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Sample records for persian gulf superpower

  1. Environmental emergency in Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanini, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper gives an environmental damage report for the Kuwait-Persian Gulf area that has been affected by the Gulf War oil well fires and the release of oil into the sea. The report was prepared by members of an ENEA (Italian Commission for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment)/Friends of the Earth scientific mission whose aim was to assess the damage to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and to develop short and long terms programs of damage containment and environmental restoration. With regard to shore-line clean-up operations, the mission noted the scarce use of manpower, 500 versus 11,000 for the Exxon Valdez spill. Seventy-five per cent of the surface of Kuwait has been covered with a fine spray of petroleum and ashes borne by turbulent winds. Efforts are being made to establish a climate model, which would take into account the effects of the altered environmental conditions, to forecast the local transport of the pollutants

  2. Energy partnership: Israel and the Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, G.

    2005-01-01

    In the early 2003, American troops toppled the regime of Saddam Hussein in Iraq. Few weeks later, President Bush introduced his vision to solve the Arab-Israeli conflict in what is known as the 'road map'. These interrelated developments confirm the connection between the two Middle-Eastern sub-systems--the Persian Gulf and the Levant and provide an opportunity to achieve a comprehensive peace. Regional economic cooperation is seen as the sine qua non of a durable peace. This study examines the potential for an energy partnership between the Persian Gulf hydrocarbon producers and Israel

  3. Energy partnership: Israel and the Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, G.

    2005-01-01

    In early 2003, American troops toppled the regime of Saddam Hussein in Iraq. Few weeks later, President Bush introduced his vision to solve the Arab-Israeli conflict in what is known as the ''road map''. These interrelated developments confirm the connection between the two Middle-Eastern sub-systems-the Persian Gulf and the Levant and provide an opportunity to achieve a comprehensive peace. Regional economic cooperation is seen as the sine qua non of a durable peace. This study examines the potential for an energy partnership between the Persian Gulf hydrocarbon producers and Israel. (author)

  4. Epidemiological Studies Persian Gulf War Illnesses Persian Gulf Women's Health Linkage Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klemm, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    The Persian Gulf Women's Health Linkage Study will provide baseline health and risk factor information to estimate the prevalence of selected health conditions, with an emphasis on reproductive health...

  5. Survey to assess Persian Gulf spill effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that an international group is poised for an extensive survey of the Persian Gulf, including an assessment of the long term effects of last year's oil spill, a legacy of the Persian Gulf war. Saudi Arabia plans a $450 million cleanup program on beaches fouled by the massive spill. Plans for the survey were disclosed by the United National Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco). It is to be carried out under the auspices of the Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment (Ropme), Unesco's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Ropme member countries are Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates

  6. Patterns of Illness and Care Before Deployment to the Persian Gulf War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Richard

    2001-01-01

    ...) Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation Program (CCEP) upon returning from the Persian Gulf War have patterns of illness and medical care seeking during the year prior to deployment to the Persian Gulf that differ from those of comparison groups of Army...

  7. Patterns of Illness and Care Before Deployment to the Persian Gulf War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Richard

    2002-01-01

    ...) Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation Program (CCEP) upon returning from the Persian Gulf War have patterns of illness and medical care seeking during the year prior to deployment to the Persian Gulf that differ from those of comparison groups of Army...

  8. Astronaut observations of the Persian (Arabian) Gulf during STS-45

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackleson, Steven G.; Pitts, David E.; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Reynolds, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    As a result of the 1991 Persian Gulf war, between mid-January and June 1991, the Persian Gulf was contaminated with an estimated 4 to 6 million barrels of crude oil, released directly into the Gulf from refinement facilities, transhipment terminals, and moored tankers along the coast of Kuwait, and precipitated from oil fire smoke plumes. To assess the environmental impact of the oil, an international team of marine scientists representing 14 nations was assembled under the auspices of the United Nations International Oceanic Commission and the Regional Organization for Protection of the Marine Environment to conduct detailed surveys of the Persian Gulf, the Strait of Hormuz, and the Gulf of Oman, including hydrographic, chemical, and biological measurements. To supplement the field surveys and to serve as an aid in data interpretation, astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis photographed water features and coastal habitats in the Persian Gulf during mission STS-45 (24 March to 02 April 1992). The astronauts collected 111 hand-held, color photographs of the Gulf (72 70-mm photographs and 39 5-inch photographs) from an altitude of 296 km (160 n.mi.). The photographs reveal distributions in water turbidity associated with outflow from the Shatt-al-Arab and water circulation along the entire coast of Iran and the Strait of Hormuz, coastal wetlands and shallow-water habitats, and sticks appearing in the sunglint pattern, which appear to be oil.

  9. 75 FR 70162 - Presumptive Service Connection for Diseases Associated With Persian Gulf War Service: Functional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Diseases Associated With Persian Gulf War Service: Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders AGENCY: Department... theater of operations during the Persian Gulf War. DATES: Comments must be received by VA on or before... Service Connection for Diseases Associated With Persian Gulf War Service: Functional Gastrointestinal...

  10. 77 FR 64597 - Proposed Information Collection (Survey of Chronic Gastrointestinal Illness in Persian Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... of Chronic Gastrointestinal Illness in Persian Gulf Veterans (Irritable Bowel Syndrome--Diarrhea... information needed to evaluate chronic gastrointestinal disorders in Persian Gulf War Veterans. DATES: Written... Gastrointestinal Illness in Persian Gulf Veterans, VA Form 10-21092c. OMB Control Number: 2900-0742. Type of Review...

  11. 78 FR 6404 - Agency Information Collection (Survey of Chronic Gastrointestinal Illness in Persian Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... of Chronic Gastrointestinal Illness in Persian Gulf Veterans) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY.... Survey of Chronic Gastrointestinal Illness in Persian Gulf Veterans, VA Form 10-21092a. b. VA Research...: Approximately 25 percent military troops who were deployed in the first Persian Gulf War returned with...

  12. Sea surface temperature and Ekman transport in the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. H.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available   The wind drift motion of the water which is produced by the stress of the wind exerted upon the surface of the ocean is described by Ekmans theory (1905. Using the mean monthly values for the wind stress and SST, seasonal Ekman transport for the Persian Gulf was computed and contoured. The geostrophic winds have combined with the SST to estimate the effect of cooling due to Ekman transport of colder northern waters and inflow from the Oman Sea. The monthly SST mainly obtained from the 10 10 grided data of Levitus atlas and Hormuz Cruis Experiment for 1997.   Analyses show a NW to SE Ekman transport due to wind stress and significant interannual variability of SST on sea surface in the Persian Gulf. The seasonal variation of SST shows a continental pattern due to severe interaction between the land and sea. But these variations somehow moderates because of Ekman transport in Persian Gulf.

  13. Oil and gas, strategic regional cooperation between Persian Gulf countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalloi, Mir Mahdi

    2010-09-15

    Almost two-thirds of proven oil and a third of world natural gas resources are in the Persian Gulf countries. Unfortunately strategic region of Persian Gulf in the past three decades faced with many security challenges due to wars and political conflicts. For security in this region, there are several methods such as military treaties between regional countries or Military presence of foreign countries, but historical evidence has shown, none of them could not guarantee the stable security in this region. The regional cooperation between countries can be replaced to mentioned methods. IPI Gas pipeline is an objective sample for this regional cooperation.

  14. Anticancer and cytotoxic compounds from seashells of the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Nabipour

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pre-clinical studies for isolation and purification of marine compounds continued at an active pace since the last decade. Today, more than 60% of the anticancer drugs commercially available are of naturally origin thus the sea is a very favorable bed for the discovery of novel anticancer agents. Methods: A total of known 611 seashells species in the Persian Gulf were investigated for synonymy in OBIS database. Then, all the species, including their synonymy were searched in PubMed databse to find their isolated bioactive agents. Results: From 611 known seashells in the Persian Gulf, 172 genera/species had bioactive compounds. Anticancer agents were isolated and purified for 8 genera. These compounds had various structures they were polypeptide, polysaccharide, glycoprotein, alkaloid, cerebroside, and cembranoid which had different mechanism of actions including induction of apoptosis, destroying the skeletal structures of the cells, immune bioactivity and inhibition of topoisomerase I. Spisulosine is the only anticancer agent which is currently under clinical trial. Conclusions: Although, the known seashells from the Persian Gulf have potential anticancer and cytotoxic compounds but a very few investigations had been reported. Further investigations for isolation and purification on bioactive compounds from seashells of the Persian Gulf is recommended.

  15. The problems of the Arabian-Persian gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrousse, H.

    2004-01-01

    The origin of the problems of the Arabian-Persian gulf is the delimitation of the maritime borders between the different bordering states and the exploitation rights of the offshore fields. Despite some bilateral agreements, the non-ratification by two bordering states of the United Nations convention on sea rights, deprives some negotiations of any legal framework. The Hormuz strait, the only opening of the gulf towards the Indian ocean, is tightly controlled by maritime powers which will never accept any interference with the maritime circulation in this pathway of considerable importance for petroleum transportation and for the world economy. (J.S.)

  16. Mass coral bleaching in the northern Persian Gulf, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Kavousi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Coral bleaching events due to elevated temperatures are increasing in both frequency and magnitude worldwide. Mass bleaching was recorded at five sites in the northern Persian Gulf during August and September 2012. Based on available seawater temperature data from field, satellite and previous studies, we suggest that the coral bleaching threshold temperature in the northern Persian Gulf is between 33.5 and 34°C, which is about 1.5 to 2.5°C lower than that in the southern part. To assess the bleaching effects, coral genera counted during 60-minute dives were categorized into four groups including healthy, slightly bleached ( 50% bleached tissue and fully bleached colonies. The anomalously high sea surface temperature resulted in massive coral bleaching (~84% coral colonies affected. Acropora spp. colonies, which are known as the most vulnerable corals to thermal stress, were less affected by the bleaching than massive corals, such as Porites, which are among the most thermo-tolerant corals. Turbid waters, suggested as coral refugia against global warming, did not protect corals in this study since most affected corals were found in the most turbid waters. The 2012 bleaching in the northern Persian Gulf was relatively strong from the viewpoint of coral bleaching severity. Long-term monitoring is needed to understand the actual consequences of the bleaching event on the coral reefs and communities.

  17. First record of two hard coral species (Faviidae and Siderastreidae from Qeshm Island (Persian Gulf, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD SHARIF RANJBAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Moradi M, Kamrani E, Shokri MR, Ranjbar MS, Hesni MA (2009 First record of two hard coral species (Faviidae and Siderastreidae from Qeshm Island (Persian Gulf, Iran. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 34-37. Two species of hard corals including Cyphastrea chalcidicum (Forskal 1775 (Faviidae and Coscinaraea monile (Forskal 1775 (Siderastreidae were collected from the south of Qeshm Island (Persian Gulf, Iran in the late of 2008. These species were previously reported from southern Persian Gulf, Gulf of Aden, Southeast Africa and Indo-Pacific. The literature review on the distribution of these two species revealed that these species were firstly recorded from the Persian Gulf. These findings further emphasize the high diversity of coral fauna in the Iranian waters of the northern Persian Gulf.

  18. Carbon emissions from the Persian Gulf countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shatti, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The wealth of indigenous oil resources has largely determined the economic and energy use patterns in the member countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Sizable profits accrued from the inflation of world oil prices spurred tremendous economic growth across the Gulf during the 1970s. The GCC nations channeled this oil wealth into the rapid development of infrastructure and the creation of super-welfare states. Today, these highly affluent societies enjoy benefits ranging from free medical care, schooling and housing to subsidized electricity and gasoline supplies. The combination of great personal prosperity, abundant petroleum resources and highly subsidized energy prices has led to excessive energy use in the Gulf nations. These countries consume among the highest amounts of energy per capita in the world. Correspondingly, these nations generate among the highest levels of energy-related carbon per capita

  19. Reproduction of Persian Gulf anemone fish (Amphiprion clarkii) in captive system

    OpenAIRE

    Javad Sahandi

    2011-01-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the reproduction of Persian Gulf anemone fish,Amphiprion clarkii (Bennett, 1830), in captive conditions with artificial features. Persian Gulf, havinggood relation with Indian Ocean, is one of the important niches of fishes and the specific position ofthis Gulf makes its fishes popular. The yellow tail clown fish which originates to this gulf has the bestsurvival rate and health than the other areas. Live food is the most important factor in product...

  20. 38 CFR 21.5053 - Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf War).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf War). 21.5053 Section 21.5053 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Participation § 21.5053 Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf War...

  1. Offshore oil spill recovery operations in the Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, H.D.; Gangsaas, G.K.

    1993-01-01

    On or about January 25, 1991, Iraqi forces in Kuwait discharged more than 4 million barrels of Kuwait crude oil into the Persian Gulf. The counterclockwise current carried the resulting slick southeastward along the coast of Saudi Arabia. The Saudi Arabian oil company, Aramco, chartered the multiclassed tanker and response vessel Al Waasit, based in Dubai, to assist in the offshore recovery operation. The Al Waasit's response resulted in the offshore recovery of about 100,000 barrels of oil during a 42-day period, without a recovery system failure. The authors both served on board Al Waasit as operations managers during this response operation

  2. Estimating hydrologic budgets for six Persian Gulf watersheds, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Majid; Ghafouri, Mohammad; Tabatabaei, MahmoudReza; Goodarzi, Masoud; Mokarian, Zeinab

    2017-10-01

    Estimation of the major components of the hydrologic budget is important for determining the impacts on the water supply and quality of either planned or proposed land management projects, vegetative changes, groundwater withdrawals, and reservoir management practices and plans. As acquisition of field data is costly and time consuming, models have been created to test various land use practices and their concomitant effects on the hydrologic budget of watersheds. To simulate such management scenarios realistically, a model should be able to simulate the individual components of the hydrologic budget. The main objective of this study is to perform the SWAT2012 model for estimation of hydrological budget in six subbasin of Persian Gulf watershed; Golgol, Baghan, Marghab Shekastian, Tangebirim and Daragah, which are located in south and south west of Iran during 1991-2009. In order to evaluate the performance of the model, hydrological data, soil map, land use map and digital elevation model (DEM) are obtained and prepared for each catchment to run the model. SWAT-CUP with SUFI2 program was used for simulation, uncertainty and validation with 95 Percent Prediction Uncertainty. Coefficient of determination ( R 2) and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NS) were used for evaluation of the model simulation results. Comparison of measured and predicted values demonstrated that each component of the model gave reasonable output and that the interaction among components was realistic. The study has produced a technique with reliable capability for annual and monthly water budget components in Persian Gulf watershed.

  3. Functional composition of Chaetodon butterflyfishes at a peripheral and extreme coral reef location, the Persian Gulf

    KAUST Repository

    Pratchett, Morgan S.; Hoey, Andrew; Feary, David A.; Bauman, Andrew G.; Burt, John A.; Riegl, Bernhard M.

    2013-01-01

    composition of butterflyfishes in the Persian Gulf, Musandam Peninsula, and Gulf of Oman. Only five species of butterflyfishes were recorded during this study, and mostly just in the Gulf of Oman. Unlike most locations in the Indo-Pacific where butterflyfish

  4. 75 FR 13051 - Presumptions of Service Connection for Persian Gulf Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... response to ``RIN 2900-AN24--Presumptions of Service Connection for Persian Gulf Service.'' Copies of...) Cardiovascular signs or symptoms. (12) Abnormal weight loss. (13) Menstrual disorders. (c) Presumptive service...

  5. The Future of the U.S. Navy in the Persian Gulf

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Austin

    2004-01-01

    This thesis analyzes a range of possible future scenarios governing security conditions in the Persian Gulf, in order to determine future requirements for forward-deployed Naval forces in the region...

  6. The Persian Gulf States: Issues for U.S. Policy, 2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    The U.S.-led war to overthrow Saddam Hussein has virtually ended Iraq's ability to militarily threaten the region, but it has produced new and unanticipated security challenges for the Persian Gulf states...

