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Sample records for persimmon plum chinese

  1. Improvement effect of gamma-irradiated complex leaf extract of date plum, persimmon and mulberry on UVB-induced skin damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji Won; Cho, Byoung Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Shin, Jae Young; Fang, Chong Zhou; Jang, Seon Il [Jeonju University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the improvement effect of gamma-irradiated complex leaf extract of Date Plum, Persimmon and Mulberry (γ-DPME) on UVB induced skin damage. The samples were gamma irradiated at doses of 10 kGy. γ-DPME treatment tended to decrease UVB-induced immune cell infiltration and erthyderma index than the groups treated with non-gamma-irradiated DPME (n-DPME) and L-ascobic acid (AA). In addition, γ-DPME treatment significantly decreased skin thickness, melanin index and mast cell infiltration in UVB-irradiated skin. Moreover, γ-DPME treatment significantly decreased the compound 48/80-induced scratching behavior and immune cell infiltration than n-DPME group. These results show that gamma irradiation can be used to increase the physiological activities of DPME.

  2. Relationship of European Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) Cultivars to Asian Cultivars, Characterized Using AFLPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixty one persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) selections, including 17 Italian, 11 Spanish, 13 Japanese, six Korean, five Chinese, one Israeli, and eight of unknown origin, were evaluated for genetic differences by AFLP analysis. Relationships among cultivars were evaluated by UPGMA clustering, Neigh...

  3. Home garden plums

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper is to provide extension information on plums for home owners in Georgia and other Southeastern states. It includes seven sections: introduction, varieties, planting, pruning, fertilization, pests/diseases, and long term care....

  4. Exogenous application of natural extracts of persimmon (Diospyros ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-28

    May 28, 2014 ... maintaining the quality characteristics of dried persimmon. Different treatments ... than the same diet fortified with dry persimmon pulp. The health-derived ... natural extracts to eliminate potential health hazards of sulfur.

  5. An Introduction to Plum Blossom Boxing: History, Culture and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Meihuaquan (“Plum Blossom Fist [Boxing]” has traditionally been practiced as vernacular (folk art practiced among the Han ethnic group residing in the Shandong, Henan and Hebei Provinces of China. Historical documentation dates Plum Blossom Boxing to the seventeenth century. The classic Chinese novel, Shuǐhǔ Zhuàn (Marsh Chronicles recounts the martial exploits of Shandong’s twelfth century outlaw heroes who may have been Mei Boxers, also. Thus, for perhaps a millennium, the region has been noted for vernacular martial arts and social banditry. The region’s rampant lawlessness promoted highly-developed martial prowess among both lawbreakers and those who were required to protect themselves against the brigands. Cultural, economic, and environmental factors in the region gave rise to heterodox political and religious beliefs that frequently served as a catalyst for martial sects, most notably the “Boxers” who at the turn of the twentieth century, came into conflict with the imperial government. These factors laid the groundwork for the “character traits” of the art while Taoism, the Five Elements theory, and a concept of predictable change shaped Plum Boxing’s strategic and mechanical principles. In the past decade, there have been efforts to globalize this vernacular martial art. Rather than driving Plum Boxing to extinction it is likely that the folk and the “larger than local” will co-exist.

  6. 77 FR 58469 - Plum Pox Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    .... APHIS-2011-0004] RIN 0579-AD58 Plum Pox Compensation AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... interim rule that amended the plum pox regulations to provide for the payment of compensation to eligible... are required to be destroyed in order to prevent the spread of plum pox. The interim rule also...

  7. Characterization of a new apscaviroid from American persimmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takao; Suzaki, Koichi; Nakano, Masaaki; Sato, Akihiko

    2013-12-01

    A unique circular molecule of 358 nucleotides was detected in American persimmon (Diospyros virginiana L.). The molecule was graft-transmissible and had genetic characteristics of members of the genus Apscaviroid. It had the highest sequence similarity (72-73 %) to citrus viroid VI (CVd-VI) and formed a clade with CVd-VI, citrus dwarfing viroid, and apple dimple fruit viroid in a phylogenetic tree. The molecule was not detected in citrus, unlike CVd-VI, which infects citrus and persimmon, and it was genetically distant from persimmon latent viroid, which infects persimmon only. The genetic and biological features indicated that the molecule may be a member of a new apscaviroid species.

  8. Molecular diversity in persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... morphological differences among cultivars of persimmon might be the result of genetic differences ... Key words: DNA fingerprinting, Diospyros kaki L., genetic variability, RAPD. ..... trees and conifers using PVP. Nuc.

  9. Predictive model for consumer preference of a dried, chip-style persimmon product

    Science.gov (United States)

    The State of California is a major producer of Asian persimmons (Diospyros kaki), however, there is limited availability of persimmons outside of this region and the fruit’s short harvest season. A dried, chip-style product could increase the geographic area and timeframe in which persimmon growers...

  10. QUALITY OF AUTOCHTHONOUS SICILIAN PLUMS

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    F. Sottile

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty four plum local varieties and accessions obtained from different growing area of the Sicilian island were analyzed for their qualitative and nutraceutical properties and three commercialcultivar were used as references. These properties included the fruit fresh weight (g, the pulp firmness (FFF, the total soluble solids (TSS, the titratable acidity (TA, the total anthocyanins,the phenolics content and the antioxidant activity.This preliminary study showed significantly differeces among the plums; Zuccarato giallo and Prunu Niuru presented TSS higher than the commercial cultivars (24.9 and 21.6 °Brix respectivelyand interesting data obtained on the nutraceutical compounds values suggested these local cultivars as sources of polyphenols (Zuccarato giallo with 663 mg GA/100 gFW and naturalantioxidants (Pruno Regina with 47.46 Fe2+/100 gFW. The characterization of these plums could represent also an important resource for the international activity in the genetic improving andthe collection of the more interesting quality traits could be useful for improving the Prunus database actually in use.

  11. Technological process for production of persimmon and strawberry vinegars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Hidalgo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudio Hidalgo1, Estibaliz Mateo1, Ana Belen Cerezo2, Maria-Jesús Torija1, Albert Mas11Biotecnologia Enològica, Departament de Bioquimica i Biotecnologia, Facultat d’Enologia, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Marcel-li Domingo, Tarragona; 2Área de Nutrición y Bromatología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, SpainAbstract: Fruit surplus is common in intensive agriculture in many countries. This ecologic and economic problem requires alternative uses to be found for fruit. The aim of this study was to use surplus fruit to produce vinegar by traditional methods (alcoholic fermentation and acetification from persimmon and strawberry. The process was performed with naturally occurring microorganisms and compared with inoculated commercial wine yeast for alcoholic fermentation. Alcoholic fermentation proceeded faster when inoculated due to the length of the lag phases observed in spontaneous fermentations. The alcoholic fermentations of strawberry mash were faster than those of persimmon mash. In contrast, acetifications were much faster in persimmon (30 days than in strawberry (70 days, in the latter some acetifications were not finished. From the technologic point of view, to produce persimmon and strawberry wine and vinegar, it is better to avoid fruit pressing and perform the process with fruit mash. Inoculation is recommended for persimmon and is necessary for strawberry.Keywords: wine, vinegar, fruit seasonings, acetic acid bacteria

  12. Chemistry and Functionality of Bioactive Compounds Present in Persimmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Yaqub

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research has related the consumption of persimmon with the reduced risk of various diseases and particularly highlighted the presence of bioactive phenolic compounds for their therapeutic properties. Major phenolic compounds present in persimmon are ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and gallic acid. β-Cryptoxanthin, lycopene, β-carotene, zeaxanthin, and lutein are important carotenoids having antioxidant potential. They are important to prevent oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, safeguard beta cells of the pancreas, and reduce cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes mellitus, and damage caused by chronic alcohol consumption. In this paper, the chemistry and health benefits of bioactive compounds present in persimmon are reviewed to encourage impending applications and to facilitate further research activities.

  13. 'HoneySweet' (C5), the first genetically engineered Plum pox virus-resistant plum (Prunus domestica L.) cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘HoneySweet’ plum was released by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, to provide U.S. growers and P. domestica plum breeders with a high fruit quality plum cultivar resistant to Plum pox virus (PPV). ‘HoneySweet’ was developed through genetic engineering utilizing the...

  14. In vitro propagation of persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordani, Edgardo; Naval, Mar; Benelli, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) is a temperate fruit tree species diffused in all continents. The traditional propagation method adopted by the nursery industry is based on budding/grafting scion cultivars on seedlings from D. kaki, Diospyros lotus, and Diospyros virginiana, the most important species used as rootstock, reproduced by seeds since they are not easy to root. Furthermore, most of nonastringent cultivars of persimmon are not compatible with D. lotus, a rootstock largely utilized because of its hardiness and frost resistance. The main in vitro tissue culture techniques, developed for persimmon, deal with direct regeneration (from dormant buds and root tips), and indirect regeneration through callus from dormant buds, apexes, and leaves. The bottlenecks of micropropagation are (1) the recalcitrance of many cultivars to in vitro establishment, (2) the low multiplication ratio of D. kaki compared to other fruit tree species, (3) the very low rooting ability of ex novo microcuttings both from direct and indirect regeneration, (4) the high sensitivity to transplant from in vitro to in vivo conditions. The development of reliable in vitro regeneration procedures is likely to play a key role for production of both clonal rootstocks and self-rooted cultivars. The general protocol for micropropagation of persimmon reported here is based on the establishment of winter dormant buds in vitro, shoot development, multiplication and elongation, and shoot rooting, using cytokinins (BA or zeatin) in a MS media along with an auxinic pretreatment for rooting induction.

  15. Exogenous application of natural extracts of persimmon ( Diospyros ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit is delicious as well as rich in nutritive and medicinal values. The fruit is not available throughout the year and also could not be grown across the world but is liked in many countries. Many people have access only to the dried fruits. Therefore, the demand of quality dry fruit is very ...

  16. TWIG BLIGHT AND DEFOLIATION CAUSED BY Colletotrichum horii IN PERSIMMONS IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOUISE LARISSA MAY DE MIO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Persimmon anthracnose has been a great concern to Brazilian producers. This study aimed to identify and characterized the causal species from Brazilian persimmons byassessing morphological and molecular characteristics and pathogenicity tests. Five fungal isolatesobtained from diseased twigs and fruits were identified as Colletotrichum horii, based on morphologicalcharacteristics and nucleotide sequences of ITS region. Inoculation tests revealed that the fungal isolates caused necrotic spots followed by defoliation of leaves, blight of twigs and buds of potted persimmon plants.

  17. The functionality of plum ingredients in meat products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Nathan; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Ricke, Steven C; Crandall, Philip G

    2015-04-01

    Dried plums (prunes) have been marketed to consumers for consumption directly from the package as a convenient snack and have been reported to have broad health benefits. Only recently have fractionated, dried plum ingredients been investigated for their functionality in food and feed products. Dried plum puree, dried plum fiber, dried plum powder, dried plum concentrate, and fresh plum concentrate have been investigated to date. They have been evaluated as fat replacers in baked goods, antioxidants in meat formulations, phosphate replacers in chicken marinades, and antimicrobials in food systems. Overall, dried plum products have been shown to be effective at reducing lipid oxidation and show promise as antimicrobials. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. First report of Pestalotiopsis diospyri causing canker on persimmon trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselda Alves

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available During 2006 to 2009 season symptoms of a canker disease were observed on twigs and branches of young and mature persimmon trees (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Fuyu in the States of Santa Catarina and Paraná in the Southern Brazil. The cankers result in severe damage and reduced production. Isolations from the margins of these cankers revealed a genus of Pestalotiopsis. Koch's postulates were confirmed using two isolates of the pathogen which was identified as Pestalotiopsis diospyri.

  19. 76 FR 27219 - Plum Pox Virus; Update of Quarantined Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ...-0089] Plum Pox Virus; Update of Quarantined Areas AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... that amended the plum pox virus (PPV) regulations by removing portions of Adams County, PA, from the...: Background The plum pox virus (PPV) is an extremely serious viral disease of plants that can affect many...

  20. Consumer evaluation of persimmon (Diospyros kaki) varieties for a chip-style product (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian persimmons (Diospyros kaki) are grown across the state of California, but the availability of this fruit outside the growing area and harvest season is limited. A dried, chip-style product would extend the geographic area and timeframe in which persimmon growers could sell their fruit. Persi...

  1. PERSPECTIVES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE BIOLOGIC PLUM PRODUCTION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Vitanova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Bulgarian plum cultivars Gabrovska, Nevena, Strinava, Guliaeva and Balvanska slava, breeding in the Plum Experimental Station in the town of Dryanovo and the introduced cultivars Stanley, Chachanska lepotitsa, Opal, Malvazinka, Hramova renkloda, Tuleu timpuriu, Althan’s Gage, Pacific, Mirabell de Nancy, Anna Schpet and Jojo, what are high productive and are tolerant to sharka and other important economic plum diseases are suitable for the biologic plum production. The organic fertilization is a basic element of the technology for the biologic plum production. The fertilization with manure and the green manure with a winter green peas and with a peas-rye mix increased the humus content, influenced positive action on the supplying of the plum plants with the main nutrient macro elements, increased the yield and to be able apply successfully in the plum orchards and at not irrigation conditions.

  2. Analysis of GMO Plum Plant Culture in System Operations Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    GMO plum trees are being evaluated at the Kennedy Space Center as a possible candidate for future space crops. Previously conducted horticultural testing compared the performance of several plum genotypes in controlled environment chambers, resulting in a down-selection to the NASA-11 genotype. Precursory studies determined the water use requirements to sustain the plants as well as the feasibility of grafting non-GMO plum scions onto GMO plum rootstocks of NASA-5, NASA-10, and NASA-11 genotypes. This study follows the growth and horticultural progress of plum trees and in-vitro cultures from August 2017 to November 2017, and provides supplemental support for future GMO plum studies. The presence of Hurricane Irma in early September 2017 resulted in the plants undergoing material deterioration from major changes to their overall horticultural progress.

  3. Volatile Components from Old Plum Brandies

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    Ninoslav Nikićević

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography and GC/MS methods were used to detect volatile components of three home-made natural old plum brandy samples and one sample of industrially-produced plum brandy. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of this extracts led to the identification of 99 components, including 46 esters, 7 hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes, 3 aldehydes, 9 alcohols, 1 lactone, 1 ketone, 8 acetals, 14 terpenes, 8 acids and 2 phenols. Ethyl esters of C8–C18 acids were the most abundant in all samples. In addition, the content of methanol, ethanol and higher alcohols C3–C5 was determined.

  4. Sugars and organic acids in plum fruit affected by Plum pox virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenik, Valentina; Marn, Mojca Virscek

    2017-05-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) causes severe economic losses in stone fruit production, but little is known about its effect on plum fruit composition. In this study, the influence of PPV on sugars and organic acids was evaluated in a susceptible plum (Prunus domestica L.) cultivar. PPV infection significantly affected the content and composition of sugars and organic acids. The composition of necrotic tissue was modified the most. A short-time infected tree yielded fruit with similar sugar composition to fruit from a healthy tree, but the decline of organic acids was faster. Prematurely ripened symptomatic fruit had reduced fruit weight and low sugar content. Infected trees of the studied cultivar produce fruit of inferior quality. Fruits are not suitable for processing, especially when most of them exhibit visual symptoms of PPV infection. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Enhanced biological activities of gamma-irradiated persimmon leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Nchang Che, Denis; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of gamma-irradiated persimmon leaf extract (GPLE) with those of non-irradiated persimmon leaf extract (PLE). Ethanolic extract of persimmon leaf was exposed to gamma irradiation at a dose of 10 kGy. After gamma irradiation, the color of the extract changed from dark brown to light brown. The anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of GPLE and PLE were assessed from: total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay; 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assay, and levels of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The total polyphenol contents of GPLE and PLE were determined to be 224.44 ± 1.54 and 197.33 ± 5.81 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g, respectively, and the total flavonoid contents of GPLE and PLE were 206.27 ± 1.15 and 167.60 ± 2.00 mg quercetin equivalents (QUE)/g, respectively. The anti-oxidant activities of GPLE and PLE as measured by DPPH assays were 338.33 ± 30.19 μg/ml (IC50) and 388.68 ± 8.45 μg/ml (IC50), respectively, and those measured by ABTS assays were 510.49 ± 15.12 μg/ml (IC50) and 731.30 ± 10.63 μg/ml (IC50), respectively. IC50 is the inhibitor concentration that reduces the response by 50%. GPLE strongly inhibited the production of NO, PGE2 and IL-6 compared with PLE in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, GPLE significantly inhibited the production of TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines compared with PLE in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187-stimulated HMC-1 human mast cells. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of PLE can enhance its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities through elevation of the phenolic contents. Therefore, gamma-irradiated PLE has potential for use in the food and cosmetic

  6. persimmon tannin-formaldehyde gel decontamination of dilute aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    in the present work, the extracted juice of unripe astringent persimmon fruit, designated as (kakishibu) was found to have an extremely high affinity for uranium ion. to develop efficient adsorbent for uranium ion the juice was immobilized in formaldehyde. the removal of uranium ion onto the formed gel was found to be affected by several factors such as, concentration of formaldehyde in gel, equilibration time, solution ph, concentration of uranium ion, mass of adsorbent, presence of some cations and anions . the sorption isotherm was discussed in the light of Freundlich and Langmuir models. from Freundlich equation, the exponent 1/n was found in the range of 1>1/n 0 , δS 0 and δG 0 were calculated . the capacity of adsorbent was also determined by column technique and found to 20.20 mg/g

  7. An Unusual Cause of Duodenal Obstruction: Persimmon Phytobezoar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shengxian; Wang, Jing; Li, Yousheng

    2016-12-01

    Duodenal phytobezoar, an unusual cause of acute duodenal obstruction, is rarely seen. The most common cause of this type of bezoar is persimmon. It frequently arises from underlying gastrointestinal tract pathologies (gastric surgery, etc.). Here, we report the case of a 66-year-old man who had undergone distal gastrectomy with Billroth I reconstruction for gastric cancer and experienced severe epigastric discomfort, abdominal pain, and vomiting for a few days. The abdominal computed tomography scan showed a large-sized mass in the horizontal portion of the duodenum. On following endoscopic examination, a large phytobezoar was revealed in the duodenum. He was treated with endoscopic fragmentation combined with nasogastric Coca-Cola. The patient tolerated the procedure well and resumed a normal oral diet 3 days later.

  8. Overview on the investigations of transgenic plums in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic plums of Prunus domestica L. transformed with the Plum pox virus coat protein gene (PPV-CP) were the subjects of three experiments undertaken in Romania. In the first experiment, PPV-CP transgenic clones C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, PT3 and PT5 were evaluated for Sharka resistance under high natu...

  9. Overview of the investigation of transgenic plums in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic plums of Prunus domestica L. transformed with the Plum pox virus coat protein gene (PPV-CP) were the subjects of three experiments undertaken in Romania. In the first experiment, PPV-CP transgenic clones C2, C3, C4, C5, C6 and PT3 were evaluated for Sharka resistance under high natural i...

  10. 7 CFR 503.4 - Conformity with Plum Island regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conformity with Plum Island regulations. 503.4 Section 503.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.4 Conformity with...

  11. Characterization of the organoleptic properties, vitamin C levels and anti-oxidant contents of Californian grown persimmons (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    California is the largest U.S. producer of persimmons (Diospyros kaki). Consumer demand for persimmons is driven by their organoleptic and nutritional properties (vitamin C and anti-oxidant contents). Most commercial production is divided between a small number of astringent “Hachiya” and non-astri...

  12. Detection of plum pox virus infection in selection plum trees using spectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Liliya; Stoev, Antoniy; Borisova, Ekaterina; Avramov, Latchezar

    2016-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is among the most studied viral diseases in the world in plants. It is considered to be one of the most devastating diseases of stone fruits in terms of agronomic impact and economic importance. Noninvasive, fast and reliable techniques are required for evaluation of the pathology in selection trees with economic impact. Such advanced tools for PPV detection could be optical techniques as light-induced fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopies. Specific regions in the electromagnetic spectra have been found to provide information about the physiological stress in plants, and consequently, diseased plants usually exhibit different spectral signature than non-stressed healthy plants in those specific ranges. In this study spectral reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence were used for the identification of biotic stress caused by the pox virus on plum trees. The spectral responses of healthy and infected leaves from cultivars, which are widespread in Bulgaria were investigated. The two applied techniques revealed statistically significant differences between the spectral data of healthy plum leaves and those infected by PPV in the visible and near-infrared spectral ranges. Their application for biotic stress detection helps in monitoring diseases in plants using the different plant spectral properties in these spectral ranges. The strong relationship between the results indicates the applicability of diffuse reflectance and fluorescence techniques for conducting health condition assessments of vegetation and their importance for plant protection practices.

  13. Concentration change of radiocaesium in persimmon leaves and fruits. Observation results in 2011 Spring - 2013 Summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2014-01-01

    To make dried-fruits of persimmon (Diospyros kaki), its fresh fruits were generally processed to decrease their water-contents to about 30-50%. During this food process, their radiocaesium concentrations increased without any loss, and, occasionally, the dried-fruits may exceed the food standard level of 100 Bq/kg (edible form). Thus, it is necessary to estimate the radiocaesium concentrations in the products before the fresh fruit harvesting and processing. For this purpose, radiocaesium concentrations in leaves of persimmon trees were monitored with time. The 137 Cs concentrations in the fruits were usually lower than those in the leaves and the concentration ratio was less than 0.4 on a fresh weight basis. The ratio became smaller when closer the harvest season. Thus the concentration of leaves could be a good indicator to estimate the processed persimmon fruits. (author)

  14. Selected chemical compounds in firm and mellow persimmon fruit before and after the drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senica, Mateja; Veberic, Robert; Grabnar, Jana Jurhar; Stampar, Franci; Jakopic, Jerneja

    2016-07-01

    Persimmon is a seasonal fruit and only available in fresh form for a short period of each year. In addition to freezing, drying is the simplest substitute for the fresh fruit and accessible throughout the year. The effect of mellowing and drying was evaluated in 'Tipo' persimmon, an astringent cultivar. 'Tipo' firm fruit contained high levels of tannins (1.1 mg g(-1) DW), which were naturally decreased to 0.2 mg g(-1) DW after mellowing. The drying process greatly impacted the contents of carotenoids, total phenols, individual phenolics, tannins, organic acids, sugars and colour parameters in firm and mellow fruit. The reduction of tannins, phenolic compounds and organic acids were accompanied by the increase of sugars and carotenoids, improving the colour of the analysed samples. These results showed that the drying process improved the quality of persimmon products and extended their shelf life. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Determination of total phenolic compound contents and antioxidant capacity of persimmon skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohamadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the adverse side effects of synthetic antioxidants, the search for natural and safe antioxidants has become crucial. In this study, the total phenolic compound contents and antioxidants activity of persimmon skin was investigated. The extraction was carried out by means of maceration method using ethanol and methanol solvents with ratio of 1 part persimmon skin to 5 parts of solvents. Afterwards, the total phenolic compounds and antioxidants activity was measured. According to the results, ethanolic and methanolic extracts contained 255.6 and 214.15 mg gallic acid per 100 g of persimmon skin, respectively. Moreover, ethanolic extracts showed a higher activity for scavenging free radicals compared to methanolic extracts.

  16. 2005 NCALM Plum Island-Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The survey area is an irregular polygon (148 square kilometers) at the Plum Island River in northeast Massachusetts. The eastern third of the polygon was flown on...

  17. ADVANCES IN PEACH, NECTARINE AND PLUM PROPAGATION

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    NEWTON ALEX MAYER

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nursery trees of stone fruits (Prunus spp. are traditionally produced by union of two distinct genotypes - the rootstock and the scion - which, by grafting, form a composite plant that will be maintained throughout of all plant life. In Brazil, the rootstocks are predominantly seed propagated and therefore usually results in heterogeneous trees for vigor and edaphic adaptation. However, with advances in rootstock breeding programs that released cultivars and certification in several countries (notably in Europe, the system will come gradually evolving for vegetative propagation (cuttings and tissue culture and use of seeds of selected rootstocks with specific characteristics and potted nursery trees production. For scion cultivar propagation, the budding system (with its many variations has predominantly been adopted in major producing countries. This review had as objective to comment main propagation methods adopted for rootstocks and scion in peach, nectarine and plum, and recent technical progress obtained as well as the needs of improvement for nursery tree production.

  18. Translocation of the radioactive caesium via the calyx in persimmon fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekizawa, Haruhito; Sato, Mari; Aihara, Takashi; Murakami, Toshifumi; Hachinohe, Mayumi; Hamamatsu, Shioka

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate pathways of radioactive caesium contamination of persimmon fruit, we investigated translocation via the calyx. We treated calyces of immature and mature fruits (at either stage and both stages) with water containing caesium-137 (1000 Bq/kg) and measured concentrations in the calyx, pericarp, and flesh with a germanium semiconductor detector. All treated fruits had higher levels of radioactive caesium in all tissues than untreated fruits at harvest. The translocated radioactive caesium was retained in the fruit and not retranslocated. These results indicate that radioactive caesium is translocated via the calyx of persimmon at all stages of fruit development and is accumulated in the flesh. (author)

  19. Space Pomology: Dwarf Plums for Fresh Food Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, LaShelle; Graham, Thomas; Stutte, Gary; Massa, Gioia; Mickens, Matthew; Wheeler, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Recently, USDA ARS researchers genetically modified plums for rapid breeding work and noticed the plants could flower and develop fruit rapidly on relatively small plants. We have tested several of these genetically modified (GM) plums in plant chambers to assess their potential as a space crop. We have been able to clone these genetic lines using cuttings that are rooted using growth regulating compounds. Results showed that the GM plums indeed flower and fruit on small plants in controlled environments similar to what might be used in space, but they require cross-pollination with pollen from a standard plum. Analysis of stomatal conductance and leaf transpiration showed that water use went up in the light period, as expected, and but that GM types typically showed higher conductance than a standard plum. Analysis of tissue showed that fruit could be a good source of potassium and phenolic compounds, which could be beneficial as a bone loss countermeasure (Smith et al., 2014). These findings are all promising for using dwarf GM plums as a supplemental food for space, but further horticultural testing is needed before they are ready.

  20. An Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy Analysis of Elemental Changes of a Persimmon Phytobezoar Dissolved in Coca-Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Urata, Haruo; Higashi, Reiji; Nakagawa, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Shin; Shiraha, Hidenori; Okada, Hiroyuki

    To investigate the mechanism of phytobezoar dissolution by Coca-Cola(®), persimmon phytobezoar pieces removed from a 60-year-old Japanese woman were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The amount of calcium significantly decreased after dissolution treatment using Coca-Cola(®), suggesting a potential contribution of calcium to dissolution mechanisms. Moreover, immersion in Coca-Cola(®) for 120 hours on the exterior surface revealed that Coca-Cola(®) did not permeate persimmon phytobezoars. This is the first study to investigate the mechanisms of persimmon phytobezoar permeability and dissolution induced by Coca-Cola(®).

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-35 - Persimmons from the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables... zhizhilashiviliae. (b) After harvest, the persimmons must be inspected by the Republic of Korea's national plant protection organization (NPPO) and found free of the pests listed in paragraph (a) of this section before the...

  2. Effects of persimmon peel supplementation on pork quality, palatability, fatty acid composition, and cholesterol level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Moo Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of persimmon peel (PPM supplementation on carcass performance, pork quality, eating quality, fatty acid composition, and cholesterol concentration of the porcine longissimus dorsi muscle. Results No adverse effects of PPM supplementation were observed on carcass and meat quality characteristics among the treatment groups (P > 0.05, whereas pork loins from pigs fed a diet supplemented with 0.9 % persimmon peel (T3 showed more tender meat than did pork loins from pigs fed a control diet (P < 0.01, even though no significant difference was observed between the control and T1 group. The T3 group had higher ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids relative to saturated fatty acids (0.33 vs. 0.28, P < 0.05 and lower total cholesterol concentration (94.4 vs. 99.1 mg/g, P < 0.05 compared to the control group. Persimmon peel appeared to have beneficial effects on fatty acid composition and cholesterol concentration, probably leading to a hypocholesterolemic effect. Conclusions Animal diets fortified with persimmon peel represents an efficient and useful method for improving the nutritional quality of pork without impairing growth performance and eating quality properties.

  3. Evaluation of the genetic diversity of Plum pox virus in a single plum tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predajňa, Lukáš; Šubr, Zdeno; Candresse, Thierry; Glasa, Miroslav

    2012-07-01

    Genetic diversity of Plum pox virus (PPV) and its distribution within a single perennial woody host (plum, Prunus domestica) has been evaluated. A plum tree was triply infected by chip-budding with PPV-M, PPV-D and PPV-Rec isolates in 2003 and left to develop untreated under open field conditions. In September 2010 leaf and fruit samples were collected from different parts of the tree canopy. A 745-bp NIb-CP fragment of PPV genome, containing the hypervariable region encoding the CP N-terminal end was amplified by RT-PCR from each sample and directly sequenced to determine the dominant sequence. In parallel, the PCR products were cloned and a total of 105 individual clones were sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed that after 7 years of infection, only PPV-M was still detectable in the tree and that the two other isolates (PPV-Rec and PPV-D) had been displaced. Despite the fact that the analysis targeted a relatively short portion of the genome, a substantial amount of intra-isolate variability was observed for PPV-M. A total of 51 different haplotypes could be identified from the 105 individual sequences, two of which were largely dominant. However, no clear-cut structuration of the viral population by the tree architecture could be highlighted although the results obtained suggest the possibility of intra-leaf/fruit differentiation of the viral population. Comparison of the consensus sequence with the original source isolate showed no difference, suggesting within-plant stability of this original isolate under open field conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Data in support of antioxidant activities of the non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Matsumura

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This data article is related to the research article entitled, “Antioxidant potential in non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.” (Matsumura et al., 2016 [1]. We investigated antioxidant activities of the non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon fruits in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated both extracted fraction and non-extractable fraction, and reported that non-extractable fraction may possess significantly antioxidant potential in vivo on the basis of the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC. We showed our experimental raw data about antioxidant capacity of dried persimmon, plasma triglycerides (TG and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, and this data article might contribute to evaluate real antioxidant capacity of other fruits and vegetables. Keywords: Persimmon, Antioxidant activity, Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, Model of the gastrointestinal tract

  5. Acute intestinal obstruction caused by a persimmon phytobezoar after dissolution therapy with Coca-Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seung Soo; Lee, Hyun Suk; Jung, Min Kyu; Jeon, Seong Woo; Cho, Chang Min; Kim, Sung Kook; Choi, Yong Hwan

    2007-12-01

    Bezoars are concretions or hard masses of foreign matter that are found in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent reports have demonstrated the efficacy of Coca-Cola administration for the dissolution of phytobezors. Here we report on a 73-year-old man with a very large gastric persimmon diospyrobezoar, and this caused small intestinal obstruction after partial dissolution with oral and injected Coca-Cola.

  6. Hypoglycemic effects of aqueous persimmon leaf extract in a murine model of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Ui-Jin; Park, Soo-Hyun; Jung, Su-Young; Park, Byung-Hyun; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2015-08-01

    Previously, powdered persimmon leaves have been reported to have glucose- and lipid-lowering effects in diabetic (db/db) mice. As persimmon leaf is commonly consumed as tea, an aqueous extract of persimmon leaves (PLE) was prepared and its anti-diabetic efficacy was investigated. In the present study, PLE was tested for its inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase in vitro. An oral maltose tolerance test was performed in diabetic mice. Next, the acute effect of PLE was examined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Last, the long-term effect of PLE supplementation was assessed in db/db after eight weeks. An oral glucose tolerance test, biochemical parameters, as well as histological analyses of liver and pancreas were evaluated at the end of the study. PLE inhibited α-glucosidase activity and increased antioxidant capacity. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice pre-treated with PLE displayed hypoglycemic activity. Daily oral supplementation with PLE for eight weeks reduced body weight gain without affecting food intake, enhanced the glucose tolerance during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), improved blood lipid parameters, suppressed fat accumulation in the liver and maintained islet structure in db/db mice. Further mechanistic study showed that PLE protected pancreatic islets from glucotoxicity. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that PLE exhibits considerable anti-diabetic effects through α-glucosidase inhibition and through the maintenance of functional β-cells. These results provided a rationale for the use of persimmon leaf tea for the maintenance of normal blood glucose levels in diabetic patients.

  7. Loss of aphid transmissibility of plum pox virus isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamenova, I.; Lohuis, H.; Peters, D.

    2002-01-01

    The aphid transmissibility of seven Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates and the amino acid sequences of their coat proteins were analysed Two aphid transmissible isolates PPV-A and PPV-P contained the DAG amino triplet, while DAL or NAG replaced this triplet in the coat proteins of non-aphid transmissible

  8. 75 FR 81087 - Plum Pox Virus; Update of Quarantined Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... for host material. Since the fruit itself is not a vector of the disease, the quarantine imposes no.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The plum pox virus (PPV) is an extremely serious viral disease of plants... fruit that is produced is often misshapen and blemished. PPV is transmitted under natural conditions by...

  9. Transferability of retrotransposon primers derived from Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) across other plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X Y; Hu, Q N; Zhang, Q L; Wang, Y B; Luo, Z R

    2013-06-06

    Retrotransposon-based molecular markers are powerful molecular tools. However, these markers are not readily available due to the difficulty in obtaining species-specific retrotransposon primers. Although recent techniques enabling the rapid isolation of retrotransposon sequences have facilitated primer development, this process nonetheless remains time-consuming and costly. Therefore, research into the transferability of retrotransposon primers developed from one plant species onto others would be of great value. The present study investigated the transferability of retrotransposon primers derived from 'Luotian-tianshi' persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) across other fruit crops, as well as within the genus using inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism molecular marker. Fourteen of the 26 retrotransposon primers tested (53.85%) produced robust and reproducible amplification products across all fruit crops tested, indicating their applicability across plant species. Four of the 13 fruit crops showed the best transferability performances: persimmon, grape, citrus, and peach. Furthermore, similarity coefficients and UPGMA clustering indicated that these primers could further offer a potential tool for germplasm differentiation, parentage identification, genetic diversity assessment, classification, and phylogenetic studies across a variety of plant species. Transferability was further confirmed by examining published primers derived from Rosaceae, Gramineae, and Solanaceae. This study is one of the few currently available studies concerning the transferability of retrotransposon primers across plant species in general, and is the first successful study of the transferability of retrotransposon primers derived from persimmon. The primers presented here will help reduce costs for future retrotransposon primer development and therefore contribute to the popularization of retrotransposon molecular markers.

  10. Short communication: development and characterization of novel transcriptome-derived microsatellites for genetic analysis of persimmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, C; Zhang, Q L; Luo, Z R

    2014-04-16

    Oriental persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) (2n = 6x = 90) is a major commercial and deciduous fruit tree that is believed to have originated in China. However, rare transcriptomic and genomic information on persimmon is available. Using Roche 454 sequencing technology, the transcriptome from RNA of the flowers of D. kaki was analyzed. A total of 1,250,893 reads were generated and 83,898 unigenes were assembled. A total of 42,711 SSR loci were identified from 23,494 unigenes and 289 polymerase chain reaction primer pairs were designed. Of these 289 primers, 155 (53.6%) showed robust PCR amplification and 98 revealed polymorphism between 15 persimmon genotypes, indicating a polymorphic rate of 63.23% of the productive primers for characterization and genotyping of the genus Diospyros. Transcriptome sequence data generated from next-generation sequencing technology to identify microsatellite loci appears to be rapid and cost-efficient, particularly for species with no genomic sequence information available.

  11. High hydrostatic pressure as a method to preserve fresh-cut Hachiya persimmons: A structural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Gutiérrez, José Luis; Quiles, Amparo; Vonasek, Erica; Jernstedt, Judith A; Hernando, Isabel; Nitin, Nitin; Barrett, Diane M

    2016-12-01

    The "Hachiya" persimmon is the most common astringent cultivar grown in California and it is rich in tannins and carotenoids. Changes in the microstructure and some physicochemical properties during high hydrostatic pressure processing (200-400 MPa, 3 min, 25 ℃) and subsequent refrigerated storage were analyzed in this study in order to evaluate the suitability of this non-thermal technology for preservation of fresh-cut Hachiya persimmons. The effects of high-hydrostatic pressure treatment on the integrity and location of carotenoids and tannins during storage were also analyzed. Significant changes, in particular diffusion of soluble compounds which were released as a result of cell wall and membrane damage, were followed using confocal microscopy. The high-hydrostatic pressure process also induced changes in physicochemical properties, e.g. electrolyte leakage, texture, total soluble solids, pH and color, which were a function of the amount of applied hydrostatic pressure and may affect the consumer acceptance of the product. Nevertheless, the results indicate that the application of 200 MPa could be a suitable preservation treatment for Hachiya persimmon. This treatment seems to improve carotenoid extractability and tannin polymerization, which could improve functionality and remove astringency of the fruit, respectively. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. The barley straw residues avoid high erosion rates in persimmon plantations. Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González Pelayo, Óscar; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Jordán, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    World persimmon production is 4 Millions tones and China produce more than 80 % of the total world yield. Korea and Japan are the second and the third producers respectively with 0.4 and 0.2 millions tones, and all three Asian countries concentrate more than 95 % of the world production. Spain produce less than 0.1 million tones but there is a sudden increase in new plantations due to the high prices and the new marked developed in Europe, Brazil and Arabic countries. The new chemically managed and highly mechanized plantations in Eastern Spain are using high doses of herbicides and the lack of vegetation is triggering high erosion rates. This paper aims to contribute with information about the soil losses on this new persimmon plantations and to develop strategies to reduce the soil and water losses. A 15 years old plantation of persimmon (Dyospirus lotus) was selected in Eastern Spain (Canals Municipality, La Costera District) to measure the soil losses on No-Tillage bare (herbicide treatments) management and on barley straw covered plots. The straw cover was applied 3 days before the expereriments at at doses that cover more than 50 % of the soil surface using 75 gr of straw per m2. Rainfall simulations under 55 mm h-1 rainfall intensity during one hour on 0.25 m2 plots were carried out on plots paired plots: bare and covered with straw. The measurements were carried out during July 2014 on paired plots, under very dry soil moisture contents ranging from 4.65 to 7.87 %. The results show that the 3% cover of vegetation of the control plots moved to more than 60% due to the application of the straw. This induced a delayed ponding (from 60 to 309 seconds) and surface runoff (from 262 to 815 seconds) and runoff outlet (418 to 1221 seconds). The runoff coefficients moved from 60 % in the control plots to 29 % in the straw covered and the runoff sediment concentration was dramatically reduced from 11 to 1 g l-1. The total soil losses were higher that 1 Kg per plot in

  13. Persimmon leaf bio-waste for adsorptive removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seo-Yun; Choi, Hee-Jeong

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate heavy metal removal using waste biomass adsorbent, persimmon leaves, in an aqueous solution. Persimmon leaves, which are biomaterials, have a large number of hydroxyl groups and are highly suitable for removal of heavy metals. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the possibility of removal of Cu, Pb, and Cd in aqueous solution by using raw persimmon leaves (RPL) and dried persimmon leaves (DPL). Removal of heavy metals by RPL and DPL showed that DPL had a 10%-15% higher removal than RPL, and the order of removal efficiency was found to be Pb > Cu > Cd. The pseudo-second order model was a better fit to the heavy metal adsorption experiments using RPL and DPL than the pseudo-first order model. The adsorption of Cu, Pb, and Cd by DPL was more suitable with the Freundlich isothermal adsorption and showed an ion exchange reaction which occurred in the uneven adsorption surface layer. The maximum adsorption capacity of Cu, Pb, and Cd was determined to be 19.42 mg/g, 22.59 mg/g, and 18.26 mg/g, respectively. The result of the adsorption experiments showed that the n value was higher than 2 regardless of the dose, indicating that the heavy metal adsorption on DPL was easy. In the thermodynamic experiment, ΔG° was a negative value, and ΔH° and ΔS° were positive values. It can be seen that the heavy metal adsorption process using DPL was spontaneous in nature and was an endothermic process. Moreover, as the temperature increased, the adsorption increased, and the affinity of heavy metal adsorption to DPL was very good. This experiment, in which heavy metals are removed using the waste biomass of persimmon leaves is an eco-friendly new bioadsorbent method because it can remove heavy metals without using chemicals while utilizing waste recycling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Physicochemical, bioactive, and sensory properties of persimmon-based ice cream: technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution to determine optimum concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Safa; Toker, Ömer Said; Yüksel, Ferhat; Çam, Mustafa; Kayacier, Ahmed; Dogan, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, persimmon puree was incorporated into the ice cream mix at different concentrations (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40%) and some physicochemical (dry matter, ash, protein, pH, sugar, fat, mineral, color, and viscosity), textural (hardness, stickiness, and work of penetration), bioactive (antiradical activity and total phenolic content), and sensory properties of samples were investigated. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution approach was used for the determination of optimum persimmon puree concentration based on the sensory and bioactive characteristics of final products. Increase in persimmon puree resulted in a decrease in the dry matter, ash, fat, protein contents, and viscosity of ice cream mix. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and lactose were determined to be major sugars in the ice cream samples including persimmon and increase in persimmon puree concentration increased the fructose and glucose content. Better melting properties and textural characteristics were observed for the samples with the addition of persimmon. Magnesium, K, and Ca were determined to be major minerals in the samples and only K concentration increased with the increase in persimmon content. Bioactive properties of ice cream samples improved and, in general, acetone-water extracts showed higher bioactivity compared with ones obtained using methanol-water extracts. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution approach showed that the most preferred sample was the ice cream containing 24% persimmon puree. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The determination of furaldehyde and benzaldehyde in plum brandy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Among all alcohol liqueurs, brandies from drupaceous plants are characterized with the highest level of hydro cyanic acid, benzaldehyde and ethylcarbamate. In fruit brandies ethylcarbamate mainly originates from hydro cyanic acid during the processes of alcohol fermentation of crushed fruit and its preservation, distillation and ripening of the brandy. Hydro cyanic acid and benzaldehyde arise from the hydrolysis of amygdaline that is found exist in the heart of fruit stones and seeds, as well as from the hydrolysis of prunasine from the skin and flesh of drupaceous plants. The content of amygdaline and prunazine depends on the type of fruit, which corresponds to the potential content of hydro cyanic acid and benzaldehyde in the brandy that corresponds the stoichiometric ratio 1:3.94. The content of the aldehydes: furfural and benzaldehyde in plum brandy, strong plum brandy, young brandy, of domestic production in the various regions of Serbia were analyzed in this paper.

  16. Morphogenic variability of some autochthonous plum cultivars in western Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomo Milosevic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A study conducted over a period of two years in a Western Serbian valley included in situ identification of autochthonous plum cultivars. Observation and recording of their phenological and pomological traits were performed using IBPGR and UPOV methodologies. Fifteen cultivars derived from Prunus domestica L. and two cultivars derived from P. insititia L. were identified. Flowering started between 24 March and 7 April and fruit ripening between 12 July (Petrovača and 16 September (Trnovača. Fruit weight ranged from 6.79± 0.018 to 36.62± 0.251 g and stone weight from 0.14± 0.002 to 1.95± 0.023 g. The cultivars were classified as being extremely small in terms of fruit size. Rounded fruit shape and light-yellow ground colour were dominant. Skin colour ranged from amber to black. Yellow green was a dominant flesh colour and medium flesh firmness predominated. The fruits of the above cultivars could be processed, particularly into plum brandy, or they could be used fresh or dried. The selected plum cultivars can be used both in breeding programmes and as rootstocks as well as in further disease-related systematic studies under field and laboratory conditions.

  17. Plum coatings of lemongrass oil-incorporating carnauba wax-based nanoemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Hah; Lee, Hanna; Kim, Jung Eun; Song, Kyung Bin; Lee, Youn Suk; Chung, Dae Sung; Min, Sea C

    2013-10-01

    Nanoemulsions containing lemongrass oil (LO) were developed for coating plums and the effects of the nanoemulsion coatings on the microbial safety and physicochemical storage qualities of plums during storage at 4 and 25 °C were investigated. The emulsions used for coating were produced by mixing a carnauba wax-based solution (18%, w/w) with LO at various concentrations (0.5% to 4.0%, w/w) using dynamic high pressure processing at 172 MPa. The coatings were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and their ability to preserve various physicochemical qualities of plums. Uniform and continuous coatings on plums, formed with stable emulsions, initially inhibited S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 by 0.2 to 2.8 and 0.8 to 2.7 log CFU/g, respectively, depending on the concentration of LO and the sequence of coating. The coatings did not significantly alter the flavor, fracturability, or glossiness of the plums. The antimicrobial effects of the coatings against S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 were demonstrated during storage at 4 and 25 °C. The coatings reduced weight loss and ethylene production by approximately 2 to 3 and 1.4 to 4.0 fold, respectively, and also retarded the changes in lightness and the concentration of phenolic compounds in plums during storage. The firmness of coated plums was generally higher than uncoated plums when stored at 4 °C and plum respiration rates were reduced during storage. Coatings containing nanoemulsions of LO have the potential to inhibit Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 contamination of plums and may extend plum shelf life. Journal of Food Science © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  18. 75 FR 20558 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Plum Pox Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ...] Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Plum Pox Compensation AGENCY... destroyed to eradicate plum pox virus. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on plum pox compensation, contact Dr. S. Anwar Rizvi, Senior...

  19. 40 CFR 174.531 - Coat protein of plum pox virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coat protein of plum pox virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.531 Coat protein of plum pox virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the coat protein of plum pox virus in or on the...

  20. 75 FR 13131 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Sale of Plum Island, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... the anticipated sale of Plum Island, New York and an ancillary support facility at Orient Point, New...) for the Sale of Plum Island, NY AGENCY: Office of Real Property Utilization & Disposal; General...: Plum Island is an 840-acre island located approximately 1.5 miles off the northeast tip of Orient Point...

  1. Effect of pre-treatment and extraction conditions on the antioxidant properties of persimmon (Diospyros kaki) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Abul; Moon, Hey Kyung; Kim, Jong-Kuk

    2017-11-01

    Persimmon is a very delicious fruit and the leaves of this tree are used as a traditional drug. This study aimed to investigate the effects of drying method (hot air and freeze-drying), extraction temperature (80, 90 and 100 °C) and extraction time (10, 30, 60 and 120 min) and harvest stage (flowering and fruiting) on the antioxidant contents and antioxidant activity of persimmon leaves. The results showed that the highest antioxidants were obtained in both methods of drying. Also, 100 °C for 120 min of extraction gave the highest antioxidant contents, but with no significant difference compared to 90 °C for 60 min of extraction. Persimmon leaves collected during flowering stage had the maximum amount of antioxidants compared to the fruiting stage. Finally, it can be said that persimmon leaves harvested during flowering stage and treated by hot air drying with these extraction conditions (90 °C for 60 min) are richer in bioactive compounds.

  2. 76 FR 44889 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Persimmon From the Republic of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... fruit from the Republic of South Africa. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis, which we made... commodities that, based on the findings of a pest risk analysis (PRA), can be safely imported subject to one... or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh persimmon fruit from South...

  3. 76 FR 15280 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Persimmon From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ...] Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Persimmon From the Republic... are advising the public that we have prepared a pest risk analysis that evaluates the risks associated... Africa. We are making the pest risk analysis available to the public for review and comment. DATES: We...

  4. Evaluation of the Monkey-Persimmon Environmental Education Program for Reducing Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Nagano, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Ryo; Jacobson, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    Co-existing with wildlife and maintaining rural livelihoods are common challenges in remote villages in Japan. The authors assess the effects of the Monkey-Persimmon Environmental Education Program developed to reduce wildlife conflicts and to revitalize a community in Nagano Prefecture. Development of a logic model helped guide interviews with…

  5. 'HoneySweet' plum - a valuable genetically engineered fruit-tree cultivar and germplasm resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘HoneySweet’ is a plum variety developed through genetic engineering to be highly resistant to plum pox potyvirus (PPV), the causal agent of sharka disease, that threatens stone-fruit industries world-wide and most specifically, in Europe. Field testing for over 15 years in Europe has demonstrated ...

  6. Sanitation and Microbiological Quality in Production Field and Fruit-Packing Shed of Persimmon and Satsuma Mandarin in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidemi Izumi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of sanitation treatments including chlorination (ca 10 ppm available chlorine of agricultural water and ethyl alcohol (70% spraying on packing shed equipment on microbial contamination on fruits and the environment were determined and compared with those in conventionally managed field and packing shed in persimmon and satsuma mandarin orchards. Chlorinated water reduced the microbial counts to levels below the lower limit of detection (1.4 log CFU/ml for bacteria and 2.0 log CFU/ml for fungi in most agricultural water samples. Microbial counts of pesticide solution, which contained the agricultural water or chlorinated water for the mixture, were lower in sanitary field than in control field in both fruit orchards. The number of bacterial and mold species detected in agricultural water, chlorinated water, and pesticide solution were almost proportional to microbial counts in each sample throughout the year. The chlorination treatment of agricultural water tended to reduce the counts of mesophiles and fungi on the peel of persimmon fruit during production season. The ethyl alcohol spray treatment on packing shed equipment resulted in a substantial microbial reduction on plastic harvest basket and container in persimmon orchard and plastic harvest basket and container, gloves, scissors, and size sorter in satsuma mandarin orchard. The spray application on packing shed equipment reduced the counts of mesophiles and fungi on the peel of persimmon fruit by >1 log CFU/g. The number of satsuma mandarin packing shed equipment containing the species found on fruit peel was higher in control than in sanitary packing shed. No human pathogens such as verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella were detected in any of the fruit and environmental samples. These results indicate that uses of sanitizers such as chlorine for agricultural water and ethyl alcohol for packing shed equipment would be useful in a good agricultural practices

  7. Sanitation and Microbiological Quality in Production Field and Fruit-Packing Shed of Persimmon and Satsuma Mandarin in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidemi Izumi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of sanitation treatments including chlorination (ca 10 ppm available chlorine of agricultural water and ethyl alcohol (70% spraying on packing shed equipment on microbial contamination on fruits and the environment were determined and compared with those in conventionally managed field and packing shed in persimmon and satsuma mandarin orchards. Chlorinated water reduced the microbial counts to levels below the lower limit of detection (1.4 log CFU/ml for bacteria and 2.0 log CFU/ml for fungi in most agricultural water samples. Microbial counts of pesticide solution, which contained the agricultural water or chlorinated water for the mixture, were lower in sanitary field than in control field in both fruit orchards. The number of bacterial and mold species detected in agricultural water, chlorinated water, and pesticide solution were almost proportional to microbial counts in each sample throughout the year. The chlorination treatment of agricultural water tended to reduce the counts of mesophiles and fungi on the peel of persimmon fruit during production season. The ethyl alcohol spray treatment on packing shed equipment resulted in a substantial microbial reduction on plastic harvest basket and container in persimmon orchard and plastic harvest basket and container, gloves, scissors, and size sorter in satsuma mandarin orchard. The spray application on packing shed equipment reduced the counts of mesophiles and fungi on the peel of persimmon fruit by 1 log CFU/g. The number of satsuma mandarin packing shed equipment containing the species found on fruit peel was higher in control than in sanitary packing shed. No human pathogens such as verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella were detected in any of the fruit and environmental samples. These results indicate that uses of sanitizers such as chlorine for agricultural water and ethyl alcohol for packing shed equipment would be useful in a good agricultural practices

  8. Pesticides in persimmons, jujubes and soil from China: Residue levels, risk assessment and relationship between fruits and soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihua; Li, Shiliang; Ni, Zhanglin; Qu, Minghua; Zhong, Donglian; Ye, Caifen; Tang, Fubin

    2016-01-15

    Extreme and uncontrolled usage of pesticides produces a number of problems for vegetation and human health. In this study, the existence of organophosphates (OPs), organochlorines (OCs), pyrethroids (PYs) and fungicides (FUs) were investigated in persimmons/jujubes and their planted soils, which were collected from China. One OP (dimethoate), three OCs (DDT, quintozene and aldrin), six PYs (bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and deltamethrin) and two FUs (triadimefon and buprofezin) were found in 36.4% of persimmons and 70.8% of jujubes, with concentrations from 1.0 μg/kg to 2945.0 μg/kg. The most frequently detected pesticides in the two fruits were fenpropathrin in persimmons and cypermethrin in jujubes, with the detection frequencies of 30.0% and 22.7%, respectively. The residues of 4.5% (persimmon) and 25.0% (jujube) of samples were higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of China. Compared with the fruits, more types of pesticides and higher residues were observed in their planted soils. The most frequently detected pesticides were HCH in persimmon soil and DDT in jujube soil, with the detection frequencies of 10.9% and 12.7%, respectively. For the tested samples, 39.1% of fruit samples and 63.0% of soil samples with multiple residues (containing more than two pesticides) were noted, even up to 8 residues in fruits and 14 residues in soils. Except for cyhalothrin, the other short-term risks for the tested pesticides in the fruits were below 10%, and the highest long-term risk was 14.13% for aldrin and dieldrin. There was no significant health risk for consumers via consumption of the two fruits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Aphid Transmission of the Ontario Isolate of Plum Pox Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, D Thomas; Vickers, Patricia M; Bittner, Lori A; Stobbs, Lorne W; Foottit, Robert G

    2015-10-01

    Utilization of timed virus acquisition access probes in studies of plum pox virus (PPV) transmission by aphids demonstrated that endemic species transmitted the virus readily from plum, Prunus domestica (L.) Batsch; peach, P. persica (L.); or dwarf flowering almond, P. glandulosa Thunberg., to peach seedlings. The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), was shown to be the most efficient vector. Acquisition of virus by green peach aphids from infected peach leaves resulted in 18-28% infected peach seedlings, while aphids previously fed on infected leaves of plum transferred virus to 36% of peach seedlings. Although the spirea aphid, Aphis spiraecola (Patch), was a less efficient vector than M. persicae it is perhaps more important for the spread of PPV due to its greater abundance and occurrence earlier in the season when peach trees are thought to be more susceptible to infection. Virus transmission rates varied depending on the virus source and healthy test plant species. In contrast to many previous studies, aphid inoculation of the experimental host Nicotiana benthamiana Domin occurred at a low rate, never exceeding 4%. Acquisition of PPV by M. persicae from infected peach fruit was greatly reduced compared with acquisition from leaves. The results of this research indicate that the Ontario isolate of PPV-D is readily transmissible by aphids to peach and natural spread of the virus needs to be considered in future management or eradication programs. © Her Majesty in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  10. In vitro bioaccessibility of individual carotenoids from persimmon (Diospyros kaki, cv. Rojo Brillante) used as an ingredient in a model dairy food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cayuela, Tomás; Nuño-Escobar, Beatriz; Welti-Chanes, Jorge; Cano, M Pilar

    2017-12-11

    Addition of persimmon fruit, which is highly rich in carotenoids, to dairy products represents an alternative to obtain functional foods. However, carotenoid bioaccessibility is strongly influenced by fat content and food composition. That is why in vitro bioaccessibility of individual carotenoids was evaluated in persimmon-based dairy products formulated with whole (3.6% fat) or skimmed milk (0.25% fat) and different freeze-dried persimmon tissues. Unambiguous identification of seven xanthophylls (neoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, lutein epoxide and β-cryptoxanthin) and three hydrocarbon carotenes (α-carotene, β-carotene and lycopene) was achieved using high-performance liquid chromatography with a reverse-phase C-30 column. Total carotenoid content declined up 71% through the digestion process. In vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids was significantly higher in dairy products formulated with whole milk than those with skimmed milk, representing a difference of more than 21% (in the formulation using persimmon whole fruit as ingredient). Furthermore, addition of whole milk to any type of persimmon tissue significantly improved the bioaccessibility of total provitamin A carotenoids, reaching the highest values (38%) with whole fruit and whole milk. The higher fat content in whole milk exerted a significant influence on carotenoid bioaccessibility, especially when using freeze-dried persimmon whole fruit. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Update on Plum pox virus distribution in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol AKBAŞ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Extensive surveys to determine the occurrence of Plum pox virus (PPV in Turkey were carried out between 2007 and 2010 in commercial stone fruit orchards and nurseries, in non commercial stone fruit trees at other locations, and in rural and urban residential properties located in 56 of Turkey’s 81 provinces. A total of 5,762 samples were collected from almond, apricot, mahaleb, nectarine, plum, peach, sweet cherry and sour cherry and tested by biological indexing, DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR. Two hundred and twenty two samples from 4 regions (the Aegean region, the Central Anatolia region, the Marmara region and the Mediterranean region were found to be infected with PPV. This virus has occurred in Turkey since 1968. This is the first record of PPV occurrence in Aksaray, Çanakkale, İzmir, Kayseri, and Konya provinces.

