. Secondary all-age events occurred in previously exposed populations when outbreaks in lambs were followed by lower rates of pneumonia-induced mortality in adults. Infrequent pneumonia events restricted to adults were usually of short duration with low mortality. 3. Acute pneumonia-induced mortality in adults was concentrated in fall and early winter around the breeding season when rams are more mobile and the sexes commingle. In contrast, mortality restricted to lambs peaked in summer when ewes and lambs were concentrated in nursery groups. 4. We detected weak synchrony in adult pneumonia between adjacent populations, but found no evidence for landscape-scale extrinsic variables as drivers of disease. 5. We demonstrate that there was a >60% probability of a disease event each year following pneumonia invasion into bighorn sheep populations. Healthy years also occurred periodically, and understanding the factors driving these

  13. Modeling risk of pneumonia epizootics in bighorn sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sells, Sarah N.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Nowak, J. Joshua; Lukacs, Paul M.; Anderson, Neil J.; Ramsey, Jennifer M.; Gude, Justin A.; Krausman, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Pneumonia epizootics are a major challenge for management of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) affecting persistence of herds, satisfaction of stakeholders, and allocations of resources by management agencies. Risk factors associated with the disease are poorly understood, making pneumonia epizootics hard to predict; such epizootics are thus managed reactively rather than proactively. We developed a model for herds in Montana that identifies risk factors and addresses biological questions about risk. Using Bayesian logistic regression with repeated measures, we found that private land, weed control using domestic sheep or goats, pneumonia history, and herd density were positively associated with risk of pneumonia epizootics in 43 herds that experienced 22 epizootics out of 637 herd-years from 1979–2013. We defined an area of high risk for pathogen exposure as the area of each herd distribution plus a 14.5-km buffer from that boundary. Within this area, the odds of a pneumonia epizootic increased by >1.5 times per additional unit of private land (unit is the standardized % of private land where global  = 25.58% and SD = 14.53%). Odds were >3.3 times greater if domestic sheep or goats were used for weed control in a herd's area of high risk. If a herd or its neighbors within the area of high risk had a history of a pneumonia epizootic, odds of a subsequent pneumonia epizootic were >10 times greater. Risk greatly increased when herds were at high density, with nearly 15 times greater odds of a pneumonia epizootic compared to when herds were at low density. Odds of a pneumonia epizootic also appeared to decrease following increased spring precipitation (odds = 0.41 per unit increase, global  = 100.18% and SD = 26.97%). Risk was not associated with number of federal sheep and goat allotments, proximity to nearest herds of bighorn sheep, ratio of rams to ewes, percentage of average winter precipitation, or whether herds were of native versus mixed

  14. Spatio-temporal dynamics of pneumonia in bighorn sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassirer, E. Frances; Plowright, Raina K.; Manlove, Kezia R.; Cross, Paul C.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Potter, Kathleen A.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Bighorn sheep mortality related to pneumonia is a primary factor limiting population recovery across western North America, but management has been constrained by an incomplete understanding of the disease. We analysed patterns of pneumonia-caused mortality over 14 years in 16 interconnected bighorn sheep populations to gain insights into underlying disease processes. 2. We observed four age-structured classes of annual pneumonia mortality patterns: all-age, lamb-only, secondary all-age and adult-only. Although there was considerable variability within classes, overall they differed in persistence within and impact on populations. Years with pneumonia-induced mortality occurring simultaneously across age classes (i.e. all-age) appeared to be a consequence of pathogen invasion into a naïve population and resulted in immediate population declines. Subsequently, low recruitment due to frequent high mortality outbreaks in lambs, probably due to association with chronically infected ewes, posed a significant obstacle to population recovery. Secondary all-age events occurred in previously exposed populations when outbreaks in lambs were followed by lower rates of pneumonia-induced mortality in adults. Infrequent pneumonia events restricted to adults were usually of short duration with low mortality. 3. Acute pneumonia-induced mortality in adults was concentrated in fall and early winter around the breeding season when rams are more mobile and the sexes commingle. In contrast, mortality restricted to lambs peaked in summer when ewes and lambs were concentrated in nursery groups. 4. We detected weak synchrony in adult pneumonia between adjacent populations, but found no evidence for landscape-scale extrinsic variables as drivers of disease. 5. We demonstrate that there was a >60% probability of a disease event each year following pneumonia invasion into bighorn sheep populations. Healthy years also occurred periodically, and understanding the factors driving these

  15. Pneumonia aguda fibrinosa e organizante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Santos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O padrão histológico de Pneumonia Aguda Fibrinosa e Organizante (AFOP – Acute Fibrinous And Organizing Pneumonia, descrito por Beasley em 2002, caracteriza-se pela existência de fibrina intra-alveolar sob a forma de bolas de fibrina e pneumonia organizativa difusa. A apresentação clínica desta doença intersticial pulmonar pode ser aguda ou subaguda, diferindo no entanto dos outros padrões histológicos habitualmente associados a lesão pulmonar aguda – Lesão Alveolar Difusa (DAD, Pneumonia Organizativa (OP e Pneumonia Eosinofílica (EP.A propósito deste tema, os autores fazem uma revisão da literatura e descrevem o caso clínico de um doente de 44 anos, com aspectos imagiológicos e evolução pouco habituais. Abstract: The histologic pattern of Acute Fibrinous and Organizing Pneumonia (AFOP, described by Beasley in 2002, is characterized by the existence of intra alveolar fibrin in the form of fibrin “balls” and diffuse organizing pneumonia. Presenting symptoms of this interstitial pulmonary disease can be acute or subacute. However, it differs from the well-recognized histologic patterns of acute pulmonary lesion – Diffuse Alveolar Damage (DAD, Organizing Pneumonia (OP and Eosinophilic Pneumonia (EP.The authors carry out a review of the literature concerning this topic and describe the clinical case of a 44-year-old patient with unusual imaging features and outcome. Palavras-chave: AFOP, bolas de fibrina, pneumonia organizativa, Key-word: AFOP, fibrin balls, organizing pneumonia

  16. Pneumonia caused by Pittsburgh pneumonia agent: radiologic manifestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muder, R.R.; Reddy, S.C.; Yu, V.L.; Kroboth, F.J.

    1984-01-01

    Using an objective scoring system, chest radiographs were reviewed in 23 cases of pneumonia due to the Pittsburgh pneumonia agent (PPA, Tatlockia micdadei, Legionella micdadei), including six cases of pneumonia with simultaneous isolation of PPA and L pneumophila (Legionnaires' disease). Infiltrates were typically segmental to lobar; nodular infiltrates were noted in three cases. Spread to additional lobes after presentation occurred in four of 17 PPA infections. Pneumonia caused by both PPA and L pneumophila was unusually severe, with involvement of all lobes occurring in four of six cases, compared with one of 17 cases of PPA infection (p>0.02). Radiographic severity did not correlate with underlying disease, immune status, or outcome. The majority of patients receiving erythromycin demonstrated objective radiologic improvement. In a patients, population that included nonimmunosuppressed patient, nodule formation and rapid radiologic progression were not found to be characteristic of PPA pneumonia

  17. Obstructive pneumonia: an indication for surgery in mega aorta syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkat, Maninder S; Bonser, Robert S

    2003-04-01

    A 76-year-old woman with annuloaortic ectasia, aortic regurgitation, and aneurysmal dilatation extending from the root to mid descending aorta presented with symptoms of bronchial compression and obstructive pneumonitis. Despite vigorous antibiotic treatment and physiotherapy, the pneumonitis persisted with clinical and radiologic deterioration. An emergency operation was performed to relieve bronchial compression. The operation comprised homograft aortic root replacement with prosthetic replacement of the arch and descending aorta. Postoperatively the pneumonia rapidly resolved.

  18. Pneumoniae in immunocompromised patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, Volkmar; Lehnert, Thomas; Thalhammer, Axel

    2009-01-01

    Due to the large surface area, heat, high humidity and high oxygen supply in the lung makes an ideal environment for the propagation of germs. The purpose of the immune system is to establish and maintain the balance between saprophytes and immune defense so as to depress and ultimately kill germs as they infiltrate the body. This usually is achieved by the use of a highly complex immune system. It is a perfect combination of non-specific, cellular and humoral immune mechanisms with very specific immune cells and antibodies, which are specialized on particular pathogens. The specific defenses potentiate the effect of the nonspecific defense in a large extent so as to prevent re-infection and ultimately eliminate recognized pathogens. The causes of immune deficiency can be related to either the cellular or humoral level and affect both the specific and nonspecific defenses. There is a different excitation spectrum depending on the type of immune deficiency. Immune deficiency can prevalently cause complications in the course of infections, decelerate the healing and allow the occurrence of rare pathogens. In particular, the radiological characteristics of typical and atypical pneumonia in immunocompromised patients will be discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the appearance of bacterial infections, mycobacterioses, PCP, CMV, and laid fungual pneumonia. Even it is not possible to identify certain pathogens radiologically, it is often possible to narrow the spectrum of germs causing pulmonary infections significantly by comparing with other pulmonary complications such as lymphoma or kaposisarcomas. (orig.)

  19. Ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Michael Jan

    2005-05-01

    This review summarises some of the notable papers on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) from January 2003 to October 2004. Ventilator-associated pneumonia remains an important drain on hospital resources. All population groups are affected, but patients with VAP are more likely to be older, sicker, and male, with invasive medical devices in situ. Early VAP diagnosis is desirable to reduce VAP mortality and to retard emergence of multidrug-resistant microbes. This may be possible using preliminary culture results or intracellular organism in polymorphonuclear cells. In most intensive care units, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii are the commonest organisms isolated in VAP. However, causative organisms vary between and within hospitals. Consequently, individual intensive care units should develop empirical antibiotic policies to target the pathogenic bacteria prevalent in their patient populations. Preventative strategies aimed at reducing aerodigestive tract colonisation by pathogenic organisms, and also their subsequent aspiration, are becoming increasingly important. Educating medical staff about these simple measures is therefore pertinent. To reduce the occurrence of multidrug-resistant organisms, limiting the duration of antibiotic treatment to 8 days and antimicrobial rotation should be contemplated. Empirical therapy with antipseudomonal penicillins plus beta-lactamase inhibitors should be considered. If methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus VAP is a possibility, linezolid may be better than vancomycin. Prevention remains the key to reducing VAP prevalence.

  20. Comparison of the population excess fraction of Chlamydia trachomatis infection on pelvic inflammatory disease at 12-months in the presence and absence of chlamydia testing and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Bethan; Turner, Katy M. E.; Leung, Stella

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) control on the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is theoretically limited by the proportion of PID caused by chlamydia. We estimate the population excess fraction (PEF) of treated chlamydia infection on PID at 12-months......: The systematic review identified a single study, a randomised controlled trial of chlamydia screening (POPI-RCT). In the presence of testing and treatment PID at 12-months was attributable to treated (baseline) chlamydia infections (Manitoba: 8.86%(95%CI 7.15-10.75); Denmark: 3.84%(3.26-4.45); screened...... in settings with widespread chlamydia control (testing and treatment) and compare this to the estimated PEF of untreated chlamydia. METHODS: We used two large retrospective population-based cohorts of women of reproductive age from settings with widespread chlamydia control to calculate the PEF of treated...

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes and the Swedish New Variant among Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Niemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aims were to genotype Chlamydia trachomatis strains present in urogenital samples and to investigate the occurrence of the Swedish new variant of C. trachomatis in Finland. We genotyped 160 C. trachomatis positive samples with ompA real-time PCR and analyzed 495 samples for the new variant. The three most prevalent genotypes were E (40%, F (28%, and G (13%. Only two specimens containing bacteria with the variant plasmid were detected. It seems that in Finland the percentage of infections due to genotypes F and G has slightly increased during the last 20 years. Genotypes E and G appear to be more common, and genotypes J/Ja and I/Ia appear to be less common in Europe than in the USA. Although the genotype E was the most common genotype among C. trachomatis strains, the new variant was rarely found in Finland.

  2. Persistent Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between representation and the represented is examined here through the notion of persistent modelling. This notion is not novel to the activity of architectural design if it is considered as describing a continued active and iterative engagement with design concerns – an evident....... It also provides critical insight into the use of contemporary modelling tools and methods, together with an examination of the implications their use has within the territories of architectural design, realisation and experience....... on this subject, this book makes essential reading for anyone considering new ways of thinking about architecture. In drawing upon both historical and contemporary perspectives this book provides evidence of the ways in which relations between representation and the represented continue to be reconsidered...

  3. Persistent Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The relationship between representation and the represented is examined here through the notion of persistent modelling. This notion is not novel to the activity of architectural design if it is considered as describing a continued active and iterative engagement with design concerns – an evident....... It also provides critical insight into the use of contemporary modelling tools and methods, together with an examination of the implications their use has within the territories of architectural design, realisation and experience....... on this subject, this book makes essential reading for anyone considering new ways of thinking about architecture. In drawing upon both historical and contemporary perspectives this book provides evidence of the ways in which relations between representation and the represented continue to be reconsidered...

  4. Seroprevalence and genotype of Chlamydia in pet parrots in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N-Z; Zhang, X-X; Zhou, D-H; Huang, S-Y; Tian, W-P; Yang, Y-C; Zhao, Q; Zhu, X-Q

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are one of the most popular pet birds in China, and can harbour Chlamydia which has significance for human and animal health. We investigated, by indirect haemagglutination assay, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in four species of parrots, namely budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria) that were collected from Weifang and Beijing cities, North China and explored the association between potential risk factors and chlamydial seropositivity. We further determined the genotype of Chlamydia in 21 fresh faecal samples based on the ompA sequence by reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships. Of the 311 parrots examined, 35·37% (95% confidence interval 30·06-40·68) were seropositive, and species, gender, age, season and geographical location were identified as risk factors. Two PCR-positive samples represented Chlamydia psittaci genotype A. The occurrence of C. psittaci genotype A in the droppings of two pet parrots in China suggests potential environmental contamination with Chlamydiaceae and may raise a public health concern.

  5. Chlamydia Trachomatis IgG Antibodies Seroprevalence Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-31

    % for males and females respectively), while in the same state, Anaghalu (2006) among a seroprevalence rate of 23.8% for males and 28.0% for females among infertile couples. Chlamydia is known as the “silent epidemic” ...

  6. Primary endosymbiosis: have cyanobacteria and Chlamydiae ever been roommates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Deschamps

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotes acquired the ability to process photosynthesis by engulfing a cyanobacterium and transforming it into a genuine organelle called the plastid. This event, named primary endosymbiosis, occurred once more than a billion years ago, and allowed the emergence of the Archaeplastida, a monophyletic supergroup comprising the green algae and plants, the red algae and the glaucophytes. Of the other known cases of symbiosis between cyanobacteria and eukaryotes, none has achieved a comparable level of cell integration nor reached the same evolutionary and ecological success than primary endosymbiosis did. Reasons for this unique accomplishment are still unknown and difficult to comprehend. The exploration of plant genomes has revealed a considerable amount of genes closely related to homologs of Chlamydiae bacteria, and probably acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Several studies have proposed that these transferred genes, which are mostly involved in the functioning of the plastid, may have helped the settlement of primary endosymbiosis. Some of these studies propose that Chlamydiae and cyanobacterial symbionts coexisted in the eukaryotic host of the primary endosymbiosis, and that Chlamydiae provided solutions for the metabolic symbiosis between the cyanobacterium and the host, ensuring the success of primary endosymbiosis. In this review, I present a reevaluation of the contribution of Chlamydiae genes to the genome of Archaeplastida and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of this tripartite model for primary endosymbiosis.

  7. Molecular detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Herrmann, B; Jensen, K.T.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter highlights the use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for the molecular diagnosis of gonorrhoea and chlamydia infection. In addition, good laboratory practice and issues that should be considered before and after implementation of NAATs for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae...

  8. Forekomst af Chlamydia trachomatis hos værnepligtige

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, P; Møller, B R; Thorsen, Poul

    1996-01-01

    among Chlamydia positive men was 6. The frequency of earlier VD was 7.5% and 10% among men and women, respectively. Treatment with tetracycline was effective, which makes control of eradication unnecessary. We conclude that genital chlamydial infection among young asymptomatic people is common...

  9. Chlamydia control in Europe - a survey of Member States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Berit; van Bergen, J; Ward, H

    ), contributed to the design and interpretation of the survey, commented on the draft report and approved the final report. Shelagh Redmond (Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland) provided technical support. Nicola Low (University of Bern) led the Chlamydia Control...

  10. Use of polymerase chain reaction for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1990-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA. From the published sequence of the common C. trachomatis plasmid, two primer sets were selected. Detection of amplified sequences was done by agarose gel electrophoresis of cleaved or uncleaved...

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtinen, Matti; Ault, Kevin A; Lyytikainen, Erika

    2011-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the primary cause of cervical cancer. As Chlamydia trachomatis is also linked to cervical cancer, its role as a potential co-factor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher was examined....

  12. Association of Chlamydia serology with HIV in Nigerian women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For an infection that is largely asymptomatic but has devastating effects on populations, only a preventive approach would have beneficial effects in controlling the disease and its effects on women's health in the country. Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, HIV, pregnant women, gynaecologic patients, co-infection ...

  13. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted diseases that is not of viral origin and there is accumulating evidence of a significant role played by this pathogen in causing male factor infertility. This study thus aimed to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis among infertile males and to ...

  14. Association of anti-Chlamydia antibodies with ectopic pregnancy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ectopic pregnancy remains a major public health problem especially in many developing countries where it is a significant contributor to pregnancy related morbidity and mortality. Objective: To determine the association between prior Chlamydia trachomatis infection and the risk of ectopic pregnancy. Methods: ...

  15. Chlamydiae in the ejaculate: their influence on the quality and morphology of sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veznik, Zdenek; Pospisil, Leopold; Svecova, Drahomira; Zajicova, Atanaska; Unzeitig, Vit

    2004-07-01

    Given the lack of information concerning the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in male fertility, the aim of this study was to ascertain and analyze the quality of Chlamydiae-positive and -negative semen. Sperm count was performed according to the 1999 World Health Organization (WHO) laboratory manual for examination of human semen and sperm-cervical mucus interaction, and sperm survival was assessed by a 120-min test. The evaluation of the morphological examination of ejaculates was carried out using the sasmo (strict morphological analysis of ejaculates) computer program. Chlamydiae were detected by immunofluorescent reaction using the Progen Biotechnik GmbH diagnostic set. Fisher's exact test and the chi-quadrate test were used for statistical analysis. Of the total of 627 sperm samples examined, Chlamydiae were detected in 136 cases (21.7%). Sperm analysis showed significant differences between Chlamydiae-positive and -negative samples. The Chlamydiae-contaminated group showed normal sperm morphology 14.4% lower, volume 6.4% lower, concentration 8.3% lower, motility 7.8% and velocity 9.3% lower than in Chlamydiae-negative samples. The average values for normal spermatozoa and motility in the Chlamydiae-positive group were also significantly reduced. Chlamydia trachomatis was found to be a possible factor in sperm pathology. These results could help to elucidate the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in male infertility.

  16. Radiographic features of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia: differential diagnosis and performance timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Naoyuki; Sugiu, Tadaaki; Kawai, Yasuhiro; Oda, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Tetsuya; Ouchi, Kazunobu; Kobashi, Yoshihiro; Oka, Mikio

    2009-01-01

    The Japanese Respiratory Society guidelines propose a differential diagnosis for atypical pneumonia and bacterial pneumonia using a scoring system for the selection of appropriate antibiotic. In order to improve this scoring system, the guidelines are seeking new specific parameter. The purpose of this study was to clarify the pattern of abnormalities with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia on chest computed tomography (CT) and whether the radiographic findings could distinguish M. pneumoniae pneumonia from Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. A retrospective review was performed of the CT findings of 64 cases and 68 cases where M. pneumoniae and S. pneumoniae, respectively, were the only pathogen identified by the panel of diagnostic tests used. Of the 64 patients with M. pneumoniae pneumonia, bronchial wall thickening was observed most frequently (81%), followed by centrilobular nodules (78%), ground-glass attenuation (78%), and consolidation (61%). Bronchial wall thickening and centrilobular nodules were observed more often in M. pneumoniae patients than in S. pneumoniae patients (p < 0.0001). The presence of bilateral bronchial wall thickening or centrilobular nodules was only seen in patients with M. pneumoniae pneumonia. Using the scoring system of the Japanese Respiratory Society guidelines and chest CT findings, 97% of M. pneumoniae patients were suspected to be M. pneumoniae pneumonia without serology. When comparing the CT findings between early stage and progressed stage in the same patients with severe pneumonia, the radiographic features of early stage M. pneumoniae pneumonia were not observed clearly in the progressed stage. The present results indicate that the diagnosis of M. pneumoniae pneumonia would appear to be reliable when found with a combination of bronchial wall thickening and centrilobular nodules in the CT findings. However, these CT findings are not observed in progressed severe M. pneumoniae pneumonia patients

  17. Organising pneumonia in common variable immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujaoude, Ziad; Arya, Rohan; Rafferty, William; Dammert, Pedro

    2013-06-07

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common of the primary immunodeficiency disorders. Pulmonary manifestations are characterised by recurrent rhinosinusitis, respiratory tract infections and bronchiectasis. Less commonly the lung may be affected by lymphoid disorders and sarcoid-like granulomas. Organising pneumonia (OP) is a rare pulmonary manifestation. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman with CVID who presented with fever, dyspnoea and persistent lung infiltrates despite antibiotic therapy. CT of the chest showed bilateral patchy alveolar infiltrates. Pulmonary function tests revealed moderate restriction and reduction in diffusion capacity. Initial bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsies did not yield a diagnosis but surgical lung biopsies identified OP. Significant clinical, radiographic and physiological improvement was achieved after institution of corticosteroid therapy.

  18. [Ventilator associated pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellani, S; Nesci, M; Celotto, S; Lampati, L; Lucchini, A

    2003-04-01

    Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is a nosocomial lower respiratory tract infection that ensues in critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. The reported incidence of VAP varies between 9% and 68% with a mortality ranging between 33% and 71%. Two key factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of VAP: bacterial colonization of the upper digestive-respiratory tract and aspiration of oral secretions into the trachea. Preventive measurements are advocated to reduce the incidence of VAP, such as selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD), supraglottic aspiration and positioning. Prompt recognition and treatment of established VAP has also been demostrated to affect outcome. Therefore, the knowledge of risk factors associated with the development of VAP and the implementation of strategies to prevent, diagnose and treat VAP are mainstems in the nursing of mechanically ventilated patients.

  19. A case of chemical pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Woo; Eun, Choung Ki; Choi, Byung Soo; Park, Soo Sung [Chungang University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    A case of chemical pneumonia due to the fumes of nitric acid and chemical compounds was encountered, and it is reported with a review of the literatures. A 19 year old Korean male working in an electric materials manufacturing factory of poor facilities dealing with chemical compounds showed initial symptoms closely similar to those of pulmonary tuberculosis of hematogenous disseminating type, and a roentgenogram was hardly helpful for differentiating chemical pneumonia from pulmonary tuberculous of hematogenous disseminating type. The clinical course in this case was very favourable as compared with those of pulmonary tuberculosis and bacterial pneumonia.

  20. A case of chemical pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Woo; Eun, Choung Ki; Choi, Byung Soo; Park, Soo Sung

    1974-01-01

    A case of chemical pneumonia due to the fumes of nitric acid and chemical compounds was encountered, and it is reported with a review of the literatures. A 19 year old Korean male working in an electric materials manufacturing factory of poor facilities dealing with chemical compounds showed initial symptoms closely similar to those of pulmonary tuberculosis of hematogenous disseminating type, and a roentgenogram was hardly helpful for differentiating chemical pneumonia from pulmonary tuberculous of hematogenous disseminating type. The clinical course in this case was very favourable as compared with those of pulmonary tuberculosis and bacterial pneumonia

  1. Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nicola

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression and self-esteem. Methods 19,773 men and women aged 16 to 39 years, selected at random from 27 general practices in two large city areas (Bristol and Birmingham were invited by post to send home-collected urine samples or vulvo-vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. Questionnaires enquiring about anxiety, depression and self-esteem were sent to random samples of those offered screening: one month before the dispatch of invitations; when participants returned samples; and after receiving a negative result. Results Home screening was associated with an overall reduction in anxiety scores. An invitation to participate did not increase anxiety levels. Anxiety scores in men were lower after receiving the invitation than at baseline. Amongst women anxiety was reduced after receipt of negative test results. Neither depression nor self-esteem scores were affected by screening. Conclusion Postal screening for chlamydia does not appear to have a negative impact on overall psychological well-being and can lead to a decrease in anxiety levels among respondents. There is, however, a clear difference between men and women in when this reduction occurs.

  2. Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rona; Mills, Nicola; Sanford, Emma; Graham, Anna; Low, Nicola; Peters, Tim J

    2006-04-25

    The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression and self-esteem. 19,773 men and women aged 16 to 39 years, selected at random from 27 general practices in two large city areas (Bristol and Birmingham) were invited by post to send home-collected urine samples or vulvo-vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. Questionnaires enquiring about anxiety, depression and self-esteem were sent to random samples of those offered screening: one month before the dispatch of invitations; when participants returned samples; and after receiving a negative result. Home screening was associated with an overall reduction in anxiety scores. An invitation to participate did not increase anxiety levels. Anxiety scores in men were lower after receiving the invitation than at baseline. Amongst women anxiety was reduced after receipt of negative test results. Neither depression nor self-esteem scores were affected by screening. Postal screening for chlamydia does not appear to have a negative impact on overall psychological well-being and can lead to a decrease in anxiety levels among respondents. There is, however, a clear difference between men and women in when this reduction occurs.