  7. Seasonal spreading of the Persian Gulf water mass in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Prasad, T.G.; Ikeda, M.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    The characteristics of the subsurface salinity maximum associated with the Persian Gulf Water mass (PGW) are used to quantify the spreading and mixing of PGW in the thermocline of the Arabian Sea based on a bimonthly climatology of temperature...

  8. Three years on: the Persian Gulf oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation (OPRC) was adopted in November 1990 to establish an international system for co-operating in dealing with major oil pollution incidents. Barely two months later, as this article shows, just such an incident occurred in the Persian Gulf. Although it was not yet in force, the existence of the Convention enabled IMO to co-ordinate international counter-measures which helped to minimize the full extent of the spill and saved many sensitive ecological areas from serious damage. The incident helped to demonstrate the value of the Convention - but it will be even more effective when it is in force. To achieve this, the Convention has to be accepted by 15 countries. By 1 January 1994 it had been accepted by 10 - Australia, Egypt, Finland, France, Iceland, Nigeria, Pakistan, Seychelles, Sweden and the United States. (Author)

  9. Levels of Mercury in Persian Gulf Frozen Fish Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Ziarati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Severe discharge of sewage and industrial effluents into the Persian Gulf leads to the deposition of various types of heavy metals, especially lead and mercury, in the muscles of fish. Total mercury and methylmercury contents were determined in the edible parts (muscle tissue, fillet of two different most popular frozen fish species from the Persian Gulf to ascertain whether the concentrations exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission or not. During the period from October 2015 to June 2016, a total of 150 frozen fish packaged samples were randomly collected from the recognized supermarkets in Tehran province, Iran. The mercury (Hg concentration of samples was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer using a mercuric hydride system (MHS 10 and also by direct mercury analyzer (DMA. High concentration of total Hg was found in a Carcharhinus dussumie brand (0.91 ± 0.12 μg/g while the lowest level was detected in Pomadasys furcatus (0.29 ± 0.02 μg/g. In current study the mean concentrations of Mercury in all studied frozen fish samples were 0.79 ± 0.11 µg/g that means Hg levels were above 0.5 μg/g, which is the maximum standard level recommended by Joint FAO/WHO/Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA. In 13% of Pomadasys and in 47.2 % of Carcharhinus fish samples total mercury concentrations exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission. All samples had also mean Hg concentrations that exceeded EPA's established safety level of 0.3 μg/g.

  10. Report A, chemical oceanographic data from the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman from 17 April 1972 to 17 March 1978 (NODC Accession 7900091)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and chemical data were collected using bottle casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE and other platforms in the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman from 17...

  11. Simulation of oil pollution in the Persian Gulf near Assaluyeh oil terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihifard, M.; Badri, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Numerical simulation of oil slick movement with respect to tidal factors and wind effects was performed in order to counteract oil pollution in the Persian Gulf. First, a flow model was invoked with respect to water level fluctuations. The main tidal constituents were applied to the model using the initial conditions of water level variations in the Hormuz Strait near the Hangam Island. The movement of oil pollution was determined due to wind, tide and temperature effects and confirmed by applying a verified field results. Simulations were focused near an important terminal in the Persian Gulf, Assaluyeh Port. The results were led to preparing a risk-taking map in a parallel research for the Persian Gulf.

  12. DNA barcoding and morphological studies confirm the occurrence of three Atarbolana (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cirolanidae) species along the coastal zone of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaji-Pirbalouty, Valiallah; Raupach, Michael J

    2016-11-27

    Two species of Atarbolana (Cirolanidae: Isopoda) from the intertidal zone of the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf were studied and redescribed. The known distribution of this small genus is limited to the northern areas of the Indian Ocean, from the Pakistan coasts to the Persian Gulf. The analyses of DNA barcodes as well as detailed morphological studies clearly support the existence of three distinct Atarbolana species along the coastal zone of the Persian Gulf and northern Arabian Sea. Furthermore, A. dasycolus Yasmeen, 2004 is synonymized with A. setosa Javed and Yasmeen, 1989.

  13. Plastic debris and microplastics along the beaches of the Strait of Hormuz, Persian Gulf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naji, Abolfazl; Esmaili, Zinat; Khan, Farhan

    2017-01-01

    Currently little is known about the prevalence of plastics and microplastics (MPs) in the Persian Gulf. Five sampling stations were selected along the Strait of Hormuz (Iran) that exhibited different levels of industrialization and urbanization, and included a marine protected area. Debris was ob...... clothes. This study provides a ‘snapshot’ of MP pollution and longitudinal studies are required to fully understand plastic contamination in the region.......Currently little is known about the prevalence of plastics and microplastics (MPs) in the Persian Gulf. Five sampling stations were selected along the Strait of Hormuz (Iran) that exhibited different levels of industrialization and urbanization, and included a marine protected area. Debris...

  14. Species-specific coral calcification responses to the extreme environment of the southern Persian Gulf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, Emily J.; Dunshea, Glenn John; McParland, Dain

    2018-01-01

    Sustained accretion of calcium carbonate (mostly by scleractinian corals) is fundamental for maintaining the structure and function of coral reef ecosystems, but may be greatly constrained by extreme and rapidly changing environmental conditions. Corals in the southern Persian Gulf already...... experience extreme temperature ranges ( 34°C), chronic hypersalinity (> 43 psu) and frequent light limitation (coral species in the region (Platygyra daedalea and Cyphastrea microphthalma) along marked...... Persian Gulf was lowest at Ras Ghanada, where there was lowest light and highest maximum temperatures. These data reveal striking taxonomic differences in the specific environmental constraints on coral calcification, which will further reinforce changes in the structure of coral assemblages with ongoing...

  15. No evidence for altered cellular immune functions in personnel deployed in the Persian Gulf during and after the Gulf War--The Danish Gulf War study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregenholt, S; Ishøy, T; Skovgaard, L T

    2001-01-01

    Veterans who have participated in the Gulf War suffer from a number of symptoms, collectively referred to as the Gulf War Syndrome. It has been hypothesized that a change in the systemic cytokine balance or other changes in immunological parameters could be responsible for some of the symptoms. We...... analyzed the peripheral blood natural killer (NK) cell activity of 686 Gulf War personnel who had been present in the Persian Gulf area during and immediately after the Gulf War as well as 231 gender and age-matched controls. The test material included individual samples of frozen peripheral blood...

  16. Functional composition of Chaetodon butterflyfishes at a peripheral and extreme coral reef location, the Persian Gulf

    KAUST Repository

    Pratchett, Morgan S.

    2013-07-01

    The functional composition of reef fish assemblages is highly conserved across large biogeographic areas, but it is unknown whether assembly rules hold at biogeographical and environmental extremes for coral reefs. This study examined the functional composition of butterflyfishes in the Persian Gulf, Musandam Peninsula, and Gulf of Oman. Only five species of butterflyfishes were recorded during this study, and mostly just in the Gulf of Oman. Unlike most locations in the Indo-Pacific where butterflyfish assemblages are dominated by obligate corallivores, the only obligate corallivore recorded, Chaetodon melapterus, was rare or absent at all locations. The most common and widespread species was Chaetodon nigropunctatus, which is shown to be a facultative corallivore. The diversity of butterflyfishes in the Persian Gulf is likely to have been constrained by its\\' biogeographical history and isolation, but functional composition appears to be further affected by limited abundance of prey corals and harsh environmental conditions. © 2012.

  17. Carbonate deposition and salt diapirism during the Cretaceous in the Persian Gulf, offshore Iran

    OpenAIRE

    U. P. Baaske; M. Mutti; F. Baioni; R. Buonaguro; G. Bertozzi; M. A. Naini; C. M. Krawczyk; P. Kukla; R. Littke; H. Stollhofen; D. Schwarzer;  

    2004-01-01

    The Cretaceous deposits in the Persian Gulf area are part of one of the largest hydrocarbon systems in the world. The stratigraphic evolution of the northern part of the Gulf is, however, poorly constrained. Seismic data from offshore Iran reveal that the shallow water deposition is marked by topographic features like the NNE-SSW trending Qatar-Fars-Arch and salt-related structures (diapirs and salt walls) of smaller scale. These structures were active during the Cretaceous. To examine the ef...

  18. Bioaccumulation of trace metals in banded Persian bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium arabicum) from the Persian Gulf: A food safety issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Milad; Copat, Chiara; Saeidi Asl, Mohammad Reza; Conti, Gea Oliveri; Babazadeh, Mehdi; Ferrante, Margherita

    2018-03-01

    Persian bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium arabicum) was collected from two sites of the Khozestan province, northern basin of Persian Gulf, with the aim to identify differences in metal concentrations between fishing areas as well as the risk for human health due to consumption of the selected species. We analyzed Zn, Cu, Pb, Hg, Cd and Ni in muscle and liver tissues of specimens from both areas of study using atomic adsorption spectrometry. Statistical elaborations revealed higher bioaccumulation of metals in livers than muscle as well as in the site of worthy of Musa as regards Zn, Pb and Ni than the site of worthy of Darvis, due to the more intensive anthropogenic input. The risk for consumers is low for the most of metals, with the exception of the THQ for Hg, which resulted next to the level of risk with high frequencies of consumption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. STS-45 Earth observation of the Persian Gulf and the island of Abu Ali

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-45 Earth observation taken aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, is of the northern reaches of the Persian Gulf with the sunglint pattern centered on the Saudi Arabian island of Abu Ali. Bright features along the coast are thought to be deposits of oil, released from a terminal offshore of Kuwait during the recent Persian Gulf War. Further up the coast, in Kuwait, the black, oil-soaked desert surrounding the site of the oil well fires is clearly visible. View was taken from an altitude of 160 nautical miles with OV-104 located at 28 degrees north and 52.8 degrees east. During the STS-45 mission, an international survey team focused on oil contamination of the shallow-water habitants in the area north of Abu Ali Island. Crewmembers contacted the NOAA survey vessel, the R/V Mt. Mitchell, several times and photographed water color and sunglint within the study area and throughout the entire Persian Gulf. These photographic data are expected to aid the Persian Gulf researchers in

  20. New Light on Human Prehistory in the Arabo-Persian Gulf Oasis [comment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, Viktor

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 6 (2010), s. 872 ISSN 0011-3204 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : Persian Gulf * Out of Africa * migration Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 2.449, year: 2010 http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/657397

  1. 75 FR 59968 - Presumptions of Service Connection for Persian Gulf Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ..., naval, or air service in the Southwest Asia theater of operations, or to a degree of 10 percent or more..., naval, or air service in the Southwest Asia theater of operations; or (ii) If there is affirmative..., naval, or air service in the Southwest Asia theater of operations during the Persian Gulf War. (2) The...

  2. 75 FR 61356 - Presumptions of Service Connection for Persian Gulf Service; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN24 Presumptions of Service Connection for Persian Gulf Service; Correction AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Correcting amendment. SUMMARY: The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) published in the Federal Register of September 29, 2010...

  3. Iranian Religious and Political Influence in Persian Gulf Countries (Bahrain, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлия Игоревна Ильина

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is focuses on evolution of Iranian political influence in Persian Gulf countries. It examines theological and political aspects of such influence and its consequences for the region. The author analyses origins of the transnational Shia movements such as “Harakat ar-Risala” and “ad-Dawa” linked with traditional Shia institutions at Najaf and Kerbela, and its ambiguous relationships with post-revolution Iranian elite. In the same way, not all of Shias of Persian Gulf was “fascinated” by “Islamic revolution” in Iran and became admirers of R. Khomeini’s conception of “vilayat-e-faqih”. In addition, the author traces history of local political Shia movements, that are, in fact, more influential on domestic politics of Gulf countries that mythical “Iran’s hand”.

  4. Fine-Scale Biogeographical Boundary Delineation and Sub-population Resolution in the Symbiodinium thermophilum Coral Symbiont Group From the Persian/Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman

    KAUST Repository

    Hume, Benjamin C. C.; D'Angelo, Cecilia; Burt, John A.; Wiedenmann, Jö rg

    2018-01-01

    The adaptation of tropical coral communities to the world's hottest sea, the Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG), has recently been associated with ecological selection acting on a group of coral-associated algal symbionts, the Symbiodinium thermophilum

  5. Measurements of natural uranium concentration in Caspian Sea and Persian Gulf water by laser fluorimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garshasbi, H.; Karimi Diba, J.; Jahanbakhshian, M. H.; Asghari, S. K.; Heravi, G. H.

    2005-01-01

    Natural uranium exists in earth crust and seawater. The concentration of uranium might increase by human manipulation or geological changes. The aim of this study was to verify susceptibility of laser fluorimetry method to determine the uranium concentration in Caspian Sea and Persian Gulf water. Materials and Methods: Laser fluorimetric method was used to determine the uranium concentration in several samples prepared from Caspian Sea and Persian Gulf water. Biological and chemical substances were eliminated in samples for better evaluation of the method. Results: As the concentration of natural uranium in samples increases, the response of instrument (uranium analyzer) increases accordingly. The standard deviation also increased slightly and gradually. Conclusion: Results indicate that the laser fluorimetry method show a reliable and accurate response with uranium concentration up to 100 μg/L in samples after removal of biological and organic substances

  6. Radiocarbon age and diagenesis of oolitic sediments from the Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silar, J.

    1980-01-01

    Radiocarbon measurements of different parts of ooids of Pleistocene and Holocene oolitic sediments from the Persian Gulf on the coast of Kuwait indicated that atmospheric carbon dioxide had been involved in the recrystallization of aragonite and in the diagenesis of the oolitic sediments. The radiocarbon activity of different layers of sediments generally corresponds to their stratigraphic sequence. The radiocarbon ages of several earlier layers, however, seem to be reduced due to recrystallization and diagenesis. The radiocarbon ages of well-preserved shells of mollusks of the fossiliferous horizon are lower than their alleged Pleistocene geological age. The rate of emergence of the shore between one and several mm.yr -1 was established which corresponds to that recorded in the mouth of the Persian Gulf and in Qatar. (author)

  7. A Hybrid Decision-Making Model for Selecting Container Seaport in the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Sayareh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ports have always played a vital role in international transportation. Port selection decision is a process that requires consideration of many important and relevant criteria. The selection of the influential decision-making criteria is also a significant and vital issue which demands cautious thoughts. The main objective of this paper is to weigh the most dominant decision-making criteria by Technique for Order Preference to Similarity by Ideal Solution (TOPSIS and select an optimised container seaport in the Persian Gulf by Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP according to decisive port selection factors. This paper presents an extensive review of port selection decision-making attributes in different past studies. Finally, by using TOPSIS and AHP, the findings of this research suggest that the working time, stevedoring rate, safety, port entrance, sufficient draft, capacity of port facilities, operating cost, number of berths, ship chandelling, and international policies are critical factors for selecting container seaport in the Persian Gulf.