  12. Classification of plum spirit drinks by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sádecká, J; Jakubíková, M; Májek, P; Kleinová, A

    2016-04-01

    Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy was used in combination with principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for the differentiation of plum spirits according to their geographical origin. A total of 14 Czech, 12 Hungarian and 18 Slovak plum spirit samples were used. The samples were divided in two categories: colorless (22 samples) and colored (22 samples). Synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS) obtained at a wavelength difference of 60 nm provided the best results. Considering the PCA-LDA applied to the SFS of all samples, Czech, Hungarian and Slovak colorless samples were properly classified in both the calibration and prediction sets. 100% of correct classification was also obtained for Czech and Hungarian colored samples. However, one group of Slovak colored samples was classified as belonging to the Hungarian group in the calibration set. Thus, the total correct classifications obtained were 94% and 100% for the calibration and prediction steps, respectively. The results were compared with those obtained using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Applying PCA-LDA to NIR spectra (5500-6000 cm(-1)), the total correct classifications were 91% and 92% for the calibration and prediction steps, respectively, which were slightly lower than those obtained using SFS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Taxonomy of Rhagoletis population associated with wild plums in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frias, Daniel; Alvina, Andres

    2000-01-01

    In South America, there are about fifteen Rhagoletis species that live in association with wild and cultivated Solanaceae host plants (Foote 1981, Frias 1992). The principal information on taxonomy for these species is the morphology of adults. Thus, in the genus Rhagoletis, in general, there is little information about immature stages especially on first and second larva instars (Steck et al. 1990, Carrol and Wharton 1989, Steck and Wharton 1988, Persson 1963, White and Elson-Harris 1992, Hernandez-Ortiz 1992, 1993, Frias et al. 1993). Presently, in Chile, there are 4 species associated with Solanaceae host plants. R. tomatis Foote and R. nova (Schiner) are associated with cultivated Solanaceae Lycopersicum esculentum Miller or cultivated tomatoes and Solanum muricatum Aiton or sweet cucumber respectively. R. conversa Bethes has two Solanum host plants, S. nigrum L. and S. tomatillo (Remy) Phil. F. (Frias et al. 1984). The host for R. penela Foote is unknown. Moreover, in the last few years, a population on wild plums of the Myrobalan variety (Rosaceae) was detected (Gonzalez 1989). At present, there is no information about the origin and taxonomy of this population. In this work, we have studied the morphology of eggs, three instar larvae, pupae and adults of this population associated with wild plums as well as aspects of its geographical distribution in Chile

  14. Non-climacteric ripening and sorbitol homeostasis in plum fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Youn; Farcuh, Macarena; Cohen, Yuval; Crisosto, Carlos; Sadka, Avi; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    During ripening fruits undergo several physiological and biochemical modifications that influence quality-related properties, such as texture, color, aroma and taste. We studied the differences in ethylene and sugar metabolism between two genetically related Japanese plum cultivars with contrasting ripening behaviors. 'Santa Rosa' (SR) behaved as a typical climacteric fruit, while the bud sport mutant 'Sweet Miriam' (SM) displayed a non-climacteric ripening pattern. SM fruit displayed a delayed ripening that lasted 120 days longer than that of the climacteric fruit. At the full-ripe stage, both cultivars reached similar final size and weight but the non-climacteric fruits were firmer than the climacteric fruits. Fully ripe non-climacteric plum fruits, showed an accumulation of sorbitol that was 2.5 times higher than that of climacteric fruits, and the increase in sorbitol were also paralleled to an increase in sucrose catabolism. These changes were highly correlated with decreased activity and expression of NAD(+)-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase and sorbitol oxidase and increased sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, suggesting an enhanced sorbitol synthesis in non-climacteric fruits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Powders Obtained from Different Plum Juice Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Anna; Wojdyło, Aneta; Łysiak, Grzegorz P; Figiel, Adam

    2017-01-17

    Among popular crops, plum ( Prunus domestica L.) has received special attention due to its health-promoting properties. The seasonality of this fruit makes it impossible to consume it throughout the year, so new products in a powder form may offer an alternative to fresh consumption and may be used as high-quality natural food ingredients. A 100% plum (cultivar "Valor") juice was mixed with three different concentrations of maltodextrin or subjected to sugars removal by amberlite-XAD column, and dried using the freeze, spray, and vacuum (40, 60, and 80 °C) drying techniques. The identification and quantification of phenolic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins in plum powders was performed by LC-MS QTof and UPLC-PDA, respectively. l-ascorbic acid, hydroxymethylfurfural, and antioxidant capacity were measured by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) ABTS and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) methods in order to compare the influence of the drying methods on product quality. The results indicated that the profile of polyphenolic compounds in the plum juice powders significantly differed from the whole plum powders. The drying of a sugar free plum extract resulted in higher content of polyphenolic compounds, l-ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity, but lower content of hydroxymethylfurfural, regardless of drying method applied. Thus, the formulation of plum juice before drying and the drying method should be carefully selected in order to obtain high-quality powders.

  16. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Powders Obtained from Different Plum Juice Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Michalska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among popular crops, plum (Prunus domestica L. has received special attention due to its health-promoting properties. The seasonality of this fruit makes it impossible to consume it throughout the year, so new products in a powder form may offer an alternative to fresh consumption and may be used as high-quality natural food ingredients. A 100% plum (cultivar “Valor” juice was mixed with three different concentrations of maltodextrin or subjected to sugars removal by amberlite-XAD column, and dried using the freeze, spray, and vacuum (40, 60, and 80 °C drying techniques. The identification and quantification of phenolic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins in plum powders was performed by LC-MS QTof and UPLC-PDA, respectively. l-ascorbic acid, hydroxymethylfurfural, and antioxidant capacity were measured by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC ABTS and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP methods in order to compare the influence of the drying methods on product quality. The results indicated that the profile of polyphenolic compounds in the plum juice powders significantly differed from the whole plum powders. The drying of a sugar free plum extract resulted in higher content of polyphenolic compounds, l-ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity, but lower content of hydroxymethylfurfural, regardless of drying method applied. Thus, the formulation of plum juice before drying and the drying method should be carefully selected in order to obtain high-quality powders.

  17. Biochemical Constituents and in Vitro Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Potential of Seeds from Native Korean Persimmon Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saqib Bilal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the functional and biochemical potential of the seeds of four persimmon cultivars (PC1, PC2, PC3 and PC4 and their role against oxidative stress and acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition were evaluated. In terms of biochemical compositions, free amino acids, fatty acids and organic acids analysis was performed. The free amino acids ranged from 2617.31 (PC2 to 3773.01 μg∙g−1 dry weight (PC4. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were the principal fatty acids, which were significantly higher in PC4 and PC1, respectively. PC4 presented the highest amount of organic acid content (4212 mg∙kg−1, whereas PC2 presented the lowest (2498 mg∙kg−1. PC2 contained higher total phenolic content and flavonoid content, whereas PC3 had the lowest amount as compared to other cultivars. The in vitro DPPH, ABTS and superoxide anion radicals scavenging activity increased in a dose-dependent manner, whereas PC2 showed significantly higher scavenging activities as compared to PC1, PC2 and PC4 types. In the case of AChE inhibition, PC4 showed a moderate activity (67.34% ± 1.8%. In conclusion, the current findings reveal that the studied persimmon seeds cultivars are a source of bioactive natural antioxidants and AChE inhibitors. Such natural products could be employed in pharmaceutical and food industries, whilst can also be considered for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s.

  18. Evaluation of some thin-layer drying models of persimmon slices (Diospyros kaki L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doymaz, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this study, convective drying (50–70 °C) was applied as a preservation technology for persimmon slices. ► The highest drying and rehydration rates obtained with blanched slices. ► The Midilli et al., Page and Weibull models were determined as the suitable models. ► Effective moisture diffusivity, diffusivity constant and activation energy for drying process were determined. - Abstract: The effect of blanching and drying temperature (50, 60 and 70 °C) on drying kinetics and rehydration ratio of persimmons under hot-air drying was investigated. It was observed that both the drying temperature and blanching affected the drying time. The shortest drying times and highest rehydration ratios were obtained from blanched samples. Six thin-layer drying models were evaluated in the kinetics research. The fit quality of the proposed models was evaluated by using the determination of coefficient (R 2 ), reduced chi-square (χ 2 ) and root means square error (RMSE). The Midilli et al., Page and Weibull models showed a better fit to experimental drying data as compared to other models. Effective moisture diffusivity (D eff ) ranged from 7.05 × 10 −11 to 2.34 × 10 −10 m 2 /s calculated using the Fick’s second law. The activation energies of blanched and control samples determined from slope of the Arrhenius plot, ln(D eff ) versus 1/(T + 273.15), was 30.64 and 43.26 kJ/mol, respectively.

  19. Three new species of mealybug (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha, Pseudococcidae) on persimmon fruit trees (Diospyros kaki) in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C; Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Germain, Jean-François; Malausa, Thibaut; Botton, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has the greatest insect diversity in the world; however, little is known about its scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha). Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) have been found in at least 50% of persimmon orchards Diospyros kaki L. in the southern part of the country. In this study three new mealybug species on persimmon trees located in the Serra Gaúcha Region, RS, Brazil, namely, Anisococcus granarae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n., Ferrisia kaki Kaydan & Pacheco da Silva, sp. n. and Pseudococcus rosangelae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n. are described. In addition, an identification key for the genera occurring on fruit orchards and vineyards in Brazil is provided, together with illustrations and molecular data for the new species.

  20. Effect of processing on the physicochemical, sensory, nutritional and microbiological quality of fresh-cut 'Rojo Brillante' persimmon

    OpenAIRE

    SANCHÍS SOLER, ELENA

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) 'Rojo Brillante' is an astringent variety characterised by good growing conditions, excellent colour, size, sensory characteristics and good nutritional properties. In the last decade, its production has grown substantially in Spain given the application of high levels of CO2 to remove astringency while firmness is preserved. This technology has also increased its potential as a fresh-cut commodity. However, physical damage during processing result in degrad...

  1. BBN: Description of the PLUM System as Used for MUC-4

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ayuso, Damaris; Boisen, Sean; Fox, Heidi; Gish, Herb; Ingria, Robert; Weischedel, Ralph

    1992-01-01

    .... In contrast, BBN's PLUM system (Probabilistic Language Understanding Model) was developed as part of a DARPA-funded research effort on integrating probabilistic language models with more traditional linguistic techniques...

  2. The metabolism of sorbitol and fructose in isolated chloroplasts of Santa Rosa plum leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Villiers, O.T.

    1979-01-01

    Aqueously as well as non-aqueously isolated chloroplasts from Santa Rosa plum leaves readily metabolised sorbitol- 14 C to fructose, glucose and sucrose. Likewise, fructose- 14 C was converted to sorbitol, glucose and sucrose [af

  3. Effect of environmental conditions on flower induction of marian plum (Bouea burmanica Griff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusie L. Mavuso

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marian plum flowering naturally occurs during the cool, dry season so Thailand farmers usually withdraw irrigation a month before flowering. However, irregular flowering continues to be a serious problem. This study investigated the effects of environmental conditions (air temperature, soil moisture and relative humidity on flower induction of marian plum. Daily weather data were collected using weather stations in three orchards where flowering was also recorded. Thirty representative trees per orchard were randomly selected for data collection. The results showed that trees from all orchards flowered in response to low temperature (below 18 °C despite different levels of water stress and relative humidity. These results indicated that soil moisture content and relative humidity had no influence on marian plum flower induction but enhanced flower bud development. Night temperatures of 18 °C or lower are essential for marian plum flower induction.

  4. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes for processing; (3) Olives for processing into oil; (4) Grapefruit for animal feed; or (5) Avocados for seed shall obtain an “Importer's Exempt Commodity Form” (FV-6...

  5. Molecular epidemiology of Plum pox virus in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maejima, Kensaku; Himeno, Misako; Komatsu, Ken; Takinami, Yusuke; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Takahashi, Shuichiro; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Oshima, Kenro; Namba, Shigetou

    2011-05-01

    For a molecular epidemiological study based on complete genome sequences, 37 Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates were collected from the Kanto region in Japan. Pair-wise analyses revealed that all 37 Japanese isolates belong to the PPV-D strain, with low genetic diversity (less than 0.8%). In phylogenetic analysis of the PPV-D strain based on complete nucleotide sequences, the relationships of the PPV-D strain were reconstructed with high resolution: at the global level, the American, Canadian, and Japanese isolates formed their own distinct monophyletic clusters, suggesting that the routes of viral entry into these countries were independent; at the local level, the actual transmission histories of PPV were precisely reconstructed with high bootstrap support. This is the first description of the molecular epidemiology of PPV based on complete genome sequences.

  6. Biodiversity of Yeasts During Plum Wegierka Zwykla Spontaneous Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Tuszynski

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The study comprises an analysis of the yeast microbiota that participated in the spontaneous fermentation of crushed Wegierka Zwykla plum fruit, which is the raw material for slivovitz production in the mountain region in the south of Poland. Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains were differentiated by means of the killer sensitivity analysis related to a killer reference panel of 9 well-known killer yeast strains. The first phase of the fermentation was dominated by the representatives of Kloeckera apiculata and Candida pulcherrima species, which reached their maximum concentration (1.4·106 CFU/mL after 48 h of the process. Almost all yeasts isolated during the following days were classified as S. cerevisiae and the killer sensitivity analysis revealed a high population diversity of this species and the presence of 14 different strains that changed quantitatively and qualitatively throughout the fermentation period.

  7. EVALUATION OF SOME PLUM CULTIVARS IN A HIGH DENSITY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Butac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three plum cultivars bred in Romania (‘Carpatin’, ‘Centenar’ and ‘Tita’ were tested together with several standards (‘Cacanska Rodna’ and ‘Stanley’ in a high density experimental orchard established at Pitesti - Maracineni in the spring of 2009, with spacing 4 x 2.25 m. Trees were trained as spindles, grafted on ‘Saint Julian’ rootstock. In the orchard the following characteristics were evaluated: tree vigour based upon measuring of trunk-diameter, yields in kg/tree, time of fruit ripening and basic parameters of fruit quality. All Romanian varieties were characterized by earliness and large fruit, but production was relatively small. Instead, foreign varieties were characterized by high productivity in the 4th year after planting.

  8. Chloride stress triggers maturation and negatively affects the postharvest quality of persimmon fruit. Involvement of calyx ethylene production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besada, Cristina; Gil, Rebeca; Bonet, Luis; Quiñones, Ana; Intrigliolo, Diego; Salvador, Alejandra

    2016-03-01

    In recent years many hectares planted with persimmon trees in E Spain have been diagnosed with chloride toxicity. An effect of this abiotic stress on fruit quality has been reported in different crops. However, the impact of chloride stress on persimmon fruit quality is unknown. The harvest and postharvest quality of persimmons harvested from trees that manifest different intensities of chloride toxicity foliar symptoms was evaluated herein. Our results revealed that fruits from trees under chloride stress conditions underwent chloride accumulation in the calyx, which was more marked the greater the salt stress intensity trees were exposed to. Increased chloride concentrations in the calyx stimulated ethylene production in this tissue. In the fruits affected by slight and moderate chloride stress, calyx ethylene production accelerated the maturity process, as reflected by increased fruit colour and diminished fruit firmness. In the fruits under severe chloride stress, the high ethylene levels in the calyx triggered autocatalytic ethylene production in other fruit tissues, which led fruit maturity to drastically advance. In these fruits effectiveness of CO2 deastringency treatment was not complete and fruit softening enhanced during the postharvest period. Moreover, chloride stress conditions had a marked effect on reducing fruit weight, even in slightly stressed trees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Mexican plums (Spondias spp.): their current distribution and potential distribution under climate change scenarios for Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Arce-Romero, Antonio Rafael; Monterroso-Rivas, Alejandro Ismael; Gómez-Díaz, Jesús David; Cruz-León, Artemio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Plums (Spondias spp.) are species native to Mexico with adaptive, nutritional and ethnobotanical advantages. The aim of this study was to assess the current and potential distribution of two species of Mexican plum: Spondias purpurea L. and Spondias mombin L. The method applied was ecological niche modeling in Maxent software, which has been used in Mexico with good results. In fieldwork, information on the presence of these species in the country was collected. In addition, environm...

  10. New insights into the history of domesticated and wild apricots and its contribution to Plum pox virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroocq, Stéphane; Cornille, Amandine; Tricon, David; Babayeva, Sevda; Chague, Aurélie; Eyquard, Jean-Philippe; Karychev, Raul; Dolgikh, Svetlana; Kostritsyna, Tatiana; Liu, Shuo; Liu, Weisheng; Geng, Wenjuan; Liao, Kang; Asma, Bayram M; Akparov, Zeynal; Giraud, Tatiana; Decroocq, Véronique

    2016-10-01

    Studying domesticated species and their wild relatives allows understanding of the mechanisms of population divergence and adaptation, and identifying valuable genetic resources. Apricot is an important fruit in the Northern hemisphere, where it is threatened by the Plum pox virus (PPV), causing the sharka disease. The histories of apricot domestication and of its resistance to sharka are however still poorly understood. We used 18 microsatellite markers to genotype a collection of 230 wild trees from Central Asia and 142 cultivated apricots as representatives of the worldwide cultivated apricot germplasm; we also performed experimental PPV inoculation tests. The genetic markers revealed highest levels of diversity in Central Asian and Chinese wild and cultivated apricots, confirming an origin in this region. In cultivated apricots, Chinese accessions were differentiated from more Western accessions, while cultivated apricots were differentiated from wild apricots. An approximate Bayesian approach indicated that apricots likely underwent two independent domestication events, with bottlenecks, from the same wild population. Central Asian native apricots exhibited genetic subdivision and high frequency of resistance to sharka. Altogether, our results contribute to the understanding of the domestication history of cultivated apricot and point to valuable genetic diversity in the extant genetic resources of wild apricots. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Physicochemical properties of whole fruit plum powders obtained using different drying technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Anna; Wojdyło, Aneta; Lech, Krzysztof; Łysiak, Grzegorz P; Figiel, Adam

    2016-09-15

    Physicochemical quality parameters of plum powders obtained by applying conventional drying methods and their combination devised to process plums were evaluated. The effect of freeze-drying (FD), vacuum drying (VD), convective drying (CD), microwave-vacuum drying (MVD) and combination of convective pre-drying and microwave finish-drying (CPD-MVFD) affected physical (bulk density, porosity, colour, solubility) and chemical (polyphenolic compounds determined by UPLC and antioxidant capacity by TEAC ABTS and FRAP methods) properties of plum powders. The MVD at 1.2 W g(-1) and a novel combination for plum powders production - CPD-MVFD at 70 °C/1.2 W g(-1) allowed the best preservation of phenolic compounds and increased the efficiency of production. Results obtained support the use of MVD and its combination for better quality of dried plum products. The study proved that the determination of the browning index and HMF level (formed via Maillard reaction) might be good tool for monitoring the thermal processing of plum powders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Direct Deposition Effect on the Distribution of Radiocesium in Persimmon Trees and the Effective Half-life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-7444 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Radiocesium ({sup 137}Cs) concentrations in persimmon tree tissues collected at Chiba, about 220 km south from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP), were measured to obtain half-life of radiocesium in the trees. Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) is a deciduous tree and bears edible fruits in autumn. There were no leaves when the sampling area was received the radioactive fallout in March 2011 due to the FDNPP accident; the amount of {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in this area was ca. 13 kBq/m{sup 3} Both {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs were found in the newly emerged shoots of the persimmon trees collected at 26 April 2011 mainly due to foliar uptake. The concentrations were 1.1 kBq/kg-dry for {sup 137}Cs and 1.3 kBq/kg-dry for {sup 134}Cs. After that, continuous sampling of leaves, branches and fruits of the persimmon trees had been carried out for two years. Immediately after the collection, samples were transferred to our laboratory and weighed to obtain fresh weight. Leaf samples were usually separated into two portions; one portion was washed with tap water to remove dust from the surface and the other portion was not treated. For fruit samples, if it is possible, fruit flesh, peal and non-edible part were separated. All the samples were oven-dried at 80 deg. C for three days at least. Each dried sample was chopped into fine pieces, mixed well, and then transferred into plastic vessels separately. Radioactivity concentration was measured by a Ge-detecting system (Seiko EG and G Ortec) using 3000-40000 s counting intervals. By August 14, 2013, about 140 samples were collected from the trees; about 60 samples were leaves (both washed and untreated). Radiocesium concentrations in tree leaves decreased with time, and the effective half-life was about 190 d; the value was similar to those in branches (160 d for new branches, and 250 d for 1-2 y.o. branches) and fruits (250 d for fruit flesh and 230 d for peals). Thus we concluded that the half-life of radiocesium in

  13. Purification and characterisation of a novel chitinase from persimmon (Diospyros kaki) with antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhi; Kopparapu, Narasimha Kumar; Yan, Qiaojuan; Yang, Shaoqing; Jiang, Zhengqiang

    2013-06-01

    A novel chitinase from the persimmon fruit was isolated, purified and characterised in this report. The Diospyros kaki chitinase (DKC) was found to be a monomer with a molecular mass of 29 kDa. It exhibited optimal activity at pH 4.5 with broad pH stability from pH 4.0-9.0. It has an optimal temperature of 60°C and thermostable up to 60°C when incubated for 30 min. The internal peptide sequences of DKC showed similarity with other reported plant chitinases. It has the ability to hydrolyse colloidal chitin into chito-oligomers such as chitotriose, chitobiose and into its monomer N-acetylglucosamine. It can be used to degrade chitin waste into useful products such as chito-oligosacchaarides. DKC exhibited antifungal activity towards pathogenic fungus Trichoderma viride. Chitinases with antifungal property can be used as biocontrol agents replacing chemical fungicides. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of Fungicide Sensitivity and Genetic Diversity among Colletotrichum Species in Sweet Persimmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Geun-Hye; Cho, Hyun Ji; Kim, Hye Sun; Kwack, Yong-Bum; Kwak, Youn-Sig

    2015-06-01

    Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (C. gloeosporioides; Teleomorph: Glomerella cingulata), is the most destructive disease that affects sweet persimmon production worldwide. However, the biology, ecology, and genetic variations of C. gloeosporioides remain largely unknown. Therefore, in this study, the development of fungicide resistance and genetic diversity among an anthracnose pathogen population with different geographical origins and the exposure of this population to different cultivation strategies were investigated. A total of 150 pathogen isolates were tested in fungicide sensitivity assays. Five of the tested fungicides suppressed mycelial pathogen growth effectively. However, there were significant differences in the sensitivities exhibited by the pathogen isolates examined. Interestingly, the isolates obtained from practical management orchards versus organic cultivation orchards showed no differences in sensitivity to the same fungicide. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses were performed to detect internal transcribed spacer regions and the β-tubulin and glutamine synthetase genes of the pathogens examined. Both the glutamine synthetase and β-tubulin genes contained a complex set of polymorphisms. Based on these results, the pathogens isolated from organic cultivation orchards were found to have more diversity than the isolates obtained from the practical management orchards.

  15. Analysis of Fungicide Sensitivity and Genetic Diversity among Colletotrichum Species in Sweet Persimmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geun-Hye Gang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (C. gloeosporioides; Teleomorph: Glomerella cingulata, is the most destructive disease that affects sweet persimmon production worldwide. However, the biology, ecology, and genetic variations of C. gloeosporioides remain largely unknown. Therefore, in this study, the development of fungicide resistance and genetic diversity among an anthracnose pathogen population with different geographical origins and the exposure of this population to different cultivation strategies were investigated. A total of 150 pathogen isolates were tested in fungicide sensitivity assays. Five of the tested fungicides suppressed mycelial pathogen growth effectively. However, there were significant differences in the sensitivities exhibited by the pathogen isolates examined. Interestingly, the isolates obtained from practical management orchards versus organic cultivation orchards showed no differences in sensitivity to the same fungicide. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analyses were performed to detect internal transcribed spacer regions and the β-tubulin and glutamine synthetase genes of the pathogens examined. Both the glutamine synthetase and β-tubulin genes contained a complex set of polymorphisms. Based on these results, the pathogens isolated from organic cultivation orchards were found to have more diversity than the isolates obtained from the practical management orchards.

  16. Cuticular membrane of Fuyu persimmon fruit is strengthened by triterpenoid nano-fillers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuntaro Tsubaki

    Full Text Available The mechanical defensive performance of fruit cuticular membranes (CMs is largely dependent on the molecular arrangement of their constituents. Here, we elucidated nano-sized interactions between cutin and triterpenoids in the cuticular matrix of Fuyu persimmon fruits (Diospyroskaki Thunb. cv. Fuyu, focusing on the mechanical properties using a combination of polymer analyses. The fruit CMs of Fuyu were primarily composed of wax (34.7%, which was predominantly triterpenoids followed by higher aliphatic compounds, and cutin (48.4%, primarily consisting of 9,10-epoxy-18-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid and 9,10,18-trihydroxyoctadecanoic acid. Based on the tensile tests of the CM, the removal of wax lead to a considerable decrease in the maximum stress and elastic modulus accompanied by an increase in the maximum strain, indicating that wax is of significant importance for maintaining the mechanical strength of the CM. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction and relaxation time measurements using solid-state (13C nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that the triterpenoids in the cuticular matrix construct a nanocomposite at a mixing scale below 20-24 nm; however, the higher aliphatic compounds did not exhibit clear interactions with cutin. The results indicated that the triterpenoids in the cuticular matrix endow toughness to the CM by functioning as a nanofiller.

  17. Sharka: how do plants respond to Plum pox virus infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Moreno, María J; Hernández, José A; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV), the causal agent of sharka disease, is one of the most studied plant viruses, and major advances in detection techniques, genome characterization and organization, gene expression, transmission, and the description of candidate genes involved in PPV resistance have been described. However, information concerning the plant response to PPV infection is very scarce. In this review, we provide an updated summary of the research carried out to date in order to elucidate how plants cope with PPV infection and their response at different levels, including the physiological, biochemical, proteomic, and genetic levels. Knowledge about how plants respond to PPV infection can contribute to the development of new strategies to cope with this disease. Due to the fact that PPV induces an oxidative stress in plants, the bio-fortification of the antioxidative defences, by classical or biotechnological approaches, would be a useful tool to cope with PPV infection. Nevertheless, there are still some gaps in knowledge related to PPV-plant interaction that remain to be filled, such as the effect of PPV on the hormonal profile of the plant or on the plant metabolome. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Surficial geology of the sea floor in Long Island Sound offshore of Plum Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Danforth, W.W.; Blackwood, D.S.; Schaer, J.D.; Ostapenko, A.J.; Glomb, K.A.; Doran, E.F.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have been working cooperatively to interpret surficial sea-floor geology along the coast of the Northeastern United States. NOAA survey H11445 in eastern Long Island Sound, offshore of Plum Island, New York, covers an area of about 12 square kilometers. Multibeam bathymetry and sidescan-sonar imagery from the survey, as well as sediment and photographic data from 13 stations occupied during a USGS verification cruise are used to delineate sea-floor features and characterize the environment. Bathymetry gradually deepens offshore to over 100 meters in a depression in the northwest part of the study area and reaches 60 meters in Plum Gut, a channel between Plum Island and Orient Point. Sand waves are present on a shoal north of Plum Island and in several smaller areas around the basin. Sand-wave asymmetry indicates that counter-clockwise net sediment transport maintains the shoal. Sand is prevalent where there is low backscatter in the sidescan-sonar imagery. Gravel and boulder areas are submerged lag deposits produced from the Harbor Hill-Orient Point-Fishers Island moraine segment and are found adjacent to the shorelines and just north of Plum Island, where high backscatter is present in the sidescan-sonar imagery.

  19. Selective adsorption of molybdenum(VI) from Mo-Re bearing effluent by chemically modified astringent persimmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong Ying, E-mail: xiongying_1977@hotmail.com [School of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Rare-scattered Elements of Liaoning Province, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Wang Haitao; Lou Zhenning; Shan Weijun; Xing Zhiqiang; Deng Guichun [School of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Rare-scattered Elements of Liaoning Province, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Wu Dongbei [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, 200092 (China); Fang Dawei [School of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Rare-scattered Elements of Liaoning Province, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Biswas, Biplob Kumar [Department of Applied Chemistry, Saga University, Honjo 1, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jessore Science and Technology University, Jessore (Bangladesh)

    2011-02-28

    Graphical abstract: The use of persimmon for the recovery of Mo(VI) from aqueous chloride medium was investigated. The excellent adsorption characteristics for Mo(VI) were confirmed by adsorption and elution tests using a column packed with the APF gel. Research highlights: {yields} Astringent persimmon was chemically cross-linked by formaldehyde to obtain a novel kind of adsorption gel. By comparing with the adsorption of some other metal ions, especially for Re(VII), this new gel exhibited selectivity only for molybdenum with a remarkably high capacity for Mo(VI) (1.05 mol/kg dry gel). {yields} The adsorption mechanisms of molybdenum on the astringent persimmon gel have been determined for deferent molybdenum species. And, the endothermic adsorption process followed pseudo-second order kinetics, and the adsorption behavior obeys the Langmuir mode. {yields} The excellent adsorption characteristics for Mo(VI) were confirmed by adsorption and elution tests using a column packed with the APF gel, especially from an actual industrial waste effluent. - Abstract: Astringent persimmon was chemically cross-linked by formaldehyde to obtain a novel kind of adsorption gel, which was named as APF gel. The adsorption behaviors of Mo(VI) and Re(VII) along with other coexisting metals onto the APF gel were studied in the present paper. The APF gel was found to be effective for the adsorption of Mo(VI) while the gel is almost completely inert toward rhenium and calcium over the whole hydrochloric acid concentration region. The APF gel has a low affinity for iron, copper, lead, nickel, manganese and zinc ions when the concentration of HCl is higher than 1 mol/L. The gel exhibited selectivity only for Mo(VI) with a remarkably high adsorption capacity 1.05 mol/kg, and the adsorption behavior obeys the Langmuir model. According to the thermodynamic and kinetic studies, the endothermic adsorption process followed pseudo-second order kinetics. Also, its excellent adsorption

  20. Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, to selected noxious plant extracts and insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gӧkçe, A; Stelinski, L L; Nortman, D R; Bryan, W W; Whalon, M E

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), adults were tested for several methanolic plant extracts and organically approved insecticides. Plant extracts were evaluated for their potential as antifeedants or oviposition deterrents. These extract responses were also compared to those elicited by the non-neurotoxic, organic irritant-insecticide kaolin clay. Both sexes of plum curculio exhibited antennal response as measured by electroantennogram, which ranged from 0.2 to 1.1 mV, to plant extracts and the organic irritant/insecticide, with the greatest response to the extract of rough cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (1.1 mV). No choice tests were conducted to compare feeding and oviposition by plum curculio on untreated apples or on apples treated with one of the extracts or the insecticide. The insecticide pyrethrum and extracts of X. strumarium and greater burdock, Arctium lappa L., significantly reduced feeding. Also, pyrethrum, A. lappa, Humulus lupulus L. (common hop), X. strumarium, and Verbascum songaricum Schrenk extracts completely inhibited egg deposition. In no-choice assays, the effects of kaolin clay with incorporated plant extracts on plum curculio feeding and oviposition were monitored as complementary tests. A. lappa-kaolin, H. lupulus-kaolin, and X. strumarium-kaolin mixtures significantly reduced the feeding of plum curculio compared to the control or kaolin clay alone. Each of the plant extract-kaolin mixtures evaluated, with the exception of Bifora radians Bieberstein (wild bishop), completely inhibited plum curculio oviposition as compared to controls. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  1. Independent Confirmatory Survey Summary and Results for the Plum Brook Reactor Facility Sandusky OH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, E.N.

    2008-01-01

    In 1941, the War Department acquired approximately 9,000 acres of land near Sandusky, Ohio and constructed a munitions plant. The Plum Brook Ordnance Works Plant produced munitions, such as TNT, until the end of World War II. Following the war, the land remained idle until the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (later known as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration or NASA) obtained 500 acres to construct a nuclear research reactor designed to study the effects of radiation on materials used in space flight. The research reactor was put into operation in 1961 and was the first of fifteen test facilities eventually built by NASA at the Plum Brook Station. By 1963, NASA had acquired the remaining land at Plum Brook for these additional test facilities. After successfully completing the objective of landing humans on the Moon and returning them safely to Earth, NASA was faced with budget reductions from Congress in 1973. These budgetary constraints caused NASA to cease operations at several research facilities across the country, including those at Plum Brook Station. The major test facilities at Plum Brook were maintained in a standby mode, capable of being reactivated for future use. The Plum Brook Reactor Facility (PBRF) was shut down January 5, 1973 and all of the nuclear fuel was eventually removed and shipped off site to a U.S. Department of Energy facility in Idaho for disposal or reuse. Decommissioning activities are currently underway at the PBRF (NASA 1999). The objectives of the confirmatory survey activities were to provide independent contractor field data reviews and to generate independent radiological data for use by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in evaluating the adequacy and accuracy of the licensee's procedures and final status survey (FSS) results

  2. Hypoxia-responsive ERFs involved in postdeastringency softening of persimmon fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao-Miao; Zhu, Qing-Gang; Deng, Chu-Li; Luo, Zheng-Rong; Sun, Ning-Jing; Grierson, Donald; Yin, Xue-Ren; Chen, Kun-Song

    2017-11-01

    Removal of astringency by endogenously formed acetaldehyde, achieved by postharvest anaerobic treatment, is of critical importance for many types of persimmon fruit. Although an anaerobic environment accelerates de-astringency, it also has the deleterious effect of promoting excessive softening, reducing shelf life and marketability. Some hypoxia-responsive ethylene response factors (ERFs) participate in anaerobic de-astringency, but their role in accelerated softening was unclear. Undesirable rapid softening induced by high CO 2 (95%) was ameliorated by adding the ethylene inhibitor 1-MCP (1 μL/L), resulting in reduced astringency while maintaining firmness, suggesting that CO 2 -induced softening involves ethylene signalling. Among the hypoxia-responsive genes, expression of eight involved in fruit cell wall metabolism (Dkβ-gal1/4, DkEGase1, DkPE1/2, DkPG1, DkXTH9/10) and three ethylene response factor genes (DkERF8/16/19) showed significant correlations with postdeastringency fruit softening. Dual-luciferase assay indicated that DkERF8/16/19 could trans-activate the DkXTH9 promoter and this interaction was abolished by a mutation introduced into the C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element of the DkXTH9 promoter, supporting the conclusion that these DkERFs bind directly to the DkXTH9 promoter and regulate this gene, which encodes an important cell wall metabolism enzyme. Some hypoxia-responsive ERF genes are involved in deastringency and softening, and this linkage was uncoupled by 1-MCP. Fruit of the Japanese cultivar 'Tonewase' provide a model for altered anaerobic response, as they lost astringency yet maintained firmness after CO 2 treatment without 1-MCP and changes in cell wall enzymes and ERFs did not occur. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Source-Sink Relations in Fruits VII. Effects of Pruning in Sour Cherry and Plum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo; Hansen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Sour cherries cv. 'Stevnsbær' and plums cv. 'Victoria' were heavily pruned in 1987. Fruit samples were collected during the growing season and concentrations of different quality components were determined. Pruning resulted in a small increase in fruit size, the effect being greater on the older...... trees (sour cherries) or at the lower crop load (plum). Additionally, pruning decreased the con­centrations of total and soluble dry matter and of anthocya­nins ('Stevnsbær'), while titratable acids showed an increas­ing tendency. The effects of pruning are discussed based on influences on root...

  4. Enhancing the polyphenol content of a red-fleshed Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) nectar by incorporating a polyphenol-rich extract from the skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Dalene; Steyn, Naomi; Joubert, Elizabeth; Muller, Nina

    2012-10-01

    Plum skins are a waste product generated during production of plum juice or pulp. Polyphenols, shown to have various health-promoting properties, can be recovered from this waste product. Red-fleshed plum nectar formulations containing plum skin extract in varying amounts were characterised in terms of intensity of sensory attributes, consumer acceptability, colour, polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. Commercial beverages containing red fruits were used as benchmarks. The polyphenolic profile of the plum skin extract was similar to that of the pulp, including anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols and a phenolic acid. Addition of the extract to plum nectar, which enhanced the colour, polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity, was limited by its negative sensory impact. The formulations were deemed acceptable by consumers, although a decrease in positive sensory attributes (plum flavour, plum aroma and sweetness) and an increase in negative sensory attributes (plant-like flavour, plant-like aroma, acidity and astringency) were observed with increasing skin extract content. The formulations compared favourably with commercial beverages in terms of colour total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. Plum skins were successfully used to enhance the functional status of plum nectar. Use of a functional ingredient from plum skins is, therefore, a feasible value-addition strategy. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Decontamination effects of bark washing with a high-pressure washer on Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] and Japanese Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) contaminated with radiocaesium during dormancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Mamoru; Abe, Kazuhiro; Kikunaga, Hidetoshi; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu; Takata, Daisuke; Tanoi, Keitaro; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The effect of bark washing with a high-pressure washer on deciduous trees contaminated during dormancy by radiocaesium fallout derived from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was examined using peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] and Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.). Eighteen-year-old peach trees ('Akatsuki') were bark-washed twice with a high-pressure washer on July 5 and 27, 2011. Seven-year-old peach trees ('Kawanakajima Hakuto') were bark-washed on January 24, 2012, and thirty-year-old Japanese persimmon trees ('Hachiya') were bark-washed on December 21, 2011. For the peach trees, most of the bark was not removed by washing with a high-pressure washer. In contrast, the rough bark of Japanese persimmon was removed completely. No significant differences in the 137 Cs concentration of 'Akatsuki' fruit were found between the treatments conducted in the summer of 2011. Upon the bark washing of peach 'Akatsuki' trees in summer, the possibility of secondary contamination of leaves via the leachate containing 137 Cs was likely. The 137 Cs concentrations in fruits and leaves of peach 'Kawanakajima Hakuto' collected in summer 2012 were decreased significantly by washing treatment conducted in winter 2011–2012. In the year after treatment, the 137 Cs concentrations in fruits and leaves of Japanese persimmon were significantly decreased by the treatment. The effect of the bark washing on decreasing 137 Cs contents in fruits and leaves was greater in Japanese persimmon than in peach. The results for 'Kawanakajima Hakuto' and 'Hachiya' demonstrated the possibility of additive contamination. (author)

  6. Sensitivity of field tests, serological and molecular techniques for Plum Pox Virus detection in various tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca VIRŠČEK MARN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of field tests (AgriStrip  and Immunochromato, DAS-ELISA, two step RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR for Plum pox virus (PPV detection was tested in various tissues of apricot, peach, plum and damson plum trees infected with isolates belonging to PPV-D, PPV-M or PPV-Rec, the three strains present in Slovenia. Flowers of apricot and plum in full bloom proved to be a very good source for detection of PPV. PPV could be detected with all tested techniques in symptomatic parts of leaves in May and with one exception even in the beginning of August, but it was not detected in asymptomatic leaves using field tests, DAS-ELISA and partly also molecular techniques. PPV was detected only in some of the samples of asymptomatic parts of the leaves with symptoms and of stalks by field tests and DAS-ELISA. Infections were not detected in buds in August using field tests or DAS-ELISA. Field tests are useful for confirmation of the PPV infection in symptomatic leaves, but in tissues without symptoms DAS-ELISA should be combined or replaced by molecular techniques.

  7. Plum pox virus (PPV) genome expression in genetically engineered RNAi plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important approach to controlling sharka disease caused by Plum pox virus (PPV) is the development of PPV resistant plants using small interfering RNAs (siRNA) technology. In order to evaluate siRNA induced gene silencing, we studied, based on knowledge of the PPV genome sequence, virus genome t...

  8. Essential oils to control Botrytis cinerea in vitro and in vivo on plum fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminifard, Mohammad Hossein; Mohammadi, Samane

    2013-01-01

    The consequence of misusing chemical biocides in controlling pests and diseases has drawn the attention of policy makers to the development of methods potentially available in nature for this purpose. In the present study the inhibitory effects of black caraway, fennel and peppermint essential oils against Botrytis cinerea were tested at various concentrations in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro results showed that the growth of B. cinerea was completely inhibited by the application of black caraway and fennel oils at concentrations of 400 and 600 µL L⁻¹ respectively. The in vivo results indicated that black caraway, fennel and peppermint oils at all applied concentrations inhibited B. cinerea growth on plum fruits compared with the control. In addition, all three oils at higher concentrations showed positive effects on fruit quality characteristics such as titrable acidity, total soluble solids, carbohydrate content, pH and weight loss percentage. Thus the oils inhibited the infection of plum fruits by B. cinerea and increased their storage life. This research confirms the antifungal effects of black caraway, fennel and peppermint essential oils both in vitro and in vivo on plum fruits postharvest. Therefore these essential oils could be an alternative to chemicals to control postharvest phytopathogenic fungi on plum fruits. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Tourist event "Days of plum" at Blace: Demographic and geographic analysis of visitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lović Suzana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The event "Days of Plum - My Plum" at Blace has been one of 42 events dedicated to fruits and vegetables and one of three events dedicated to plum in Serbia. It has been held for nine consecutive years in the town situated in the wide Toplica valley at the foot of Jastrebac, where in a relatively favourable climate conditions there are good conditions for development of plum, so it has become a traditional event. This paper analyzes the results of a survey conducted during the last event, August 2011. The survey is used as methodical procedure because in relatively short time period a relatively large amount of information and data has been obtained. The survey includes 304 randomly selected respondents of different gender, age and educational structures. It was performed to examine the tourism market, attitudes and behaviour of visitors, as well as tourism promotion. In addition to the survey, the tourist valorisation of events is done in which the elements of geographic and economic groups of criteria are analyzed in order to investigate the tourism potential in terms of development of tourism as an economic sector that can contribute to the development of Blace as an underdeveloped area. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47007

  10. Aroma peculiarities of apricot (Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. and cherry-plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Горіна

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the component composition of volatile solutions determining fragrance of the flowers in apricot and cherry-plum varieties and Prunus brigantiaca Vill. x Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. hybrids there are 36 highest hydrocarbons and benzaldehyde that prevail. There are fewer amounts of the solutions which scare bees (benzaldehyde in the fragrance of cherry-plum varieties as compared to the flowers of apricot and hybrids. At the same time, the content of tricosane, pentacosane, docosane, heneycosane, eicosane, nonadecan that probably attract bees is higher in the cherry-plum flowers than in the fragrance of apricot and hybrid flowers. The average three years yield of cherry-plum plants (Nikitska Zhovta 10,7 and Salgirskaya Rumjanaya 28,5 t/ ha is higher than for apricot (Recolte de Schatene 0,3; Rodnik 2,9; Ananasniy Tsurupinsky 7,4 t/ha and hybrids (8110 – 5,2; 8098 – 6,4 t/ha that could be explained with better pollination of flowers and better fruit formation. Prevailing components of flower aroma of these plants    and their possible link with yield of the objects in questions have been analyzed.

  11. The effect of treating plum tree with Rovral (iprodion and Euparen (dichlofluanid on the content of soluble solids in fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Borecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of soluble solids in plum fruit varied and depended on the cultivar, year, and fungicide treatment. Plums from trees treated with Rovral (iprodion contained in some case the lowest level of soluble solids, higher or equal levels were found in those sprayed with Euparen (dichlofluanid, and the highest concentration of soluble solids was in fruits from untreated trees. Explanation of this phenomenon is possible by looking for changes in photosynthesis of treated and untreated leaves. Fungicide treatment of some plum cultivars, particularly with Rovral, decreased the photosynthesis of the leaves.

  12. Effect of high-hydrostatic pressure and moderate-intensity pulsed electric field on plum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Parra, J; González-Cebrino, F; Delgado-Adámez, J; Cava, R; Martín-Belloso, O; Élez-Martínez, P; Ramírez, R

    2018-03-01

    Moderate intensity pulse electric fields were applied in plum with the aim to increase bioactive compounds content of the fruit, while high-hydrostatic pressure was applied to preserve the purées. High-hydrostatic pressure treatment was compared with an equivalent thermal treatment. The addition of ascorbic acid during purée manufacture was also evaluated. The main objective of this study was to assess the effects on microorganisms, polyphenoloxidase, color and bioactive compounds of high-hydrostatic pressure, or thermal-processed plum purées made of moderate intensity pulse electric field-treated or no-moderate intensity pulse electric field-treated plums, after processing during storage. The application of moderate intensity pulse electric field to plums slightly increased the levels of anthocyanins and the antioxidant activity of purées. The application of Hydrostatic-high pressure (HHP) increased the levels of bioactive compounds in purées, while the thermal treatment preserved better the color during storage. The addition of ascorbic acid during the manufacture of plum purée was an important factor for the final quality of purées. The color and the bioactive compounds content were better preserved in purées with ascorbic acid. The no inactivation of polyphenoloxidase enzyme with treatments applied in this study affected the stability purées. Probably more intense treatments conditions (high-hydrostatic pressure and thermal treatment) would be necessary to reach better quality and shelf life during storage.

  13. 9 CFR 205.206 - Farm products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... must specify by name) Apples, apricots, avocados, bananas, cherries, coffee, dates, figs, grapes (& raisins), nectarines, olives, papayas, peaches, pears, persimmons, pineapples, plums (& prunes...

  14. Effective half-lives of 137Cs from persimmon tree tissue parts in Japan after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the radiocesium decreasing rates from persimmon trees during a period of about 3 y following the accident at Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), we conducted measurements of tree tissue parts collected in 2011–2013. The sampling was carried out in Chiba, 220 km south of FDNPP; radioactive fallouts discharged from FDNPP had mainly been observed in March–April 2011 on the sampling site. We measured 137 Cs concentrations in the tree tissue parts, i.e., fruits (flesh, skin and seeds), leaves and newly emerged branches, and then the effective half-lives (T eff ) of 137 Cs were calculated. Leaf samples were classified into two types by sampling months according to the growing stages, that is, immature (April–May) and mature (June–November) leaves. All these parts showed exponential declines in 137 Cs concentration with good adjusted contribution ratios of higher than ca. 0.7. The calculated T eff values from all tissue parts were similar with the average of 229 d (range: 216–243 d). From these results, we concluded that each tree tissue was representative for the calculation of T eff . For comparison to these observation results, open source food monitoring data from 2011 to 2013 including 137 Cs data for persimmon fruits collected in Fukushima Prefecture were used to calculate T eff for persimmon trees. Values of T eff were obtained for persimmon fruits grown in each local government area in Fukushima Prefecture and they ranged from 303 to 475 d. - Highlights: • 137 Cs decreased exponentially from persimmon trees in Chiba after the Fukushima accident. • The effective half-lives (T eff ) of 137 Cs from fruit, leaf and new branch tissues were similar. • The Food monitoring data were used to calculate effective half-lives for persimmon trees in Fukushima. • The average of T eff in Chiba was ca. 230 d while that in Fukushima was ca. 400 d

  15. A comparative study of the bone metabolic response to dried plum supplementation and PTH treatment in adult, osteopenic ovariectomized rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brenda J; Bu, So Young; Wang, Yan; Rendina, Elizabeth; Lim, Yin F; Marlow, Denver; Clarke, Stephen L; Cullen, Diane M; Lucas, Edralin A

    2014-01-01

    Dried plum has been reported to have potent effects on bone in osteopenic animal models, but the mechanisms through which bone metabolism is altered in vivo remain unclear. To address this issue, a study comparing the metabolic response of dried plum to the anabolic agent, parathyroid hormone (PTH), was undertaken. Six month-old female Sprague Dawley rats (n=84) were sham-operated (SHAM) or ovariectomized (OVX) and maintained on a control diet for 6wks until osteopenia was confirmed. Treatments were initiated consisting of a control diet (AIN-93M) supplemented with dried plum (0, 5, 15 or 25%; w/w) or a positive control group receiving PTH. At the end of 6wks of treatment, whole body and femoral bone mineral density (BMD) were restored by the two higher doses of dried plum to the level of the SHAM group. Trabecular bone volume and cortical thickness were also improved with these two doses of dried plum. Dried plum suppressed the OVX-induced increase in bone turnover as indicated by systemic biomarkers of bone metabolism, N-terminal procollagen type 1 (P1NP) and deoxypyridinoline (DPD). Dynamic bone histomorphometric analysis of the tibial metaphysis revealed that dried plum restored the OVX-induced increase in cancellous bone formation rate (BFR) and mineralizing surface (MS/BS) to the SHAM group, but some doses of dried plum increased endocortical mineral apposition rate (MAR). As expected, PTH significantly increased endocortical MAR and BFR, periosteal BFR, and trabecular MAR and BFR beyond that of the OVX and maintained the accelerated rate of bone resorption associated with OVX. Dried plum up-regulated bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1) while down-regulating nuclear factor T cell activator 1 (Nfatc1). These findings demonstrate that in the adult osteopenic OVX animal, the effects of dried plum differ from that of PTH in that dried plum primarily suppressed bone turnover with the exception of the indices of bone

  16. Regulation of the peripheral body temperature by foods: a temperature decrease induced by the Japanese persimmon (kaki, Diospyros kaki).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, Gaku; Nadamoto, Tomonori; Fujisawa, Fumiko; Fushiki, Tohru

    2003-01-01

    We investigated whether the ingestion of the Japanese persimmon (kaki, Diospyros kaki) could lower the human peripheral body temperature. It was found that the temperatures recorded at the foot and wrist were depressed after kaki consumption compared to after the same amount of water consumption. The effects of ingesting freeze-dried kaki and eating a cookie (as its nutritional counterpart) containing the same amount of carbohydrate, protein, fat, and water were compared. A similar temperature-reducing effect of kaki was observed. The recovery of finger temperature after soaking the finger in ice-cooled water was also studied. The temperature recovery was delayed after kaki consumption. It was thus quantitatively demonstrated that ingesting kaki indeed had the effect of lowering (or repressing the rise) of the peripheral human body temperature, as has been traditionally believed in China for many hundreds of years.

  17. Spatial and temporal assessment of pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow from genetically engineered plum Prunus domestica.

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    Ralph Scorza

    Full Text Available Pollen flow from a 0.46 ha plot of genetically engineered (GE Prunus domestica located in West Virginia, USA was evaluated from 2000-2010. Sentinel plum trees were planted at distances ranging from 132 to 854 m from the center of the GE orchard. Plots of mixed plum varieties and seedlings were located at 384, 484 and 998 m from the GE plot. Bee hives (Apis mellifera were dispersed between the GE plum plot and the pollen flow monitoring sites. Pollen-mediated gene flow from out of the GE plum plot to non-GE plums under the study conditions was low, only occurring at all in 4 of 11 years and then in only 0.31% of the 12,116 seeds analyzed. When it occurred, gene flow, calculated as the number of GUS positive embryos/total embryos sampled, ranged from 0.215% at 132 m from the center of the GE plum plot (28 m from the nearest GE plum tree to 0.033-0.017% at longer distances (384-998 m. Based on the percentage of GUS positive seeds per individual sampled tree the range was 0.4% to 12%. Within the GE field plot, gene flow ranged from 4.9 to 39%. Gene flow was related to distance and environmental conditions. A single year sample from a sentinel plot 132 m from the center of the GE plot accounted for 65% of the total 11-year gene flow. Spatial modeling indicated that gene flow dramatically decreased at distances over 400 m from the GE plot. Air temperature and rainfall were, respectively, positively and negatively correlated with gene flow, reflecting the effects of weather conditions on insect pollinator activity. Seed-mediated gene flow was not detected. These results support the feasibility of coexistence of GE and non-GE plum orchards.

  18. Effects of phospholipid complexes of total flavonoids from Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) leaves on experimental atherosclerosis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kexia; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Meiyu; Gu, Liqiang; Liu, Ziying; Jia, Jingming; Chen, Xiaohui

    2016-09-15

    The total flavonoids from Persimmon leaves (PLF), extracted from the leaves of Diospyros kaki L. Dispryosl and Ebenaceae, is reported to possess many beneficial health effects. However, the oral bioavailability of PLF is relatively low due to its poor solubility. In the present study, the phospholipid complexes of total flavonoids from Persimmon leaves (PLF-PC) was prepared to enhance the oral bioavailability of PLF and to evaluate its antiatherosclerotic properties in atherosclerosis rats in comparison to PLF. A HPLC-MS method was developed and validated for the determination of quercetin and kaempferol in rats plasma to assess the oral bioavailability of PLF-PC. The effect of PLF (50mg/kg/d) and PLF-PC (equivalent to PLF 50mg/kg/d) on atherosclerosis rats induced by excessive administration of vitamin D (600,000IU/kg) and cholesterol (0.5g/kg/d) was assessed after orally administered for 4 weeks. The relative bioavailabilities of quercetin and kaempferol in PLF-PC relative to PLF were 242% and 337%, respectively. The levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) in serum were measured by an automatic biochemistry analyzer. The morphological changes of aorta were observed with optical microscopy. According to the levels of biochemical parameters in serum and the morphological changes of aorta, PLF-PC showed better therapeutic efficacy compared to PLF. Thus, PLF-PC holds a promising potential for increasing the oral bioavailability of PLF. Moreover, PLF-PC exerts better therapeutic potential in the treatment of atherosclerotic disease than PLF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Determining Total Phenolics, Anthocyanin Content and Ascorbic Acid Content in Some Plum Genotypes Grown in Ardahan Ecological Conditions

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    Z. T. ABACI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, total phenol content, total anthocyanin content, brix, pH, titrable acidity and total ascorbic acid content in the five plum genotypes cultivated in Ardahan City are determined and sustenance of the plums are revealed. Total phenol content was determined with folin-ciocalteu’s method, total anthocyanin content was determined with pH differential method and total ascorbic acid was determined with 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol method.It is detected that the genotype with the highest brix content (%13.9 and lowest acidity (%0.98 is cancur, the genotype with the lowest brix content (%11 and highest acidity (%2.06 is wild plum, the genotype with the highest content of total anthocyanin, total phenolic substance and ascorbic acid is the wild plum and the genotype with the least content of these is the water plum. As a result of the study, it is revealed that the plum fruit has high levels of phenolic substance, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid content, so it has a high sustenance.