  3. Influence of the tryptophan-indole-IFNγ axis on human genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection: role of vaginal co-infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiyar, Ashok; Quayle, Alison J; Buckner, Lyndsey R; Sherchand, Shardulendra P; Chang, Theresa L; Zea, Arnold H; Martin, David H; Belland, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    The natural history of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections can vary widely; infections can spontaneously resolve but can also last from months to years, potentially progressing to cause significant pathology. The host and bacterial factors underlying this wide variation are not completely understood, but emphasize the bacterium's capacity to evade/adapt to the genital immune response, and/or exploit local environmental conditions to survive this immune response. IFNγ is considered to be a primary host protective cytokine against endocervical C. trachomatis infections. IFNγ acts by inducing the host enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxgenase, which catabolizes tryptophan, thereby depriving the bacterium of this essential amino acid. In vitro studies have revealed that tryptophan deprivation causes Chlamydia to enter a viable but non-infectious growth pattern that is termed a persistent growth form, characterized by a unique morphology and gene expression pattern. Provision of tryptophan can reactivate the bacterium to the normal developmental cycle. There is a significant difference in the capacity of ocular and genital C. trachomatis serovars to counter tryptophan deprivation. The latter uniquely encode a functional tryptophan synthase to synthesize tryptophan via indole salvage, should indole be available in the infection microenvironment. In vitro studies have confirmed the capacity of indole to mitigate the effects of IFNγ; it has been suggested that a perturbed vaginal microbiome may provide a source of indole in vivo. Consistent with this hypothesis, the microbiome associated with bacterial vaginosis includes species that encode a tryptophanase to produce indole. In this review, we discuss the natural history of genital chlamydial infections, morphological and molecular changes imposed by IFNγ on Chlamydia, and finally, the microenvironmental conditions associated with vaginal co-infections that can ameliorate the effects of IFNγ on C. trachomatis.

  4. Influence of the tryptophan-indole-IFNγ axis on human genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection: role of vaginal co-infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok eAiyar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The natural history of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections can vary widely; infections can spontaneously resolve but can also last from months to years, potentially progressing to cause significant pathology. The host and bacterial factors underlying this wide variation are not completely understood, but emphasize the bacterium’s capacity to evade/adapt to the genital immune response, and/or exploit local environmental conditions to survive this immune response. IFNγ is considered to be a primary host protective cytokine against endocervical C. trachomatis infections. IFNγ acts by inducing the host enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, which catabolizes tryptophan, thereby depriving the bacterium of this essential amino acid. In vitro studies have revealed that tryptophan deprivation causes Chlamydia to enter a viable but non-infectious growth pattern that is termed a persistent growth form, characterized by a unique morphology and gene expression pattern. Provision of tryptophan can reactivate the bacterium to the normal developmental cycle. There is a significant difference in the capacity of ocular and genital C. trachomatis serovars to counter tryptophan deprivation. The latter uniquely encode a functional tryptophan synthase to synthesize tryptophan via indole salvage, should indole be available in the infection microenvironment. In vitro studies have confirmed the capacity of indole to mitigate the effects of IFNγ; it has been suggested that a perturbed vaginal microbiome may provide a source of indole in vivo. Consistent with this hypothesis, the microbiome associated with bacterial vaginosis includes species that encode a tryptophanase to produce indole. In this review, we discuss the natural history of genital chlamydial infections, morphological and molecular changes imposed by IFNγ on Chlamydia, and finally, the microenvironmental conditions associated with vaginal co-infections that can ameliorate the effects of IFNγ on C

  5. Chlamydiaceae and Chlamydia-like organisms in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus)--organ distribution and histopathological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burach, Fabienne; Pospischil, Andreas; Hanger, Jon; Loader, Jo; Pillonel, Trestan; Greub, Gilbert; Borel, Nicole

    2014-08-06

    Chlamydial infections in koalas can cause life-threatening diseases leading to blindness and sterility. However, little is known about the systemic spread of chlamydiae in the inner organs of the koala, and data concerning related pathological organ lesions are limited. The aim of this study was to perform a thorough investigation of organs from 23 koalas and to correlate their histopathological lesions to molecular chlamydial detection. To reach this goal, 246 formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded organ samples from 23 koalas were investigated by histopathology, Chlamydiaceae real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, ArrayTube Microarray for Chlamydiaceae species identification as well as Chlamydiales real-time PCR and sequencing. By PCR, two koalas were positive for Chlamydia pecorum whereas immunohistochemical labelling for Chlamydiaceae was detected in 10 tissues out of nine koalas. The majority of these (n=6) had positive labelling in the urogenital tract related to histopathological lesions such as cystitis, endometritis, pyelonephritis and prostatitis. Somehow unexpected was the positive labelling in the gastrointestinal tract including the cloaca as well as in lung and spleen indicating systemic spread of infection. Uncultured Chlamydiales were detected in several organs of seven koalas by PCR, and four of these suffered from plasmacytic enteritis of unknown aetiology. Whether the finding of Chlamydia-like organisms in the gastrointestinal tract is linked to plasmacytic enteritis is unclear and remains speculative. However, as recently shown in a mouse model, the gastrointestinal tract might play a role being the site for persistent chlamydial infections and being a source for reinfection of the genital tract. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae in children with or without radiologically confirmed pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafne C. Andrade

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Among children with clinical diagnosis of community‐acquired pneumonia submitted to chest radiograph, those with radiologically confirmed pneumonia present a higher rate of infection by S. pneumoniae when compared with those with a normal chest radiograph.

  7. Red Blood Cell Transfusions Impact Pneumonia Rates After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likosky, Donald S.; Paone, Gaetano; Zhang, Min; Rogers, Mary A.M.; Harrington, Steven D.; Theurer, Patricia F.; DeLucia, Alphonse; Fishstrom, Astrid; Camaj, Anton; Prager, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pneumonia, a known complication of coronary artery bypass (CABG) surgery, significantly increases a patient’s risk of morbidity and mortality. While not well characterized, red blood cell transfusions (RBC) may increase a patient’s risk of pneumonia. We describe the relationship between RBC transfusion and post-operative pneumonia after CABG surgery. Methods A total of 16,182 consecutive patients underwent isolated CABG surgery between 2011 and 2013 at one of 33 hospitals in the state of Michigan. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the odds of pneumonia associated with the use or number (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, >6) of RBC units. We adjusted for predicted risk of mortality, pre-operative hematocrit, history of pneumonia, cardiopulmonary bypass duration and medical center. We confirmed the strength and direction of these relationships among selected clinical subgroups in a secondary analysis. Results 576 (3.6%) patients developed pneumonia and 6,451 (39.9%) received RBC transfusions. There was a significant association between any RBC transfusion and pneumonia (ORadj 3.4, p<0.001). There was a dose-response between number of units and odds of pneumonia, ptrend<0.001. Patients receiving only 2 units of RBCs had twofold (ORadj 2.1, p<0.001) increased odds of pneumonia. These findings were consistent across clinical subgroups. Conclusions We found a significant, volume-dependent association between an increasing number of RBCs and odds of pneumonia, which persisted after adjusting for pre-operative patient characteristics. Clinical teams should explore opportunities for preventing a patient’s risk of RBC transfusions, including reducing hemodilution or adopting a lower transfusion threshold in a stable patient. PMID:26209489

  8. CNS Complications of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of acute central nervous system disease occurring subsequent to infection with M pneumoniae are reported from University College, Institute of Child Health, and Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK.

  9. Radiological alterations in tularemic pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simay, A.; Muennich, D.

    1980-01-01

    Pneumonia of tularemic origin exhibited the following radiological symptoms: confluent oval shaped infiltrations in the lungs, enlarged lymph nodes in the hilus, and in 50-70% of the cases accumulation of intrapleural fluid. (L.E.)

  10. Acquired pneumonia in the community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo Rodriguez, Hugo Alberto

    2002-01-01

    The pneumonia is an inflammatory process unchained by a pathogen that affects bronchioles, alveoli and interstice causing exudative consolidation and alteration in the gassy exchange. The paper includes epidemiology, physiopathology, etiology and factors of risk among other topics

  11. Evaluation of the Kodak Surecell Chlamydia test for the laboratory diagnosis of adult inclusion conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantisira, J G; Kowalski, R P; Gordon, Y J

    1995-07-01

    The Kodak Surecell Chlamydia test, a rapid enzyme immunoassay, has been reported to be highly sensitive (93%) and specific (96%) for detecting chlamydial lipopolysaccharide antigen in conjunctival specimens from infants, but has not been evaluated previously in adult conjunctival specimens. This study was designed to determine the efficacy of the Kodak Surecell Chlamydia test for the laboratory diagnosis of adult inclusion conjunctivitis. Twenty Chlamydia culture-positive conjunctival specimens from adults (true-positives) and 20 true-negative specimens were tested with the Kodak Surecell Chlamydia test. The Kodak Surecell Chlamydia test was 40% (8/20) sensitive, 100% (20/20) specific, and 70% (28/40) efficient. This study indicates that the Kodak Surecell Chlamydia test, though highly specific, is less sensitive in its ability to diagnose chlamydial conjunctivitis in adults than has been reported previously in infants.

  12. Changes in chlamydia control activities in Europe between 2007 and 2012: A cross-national survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Broek, I; Andersen, Berit; Herrmann, B

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2012, the levels of chlamydia control activities including primary prevention, effective case management with partner management and surveillance were assessed in 2012 across countries in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA), on initiative of the European Centre...... indicators of chlamydia prevention and control activities; countries were assigned to one of five categories of chlamydia control. Results: In 2012, more countries than in 2007 reported availability of national chlamydia case management guidelines (80% vs. 68%), opportunistic chlamydia testing (68% vs. 44......%) and consistent use of nucleic acid amplification tests (64% vs. 36%). The number of countries reporting having a national sexually transmitted infection control strategy or a surveillance system for chlamydia did not change notably. In 2012, most countries (18/25, 72%) had implemented primary prevention...

  13. Seroepidemiologic survey for Chlamydia suis in wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Antonietta; Donati, Manuela; Morandi, Federico; Renzi, Maria; Masia, Marco Antonio; Ostanello, Fabio; Salvatore, Daniela; Cevenini, Roberto; Baldelli, Raffaella

    2011-07-01

    We used serology to estimate the prevalence of exposure to chlamydiae in Italian populations of wild boars (Sus scrofa). Sera from 173 hunter-killed wild boars harvested during the 2006-2009 hunting seasons in three Italian regions were tested for antibodies to Chlamydia suis, Chlamydophila pecorum, Chlamydophila abortus, and Chlamydophila psittaci by the microimmunofluorescence test. Antibody titers to chlamydiae ≥ 1:32 were detected in 110 of the 173 samples tested (63.6%). Specific reactivity could be assessed only in 44 sera with antibody titers to C. suis that were two- to threefold higher than antibody titers against the other chlamydial species; the other 66 sera had similar reactivity against all the chlamydia species tested. Antibody to C. suis was detected in sera from wild boar populations with rare or no known contact with domestic pigs. These results suggest that the wild boar could be a chlamydia reservoir and may acquire chlamydiae independent of contacts with the domestic pig.

  14. Changes in the Structure of the Chromosomes of Lymphocytes during Persistent Infection in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Sevryukova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with chronic diseases of respiratory tract were investigated for IgM and IgG serum antibodies to viruses (Herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr virus, Cytomegalovirus and bacteria (Chlamydia trachomatis + pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumonia by ELISA and for telomere length of their lymphocytes by fluorescent hybridization in situ followed by flow cytomerty (FlowFISH. The purpose of the study was to compare the lymphocyte telomere length of these seropositive and seronegative children. Regression analysis and analysis of percent distribution relative to the regression line have compensated age differences between seropositive and seronegative groops and demonstrated shorter telomeres in lymphocytes of children those have serum antibodies to viruses in all combinations (including combinations with antibodies to bacteria in contrast to seronegative children of the same age.

  15. Pneumonia in the immunocompetent patient

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, J H; Mcdonald, G; Alton, H; Gordon, S B

    2010-01-01

    Pneumonia is an acute inflammation of the lower respiratory tract. Lower respiratory tract infection is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Pneumonia is most common at the extremes of life. Predisposing factors in children include an under-developed immune system together with other factors, such as malnutrition and over-crowding. In adults, tobacco smoking is the single most important preventable risk factor. The commonest infecting organisms in children are respiratory viruses and Strepto...

  16. Chlamydia prevalence in the general population: is there a sex difference? a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Dielissen, Patrick W; Teunissen, Doreth AM; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine LM

    2013-01-01

    Background The focus of Chlamydia trachomatis screening and testing lies more on women than on men. The study aim was to establish by systematic review the prevalence of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men and women in the general population. Methods Electronic databases and reference lists were searched from 2000 to 2013 using the key words “Chlamydia trachomatis”, “population-based study” and “disease prevalence”. Reference lists were checked. Studies were included in the anal...

  17. Risk factors for the development of pneumonia in acute psychotropic drugs poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Slavica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Pneumonia is the most frequent complication in acute psychotropic drugs poisoning, which results in substantial morbidity and mortality, but which also increases the costs of treatment. Risk factors for pneumonia are numerous: age, sex, place of the appearance of pneumonia, severity of underlying disease, airway instrumentation (intubation, reintubation, etc. The incidence of pneumonia varies in poisoning caused by the various groups of drugs. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for pneumonia in the patients with acute psychotropic drugs poisoning. Methods. A group of 782 patients, out of which 614 (78.5% with psychotropic and 168 (21.5% nonpsychotropic drug poisoning were analyzed prospectively during a two-year period. The diagnosis of pneumonia was made according to: clinical presentation, new and persistent pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiography, positive nonspecific parameters of inflammation, and the microbiological confirmation of causative microorganisms. To analyze predisposing risk factors for pneumonia, the following variables were recorded: sex, age, underlying diseases, endotracheal intubation, coma, severity of poisoning with different drugs, histamine H2 blockers, corticosteroids, mechanical ventilation, central venous catheter. The univariate analysis for pneumonia risk factors in all patients, and for each group separately was done. The multivariate analysis was performed using the logistic regression technique. Results. Pneumonia was found in 94 (12.02% of the patients, 86 of which (91.5% in psychotropic and 8 (8.5% in nonpsychotropic drug poisoning. In the psychotropic drug group, pneumonia was the most frequent in antidepressant (47%, and the rarest in benzodiazepine poisoning (3.8%. A statistically significant incidence of pneumonia was found in the patients with acute antidpressant poisoning (p < 0.001. Univariate analysis showed statistical significance for the

  18. Importancia clínica de las Chlamydias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digna Llorente Molina

    Full Text Available Introducción: las infecciones por Chlamydia han alcanzado alta incidencia en el mundo. Constituyen importantes patógenos para los animales y el hombre. En la especie humana pueden ocasionar múltiples infecciones en diferentes órganos y sistemas de órganos. Objetivo: resumir los aspectos más novedosos relacionados con las Chlamydias en cuanto a sus características y formas de evitarla. Métodos: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sobre la importancia clínica de las Chlamydias en la especie humana y su elevada incidencia. Se consultó la base de datos Medline disponible en INFOMED, de donde se extrajeron referencias bibliográficas entre los años 1995 y 2011, acerca de algunos aspectos etiológicos, clínicos, diagnósticos y terapéuticos de acuerdo a los últimos apuntes más relevantes en la literatura médica sobre Chlamydias y su relación con el hombre. Resultados: la Chlamydia Trachomatis en particular responsable del tracoma, primera causa de ceguera prevenible, provoca un impacto deletéreo en la salud reproductiva, produciendo entidades como abortos espontáneos, rotura prematura de membranas, restricción del crecimiento intrauterino, endometritis, conjuntivitis y neumonía del recién nacido. Es responsable además de Linfogranuloma Venéreo, Uretritis no Gonocóccica, Síndrome de Reiter, Enfermedad Inflamatoria Pélvica, Síndrome de Fitz Hugh Curtis, Embarazo Ectópico Crónico, Dolor Pélvico Crónico y más recientemente Carcinoma Cervical, entre otras. Conclusiones: partiendo de la base del impacto social y económico que tiene la infección por Chlamydias en el mundo y en nuestro país, pudimos resumir los aspectos más novedosos en cuanto a los tipos, infecciones que causan y sus características, diagnóstico, terapéutica y medidas generales para evitarlas o reducir su impacto negativo en la sociedad.

  19. Is there a relationship between Parkinson's disease and Chlamydia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The control group was selected from healthy people. In both groups, 5 mL of blood was taken and after centrifugation frozen at –80°C. Presence and concentration for C. pneumoniae IgM and IgG were determined by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescence (IFA), using C. pneumoniae IgG ...

  20. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoting Ni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA. The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.88% in total of 800 blood samples. The Chlamydia seroprevalence varied in domestic rabbits from different factors, and genders of domestic rabbits were considered as major risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in northeast China, with higher exposure risk in female domestic rabbits. These findings suggested the potential importance of domestic rabbits in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing rabbit diseases. To our knowledge, there is no report of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in China and the results extend the host range for Chlamydia, which has important implications for public health and the local economy.

  1. The roentgenological study of measles pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, U.; Song, C. H.; Lee, H. Y.; Chung, H. K.; Joo, K. B.

    1983-01-01

    Measles is important infectious disease of pediatrics and pneumonia is the most commonest complication of measles. We have experienced 20 cases of pneumonia among 31 cases of measles in infant nursing home of Chae Chun during of December. 1981. The results a are as follows; 1. The incidence of measles pneumonia is 64.5%. 2. The patterns of pneumonic infiltration is : The pneumonia may have a bronchopneumonia (60%), Lobar pneumonia (15%), or combined form (35%). 3. Both lungs are involved by measles pneumonia: Right lung only (30%), Left lung only (5%), or Bilateral (65%). 4. Hilar lymphadenopathy (51.6%). Hilar lymphadenopathy with pneumonia (82.2%) and hilar lymphadenopathy without pneumonia (17.8%). 5. There is no pulmonary nodule which is noted frequently in atypical measles pneumonia as a seguale

  2. Increasing chlamydia screening tests in general practice: a modified Zelen prospective Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial evaluating a complex intervention based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Cliodna A M; Hogan, Angela H; Ricketts, Ellie J; Wallace, Louise; Oliver, Isabel; Campbell, Rona; Kalwij, Sebastian; O'Connell, Elaine; Charlett, Andre

    2014-05-01

    To determine if a structured complex intervention increases opportunistic chlamydia screening testing of patients aged 15-24 years attending English general practitioner (GP) practices. A prospective, Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial with a modified Zelen design involving 160 practices in South West England in 2010. The intervention was based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). It comprised of practice-based education with up to two additional contacts to increase the importance of screening to GP staff and their confidence to offer tests through skill development (including videos). Practical resources (targets, posters, invitation cards, computer reminders, newsletters including feedback) aimed to actively influence social cognitions of staff, increasing their testing intention. Data from 76 intervention and 81 control practices were analysed. In intervention practices, chlamydia screening test rates were 2.43/100 15-24-year-olds registered preintervention, 4.34 during intervention and 3.46 postintervention; controls testing rates were 2.61/100 registered patients prior intervention, 3.0 during intervention and 2.82 postintervention. During the intervention period, testing in intervention practices was 1.76 times as great (CI 1.24 to 2.48) as controls; this persisted for 9 months postintervention (1.57 times as great, CI 1.27 to 2.30). Chlamydia infections detected increased in intervention practices from 2.1/1000 registered 15-24-year-olds prior intervention to 2.5 during the intervention compared with 2.0 and 2.3/1000 in controls (Estimated Rate Ratio intervention versus controls 1.4 (CI 1.01 to 1.93). This complex intervention doubled chlamydia screening tests in fully engaged practices. The modified Zelen design gave realistic measures of practice full engagement (63%) and efficacy of this educational intervention in general practice; it should be used more often. The trial was registered on the UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio database

  3. Atopy: a risk factor of refractory mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yi-Xiao; Li, Jing; Tian, Ye; Liu, Quang-Hua; Bao, Jun

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the relationship of pathogen DNA copies with clinic and laboratory features among children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) pneumonia. A total of 95 enrolled children with MP pneumonia were assigned into the high-MP-load group (>10 6 /mL) and the low-MP-load group (≤10 6 /mL) according to MP-DNA copies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Clinical characteristics and any allergy history were collected. Aeroallergens and food allergens were detected with a skin test. Serum IgE and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) were assessed using enzyme immunoassay. BALF levels of IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-8 and TNF-α were assessed by ELISA. Compared with the low-MP-load group, 72.7% in the high-MP-load group developed refractory MP pneumonia who failed to respond to at least 1-week treatment with macrolides (72.7% vs 41.9%, P = 0.005). More children in the high-load group than those in the low-load group presented with extrapulmonary manifestations, lung consolidation, pleural effusion and atopic conditions including any allergy history, positive findings of aeroallergen test and increased serum IgE and ECP (P  0.05). Atopy may be a risk factor for the presence and severity of refractory MP pneumonia due to the high pathogen load in airway. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis Serology in Women with and without Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta B. Ness

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic inflammation has been implicated in the genesis of ovarian cancer. We conducted serologic measurements of Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies as a surrogate marker of chlamydial pelvic inflammatory disease. Women with ovarian cancer (n=521 and population-based controls (n=766 were tested. IgG antibodies to serovar D of chlamydia elementary bodies (EBs were detected using an ELISA assay. The odds of having ovarian cancer among women with the highest titers (≥0.40 OD units were 0.6 (95% CI 0.4–0.9. These data do not support our earlier finding of elevated titers for antibodies to C. trachomatis among women with ovarian cancer.

  5. Considerations for the rational design of a Chlamydia vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Steven; Bulir, David; Kaushic, Charu; Mahony, James

    2017-04-03

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of preventable blindness and the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection. Remarkable progress in vaccine research over the past six decades has led to the advancement of novel C. trachomatis vaccine candidates into clinical trials. However, many questions regarding the role of specific cellular populations and molecular mechanisms in protective immunity against human C. trachomatis genital tract infections remain unanswered. Biomarkers of vaccine induced protective immunity are elusive in humans, while a cautionary message on the translatability of data obtained from current animal models has emanated from vaccine research and development efforts against other important human pathogens. In this commentary, we highlight recent advances in Chlamydia vaccine development and discuss their implications in the context of a rational approach to the design of a human C. trachomatis vaccine.

  6. Considerations for the rational design of a Chlamydia vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Steven; Bulir, David; Kaushic, Charu; Mahony, James

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of preventable blindness and the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection. Remarkable progress in vaccine research over the past six?decades has led to the advancement of novel C. trachomatis vaccine candidates into clinical trials. However, many questions regarding the role of specific cellular populations and molecular mechanisms in protective immunity against human C. trachomatis genital tract infections remain unanswered. Bio...

  7. Chlamydia pecorum: fetal and placental lesions in sporadic caprine abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitti, Federico; Anderson, Mark; Miller, Myrna; Rowe, Joan; Sverlow, Karen; Vasquez, Marce; Cantón, Germán

    2016-03-01

    Chlamydial abortion in small ruminants is usually associated with Chlamydia abortus infection. Although Chlamydia pecorum has been detected in aborted ruminants and epidemiological data suggests that C. pecorum is abortigenic in these species, published descriptions of lesions in fetuses are lacking. This work describes fetoplacental lesions in a caprine abortion with C. pecorum infection, and further supports the abortigenic role of C. pecorum in ruminants. A 16-month-old Boer goat aborted twin fetuses at ~130 days of gestation. Both fetuses (A and B) and the placenta of fetus A were submitted for postmortem examination and diagnostic workup. At autopsy, the fetuses had moderate anasarca, intermuscular edema in the hindquarters (A), and brachygnathia and palatoschisis (B). In the placenta, the cotyledons were covered by yellow fibrinosuppurative exudate that extended into the adjacent intercotyledonary areas. Histologically, there was severe suppurative and necrotizing placentitis with vasculitis (arteriolitis) and thrombosis, multifocal lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic hepatitis (A), and fibrinosuppurative enteritis in both fetuses. Chlamydia antigen was detected in the placenta by the direct fluorescent antibody test and in fetal intestines by immunohistochemistry. Nested polymerase chain reaction of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of placenta and intestine amplified 400 bp of the Chlamydia 16S rRNA gene that was sequenced and found to be 99% identical to C. pecorum by BLAST analysis. Other known abortigenic infectious agents were ruled out by specific testing. It is concluded that C. pecorum infection is associated with fetoplacental lesions and sporadic abortion in goats. © 2015 The Author(s).