  8. Conduct of the Persian Gulf Conflict: An Interim Report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    a danger that we will assume that this war is a paradigm for the next, that subconsciously we’ll presume all future wars can be relatively pain free...CENTCOM. The experience elicited arecmmndtin o hagethe threshold for reprogram - JSTARS was an integral part of the system used to recommendation to...This Includes the realignment, reprogramming , or transfer of funds appropriated for activities unrelated to the Persian Gulf conflict. Interim Report

  9. The International Market Petroleum after the War in the Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.; Quintanilla M, J.; Garcia P, B.; Rojas N, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Petroleum market in post-war time of Persian Gulf could yet undergo the possibility of a drastic increasing in virtue of two main factors: first, an important elevation in oil production by OPEC - in spite of a noticeable decreasing of Iranian and Kuwaiti production and independent oil countries production; and second, a fall in demand, both for the slow evolution of global economy, as for the seasonal movement linked with the second quarter of the year (April to June). Author

  10. Species-Specific Coral Calcification Responses to the Extreme Environment of the Southern Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Howells

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustained accretion of calcium carbonate (mostly by scleractinian corals is fundamental for maintaining the structure and function of coral reef ecosystems, but may be greatly constrained by extreme and rapidly changing environmental conditions. Corals in the southern Persian Gulf already experience extreme temperature ranges (<20 to >34°C, chronic hypersalinity (>43 psu and frequent light limitation (<100 μmol photons m−2 s−1. We compared annual rates of calcification for two of the most common coral species in the region (Platygyra daedalea and Cyphastrea microphthalma along marked gradients in environmental conditions in the southern Persian Gulf and into the Oman Sea. Overall calcification rates were 32% higher in P. daedalea colonies (x = 1.103 g cm−2 y−1, n = 46 than in C. microphthalma (x = 0.835 g cm−2 y−1, n = 37, probably reflecting inter-specific differences in energy allocation and skeletal density. There was also considerable variation in calcification rates among individual colonies from the same locations that was unrelated to depth or photosymbiont type. However, most interestingly, P. daedalea and C. microphthalma exhibited contrasting trends in mean annual calcification rates across locations. For P. daedalea, calcification rates were lowest at Delma, where the minimum temperatures were lowest and salinity was highest, and increased across the southern Persian Gulf with increases in minimum temperatures and decreases in salinity. These data suggest that calcification rates of P. daedalea are most constrained by minimum temperatures, which is consistent with the strong relationship between annual calcification rates and minimum local temperatures recorded across the Indo-Pacific. Conversely, linear extension and calcification of C. microphthalma in the southern Persian Gulf was lowest at Ras Ghanada, where there was lowest light and highest maximum temperatures. These data reveal striking taxonomic differences in

  11. Microplastics contamination in molluscs from the northern part of the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Abolfazl; Nuri, Marzieh; Vethaak, A Dick

    2018-04-01

    Microplastics (MPs) are well-known emerging contaminants in the marine environment. A key route by which MPs can directly affect marine life is through ingestion. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of MPs in marine life and seafood for human consumption in the Persian Gulf. We conducted a whole body analysis of MP (between 10 and 5000 μm in diameter) abundance in five species of molluscs with different feeding strategies, including both gastropods and bivalves from the littoral zone of the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf. The mean number of total encountered MPs in all species ranged from 0.2 to 21.0 particles per g of soft tissue (wet weight) and from 3.7 to 17.7 particles per individual. Overall, microfibres followed by fragments were the most common type of MP isolated in each species (respectively > 50% and ≈26%). Film (≈14%) and pellets (≈2%) were less commonly observed. The observed MPs were classified into three size groups (ca. 10-25 μm, 25-250 μm and 250-5000 μm), and 37-58% of MPs fell into the smallest size group. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis confirmed the presence of polyethylene (PE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and nylon (PA). Our results indicated that molluscan shellfish from the Persian Gulf contain MPs, with higher concentrations in a predatory species, suggesting trophic transfer of MPs in the food web. The consumption of edible species may be a source of human microplastic intake. We compared our results with those previously reported for other regions of the world and identified the need for further studies in the Persian Gulf. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of Bioactive Agents and Immunomodulatory Factors from Seashells of the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Najafi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research in marine pharmacology will promise new bioactive agents. The marine bioenvironment is the unique resource for bioactive agents that could not be found in terrestrial organisms. Methods: A total of known 611 seashells species in the Persian Gulf were investigated for synonymy in OBIS database. Then, all the species, including their synonymy were searched in PubMed database to find their isolated bioactive agents. Results: From 611 known seashells in the Persian Gulf, 172 genera/species had bioactive compounds. Bioactive agents were isolated and purified for 16 genera/ species. The crude or purified extracts from these seashells had immunomodulatory effects (6 seashells, anti-toxicologic effects (4 seashells, analgesic (1 seashell, cardiotonic and vasoactive agents (2 seashells, hypolipidemic agents (4 seashells, anti-osteoporotic and osteoblastic agents (2 seashells and anti-dermatitis effect (1 seashell. Conclusion: The known seashells from the Persian Gulf have bioactive and immunomodulatory compounds and increase in the efforts to isolate these agents will promise a treasure for novel anti-infective agents.

  13. US military expenditures to protect the use of Persian Gulf oil for motor vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delucchi, Mark A.; Murphy, James J.

    2008-01-01

    Analyses of the full social cost of motor vehicle use in the US often estimate an 'oil import premium' that includes the military cost of defending oil supplies from the Persian Gulf. Estimates of this cost have ranged from essentially zero to upwards of a $1 per gallon (about $0.25 per liter). In this paper, we attempt to narrow this range, by carefully answering the question: 'If the US highway transportation sector did not use oil, how much would the US federal government reduce its military commitment in the Persian Gulf?' We work towards our answer in five steps, accounting for interests not related to oil, the interests of other oil-consuming countries, the interests of producers apart from the interests of consumers, and the interests of non-highway users of oil. We estimate that were there no oil in the Persian Gulf, then US combined peacetime and wartime defense expenditures might be reduced in the long run by roughly $27-$73 billion per year (in 2004 dollars), of which roughly $6-$25 billion annually ($0.03-$0.15 per gallon or $0.01-$0.04 per liter) is attributable to motor-vehicle use

  14. The occurrence of microplastic contamination in littoral sediments of the Persian Gulf, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Abolfazl; Esmaili, Zinat; Mason, Sherri A; Dick Vethaak, A

    2017-09-01

    Microplastics (MPs; distribution, and polymer types in littoral surface sediments of the Persian Gulf were performed. A two-step method, with precautions taken to avoid possible airborne contamination, was applied to extract MPs from sediments collected at five sites during low tide. MPs were found in 80% of the samples. Across all sites, fiber particles were the most dominate shape (88%), followed by films (11.2%) and fragments (0.8%). There were significant differences in MP particle concentration between sampling sites (p value polymer types. More than half of the observed MPs (56%) were in the size category of 1-4.7 mm length, with the remaining particles (44%) being in the size range of 10 μm to <1 mm. Compared to literature data from other regions, intertidal sediments in the Persian Gulf cannot be characterized as a hot spot for MP pollution. The present study could, however, provide useful background information for further investigations and management policies to understand the sources, transport, and potential effects on marine life in the Persian Gulf.

  15. US military expenditures to protect the use of Persian Gulf oil for motor vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delucchi, Mark A. [Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Murphy, James J. [Department of Economics, University of Alaska-Anchorage, Anchorage, AK 99501 (United States)

    2008-06-15

    Analyses of the full social cost of motor vehicle use in the US often estimate an 'oil import premium' that includes the military cost of defending oil supplies from the Persian Gulf. Estimates of this cost have ranged from essentially zero to upwards of a $1 per gallon (about $0.25 per liter). In this paper, we attempt to narrow this range, by carefully answering the question: ''If the US highway transportation sector did not use oil, how much would the US federal government reduce its military commitment in the Persian Gulf?'' We work towards our answer in five steps, accounting for interests not related to oil, the interests of other oil-consuming countries, the interests of producers apart from the interests of consumers, and the interests of non-highway users of oil. We estimate that were there no oil in the Persian Gulf, then US combined peacetime and wartime defense expenditures might be reduced in the long run by roughly $27-$73 billion per year (in 2004 dollars), of which roughly $6-$25 billion annually ($0.03-$0.15 per gallon or $0.01-$0.04 per liter) is attributable to motor-vehicle use. (author)

  16. Mitochondrial DNA sequence-based phylogenetic relationship of Trichiurus lepturus (Perciformes: Trichiuridae) from the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamadoni Jahromi, S.; Mohd Noor, S. A.; Pirian, K.; Dehghani, R.; Nazemi, M.; Khazaali, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, mitochondrial DNA analysis using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed to investigate the phylogeny relationship of Trichiurus lepturus in the Persian Gulf compared to the other investigated area. The amplification of 16S rDNA resulted in a product of 600 bp in all samples. The results showed that the isolated strain belongs to T. lepturus showing 42 divergence sites among the same reported partial sequences of 16S rRNA gene from the other area (West Atlantic and Indo-Pacific area). Phylogeny results showed that all 18 haplotypes of the species clustered into five clades with reasonably high bootstrap support of values (>64%). Overall, the tree topology for both phylogenetic and phenetic trees for 16S rDNA was similar. Both trees exposed two major clusters, one wholly containing the haplotypes of the T. lepturus species belonging to Indo-Pacific area with two major sister groups including Persian Gulf specimen and the other cleared the Western Atlantic and Japan individuals clustered in another distinct clade supporting the differentiation between the two areas. Phylogenic relationship observed between the Persian Gulf and the other Indo-Pacific Individuals suggested homogeneity between two mentioned areas. PMID:27822250

  17. All-Cause Mortality Among US Veterans of the Persian Gulf War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Han K.; Bullman, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We determined cause-specific mortality prevalence and risks of Gulf War deployed and nondeployed veterans to determine if deployed veterans were at greater risk than nondeployed veterans for death overall or because of certain diseases or conditions up to 13 years after conflict subsided. Methods: Follow-up began when the veteran left the Gulf War theater or May 1, 1991, and ended on the date of death or December 31, 2004. We studied 621   901 veterans who served in the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War and 746   247 veterans who served but were not deployed during the Gulf War. We used Cox proportional hazard models to calculate rate ratios adjusted for age at entry to follow-up, length of follow-up, race, sex, branch of service, and military unit. We compared the mortality of (1) Gulf War veterans with non–Gulf War veterans and (2) Gulf War army veterans potentially exposed to nerve agents at Khamisiyah in March 1991 with those not exposed. We compared standardized mortality ratios of deployed and nondeployed Gulf War veterans with the US population. Results: Male Gulf War veterans had a lower risk of mortality than male non–Gulf War veterans (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] = 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95-0.99), and female Gulf War veterans had a higher risk of mortality than female non–Gulf War veterans (aRR = 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03-1.28). Khamisiyah-exposed Gulf War army veterans had >3 times the risk of mortality from cirrhosis of the liver than nonexposed army Gulf War veterans (aRR = 3.73; 95% CI, 1.64-8.48). Compared with the US population, female Gulf War veterans had a 60% higher risk of suicide and male Gulf War veterans had a lower risk of suicide (standardized mortality ratio = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.80-0.88). Conclusion: The vital status and mortality risk of Gulf War and non–Gulf War veterans should continue to be investigated. PMID:28123229

  18. Two-way multi-band optical/IR transmisson measurement in the Persian Gulf-coastal region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.N. de; Fritz, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    The atmospheric conditions in the Persian Gulf region are significantly different from other places in the world. The particle size distribution may vary daily and during the day. The aerosols can contribute to the amount of rainfall over land, important for the nations around the Gulf. In 2004

  19. WATER TEMPERATURE and other data from USS ABRAHAM LINCOLN in the Persian Gulf from 1995-07-28 to 1995-07-29 (NCEI Accession 9500112)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data in this accession were collected in Persian Gulf (Gulf of Iran) from USS ABRAHAM LINCOLN on July 28-29, 1995. The real time data of water temperature at...

  20. WATER TEMPERATURE and other data from USS ABRAHAM LINCOLN in the Persian Gulf from 1995-06-18 to 1995-06-30 (NCEI Accession 9500107)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data in this accession were collected in Persian Gulf (Gulf of Iran) from USS ABRAHAM LINCOLN between June 18, 1995 and June 30, 1995. The real time data of...

  1. WATER TEMPERATURE and other data from INGRAHAM in the Persian Gulf from 1993-09-16 to 1993-09-18 (NCEI Accession 9300184)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data in this accession were collected in Persian Gulf (Gulf of Iran) from ship INGRAHAM between September 16, 1993 and September 18, 1993. The real time data of...

  2. The GCC States of the Persian Gulf and Asia Energy Relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellner, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Since the 2000's, China's and India's needs for hydrocarbons, coming on top of those of older industrialized Asian countries (Japan and South Korea), have considerably strengthened customer-supplier links between Asia in general and the Persian Gulf, in the energy field. The Asian market plays a major economic role for countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). As a group, they export three and a half times as much to the Japanese, Korean, Indian and Chinese markets than to the European Union (EU27) and the United States combined (Euro 203 billion compared to Euro 58 billion, in 2010). Despite the growing economic importance of Asia to the GCC countries, the Gulf monarchies still have a clear interest in their relations with their traditional Western partners, especially in terms of investments and technologies. It is in their interests to maintain strong economic links with Europe and the OECD countries in general. In the future, Asian hydrocarbon consuming countries as a whole - as indeed the EU and the USA - will have an interest in the stability and security of the Persian Gulf. Yet a certain degree of rivalry between them may well express itself (for example, between India and China)

  3. Numerical modeling of persian gulf salinity variations due to tidal effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbagh Yazdi, S.R.

    2004-01-01

    Numerical modeling of salinity changes in marine environment of Persian Gulf is investigated in this paper. Computer simulation of the problem is performed by the solution of a convection-diffusion equation for salinity concentration coupled with the hydrodynamic equations. The hydrodynamic equations consist of shallow water equations of continuity and motion in horizontal plane. The effects of rain and evaporations are considered in the continuity equation and the effects of bed slope and friction, as well as Coriolis effects are considered in two equations of motion. The cell vertex finite volume method is applied for solving the governing equations on triangular unstructured meshes. Using unstructured meshes provides great flexibility for modeling the flow problems in arbitrary and complex geo metrics, such as Persia Gulf domain. The results of evaporation and Coriolis effects, as well as imposing river and tidal boundary conditions to the hydrodynamic model of Persian Gulf (considering variable topology rough bed) are compared with predictions of Admiralty Tide Table, Which are obtained from the harmonic analysis. The performance of the developed computer model is demonstrated by simulation of salinity changes due to inflow effects and diffusion effects as well as computed currents

  4. Evaluation of ecotourism potential in the northern coastline of the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Jafar; Danehkar, Afshin; Sharifipour, Rozita

    2008-08-01

    This research has identified areas located in the northern coastline of the Persian Gulf in the south of Iran, as strategic and ecological sites, based on tourism potential assessing criteria. To this end coastal limits were identified by satellite imagery in terms of shorelines and the maximum extent of water approach into the land and taking into consideration the characteristics of the nearby coastal villages. The studied region was then compared to similar international criteria and experiences. The original criteria were then divided into three main and four sub criteria. The Kangan region was found to have a potential for tourism industry according to the mentioned criteria. Naiband Gulf with a score of 20 was ranked first followed by Asalouyeh with a score of 18 and finally Taheri and Kangan Ports with scores of 16 and 15, respectively. With a high tourism industry potential in the studied region the necessity of ecotourism quality enhancement and environmental management planning for the northern shoreline of the Persian Gulf becomes of vital importance.

  5. Methamphetamine use and treatment in Iran: A systematic review from the most populated Persian Gulf country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam-mehrjerdi, Zahra; Mokri, Azarakhsh; Dolan, Kate

    2015-08-01

    Methamphetamine use is a new health concern in Iran, the most populated Persian Gulf country. However, there is no well-documented literature. The current study objectives were to systematically review all published English and Persian studies of the prevalence of methamphetamine use, the general physical and psychiatric-related harms and the availability of methamphetamine treatment and harm reduction services for adult users in Iran. A comprehensive search of the international peer-reviewed and gray literature was undertaken. Multiple electronic and scientific English and Persian databases were systematically searched from January 2002 to September 2014. Additionally, English and Persian gray literature on methamphetamine use was sought using online gray literature databases, library databases and general online searches over the same period of time. Nineteen thousand and two hundred and eight studies, reports and conference papers were identified but only 42 studies were relevant to the study objectives. They were mainly published in 2010-2014. The search results confirmed the seizures of methamphetamine (six studies), the prevalence of methamphetamine use among the general population (three studies), drug users (four studies), women (nine studies) and opiate users in opiate treatment programs (five studies). In addition, methamphetamine use had resulted in blood-borne viral infections (one study), psychosis and intoxication (ten studies). Different reasons had facilitated methamphetamine use. However, the Matrix Model, community therapy and harm reduction services (four studies) had been provided for methamphetamine users in some cities. The current situation of methamphetamine use necessitates more research on the epidemiology and health-related implications. These studies should help in identifying priorities for designing and implementing prevention and educational programs. More active models of engagement with Persian methamphetamine users and the

  6. Character and dynamics of the Red Sea and Persian Gulf outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Amy S.; Hunt, Heather D.; Price, James F.