  20. Identification of volatile compounds in thinning discards from plum trees (Prunus salicina Lindl. cultivar Harry Pickstone

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    Rossana Podestá

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cv. Harry Pickstone, a China indigenous fruit, is widely produced and consumed in countries such as Japan and Brazil. The practice of thinning is common in horticulture and the fruits removed are discarded as waste. Like the great majority of vegetables, these thinning discards also contain essential oils which have not been investigated until the present time. The extraction of the plum thinning discards volatile oil, through the hydrodistillation method, produced a yield of 0.06% (m/m and a total of 21 components were identified, with 11 of them being responsible for 72,9% of the total oil composition. The major compounds determined through GC and GC-MS were Z-α-bisabolene (13.7%, n-hexadecanoic acid (12.7%, phytol (12.7%, and β-caryophyllene (10.4%.

  1. Changes in polyphenolics during maturation of Java plum (Syzygium cumini Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestario, Lydia Ninan; Howard, Luke R; Brownmiller, Cindi; Stebbins, Nathan B; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson O

    2017-10-01

    Java plum (Syzygium cumini Lam.) is a rich source of polyphenolics with many purported health benefits, but the effect of maturation on polyphenolic content is unknown. Freeze-dried samples of Java plum from seven different maturity stages were analyzed for anthocyanin, flavonol, flavanonol and hydrolysable tannin composition by HPLC. Anthocyanins were first detected at the green-pink stage of maturity and increased throughout maturation with the largest increase occurring from the dark purple to black stages of maturation. Levels of gallotannins, ellagitannins, flavonols, gallic acid and ellagic acid were highest at early stages of maturation and decreased as the fruit ripened. For production of antioxidant-rich nutraceutical ingredients, fruit should be harvested immature to obtain extracts rich in hydrolysable tannins and flavonols. The exceptional anthocyanin content of black fruit may prove useful as a source of a natural colorant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Select polyphenolic fractions from dried plum enhance osteoblast activity through BMP-2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graef, Jennifer L; Rendina-Ruedy, Elizabeth; Crockett, Erica K; Ouyang, Ping; King, Jarrod B; Cichewicz, Robert H; Lucas, Edralin A; Smith, Brenda J

    2018-05-01

    Dried plum supplementation has been shown to enhance bone formation while suppressing bone resorption. Evidence from previous studies has demonstrated that these responses can be attributed in part to the fruit's polyphenolic compounds. The purpose of this study was to identify the most bioactive polyphenolic fractions of dried plum with a focus on their osteogenic activity and to investigate their mechanisms of action under normal and inflammatory conditions. Utilizing chromatographic techniques, six fractions of polyphenolic compounds were prepared from a crude extract of dried plum. Initial screening assays revealed that two fractions (DP-FrA and DP-FrB) had the greatest osteogenic potential. Subsequent experiments using primary bone-marrow-derived osteoblast cultures demonstrated these two fractions enhanced extracellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an indicator of osteoblast activity, and mineralized nodule formation under normal conditions. Both fractions enhanced bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, as indicated by increased Bmp2 and Runx2 gene expression and protein levels of phosphorylated Smad1/5. DP-FrB was most effective at up-regulating Tak1 and Smad1, as well as protein levels of phospho-p38. Under inflammatory conditions, TNF-α suppressed ALP and tended to decrease nodule formation (P=.0674). This response coincided with suppressed gene expression of Bmp2 and the up-regulation of Smad6, an inhibitor of BMP signaling. DP-FrA and DP-FrB partially normalized these responses. Our results show that certain fractions of polyphenolic compounds in dried plum up-regulate osteoblast activity by enhancing BMP signaling, and when this pathway is inhibited by TNF-α, the osteogenic response is attenuated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. HPLC-DAD-ESIMS analysis of phenolic compounds in nectarines, peaches, and plums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Barberán, F A; Gil, M I; Cremin, P; Waterhouse, A L; Hess-Pierce, B; Kader, A A

    2001-10-01

    The phenolic compounds of 25 peach, nectarine, and plum cultivars were studied and quantified by HPLC-DAD-ESIMS. Hydroxycinnamates, procyanidins, flavonols, and anthocyanins were detected and quantified. White and yellow flesh nectarines and peaches, and yellow and red plums, were analyzed at two different maturity stages with consideration of both peel and flesh tissues. HPLC-MS analyses allowed the identification of procyanidin dimers of the B- and A-types, as well as the presence of procyanidin trimers in plums. As a general rule, the peel tissues contained higher amounts of phenolics, and anthocyanins and flavonols were almost exclusively located in this tissue. No clear differences in the phenolic content of nectarines and peaches were detected or between white flesh and yellow flesh cultivars. There was no clear trend in phenolic content with ripening of the different cultivars. Some cultivars, however, had a very high phenolic content. For example, the white flesh nectarine cultivar Brite Pearl (350-460 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 430-550 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh) and the yellow flesh cv. Red Jim (180-190 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 210-330 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh), contained 10 times more phenolics than cultivars such as Fire Pearl (38-50 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 23-30 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh). Among white flesh peaches, cultivars Snow King (300-320 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 660-695 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh) and Snow Giant (125-130 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 520-540 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh) showed the highest content. The plum cultivars Black Beaut and Angeleno were especially rich in phenolics.

  4. Impact of high hydrostatic pressure and pasteurization on the structure and the extractability of bioactive compounds of persimmon “Rojo Brillante”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Carrión, M; Vázquez-Gutiérrez, J L; Hernando, I; Quiles, A

    2014-01-01

    Rojo Brillante is an astringent oriental persimmon variety with high levels of bioactive compounds such as soluble tannins, carotenoids, phenolic acids, and dietary fiber. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and pasteurization on the structure of the fruit and on the extractability of certain bioactive compounds. The microstructure was studied using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and low temperature scanning electron microscopy, and certain physicochemical properties (carotenoid and total soluble tannin content, antioxidant activity, fiber content, color, and texture properties) were measured. The structural changes induced by HHP caused a rise in solute circulation in the tissues that could be responsible for the increased carotenoid level and the unchanged antioxidant activity in comparison with the untreated persimmon. In contrast, the changes that took place during pasteurization lowered the tannin content and antioxidant activity. Consequently, HHP treatment could improve the extraction of potentially bioactive compoundsxsts from persimmons. A high nutritional value ingredient to be used when formulating new functional foods could be obtained using HHP. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. W. Ritchie Russell, A.B. Baker, and Fred Plum: Pioneers of ventilatory management in poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2016-09-13

    Historically, neurologists were not involved in the day-to-day management of critically ill patients with bulbar poliomyelitis, but some were. The major contributions of 3 neurologists-W. Ritchie Russell, A.B. Baker, and Fred Plum-in the respiratory management of poliomyelitis have not been recognized. Russell's work was instrumental in identifying multiple types of poliomyelitis defined by their respiratory needs, and he advised treatment that varied from simple postural drainage to use of respirators. He participated in the development of the Radcliffe respiratory pump. Baker recognized the essential involvement of the vagal nerve in respiratory distress, but also observed that involvement of vital centers without cranial nerve involvement would lead to irregular and shallow respiration in some patients and in others with marked dysautonomic features. A similar finding of central involvement of respiration was noted by Plum, who also stressed the importance of hypercapnia. Plum emphasized measurements of vital capacity and techniques to minimize trauma with suctioning after tracheostomy. These 3 neurologists understood the importance of airway and ventilator management, which is currently one of the many pillars of neurocritical care. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  6. Odor-baited trap trees: a novel management tool for plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskey, Tracy C; Piñero, Jaime C; Prokopy, Ronald J

    2008-08-01

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), one of the most important pests of apple (Malus spp.) in eastern and central North America, historically has been managed in New England apple orchards by three full block insecticide applications. Efforts to reduce insecticide inputs against plum curculio include perimeter row sprays, particularly after petal fall, to control immigrating adults. The odor-baited trap tree approach represents a new reduced input strategy for managing plum curculio based on the application of insecticides to a few perimeter-row trap trees rather than the entire perimeter row or full orchard block. Here, we compared the efficacy of a trap tree approach with perimeter row treatments to manage populations after petal fall in commercial apple orchards in 2005 and 2006. Injury was significantly greater in trap trees compared with unbaited perimeter row treated trees in both years of the study. In 2005, heavy rains prevented growers from applying insecticide applications at regular intervals resulting in high injury in nearly all blocks regardless of type of management strategy. In 2006, both the trap-tree and perimeter-row treatments prevented penetration by immigrating populations and resulted in economically acceptable levels of injury. The trap tree management strategy resulted in a reduction of approximately 70% total trees being treated with insecticide compared with perimeter row sprays and 93% compared with standard full block sprays.

  7. Salak plum peel extract as a safe and efficient antioxidant appraisal for cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Lourith, Nattaya; Ospondpant, Dusadee; Ruktanonchai, Uracha; Pongpunyayuen, Siriluck; Chansriniyom, Chaisak

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of Salak plum (Salacca edulis) peel extracts were assessed by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assays. The ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction was the most potent (DPPHIC50=2.932 ± 0.030 µg/mL, ABTSIC50=7.933 ± 0.049 µg/mL, FRAPEC=7,844.44 ± 40.734). Chlorogenic acid was detected as the marker (1.400 ± 0.102 g/kg). The EtOAc fraction was non-cytotoxic in vero and normal human fibroblast (NHF) cells. It exhibited cellular oxidative prevention and damage treatment at 5-40 µg/mL in NHF cells. Salak plum peel loaded liposome consisting of lecithin and hydrophobically modified hydroxyethylcellulose (HMHEC) was developed and found stable with adequate entrapment efficacy. Thus Salak plum peel was highlighted as a potential ecological antioxidant for health promotion aspects, and for cosmetics.

  8. Assessment of Grape, Plum and Orange Synthetic Food Flavourings Using in vivo Acute Toxicity Tests

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    Ila Monize Sousa Sales

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the acute toxicity of synthetic grape, plum and orange flavourings in root meristem cells of Allium cepa at the doses of 3.5, 7.0 and 14.0 mL/kg and exposure times of 24 and 48 h, and in bone marrow erythrocytes of mice treated orally for seven days with 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mL/kg of flavouring. The results of the plant test showed that grape, plum and orange flavourings, at both exposure times, inhibited cell division and promoted the formation of a significant number of micronuclei and mitotic spindle changes. These alterations were observed in at least one exposure time analysed, demonstrating a significant cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic activity. In mouse bioassay, animals treated with 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mL/kg of flavouring died before the seventh day of treatment. The amounts of 0.5 and 1.0 mL/kg of the three additives were cytotoxic to erythrocytes, and treatment with the grape flavouring significantly induced the formation of micronucleated cells in the bone marrow of animals. Therefore, under the study conditions, the grape, plum and orange flavouring additives promoted significant toxicity to cells of the test systems used.

  9. A first empirical comparison of energy Footprints embodied in trade. MRIO versus PLUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedmann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The Ecological Footprint as an indicator that accounts for human demand on global bioproductivity sets out to quantify the impacts associated with consumption in a given country, including the impacts associated with trade. The National Footprint Accounts (NFA) by Global Footprint Network (GFN) calculate trade-embodied Footprints by multiplying yield and embodied energy factors with mass volumes of traded goods in a 'Product Land Use Matrix (PLUM)'. This article compares energy Footprints embodied in trade from and to the United Kingdom in 2002 as calculated by the NFA-PLUM with the results from a recently developed multi-region input-output model (MRIO) for the UK. Although totals for imports and exports are comparable, breaking down the results by economic sectors reveals large differences and hardly any correlation between the two methods. The omission of trade in services (especially transport services) and upstream impacts of energy goods (fossil fuels) and the use of inappropriate embodied energy factors in the NFA-PLUM method are identified as the main reasons for these differences. In the light of the results it seems that a comprehensive Footprint account of trade can better be achieved with an input-output based approach. I conclude that MRIO models - once fully developed - will be particularly suitable in the future to estimate the Ecological Footprints of imports and exports of nations with the possibility to track their origin via inter-industry linkages, international supply chains and multi-national trade flows. (author)

  10. Embriogênese somática do caquizeiro Somatic embryogenesis of japanese persimmon

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    Dayse Cristina de Carvalho

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi o estabelecimento de um protocolo para a embriogênese somática do caquizeiro. Como explantes, foram utilizados embriões zigóticos em diversos estádios de desenvolvimento, retirados de frutos coletados de plantas adultas a campo, a partir de quatro semanas após o pleno florescimento até 22 semanas. O meio básico para os experimentos foi o MS½NO3. O meio inicial de indução foi suplementado com 20µM de 2,4-D e 2µM de cinetina. Os calos escuros obtidos foram repicados para outro meio de indução, com concentrações 10 ou 20 µM de 2,4-D e 2 µM de cinetina. Os calos com massas pró-embriogênicas obtidos foram transferidos para meio de manutenção e multiplicação com 2 µM de cinetina e 2,4-D nas concentrações 2,5; 5,0 e 10 µM. As massas embriogênicas formadas foram transferidas para meio de maturação suplementado com 0,5 µM de AIB e as concentrações 5; 10 e 20 µM de 2-iP. Os embriões formados foram isolados em dois meios de conversão, sendo o primeiro com 5 µM de 2-iP, 5 µM de AG3 e 0,5 µM de AIB e o segundo com 0,5 µM de AG3 e BAP, nas concentrações 0; 0,25; 0,5 e 1,0 µM. Como resultados, obteve-se o padrão indireto de embriogênese somática a partir de embriões zigóticos maduros, com mais de 22 semanas de formação, quando cultivados em meio de cultura com 10 µM de 2,4-D combinado com 2 µM de cinetina. A manutenção e a multiplicação das culturas embriogênicas foram mais eficientes com 5 µM de 2,4-D, na qual os pró-embriões avançaram para o estádio globular. Na fase de maturação, as concentrações de 2-iP testadas atuaram promovendo os embriões globulares a estádios mais avançados da ontogenia como cordiforme, torpedo e cotiledonar. A suplementação do meio de cultura com 1 µM de BAP e 0,5 µM de AG3 gerou a formação de plantas mais desenvolvidas, com maior número e tamanho de folhas.The goal of this work was to develop a protocol for persimmon cloning

  11. Harvest time and post-harvest quality of Fuyu persimmon treated before harvest with gibberellic acid and aminoetoxyvinilglycine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Ayub

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of gibberellic acid (GA3 and aminoetoxyvinilglycine (AVG applied in preharvest spraying, on the retardation of the harvest and on the quality of persimmon fruits cv. Fuyu. The experiment was carried in randomized complete block design. The treatments were: control, 136mgL-1 of AVG, 272 mgL-1 of AVG, 36mgL-1 of GA3, 72mgL-1 of GA3 and 136mgL-1 of AVG + 36mgL-1 of GA3, spraying 30 days before the first harvest. The fruits were harvested twice and stored at 4ºC. The chemical and physical evaluations of the fruits were carried out the date of the harvest and at intervals of 15 days followed by four days at 20ºC. In conclusion, the application of AVG (136mgL-1 or GA3 (72mgL-1 maintained the firmness of the fruits and delayed harvest by twenty days. However, fruits harvested in the initial state of ripening were more sensitive to chilling injury and were unable to support 15 days of storage at 4ºC. The plant growth regulators were not efficient in prolonged storage due to the fact that the concentration of sugars was lower in the treatments than in the control.

  12. Characterization and comparison of EST-SSR and TRAP markers for genetic analysis of the Japanese persimmon Diospyros kaki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, C; Zhang, F; Zhang, Q L; Guo, D Y; Luo, Z R

    2013-01-09

    We developed and characterized expressed sequence tags (ESTs)-simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and targeted region amplified polymorphism (TRAP) markers to examine genetic relationships in the persimmon genus Diospyros gene pool. In total, we characterized 14 EST-SSR primer pairs and 36 TRAP primer combinations, which were amplified across 20 germplasms of 4 species in the genus Diospyros. We used various genetic parameters, including effective multiplex ratio (EMR), diversity index (DI), and marker index (MI), to test the utility of these markers. TRAP markers gave higher EMR (24.85) but lower DI (0.33), compared to EST-SSRs (EMR = 3.65, DI = 0.34). TRAP gave a very high MI (8.08), which was about 8 times than the MI of EST-SSR (1.25). These markers were utilized for phylogenetic inference of 20 genotypes of Diospyros kaki Thunb. and allied species, with a result that all kaki genotypes clustered closely and 3 allied species formed an independent group. These markers could be further exploited for large-scale genetic relationship inference.

  13. Overexpression of persimmon DkXTH1 enhanced tolerance to abiotic stress and delayed fruit softening in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ye; Han, Shoukun; Ban, Qiuyan; He, Yiheng; Jin, Mijing; Rao, Jingping

    2017-04-01

    DkXTH1 promoted cell elongation and more strength to maintain structural integrity by involving in cell wall assembly, thus enhanced tolerance to abiotic stress with broader phenotype in transgenic plants. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) is thought to play a key role in cell wall modifications by cleaving and re-joining xyloglucan, and participates in the diverse physiological processes. DkXTH1 was found to peak in immature expanding persimmon fruit, and its higher expression level exhibited along with firmer fruit during storage. In the present study, transgenic Arabidopsis and tomato plants were generated with DkXTH1 constitutively expressed. Overexpression of DkXTH1 enhanced tolerance to salt, ABA and drought stresses in transgenic Arabidopsis plants with respect to root and leaf growth, and survival. Transgenic tomatoes collected at the mature green stage, presented delayed fruit softening coupled with postponed color change, a later and lower ethylene peak, and higher firmness in comparison with the wild-type tomatoes during storage. Furthermore, broader leaves and tomato fruit with larger diameter were gained in transgenic Arabidopsis and tomato, respectively. Most importantly, transgenic plants exhibited more large and irregular cells with higher density of cell wall and intercellular spaces, resulting from the overactivity of XET enzymes involving in cell wall assembly. We suggest that DkXTH1 expression resulted in cells with more strength and thickness to maintain structural integrity, and thus enhanced tolerance to abiotic stress and delayed fruit softening in transgenic plants.

  14. Effectiveness of odor-baited trap trees for plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) monitoring in commercial apple orchards in the northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, Jaime C; Agnello, Arthur M; Tuttle, Arthur; Leskey, Tracy C; Faubert, Heather; Koehler, Glen; Los, Lorraine; Morin, Glenn; Leahy, Kathleen; Cooley, Daniel R; Prokopy, Ronald J

    2011-10-01

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), is a key pest of pome and stone fruit in eastern and central North America. For effective management of this insect pest in commercial apple (Malus spp.) orchards in the northeastern United States and Canada, one of the greatest challenges has been to determine the need for and timing of insecticide applications that will protect apple fruit from injury by adults. In a 2004-2005 study, we assessed the efficacy and economic viability of a reduced-risk integrated pest management strategy involving an odor-baited trap tree approach to determine need for and timing of insecticide use against plum curculio based on appearance of fresh egg-laying scars. Evaluations took place in commercial apple orchards in seven northeastern U.S. states. More specifically, we compared the trap-tree approach with three calendar-driven whole-block sprays and with heat-unit accumulation models that predict how long insecticide should be applied to orchard trees to prevent injury by plum curculio late in the season. Trap tree plots received a whole-plot insecticide spray by the time of petal fall, and succeeding sprays (if needed) were applied to peripheral-row trees only, depending on a threshold of one fresh plum curculio egg-laying scar out of 25 fruit sampled from a single trap tree. In both years, level of plum curculio injury to fruit sampled from perimeter-row, the most interior-row trees and whole-plot injury in trap tree plots did not differ significantly from that recorded in plots subject to conventional management or in plots managed using the heat-unit accumulation approach. The amount of insecticide used in trap tree plots was reduced at least by 43% compared with plots managed with the conventional approach. Advantages and potential pitfalls of the bio-based trap tree approach to plum curculio monitoring in apple orchards are discussed.

  15. Carbohydrate-free peach (Prunus persica and plum (Prunus domestica juice affects fecal microbial ecology in an obese animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana D Noratto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growing evidence shows the potential of nutritional interventions to treat obesity but most investigations have utilized non-digestible carbohydrates only. Peach and plum contain high amounts of polyphenols, compounds with demonstrated anti-obesity effects. The underlying process of successfully treating obesity using polyphenols may involve an alteration of the intestinal microbiota. However, this phenomenon is not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Obese Zucker rats were assigned to three groups (peach, plum, and control, n = 10 each, wild-type group was named lean (n = 10. Carbohydrates in the fruit juices were eliminated using enzymatic hydrolysis. Fecal samples were obtained after 11 weeks of fruit or control juice administration. Real-time PCR and 454-pyrosequencing were used to evaluate changes in fecal microbiota. Over 1,500 different Operational Taxonomic Units at 97% similarity were detected in all rats. Several bacterial groups (e.g. Lactobacillus and members of Ruminococcacea were found to be more abundant in the peach but especially in the plum group (plum juice contained 3 times more total polyphenolics compared to peach juice. Principal coordinate analysis based on Unifrac-based unweighted distance matrices revealed a distinct separation between the microbiota of control and treatment groups. These changes in fecal microbiota occurred simultaneously with differences in fecal short-chain acids concentrations between the control and treatment groups as well as a significant decrease in body weight in the plum group. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that consumption of carbohydrate-free peach and plum juice has the potential to modify fecal microbial ecology in an obese animal model. The separate contribution of polyphenols and non-polyphenols compounds (vitamins and minerals to the observed changes is unknown.

  16. FRUIT FLIES (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE AND THEIR PARASITOIDS ASSOCIATED WITH DIFFERENT HOG PLUM GENOTYPES IN TERESINA, PIAUÍ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONARDO DA SILVA SOUSA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to identify and quantify the infestation of fruit fly species and their parasitoids, associated with 20 hog plum genotypes (Spondias mombin L. in a commercial orchard in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil. The survey was conducted by fruit sampling and monitoring through traps stocked with bait food, in the period from January to December 2012. Overall, 6560 fruits were collected (79.58 kg, resulting in 23059 pupae, of which 10080 fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha and 4984 braconid parasitoids emerged. Anastrepha obliqua species was the predominant with 99.92%. F16P13 and F11P10 genotypes had the highest infestation indexes and F15P11 and F04P01 genotypes, the lowest. The main parasitoids collected were Opius bellus (77.65%, Doryctobracon areolatus (19.88% and Utetes anastrephae (2.47%. The average parasitism rate among genotypes was of 30.46%. In traps, a total of 1434 fruit flies were collected, whose species were: A. obliqua (97.6%, A. serpentina (1.4%, A. fraterculus (0.4%, A. striata (0.4%, A. dissimilis (0.1%, A. pseudoparallela (0.1%. Anastrepha obliqua species was predominant in the area, based on faunistic analysis. The infestation index in the orchard was relevant for five months (January-May, coinciding with the period of availability of hog plum fruits, reaching the highest peak in March (2.86 FAT. There was a significant negative correlation between number of fruit flies in the orchard and the average air temperature, and a significant positive correlation with rainfall and relative humidity. However, the main factor that influenced the observed infestation index in the hog plum orchard was fruit availability.

  17. Pesticide extraction from table grapes and plums using ionic liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo-Pérez, Lidia M; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Herrera-Herrera, Antonio V; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2009-12-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have been used as extraction solvents in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for the determination of eight multi-class pesticides (i.e. thiophanate-methyl, carbofuran, carbaryl, tebuconazole, iprodione, oxyfluorfen, hexythiazox, and fenazaquin) in table grapes and plums. The developed method involves the combination of DLLME and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Samples were first homogenized and extracted with acetonitrile. After evaporation and reconstitution of the extract in water containing sodium chloride, a quick DLLME procedure that used the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(6)MIM][PF(6)]) and methanol was developed. The RTIL dissolved in a very small volume of acetonitrile was directed injected in the chromatographic system. The comparison between the calibration curves obtained from standards and from spiked sample extracts (matrix-matched calibration) showed the existence of a strong matrix effect for most of the analyzed pesticides. A recovery study was also developed with five consecutive extractions of the two types of fruits spiked at three concentration levels. Mean recovery values were in the range of 72-100% for table grapes and 66-105% for plum samples (except for thiophanate-methyl and carbofuran, which were 64-75% and 58-66%, respectively). Limits of detection (LODs) were in the range 0.651-5.44 microg/kg for table grapes and 0.902-6.33 microg/kg for plums, representing LODs below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the European Union in these fruits. The potential of the method was demonstrated by analyzing 12 commercial fruit samples (six of each type).

  18. The use of transgenic fruit trees as a resistance strategy for virus epidemics: the plum pox (sharka) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelonandro, M; Scorza, R; Callahan, A; Levy, L; Jacquet, C; Monsion, M; Damsteegt, V

    2000-11-01

    Sharka or plum pox, caused by Plum pox virus (PPV: genus Potyvirus; Family Potyviridae), is the most serious disease of Prunus. Most cultivated Prunus species are highly susceptible and conventional breeding has not produced highly resistant and commercially acceptable varieties. Success in developing virus-resistant herbaceous crops through genetic engineering led us to investigate this approach for resistance to PPV. Our programme aims to develop a biotechnological approach to PPV control that is effective and shown to be environmentally safe. The programme began with the cloning of the PPV coat protein (CP) gene and the development of a transformation system for plum (Prunus domestica). The CP construct was first tested in Nicotiana benthamiana in which it proved effective in producing transgenic plants with varying levels of CP expression. Some of these plants, particularly low PPV CP expressers, were resistant to PPV, or recovered from initial infection. Based on these results plum was transformed using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens system and both low and high PPV CP-expressing transgenic plum lines were obtained. These were inoculated with PPV by bud grafts in the greenhouse. Line C-5 proved to be highly resistant. It contained multiple copies of the insert, produced low levels of PPV CP mRNA, no detectable CP and the insert appeared to be methylated. These characteristics all suggest that the resistance of the C-5 clone is based on post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Field tests of C-5 and other transgenic lines in Poland, Romania and Spain have demonstrated that such trees when inoculated by bud-grafts allow a low level of PPV multiplication, from which they rapidly recover. C-5 plants exposed to natural infection for 3 years did not become infected, whereas control trees were infected in the first year. Hybrid plums having the C-5 PPV CP insert inherited from C-5 are virus-resistant, demonstrating the usefulness of C-5 as a parent in developing

  19. Ácaros plumícolas (Acari: Astigmata) em aves do Cerrado do Distrito Federal, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Kanegae,Mieko Ferreira; Valim,Michel; Fonseca,Marcelo Andrade da; Marini,Miguel Ângelo; Freire,Nicolau Maués Serra

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo do estudo foi identificar os ácaros plumícolas em aves do cerrado. O mesmo foi realizado na Fazenda Água Limpa (FAL), Distrito Federal, Brasil, entre janeiro e agosto de 2002. As aves foram capturadas com rede de neblina e anilhadas. Foram amostradas 696 aves pertencentes a 83 espécies e 25 famílias de Passeriformes e não-Passeriformes. Foram encontrados ácaros plumícolas pertencentes a cinco famílias: Analgidae, Trouessartiidae, Proctophyllodidae, Avenzoariidae e Psoroptoididae. O...

  20. Occurrence and characterization of plum pox virus strain D isolates from European Russia and Crimea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna; Kudryavtseva, Anna; Prikhodko, Yuri; Mitrofanova, Irina

    2016-02-01

    Numerous plum pox virus (PPV) strain D isolates have been found in geographically distant regions of European Russia and the Crimean peninsula on different stone fruit hosts. Phylogenetic analysis of their partial and complete genomes suggests multiple introductions of PPV-D into Russia. Distinct natural isolates from Prunus tomentosa were found to bear unique amino acid substitutions in the N-terminus of the coat protein (CP) that may contribute to the adaptation of PPV-D to this host. Serological analysis using the PPV-D-specific monoclonal antibody 4DG5 provided further evidence that mutations at positions 58 and 59 of the CP are crucial for antibody binding.

  1. The Current Status of Germplum Database: a Tool for Characterization of Plum Genetic Resources in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Harta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, Prunus genetic resources are kept in collections of varieties, populations and biotypes, mainly located in research and development institutes or fruit growing stations and, in the last years, by some private enterprises. Creating the experimental model for the Germplum database based on phenotypic descriptors and SSR molecular markers analysis is an important and topical objective for the efficient characterization of genetic resources and also for establishing a public-private partnership for the effective management of plum germplasm resources in Romania. The technical development of the Germplum database was completed and data will be added continuously after characterizing each new accession.

  2. Influence of Copigment derived from Tasmannia Pepper Leaves on Davidson’s Plum Anthocyanins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Busch; López-de-Dicastillo Bergamo, Carolina Ana; Payet, René Marc

    2011-01-01

    . An addition of a variety of phenolic acids significantly increased color intensity indicating the formation of copigmentation complexes. Commercial chlorogenic acid as well as extract from a native Australian herb rich in chlorogenic acid, Tasmannia pepper leaf (Tasmannia lanceolata, R. Br.), were both tested...... in model soft drink solutions subjected to light irradiation and heat treatment. In both cases the addition of the copigment resulted in a lasting increase in color intensity. In conclusion, Davidson’s plum extract can successfully be utilized as a source of natural food color. Extract from Tasmania pepper...

  3. Determination of Some Quality Criteria of the Kefir Produced with Molasses and Plum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Kök Taş

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the quality characteristics of kefir by developing different flavours in order to increase its consumption. Plum (10% and molasses (7.5% which are rich in phenolic contents are used to produce kefir in different flavours. Chemical analysis (pH, titratable acidity, dry matter and colour, microbial analysis (total microorganism, Lactobacillus spp, Lactococcus spp. and yeast counts, total antioxidant activity (by ORAC method, total amount of phenolic contents and sensorial properties of all kefir samples were carried out at the 1st, 7th and 14th days of storage. Consequently, the results of pH, titratable acidity and dry matter in the kefir samples were determined to change between the values 4.11-4.39; 0.22-0.30 and 11.9-17.02% respectively, during the storage. In the colour analysis, the redness colour parameter of the kefir sample produced using molasses was determined to be higher compared to the other kefir samples. At the first day of storage, the total antioxidant contents of the control group kefir, plum- added kefir and molasses-added kefir samples were determined as 13.30; 16.80 and 17.35 µmol ml-1; and the total phenolic contents as 945.70; 2535.8 and 2357.6 mg ml-1, respectively. Content of total microorganism in kefir samples varied between 8.91-9.80 log kob ml-1during the storage period. Lactobacillus spp. and Lactococcus spp. contents of kefir produced using molasses were determined to have the highest values with 9.11 and 9.91 log kob ml-1, respectively, at the first day. Yeast content of the plum kefir and the molasses kefir samples including sugar was detected to be higher than that of the controlled kefir sample. According to the results of the sensory analysis, the kefir produced with plum was approved the most by the panelists. As a result of this study, two alternative products with quite high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were developed for consumers.

  4. Post-harvest diseases control of plums and nectarines with radurisation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thord-Gray, R.S; Broderick, H.T.; Strydom, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of heat and radurisation on Rhizopus stolonifer, Monillia fructicola and Botrytis cinerea were examined in inoculated plums and nectarines. Although the pathogens could be controlled by severe hot water treatment, unacceptable fruit damage occured. Similarly, irradiation doses of 2 kGy and above could control fungal development, but this treatment resulted in an unmarketable product. Combination treatment showed great promise. Mild heat treatment of 42 o C for 10 minutes followed by irradiation at doses of 0,75 kGy to 1,5 kGy effectively controlled fungal development with insignificant fruit damage

  5. Effect of antibrowning dips and controlled atmosphere storage on the physico-chemical, visual and nutritional quality of minimally processed "Rojo Brillante" persimmons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchís, Elena; Mateos, Milagros; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2017-01-01

    The combined effect of antibrowning dips and controlled atmosphere storage on fresh-cut "Rojo Brillante" persimmon quality was investigated. Persimmon slices were dipped in 10 g L -1 ascorbic acid, 10 g L -1 citric acid or water and were stored in different controlled atmospheres at 5 ℃. Controlled atmosphere conditions were 21 kPa O 2  + 10 kPa CO 2 (Atm-B), 21 kPa O 2  + 20 kPa CO 2 (Atm-C), 5 kPa O 2  + 10 kPa CO 2 (Atm-D) and 5 kPa O 2 in the absence of CO 2 (Atm-E). Air (Atm-A) was used as a control. Atmospheres with high CO 2 concentrations induced darkening, associated with a flesh disorder known as "internal flesh browning". Only the samples placed in Atm-E, and treated with 10 g L -1 ascorbic acid or 10 g L -1 citric acid, controlled enzymatic browning, reduced firmness loss and prevented the "internal flesh browning" disorder. The maximum limit of marketability was achieved in the samples treated with 10 g L -1 citric acid and stored in Atm-E for nine storage days at 5 ℃. The total vitamin C, free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content and total carotenoids of the fresh-cut "Rojo Brillante" persimmons were affected by maturity stage at harvest, whereas antibrowning dips and controlled atmosphere storage had no clear effect. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Characterization of a novel yeast species Metschnikowia persimmonesis KCTC 12991BP (KIOM G15050 type strain) isolated from a medicinal plant, Korean persimmon calyx (Diospyros kaki Thumb)

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Young Min; Choi, Ji Eun; Komakech, Richard; Park, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Dae Wook; Cho, Kye Man; Kang, Seung Mi; Choi, Sang Haeng; Song, Kun Chul; Ryu, Chung Min; Lee, Keun Chul; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2017-01-01

    The yeast strain Metschnikowia persimmonesis Kang and Choi et al., sp. nov. [type strain KIOM_G15050 = Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC) 12991BP] was isolated from the stalk of native persimmon cultivars (Diospyros kaki Thumb) obtained from different regions of South Korea and was characterized phenotypically, genetically, and physiologically. The isolate grew between 4 and 40 °C (optimum temperature: 24–28 °C), pH 3–8 (pH optimum = 6.0), and in 0–4% NaCl solution (with optimal growt...

  7. Complete genome sequence of a novel Plum pox virus strain W isolate determined by 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheveleva, Anna; Kudryavtseva, Anna; Speranskaya, Anna; Belenikin, Maxim; Melnikova, Natalia; Chirkov, Sergei

    2013-10-01

    The near-complete (99.7 %) genome sequence of a novel Russian Plum pox virus (PPV) isolate Pk, belonging to the strain Winona (W), has been determined by 454 pyrosequencing with the exception of the thirty-one 5'-terminal nucleotides. This region was amplified using 5'RACE kit and sequenced by the Sanger method. Genomic RNA released from immunocaptured PPV particles was employed for generation of cDNA library using TransPlex Whole transcriptome amplification kit (WTA2, Sigma-Aldrich). The entire Pk genome has identity level of 92.8-94.5 % when compared to the complete nucleotide sequences of other PPV-W isolates (W3174, LV-141pl, LV-145bt, and UKR 44189), confirming a high degree of variability within the PPV-W strain. The isolates Pk and LV-141pl are most closely related. The Pk has been found in a wild plum (Prunus domestica) in a new region of Russia indicating widespread dissemination of the PPV-W strain in the European part of the former USSR.

  8. VIRAL TESTING USING BIOLOGICAL AND SEROLOGICAL ASSAY FOR MOST IMPORTANT VIRUSES TO PLUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catita Plopa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Establishing an accurate diagnosis in terms of viral for propagation of fruit tree is very important, it represents the most effective method of protection against viruses. Based on these considerations the primary objective of this study is to detect viruses with the highest incidence in plum by biological and ELISA serological methods, to a number of 85 samples taken from 17 varieties. Serologic testing on DAS-ELISA diagnosed 3 positive samples to Plum pox virus (PPV, 2 positives sample to Prunus necrotic ring spot virus (PNRSV and one positive sample to Prune dwarf virus (PDV. There were not positive samples to Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV. The tests conducted on woody indicator plants by grafting on protect conditions and after 3-24 months assured of diagnosis for PPV, PDV, PNRSV and ACLSV viruses. The biological indicators: ‘GF 305’, ‘Tuleu dulce’ and ‘Vânăt de Italia’, have shown symptoms for PNRSV for two samples.On biological indicator ‘Vânăt de Italia’ and ‘Tuleu dulce’ not appeared symptoms for ‘Centenar’variety tested for PPV, although the symptoms were obvious on ‘GF 305’ indicator, but viral infection was confirmed by ELISA test. Symptoms that indicate the presence of PDV occurred by ‘Vânăt de Italia’ biological indicator.

  9. Chlorophyll Catabolites in Senescent Leaves of the Plum Tree (Prunus domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Theresia; Mittelberger, Cecilia; Vergeiner, Clemens; Scherzer, Gerhard; Holzner, Barbara; Robatscher, Peter; Oberhuber, Michael; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2016-11-01

    In cold extracts of senescent leaves of the plum tree (Prunus domestica ssp. domestica), six colorless non-fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) were characterized, named Pd-NCCs. In addition, several minor NCC fractions were tentatively classified. The structure of the most polar one of the NCCs, named Pd-NCC-32, featured an unprecedented twofold glycosidation pattern. Three of the NCCs are also functionalized at their 3 2 -position by a glucopyranosyl group. In addition, two of these glycosidated NCCs carry a dihydroxyethyl group at their 18-position. In the polar Pd-NCC-32, the latter group is further glycosidated at the terminal 18 2 -position. Four other major Pd-NCCs and one minor Pd-NCC were identified with five NCCs from higher plants known to belong to the 'epi'-series. In addition, tentative structures were derived for two minor fractions, classified as yellow chlorophyll catabolites, which represented (formal) oxidation products of two of the observed Pd-NCCs. The chlorophyll catabolites in leaves of plum feature the same basic structural pattern as those found in leaves of apple and pear trees. © 2016 The Authors. Chemistry & Biodiversity Published by Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  10. Breeding in peach, cherry and plum: from a tissue culture, genetic, transcriptomic and genomic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basilio Carrasco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review is an overview of traditional and modern breeding methodologies being used to develop new Prunus cultivars (stone fruits with major emphasis on peach, sweet cherry and Japanese plum. To this end, common breeding tools used to produce seedlings, including in vitro culture tools, are discussed. Additionally, the mechanisms of inheritance of many important agronomical traits are described. Recent advances in stone fruit transcriptomics and genomic resources are providing an understanding of the molecular basis of phenotypic variability as well as the identification of allelic variants and molecular markers. These have potential applications for understanding the genetic diversity of the Prunus species, molecular marker-assisted selection and transgenesis. Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs molecular markers are described as useful tools to describe genetic diversity in peach, sweet cherry and Japanese plum. Additionally, the recently sequenced peach genome and the public release of the sweet cherry genome are discussed in terms of their applicability to breeding programs

  11. Changes in the Chemical Composition of Plum Distillate During Maturation with Oak Chips under Different Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerek, Maria; Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna; Dziekońska-Kubczak, Urszula; Patelski, Piotr; Strąk, Ewelina

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the effect of ageing on the qualitative and quantitative composition of plum distillate in contact with oak wood chips. Maturation was performed with lightly toasted French oak ( Quercus sessiflora and Quercus robur ) chips or oak chips made from fragments of empty barrels that had been used for ageing cognac. The effects of oak chip dose, process temperature, ageing system (static or circulatory) and ultrasound treatment were assessed. Maturation of plum distillate samples with oak chips resulted in higher levels of extractable organics (including tannins) and colour changes, which were correlated with the type and dose of oak chips, and the conditions of maturation. The content of sugars such as glucose, xylose and arabinose also increased, depending on the conditions and type of oak chips. Degradation of lignin resulted in liberation of sinapaldehyde, syringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde and vanillin, with intensities depending on the applied parameters. In terms of volatiles, decreases in the concentration of higher alcohols and aliphatic aldehydes were observed in the majority of maturation experiments, while concentrations of furanic aldehydes increased depending on the type and dose of oak chips, as well as on the conditions of maturation. The quantities of esters such as ethyl acetate decreased in the majority of experimental variants, whereas concentrations of ethyl caproate, ethyl caprylate and ethyl caprate increased gradually. Some phenols and lactones were detected in all matured samples, with the lowest levels found in the samples aged with oak chips made from cognac barrels.

  12. Changes in the Chemical Composition of Plum Distillate During Maturation with Oak Chips under Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Balcerek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the eff ect of ageing on the qualitative and quantitative composition of plum distillate in contact with oak wood chips. Maturation was performed with lightly toasted French oak (Quercus sessifl ora and Quercus robur chips or oak chips made from fragments of empty barrels that had been used for ageing cognac. The eff ects of oak chip dose, process temperature, ageing system (static or circulatory and ultrasound treatment were assessed. Maturation of plum distillate samples with oak chips resulted in higher levels of extractable organics (including tannins and colour changes, which were correlated with the type and dose of oak chips, and the conditions of maturation. The content of sugars such as glucose, xylose and arabinose also increased, depending on the conditions and type of oak chips. Degradation of lignin resulted in liberation of sinapaldehyde, syringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde and vanillin, with intensities depending on the applied parameters. In terms of volatiles, decreases in the concentration of higher alcohols and aliphatic aldehydes were observed in the majority of maturation experiments, while concentrations of furanic aldehydes increased depending on the type and dose of oak chips, as well as on the conditions of maturation. The quantities of esters such as ethyl acetate decreased in the majority of experimental variants, whereas concentrations of ethyl caproate, ethyl caprylate and ethyl caprate increased gradually. Some phenols and lactones were detected in all matured samples, with the lowest levels found in the samples aged with oak chips made from cognac barrels.

  13. Physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of gingerbread plum (Neocarya macrophylla) kernel oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaby, M.; Amza, T.; Onivogui, G.; Zou, X.Q.; Jin, Q.Z.

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activities of oils extracted from gingerbread plum kernels grown in two different areas (Niger and Guinea). The oil contents were found to be significantly different (P = 0.05); 56% and 60% for gingerbread plum kernels originated from Niger (GPKN) and guinea (GPKG), respectively. GPKG showed the highest levels for physical parameters such as iodine, saponification, free fatty acid, acid and peroxide values when compared with GPKN. The major monounsaturated fatty acid in both GPKN and GPKG was oleic acid (42.46 and 41.43%, respectively) while the polyunsaturated fatty acids consisted of linoleic and arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid was at higher levels (17.67 and 21.72% in GPKN and GPKG, respectively) than those in common vegetable oils. Results from antioxidant activity essays showed that GPKG is more active than GPKN in DPPH radical scavenging, ß-carotene and phenolic contents while GPKN showed the highest values for reducing power and flavonoid. Of the 11 sterol compounds found in this study, 24-hydroxy-24-methyl cholesterol, clerosterol and sitosterol accounted for 68.5% and 66.33% in GPKN and GPKG, respectively. Finally, all tocopherol vitamers (except ?-tocopherol) were present in GPKN and GPKG with a-tocopherol being the main element in both samples. (Author)

  14. NASA's Hydrogen Outpost: The Rocket Systems Area at Plum Brook Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    "There was pretty much a general knowledge about hydrogen and its capabilities," recalled former researcher Robert Graham. "The question was, could you use it in a rocket engine? Do we have the technology to handle it? How will it cool? Will it produce so much heat release that we can't cool the engine? These were the questions that we had to address." The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Glenn Research Center, referred to historically as the Lewis Research Center, made a concerted effort to answer these and related questions in the 1950s and 1960s. The center played a critical role transforming hydrogen's theoretical potential into a flight-ready propellant. Since then NASA has utilized liquid hydrogen to send humans and robots to the Moon, propel dozens of spacecraft across the universe, orbit scores of satellite systems, and power 135 space shuttle flights. Rocket pioneers had recognized hydrogen's potential early on, but its extremely low boiling temperature and low density made it impracticable as a fuel. The Lewis laboratory first demonstrated that liquid hydrogen could be safely utilized in rocket and aircraft propulsion systems, then perfected techniques to store, pump, and cleanly burn the fuel, as well as use it to cool the engine. The Rocket Systems Area at Lewis's remote testing area, Plum Brook Station, played a little known, but important role in the center's hydrogen research efforts. This publication focuses on the activities at the Rocket Systems Area, but it also discusses hydrogen's role in NASA's space program and Lewis's overall hydrogen work. The Rocket Systems Area included nine physically modest test sites and three test stands dedicated to liquid-hydrogen-related research. In 1962 Cleveland Plain Dealer reporter Karl Abram claimed, "The rocket facility looks more like a petroleum refinery. Its test rigs sprout pipes, valves and tanks. During the night test runs, excess hydrogen is burned from special stacks in the best

  15. Lethality of reduced-risk insecticides against plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in blueberries with emphasis on their curative activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongoing regulatory changes are eliminating or restricting the use of broad-spectrum insecticides in fruit crops in the USA, and current IPM programs for plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), in highbush blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L, need to address these changes. To assist in this ...

  16. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE PHYSICAL CHANGES AND DRYING KINETICS IN PLUM (Prunus domestica L. POŽEGAČA VARIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Nikolić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, drying kinetics of autochthonous variety Požegača plum was examined in a laboratory dryer at three temperatures. The whole plum fruits, together with the kernels were subjected to the drying process. The effect of drying has been examined at temperatures of 55, 60 and 75 °C, with a constant air velocity of 1.1 m s-1. The corresponding experimental results were tested using six nonlinear regression models. Coefficient of determination (R2, standard regression error (SSE, model correlation coeficient (Vy, as well as the maximum absolute error (ΔY showed that the logaritmic model was in good agreement with the experimental data obtained. During drying of plums, the effective diffusivity was found to be between 5.6×10-9 for 55 °C and 8.9×10-9 m2s-1 at 75 °C, respectively. The physical characteristics of fresh (length 39.64 mm and width 29.15 mm and dried (length 37.52 mm and width 22.85 mm plum fruit were determined. Finally, by chemical analysis, the contents of micro-and macro-elements (Fe, Mn, Cu, B and N, F, K, Ca, Mg and S in the skin and flesh of the dried product, prunes, has been established.

  17. The usefulness of intermediate products of plum processing for alcoholic fermentation and chemical composition of the obtained distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerek, Maria; Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna; Patelski, Piotr; Sapińska, Ewelina; Księżopolska, Mirosława

    2013-05-01

    In this study, an evaluation of intermediate products of plum processing as potential raw materials for distillates production was performed. Effects of composition of mashes on ethanol yield, chemical composition and taste, and flavor of the obtained spirits were determined. The obtained results showed that spontaneous fermentations of the tested products of plum processing with native microflora of raisins resulted in lower ethanol yields, compared to the ones fermented with wine yeast Saccharomyces bayanus. The supplementation of mashes with 120 g/L of sucrose caused an increase in ethanol contents from 6.2 ± 0.2 ÷ 6.5 ± 0.2% v/v in reference mashes (without sucrose addition, fermented with S. bayanus) to ca. 10.3 ± 0.3% v/v, where its highest yields amounted to 94.7 ± 2.9 ÷ 95.6 ± 2.9% of theoretical capacity, without negative changes in raw material originality of distillates. The concentrations of volatile compounds in the obtained distillates exceeding 2000 mg/L alcohol 100% v/v and low content of methanol and hydrocyanic acid, as well as their good taste and aroma make the examined products of plum processing be very attractive raw materials for the plum distillates production. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Krymsk®1 (VVA-1), A dwarfing rootstock suitable for high density plum orchards in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, F.M.; Balkhoven-Baart, J.M.T.; Heijerman-Peppelman, G.; Steeg, van der P.A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Krymsk®:1 (Prunus tomentosa × Prunus cerasifera) was selected by Gennady Eremin at the Krymsk Breeding Station in Russia in 1966. Since 1994, it has been tested as a rootstock for several plum cultivars in The Netherlands. Graft compatibility was good for scion cultivars ‘Avalon’, ‘Excalibur’,

  19. Frutificação alternada em caqui cultivar Pomelo (IAC 6-22 Alternate bearing in persimmon - cv. Pomelo

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    Mário Ojima

    1985-01-01

    excesso, em anos de frutificação abundante.Pomelo, one of the main early persimmon selection developed in the breeding program of the Instituto Agronômico, Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil, tends to be alternate bearing, that is the trees tend to yield a high production in one year followed by a low or no production in the next year. This tendency continues in the suceessive years unless some external factor may influence the natural set of flower buds. To obtain more information about the alternate bearing habit of Pomelo, anual yields were registered for each individual plant in 54 trees of this variety, at Campinas Experimental Center, during ten successive years (1971/80. It was distinguished three types of plant behaviour: group A - 26 trees that bore moderate to heavy productions in the odd years and low or no production in the even years; group B - 22 trees that yielded alternatively also, but in an opposite year sequence; group C - six remaining trees showing a moderate alternate bearing habit, in which the successive yields were located alternatively on different branches of the tree. So, it was not possible to select any tree that did not show a type of alternate bearing habit, although the ten year average yield of the plot was high: 61.4kg of fruit per tree, weighing 126g per fruit. An early fruit thinning made in November 1976, pulling off about 50% of the young fruits of the trees from groups A and C, resulted in a regular yield of large fruits in 1977, averaging 57.9kg of persimmons per tree weighing 199g per fruit, followed by the heaviest yield of the plot in 1978:148.2kg of fruit per tree weighing 123g per fruit. The results indicated there is a possibility of breaking the alternate bearing habit of Pomelo persimmon, and of improving its yield quality and size, through a strong thining of young fruits on the most prolific trees when a large crop is being borne.

  20. Characterization of a novel yeast species Metschnikowia persimmonesis KCTC 12991BP (KIOM G15050 type strain) isolated from a medicinal plant, Korean persimmon calyx (Diospyros kaki Thumb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Young Min; Choi, Ji Eun; Komakech, Richard; Park, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Dae Wook; Cho, Kye Man; Kang, Seung Mi; Choi, Sang Haeng; Song, Kun Chul; Ryu, Chung Min; Lee, Keun Chul; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2017-11-10

    The yeast strain Metschnikowia persimmonesis Kang and Choi et al., sp. nov. [type strain KIOM_G15050 = Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC) 12991BP] was isolated from the stalk of native persimmon cultivars (Diospyros kaki Thumb) obtained from different regions of South Korea and was characterized phenotypically, genetically, and physiologically. The isolate grew between 4 and 40 °C (optimum temperature: 24-28 °C), pH 3-8 (pH optimum = 6.0), and in 0-4% NaCl solution (with optimal growth in absence of NaCl). It also exhibited strong antibiotic and antimicrobial activities. Morphologically, cells were characterized by the presence of long, needle-shaped ascospores. Based on 18S ribosomal DNA gene sequence analysis, the new species was found to belong to the genus Metschnikowia as a sister clade of Metschnikowia fructicola. We therefore conclude that this yeast isolate from D. kaki is a new member of the genus Metschnikowia and propose the name M. persimmonesis sp. nov. This strain has been deposited in the KCTC for future reference. This discovery provides a basis for future research on M. persimmonesis sp. nov., including its possible contribution to the medicinal properties of the host persimmon plant.

  1. The content of some of the essential elements in the fruit of the (Diospyros L. persimmon of the Nikitsky Botanical Garden collection

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    С. Ю. Хохлов

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article mentions that the special attention is deserved by such persimmon varieties being included into the collection of Garden: Nikita Burgundy – the most famous of the hardiest varieties, widely used in industrial horticulture grade foreign breeding Hana Fuyu and a new, high-yielding variety of domestic breeding Souvenir of Autumn. Plant varieties included into the studying, grow in the same conditions at the collection site, which is located 200 meters from the coast at a height of 20-40 m above its level. Trees are 15 years old, planting scheme is 6x6 meters. The selected varieties belong to the group of constant tart on their quality whose fruits are edible only when fully ripe Varieties are characterized by high winter hardiness and disease resistance, which allows minimizing the chemicals using for plants treating and creates the conditions for organic food. The chemical composition fruits studying of three oriental persimmons varieties have performed high content of potassium, so it affords their using as a general tonic. The obtained results have revealed that according to the content of essential elements the leading fruit of variety Souvenir Autumn is considered to be, the less valuable are fruits of Nikita Burgundy, and Hana Fuyu fruits on this indicator are intermediate.

  2. Equilibrium, kinetics and mechanism of Au3+, Pd2+ and Ag+ ions adsorption from aqueous solutions by graphene oxide functionalized persimmon tannin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongmin; Li, Xiaojuan; Liang, Haijun; Ning, Jingliang; Zhou, Zhide; Li, Guiyin

    2017-10-01

    In this study, a novel bio-adsorbent (PT-GO) was prepared by functionalization persimmon tannin (PT) with graphene oxide (GO) and the effective adsorption behaviors of Au 3+ , Pd 2+ and Ag + ions from aqueous solution was investigated. The PT-GO was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Zeta potential. Many influence factors such as pH value, bio-adsorbent dosage, initial concentration of metal ions and contact time were optimized. The maximum adsorption capacity for Au 3+ , Pd 2+ and Ag + was 1325.09mg/g, 797.66mg/g and 421.01mg/g, respectively. The equilibrium isotherm for the adsorption of Au 3+ and Ag + on PT-GO were found to obey the Langmuir model, while the Freundlich model fitted better for Pd 2+ . The adsorption process of Au 3+ , Pd 2+ presented relatively fast adsorption kinetics with pseudo-second-order equation as the best fitting model, while the pseudo-first-order kinetic model was suitable for describing the adsorption of Ag + . Combination of ion exchange, electrostatic interaction and physical adsorption was the mechanism for adsorption of Au 3+ , Pd 2+ and Ag + onto PT-GO bio-adsorbent. Therefore, the PT-GO bio-adsorbent would be an ideal adsorbent for removal of precious metal ions and broaden the potential applications of persimmon tannin in environmental research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Thehe Evaluation of Phytochemical Compounds of Fruits in some Plum and Prune Cultivars and Genotypes

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    zahra falati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Plums (Prunus spp. as one of the most popular stone fruits, have low calories and high nutritional value. Over the past decades global production of European and Japanese plums reached from 6,110,870 tons in 1990 to 11,528,337 tons in 2013. In the same period plum production in Iran reached from 118,936 tons to 305,262 tons. Great variety of plum fruits caused differences in chemical composition as well. Plum fruits are rich in bioactive compounds or biochemicals such as vitamins (A, C and E, anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds which have high antioxidant activity. Materials and Methods: This research was done in a randomized complete block design with three replications in Horticultural Research Station at College of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Tehran University in 2013-2015. Fruit quality characteristics such as vitamin C content, color traits of the fruit skin and flesh, the content of carotenoids, anthocyanins, total phenolics and antioxidant capacity of 16 plum and prune cultivars and genotypes were evaluated. Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance showed significant differences in terms of all measured factors. The highest L* index (brightness of fruit skin was observed in 'Tanasgol" and "Compooti" and then in "Golden Drop" and "Shams" cultivars and the lowest level of that was measured in "Sugar" and "Gogeh Sabz" cultivars. "Black Star" and "Gogeh Germez" Showed the highest brightness of fruit flesh among examined cultivars and the lowest brightness of fruit flesh was investigated in "Sugar". A* color index of skin and flesh of fruit also showed significant differences among investigated cultivars and the highest level of that in "Ozarak" cultivar was observed. "Gogeh Sabz" and "Golden Drop" also had the lowest level of this index. "Gogeh Germez" had the highest of a*color index of fruit flesh and "Japanese" cultivar was in second place. The lowest level of this index was measured in "Ozarak" and "Shams

  4. Nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene of the Skierniewice isolate of plum pox virus (PPV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wypijewski, K.; Musial, W.; Augustyniak, J.; Malinowski, T.