  8. Independent radiographic prognostic factors in patients with hospital-treated community-acquired pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, K.; Textor, J.; Schild, H.; Ewig, S.; Luederitz, B.; Krollmann, G.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the independent prognostic impact of the chest radiograph for mortality from community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization. Methods: Chest radiographs of 67 patients with hospital-treated community-acquired pneumonia were analyzed with regard to the prognostic implications of radiographic patterns, extent and density of infiltrates, and its evolution during treatment. Results: Non-survivors had a significantly higher extent of infiltrates (p=0.008), density of infiltrates (p=0.05), and radiographic spread during follow-up within 48-72 hours (p=0.0001). In multivariate analysis, persistent or progressive infiltrates were associated with a 47fold increase, and persistent or progressive density of infiltrates with an 18fold increase in risk of mortality. The presence of both parameters could correctly predict 96% of survivors and 90% of non-survivors. Conclusions: The chest radiograph is an independent predictor of the severity of pneumonia. Both persistent or progressive infiltrates and persistent or progressive density of infiltrates are independently associated with mortality from community-acquired pneumonia. (orig.) [de

  9. More than classical Chlamydia psittaci in urban pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Konrad; Kuehlewind, Simone; Ruettger, Anke; Schubert, Evelyn; Rohde, Gernot

    2012-06-15

    In the literature, studies of Chlamydia infection in birds have usually been confined to the search for Chlamydia (C., formerly Chlamydophila) psittaci, so that little is known about the presence of other chlamydial agents. In the present study, cloacal swabs and faeces samples of urban pigeons have been examined by real-time PCR, DNA microarray assays and partial ompA sequencing. Whilst C. psittaci was the predominant chlamydial agent in this pigeon population (75.8% of all Chlamydiaceae positives), the combined use of highly specific and sensitive molecular assays facilitated the detection of atypical serovars of C. psittaci, as well as other species of Chlamydia, such as C. abortus. Detection of C. pecorum and C. trachomatis from an avian host is reported here for the first time. Rather unexpectedly, 19.5% of all Chlamydiaceae-positive cases turned out to be infected with non-classified organisms. The considerable prevalence of these novel agents raises the question of their epidemiological importance and possible role as pathogens. Future surveys in domestic and wild birds will have to take the extended variety of chlamydial organisms into account. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of interactions between inclusion membrane proteins from Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie eGauliard

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular pathogens of eukaryotes. The bacteria grow in an intracellular vesicle called an inclusion, the membrane of which is heavily modified by chlamydial proteins called Incs (Inclusion membrane proteins. Incs represent 7-10% of the genomes of Chlamydia and, given their localization at the interface between the host and the pathogen, likely play a key role in the development and pathogenesis of the bacterium. However, their functions remain largely unknown. Here, we characterized the interaction properties between various Inc proteins of C. trachomatis, using a bacterial two-hybrid (BACTH method suitable for detecting interactions between integral membrane proteins. To validate this approach, we first examined the oligomerization properties of the well-characterized IncA protein and showed that both the cytoplasmic domain and the transmembrane region independently contribute to IncA oligomerization. We then analyzed a set of Inc proteins and identified novel interactions between these components. Two small Incs, IncF and Ct222, were found here to interact with many other Inc proteins and may thus represent interaction nodes within the inclusion membrane. Our data suggest that the Inc proteins may assemble in the membrane of the inclusion to form specific multi-molecular complexes in an hierarchical and temporal manner. These studies will help to better define the putative functions of the Inc proteins in the infectious process of Chlamydia.

  11. Modulation of the Chlamydia trachomatis In vitro transcriptome response by the sex hormones estradiol and progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Symonds Ian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is a major cause of sexually transmitted disease in humans. Previous studies in both humans and animal models of chlamydial genital tract infection have suggested that the hormonal status of the genital tract epithelium at the time of exposure can influence the outcome of the chlamydial infection. We performed a whole genome transcriptional profiling study of C. trachomatis infection in ECC-1 cells under progesterone or estradiol treatment. Results Both hormone treatments caused a significant shift in the sub-set of genes expressed (25% of the transcriptome altered by more than 2-fold. Overall, estradiol treatment resulted in the down-regulation of 151 genes, including those associated with lipid and nucleotide metabolism. Of particular interest was the up-regulation in estradiol-supplemented cultures of six genes (omcB, trpB, cydA, cydB, pyk and yggV, which suggest a stress response similar to that reported previously in other models of chlamydial persistence. We also observed morphological changes consistent with a persistence response. By comparison, progesterone supplementation resulted in a general up-regulation of an energy utilising response. Conclusion Our data shows for the first time, that the treatment of chlamydial host cells with key reproductive hormones such as progesterone and estradiol, results in significantly altered chlamydial gene expression profiles. It is likely that these chlamydial expression patterns are survival responses, evolved by the pathogen to enable it to overcome the host's innate immune response. The induction of chlamydial persistence is probably a key component of this survival response.

  12. Mannose-binding lectin and l-ficolin polymorphisms in patients with community-acquired pneumonia caused by intracellular pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kempen, Gijs; Meijvis, Sabine; Endeman, Henrik; Vlaminckx, Bart; Meek, Bob; de Jong, Ben; Rijkers, Ger; Bos, Willem Jan

    2017-05-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading infectious disease requiring hospitalization in the western world. Genetic variability affecting the host response to infection may play a role in susceptibility and outcome in patients with CAP. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and l-ficolin (l-FCN) are two important activators of the complement system and they can enhance phagocytosis by opsonization. In a prospective cohort of 505 Dutch patients with CAP and 227 control participants we studied whether polymorphisms in the MBL (MBL2) and FCN (FCN2) genes influenced susceptibility and outcome. No difference in frequency of these genotypes was found between patients with CAP in general and controls. However, the +6424G>T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in FCN2 was more common in patients with a Coxiella burnetii pneumonia (P = 0·014). Moreover, the haplotypes coding for the highest MBL serum levels (YA/YA and YA/XA) predisposed to atypical pneumonia (C. burnetii, Legionella or Chlamydia species or Mycoplasma pneumoniae) compared with controls (P = 0·016). Furthermore, patients with these haplotypes were more often bacteraemic (P = 0·019). It can therefore be concluded that MBL2 and FCN2 polymorphisms are not major risk factors for CAP in general, but that the +6424G>T SNP in the FCN2 gene predisposes to C. burnetii pneumonia. In addition, patients with genotypes corresponding with high serum MBL levels are at risk for atypical pneumonia, possibly caused by enhanced phagocytosis, thereby promoting cell entry of these intracellular bacteria. © 2016 The Authors. Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Mycoplasma Pneumoniae among Children Hospitalized with Community-acquired Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutty, Preeta K; Jain, Seema; Taylor, Thomas H; Bramley, Anna M; Diaz, Maureen H; Ampofo, Krow; Arnold, Sandra R; Williams, Derek J; Edwards, Kathryn M; McCullers, Jonathan A; Pavia, Andrew T; Winchell, Jonas M; Schrag, Stephanie J; Hicks, Lauri A

    2018-05-17

    The burden and epidemiology of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) among U.S. children (<18 years) hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are poorly understood. In the Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) study, we prospectively enrolled 2254 children hospitalized with radiographically-confirmed pneumonia from January 2010-June 2012 and tested nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs for Mp using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Clinical and epidemiological features of Mp-PCR-positive and -negative children were compared using logistic regression. Macrolide susceptibility was assessed by genotyping isolates. In the EPIC study, 182(8%) children were Mp-PCR-positive (median age: 7 years); 12% required intensive care and 26% had pleural effusion. No in-hospital deaths occurred. Macrolide resistance was found in 6/169(4%) isolates. Of 178(98%) Mp-PCR-positive children tested for co-pathogens, 50(28%) had ≥1 co-pathogen detected. Variables significantly associated with higher odds of Mp detection included age {10-17 years [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 7.9 (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5-13.6)] and 5-9 years [aOR: 4.8 (CI: 2.9-7.8)] vs. 2-4 years}, outpatient antibiotics ≤5 days pre-admission [aOR: 2.3 (CI: 1.5-3.4)], and co-pathogen detection [aOR: 2.1 (CI: 1.3-3.1)]. Clinical characteristics often seen included hilar lymphadenopathy, rales, headache, sore throat, and decreased breath sounds. Usually considered as a mild respiratory infection, M. pneumoniae was the most commonly detected bacteria among children ≥5 years hospitalized with CAP; one-quarter of whom had co-detections. Although associated with clinically non-specific symptoms, there was a need for intensive care support in some cases. M. pneumoniae should be included in the differential diagnosis for school-aged children hospitalized with CAP.

  14. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia induce distinct host responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Kevin W; McDunn, Jonathan E; Clark, Andrew T; Dunne, W Michael; Dixon, David J; Turnbull, Isaiah R; Dipasco, Peter J; Osberghaus, William F; Sherman, Benjamin; Martin, James R; Walter, Michael J; Cobb, J Perren; Buchman, Timothy G; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2010-01-01

    Pathogens that cause pneumonia may be treated in a targeted fashion by antibiotics, but if this therapy fails, then treatment involves only nonspecific supportive measures, independent of the inciting infection. The purpose of this study was to determine whether host response is similar after disparate infections with similar mortalities. Prospective, randomized controlled study. Animal laboratory in a university medical center. Pneumonia was induced in FVB/N mice by either Streptococcus pneumoniae or two different concentrations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from septic animals was assayed by a microarray immunoassay measuring 18 inflammatory mediators at multiple time points. The host response was dependent on the causative organism as well as kinetics of mortality, but the pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses were independent of inoculum concentration or degree of bacteremia. Pneumonia caused by different concentrations of the same bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, also yielded distinct inflammatory responses; however, inflammatory mediator expression did not directly track the severity of infection. For all infections, the host response was compartmentalized, with markedly different concentrations of inflammatory mediators in the systemic circulation and the lungs. Hierarchical clustering analysis resulted in the identification of five distinct clusters of the host response to bacterial infection. Principal components analysis correlated pulmonary macrophage inflammatory peptide-2 and interleukin-10 with progression of infection, whereas elevated plasma tumor necrosis factor sr2 and macrophage chemotactic peptide-1 were indicative of fulminant disease with >90% mortality within 48 hrs. Septic mice have distinct local and systemic responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Targeting specific host inflammatory responses induced by distinct bacterial infections could represent a

  15. Modelling the impact of chlamydia screening on the transmission of HIV among men who have sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Xiridou (Maria); H.J. Vriend (Henrike); A.K. Lugnér (Anna); J. Wallinga (Jacco); J.S.A. Fennema (Johan); J.M. Prins (Jan); S.E. Geerlings (Suzanne); B.J.A. Rijnders (Bart); M. Prins (Mariia); H.J.C. de Vries (Henry); M.J. Postma (Maarten); M.G. van Veen (Maaike); M. Schim van der Loeff (Maarten); M.A.B. van der Sande (Marianne)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Recent studies have found high prevalences of asymptomatic rectal chlamydia among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Chlamydia could increase the infectivity of HIV and the susceptibility to HIV infection. We investigate the role of chlamydia in the spread of HIV

  16. Chest radiographic findings of tuberculous pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Seung Hye; Sung, Dong Wook; Yoon, Yup; Lim, Jae Hoon

    1991-01-01

    When tuberculous pneumonia appears as a segmental or loabr consolidation, its is difficult to differentiate tuberculous pneumonia from nontuberculous bacterial pneumonia radiologically. The object of this study was to define the typical radiographic findings of tuberculous pneumonia through comparative analysis of tuberculous and nontuberculous pneumonia. A review of chest radiolograph in 29 patients with tuberculous pneumonia and in 23 patients with nontuberculous bacterial pneumonia was made with regard to homogeneity, volume loss, air-fluid level within the cavities, air-bronchogram, pleural disease, and predilection sites. The characteristic findings of tuberculous pneumonia are a heterogeneous density of infiltration (66%), evidence of volume loss of infiltrative lesion (52%), and cavity formation (48%) without air - fluid level. An associated parameter of analysis is the relative absence of leukocytosis (76%)

  17. Distinct intensity of host-pathogen interactions in Chlamydia psittaci- and Chlamydia abortus-infected chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braukmann, Maria; Sachse, Konrad; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Westermann, Martin; Menge, Christian; Saluz, Hans-Peter; Berndt, Angela

    2012-09-01

    Factors and mechanisms determining the differences in virulence and host specificity between the zoonotic agents Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus are still largely unknown. In the present study, two strains were compared for their invasiveness, virulence, and capability of eliciting an immune response in chicken embryos. On breeding day 10, embryonated chicken eggs were inoculated with 5 × 10(4) inclusion-forming units. As shown by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR, C. psittaci displayed a significantly better capability of disseminating in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and internal organs than C. abortus. The higher infectious potential of C. psittaci in birds was underlined by significantly higher mRNA expression rates of essential chlamydial genes, such as incA, groEL (in CAM, liver, and spleen), cpaf, and ftsW (in CAM). Although the immune responses to both pathogens were similar, C. psittaci elicited higher macrophage numbers and a stronger expression of a subset of immune-related proteins. The data imply that invasiveness of Chlamydia spp. and propagation in the host are not solely dependent on the level of host immune response but, even to a greater extent, on the expression of bacterial factors related to virulence. The fact that C. psittaci has coped far better than C. abortus with the avian embryo's response by upregulating essential genes may be a key to understanding the mechanisms underlying host adaptation and etiopathology.

  18. Imaging appearances of cholesterol pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Yanwei; Zhang Jingwen; Wu Jianlin; Zhou Yong; Li Mingwu; Lei Zhen; Shi Lifu

    2006-01-01

    Objection: To analyze the imaging appearances of cholesterol pneumonia. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the X-ray and CT findings of 3 patients with cholesterol pneumonia confirmed pathologically and reviewed correlative literature. Results: Lesions similar to mass were found in X-ray and CT imaging of three cases. Two of them appeared cavity with fluid-level and one showed multiple ring enhancement after CT contrast. The course of disease was very. long and it had no respond to antibiotic therapy. Amounts of foam cells rich in cholesterol crystal were detected in pathological examination. Conclusions: Cholesterol pneumonia is a rare chronic pulmonary idiopathic disease, and the radiological findings can do some help to its diagnosis. (authors)

  19. Organising pneumonia due to dronedarone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, D; Avery, S; Edey, A J; Medford, A R L

    2015-01-01

    Organising pneumonia is one of the responses of the lung to injury and can mimic bacterial pneumonia but importantly it does not respond to antibiotic therapy. We present the case of a 67-year-old male who was diagnosed with organising pneumonia secondary to dronedarone. Drug reactions are a common cause and early identification of the culprit is mandatory to prevent further morbidity and ensure a favourable outcome. On chest radiography there may be fleeting peripheral consolidation, while computed tomography can show a range of stereotyped patterns including perilobular consolidation. Bronchoscopic biopsy may not always be possible but response to steroids is often rapid following removal of the culprit drug. Dronedarone should be included in the list of possible drugs and the Pneumotox database remains a useful resource for the clinician when acute drug-related pneumotoxicity is suspected.

  20. [INHALED ANTIBIOTICS IN TREATMENT OF NOSOCOMIAL PNEUMONIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzovlev, A N; Moroz, V V; Golubev, A M

    2015-01-01

    Nosocomial pneumonia is the most common infection in intensive care units. Currently the problem of resistance of noso-comial pathogens to miost of antibiotics is crucial. Using of inhaled antibiotics in combination with intravenous drugs is eff ective and safe method for treatment of nosocomial pneumonia. The literature review describes current opportunities of ihhaled antibiotic therapy of nosocomial pneumonia, descriptions of drugs, the advantages and disadvantages of this treatment. Special attention is paid for using inhaled aminoglycosides for nosocomial pneumonia.

  1. Topological analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane protein 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, P; Christiansen, Gunna; Birkelund, Svend

    1998-01-01

    Using monospecific polyclonal antisera to different parts of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane protein 2 (Omp2), we show that the protein is localized at the inner surface of the outer membrane. Omp2 becomes immunoaccessible when Chlamydia elementary bodies are treated with dithiothreitol...

  2. Usefulness of primary care electronic networks to assess the incidence of chlamydia, diagnosed by general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijkerbuijk, A.W.M.; Broek, I.V.F. van den; Brouwer, H.J.; Vanrolleghem, A.M.; Joosten, J.H.K.; Verheij, R.A.; Sande, M.A.B. van der; Kretzschmar, M.E.E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chlamydia is the most common curable sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the Netherlands. The majority of chlamydia diagnoses are made by general practitioners (GPs). Baseline data from primary care will facilitate the future evaluation of the ongoing large population-based screening

  3. Population Genomics of Chlamydia trachomatis: Insights on Drift, Selection, Recombination, and Population Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joseph, Sandeep J.; Didelot, Xavier; Rothschild, James; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Morré, Servaas A.; Read, Timothy D.; Dean, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The large number of sexually transmitted diseases and ocular trachoma cases that are caused globally each year by Chlamydia trachomatis has made this organism a World Health Organization priority for vaccine development. However, there is no gene transfer system for Chlamydia to help identify

  4. Chlamydia pecorum Infection in Free-ranging Koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) on French Island, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legione, Alistair R; Amery-Gale, Jemima; Lynch, Michael; Haynes, Leesa; Gilkerson, James R; Sansom, Fiona M; Devlin, Joanne M

    2016-04-28

    We detected Chlamydia pecorum in two koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) from a closed island population in Victoria, Australia, previously free of Chlamydia infection. The ompA and multilocus sequence type were most closely related to published isolates of livestock rather than koala origin, suggesting potential cross-species transmission of C. pecorum .

  5. Differential identification of atypical pneumonia pathogens in aorta and internal mammary artery related to ankle brachial index and walking distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriz, Erkan; Cirak, Meltem Yalinay; Zor, Mustafa Hakan; Engin, Doruk; Oktar, Levent; Unal, Yusuf

    2013-08-01

    We studied the existence of agents in aorta biopsies, such as Chlamydia pneumoniae, cytomegalovirus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, that are thought to have a role in atherosclerosis etiopathogenesis role, and their association with peripheral artery disease. We examined aorta wall and internal mammarian artery (IMA) biopsies taken from two different places in 63 patients in whom coronary artery bypass was performed. In these biopsies, we evaluated the deoxyribonuclease (DNA) of these microorganisms using polymerase chain reaction. From the same patients, we recorded the ankle brachial index, road walking distance information, lipid profile, C-reactive proteins, blood parameters such as fibrinogen, and the patient's operation data. In the nine aorta biopsies taken from 63 patients, we isolated C pneumoniae DNA. In IMA biopsies taken from the same patients, we detected no microorganism DNA (P artery disease. In the development of atherosclerosis with C pneumoniae, there may be a determinant pathogen in both the aorta and the peripheral arteries. The nonexistence of C pneumoniae DNA in the IMA biopsies may indicate infectious agents because of the predominant endothelial functions in this artery, and thus its resistance to atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Enterobacter Asburiae Pneumonia with Cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Seung Woo; Heo, Jeong Nam; Park, Choong Ki; Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol

    2013-01-01

    Enterobacter species have increasingly been identified as pathogens over the past several decades. These bacterial species have become more important because most are resistant to cephalothin and cefoxitin, and can produce extended-spectrum β-lactamase. Enterobacter asburiae (E. asburiae) is a gram-negative rod of the family Enterobacteriaceae, named in 1986. Since then, there has been only one clinical report of E. asburiae pneumonia. We report a case of E. asburiae pneumonia with cavitation and compare it with the previous case.

  7. Enterobacter Asburiae Pneumonia with Cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seung Woo; Heo, Jeong Nam; Park, Choong Ki [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Enterobacter species have increasingly been identified as pathogens over the past several decades. These bacterial species have become more important because most are resistant to cephalothin and cefoxitin, and can produce extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamase. Enterobacter asburiae (E. asburiae) is a gram-negative rod of the family Enterobacteriaceae, named in 1986. Since then, there has been only one clinical report of E. asburiae pneumonia. We report a case of E. asburiae pneumonia with cavitation and compare it with the previous case.

  8. CT findings of necrotizing pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyae Young; Im, Jung Gi; Whang, Sung Il; Cheon, Jung Eun; Lee, Jae Kyo; Song, Jae Woo

    1998-01-01

    Necrotizing pneumonia causes necrosis of pulmonary parenchyma and may lead to pulmonary gangrene. Prior to the antibiotic era, extensive pulmonary involvement was potentially fatal, but the incidence of necrotizing pneumoniais now less common. On contrast-enhanced CT scans, consolidation with contrast enhancement containing necrotic foci with low attenuation and cavities is characteristic. Radiologic findings do not differ according to the causative organism and in most of cases, specific diagnosis may be impossible. Clinical findings and certain characteristic radiologic findings may be helpful for narrowing the differential diagnosis. We illustrate the clinical and radiologic characteristics of necrotizing pneumonia according to causative bacterial organisms

  9. Cisplatin-Induced Eosinophilic Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideharu Ideguchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old man suffering from esophageal cancer was admitted to our hospital complaining of dyspnea and hypoxemia. He had been treated with cisplatin, docetaxel, and fluorouracil combined with radiotherapy. Chest computed tomography revealed bilateral ground-glass opacity, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed increased eosinophils. Two episodes of transient eosinophilia in peripheral blood were observed after serial administration of anticancer drugs before the admission, and drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test to cisplatin was positive. Thus cisplatin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia was suspected, and corticosteroid was effectively administered. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of cisplatin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia.

  10. Imaging of pneumocystic carinii pneumonia in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Dawei; Zhang Ke; Ma Daqing; Jia Cuiyu

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the X-ray and CT findings of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS. Methods: Five AIDS patients who had chest abnormalities were analyzed. Results: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia appeared as diffuse infiltrative and interstitial fine nodules. Conclusion: If the diffuse and infiltrative interstitial fine nodule are the appearances in patients with AIDS, the pneumocystic carinii pneumonia should be considered

  11. [Chlamydia trachomatis proteasome protein as one of the significant pathogenicity factors of exciter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, D Iu; Zigangirova, N A

    2014-01-01

    Sex-related infections are a global problem. Such infections may lead to acute or chronic diseases. Chlamydia trachomatis is a dangerous and widespread pathogenicity factor that is not sensitive to conventional drugs and has no obvious symptoms. Protein CPAF is leading factor of pathogenesis. This protein inhibits the signaling pathways of host cell and supports long survival of the pathogen in the host cell. The goal of this work was to review general properties of the proteasome Chlamydia protein CPAF, its functions, and role in pathology. The role of protein CPAF in the anti-chlamydia immune reaction is discussed. The prospects of the development of promising anti-chlamydia vaccine, as well as new effective anti-chlamydia drugs are also discussed.

  12. Increased incidence of gonorrhoea and chlamydia in Greenland 1990-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mila Broby; Koch, Anders; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, Greenland has presented the highest reported incidence rates of the sexually transmitted infections (STIs) gonorrhoea and chlamydia in the Arctic regions. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe sex- and age-specific incidence rates of gonorrhoea and chlamydia from 1990...... to 2012 in Greenland, and to evaluate if changes in case definitions, diagnostic procedures and implementation of STI interventions during the period coincide with rate changes. DESIGN: Gonorrhoea and chlamydia cases were identified from the national STI surveillance. For 1990-2008, STI cases were...... to sex, age and calendar period. RESULTS: Gonorrhoea and chlamydia incidence rates have increased since 1995 to reach 2,555 per 100,000 person-years (PY) for gonorrhoea and 6,403 per 100,000 PY for chlamydia in 2012. From 2006 to 2012, the incidence rates among young adults aged 15-19 years were 8...

  13. HPV/Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection: metagenomic analysis of cervical microbiota in asymptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Marisa; Filardo, Simone; Porpora, Maria Grazia; Recine, Nadia; Latino, Maria Agnese; Sessa, Rosa

    2018-01-01

    HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis are the most common causes of sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. Most infections are asymptomatic and left untreated lead to severe reproductive tract sequelae such as cervical cancer and infertility. Interestingly, C. trachomatis may also increase the susceptibility to HPV infection as well as contribute to viral persistence. Recently, a growing body of evidence has suggested that the composition of the cervico-vaginal microbiota plays a key role in the susceptibility and outcome of genital infections caused by several pathogens, including HPV and C. trachomatis. The aim of our study was to undertake a metagenomic analysis of sequenced 16s rRNA gene amplicons to characterize the cervical microbiota from asymptomatic women with HPV/C. trachomatis co-infection. The composition of the cervical microbiota from HPV-positive or C. trachomatis-positive women was also analysed. The main finding of our study showed that the cervical microbiota in HPV/C. trachomatis co-infected women had a higher microbial diversity than the cervical microbiota in healthy controls (pHPV/C. trachomatis co-infected women and the detection of potential microbiological biomarkers of C. trachomatis infection will open the way to innovative approaches that may be helpful to identify women at risk of co-infection.

  14. Evaluation of the microparticle enzyme immunoassay Abbott IMx Select Chlamydia and the importance of urethral site sampling to detect Chlamydia trachomatis in women.

    OpenAIRE

    Brokenshire, M K; Say, P J; van Vonno, A H; Wong, C

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the commercial microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA), Abbott IMx Select Chlamydia, for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in women and to compare its performance with endocervical cell culture. Also, to determine whether sampling the urethral site is an important part of chlamydial diagnosis in women. SETTING: The Auckland, Manukau, and Waitakere Sexual Health Clinics, Auckland, New Zealand and the Department of Clinical Microbiology, Auckland Hospital, Auckland, ...

  15. Organizing pneumonia: the many morphological faces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, Anastasia; Hansell, David M.