    2000-03-01

    Historical hydrographic data and a numerical plume model are used to investigate the initial transformation, dynamics, and spreading pathways of Red Sea and Persian Gulf outflow waters where they enter the Indian Ocean. The annual mean transport of these outflows is relatively small (outflows in that they flow over very shallow sills (depth Red Sea outflow exhibits strong seasonal variability in transport. The four main results of this study are as follows. First, on the basis of observed temperature-salinity (T-S) characteristics of the outflow source and product waters we estimate that the Red Sea and Persian Gulf outflows are diluted by factors of ˜2.5 and 4, respectively, as they descend from sill depth to their depth of neutral buoyancy. The high-dilution factor for the Persian Gulf outflow results from the combined effects of large initial density difference between the outflow source water and oceanic water and low outflow transport. Second, the combination of low latitude and low outflow transport (and associated low outflow thickness) results in Ekman numbers for both outflows that are O(1). This indicates that they should be thought of as frictional density currents modified by rotation rather than geostrophic density currents modified by friction. Third, different mixing histories along the two channels that direct Red Sea outflow water into the open ocean result in product waters with significantly different densities, which probably contributes to the multilayered structure of the Red Sea product waters. In both outflows, seasonal variations in source water and oceanic properties have some effect on the T-S of the product waters, but they have only a minor impact on equilibrium depth. Fourth, product waters from both outflows are advected away from the sill region in narrow boundary currents, at least during part of the year. At other times, the product water appears more in isolated patches.

  7. Isolation and characterization of biosurfactant producing bacteria from Persian Gulf (Bushehr provenance)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated from Persian Gulf. • There is high diversity of biosurfactant producing bacteria in the Persian Gulf. • These bacteria are very useful for management of oil pollution in the sea. - Abstract: Biosurfactants are surface active materials that are produced by some microorganisms. These molecules increase biodegradation of insoluble pollutants. In this study sediments and seawater samples were collected from the coastline of Bushehr provenance in the Persian Gulf and their biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated. Biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated by using an enrichment method in Bushnell-Hass medium with diesel oil as the sole carbon source. Five screening tests were used for selection of Biosurfactant producing bacteria: hemolysis in blood agar, oil spreading, drop collapse, emulsification activity and Bacterial Adhesion to Hydrocarbon test (BATH). These bacteria were identified using biochemical and molecular methods. Eighty different colonies were isolated from the collected samples. The most biosurfactant producing isolates related to petrochemical plants of Khark Island. Fourteen biosurfactant producing bacteria were selected between these isolates and 7 isolates were screened as these were predominant producers that belong to Shewanella alga, Shewanella upenei, Vibrio furnissii, Gallaecimonas pentaromativorans, Brevibacterium epidermidis, Psychrobacter namhaensis and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The largest clear zone diameters in oil spreading were observed for G. pentaromativorans strain O15. Also, this strain has the best emulsification activity and reduction of surface tension, suggesting it is the best of thee isolated strains. The results of this study confirmed that there is high diversity of biosurfactant producing bacteria in marine ecosystem of Iran and by application of these bacteria in petrochemical waste water environmental problems can be assisted

  8. Performance evaluation of WAVEWATCH III model in the Persian Gulf using different wind resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeminezhad, Mohammad Hossein; Siadatmousavi, Seyed Mostafa

    2017-07-01

    The third-generation wave model, WAVEWATCH III, was employed to simulate bulk wave parameters in the Persian Gulf using three different wind sources: ERA-Interim, CCMP, and GFS-Analysis. Different formulations for whitecapping term and the energy transfer from wind to wave were used, namely the Tolman and Chalikov (J Phys Oceanogr 26:497-518, 1996), WAM cycle 4 (BJA and WAM4), and Ardhuin et al. (J Phys Oceanogr 40(9):1917-1941, 2010) (TEST405 and TEST451 parameterizations) source term packages. The obtained results from numerical simulations were compared to altimeter-derived significant wave heights and measured wave parameters at two stations in the northern part of the Persian Gulf through statistical indicators and the Taylor diagram. Comparison of the bulk wave parameters with measured values showed underestimation of wave height using all wind sources. However, the performance of the model was best when GFS-Analysis wind data were used. In general, when wind veering from southeast to northwest occurred, and wind speed was high during the rotation, the model underestimation of wave height was severe. Except for the Tolman and Chalikov (J Phys Oceanogr 26:497-518, 1996) source term package, which severely underestimated the bulk wave parameters during stormy condition, the performances of other formulations were practically similar. However, in terms of statistics, the Ardhuin et al. (J Phys Oceanogr 40(9):1917-1941, 2010) source terms with TEST405 parameterization were the most successful formulation in the Persian Gulf when compared to in situ and altimeter-derived observations.

  9. The Role of Corruption and Healthcare Expenditure in Healthcare Systems of the Persian Gulf Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Asghari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: More than a third of the world’s population lack access to essential medicines, despite the presence of several international agreements that proclaim health as a human right. Corruption, in its many forms, such as bribery and embezzlement, causes several detrimental effects on the health sector and access to medicines including economic, health, and government image and trust issues. Global health corruption remains a serious, ongoing, and under-recognized threat to global health progress. This paper aim is examination how global corruption and health-care expenditure (HE affect health statue in the Persian Gulf countries over 1980-2014 and what can be done to combat corruption in the health sector. Materials and Methods: This study is an experimental and applied research. To verify the consistency of the results of the model, this study used the appropriate panel data analysis methods such as feasible general least square method for the nine Persian Gulf countries over 1980-2014. I employ different panel data procedures to avoid estimation problems, namely, autocorrelation and heteroskedasticity. The used package id Stata version 14. Results: The level of gross domestic product per capita, the level of corruption in the country, per capita HE, the quality of air and water, population density levels have negative effect on region people’s life expectancy, but the index of environmental policy and the education, measured as years of education obtained, have positive effect on region people’s life expectancy over 1980-2014. Conclusion: The results indicate that corruption and HE have negative effect on the Persian Gulf region people‘s life expectancy.

  10. Applying Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity in a soft bottom ecosystem in North of the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doustshenas, B; Savari, A; Nabavi, S M B; Kochanian, P; Sadrinasab, M

    2009-06-15

    In this study, the Chesapeake Bay Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity (B-IBI) was selected in an attempt to describe ecological health of soft bottom channels (Khowr-e Musa) in North of the Persian Gulf. Most of study area was found to be in degraded or severely degraded conditions. B-IBI scores were ranged between 1 and 3.86. Comparison ofmacrobenthos abundance and organic content between two developmental periods showed significant difference (p dredging. Choice of suitable management plans and metric controls could help to the salvage of the largest tidal channel complex in Persian Gulf.

  11. ‘Resource Wars’ in the Post-Cold War Era: The Persian Gulf Oil, US, and the Iraq War

    OpenAIRE

    S Naji

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the strategic region of the Persian Gulf and its oil resources, the US energy policy, and the Iraq War as a case in point. It refers to the importance of the Persian Gulf oil in the US policies and the US geopolitical practices to launch conflicts and wars in the post-Cold War era that scholars have categorized as “resource wars.” Reviewing relevant studies has revealed that amongst the natural resources oil as the most vital commodity has always played a major role in ...

  12. Feeding habits and stomach contents of silver sillago, Sillago sihama, in the northern Persian Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    Taghavi Motlagh, A.; Hakimelahi, M.; Ghodrati Shojaei, M.; Vahabnezhad, A.; Taheri Mirghaed, A.

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the stomach content of Sillago sihama in Hormuzgan Province waters located in the northern Persian Gulf from October 2009 to March 2010. The stomach analysis was carried out using frequency of occurrence and numeric methods. Diatoms, blue-green algae and dinoflagellates constituted main food of plant origin. Diatoms were found to be the most preferable food of plant origin where it occurred in more than 60.8% of food item by number and 59.5% by occurrence. Crustacean in...

  13. A Thermal Maturity Analysis of the Effective Cretaceous Petroleum System in the Southern Persian Gulf Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Alipour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Commercial hydrocarbon discoveries in the Cretaceous of the southern Persian Gulf basin provide direct evidence that there is an effective petroleum system associated with the Cretaceous series. The revised models of thermal maturity in this region are needed to investigate lateral and stratigraphic variations of thermal maturity, which have not so far been addressed in detail for this part of the Persian Gulf. Such thermal maturity models are required to delineate the existing play assessment risks and to predict properties in more deeply buried undrilled sections. This study uses two dimensional basin modeling techniques to reconstruct maturity evolution of the Cenomanian Middle Sarvak source rock, presumably the most likely source for these hydrocarbons. The results indicate that an estimated 900 meter difference in the depth of burial between the southeastern high and the adjacent trough tends to be translated into noticeable variations at both temperature (135 °C versus 162 °C and vitrinite reflectance (0.91% versus 1.35%. Since the organic matter in the mentioned source rock is of reactive type II, these could cause a shift of about 18 million years in the onset of hydrocarbon generation over respective areas.

  14. United States cost of military force projection in the Persian Gulf, 1976-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Roger J. [Oil, Energy and the Middle East Program, Department of Near Eastern Studies and Princeton Environmental Institute, Guyot Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents the first estimate of United States military cost for Persian Gulf force (C{sub PGfp}) derived entirely by a quantitative method. An activity-based cost (ABC) model uses geographic distribution of aircraft carriers as a proxy allocator of Department of Defense (DoD) baseline cost to regional operations. Allocation follows simply from DoD data that since 1990 no less than one aircraft carrier has been continuously on-station in the Persian Gulf; that eight are required to keep one on-station there; that the Navy has had eleven-fifteen carriers since 1990; and that Army and Air Force units are virtually never deployed to combat operations without Navy units. For 1976-2007 C{sub PGfp} is estimated to be $6.8 x 10{sup 12} and for 2007 $0.5 x 10{sup 12} (2008$). This substantial military investment is not a remedy for the market failure at the heart of regional security problem, which is oil market power. When C{sub PGfp} is added to economic losses attributed to market power in another recent study, the severity of this market failure becomes more apparent. (author)

  15. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Identification and Source Discrimination in Rural Soil of the Northern Persian Gulf Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Valizadeh-kakhki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to strategic situation of the Persian Gulf, identifying the petroleum pollution level and source is an important issue. Therefore, this paper enhanced fingerprinting method of applying biomarkers Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in identifying source and distribution of oil spills of the exposed areas. 10 soil samples collected from the northern coasts of the Persian Gulf along three provinces in the south of Iran. PAH concentrations in the soil ranged from 42.76 to 5596.49 ng.g-1. In the present study the distribution of 3 ringed PAHs was much higher than the other PAHs. Phenanthrene and alkylated derivatives of phenanthrene such as 3-methyl, 2-methyl, 9-methyl and 1-methyl phenanthrene were distinctively higher than the other components. According to the result PAHs concentration can be considered as no or little risk of toxicity for the organisms living in soil except for Fluoranthhene, comparing LD50. Applying marker ratios revealed that in most of the sampling sites showed perogenic sources and it emphasizes on the direct impact of oil and petroleum products to the lands due to oil well exploitation and transferring pipelines.

  16. Satellite retrievals of dust aerosol over the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf (2005-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jamie R.; Brindley, Helen E.; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Schepanski, Kerstin

    2017-03-01

    The inter-annual variability of the dust aerosol presence over the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf is analysed over the period 2005-2015. Particular attention is paid to the variation in loading across the Red Sea, which has previously been shown to have a strong, seasonally dependent latitudinal gradient. Over the 11 years considered, the July mean 630 nm aerosol optical depth (AOD) derived from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) varies between 0.48 and 1.45 in the southern half of the Red Sea. In the north, the equivalent variation is between 0.22 and 0.66. The temporal and spatial pattern of variability captured by SEVIRI is also seen in AOD retrievals from the MODerate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), but there is a systematic offset between the two records. Comparisons of both sets of retrievals with ship- and land-based AERONET measurements show a high degree of correlation with biases of typically only sample relatively low aerosol loadings. When both records are stratified by AOD retrievals from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), opposing behaviour is revealed at high MISR AODs ( > 1), with offsets of +0.19 for MODIS and -0.06 for SEVIRI. Similar behaviour is also seen over the Persian Gulf. Analysis of the scattering angles at which retrievals from the SEVIRI and MODIS measurements are typically performed in these regions suggests that assumptions concerning particle sphericity may be responsible for the differences seen.

  17. United States cost of military force projection in the Persian Gulf, 1976-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, Roger J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the first estimate of United States military cost for Persian Gulf force (C PGfp ) derived entirely by a quantitative method. An activity-based cost (ABC) model uses geographic distribution of aircraft carriers as a proxy allocator of Department of Defense (DoD) baseline cost to regional operations. Allocation follows simply from DoD data that since 1990 no less than one aircraft carrier has been continuously on-station in the Persian Gulf; that eight are required to keep one on-station there; that the Navy has had eleven-fifteen carriers since 1990; and that Army and Air Force units are virtually never deployed to combat operations without Navy units. For 1976-2007 C PGfp is estimated to be $6.8 x 10 12 and for 2007 $0.5 x 10 12 (2008$). This substantial military investment is not a remedy for the market failure at the heart of regional security problem, which is oil market power. When C PGfp is added to economic losses attributed to market power in another recent study, the severity of this market failure becomes more apparent. (author)

  18. Sea snakes (Elapidae, Hydrophiinae) in their westernmost extent: an updated and illustrated checklist and key to the species in the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie-Atagholipour, Mohsen; Ghezellou, Parviz; Hesni, Majid Askari; Dakhteh, Seyyed Mohammad Hashem; Ahmadian, Hooman; Vidal, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Persian Gulf is known as the westernmost distribution limit for sea snakes, except for Hydrophis platurus (Linnaeus, 1766) that reaches southeastern Africa. Previous identification guides for sea snakes of the Persian Gulf and its adjacent waters in the Gulf of Oman were based on old data and confined mostly to written descriptions. Therefore, a series of field surveys were carried out in 2013 and 2014 through Iranian coastal waters of both gulfs to provide a comprehensive sampling of sea snakes in the area. This paper presents an illustrated and updated checklist and identification tool for sea snakes in the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman, which are based on new material and a review of the literature. This checklist includes ten species of marine hydrophiines, of which one, Microcephalophis cantoris (Günther, 1864), is a new record for the area. All specimens examined herein are deposited and available at the Zoological Museum of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman province, Iran. PMID:27843383

  19. The Importance of Human Needs during Retrospective Peacetime and the Persian Gulf War: University Students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Tang, Theresa Li-Na

    The importance of human needs during the retrospective peacetime in 1990 and the Persian Gulf War in 1991 was examined among 564 college students in the United States. Results of factor analyses showed that during peacetime, two factors (higher-order and lower-order needs) were identified. During the war, all needs were rated as more important and…

  20. Watermass structure in the western Indian Ocean - Part 2. The spreading and transformation of the Persian Gulf water

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Premchand, K.; Sastry, J.S.; Murty, C.S.

    The spreading and the transformation of the Persian Gulf Watermass (PGW) in the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean have been presented. The core layer of this watermass is found in the depth range of 250-300 m over most of the Arabian Sea with a...

  1. The Shia Factor in Relations Between the Arab Countries of the Persian Gulf and Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirichenko Vladimir P.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The author studies the influence of the “Shia factor” on the relations between Iran and the Gulf Arab countries. In most countries of the Persian Gulf, there are Shia communities that constitute a significant part of the population. After the Islamic revolution of 1979 relations between Iran and most Arab countries have become particularly tense. In the 1980s, the Gulf monarchies also became wary of exporting the Islamic revolution in their countries. This was due to the fact that, being inspired by the success of the co-religionists in Iran, the Arab Shiites became more involved in politics. It should be noted that the way the Arab Gulf countries treat the Shiites in the region is influenced by the fact that Iran and the Arab Gulf countries compete for political and economic predominance in the region. Often the Shia Muslims are discriminated by the authorities of the Arab countries, and are regarded as the so-called “fifth column” of Iran. In the author’s opinion, the policy of oppression of the Shia Muslims in the Persian Gulf monarchies not only worsens the political situation in these countries, but also complicates relations with neighboring Iran. This policy is not constructive. Moreover, the mythical “Iranian threat” does not go to any comparison with the threat posed by the Islamic State. According to the author, although after the execution of the Shia cleric Sheikh Nimr al-Nimr in Saudi Arabia at the beginning of 2016 Iran’s relations with Arab countries became even more strained, the further escalation of the conflict is not in the interests of Iran. Especially now, at the initial stage of removing sanctions against Iran’s nuclear program, the military operations against the Shiites in the Arab countries may slow down the process. As for Saudi Arabia, in the event of the outbreak of hostilities Riyadh may seriously damage relations with the United States. This is because Washington sees no benefits in involving

  2. Measurement of heavy metals concentrations of the sediment of Persian Gulf by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athari Allaf, M.