    1994-01-01

    The coat protein (CP) gene of the Skierniewice isolate of plum pox virus (PPV-S) has been amplified using the reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence of the gene and the deduced amino-acid sequences of PPV-S CP were compared with those of other PPV strains. The nucleotide sequence showed very high homology to most of the published sequences. The motif: Asp-Ala-Gly (DAG), important for the aphid transmissibility, was present in the amino-acid sequence. Our isolate did not react in ELISA with monoclonal antibodies MAb06 supposed to be specific for PPV-D. (author). 32 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  5. Detection and partial molecular characterization of atypical plum pox virus isolates from naturally infected sour cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Atypical isolates of plum pox virus (PPV) were discovered in naturally infected sour cherry in urban ornamental plantings in Moscow, Russia. The isolates were detected by polyclonal double antibody sandwich ELISA and RT-PCR using universal primers specific for the 3'-non-coding and coat protein (CP) regions of the genome but failed to be recognized by triple antibody sandwich ELISA with the universal monoclonal antibody 5B and by RT-PCR using primers specific to for PPV strains D, M, C and W. Sequence analysis of the CP genes of nine isolates revealed 99.2-100 % within-group identity and 62-85 % identity to conventional PPV strains. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the atypical isolates represent a group that is distinct from the known PPV strains. Alignment of the N-terminal amino acid sequences of CP demonstrated their close similarity to those of a new tentative PPV strain, CR.

  6. NEW CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE BEETLES FAUNA OF PLUM ORCHARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nela Tălmaciu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations were made in 2015 in a plum fruit tree orchards of Pietrărie stationary from Bârnova belonging Iasi County. For the collection were used the soil traps Barber, the wet type. Six traps have been used in which was placed a solution of formalin concentrate 3-4%. They were made a total of seven harvests of traps on the following dates: 28.05; 30.05; 15.06; 12.07; 26.07; 10.08 and 23.08. For each collection were selected and then identified species of beetles collected. The determination was made by using manuals for the determination wrote by Panin S and Ritter E. or the Internet sources. Biggest species abundance were: Dermestes laniarius L., Cyaninis cyanea L., Polydrosus sericeus Schall., Coccinella septempunctata L. and Amara aenea Dejean.

  7. Seasonal variation of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus concentration in almond, peach, and plum cultivars

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    N. Salem

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Levels of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV infection in almond, peach, and plum cultivars over the course of an entire year were determined by testing different plant parts of naturally infected trees, using the double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA. The data showed that spring was the best time of year for PNRSV detection in flowers, active growing buds, and young leaves. PNRSV detection was less reliable during the summer months. Young leaves of all cultivars were the most reliable source for distinguishing between healthy and infected plants, while flowers and buds yielded high values in some cultivars but not in others. Seasonal fluctuations in virus concentration did not follow the same pattern in all cultivars. It is therefore impossible to distinguish between infected and healthy trees on the basis of one single sampling time for all cultivars.

  8. Unusual behavior of growing pollen tubes in the ovary of plum culture (Prunus domestica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Milena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Unusual behavior of growing pollen tubes in different combinations of pollination was observed in the ovary of the plum (Prunus domestica L. cv 'Čačanska Lepotica'. It primarily refers to several issues, i.e. the curling up of pollen tubes within the micropyle, the growth of two pollen tubes into the nucellus of an ovule, the occurrence of a bundle above the nucellar cap and fluorescence of the part of the embryo sac containing the egg apparatus. Upon the growth of pollen tubes into the nucellus of the ovule, subsequently penetrating pollen tubes form a bundle either above the micropyle entrance or above the nucellus. Branching and bending of pollen tubes by 180o upon their growth into the micropyle was also observed.

  9. Identification of immunogenic hot spots within plum pox potyvirus capsid protein for efficient antigen presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fernández, M Rosario; Martínez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L; Roncal, Fernando; Domínguez, Elvira; García, Juan Antonio

    2002-12-01

    PEPSCAN analysis has been used to characterize the immunogenic regions of the capsid protein (CP) in virions of plum pox potyvirus (PPV). In addition to the well-known highly immunogenic N- and C-terminal domains of CP, regions within the core domain of the protein have also shown high immunogenicity. Moreover, the N terminus of CP is not homogeneously immunogenic, alternatively showing regions frequently recognized by antibodies and others that are not recognized at all. These results have helped us to design efficient antigen presentation vectors based on PPV. As predicted by PEPSCAN analysis, a small displacement of the insertion site in a previously constructed vector, PPV-gamma, turned the derived chimeras into efficient immunogens. Vectors expressing foreign peptides at different positions within a highly immunogenic region (amino acids 43 to 52) in the N-terminal domain of CP were the most effective at inducing specific antibody responses against the foreign sequence.

  10. Plum pox virus and sharka: a model potyvirus and a major disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Juan Antonio; Glasa, Miroslav; Cambra, Mariano; Candresse, Thierry

    2014-04-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is a member of the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae. PPV diversity is structured into at least eight monophyletic strains. First discovered in Bulgaria, PPV is nowadays present in most of continental Europe (with an endemic status in many central and southern European countries) and has progressively spread to many countries on other continents. Typical of potyviruses, the PPV genome is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA), with a protein linked to its 5' end and a 3'-terminal poly A tail. It is encapsidated by a single type of capsid protein (CP) in flexuous rod particles and is translated into a large polyprotein which is proteolytically processed in at least 10 final products: P1, HCPro, P3, 6K1, CI, 6K2, VPg, NIapro, NIb and CP. In addition, P3N-PIPO is predicted to be produced by a translational frameshift. PPV causes sharka, the most damaging viral disease of stone fruit trees. It also infects wild and ornamental Prunus trees and has a large experimental host range in herbaceous species. PPV spreads over long distances by uncontrolled movement of plant material, and many species of aphid transmit the virus locally in a nonpersistent manner. A few natural sources of resistance to PPV have been found so far in Prunus species, which are being used in classical breeding programmes. Different genetic engineering approaches are being used to generate resistance to PPV, and a transgenic plum, 'HoneySweet', transformed with the viral CP gene, has demonstrated high resistance to PPV in field tests in several countries and has obtained regulatory approval in the USA. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  11. Rooting and acclimatization of the Japanese plum tree, cv. América

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    Juliana de Magalhães Bandeira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rooting and acclimatization are limiting steps in plant micropropagation, especially in woody plant species. This study aimed to evaluate the IAA and IBA effect on the in vitro rooting and acclimatization of micropropagated shoots of Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cv. América. Shoots from 3 to 4 cm long were inoculated in MS medium with half salt and vitamin concentrations (MS/2 added with IAA and IBA (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 mg L-1. After a 20-day period in in vitro cultivation, the shoots were evaluated, and then transferred to a greenhouse, and evaluated after 30 days. At the end of the in vitro cultivation period, no significant interactions were observed for number of roots per shoot and rooting percentage, but a significant effect was recorded for auxin type only, for which shoots grown in media added with IBA showed high values - 0.87 and 41.95%, respectively. A linear increase response from 1.45 to 5.75 cm was verified for root length of shoots cultivated in IBA medium; however, no significant effect was observed, and a 0.86 cm average root length per shoot grown in medium added with IAA was found. After 30 days of acclimatization period, the largest survival percentage was obtained from shoots cultivated in medium with 1 mg L-1 of IBA and IAA (88% and 92%, respectively. Although, IBA provided the highest in vitro rooting, most of the surviving shoots were those originated in IAA-added medium, probably because IBA promoted longer fibrous roots, less appropriate for transplant and soil fixation, as they are easily damaged. It was concluded that in vitro rooting with the addition of the highest IAA concentration (1 mg L-1 provided the greatest plant survival during the acclimatization period of the Japanese plum cv. América.

  12. Effects and safety of daily ingestion of plum extract on blood pressure: randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlledparallelgroup comparison study

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    Mie Nishimura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is an increasing health issue in Japan. Plums are widely consumed in Japan and are reported to have various health benefits, including improvements to blood flow. However, clinical trials investigating the effects of plum extract on blood pressure have not yet been conducted. Therefore, we evaluated the effects and safety of plum extract on blood pressure in this randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled parallel group comparison study. Methods: Seventy-four healthy Japanese subjects with systolic blood pressure (SBP ≥130 and <160 mmHg were randomly divided into test and placebo groups. Subjects were given either plum extract-processed food (3.0 g of plum extract, containing 30 mg of mumefural and 1.119 g of citric acid or placebo food daily for 12 weeks. Physical examinations, blood measurements, and medical interviews were performed at weeks 0, 4, 8, and 12 and at 2 weeks after the intake period. Results: SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP did not significantly differ between the groups. However, in subjects with grade I hypertension, DBP was significantly lower in the active test food group than in the placebo food group at week 12 and at 2 weeks after the intake period. An exploratory subgroup analysis revealed that plum extract improved DBP in subjects with normal to high obesity/class I obesity at week 12. Moreover, plum extract had positive effects on fatigue and bowel movements as determined by visual analog scale questionnaire evaluation. No abnormal changes or severe adverse events were observed in the physical examinations, blood measurements, or medical interviews in this trial. Conclusion: These results suggest that plum extract is safe for long-term intake and improves DBP in subjects with grade I hypertension.

  13. Susceptibility of peach GF 305 seedlings and selected herbaceous plants to plum pox virus isolates from western Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasa, M; Matisová, J; Hricovský, I; Kúdela, O

    1997-12-01

    The susceptibility of peach GF 305 seedlings and herbaceous plants to five plum pox virus (PPV) isolates from orchards of western Slovakia was investigated. PPV was isolated from diseased plum, apricot and peach trees, and transmitted by chip-budding to peach GF 305. The herbaceous plants were infected by mechanical inoculation. The transmission was analysed by symptomatology and double sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Infected peaches developed leaf distortion, tissue clearing along the veins and small chlorotic spots (isolate BOR-3). With exception of BOR-3, the PPV isolates transmitted from peach caused local chlorotic spots on Chenopodium foetidum. The character of symptoms changed when a sap from PPV-infected Nicotiana benthamiana was used as virus inoculum. From N. benthamiana, the PPV isolates could be transmitted to Pisum sativum, cv. Colmo (light green mosaic), N. clevelandii and N. clevelandii x N. glutinosa hybrid (latent infection or chlorotic spots).

  14. De novo transcriptome assembly of ‘Angeleno’ and ‘Lamoon’ Japanese plum cultivars (Prunus salicina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máximo González

    2016-09-01

    De novo transcriptome assembly was performed using CLC Genome Workbench software and a total of 54,584 unique contigs were generated, with an N50 of 1343 base pair (bp and a mean length of 829 bp. This work contributed with a specific Japanese plum skin transcriptome, providing two libraries of contrasting fruit skin color phenotype (yellow and red and increasing substantially the GB of raw data available until now for this specie.

  15. Influence of two cultivars of persimmon on atherosclerosis indices in rats fed cholesterol-containing diets: Investigation in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinstein, Shela; Leontowicz, Hanna; Leontowicz, Maria; Jesion, Iwona; Namiesnik, Jacek; Drzewiecki, Jerzy; Park, Yong-Seo; Ham, Kyung-Sik; Giordani, Edgardo; Trakhtenberg, Simon

    2011-01-01

    To assess the influence of two persimmon cultivars on some atherosclerosis indices in rats fed cholesterol (Chol)-containing diets. Persimmon cultivars "Fuyu" and "Jiro" as supplementation to rats' diets were investigated in vitro to compare the contents of their bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid) and antioxidant potentials. In the in vivo investigation, 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six diet groups, each with six rats: control, control/Fuyu, control/Jiro, Chol, Chol/Fuyu, and Chol/Jiro. During a period of 47 d (42 d of feeding and 5-d adaptation before the experiment) of the trial, rats in the control group were fed a basal diet and two additional control groups (control/Fuyu and control/Jiro) a basal diet plus 5% of lyophilized Fuyu and Jiro, respectively. The Chol, Chol/Fuyu, and Chol/Jiro rat groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with 1% Chol (Chol group) and 1% Chol plus 5% lyophilized Fuyu (Chol/Fuyu group) and plus 5% lyophilized Jiro (Chol/Jiro group), respectively. After completion of the experiment, the rats were anesthetized using Narcotan (halothane) and sacrificed and the atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta were assessed. The obtained results of the investigation of all six groups were compared. Testing of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol in the liver, electrophoretic patterns of liver tissue, and three-dimensional fluorescence of serum protein fractions was performed. The polyphenols and tannins were significantly higher in the Fuyu cultivar (Pacid) (ABTS) assay (Pcholesterol 19.4% and 9.5%, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 25.6% and 13.1%, respectively, P<0.05) and hindered the decrease in plasma antioxidant activity versus the Chol group by 40.0% and 16.8% and by 39.6% and 11.3% for the ABTS and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assays, respectively. The atherosclerotic

  16. Ocorrência precoce da mosca das frutas em ameixas Incidence of the southamerican fruit fly on plums

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    Luiz Antonio Salles

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar qual o estágio fenológico mais precoce da fruta de ameixeira em que ocorreria o ataque de mosca das frutas Anastrepha fraterculus. Os estudos foram conduzidos em plantas adultas de ameixeira, expondo-se fêmeas grávidas da mosca das frutas, confinadas em gaiolas com frutos protegidos do ataque natural. Cinco cultivares de ameixeira foram estudados (Amarelinha, Pluma 7, Reubennel, Santa Rosa e Wade. Essa praga ataca frutos de qualquer um dos cultivares logo nos primeiros estádios do desenvolvimento, quando os mesmos têm somente cerca de 2 a 3cm de diâmetro.The incidence of the southamerican fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, on plum cultivars is reported. The objective of this study was to know the earliest fruit phase that fly attack could occur. Fertilized females were confined with fruits in plum trees in an orchard. Five plums cultivars were studied: Amarelinha; Pluma 7; Reubennel; Santa Rosa and Wade. This pest attack fruits during first stages of their development, mainly they have only from 2 to 3 centimeters of diameter.

  17. Study of Alternative GPS Network Meteorological Sensors in Taiwan: Case Studies of the Plum Rains and Typhoon Sinlaku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwo-Hwa Chen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Plum rains and typhoons are important weather systems in the Taiwan region. They can cause huge economic losses, but they are also considered as important water resources as they strike Taiwan annually and fill the reservoirs around the island. There are many meteorological sensors available for investigating the characteristics of weather and climate systems. Recently, the use of GPS as an alternative meteorological sensor has become popular due to the catastrophic impact of global climate change. GPS provides meteorological parameters mainly from the atmosphere. Precise Point Positioning (PPP is a proven algorithm that has attracted attention in GPS related studies. This study uses GPS measurements collected at more than fifty reference stations of the e-GPS network in Taiwan. The first data set was collected from June 1st 2008 to June 7th 2008, which corresponds to the middle of the plum rain season in Taiwan. The second data set was collected from September 11th to September 17th 2008 during the landfall of typhoon Sinlaku. The data processing strategy is to process the measurements collected at the reference stations of the e-GPS network using the PPP technique to estimate the zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD values of the sites; thus, the correlations between the ZTD values and the variation of rainfall during the plum rains and typhoon are analyzed. In addition, several characteristics of the meteorological events are identified using spatial and temporal analyses of the ZTD values estimated with the GPS network PPP technique.

  18. Life cycle assessment of coupling household biogas production to agricultural industry: A case study of biogas-linked persimmon cultivation and processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Bin; Chen, Shaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Biogas plant construction has been boosted in rural China not only due to the immediate merit from biogas production but also the succeeding benefit from by-product utilization in agro-industry, both of which are significant strategies to address energy shortage and global warming issues. However, little work has been done to evaluate the coupling of biogas projects to traditional agrosystems from a life-cycle perspective, which is most important in process and system optimization in different senses. By taking persimmon cultivation and processing with supports from a household biogas plant as a case study, this study conducts a life cycle assessment of coupling biogas production to agro-industry in terms of energy, environmental and economic performance. The results suggest that each production stage following the biogas/digestate utilization chain (biogas operation-persimmon cultivation-product processing) is beneficial across all three aspects. However, a tradeoff only exists in utilizing digestate as top-dressing and employing biogas utilization as engine fuel, while biogas application in fresh-keeping and digestate reuse as base fertilizer fails to increase either energy production or greenhouse gas mitigation. The coupled system can be hopefully optimized through increasing fermentation efficiency and joint operation of biogas digesters. -- Highlights: •Biogas/digestate utilization is overall beneficial in all production stages. •Each bioresource application may not be profitable in all respects. •Tradeoffs in using biogas and digestate vary among different utilization ways. •Multi-user operation and fermentation efficiency elevation optimize system

  19. Effects of administration of beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, persimmons, and pods on antioxidative ability in UV-irradiated ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosotani, Keisuke; Yoshida, Minoru; Kitagawa, Masahiro

    2005-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of supplementing diets with carotenoid and ascorbic acid (AsA) on the antioxidative ability of Osteogenic Disorder-Shionogi (ODS) rats, we added synthetic beta-carotene (betaC), AsA, and powders of persimmon (Ka) and pods (Po) containing betaC and AsA to the diet and obtained the following results. The urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentration was low in the -betaC.AsA and +AsA groups but high in the +betaC.AsA, +Ka, and +Po groups. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in both the liver and skin were higher in the -betaC.AsA group than in the +betaC.AsA group and were low in the +Ka and +Po groups. As antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was high in the +betaC.AsA group, low in the -beta3C.AsA group in both the skin and liver, and also high in the + Ka and +Po group in the liver. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was high in the -betaC.AsA group and low in the +betaC.AsA and +Ka groups in both the skin and liver. Catalase (CAT) activity in the liver was low in the -betaC.AsA, +AsA, and +betaC groups and high in the +betaC.AsA and +Po groups. These results confirmed that the administration of betaC, AsA, and persimmons and pods increases antioxidative ability in the skin and liver of ultraviolet-b(UV-B)-irradiated ODS rats.

  20. A Functional Link between RNA Replication and Virion Assembly in the Potyvirus Plum Pox Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Araiz; Valli, Adrian; Calvo, María; García, Juan Antonio

    2018-05-01

    Accurate assembly of viral particles in the potyvirus Plum pox virus (PPV) has been shown to depend on the contribution of the multifunctional viral protein HCPro. In this study, we show that other viral factors, in addition to the capsid protein (CP) and HCPro, are necessary for the formation of stable PPV virions. The CP produced in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves from a subviral RNA termed LONG, which expresses a truncated polyprotein that lacks P1 and HCPro, together with HCPro supplied in trans , was assembled into virus-like particles and remained stable after in vitro incubation. In contrast, deletions in multiple regions of the LONG coding sequence prevented the CP stabilization mediated by HCPro. In particular, we demonstrated that the first 178 amino acids of P3, but not a specific nucleotide sequence coding for them, are required for CP stability and proper assembly of PPV particles. Using a sequential coagroinfiltration assay, we observed that the subviral LONG RNA replicates and locally spreads in N. benthamiana leaves expressing an RNA silencing suppressor. The analysis of the effect of both point and deletion mutations affecting RNA replication in LONG and full-length PPV demonstrated that this process is essential for the assembly of stable viral particles. Interestingly, in spite of this requirement, the CP produced by a nonreplicating viral RNA can be stably assembled into virions as long as it is coexpressed with a replication-proficient RNA. Altogether, these results highlight the importance of coupling encapsidation to other viral processes to secure a successful infection. IMPORTANCE Viruses of the family Potyviridae are among the most dangerous threats for basically every important crop, and such socioeconomical relevance has made them a subject of many research studies. In spite of this, very little is currently known about proteins and processes controlling viral genome encapsidation by the coat protein. In the case of Plum pox virus (genus

  1. New model for colour kinetics of plum under infrared vacuum condition and microwave drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayjan, Reza Amiri; Alaei, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Quality of dried foods is affected by the drying method and physiochemical changes in tissue. The drying method affects properties such as colour. The colour of processed food is one of the most important quality indices and plays a determinant role in consumer acceptability of food materials and the processing method. The colour of food materials can be used as an indirect factor to determine changes in quality, since it is simpler and faster than chemical methods. The study focused on the kinetics of colour changes of plum slices, under infrared vacuum and microwave conditions. Drying the samples was implemented at the absolute pressures of 20 and 60 kPa, drying temperatures of 50 and 60°C and microwave power of 90, 270, 450 and 630 W. Colour changes were quantified by the tri-stimulus L* (whiteness/darkness), a* (redness/greenness) and b* (yellowness/blueness) model, which is an international standard for color measurement developed by the Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE). These values were also used to calculate total colour change (∆E), chroma, hue angle, and browning index (BI). A new model was used for mathematical modelling of colour change kinetics. The drying process changed the colour parameters of L*, a*, and b*, causing a colour shift toward the darker region. The values of L* and hue angle decreased, whereas the values of a*, b*, ∆E, chroma and browning index increased during exposure to infrared vacuum conditions and microwave drying. Comparing the results obtained using the new model with two conventional models of zero-order and first-order kinetics indicated that the new model presented more compatibility with the data of colour kinetics for all colour parameters and drying conditions. All kinetic changes in colour parameters can be explained by the new model presented in this study. The hybrid drying system included infrared vacuum conditions and microwave power for initial slow drying of plum slices and provided the desired

  2. Integration of antimicrobial pectin-based edible coating and active modified atmosphere packaging to preserve the quality and microbial safety of fresh-cut persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb. cv. Rojo Brillante).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchís, Elena; Ghidelli, Christian; Sheth, Chirag C; Mateos, Milagros; Palou, Lluís; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2017-01-01

    The greatest hurdle to the commercial marketing of fresh-cut fruits is related to their higher susceptibility to enzymatic browning, tissue softening, and microbial growth. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a pectin-based edible coating and low oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) to control enzymatic browning and reduce microbial growth of fresh-cut 'Rojo Brillante' persimmon. The survival of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes artificially inoculated on fresh-cut fruit was also assessed. The pectin coating was amended with 500 IU mL -1 nisin (NI) as antimicrobial agent and 10 g kg -1 citric acid and 10 g kg -1 calcium chloride as anti-browning and firming agents, respectively. Persimmon slices were dipped in the coating or in water (control) and packed under 5 kPa O 2 (MAP) or in ambient atmosphere for up to 9 days at 5 °C. Microbial growth, package gas composition, colour, firmness, polyphenol oxidase activity, visual quality and overall sensory flavour of persimmon slices were measured during storage. Coating application combined with active MAP significantly reduced the CO 2 emission and O 2 consumption in the package. The coating was effective in reducing browning and also inhibited the growth of mesophilic aerobic bacteria. Coating also reduced the populations of E. coli, S. enteritidis and L. monocytogenes. The combination of the pectin-based edible coating and active MAP proved to be the most effective treatment to maintain the sensory and microbiological quality of persimmon slices for more than 9 days of storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov., isolated from crown gall tumors on raspberry and cherry plum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanović, Nemanja; Puławska, Joanna; Prokić, Anđelka; Ivanović, Milan; Zlatković, Nevena; Jones, Jeffrey B; Obradović, Aleksa

    2015-09-01

    Two plant-tumorigenic strains KFB 330(T) and KFB 335 isolated from galls on raspberry (Rubus idaeus) in Serbia, and a non-pathogenic strain AL51.1 recovered from a cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera) tumor in Poland, were genotypically and phenotypically characterized. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on 16S rDNA placed them within the genus Agrobacterium, with A. nepotum as their closest relative. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on the partial sequences of atpD, glnA, gyrB, recA and rpoB housekeeping genes suggested that these three strains represent a new Agrobacterium species, that clustered with type strains of A. nepotum, A. radiobacter, "A. fabrum" and A. pusense. This was further supported by average nucleotide identity values (Agrobacterium species. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strains were 18:1 w7c (72.8-77.87%) and 16:0 (6.82-8.58%). Phenotypic features allowed their differentiation from closely related species. Polyphasic characterization showed that the three strains represent a novel species of the genus Agrobacterium, for which the name Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. arsenijevicii is KFB 330(T) (= CFBP 8308(T) = LMG 28674(T)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcriptomic analysis of Prunus domestica undergoing hypersensitive response to plum pox virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodamilans, Bernardo; San León, David; Mühlberger, Louisa; Candresse, Thierry; Neumüller, Michael; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; García, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named 'Jojo', develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected 'Jojo' trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01). Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization.

  5. Analysis of the epitope structure of Plum pox virus coat protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candresse, Thierry; Saenz, Pilar; García, Juan Antonio; Boscia, Donato; Navratil, Milan; Gorris, Maria Teresa; Cambra, Mariano

    2011-05-01

    Typing of the particular Plum pox virus (PPV) strain responsible in an outbreak has important practical implications and is frequently performed using strain-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Analysis in Western blots of the reactivity of 24 MAbs to a 112-amino-acid N-terminal fragment of the PPV coat protein (CP) expressed in Escherichia coli showed that 21 of the 24 MAbs recognized linear or denaturation-insensitive epitopes. A series of eight C-truncated CP fragments allowed the mapping of the epitopes recognized by the MAbs. In all, 14 of them reacted to the N-terminal hypervariable region, defining a minimum of six epitopes, while 7 reacted to the beginning of the core region, defining a minimum of three epitopes. Sequence comparisons allowed the more precise positioning of regions recognized by several MAbs, including those recognized by the 5B-IVIA universal MAb (amino acids 94 to 100) and by the 4DG5 and 4DG11 D serogroup-specific MAbs (amino acids 43 to 64). A similar approach coupled with infectious cDNA clone mutagenesis showed that a V74T mutation in the N-terminus of the CP abolished the binding of the M serogroup-specific AL MAb. Taken together, these results provide a detailed positioning of the epitopes recognized by the most widely used PPV detection and typing MAbs.

  6. Differentially expressed genes in healthy and plum pox virus-infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozárová, Z; Žilová, M; Šubr, Z

    2015-12-01

    Viruses use both material and energy sources of their hosts and redirect the production of disposable compounds in order to make viral replication more efficient. Metabolism of infected organisms is modified by these enhanced requirements as well by their own defense response. Resulting complex story consists of many regulation events on various gene expression levels. Elucidating these processes may contribute to the knowledge on virus-host interactions and to evolving new antiviral strategies. In our work we applied a subtractive cloning technique to compare the transcriptomes of healthy and plum pox virus (PPV)-infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Several genes were found to be induced or repressed by the PPV infection. The induced genes were mainly related to general stress response or photosynthesis, several repressed genes could be connected with growth defects evoked by the infection. Interestingly, some genes usually up-regulated by fungal or bacterial infection were found repressed in PPV-infected plants. Potential involvement of particular differently expressed genes in the process of PPV infection is discussed.

  7. Molecular, ultrastructural, and biological characterization of Pennsylvania isolates of Plum pox virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, William L; Damsteegt, Vernon D; Gildow, Fred E; Stone, Andrew L; Sherman, Diana J; Levy, Laurene E; Mavrodieva, Vessela; Richwine, Nancy; Welliver, Ruth; Luster, Douglas G

    2011-05-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) was identified in Pennsylvania in 1999. The outbreak was limited to a four-county region in southern Pennsylvania. Initial serological and molecular characterization indicated that the isolates in Pennsylvania belong to the D strain of PPV. The Pennsylvania isolates were characterized by sequence analysis, electron microscopy, host range, and vector transmission to determine how these isolates related to their previously studied European counterparts. Genetically, Pennsylvania (PPV-Penn) isolates were more closely related to each other than to any other PPV-D strains, and isolates from the United States, Canada, and Chile were more closely related to each other than to European isolates. The PPV-Penn isolates exist as two clades, suggesting the possibility of multiple introductions. Electron microscopy analysis of PPV-Penn isolates, including cytopathological studies, indicated that the virions were similar to other Potyvirus spp. PPV-Penn isolates had a herbaceous host range similar to that of European D isolates. There were distinct differences in the transmission efficiencies of the two PPV-Penn isolates using Myzus persicae and Aphis spiraecola as vectors; however, both PPV-Penn isolates were transmitted by M. persicae more efficiently than a European D isolate but less efficiently than a European M isolate.

  8. Biotechnological strategies and tools for Plum pox virus resistance: trans-, intra-, cis-genesis, and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilardi, Vincenza; Tavazza, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is the etiological agent of sharka, the most devastating and economically important viral disease affecting Prunus species. It is widespread in most stone fruits producing countries even though eradication and quarantine programs are in place. The development of resistant cultivars and rootstocks remains the most ecologically and economically suitable approach to achieve long-term control of sharka disease. However, the few PPV resistance genetic resources found in Prunus germplasm along with some intrinsic biological features of stone fruit trees pose limits for efficient and fast breeding programs. This review focuses on an array of biotechnological strategies and tools, which have been used, or may be exploited to confer PPV resistance. A considerable number of scientific studies clearly indicate that robust and predictable resistance can be achieved by transforming plant species with constructs encoding intron-spliced hairpin RNAs homologous to conserved regions of the PPV genome. In addition, we discuss how recent advances in our understanding of PPV biology can be profitably exploited to develop viral interference strategies. In particular, genetic manipulation of host genes by which PPV accomplishes its infection cycle already permits the creation of intragenic resistant plants. Finally, we review the emerging genome editing technologies based on ZFN, TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9 engineered nucleases and how the knockout of host susceptibility genes will open up next generation of PPV resistant plants. PMID:26106397

  9. Tracking the potyviral P1 protein in Nicotiana benthamiana plants during plum pox virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozárová, Z; Glasa, M; Šubr, Z W

    The P1 protein is derived from the N terminus of potyvirus-coded polyprotein. In addition to the proteolytic activity essential for its maturation, it probably participates in suppression of host defense and/or in virus replication. Clear validation of the P1 in vivo function(s), however, is not yet available. We applied an infectious cDNA clone of plum pox virus (PPV), where the P1 was N-fused with a hexahistidine tag, to trace this protein in Nicotiana benthamiana plants during the PPV infection. Immunoblot analysis with the anti-his antibody showed a diffuse band corresponding to the molecular weight about 70-80 kDa (about twice larger than expected) in the root samples from early stage of infection. This signal culminated on the sixth day post inoculation, later it rapidly disappeared. Sample denaturation by boiling in SDS before centrifugal clarification was essential, indicating strong affinity of P1-his to some plant compound sedimenting with the tissue and cell debris.

  10. New highly divergent Plum pox virus isolates infecting sour cherry in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna; Zakubanskiy, Alexander; Osipov, Gennady

    2017-02-01

    Unusual Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates (named Tat isolates) were discovered on sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) in Russia. They failed to be recognized by RT-PCR using commonly employed primers specific to the strains C or CR (the only ones that proved able to infect sour cherry) as well as to the strains M and W. Some of them can be detected by RT-PCR using the PPV-D-specific primers P1/PD or by TAS-ELISA with the PPV-C-specific monoclonal antibody AC. Phylogenetic analysis of the 3'-terminal genomic region assigned the Tat isolates into the cluster of cherry-adapted strains. However, they grouped separately from the C and CR strains and from each other as well. The sequence divergence of the Tat isolates is comparable to the differences between the known PPV strains. They may represent new group(s) of cherry-adapted isolates which do not seem to belong to any known strain of the virus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Plum pox virus capsid protein suppresses plant pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicaise, Valerie; Candresse, Thierry

    2017-08-01

    The perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by immune receptors launches defence mechanisms referred to as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Successful pathogens must suppress PTI pathways via the action of effectors to efficiently colonize their hosts. So far, plant PTI has been reported to be active against most classes of pathogens, except viruses, although this defence layer has been hypothesized recently as an active part of antiviral immunity which needs to be suppressed by viruses for infection success. Here, we report that Arabidopsis PTI genes are regulated upon infection by viruses and contribute to plant resistance to Plum pox virus (PPV). Our experiments further show that PPV suppresses two early PTI responses, the oxidative burst and marker gene expression, during Arabidopsis infection. In planta expression of PPV capsid protein (CP) was found to strongly impair these responses in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis, revealing its PTI suppressor activity. In summary, we provide the first clear evidence that plant viruses acquired the ability to suppress PTI mechanisms via the action of effectors, highlighting a novel strategy employed by viruses to escape plant defences. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  12. Transcriptomic analysis of Prunus domestica undergoing hypersensitive response to plum pox virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Rodamilans

    Full Text Available Plum pox virus (PPV infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named 'Jojo', develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected 'Jojo' trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01. Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization.

  13. Robust RNA silencing-mediated resistance to Plum pox virus under variable abiotic and biotic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nicola, Elisa; Tavazza, Mario; Lucioli, Alessandra; Salandri, Laura; Ilardi, Vincenza

    2014-10-01

    Some abiotic and biotic conditions are known to have a negative impact on post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), thus representing a potential concern for the production of stable engineered virus resistance traits. However, depending on the strategy followed to achieve PTGS of the transgene, different responses to external conditions can be expected. In the present study, we utilized the Nicotiana benthamiana–Plum pox virus (PPV) pathosystem to evaluate in detail the stability of intron-hairpin(ihp)-mediated virus resistance under conditions known to adversely affect PTGS. The ihp plants grown at low or high temperatures were fully resistant to multiple PPV challenges, different PPV inoculum concentrations and even to a PPV isolate differing from the ihp construct by more than 28% at the nucleotide level. In addition, infections of ihp plants with viruses belonging to Cucumovirus, Potyvirus or Tombusvirus, all known to affect PTGS at different steps, were not able to defeat PPV resistance. Low temperatures did not affect the accumulation of transgenic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), whereas a clear increase in the amount of siRNAs was observed during infections sustained by Cucumber mosaic virus and Potato virus Y. Our results show that the above stress factors do not represent an important concern for the production,through ihp-PTGS technology, of transgenic plants having robust virus resistance traits.

  14. Optimization of technological procedure for amygdalin isolation from plum seeds (Pruni domesticae semen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Ivan M.; Nikolic, Vesna D.; Savic-Gajic, Ivana M.; Nikolic, Ljubisa B.; Ibric, Svetlana R.; Gajic, Dragoljub G.

    2015-01-01

    The process of amygdalin extraction from plum seeds was optimized using central composite design (CCD) and multilayer perceptron (MLP). The effect of time, ethanol concentration, solid-to-liquid ratio, and temperature on the amygdalin content in the extracts was estimated using both mathematical models. The MLP 4-3-1 with exponential function in hidden layer and linear function in output layer was used for describing the extraction process. MLP model was more superior compared with CCD model due to better prediction ability. According to MLP model, the suggested optimal conditions are: time of 120 min, 100% (v/v) ethanol, solid-to liquid ratio of 1:25 (m/v) and temperature of 34.4°C. The predicted value of amygdalin content in the dried extract (25.42 g per 100 g) at these conditions was experimentally confirmed (25.30 g per 100 g of dried extract). Amygdalin (>90%) was isolated from the complex extraction mixture and structurally characterized by FT-IR, UV, and MS methods. PMID:25972881

  15. Optimization of technological procedure for amygdalin isolation from plum seeds (Pruni domesticae semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan M Savic

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of amygdalin extraction from plum seeds was optimized using central composite design (CCD and multilayer perceptron (MLP. The effect of time, ethanol concentration, solid-to-liquid ratio and temperature on the amygdalin content in the extracts was estimated using both mathematical models. The MLP 4-3-1 with exponential function in hidden layer and linear function in output layer was used for describing the extraction process. MLP model was more superior compared with CCD model due to better prediction ability. According to MLP model, the suggested optimal conditions are: time of 120 min, 100% (v/v ethanol, solid-to liquid ratio of 1:25 (m/v and temperature of 34.4 °C. The predicted value of amygdalin content in the dried extract (25.42 g per 100 g at these conditions was experimentally confirmed (25.30 g per 100 g of dried extract. Amygdalin (>90% was isolated from the complex extraction mixture and structurally characterized by FT-IR, UV and MS methods.

  16. Microencapsulation of plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. phenolics by spray drying technology and storage stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibin LI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To improve the stability of the phenolic extracts from plum fruit (Prunus salicina Lindl., the microencapsulation conditions of spray drying were optimized by the response surface method. The Box-Behnken experimental results indicated the optimal conditions involved an inlet air temperature of 142.8 °C, a core material content of 23.7% and a feed solids content of 11.7%. The maximum microencapsulating efficiency was 87.7% at optimal conditions. Further, the physicochemical properties of the microcapsule powders were improved overall due to the addition of the coating agents. There were no statistically significant differences in phenolic content of the obtained microcapsules for the first 40 days of storage at 25 °C in dark condition (p > 0.05, and the retention rate of total phenol remained above 85% after 60 days. Microcapsules can be potentially developed as a source of natural pigment or functional food based on the advantages of rich phenolic compounds and red color.

  17. Incompatible pollen tubes in the plum style and their impact on fertilization success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Milena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pistils of plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. ‘Čačanska Lepotica’ were self- and cross-pollinated in order to investigate occurrence of incompatible pollen tubes in the style, and their impact on fertilization success. The investigation also included open pollination variant. The highest percentage of these stopped the growth in the upper third of the style. Under cross-pollination variant, 15.4% and 12.1% of pollen tubes observed in the upper part of the style in the first and the second years of study, respectively, were found incompatible. In view of the above parameters, in the self- pollination variant, 15.0% and 17.0% of pollen tubes were found incompatible by years. As for the open pollination, percentages of incompatible pollen tubes in the upper part of the style by years were 14.0% and 14.4%, respectively. The occurrence of incompatible pollen tubes did not influence the fertilization success in these pollination variants. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31064-Development and preservation of genetic potential of temperate zone fruits

  18. Evidence that the Ceratobasidium-like white-thread blight and black rot fungal pathogens from persimmon and tea crops in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest agroecosystem are two distinct phylospecies

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    Paulo C. Ceresini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The white-thread blight and black rot (WTBR caused by basidiomycetous fungi of the genus Ceratobasidium is emerging as an important plant disease in Brazil, particularly for crop species in the Ericales such as persimmon (Diospyros kaki and tea (Camellia sinensis. However, the species identity of the fungal pathogen associated with either of these hosts is still unclear. In this work, we used sequence variation in the internal transcribed spacer regions, including the 5.8S coding region of rDNA (ITS-5.8S rDNA, to determine the phylogenetic placement of the local white-thread-blight-associated populations of Ceratobasidium sp. from persimmon and tea, in relation to Ceratobasidium species already described world-wide. The two sister populations of Ceratobasidium sp. from persimmon and tea in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest agroecosystem most likely represent distinct species within Ceratobasidium and are also distinct from C. noxium, the etiological agent of the first description of white-thread blight disease that was reported on coffee in India. The intraspecific variation for the two Ceratobasidium sp. populations was also analyzed using three mitochondrial genes (ATP6, nad1 and nad2. As reported for other fungi, variation in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA was incongruent. Despite distinct variability in the ITS-rDNA region these two populations shared similar mitochondrial DNA haplotypes.

  19. Evidence that the Ceratobasidium-like white-thread blight and black rot fungal pathogens from persimmon and tea crops in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest agroecosystem are two distinct phylospecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceresini, Paulo C; Costa-Souza, Elaine; Zala, Marcello; Furtado, Edson L; Souza, Nilton L

    2012-04-01

    The white-thread blight and black rot (WTBR) caused by basidiomycetous fungi of the genus Ceratobasidium is emerging as an important plant disease in Brazil, particularly for crop species in the Ericales such as persimmon (Diospyros kaki) and tea (Camellia sinensis). However, the species identity of the fungal pathogen associated with either of these hosts is still unclear. In this work, we used sequence variation in the internal transcribed spacer regions, including the 5.8S coding region of rDNA (ITS-5.8S rDNA), to determine the phylogenetic placement of the local white-thread-blight-associated populations of Ceratobasidium sp. from persimmon and tea, in relation to Ceratobasidium species already described world-wide. The two sister populations of Ceratobasidium sp. from persimmon and tea in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest agroecosystem most likely represent distinct species within Ceratobasidium and are also distinct from C. noxium, the etiological agent of the first description of white-thread blight disease that was reported on coffee in India. The intraspecific variation for the two Ceratobasidium sp. populations was also analyzed using three mitochondrial genes (ATP6, nad1 and nad2). As reported for other fungi, variation in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA was incongruent. Despite distinct variability in the ITS-rDNA region these two populations shared similar mitochondrial DNA haplotypes.

  20. Genomic Sequencing of Japanese Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. Mutants Provides a New Model for Rosaceae Fruit Ripening Studies

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    Angel Fernandez i Marti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been described that the Japanese plum “Santa Rosa” bud sport series contains variations in ripening pattern: climacteric, suppressed-climacteric and non-climacteric types. This provides an interesting model to study the role of ethylene and other key mechanisms governing fruit ripening, softening and senescence. The aim of the current study was to investigate such differences at the genomic level, using this series of plum bud sports, with special reference to genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, signal transduction, and sugar metabolism. Genomic DNA, isolated from leaf samples of six Japanese plum cultivars (“Santa Rosa”, “July Santa Rosa”, “Late Santa Rosa”, “Sweet Miriam”, “Roysum”, and “Casselman”, was used to construct paired-end standard Illumina libraries. Sequences were aligned to the Prunus persica genome, and genomic variations (SNPs, INDELS, and CNV's were investigated. Results determined 12 potential candidate genes with significant copy number variation (CNV, being associated with ethylene perception and signal transduction components. Additionally, the Maximum Likelihood (ML phylogenetic tree showed two sorbitol dehydrogenase genes grouping into a distinct clade, indicating that this natural group is well-defined and presents high sequence identity among its members. In contrast, the ethylene group, which includes ACO1, ACS1, ACS4, ACS5, CTR1, ERF1, ERF3, and ethylene-receptor genes, was widely distributed and clustered into 10 different groups. Thus, ACS, ERF, and sorbitol dehydrogenase proteins potentially share a common ancestor for different plant genomes, while the expansion rate may be related to ancestral expansion rather than species-specific events. Based on the distribution of the clades, we suggest that gene function diversification for the ripening pathway occurred prior to family extension. We herein report all the frameshift mutations in genes involved in sugar transport

  1. Genomic Sequencing of Japanese Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) Mutants Provides a New Model for Rosaceae Fruit Ripening Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez I Marti, Angel; Saski, Christopher A; Manganaris, George A; Gasic, Ksenija; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2018-01-01

    It has recently been described that the Japanese plum "Santa Rosa" bud sport series contains variations in ripening pattern: climacteric, suppressed-climacteric and non-climacteric types. This provides an interesting model to study the role of ethylene and other key mechanisms governing fruit ripening, softening and senescence. The aim of the current study was to investigate such differences at the genomic level, using this series of plum bud sports, with special reference to genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, signal transduction, and sugar metabolism. Genomic DNA, isolated from leaf samples of six Japanese plum cultivars ("Santa Rosa", "July Santa Rosa", "Late Santa Rosa", "Sweet Miriam", "Roysum", and "Casselman"), was used to construct paired-end standard Illumina libraries. Sequences were aligned to the Prunus persica genome, and genomic variations (SNPs, INDELS, and CNV's) were investigated. Results determined 12 potential candidate genes with significant copy number variation (CNV), being associated with ethylene perception and signal transduction components. Additionally, the Maximum Likelihood (ML) phylogenetic tree showed two sorbitol dehydrogenase genes grouping into a distinct clade, indicating that this natural group is well-defined and presents high sequence identity among its members. In contrast, the ethylene group, which includes ACO1, ACS1, ACS4, ACS5, CTR1, ERF1, ERF3, and ethylene-receptor genes, was widely distributed and clustered into 10 different groups. Thus, ACS, ERF, and sorbitol dehydrogenase proteins potentially share a common ancestor for different plant genomes, while the expansion rate may be related to ancestral expansion rather than species-specific events. Based on the distribution of the clades, we suggest that gene function diversification for the ripening pathway occurred prior to family extension. We herein report all the frameshift mutations in genes involved in sugar transport and ethylene biosynthesis detected as well

  2. Nutritional and functional characteristics of gingerbread plum (Neocarya macrophylla: an underutilized oilseed

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    Zhou, H. M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The In-vitro protein digestibility, protein nutritional quality and functional characteristics (protein solubility, water/oil binding capacity, emulsifying capacity and foaming capacity of gingerbread plum and peanut seed flour were studied. Among the nutritional parameters, the proportion of essential amino acids to total amino acids (E/T, amino acid scores (AAS and protein efficiency ratio (PER were studied. Defatted gingerbread plum seed meal (DGPSM showed a high nutritional quality with PER and AAS values of 2.35 and 65.53 respectively. The solubility profile of DGPSM was similar to that of defatted peanut meal (DPM, with minimum solubility observed at pH 4 and maximum solubility at pH 10 and higher. Water and oil holding capacities were 3.01 and 3.12; 2.96 and 3.11 g/g for DGPSM and DPM respectively. DGPSM showed good foaming capacity (145 mL /100 mL and stability (110 mL /100 mL even after 60 min at room temperature. The emulsifying capacity of DGPSM was 29%. Bulk densities were 0.30 and 0.28 g/mL for DGPSM and DPM respectively. Finally, DGPSM was easily hydrolyzed by trypsin in vitro. These results show that DGPSM has functional properties that may find applications in the food industry.La digestibilidad de proteínas in vitro, la calidad nutricional de proteínas y las características funcionales (solubilidad de proteínas, capacidad de enlace agua/aceite, capacidad emulsionante y capacidad espumante de harina de semillas de ciruela de pan de jengibre y de cacahuete fueron estudiadas. Entre los parámetros nutricionales, la relación aminoácidos esenciales/aminoácidos totales (E/T, el perfil de aminoácidos (AAS y el coeficiente de eficacia proteica (PER fueron estudiadas. Harina de semillas de ciruela de pan de jengibre (DGPSM mostraron una alta calidad nutricional con unos valores de PER y de AAS de 2.35 y 65.53 respectivamente. El perfil de solubilidad de DGPSM fue similar al de la harina desengrasada de cacahuete (DPM, con una m

  3. Study On The Influence Of Different Drying Modes Over The Chemical Composition Of Organic Fruits Of Some Plum Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    GEORGIEV, Diyan; GEORGIEVA, Mariya; BRASHLYANOVA, Boryana; Karabadzhov, Ognyan

    2014-01-01

    The change of some biochemical indicators of fruits of some plum cultivars was followed under the influence of different equipments and drying modes. In the first variant for the process of drying was used an alternative energy source – solar energy, and in the second one – a heat pump.The highest dry matter content was found in the fresh fruits of Mirabelle de Nancy – 25.50 %. In the alternative source of drying of fruits, Gabrovska cultivar had the highest content of biological active subst...

  4. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L..

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    Manuel Rubio

    Full Text Available RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925, which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance.

  5. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka) Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Manuel; Ballester, Ana Rosa; Olivares, Pedro Manuel; Castro de Moura, Manuel; Dicenta, Federico; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease)/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925), which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene) or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein) PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance.

  6. Pomological and technological characteristics of collected selections of cherry plum Prunus cerasifera Erhr.

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    Miletić Rade

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A plantation collection containing 32 genotypes selected from spontaneous populations of cherry plum Prunus cerasifera Erhr. was set up in the region of the Eastern Serbian town of Svrljig. The fruit trees budded from Prunus cerasifera seedlings and were planted at 5x4 m spacing on a mild slope of south-western aspect. This study shows the most important characteristics of the 19 selections in the collection, and the average results recorded in the 2000-2003 period. The most significant characteristics of the trees, their productivity, and fruit and stone characteristics are presented. The average coarseness of fruits, i.e. their length, width and thickness, measured 25.0x 24.4x25.0 mm, while stone coarseness was 14.4x10.3x3.6 mm. The average fruit weight was 12.1 g (24.3-4.8 g, and stone weight 0.85 g (2.2-0.3 g. Depending on fruit and stone weight, the mesocarp content was 93% (96.3-90.3%. Taking into consideration the possibility of fruit exploitation for the production of biologically high-quality food, the mesocarp chemical composition was thoroughly examined. The fruits were found to have increased contents of total acids, achieving an average of 3.09% (3.44-2.60%, which was the initial objective of this selection. Total solids content was 13.5% (16.2-10.3%, total soluble solids 12.5% (14.5-9.5% and total sugars 6.00% (11.45-3.14%. Considering these characteristics, the selections that were singled out deserve more attention in terms of preserving their biodiversity, forming a gene bank and commercial cultivation.

  7. Aminoethoxivinilglicina no controle do amadurecimento de frutos de caqui cv. Fuyu Aminoethoxyvinylglycine in the ripening control of persimmon fruits cv. Fuyu

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    Angela Fuentes Fagundes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de aminoethoxivinilglicina (AVG, aplicado na pós-colheita, no amadurecimento de frutos de caqui (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Fuyu, armazenados à temperatura de 0 ± 2 ºC. Os frutos foram imersos durante dois minutos em solução de AVG, na concentração de 0; 415; 830 e 1.200 g ha-1 e dissolvidos em água destilada e adição de espalhante adesivo (óleo vegetal a 0,02% (v/v, secos à temperatura ambiente no barracão e armazenados em câmara fria a 0 ± 2 ºC e 95±2 % UR, e avaliados aos 32 e 52 dias com relação à firmeza, sólidos solúveis, pH da polpa, acidez titulável e injúria por frio. O AVG mostrou-se promissor no uso pós-colheita em caqui, onde os frutos tratados conservaram índices de firmeza linear em função da dose e teores de AT, SS e pH aceitáveis para o 'Fuyu'. Porém os frutos apresentaram translucidez, característica de injúria por frio, indicando a necessidade de novos estudos para se compreender a fisiologia pós-colheita deste fruto.An experiment was carried out to analyze the effect of the application of Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG in post harvest application in persimmon fruits (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Fuyu stored at a temperature of 0 ± 2ºC. The fruits were immersed for two minutes into an AVG solution at a concentration of 0; 415; 830; 1200 g ha-1 and dissolved in distillated water. Then it was added adhesive spreader (vegetable oil 0.02% (v/v, dried at room temperature and stored at 0 ± 2 ºC and 95±2 % humidity. The treatments were evaluated on the 32nd and 52nd days to check the firmness, soluble solids, pH of the pulp, tritable acidity and chilling injury. The AVG may be promising in post harvest use with persimmon fruits, where treated fruits preserved linear levels of firmness in function of the doses and TA, SS and pH levels are acceptable for cv. Fuyu. However, fruits showed translucency, which are characteristics of chilling injury, indicating that new studies are

  8. First report of Pestalotiopsis diospyri causing canker on persimmon trees Primeira ocorrência de Pestalotiopsis diospyri causando cancros em caquizeiros

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    Giselda Alves

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available During 2006 to 2009 season symptoms of a canker disease were observed on twigs and branches of young and mature persimmon trees (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Fuyu in the States of Santa Catarina and Paraná in the Southern Brazil. The cankers result in severe damage and reduced production. Isolations from the margins of these cankers revealed a genus of Pestalotiopsis. Koch's postulates were confirmed using two isolates of the pathogen which was identified as Pestalotiopsis diospyri.Durante as safras de 2007 a 2009, foram observados sintomas de cancro em ramos e galhos de plantas de caquizeiro (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Fuyu, nos Estados de Santa Catarina e do Paraná, no Sul do Brasil. Os cancros resultavam em danos severos e comprometiam a produção. Após o isolamento da margem dos cancros, detectou-se o gênero Pestalotiopsis em todas as amostras. Os postulados de Koch foram confirmados, utilizando-se dois isolados do patógeno, o qual foi identificado como Pestalotiopsis diospyri.

  9. Molecular characterization of Plum pox virus Rec isolates from Russia suggests a new insight into evolution of the strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna; Kudryavtseva, Anna; Mitrofanova, Irina

    2018-04-01

    Field isolates of Plum pox virus (PPV), belonging to the strain Rec, have been found for the first time in Russia. Full-size genomes of the isolates K28 and Kisl-1pl from myrobalan and plum, respectively, were sequenced on the 454 platform. Analysis of all known PPV-Rec complete genomes using the Recombination Detection Program (RDP4) revealed yet another recombination event in the 5'-terminal region. This event was detected by seven algorithms, implemented in the RDP4, with statistically significant P values and supported by a phylogenetic analysis with the bootstrap value of 87%. A putative PPV-M-derived segment, encompassing the C-terminus of the P1 gene and approximately two-thirds of the HcPro gene, is bordered by breakpoints at positions 760-940 and 1838-1964, depending on the recombinant isolate. The predicted 5'-distal breakpoint for the isolate Valjevka is located at position 2804. The Dideron (strain D) and SK68 (strain M) isolates were inferred as major and minor parents, respectively. Finding of another recombination event suggests more complex evolutionary history of PPV-Rec than previously assumed. Perhaps the first recombination event led to the formation of a PPV-D variant harboring the PPV-M-derived fragment within the 5'-proximal part of the genome. Subsequent recombination of its descendant with PPV-M in the 3'-proximal genomic region resulted in the emergence of the evolutionary successful strain Rec.

  10. Agronomical Parameters, Sugar Profile and Antioxidant Compounds of “Catherine” Peach Cultivar Influenced by Different Plum Rootstocks

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    Carolina Font i Forcada

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seven plum rootstocks (Adesoto, Monpol, Montizo, Puebla de Soto 67 AD, PM 105 AD, St. Julien GF 655/2 and Constantí 1 on individual and total sugars, as well as on antioxidant content in fruit flesh of “Catherine” peaches, was evaluated for three years. Agronomical and basic fruit quality parameters were also determined. At twelve years after budding, significant differences were found between rootstocks for the different agronomic and fruit quality traits evaluated. The Pollizo plum rootstocks Adesoto and PM 105 AD seem to induce higher sweetness to peach fruits, based on soluble solids content, individual (sucrose, fructose and sorbitol and total sugars. A clear tendency was also observed with the rootstock Adesoto, inducing the highest content of phenolics, flavonoids, vitamin C and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the significant effect of rootstock on the sugar profile and phytochemical characteristics of peach fruits. In addition, this work shows the importance of the sugar profile, because specific sugars play an important role in peach flavour quality, as well as the studied phytochemical compounds when looking for high quality peaches with enhanced health properties.

  11. Influence of combined pretreatments on color parameters during convective drying of Mirabelle plum ( Prunus domestica subsp. syriaca)

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    Dehghannya, Jalal; Gorbani, Rasoul; Ghanbarzadeh, Babak

    2017-07-01

    Discoloration and browning are caused primarily by various reactions, including Maillard condensation of hexoses and amino components, phenol polymerization and pigment destruction. Convective drying can be combined with various pretreatments to help reduce undesired color changes and improve color parameters of dried products. In this study, effects of ultrasound-assisted osmotic dehydration as a pretreatment before convective drying on color parameters of Mirabelle plum were investigated. Variations of L* (lightness), a* (redness/greenness), b* (yellowness/blueness), total color change (ΔE), chroma, hue angle and browning index values were presented versus drying time during convective drying of control and pretreated Mirabelle plums as influenced by ultrasonication time, osmotic solution concentration and immersion time in osmotic solution. Samples pretreated with ultrasound for 30 min and osmotic solution concentration of 70% had a more desirable color among all other pretreated samples, with the closest L*, a* and b* values to the fresh one, showing that ultrasound and osmotic dehydration are beneficial to the color of final products after drying.