    2002-01-01

    Organizing pneumonia is a non-specific response to various forms of lung injury and is the pathological hallmark of the distinct clinical entity termed cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. The typical imaging features of this syndrome have been widely documented and consist of patchy air-space consolidation, often subpleural, with or without ground-glass opacities. The purpose of this article is to highlight the less familiar imaging patterns of organizing pneumonia which include focal organizing pneumonia, a variety of nodular patterns, a bronchocentric distribution, band-like opacities, a perilobular pattern and a progressive fibrotic form of organizing pneumonia. (orig.)

  16. The clinical characteristics of the radiation pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fuzheng; Wang Mingzhi; Chen Jianjiang; Wang Zhongxiang; Mao Yongjie

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the clinical characteristics of the radiation pneumonia, sum the experience and the basis of the radiation pneumonia for its prevention and treatment. Method: Twenty three cases with radiation pneumonia from 1991 to 1998 were retrospectively analysed. Its clinical manifestation, chest X-ray, thoracic CT and blood routine were evaluated. Result: The acute manifestation was fever, cough, dyspnea, and the chronic manifestation was cough and insufficiency of pulmonary function. Conclusion: The prevention of radiation pneumonia is more important, high dose cortical steroids and antibiotics were prescribed during the acute stage and the chronic radiation pneumonia is irreversible

  17. Clusters of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Tsolaki, A G; Miller, Raymonde

    1998-01-01

    Genotyping at the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear rRNA operon was performed on isolates of P. carinii sp. f. hominis from three clusters of P. carinii pneumonia among eight patients with haematological malignancies and six with HIV infection. Nine different ITS sequence...

  18. Noninfectious differential diagnoses of pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielandner, A.; Toelly, A.; Agarwal, P.; Bardach, C.

    2017-01-01

    In patients with a clinical suspicion of pneumonia, typical clinical and laboratory features along with the detection of infiltrates on chest X-ray are as a rule considered diagnostic and therapy is immediately initiated; however, studies have shown that in up to 5% of patients with an initial suspicion of pneumonia, another noninfectious pulmonary disease was the underlying cause. Early recognition and differentiation of diseases mimicking pneumonia are prerequisites for an adequate therapy. The aim of this review is to present the important noninfectious differential diagnoses of pneumonia and to provide the reader with tools for a systematic diagnostic approach. A literature search was carried out. As alterations in the lungs often result in similar imaging appearances and a differentiation between transudates, exsudates, blood and cells is not feasible by chest X-ray or CT, a systematic approach is essential to make an appropriate diagnosis. Hence, consideration of the temporal course, predominant pattern, distribution of findings, additional findings and clinical presentation are indispensable. (orig.) [de

  19. [Community-acquired Acinetobacter pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, E; Wüst, J; Speich, R; Flury, G; Krause, M

    1993-08-21

    We report the history of a 38-year-old male native of Sri Lanka admitted to the emergency ward because of chest pain and shortness of breath. On physical and radiographic examination a bilateral predominantly right-sided pneumonia was found. The patient was admitted to the medical ICU and an antibiotic regimen with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and erythromycin was initiated. Shortly afterwards septic shock developed. The patient was intubated and received high doses of catecholamines. He died 30 hours after admission to the hospital. Cultures from sputum, tracheal aspirate and blood grew Acinetobacter baumanni. Acinetobacter is an ubiquitous gram-negative rod with coccobacillary appearance in clinical specimens, that may appear gram-positive due to poor discoloration on Gram-stain. It is a well known causative agent of nosocomial infections, particularly in intensive care units. Community-acquired pneumonias, however, are quite rare. Sporadic cases have been reported from the US, Papua-New Guinea and Australia. Interestingly, these pneumonias are fulminant and have a high mortality. Chronic obstructive lung disease, diabetes, and tobacco and alcohol consumption appear to be predisposing factors. Due to the rapid course and poor prognosis, prompt diagnosis and adequate antibiotic treatment are indicated. Antibiotics use for community-acquired pneumonias, such as amoxicillin/clavulanic acid or macrolides, are not sufficient. Appropriate antibiotics for the initial treatment of suspected Acinetobacter infections include imipenem and carboxy- and ureidopenicillins combined with an aminoglycoside.

  20. Childhood Pneumonia Screener: a concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Räsänen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood pneumonia continues to be the number one cause of death in children under five years of age in developing countries. In addition to mortality, pneumonia constitutes an enormous economic and social burden because late diagnosis is associated with high cost of treatment and often leads to chronic health problems. There are several bottlenecks in developing countries in the case flow of a child with lung infection: 1 recognising the symptoms as a reason to seek care, 2 getting the patient to a first-tier health facility, 3 scarcity of trained healthcare personnel who can diagnose the condition and its severity, 4 access to a second-tier facility in severe cases. These factors are commonly present in rural areas but even in more urban settings, access to a physician is often delayed. The Childhood Pneumonia Screener project aims at bridging the diagnostic gap using emerging technology. Mobile “smart” phone communication with several inexpensive dedicated sensors is proposed as a rapid data-collection and transmission unit that is connected to a central location where trained personnel assisted by sophisticated signal processing algorithms, evaluate the data and determine if the child is likely to have pneumonia and what the level and urgency of care should be.

  1. Analysis of Humoral Immune Responses to Surface and Virulence-Associated Chlamydia abortus Proteins in Ovine and Human Abortions by Use of a Newly Developed Line Immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Jürgen Benjamin; Simnacher, Ulrike; Longbottom, David; Livingstone, Morag; Maile, Julia; Soutschek, Erwin; Walder, Gernot; Boden, Katharina; Sachse, Konrad; Essig, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia abortus is the causative agent of enzootic abortion of ewes and poses a significant zoonotic risk for pregnant women. Using proteomic analysis and gene expression library screening in a previous project, we identified potential virulence factors and candidates for serodiagnosis, of which nine were scrutinized here with a strip immunoassay. We have shown that aborting sheep exhibited a strong antibody response to surface (MOMP, MIP, Pmp13G) and virulence-associated (CPAF, TARP, SINC) antigens. While the latter disappeared within 18 weeks following abortion in a majority of the animals, antibodies to surface proteins persisted beyond the duration of the study. In contrast, nonaborting experimentally infected sheep developed mainly antibodies to surface antigens (MOMP, MIP, Pmp13G), all of which did not persist. We were also able to detect antibodies to these surface antigens in C abortus-infected women who had undergone septic abortion, whereas a group of shepherds and veterinarians with occupational exposure to C abortus-infected sheep revealed only sporadic immune responses to the antigens selected. The most specific antigen for the serodiagnosis of human C abortus infections was Pmp13G, which showed no cross-reactivity with other chlamydiae infecting humans. We suggest that Pmp13G-based serodiagnosis accomplished by the detection of antibodies to virulence-associated antigens such as CPAF, TARP, and SINC may improve the laboratory diagnosis of human and animal C abortus infections. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Pelvic inflammatory disease risk following negative results from chlamydia nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) versus non-NAATs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, Katy M E; Benfield, Thomas; Frølund, Maria

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAATs) are the recommended test type for diagnosing Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia). However, less sensitive diagnostic methods-including direct immunofluorescence (IF) and enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA)-remain in use in lower resourced settings...... with a chlamydia test, just under half (44.78%, n = 121,857) were tested using NAATs. Overall, 6.38% (n = 17,353) tested positive for chlamydia and 0.64% (n = 1,732) were diagnosed with PID within 12 months. The risk of PID following a positive chlamydia test did not differ by test type (NAAT 0.81% [95% CI 0....... We estimate the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) following undiagnosed infection in women tested with non-NAATs and estimate the health gain from using accurate diagnostic tests. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used Denmark's national Chlamydia Study dataset to extract all chlamydia tests performed...

  3. Bacterial Pneumonia in Elderly Japanese Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Miyashita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial pneumonia is one of the most important infectious diseases in terms of incidence, effect on quality of life, mortality, and impact on society. Pneumonia was the third leading cause of death in Japan in 2011. In 2016, 119 650 Japanese people died of pneumonia, 96% of whom were aged 65 years and above. The symptoms of pneumonia in elderly people are often atypical. Aspiration pneumonia is seen more frequently than in young people because of swallowing dysfunction in the elderly. The mortality rate is also higher in the elderly than in young people. In Japan, the population is aging at an unprecedented rate, and pneumonia in the elderly will be increasingly important in medicine and medical economics in the future. To manage pneumonia in the elderly, it is important to accurately evaluate its severity, administer appropriate antibiotic treatment, and implement effective preventive measures.

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the male genital tract: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackern-Oberti, Juan Pablo; Motrich, Rubén Darío; Breser, María Laura; Sánchez, Leonardo Rodolfo; Cuffini, Cecilia; Rivero, Virginia Elena

    2013-11-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most prevalent cause of sexually transmitted diseases. Although the prevalence of chlamydial infection is similar in men and women, current research and screening are still focused on women, who develop the most severe complications, leaving the study of male genital tract (MGT) infection underrated. Herein, we reviewed the literature on genital CT infection with special focus on the MGT. Data indicate that CT certainly infects different parts of the MGT such as the urethra, seminal vesicles, prostate, epididymis and testis. However, whether or not CT infection has detrimental effects on male fertility is still controversial. The most important features of CT infection are its chronic nature and the presence of a mild inflammation that remains subclinical in most individuals. Chlamydia antigens and pathogen recognition receptors (PRR), expressed on epithelial cells and immune cells from the MGT, have been studied in the last years. Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression has been observed in the testis, epididymis, prostate and vas deferens. It has been demonstrated that recognition of chlamydial antigens is associated with TLR2, TLR4, and possibly, other PRRs. CT recognition by PRRs induces a local production of cytokines/chemokines, which, in turn, provoke chronic inflammation that might evolve in the onset of an autoimmune process in genetically susceptible individuals. Understanding local immune response along the MGT, as well as the crosstalk between resident leukocytes, epithelial, and stromal cells, would be crucial in inducing a protective immunity, thus adding to the design of new therapeutic approaches to a Chlamydia vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bidirectional Relationship between Cognitive Function and Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Faraaz Ali; Pike, Francis; Alvarez, Karina; Angus, Derek; Newman, Anne B.; Lopez, Oscar; Tate, Judith; Kapur, Vishesh; Wilsdon, Anthony; Krishnan, Jerry A.; Hansel, Nadia; Au, David; Avdalovic, Mark; Fan, Vincent S.; Barr, R. Graham

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Relationships between chronic health conditions and acute infections remain poorly understood. Preclinical studies suggest crosstalk between nervous and immune systems. Objectives: To determine bidirectional relationships between cognition and pneumonia. Methods: We conducted longitudinal analyses of a population-based cohort over 10 years. We determined whether changes in cognition increase risk of pneumonia hospitalization by trajectory analyses and joint modeling. We then determined whether pneumonia hospitalization increased risk of subsequent dementia using a Cox model with pneumonia as a time-varying covariate. Measurements and Main Results: Of the 5,888 participants, 639 (10.9%) were hospitalized with pneumonia at least once. Most participants had normal cognition before pneumonia. Three cognition trajectories were identified: no, minimal, and severe rapid decline. A greater proportion of participants hospitalized with pneumonia were on trajectories of minimal or severe decline before occurrence of pneumonia compared with those never hospitalized with pneumonia (proportion with no, minimal, and severe decline were 67.1%, 22.8%, and 10.0% vs. 76.0%, 19.3%, and 4.6% for participants with and without pneumonia, respectively; P pneumonia, even in those with normal cognition and physical function before pneumonia (β = −0.02; P pneumonia were subsequently at an increased risk of dementia (hazard ratio, 2.24 [95% confidence interval, 1.62–3.11]; P = 0.01). Associations were independent of demographics, health behaviors, other chronic conditions, and physical function. Bidirectional relationship did not vary based on severity of disease, and similar associations were noted for those with severe sepsis and other infections. Conclusions: A bidirectional relationship exists between pneumonia and cognition and may explain how a single episode of infection in well-appearing older individuals accelerates decline in chronic health conditions and loss of

  6. Typing Chlamydia trachomatis: from egg yolk to nanotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lisbeth Nørum; Herrmann, Bjørn; Møller, Jens Kjølseth

    2009-01-01

    A historical review is provided of the various methods used for half a century to differentiate and type Chlamydia trachomatis strains. Typing of C. trachomatis is an important tool for revealing transmission patterns in sexual networks, and enabling association with clinical manifestations......, insufficient epidemiological resolution is achieved by characterization of both MOMP and omp1. This calls for new high-resolution genotyping methods applying for example a multilocus variable number tandem repeat assay (MLVA) or multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The futuristic nanotechnology already seems...

  7. Abortion associated with Chlamydia abortus in extensively reared Iberian sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, J; Ortega, N; Borge, C; Rangel, M J; Carbonero, A; Perea, A; Caro, M R

    2012-10-01

    Reproductive disease was investigated in Iberian pigs on an extensive farrow-to-finish farm in the southwest of Spain. Chlamydia abortus was isolated in cell culture and C. abortus-specific PCR products were detected in placental and fetal tissues. In one batch of 14 sows, the percentage of sera positive for C. abortus specific antibodies increased from 35.7% to 85.7% in the period of 2 weeks following abortion. C. abortus may play a role in abortion in extensively reared Iberian sows. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Atypical Pneumonia: Updates on Legionella, Chlamydophila, and Mycoplasma Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Lokesh; Losier, Ashley; Tolbert, Thomas; Dela Cruz, Charles S; Marion, Chad R

    2017-03-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has multiple causes and is associated with illness that requires admission to the hospital and mortality. The causes of atypical CAP include Legionella species, Chlamydophila, and Mycoplasma. Atypical CAP remains a diagnostic challenge and, therefore, likely is undertreated. This article reviews the advancements in the evaluation and treatment of patients and discusses current conflicts and controversies of atypical CAP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pneumonia aguda fibrinosa e organizante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Damas

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A designação acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP foi proposta por Beasley et al para os casos em que as características histopatológicas das lesões não se enquadravam em outras situações clínicas (agu-das ou subagudas conhecidas. A presença de fibrina intra alveolar e de pneumonia organizativa, com distribuição difusa, é a principal alteração histológica associada a esta entidade.Os autores descrevem o caso de um doente do sexo masculino, com o diagnóstico de AFOP, por bióp-sia pulmonar cirúrgica. O doente teve uma apresentação subaguda, apresentando por queixas principais tosse, dor torácica e febre. TAC torácica mostrou infiltrados bilaterais, difusos. Após início de corticoterapia sistémica e ciclofosfamida, o doente apresentou melhoria clínica significativa. Ao elaborar este caso, os autores esperam acrescentar mais alguns dados sobre esta nova entidade.Rev Port Pneumol 2006; XII (5: 615-620 Abstract: The term Acute Fibrinous and Organizing Pneumonia (AFOP has been proposed by Beasley et al for cases that not fit into the histopathologic criteria of the recognized entities described as acute or subacute clinical presentations. The presence of intra-alveolar fibrin in the form of fibrin ‘balls’ and organizing pneumonia with patchy distribution are the main histological features of this entity. We describe the case of a male patient with the diagnostic of AFOP made by surgical lung biopsy. He had a subacute presentation of symptoms consisting of productive cough, chest pain and fever. Bilateral infiltrates with patchy and diffuse distribution were the predominant features in his chest HRCT scan. The patient had a good clinical course after a treatment with prednisone and cyclophosphamide. Our hope in reporting this case study is to add some more data to the discussion of this new entity.Rev Port Pneumol 2006; XII (5: 615-620 Palavras

  10. Deteccion de Chlamydia trachomatis en muestras uretrales mediante inmunofluorescencia directa Detecção de Chlamydia trachomatis em amostras uretrais mediante imunofluorescência direta Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urethral samples by means of direct immunofluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myra Wilson Schuster

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 82 pacientes con uretritis para la búsqueda de Chlamydia trachomatis mediante inmunofluorescencia directa, Neisscria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplastna y Ureaplasma mediante métodos estándar. Se encontró un 19,5% de Chlamydia trachomatis y en 11 de ellos (68,8% se encontró asociada a otras bacterias y estos pacientes presentó una secreción escasa-gelatinosa.Em 82 doentes com uretrite foi pesquisada a presença de Chlamydia trachomatis, utilizando a prova da imunofluorescência direta, e de Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma e Ureaplasma, utilizando os métodos padrões. Ch. trachomatis foi encontrada em 19,5% dos casos, sendo que em 11 deles (68,8% observou-se associação entre Chlamydia e as outras bactérias pesquisadas. Nesses pacientes observou-se presença de secreção uretral escassa e de aspecto gelatinoso.The presence of Chlamydia trachomatis was studied by the direct immunofluorescence test, as also was that of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma by the standard methods, in 82 patients with urethral discharge. Ch. trachomatis was found in 19.5% (16 of the cases and in 11 of them (68.8% there was association with the other bacteria investigated. This eleven patients presented a scanty gelatinous discharge.

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis Is Responsible for Lipid Vacuolation in the Amniotic Epithelium of Fetal Gastroschisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldkamp, Marcia L; Ward, Diane M; Pysher, Theodore J; Chambers, Christina T

    2017-07-17

    Vacuolated amniotic epithelium with lipid droplets in gastroschisis placentas is an unusual finding. Mass spectrometry of lipid droplets identified triglycerides, ester-linked to an unusual pattern of fatty acids. We hypothesize that these findings result from a Chlamydia trachomatis infection during the periconceptional period. The rising incidence of chlamydia infections has paralleled the increasing prevalence of gastroschisis among women less than 25 years of age. Histologically, young women are at greatest risk for a chlamydia infection due to their immature columnar epithelium, the preferential site for attachment of Chlamydia trachomatis infectious particle (elementary body). Chlamydia trachomatis survive in an inclusion, relying on its host to acquire essential nutrients, amino acids, and nucleotides for survival and replication. If essential nutrients are not available, the bacteria cannot replicate and may be trafficked to the lysosome for degradation or remain quiescent, within the inclusion, subverting innate immunologic clearance. Chlamydiae synthesize several lipids (phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphoatidylglycerol); however, their lipid content reveal eukaryotic lipids (sphingomyelin, cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylinositol), evidence that chlamydiae "hijack" host lipids for expansion and replication. The abnormal amniotic epithelial findings are supported by experimental evidence of the trafficking of host lipids into the chlamydiae inclusion. If not lethal, what harm will elementary bodies inflict to the developing embryo? Do these women have a greater pro-inflammatory response to an environmental exposure, whether cigarette smoking, change in partner, or a pathogen? Testing the hypothesis that Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for amniotic epithelium vacuoles will be a critical first step. Birth Defects Research 109:1003-1010, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Repeat Chlamydia trachomatis testing among heterosexual STI outpatient clinic visitors in the Netherlands: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Maartje; van Aar, Fleur; Koedijk, Femke D H; Kampman, Carolina J G; Heijne, Janneke C M

    2017-12-20

    Chlamydia infections are common in both men and women, are often asymptomatic and can cause serious complications. Repeat testing in high-risk groups is therefore indicated. In the Netherlands, guidelines on repeat chlamydia testing differ between testing facilities, and knowledge on repeat testing behaviour is limited. Here, we analyse the current repeat testing behaviour of heterosexual STI clinic visitors, and aim to identify groups for which repeat testing advice could be advantageous. Longitudinal surveillance data from all Dutch STI outpatient clinics were used, which included all STI clinic consultations carried out among heterosexual men and women between June 2014 and December 2015. Repeat testing was defined as returning to the same STI clinic between 35 days and 12 months after initial consultation. We calculated chlamydia positivity at repeat test stratified by initial test result and time between consultations. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of repeat testing, and predictors of having a chlamydia positive repeat test. In total, 140,486 consultations in 75,487 women and 46,286 men were available for analyses. Overall, 15.4% of women and 11.1% of men returned to the STI clinic within the study period. Highest chlamydia positivity at repeat test was seen 3-5 months after initial positive test. Among both women and men, repeat testing was associated with non-Western ethnicity, having had more than two sex partners in the past 6 months, reporting STI symptoms, having a history of STI, and having a chlamydia positive initial test. Among repeat testers, chlamydia positive repeat test was most strongly associated with younger age, followed by a chlamydia positive initial test. Repeat testing most often resulted in a positive test result among young heterosexuals (<25) and heterosexuals of any age with a chlamydia infection at the initial consultation. Further efforts are needed to determine optimal repeat testing strategies.

  13. Management of Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection: screening and treatment challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandie D Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brandie D Taylor, Catherine L HaggertyUniversity of Pittsburgh, Department of Epidemiology, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Chlamydia trachomatis is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection that can lead to serious reproductive morbidity. Management and control of C. trachomatis is a challenge, largely due to its asymptomatic nature and our incomplete understanding of its natural history. Although chlamydia screening programs have been implemented worldwide, several countries have observed increasing rates of reported chlamydia cases. We reviewed the literature relating to the long-term complications of C. trachomatis, as well as screening strategies, treatment, and prevention strategies for reducing chlamydia in the population. Articles from 1950–2010 were identified through a Medline search using the keyword “Chlamydia trachomatis” combined with “screening”, “pelvic inflammatory disease”, “endometritis”, “salpingitis”, “infertility”, "ectopic pregnancy”, “urethritis”, “epididymitis”, “proctitis”, “prostatitis”, “reinfection”, “cost-effectiveness”, “treatment”, “vaccines”, or “prevention”. Progression of C. trachomatis varies, and recurrent infections are common. Currently, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of chlamydia screening. Higher quality studies are needed to determine the efficacy of more frequent screening, on a broader range of sequelae, including infertility and ectopic pregnancy, in addition to pelvic inflammatory disease. Studies should focus on delineating the natural history of recurrent infections, paying particular attention to treatment failures. Furthermore, alternatives to screening, such as vaccines, should continue to be explored.Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, sexually transmitted disease, chlamydia screening, chlamydia treatment

  14. Streptococcus pneumoniae Drugs Resistance in Acute Rhinosinusitis

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    Chong Jie Hao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute rhinosinusitis that usually caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae becomes the reason why patients seek for medical care. Drugs resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae is increasing worldwide. This study was conducted to determine drugs resistance of Streptococcus pneumonia from acute rhinosinusitis in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital. Methods: A descriptive laboratory study was conducted in June–October 2014 at the Laboratory of Microbiology Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran. The sample was taken using nasopharyngeal swabbing from 100 acute rhinosinusitis patients in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital and planted on tryptic soy agar containing 5% sheep blood and 5 μg/ml of gentamicin sulphate and then incubated in 5% CO2 incubator at 37°C for 24 hours. The identification of Streptococcus pneumonia was performed by optochin test. The susceptibility test against Streptococcus pneumoniae was done using disk diffusion method.The antibiotic disks were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, oxacillin, levofloxacin, azithromycin, and doxycycline. Results: Out of 100 samples, 8 of them were tested positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Three of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates died with unknown reason after it were stored at -80 .The drugs resistance test showed the resistance of Streptococcus pneumonia to oxacillin, azithromycin and trimethoprim were 6, whereas levofloxacin and doxycycline are 4. Conclusions: Streptococcus pneumonia drugs resistance in acute rhinosinusitis shows the resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to oxacillin, azithromycin and trimethoprim are 6, whereas the resistance to levofloxacin and doxycycline are 4.

  15. Aspiration pneumonia: a review of modern trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBardino, David M; Wunderink, Richard G

    2015-02-01

    The purpose was to describe aspiration pneumonia in the context of other lung infections and aspiration syndromes and to distinguish between the main scenarios commonly implied when the terms aspiration or aspiration pneumonia are used. Finally, we aim to summarize current evidence surrounding the diagnosis, microbiology, treatment, risks, and prevention of aspiration pneumonia. Medline was searched from inception to November 2013. All descriptive or experimental studies that added to the understanding of aspiration pneumonia were reviewed. All studies that provided insight into the clinical aspiration syndromes, historical context, diagnosis, microbiology, risk factors, prevention, and treatment were summarized within the text. Despite the original teaching, aspiration pneumonia is difficult to distinguish from other pneumonia syndromes. The microbiology of pneumonia after a macroaspiration has changed over the last 60 years from an anaerobic infection to one of aerobic and nosocomial bacteria. Successful antibiotic therapy has been achieved with several antibiotics. Various risks for aspiration have been described leading to several proposed preventative measures. Aspiration pneumonia is a disease with a distinct pathophysiology. In the modern era, aspiration pneumonia is rarely solely an anaerobic infection. Antibiotic treatment is largely dependent on the clinical scenario. Several measures may help prevent aspiration pneumonia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis in cervico vaginal smears of irradiated uteri: cytologic and immune cytochemical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, D.R.; Marziona, F.; Oyafuso, M.; Carvalho, M.I. de

    1989-01-01

    Cervico vaginal smears of women with uterine carcinoma treated with radiotherapy are analyzed in the present work. A series of such smears showed morphological changes suggestive of Chlamydia infection with the Papanicolaou stain. Confirmation of the presence of such agent was done using an avidin-biotin peroxidase technique. A higher prevalence of Chlamydia in the group of patients with carcinoma of the uterus treated with irradiation than in the population without ionizing treatment was verified. The presence of cells with radiotherapic changes infected by Chlamydia is a new finding in cytology. (author)

  17. Survival of chlamydiae in human semen prepared for artificial insemination by donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Poul; Møller, Birger R.; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars

    1991-01-01

    Semen specimens from 21 men with urethral infection with Chlamydia trachomatis were tested for the presence of the organism before and after cryopreservation for 3 weeks of storage at -196 degrees C. Five specimens were chlamydia-positive before preservation and four of them were still positive...... after storage when examined by enzyme immunoassay (Chlamydiazyme). When examined by cell culture, four proved chlamydia- positive before storage and two afterwards. The results indicate that testing for C. trachomatis has to be performed from the urethra of all donors of semen used for artificial...