    2002-01-01

    The Persian Gulf historically has been vulnerable to pollution, mainly because of its unique oceanographic characteristics. In the recent past, especially after Gulf war, regional countries including Iran began to investigate its environmental assessment. Because of mostly deposition of heavy metals in the sea sediment, one could use of concentration of trace elements as a contamination index. In this paper heavy metals concentrations of sediments were measured at seven stations in the Persian Gulf. Sampling was performed in six times during one year. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique (INAA) was used for measurement of Ce, Ca, Br. Al, Co, Cs, V, Ti, Na, Sc, K, Mn, Mg, and Zn in the all samples. In addition it was showed that using correlation factors calculations could search the sources of these elements

  3. Energy investment advisory series No. 3: Investment opportunities in the Persian Gulf energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadgen, R.E.

    1994-12-01

    Sometimes the greatest investment opportunities are in those areas where the least progress seems to be taking place. This report describes energy-based developments taking place in the Persian/Arabian Gulf. The 8 Gulf states are building their nations; each has large minority groups and swelling populations; their economies are built on one product (hydrocarbons). Large expatriate populations, being integrated into local societies and economies, have led to hostility and guarded access to contacts with the outside world. Gulf nations cannot benefit from any oil price rise as they did in the past, as their populations have grown too rapidly. Policies change daily and can be changed back to original ones as well as into new ones. Since the oil and gas industries are the primary source of government revenue, oil and gas are likely to remain longest under government control. A breakdown of energy-base investment potentials in the Middle East is tabulated: upstream oil, refining, domestic oil marketing, upstream gas, LNG, electricity, petrochemical.

  4. The Persian Gulf Region as a Field of China’s Geopolitical Interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M F Ilminskaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the political situation in the Gulf region in the light of China’s vital interests. Particular attention is paid to Chinese energy diplomacy, mechanisms for bilateral and multilateral cooperation, the Chinese project that is expected to revive the «Great Silk Road» and the priority areas of Chinese energy security. The author considers China as the largest world energy consumer whose economy is directly dependent on oil supplies, primarily from the Persian Gulf region. The article also analyzes the reasons of acute energy shortages in China and its growing interest in the Gulf region. The author reveals strategic significance of such important water transport arteries, as Straits of Hormuz and Malacca, touches on the issue of global players’ competition over ownership and control of hydrocarbons. The article focuses on flexibility of Chinese diplomacy and foreign policy maneuvering techniques in the region, successfully applied by Beijing to maximize the benefits for the implementation of its own national interests.

  5. Hydrographic Data from the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office: Persian Gulf, Southern Red Sea, and Arabian Sea 1923-1996

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alessi, Carrol

    1999-01-01

    Temperature-salinity-depth profile data were obtained for the Persian Gulf, Southern Red Sea and parts of the Arabian Sea from the Master Oceanographic Observations Data Set (MOODS), located at the U.S...

  6. Effect of bait type and size on catch efficiency of narrow-barred Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) in the Persian Gulf handline fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eighani, Morteza; Paighambari, Seyed Yousef; Herrmann, Bent

    2018-01-01

    In the Persian Gulf handline fishery, fishers mostly use Cutlassfish (Trichiurus lepturus) bait for targeting narrow-barred Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) However, Cutlassfish are expensive compared to other baits and also a commercially important species that is typically exported...... to Asian countries. In order to conserve Cutlassfish resources and reduce costs of fishing, the effect of changing bait type and size on the catch efficiency and size structure of narrow-barred Spanish mackerel caught in the Persian Gulf handline fishery was investigated. The alternative baits investigated...... affects both overall catch efficiency and size structure of narrow-barred Spanish mackerel caught in the Persian Gulf handline fishery. This implies that managing bait type and size might complement standard harvest regulations and facilitate changing exploitation pattern in the Persian Gulf handline...

  7. Heavy metal contamination and health risk assessment in three commercial fish species in the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Hassanaghaei, Mina; Moore, Farid; Rastegari Mehr, Meisam; Soltanian, Siyavash; Lahijanzadeh, Ahmad Reza; Sorooshian, Armin

    2018-04-01

    Five heavy metals/metalloids and related potential health risks were investigated in three commercially important fish species (Anodontostoma chacunda, Belangerii, and Cynoglossurs arel) in Musa Estuary and Mahshahr Harbour of the Persian Gulf. A total of 116 fish samples were collected, and their liver and muscle organs were separately analyzed using ICP-MS. Results revealed that studied metals concentrations (with some exceptions) varied among sampling stations, fish species and their organs. Human health risk is evaluated using different indices. The results indicated that arsenic and mercury are the most hazardous elements. Estimated daily intake (EDI) for the metals exceeded the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) for all studied fish species. Also, target risk (TR) of arsenic indicated that consumption over a long period of time may result in a carcinogenic effect. The results are expected to create awareness among the public on the safety of consuming food products grown in particular areas. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. An economic Manifesto for the oil exporting countries of the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The oil-exporting countries of the Persian Gulf have failed economically and socially. It is time for a radical new approach to managing oil revenues while oil and gas reserves last. We propose an approach to cut the level of oil revenues available to governments to zero while incorporating a formal “Oil Fund for All Generations”. Others have proposed and implemented oil funds but in our proposal the government would (in time lose all access to oil revenues; by taking easy money away from governments and rulers, the likelihood of waste, corruption and wars will be reduced, and there will be better chance of adopting and implementing rational economic policies to enhance equity across generations.

  9. Coral reef fish assemblages along a disturbance gradient in the northern Persian Gulf: A seasonal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazilou, Amir; Shokri, Mohammad Reza; Gladstone, William

    2016-04-30

    Seasonal dynamics of coral reef fish assemblages were assessed along a gradient of potential anthropogenic disturbance in the Northern Persian Gulf. Overall, the attributes of coral reef fish assemblages showed seasonality at two different levels: seasonal changes irrespective of the magnitude of disturbance level (e.g. species richness), and seasonal changes in response to disturbance level (e.g. total abundance and assemblage composition). The examined parameters mostly belonged to the second group, but the interpretation of the relationship between patterns of seasonal changes and the disturbance level was not straightforward. The abundance of carnivorous fishes did not vary among seasons. SIMPER identified the family Nemipteridae as the major contributor to the observed spatiotemporal variations in the composition of coral reef fish assemblages in the study area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Total petroleum hydrocarbons in edible marine biota from Northern Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozar, Seyedeh Laili Mohebbi; Pauzi, Mohamad Zakaria; Salarpouri, Ali; Daghooghi, Behnam; Salimizadeh, Maryam

    2015-04-01

    To provide a baseline information for consumer's health, distribution of total petroleum hydrocarbons in 18 edible marine biota species from northern Persian Gulf was evaluated. The samples were purchased from fish market of Hormozgan Province, South of Iran. Marine biota samples included different species with various feeding habits and were analyzed based on ultraviolet florescence spectroscopy. Petroleum hydrocarbons showed narrow variation, ranging from 0.67 to 3.36 μg/g dry weight. The maximum value was observed in silver pomfret. Anchovy and silver pomfret with the highest content of petroleum hydrocarbons were known as good indicator for oil pollution in the studied area. From public health point of view, the detected concentrations for total petroleum hydrocarbons were lower than hazardous guidelines. The results were recorded as background data and information in the studied area; the continuous monitoring of pollutants is recommended, according to the rapid extension of industrial and oily activities in Hormozgan Province.

  11. Radiographic evaluation of using Persian Gulf coral powder effect on bone healing defects in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Marjani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: ‍Considering the fact that research on the marine products and creatures, in particular coral, has started just in the past decade and more attentions are focused on the benefits of this material, it has been decided to utilize the coral native to Persian Gulf as oral powder to heal tibia bone defect in rabbit. Methods: In this experimental study 18 New Zealander rabbits weighing 2.5-3 kg were categorized randomly in 3 groups (control, oral calcium powder and oral coral powder group of 6 rabbits. For inducing the defect, the first 3rd part of tibial bone was blunt dissected. A whole with the depth of 0.6-0.8 mm and diameter of 4 mm was produced in all 3 groups in the same style. The Calcium group was treated daily with 1150 mg calcium powder, coral group received 1220 mg of coral powder and control group were kept under standard condition. Course of treatment was 2 months and on days 0,10,20,30,40,50,63 the animals were evaluated for healing criteria such as filling the defects, density, external callus formation and intercortical callus. Results: Radiologic parameters indicates that filling defect, density, external and inter cortical callus and absorption for animals receiving coral is better than that of control and calcium group (P<0/05. Conclusion: In conclusion, by oral administration of Persian Gulf coral powder results increasing the rate of bone formation. Finally for human use, these results must be evaluated more in clinical studies.

  12. Satellite retrievals of dust aerosol over the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf (2005–2015)

    KAUST Repository

    Banks, Jamie R.

    2017-07-13

    The inter-annual variability of the dust aerosol presence over the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf is analysed over the period 2005-2015. Particular attention is paid to the variation in loading across the Red Sea, which has previously been shown to have a strong, seasonally dependent latitudinal gradient. Over the 11 years considered, the July mean 630 nm aerosol optical depth (AOD) derived from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) varies between 0.48 and 1.45 in the southern half of the Red Sea. In the north, the equivalent variation is between 0.22 and 0.66. The temporal and spatial pattern of variability captured by SEVIRI is also seen in AOD retrievals from the MODerate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), but there is a systematic offset between the two records. Comparisons of both sets of retrievals with ship-and land-based AERONET measurements show a high degree of correlation with biases of < 0.08. However, these comparisons typically only sample relatively low aerosol loadings. When both records are stratified by AOD retrievals from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), opposing behaviour is revealed at high MISR AODs (> 1), with offsets of C 0.19 for MODIS and 0.06 for SEVIRI. Similar behaviour is also seen over the Persian Gulf. Analysis of the scattering angles at which retrievals from the SEVIRI and MODIS measurements are typically performed in these regions suggests that assumptions concerning particle sphericity may be responsible for the differences seen.

  13. Applications of Depleted Uranium in the first and second Persian Gulf Wars: a review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Behrouzi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depleted uranium (DU is a byproduct of natural uranium enrichment process. Its unique characteristics (e.g. high density caused to use in civilian and military fields extensively. In the military fields, DU is used in the bullets and projectiles war hats. The munitions containing DU were used in the recent wars, more strikingly in the Middle East region (first and second Persian Gulf wars, and Afghanistan. Due to its biological impacts, this study aimed to assess biological effects of DU using scientometrics by investigating papers indexed in Pubmed from 1990-2008, to reveal the number and type of articles and also the important dimensions of DU biological impacts as well as the core issues. Methods: In this descriptive epidemiologic study, quantitative methods (counting frequency of words and scientometrics were used. Sample size was the total of the articles indexed in Pubmed during 1991- 2008, containing the terms "Gulf War" and "Depleted Uranium" in their title or keywords. Results: The most compromised body systems were urinary, nervous and cardiovascular. Other systems such as endocrine, musculoskeletal, immune and respiratory were also mentioned. Conclusion: Highly controversial results which have been stated in the surveyed articles about DU biological and environmental impacts caused the authors to recommend long term investigations for assessing its effects on recurrence to reveal potential late effects of DU.

  14. Biomonitoring of trace metal bioavailabilities to the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite along the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrolahi, A; Smith, B D; Ehsanpour, M; Afkhami, M; Rainbow, P S

    2014-10-01

    The fouling barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite is a cosmopolitan biomonitor of trace metal bioavailabilities, with an international comparative data set of body metal concentrations. Bioavailabilities of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, V and Zn to A. amphitrite were investigated at 19 sites along the Iranian coast of the understudied Persian Gulf. Commercial and fishing ports showed extremely high Cu bioavailabilities, associated with high Zn bioavailabilities, possibly from antifouling paints and procedures. V availability was raised at one port, perhaps associated with fuel leakage. Cd bioavailabilities were raised at sites near the Strait of Hormuz, perhaps affected by adjacent upwelling off Oman. The As data allow a reinterpretation of the typical range of accumulated As concentrations in A. amphitrite. The Persian Gulf data add a new region to the A. amphitrite database, confirming its importance in assessing the ecotoxicologically significant trace metal contamination of coastal waters across the world. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluating bio environmental effects of Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant on water and aquatic organism of Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayatti, F.

    2000-01-01

    The operation of nuclear power plants is always subjected to emission of some radioactive materials in the form of gaseous, liquids and solids in the environment. The heat from condenser coolant discharged to the sea can have some adverse effects on biological systems as thermal pollution. In this project, the radiation and thermal effects on Bushehr Nuclear Power Plants on aquatic animals in Persian Gulf were studied. The mathematical models for atmospheric dispersion of pollutant and pathways of radioactive materials from air to sea water and from sea to animals and human bodies were considered. some environmental samples from Persian Gulf were measured for radioactivity using high-purity Ge/Li detectors and Gamma-spectroscopy. The results indicates that the erection of B usher Nuclear Power Plants and its operation in the normal operation can have no adverse effects on environment, and also its thermal pollution is of no importance due to low area for coolant discharges

  16. First Palaearctic Record of the Bird Parasite Passeromyia heterochaeta (Diptera: Muscidae from the Iranian Persian Gulf Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Grzywacz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Passeromyia is a muscid genus previously known from the Old World Afrotropical and Oriental regions and eastwards from Australia and the West Pacific. The genus is known from nest-dwelling larvae which may be parasites of the nestlings. This study was aimed to identify of the Passeromyia species in the Iranian Persian Gulf Islands.The flies were collected during April 2010 to March 2011 on the 4 Iranian Persian Gulf islands, Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb, Abu-Mousa and Qeshm with fly bottle trap and entomological net.During this sampling, 18 representatives of P. heterochaeta, a species with free-living haematophagous larvae, have been collected. The species is reported herein from Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb, Abu-Mousa and Qeshm islands.This is the first Palaearctic record of the species as well as the first report of the genus Passeromyia from the Palaearctic Region.

  17. Using otolith morphometric and morphology characteristics to identify carangids species in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Mansourkiaei, Ana

    2010-01-01

    In a survey on 524 specimens from 18 different species belonging to the Carangidae family collected from The Persian Gulf, otolithes (Sagittae) are extracted from under gills region. After washing, their morphometric parameters measured. These parameters are otolith length, width, weight and length of antirostrum, width and length of rostrum, width in right and left sagittae. In addition to the otolith outline, mode position and mode opening of the Sulcus acusticus was examined. Data indicate...

  18. Activity concentration of some anthropogenic radionuclides in the surface marine sediments near the Saudi coast of the Arabian (Persian) Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kheliewi, A.S.; Shabana, E.I.

    2007-01-01

    Activity concentrations of some anthropogenic radionuclides ( 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am) have been measured in the surface of marine sediments along the Saudi coast of the Arabian (Persian) Gulf. The samples were collected at different locations and water depths. The spatial distribution of the concentrations of the measured radionuclides showed a heterogeneous pattern and is independent of location or water depth. The obtained results are discussed and some conclusions are drawn. (author)

  19. "It's what we're here for:" nurses caring for military personnel during the Persian Gulf Wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Patricia; Scott, Jared E; Callister, Lynn Clark

    2008-01-01

    Military nursing service during wartime represents significant contributions to a unique type of health care. The purposes of this study were to: (1) generate themes that elucidate combat nursing experiences, (2) honor nurses who served by sharing their stories, and (3) permanently archive accounts of nursing personnel who served during the Persian Gulf Wars during the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Eleven military nurses who provided health care to American troops in the Persian Gulf participated in a historical study as part of the ongoing Nurses at War oral history project documenting the experiences of nurses during times of armed conflict. The overriding theme, "It's what we're here for," demonstrates the commitment of nurses: a commitment to care and to sacrifice. Other themes drawn from the study included lessons learned from their wartime nursing experiences, sacrifices made, and chronicles of caring. During armed conflict in the Persian Gulf Wars, military nurses' personal stories demonstrated the importance of being engaged in making meaningful professional and historical contributions. These nurses displayed professional commitment and hardiness in the face of difficult life circumstances, saying, "We did what we had to do."