  12. 7 CFR 1412.47 - Planting flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Imperial, Kern, Kings, Madera, Merced, Riverside, Sacramento, San Benito, San Joaquin, Santa Clara..., Henrico, Henry, Highland, Isle of Wight, James City, King and Queen, King George, King William, Lancaster..., persimmon, persian melon, pimentos, pineapple, pistachios, plantain, plumcots, plums, pomegranates, potatoes...

  13. Protecting trees against virus diseases in the 21st century: genetic engineering of Plum pox virus resistance - from concept to product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharka disease, caused by Plum pox virus (PPV), was first recorded in Bulgaria during the early twentieth century. Since that first report, the disease has progressively spread throughout Europe where it has infected over 100 million stone fruit trees. From Europe, sharka disease spread to Asia, A...

  14. Effect of Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose-Beeswax Composite Edible Coatings Formulated with or without Antifungal Agents on Physicochemical Properties of Plums during Cold Storage

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    Sule Gunaydin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose- (HPMC- beeswax (BW composite edible coatings formulated with or without food additives with antifungal properties on physicochemical and sensory properties of plums (Prunus salicina cv. “Friar” stored for 11 and 22 d at 1°C followed by a shelf life period of 5 d at 20°C was evaluated. Food preservatives selected from previous research included potassium sorbate (PS, sodium methyl paraben (SMP, and sodium ethyl paraben (SEP. Emulsions had 7% of total solid content and were prepared with glycerol and stearic acid as plasticizer and emulsifier, respectively. All the coatings reduced plum weight and firmness loss and coated fruit showed higher titratable acidity, soluble solids content, and hue angle values at the end of the storage period. In addition, physiological disorders such as flesh browning and bleeding were reduced in coated samples compared to uncoated controls. Paraben-based coatings were the most effective in controlling weight loss and the SMP-based coating was the most effective in maintaining plum firmness. Respiration rate, sensory flavor, off-flavors, and fruit appearance were not adversely affected by the application of antifungal coatings. Overall, these results demonstrated the potential of selected edible coatings containing antifungal food additives to extend the postharvest life of plums, although further studies should focus on improving some properties of the coatings to enhance gas barrier properties and further increase storability.

  15. Ectopic expression of class 1 KNOX genes induce and adventitious shoot regeneration and alter growth and development of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and European plum (Prunus domestica L)

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    Transgenic plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and plum (Prunus domestica L) were produced by transforming with apple class 1 KNOX genes (MdKN1 and MdKN2) or corn KN1 gene. Transgenic tobacco plants were regenerated in vitro from transformed leaf discs cultured in a tissue medium lacking cytoki...

  16. Effects of Raindrop Shape Parameter on the Simulation of Plum Rains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, H.; Zhou, L.; Li, X.; Huang, X.; Guo, W.

    2017-12-01

    The raindrop shape parameter of particle distribution is generally set as constant in a Double-moment Bulk Microphysics Scheme (DBMS) using Gama distribution function though which suggest huge differences in time and space according to observations. Based on Milbrandt 2-mon(MY) DBMS, four cases during Plum Rains season are simulated coupled with four empirical relationships between shape parameter (μr) and slope parameter of raindrop which have been concluded from observations of raindrop distributions. The analysis of model results suggest that μr have some influences on rainfall. Introducing the diagnostic formulas of μr may have some improvement on systematic biases of 24h accumulated rainfall and show some correction ability on local characteristics of rainfall distribution. Besides,the tendency to improve strong rainfall could be sensitive to μr. With the improvement of the diagnosis of μr using the empirically diagnostic formulas, μr increases generally in the middle- and lower-troposphere and decreases with the stronger rainfall. Its conclued that, the decline in raindrop water content and the increased raindrop mass-weighted average terminal velocity directly related to μr are the direct reasons of variations in the precipitation.On the other side, the environmental conditions including relative humidity and dynamical parameters are the key indirectly causes which has close relationships with the changes in cloud particles and rainfall distributions.Furthermore,the differences in the scale of improvement between the weak and heavy rainfall mainly come from the distinctions of response features about their variable fields respectively. The extent of variation in the features of cloud particles in warm clouds of heavy rainfall differs greatly from that of weak rainfall, though they share the same trend of variation. On the conditions of weak rainfall, the response of physical characteristics to μr performed consistent trends and some linear features

  17. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  18. Water quality, sources of nitrate, and chemical loadings in the Geronimo Creek and Plum Creek watersheds, south-central Texas, April 2015–March 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Rebecca B.; Opsahl, Stephen P.; Musgrove, MaryLynn

    2017-12-22

    Located in south-central Texas, the Geronimo Creek and Plum Creek watersheds have long been characterized by elevated nitrate concentrations. From April 2015 through March 2016, an assessment was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority and the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, to characterize nitrate concentrations and to document possible sources of elevated nitrate in these two watersheds. Water-quality samples were collected from stream, spring, and groundwater sites distributed across the two watersheds, along with precipitation samples and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent samples from the Plum Creek watershed, to characterize endmember concentrations and isotopic compositions from April 2015 through March 2016. Stream, spring, and groundwater samples from both watersheds were collected during four synoptic sampling events to characterize spatial and temporal variations in water quality and chemical loadings. Water-quality and -quantity data from the WWTPs and stream discharge data also were considered. Samples were analyzed for major ions, selected trace elements, nutrients, and stable isotopes of water and nitrate.The dominant land use in both watersheds is agriculture (cultivated crops, rangeland, and grassland and pasture). The upper part of the Plum Creek watershed is more highly urbanized and has five major WWTPs; numerous smaller permitted wastewater outfalls are concentrated in the upper and central parts of the Plum Creek watershed. The Geronimo Creek watershed, in contrast, has no WWTPs upstream from or near the sampling sites.Results indicate that water quality in the Geronimo Creek watershed, which was evaluated only during base-flow conditions, is dominated by groundwater, which discharges to the stream by numerous springs at various locations. Nitrate isotope values for most Geronimo Creek samples were similar, which indicates that they likely have a common source (or

  19. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive ... Chinese restaurant syndrome is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms. The health care provider may ask the following ...

  20. Assessing Wetland Hydroperiod and Soil Moisture With Remote Sensing: A Demonstration for the NASA Plum Brook Station Year 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Colin; Bourgeau-Chavez, Laura; Endres, Sarah; Battaglia, Michael; Shuchman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Primary Goal: Assist with the evaluation and measuring of wetlands hydroperiod at the PlumBrook Station using multi-source remote sensing data as part of a larger effort on projecting climate change-related impacts on the station's wetland ecosystems. MTRI expanded on the multi-source remote sensing capabilities to help estimate and measure hydroperiod and the relative soil moisture of wetlands at NASA's Plum Brook Station. Multi-source remote sensing capabilities are useful in estimating and measuring hydroperiod and relative soil moisture of wetlands. This is important as a changing regional climate has several potential risks for wetland ecosystem function. The year two analysis built on the first year of the project by acquiring and analyzing remote sensing data for additional dates and types of imagery, combined with focused field work. Five deliverables were planned and completed: 1) Show the relative length of hydroperiod using available remote sensing datasets 2) Date linked table of wetlands extent over time for all feasible non-forested wetlands 3) Utilize LIDAR data to measure topographic height above sea level of all wetlands, wetland to catchment area radio, slope of wetlands, and other useful variables 4) A demonstration of how analyzed results from multiple remote sensing data sources can help with wetlands vulnerability assessment 5) A MTRI style report summarizing year 2 results. This report serves as a descriptive summary of our completion of these our deliverables. Additionally, two formal meetings were held with Larry Liou and Amanda Sprinzl to provide project updates and receive direction on outputs. These were held on 2/26/15 and 9/17/15 at the Plum Brook Station. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a multivariate statistical technique used to identify dominant spatial and temporal backscatter signatures. PCA reduces the information contained in the temporal dataset to the first few new Principal Component (PC) images. Some advantages of PCA

  1. The influence of virus infections on antioxidant levels in the genetically modified plum variety "Honeysweet" (Prunus domestica L.

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    Jiri Sochor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that polyphenolic compounds are found abundantly in fruit, but various kinds of diseases  lower these levels. This work measures total polyphenolic content, antioxidant activity and the levels of specific important antioxidants in fruits of the genetically modified (GM plum variety HoneySweet, trees  which were previously inoculated with a range of different virus infections.  These were the Plum Pox virus (PPV, Prune Dwarf virus (PDV and Apple Chlorotic Leaf-Spot virus (ACLSV. Uninoculated trees were used as controls. Antioxidant activity was measured using four different photometric  methods – DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, DMPD (N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine, ABTS (2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and FRAP (Ferric reducing antioxidant power. Total polyphenol content was measured using the Folin–Ciocalteau method. The profiles of 10 specific antioxidant constituents in the fruits of the GM plum variety HoneySweet were detected and analyzed, since these are of interest for their role in human diets and could play a role in the resistance of plants to viruses. Detection was made using HPLC with UV-VIS detection.  They were: gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, 4-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, vanillin, rutin and quercetin. The compound with the highest concentration was chlorogenic acid (587 mg/100 g, and that with the lowest was p-coumaric acid (0.95 mg/100 g. Of the four methods of antioxidant activity used, in three the lowest levels of antioxidant activity were seen where the PPV virus was combined with ACLSV, and in three the highest levels were seen in the un-inoculated control without any infection. The highest values of total polyphenols were seen in the control (65.3 mg/100 g, followed by infection of PPV, then treatment PPV, PDV and ACLSV, then treatment PPV and PDV and finally the lowest levels were seen in treatment PPV and ACLSV (44.2 mg/100 g, which

  2. Teores de carboidratos em órgãos lenhosos do caquizeiro em clima tropical Carbohydrate content in persimmon tree woody organs in tropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Corsato

    2008-06-01

    an important step in the right direction to understand the relation source-drain more effectively along with building up the fundamentals of some handling practices, for instance, the pruning and fruit thinning. The objective of the present study was to characterize how the total soluble sugars content and the starch vary in woody organs of the persimmon tree (Diospyros kaki L in elapsing of its phenological development. This study was carried out in the experimental area of the Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" (ESALQ in Piracicaba - SP, during the cycle 2002/2003. The phenology of persimmon tree was described by the occurrence period and prolongation of shoot growth, flowering, fruit growth, leaf expansion and natural abortion of fruits. The carbohydrates content in stems and roots were analyzed based on different phenological stages. The results showed a significant variation in the starch and total soluble sugars content in the sampled organs. The starch's mobilization in stems was of foremost importance to sustain the beginning of a new growing cycle. It is worth mentioning that the consumption of starch was increased during the leaf fall and therefore a replacement in its stock took place, not only in the stems but also in the roots, during the flowering and the leaf abscission.

  3. Fruit quality of ‘Jiro’ japanese persimmon fruits bagged with different types of packings/ Qualidade de frutos de caqui ‘Jiro’ ensacados com diferentes embalagens

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    Louise Larissa May de Mio

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The bagging technique of fruits comes being used by many producers, aiming at the fruit quality, reduction of application of agro toxics and reduction of the damages caused by insects and diseases. The present work evaluated the quality of bagging fruits of ‘Jiro’ japanese persimmon with different types of bags. The experiment was lead in the orchard of Japanese persimmon of the Experimental Farm of the Canguiri of the UFPR, located in Pinhais-PR. The fertilization and the management of the orchard were entirely organic. The treatments had been: microperforated plastic bag, brown kraft paper bag, butter-like paper bag, newspaper bag and without bagging. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with five replicates, being each plant considered a block. Each parcel was composed by 20 fruits. The bagging was made after the physiological fall of the young fruits, distributing the types of bags aleatorely inside each plant. The evaluation was 77 days after bagging, verifying the number of fruits harvested, mass of the fruits, diameter of the fruits, number of fruits in each category of maturation, number of fruits attacked with Schyzothyrium pomi and soluble solids content. The results were significant only in the incidence of S. pomi and in the percentage of coloration of the fruits. The bagging with newspaper and brown kraft bags reduced the incidence of S. Pomi and the color of fruits. The size and the soluble solids content were not affected by bagging.A técnica de ensacamento de frutos vem sendo utilizadas por muitos produtores, visando a melhor qualidade de frutos, redução de aplicação de agrotóxicos e diminuição dos danos provocados por pragas e doenças. O presente trabalho avaliou a qualidade de frutos de caquizeiro ‘Jiro’ ensacados com diferentes tipos de embalagens. O experimento foi conduzido no pomar de caquizeiro da Fazenda Experimental do Canguiri da UFPR, localizada em Pinhais-PR. A adubação e o manejo do

  4. Bioecological aspects of Hypocala andremona (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on persimmon cultivars = Aspectos bioecológicos de Hypocala andremona (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em cultivares de caquizeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Luiz Hohmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The biology of Hypocala andremona (Cramer on persimmon (Diospyrus kaki L. leaves of the cultivars Atago and Giombo was studied in laboratory (27 ± 1ºC, 65 ± 10% RH, 14 hours photo period and egg distribution on plants of the cultivar Giombo in a commercial orchard, during the 2001/2002 crop season, in Londrina, Paraná state. The developmental period of larvae fed on ‘Giombo’ was longer (17.8 . 0.17 days in comparison to that of larvae fed on ‘Atago’ (15.8 . 0.27 days. In contrast, the duration of the pupal stage of insects raised on ‘Giombo’ was lower (12.0 . 0.29 days than that of insects reared on ‘Atago’ (13.3 . 0.17 days. The viabilities of larvae were 60.8 and 38.8% for insects reared on ‘Giombo’ and on ‘Atago’, respectively. Pupal viability was similar (ca. 93% between treatments. The duration of the preoviposition and incubation periods of larvae fed on ‘Atago’ were 4.0 days and 2.1 days, respectively, the fecundity 524.7 eggs, egg viability 77% and adult longevity 12.9 days. No eggs were obtained when H. andremona larvae were reared on ‘Giombo’ in laboratory. Adults preferred to lay their eggs on leaveslocated at the top of the persimmon tree canopy.A biologia de Hypocala andremona (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae foi estudada em folhas das cultivares de caquizeiro (Diospyrus kakiL. Atago e Giombo em laboratório (27 ± 1ºC, 65 ± 10% UR, 14h fotofase e a distribuição de ovos em plantas da cultivar Giombo em pomar comercial, durante o período de 2001/2002, em Londrina, Estado do Paraná. O período de desenvolvimento das lagartas alimentadas com ‘Giombo’ foi maior (17,8 . 0,17 dias em relação às alimentadas com‘Atago’ (15,8 . 0,27 dias. Entretanto, a duração do estágio de pupa de insetos criados em ‘Giombo’ foi menor (12,0 . 0,29 dias do que as criadas em ‘Atago’ (13,3 . 0,17 dias. As viabilidades das lagartas foram 60,8 e 38,8% para insetos alimentados em ‘Giombo’ e

  5. NMR fingerprinting as a tool to evaluate post-harvest time-related changes of peaches, tomatoes and plums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santucci, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo; Luchinat, Claudio

    2015-09-01

    The time-related changes of three agricultural products, coming from two distribution routes, have been followed using NMR fingerprinting to monitor metabolic variations occurring during several days of cold storage. An NMR profiling approach was employed to evaluate the variations in metabolic profile and metabolite content in three different agricultural products highly consumed in Italy (peaches, tomatoes and plums) coming from Tuscanian farms and how they change with time after collection. For each product, we followed the time-related changes during cold storage along three different collection periods. We monitored the variations in metabolic fingerprint and the trend of a set of metabolites, focusing our attention on nutritive and health-promoting metabolites (mainly, essential amino acids and antioxidants) as well as metabolites that contribute to the taste. Concurrently, for comparison, the time-dependent changes of the same kind of products coming from large-scale distribution have been also analyzed under the same conditions. In this second category, only slight variations in the metabolic fingerprint and metabolite levels were seen during cold storage. Unsupervised and supervised multivariate statistics was also employed to enlighten the differences between the three collections. In particular it seems that the metabolic fingerprint of large-scale distribution products is quite similar in the early, middle and late collection, while peaches and plums locally collected are markedly different among the three periods. The metabolic profiles of the agricultural products belonging to these two different distribution routes are intrinsically different, and they show different changes during the time of cold storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of Plum Rootstocks on the Content of Reducing Sugars in the Annual Shoots of Cultivar ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dēķena Dzintra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of suitable plum rootstocks for Baltic conditions has become a problem during recent years due to changing climatic conditions. Rapid temperature fluctuations between freezing and thawing are occurring more frequently. The winter-hardiness of rootstocks is essential for overwintering of trees in such conditions. The content of accumulated reducing sugars is an important physiological factor influencing wintering ability of trees. The dynamics of reducing sugars was investigated during two winter seasons (2010/2011 and 2011/2012 in one-year-old ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’ (Prunus x rossica Erem. hybrid plum shoots from two orchards planted in 2001 at Pūre Horticultural Research Centre (Latvia and Polli Horticultural Research Centre (Estonia. Cultivar ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’ was grafted on eight clonal rootstocks: ‘St. Julien A’, ‘Brompton’ cuttings, ‘Ackermann’, ‘Pixy’, GF8/1, G5/22, GF655/2, ‘Hamyra’ and eight seedling rootstocks: ‘St. Julien INRA 2’, ‘St. Julien d’Orleans’, ‘St. Julien Noir’, ‘Brompton’ seedlings, ‘Wangenheims Zwetsche’, ‘St. Julien Wädenswill’, ‘Myrobаlan’ and Prunus cerasifera var. divaricata. Trees were planted at 5×3 m spacing in four replications per rootstock with three trees per plot. Shoot samples were harvested five times during the winter period. The concentration of reducing sugars (mg g-1 dry weight was determined with Bertran’s method. Significant differences in concentration of reducing sugar were found between samples coming from different locations and in two seasons. The maximum concentration of reducing sugar was found in December or January depending on growing location and meteorological conditions

  7. Population estimate of Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) in a Nebraska reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaine, Noelle M.; Allen, Craig R.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an aquatic invasive species in North America. Little is known regarding this species' impacts on freshwater ecosystems. It is be lieved that population densities can be high, yet no population estimates have been reported. We utilized a mark-recapture approach to generate a population estimate for Chinese mystery snail in Wild Plum Lake, a 6.47-ha reservoir in southeast Nebraska. We calculated, using bias-adjusted Lincoln-Petersen estimation, that there were approximately 664 adult snails within a 127 m2 transect (5.2 snails/m2). If this density was consistent throughout the littoral zone (Chinese mystery snail wet biomass is estimated to be 3,119 kg (643 kg/ha). If this density is confined to the depth sampled in this study (1.46 m), then the adult population is estimated to be 169,400 snails, and wet biomass is estimated to be 2,084 kg (643 kg/ha). Additional research is warranted to further test the utility of mark-recapture methods for aquatic snails and to better understand Chinese mystery snail distributions within reservoirs.

  8. Chinese letterkunde. Een inleiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, Wilt; Haft, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    De Chinese cultuur mag zich verheugen in een groeiende belangstelling. Chinese films bereiken in Nederland een steeds omvangrijker publiek en ook de moderne Chinese literatuur, die sinds de jaren tachtig een grote bloei doormaakt, wordt door veel liefhebbers op de voet gevolgd. Chinese Letterkunde

  9. Medieval Chinese syntax

    OpenAIRE

    Anderl, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    “Medieval Chinese Syntax” aims to provide a sketch of the development of function words and syntactic structures during the Chinese Medieval period, including Early Medieval Chinese (ca. 0-700 A.D.) and Late Medieval Chinese (ca. 700-1100).

  10. DIAGNOSTICS OF VIRUS PHYTOPATHOGENS FRUIT TREE PLUM POX VIRUS, PRUNUS NECROTIC RINGSPOT VIRUS AND PRUNUS DWARF VIRUS BY BIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Július Rozák

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of viral phytopathogen Plum pox virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus in selected localities of Slovakia and diagnose them using a molecular and biological methods. Forty samples of fruit trees of the genus Prunus, twenty samples from intensive plantings and twenty samples from wild subject were analysed. Biological diagnostic by using biological indicators Prunus persica cv. GF 305, Prunus serrulata cv. Schirofugen and molecular diagnostic by mRT-PCR were applied. Five samples with Plum pox virus were infected. The two samples positive for Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and one sample for Prunus dwarf virus were confirmed. The two samples were found to be infected with two viruses Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus. This work focuses on two techniques, their application to the diagnosis of stone fruit viruses and their routinely used for sanitary and certification programmes.

  11. The biosynthesis of polysaccharides. Incorporation of d-[1-14C]glucose and d-[6-14C]glucose into plum-leaf polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, P.; Hough, L.; Picken, J. M.

    1965-01-01

    1. The utilization of specifically labelled d-glucose in the biosynthesis of plum-leaf polysaccharides has been studied. After these precursors had been metabolized in plum leaves, the polysaccharides were isolated from the leaves, and their monosaccharide constituents isolated and purified. 2. Both the specific activities and the distribution of 14C along the carbon chains of the monosaccharides were determined. Significant 14C activity was found in units of d-galactose, d-glucose, d-xylose and l-arabinose, but their specific activities varied widely. The labelling patterns suggest that in the leaves the other monosaccharides all arise directly from d-glucose without any skeletal change in the carbon chain, other than the loss of a terminal carbon atom in the synthesis of pentoses. 3. The results indicated that within the leaf there are various precursor pools for polysaccharide synthesis and that these pools are not in equilibrium with one another. PMID:14342252

  12. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  13. DIAGNOSTICS OF VIRUS PHYTOPATHOGENS FRUIT TREE PLUM POX VIRUS, PRUNUS NECROTIC RINGSPOT VIRUS AND PRUNUS DWARF VIRUS BY BIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Július Rozák; Zdenka Gálová

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of viral phytopathogen Plum pox virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus in selected localities of Slovakia and diagnose them using a molecular and biological methods. Forty samples of fruit trees of the genus Prunus, twenty samples from intensive plantings and twenty samples from wild subject were analysed. Biological diagnostic by using biological indicators Prunus persica cv. GF 305, Prunus serrulata cv. Schirofugen a...

  14. Evaluating food additives as antifungal agents against Monilinia fructicola in vitro and in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid composite edible coatings for plums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Hakan; Pérez-Gago, María B; Taberner, Verònica; Palou, Lluís

    2014-06-02

    Common food preservative agents were evaluated in in vitro tests for their antifungal activity against Monilinia fructicola, the most economically important pathogen causing postharvest disease of stone fruits. Radial mycelial growth was measured in Petri dishes of PDA amended with three different concentrations of the agents (0.01-0.2%, v/v) after 7 days of incubation at 25 °C. Thirteen out of fifteen agents tested completely inhibited the radial growth of the fungus at various concentrations. Among them, ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate were the most effective while sodium acetate and sodium formate were the least effective. The effective agents and concentrations were tested as ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings against brown rot disease on plums previously inoculated with M. fructicola (curative activity). 'Friar' and 'Larry Ann' plums were inoculated with the pathogen, coated with stable edible coatings about 24h later, and incubated at 20 °C and 90% RH. Disease incidence (%) and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 4, 6, and 8 days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. Coatings containing bicarbonates and parabens significantly reduced brown rot incidence in plums, but potassium sorbate, used at 1.0% in the coating formulation, was the most effective agent with a reduction rate of 28.6%. All the tested coatings reduced disease severity to some extent, but coatings containing 0.1% sodium methylparaben or sodium ethylparaben or 0.2% ammonium carbonate or ammonium bicarbonate were superior to the rest, with reduction rates of 45-50%. Overall, the results showed that most of the agents tested in this study had significant antimicrobial activity against M. fructicola and the application of selected antifungal edible coatings is a promising alternative for the control of postharvest brown rot in plums. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B

  15. Family-based linkage and association mapping reveals novel genes affecting Plum pox virus infection in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagny, Gaëlle; Paulstephenraj, Pauline S; Poque, Sylvain; Sicard, Ophélie; Cosson, Patrick; Eyquard, Jean-Philippe; Caballero, Mélodie; Chague, Aurélie; Gourdon, Germain; Negrel, Lise; Candresse, Thierry; Mariette, Stéphanie; Decroocq, Véronique

    2012-11-01

    Sharka is a devastating viral disease caused by the Plum pox virus (PPV) in stone fruit trees and few sources of resistance are known in its natural hosts. Since any knowledge gained from Arabidopsis on plant virus susceptibility factors is likely to be transferable to crop species, Arabidopsis's natural variation was searched for host factors essential for PPV infection. To locate regions of the genome associated with susceptibility to PPV, linkage analysis was performed on six biparental populations as well as on multiparental lines. To refine quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, a genome-wide association analysis was carried out using 147 Arabidopsis accessions. Evidence was found for linkage on chromosomes 1, 3 and 5 with restriction of PPV long-distance movement. The most relevant signals occurred within a region at the bottom of chromosome 3, which comprises seven RTM3-like TRAF domain-containing genes. Since the resistance mechanism analyzed here is recessive and the rtm3 knockout mutant is susceptible to PPV infection, it suggests that other gene(s) present in the small identified region encompassing RTM3 are necessary for PPV long-distance movement. In consequence, we report here the occurrence of host factor(s) that are indispensable for virus long-distance movement. © 2012 INRA. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Genome-wide association links candidate genes to resistance to Plum Pox Virus in apricot (Prunus armeniaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariette, Stéphanie; Wong Jun Tai, Fabienne; Roch, Guillaume; Barre, Aurélien; Chague, Aurélie; Decroocq, Stéphane; Groppi, Alexis; Laizet, Yec'han; Lambert, Patrick; Tricon, David; Nikolski, Macha; Audergon, Jean-Marc; Abbott, Albert G; Decroocq, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    In fruit tree species, many important traits have been characterized genetically by using single-family descent mapping in progenies segregating for the traits. However, most mapped loci have not been sufficiently resolved to the individual genes due to insufficient progeny sizes for high resolution mapping and the previous lack of whole-genome sequence resources of the study species. To address this problem for Plum Pox Virus (PPV) candidate resistance gene identification in Prunus species, we implemented a genome-wide association (GWA) approach in apricot. This study exploited the broad genetic diversity of the apricot (Prunus armeniaca) germplasm containing resistance to PPV, next-generation sequence-based genotyping, and the high-quality peach (Prunus persica) genome reference sequence for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification. The results of this GWA study validated previously reported PPV resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) intervals, highlighted other potential resistance loci, and resolved each to a limited set of candidate genes for further study. This work substantiates the association genetics approach for resolution of QTL to candidate genes in apricot and suggests that this approach could simplify identification of other candidate genes for other marked trait intervals in this germplasm. © 2015 INRA, UMR 1332 BFP New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Heterologous RNA-silencing suppressors from both plant- and animal-infecting viruses support plum pox virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliogka, Varvara I; Calvo, María; Carbonell, Alberto; García, Juan Antonio; Valli, Adrian

    2012-07-01

    HCPro, the RNA-silencing suppressor (RSS) of viruses belonging to the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae, is a multifunctional protein presumably involved in all essential steps of the viral infection cycle. Recent studies have shown that plum pox potyvirus (PPV) HCPro can be replaced successfully by cucumber vein yellowing ipomovirus P1b, a sequence-unrelated RSS from a virus of the same family. In order to gain insight into the requirement of a particular RSS to establish a successful potyviral infection, we tested the ability of different heterologous RSSs from both plant- and animal-infecting viruses to substitute for HCPro. Making use of engineered PPV chimeras, we show that PPV HCPro can be replaced functionally by some, but not all, unrelated RSSs, including the NS1 protein of the mammal-infecting influenza A virus. Interestingly, the capacity of a particular RSS to replace HCPro does not correlate strictly with its RNA silencing-suppression strength. Altogether, our results suggest that not all suppression strategies are equally suitable for efficient escape of PPV from the RNA-silencing machinery. The approach followed here, based on using PPV chimeras in which an under-consideration RSS substitutes for HCPro, could further help to study the function of diverse RSSs in a 'highly sensitive' RNA-silencing context, such as that taking place in plant cells during the process of a viral infection.

  18. O-GlcNAc modification of the coat protein of the potyvirus Plum pox virus enhances viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, José de Jesús; Udeshi, Namrata D; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Ciordia, Sergio; Juárez, Silvia; Scott, Cheryl L; Olszewski, Neil E; Hunt, Donald F; García, Juan Antonio

    2013-08-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is a dynamic protein modification which has been studied mainly in metazoans. We reported previously that an Arabidopsis thaliana O-GlcNAc transferase modifies at least two threonine residues of the Plum pox virus (PPV) capsid protein (CP). Now, six additional residues were shown to be involved in O-GlcNAc modification of PPV CP. CP O-GlcNAcylation was abolished in the PPV CP7-T/A mutant, in which seven threonines were mutated. PPV CP7-T/A infected Nicotiana clevelandii, Nicotiana benthamiana, and Prunus persica without noticeable defects. However, defects in infection of A. thaliana were readily apparent. In mixed infections of wild-type arabidopsis, the CP7-T/A mutant was outcompeted by wild-type virus. These results indicate that CP O-GlcNAcylation has a major role in the infection process. O-GlcNAc modification may have a role in virion assembly and/or stability as the CP of PPV CP7-T/A was more sensitive to protease digestion than that of the wild-type virus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Allelic variation at the rpv1 locus controls partial resistance to Plum pox virus infection in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poque, S; Pagny, G; Ouibrahim, L; Chague, A; Eyquard, J-P; Caballero, M; Candresse, T; Caranta, C; Mariette, S; Decroocq, V

    2015-06-25

    Sharka is caused by Plum pox virus (PPV) in stone fruit trees. In orchards, the virus is transmitted by aphids and by grafting. In Arabidopsis, PPV is transferred by mechanical inoculation, by biolistics and by agroinoculation with infectious cDNA clones. Partial resistance to PPV has been observed in the Cvi-1 and Col-0 Arabidopsis accessions and is characterized by a tendency to escape systemic infection. Indeed, only one third of the plants are infected following inoculation, in comparison with the susceptible Ler accession. Genetic analysis showed this partial resistance to be monogenic or digenic depending on the allelic configuration and recessive. It is detected when inoculating mechanically but is overcome when using biolistic or agroinoculation. A genome-wide association analysis was performed using multiparental lines and 147 Arabidopsis accessions. It identified a major genomic region, rpv1. Fine mapping led to the positioning of rpv1 to a 200 kb interval on the long arm of chromosome 1. A candidate gene approach identified the chloroplast phosphoglycerate kinase (cPGK2) as a potential gene underlying the resistance. A virus-induced gene silencing strategy was used to knock-down cPGK2 expression, resulting in drastically reduced PPV accumulation. These results indicate that rpv1 resistance to PPV carried by the Cvi-1 and Col-0 accessions is linked to allelic variations at the Arabidopsis cPGK2 locus, leading to incomplete, compatible interaction with the virus.

  20. The influence of different types of pesticides on elemental profiles of some fruit trees: Apple and plum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheboianu, Anca Irina; Setnescu, Tanta; Setnescu, Radu; Culicov, Otilia; Zinicovscaia, Inga

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the elemental content of various samples from apple and plum orchard - located in Dambovita and Arges Counties - (soil, bark and leaves) and to characterize the influence of different types of pesticides commonly used in orchards. For this purpose, the effect of pesticide/ natural fertilizer couples was studied by characterization of treated and untreated soil composition. Heavy metals were also used as tracers for pesticides concentration monitoring, aiming to get information about their overall concentration and eventually, their critical accumulation into some parts of the studied plants (which shall not exceed the limits regulated by Romanian law and UE directives for pesticides use in fruit-grower). Solid samples were analyzed by wavelength dispersion X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) and instrumental nuclear activation methods (INAA). Moreover, soil properties (pH and electrical conductivity) were determined in order to characterize agricultural soils and to analyze relationships between heavy metal contents and soil properties. Multivariate data analysis was performed to identify a common source for heavy metals. Correlations between the concentrations of heavy metals in the analyzed samples and pesticides used in these areas were found.

  1. MANDARIN CHINESE DICTIONARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, FRED FANGYU

    IN RESPONSE TO THE NEEDS OF THE GROWING NUMBER OF AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE STUDENTS LEARNING CHINESE, SETON HALL UNIVERSITY UNDERTOOK A CONTRACT WITH THE U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION TO COMPILE A BILINGUAL POCKET-SIZE DICTIONARY FOR BEGINNING STUDENTS OF SPOKEN MANDARIN CHINESE. THE PRESENT WORK IS THE CHINESE TO ENGLISH SECTION IN PRELIMINARY…

  2. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the

  3. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Balachandran C; Srinivas C; Shenoy S

    1991-01-01

    A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  4. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  5. Uso de cera na conservação pós-colheita do caqui cv. Giombo Use of wax in 'Giombo' persimmon cold stored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Blum

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência da cera de carnaúba na conservação pós-colheita do caqui cv. Giombo. Os tratamentos consistiram do tratamento- controle e rápida imersão nas soluções contendo 12,5; 25 e 50 % do produto comercial Meghwax ECF 100®, que é uma emulsão de cera de carnaúba não-iônica a 30 %. Após a secagem, os frutos foram armazenados a 4ºC ± 1ºC e 80 % de umidade relativa. As avaliações foram realizadas em intervalos de 15 dias de conservação em câmara fria, seguidos de 4 dias à temperatura de 20 ± 1ºC, simulando o período de comercialização. As variáveis analisadas foram: firmeza de polpa; sólidos solúveis; acidez titulável; pH; teor de ácido ascórbico, fenóis e perda de massa fresca. O uso de cera de carnaúba, independentemente da concentração utilizada, diminuiu a perda de massa dos frutos em até 7,8 % em armazenagem por 60 dias em câmara fria, seguido de quatro dias em temperatura ambiente. A imersão dos frutos em solução com 12,5% de cera foi eficiente na manutenção do teor de ácido ascórbico e da firmeza, prolongando o tempo de armazenamento por 6 dias. Com o decorrer do armazenamento, houve decréscimo da acidez e aumento do pH.This research had the objective of evaluating the efficiency of the "carnaúba" wax in post-harvest of persimmon fruits (Diospyros kaki, cv. Giombo. The treatments were the rapid immersion of fruits into solutions containing 12.5, 25 and 50 % of the commercial product Meghwax ECF 100®, being a 30 % non ionic emulsion of carnaúba wax. After drying, fruits were stored at 4 ºC and 80 % RH. Chemical and physical characteristics of the fruits were measured throughout sixty days, at fifteen day intervals, followed by a 4-day period at 20 ºC simulating commercialization periods. The pulp firmness, pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, water loss, tannins and ascorbic acid contents were evaluated. The use of carnaúba wax, regardless of

  6. Final-Independent Confirmatory Survey Report For The Reactor Building, Hot Laboratory, Primary Pump House, And Land Areas At The Plum Brook Reactor Facility, Sandusky, Ohio DCN:2036-SR-01-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Erika N.

    2011-01-01

    In 1941, the War Department acquired approximately 9,000 acres of land near Sandusky, Ohio and constructed a munitions plant. The Plum Brook Ordnance Works Plant produced munitions, such as TNT, until the end of World War II. Following the war, the land remained idle until the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics later called the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) obtained 500 acres to construct a nuclear research reactor designed to study the effects of radiation on materials used in space flight. The research reactor was put into operation in 1961 and was the first of fifteen test facilities eventually built by NASA at the Plum Brook Station. By 1963, NASA had acquired the remaining land at Plum Brook for these additional test facilities

  7. Quality Of Cloudy Plum Juice Produced From Fresh Fruit Of Prunus Domestica L. – The Effect Of Cultivar And Enzyme Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbrzeźniak Monika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of cloudy juices produced from two plum cultivars varied in chemical characteristics and native polyphenol oxidase (PPO activity, and was studied in relation to specific pectinolytic activity of enzyme preparations used for fresh fruit maceration before pressing. Process effectiveness expressed as juice yield, turbidity and the rate of transfer of anthocyanins and polyphenols were determined for five different enzyme preparations, whose activity was also analysed. Juice yields obtained after 1 hour mash maceration (50 ºC, 100 g·t−1 were between 86.6 and 95.4%. The anthocyanins content of the obtained juices strongly depended on the cultivar and ranged from 26 to 50 mg·L−1 for ‘Promis’, and from 269 to 289 mg·L−1 for ‘Čačanska Najbolja’, which could be related to the differences in the measured PPO activity (175.4 and 79.8 nkat·g−1, respectively. The type of enzyme preparation strongly affected the degradation rate of anthocyanins during juice processing. Peonidin-3-rutinoside proved to be the most stable during plum juice production in contrast to cyanidin-3-glucoside. Irrespectively of the cultivar, the juice prepared with the mixture of Rohapect PTE + Rohament PL (2 : 1 showed the highest turbidity among the investigated combinations. The results suggest that for the production of cloudy plum juice use of a preparation with low pectin methyl esterase and polygalacturonase activities and high pectin lyase activity could be recommended.

  8. Phytohormone Signaling of the Resistance to Plum pox virus (PPV, Sharka Disease) Induced by Almond (Prunus dulcis (Miller) Webb) Grafting to Peach (P. persica L. Batsch)

    OpenAIRE

    Azam Nikbakht Dehkordi; Manuel Rubio; Nadali Babaeian; Alfonso Albacete; Pedro Martínez-Gómez

    2018-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka) is a limiting factor for peach production, and no natural sources of resistance have been described. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that grafting the almond cultivar “Garrigues” onto the “GF305” peach infected with Dideron-type (PPV-D) isolates progressively reduces disease symptoms and virus accumulation. Furthermore, grafting “Garrigues” onto “GF305” prior to PPV-D inoculation has been found to completely prevent virus infection, showing that resista...

  9. Biological and morphological properties of myrobalan plum as the basis for the identification of cultivars and expertizing the concerning differentiation, homogeneity and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Павлюк

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors presents the results of the collectional, primary and promotional investigation of the myrobalan plum large-fruited introduced and "tome cultivars under the conditions of the Ukraine's Southern Polissya and Northern Lisosteppe. On the background of the best standard cv

  10. Ion-channel genosensor for the detection of specific DNA sequences derived from Plum Pox Virus in plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecka, Kamila; Michalczuk, Lech; Radecka, Hanna; Radecki, Jerzy

    2014-10-09

    A DNA biosensor for detection of specific oligonucleotides sequences of Plum Pox Virus (PPV) in plant extracts and buffer is proposed. The working principles of a genosensor are based on the ion-channel mechanism. The NH2-ssDNA probe was deposited onto a glassy carbon electrode surface to form an amide bond between the carboxyl group of oxidized electrode surface and amino group from ssDNA probe. The analytical signals generated as a result of hybridization were registered in Osteryoung square wave voltammetry in the presence of [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- as a redox marker. The 22-mer and 42-mer complementary ssDNA sequences derived from PPV and DNA samples from plants infected with PPV were used as targets. Similar detection limits of 2.4 pM (31.0 pg/mL) and 2.3 pM (29.5 pg/mL) in the concentration range 1-8 pM were observed in the presence of the 22-mer ssDNA and 42-mer complementary ssDNA sequences of PPV, respectively. The genosensor was capable of discriminating between samples consisting of extracts from healthy plants and leaf extracts from infected plants in the concentration range 10-50 pg/mL. The detection limit was 12.8 pg/mL. The genosensor displayed good selectivity and sensitivity. The 20-mer partially complementary DNA sequences with four complementary bases and DNA samples from healthy plants used as negative controls generated low signal.

  11. Arterial vascular supply of the thymus in poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Master Gris Cou Plumé lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Maurício Mendes de Lima

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeking to expand information on the comparative morphology of poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Máster Gris Cou Plumé lineage, a study was conducted to provide data on the number of lobes of the thymus in addition to origin, number and distribution of the arteries that promoted the sanguineous supply of this organ. To this end 30 poultry (15 males and 15 females were used. They were about six week old and were donated after natural death by poultry farms of the Federal District. The arterial supply was injected with a “450” Neoprene Latex stained solution. Subsequently, the poultry were fixed in a 10% formoldehyde aqueous solution by means of deep intramuscular, subcutaneous and intracaviteous applications and were kept in the same solution. Four to nine cervical lobes were found, in addition to one or two thoracic lobes on the left side. On the right side, three to seven cervical lobes and one or two thoracic lobes were found. The lobes were supplied indirectly by branches coming from the common carotidal artery, the cranial and caudal thyroidal arteries, the ascending esophageal artery, the ingluvial artery, the common vagus nerve artery, the occipital artery and the cutaneous branches. They were also supplied by direct by branches from the ingluvial artery, cranial thyroidal artery and common vagus nerve artery. It was possible to verify that poultry of this breed not only possessed characteristics that were defining for the breed as such, but also demonstrated particular arrangements for each of the individuals.

  12. Tempo-Spatial Dynamics of Adult Plum Curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Based on Semiochemical-Baited Trap Captures in Blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Cumplido, Johnattan; Leskey, Tracy C; Holdcraft, Robert; Zaman, Faruque U; Hahn, Noel G; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar

    2017-06-01

    Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), has become an important pest of highbush blueberries in the northeastern United States. Here, we conducted experiments in 2010-2013 to compare the efficacy of semiochemical-baited traps for C. nenuphar versus conventional (beating cloth) sampling methods in blueberries, and to understand the seasonal abundance and distribution of C. nenuphar adults within and among blueberry fields using these traps. Black pyramid traps baited with the C. nenuphar aggregation pheromone grandisoic acid and the fruit volatile benzaldehyde caught three to four times more adults than unbaited traps without causing an increase in injury to berries in neighboring bushes. Numbers of adult weevils caught in traps correlated with those on bushes (beating cloth samples), indicating that trap counts can predict C. nenuphar abundance in the field. Early in the season, traps placed 20 m from field edges near a forest caught higher C. nenuphar numbers than traps placed at farther distances, suggesting movement of overwintered weevils from outside fields. Using a trapping network across multiple fields in an organic farm, we found evidence of C. nenuphar aggregation in "hotspots"; early in the season, C. nenuphar numbers in traps were higher in the middle of fields, and there was a correlation between these numbers and distance from the forest in 2013 but not in 2012. These results show that semiochemical-baited traps are effective in capturing C. nenuphar adults in blueberries, and that these traps should be placed in the interior of fields preferably, but not exclusively, near wooded habitats to maximize their efficacy. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Reduced reproductive function in wild baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) related to natural consumption of the African black plum (Vitex doniana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, James P; Ross, Caroline; Warren, Ymke; Heistermann, Michael; MacLarnon, Ann M

    2007-09-01

    Several authors have suggested that the consumption of plant compounds may have direct effects on wild primate reproductive biology, but no studies have presented physiological evidence of such effects. Here, for two troops of olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) at Gashaka-Gumti National Park, Nigeria, we show major seasonal increases in levels of fecal progesterone metabolites in females, and provide evidence that this is linked to the consumption of natural plant compounds. Increases in fecal progestogen excretion occurred seasonally in all females, in all reproductive states, including lactation. Detailed feeding data on the study animals showed that only one food species is consumed by both troops at the time of observed progestogen peaks, and at no other times of the year: the African black plum, Vitex doniana. Laboratory tests demonstrated the presence of high concentrations of progestogen-like compounds in V. doniana. Together with published findings linking the consumption of a related Vitex species (Vitex agnus castus) to increased progestogen levels in humans, our data suggest that natural consumption of V. doniana was a likely cause of the observed increases in progestogens. Levels of progestogen excretion in the study baboons during periods of V. doniana consumption are higher than those found during pregnancy, and prevent the expression of the sexual swelling, which is associated with ovulatory activity. As consortship and copulatory activity in baboons occur almost exclusively in the presence of a sexual swelling, V. doniana appears to act on cycling females as both a physiological contraceptive (simulating pregnancy in a similar way to some forms of the human contraceptive pill) and a social contraceptive (preventing sexual swelling, thus reducing association and copulation with males). The negative effects of V. doniana on reproduction may be counter-balanced by the wide-range of medicinal properties attributed to plants in this genus. This is

  14. Comparison of different methods of RNA isolation for plum pox virus detection by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggioli, F; Pasquini, G; Barba, M

    1998-09-01

    The diagnosis of plum pox virus (PPV) is still considered one of the most important aspects of the "sharka" problem. In fact, different studies demonstrated an uneven distribution of the virus in infected trees due to a high variability in virus concentration. These aspects complicate the PPV diagnosis. To date, biological, serological and molecular assays have been successively developed in order to obtain sensitive and efficient PPV detection techniques. In particular, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique seems to be promising and can be considered the most sensitive and reliable one. Preparation of viral RNA is still a fundamental step in reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) technique, especially when applied to large scale testing, i.e., for certification purposes. In order to find the most rapid and efficient procedure, we have compared three different procedures of extraction of viral RNA to be processed RT-PCR. Their common characteristics is their capacity to extract the RNA from a small amount of plant tissue without organic solvents in the extraction fluid. The procedures were as follows: an immuno-capture (IC) method using a specific antiserum, a silica-capture (SC) method using a non-specific matrix, and a simple and rapid RNA extraction (RE) method. They all were followed by one-tube RT-PCR. The obtained results show that all the three techniques allowed a successful amplification and detection of PPV in tested samples except the SC-PCR method which proved less effective. In fact, the IC-PCR and RE-PCR methods amplified and detected PPV in all isolates tested, while the SC-PCR method was able to reveal the presence of the virus in apricot and infected control samples only.

  15. Differential RNAi responses of Nicotiana benthamiana individuals transformed with a hairpin-inducing construct during Plum pox virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Christian; Castro, Álvaro; Barba, Paola; Rubio, Julia; Sánchez, Evelyn; Carvajal, Denisse; Aguirre, Carlos; Tapia, Eduardo; DelÍ Orto, Paola; Decroocq, Veronique; Prieto, Humberto

    2014-10-01

    Gene silencing and large-scale small RNA analysis can be used to develop RNA interference (RNAi)-based resistance strategies for Plum pox virus (PPV), a high impact disease of Prunus spp. In this study, a pPPViRNA hairpin-inducing vector harboring two silencing motif-rich regions of the PPV coat protein (CP) gene was evaluated in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana (NB) plants. Wild-type NB plants infected with a chimeric PPV virus (PPV::GFP) exhibited affected leaves with mosaic chlorosis congruent to GFP fluorescence at 21 day post-inoculation; transgenic lines depicted a range of phenotypes from fully resistant to susceptible. ELISA values and GFP fluorescence intensities were used to select transgenic-resistant (TG-R) and transgenic-susceptible (TG-S) lines for further characterization of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) by large-scale small RNA sequencing. In infected TG-S and untransformed (WT) plants, the observed siRNAs were nearly exclusively 21- and 22-nt siRNAs that targeted the whole PPV::GFP genome; 24-nt siRNAs were absent in these individuals. Challenged TG-R plants accumulated a full set of 21- to 24-nt siRNAs that were primarily associated with the selected motif-rich regions, indicating that a trans-acting siRNAs process prevented viral multiplication. BLAST analysis identified 13 common siRNA clusters targeting the CP gene. 21-nt siRNA sequences were associated with the 22-nt siRNAs and the scarce 23- and 24-nt molecules in TG-S plants and with most of the observed 22-, 23-, and 24-nt siRNAs in TG-R individuals. These results validate the use of a multi-hot spot silencing vector against PPV and elucidate the molecules by which hairpin-inducing vectors initiate RNAi in vivo.

  16. Rapid diagnostic detection of plum pox virus in Prunus plants by isothermal AmplifyRP(®) using reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shulu; Ravelonandro, Michel; Russell, Paul; McOwen, Nathan; Briard, Pascal; Bohannon, Seven; Vrient, Albert

    2014-10-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) causes the most destructive viral disease known as plum pox or Sharka disease in stone fruit trees. As an important regulated pathogen, detection of PPV is thus of critical importance to quarantine and eradication of the spreading disease. In this study, the innovative development of two AmplifyRP(®) tests is reported for a rapid isothermal detection of PPV using reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification. In an AmplifyRP(®) test, all specific recombination and amplification reactions occur at a constant temperature without thermal cycling and the test results are either recorded in real-time with a portable fluorescence reader or displayed using a lateral flow strip contained inside an amplicon detection chamber. The major improvement of this assay is that the entire test from sample preparation to result can be completed in as little as 20min and can be performed easily both in laboratories and in the field. The results from this study demonstrated the ability of the AmplifyRP(®) technique to detect all nine PPV strains (An, C, CR, D, EA, M, Rec, T, or W). Among the economic benefits to pathogen surveys is the higher sensitivity of the AmplifyRP(®) to detect PPV when compared to the conventional ELISA and ImmunoStrip(®) assays. This is the first report describing the use of such an innovative technique to detect rapidly plant viruses affecting perennial crops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Plum pox virus accumulates mutations in different genome parts during a long-term maintenance in Prunus host plants and passage in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozárová, Z; Kamencayová, M; Glasa, M; Subr, Z

    2013-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates of the strain PPV-M prevalently infect peaches under natural conditions in Middle Europe. Comparison of complete genome sequences obtained from subisolates of a PPV-M isolate maintained experimentally over a 6-year period in different Prunus host species and passaged in Nicotiana benthamiana was performed with the aim to highlight the mutations potentially connected with the virus-host adaptation. The results showed that the lowest number of non-silent mutations was accumulated in PPV-M maintained in peach (original host species), approximately two times higher diversity was recorded in plum, apricot and N. benthamiana, indicating the genetic determination of the PPV host preference. The sequence variability of Prunus subisolates was distributed more or less evenly along the PPV genome and no amino acid motif could be outlined as responsible for the host adaptation. In N. benthamiana the mutations were accumulated notably in the P1 and P3 genes indicating their non-essentiality in the infection of this experimental host plant.

  18. Free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activity of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of plum (Prunus domestica L. in both fresh and dried samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Morabbi Najafabad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Consumption of fruits, such as plums and prunes, is useful in treating blood circulation disorder, measles, digestive disorder, and prevention of cancer, diabetes, and obesity. The paper presents a description of antioxidant and antiradical capacity of plum (Prunus domestica L. in both fresh and dried samples. Materials and Methods: Samples were mixed with methanol and ethanol (as solvents and were extracted on magnetic shaker, separately. The experiments were carried out to measure the Total Phenolic Content (TPC, Total Flavonoid Content (TFC, Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC, Reducing Power Assay (RPA, Chain Breaking Activity (CBA, and quantity of Malondialdehyde (MDA, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH,Nitric Oxide (NO,Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and superoxide(O2- radicals inhibition. Results: The results showed that the highest values for the TPC, TFC,TAC, RPA, CBA, DPPH, and NO were related to ethanolic extractsof dried sample which showed statistically significant differences (p2O2 and O2-were related to ethanolic extracts of fresh sample. The correlations data were analyzed among all parameters and the TPC and TFC had a significant correlation (r2=0.977. Moreover, it was found that methanol was more successful in extraction procedure than ethanol (p

  19. Development and validation of LC-MS/MS method with multiple reactions monitoring mode for quantification of vanillin and syringaldehyde in plum brandies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tešević Vele

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS method with multiple reactions monitoring mode (MRM has been developed and validated for quantification of vanillin and syringaldehyde in plum brandy. The method showed good linearity (0.05 to 10 mgL−1 and low limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ were 11.6 µgL−1 and 38.2 µgL−1 for vanillin, and 12.7 µgL−1 and 42.0 µgL−1 for syringaldehyde, respectively. The overall intra-day and inter-day variations were less than 4.21%, and the overall recovery over 93.0%. The correlation coefficients (R2 of the calibration curves were higher than 0.9999. In order to evaluate if the method is suitable for use as a routine analytical tool, in 31 Serbian plum brandy samples vanillin and syringaldehide were determined. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172053

  20. Study of the volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and estimation of their contribution to the fruit aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Antonio Pino

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction (SDE and headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME combined with GC-FID and GC-MS were used to analyze volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and to estimate the most odor-active compounds by application of the Odor Activity Values (OAV. The analyses led to the identification of 148 components, including 58 esters, 23 terpenoids, 14 aldehydes, 11 alcohols, 10 ketones, 9 alkanes, 7 acids, 4 lactones, 3 phenols, and other 9 compounds of different structures. According to the results of SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS and OAV, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, hexyl acetate, (E-2-nonenal, ethyl butanoate, (E-2-decenal, ethyl hexanoate, nonanal, decanal, (E-β-ionone, Γ-dodecalactone, (Z-3-hexenyl acetate, pentyl acetate, linalool, Γ-decalactone, butyl acetate, limonene, propyl acetate, Δ-decalactone, diethyl sulfide, (E-2-hexenyl acetate, ethyl heptanoate, (Z-3-hexenol, (Z-3-hexenyl hexanoate, eugenol, (E-2-hexenal, ethyl pentanoate, hexyl 2-methylbutanoate, isopentyl hexanoate, 1-hexanol, Γ-nonalactone, myrcene, octyl acetate, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-butanol, isobutyl acetate, (E-2-heptenal, octadecanal, and nerol are characteristic odor active compounds in fresh plums since they showed concentrations far above their odor thresholds.

  1. [Efficacy on hemiplegic spasticity treated with plum blossom needle tapping therapy at the key points and Bobath therapy: a randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhang, Lijuan; Wang, Jianhua; Shi, Yan; Zheng, Liya

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy on hemiplegic spasticity after cerebral infarction treated with plum blossom needle tapping therapy at the key points and Bobath therapy. Eighty patients were collected, in compliance with the inclusive criteria of hemiplegic spasticity after cerebral infarction, and randomized into an observation group and a control group, 40 cases in each one. In the control group, Bobath manipulation therapy was adopted to relieve spasticity and the treatment of 8 weeks was required. In the observation group, on the basis of the treatment as the control group, the tapping therapy with plum blossom needle was applied to the key points, named Jianyu (LI 15), Jianliao (LI 14), Jianzhen (SI 9), Hegu (LI 4), Chengfu (BL 36), Zusanli (ST 36), Xiyangguan (GB 33), etc. The treatment was given for 15 min each time, once a day. Before treatment, after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment, the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) and Barthel index (BI) were adopted to evaluate the motor function of the extremity and the activity of daily life in the patients of the two groups separately. The modified Ashworth scale was used to evaluate the effect of anti-spasticity. In 4 and 8 weeks of treatment, FMA: scores and BI scores were all significantly increased as compared with those before treatment in the two groups: (both PBobath therapy effectively relieves hemiplegic spasticity in the patients of cerebral infarction and improves the motor function of extremity and the activity of daily life.