  18. Comparison between ICT and PCR for diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, E R; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Mahmud, C; Hasan, M M; Rahman, M M; Nahar, K; Kubayashi, N

    2012-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular gram-negative bacterium which is the most prevalent cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STI). The present study was carried to diagnose genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women of reproductive age, attending Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, during July 2009 to June 2010 by Immunochromatographic test (ICT) and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 70 females were included in this study. Out of 70 cases 56 were symptomatic and 14 asymptomatic. Endocervical swabs were collected from each of the cases and examined by Immunochromatographic test (ICT) for antigen detection and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of endogenous plasmid-based nucleic acid. A total 29(41.4%) of the cases were found positive for C. trachomatis either by ICT or PCR. Of the 56 symptomatic cases, 19(33.9%) were found ICT positive and 17(30.4%) were PCR positive. Among 14 asymptomatic females, 2(14.3%) were ICT positive and none were PCR positive. Though PCR is highly sensitive but a total of twelve cases were found ICT positive but PCR negative. It may be due to presence of plasmid deficient strain of C trachomatis which could be amplified by ompA based (Chromosomal gene) multiplex PCR.

  19. Chlamydia abortus in Dairy Farms in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Fonseca Salazar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of antibodies against Chlamydia abortus in specialized dairy farms. A total of 608 blood samples were collected during 2012 from 24 dairy farms located in the Northern regions of the provinces of Alajuela (15 and Heredia (9, and surveys were carried out to determine management practices in these farms. Serum samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect antibodies against C. abortus (sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 99.7%. Only one serum yielded positive results (S/P 62 %, two sera weak positive results (S/P 51% and 52%, respectively, while the remaining sera (n=605 were negative in ELISA. Six months later, 22 animals that showed S/P values >22% in ELISA were analyzed again, yielding all negative results. Blood, milk, conjunctival and vulvar swabs from these animals were analyzed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, and only one vulvar swab tested positive for Chlamydia spp. The analysis of the management practices and results obtained with ELISA and PCR lead us to conclude that C. abortus is not significantly present (<0.5% in dairy farms in the Northern regions of the provinces of Heredia and Alajuela in Costa Rica.

  20. Analysis of glycosidases activity in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 serotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sanjiv Rughooputh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are prokaryotic, gram negative, intracellular parasites, causing a number of human diseases with serious sequelae. The exact mechanism of chlamydial attachment and entry into the host cell is still unclear. Chlamydia trachomatis, SA2F (L2 was tested for the activity of glycosidases. Glycosidases are involved in the synthesis and breakdown of cell-wall polysaccharides, and have a pivotal role in attachment to the surface of host cells as well as in the invasion process of other infective agents. For these reasons, glycosidases are likely to provide important information regarding the general behaviour of this bacterium. Ten different glycosides bound to p-nitrophenol (pNP substrate were tested. Assays were performed on lysed and unlysed chlamydial extracts.Our results provided strong evidence for the existence of glycosidase activity in C.trachomatis, strain SA2F peaking at pH 5.0 and pH 7.5-8.0 There was a high enzymatic activity against p-NPa mannopyranoside and p-NP b-N acetylglucosamine with a recovery of 88% suggesting that the enzymes were present on the bacterial surface. Activity against these sugars, which form part of either the extracellular filler or in endoplasmic reticulum may suggest of a possible mechanism of cellular invasion.

  1. Miliary pattern in neonatal pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, J.A.M.

    1988-01-01

    We have seen 10 newborn babies who developed respiratory distress and whose chest radiographs showed a miliary nodular pattern of disease. Of these infants only 3 had blood cultures that were positive for staphylococcus aureus. Of the remaining 7, 2 had conjunctivitis from which staphylococcus aureus was cultured, 4 had negative cultures and 1 did not have a blood culture done. All patients were diagnosed as having bacterial pneumonia and appeared to respond favourably to antibiotic therapy. The pulmonary abnormalities resolved. The children were clinically well in less than 3 weeks. The author suggests that the miliary pattern is one of the radiological patterns of neonatal pneumonia possibly produced by hematogenous bacterial dissemination. (orig.)

  2. Persistent Aerial Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc

  3. Using Multiple Outcomes of Sexual Behavior to Provide Insights Into Chlamydia Transmission and the Effectiveness of Prevention Interventions in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Eva Andrea; Kao, Szu-Yu; Kozhimannil, Katy Backes; Kahn, Judith; Farris, Jill; Kulasingam, Shalini L

    2017-10-01

    Mathematical models are important tools for assessing prevention and management strategies for sexually transmitted infections. These models are usually developed for a single infection and require calibration to observed epidemiological trends in the infection of interest. Incorporating other outcomes of sexual behavior into the model, such as pregnancy, may better inform the calibration process. We developed a mathematical model of chlamydia transmission and pregnancy in Minnesota adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. We calibrated the model to statewide rates of reported chlamydia cases alone (chlamydia calibration) and in combination with pregnancy rates (dual calibration). We evaluated the impact of calibrating to different outcomes of sexual behavior on estimated input parameter values, predicted epidemiological outcomes, and predicted impact of chlamydia prevention interventions. The two calibration scenarios produced different estimates of the probability of condom use, the probability of chlamydia transmission per sex act, the proportion of asymptomatic infections, and the screening rate among men. These differences resulted in the dual calibration scenario predicting lower prevalence and incidence of chlamydia compared with calibrating to chlamydia cases alone. When evaluating the impact of a 10% increase in condom use, the dual calibration scenario predicted fewer infections averted over 5 years compared with chlamydia calibration alone [111 (6.8%) vs 158 (8.5%)]. While pregnancy and chlamydia in adolescents are often considered separately, both are outcomes of unprotected sexual activity. Incorporating both as calibration targets in a model of chlamydia transmission resulted in different parameter estimates, potentially impacting the intervention effectiveness predicted by the model.

  4. Acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, João Rocha; Marques, Ricardo; Serra, Paula; Cardoso, Leila

    2017-09-07

    Acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia (AFOP) is a rare histological pattern of interstitial lung disease. The authors describe a 60-year-old woman admitted to the hospital for sustained fever, presenting with an alveolar opacity on chest X-ray, with the presumed diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia and the onset of antibiotics. Since serological results suggested that Legionella pneumophila was the infectious agent, she was discharged on levofloxacin. A week later, she was again admitted with fever. CT scan showed opacities with crescentic morphology and a central ground-glass area suggestive of cryptogenic organising pneumonia. Microbiological, serological and autoimmunity tests were negative. She underwent surgical lung biopsy that revealed inflammatory infiltrate, macrophage desquamation, fibroblasts proliferation and fibrin deposition in the alveolar spaces, consistent with AFOP. She started corticotherapy with good response. Disease relapsed after prednisolone discontinuation, 10 months later. Currently, the patient is on prednisolone 5 mg/day without clinical and radiological recurrence. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Clinical features of measles pneumonia in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Honma, Shin-ichi; Yamagishi, Masahiko; Honda, Yasuhito; Abe, Shosaku; Igarashi, Tomofumi; Sekine, Kyuichiro.

    1993-01-01

    The clinical features, chest radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) images were evaluated in 11 cases of serologically proved adult measles complicated with pneumonia (10 were previously healthy and one had sarcoidosis). Pneumonia appeared during the rash period in all cases. Respiratory symptoms were cough (9/11), dyspnea (3/11), and hypoxemia (10/11). Pneumonia manifestations were detected in only 4 cases by chest radiograph; on the other hand, they were seen in all cases by CT scan and consisted of ground-glass opacities (73%), nodular opacities (64%) and consolidation (27%). CT seems to be useful method to detect measles pneumonia if it is suspected. Measles pneumonia in previously healthy patients had a good prognosis, as the hypoxemia disappeared within 6 days in all cases. The sarcoidosis patient showed prolonged pneumonic shadows and period of hypoxemia. Measles pneumonia occurring in a host with cellular immunodeficiency may have a severe clinical course. (author)

  6. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women, heterosexual men and MSM visiting HIV counselling institutions in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany - should Chlamydia testing be scaled up?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Lallemand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients asking for a free anonymous HIV test may have contracted other sexually transmitted infections (STIs such as Chlamydia trachomatis, yet Chlamydia prevalence in that population is unknown. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with Chlamydia infection in patients seeking HIV testing at local public health authorities (LPHA in order to evaluate whether Chlamydia testing should be routinely offered to them. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among patients (≥18 years attending 18 LPHA in North Rhine-Westphalia from November 2012 to September 2013. LPHA collected information on participants’ socio-demographic characteristics, sexual and HIV testing behaviours, previous STI history and clinical symptoms. Self-collected vaginal swabs and urine (men were analysed by Transcription-Mediated Amplification. We assessed overall and age-stratified Chlamydia prevalence and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI. Using univariate and multivariable binomial regression, we estimated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR to identify factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Results The study population comprised 1144 (40.5 % women, 1134 (40.1 % heterosexual men and 549 (19.4 % men who have sex with men (MSM; median age was 30 years. Chlamydia prevalence was 5.3 % (95 % CI: 4.1–6.8 % among women, 3.2 % (95 % CI: 2.2–4.4 in heterosexual men and 3.5 % (95 % CI: 2.1–5.4 in MSM. Prevalence was highest among 18–24 year-old women (9 %; 95 % CI: 5.8–13 and heterosexual men (5.7 %; 95 % CI: 3.0–9.8 %, respectively. Among MSM, the prevalence was highest among 30–39 year-olds (4.4 %; 95 % CI: 1.9–8.5 %. Among those who tested positive, 76.7 % of women, 75.0 % of heterosexual men and 84.2 % of MSM were asymptomatic. Among women, factors associated with Chlamydia infection were young age (18–24 years versus ≥ 40 years, aPR: 3.0, 95 % CI: 1.2–7.8, having had more than 2

  7. Severe community-acquired pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae in young female patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milačić Nena

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumonia is common agent causing community acquired pneumonia in younger population. However, the course of illness is usually benign and is rarely associated with pulmonary complications. We report a 27 years old female patient with unilateral pneumonia followed by pleural effusion and adhesions on the same side. This potential source of infection should be considered in young patients where resolution of symptoms from pneumonia is delayed.

  8. Repertoire of intensive care unit pneumonia microbiota.

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    Sabri Bousbia

    Full Text Available Despite the considerable number of studies reported to date, the causative agents of pneumonia are not completely identified. We comprehensively applied modern and traditional laboratory diagnostic techniques to identify microbiota in patients who were admitted to or developed pneumonia in intensive care units (ICUs. During a three-year period, we tested the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia, community-acquired pneumonia, non-ventilator ICU pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia, and compared the results with those from patients without pneumonia (controls. Samples were tested by amplification of 16S rDNA, 18S rDNA genes followed by cloning and sequencing and by PCR to target specific pathogens. We also included culture, amoeba co-culture, detection of antibodies to selected agents and urinary antigen tests. Based on molecular testing, we identified a wide repertoire of 160 bacterial species of which 73 have not been previously reported in pneumonia. Moreover, we found 37 putative new bacterial phylotypes with a 16S rDNA gene divergence ≥ 98% from known phylotypes. We also identified 24 fungal species of which 6 have not been previously reported in pneumonia and 7 viruses. Patients can present up to 16 different microorganisms in a single BAL (mean ± SD; 3.77 ± 2.93. Some pathogens considered to be typical for ICU pneumonia such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus species can be detected as commonly in controls as in pneumonia patients which strikingly highlights the existence of a core pulmonary microbiota. Differences in the microbiota of different forms of pneumonia were documented.

  9. Aspiration pneumonia in patients with cleft palate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hun; Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol; Park, Choong Ki; Uhm, Ki Il [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-01

    To assess the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in infants with cleft palate and to compare the incidence between complete and incomplete types of cleft palate. A review of medical records revealed 100 infants who had undergone initial surgery to repair cleft palate in our hospital during a recent three-year period. Aspiration pneumonia was defined as the coexistence of pneumonia at chest radiography with a history of frequent choking during feeding. The anatomic distribution of aspiration pneumonia was analyzed, and the incidences of aspiration pneumonia in infants with complete and incomplete cleft palate were compared. Among 100 children, aspiration pneumonia was found in 35 (35%). Those with complete and incomplete cleft palate showed similar incidences of the condition (27 of 70 [39%] vs 8 of 30 [27%], p=0.36). Pneumonia was most commonly seen in the left lower lobe (11 of 35), followed by the right upper and lower lobes. Aspiration pneumonia is frequently associated with infants with cleft palate. There is no statistical difference in the incidence of aspiration pneumonia between the complete and the incomplete cleft palate group.

  10. Aspiration pneumonia in patients with cleft palate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hun; Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol; Park, Choong Ki; Uhm, Ki Il

    2003-01-01

    To assess the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in infants with cleft palate and to compare the incidence between complete and incomplete types of cleft palate. A review of medical records revealed 100 infants who had undergone initial surgery to repair cleft palate in our hospital during a recent three-year period. Aspiration pneumonia was defined as the coexistence of pneumonia at chest radiography with a history of frequent choking during feeding. The anatomic distribution of aspiration pneumonia was analyzed, and the incidences of aspiration pneumonia in infants with complete and incomplete cleft palate were compared. Among 100 children, aspiration pneumonia was found in 35 (35%). Those with complete and incomplete cleft palate showed similar incidences of the condition (27 of 70 [39%] vs 8 of 30 [27%], p=0.36). Pneumonia was most commonly seen in the left lower lobe (11 of 35), followed by the right upper and lower lobes. Aspiration pneumonia is frequently associated with infants with cleft palate. There is no statistical difference in the incidence of aspiration pneumonia between the complete and the incomplete cleft palate group

  11. Klebsiella pneumoniae inoculants for enhancing plant growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Eric W [Middleton, WI; Kaeppler, Shawn M [Oregon, WI; Chelius, Marisa K [Greeley, CO

    2008-07-01

    A biological inoculant for enhancing the growth of plants is disclosed. The inoculant includes the bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101, Pantoea agglomerans P102, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342, Klebsiella pneumoniae zmvsy, Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z152, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PA15, with or without a carrier. The inoculant also includes strains of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans and K. pneumoniae which are able to enhance the growth of cereal grasses. Also disclosed are the novel bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101 and P102, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and zmvsy.

  12. HRCT of diffuse interstitial pneumonia during treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masashi; Sano, Akira; Imanaka, Kazufumi

    1989-01-01

    HRCT was carried out in twenty patients with diffuse interstitial pneumonia: 13 cases of IIP, 3 of BOOP, 2 of drug-induced pneumonia, 1 of rheumatoid lung and acute interstitial pneumonia of unknown origin. With special attention to inflammatory activity, the patients underwent HRCT periodically during the treatment. Correlative investigation between HRCT image and grade of accumulation in 67 Ga scintigraphy was also performed. Response to steroid therapy was clearly reflected on HRCT image, that was shown as decreasing pulmonary density or thinning of honeycomb wall. HRCT is considered to be useful in assessing the activity of diffuse interstitial pneumonia. (author)

  13. Molecular prevalence and genotyping of Chlamydia spp. in wild birds from South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jipseol; An, Injung; Oem, Jae-Ku; Wang, Seung-Jun; Kim, Yongkwan; Shin, Jeong-Hwa; Woo, Chanjin; Kim, Youngsik; Jo, Seong-Deok; Son, Kidong; Lee, Saemi; Jheong, Weonhwa

    2017-07-07

    Wild birds are reservoirs for Chlamydia spp. Of the total 225 samples from wild birds during January to September 2016 in Korea, 4 (1.8%) and 2 (0.9%) showed positive for Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia gallinacea, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses and comparisons of sequence identities for outer-membrane protein A (ompA) revealed that Korean C. psittaci fall into three previously known genotypes; genotype E, 1V and 6N, whereas the Korean C. gallinacea were classified as new variants of C. gallinacea. Our study demonstrates that wild birds in South Korea carry at least two Chlamydia species: C. psittaci and C. gallinacea, and provides new information on the epidemiology of avian chlamydiosis in wild birds.

  14. [FEMALE STEROID HORMONES - MODULATORS OF IMMUNE RESPONSE TO GENITAL CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS INFECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachev, E; Ivanov, S; Bechev, B; Angelova, M; Grueva, E; Kolev, N; Ivanova, V

    In the recent years according to WHO, genital chlamydia is the mos't common sexually transmitted infection. Chlamydia Trachomatis is an intracellular parasite which target are the tubular epithelial cells of the urethra, endocervix, endometrium, endosalpinx, conjunctiva, synovial lining of the joints, Glisson's capsule of the liver Our study, as well as some international researches, shows that in the cases of genital chlamydia there are changes in the ovarian hormones (estradiol and progesterone), their impact on the immune system and their importance for the development and the complications of the infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. The physiological level of the steroid hormones in its turn contributes for the normalization of the local immunity and reduces the possibility of recurrences.

  15. Detection of PCR inhibitors in cervical specimens by using the AMPLICOR Chlamydia trachomatis assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); A. Luijendijk (Ad); W.M. Huisman; W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); J.H. van Rijsoort-Vos; H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractTo determine that susceptibility of AMPLICOR Chlamydia trachomatis PCR to inhibitory factors possibly present in cervical specimens, we obtained cervical specimens from 200 gynecology patients attending our outpatient clinic. The prevalence of C. trachomatis

  16. High Titers of Chlamydia trachomatis Antibodies in Brazilian Women with Tubal Occlusion or Previous Ectopic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. S. Machado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate serum chlamydia antibody titers (CATs in tubal occlusion or previous ectopic pregnancy and the associated risk factors. Methods. The study population consisted of 55 women wih tubal damage and 55 parous women. CAT was measured using the whole-cell inclusion immunofluorescence test and cervical chlamydial DNA detected by PCR. Odds ratios were calculated to assess variables associated with C. trachomatis infection. Results. The prevalence of chlamydial antibodies and antibody titers in women with tubal occlusion or previous ectopic pregnancy was significantly higher (P<.01 than in parous women. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that chlamydia IgG antibodies were associated with tubal damage and with a larger number of lifetime sexual partners. Conclusions. Chlamydia antibody titers were associated with tubal occlusion, prior ectopic pregnancy, and with sexual behavior, suggesting that a chlamydia infection was the major contributor to the tubal damage in these women.

  17. Multi locus sequence typing of Chlamydiales: clonal groupings within the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Morelli, Giovanna; Kusecek, Barica; Morré, Servaas A.; Ossewaarde, Jacobus M.; Langerak, Ankie A.; van der Ende, Arie

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The obligate intracellular growing bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases like trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Several serovars and genotypes have been identified, but these could not be linked to clinical disease or outcome.

  18. Taking control: reorganization of the host cytoskeleton by Chlamydia [version 1; referees: 5 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Wesolowski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Both actin and microtubules are major cytoskeletal elements in eukaryotic cells that participate in many cellular processes, including cell division and motility, vesicle and organelle movement, and the maintenance of cell shape. Inside its host cell, the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis manipulates the cytoskeleton to promote its survival and enhance its pathogenicity. In particular, Chlamydia induces the drastic rearrangement of both actin and microtubules, which is vital for its entry, inclusion structure and development, and host cell exit. As significant progress in Chlamydia genetics has greatly enhanced our understanding of how this pathogen co-opts the host cytoskeleton, we will discuss the machinery used by Chlamydia to coordinate the reorganization of actin and microtubules.

  19. Prognostic value of vitamin D in patients with pneumonia: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: PubMed and Embase were systematically searched for relevant studies that assessed the impact of ... (CAP) is the main type of pneumonia which can .... Pneumonia severity index. .... pneumonia related to intracellular pathogens.

  20. Prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae : A cause for community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae : A cause for community‑acquired ... Atypical pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a leading cause of ... microscopic and biochemical studies for better diagnosis of these pathogens.

  1. Prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae: A cause for community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Atypical pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a leading cause of ... causing bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary ..... Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a frequent cause of exacerbation of bronchial asthma ...

  2. Aberrant chlamydial developmental forms in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs spontaneously and experimentally infected with Chlamydia suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospischil, Andreas; Borel, Nicole; Chowdhury, Emdad H; Guscetti, Franco

    2009-03-16

    The phenomenon of persistence is well known from in vitro studies, where it is associated with the production of aberrant bodies, but its occurrence in vivo is less well documented. The objective of this study was to search for aberrant bodies in intestinal tissues from pigs, describe their ultrastructure, and investigate the suitability of immunohistochemical staining for chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (cHSP60) to detect such forms. Intestinal tissues derived from pigs naturally and experimentally infected with Chlamydia (C.) suis were examined by immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy. The chlamydial species involved in the natural infection were determined using an Array Tube Microarray to C. suis and Chlamydophila abortus. Ultrastructurally, aberrant bodies were detected in the gut of both naturally and experimentally infected pigs. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that the aberrant bodies were labeled less strongly than the normal forms by antibodies against LPS and cHSP60 respectively. It was concluded that aberrant bodies occur in vivo in pigs and that the gnotobiotic pig model might be suitable for the study of chlamydial persistence in vivo. The antibody against cHSP60 does not appear to be suitable to specifically detect such forms.

  3. Access to chlamydia testing in remote and rural Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Katherine E; Thompson, Lucy; Wilson, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess access to sexual health care in remote and rural settings using Chlamydia testing as a focus by measuring the extent of Chlamydia testing and positivity across the Scottish Highlands in relation to the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation Quintile (SIMD) and Urban Rural 8-fold index (UR8). Tests processed through Raigmore Hospital in Inverness, the main testing laboratory for microbiology tests in North and West and South and Mid Highlands, were studied. Where people are tested in relation to where they live was assessed, as well as the type of test they opt for. Also assessed was the rate of positivity in male and female patients in rural compared with urban settings using the Scottish Government UR8 and in relation to the SIMD. 9644 results were analysed. 77.2% of the results were for females and 22.4% for males. 8.1% of the results were positive and 84.4% were negative. There were proportionately more positive tests from the sexual health sources than from general practice. The proportion of men who had positive tests was almost double that for women (12.7% vs 6.6%) although men made up only 27.9% of the total number of tests. There was no significant difference in positivity when compared with UR8 index or SIMD. 37.7% of people living in the most rural areas (UR8 7-8) had their test performed in a more urban setting (UR8 1-6), and 20.4% people had their test performed in a very urban setting (UR8 1-2). Of these tests, there was a tendency for UR8 7-8 patients to be more likely to have a positive test if tested in an urban setting. These results are similar to previous results in other countries that suggest that Chlamydia positivity is similar in rural and urban settings. A large proportion of people living in more rurally classified areas, and perhaps those with a higher risk, have their test in a central setting, suggesting that they may be bypassing local resources to get a test. The reason for this is not clear. The

  4. Public health economics of chlamydia and other STIs : aspects of risk, prevention and resources

    OpenAIRE

    Deogan, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to increase the knowledge of the public health economic aspects of chlamydia and other STIs, in terms of risk, prevention and resources. In Study I, we examined the association between demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors and the risk of self-reported chlamydial infection among young adults in the Stockholm public health cohort. We found that the risk of self-reported chlamydia infection among young adults in Sweden was associated with lowe...

  5. Whole-Genome Sequence of Chlamydia abortus Strain GN6 Isolated from Aborted Yak Fetus

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhaocai; Cai, Jinshan; Cao, Xiaoan; Lou, Zhongzi; Chao, Yilin; Kan, Wei; Zhou, Jizhang

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia abortus is one of the causative agents of abortion and fetal loss in sheep, goats, and cattle in many countries. It also affects the reproductivity of yaks (Bos grunniens). This study reports the whole-genome sequence of Chlamydia abortus strain GN6, which was isolated from aborted yak fetus in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

  6. Whole-Genome Sequence of Chlamydia abortus Strain GN6 Isolated from Aborted Yak Fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaocai; Cai, Jinshan; Cao, Xiaoan; Lou, Zhongzi; Chao, Yilin; Kan, Wei; Zhou, Jizhang

    2017-08-31

    The obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia abortus is one of the causative agents of abortion and fetal loss in sheep, goats, and cattle in many countries. It also affects the reproductivity of yaks ( Bos grunniens ). This study reports the whole-genome sequence of Chlamydia abortus strain GN6, which was isolated from aborted yak fetus in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. Copyright © 2017 Li et al.

  7. Attachment and entry of Chlamydia have distinct requirements for host protein disulfide isomerase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Abromaitis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia is an obligate intracellular pathogen that causes a wide range of diseases in humans. Attachment and entry are key processes in infectivity and subsequent pathogenesis of Chlamydia, yet the mechanisms governing these interactions are unknown. It was recently shown that a cell line, CHO6, that is resistant to attachment, and thus infectivity, of multiple Chlamydia species has a defect in protein disulfide isomerase (PDI N-terminal signal sequence processing. Ectopic expression of PDI in CHO6 cells led to restoration of Chlamydia attachment and infectivity; however, the mechanism leading to this recovery was not ascertained. To advance our understanding of the role of PDI in Chlamydia infection, we used RNA interference to establish that cellular PDI is essential for bacterial attachment to cells, making PDI the only host protein identified as necessary for attachment of multiple species of Chlamydia. Genetic complementation and PDI-specific inhibitors were used to determine that cell surface PDI enzymatic activity is required for bacterial entry into cells, but enzymatic function was not required for bacterial attachment. We further determined that it is a PDI-mediated reduction at the cell surface that triggers bacterial uptake. While PDI is necessary for Chlamydia attachment to cells, the bacteria do not appear to utilize plasma membrane-associated PDI as a receptor, suggesting that Chlamydia binds a cell surface protein that requires structural association with PDI. Our findings demonstrate that PDI has two essential and independent roles in the process of chlamydial infectivity: it is structurally required for chlamydial attachment, and the thiol-mediated oxido-reductive function of PDI is necessary for entry.