  20. Europe's nuclear superpowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seignious, G.M. II; Yates, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Both Great Britain and France are on the verge of nuclear buildups ambitious enough to turn either one into the world's third nuclear superpower. The authors note that the expansion of British and French arsenals will add greatly to the West's nuclear firepower, but on balance these forces will actually weaken Western security. The reason is that they will be deployed largely in potentially vulnerable and destabilizing modes. In addition, they will threaten the unity of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the viability of the alliance's nuclear doctrine. Perhaps most important, these forces will almost certainly spark a counterbuild-up by the Soviets and fatally complicate the task of arms control. The authors feel, therefore, that the time to include British and French forces in nuclear arms talks is now - before the planned increase in their nuclear might takes place. London and Paris have authorized programs that can give them unprecedented influence with the superpowers and should use this opportunity to slow the arms race, not supercharge it

  1. A study of burrow morphology in representative axiidean and gebiidean mud shrimps, from the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Sepahvand

    Full Text Available Mud shrimps (formerly Thalassinidea are common burrow dwelling decapod crustaceans in the littoral zone of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman. Their burrow morphology was investigated using foam casting methods. The present study shows that the burrow morphology in Upogebia carinicauda is not consistent and the recorded variations are based on habitat type and some physical characteristics of sediments. Adult burrow morphology in sandy-muddy substrate with shells, and boulder field habitats were Y-shaped and complex burrows of horizontal channels with turning chambers and vertical connections to internal passages or crevices of boulders, respectively. In burrows of U. carinicauda, some narrow passages, connected to the upper part of adult burrows in sandy-muddy habitats, belong to juveniles. Another species, Neocallichirus jousseaumei was found under boulders in sandy-muddy habitats of the Gulf of Oman and Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf. Since this type of habitat is special in some features, no conspicuous ex-current openings (usually obvious as conical mounds of extruded sediment have been observed on the sediment surface; as these were hidden among the boulders surrounded by mixed sand and shells. The only method for observing this type of burrow was to remove the boulders by hand or lever.

  2. Use of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase tool for biomonitoring marine environment pollution in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinali, Farrokhzad; Homaei, Ahmad; Kamrani, Ehsan; Patel, Seema

    2018-04-30

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is the pivotal antioxidant enzyme that defends organisms against the oxidative stresses of superoxide radicals. In this experimental study, purification of SOD from the leaves of Avicennia marina (grey mangrove or white mangrove) from the family Acanthaceae, located in Sirik mangrove forest on the shore of the Gulf of Oman was performed, for the intended characterization of SOD. The Sirik AmSOD (A. marina SOD) expressed optimum activity in the pH range of 6-9 with the maximum activity at pH 8. The optimal temperature for Sirik AmSOD activity was 70°C. Comparison of the pH and temperature optima in two regions (the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman) showed significant differences with P<0.05. The SOD from the Persian Gulf was more resistant against the environmental stressors, because of the biochemical adaption to this environment, which is harsher. The evidence from these results suggests that AmSOD has different characteristics in each place, and mangroves undergo different adaptations and require different protections. The results of the enzymatic research can be useful for ecological management of organisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Occurrence and Intensity of Anisakid Nematode Larvae in Some Commercially Important Fish Species in Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam DADAR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anisakid nematodes are common parasites of fish, mammals, fish-eating birds, and reptiles with a worldwide distribution, causing diseases in human, fish and important economic losses.Methods: A preliminary epidemiological study was carried out on Anisakid nematodes larvae in some commercially important fish species to evaluate the anisakid nematode larvae from greater lizardfish, (Saurida tumbil, Japanese thread fin bream (Nemipterus japonicus, crocodile longtom (Tylosurus crocodilus crocodiles and longfin trevally (Carangoides armatus from the Persian Gulf of Iran.Result: The collected larvae were identified mainly as the third larval stage (L3 of Hysterothylacium larval type A, B and C, Anisakis sp., Raphidascaris sp., Pseudoterranova sp. and Philometra sp. (Nematoda: Philometridae. The prevalence of Anisakid larvae infection of examined fishes was 97.2% in N. japonicus, 90.3% in S. tumbil, 20.5% in crocodile longtom and 5.5% in longfin trevally. Anisakis type III for the first time was different from Anisakis type I and Anisakis type II.Discussion: Zoonotic anisakids by high prevalence in edible fish could be a health hazard for people. So health practices should be considered in these areas.

  4. Wartime stressors and health outcomes: women in the Persian Gulf War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, E A; Roth, M A; Weed, G

    1998-08-01

    This descriptive correlational study of war time stressors and stress responses of women from the Persian Gulf War examined numerous stressors both physical and psychological. The psychological stressors more directly impacted postwar physical and psychological symptoms than did physical stressors. These findings add to our understanding of women's reactions to wartime stress and the types of stressors affecting women. The study provides more data to support the contention that sexual harassment is widely prevalent in the military. The study did not find data to support concerns about maternal guilt on leaving children, nor any significant evidence of stress symptomology from this situation. The results of this study confirmed the call by Wolfe, Brown, Furey, and Levin (1993) for more precise evaluation of wartime stressors in view of the changing gender composition of military forces and the subsequent increase of women in combat roles. Clinicians should be alerted to recognize gender-specific experiences. Education of military women about stressors and coping mechanisms should be broadened to address the development issue of intimacy versus isolation. Nurses, both military and civilian, must understand the effect of isolation and discrimination on women both in combat and in other high stress situations. The need for continued study of the problem of sexual harassment is confirmed. Understanding the scope of the problem and the health care outcomes strengthens the role of prevention and intervention for nurses and their clients.

  5. Isolation and characterization of biosurfactant producing bacteria from Persian Gulf (Bushehr provenance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2014-09-15

    Biosurfactants are surface active materials that are produced by some microorganisms. These molecules increase biodegradation of insoluble pollutants. In this study sediments and seawater samples were collected from the coastline of Bushehr provenance in the Persian Gulf and their biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated. Biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated by using an enrichment method in Bushnell-Hass medium with diesel oil as the sole carbon source. Five screening tests were used for selection of Biosurfactant producing bacteria: hemolysis in blood agar, oil spreading, drop collapse, emulsification activity and Bacterial Adhesion to Hydrocarbon test (BATH). These bacteria were identified using biochemical and molecular methods. Eighty different colonies were isolated from the collected samples. The most biosurfactant producing isolates related to petrochemical plants of Khark Island. Fourteen biosurfactant producing bacteria were selected between these isolates and 7 isolates were screened as these were predominant producers that belong to Shewanella alga, Shewanella upenei, Vibrio furnissii, Gallaecimonas pentaromativorans, Brevibacterium epidermidis, Psychrobacter namhaensis and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The largest clear zone diameters in oil spreading were observed for G. pentaromativorans strain O15. Also, this strain has the best emulsification activity and reduction of surface tension, suggesting it is the best of thee isolated strains. The results of this study confirmed that there is high diversity of biosurfactant producing bacteria in marine ecosystem of Iran and by application of these bacteria in petrochemical waste water environmental problems can be assisted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Iran-1 and Iran-2 nuclear power station on the Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altvater, W.

    1977-01-01

    Iran is a country with large oil reserves which, however, are exploited only very carefully because of ther importance for exports. In the light of this policy it was decided to make increasing use of nuclear energy for the country's electricity supply. Under the 8th Iranian five year plan, a total installed generating capacity of 56,000 MW is foreseen by 1993, of which 24,400 MW will be in nuclear power plants. This large construction program of nuclear power stations is implemented by the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, AEOI, which started negotiations with potent nuclear industries of various industrialized countries in early 1974. In November 1974, these discussions led to a letter of intent with the German Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) for the turnkey erection of the first Iranian nuclear power plant, Iran-1 and Iran-2, with two units of 1,300 MW on a site on the Persian Gulf. The siting decision was taken in favor of the Halileh area located some 18 km from the seaport of Bushehr. Construction work on the site began in July 1975. The delivery dates are December 1, 1980 for Iran-1 and November 1, 1981 for Iran-2. (orig.) [de

  7. Assessment of coral health in the coastal areas of the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourandeh, Mehdi Bolouki; Nabavi, S. Mohammad Bagher; Sinaei, Mahmood

    2013-09-01

    In this study, Zooxanthellae density, chlorophyll a concentration, and mitotic index (MI) were measured in the coral Porites compressa obtained from coastal areas of the Persian Gulf in early February to September 2008. During the summer, zooxanthellae density declined by approximately 30% compared to the winter peak (3,607,849 ± 229,894, n = 15) and reached a minimum of 2,536,732 ± 169,776, n = 15. The highest value of chlorophyll a (0.828 ± 0.043 μg/cm2) was recorded in the south while the lowest (0.604 ± 0.048 μg/cm2) was measured in the north sampling site at the cold season. There was a higher level of MI in the warm season followed by cold > and temperate seasons. The MI were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the warm and cold seasons in comparison with the temperate season. Differences in response may be attributed to the drastic seasonal temperature changes. However, the significant decline found in the north sampling site indicates that anthropogenic stressors may adversely affect coral P. compressa. These results imply that there were negative impacts on coral P. compressa in our study site.

  8. Bioremediation of PAHs for the Persian Gulf Water by RBCp and MBBR Contactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Nahid

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil and heavy metals pollution was investigated in the Persian Gulf coastal waters near Booshehr Province. The most polluted areas were found to be Imam Hassan and Assalluyeh, showing PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons levels of 9.83 and 1.29 ppm, respectively. PAHs such as naphthalene and phenanthrene (pollutants with petroleum, coke, and industrial origins find their way into the environment. Soil samples were taken from these polluted areas to isolate species of bacteria with the highest biodegradation capability. Eight species were recognized, most of which belonged to the pseudomonas, gram negative, and catalase positive organisms. The species were tested for their biological removal capability and the best four were used in a RBCp bioreactor to study their pollutant removal capability. Under steady conditions, a COD removal of 73% and a PAHs removal of 66% were recorded. A moving bed bioreactor (MBBR was also used to investigate TPH biological removal using the same bacteria. The experiments were performed under three acclimatization periods of 48, 36, and 18 hours within a COD range of 800-2000 mg/l. The results showed that maximum COD and TOC removal efficiencies of 81% and 79%, respectively, can be achieved in mixed growths of the isolated bacteria.

  9. Determination and Bioremediation of Petroleum Pollutant in Soil of Persian Gulf Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Vossoughi

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The amount of petroleum pollutant in soil of Persian Gulf coast at 8 selected stations were determined and showed the concentration between 14.3-143.6 mg/kg.  Nickel has the highest concentration  level of heavy metal with 58.6 mg/kg in Emam Hassan area at 50 kilometers of west Boushehr port. Bioremediation of contaminated soil were studied in two medium in slurry and solid state fermentation and 8 bacteria types were isolated. Four species: EM2, SH, GN1 and GN3 presented optimal PAH removal efficiency.  Biodegradation efficiency under slurry condition was found after 45 days which during this period, naphthalene and phenanthrene showed 73% and 66% removal efficiency respectively. Under solid state conditions, microbial activity of mixed and pure culture were studied.  The results presented that mixed culture due to high ability of different strains for growth, showed higher degradability compared to pure culture, but due to insufficient mixing under solid state condition, mass transfer velocity of nutrient reduces to the level that caused reduction in cell activity, so removal efficiency under slurry condition was found higher than solid state respectively.

  10. Plastic debris and microplastics along the beaches of the Strait of Hormuz, Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Abolfazl; Esmaili, Zinat; Khan, Farhan R

    2017-01-30

    Currently little is known about the prevalence of plastics and microplastics (MPs) in the Persian Gulf. Five sampling stations were selected along the Strait of Hormuz (Iran) that exhibited different levels of industrialization and urbanization, and included a marine protected area. Debris was observed and sediments were collected for MPs extraction via fluidization/floatation methodology. The order of MP abundance (par/kg) generally reflected the level of anthropogenic activity: Bostanu (1258±291)>Gorsozan (122±23)>Khor-e-Yekshabeh (26±6)>Suru (14±4)>Khor-e-Azini (2±1). Across all sites fibers dominated (83%, 11% film, 6% fragments). FT-IR analysis showed polyethylene (PE), nylon, and PET (polyethylene terephthalate) were the commonly recovered polymers. Likely sources include beach debris, discarded fishing gear, and urban and industrial outflows that contain fibers from clothes. This study provides a 'snapshot' of MP pollution and longitudinal studies are required to fully understand plastic contamination in the region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antifouling paint booster biocides (Irgarol 1051 and diuron) in marinas and ports of Bushehr, Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Abolfazl; Molaei, Saeideh; Sheijooni Fumani, Neda; Abedi, Ehsan

    2016-04-15

    In the present study, antifouling paint booster biocides, Irgarol 1051 and diuron were measured in ports and marinas of Bushehr, Iran. Results showed that in seawater samples taken from ports and marinas, Irgarol was found at the range of less than LOD to 63.4ngL(-1) and diuron was found to be at the range of less than LOD to 29.1ngL(-1) (in Jalali marina). 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA), as a degradation product of diuron, was also analyzed and its maximum concentration was 390ngL(-1). Results for analysis of Irgarol 1051 in sediments showed a maximum concentration of 35.4ngg(-1) dry weight in Bandargah marina. A comparison between the results of this study and those of other published works showed that Irgarol and diuron pollutions in ports and marinas of Bushehr located in the Persian Gulf were less than the average of reports from other parts of the world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Distribution of natural radionuclides and hot points in coasts of Hormozgan, Persian Gulf, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdi, M.R.; Mostajaboddavati, M.; Hasanzadeh, A.; Faghihian, H.; Kamali, M.

    2006-01-01

    A reconnaissance study has been made on the distribution of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K, 137 Cs and geochemical features in soil and sediment samples at various locations in the coast of Persian Gulf. Activity concentration levels due to radionuclides were measured in 50 samples of soils and sediments collected from the coast of Hormozgan. From the measured spectra, activity concentrations were determined for 40 K (range from 140 to 1172 Bq x kg -1 ), 137 Cs (from 0 to 15 Bq x kg -1 ), 238 U (from 29 to 385 Bq x kg -1 ) and 2321 Th (from 9 to 156 Bq x kg -1 ) with the lowest limit of detection (LLD) of 68, 3.2, 4.3 and 4.3 Bq x kg -1 , respectively. The dose rate from ambient air at the soil ranges was between 23 to 177 nGy x h -1 with an average of 60±7.86 nGy x h -1 . (author)

  13. Phylogeny of Symbiodinium populations in zoantharians of the northern Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noori Koupaei, Atoosa; Dehghani, Hamed; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Mashini, Amirhossein Gheitanchi

    2016-01-01

    Zoantharians of the Persian Gulf (PG) experience periods of anomalous high temperature, irradiance and desiccation. Their survival largely relies on the symbiotic relationship with single celled dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. However, the phylogeny of symbionts of zoantharians has not been investigated in the region. In this study, the second internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA (ITS2) was used to recognize in hospite populations of Symbiodinium in Palythoa aff. mutuki, Palythoa tuberculosa and Zoanthus sansibaricus colonies from Hengam, Kish, Larak, and Qeshm Islands, in the PG. The results showed subclade D1–4 and a variant of A1, were the most prevalent subclades of Symbiodinium. Predominance of stress tolerant subclade D1–4 and putatively radiation tolerant variant of A1 of Symbiodinium in zoantharian species might suggest an adaptation strategy to the extreme physical environment of the PG. - Highlights: •Zoanthus sansibaricus was specific host of Symbiodinium subclade A1 variant. •Genus Palythoa was associated with subclades D1–4, C1 and A1. •Hosting clade A provides resistance against irradiance and therefore to bleaching.