  2. Kinetic analysis on the non-isothermal degradation of plum stone waste by thermogravimetric analysis and integral master-plots method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Selim

    2015-04-01

    In this study, pyrolysis of plum stone was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis in a nitrogen atmosphere at heating rates of 5, 10, 20 and 40 °C min(-1). Pyrolysis characteristics and the thermal-decomposition rate were significantly affected by variation in the heating rate. However, the heating rate slightly affected the total yield of the volatile matters. Activation energy of the pyrolysis reaction was evaluated by model-free methods, Friedman and Kissingere-Akahirae-Sunose. Results of the Master-Plots method indicated that the most probable reaction model function was the nth order reaction model function as f(x) = (1-x) (3.11), A = 8.02x10(12) under a mean activation energy of 150.61 kJ mol(-1). Proximate and ultimate analysis showed that plum stone can be considered as a favourable source for energy production owing to its low moisture and ash content, and high volatile matter ratio and moderate heating value. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Residual determination and risk assessment of buprofezin in plum (Prunus domestica) grown in open-field conditions following the application of three different formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Md Humayun; Abd El-Aty, A M; Kim, Sung-Woo; Lee, Han Sol; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Lee, Young-Jun; Chung, Hyung Suk; Lieu, Truong; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Shin, Ho-Chul; Im, Geon-Jae; Hong, Su Myeong; Shim, Jae-Han

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the residual level and perform a risk assessment on buprofezin formulated as an emulsifiable concentrate, wettable powder, and suspension concentrate over various treatment schedules in plum (Prunus domestica). The samples were extracted with an AOAC quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe, 'QuEChERS', method after major modifications. As intrinsic interferences were observed in blank plum samples following dispersive-solid phase extraction (consisting of primary secondary amine and C 18 sorbents), amino cartridges were used for solid-phase extraction. Analysis was carried out using liquid chromatography with diode array detection and confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method showed excellent linearity with determination coefficient (R 2  = 1) and satisfactory recoveries (at two spiking levels, 0.5 and 2.5 mg/kg) between 90.98 and 94.74% with relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤8%. The limit of quantification (0.05 mg/kg) was considerably lower than the maximum residue limit (2 mg/kg) set by the Codex Alimentarius. Absolute residue levels for emulsifiable concentrates were highest, perhaps owing to the dilution rate and adjuvant. Notably, all formulation residues were lower than the maximum residue limit, and safety data proved that the fruits are safe for consumers. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Preliminary Valuation of “Y” and “V”-Trellised Canopies for Mechanical Harvesting of Plums, Sweet Cherries and Sour Cherries for the Fresh Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabcewicz Jacek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plums, sweet cherry, and sour cherry trees were spaced 4.5 m × 1.5 m to be trained to “Y” and “V”-trellising systems for mechanical harvesting, with a canopy contact harvester, attending to obtain fruits meeting the requirements of the fresh fruit market. The applied trellising systems were compared with the standard central leader system at the same spacing. The most of trellised trees grew less vigorously than the standard trees, and after 3 years of training, the trees were suitable for mechanical harvesting with the harvester designed at the Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice. The trellised trees were able to set as many fruitlets as those grown in the form of central leader and gave a comparable yield, but differences between cultivars were significant. Light interception in the third year after planting was lower for trees of sour cherry and plum growing in the “Y”-20° and “V” in comparison to the trees with central leader. Illumination of trellised canopies at the level of 0.7 and 1.5 m was the most favorable in “V” system when compared to control and “Y” training systems. Cost of construction for the trellising systems of stone fruits calculated per 1 ha was two times higher when compared with the standard system.

  5. Quitosana no controle pós-colheita da podridão mole em caqui 'rama forte' Chitosan on the postharvest control of soft rot in 'rama forte' persimmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Cia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da quitosana, aliada ao processo de destanização, no controle de Rhizopus stolonifer em caqui 'Rama Forte' e sobre o crescimento micelial do fungo in vitro. Caquis foram submetidos ao processo de destanização com CO2 (70% / 18 horas, em tambores herméticos, sendo em seguida submetidos à inoculação com suspensão de esporos de R. stolonifer (3x10(5 esporos mL-1. Após inoculação, os frutos permaneceram por 2 horas a 25 °C, quando foram imersos em quitosana (0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5 e 2,0%, por 1 minuto. Os frutos foram mantidos a 25 °C / 80% UR e avaliados quanto à severidade e incidência da podridão mole, durante cinco dias. Após o período de armazenamento, avaliaram-se a coloração de casca, a firmeza e o índice de adstringência. In vitro, avaliou-se o crescimento micelial em placas contendo meio BDA incorporado com quitosana ou ácido cítrico. Os resultados mostraram que a quitosana, a 1,5%, reduz a severidade e a incidência da podridão mole em caquis e não influencia no processo de perda de adstringência, firmeza e na coloração de casca. In vitro, a quitosana inibe completamente o crescimento micelial de R. stolonifer, em concentração tão baixa quanto 0,5%.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of chitosan in addition to de-astringency process on the control of Rhizopus stolonifer in 'Rama Forte' persimmon and on in vitro mycelial growth. Persimmon were submitted to de-astringency process using CO2 (70% / 18 h, in hermetic chambers. Next, fruit were inoculated through subcuticular injections of a R. stolonifer spore suspension (3x10(5 spore mL-1 and 2 hours later at 25 °C immersed into chitosan (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0%, for 1 min. Fruit were stored at 25 °C / 80% RH, and checked for rot severity and incidence of soft rot, during 5-days of storage. After storage the skin color, firmness and astringency index were evaluated in persimmons. In vitro, mycelial

  6. Qualidade pós-colheita de caqui 'fuyu' com utilização de diferentes concentrações de cobertura comestível Postharvest quality of 'fuyu' persimmon using different concentrations of edible coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Carvalho da Silva

    2011-02-01

    environmental contamination, in order to improve the visual aspect. Therefore, it is possible to increase shelf life, and decrease post harvest losses. Persimmon is a much appreciated fruit, with high potential for export, but sensitive to handling and storage. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of applying the edible coating Megh Wax ECF-124 (18% of active composts, consisting of emulsion of carnauba wax, anionic surfactant, preservative and water produced by Megh Industry and Commerce Ltda in three different concentrations (25, 50 and 100% on post harvest quality of 'Fuyu' persimmon stored for 14 days. The attributes evaluated for quality were: firmness, pH, acidity, soluble solids, weight loss and color. The results showed that application of carnauba wax in different concentrations was effective on decreasing weight loss of persimmon cv. Fuyu and maintenance of color aspects. Treatment at lower concentration, 25%, showed lower rate of discharge, but high concentrations showed lower values of mass loss. Carnauba wax application showed a high potential for use on postharvest conservation, and can be applied together with other technologies, helping to maintain quality for export.

  7. Effects of solid-state fermentation with two filamentous fungi on the total phenolic contents, flavonoids, antioxidant activities and lipid fractions of plum fruit (Prunus domestica L.) by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulf, Francisc Vasile; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Socaciu, Carmen

    2016-10-15

    Evolutions of phenolic contents and antioxidant activities during solid-state fermentation (SSF) of plum pomaces (from the juice industry) and brandy distillery wastes with Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oligosporus were investigated. The effect of fermentation time on the oil content and major lipid classes in the plum kernels was also studied. Results showed that total phenolic (TP) amounts increased by over 30% for SSF with Rhizopus oligosporus and by >21% for SSF with A. niger. The total flavonoid contents presented similar tendencies to those of the TPs. The free radical scavenging activities of methanolic extracts were also significantly enhanced. The HPLC-MS analysis showed that quercetin-3-glucoside was the major phenolic compound in both fermented plum by-products. The results also demonstrated that SSF not only helped to achieve higher lipid recovery from plum kernels, but also resulted in oils with better quality attributes (high sterol ester and n-3 PUFA-rich polar lipid contents). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to dried plums of „prune‟ cultivars (Prunus domestica L.) and maintenance of normal bowel function (ID 1164, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    . The proposed target population is the general population. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that two human intervention studies showed an effect of dried plums on bowel function, that one study with considerable limitations showed an effect of dried plums on stool consistency......, but not on other measures of bowel function, that another study with considerable limitations did not show an effect of dried plums on bowel function when compared to dried apple, and that there is good evidence for plausible mechanisms by which some components of prunes may contribute to the claimed effect...

  9. Chinese Foods; Teacher's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Joe, Ed.

    Different styles of Chinese cooking, traditional food items, cooking utensils, serving techniques, and the nutritional value of Chinese cooking are described in this teaching guide. Lesson plans for the preparation of simple dishes are presented. Recipes, a shopping guide to San Francisco's Chinatown, a guide to sources of supplies, and a…

  10. Chinese Companies in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kessler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some of China’s leading firms have made headlines with their European expansion, by either opening new facilities or by acquiring or merging with significant enterprises in Europe. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the existing literature by examining Chinese enterprises expanding into Switzerland. The study also allows some conclusions for Chinese companies entering Central and Eastern Europe. We analyze via interviews the motivations of Chinese companies to expand into Switzerland as well as their behavior and the impediments in their internationalization process. Our findings show that Chinese companies fail to take advantage of certain benefits of western economies (such as open information and stable rule of law. To move forward efficiently, they should develop competence in dealing systematically with readily available market information, building professional networks that recognize a separation between business life and personal life, and managing their Chinese and foreign employees in the foreign cultural environment.

  11. Translation: an example from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X; Hoede, C.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we gave an idea of translation by means of knowledge graph theory from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese, by using an example story. Actually, we give the details of the method of translation from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese step by step as carried out by hand. From the example,

  12. Chinese nuclear insurance and Chinese nuclear insurance pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Zhiqi

    2000-01-01

    Chinese Nuclear Insurance Started with Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, PICC issued the insurance policy. Nuclear insurance cooperation between Chinese and international pool's organizations was set up in 1989. In 1996, the Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was prepared. The Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was approved by The Chinese Insurance Regulatory Committee in May of 1999. The principal aim is to centralize maximum the insurance capacity for nuclear insurance from local individual insurers and to strengthen the reinsurance relations with international insurance pools so as to provide the high quality insurance service for Chinese nuclear industry. The Member Company of Chinese Nuclear Pool and its roles are introduced in this article

  13. The Danger of Chinese Exceptionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2016-01-01

    In the movement of Chinese indigenous management research, a sort of ‘Chinese exceptionalism’ (as critiqued by Peng, 2005: 133) seems to have been emerging, namely, some Chinese scholars see Chinese culture, philosophy, and way of thinking are unique and cannot be accounted for by some...

  14. Application of Toxic Chinese Medicine in Chinese Pharmacopoeia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Feng, Yu; Mao, Mingsan

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Explore the application characteristics of proprietary Chinese medicine prescriptions containing toxic herbs in pharmacopoeia. Methods: In this paper, according to the clinical application of pharmacopoeia proprietary Chinese medicine is divided into table agent, Qushu agent, diarrhea agent, heat agent, Wen Li agent, cough and asthma agents, resuscitation agent, Gutian agent, Fuzheng agent, Anshen agent, hemostatic agent, The traditional Chinese medicine prescription and the clinical application of the Chinese herbal medicine containing the toxic Chinese medicine were analyzed and sorted out., Summed up the compatibility of toxic herbs and application characteristics. Results: Toxic Chinese herbal medicine in the cure of traditional Chinese medicine to play a long-standing role, through the overall thinking, dialectical thinking, and thinking of toxic Chinese medicine in the analysis of Chinese medicine that [2], toxic Chinese medicine in the application of proprietary Chinese medicine can not lack. Conclusion: Pharmacopoeia included proprietary Chinese medicine not only in the clinical treatment of good, but also the application of its toxic traditional Chinese medicine and its understanding of the enrichment of the toxic characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine and treatment-related disease pathology between the points of contact for patients with clinical applications Based on and theoretical guidance of Chinese medicine [3].

  15. Performing "Chinese-ness" in Singkawang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, C.E.; Ormond, M.E.; Sulianti, Dian

    2017-01-01

    Through an examination of two festivals – Qing Ming and Cap Go Meh – in the town of Singkawang in Indonesian Borneo (Kalimantan), we show how Singkawang-bound Chinese Indonesian tourists and their Singkawang-based relatives produce a diasporic heritage network through ‘moorings’ generated by both

  16. Retention of storage quality and post-refrigeration shelf-life extension of plum (Prunus domestica L.) cv. Santa Rosa using combination of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coating and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Peerzada R.; Suradkar, Prashant P.; Wani, Ali M.; Dar, Mohd A.

    2015-01-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coatings alone and in combination with gamma irradiation was tested for maintaining the storage quality and extending shelf-life of plum. Matured green plums were CMC coated at levels 0.5–1.0% w/v and gamma irradiated at 1.5 kGy. The treated fruit including control was stored under ambient (temperature 25±2 °C, RH 70%) and refrigerated (temperature 3±1 °C, RH 80%) conditions. In fruits treated with individual treatments of 1.0% w/v CMC; 1.5 kGy irradiation and combination of 1.0% w/v CMC and 1.5 kGy irradiation, no decay was recorded up to 11, 17 and 21 days of ambient storage. Irradiation alone at 1.5 kGy gave 8 days extension in shelf-life of plum compared to 5 days by 1.0% w/v CMC coating following 45 days of refrigeration. All combinatory treatments of CMC coating and irradiation proved beneficial in maintaining the storage quality as well as delaying the decaying of plum during post-refrigerated storage at 25±2 °C, RH 70% but, combination of CMC at 1.0% w/v and 1.5 kGy irradiation was found significantly (p≤0.05) superior to all other treatments in maintaining the storage quality and delaying the decaying of plum. CMC coating of plums at 1.0% w/v followed by irradiation at 1.5 kGy resulted in chlorophyll retention of 19.4% after 16 days compared to 10% in control after 8 days of ambient storage. Under refrigerated conditions, same treatment gave retention of 67.6% in chlorophyll compared to 10.6% in control after 35 days of storage. The above combinatory treatment resulted in extension of 11 days in shelf-life of plum during post-refrigerated storage at 25±2 °C, RH 70% following 45 days of refrigeration. Based on microbial analysis, irradiation alone at 1.5 kGy and in combination with 1.0% w/v CMC resulted in 2.0 and 1.8 log reduction in yeast and mold count of plum fruit after 20 and 35 days of ambient and refrigerated storage, thereby ensuring consumer safety. - Highlights: • Irradiation and CMC alone at 1.5 k

  17. Modificação da atmosfera na qualidade pós-colheita de ameixas cv. Reubennel Modified atmosphere on postharvest quality of plums cv. Reubennel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Barbosa Malgarim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ameixas, de modo geral, têm curto período de conservação pós-colheita, havendo necessidade de otimizar as condições de colheita e de armazenamento. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de diferentes modificadores de atmosfera, durante o armazenamento refrigerado, na qualidade pós-colheita de ameixas cv. Reubennel. Frutas no estádio de maturação meio-maduro foram submetidas aos seguintes modificadores de atmosfera: filmes de polietileno de 12,5 e 15µm de espessura e cera à base de carnaúba e avaliadas após 10; 20; 30 e 40 dias de armazenamento a 0ºC e UR de 90-95%. Avaliaram-se a perda de massa, cor, firmeza da polpa, pH, sólidos solúveis (SS, acidez titulável (AT, relação SS/AT, incidência de podridões, escurecimento interno e características sensoriais. Essas avaliações foram realizadas 3 dias após a retirada das frutas da câmara fria. Verificou-se que a cera à base de carnaúba GARFRESH N (BL9,5, sem diluição, e filmes de polietileno de 12,5 e 15µm reduziram a perda de massa, porém são impróprios para a modificação da atmosfera, em ameixas cv. Reubennel durante o armazenamento refrigerado. Ameixas cv. Reubennel mantêm a qualidade quando armazenadas durante 30 dias a 0ºC sem atmosfera modificada.Plums quickly loose postharvest quality, which makes imperative to optimize harvest and storage conditions. The objective of this work was to determine the effects of various atmosphere modifiers on the postharvest quality of cold storage plums, cv. Reubennel. Semi-mature fruits were stored under the following atmosphere modifiers conditions: polyethylene films 12,5 or 15µm of thickness; or carnauba wax. After submitted to these conditions the fruits were stored for 10, 20, 30 and 40 days in a cold room at 0ºC and 90-95% RH. Three days after taken out from the cold storage, the fruits were evaluated about: weight loss; color; firmness; pH; soluble solids (SS; titratable acidity (TA; SS/TA ratio; incidence of

  18. Role of the 25-26 nt siRNA in the resistance of transgenic Prunus domestica graft inoculated with plum pox virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Jiban Kumar; Briard, Pascal; Hily, Jean Michel; Ravelonandro, Michel; Scorza, Ralph

    2008-02-01

    The reaction of a genetically engineered plum clone (C5) resistant to plum pox virus (PPV) by graft inoculation with the virus was evaluated. The resistance in this clone has been demonstrated to be mediated through post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). A single C5 plant out of 30 plants inoculated with PPV M strain by double chip-budding showed mild diffuse mosaic 'Sharka' symptom at the bottom section of the scion. The upper leaves of this PPV-infected C5 plant remained symptomless and the virus was not detected in them by either DAS-ELISA or RT-PCR. An RNA silencing associated small interfering RNA duplex, siRNA (21-26 nt), was detected in non-inoculated C5 plants and in the portions of inoculated C5 plant in which PPV could not be detected. In the PPV-infected portion of the C5 plant and in C6 PPV susceptible plants only the approximately 21-22 nt siRNAs was detected. Cytosine-methylation was confirmed in C5 plants both uninfected and showing PPV symptoms. The 25-26 nt siRNA normally present in C5 was absent in PPV-infected C5 tissues confirming the critical role of this siRNA in the resistance of clone C5 to PPV infection. We also show that this PPV infection was limited and transient. It was only detected in one plant at one of four post-dormancy sampling dates and did not appear to affect the overall PPV resistance of the C5 clone.

  19. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  20. Chinese implicit leadership theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, W; Chia, R C; Fang, L

    2000-12-01

    In a 1st attempt to identify an implicit theory of leadership among Chinese people, the authors developed the Chinese Implicit Leadership Scale (CILS) in Study 1. In Study 2, they administered the CILS to 622 Chinese participants from 5 occupation groups, to explore differences in perceptions of leadership. Factor analysis yielded 4 factors of leadership: Personal Morality, Goal Efficiency, Interpersonal Competence, and Versatility. Social groups differing in age, gender, education level, and occupation rated these factors. Results showed no significant gender differences, and the underlying cause for social group differences was education level. All groups gave the highest ratings to Interpersonal Competence, reflecting the enormous importance of this factor, which is consistent with Chinese collectivist values.

  1. Danish-accented Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Sloos, Marjoleine 莱娜; Zhang, Chun

    In search for a linguistic basis for the education of Chinese as a foreign language CFL in Denmark, we set up a new line of investigation into CFL. This research focuses on the phonetics and phonology of Mandarin Chinese as compared to Danish. Considering the sound systems of both languages, we......-ba /pha pa/ ta-da /tha ta/ ka-ga / kha-ka/ For L2 acquisition it is held that same and new phonemes are (relatively) easy acquired, whereas similar but not identical sounds are difficult to learn. New sounds are initially mapped onto the L1 phoneme inventory (Kuhl 1991). For Danish, this would predict...... instruction, which pitch contours do the Danish learners of Chinese use on neutral tones and to what extent does their production match that of native speakers? Future research may include Norwegian and Swedish-accented Chinese and a comparison between the different Germanic accents of CFL. Reference Kuhl, P...

  2. The Chinese nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenez, J.C.; Bettoun, G.

    2009-01-01

    This series of slides presents the organization of the Chinese nuclear industry and its perspectives for the 2 next decades. The presentation is divided into 5 parts. Part one: the energy sector in China. Due to the economic development of the country this sector is flourishing and reaches an average growth rate of 9% per year. More than fifty per cent of the power plants being built in the world, are located in China. The electricity production stems by far from fossil energies (>80%) but this part is expected to decrease to reach 70% in 2020. Part 2: the Chinese nuclear program. This program is dual: the massive deployment of chinese improved reactors of second generation (the construction of 6 CPR1000 reactors will be launched each year) and the import and assimilation of reactors of the third generation: 4 AP1000 and 2 EPR are being built. Part 3: the organization of the Chinese nuclear sector. The main actors are CNNC (China National Nuclear Corporation), CGNPC (China Guangdong Nuclear Power Corporation), CPI (China Power Investment Corporation), SNPTC (State Nuclear Power Technology Corporation). The main 5 Chinese suppliers are also presented. Part 4: The role of EDF. Today's EDF role is multiple: to be active in the Chinese nuclear program, to go beyond technical assistance to reach partnership, to invest in Chinese power plants, to promote cooperation between French and Chinese actors of the nuclear industry. A lot of joint ventures have been created. Part 5: the Taishan project. Taishan is a coastal site near Macao in the Guangdong province in which 2 EPR are being built, the first concrete was cast in october 2009, 52 months of construction are scheduled and the first unit will be commissioned in end 2013 while the second commissioning is planned for end 2014. (A.C.)

  3. Chinese students' great expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    The article focuses on Chinese students' hopes and expectations before leaving to study abroad. The national political environment for their decision to go abroad is shaped by an official narrative of China's transition to a more creative and innovative economy. Students draw on this narrative to...... system, they think of themselves as having a role in the transformation of Chinese attitudes to education and parent-child relations....

  4. Chinese Typography Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jie; Gu, Yujun

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new network architecture for Chinese typography transformation based on deep learning. The architecture consists of two sub-networks: (1)a fully convolutional network(FCN) aiming at transferring specified typography style to another in condition of preserving structure information; (2)an adversarial network aiming at generating more realistic strokes in some details. Unlike models proposed before 2012 relying on the complex segmentation of Chinese components or str...

  5. Older Chinese-Australian and Chinese community music engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Sicong

    2017-01-01

    This research study will investigate community music engagement by both Chinese-Australians and Chinese older people at two different older people’s organizations with the aim of exploring the affects of music engagement on older people. The study seeks to explore cultural differences between Chinese-Australian older people and Chinese older people as they relate to their music engagement. The research contentions were that (1) active music engagement can enhance the quality of the life of ol...

  6. On Chinese Culture Curriculum Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The importance of cultural elements in foreign language teaching has been widely accepted in recent years. This applies particularly to the teaching of Chinese as a foreign language (TCFL) to non-native Chinese speakers at tertiary level in mainland China. However, there is no commonly accepted blueprint that defines the parts of Chinese culture…

  7. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  8. Traditional Chinese Masks Reveal Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CHINESE masks are undoubtedly an important component in the worldwide mask culture. Minority nationality masks are a major component of China’s mask culture. Traditional Chinese masks, or nuo, represent a cultural component which originated from religious rites in prehistoric times. Various types of nuo are highly valuable for studies of Chinese customs.

  9. The Chinese in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mérove Gijsberts; Willem Huijnk; Ria Vogels

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Chinese Nederlanders This report presents the first national picture of the position of the Chinese community in the Netherlands. A large-scale survey was conducted among persons of Chinese origin living in the Netherlands, with the aim of answering questions on a wide range of

  10. Chinese Counterspace Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    overly prideful country with “no ethical principles”151 seeking to “rule the world”152 while “spiritually polluting”153 China. The Chinese believe that...long term relationships through less direct means. The U.S. directness could also be seen as selfish and proud rather than as self-assertive, thereby...into a “ benign competition.”420 Lieutenant Colonel Troy L. Dixon described a U.S. approach to achieving increased cooperation with the Chinese.421

  11. Distribution of Chinese names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-wei

    2013-03-01

    We present a statistical model for the distribution of Chinese names. Both family names and given names are studied on the same basis. With naive expectation, the distribution of family names can be very different from that of given names. One is affected mostly by genealogy, while the other can be dominated by cultural effects. However, we find that both distributions can be well described by the same model. Various scaling behaviors can be understood as a result of stochastic processes. The exponents of different power-law distributions are controlled by a single parameter. We also comment on the significance of full-name repetition in Chinese population.

  12. Mortality estimate of Chinese mystery snail, Bellamya chinensis (Reeve, 1863) in a Nebraska reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Danielle M.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Wong, Alec; Allen, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an aquatic invasive species found throughout the USA. Little is known about this species’ life history or ecology, and only one population estimate has been published, for Wild Plum Lake in southeast Nebraska. A recent die-off event occurred at this same reservoir and we present a mortality estimate for this B. chinensis population using a quadrat approach. Assuming uniform distribution throughout the newly-exposed lake bed (20,900 m2), we estimate 42,845 individuals died during this event, amounting to approximately 17% of the previously-estimated population size of 253,570. Assuming uniform distribution throughout all previously-reported available habitat (48,525 m2), we estimate 99,476 individuals died, comprising 39% of the previously-reported adult population. The die-off occurred during an extreme drought event, which was coincident with abnormally hot weather. However, the exact reason of the die-off is still unclear. More monitoring of the population dynamics of B. chinensis is necessary to further our understanding of this species’ ecology.

  13. Milestone for Chinese physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Chinese scientists have discovered a new particle predicted decades ago but never observed before. It could be what was once called the "multi-quark state," tiny elementary particles with a strong interaction or force that serves as the source of nuclear energy (1/2 page).

  14. SWOT ANALYSIS - CHINESE PETROLEUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article was written in early December 2013,combined with the historical development andthe latest data on the Chinese Petroleum carried SWOT- analysis. This paper discusses corporate resources, cost, management and external factorssuch as the political environment and the marketsupply and demand, conducted a comprehensiveand profound analysis.

  15. SWOT ANALYSIS - CHINESE PETROLEUM

    OpenAIRE

    Chunlan Wang; Lei Zhang; Qi Zhong

    2014-01-01

    This article was written in early December 2013, combined with the historical development and the latest data on the Chinese Petroleum carried SWOTanalysis. This paper discusses corporate resources, cost, management and external factors such as the political environment and the market supply and demand, conducted a comprehensive and profound analysis.

  16. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using...

  17. The Imperative in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Anne Yue

    A preliminary study of the syntactic characteristics of the imperative construction in modern Chinese is presented. The term "imperative" is used to refer to the type of syntactic construction which is marked by an implicit or explicit second person subject, and which expresses a direct command. Indirect or implied commands expressed by a…

  18. Chinese court case fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2011-01-01

    established as early as the 6th Century AD, whereas the first substantial evidence of the tradition is from 13th Century and the first Chinese crime fiction novels were written during the 17th Century. This article is, then, a corrective for the international history of crime fiction based on numerous...

  19. Chinese New Year Dragons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgemann, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Presents an art project, used in a culturally diverse curriculum, in which second grade students create Chinese New Year dragons. Describes the process of creating the dragons, from the two-week construction of the head to the accordion-folded bodies. (CMK)

  20. The Chinese House Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James R.

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of the use of simulations to teach international relations (IR) highlights the Chinese House Game, a computer-based decision-making game based on Inter Nation Simulation (INS). Topics discussed include the increasing role of artificial intelligence in IR simulations, multi-disciplinary approaches, and the direction of IR as a…

  1. Chinese Entrepreneurs Go Global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zhou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available China may be on the tipping point of explosive global growth. In response to changes in the global economy and an economic slowdown domestically, hundreds of thousands of Chinese SMEs are being encouraged to “go global” by their central and local governments. To a Chinese company, going global requires the expansion of its existing business in other countries or the development of new ventures with partners operating in other countries. Explosive growth in China may be possible, but it will depend on an appropriate strategy for going global. For a country that has firmly established itself as an international manufacturing hub, going global requires a shift in its entrepreneurial capacity, which is the focus of this article. We first assess the current situation in China to understand its current entrepreneurial focus and capacity, as well as the impetus for change. Next, we contrast the Kirznerian and Schumpeterian views of entrepreneurship to illustrate that – to go global – Chinese entrepreneurs must shift from an emphasis on exploiting pricing inefficiencies (i.e., Kirznerian entrepreneurship to an emphasis on innovation (i.e., Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. Finally, we examine unique characteristics of the business environment and culture in China, which are likely to impact the ability of Chinese entrepreneurs to go global.

  2. Diverse amino acid changes at specific positions in the N-terminal region of the coat protein allow Plum pox virus to adapt to new hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Alberto; Maliogka, Varvara I; Pérez, José de Jesús; Salvador, Beatriz; León, David San; García, Juan Antonio; Simón-Mateo, Carmen

    2013-10-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV)-D and PPV-R are two isolates from strain D of PPV that differ in host specificity. Previous analyses of chimeras originating from PPV-R and PPV-D suggested that the N terminus of the coat protein (CP) includes host-specific pathogenicity determinants. Here, these determinants were mapped precisely by analyzing the infectivity in herbaceous and woody species of chimeras containing a fragment of the 3' region of PPV-D (including the region coding for the CP) in a PPV-R backbone. These chimeras were not infectious in Prunus persica, but systemically infected Nicotiana clevelandii and N. benthamiana when specific amino acids were modified or deleted in a short 30-amino-acid region of the N terminus of the CP. Most of these mutations did not reduce PPV fitness in Prunus spp. although others impaired systemic infection in this host. We propose a model in which the N terminus of the CP, highly relevant for virus systemic movement, is targeted by a host defense mechanism in Nicotiana spp. Mutations in this short region allow PPV to overcome the defense response in this host but can compromise the efficiency of PPV systemic movement in other hosts such as Prunus spp.

  3. The Cucumber vein yellowing virus silencing suppressor P1b can functionally replace HCPro in Plum pox virus infection in a host-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Alberto; Dujovny, Gabriela; García, Juan Antonio; Valli, Adrian

    2012-02-01

    Plant viruses of the genera Potyvirus and Ipomovirus (Potyviridae family) use unrelated RNA silencing suppressors (RSS) to counteract antiviral RNA silencing responses. HCPro is the RSS of Potyvirus spp., and its activity is enhanced by the upstream P1 protein. Distinctively, the ipomovirus Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV) lacks HCPro but contains two P1 copies in tandem (P1aP1b), the second of which functions as RSS. Using chimeras based on the potyvirus Plum pox virus (PPV), we found that P1b can functionally replace HCPro in potyviral infections of Nicotiana plants. Interestingly, P1a, the CVYV protein homologous to potyviral P1, disrupted the silencing suppression activity of P1b and reduced the infection efficiency of PPV in Nicotiana benthamiana. Testing the influence of RSS in host specificity, we found that a P1b-expressing chimera poorly infected PPV's natural host, Prunus persica. Conversely, P1b conferred on PPV chimeras the ability to replicate locally in cucumber, CVYV's natural host. The deleterious effect of P1a on PPV infection is host dependent, because the P1aP1b-expressing PPV chimera accumulated in cucumber to higher levels than PPV expressing P1b alone. These results demonstrate that a potyvirus can use different RSS, and that particular RSS and upstream P1-like proteins contribute to defining the virus host range.

  4. Transient expression of the influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein using a plum pox virus-based vector in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamencayová, M; Košík, I; Hunková, J; Subr, Z W

    2014-01-01

    PB1-F2 protein of influenza A virus (IAV) was cloned in a plum pox virus (PPV) genome-based vector and attempts to express it in biolistically transfected Nicotiana benthamiana plants were performed. The vector-insert construct replicated in infected plants properly and was stable during repeated passage by mechanical inoculation, as demonstrated by disease symptoms and immunoblot detection of PPV capsid protein, while PB1-F2-specific band was more faint. We showed that it was due its low solubility. Modification of sample preparation (denaturation/solubilization preceding the centrifugation of cell debris) led to substantial signal enhancement. Maximal level of PB1-F2 expression in plants was observed 12 days post inoculation (dpi). Only 1% SDS properly solubilized the protein, other detergents were much less efficient. Solubilization with 8M urea released approximately 50% of PB1-F2 from the plant tissues, thus the treatment with this removable chaotropic agent may be a good starting point for the purification of the protein for eventual functional studies in the future.

  5. Application of Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil as Vapor on Postharvest Storage of Plum Fruit cv. ‘Golden Drop’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra FAKHAR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in theuse of natural compounds instead of chemicals is due to concerns about the effect of synthetic ingredients on humans’ health and over environment. Therefore, in this study essential oil from Ocimum basilicum as a natural and safe compound, was applied at three levels (100, 200 and 300 μl/l as vapor and its effects on postharvest quality and storage life of ‘Golden Drop’ plums was evaluated. After application of treatments, the fruits were stored at +1 °C and 80-85% relative humidity for 42 days. During the storage period, samplings were carried out every week and to simulate market condition, they were kept at room temperate for 24 h. Then some of the qualitative and quantitative traits, such as total soluble solids (TSS, titrable acidity (TA, TSS/TA ratio, weight loss, firmness, ascorbic acid, total antioxidants, as well as color (L*,  hue angle were measured. Results showed that the basil essential oil contributed to a better maintenance of

  6. The effects of a 6-month resistance training and dried plum consumption intervention on strength, body composition, blood markers of bone turnover, and inflammation in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonavice, Emily; Liu, Pei-Yang; Ilich, Jasminka Z; Kim, Jeong-Su; Arjmandi, Bahram; Panton, Lynn B

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of resistance training (RT) and dried plum (DP) consumption on strength, body composition, blood markers of bone, and inflammation in breast cancer survivors (BCS). Twenty-three BCS (RT, n = 12; RT+DP, n = 11), aged 64 ± 7 years, were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months of intervention on the following: muscular strength (chest press and leg extension) via 1-repetition maximums (1RMs); body composition, specifically bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; biochemical markers of bone turnover (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-5b)); and inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP)). Target RT prescription was 2 days/week of 10 exercises, including 2 sets of 8-12 repetitions at ∼60%-80% of 1RM. RT+DP also consumed 90 g of DP daily. There were no baseline differences between groups or any group-by-time interactions for any of the variables. BCS increased upper (p body strength. Body composition and BMD improvements were not observed. TRAP-5b decreased in the RT group (p body composition and biochemical markers of inflammation.

  7. A plant small polypeptide is a novel component of DNA-binding protein phosphatase 1-mediated resistance to plum pox virus in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló, María José; Carrasco, Jose Luis; Navarrete-Gómez, Marisa; Daniel, Jacques; Granot, David; Vera, Pablo

    2011-12-01

    DNA-binding protein phosphatases (DBPs) have been identified as a novel class of plant-specific regulatory factors playing a role in plant-virus interactions. NtDBP1 from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was shown to participate in transcriptional regulation of gene expression in response to virus infection in compatible interactions, and AtDBP1, its closest relative in the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), has recently been found to mediate susceptibility to potyvirus, one of the most speciose taxa of plant viruses. Here, we report on the identification of a novel family of highly conserved small polypeptides that interact with DBP1 proteins both in tobacco and Arabidopsis, which we have designated DBP-interacting protein 2 (DIP2). The interaction of AtDIP2 with AtDBP1 was demonstrated in vivo by bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and AtDIP2 was shown to functionally interfere with AtDBP1 in yeast. Furthermore, reducing AtDIP2 gene expression leads to increased susceptibility to the potyvirus Plum pox virus and to a lesser extent also to Turnip mosaic virus, whereas overexpression results in enhanced resistance. Therefore, we describe a novel family of conserved small polypeptides in plants and identify AtDIP2 as a novel host factor contributing to resistance to potyvirus in Arabidopsis.

  8. Effect of management (organic vs conventional) on volatile profiles of six plum cultivars (Prunus salicina Lindl.). A chemometric approach for varietal classification and determination of potential markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, F J; Moreno-Rojas, J M; Arroyo, F; Daza, A; Ruiz-Moreno, M J

    2016-05-15

    The volatile profiles of six plum cultivars ('Laetitia', 'Primetime', 'Sapphire', 'Showtime', 'Songold' and 'Souvenir') produced under two management systems (conventional and organic) and harvested in two consecutive years were obtained by HS-SPME-GC-MS. Twenty-five metabolites were determined, five of which (pentanal, (E)-2-heptenal, 1-octanol, eucalyptol and 2-pentylfuran) are reported for the first time in Prunus salicina Lindl. Hexanal stood out as a major volatile compound affected by the management system. In addition, partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) achieved an effective classification of genotypes based on their volatile profiles. A high classification accuracy model was obtained with a sensitivity of 97.9% and a specificity of 99.6%. Furthermore, the application of a dual criterion, based on a method of variable selection, VIP (variable importance in projection) and the results of a univariate analysis (ANOVA), allowed the identification of potential volatile markers in 'Primetime', 'Showtime' and 'Souvenir' genotypes (cultivars not characterised to date). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. From 32 ounces to zero: a medical geographic study of dispensing a cultivated batch of "plum" cannabis flowers to medical marijuana patients in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Sunil K; Carter, Gregory T; Zumbrunnen, Craig; Morrill, Richard; Sullivan, Mark; Mayer, Jonathan D

    2013-01-01

    The medicinal use of cannabis is a growing phenomenon in the U.S. predicated on the success of overcoming specific spatial challenges and establishing particular human-environment relationships. This article takes a medical geographic "snapshot" of an urban site in Washington State where qualifying chronically ill and debilitated patients are delivered locally produced botanical cannabis for medical use. Using interview, survey, and observation, this medical geographic research project collected information on the social space of the particular delivery site and tracked the production cost, reach, and health value of a 32-ounce batch of strain-specific medical cannabis named "Plum" dispensed over a four-day period. A convenience sample of 37 qualifying patients delivered this batch of cannabis botanical medicine was recruited and prospectively studied with survey instruments. Results provide insight into patients' self-rated health, human-plant relationships, and travel-to-clinic distances. An overall systematic geographic understanding of the medical cannabis delivery system gives a grounded understanding of the lengths that patients and care providers go, despite multiple hurdles, to receive and deliver treatment with botanical cannabis that relieves diverse symptoms and improves health-related quality-of-life.

  10. Chinese Studies and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2013-01-01

    Many different conceptual approaches and models have been used to analyze contemporary Chinese history and politics. Some of the more commonly used include "totalitarianism", "two-line struggle", "clientelism", "tendency analysis", "political culture", "interest group politics", "bureaucratic...... politics", "corporatism", "civil society", "fragmented authoritarianism", etc. (Brødsgaard, 1989; Guo 2013). This paper will survey these approaches in order to place the analysis of the contemporary Chinese politics and history in a comparative perspective. A survey of the field will remind us...... that contemporary China studies have increasingly developed into a collective effort and that no scholar conducts his/her research in a vacuum devoid of dept to other contributions in the field. The paper will focus on the period since the Cultural Revolution. Consequently, we will not attempt a discussion...

  11. Chinese Spacesuit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croog, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, China became only the 3rd nation to perform an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) from a spacecraft. An overview of the Chinese spacesuit and life support system were assessed from video downlinks during their EVA; from those assessments, spacesuit characteristics were identified. The spacesuits were compared against the Russian Orlan Spacesuit and the U.S. Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). China's plans for future missions also were presented.

  12. Multivariable Chinese Remainder Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    to sleep. The 3rd thief wakes up and finds the rest of the coins make 7 equal piles excepting a coin which he pockets. If the total number of coins they stole is not more than 200, what is the exact number? With a bit of hit and miss, one can find that 157 is a possible number. The Chinese remainder theorem gives a systematic ...

  13. Chinese Journalism Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Laura Møller

    2014-01-01

    As important providers of information, analysis of current events and debates, journalists are subject to high expectations regarding their professional values. Journalism is considered to be more than merely a career; it is construed as a profession that builds on personal commitment to serve...... 2012 with 41 students studying journalism at People's University, Tsinghua University, China Youth University for Political Sciences, Central University for Nationalities, Beijing Foreign Languages University and Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in Beijing and at Fudan University in Shanghai....

  14. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Discoverer of the Origin of Life The origin of life on earth has long been a subject explored by scientists around the world. At the 11th International Conference on the Origin of Life held at Orleans University in France on July 9th, 1996, Chinese scientist Zhao Yufen and her partner Cao Peisheng announced the contents of the origin of the seed of life.

  15. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF CHINESE EXECUTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Lingfang Fayol-Song

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, Chinese nationals have increasingly been employed by multinational companies (MNCs) operating in China taking positions previously occupied by foreign expatriates from investor countries. The development of local managers has therefore become crucial in the field of human resource management because the success of these companies depends greatly upon the ability and competence of their executive management class. The present paper addresses the issue of how to devel...

  16. [Verruca planae Chinese medicine treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Ming

    2008-08-01

    Flat wart on the effectiveness of TCM treatment. Outpatients will be by the "People's Republic of China Chinese medicine industry standards, TCM diagnosis of dermatological diseases efficacy standards, Chen Hou State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine 1994-06-28 approved, 1995-01-01 implementation". Randomly divided into two groups. Treatment and control groups. Treatment groups treated with Chinese herbs. The control group were treated with WM. Since the preparation of the unification formula ointment, cuboiling method. Chinese herbal medicine preparation by my hospital room Producer. 5 g pre pack, after treatment for 30 days, clinical observation. The group of Chinese medicine is better than western medicine (86.7% vs 71.7% , P < 0.05). Chinese medicine has some effect flat wart.

  17. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-yok Ip

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of modern China to rethink the place of tradition in the course of modernity. Thematically we show the expansionist impulse of Chinese Buddhism: In addition to envisioning the geographical expansion of their religion, Chinese Buddhists have endeavored to enhance the significance of Buddhism in various dimensions of Chinese society in particular and human life in general.

  18. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Enraizamento de estacas lenhosas e herbáceas de cultivares de caquizeiro com diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico Rooting of hardwood and herbaceous cuttings of japanese persimmon tree cultivars treated with different concentration of indolbutyric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Costa Bastos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de estudar a capacidade de enraizamento de estacas lenhosas e herbáceas de cultivares de caquizeiro tratadas com AIB. Estacas lenhosas e herbáceas foram coletadas de ramos de caquizeiro das cultivares Pomelo, Rama Forte, Taubaté, Giombo e Fuyu e submetidas à aplicação de AIB (0; 3.000 e 6.000 mg.L-1 por vinte segundos. Em seguida, as estacas foram colocadas em canteiro contendo uma mistura de terra + esterco de curral (3:1 v/v como substrato (estacas lenhosas e em bandejas de poliestireno expandido, contendo vermiculita média, em câmara de nebulização intermitente (estacas herbáceas. Como conclusão, observou-se que as cultivares de caquizeiro apresentam diferenças quanto ao potencial de formação de raízes e brotações; estacas herbáceas apresentam maior tendência na propagação via estaquia em comparação às estacas lenhosas.This work was carried out with the objective to study the capacity of rooting of hardwood and herbaceous cuttings of Japanese persimmon tree cultivars treated with IBA. Hardwood and herbaceous cuttings were collected from branches of Japanese persimmon tree and submitted to treatments in function of cultivars (Pomelo, Rama Forte, Taubaté, Giombo and Fuyu and of application of IBA (0, 3,000 and 6,000 mg.L-1 for twenty seconds. Later the cuttings were placed in stonemason containing a soil mixture + corral manure (3:1 v/v as substrate (hardwood cuttings and in polyethylene trays containing vermiculite as substrate, in intermittent mist chamber (herbaceous cuttings. As conclusion is observed that the cultivars of Japanese persimmon tree present differences in relationship to potential of roots and shoots formation; herbaceous cuttings present higher tendency in the propagation through cutting in comparison with the hardwood cuttings.

  20. A classification of chinese culture

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a classification of Chinese Cultural Values (CCVs). Although there exist great differences between the Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, it is still possible to identify certain core cultural values that are shared by the Chinese people no matter where they live. Based on the original list by the Chinese Cultural Connection (1987), the paper creates a new list that contains 71 core values against 40 in the old. The implications and limitations of the classification are...

  1. Chinese values, health and nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y C

    2001-10-01

    To describe the roots of Chinese values, beliefs and the concept of health, and to illustrate how these ways have influenced the development of health care and nursing among Chinese in the Republic of China (ROC) and the People's Republic of China (PRC). Scope. Based on the literature and direct observation in the PRC and ROC, this is an introduction to Chinese philosophies, religion, basic beliefs, and values with a special meaning for health and nursing. Chinese philosophies and religion include Confucian principles, Taoism, theory of "Yin" and "Yang", and Buddhism. Beliefs and values include the way of education, practice of acupuncture, herbal treatments and diet therapy. How people value traditional Chinese medicine in combination with western science, and the future direction of nursing and nursing inquiry are also briefly addressed. Chinese philosophies and religions strongly influence the Chinese way of living and thinking about health and health care. Nurses must combine information about culture with clinical assessment of the patient to provide cultural sensitive care. A better way may be to combine both western and Chinese values into the Chinese health care system by negotiating between the traditional values while at the same time, respecting an individual's choice. The foundation of China's philosophical and aesthetic tradition, in combination with western science is important to the future advancement of nursing research that will be beneficial to the Republics, Asia, and the world.

  2. Conservação da qualidade de caqui 'Fuyu' em ambiente refrigerado pela combinação de 1-MCP e atmosfera modificada Quality maintenance of 'Fuyu' persimmon in cold storage by combining 1-MCP and modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Argenta

    2009-06-01

    AM sobre a redução desses distúrbios e do amolecimento dos frutos foram consistentes para todos os pomares. Os resultados indicam que a combinação de 1-MCP e AM é um método efetivo para retardar a deterioração de caqui 'Fuyu' durante e após a armazenagem refrigerada.This study examined the effects of ethylene action inhibitor 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene,MA (modified atmosphere and ethylene oxidant KMnO4 (potassium permanganate on the quality of 'Fuyu'persimmon fruit after cold storage. The factors 1-MCP, MA and KMnO were combined in four manners corresponding to the following treatments: T1 Control + MA + KMnO4, T2(4 1-MCP + MA + KMnO4, T3 1-MCP + MA, and T4 1-MCP + AA (AA= atmosphere of air. Mature-firm fruit with predominant yellow colorwere harvested from seven commercial orchards in the northeast of Rio Grande do Sul state. Some of fruit were exposed to 0.3 µL L-1 of 1-MCP for 12 h in 24 h after the harvest. After that, fruit were stored in AA or MA induced by polyethylene bags (0.04 mm thick, by 20, 40, 60 or 80 days at -0.1±0.8ºC. Two pellets of 8.5 g alumina-KMnO4 were added into the polyethylene bags of treatments one and two before they weresealed. Fruit were analyzed after 0, 3, 6 or 9 days of shelf in AA at 22±1ºC. 1-MCP treatment delayed fleshsoftening, but did not consistently affect the development of skin disorders (lined dark dots and blackspots on fruit stored in MA containing KMnO4. However, the incidence of skin disorders on 1-MCP treated fruit stored in MA was significantly less than that of 1-MCP treated fruit stored in AA. There were additiveeffects of 1-MCP and MA on the retention of firmness and on the reduction of chilling injury appeared bythe formation of firm gel texture of flesh and translucent stains on the skin. The use of KMnO4 did not improve the retention of fruit quality when treated with 1-MCP and stored in MA. The development of skindisorders was orchard- and storage period-dependent. However, the benefits of 1-MCP

  3. Plum Pox Virus 6K1 Protein Is Required for Viral Replication and Targets the Viral Replication Complex at the Early Stage of Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongguang; Wang, Aiming

    2016-05-15

    The potyviral RNA genome encodes two polyproteins that are proteolytically processed by three viral protease domains into 11 mature proteins. Extensive molecular studies have identified functions for the majority of the viral proteins. For example, 6K2, one of the two smallest potyviral proteins, is an integral membrane protein and induces the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-originated replication vesicles that target the chloroplast for robust viral replication. However, the functional role of 6K1, the other smallest protein, remains uncharacterized. In this study, we developed a series of recombinant full-length viral cDNA clones derived from a Canadian Plum pox virus (PPV) isolate. We found that deletion of any of the short motifs of 6K1 (each of which ranged from 5 to 13 amino acids), most of the 6K1 sequence (but with the conserved sequence of the cleavage sites being retained), or all of the 6K1 sequence in the PPV infectious clone abolished viral replication. The trans expression of 6K1 or the cis expression of a dislocated 6K1 failed to rescue the loss-of-replication phenotype, suggesting the temporal and spatial requirement of 6K1 for viral replication. Disruption of the N- or C-terminal cleavage site of 6K1, which prevented the release of 6K1 from the polyprotein, either partially or completely inhibited viral replication, suggesting the functional importance of the mature 6K1. We further found that green fluorescent protein-tagged 6K1 formed punctate inclusions at the viral early infection stage and colocalized with chloroplast-bound viral replicase elements 6K2 and NIb. Taken together, our results suggest that 6K1 is required for viral replication and is an important viral element of the viral replication complex at the early infection stage. Potyviruses account for more than 30% of known plant viruses and consist of many agriculturally important viruses. The genomes of potyviruses encode two polyproteins that are proteolytically processed into 11 mature

  4. An Evidence-Based Approach to Plum Pox Virus Detection by DASI-ELISA and RT-PCR in Dormant Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Olmos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An evidence-based approach, such as those developed in clinical and veterinary medicine, was applied to the detection of Plum pox virus (PPV during the dormant period. A standardized methodology was used for the calculation of parameters of the operational capacity of DASI-ELISA and RT-PCR in wintertime. These methods are routinely handled to test the sanitary status of plants in national or international trading and in those cases concerning export-import of plant materials. Diagnosis often has to be performed during the dormant period, when plant material is commercialized. Some guidelines to interpret diagnostic results of wintertime are provided in an attempt to minimize risks associated with the methods and over-reliance on the binary outcome of a single assay. In order to evaluate if a complementary test increased the confidence of PPV diagnosis when discordant results between DASI-ELISA and RT-PCR are obtained, NASBA-FH also was included. Likelihood ratios of each method were estimated based on the sensitivity and specificity obtained in wintertime. Subsequently, a Bayesian approach was performed to calculate post-test probability of PPV infection in spring. Results of evidence-based approach show that different PPV prevalences require different screening tests. Thus, at very low PPV prevalence levels DASI-ELISA should be used as the election method, whilst at the highest PPV prevalence levels RT-PCR should be performed. NASBA-FH could be used at medium prevalences to clarify discordances between DASIELISA and RT-PCR.

  5. Characterization of sour cherry isolates of plum pox virus from the Volga Basin in Russia reveals a new cherry strain of the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasa, Miroslav; Prikhodko, Yuri; Predajňa, Lukáš; Nagyová, Alžbeta; Shneyder, Yuri; Zhivaeva, Tatiana; Subr, Zdeno; Cambra, Mariano; Candresse, Thierry

    2013-09-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is the causal agent of sharka, the most detrimental virus disease of stone fruit trees worldwide. PPV isolates have been assigned into seven distinct strains, of which PPV-C regroups the genetically distinct isolates detected in several European countries on cherry hosts. Here, three complete and several partial genomic sequences of PPV isolates from sour cherry trees in the Volga River basin of Russia have been determined. The comparison of complete genome sequences has shown that the nucleotide identity values with other PPV isolates reached only 77.5 to 83.5%. Phylogenetic analyses clearly assigned the RU-17sc, RU-18sc, and RU-30sc isolates from cherry to a distinct cluster, most closely related to PPV-C and, to a lesser extent, PPV-W. Based on their natural infection of sour cherry trees and genomic characterization, the PPV isolates reported here represent a new strain of PPV, for which the name PPV-CR (Cherry Russia) is proposed. The unique amino acids conserved among PPV-CR and PPV-C cherry-infecting isolates (75 in total) are mostly distributed within the central part of P1, NIa, and the N terminus of the coat protein (CP), making them potential candidates for genetic determinants of the ability to infect cherry species or of adaptation to these hosts. The variability observed within 14 PPV-CR isolates analyzed in this study (0 to 2.6% nucleotide divergence in partial CP sequences) and the identification of these isolates in different localities and cultivation conditions suggest the efficient establishment and competitiveness of the PPV-CR in the environment. A specific primer pair has been developed, allowing the specific reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction detection of PPV-CR isolates.

  6. Virus variants with differences in the P1 protein coexist in a Plum pox virus population and display particular host-dependent pathogenicity features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliogka, Varvara I; Salvador, Beatriz; Carbonell, Alberto; Sáenz, Pilar; León, David San; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; Delgadillo, Ma Otilia; García, Juan Antonio; Simón-Mateo, Carmen

    2012-10-01

    Subisolates segregated from an M-type Plum pox virus (PPV) isolate, PPV-PS, differ widely in pathogenicity despite their high degree of sequence similarity. A single amino acid substitution, K109E, in the helper component proteinase (HCPro) protein of PPV caused a significant enhancement of symptom severity in herbaceous hosts, and notably modified virus infectivity in peach seedlings. The presence of this substitution in certain subisolates that induced mild symptoms in herbaceous hosts and did not infect peach seedlings suggested the existence of uncharacterized attenuating factors in these subisolates. In this study, we show that two amino acid changes in the P1 protein are specifically associated with the mild pathogenicity exhibited by some PS subisolates. Site-directed mutagenesis studies demonstrated that both substitutions, W29R and V139E, but especially W29R, resulted in lower levels of virus accumulation and symptom severity in a woody host, Prunus persica. Furthermore, when W29R and V139E mutations were expressed concomitantly, PPV infectivity was completely abolished in this host. In contrast, the V139E substitution, but not W29R, was found to be responsible for symptom attenuation in herbaceous hosts. Deep sequencing analysis demonstrated that the W29R and V139E heterogeneities already existed in the original PPV-PS isolate before its segregation in different subisolates by local lesion cloning. These results highlight the potential complexity of potyviral populations and the relevance of the P1 protein of potyviruses in pathogenesis and viral adaptation to the host. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2012 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  7. Genome Sequence Analysis of New Isolates of the Winona Strain of Plum pox virus and the First Definitive Evidence of Intrastrain Recombination Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Delano; Sanderson, Dan; Varga, Aniko; Sheveleva, Anna; Chirkov, Sergei

    2016-04-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is genetically diverse with nine different strains identified. Mutations, indel events, and interstrain recombination events are known to contribute to the genetic diversity of PPV. This is the first report of intrastrain recombination events that contribute to PPV's genetic diversity. Fourteen isolates of the PPV strain Winona (W) were analyzed including nine new strain W isolates sequenced completely in this study. Isolates of other strains of PPV with more than one isolate with the complete genome sequence available in GenBank were included also in this study for comparison and analysis. Five intrastrain recombination events were detected among the PPV W isolates, one among PPV C strain isolates, and one among PPV M strain isolates. Four (29%) of the PPV W isolates analyzed are recombinants; one of which (P2-1) is a mosaic, with three recombination events identified. A new interstrain recombinant event was identified between a strain M isolate and a strain Rec isolate, a known recombinant. In silico recombination studies and pairwise distance analyses of PPV strain D isolates indicate that a threshold of genetic diversity exists for the detectability of recombination events, in the range of approximately 0.78×10(-2) to 1.33×10(-2) mean pairwise distance. RDP4 analyses indicate that in the case of PPV Rec isolates there may be a recombinant breakpoint distinct from the obvious transition point of strain sequences. Evidence was obtained that indicates that the frequency of PPV recombination is underestimated, which may be true for other RNA viruses where low genetic diversity exists.