  8. Chlamydia and lymphogranuloma venereum in Canada: 2003-2012 Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, S; MacLean, R; Payne, E; Severini, A

    2015-01-01

    Background Chlamydia continues to be the most commonly reported sexually transmitted infection in Canada. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), caused by certain serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis, is becoming established in some populations in a number of Western countries. Objective To identify trends in reported cases of chlamydia and LGV in Canada from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2012. Methods Notifiable disease data on chlamydia were submitted to the Public Health Agency of Canada by provincial and territorial epidemiological units and summarized at the national level by age and sex. Confirmatory testing for suspected LGV cases and serovar subtyping were performed by the National Microbiology Laboratory (NML). Where possible, provincial/territorial health authorities use a standardized national case report form to collect enhanced epidemiological data on each case and to submit the data to the Agency. Results Rates of reported cases of chlamydia increased by 57.6%, from 189.6 to 298.7 per 100,000 between 2003 and 2012. The rate of reported cases of chlamydia among females (383.5 per 100,000) was almost twice as high as that among males (212.0 per 100,000), although the highest relative rate increase occurred among males. In both males and females, the rates of chlamydia were highest in those aged 20 to 24 years. From 2004 to 2012, 170 cases of LGV were reported to the Agency by provincial health authorities (including 104 confirmed and 66 probable cases). In 2012, case reports were received on 12 confirmed and probable cases, compared to 38 laboratory-positive cases confirmed by the NML. Conclusion In Canada, as in many countries, chlamydia rates have markedly increased over the last 10 years, in part due to improved diagnosis through nucleic acid amplification (NAAT) testing. Consistent with trends in Europe and other countries, LGV is emerging in Canada among men who have sex with men (MSM). PMID:29769927

  9. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Australia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Dyani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually transmitted infection in Australia. This report aims to measure the burden of chlamydia infection by systematically reviewing reports on prevalence in Australian populations. Methods Electronic databases and conference websites were searched from 1997–2011 using the terms ‘Chlamydia trachomatis’ OR ‘chlamydia’ AND ‘prevalence’ OR ‘epidemiology’ AND ‘Australia’. Reference lists were checked and researchers contacted for additional literature. Studies were categorised by setting and participants, and meta-analysis conducted to determine pooled prevalence estimates for each category. Results Seventy-six studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. There was a high level of heterogeneity between studies; however, there was a trend towards higher chlamydia prevalence in younger populations, Indigenous Australians, and those attending sexual health centres. In community or general practice settings, pooled prevalence for women Conclusions Chlamydia trachomatis infections are a significant health burden in Australia; however, accurate estimation of chlamydia prevalence in Australian sub-populations is limited by heterogeneity within surveyed populations, and variations in sampling methodologies and data reporting. There is a need for more large, population-based studies and prospective cohort studies to compliment mandatory notification data.

  10. Barriers and Facilitators of Partner Treatment of Chlamydia: A Qualitative Investigation with Prescribers and Community Pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Wood

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is the most frequently-notified sexually transmitted infection in Australia. Effective and timely partner treatment of chlamydia is essential to reduce overall prevalence and the burden of infection. Currently in most of Australia, the only avenue for partner treatment of chlamydia (“standard partner therapy” is a tedious, and often inconvenient, process. The barriers and facilitators of standard partner therapy, and newer models of accelerated partner therapy (APT, need to be identified in the Australian setting. Additionally, the potential role of community pharmacists need to be explored. Semi-structured interview guides for two key stakeholder groups (prescribers and pharmacists were developed and piloted. Eleven prescribers (general practitioners, sexual health clinicians and nurse practitioners and twelve pharmacists practicing in the Perth metropolitan region were interviewed. Key reported barriers to standard partner therapy were lack of or delayed chlamydia testing. Key facilitators included ability to test and educate sexual partner. Key barriers for APT included prescribers’ legal responsibility and potential for medication-related adverse effects. Healthcare provider consultation and chlamydia testing were seen as potential facilitators of APT. Pharmacists were receptive to the idea of expanding their role in chlamydia treatment, however, barriers to privacy must be overcome in order to be acceptable to prescribers and pharmacists.

  11. Persistent cough in an adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, M T; Harper, G; Chen, J

    1999-12-01

    Jessica, a 14-year-old girl with a history of asthma, went to her pediatrician's office because of a persistent cough. She had been coughing for at least 3 months with occasional cough-free periods of less than a few days. The cough was nonproductive and was not accompanied by fever, rhinorrhea, or facial or chest pain. Jessica and her mother observed that the cough increased with exercise and typically was not present during sleep. She has used two metered-dose inhalers--albuterol and cromolyn--without any change in the cough pattern. For the past 5 years, Jessica has had mild asthma responsive to albuterol. She enjoys running on the cross-country team, soccer, and dancing. She is an average student and denies any change in academic performance. She has never been hospitalized or had an emergency department visit for asthma or pneumonia. There has been no recent travel or exposure to a person with a chronic productive cough, tobacco smoke, or a live-in pet. Jessica lives with her mother and younger sister in a 10-year-old, carpeted apartment without any evidence of mold or recent renovation. In the process of taking the history, the pediatrician noticed that Jessica coughed intermittently, with two or three coughs during each episode. At times, the cough was harsh; at other times, it was a quiet cough, as if she were clearing her throat. She was cooperative, without overt anxiety or respiratory distress. After a complete physical examination with normal findings, the pediatrician interviewed Jessica and her mother alone. Jessica's parents had been divorced for the past 6 years. She lived with her mother but visited her father, and his new family with two young children, every weekend. She spoke about this arrangement comfortably and said that she loved her father and mother but didn't like the tension she experienced at her father's home. "I don't like adults arguing when kids are around." When asked why she thought the cough persisted so long, she commented in a

  12. Pneumonia: high-resolution CT findings in 114 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reittner, Pia [Department of Radiology, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Center, 855 W. 12th Ave., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Department of Radiology, Karl Franzens University and University Hospital Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 9, 8036 Graz (Austria); Ward, Suzanne; Heyneman, Laura; Mueller, Nestor L. [Department of Radiology, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Center, 855 W. 12th Ave., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Johkoh, Takeshi [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Medical School, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0825 (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the high-resolution CT appearances of different types of pneumonia. The high-resolution CT scans obtained in 114 patients (58 immunocompetent, 59 immunocompromised) with bacterial, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, viral, fungal, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonias were analyzed retrospectively by two independent observers for presence, pattern, and distribution of abnormalities. Areas of air-space consolidation were not detected in patients with viral pneumonia and were less frequently seen in patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (2 of 22 patients, 9%) than in bacterial (30 of 35, 85%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (22 of 28, 79%), and fungal pneumonias (15 of 20, 75%; p<0.01). There was no significant difference in the prevalence or distribution of consolidation between bacterial, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and fungal pneumonias. Extensive symmetric bilateral areas of ground-glass attenuation were present in 21 of 22 (95%) patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and were not seen in other pneumonias except in association with areas of consolidation and nodules. Centrilobular nodules were present less commonly in bacterial pneumonia (6 of 35 patients, 17%) than in Mycoplasma pneumoniae (24 of 28, 96%), viral (7 of 9, 78%), or fungal (12 of 20, 92%) pneumonia (p<0.01). Except for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, which often have a characteristic appearance, high-resolution CT is of limited value in the differential diagnosis of the various types of infective pneumonia. (orig.)

  13. Pneumonia: high-resolution CT findings in 114 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reittner, Pia; Ward, Suzanne; Heyneman, Laura; Mueller, Nestor L.; Johkoh, Takeshi

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the high-resolution CT appearances of different types of pneumonia. The high-resolution CT scans obtained in 114 patients (58 immunocompetent, 59 immunocompromised) with bacterial, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, viral, fungal, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonias were analyzed retrospectively by two independent observers for presence, pattern, and distribution of abnormalities. Areas of air-space consolidation were not detected in patients with viral pneumonia and were less frequently seen in patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (2 of 22 patients, 9%) than in bacterial (30 of 35, 85%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (22 of 28, 79%), and fungal pneumonias (15 of 20, 75%; p<0.01). There was no significant difference in the prevalence or distribution of consolidation between bacterial, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and fungal pneumonias. Extensive symmetric bilateral areas of ground-glass attenuation were present in 21 of 22 (95%) patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and were not seen in other pneumonias except in association with areas of consolidation and nodules. Centrilobular nodules were present less commonly in bacterial pneumonia (6 of 35 patients, 17%) than in Mycoplasma pneumoniae (24 of 28, 96%), viral (7 of 9, 78%), or fungal (12 of 20, 92%) pneumonia (p<0.01). Except for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, which often have a characteristic appearance, high-resolution CT is of limited value in the differential diagnosis of the various types of infective pneumonia. (orig.)

  14. Concurrent sexual partners-A predictor of Chlamydia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson; Olesen, Frede; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2013-01-01

    , but the significance of this compared with other well-known predictors has only been briefly described. Aim: The aim is to examine if concurrent partners isan independent predictor for C. trachomatis infection in young Danes aged 15-29 years. Methods: Detailed sexual behavior data were collected via a web......:These preliminary results suggest that concurrent sexual partners is an important predictor for C.trachomatis infections among young Danes aged 15-29. A more concise conclusion will be presented at the Ph.D day......Background:Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection among young Danes and the spread is highly dependent on the population’s sexual behavior. Previous studies have found concurrent partnerships to be a possible predictor for C. trachomatis...

  15. PNEUMONIA IN NURSING HOME RESIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Eržen

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pneumonia remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in advanced age. Prognosis of the disease depends on premorbid condition and immune competence of the patient, severity of the disease and causative microorganism. In our analysis we wanted to establish clinical, x-ray and microbiological characteristics of pneumonia in nursing home residents, estimate suitability of therapeutic measures and find out risk factors for adverse outcome in this group of patients.Material and methods. This retrospective study includes all nursing home residents hospitalised due to CAP in Hospital Golnik in 2000. Clinical data was/were evaluated according to case history. Microbiological data and laboratory results were gathered from the patients files. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis.Results. 30 patients, 17 women were included, aged 82.5 ± 11.7 years. 60% of patients had at least 2 accompanying diseases, most frequently cardiovascular and neurologic diseases. At admittance 83% of patients presented with severe form of the disease. Dispnea (93%, tachypnea, cough (67% and confusion (47% dominate clinical picture. Patients rarely expectorate, are frequently hypoxemic (93%, have leucocytosis (63%, electrolyte disturbances and elevated urea (67%. According to the microbiologic results most frequent causative agents are Enterobacteriae, S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and also some multiresistant bacteria. Amoxycillin with clavulanic acid was the most frequently used antibiotic, followed by macrolides and 3rd generation cephalosporines.9 patients died, mortality rate was 30%. Their average age was 83,4 years, 67% of them had more than 2 accompanying diseases, all of them severe form of the disease, 89% severe respiratory insufficiency and 22% positive hemoculture.Conclusions. Patients are characterised with numerous comorbidities and advanced age. Clinical presentation is unspecific. Mortality is high

  16. Prognostic implications of aspiration pneumonia in patients with community acquired pneumonia: A systematic review with meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Komiya, Kosaku; Rubin, Bruce K.; Kadota, Jun-ichi; Mukae, Hiroshi; Akaba, Tomohiro; Moro, Hiroshi; Aoki, Nobumasa; Tsukada, Hiroki; Noguchi, Shingo; Shime, Nobuaki; Takahashi, Osamu; Kohno, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Aspiration pneumonia is thought to be associated with a poor outcome in patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, there has been no systematic review regarding the impact of aspiration pneumonia on the outcomes in patients with CAP. This review was conducted using the MOOSE guidelines: Patients: patients defined CAP. Exposure: aspiration pneumonia defined as pneumonia in patients who have aspiration risk. Comparison: confirmed pneumonia in patients who were not considered to ...

  17. The Netherlands Chlamydia cohort study (NECCST) protocol to assess the risk of late complications following Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenderboom, B M; van Oeffelen, A A M; van Benthem, B H B; van Bergen, J E A M; Dukers-Muijrers, N H T M; Götz, H M; Hoebe, C J P A; Hogewoning, A A; van der Klis, F R M; van Baarle, D; Land, J A; van der Sande, M A B; van Veen, M G; de Vries, F; Morré, S A; van den Broek, I V F

    2017-04-11

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) among young women, can result in serious sequelae. Although the course of infection is often asymptomatic, CT may cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), leading to severe complications, such as prolonged time to pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy, and tubal factor subfertility. The risk of and risk factors for complications following CT-infection have not been assessed in a long-term prospective cohort study, the preferred design to define infections and complications adequately. In the Netherlands Chlamydia Cohort Study (NECCST), a cohort of women of reproductive age with and without a history of CT-infection is followed over a minimum of ten years to investigate (CT-related) reproductive tract complications. This study is a follow-up of the Chlamydia Screening Implementation (CSI) study, executed between 2008 and 2011 in the Netherlands. For NECCST, female CSI participants who consented to be approached for follow-up studies (n = 14,685) are invited, and prospectively followed until 2022. Four data collection moments are foreseen every two consecutive years. Questionnaire data and blood samples for CT-Immunoglobulin G (IgG) measurement are obtained as well as host DNA to determine specific genetic biomarkers related to susceptibility and severity of infection. CT-history will be based on CSI test outcomes, self-reported infections and CT-IgG presence. Information on (time to) pregnancies and the potential long-term complications (i.e. PID, ectopic pregnancy and (tubal factor) subfertility), will be acquired by questionnaires. Reported subfertility will be verified in medical registers. Occurrence of these late complications and prolonged time to pregnancy, as a proxy for reduced fertility due to a previous CT-infection, or other risk factors, will be investigated using longitudinal statistical procedures. In the proposed study, the occurrence of late complications following

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Anti-Hsp60 Immunity: The Two Sides of the Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Francesco; Conway de Macario, Everly; Di Felice, Valentina; Zummo, Giovanni; Macario, Alberto J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is one of the most common causes of reproductive tract diseases and infertility. CT-Hsp60 is synthesized during infection and is released in the bloodstream. As a consequence, immune cells will produce anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies. Hsp60, a ubiquitous and evolutionarily conserved chaperonin, is normally sequestered inside the cell, particularly into mitochondria. However, upon cell stress, as well as during carcinogenesis, the chaperonin becomes exposed on the cell surface (sf-Hsp60) and/or is secreted from cells into the extracellular space and circulation. Reports in the literature on circulating Hsp and anti-Hsp antibodies are in many cases short on details about Hsp60 concentrations, and about the specificity spectra of the antibodies, their titers, and their true, direct, pathogenetic effects. Thus, more studies are still needed to obtain a definitive picture on these matters. Nevertheless, the information already available indicates that the concurrence of persistent CT infection and appearance of sf-Hsp60 can promote an autoimmune aggression towards stressed cells and the development of diseases such as autoimmune arthritis, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, vasculitis, diabetes, and thyroiditis, among others. At the same time, immunocomplexes composed of anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies and circulating Hsp60 (both CT and human) may form deposits in several anatomical locations, e.g., at the glomerular basal membrane. The opposite side of the coin is that pre-tumor and tumor cells with sf-Hsp60 can be destroyed with participation of the anti-Hsp60 antibody, thus stopping cancer progression before it is even noticed by the patient or physician. PMID:19714222

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and anti-Hsp60 immunity: the two sides of the coin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cappello

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infection is one of the most common causes of reproductive tract diseases and infertility. CT-Hsp60 is synthesized during infection and is released in the bloodstream. As a consequence, immune cells will produce anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies. Hsp60, a ubiquitous and evolutionarily conserved chaperonin, is normally sequestered inside the cell, particularly into mitochondria. However, upon cell stress, as well as during carcinogenesis, the chaperonin becomes exposed on the cell surface (sf-Hsp60 and/or is secreted from cells into the extracellular space and circulation. Reports in the literature on circulating Hsp and anti-Hsp antibodies are in many cases short on details about Hsp60 concentrations, and about the specificity spectra of the antibodies, their titers, and their true, direct, pathogenetic effects. Thus, more studies are still needed to obtain a definitive picture on these matters. Nevertheless, the information already available indicates that the concurrence of persistent CT infection and appearance of sf-Hsp60 can promote an autoimmune aggression towards stressed cells and the development of diseases such as autoimmune arthritis, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, vasculitis, diabetes, and thyroiditis, among others. At the same time, immunocomplexes composed of anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies and circulating Hsp60 (both CT and human may form deposits in several anatomical locations, e.g., at the glomerular basal membrane. The opposite side of the coin is that pre-tumor and tumor cells with sf-Hsp60 can be destroyed with participation of the anti-Hsp60 antibody, thus stopping cancer progression before it is even noticed by the patient or physician.

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis Frequency in a Cohort of HPV-Infected Colombian Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Margarita Quinónez-Calvache

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the commonest infectious bacterial agent of sexual transmission throughout the world. It has been shown that the presence of this bacteria in the cervix represents a risk regarding HPV persistence and, thereafter, in developing cervical cancer (CC. Prevalence rates may vary from 2% to 17% in asymptomatic females, depending on the population being analysed. This study reports the identification of C. trachomatis in a cohort of 219 HPV-infected Colombian females.C. trachomatis infection frequency was determined during each of the study's follow-up visits; it was detected by amplifying the cryptic plasmid sequence by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using two sets of primers: KL5/KL6 and KL1/KL2. Infection was defined as a positive PCR result using either set of primers at any time during the study. Cox proportional risk models were used for evaluating the association between the appearance of infection and a group of independent variables.Base line C. trachomatis infection frequency was 28% (n = 61. Most females infected by C. trachomatis were infected by multiple types of HPV (77.42%, greater prevalence occurring in females infected with HPV-16 (19.18%, followed by HPV-58 (17.81%. It was observed that females having had the most sexual partners (HR = 6.44: 1.59-26.05 95%CI or infection with multiple types of HPV (HR = 2.85: 1.22-6.63 95%CI had the greatest risk of developing C. trachomatis.The study provides data regarding the epidemiology of C. trachomatis /HPV coinfection in different population groups of Colombian females and contributes towards understanding the natural history of C. trachomatis infection.

  1. Functional analysis of the cytoskeleton protein MreB from Chlamydophila pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaballah, Ahmed; Kloeckner, Anna; Otten, Christian; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Henrichfreise, Beate

    2011-01-01

    In rod-shaped bacteria, the bacterial actin ortholog MreB is considered to organize the incorporation of cell wall precursors into the side-wall, whereas the tubulin homologue FtsZ is known to tether incorporation of cell wall building blocks at the developing septum. For intracellular bacteria, there is no need to compensate osmotic pressure by means of a cell wall, and peptidoglycan has not been reliably detected in Chlamydiaceae. Surprisingly, a nearly complete pathway for the biosynthesis of the cell wall building block lipid II has been found in the genomes of Chlamydiaceae. In a previous study, we discussed the hypothesis that conservation of lipid II biosynthesis in cell wall-lacking bacteria may reflect the intimate molecular linkage of cell wall biosynthesis and cell division and thus an essential role of the precursor in cell division. Here, we investigate why spherical-shaped chlamydiae harbor MreB which is almost exclusively found in elongated bacteria (i.e. rods, vibrios, spirilla) whereas they lack the otherwise essential division protein FtsZ. We demonstrate that chlamydial MreB polymerizes in vitro and that polymerization is not inhibited by the blocking agent A22. As observed for MreB from Bacillus subtilis, chlamydial MreB does not require ATP for polymerization but is capable of ATP hydrolysis in phosphate release assays. Co-pelleting and bacterial two-hybrid experiments indicate that MreB from Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae interacts with MurF, MraY and MurG, three key components in lipid II biosynthesis. In addition, MreB polymerization is improved in the presence of MurF. Our findings suggest that MreB is involved in tethering biosynthesis of lipid II and as such may be necessary for maintaining a functional divisome machinery in Chlamydiaceae.

  2. A Case of Macrolide-Refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia in Pregnancy Treated with Garenoxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Matsuda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonia in pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and foetal outcomes, and intensive treatment with appropriate antibiotics is essential. However, cases caused by pathogens that are resistant to antibiotics suitable for the developing foetus are challenging. We herein report a case of macrolide-refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in pregnancy. A 40-year-old multigravida with twin pregnancy complained of cough and fever at 13 weeks of gestation and was diagnosed with pneumonia. Even though empiric treatment with ceftriaxone and oral azithromycin was started, her condition deteriorated rapidly. The findings of chest computed tomography suggested Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. Since azithromycin did not work, this strain was considered to be macrolide-refractory. Garenoxacin, an oral quinolone, was selected and was dramatically effective. The use of quinolone could be justified with the emergence of drug-resistant bacterial/atypical pneumonia and in the maternal life-threatening condition.

  3. Chronic necrotising pneumonia caused by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, J; Clark, T J; Corrin, B

    1989-01-01

    A woman with asthma developed chronic necrotising semi-invasive pneumonia due to mixed Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans infection; though not severely immunosuppressed, she may have been predisposed by long term oral corticosteroid and recurrent oral antibiotic treatment. The diagnosis should be considered in patients with chronic airflow limitation who develop cavitating pneumonia. Images PMID:2763249

  4. Immune Thrombocytopenia Associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Gouveia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP related to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is a rare condition and usually associated with a severe clinical course. We here report a case of a young man with a clinical diagnosis of severe ITP secondary to M. pneumoniae infection. The clinical features, therapy and outcome are presented.

  5. Ekstrapulmonale komplikationer ved mycoplasma pneumoniae-infektioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anne-Mette Bay; Lebech, Anne-Mette K

    2002-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of atypical pneumonia in children and young adults. The infection is generally mild and only a very few patients are admitted to hospital. However, extrapulmonary complications are well recognised--mostly as manifestations from the central nervous system (CNS)....

  6. Factors associated with colonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with schooling and presence chronic diseases. ... Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of serious community-acquired infections such as ... large number of individuals are still suffering from infections caused by these bacteria, especially ... samples of children with severe pneumonia (Nantanda et al., 2008).

  7. Pneumonia Caused by Moraxella Catarrhalis in Haematopoietic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two patients with haematopoietic stem cell transplant who developed pneumonia caused by M. catarrhalis at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre in Riyadh are reported and the literature is reviewed. To our knowledge, these are the first case reports of M. catarrhalis pneumonia in haematopoietic stem cell ...

  8. Pneumonia: Features registered in autopsy material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosjerina, Zdravko; Vukoja, Marija; Vuckovic, Dejan; Kosjerina Ostric, Vesna; Jevtic, Marija

    2017-08-01

    Despite improvements in clinical practice, pneumonia remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Pathologic findings from autopsy reports could provide more precise and valid data on characteristics of pneumonia patients. We retrospectively reviewed autopsy reports of deceased patients admitted to the Institute for Pulmonary Diseases of Vojvodina in Sremska Kamenica, Serbia, between 1994 and 2003. The patients were classified into two groups: group 1 (n = 161) comprised patients in whom pneumonia was the main cause of death, while group 2 (n = 165) consisted of patients in whom pneumonia was confirmed at autopsy but had various different causes of death. From 1776 patients who underwent autopsy 326 (18.3%) were diagnosed with pneumonia. The most common underlying diseases were atherosclerosis (29.4%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (26.7%), and malignancies (20.2%). Pneumonia was the main cause of death in 161 cases (group 1) while in group 2 major causes of death were heart failure (HF) (26.7%), acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (16.4%), and pulmonary embolism (PE) (10.9%). Multilobar involvement (91% vs.27%), pulmonary effusion (29% vs.14%), and lung abscess (23.6% vs.8.5%) were more frequently found in group 1, compared to group 2. In patients with pneumonia who underwent autopsy most common underlying diseases were atherosclerosis, COPD, and malignancies, while major causes of death were: progression of pneumonia, HF, AMI, and PE.

  9. Pneumonia Can Be Prevented -- Vaccines Can Help

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    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Pneumonia Can Be Prevented—Vaccines Can Help Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... affects millions of people worldwide each year. Pneumonia can often be prevented and can usually be treated. ...

  10. Molecular epidemiology of C. pneumoniae infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Shurdhi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chlamydophila pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae is one of the most common respiratory pathogen, with an incidence of infection varying from 6% to 20%. The present study aimed to assess the incidence of C. pneumoniae infections in patients with acute respiratory diseases using a RealTime PCR (RT-PCR method. Methods. In the period January 2007-December 2008 279 biological samples coming from patients (190 males and 89 females with acute respiratory infections was collected and tested. Samples have been extracted using NucliSens easyMag Biomerieu according to manufacturer’s instructions and amplified by LightCycler Real-Time PCR Roche for the detection of C. pneumoniae DNA. Results. Data analysis revealed a higher prevalence of C. pneumoniae infections in male patients (7.9% than in females (5.6%. In addition, it is interesting to note that the incidence of C. pneumoniae infection was higher 28.6% in the period February - April. Conclusions. The results obtained in this study confirm the utility of molecular techniques in laboratory diagnosis and epidemiological investigations of respiratory infection caused by C. pneumoniae. RT-PCR have proved to be a rapid and a reliable technique to monitor and treat opportunely C. pneumoniae infections to avoid short and medium/long term complications.