  14. The Intriguing Tsunami of 19 March 2017 in the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, R.; Salaree, A.; Okal, E.

    2017-12-01

    On 19 March 2017, a surge from the Persian Gulf inundated significant parts of the Port of Dayyer on the southern coastlines of Iran. It, reportedly, capsized about 300 boats, caused $10 million of damage and resulted in one death and five people missing. Although a significant storm had preceded the surge, there were indications of calm weather during the event in some of the remaining footage which could play a critical role in reconstructing the tsunami by studying it as a meteorological phenomenon. Here, we are reporting the data from a field survey in the affected area which revealed a concentration of inundation along a 30 km stretch of coastline with run-ups reaching 3 m at 4 km west of Dayyer. In the absence of any major seismic event at or around the occurrence of the tsunami, we consider landslides as well as atmospheric phenomena as potential sources for the event. We use simultaneous hydrodynamic dipoles as landslide scenarios (e.g. Synolakis et al., 2002) and simulate water amplitudes close to the coastlines using the MOST algorithm (e.g. Titov & Synolakis, 1995). We also use the method by Platzman (1958) to model the surge as a meteotsunami. Our simulations suggest that the Dayyer tsunami was caused by a local system of atmospheric pressure gradient, as our landslide models fail to reproduce high amplitudes as documented in our field survey.

  15. Plastic debris and microplastics along the beaches of the Strait of Hormuz, Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naji, Abolfazl; Esmaili, Zinat; Khan, Farhan R

    2017-01-01

    Currently little is known about the prevalence of plastics and microplastics (MPs) in the Persian Gulf. Five sampling stations were selected along the Strait of Hormuz (Iran) that exhibited different levels of industrialization and urbanization, and included a marine protected area. Debris was observed and sediments were collected for MPs extraction via fluidization/floatation methodology. The order of MP abundance (par/kg) generally reflected the level of anthropogenic activity: Bostanu (1258 ± 291) > Gorsozan (122 ± 23) > Khor-e-Yekshabeh (26 ± 6) > Suru (14 ± 4) > Khor-e-Azini (2 ± 1). Across all sites fibers dominated (83%, 11% film, 6% fragments). FT-IR analysis showed polyethylene (PE), nylon, and PET (polyethylene terephthalate) were the commonly recovered polymers. Likely sources include beach debris, discarded fishing gear, and urban and industrial outflows that contain fibers from clothes. This study provides a ‘snapshot’ of MP pollution and longitudinal studies are required to fully understand plastic contamination in the region. - Highlights: • MP pollution determined in the sediments along the Strait of Hormuz. • Sites included industrial and urban areas, and a marine protected area. • MPs found at all sites. Abundance related to proximity of anthropogenic activities. • Fibers were the dominant MP type (83%). PE, nylon and PET were identified by FT-IR. • Sources may include discarded fishing gear and outflows containing clothing fibers.

  16. Faunistic Study and Biodiversity of Scorpions in Qeshm Island (Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zarei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available  Background: Scorpions are known as the most widespread poisonous creatures that cause casualties and death to human. They are distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. Among the sixteen Iranian Island in the Persian Gulf, Qeshm Island is the biggest and is located in the focus of the important internal and international commercial marinelines. Furthermore, thousands of tourists also visit the Island every year for its natural beauties and the siteseeings. The present research study was carried out during 1998-99 throughout Qeshm Island in order to know the species of scorpions, their abundance, the distribution and control strategy in order to reduce the scorpion stings and to safeguard the visitors as well as the local population.Methods: Collections were made randomly during the night. Samples were searched by black light and then collected by forceps. A total of 102 scorpions were captured.Results: The scorpions were identified as Buthotus jayakari numbered 42 specimens (41.17% and B. leptochelys numbering only 7 specimens (6.86% belonging to the family Buthidae. Androctonus crassicauda was collected in the most parts of the Island and considered as the dominant species. The sex ratio was 1:1.53 in favor of females. B. lep­tochelys was rare species and by far restricted in its distribution.Conclusion: Considering the high population of A. crassicauda and its wide distribution, it is regarded to be re­sponsible for the majority of scorpion stings in Qeshm Island.

  17. The impact of the oil crisis associated with the Persian Gulf conflict on the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, G.S.; Boyd, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of the Persian Gulf conflict on the level of economic activity, employment and inflation in the United States. Impacts on other countries are not examined in this study. Many of the impacts are difficult to quantify objectively. One factor that can be subjected to analysis is the increase in US government expenditures associated with Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. The analytical results of the investigation suggest that the method of financing the increase does make a difference in how the US economy is affected. In two of the three cases considered (i.e. deficit financing and 80% financing by coalition partners), output, personal consumption expenditures, and disposable income increase, but these increases are partly associated with higher prices (i.e. inflation). In the third case (i.e. tax-offset scenario), output, personal consumption expenditures, and disposable income decline, but prices actually fall. Moreover, the magnitudes of the changes are directly proportional to the size of the expenditure increase. (author)

  18. Total petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments from the coastline and mangroves of the northern Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbi-Nozar, Seyedeh Laili; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Ismail, Wan Ruslan; Mortazawi, Mohammad Seddiq; Salimizadeh, Maryam; Momeni, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Gholamali

    2015-06-15

    To provide baseline information for the marine ecosystem of Hormozgan province, the distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons was evaluated in 52 stations involved in the mangrove and coastline ecosystem. Coastline sampling sites included areas facing harbor, river, domestic and industrial discharge. Sediment samples were analyzed based on ultraviolet fluorescence spectroscopy. Petroleum hydrocarbons showed narrow variations ranging from non-detectable (ND) to 1.71 and from 0.2 to 0.63μg/g dry weight for coastline and mangrove sediments, respectively. The detected concentrations for total petroleum hydrocarbons were lower than guideline values for ecological risk. Furthermore, the minimum environmental risk was confirmed by background levels for the Persian Gulf, the Sea of Oman, and detected values for reference areas. The results were regarded as background data in the studied area, and, considering the rapid expansion of activities related to the petroleum industry in Hormozgan province, the continuous monitoring of pollutants is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sediment characteristics, brine chemistry and evolution of murayr sabkha, Arabian (persian) gulf, saudi arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basyoni, Mohammed H; Mousa Basim A

    2009-01-01

    Murayr Sabkha, on the western coast of the Arabian (Persian) Gulf, Saudi Arabia, is a siliciclastic dominated sabkha, with minor bioclasts and shells derived from the shore area and the surrounding tertiary carbonates. The sabkha is subdivided into three areas: the vegetated sabkha, the bare sabkha and artificial saline pan. The vegetated sabkha area surrounds the bare sabkha surface, composed of wind blown sand and reworked gypsum crystals. This area is far from the present day water table, and is covered with halophytes that increase in density towards the bare sabkha area. The bare sabkha area is located about one meter below the surface of the vegetated sabkha area. It is wet most of the time, as the water table is shallow (< 120 cm in depth). The surface of this area is composed of thin buckling crusts, polygonal tepee ridges, and efflorescent gypsum and/or halite patches. The saline pan is an artificial excavation near the eastern part of the sabkha and is filled with seepage groundwater. It is floored with a crust of grass-like gypsum crystals. Petrographic, mineralogic (by XRD), and field examinations of sediment samples collected from 32 trenches in the sabkha revealed that gypsum is the dominant sulfate mineral recorded in the sabkha. The gypsum is formed of random lenticular mud-sized and sand-sized crystals at the top 70 cm, and aggregates of lenticular and rosette gravelsized crystals near the water table. Halite is recorded at/near the sediment surface as efflorescent crust and cement, respectively. Anhydrite is recorded near the water table, whereas celestite is recorded near the gulf side. Based on a study of 32 brine samples in Murayr Sabkha, it was found that the groundwater in the sabkha is of chloride type (MgCl2 and CaCl2) of marine origin. It is recharged mainly from seepage of recent marine water from the gulf side and from marine and meteoric waters reacted with the surrounding carbonates. It seems that the capillary rise of these waters

  20. The Persian Gulf: pollution, damage assessment, damage evaluation. Detection of environmental changes after oil spill. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, G.

    1993-01-01

    During a cruise in december 1991 postwar environmental damage was assessed in the nothern Persian Gulf. The sediments contained apparent traces of oil residues. Extremely high sediment oxygen demand cannot be explained by oil pollution. Sufficient aeriation of the water column is ensured by the hydrographical setting in the area. Since large macrofauna species are very little abundant, the benthic biomass dominated by bacteria. Due to this shift in the size distribution of the benthic community, changes of the whole ecosystem are most likely. (orig.) [de

  1. Feeding habits and trophic levels of some demersal fish species in the Persian Gulf (Bushehr Province) using Ecopath model

    OpenAIRE

    Vahabnezhad, Arezoo

    2015-01-01

    A trophic study was carried out in February of 2012 to January 2013 on the ecosystem in the Persian Gulf, Bushehr provience. A total of 2,948 samples of stomach contents were analyzed based on the weight and number of food items and were identified about 40 preys. Crustacean and bony fish were as a main prey in most of the stomach contents . The mean average trophic level was estimated at 3.6 by Ecopath software. In this research, the mean level were studied between eight species varied fr...

  2. Evolution and timing of salt diapirism in the Iranian sector of the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Cesare; Chiariotti, Luca; Bresciani, Ilenia; Cattaneo, Luciano; Toscani, Giovanni

    2016-06-01

    The Iranian sector of the Persian Gulf is affected by more than 30 large diapiric structures triggered by the mobilization of the Infracambrian Hormuz Complex, an evaporite-rich unit that overlies Precambrian basement at the base of the sedimentary succession. Nineteen non-piercing diapirs, without any appreciable salt intrusion into the upper succession, were studied in detail and retro-deformed by the decompaction and unfolding of 13 seismic horizons that were identified by the interpretation of a dense grid of 2D seismic lines and calibrated by well data. Salt uplift had begun by the Early Palaeozoic and persists to the present day, with major pulses of intensity during the Middle Triassic, Cenomanian, Late Oligocene, and post-Middle Miocene. The structural reconstructions and the analysis of the progressive deformation of the study diapirs do not show any link between diapiric uplift and local tectonic structures, and no clear correlation with the regional geodynamic events acting at the boundary of the Arabian plate. On the contrary, the salt uplift seems strongly influenced by the differential rate of sedimentation that affected the whole study basin (more than 40,000 km2), with a coefficient of correlation between the salt uplift rate and the differential rate of sedimentation (expressed by the standard deviation of the sedimentation rate calculated over the entire basin) of 0.95. This downbuilding mechanism of diapiric growth is apparently induced by differential sedimentation over long distances (several tens of kilometers), showing that the flow of salt affected the whole basin and not just the areas around the single diapiric structures.

  3. Fault zone identification in the eastern part of the Persian Gulf based on combined seismic attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkamali, M. S.; Keshavarz FK, N.; Bakhtiari, M. R.

    2013-02-01

    Faults, as main pathways for fluids, play a critical role in creating regions of high porosity and permeability, in cutting cap rock and in the migration of hydrocarbons into the reservoir. Therefore, accurate identification of fault zones is very important in maximizing production from petroleum traps. Image processing and modern visualization techniques are provided for better mapping of objects of interest. In this study, the application of fault mapping in the identification of fault zones within the Mishan and Aghajari formations above the Guri base unconformity surface in the eastern part of Persian Gulf is investigated. Seismic single- and multi-trace attribute analyses are employed separately to determine faults in a vertical section, but different kinds of geological objects cannot be identified using individual attributes only. A mapping model is utilized to improve the identification of the faults, giving more accurate results. This method is based on combinations of all individual relevant attributes using a neural network system to create combined attributes, which gives an optimal view of the object of interest. Firstly, a set of relevant attributes were separately calculated on the vertical section. Then, at interpreted positions, some example training locations were manually selected in each fault and non-fault class by an interpreter. A neural network was trained on combinations of the attributes extracted at the example training locations to generate an optimized fault cube. Finally, the results of the fault and nonfault probability cube were estimated, which the neural network applied to the entire data set. The fault probability cube was obtained with higher mapping accuracy and greater contrast, and with fewer disturbances in comparison with individual attributes. The computed results of this study can support better understanding of the data, providing fault zone mapping with reliable results.

  4. Effect of subseabed salt domes on Tidal Residual currents in the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekh Poul, Hossein; Backhaus, Jan; Dehghani, Ali; Huebner, Udo

    2016-05-01

    Geological studies in the Persian Gulf (PG) have revealed the existence of subseabed salt-domes. With suitable filtering of a high-resolution PG seabed topography, it is seen that the domes leave their signature in the seabed, i.e., numerous hills and valleys with amplitudes of several tens of meters and radii from a few up to tens of kilometers. It was suspected that the "shark skin" of the PG seabed may affect the tidal residual flow. The interaction of tidal dynamics and these obstacles was investigated in a nonlinear hydrodynamic numerical tidal model of the PG. The model was first used to characterize flow patterns of residual currents generated by a tidal wave passing over symmetric, elongated and tilted obstacles. Thereafter it was applied to the entire PG. The model was forced at its open boundary by the four dominant tidal constituents residing in the PG. Each tidal constituent was simulated separately. Results, i.e., tidal residual currents in the PG, as depicted by Lagrangian trajectories reveal a stationary flow that is very rich in eddies. Each eddy can be identified with a topographic obstacle. This confirms that the tidal residual flow field is strongly influenced by the nonlinear interaction of the tidal wave with the bottom relief which, in turn, is deformed by salt-domes beneath the seabed. Different areas of maximum residual current velocities are identified for major tidal constituents. The pattern of trajectories indicates the presence of two main cyclonic gyres and several adjacent gyres rotating in opposite directions and a strong coastal current in the northern PG.

  5. Distribution of natural radionuclides on coats of Bushehr, Persian Gulf, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdi, M. R.; Faghihian, H.; Kamali, M.; Mostajaboddavati, M.; Hasanzadeh, A.