  8. Influence of group II metals on Radium-226 concentration ratios in the native green plum (Buchanania obovata) from the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, Peter; Bollhöfer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In this study, uptake of Ra from soil, and the influence of group II metals on Ra uptake, into the stones and edible flesh of the fruit of the wild green plum, Buchanania obovata, was investigated. Selective extraction of the exchangeable fraction of the soil samples was undertaken but was not shown to more reliably predict Ra uptake than total soil Ra activity concentration. Comparison of the group II metal to Ca ratios (i.e. Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, Ra/Ca) in the flesh with exchangeable Ca shows that Ca outcompetes group II metals for root uptake and that the uptake pathway discriminated against group II metals relative to ionic radius, with uptake of Ca > Sr > Ba >> Ra. Flesh and stone analysis showed that movement of group II metals to these components of the plant, after root uptake, was strongly related. This supports the hypothesis that Sr, Ba and Ra are being taken up as analogue elements, and follow the same uptake and translocation pathways, with Ca. Comparison with previously reported data from a native passion fruit supports the use of total soil CRs on natural, undisturbed sites. As exchangeable CRs for Ra reach a saturation value it may be possible to make more precise predictions using selective extraction techniques for contaminated or disturbed sites. - Highlights: • We studied uptake of Ra-226 from soil into Buchanania obovata. • The influence of group II metals (Sr, Ba and Ca) on Ra uptake was investigated. • The exchangeable Ra fraction of the soil was not a more reliable predictor of Ra uptake than total soil Ra. • Ca outcompetes group II metals Sr, Ba and Ra for root uptake. • Uptake discriminated against group II metals relative to ionic radius, with uptake of Ca > Sr > Ba >> Ra.

  9. An efficient viral vector for functional genomic studies of Prunus fruit trees and its induced resistance to Plum pox virus via silencing of a host factor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongguang; Wang, Aiming

    2017-03-01

    RNA silencing is a powerful technology for molecular characterization of gene functions in plants. A commonly used approach to the induction of RNA silencing is through genetic transformation. A potent alternative is to use a modified viral vector for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to degrade RNA molecules sharing similar nucleotide sequence. Unfortunately, genomic studies in many allogamous woody perennials such as peach are severely hindered because they have a long juvenile period and are recalcitrant to genetic transformation. Here, we report the development of a viral vector derived from Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), a widespread fruit tree virus that is endemic in all Prunus fruit production countries and regions in the world. We show that the modified PNRSV vector, harbouring the sense-orientated target gene sequence of 100-200 bp in length in genomic RNA3, could efficiently trigger the silencing of a transgene or an endogenous gene in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana. We further demonstrate that the PNRSV-based vector could be manipulated to silence endogenous genes in peach such as eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E isoform (eIF(iso)4E), a host factor of many potyviruses including Plum pox virus (PPV). Moreover, the eIF(iso)4E-knocked down peach plants were resistant to PPV. This work opens a potential avenue for the control of virus diseases in perennial trees via viral vector-mediated silencing of host factors, and the PNRSV vector may serve as a powerful molecular tool for functional genomic studies of Prunus fruit trees. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Salicylic acid-mediated and RNA-silencing defense mechanisms cooperate in the restriction of systemic spread of plum pox virus in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamillo, Josefa M; Saénz, Pilar; García, Juan Antonio

    2006-10-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is able to replicate in inoculated leaves of Nicotiana tabacum, but is defective in systemic movement in this host. However, PPV produces a systemic infection in transgenic tobacco expressing the silencing suppressor P1/HC-Pro from tobacco etch virus (TEV). In this work we show that PPV is able to move to upper non-inoculated leaves of tobacco plants expressing bacterial salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) that degrades salicylic acid (SA). Replication and accumulation of PPV is higher in the locally infected leaves of plants deficient in SA or expressing TEV P1/HC-Pro silencing suppressor. Accumulation of viral derived small RNAs was reduced in the NahG transgenic plants, suggesting that SA might act as an enhancer of the RNA-silencing antiviral defense in tobacco. Besides, expression of SA-mediated defense transcripts, such as those of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins PR-1 and PR-2 or alternative oxidase-1, as well as that of the putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase NtRDR1, is induced in response to PPV infection, and the expression patterns of these defense transcripts are altered in the TEV P1/HC-Pro transgenic plants. Long-distance movement of PPV is highly enhanced in NahG x P1/HC-Pro double-transgenic plants and systemic symptoms in these plants reveal that the expression of an RNA-silencing suppressor and the lack of SA produce additive but distinct effects. Our results suggest that SA might act as an enhancer of the RNA-silencing antiviral defense in tobacco, and that silencing suppressors, such as P1/HC-Pro, also alter the SA-mediated defense. Both an RNA-silencing and an SA-mediated defense mechanism could act together to limit PPV infection.

  11. Phytohormone Signaling of the Resistance to Plum pox virus (PPV, Sharka Disease Induced by Almond (Prunus dulcis (Miller Webb Grafting to Peach (P. persica L. Batsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Nikbakht Dehkordi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka is a limiting factor for peach production, and no natural sources of resistance have been described. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that grafting the almond cultivar “Garrigues” onto the “GF305” peach infected with Dideron-type (PPV-D isolates progressively reduces disease symptoms and virus accumulation. Furthermore, grafting “Garrigues” onto “GF305” prior to PPV-D inoculation has been found to completely prevent virus infection, showing that resistance is constitutive and not induced by the virus. To unravel the phytohormone signaling of this mechanism, we analyzed the following phytohormones belonging to the principal hormone classes: the growth-related phytohormones cytokinin trans-zeatin (tZ and the gibberellins GA3 and GA4; and the stress-related phytohormones ethylene acid precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC, abscisic acid (ABA, salicylic acid (SA, and jasmonic acid (JA. PPV inoculation produced a significant increase in GA3 and ABA in peach, and these imbalances were related to the presence of chlorosis symptoms. However, grafting “Garrigues” almond onto the PPV-inoculated “GF305” peach produced the opposite effect, reducing GA3 and ABA contents in parallel to the elimination of symptoms. Our results showed the significant implication of SA in this induced resistance in peach with an additional effect on tZ and JA concentrations. This SA-induced resistance based in the decrease in symptoms seems to be different from Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR and Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR, which are based in other reactions producing necrosis. Further studies are necessary, however, to validate these results against PPV-D isolates in the more aggressive Marcus-type (PPV-M isolates.

  12. Phytohormone Signaling of the Resistance to Plum pox virus (PPV, Sharka Disease) Induced by Almond (Prunus dulcis (Miller) Webb) Grafting to Peach (P. persica L. Batsch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordi, Azam Nikbakht; Rubio, Manuel; Babaeian, Nadali; Albacete, Alfonso; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2018-05-03

    Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka) is a limiting factor for peach production, and no natural sources of resistance have been described. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that grafting the almond cultivar "Garrigues" onto the "GF305" peach infected with Dideron-type (PPV-D) isolates progressively reduces disease symptoms and virus accumulation. Furthermore, grafting "Garrigues" onto "GF305" prior to PPV-D inoculation has been found to completely prevent virus infection, showing that resistance is constitutive and not induced by the virus. To unravel the phytohormone signaling of this mechanism, we analyzed the following phytohormones belonging to the principal hormone classes: the growth-related phytohormones cytokinin trans-zeatin (tZ) and the gibberellins GA₃ and GA₄; and the stress-related phytohormones ethylene acid precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA). PPV inoculation produced a significant increase in GA₃ and ABA in peach, and these imbalances were related to the presence of chlorosis symptoms. However, grafting "Garrigues" almond onto the PPV-inoculated "GF305" peach produced the opposite effect, reducing GA₃ and ABA contents in parallel to the elimination of symptoms. Our results showed the significant implication of SA in this induced resistance in peach with an additional effect on tZ and JA concentrations. This SA-induced resistance based in the decrease in symptoms seems to be different from Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) and Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR), which are based in other reactions producing necrosis. Further studies are necessary, however, to validate these results against PPV-D isolates in the more aggressive Marcus-type (PPV-M) isolates.

  13. Archeological Survey of Undeveloped Portions of Eaker Air Force Base, Mississippi County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-25

    Swamp (Quercus bicolor) T I White (Quercus alba)11 Pecan ( Carya illinoensis ) Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) T 2 2 Plum (Prunus sp.) T Red Haw...Celtus occidentalis) 12 9 Hickory, ( Carya sp.) 5 4 Sheilbark ( Carya laciniosa) T Hornbeamn (Ostrya virginiana) 2 Kentucky Coffee Tree(Gymnocladus dioica

  14. A Cultural Resources Survey of Steele, New Franklin, and Main Ditches, and National Register of Historic Places Significance Testing of Sites 2PM574, 575, 577, and 23PM578, Pemiscot County Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-15

    White (Quercus alba) 1 1 Pecan ( Carya illinoensis ) 1 1 Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) T 2 2 Plum (Prunus sp.) T Red Haw (Crataegus sp.) T 1 11 Red... Carya sp.) 5 4 Shellbark (Car.ya laciniosa) T Hornbeam ( Ostrya virgin/iana) 2 Kentucky Coffee Tree(Gymnocladus dioica)T "Locust, ? T Black (Robinia

  15. Archeological Survey and Testing Along Boone Creek, Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant, Webster Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    appear- ance in the early nineteenth century, when explorers found it clogged by an immense log jam known as the Great Raft (Freeman [and Custis 1806?] :3...Caddo for food: acorns, nuts of various kinds, persimmons, plums, wild cherries, mulberries, strawberries , blackberries, and wild grapes. Cultivated

  16. Criminaliteit en traditionele Chinese medicijnen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uhm, Daan

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is deeply rooted in the Chinese culture. Although thousands of animal and plant species are used for medicines legally, some medications contain more sinister elements; illegal animal or plant ingredients of protected species. What is the origin of this demand for

  17. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  18. The chinese health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave; Yu, Yi

    2011-01-01

    We describe the structure and present situation of the Chinese healthcare system and discuss its primary problems and challenges. We discuss problems with inefficient burden sharing, adverse provider incentives and huge inequities, and seek explanations in the structural features of the Chinese...

  19. Chinese Companies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, T.M.; Pieke, F.N.; Stam, T.

    2017-01-01

    The rapid growth of Chinese investment in the Netherlands has been cause for both excitement and anxiety. Many of the companies and other investors are still unknown and the background and objectives of their investment often remain unclear. This research takes a close look at fourteen Chinese

  20. Mechanical removal of Chinese privet

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Klepac; Robert B. Rummer; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn

    2007-01-01

    Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense Lour.), a highly invasive nonnative plant, is prevalent in the Southern United States. Chinese privet infestations can hinder regeneration of desirable species, reduce stand productivity, and have other undesirable consequences. A combined mechanical (mulching) and chemical (triclopyr) treatment was applied to...

  1. Transnational Learning and Chinese Sayings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haedy

    2017-01-01

    Chinese sayings within the context of transnational education have not been extensively explored within higher education. In this qualitative study, which utilized semi-structured interviews, data were collected from 24 participants to explore their transnational study experience. Chinese sayings, framed within a rich Confucian history, provide a…

  2. Chinese Food Heats Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Earlier this year,the vice chairman of industry body the China Cuisine Association,Yang Liu,expressed his bewilderment at the absence of a truly successful Chinese restaurant chain."In this ancient nation with a restaurant culture thousands of years old,home to the most delicious food in the world,it is a pity that you can find world-famous traditional dishes and delicious snacks,but a globally competitive restaurant chain is nowhere to be found,"he told Sanlian Life Weekly.

  3. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive...

  4. [Common household traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Yuan; Li, Mei; Fu, Dan; Liu, Yang; Wang, Hui; Tan, Wei

    2016-02-01

    With the enhancement in the awareness of self-diagnosis among residents, it's very common for each family to prepare common medicines for unexpected needs. Meanwhile, with the popularization of the traditional Chinese medicine knowledge, the proportion of common traditional Chinese medicines prepared at residents' families is increasingly higher than western medicines year by year. To make it clear, both pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for residents in Chaoyang District, Beijing, excluding residents with a medical background. Based on the results of data, a analysis was made to define the role and influence on the quality of life of residents and give suggestions for relevant departments to improve the traditional Chinese medicine popularization and promote the traditional Chinese medicine market. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. Chinese outward foreign direct investments to Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomkvist, Katarina; Drogendijk, Rian

    This paper addresses Chinese outward foreign direct investments (OFDI) in Europe. We aim to provide more knowledge on the ongoing research discussion about Chinese OFDI, more specifically, we answer questions about what is driving Chinese firms to invest in Europe, and whether Chinese investment

  6. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C.

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed. PMID:26380367

  7. Social Anxiety among Chinese People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an "other concerned anxiety" factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor-other concerned anxiety-functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  8. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  9. Greenland and Chinese outbound investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouyal, Lone Wandahl; Mortensen, Bent Ole Gram; Su, Jingjing

    2017-01-01

    -Government seeks to develop new business sectors and to attract foreign investment, including investments from China, to develop especially its mineral resources. China now is the second largest economy in the world and the outbound investments by Chinese companies presents unprecedented opportunities for both...... Chinese companies and their global partners. However, Chinese outbound investment faces many hurdles both at home and outside. This article analyzes some of the main aspects in relation to regulatory hurdles, political obstacles as well as environmental, labor and financial challenges primarily focusing...... on investments in the mining industry....

  10. A Chinese sky trust?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, Mark [Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts, Amherst (United States)]. E-mail: brenner@econs.umass.edu; Riddle, Matthew [Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst (United States)]. E-mail: mriddle@econs.umass.edu; Boyce, James K. [Political Economy Research Institute and Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst (United States)]. E-mail: boyce@econs.umass.edu

    2007-03-15

    The introduction of carbon charges on the use of fossil fuels in China would have a progressive impact on income distribution. This outcome, which contrasts to the regressive distributional impact found in most studies of carbon charges in industrialized countries, is driven primarily by differences between urban and rural expenditure patterns. If carbon revenues were recycled on an equal per capita basis via a 'sky trust,' the progressive impact would be further enhanced: low-income (mainly rural) households would receive more in sky-trust dividends than they pay in carbon charges, and high-income (mainly urban) households would pay more than they receive in dividends. Thus a Chinese sky trust would contribute to both lower fossil fuel consumption and greater income equality.

  11. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  12. A Chinese sky trust?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, Mark; Riddle, Matthew; Boyce, James K.

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of carbon charges on the use of fossil fuels in China would have a progressive impact on income distribution. This outcome, which contrasts to the regressive distributional impact found in most studies of carbon charges in industrialized countries, is driven primarily by differences between urban and rural expenditure patterns. If carbon revenues were recycled on an equal per capita basis via a 'sky trust,' the progressive impact would be further enhanced: low-income (mainly rural) households would receive more in sky-trust dividends than they pay in carbon charges, and high-income (mainly urban) households would pay more than they receive in dividends. Thus a Chinese sky trust would contribute to both lower fossil fuel consumption and greater income equality

  13. Resistance to Plum Pox Virus (PPV) in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) is associated with down-regulation of two MATHd genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuriaga, Elena; Romero, Carlos; Blanca, Jose Miguel; Badenes, Maria Luisa

    2018-01-27

    Plum pox virus (PPV), causing Sharka disease, is one of the main limiting factors for Prunus production worldwide. In apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) the major PPV resistance locus (PPVres), comprising ~ 196 kb, has been mapped to the upper part of linkage group 1. Within the PPVres, 68 genomic variants linked in coupling to PPV resistance were identified within 23 predicted transcripts according to peach genome annotation. Taking into account the predicted functions inferred from sequence homology, some members of a cluster of meprin and TRAF-C homology domain (MATHd)-containing genes were pointed as PPV resistance candidate genes. Here, we have characterized the global apricot transcriptome response to PPV-D infection identifying six PPVres locus genes (ParP-1 to ParP-6) differentially expressed in resistant/susceptible cultivars. Two of them (ParP-3 and ParP-4), that encode MATHd proteins, appear clearly down-regulated in resistant cultivars, as confirmed by qRT-PCR. Concurrently, variant calling was performed using whole-genome sequencing data of 24 apricot cultivars (10 PPV-resistant and 14 PPV-susceptible) and 2 wild relatives (PPV-susceptible). ParP-3 and ParP-4, named as Prunus armeniaca PPVres MATHd-containing genes (ParPMC), are the only 2 genes having allelic variants linked in coupling to PPV resistance. ParPMC1 has 1 nsSNP, while ParPMC2 has 15 variants, including a 5-bp deletion within the second exon that produces a frameshift mutation. ParPMC1 and ParPMC2 are adjacent and highly homologous (87.5% identity) suggesting they are paralogs originated from a tandem duplication. Cultivars carrying the ParPMC2 resistant (mutated) allele show lack of expression in both ParPMC2 and especially ParPMC1. Accordingly, we hypothesize that ParPMC2 is a pseudogene that mediates down-regulation of its functional paralog ParPMC1 by silencing. As a whole, results strongly support ParPMC1 and/or ParPMC2 as host susceptibility genes required for PPV infection which

  14. Quantifying the impact of daily and seasonal variation in sap pH on xylem dissolved inorganic carbon estimates in plum trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erda, F G; Bloemen, J; Steppe, K

    2014-01-01

    In studies on internal CO2 transport, average xylem sap pH (pH(x)) is one of the factors used for calculation of the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon in the xylem sap ([CO2 *]). Lack of detailed pH(x) measurements at high temporal resolution could be a potential source of error when evaluating [CO2*] dynamics. In this experiment, we performed continuous measurements of CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and stem temperature (T(stem)), complemented with pH(x) measurements at 30-min intervals during the day at various stages of the growing season (Day of the Year (DOY): 86 (late winter), 128 (mid-spring) and 155 (early summer)) on a plum tree (Prunus domestica L. cv. Reine Claude d'Oullins). We used the recorded pH(x) to calculate [CO2*] based on T(stem) and the corresponding measured [CO2]. No statistically significant difference was found between mean [CO2*] calculated with instantaneous pH(x) and daily average pH(x). However, using an average pH(x) value from a different part of the growing season than the measurements of [CO2] and T(stem) to estimate [CO2*] led to a statistically significant error. The error varied between 3.25 ± 0.01% under-estimation and 3.97 ± 0.01% over-estimation, relative to the true [CO2*] data. Measured pH(x) did not show a significant daily variation, unlike [CO2], which increased during the day and declined at night. As the growing season progressed, daily average [CO2] (3.4%, 5.3%, 7.4%) increased and average pH(x) (5.43, 5.29, 5.20) decreased. Increase in [CO2] will increase its solubility in xylem sap according to Henry's law, and the dissociation of [CO2*] will negatively affect pH(x). Our results are the first quantifying the error in [CO2*] due to the interaction between [CO2] and pH(x) on a seasonal time scale. We found significant changes in pH(x) across the growing season, but overall the effect on the calculation of [CO2*] remained within an error range of 4%. However, it is possible that the error could be more

  15. Expression of self-complementary hairpin RNA under the control of the rolC promoter confers systemic disease resistance to plum pox virus without preventing local infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfini, Tiziana; Molesini, Barbara; Avesani, Linda; Spena, Angelo; Polverari, Annalisa

    2003-06-25

    Homology-dependent selective degradation of RNA, or post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), is involved in several biological phenomena, including adaptative defense mechanisms against plant viruses. Small interfering RNAs mediate the selective degradation of target RNA by guiding a multicomponent RNAse. Expression of self-complementary hairpin RNAs within two complementary regions separated by an intron elicits PTGS with high efficiency. Plum pox virus (PPV) is the etiological agent of sharka disease in Drupaceae, although it can also be transmitted to herbaceous species (e.g. Nicotiana benthamiana). Once inside the plant, PPV is transmitted via plasmodesmata from cell to cell, and at longer distances, via phloem. The rolC promoter drives expression in phloem cells. RolC expression is absent in both epidermal and mesophyll cells. The aim of the present study was to confer systemic disease resistance without preventing local viral infection. In the ihprolC-PP197 gene (intron hair pin rolC PPV 197), a 197 bp sequence homologous to the PPV RNA genome (from base 134 to 330) was placed as two inverted repeats separated by the DNA sequence of the rolA intron. This hairpin construct is under the control of the rolC promoter.N. benthamiana plants transgenic for the ihprolC-PP197 gene contain siRNAs homologous to the 197 bp sequence. The transgenic progeny of ihprolC-PP197 plants are resistant to PPV systemic infection. Local infection is unaffected. Most (80%) transgenic plants are virus free and symptomless. Some plants (20%) contain virus in uninoculated apical leaves; however they show only mild symptoms of leaf mottling. PPV systemic resistance cosegregates with the ihprolC-PP197 transgene and was observed in progeny plants of all independent transgenic lines analyzed. SiRNAs of 23-25 nt homologous to the PPV sequence used in the ihprolC-PP197 construct were detected in transgenic plants before and after inoculation. Transitivity of siRNAs was observed in

  16. Expression of self-complementary hairpin RNA under the control of the rolC promoter confers systemic disease resistance to plum pox virus without preventing local infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spena Angelo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homology-dependent selective degradation of RNA, or post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS, is involved in several biological phenomena, including adaptative defense mechanisms against plant viruses. Small interfering RNAs mediate the selective degradation of target RNA by guiding a multicomponent RNAse. Expression of self-complementary hairpin RNAs within two complementary regions separated by an intron elicits PTGS with high efficiency. Plum pox virus (PPV is the etiological agent of sharka disease in Drupaceae, although it can also be transmitted to herbaceous species (e.g. Nicotiana benthamiana. Once inside the plant, PPV is transmitted via plasmodesmata from cell to cell, and at longer distances, via phloem. The rolC promoter drives expression in phloem cells. RolC expression is absent in both epidermal and mesophyll cells. The aim of the present study was to confer systemic disease resistance without preventing local viral infection. Results In the ihprolC-PP197 gene (intron hair pin rolC PPV 197, a 197 bp sequence homologous to the PPV RNA genome (from base 134 to 330 was placed as two inverted repeats separated by the DNA sequence of the rolA intron. This hairpin construct is under the control of the rolC promoter.N. benthamiana plants transgenic for the ihprolC-PP197 gene contain siRNAs homologous to the 197 bp sequence. The transgenic progeny of ihprolC-PP197 plants are resistant to PPV systemic infection. Local infection is unaffected. Most (80% transgenic plants are virus free and symptomless. Some plants (20% contain virus in uninoculated apical leaves; however they show only mild symptoms of leaf mottling. PPV systemic resistance cosegregates with the ihprolC-PP197 transgene and was observed in progeny plants of all independent transgenic lines analyzed. SiRNAs of 23–25 nt homologous to the PPV sequence used in the ihprolC-PP197 construct were detected in transgenic plants before and after inoculation

  17. Chinese student mobility, local engagement and transformation of Chinese communities in England: an empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Unprecedented growth and circulation of Chinese international students cannot be fully understood unless the roles of host societies including diaspora Chinese communities are taken into account. This chapter draws attention to a phenomenon of local engagement, a process of interconnections and interactions between Chinese students and local communities, leading to a co-development of both Chinese students and diaspora Chinese communities in host countries. The links and impacts of Chinese st...

  18. Culture, ethnicity, and children's facial expressions: a study of European American, Mainland Chinese, Chinese American, and adopted Chinese girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camras, Linda A; Bakeman, Roger; Chen, Yinghe; Norris, Katherine; Cain, Thomas R

    2006-02-01

    This investigation extends previous research documenting differences in Chinese and European American infants' facial expressivity. Chinese girls adopted by European American families, nonadopted Mainland Chinese girls, nonadopted Chinese American girls, and nonadopted European American girls responded to emotionally evocative slides and an odor stimulus. European American girls smiled more than Mainland Chinese and Chinese American girls and scored higher than Mainland Chinese girls for disgust-related expressions and overall expressivity. Adopted Chinese girls produced more disgust-related expressions than Mainland Chinese girls. Self-reported maternal strictness, aggravation, positive expressiveness, and cultural identification correlated with children's facial responses, as did number of siblings and adults in the home. Results suggest that culture and family environment influences facial expressivity, creating differences among children of the same ethnicity.

  19. Ancient Chinese Precedents in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geddis, Robert

    1999-01-01

    ... classics from ancient china. The assumption is that since China's political and military leaders state openly that their strategy is based on traditional Chinese strategic concepts, a study of ancient classics on strategy...

  20. Chinese culture approached through touch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li; Champion, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Can recent technology help bridge cultures through playful interaction appropriate to traditional tacit means of acquiring knowledge? In order to help answer this question, we designed four Adobe Flash-based based game prototypes and evaluated them via a touch-screen PC. The goal was to offer non......, fun, and cultural authenticity. While this form of tangible computing proved engaging, it raises technical issues of how to convey appropriately the interactive elements without the help of the evaluator, and how to evaluate user satisfaction. We also briefly discuss more embodied and spatial......Chinese participants a playful way of experiencing aspects of traditional Chinese culture. The four single-player games were based on the four arts of China (music, calligraphy, painting and the game of Go!). In the evaluation we asked non-Chinese and the Chinese participants to evaluate the games in terms of learning...

  1. Chinese culture and fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Jia, S

    1992-01-01

    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self

  2. MYB Transcription Factors in Chinese Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.: Genome-Wide Identification, Classification and Expression Profiling during Fruit Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Peng eCao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The MYB family is one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. Although some MYBs have been reported to play roles in secondary metabolism, no comprehensive study of the MYB family in Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. has been reported. In the present study, we performed genome-wide analysis of MYB genes in Chinese pear, designated as PbMYBs, including analyses of their phylogenic relationships, structures, chromosomal locations, promoter regions, GO annotations and collinearity. A total of 129 PbMYB genes were identified in the pear genome and were divided into 31 subgroups based on phylogenetic analysis. These PbMYBs were unevenly distributed among 16 chromosomes (total of 17 chromosomes. The occurrence of gene duplication events indicated that whole-genome duplication and segmental duplication likely played key roles in expansion of the PbMYB gene family. Ka/Ks analysis suggested that the duplicated PbMYBs mainly experienced purifying selection with restrictive functional divergence after the duplication events. Interspecies microsynteny analysis revealed maximum orthology between pear and peach, followed by plum and strawberry. Subsequently, the expression patterns of 20 PbMYB genes that may be involved in lignin biosynthesis according to their phylogenetic relationships were examined throughout fruit development. Among the twenty genes examined, PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 exhibited expression patterns consistent with the typical variations in the lignin content previously reported. Moreover, sub-cellular localization analysis revealed that two proteins PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 were localized to the nucleus. All together, PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 were inferred to be candidate genes involved in the regulation of lignin biosynthesis during the development of pear fruit. This study provides useful information for further functional analysis of the MYB gene family in pear.

  3. Chinese herbal medicines for hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, X X; Yuan, Y; Liu, Y; Wu, T X; Han, S

    2007-04-18

    Hyperthyroidism is a disease in which excessive amounts of thyroid hormones circulate in the blood. Patients, among other things suffer from tachycardia, warm moist skin and raised body temperature. The treatment of hyperthyroidism includes symptom relief and therapy with antithyroid medications, radioiodine and thyroidectomy. Medicinal herbs are used alone or in combination with antithyroid agents to treat hyperthyroidism in China and some other countries. To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines for treating hyperthyroidism. Studies were obtained from computerised searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, the Chinese Biomedical Database. Randomised controlled trials comparing the effects of Chinese herbal medicines alone with Chinese herbal medicines combined with antithyroid drugs, radioiodine or both. Three authors interviewed authors of all potentially relevant studies by telephone to verify randomisation procedures. One author entered data into a data extraction form and another author verified the results of this procedure. Thirteen relevant trials with 1770 participants were included. All of them were of low quality. Fifty-two studies still need to be assessed because the original authors could not be interviewed. None of these trials analysed mortality, health related quality of life, economic outcomes or compliance. Compared to antithyroid drugs alone the results showed that Chinese herbal medicines combined with antithyroid drugs may offer benefits in lowering relapse rates, reducing the incidence of adverse effects, relieving symptoms, improving thyroid antibody status and thyroid function. Two trials investigated Chinese herbal medicine versus radioiodine and reported improvements in anxiety, tachycardia and heat intolerance. However, thyroid function - with the exception of restored thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) - was not significantly altered. The results suggest that traditional Chinese herbal medicines added to other routine

  4. Criminaliteit en traditionele Chinese medicijnen

    OpenAIRE

    van Uhm, Daan

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is deeply rooted in the Chinese culture. Although thousands of animal and plant species are used for medicines legally, some medications contain more sinister elements; illegal animal or plant ingredients of protected species. What is the origin of this demand for rare species as medicine, who are involved in the trade and why is law enforcement complicated? This article will show that the illicit trade in TCM is a form of crime that transcends the borders o...

  5. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C.

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitativ...

  6. Chinese investments in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haico EBBERS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s investments in the European Union are much lower than what you may expect given the economic size of both entities. These relatively low investments in Europe are a combination of priority and obstacles. The priority for investments is clearly in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This regional pattern is heavily influenced by the need to solve the resource shortage in the medium and long term. The investments in Europe and the United States are mostly market seeking investments. Research specifically focused on Chinese M&A abroad comes to the same conclusion. The success rate of Chinese M&A abroad is much lower than what we see with respect to American or European investments abroad. In this paper, we examine why Chinese firms are facing more difficulties in the European Union than in other regions. The paper focuses on Chinese M&A as proxy for total foreign direct investments abroad. By looking at the factors that have been documented as influencing the level of M&A abroad, it becomes clear that Chinese firms in Europe are hindered by many factors. For example, the trade between China and the EU is relatively low, the institutional quality is lower compared to the United States, there is less experience with respect to Europe and relatively many deals relate to State Owned Enterprises (SOE which makes the deal sensitive. So it is logical that Chinese investments are not very high in Europe. However, the research makes clear that the obstacles for Chinese investments in Europe are disappearing step by step. In that sense, we expect a strong increase of Chinese investments in Europe in the future.

  7. Mystery behind Chinese liquor fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Guangyuan; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Background Chinese liquor, a very popular fermented alcoholic beverage with thousands of years’ history in China, though its flavour formation and microbial process have only been partly explored, is facing the industrial challenge of modernisation and standardisation for food quality and safety as well as sustainability. Meanwhile, the hidden knowledge behind the complicated and somehow empirical solid-state fermentation process of Chinese liquor can enrich the food sector to improve our qua...

  8. Analysis of Chinese Communist Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    Confucianism, Legalism, Taoism and ancestral beliefs have been superseded by the dialectical materialism of the Commu- nists’ doctrine; and the mutual...developing individualism or independence. Chinese cosmology existed long before Christianity or Confu- cianism; it survived as a principal religious belief ...harmonious. With these beliefs , the Chinese nature religion included both ancestral and nonances- tral worship. These forces and the Lord on High

  9. Creation of Indian–Chinese cuisine: Chinese food in an Indian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Sankar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses two aspects of Chinese food served in India, based on data collected from fieldwork in Dharavi, Mumbai along with the data gathered from online restaurant reviews, food ordering portals, and blogs. First it discusses different forms of Indianizations in Chinese food served in India. Second part discusses how Chineseness is created through exhibits in and out of the restaurants, and how it communicates ‘Chinese’ in the menu through these symbols. One Major observation was that Indian Chinese restaurants mostly use Indian spices, flavors, and materials to make Chinese food, in which the main flavors are spicy, and pungent. The cooked food is served in a bowl, and eaten with spoon, and fork. Some symbolic elements are frequently exhibited in Chinese restaurants. Predominant use of red color, random Chinese scripts, images of Chinese temples, paintings or statues of Buddha, symbols of wok, picture of fat Chinese chef, picture of dragon, symbols of bowl and chopsticks are such representations. The study concludes that the Chinese food served in India is intrinsically Indianized Chinese food, and there are certain Indian expectations of what Chinese foods are, and a Chineseness is created in Chinese restaurants to give Chinese feel during the eat out. The author argues that the Indian imagination of Chinese food creates a new cuisine category Indian-Chinese cuisine which is neither Indian, nor Chinese.

  10. Qualidade de ameixas 'Laetitia' em função da temperatura e da atmosfera de armazenamento Quality of 'Laetitia' plums as affected by temperature and storage atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlani de Oliveira Alves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da temperatura e de atmosferas de armazenamento sobre a manutenção da qualidade de ameixas 'Laetitia'. Os tratamentos avaliados constituíram-se na combinação de duas temperaturas (-0,5ºC e 0,5ºC, com três atmosferas de armazenamento: armazenamento refrigerado (AR, com 21,0 kPa de O2 + 0,03 kPa de CO2; atmosfera controlada (AC, com 1,0 kPa de O2 + 3,0 kPa de CO2; e AC, com 2,0 kPa de O2 + 5,0 kPa de CO2. Após 60 dias de armazenamento, foram avaliadas: taxas respiratória e de produção de etileno, acidez titulável (AT, firmeza de polpa, atributos de textura, índice de cor vermelha e ângulo 'hue' (hº da casca, e incidência de rachaduras, podridões e degenerescência da polpa. O armazenamento refrigerado a -0,5ºC resultou em menores valores para o índice de cor vermelha, taxa respiratória e de produção de etileno e incidência de frutos rachados. Em ambas as condições de AC, a temperatura de 0,5ºC resultou em menor índice de cor vermelha, cor da epiderme mais verde, maior firmeza de polpa e menor taxa de produção de etileno, tanto na abertura da câmara como após quatro dias em condição ambiente. As condições de AC retardaram o amadurecimento dos frutos e reduziram a incidência de degenerescência de polpa. O armazenamento em AC, com 2,0 kPa de O2 + 5,0 kPa de CO2, a 0,5ºC, proporcionou menor taxa respiratória e menor incidência de podridões na saída da câmara, mas maior AT e força para penetração da polpa, após quatro dias em condição ambiente. No entanto, o armazenamento da ameixa 'Laetitia', nas condições de AC avaliadas, por um período de 60 dias, não reduziu a incidência de degenerescência da polpa.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of temperature and storage atmospheres on the quality of 'Laetitia' plums. The treatments were obtained from the combination of two temperatures (-0.5ºC and 0.5ºC with three storage atmospheres: cold

  11. Avaliação nutricional e sensorial de caqui cv Fuyu submetido à desidratação osmótica e secagem por convecção Nutritional and sensory evaluation of osmo-convective dried Fuyu persimmons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia de Felice Elias

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A crescente preocupação com a saúde humana tem promovido o aumento da demanda pelo consumo de frutas, tanto in natura como processadas. Neste trabalho, foram realizadas as avaliações nutricional e sensorial de caqui Fuyu submetido à desidratação osmótica e secagem por convecção. Cilindros de caqui com diâmetro de 15 mm e altura de 40 mm foram imersos por 2 horas em solução com concentração de sacarose de 0,47 g.mL-1, a 40 ºC, utilizando-se relação fruta/xarope de 1:10 e grau de agitação de 60 min-1. A redução do teor de água até 17% b.u. foi realizada a 60 ºC, empregando-se velocidade do ar de 1,25 m/s. Após a secagem, foram realizadas as seguintes análises físico-químicas: acidez, pH, ºBrix, carboidratos, proteínas, lipídios, vitamina C, cinzas, fibras insolúveis e análise sensorial. Os resultados mostraram incremento em todas as características físico-químicas avaliadas para o caqui desidratado em comparaç��o ao caqui in natura. A análise sensorial evidenciou que o produto obteve elevado índice de aceitação, correspondendo ao segundo e terceiro níveis da escala hedônica (gostei muito e gostei regularmente. A característica que influenciou predominantemente a aceitação do produto foi a textura (88%, seguida do sabor (84%. A aparência foi o atributo que menos influenciou a aceitação (80%.The increasing trend towards a healthier lifestyle has prompted a renewed interest in fruit consumption, either fresh or dried. The objectives of the present work were to assess the nutritional quality and conduct consumer sensory evaluation testing of osmo-convective dried Fuyu persimmons. Persimmon cylinders of 15 mm diameter and 40 mm length were partially dehydrated by impregnation soaking, at 40 ºC, in a 0.47 g.mL-1 sucrose solution, with a fruit to syrup ratio of 1:10. Samples were dehydrated in a shaker under a constant agitation level, 60 min-1 for 2 hours. The water content of the product was

  12. Holistic Processing of Chinese Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Chun-Nang Wong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced holistic processing (obligatory attention to all parts of an object has been associated with different types of perceptual expertise involving faces, cars, fingerprints, musical notes, English words, etc. Curiously Chinese characters are regarded as an exception, as indicated by the lack of holistic processing found for experts (Hsiao and Cottrell, 2009. The ceiling performance of experts, however, may have caused this null effect. We revisit this issue by adopting the often-used face-composite sequential-matching task to two-part Chinese characters. Participants matched the target halves (left or right of two characters while ignoring the irrelevant halves. Both Chinese readers (experts and non-Chinese readers (novices showed holistic processing. Follow-up experiments suggested different origins of the effects for the two groups. For experts, holistic processing was sensitive to the amount of experience with the characters, as it was larger for words than non-words (formed by swapping the two parts of a valid character. Novices, however, showed similar degree of holistic processing to words and non-words, suggesting that their effects were more related to their inefficient decomposition of a complex, character-like pattern into parts. Overall these findings suggest that holistic processing may be a marker of expertise with Chinese characters, contrary to previous claims.

  13. Oscar Montelius and Chinese Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingcan Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates that Oscar Montelius (1843–1921, the world-famous Swedish archaeologist, had a key role in the development of modern scientific Chinese archaeology and the discovery of China’s prehistory. We know that one of his major works, Die Methode, the first volume of his Älteren kulturperioden im Orient und in Europa, translated into Chinese in the 1930s, had considerable influence on generations of Chinese archaeologists and art historians. What has previously remained unknown, is that Montelius personally promoted the research undertaken in China by Johan Gunnar Andersson (1874–1960, whose discoveries of Neolithic cultures in the 1920s constituted the breakthrough and starting point for the development of prehistoric archaeology in China. In this paper, we reproduce, translate and discuss a long forgotten memorandum written by Montelius in 1920 in support of Andersson’s research. In this Montelius indicated his belief in the potential of prehistoric Chinese archaeology as well as his predictions regarding the discoveries about to be made. It is therefore an important document for the study of the history of Chinese archaeology as a whole.

  14. Involvement in Preschools: Comparing Chinese Immigrant and Non-Chinese Parents in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qilong; Keown, Louise; Farruggia, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study compared 120 Chinese immigrant parents and 127 non-Chinese parents from New Zealand preschools on their level of involvement in preschool-based activities, as well as key predictors of parental involvement. Results showed that Chinese immigrant parents had a lower level of involvement than non-Chinese parents across three forms of…

  15. Mothers' Self-Reported Emotional Expression in Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camras, Linda; Kolmodin, Karen; Chen, Yinghe

    2008-01-01

    This study compared Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American mothers' self-reported emotional expression within the family. Mothers of 3-year-old European American (n = 40), Chinese American (n = 39) and Mainland Chinese (n = 36) children (n = 20 girls per group) completed the Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire (SEFQ),…

  16. Is Chinese Special? Four Aspects of Chinese Literacy Acquisition That Might Distinguish Learning Chinese from Learning Alphabetic Orthographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Catherine Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Some aspects of Chinese literacy development do not conform to patterns of literacy development in alphabetic orthographies. Four are highlighted here. First, semantic radicals are one aspect of Chinese characters that have no analogy to alphabetic orthographies. Second, the unreliability of phonological cues in Chinese along with the fact that…

  17. Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter; Tarmidi, Lepi T.

    2013-01-01

    In Indonesia, no systematic study of Chinese FDI has been undertaken to date. This paper contributes to filling this research gap and analyses the current composition as well as the historical evolution of Chinese FDI in Indonesia, relying on a survey conducted in 2008 among Chinese invested...... enterprises supplemented with key informant interviews, available official statistics and secondary data. Considering the evolution of Chinese investments in Indonesia over time, investments have evolved from being individual and isolated projects to acquiring more systemic properties. Chinese companies have...... acquired a broader sectoral presence in Indonesia and Chinese invested companies in, e.g., extractive or manufacturing activities can increasingly rely on complementary Chinese investments in logistics, travel, finance, etc. Where the local development effects are concerned, a picture emerges where Chinese...

  18. Zhou Enlai and Chinese Grand Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Latham, Richard J

    1990-01-01

    ...." Contemporary Chinese writers actually write very little about modern Chinese strategy. When they do investigate the subject, they tend to begin with the late Qing dynasty and focus on events before 1949...

  19. Chinese Academic Assessment and Incentive System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Qinghui

    2016-02-01

    The Chinese academic assessment and incentive system drew mixed responses from academia. In the essay the author tried to explain why the current assessment system is appropriate in China and an opportunistic behavior in Chinese academia is exposed.

  20. Cognitive impairment in Chinese neuromyelitis optica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, N.; Li, Y.J.; Fu, Y.; Shao, J.H.; Luo, L.L.; Yang, L.; Shi, F.D.; Liu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cognitive dysfunction is frequently seen in neuromyelitis optica (NMO). However, the features and influencing factors of cognitive impairment of Chinese NMO patients are unclear. Objective: To investigate the patterns of cognitive impairment in Chinese NMO patients, and correlate the

  1. A Primer on Chinese Music Instruments Released

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SuSan

    2005-01-01

    Chinese traditional musical instruments, with a history of 8,000 years, are known for their diverse forms and types. The qualities, functions and materials of these instrunents reflect the unique aesthetic value of Chinese traditional music.

  2. CHINESE INDONESIANS: CHINESE MUSLIMS AND THE COLLAPSE OF THE BUSINESS REPUBLIC JAKARTA: REPUBLIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Setiawan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This book written by Teguh Setiawan and published by Republika is very interesting to read because from it the reader will get a lot of information about the ethnic Chinese in Indonesia, among them: the greatness of the Chinese Muslim leaders and bad luck of Chinese Muslim community during the Dutch colonial period and the heyday of the Muslim ethnic Chinese in Indonesia, and portrait of the Chinese Muslims from the past. In addition, readers will be interested in doing research on other ethnic Chinese, perhaps even you would like to know the ethnic Chinese in the rural areas recounted in the book.

  3. Informization Implementation for Chinese Retailers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yan; LI Yan; QIAN Yu; CHEN Jianfeng; CHEN Jian

    2008-01-01

    Retailing is an important component of every country's economic system. The current status and developments in the informization of Chinese retail industry were investigated by using questionnaires and interviews to survey 139 retailers throughout China. The investigation shows that Chinese retailers are in the initial informization stage, and can be classified into different types with corresponding informization characteristics. In addition, the survey identified the key problems faced by retailers in the initial stage. Developments in the information technology field were analyzed to identify the key technologies that Chinese retailers should focus on during the informization process. The investigation also shows that the retailers have not arrived at a consensus about information technology adoption, and thus hesitate to use new information technologies, such as the radio frequency identification.

  4. L2 Chinese: Grammatical Development and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    Two recent books (Jiang, 2014, "Advances in Chinese as a second language"; Wang, 2013, "Grammatical development of Chinese among non-native speakers") provide new resources for exploring the role of processing in acquiring Chinese as a second language (L2). This review article summarizes, assesses and compares some of the…

  5. Chinese Number Words, Culture, and Mathematics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Sharon Sui Ngan; Rao, Nirmala

    2010-01-01

    This review evaluates the role of language--specifically, the Chinese-based system of number words and the simplicity of Chinese mathematical terms--in explaining the relatively superior performance of Chinese and other East Asian students in cross-national studies of mathematics achievement. Relevant research is critically reviewed focusing on…

  6. Saving Chinese-Language Education in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cher Leng

    2012-01-01

    Three-quarters of Singapore's population consists of ethnic Chinese, and yet, learning Chinese (Mandarin) has been a headache for many Singapore students. Recently, many scholars have argued that the rhetoric of language planning for Mandarin Chinese should be shifted from emphasizing its cultural value to stressing its economic value since…

  7. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Biological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  8. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts (CBA), a state-level indexing and abstracting journal published monthly, is jointly sponsored by the Library of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences as well as the Biological Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, published and distributed by the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, and approved by the State Scientific and Technological Commission.

  9. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  10. Chinese Islam: A Complete Concert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvi Ben-Dor Benite

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Matthew S. Erie, China and Islam: The Prophet, the Party, and Law. Cambridge University Press, 2016. 472 pp. $140 (cloth/e-book. Jonathan Lipman, ed., Islamic Thought in China: Sino-Muslim Intellectual Evolution from the 17th to the 20th Century. Edinburgh University Press, 2016. 288 pp. £70 (cloth; e-book. Roberta Tontini, Muslim Sanzijing: Shifts and Continuities in the Definition of Islam in China. Brill, 2016. 238 pp. $125 (cloth. Why study a Chinese “minority” and its history? The task of scholars of Chinese Islam since the 1990s has been twofold: on the one hand, we have wanted to study Islam in China in its Chinese social and cultural context, as opposed to imagining it as a single separate entity, and to show that its history is relevant and meaningful for Chinese history in general. One could almost say that this goal was achieved a while ago. The next task has been to make the study of Chinese Islam and its history meaningful and useful for the greater community of scholars of Islam in general. It seems to me that with the books reviewed here, and with others in the making, we are getting close to reaching this target. In 1910, Marshall Broomhall’s Islam in China declared that Chinese Islam was a “neglected problem.” These books show that it is no longer neglected, and no longer a “problem”; rather, it is an exciting topic. Indeed, a complete, even if not harmonious, concert.

  11. Ikea success in chinese furniture

    OpenAIRE

    Yihong, Li

    2007-01-01

    This thesis will focus on the market exploiting and development of IKEA in China, analysis the characteristics of Chinese market and the supply-demand of the IKEA products in China. It also analyze the main Chinese consumers’ behaviour and evaluating the furniture retail market in China. IKEA is a successful case to open the china market recent years. The main goal is to acquire this information in order to provide the overseas retailers with a good starting point for creating an effective bu...

  12. Overseas airlines woo Chinese tourists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> A well-known ancient Chinese poet, Su Shi (1037-1101), used to describe the natural scene in April as: "Two or three sprays of peach behind bamboo; When spring warms the river the ducks are the first to know."As for the potential of China’s tourism industry, airline companies from other countries seem to be the "ducks" who have very good foresight about passenger loads as more Chinese travellers prefer overseas destinations as their first choice for holidays, especially the three week-long holidays, Spring Festival, May Day and National Day.As the May Day holiday approaches,

  13. Indigenous Research on Chinese Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Leung, Kwok; Chen, Chao C.

    2012-01-01

    We attempt to provide a definition and a typology of indigenous research on Chinese management as well as outline the general methodological approaches for this type of research. We also present an integrative summary of the four articles included in this special issue and show how they illustrate...... our definition and typology of indigenous research on Chinese management, as well as the various methodological approaches we advocate. Further, we introduce a commentary on the four articles from the perspective of engaged scholarship, and also three additional articles included in this issue....... Finally, we conclude with our suggestions for future indigenous research....

  14. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive. Chua shows this educational model as a contrast to the Western model, where the children have their own, naive and sentimental culture, their own shops and catwalks in shopping malls. The results of systematic research on education seem to prove something quite different. The educational success has to be measured using different scales, because it depends on different factors. The data published by OECD show that the level of education depends on the educational tradition of the society, level of GDP, intergenerational contacts, level of education of teachers and their social status. A strong determiner is the family, but not necessarily the mother. Even more, there is a strong correlation between the results in learning and a supporting stance of the parents, but also with their habit of spending free time with their children. The parents who take their children to the cinema, an a trip, gossip with them or take them to McDonalds, can be sure that their children will have statistically higher than the average grades. Detailed results from other sources show that success correlates the most with grades from previous class, parents’ habit of talking about things at school, higher education of the parents, being a child of a single mother, signing the child up for extracurricular classes from music and the mother working part-time. Failure correlates with being an Afro-American or Latino, checking homework by parents, free time after school without

  15. Chinese Women and the Cyberspace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    In een snel veranderende wereld, zijn vrouwen in de Volksrepubliek China in harmonie met digitale innovaties en het gebruik van verschillende vormen van moderne massacommunicatiemiddelen zoals het Internet en mobiele telefoon. Vrouwen in China en de Chinese diaspora maken gebruik van de vooruitgang

  16. Confessional Peculiarity of Chinese Islam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Nurzat M.; Bulekbayev, Sagadi B.; Kurmanaliyeva, Ainura D.; Abzhalov, Sultanmurat U.; Meirbayev, Bekzhan B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers features of Islam among Muslim peoples in China. Along with the traditional religions of China--Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism--Islam influenced noticeable impact on the formation of Chinese civilization. The followers of Islam have a significant impact on ethno-religious, political, economic and cultural relations of the…

  17. Chinese external assistance to Rwanda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    emerging sectors, and investigates the aid flow channels through which China provides ... Government to. Government. Financing through. Development. Agency. Strong. Links to .... get to China Export Import Bank cash desk; or leads to statistical comparison .... to increased Chinese exports of low-cost consumer goods.

  18. The Chinese Health Care System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter; Yu, Yi

    In the present paper we describe the structure of the Chinese health care system and sketch its future development. We analyse issues of provider incentives and the actual burden sharing between government, enterprises and people. We further aim to identify a number of current problems and link...

  19. Chinese human smuggling in transit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soudijn, Melvin Roan Jasper

    2006-01-01

    Kleinschalige mensensmokkelaars beheersen de gehele smokkelroute van China naar de eindbestemming, grootschalige smokkelaars beheersen paradoxaal genoeg slechts een gedeelte van het traject. Dat is een van de conclusies uit de dissertatie “Chinese Smuggling in Transit” van Melvin Soudijn. Het

  20. Mystery behind Chinese liquor fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Guangyuan; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Background Chinese liquor, a very popular fermented alcoholic beverage with thousands of years’ history in China, though its flavour formation and microbial process have only been partly explored, is facing the industrial challenge of modernisation and standardisation for food quality and safety as

  1. Spoken Grammar for Chinese Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓敏

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the concept of spoken grammar has been mentioned among Chinese teachers. However, teach-ers in China still have a vague idea of spoken grammar. Therefore this dissertation examines what spoken grammar is and argues that native speakers’ model of spoken grammar needs to be highlighted in the classroom teaching.

  2. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are characterized by the frequent use of substitution, approximation, circumlocution, literal translation, exemplification, word-coinage, repetition, and the infrequent use of cultural-knowledge and paralinguistic CSs. The rare use of paralinguistic strategies is found to be typical of Chinese English learners. The high frequency of literal translation, one first language (L1)-based strategy in our study sample, suggests that FL learners' use of L1-based CSs may depend more upon the developmental stage of their target language than the typology distance between L1 and the target language. The frequency of repetition reveals one fact that the Chinese English learners lack variety and flexibility in their use of CSs. Based on these findings, it was indicated that learners' use of CSs is influenced by a variety of factors, among which the development stage of their interlanguage and their cultural background are identified as two important factors. Some implications are finally suggested for the English foreign language teaching practice in China.

  3. Chinese Parents and English Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghuman, P.; Wong, R.

    1989-01-01

    Interviews of 34 Chinese families in Manchester, England, ascertained their views on their children's schooling. These parents have little knowledge of English and the school system. They value education highly, would like more homework and discipline, and would like the schools' help in preserving their language and culture. (SK)

  4. Dutch-Chinese virtual cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Y.; de Boer, S.J.; Stegwee, R.A.; Chen, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Technology advances in ICT have permitted an increased flow of information across borders, and increasingly companies are moving to so-called virtual alliances. The business relationships between Dutch and Chinese companies are becoming closer by ways of outsourcing, new market development and so

  5. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus

  6. The Perennial Problem: The Chinese Minority in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-28

    peranakan , ethnic Chinese, local Chinese, foreign-born Chinese, Indonesian Chinese, alien Chinese, citizen Chinese, and so forth.) For the purposes of this...study, only four terms are im- -" portant: pribumi, peranakan , totok, and cina. ’Pribumi’ is * an Indonesian term which literally means ’indigenous...pribumi population consists of hundreds of different ethnic and linguistic groups. ’ Peranakan ’ is the term used to refer to the Indonesia-born Chinese

  7. Translation Strategy of Chinese Culture-loaded Lexes and the Dissemina-tion of Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Li-li

    2016-01-01

    Lexes are the most important and basic element of a language. Chinese culture-loaded lexes are those words or expres-sions that are greatly rich in Chinese culture. They can reflect the characteristics of Chinese culture and Chinese nation. There-fore, it is of great significance to pay attention to the translation of Chinese culture-loaded lexes as they play a decisive role in disseminating Chinese culture. It can help promote Chinese culture worldwide, improve China’s cultural exchanges and commu-nication with other nations and strengthen China’s status in the world. This paper focuses on the Chinese culture-loaded words and proposes some possible means of translation with the purpose of spreading Chinese culture.

  8. [Development and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and Chinese herbal pieces industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yong-Qing; Li, Li; Liu, Ying; Ma, Yin-Lian; Yu, Ding-Rong

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the key issues in the development and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and Chinese herbal pieces industry Chinese herbal pieces industry. According to the author's accumulated experience over years and demand of the development of the Chinese herbal pieces industry, the key issues in the development and innovation on the Chinese herbal pieces industry were summarized. According to the author, the traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline shall focus on a application basis research. The development of this discipline should be closely related to the development of Chinese herbal pieces. The traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline can be improved and its results can be transformed only if this discipline were correlated with the Chinese herbal pieces industry, matched with the development of the Chinese herbal pieces industry, and solved the problems in the development on the Chinese herbal pieces industry. The development of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and the Chinese herbal pieces industry also requires scientific researchers to make constant innovations, realize the specialty of the researches, and innovate based on inheritance. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. Ethnoarchaeological Investigations of the Mountain Creek Area, North Central Texas. Volume 2. Historic Farming on the Hogwallow Prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    species. Once an item recovered from sites 41DL183, 41DL196, and 41TR45. was identified to genus or species, it was labeled and When viewed from the...Gray Red Haw Diospyros virginiana L. Persimmon Sapindus saponaria L. var. Wild China/ Soapberry Cercis canadensis L. Redbud Juglans spp. Walnut 15.4...spp. Plum .3 Crataegus mollis Torr. & Gray Red Haw .9 .8 .3 Diospyros virginiana L. Persimmon .3 Sapindus saponaria L. var. Wild China/ Soapberry .8 1.9

  10. English-Chinese oil field dictionary. [English-Chinese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gow, S [comp.

    1979-01-01

    In this edition the original English-Chinese Oil Field Dictionary was modified line by line and major additions and deletions were made. A total of 37,000 terms and phrases were collected. The following disciplines were included: petroleum geology, earth physics and detection, well prospecting and measuring, development of oil fields, oil recovery, oil storage and transport, etc. In addition, a limited number of common scientific terms, phrases and terminologies were also included.