  11. Obstructive Respiratory Disease Complicating Pneumonia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: In Nigeria, annual death of children from pneumonia is up to 204,000 yearly. This burden may be worsened by chronic complications of acute infectious pneumonia, with many of them requiring prolonged treatment and follow-up after discharge. Although, a particular aetiologic agent could not be identified, but ...

  12. Pathomorphology and aerobic bacteria associated with pneumonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pneumonia occurs in all ages of sheep and goats, in all breeds, in every country of the world causing heavy economic losses. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of pneumonia and aerobic bacteria flora associated with it in small ruminants slaughtered at the Nsukka abattoir. Pneumonic lung of small ...

  13. Detection and quantification of Streptococcus pneumoniae from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to develop a real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for quantitative detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae from clinical respiratory specimens. Initially, 184 respiratory specimens from patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) (n = 129) and 55 cases with hospital associated ...

  14. A Multiplex PCR for Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, and Bordetella pertussis in Clinical Specimens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDonough, E. A; Barrozo, C. P; Russell, K. L; Metzgar, D

    2005-01-01

    A multiplex PCR was developed that is capable of detecting four of the most important bacterial agents of atypical pneumophia, Mycaplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophia pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila...

  15. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Gyoo; Sik; Oh, Kyung Seung; Kim, Jong Min; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk; Jang, Tae Won; Jung, Man Hong [Kosin Medical College, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-15

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is one of a recently described idiopathic eosinophilic lung disease, which differs from chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. Patients with acute eosinophilic pneumonia develop acute onset of dyspnea, hypoxemia, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and pleural effusion on chest radiograph, and show an increase in number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or lung biopsy specimen. Prompt and complete response to corticosteroid therapy without any recurrence is characteristically seen in patient with this disease. Although the etiology of acute eosinophilic pneumonia is not known, it has been suggested to be related to a hypersensitivity phenomenon to an unidentified inhaled antigen. We report four cases of acute eosinophilic pneumonia presented with acute onset of dyspnea, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph, and eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in previously healthy adults.

  16. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Gyoo; Sik; Oh, Kyung Seung; Kim, Jong Min; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk; Jang, Tae Won; Jung, Man Hong

    1995-01-01

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is one of a recently described idiopathic eosinophilic lung disease, which differs from chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. Patients with acute eosinophilic pneumonia develop acute onset of dyspnea, hypoxemia, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and pleural effusion on chest radiograph, and show an increase in number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or lung biopsy specimen. Prompt and complete response to corticosteroid therapy without any recurrence is characteristically seen in patient with this disease. Although the etiology of acute eosinophilic pneumonia is not known, it has been suggested to be related to a hypersensitivity phenomenon to an unidentified inhaled antigen. We report four cases of acute eosinophilic pneumonia presented with acute onset of dyspnea, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph, and eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in previously healthy adults

  17. Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae causes otitis media during single-species infection and during polymicrobial infection with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrah, Kyle A; Pang, Bing; Richardson, Stephen; Perez, Antonia; Reimche, Jennifer; King, Lauren; Wren, John; Swords, W Edward

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae strains lacking capsular polysaccharide have been increasingly reported in carriage and disease contexts. Since most cases of otitis media involve more than one bacterial species, we aimed to determine the capacity of a nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae clinical isolate to induce disease in the context of a single-species infection and as a polymicrobial infection with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. Using the chinchilla model of otitis media, we found that nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharynx following intranasal inoculation, but does not readily ascend into the middle ear. However, when we inoculated nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae directly into the middle ear, the bacteria persisted for two weeks post-inoculation and induced symptoms consistent with chronic otitis media. During coinfection with nontypeable H. influenzae, both species persisted for one week and induced polymicrobial otitis media. We also observed that nontypeable H. influenzae conferred passive protection from killing by amoxicillin upon S. pneumoniae from within polymicrobial biofilms in vitro. Therefore, based on these results, we conclude that nonencapsulated pneumococci are a potential causative agent of chronic/recurrent otitis media, and can also cause mutualistic infection with other opportunists, which could complicate treatment outcomes. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Functional and Biochemical Analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis MurC, an Enzyme Displaying UDP-N-Acetylmuramate:Amino Acid Ligase Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Hesse, Lars; Bostock, Julieanne; Dementin, Sebastien; Blanot, Didier; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Chopra, Ian

    2003-01-01

    Chlamydiae are unusual obligate intracellular bacteria that cause serious infections in humans. Chlamydiae contain genes that appear to encode products with peptidoglycan biosynthetic activity. The organisms are also susceptible to antibiotics that inhibit peptidoglycan synthesis. However, chlamydiae do not synthesize detectable peptidoglycan. The paradox created by these observations is known as the chlamydial anomaly. The MurC enzyme of chlamydiae, which is synthesized as a bifunctional Mur...

  19. Translation inhibition of the developmental cycle protein HctA by the small RNA IhtA is conserved across Chlamydia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah Tattersall

    Full Text Available The developmental cycle of the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 is controlled in part by the small non-coding RNA (sRNA, IhtA. All Chlamydia alternate in a regulated fashion between the infectious elementary body (EB and the replicative reticulate body (RB which asynchronously re-differentiates back to the terminal EB form at the end of the cycle. The histone like protein HctA is central to RB:EB differentiation late in the cycle as it binds to and occludes the genome, thereby repressing transcription and translation. The sRNA IhtA is a critical component of this regulatory loop as it represses translation of hctA until late in infection at which point IhtA transcription decreases, allowing HctA expression to occur and RB to EB differentiation to proceed. It has been reported that IhtA is expressed during infection by the human pathogens C. trachomatis serovars L2, D and L2b and C. pneumoniae. We show in this work that IhtA is also expressed by the animal pathogens C. caviae and C. muridarum. Expression of HctA in E. coli is lethal and co-expression of IhtA relieves this phenotype. To determine if regulation of HctA by IhtA is a conserved mechanism across pathogenic chlamydial species, we cloned hctA and ihtA from C. trachomatis serovar D, C. muridarum, C. caviae and C. pneumoniae and assayed for rescue of growth repression in E. coli co-expression studies. In each case, co-expression of ihtA with the cognate hctA resulted in relief of growth repression. In addition, expression of each chlamydial species IhtA rescued the lethal phenotype of C. trachomatis serovar L2 HctA expression. As biolayer interferometry studies indicate that IhtA interacts directly with hctA message for all species tested, we predict that conserved sequences of IhtA are necessary for function and/or binding.

  20. Translation inhibition of the developmental cycle protein HctA by the small RNA IhtA is conserved across Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Jeremiah; Rao, Geeta Vittal; Runac, Justin; Hackstadt, Ted; Grieshaber, Scott S; Grieshaber, Nicole A

    2012-01-01

    The developmental cycle of the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 is controlled in part by the small non-coding RNA (sRNA), IhtA. All Chlamydia alternate in a regulated fashion between the infectious elementary body (EB) and the replicative reticulate body (RB) which asynchronously re-differentiates back to the terminal EB form at the end of the cycle. The histone like protein HctA is central to RB:EB differentiation late in the cycle as it binds to and occludes the genome, thereby repressing transcription and translation. The sRNA IhtA is a critical component of this regulatory loop as it represses translation of hctA until late in infection at which point IhtA transcription decreases, allowing HctA expression to occur and RB to EB differentiation to proceed. It has been reported that IhtA is expressed during infection by the human pathogens C. trachomatis serovars L2, D and L2b and C. pneumoniae. We show in this work that IhtA is also expressed by the animal pathogens C. caviae and C. muridarum. Expression of HctA in E. coli is lethal and co-expression of IhtA relieves this phenotype. To determine if regulation of HctA by IhtA is a conserved mechanism across pathogenic chlamydial species, we cloned hctA and ihtA from C. trachomatis serovar D, C. muridarum, C. caviae and C. pneumoniae and assayed for rescue of growth repression in E. coli co-expression studies. In each case, co-expression of ihtA with the cognate hctA resulted in relief of growth repression. In addition, expression of each chlamydial species IhtA rescued the lethal phenotype of C. trachomatis serovar L2 HctA expression. As biolayer interferometry studies indicate that IhtA interacts directly with hctA message for all species tested, we predict that conserved sequences of IhtA are necessary for function and/or binding.

  1. Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at increased risk. You work in construction or agriculture.Working in environments where you breathe in dust, ... Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family Health ...

  2. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system is associated with delayed endocervical clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis without alterations in vaginal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechty, Emma R; Bergin, Ingrid L; Bassis, Christine M; Chai, Daniel; LeBar, William; Young, Vincent B; Bell, Jason D

    2015-11-01

    Progestin-based contraception may impact women's susceptibility to sexually transmitted infection. We evaluated the effect of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) on cervical persistence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in a baboon model. Female olive baboons (Papio anubis) with or without an LNG-IUS received CT or sham inoculations. CT was detected in cervical epithelium with weekly nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) and culture. Presence of the LNG-IUS was associated with prolonged persistence of CT. Median time to post-inoculation clearance of CT as detected by NAAT was 10 weeks (range 7-12) for animals with an LNG-IUS and 3 weeks (range 0-12) for non-LNG-IUS animals (P = 0.06). Similarly, median time to post-inoculation clearance of CT by culture was 9 weeks (range 3-12) for LNG-IUS animals and 1.5 weeks (range 0-10) for non-LNG-IUS animals (P = 0.04). We characterized the community structure of the vaginal microbiota with the presence of the LNG-IUS to determine if alterations in CT colonization dynamics were associated with changes in vaginal commensal bacteria. Vaginal swabs were collected weekly for microbiome analysis. Endocervical CT infection was not correlated with alterations in the vaginal microbiota. Together, these results suggest that LNG-IUS may facilitate CT endocervical persistence through a mechanism distinct from vaginal microbial alterations. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Attitudes to Chlamydia screening elicited using the social networking site Facebook for subject recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Navera; Jayasinghe, Yasmin; Wark, John D; Fenner, Yeshe; Moore, Elya E; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Fletcher, Ashley; Garland, Suzanne M

    2013-07-01

    Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) is the commonest bacterial sexually transmissible infection worldwide and contributes to significant morbidity in females. We examined potential barriers and facilitating factors for screening in young Victorian women, using the social networking site, Facebook to recruit participants. This was part of a larger study on young women's health that assessed the feasibility of using social networking sites for recruitment. An advertisement was placed on Facebook between May and September 2010, and was visible to eligible women. Women who clicked on the advertisement and expressed their interest in participating were invited to complete a questionnaire either at a study site or online. In total, 278 participants completed the survey, with 76% reporting willingness to participate in chlamydia screening by recruitment via an online system. Overall, 73% of participants indicated they were comfortable providing a urine sample collected at home for chlamydia screening, with older participants less comfortable with this method (P=0.02, odds ratio (OR)=0.09, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.01-0.7). Participants expressed comfort with their Pap smear and chlamydia screening being performed together (92.7%), especially those who were aware of human papillomavirus (P<0.01, OR=2.5, 95% CI=1.3-4.7). This study demonstrated willingness by young Victorian women using Facebook to participate in screening for chlamydia. There was strong acceptance of self-collected sampling, and of combined chlamydia and cervical cytology screening. Facebook may therefore be a feasible way for improving screening coverage at a population level.

  4. Young women's decisions to accept chlamydia screening: influences of stigma and doctor-patient interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connell Emer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of the factors that encourage young women to accept, and discourage them from accepting, STI (sexually transmitted infection testing is needed to underpin opportunistic screening programs for the STI Chlamydia trachomatis (opportunistic screening involves healthcare professionals offering chlamydia tests to people while they are attending health services for reasons that are usually unrelated to their sexual health. We conducted a qualitative study to identify and explore: how young women would feel about being offered opportunistic tests for chlamydia?; how young women would like to be offered screening, and who they wanted to be offered screening by?; and what factors would influence young women's partner notification preferences for chlamydia (who they would notify in the event of a positive diagnosis of chlamydia, how they would want to do this. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 35 young women between eighteen and twenty nine years of age. The study was conducted in the Dublin and Galway regions of the Republic of Ireland. Young adults were recruited from General Practice (GP practices, Third Level College health services, Family Planning clinics and specialist STI treatment services. Results Respondents were worried that their identities would become stigmatised if they accepted screening. Younger respondents and those from lower socio-economic backgrounds had the greatest stigma-related concerns. Most respondents indicated that they would accept screening if it was offered to them, however; accepting screening was seen as a correct, responsible action to engage in. Respondents wanted to be offered screening by younger female healthcare professionals. Respondents were willing to inform their current partners about positive chlamydia diagnoses, but were more ambivalent about informing their previous partners. Conclusions If an effort is not put into reducing young women's stigma-related concerns the

  5. Extragenital Infections Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Chan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, sexually transmitted diseases due to Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae continue to be a major public health burden. Screening of extragenital sites including the oropharynx and rectum is an emerging practice based on recent studies highlighting the prevalence of infection at these sites. We reviewed studies reporting the prevalence of extragenital infections in women, men who have sex with men (MSM, and men who have sex only with women (MSW, including distribution by anatomical site. Among women, prevalence was found to be 0.6–35.8% for rectal gonorrhea (median reported prevalence 1.9%, 0–29.6% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.1%, 2.0–77.3% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.7%, and 0.2–3.2% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%. Among MSM, prevalence was found to be 0.2–24.0% for rectal gonorrhea (median 5.9%, 0.5–16.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 4.6%, 2.1–23.0% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.9%, and 0–3.6% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%. Among MSW, the prevalence was found to be 0–5.7% for rectal gonorrhea (median 3.4%, 0.4–15.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.2%, 0–11.8% for rectal chlamydia (median 7.7%, and 0–22.0% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.6%. Extragenital infections are often asymptomatic and found in the absence of reported risk behaviors, such as receptive anal and oral intercourse. We discuss current clinical recommendations and future directions for research.

  6. Home-based chlamydia testing of young people attending a music festival--who will pee and post?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks-Davis, Rachel; Gold, Judy; Aitken, Campbell K; Hellard, Margaret E

    2010-06-28

    Chlamydia is most common among young people, but only a small proportion of Australian young people are tested annually. Home-based chlamydia testing has been piloted in several countries to increase testing rates, but uptake has been low. We aimed to identify predictors of uptake of home-based chlamydia testing to inform future testing programs. We offered home-based chlamydia testing kits to participants in a sexual behaviour cross-sectional survey conducted at a music festival in Melbourne, Australia. Those who consented received a testing kit and were asked to return their urine or vaginal swab sample via post. Nine hundred and two sexually active music festival attendees aged 16-29 completed the survey; 313 (35%) opted to receive chlamydia testing kits, and 67 of 313 (21%) returned a specimen for testing. One participant was infected with chlamydia (1% prevalence). Independent predictors of consenting to receive a testing kit included older age, knowing that chlamydia can make women infertile, reporting more than three lifetime sexual partners and inconsistent condom use. Independent predictors of returning a sample to the laboratory included knowing that chlamydia can be asymptomatic, not having had an STI test in the past six months and not living with parents. A low proportion of participants returned their chlamydia test, suggesting that this model is not ideal for reaching young people. Home-based chlamydia testing is most attractive to those who report engaging in sexual risk behaviours and are aware of the often asymptomatic nature and potential sequelae of chlamydia infection.

  7. Home-based chlamydia testing of young people attending a music festival - who will pee and post?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Chlamydia is most common among young people, but only a small proportion of Australian young people are tested annually. Home-based chlamydia testing has been piloted in several countries to increase testing rates, but uptake has been low. We aimed to identify predictors of uptake of home-based chlamydia testing to inform future testing programs. Methods We offered home-based chlamydia testing kits to participants in a sexual behaviour cross-sectional survey conducted at a music festival in Melbourne, Australia. Those who consented received a testing kit and were asked to return their urine or vaginal swab sample via post. Results Nine hundred and two sexually active music festival attendees aged 16-29 completed the survey; 313 (35%) opted to receive chlamydia testing kits, and 67 of 313 (21%) returned a specimen for testing. One participant was infected with chlamydia (1% prevalence). Independent predictors of consenting to receive a testing kit included older age, knowing that chlamydia can make women infertile, reporting more than three lifetime sexual partners and inconsistent condom use. Independent predictors of returning a sample to the laboratory included knowing that chlamydia can be asymptomatic, not having had an STI test in the past six months and not living with parents. Conclusions A low proportion of participants returned their chlamydia test, suggesting that this model is not ideal for reaching young people. Home-based chlamydia testing is most attractive to those who report engaging in sexual risk behaviours and are aware of the often asymptomatic nature and potential sequelae of chlamydia infection. PMID:20584287

  8. Correlations between computed tomography findings and clinical manifestations of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagihashi, Kunihiro; Kurihara, Yasuyuki; Fujikawa, Atsuko; Matsuoka, Shin; Nakajima, Yasuo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the imaging features and compare computed tomography (CT) findings with clinical features of patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. We retrospectively reviewed 75 patients (44 men, 31 women; mean age 67 years) diagnosed with S. pneumoniae pneumonia who underwent chest CT scanning at our institution between January 2007 and August 2008. Diagnoses were based on detection of the S. pneumoniae antigen in urine. Chest CT scans revealed abnormalities in all patients. The predominant opacity patterns were an airspace pneumonia pattern (48%) and a bronchopneumonia pattern (48%), followed by an interstitial pneumonia pattern (4%). Consolidation was observed most frequently (84%) followed by ground glass opacity (82.7%), bronchial wall thickening (61.3%), and centrilobular nodules (49.3%). Airway dilatation (21.6%), pleural effusion (33.3%), lymphadenopathy (34.8%), and pulmonary emphysema (21.3%) were also observed. Pulmonary emphysema was significantly less frequent in patients with the bronchopneumonia pattern than in those without (p=0.007). The clinical features and CT findings did not differ significantly. CT image analysis showed that patients with S. pneumoniae pneumonia exhibited the bronchopneumonia and airspace pneumonia patterns with equal frequency. Bronchopneumonia pattern was less common in patients with preexisting emphysema. (author)

  9. Comparison of high-resolution computed tomography findings between Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia and Cytomegalovirus pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omeri, Ahmad Khalid; Okada, Fumito; Takata, Shoko; Ono, Asami; Sato, Haruka; Mori, Hiromu; Nakayama, Tomoko; Ando, Yumiko; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi

    2014-01-01

    To compare pulmonary high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia to HRCT findings in patients with Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia. We studied 124 patients (77 men, 47 women; age range, 20-89 years; mean age, 65.4 years) with P. aeruginosa pneumonia and 44 patients (22 men, 22 women; age range, 36-86 years; mean age, 63.2 years) with CMV pneumonia. CT findings of consolidation (p < 0.005), bronchial wall thickening (p < 0.001), cavity (p < 0.05), and pleural effusion (p < 0.001) were significantly more frequent in patients with P. aeruginosa pneumonia than in those with CMV pneumonia. Centrilobular nodules, a crazy-paving appearance, and nodules were significantly more frequent in patients with CMV pneumonia than in those with P. aeruginosa pneumonia (all p < 0.001). Pulmonary HRCT findings, such as bronchial wall thickening, crazy-paving appearance, and nodules may be useful in distinguishing between P. aeruginosa pneumonia and CMV pneumonia. (orig.)

  10. Validity of bacterial pneumonia score for predicting bacteremia in children with pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia Theodosia Daten Beyeng

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Bacteremia in children with pneumonia reflects a severe condition, with longer duration of hospital care and potentially lethal complications. Early detection of bacteremia in patients with pneumonia may reduce serious complications. Few bacteremia screening tools have been widely used in chidren with pneumonia. One of those tools is the bacterial pneumonia score (BPS. Objective To assess the validity of the bacterial pneumonia score for predicting bacteremia in pediatric patients with pneumonia. Methods A diagnostic test was conducted on children aged 1 to 60 months hospitalized with pneumonia from December 2009 to August 2010. Subjects were collected consecutively. Pneumonia was diagnosed using the World Healt Organization (WHO criteria. Subjects underwent complete blood counts and blood culture examinations at admission. Statistical analyses included sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value (PPV/NPV, positive and negative likelihood ratio (PLR/NLR, and post-test probability. Results Our study included 229 children. Based on BPS with a cut-off score of ≥ 4, the sensitivity was 83.3%, specificity 49.7%, PPV 8.4%, NPV 98.2%, PLR 1.66, NLR 0.31, and post-test probability 8.4% for detecting bacteremia in pediatric pneumonia patients. Conclusion BPS can not be used for predicting bacteremia in pediatric patients with pneumonia.

  11. Comparison of high-resolution computed tomography findings between Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia and Cytomegalovirus pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omeri, Ahmad Khalid; Okada, Fumito; Takata, Shoko; Ono, Asami; Sato, Haruka; Mori, Hiromu [Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yufu, Oita (Japan); Nakayama, Tomoko [Oita Red Cross Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oita (Japan); Ando, Yumiko [Oita Nishibeppu National Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oita (Japan); Hiramatsu, Kazufumi [Oita University Hospital, Hospital Infection Control Center, Oita (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    To compare pulmonary high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia to HRCT findings in patients with Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia. We studied 124 patients (77 men, 47 women; age range, 20-89 years; mean age, 65.4 years) with P. aeruginosa pneumonia and 44 patients (22 men, 22 women; age range, 36-86 years; mean age, 63.2 years) with CMV pneumonia. CT findings of consolidation (p < 0.005), bronchial wall thickening (p < 0.001), cavity (p < 0.05), and pleural effusion (p < 0.001) were significantly more frequent in patients with P. aeruginosa pneumonia than in those with CMV pneumonia. Centrilobular nodules, a crazy-paving appearance, and nodules were significantly more frequent in patients with CMV pneumonia than in those with P. aeruginosa pneumonia (all p < 0.001). Pulmonary HRCT findings, such as bronchial wall thickening, crazy-paving appearance, and nodules may be useful in distinguishing between P. aeruginosa pneumonia and CMV pneumonia. (orig.)

  12. Demographics of antibiotic persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollerova, Silvia; Jouvet, Lionel; Steiner, Ulrich

    Persister cells, cells that can survive antibiotic exposure but lack heritable antibiotic resistance, are assumed to play a crucial role for the evolution of antibiotic resistance. Persistence is a stage associated with reduced metabolic activity. Most previous studies have been done on batch...... even play a more prominent role for the evolution of resistance and failures of medical treatment by antibiotics as currently assumed....

  13. Electron tomography and cryo-SEM characterization reveals novel ultrastructural features of host-parasite interaction during Chlamydia abortus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkat, M; Herdoiza, E; Forsbach-Birk, V; Walther, P; Essig, A

    2014-08-01

    Chlamydia (C.) abortus is a widely spread pathogen among ruminants that can be transmitted to women during pregnancy leading to severe systemic infection with consecutive abortion. As a member of the Chlamydiaceae, C. abortus shares the characteristic feature of an obligate intracellular biphasic developmental cycle with two morphological forms including elementary bodies (EBs) and reticulate bodies (RBs). In contrast to other chlamydial species, C. abortus ultrastructure has not been investigated yet. To do so, samples were fixed by high-pressure freezing and processed by different electron microscopic methods. Freeze-substituted samples were analysed by transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopical tomography and immuno-electron microscopy, and freeze-fractured samples were analysed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Here, we present three ultrastructural features of C. abortus that have not been reported up to now. Firstly, the morphological evidence that C. abortus is equipped with the type three secretion system. Secondly, the accumulation and even coating of whole inclusion bodies by membrane complexes consisting of multiple closely adjacent membranes which seems to be a C. abortus specific feature. Thirdly, the formation of small vesicles in the periplasmic space of RBs in the second half of the developmental cycle. Concerning the time point of their formation and the fact that they harbour chlamydial components, these vesicles might be morphological correlates of an intermediate step during the process of redifferentiation of RBs into EBs. As this feature has also been shown for C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae, it might be a common characteristic of the family of Chlamydiaceae.

  14. Multi-genome identification and characterization of chlamydiae-specific type III secretion substrates: the Inc proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Guangming

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that multiply in a vacuolar compartment, the inclusion. Several chlamydial proteins containing a bilobal hydrophobic domain are translocated by a type III secretion (TTS mechanism into the inclusion membrane. They form the family of Inc proteins, which is specific to this phylum. Based on their localization, Inc proteins likely play important roles in the interactions between the microbe and the host. In this paper we sought to identify and analyze, using bioinformatics tools, all putative Inc proteins in published chlamydial genomes, including an environmental species. Results Inc proteins contain at least one bilobal hydrophobic domain made of two transmembrane helices separated by a loop of less than 30 amino acids. Using bioinformatics tools we identified 537 putative Inc proteins across seven chlamydial proteomes. The amino-terminal segment of the putative Inc proteins was recognized as a functional TTS signal in 90% of the C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae sequences tested, validating the data obtained in silico. We identified a macro domain in several putative Inc proteins, and observed that Inc proteins are enriched in segments predicted to form coiled coils. A surprisingly large proportion of the putative Inc proteins are not constitutively translocated to the inclusion membrane in culture conditions. Conclusions The Inc proteins represent 7 to 10% of each proteome and show a great degree of sequence diversity between species. The abundance of segments with a high probability for coiled coil conformation in Inc proteins support the hypothesis that they interact with host proteins. While the large majority of Inc proteins possess a functional TTS signal, less than half may be constitutively translocated to the inclusion surface in some species. This suggests the novel finding that translocation of Inc proteins may be regulated by as-yet undetermined mechanisms.