  11. Towards an Ancient Chinese-Inspired Theory of Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    In this philosophical paper, I propose a theory of music education inspired by ancient Chinese philosophy. In particular, I draw on five classical Chinese philosophical texts: the Analects (lunyu [Chinese characters omitted]), the Mencius (Mengzi [Chinese characters omitted]), the Zhuangzi ([Chinese characters omitted]), the Xunzi ([Chinese…

  12. Endodormência de gemas de pessegueiro e ameixeira em região de baixa ocorrência de frio Endodormancy of peach and plum tree buds in a region of low chill occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Inacio Neiva de Carvalho

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi determinar a endodormência de gemas de pessegueiro cv. Chimarrita e ameixeira cv. Poli Rosa em uma região de baixa ocorrência de frio. Os ramos foram coletados em um pomar situado no município de Fazenda Rio Grande, Paraná, no período de abril a agosto dos anos de 2007 e 2008. Na última coleta, um grupo adicional de ramos foi coletado e mantido em refrigerador à temperatura de 4 a 7°C, por 672 horas. A avaliação da endodormência foi realizada por meio do teste biológico de estacas de nós isolados, que foram mantidas em condições controladas de temperatura (25°C e fotoperíodo (16 h. Foi realizada a quantificação das horas de frio (HF e das unidades de frio (UF ocorridas na região. As duas espécies foram avaliadas separadamente, como dois experimentos distintos. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o completamente casualizado, com nove tratamentos para o pessegueiro e 11 tratamentos para a ameixeira, ambos com quatro repetições. Os dois anos foram analisados individualmente. A endodormência mais intensa das gemas de pessegueiro cv. Chimarrita ocorreu no mês de maio, nos dois anos avaliados. A endodormência mais intensa de gemas de ameixeira cv. Poli Rosa ocorreu no mês de maio em 2007 e se estendeu até o mês de junho em 2008.The objective of this research was to evaluate the dormancy dynamic of peach tree 'Chimarrita' and plum tree 'Poli Rosa' buds in a region of low chill occurrence. The stems were collected in an orchard in Fazenda Rio Grande, State of Parana, Brazil, from April to August of 2007 and 2008. In the last date, an additional group of stems was collected and maintained in a refrigerator (4 to 7°C by 672 hours. The evaluation of dormancy was observed by the biological test of single node cuttings under controlled conditions of temperature (25°C and photoperiod (16 h. The quantification of chilling hours (CH and the chilling units (CU occurred in the region were performed

  13. Chinese computerized nuclear data library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Qichang; Cai Dunjiu

    1996-01-01

    The Second Version of Chinese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (CENDL-2) includes the complete neutron nuclear data sets of 54 important elements and isotopes used for nuclear science and engineering with the incident neutron energy from 10 -5 eV to 20 MeV, the international universal format ENDF/B-6 was adopted. Now, the Chinese Computerized nuclear data library has been developed and put into operation. That is, the users can make on-line use of the main data libraries for evaluated neutron reaction data in the world of EXFOR experimental nuclear data library on the terminal of computer via the perfect computer software system, carry out directly the nuclear engineering calculation or nuclear data evaluation, enjoy the use of the resource of our nuclear data libraries for their development of nuclear energy and nuclear technology applications

  14. The geography of Chinese science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, David Emanual; Gunessee, Saileshsingh; Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann

    2014-01-01

    Chinese scientific output has increased dramatically in recent years, but its internal spatial structure has received scant attention. Estimated gravity models of intercity scientific coauthorships show that there are two types of spatial political bias in China, apart from the expected mass...... and distance effects. Intercity coauthorships involving Beijing are more common than Beijing's output volume and location would imply, and this Beijing bias is increasing over time. The second type of spatial political bias is greater intraprovincial collaboration than is accounted for by size and distance....... The geography of Chinese science is thus not only monocentric as regards overall scientific output, but also exhibits unusually hierarchical collaboration patterns. Unlike in Europe and North America, national and regional capitals are becoming ever more important as scientific coordination centers....

  15. Recent advances in Chinese palaeontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Rong, Jia-Yu

    2010-01-22

    Discoveries are a driving force for progress in palaeontology. Palaeontology as a discipline of scientific inquiry has gained many fresh insights into the history of life, from the discoveries of many new fossils in China in the last 20 years, and from the new ideas derived from these fossils. This special issue of Proceedings of Royal Society B entitled Recent Advances in Chinese Palaeontology selects some of the very latest studies aimed at resolving the current problems of palaeontology and evolutionary biology based on new fossils from China. These fossils and their studies help to clarify some historical debates about a particular fossil group, or to raise new questions about history of life, or to pose a new challenge in our pursuit of science. These works on new Chinese fossils have covered the whole range of the diversity through the entire Phanerozoic fossil record.

  16. [Research progress of Chinese herbal medicine and traditional Chinese medicine resulting in liver injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingli; Zhou, Chaofan

    2011-12-01

    The adverse reactions caused by Chinese herbal medicine and traditional Chinese medicine are reported increased in recent years, among which the acute liver injury caused by Chinese herbal medicine accounts for 21.5% of total liver injuries. Despite the misuse of traditional Chinese medicine not in accordance with differentiation of symptoms and signs, the adverse reaction of Chinese herbal medicine itself can't be little to these adverse events. The paper summarizes the most common categories of traditional Chinese medicine resulting in liver injury, the mechanism, pathological characteristics, clinical symptom of liver injury, the reasons of the reaction and how to prevent. The research aims to enhance the clinical physician recognition of liver injury caused by Chinese herbal medicine, in order to ensure the safe and rational usage of traditional Chinese medicine.

  17. [Application of traditional Chinese medicine reference standards in quality control of Chinese herbal pieces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tu-Lin; Li, Jin-Ci; Yu, Jiang-Yong; Cai, Bao-Chang; Mao, Chun-Qin; Yin, Fang-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) reference standards plays an important role in the quality control of Chinese herbal pieces. This paper overviewed the development of TCM reference standards. By analyzing the 2010 edition of Chinese pharmacopoeia, the application of TCM reference standards in the quality control of Chinese herbal pieces was summarized, and the problems exiting in the system were put forward. In the process of improving the quality control level of Chinese herbal pieces, various kinds of advanced methods and technology should be used to research the characteristic reference standards of Chinese herbal pieces, more and more reasonable reference standards should be introduced in the quality control system of Chinese herbal pieces. This article discussed the solutions in the aspect of TCM reference standards, and future development of quality control on Chinese herbal pieces is prospected.

  18. Thinking Chinese Translation A Course in Translation Method; Chinese to English

    CERN Document Server

    Valerie, Pellatt

    2010-01-01

    Suitable for advanced undergraduates and postgraduate students of Chinese. "Thinking Chinese Translation", this book explores the ways in which memory, general knowledge, and creativity (summed up as 'schema') contribute to the linguistic ability necessary to create a good translation

  19. A Comparison of Child-Rearing Practices among Chinese, Immigrant Chinese, and Caucasian-American Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Yau Cindy; Fu, Victoria R.

    1990-01-01

    Investigated differences and similarities in child-rearing practices among three groups of parents. Chinese and immigrant Chinese parents rated higher than Caucasian-American parents on parental control, encouragement of independence, and emphasis on achievement. (PCB)

  20. Comment on Chinese food culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马欣

    2014-01-01

    <正>Enjoying all kinds of food can be the most important issue in China,Chinese people love to have nice food and to study them,after a few thousand years,food have become the most important part of China and has gradually formed a unique culture.There is a saying,food is the paramount necessity of people(民以食为天),however,in China,people are not eating only when they

  1. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Junping; Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Weicun; CISC’15

    2016-01-01

    This book presents selected research papers from the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference (CISC’15), held in Yangzhou, China. The topics covered include multi-agent systems, evolutionary computation, artificial intelligence, complex systems, computation intelligence and soft computing, intelligent control, advanced control technology, robotics and applications, intelligent information processing, iterative learning control, and machine learning. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent systems.

  2. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’15, held in Fuzhou, China. The topics include adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, reconfigurable control, etc. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into interdisciplinary solutions in the field of intelligent automation.

  3. Topic prominence in Chinese EFL learners’ interlanguage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaopeng Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the general characteristics of topicprominent typological interlanguage development of Chinese learners of English in terms of acquiring subject-prominent English structures from a discourse perspective. Topic structures mainly appear in Chinese discourse in the form of topic chains (Wang, 2002; 2004. The research target are the topic chain, which is the main topic-prominent structure in Chinese discourse, and zero anaphora, which is the most common topic anaphora in the topic chain. Two important findings emerged from the present study. First, the characteristics of Chinese topic chains are transferrable to the interlanguage of Chinese EFL learners, thus resulting in overgeneralization of the zero anaphora. Second, the interlanguage discourse of Chinese EFL learners reflects a change of the second language acquisition process from topic-prominence to subject-prominence, thus lending support to the discourse transfer hypothesis.

  4. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Analysis of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Zhao, Bin-xing; Xiao, Hong-tao; Tong, Rong-sheng; Gao, Chun-ming

    2013-09-01

    Chinese medicine is a historic cultural legacy of China. It has made a significant contribution to medicine and healthcare for generations. The development of Chinese herbal medicine analysis is emphasized by the Chinese pharmaceutical industry. This study has carried out the experimental analysis of ten kinds of Chinese herbal powder including Fritillaria powder, etc., based on the photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) method. First, a photoacoustic spectroscopy system was designed and constructed, especially a highly sensitive solid photoacoustic cell was established. Second, the experimental setup was verified through the characteristic emission spectrum of the light source, obtained by using carbon as a sample in the photoacoustic cell. Finally, as the photoacoustic spectroscopy analysis of Fritillaria, etc., was completed, the specificity of the Chinese herb medicine analysis was verified. This study shows that the PAS can provide a valid, highly sensitive analytical method for the specificity of Chinese herb medicine without preparing and damaging samples.

  5. How Chinese learn mathematics perspectives from insiders

    CERN Document Server

    Ngai-Ying, Wong; Lianghuo, Fan; Shiqi, Li

    2004-01-01

    The book has been written by an international group of very active researchers and scholars who have a passion for the study of Chinese mathematics education. It aims to provide readers with a comprehensive and updated picture of the teaching and learning of mathematics involving Chinese students from various perspectives, including the ways in which Chinese students learn mathematics in classrooms, schools and homes, the influence of the cultural and social environment on Chinese students' mathematics learning, and the strengths and weaknesses of the ways in which Chinese learn mathematics. Furthermore, based on the relevant research findings, the book explores the implications for mathematics education and offers sound suggestions for reform and improvement. This book is a must for anyone who is interested in the teaching and learning of mathematics concerning Chinese learners.

  6. Traditional Chinese food technology and cuisine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-rong; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P

    2004-01-01

    From ancient wisdom to modern science and technology, Chinese cuisine has been established from a long history of the country and gained a global reputation of its sophistication. Traditional Chinese foods and cuisine that exhibit Chinese culture, art and reality play an essential role in Chinese people's everyday lives. Recently, traditional Chinese foods have drawn a great degree of attention from food scientists and technologists, the food industry, and health promotion institutions worldwide due to the extensive values they offer beyond being merely another ethnic food. These traditional foods comprise a wide variety of products, such as pickled vegetables, salted fish and jellyfish, tofu and tofu derived products, rice and rice snack foods, fermented sauces, fish balls and thousand-year-old eggs. An overview of selected popular traditional Chinese foods and their processing techniques are included in this paper. Further development of the traditional techniques for formulation and production of these foods is expected to produce economic, social and health benefits.

  7. A history of Chinese mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Martzloff, Jean-Claude

    1997-01-01

    For the English language edition, this completely unique book of J.C. Martzloff has been fully revised and updated. It includes many new recent insights and illustrations, a new appendix on Chinese primary sources and a guide to the to the bibliography. From the reviews: "This book ranks with the most erudite Asian publications, and is the most informative and most broadly informed on its topic in any language." N. Sivin, China Quarterly "... crammed with insights, cautionary tales and a great deal of information about current research ... will surely become a standard reference for students, teachers, and researchers alike", J. N. Crossley, Annals of Science "... a truly scholarly and balanced exposition ... a book that the reviewer believes belongs in the library of every university or college, as well as in that of every individual seriously interested in the history of Chinese mathematics", B. L. McAllister, ZBfM "Martzloff History demonstrates clearly that while the Chinese were adept in applying their m...

  8. The Translation of Chinese Dish Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚佳文

    2015-01-01

    The traditional food of a nation reflects its historical and cultural characteristics This thesis begins with an introduction to the translation situation of Chinese dish names and its existing problem nowadays, and proceeds to the translation principles and tactics for English translation of the names of Chinese dishes, based on Eugene A. Nida’ s Functional Equivalence, with an aim to improve translation efficiency and promote cross-cultural communication, and promoting Chinese food culture throughout the globe.

  9. Chinese dietary composition and element ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hongda

    1990-01-01

    Based on the dietary composition and results of some nutrients obtained from the second Nationwide Nutrition Survey in 1982, as well as recently published element contents in various Chinese food, the resultant dietary intake of 19 kinds of elements and 17 radionuclides for Chinese public (mainly for male adults) were estimated. This estimation might be used as basis for development of Chinese Reference Man and estimation of the public background exposure

  10. Finnish Kullervo and chinese martial arts stories

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chapmen

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: There are many important Finnish plays but, due to language barrier, Finnish drama is seldom exported, particularly to Hong Kong and China.. Objective: To find out differences in mentality between the Finnish and Chinese peoples by comparing the partially localized Chinese translation of Aleksis Kivi’s tragedy, Kullervo, with genuine Chinese martial arts literature. Methodology: 1. Chapman Chen has translated the Finnish classic, Kullervo, directly from Finnish...

  11. Chinese Scientists | Women in Science | Initiatives | Indian Academy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Initiatives; Women in Science; Chinese Scientists. Chinese Scientists. One third Chinese scientists are women [What about India?] ... scientists, at a young age of 52, after a valiant battle with cancer, today on 29th March 2016 in Delhi.

  12. Chinese Function Manager of 2006 Partenariat Comments on the Selection Principle for Chinese Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Fang Lei, EU-China Partenariat 2006Function Manager for Chinese Host Companies, worked together with Mr. Richard Morgan, EU Project Expert,Mr. Han Meiqing, Chinese Project Expert in the primary selection of Chinese enterprises.In reply to the strong request of the relevant governmental institutions, CCPIT and enterprises, he gave the following introductions about the details of selection.

  13. Corpora and Collocations in Chinese-English Dictionaries for Chinese Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    The paper identifies the major problems of the Chinese-English dictionary in representing collocational information after an extensive survey of nine dictionaries popular among Chinese users. It is found that the Chinese-English dictionary only provides the collocation types of "v+n" and "v+n," but completely ignores those of…

  14. The Roles of Pinyin Skill in English-Chinese Biliteracy Learning: Evidence from Chinese Immersion Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Chan

    2017-01-01

    Pinyin is a sound-annotating system for Chinese characters using Roman letters. Teaching and learning Pinyin has been an important educational practice in Mainland China for native Chinese children, and it is also typically taught to beginning learners of Chinese as a foreign/second language in tertiary-level classrooms. However, whether it should…

  15. Chinese Translation Errors in English/Chinese Bilingual Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiaoya; Chen, Xiaoning

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the Chinese translation errors in 31 English/Chinese bilingual children's picture books. While bilingual children's books make definite contributions to language acquisition, few studies have examined the quality of these books, and even fewer have specifically focused on English/Chinese bilingual books.…

  16. Comparison of Journal Self-Citation Rates between Some Chinese and Non-Chinese International Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zu-Guo; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Chun-Ting

    2012-01-01

    Background The past 3 decades have witnessed a boost in science development in China; in parallel, more and more Chinese scientific journals are indexed by the Journal Citation Reports issued by Thomson Reuters (SCI). Evaluation of the performance of these Chinese SCI journals is necessary and helpful to improve their quality. This study aimed to evaluate these journals by calculating various journal self-citation rates, which are important parameters influencing a journal impact factor. Methodology/Principal Findings We defined three journal self-citation rates, and studied these rates for 99 Chinese scientific journals, almost exhausting all Chinese SCI journals currently available. Likewise, we selected 99 non-Chinese international (abbreviated as ‘world’) journals, with each being in the same JCR subject category and having similar impact factors as their Chinese counterparts. Generally, Chinese journals tended to be higher in all the three self-citation rates than world journal counterparts. Particularly, a few Chinese scientific journals had much higher self-citation rates. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that generally Chinese scientific journals have higher self-citation rates than those of world journals. Consequently, Chinese scientific journals tend to have lower visibility and are more isolated in the relevant fields. Considering the fact that sciences are rapidly developing in China and so are Chinese scientific journals, we expect that the differences of journal self-citation rates between Chinese and world scientific journals will gradually disappear in the future. Some suggestions to solve the problems are presented. PMID:23173041

  17. Chinese Debates on the Democratization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peer Møller Christensen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The new economic importance of the Chinese economy has created Chinese expectations that the country will be able to regain a political and cultural position in the world in accordance with this economic status. But for China to become a respected member of world society, one of the most severe obstacles is its, from a western perspective, undemocratic political system. The article describes the lively debate going on among Chinese intellectuals of diverse political-ideological convictions about what kind of democracy should be the model for China’s future political system. The liberally oriented intellectuals want a political system very much like American liberal constitutional democracy, while intellectuals on the left side of the political spectrum want a democracy with a clear socialist basis. Although Chinese intellectuals form a minority in society, these intellectual debates are sure to have influence on both public opinion and opinions and attitudes among political decision makers inside the Chinese Communist Party. Further investigations will have to establish to what degree the perceptions of China's political future and democratization are reflected in the political attitudes among the Chinese in general, and how they are perceived inside the confines of political decision making in the Chinese Communist Party. Only then will it be possible to answer the questions: "What kind of democracy do the Chinese want?" and "What kind of democracy are the Chinese going to get?"

  18. A Glimpse of Chinese-Malay Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cendrawaty Tjong

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Chinese-Malay literature begans in the end of 19th century. The beginning of this period was known from the works depicted Classical-Malay literature. In the development, due to the booming of publication houses and newspaper agencies, this school of literature flourished. The origin of this period was closely related to Chinese-descendants, background and history. The long history, the big numbers of works and the miscellaneous contents of the works were the characteristics of this period. Chinese-Malay literature period was the period highlighted with typical Chinese-Indonesian society.  

  19. Chinese-American foods : Geography, culture and tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, Alan A.

    2016-01-01

    Food is a major way that Chinese, and other ethnic groups, engage with their cultural heritage. Behavioral perspectives from tourism studies give insight into the range of food neophyllics (love of new foods) and food neophobics (fear of new foods), as well as the role of authenticity in food experiences. Three general types of Chinese food are identified in the US: Chinese American (restaurant) Food, Real Chinese (restaurant) Food, and American Born Chinese (home) Food. Traditional Chinese A...

  20. The Development of Chinese Education in Malaysia, 1952-1975: Political Collaboration between the Malaysian Chinese Association and the Chinese Educationists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yao Sua; Teoh, Hooi See

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the development of Chinese education in Malaysia from 1952 to 1975, focusing on the political collaboration between the Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA) and the Chinese educationists to advance the cause of Chinese education instead of the usual macro policy analysis. This collaboration was compounded by the different stand…

  1. Look before You Leap: Underestimating Chinese Student History, Chinese University Setting and Chinese University Steering in Sino-British HE Joint Ventures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Ewan G.

    2010-01-01

    This article makes the case--in three parts--that many Anglo-Chinese university collaborations (joint ventures) to date have seriously underestimated Chinese (student) history, the Chinese university setting and Chinese national governmental steering as part of the process of "glocalisation". Recent turbulence in this particular HE…

  2. Chop Suey as Imagined Authentic Chinese Food: The Culinary Identity of Chinese Restaurants in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Haiming Liu

    2009-01-01

    At least until the 1960s, chop suey was synonymous with Chinese food in the United States, where most Chinese restaurants were called chop suey houses. By uncovering the history of chop suey, this article analyzes the development of Chinese cuisine in the U.S. as an example of transnational cultural exchange. The authenticity and culinary identity of Chinese food in America often rested on its real or imagined Chinese roots while its popularity depended on how well Chinese restaurant...

  3. [Moderation-integrated-balance presupposition of Chinese medicine compound and pharmacological problems in traditional Chinese drug research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun-Ning

    2017-03-01

    The moderation-integrated-balance presupposition (MIBP) of Chinese medicine compound was first proposed in this paper based on the review of function characteristics and action principles of Chinese medicine compound. Furthermore, the pharmacological problems of traditional Chinese drug research were discussed in details. The results were of important value in accelerating the transformation of traditional Chinese medicine compound, and constructing the new drug innovation and review system for traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Resistance to Plum pox virus strain C in Arabidopsis thaliana and Chenopodium foetidum involves genome-linked viral protein and other viral determinants and might depend on compatibility with host translation initiation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, María; Martínez-Turiño, Sandra; García, Juan Antonio

    2014-11-01

    Research performed on model herbaceous hosts has been useful to unravel the molecular mechanisms that control viral infections. The most common Plum pox virus (PPV) strains are able to infect Nicotiana species as well as Chenopodium and Arabidopsis species. However, isolates belonging to strain C (PPV-C) that have been adapted to Nicotiana spp. are not infectious either in Chenopodium foetidum or in Arabidopsis thaliana. In order to determine the mechanism underlying this interesting host-specific behavior, we have constructed chimerical clones derived from Nicotiana-adapted PPV isolates from the D and C strains, which differ in their capacity to infect A. thaliana and C. foetidum. With this approach, we have identified the nuclear inclusion a protein (VPg+Pro) as the major pathogenicity determinant that conditions resistance in the presence of additional secondary determinants, different for each host. Genome-linked viral protein (VPg) mutations similar to those involved in the breakdown of eIF4E-mediated resistance to other potyviruses allow some PPV chimeras to infect A. thaliana. These results point to defective interactions between a translation initiation factor and the viral VPg as the most probable cause of host-specific incompatibility, in which other viral factors also participate, and suggest that complex interactions between multiple viral proteins and translation initiation factors not only define resistance to potyviruses in particular varieties of susceptible hosts but also contribute to establish nonhost resistance.

  5. Single amino acid changes in the 6K1-CI region can promote the alternative adaptation of Prunus- and Nicotiana-propagated Plum pox virus C isolates to either host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, María; Malinowski, Tadeusz; García, Juan Antonio

    2014-02-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) C is one of the less common PPV strains and specifically infects cherry trees in nature. Making use of two PPV-C isolates that display different pathogenicity features, i.e., SwCMp, which had been adapted to Nicotiana species, and BY101, which had been isolated from cherry rootstock L2 (Prunus lannesiana) and propagated only in cherry species, we have generated two infective full-length cDNA clones in order to determine which viral factors are involved in the adaptation to each host. According to our results, the C-P3(PIPO)/6K1/N-CI (cylindrical inclusion) region contains overlapping but not coincident viral determinants involved in symptoms development, local viral amplification, and systemic movement capacity. Amino acid changes in this region promoting the adaptation to N. benthamiana or P. avium have trade-off effects in the alternative host. In both cases, adaptation can be achieved through single amino acid changes in the NIapro protease recognition motif between 6K1 and CI or in nearby sequences. Thus, we hypothesize that the potyvirus polyprotein processing could depend on specific host factors and the adaptation of PPV-C isolates to particular hosts relies on a fine regulation of the proteolytic cleavage of the 6K1-CI junction.

  6. Efeito do ácido indolbutírico no enraizamento de estacas de ramos de plantas de ameixeira (Prunus salicina, Lindl. Effect of indolbutyric acid on the rooting of plum branch cuttings (Prunus sofrena, Lindl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kersten

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de quatro concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (IBA, no enraizamento de estacas de ramos de ameixeira (Prunus salicina, Lindl., coletadas de plantas tratadas com bórax e sulfato de zinco e controle, executado em quatro épocas. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em viveiros, sob condição de nebulização artificial intermitente. Os resultados obtidos mostram a influência de cultivar, época e concentração de IBA, não sendo verificado efeito de bórax ou sulfato de zinco na percentagem de estacas enraizadas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of four concentrations of indolbutyric acid on the rooting of plum branch cuttings (Prunus salicina, Lindl. collected from plants treated with borax and zinc sulfate, in four periods. The experiments were conducted in a nursery with intermitent artificial mist conditions. The results showed a positive effect of cultivars, periods and IBA concentrations, and there was no effect of either borax or zinc sulfate on rooting of branch cuttings.

  7. Boron and calcium sprayed on 'Fuyu' persimmon tree prevent skin cracks, groove and browning of fruit during cold storage Boro e cálcio pulverizado em árvores de caqui "Fuyu" previnem fissuras, estrias e escurecimento do fruto durante o armazenamento refrigerado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdecir Carlos Ferri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Flesh softening, skin browning and rotting are chief problems during cold storage (CS of 'Fuyu' Persimmon. We studied the effects of boron (B and calcium (Ca sprayed on the trees during three consecutive years, on the development of skin cracks, grooves and browning in persimmon fruit under CS in Farroupilha, RS, Brazil (29°31' south, 51°21' west, about 750 m altitude. A homogeneous orchard area of 0.5 ha was delimitated and three sets of five plants for each treatment were randomly selected. The persimmon trees were sprayed at a 20 day interval, from 15th January until harvest, for three consecutive years, with: T1 water; T2 calcium nitrate at 0.5% (m/v; T3 calcium chloride at 0.5% (m/v; and T4 boron at 0.3% (m/v. The fruit were harvest with orange-reddish colour; 18-20°Brix, pulp firmness of 45 to 60N, and kept under CS at 0±1°C for 45 days. The fruits were evaluated immediately before CS, after six hours at 23±2°C after removal from CS, and after four days at 23±2°C after removal from CS. Equally boron and calcium sprayed on the trees prevented skin cracks, skin grooves and skin browning. Besides, when boron was sprayed on the trees, the mentioned effects were additive in the following year.As principais alterações indesejáveis observadas no período pós-colheita de caquis em armazenamento refrigerado (AR são a perda de firmeza de polpa, e a ocorrência de escurecimento epidérmico e de podridões. Este trabalho teve por objetivo principal estudar as respostas da aplicação de boro (B e cálcio (Ca, em três safras sucessivas, na prevenção da ocorrência de fissuras, estrias e escurecimento epidérmico de caquis "Fuyu". No pomar (Farroupilha-RS-Brasil, 29°31' Sul, 51°21' Oeste, aproximadamente 750m altitude delimitou-se uma área homogênea de 0,5ha., marcando-se, ao acaso, três repetições de cinco plantas para cada tratamento: T1 - controle, caquizeiros não-pulverizados com B e Ca; T2 - pulverizações com Nitrato de

  8. Templates of "Chineseness" and Trajectories of Cambodian Chinese Entrepreneurship in Phnom Penh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Verver

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the 1960s, William Willmott described Cambodia as a plural society in which different ethnic groups occupy different places in the economic structure. The Chinese made up the economic class, active in trade and commerce, and formed a definable ethnic community, both socioculturally and politically. Since Willmott’s seminal studies, Cambodia’s ethnic Chinese have endured the destruction and repression of both private enterprise and Chinese sociocultural life (1970–1990, followed by a revitalization of Chinese business. Through ethnographic case studies, this paper explores the relationship between “Chineseness” and business life in trajectories of Cambodian Chinese entrepreneurship in Phnom Penh. How do entrepreneurs deploy notions of Chinese business? The author argues that Chinese family businesses, trust-based networks, patronage arrangements, and cultural representations have indeed been greatly revitalized over the last few decades, but that they also remain challenged in certain contexts. Moreover, such revitalization has taken a fundamentally different form from Willmott’s description. Practices of Chinese business can no longer be ascribed to an ethnic Chinese “community” in Phnom Penh. Rather, as the latter has become increasingly multiform, Chinese business has developed into a template at the deployment (or neglect of a broader category of Cambodian Chinese entrepreneurs.

  9. Adult Chinese as a Second Language Learners' Willingness to Communicate in Chinese: Effects of Cultural, Affective, and Linguistic Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meihua

    2017-06-01

    The present research explored the effects of cultural, affective, and linguistic variables on adult Chinese as a second language learners' willingness to communicate in Chinese. One hundred and sixty-two Chinese as a second language learners from a Chinese university answered the Willingness to Communicate in Chinese Scale, the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale, Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale, Chinese Learning Motivation Scale, Use of Chinese Profile, as well as the Background Questionnaire. The major findings were as follows: (1) the Willingness to Communicate in Chinese Scales were significantly negatively correlated with Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale but positively correlated with length of stay in China and (2) Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale was a powerful negative predictor for the overall willingness to communicate in Chinese and the Willingness to Communicate in Chinese Scales, followed by length of stay in China, Chinese Learning Motivation Scale, interaction attentiveness, and Chinese proficiency level. Apparently, students' willingness to communicate in Chinese is largely determined by their Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale level and length of stay in China, mediated by other variables such as Chinese proficiency level and intercultural communication sensitivity level.

  10. Writing Chinese and mathematics achievement: A study with Chinese-American undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chieh; Nuttall, Ronald

    2001-04-01

    Two recent studies indicated that writing Chinese is correlated to Chinese-American (CA) students' spatial skills. The current study investigated whether writing Chinese would have the same relationship to mathematics skills. The Scholastic Assessment Test—Mathematics (SAT-Math) scores were analysed for 150 CA undergraduates: 42 writers of Chinese and 108 non-writers of Chinese. The results suggested a strong correlation between writing Chinese and success on SAT-Math. An underlying mechanism may be the common cognitive components that encompass writing Chinese, spatial tasks, and SAT-Math. Contrary to previous findings with other populations in the USA, CA females scored slightly higher on SAT-Math than males. The finding supports the cultural relativity theory of gender difference on SAT-Math.

  11. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingshi; Zheng Baoshan; Wang Binbin; Li Shehong; Wu Daishe; Hu Jun

    2006-01-01

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0 ± 8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary > Early Jurassic > Late Triassic > Late Jurassic > Middle Jurassic > Late Permian > Early Carboniferous > Middle Carboniferous > Late Carboniferous > Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous > Anthracite > Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal

  12. Chinese, US scientists find new particle

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Chinese and US scientists have discovered a new particle at the Beijing Electron Position Collider, which is hard to be explained with any known particles, according to scientists from the Institute of High Energy Physics under the Chinese Academy of Sciences Wednesday" (1/2 page).

  13. Parenting the Chinese Way in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Echo H.; Hertberg-Davis, Holly

    2009-01-01

    This paper illustrates a case study on two Chinese American families with gifted children, and the major topic focuses on the influence of parenting beliefs and practices on children's talent development. In-depth interviews were employed to collect data from the Chinese parents who lived in America, and research questions include the daily…

  14. Chinese City Children and Youth's Walking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Minghui; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie; Wang, Chao

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although walking has been demonstrated as one of the best forms for promoting physical activity (PA), little is known about Chinese city children and youth's walking behavior. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess ambulatory PA behavior of Chinese city children and youth. Method: The daily steps of 2,751 children and youth…

  15. The changing Chinese SEA indicator guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone

    2014-01-01

    general trends in the development of SEA and other environmental policies in a recent, Chinese context. Beside a more top-down, intentional approach specifying indicators for different sectors based on Chinese experiences from the preceding years, another significant change, following the new guidelines...

  16. In the Names of Chinese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen Shu

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to both feminist scholarship and Chinese Studies by coming to grips with the deep, culturally embedded, and politically significant meaning of the names given to Chinese women. Uses the analysis of two names to advance theory that will link and enrich rhetorical, feminist, and intercultural studies and break through the limits of…

  17. Visual Arts and the Mandarin Chinese Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John B.

    1985-01-01

    The ways in which the Chinese have used the homophonic nature of their language to express abstractions in concrete terms, especially to express daily wishes, are described. In Chinese, a value is assigned to an object because the pronunciation of the word for the object brings that implied value to the mind of the listener; for instance, vase in…

  18. Factor Structure of the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wenjie; Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Yu, Bai; Tang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Yonghong; Li, Tingting; Yuen, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined the factorial invariance and functional equivalence of the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS) among the Chinese. Methods: A total of 839 undergraduate students completed the 240-item Simplified Chinese version of the VIA-IS online. Another 40 students participated in qualitative interviews to…

  19. Chinese Parenting Reconsideration: Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-mei; Luster, Tom

    This study examined authoritative and authoritarian parenting and specific parenting practices among Chinese mothers with preschoolers. The final sample consisted of 463 mothers with their 3 to 7 year-olds from 11 preschools, in Taiwan. Mothers completed a Chinese translation of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire that assessed their parenting…

  20. Learning Chinese Idioms through iPads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunsheng; Xie, Ying

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an action research study using iPads during the teaching of Chinese idioms to heritage learners. A class of 12 second-year Chinese learners were engaged in a self-generated learning process focused on learning abstract and concrete idioms using iPads. Students' short-term and long-term learning was measured; feedback from a…

  1. Chinese immigrants’ parental experiences in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    European Master in Social Work with Families and Children Existing empirical studies of parents in China found that this population presents features of authoritarian parenting style: greater parental demands and control together with lower parental responsiveness. However, when the investigation conducted on Chinese immigrants, parental practice is characterized as more authoritative style, combining high levels of controlling and responsiveness. Paradoxical findings between Chinese paren...

  2. The Chinese brain drain and policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, P; Deng, Z

    1992-01-01

    The authors discuss the growing problem caused by the increasing reluctance of Chinese receiving higher education overseas to return to China following completion of their studies. They note that the Tiananmen incident of June 1989 exacerbated this problem. The policy options open to the Chinese government are reviewed.

  3. Quality Assurance in Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Quality assurance has been integrated into the fabric of higher education in China, with the issue of quality in higher education--how to evaluate it and how to enhance it--now taking centre stage in Chinese higher education. In the past decade, the development of quality assurance in Chinese higher education has covered a broad spectrum of…

  4. Elements of a chinese language game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eliëns, A.P.W.; Mao, W; Vermeersch, L

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we elaborate on work presented at the Dutch crossmedia PICNIC festival, in a special symposium entitled: the China Language Bridge. We will discuss a number of online resources, including games, for learning the chinese language, including chinese characters which are also used in

  5. Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; McIntosh, H; Lin, Haili

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a serious health problem worldwide. Chinese medicinal herbs are widely used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in China and many clinical trials have been conducted. This systematic review is to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis...

  6. Application of isotopes in traditional Chinese medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Ling; Liu Ning; Yang Yuanyou; Mo Shangwu

    2006-01-01

    Modernization of traditional Chinese medicine necessitates many new or advanced methods. Among these methods, isotopes are considered to be a convenient, fast and feasible method. The recent advance of isotope's application to traditional Chinese medicine is reviewed. In addition, their present status, problems and prospect are discussed. (authors)

  7. EFFECTS OF CHINESE HERBS ON THE HEMAGGLUTINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    commonly employed therapeutic methods in TCM include Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture/moxibustion, diet therapy, mind/body exercises (Qigong and Tai Chi), and Tui Na (Chinese massage) (Lao, 1999). Herbal medicine has been an integral part of TCM for more than 2000 years. Many herbal formulations have ...

  8. Auspicious birth dates among Chinese in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Douglas; Chee, Christine Pal; Sviatschi, Maria Micaela; Zhong, Nan

    2015-07-01

    The number eight is considered lucky in Chinese culture, e.g. the Beijing Olympics began at 8:08 pm on 8/8/2008. Given the potential for discretion in selecting particular dates of labor induction or scheduled Cesarean section (C-section), we consider whether Chinese-American births in California occur disproportionately on the 8th, 18th, or 28th day of the month. We find 2.3% "too many" Chinese births on these auspicious birth dates, whereas Whites show no corresponding increase. The increase in Chinese births is driven by higher parity C-sections: the number of repeat C-sections is 6% "too high" on auspicious birth dates. Sons born to Chinese parents account for the entire increase; daughter deliveries do not seem to be timed to achieve "lucky" birth dates. We also find avoidance of repeat C-section deliveries on the 4th, 14th, and 24th of the month, considered unlucky in Chinese culture. Finally, we replicate earlier work finding that Friday the 13th delivery dates are avoided and document a particularly large decrease among Chinese. For Whites and Chinese in California, mothers with higher levels of education are particularly likely to avoid delivering on the 13th. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Thesaurus Dataset of Educational Technology in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linjing; Liu, Qingtang; Zhao, Gang; Huang, Huan; Huang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The thesaurus dataset of educational technology is a knowledge description of educational technology in Chinese. The aims of this thesaurus were to collect the subject terms in the domain of educational technology, facilitate the standardization of terminology and promote the communication between Chinese researchers and scholars from various…

  10. The Sign System in Chinese Landscape Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Cliff G.

    2003-01-01

    Paintings emerge from a culture field and must be interpreted in relation to the net of culture. A given culture will be implicated by the sign system used by the painter. Everyone agrees that in Chinese landscape paintings, the most important cultural bond is to ancient Chinese Taoism, and to a lesser degree, to Confucianism. Obviously, then, the…

  11. The History of Modern Chinese Grammar Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peverelli, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses the way Chinese scholars developed a national grammar. Chinese didnt develop grammar until Chinas contact with Western grammar books in the 19th Century. The first indigenous grammar was published in 1889. It included some traditional notions, but mainly imitated European

  12. Chinese University EFL Teachers' Perceptions of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jun; Hu, Guangwei

    2015-01-01

    Although Chinese university students' perceptions of plagiarism have been extensively investigated, those of their teachers have been surprisingly under-researched. This study sought to address this gap by investigating 112 Chinese university English teachers' knowledge of and attitudes towards plagiarism. While 57 participating teachers had…

  13. Topic Prominence in Chinese EFL Learners' Interlanguage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaopeng; Yang, Lianrui

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the general characteristics of topicprominent typological interlanguage development of Chinese learners of English in terms of acquiring subject-prominent English structures from a discourse perspective. Topic structures mainly appear in Chinese discourse in the form of topic chains (Wang, 2002; 2004). The…

  14. 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’13, held in Yangzhou, China. The topics include e.g. adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, and reconfigurable control. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry, and government can gain an inside view of new solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent automation.   Zengqi Sun and Zhidong Deng are professors at the Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, China.

  15. 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’13, held in Yangzhou, China. The topics include e.g. adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, and reconfigurable control. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry, and government can gain an inside view of new solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent automation. Zengqi Sun and Zhidong Deng are professors at the Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, China.

  16. The Chinese Communist Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Jesus . means of waging war as to be noncompetitive with Hung, a son of God, was the third member of the the West. The Bannerman archers were helpless in...to speak of the effectiveness of naval bom - Yung-an and there declared Hung Hsiu-ch’uan the bardment of Chinese cities. The Treaty of Nanking T’ien...compound by phoning her that her daughter immediately recognizing the Red Guards as aimed was in the hospital . The group was riding high at the at him and

  17. Cyber Security: US - Chinese Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Debnárová, Barbora

    2015-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with cyber relation of the United States of America and the People's republic of China. The aim of this diploma thesis is to answer the following questions: What kind of cyber threat for the United States does China represent? How is China's cyber strategy characterised? How do USA react on this threat and what are the gaps in this reaction? The thesis is divided into four chapters. The first chapter deals with definition of cyberwarfare and its perception in Chinese...

  18. Assessing shyness in Chinese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kee-Lee

    2005-09-01

    The Shyness Scale (SS) is a brief instrument for assessing shyness as a personality trait. The psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the SS were investigated in a random sample of 192 Macau Chinese older adults. The Chinese version of the SS possesses high internal consistency and exhibited satisfactory short-term test-retest reliability. The Chinese version of the SS exhibited acceptable convergent validity with other negative measures of psychological well-being including negative emotional states (assessed by the Negative Affect Scale), loneliness (assessed by the UCLA Loneliness Scale), and state anxiety and trait anxiety (assessed by STAI). The divergent validity of the Chinese version of the SS was demonstrated by the negative but significant association between the SS and self esteem (assessed by Rosenberg Self Esteem Inventory).

  19. Exploring Mobile Technologies for Learning Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to reveal how learners of Chinese as a foreign language use mobile technology to study Chinese outside the classroom. Researchers used sociocultural perspectives to frame the study and grounded theory to analyze data. Eleven English-speaking students who had learned Chinese for different years at a midwestern university participated in the study. They answered 23 major questions by submitting journal entries and participating in an interview. Compared with computer assisted language learning, mobile devices bring changes to tutorial functions, social computing, and gaming. Participants heavily explored tutorial functions, used mobile devices differently from computers for social computing, and showed interest in gaming. Although participants were enthusiastic about using mobile devices to learn Chinese, the number of applications they used and the variety of activities they engaged in were limited. Findings suggest that the effective incorporation of mobile devices to learn Chinese depends on collaboration and scaffolding

  20. Media Development with Chinese Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iginio Gagliardone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese authorities often frame their activities in the development sector as distinctive from those pursued by Western donors by stressing that they are not seeking to export a specific model but simply to help countries reach their potential. This demand-driven approach has applied to old and new development areas, from education to Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs, and has appeared fairly consistent across countries. This pledge, however, has not meant that Chinese aid is neutral or without significant political implications. China’s concessionary loans and support to development projects have tended to shift balances of power by favouring certain actors over others and have challenged existing development paradigms, revitalizing ideas of the developmental state. Building on fieldwork conducted in Ghana, Ethiopia, and Kenya this article explains to which extent China’s entrance in the media and telecommunication sector actually challenges the dominant, Western-driven approaches to media development, promoting a state centred vision of the information society.

  1. The Learning of Chinese Idioms through Multimedia Storytelling Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ee Hui; Hew, Soon Hin; Choo, Siew Hwa

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the growth of China has successfully boosted the Chinese language to be studied by people from different language-speaking societies. The Chinese language has become the most preferred second or third language among non-Chinese native novices due to the great development of China and global economic change. The Chinese idiom is…

  2. Misrepresenting Chinese Folk Happiness: A Critique of a Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Po-Keung

    2013-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. A recent study on Chinese folk happiness using qualitative method seems to provide some empirical findings beyond anecdotal evidence on Chinese folk happiness. This paper critically examines the study's constructed image of Chinese folk happiness,…

  3. Cultural Resources Survey and Testing Along Ditch 19 and Extensive Testing of 23DU289, Dunklin and Stoddard Counties, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-30

    Carya illinoensis ) 1 1 Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) T 2 2 Pl.um (Prunus sp.) T Red Haw (Crataegus sp.) T 1 11 Red Mulberry (Morus rubra) T...2 Cherry (Prunus sp.) T Cottonwood (Populus sp.) 1 3 Dogwood (Cornus sp.) 1 Hackberry (Celtus occidentalis) 12 9 Hickory, ( Carya sp.) 5 4 Shellhark... Carya laciniosa) T Hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) 2 Kentucky Coffee Tree( Gymnoeladus dioica)T Locust, T Black (Robinia pseudo-acacia) T Honey

  4. [Comments on "A practical dictionary of Chinese medicine" by Wiseman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Feng-li

    2006-02-01

    At least 24 Chinese-English dictionaries of Chinese Medicine have been published in China during the recent 24 years (1984-2003). This thesis comments on "A Practical Dictionary of Chinese Medicine" by Wiseman, agreeing on its establishing principles, sources and formation methods of the English system of Chinese medical terminology, and pointing out the defect. The author holds that study on the origin and development of TCM terms, standardization of Chinese medical terms in different layers, i.e. Chinese medical in classic, in commonly used modern TCM terms, and integrative medical texts, are prerequisites to the standardization of English translation of Chinese medical terms.

  5. Chinese coal supply and future production outlooks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jianliang; Feng, Lianyong; Davidsson, Simon; Höök, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    China's energy supply is dominated by coal, making projections of future coal production in China important. Recent forecasts suggest that Chinese coal production may reach a peak in 2010–2039 but with widely differing peak production levels. The estimated URR (ultimately recoverable resources) influence these projections significantly, however, widely different URR-values were used due to poor understanding of the various Chinese coal classification schemes. To mitigate these shortcomings, a comprehensive investigation of this system and an analysis of the historical evaluation of resources and reporting issues are performed. A more plausible URR is derived, which indicates that many analysts underestimate volumes available for exploitation. Projections based on the updated URR using a modified curve-fitting model indicate that Chinese coal production could peak as early as 2024 at a maximum annual production of 4.1 Gt. By considering other potential constraints, it can be concluded that peak coal in China appears inevitable and immediate. This event can be expected to have significant impact on the Chinese economy, energy strategies and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions reduction strategies. - Highlights: • Review of Chinese coal geology and resources/reserves. • Presentation of the Chinese coal classification system. • Forecasting future Chinese coal production using Hubbert curves. • Critical comparison with other forecasts. • Discussions transportation, environmental impact, water consumption, etc

  6. [Study on incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xin-sheng; Duan, Jin-ao; Hua, Hao-ming; Qian, Da-wei; Shang, Er-xin; Guo, Jian-ming

    2015-04-01

    The incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines is related to the clinical medication safety, so has attracted wide attentions from the public. With the deepening of studies on the incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines represented by 18 incompatible herbs, the incompatibility of theory traditional Chinese medicines has raised to new heights. From the origin of incompatibility theory of traditional Chinese medicines, relationship of herbs, harms of incompatible herbs and principle of prevention to toxic effects of specific incompatible medicines, the innovation and development of the traditional Chinese medicine incompatibility theory was explored. Structurally, the incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines refers to the opposition of two herbs based on seven emotions and clinical experience. The combination of incompatible herbs may lead to human harms, especially latent harm and inefficacy of intervention medicines. The avoidance of the combination of incompatible herbs and the consideration of both symptoms and drug efficacy are the basic method to prevent adverse reactions. The recent studies have revealed five characteristics of incompatible herbs. Toxicity potentiation, toxication, efficacy reduction and inefficacy are the four manifestations of the incompatible relations. The material changes can reflect the effects of toxicity potentiation and toxication of opposite herbs. The accumulation of toxicity and metabolic changes are the basis for latent harms. The antagonistic effect of main efficacies and the coexistence of positive and negative effects are the distinctive part of the incompatibility. The connotation of incompatible herbs plays an important role in the innovation of the traditional Chinese medicine incompatibility theory.

  7. Precedent Names of Chinese National Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Валентина Алексеевна Ленинцева

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of precedent names as symbols of precedent phenomena in the material and spiritual culture of the Chinese. An evaluation of daily events and the attitude of the Chinese towards the world are reflected in the vocabulary of their language. The symbols of precedent phenomena can be proper names (anthroponomy, names of places, the date, as well as figurative and expressive means of language (idioms, sayings. Precedent names as symbols of precedent phenomena vividly and accurately capture the above-mentioned points, and encompass almost all spheres of life, history and spiritual development. The subject of our study are national precedent phenomena that define the ethno-cultural specificity, reflecting the history and culture of the Chinese people and their national character. Representatives of different cultures have different perceptions of the same precedent phenomena. Inadequate understanding of national invariants of precedent phenomena is often the source of communication failures. The aim of this paper is to highlight precedent names as a symbol of precedent phenomena in the discourse of the Chinese linguocultural community. For this purpose a classification of precedent names in Chinese was carried out. Precedent names which play an important role in shaping the Chinese national consciousness were taken from the Chinese-Russian Dictionary.

  8. Chinese climate policy - Institutions and intent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, William C.; Lesourne, Jacques

    2011-06-01

    Until the late 1990's, the balance of Chinese energy production and consumption was treated by the rest of the world as a net figure. No one knew what was going on inside the Chinese economy - it was a black box. As far as anyone was concerned, the Chinese would not soon be a major factor in world energy markets. Energy policy-makers realized how totally blind they were in 2004 when Chinese electricity production could not keep up with internal demand and the world experienced a surge in liquids demand as Chinese entrepreneurs fired up generator sets across the economy. No country has confronted the need to collect data and formulate coherent policy for nearly a billion and a half consumers. A number of institutional arrangements have succeeded each other until now, when stronger energy policy and administrative functions of the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) are gaining traction. NDRC vice-chairman Zhang Guobao has maintained a steady hand on Chinese energy-policy evolution for several years - overseeing the increasing coherence of Chinese domestic and international energy policy - but the tension with powerful state enterprises and other vested interests still effectively defies efforts to truly centralize Chinese national-level energy policy and program authority. This study identifies the nature of the forces that drive or constrain change within China's energy sector, and explores the Chinese approach to climate change. Contents: 1. The Institutions of Energy Governance in china. 2. China's Foreign Energy Policy. 3. China's position and policy on climate change

  9. A grand Chinese climate scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetken, S.E.

    2010-11-15

    This article analyses Chinese climate policies and initiatives and argues that China can, and should, be seen as a climate 'champion' that has the potential to change the current market situation both for carbon credits and clean energy technologies. At COP15, China made an 'unconditional' commitment to reduce its carbon emission intensity by 40-45% below 2005 levels by 2020, thus breaking away from its traditional stance of non-commitment in global climate negotiations. While the boldness of this emissions intensity target is debated, it is clear that it stands to radically change China's approach to, and benefit from, the CDM. Specifically, it can no longer be assumed that China will find it beneficial to export its CERs - indeed she is well positioned to withdraw her credits from the market. Such a move would serve a double purpose: it would help China meet its domestic intensity target by jump-starting a domestic Chinese carbon market; and it could create a credit shortage in the global carbon market, particularly if China can convince her allies in Brazil and India to follow suit, thus forcing particularly Europe to increase investments in renewable energy technology to replace emissions reductions that so far, through the CDM, have been created abroad. As China over the past few years has developed a significant renewable energy industry, she would, by withdrawing the credits, expand the market for her own technology. Yet another thought-provoking development is that state-owned Chinese developers have already expanded their activities in the African renewable energy sector by entering cooperation agreements with local power corporations and implementing hydro and other renewable energy projects. From here China could continue to be engaged in supplying CERs to a primarily European market, where she has in this scenario herself induced a credit shortage that may send carbon prices soaring and lead to a scramble for CERs from African

  10. Critical Discourse Analysis on Chinese Racial Pride Underlying the Malaysian National Identity in "Proud to Be Born a Chinese"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyn, Khoo Wei; Ganapathy, Malini

    2016-01-01

    The ideology of Chinese racial pride in an online essay "Proud to be born a Chinese" by Dr. Chan-Lui Lee is described and analysed by using the sociocognitive approach to critical discourse analysis (CDA). The research design is based on the notion that Chinese racial pride is a tool to persuade Chinese Malaysians to prioritise their…

  11. The Influence of Chinese Character Handwriting Diagnosis and Remedial Instruction System on Learners of Chinese as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Chang, Cheng-Sian; Chen, Chiao-Jia; Wu, Chia-Hou; Lin, Chien-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study designed and developed a Chinese character handwriting diagnosis and remedial instruction (CHDRI) system to improve Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) learners' ability to write Chinese characters. The CFL learners were given two tests based on the CHDRI system. One test focused on Chinese character handwriting to diagnose the CFL…

  12. [Development and validation of the Chinese version of modified body imgae scale in Chinese population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X X; Zhu, L; Yu, S J; Xu, T

    2018-02-25

    Objective: To develop the Chinese version of modified body image scale (MBIS) questionnaires, and to validate them in Chinese population. Methods: The original English MBIS questionnaire was translated into Chinese, following the WHO cross-cultural adaptation of health-related quality of life measures. The reliability and validity of the Chinese version of MBIS questionnaires were evaluated in Chinese population, MRKH syndrome patients. Results: Totally 50 patients with MRKH syndrome completed the MBIS and short-form 12-item health survey (SF-12) questionnaires. The Cronbach's alpha of MBIS was 0.741, intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.472-0.815 ( PChinese version of MBIS has high reliability and validity in Chinese population, therefore is suitable for clinic and research.

  13. Chinese life cycle impact assessment factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jianxin; Nielsen, Per Henning

    2001-01-01

    The methodological basis and procedures for determination of Chinese normalization references and weighting factors according to the EDIP-method is described. According to Chinese industrial development intensity and population density, China was divided into three regions and the normalization...... was determined as the normalization reference (ER ( j)90) divided by society's target contribution in the year 2000 abased on Chinese political reduction plans, ER ( j)(T2000). This paper presents and discuss results obtained for eight different environmental impact categories relevant for China: global warming...

  14. Artemisinin, a miracle of traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ling Yi; Tan, Ren Xiang

    2015-12-19

    The 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, shared by Professor Youyou Tu, focused worldwide attention on artemisinin, a natural product antimalarial drug inspired by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This is the first Nobel Prize in natural sciences presented to a Chinese scientist for her impactful research work in China in collaboration with other Chinese scientists. We are delighted to provide the background and implications of the discovery of artemisinin, along with our personal viewpoints toward the affordability of modern medicines from natural products.

  15. Chinese Martial Arts in the Republican Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Acevedo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During the beginning of the XXth century, China suffered attacks from foreign powers causing the lost of parts of its territory as well as a challenge to its national pride. The traditional Chinese martial arts were unable to defeat the tactics and modern weaponry that China’s enemies had in their arsenal. Despite the overwhelming odds, the Chinese forces made use of their ingenuity and adapted the ancient weapons and fighting skills succeeding to some extent in slowing down the enemy’s advance. This period witnessed the last time cold weapons would play an important role in modern Chinese warfare.

  16. Chinese legal texts – Quantitative Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľuboš GAJDOŠ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to provide a quantitative description of legal Chinese. This study adopts the approach of corpus-based analyses and it shows basic statistical parameters of legal texts in Chinese, namely the length of a sentence, the proportion of part of speech etc. The research is conducted on the Chinese monolingual corpus Hanku. The paper also discusses the issues of statistical data processing from various corpora, e.g. the tokenisation and part of speech tagging and their relevance to study of registers variation.

  17. Chinese herbal medicine for diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Zhang, Yin; Li, Xinxue; Yang, Guoyan; Liu, Jian Ping

    2013-10-06

    Chinese herbal medicine is frequently used for treating diabetic peripheral neuropathy in China. Many controlled trials have been undertaken to investigate its efficacy.This is an update of a Cochrane review that was first published in the year 2011. To assess the beneficial effects and harms of Chinese herbal medicine for people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. On 14 May 2012, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register CENTRAL (2012, Issue 4 in The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (January 1966 to May 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2012), AMED (January 1985 to May 2012) and in October 2012, the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1979 to October 2012), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI) (1979 to October 2012), and VIP Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database (1989 to October 2012). We searched for unpublished literature in the Chinese Conference Papers Database, and Chinese Dissertation Database (from inception to October 2012). There were no language or publication restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicine (with a minimum of four weeks treatment duration) for people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions. Trials of herbal medicine plus a conventional drug versus the drug alone were also included. Two authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. We contacted study authors for additional information. Forty-nine randomised trials involving 3639 participants were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Thirty-eight different herbal medicines were tested in these trials, including four single herbs (extracts from a single herb), eight traditional Chinese patent medicines, and 26 self concocted Chinese herbal compound prescriptions. The trials reported on global symptom improvement (including improvement in numbness or pain) and changes in nerve conduction

  18. Analysis of Chinese porcelains and ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gihwala, D.; Vos, H.N.

    1985-01-01

    Trace and minor components in fragments of northern Chinese porselains and the poorly-known southern Chinese porcellaneous ware from excavations in the south-western Cape were determined non-destructively by PIXE in the glazes and in the body material. Correspondence analysis of the analytical data showed that the Chinese glazes, though different from that of English specimens, could not be differentiated. The analysis of the body material enabled the northern porcelains and some of the southern ceramics to be distinguished, but some southern porcellaneous ware could not be grouped separately

  19. Chinese librarianship in the digital era

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Conghui

    2013-01-01

    The library in China has been transformed by rapid socioeconomic development, and the proliferation of the Internet. The issues faced by Chinese libraries andlibrarians are those faced by library practitioners more globally, however, China also has its own unique set of issues in the digital era, including developmental imbalance between East and West, urban and rural areas, and availability of skilled practitioners. Chinese Librarianship in the Digital Era is the first book on Chinese libraries responding to these issues, and more.The first part of the book places discussion in historical con

  20. Chinese Traditional Philosophy and Indigenous Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on three key notions of Chinese traditional philosophy, i.e., Zhongyong, Yin Yang, and Wu, pointing out the possible mistakes in Prof. Peter Ping Li's arguments as well as some questions that are often neglected and taken for granted. The author posits, Chinese traditional...... philosophy is a system of thought distinct from the Western philosophy; while the Western philosophy is mainly concerned about the True, i.e., the objective knowledge of the world, the aim of Chinese traditional philosophy is the pursuit of the Good, i.e., the unification of heaven and human....