  15. Trichomonas vaginalis infection: How significant is it in men presenting with recurrent or persistent symptoms of urethritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Andrea; Ross, Jonathan D C

    2016-01-01

    Persistent or recurrent non-gonococcal urethritis has been reported to affect up to 10-20% of men attending sexual health clinics. An audit was undertaken to review the management of persistent or recurrent non-gonococcal urethritis in men presenting at Whittall Street Clinic, Birmingham, UK. Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis infection was with the newly-introduced nucleic acid amplification test. A total of 43 (8%) of 533 men treated for urethritis re-attended within three months with persistent or recurrent symptoms. Chlamydia trachomatis infection was identified in 13/40 (33%), T. vaginalis in 1/27 (4%) and Mycoplasma genitalium in 6/12 (50%). These findings suggest that the prevalence of T. vaginalis infection remains low in our clinic population and may not contribute significantly to persistent or recurrent non-gonococcal urethritis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis Antibody Testing in Vaginal Mucosal Material versus Blood Samples of Women Attending a Fertility Clinic and an STI Clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, I.V.F.; Land, J.A.; van Bergen, J.E.A.M.; Morré, S.A.; van der Sande, M.A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chlamydia infections often follow an asymptomatic course but may damage the reproductive tract. Chlamydia antibodies in serum are used as markers for past infections and can relate to tubal pathology and infertility. This "proof of principle" study aimed to assess whether Chlamydia

  17. Neumonia adquirida en la comunidad en dos poblaciones hospitalarias Community-acquired pneumonia in patients from two different hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. J. Caberlotto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron en forma prospectiva pacientes con diagnóstico de neumonía adquirida en la comunidad que acudieron a la consulta en un hospital general y en un centro especializado en medicina respiratoria ubicados en la provincia de Buenos Aires, y que requirieron internación. Se evaluaron la distribución por sexo y edad, las comorbilidades asociadas, los agentes etiológicos, su incidencia y la mortalidad. Se incluyeron 52 pacientes (marzo 1998-febrero 1999 del Hospital General de Agudos Manuel Belgrano (HMB y 23 pacientes (junio 2000-mayo 2001 del Hospital del Tórax Dr. Antonio A. Cetrángolo (HCET. Se excluyeron pacientes con tuberculosis o micosis pulmonar, neoplasia de pulmón y diagnóstico serológico para HIV. Se completó una historia clínica y se realizaron estudios microbiológicos para gérmenes comunes, virus respiratorios y micobacterias. Para el estudio de los agentes productores de neumonías atípicas (Chlamydia spp, Coxiella burnetii, Mycoplasma pneumoniae y Legionella spp. y como complemento del estudio virológico, se utilizaron pruebas serológicas. No se observaron diferencias por sexo y edad en los dos grupos. En el HMB las comorbilidades más frecuentes fueron EPOC, diabetes e insuficiencia cardíaca, en tanto que en el HCET fueron EPOC, asma y fibrosis pulmonar. Se obtuvo un diagnóstico microbiológico en el 48% y 65.2% de los pacientes para ambos grupos. Los agentes hallados más frecuentemente fueron Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, influenza A y Legionella spp, este último germen con una incidencia del 12% en pacientes que evolucionaron favorablemente y que en su mayoría pertenecían al HMB. La mortalidad fue similar para ambos grupos (13.3%. En el HMB estuvo relacionada con la existencia de comorbilidades en 7 de 8 casos y en el HCET con el agravamiento de la insuficiencia respiratoria crónica.Patients hospitalized with community acquired pneumonia were studied prospectively in two hospitals

  18. Chylothorax in dermatomyositis complicated with interstitial pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoda, Kentaro; Kiboshi, Takao; Shoda, Takeshi

    2017-04-01

    Chylothorax is a disease in which chyle leaks and accumulates in the thoracic cavity. Interstitial pneumonia and pneumomediastinum are common thoracic manifestations of dermatomyositis, but chylothorax complicated with dermatomyositis is not reported. We report a case of dermatomyositis with interstitial pneumonia complicated by chylothorax. A 77-year-old woman was diagnosed as dermatomyositis with Gottron's papules, skin ulcers, anti-MDA5 antibody and rapid progressive interstitial pneumonia. Treatment with betamethasone, tacrolimus and intravenous high-dose cyclophosphamide was initiated, and her skin symptoms and interstitial pneumonia improved once. However, right-sided chylothorax began to accumulate and gradually increase, and at the same time, her interstitial pneumonia began to exacerbate, and skin ulcers began to reappear on her fingers and auricles. Although her chylothorax improved by fasting and parenteral nutrition, she died due to further exacerbations of dermatomyositis and interstitial pneumonia in spite of steroid pulse therapy, increase in the betamethasone dosage, additional intravenous high-dose cyclophosphamide and plasma pheresis. An autopsy showed no lesions such as malignant tumors in the thoracic cavity. This is the first report of chylothorax complicated by dermatomyositis with interstitial pneumonia.

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis Pgp3 Antibody Population Seroprevalence before and during an Era of Widespread Opportunistic Chlamydia Screening in England (1994-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Woodhall

    Full Text Available Opportunistic chlamydia screening of <25 year-olds was nationally-implemented in England in 2008 but its impact on chlamydia transmission is poorly understood. We undertook a population-based seroprevalence study to explore the impact of screening on cumulative incidence of chlamydia, as measured by C.trachomatis-specific antibody.Anonymised sera from participants in the nationally-representative Health Surveys for England (HSE were tested for C.trachomatis antibodies using two novel Pgp3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs as a marker of past infection. Determinants of being seropositive were explored using logistic regression among 16-44 year-old women and men in 2010 and 2012 (years when sexual behaviour questions were included in the survey (n = 1,402 women; 1,119 men. Seroprevalence trends among 16-24 year-old women (n = 3,361 were investigated over ten time points from 1994-2012.In HSE2010/2012, Pgp3 seroprevalence among 16-44 year-olds was 24.4% (95%CI 22.0-27.1 in women and 13.9% (11.8-16.2 in men. Seroprevalence increased with age (up to 33.5% [27.5-40.2] in 30-34 year-old women, 18.7% [13.4-25.6] in 35-39 year-old men; years since first sex; number of lifetime sexual partners; and younger age at first sex. 76.7% of seropositive 16-24 year-olds had never been diagnosed with chlamydia. Among 16-24 year-old women, a non-significant decline in seroprevalence was observed from 2008-2012 (prevalence ratio per year: 0.94 [0.84-1.05].Our application of Pgp3 ELISAs demonstrates a high lifetime risk of chlamydia infection among women and a large proportion of undiagnosed infections. A decrease in age-specific cumulative incidence following national implementation of opportunistic chlamydia screening has not yet been demonstrated. We propose these assays be used to assess impact of chlamydia control programmes.

  20. Alveolar damage in AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Prentø, P; Junge, Jette

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is the most common and serious of the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Despite this, many basic aspects in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated P carinii pneumonia are unknown. We therefore undertook a light and electron microscopic study of transbronchial...... biopsy specimens to compare pathologic features of P carinii pneumonia and other HIV-related lung diseases. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Thirty-seven consecutive HIV-infected patients undergoing a diagnostic bronchoscopy. RESULTS: P carinii pneumonia was characterized by an increase in inflammation, edema...... with P carinii pneumonia, whereas none without P carinii pneumonia had this finding (p pneumonia. The changes may form...

  1. Pseudomona pseudomallei community acquired pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severiche, Diego

    1998-01-01

    This is the first published case report en Colombia about pseudomona pseudomallei community acquired pneumonia. This uncommon pathogen is from the epidemiological standpoint a very important one and medical community should be aware to look after it in those patients where no other etiological pathogen is recovered. A brief summary about epidemiology is showed, emphasizing those regions where it can be found. Likewise, comments about the differential diagnosis are important since it should be considered in those patients where tuberculosis is suspected. This is particularly representative for countries with high tuberculosis rates. Furthermore, a microbiological review is shown, emphasizing on isolation techniques, descriptions about therapeutics and other regarding treatment issues according international standards. Finally; a description about the clinical picture, laboratory findings, treatment and evolution of the case reported are shown for discussion

  2. Promoting chlamydia screening with posters and leaflets in general practice--a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Elaine; Howell-Jones, Rebecca; Oliver, Isabel; Randall, Sarah; Ford-Young, William; Beckwith, Philippa; McNulty, Cliodna

    2009-10-12

    General practice staff are reluctant to discuss sexual health opportunistically in all consultations. Health promotion materials may help alleviate this barrier. Chlamydia screening promotion posters and leaflets, produced by the English National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP), have been available to general practices, through local chlamydia screening offices, since its launch. In this study we explored the attitudes of general practice staff to these screening promotional materials, how they used them, and explored other promotional strategies to encourage chlamydia screening. Twenty-five general practices with a range of screening rates, were purposively selected from six NCSP areas in England. In focus groups doctors, nurses, administrative staff and receptionists were encouraged to discuss candidly their experiences about their use and opinions of posters, leaflets and advertising to promote chlamydia screening. Researchers observed whether posters and leaflets were on display in reception and/or waiting areas. Data were collected and analysed concurrently using a stepwise framework analytical approach. Although two-thirds of screening practices reported that they displayed posters and leaflets, they were not prominently displayed in most practices. Only a minority of practices reported actively using screening promotional materials on an ongoing basis. Most staff in all practices were not following up the advertising in posters and leaflets by routinely offering opportunistic screening to their target population. Some staff in many practices thought posters and leaflets would cause offence or embarrassment to their patients. Distribution of chlamydia leaflets by receptionists was thought to be inappropriate by some practices, as they thought patients would be offended when being offered a leaflet in a public area. Practice staff suggested the development of pocket-sized leaflets. The NCSP should consider developing a range of more discrete but eye

  3. Promoting chlamydia screening with posters and leaflets in general practice - a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Elaine; Howell-Jones, Rebecca; Oliver, Isabel; Randall, Sarah; Ford-Young, William; Beckwith, Philippa; McNulty, Cliodna

    2009-01-01

    Background General practice staff are reluctant to discuss sexual health opportunistically in all consultations. Health promotion materials may help alleviate this barrier. Chlamydia screening promotion posters and leaflets, produced by the English National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP), have been available to general practices, through local chlamydia screening offices, since its launch. In this study we explored the attitudes of general practice staff to these screening promotional materials, how they used them, and explored other promotional strategies to encourage chlamydia screening. Methods Twenty-five general practices with a range of screening rates, were purposively selected from six NCSP areas in England. In focus groups doctors, nurses, administrative staff and receptionists were encouraged to discuss candidly their experiences about their use and opinions of posters, leaflets and advertising to promote chlamydia screening. Researchers observed whether posters and leaflets were on display in reception and/or waiting areas. Data were collected and analysed concurrently using a stepwise framework analytical approach. Results Although two-thirds of screening practices reported that they displayed posters and leaflets, they were not prominently displayed in most practices. Only a minority of practices reported actively using screening promotional materials on an ongoing basis. Most staff in all practices were not following up the advertising in posters and leaflets by routinely offering opportunistic screening to their target population. Some staff in many practices thought posters and leaflets would cause offence or embarrassment to their patients. Distribution of chlamydia leaflets by receptionists was thought to be inappropriate by some practices, as they thought patients would be offended when being offered a leaflet in a public area. Practice staff suggested the development of pocket-sized leaflets. Conclusion The NCSP should consider developing

  4. Promoting chlamydia screening with posters and leaflets in general practice - a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford-Young William

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practice staff are reluctant to discuss sexual health opportunistically in all consultations. Health promotion materials may help alleviate this barrier. Chlamydia screening promotion posters and leaflets, produced by the English National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP, have been available to general practices, through local chlamydia screening offices, since its launch. In this study we explored the attitudes of general practice staff to these screening promotional materials, how they used them, and explored other promotional strategies to encourage chlamydia screening. Methods Twenty-five general practices with a range of screening rates, were purposively selected from six NCSP areas in England. In focus groups doctors, nurses, administrative staff and receptionists were encouraged to discuss candidly their experiences about their use and opinions of posters, leaflets and advertising to promote chlamydia screening. Researchers observed whether posters and leaflets were on display in reception and/or waiting areas. Data were collected and analysed concurrently using a stepwise framework analytical approach. Results Although two-thirds of screening practices reported that they displayed posters and leaflets, they were not prominently displayed in most practices. Only a minority of practices reported actively using screening promotional materials on an ongoing basis. Most staff in all practices were not following up the advertising in posters and leaflets by routinely offering opportunistic screening to their target population. Some staff in many practices thought posters and leaflets would cause offence or embarrassment to their patients. Distribution of chlamydia leaflets by receptionists was thought to be inappropriate by some practices, as they thought patients would be offended when being offered a leaflet in a public area. Practice staff suggested the development of pocket-sized leaflets. Conclusion The NCSP

  5. [Community pneumonia - fundamentals of diagnosing and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolek, Vítězslav

    Pneumonia is the most serious respiratory disease which causes more than 3 000 deaths per year in the Czech Republic. Community-acquired pneumonia is contracted in the ordinary life environment outside of hospitals, its development is caused by known infectious agents which mostly exhibit satisfactory sensitivity to antibiotics. Diagnosing, prevention and treatment of the disease are described including considerations of individual evaluation of the risk of complications and possible death. The strategy of administering antibiotics is discussed.Key words: antibiotics - community-acquired pneumonias - diagnosing - treatment.

  6. Computerized tomography in radiodiagnosis of pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degtyareva, I.A.; Mamaev, V.V.; Savchenko, A.P.

    1989-01-01

    Experience in the use of computerized tomography (CT) in combined radiodiagnosis of pneumonia was analysed. It has been concluded that CT objectively reflects morphological inflammatory changes and permits their all-round assessment over time. The diagnosis of pneumonia in CT is based on classical x-ray symptoms. As compared to survery radiography CT reveals symptoms of pneumonia to the full at earlier stages. CT is an important additional method of investigation of inflammatory pulmonary diseases but it should not be used separately without survey radiography. In a majority of cases when CT is performed there is no need in x-ray tomography

  7. Pneumonia and hospitalizations in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cacciatore

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonia in the elderly is a common and severe problem. In this review we analyze the state of the art for pneumonia in the elderly. Several aspects are discussed: i how common is the disease; signs and symptoms in the elderly; ii the elderly must always be hospitalized and which is the best place - Intensive Care Unit or medical ward?; iii the role of comorbidities; iv etiology and pathogenesis; medical treatment - when and how to start; v antibiotic resistance; vi antibiotics in hospital acquired and ventilator related pneumonia; vii assisted non-invasive ventilation; viii the treatment in the terminally ill elderly patient.

  8. Viral pneumonias: Typical and atypical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westhoff-Bleck, M.; Bleck, J.S.; Schirg, E.

    1987-01-01

    The clinical and radiological features of viral pneumonias are summarized and discussed. Although viral infections of the lung belong to atypical pneumonias they demonstrate not always the radiographic pattern of an interstitial pneumonia. Characteristic radiographic findings are quite rare. In most cases the microbial etiology cannot be predicted from chest radiographs. The appearance varies depending on the virulence of the organism and the resistence of the host. In this regard knowledge of epidemiological data as well as patients condition and underlying disease is of utmost importance. Differentiation between community- and hospital-acquired infection may be very helpful. (orig.) [de

  9. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Tae Haeng; Park, Jeong Hee; Lim, Jong Nam; Shin, Hyun Jun; Jeon, Hae Jeong [College of Medicine, Kon-Kuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-05-15

    Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is a rare disease characterized by chronic infiltration of the lung with eosinophils, usually associated with peripheral eosinophilia. In 65% of cases, the chest radiograph shows typical nonsegmental air-space consolidation confined to the outer third of the lung, and in 25% of cases, the 'photographic negative of pulmonary edema' Typical lung manifestations with peripheral eosinophilia are characteristic of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. In the remaining cases, radiographic findings are nonspecific and require lung biopsy for confirmation. We report a case of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia in which chest radiograph and CT scans revealed bilateral patchy or diffuse opacity with nodules scattered throughout the lungs.

  10. Disappointing performance of literature-derived selective screening criteria for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infection in an inner-city population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Valkengoed, I G; Boeke, A J; Morré, S A; van den Brule, A J; Meijer, C J; Devillé, W; Bouter, L M

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In an inner-city population with a low prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection, selective screening may be indicated to increase the efficiency of screening. GOAL: To evaluate the performance of sets of selective screening criteria for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infection

  11. Chlamydia induces anchorage independence in 3T3 cells and detrimental cytological defects in an infection model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E Knowlton

    Full Text Available Chlamydia are gram negative, obligate intracellular bacterial organisms with different species causing a multitude of infections in both humans and animals. Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection (STI Chlamydia, the most commonly acquired bacterial STI in the United States. Chlamydial infections have also been epidemiologically linked to cervical cancer in women co-infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV. We have previously shown chlamydial infection results in centrosome amplification and multipolar spindle formation leading to chromosomal instability. Many studies indicate that centrosome abnormalities, spindle defects, and chromosome segregation errors can lead to cell transformation. We hypothesize that the presence of these defects within infected dividing cells identifies a possible mechanism for Chlamydia as a cofactor in cervical cancer formation. Here we demonstrate that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is able to transform 3T3 cells in soft agar resulting in anchorage independence and increased colony formation. Additionally, we show for the first time Chlamydia infects actively replicating cells in vivo. Infection of mice with Chlamydia results in significantly increased cell proliferation within the cervix, and in evidence of cervical dysplasia. Confocal examination of these infected tissues also revealed elements of chlamydial induced chromosome instability. These results contribute to a growing body of data implicating a role for Chlamydia in cervical cancer development and suggest a possible molecular mechanism for this effect.

  12. Antigenic specificity and morphologic characteristics of Chlamydia trachomatis, strain SFPD, isolated from hamsters with proliferative ileitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J G; Stills, H F; Paster, B J; Dewhirst, F E; Yan, L; Palley, L; Prostak, K

    1993-10-01

    Profound diarrhea associated with proliferating intestinal cells containing intraepithelial campylobacter-like organisms (ICLO) occurs in a variety of mammalian hosts, particularly swine and hamsters. Recently, intracellular bacteria were isolated from proliferative intestinal tissue of hamsters and propagated in intestine cell line 407. Oral inoculation of hamsters with cell culture lysates containing these organisms reproduced the disease in susceptible hamsters. In the present study, an intracellular bacterium from the INT 407 cell line was shown by a variety of techniques to be a member of the genus Chlamydia and has been designated Chlamydia sp. strain SFPD. McCoy cells infected with Chlamydia sp. strain SFPD demonstrated bright fluorescent-stained intracytoplasmic inclusions when examined with fluorescein-labeled species-specific C. trachomatis monoclonal antibodies. The organism also reacted to fluorescein-labeled polyclonal but not monoclonal ICLO "omega" antisera. Ultrastructural examination of the Chlamydia sp. strain SFPD from McCoy cells revealed electrondense elementary bodies and a less electron-dense reticulate-like body that was circular; both features are consistent in morphology to developmental forms of Chlamydia and do not conform to ICLO morphology. Molecular studies, 16S ribosomal sequence analysis, and sequencing of the outer membrane protein confirmed that the isolate is a C. trachomatis closely related to the mouse pneumonitis strain of C. trachomatis.

  13. Analysis of clinical value of CT in the diagnosis of pediatric pneumonia and mycoplasma pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    GONG, LIANG; ZHANG, CHONG-LIN; ZHEN, QING

    2016-01-01

    Pneumonia is an infectious disease of the lung causing mortality. Mycoplasma pneumonia (MP) is an atypical bacterial pneumonia that damages several organs. Lung computed tomography (CT) has been utilized in its identification. The aim of the present study was to examine the value of computed tomography diagnosis for pediatric MP. The present study prospectively analyzed the clinical and imaging data of 1,280 cases of pediatric MP in the out- and inpatient departments from March, 2010 to March...

  14. Persistent myalgia following whiplash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2005-10-01

    Persistent myalgia following whiplash is commonly considered the result of poor psychosocial status, illness behavior, or failing coping skills. However, there is much evidence that persistent myalgia may be due to neurophysiologic mechanisms involving peripheral and central sensitization. Myofascial trigger points may play a crucial role in maintaining sensitization. Recent research suggests that the chemical environment of myofascial trigger points is an important factor. Several consequences are reviewed when central pain mechanisms and myofascial trigger points are included in the differential diagnosis and in the management of patients with persistent pain following whiplash.

  15. Climate variability and nonstationary dynamics of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Daisuke; Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2014-01-01

    A stationary association between climate factors and epidemics of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) pneumonia has been widely assumed. However, it is unclear whether elements of the local climate that are relevant to M. pneumoniae pneumonia transmission have stationary signatures of climate factors on their dynamics over different time scales. We performed a cross-wavelet coherency analysis to assess the patterns of association between monthly M. pneumoniae cases in Fukuoka, Japan, from 2000 to 2012 and indices for the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Monthly M. pneumoniae cases were strongly associated with the dynamics of both the IOD and ENSO for the 1-2-year periodic mode in 2005-2007 and 2010-2011. This association was non-stationary and appeared to have a major influence on the synchrony of M. pneumoniae epidemics. Our results call for the consideration of non-stationary, possibly non-linear, patterns of association between M. pneumoniae cases and climatic factors in early warning systems.

  16. Climate variability and nonstationary dynamics of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Onozuka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A stationary association between climate factors and epidemics of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae pneumonia has been widely assumed. However, it is unclear whether elements of the local climate that are relevant to M. pneumoniae pneumonia transmission have stationary signatures of climate factors on their dynamics over different time scales. METHODS: We performed a cross-wavelet coherency analysis to assess the patterns of association between monthly M. pneumoniae cases in Fukuoka, Japan, from 2000 to 2012 and indices for the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO. RESULTS: Monthly M. pneumoniae cases were strongly associated with the dynamics of both the IOD and ENSO for the 1-2-year periodic mode in 2005-2007 and 2010-2011. This association was non-stationary and appeared to have a major influence on the synchrony of M. pneumoniae epidemics. CONCLUSIONS: Our results call for the consideration of non-stationary, possibly non-linear, patterns of association between M. pneumoniae cases and climatic factors in early warning systems.

  17. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infektion hos abortsøgende. Undersøgelses- og behandlingsstrategi for at mindske infektionssequelae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Thranov, I R; Hoff, G E

    1992-01-01

    Among women applying for termination of pregnancy, 5-17% are infected with Chlamydia trachomatis. The prevalence is higher among women under 20 years of age (12-30%), in nulliparae and when Neisseria gonorrhoeae are found simultaneously. If women applying for termination of pregnancy with Chlamydia...... infection are not treated, 10-60% will develop pelvic infection after abortion. Salpingitis caused by Chlamydia runs a milder clinical course than salpingitis caused by gonococci or other etiology but salpingitis due to Chlamydia is regarded as one of the most important causes of tubal infertility...... and extrauterine pregnancy. The symptoms may be discharge and dysuria or objective findings such as cervicitis and pathological findings in wet smears of the cervical secretion. The majority of women applying for termination of pregnancy with Chlamydia infection have no symptoms. Only few investigations have...

  18. (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... the most common serious bacterial infections in infants ... UTI is a common cause of morbidity .... of ESBL and non-ESBL producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. ... in hospital and community acquired infections.

  19. Lipoid Pneumonia in a Gas Station Attendant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladis Isabel Yampara Guarachi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The exogenous lipoid pneumonia, uncommon in adults, is the result of the inhalation and/or aspiration of lipid material into the tracheobronchial tree. This is often confused with bacterial pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis due to a nonspecific clinical and radiologic picture. It presents acutely or chronically and may result in pulmonary fibrosis. We describe here a case of lipoid pneumonia in a gas station attendant who siphoned gasoline to fill motorcycles; he was hospitalized due to presenting with a respiratory infection that was hard to resolve. The patient underwent bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, which, on cytochemical (oil red O evaluation, was slightly positive for lipid material in the foamy cytoplasm of alveolar macrophages. Due to his occupational history and radiographic abnormalities suggestive of lipoid pneumonia, a lung biopsy was performed to confirm the diagnosis. The patient was serially treated with segmental lung lavage and showed clinical, functional, and radiological improvement.

  20. Mycoplasma pneumoniae meningoencephalitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Selçuk Bektaş

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nervous system is the most affected area in mycoplasma pneumoniae infections with exception of respiratory system. It is an important agent of childhood acute encephalitis and respiratory system infections in school-age children and young adults. Routine clinical and laboratory findings to identify spesific diagnosis is limited. Twelve-year-old female patient was admitted with fever, fatigue, sore throat, slipping the right eye, withdrawal of the mouth from the right and right hemiclonic seizures. Test of anti-Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae IgM was positive and IgG antibodies were found to be 4-fold increase in the sera of follow-up. This article was presented with the aim of remembering M. pneumoniae to be an differential diagnosis in children with acute encephalitis.