    2006-01-01

    :A reconnaissance study has been made on the distribution of 2 38U , 2 32T h, 4 0K , 1 37C s and geochemical features in soil and sediment samples at various locations on the coast of Bushehr in the Persian Gulf. In this study a gamma-ray spectrometer based on a High Purity Germanium detector and a PC based MCA and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) method were used. Estimation of the measured radionuclide content have been made for the absorbed dose rate of gamma radiation. The Activity concentration (A), the equivalent radium (R eq ), and the external hazard index (H ex ) which resulted from the natural radionuclides in soil and sediment are also calculated. The base-line data of radionuclides and heavy metals in view of the commissioning of nuclear and non-nuclear industries for the coast of Bushehr, which does not yet exist, was obtained. Activity concentration levels due to radionuclides were measured in 50 soil and sediment samples collected from this region. The measurement was performed with respect to their gamma radioactivity for a counting time of 24 hour intervals. From the accumulated spectra, activity concentration were determined for 4 0K (range from 108 to 520 Bq Kg -1 ), 1 37 Cs (from 6 to 40 Bq Kg 1 ), 2 38U (from 12 to 75 Bq Kg -1 ) and 2 32T h (from 8 to 33 Bq Kg -1 ) with the lowest limit detection (LLD) of, respectively, 68, 3.2, 4.3 and 4.3 Bq Kg -1 . The dose rate from ambient air at the soil ranges was between 14 to 44 nGy h -1 with an average of 30.56±7.86 nGy h -1

  6. Fault zone identification in the eastern part of the Persian Gulf based on combined seismic attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirkamali, M S; Keshavarz FK, N; Bakhtiari, M R

    2013-01-01

    Faults, as main pathways for fluids, play a critical role in creating regions of high porosity and permeability, in cutting cap rock and in the migration of hydrocarbons into the reservoir. Therefore, accurate identification of fault zones is very important in maximizing production from petroleum traps. Image processing and modern visualization techniques are provided for better mapping of objects of interest. In this study, the application of fault mapping in the identification of fault zones within the Mishan and Aghajari formations above the Guri base unconformity surface in the eastern part of Persian Gulf is investigated. Seismic single- and multi-trace attribute analyses are employed separately to determine faults in a vertical section, but different kinds of geological objects cannot be identified using individual attributes only. A mapping model is utilized to improve the identification of the faults, giving more accurate results. This method is based on combinations of all individual relevant attributes using a neural network system to create combined attributes, which gives an optimal view of the object of interest. Firstly, a set of relevant attributes were separately calculated on the vertical section. Then, at interpreted positions, some example training locations were manually selected in each fault and non-fault class by an interpreter. A neural network was trained on combinations of the attributes extracted at the example training locations to generate an optimized fault cube. Finally, the results of the fault and nonfault probability cube were estimated, which the neural network applied to the entire data set. The fault probability cube was obtained with higher mapping accuracy and greater contrast, and with fewer disturbances in comparison with individual attributes. The computed results of this study can support better understanding of the data, providing fault zone mapping with reliable results. (paper)

  7. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Content in Various Tissues of Different Persian Gulf Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Zibaee Nezhad

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fatty acids of omega-3 family have high nutritional value and can prevent coronary heart disease.These fatty acids are found in various fish and sea foods. To investigate the level of omega-3 fatty acids indifferent kind of fish head, muscle and liver from 30 species of fish collected from Persian Gulf.Material and Methods: In this experimental study, the fish were collected by hunting from Boushehr and Hormozgansea ports. Their head, muscle and liver fatty acids were determined on their methylated fatty acids dissolvedin N-hexin. Quantitative analysis of fatty acids was performed by gas chromatography (GC with methylmyristateused as the reference material in this analysis and the qualitative analysis of fatty acids was done bygas chromatography and mass spectrometer (GC- mass and cod liver oil which contained all of omega-3 fattyacids used as standard.Results: Our study showed that some fish were good sources of omega-3 fatty acids and Trout (Ghezel-ALA,Bartail flathead (Zaminkan-e-domnavari, Malabar blood snapper (Sorkhoo malabari had maximum levels ofomega-3 in all body tissues. Other types of fish were rich in omega 3 fatty acids in separate organs, such as liverin Bartail flathead (Zaminkan-e-domnavari, head in Sillago Sihama (Shoort and muscle in Trout (Ghezel-ALA. In contrast, lesser amount of omega 3 fatty acids is found in tissues of other species of fish such as Silverpomfret (Halva sefid, Longfin trevally (Gish-e-derazbale and Xiphophorus Hellerii (Dom-shamshiri.Conclusion: This research showed that the liver of fish had the highest level of omega-3 fatty acids and fish musclecontained more omega-3 fatty acids than the head. Thus for having maximum levels of omega-3 fatty acids inthe diet, all fish tissues can be served. As liver and head of fish are not usually consumed, it is recommended thatsuch organs be used for preparation of omega 3-containing cardio supportive supplements.

  8. Faunistic Study and Biodiversity of Scorpions in Qeshm Island (Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zarei

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract Background: Scorpions are known as the most widespread poisonous creatures that cause casualties and death to human. They are distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. Among the sixteen Iranian Island in the Persian Gulf, Qeshm Island is the biggest and is located in the focus of the important internal and international commercial marinelines. Furthermore, thousands of tourists also visit the Island every year for its natural beauties and the siteseeings. The present research study was carried out during 1998-99 throughout Qeshm Island in order to know the species of scorpions, their abundance, the distribution and control strategy in order to reduce the scorpion stings and to safeguard the visitors as well as the local population."nMethods: Collections were made randomly during the night. Samples were searched by black light and then collected by forceps. A total of 102 scorpions were captured."nResults: The scorpions were identified as Buthotus jayakari numbered 42 specimens (41.17% and B. leptochelys numbering only 7 specimens (6.86% belonging to the family Buthidae. Androctonus crassicauda was collected in the most parts of the Island and considered as the dominant species. The sex ratio was 1:1.53 in favor of females. B. lep­tochelys was rare species and by far restricted in its distribution."nConclusion: Considering the high population of A. crassicauda and its wide distribution, it is regarded to be re­sponsible for the majority of scorpion stings in Qeshm Island.

  9. Superpower nuclear minimalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graben, E.K.

    1992-01-01

    During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in building weapons -- now it seems like America and Russia are competing to get rid of them the fastest. The lengthy process of formal arms control has been replaced by exchanges of unilateral force reductions and proposals for reciprocal reductions not necessarily codified by treaty. Should superpower nuclear strategies change along with force postures President Bush has yet to make a formal pronouncement on post-Cold War American nuclear strategy, and it is uncertain if the Soviet/Russian doctrine of reasonable sufficiency formulated in the Gorbachev era actually heralds a change in strategy. Some of the provisions in the most recent round of unilateral proposals put forth by Presidents Bush and Yeltsin in January 1992 are compatible with a change in strategy. Whether such a change has actually occurred remains to be seen. With the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union, the strategic environment has fundamentally changed, so it would seem logical to reexamine strategy as well. There are two main schools of nuclear strategic thought: a maximalist school, mutual assured destruction (MAD) which emphasizes counterforce superiority and nuclear war- fighting capability, and a MAD-plus school, which emphasizes survivability of an assured destruction capability along with the ability to deliver small, limited nuclear attacks in the event that conflict occurs. The MAD-plus strategy is based on an attempt to conventionalize nuclear weapons which is unrealistic.

  10. Effects of three types of oil dispersants on biodegradation of dispersed crude oil in water surrounding two Persian gulf provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari-Baghbaderani, Azadeh; Emtyazjoo, Mozhgan; Poursafa, Parinaz; Mehrabian, Sedigheh; Bijani, Samira; Farkhani, Daryoush; Mirmoghtadaee, Parisa

    2012-01-01

    To determine the most effective and biodegradable dispersant of spilled oil in water surrounding two Persian Gulf provinces. This study compared the effects of three dispersants, Pars 1, Pars 2, and Gamlen OD4000 on removal of oil in two Persian Gulf provinces' water. Overall, 16 stations were selected. Using the Well method, the growth rate of isolated bacteria and fungi was identified. To specify the growth rate of microorganisms and their usage of oil in the presence of the above-mentioned dispersants, as exclusive sources of carbon, the bacteria were grown in culture medium for 28 days at 120 rpm, 30°C, and their optical density was measured by spectrophotometry. Then, we tested biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in microorganisms. The highest growth rate was documented for the growth of microorganisms on either Pars 1 or Pars 2 dispersants or their mixtures with oil. However, the culture having microorganisms grown on Pars 1 had higher BOD and COD than the other two dispersants (9200 and 16800 versus 500 and 960, P microorganisms grown on Pars 2 had maximum amount of BOD and COD in comparison with Pars 1 and Gamlen dispersants (7100 and 15200 versus 6000 and 10560, P < 0.05). Pars 1 and Pars 2 were the most effective dispersants with highest degradability comparing Gamlen. In each region, the most suitable compound for removing oil spill from offshores with least secondary contamination should be investigated.

  11. Isolation and identification of crude oil degrading bacteria from gastropod Haustrum scobina collected from Persian Gulf (Bandar Abbas Shoreline provenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinab Bayat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biodegradation is a good alternative rather than chemical and physical methods for cleaning oil contaminated areas. Several factors like crude oil concentration, biosurfactant production, salinity and incubation time affect the biodegradation. Materials and methods: In this study, seawater sample and gastropod were collected from Persian Gulf. To isolate oil degrading bacteria from collected samples, ONR7a medium was used. The strains that had more growth and higher oil removal were selected and identified. The factors such as the effect of different concentrations of oil, incubation time, mixed cultures and salinity on the biodegradation were investigated. Results: Six crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated. Between these bacteria 2 strains were selected based on higher oil removal. These strains belonged to the genus Vibrio and Halomonas. Strains with higher Emulsification activity produce more biosurfactant and have higher oil biodegradation. Growth and oil degradation have increment pattern by prolonging the incubation time. Mixed culture of Vibrio and Halomonas strains have higher rates of degradation rather than culturing with one of them. Increase in crudeoil concentration to 2.5% caused reduction in growth of bacteria and degradation of oil. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study show that crude oil degrading bacteria have high diversity in Persian Gulf. These bacteria have higher capability for oil degradation thus they can be used for remediation of oil contaminated areas.

  12. Zoonotic intestinal protozoan of the wild boars, Sus scrofa, in Persian Gulf's coastal area (Bushehr province), Southwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoobi, Kambiz; Sarkari, Bahador; Mansouri, Majid; Motazedian, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-10-01

    Wild boars, Sus scrofa , are potential reservoirs of many zoonotic diseases, and there are a possibility of transmission of the zoonotic diseases from these animals to humans and also domestic animals. This study aimed to evaluate the protozoan contamination of wild boars in the Persian Gulf's coastal area (Bushehr Province), southwestern Iran. A total of 25 crossbred boars were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in Bushehr province, in 2013. Samples were collected from the gastrointestinal tracts of each boar in 5% formalin, Bouin's solution, sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and polyvinyl alcohol fixatives. Fixed stool smears examined by trichrome and Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Each of the 25 wild boars was infected with at least one of the intestinal protozoans. The rate of contamination with intestinal protozoan was 64% for Balantidium coli , 76% for Iodamoeba sp., 52% for Entamoeba polecki , 44% for Blastocystis sp. and 8% for Chilomastix sp. No intestinal coccidian was detected in studied boars when the stool samples were evaluated by Ziehl-Neelsen staining method. Findings of this study demonstrated that wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area are contaminated by many protozoans, including zoonotic protozoan, which poses a potential risk to locals as well as the domestic animals of the area.

  13. Potential human health risk assessment of trace metals via the consumption of marine fish in Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naji, Abolfazl; Khan, Farhan R.; Hashemi, Seyed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the concentration of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the muscle of four fish species from the Persian Gulf. Trace metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy and consumption rates advisory for minimizing chronic systemic effects in children and adults were estimated. The metals concentrations in analyzed fish samples were lower than legal limits. Cadmium target hazard quotient values suggested that the threshold to avoid the potential risk for children health is an exposure level lower than 3 meals per week. Hazard index values based on four metals (not including Pb) for the child age class were higher than those of the adult age class, suggesting that children may suffer from a higher health risk. This study provides information about the consumption limits of certain metals, in particular Cd, necessary for minimizing potential health risks resulting from human consumption. - Highlights: • Trace metals in wild marine fish from the Persian Gulf were investigated. • Metal concentrations descended in the following order: Zn > Cu > Pb ≈ Ni > Cd > . • The Cd and Pb may be potential risk to human. • No obvious health risk from the intake of trace elements through fish consumption.

  14. A new Imogine species (Turbellaria: Polycladida: Stylochidae) associated with rock oysters (Saccostrea cucullata) from the Persian Gulf, with a review of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudlou, Abdolvahab

    2014-01-08

    A new species of acotylean polyclad, Imogine qeshmensis sp. nov. is described from Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf, Iran. I. qeshmensis is characterized by the number and arrangement of the tentacular, cerebral and frontal eyes, a body margin with opaque white bands and eyespots and a male genital complex with an highly muscular seminal vesicle equal in size to the prostatic vesicle.

  15. The Effect of Parental Participation on the Academic Achievement of Female English as a Second Language Middle School Students in the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydoun, Nada

    2013-01-01

    This study addressed the problem of underachieving female English as second language students in the Persian Gulf Region. The purpose of this correlational study was to explore the relationship between parental participation, as measured by a middle school parent-participation survey, and students' academic achievement, as measured by parent…

  16. Phylogenetic relationships of Scomberomorus commerson using sequence analysis of the mtDNA D-loop region in the Persian Gulf, Oman Sea and Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mansourkiaei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Narrow-barred Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus commerson, is an epipelagic and migratory species of family Scombridae which have a significant role in terms of ecology and fishery. 100 samples were collected from the Persian Gulf, Oman Sea and Arabian Sea. Part of their dorsal fins was snipped and transferred to micro-tubes containing ethanol; then, DNAs were extracted and HRM-Real Time PCR was performed to designate representative specimens for sequencing. Phylogenetic relationships of S. commerson from Persian Gulf, Oman Sea and Arabian Sea were investigated using sequence data of mitochondrial DNA D-loop region. None clustered Neighbor Joining tree indicated the proximity amid S. commerson in four sites. As numbers demonstrated in sequence analyses of mitochondrial DNA D-Loop region a sublimely high degree of genetic similarity among S. commerson from the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea were perceived, thereafter, having one stock structure of S. commerson in four regions were proved, and this approximation can be merely justified by their migration process along the coasts of Oman Sea and Persian Gulf. Therefore, the assessment of distribution patterns of 20 haplotypes in the constructed phylogenetic tree using mtDNA D-Loop sequences ascertained that no significant clustering according to the sampling sites was concluded.

  17. Potential human health risk assessment of trace metals via the consumption of marine fish in Persian Gulf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naji, Abolfazl; Khan, Farhan; Hashemi, Seyed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the concentration of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the muscle of four fish species from the Persian Gulf. Trace metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy and consumption rates advisory for minimizing chronic systemic effects in chil...... health risks resulting from human consumption....... in children and adults were estimated. The metals concentrations in analyzed fish samples were lower than legal limits. Cadmium target hazard quotient values suggested that the threshold to avoid the potential risk for children health is an exposure level lower than 3 meals per week. Hazard index values based...... on four metals (not including Pb) for the child age class were higher than those of the adult age class, suggesting that children may suffer from a higher health risk. This study provides information about the consumption limits of certain metals, in particular Cd, necessary for minimizing potential...

  18. Investigating a probable relationship between microplastics and potentially toxic elements in fish muscles from northeast of Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhbarizadeh, Razegheh; Moore, Farid; Keshavarzi, Behnam

    2018-01-01

    Although weekly consumption of fish is recommended, the presence of contaminants in seafood has raised many concerns regarding the benefits of fish intake. In the present study microplastics (MPs) and metals' concentration in muscles of both benthic and pelagic fish species from northeast of Persian Gulf were investigated and the risk/benefit of their consumption was assessed. The results demonstrated that MPs and Hg in all species and Se in benthic species increase with size, while relationship between other metals, and fish size is not consistent. Consumption of a meal ration of 300 and relationship between MPs and metals in fish muscles were positive for A. djedaba, and negative for E. coioides. Considering the chemical toxicity of MPs and metals, and their good linear relationships in some species, consumption of high doses of the studied fish may pose a health threat to the consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF LANDSAT-8 IMAGERY FOR RETRIEVING SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE (CASE STUDY PERSIAN GULF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bayat

    2016-06-01

    on board on previous Landsat sensors. Third, TIRS is one of the best space born and high spatial resolution with 30 m. in this regards, Landsat-8 can use the Split-Window (SW algorithm for retrieving SST dataset. Although several SWs have been developed to use with other sensors, some adaptations are required in order to implement them for the TIRS spectral bands. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to develop a SW, adapted for use with Landsat-8 TIRS data, along with its accuracy assessment. In this research, that has been done for modelling SST using thermal Landsat 8-imagery of the Persian Gulf. Therefore, by incorporating contemporary in situ data and SST map estimated from other sensors like MODIS, we examine our proposed method with coefficient of determination (R2 and root mean square error (RMSE on check point to model SST retrieval for Landsat-8 imagery. Extracted results for implementing different SW's clearly shows superiority of utilized method by R2 = 0.95 and RMSE = 0.24.

  20. Effects of Three Types of Oil Dispersants on Biodegradation of Dispersed Crude Oil in Water Surrounding Two Persian Gulf Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Zolfaghari-Baghbaderani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the most effective and biodegradable dispersant of spilled oil in water surrounding two Persian Gulf provinces. Methods. This study compared the effects of three dispersants, Pars 1, Pars 2, and Gamlen OD4000 on removal of oil in two Persian Gulf provinces' water. Overall, 16 stations were selected. Using the Well method, the growth rate of isolated bacteria and fungi was identified. To specify the growth rate of microorganisms and their usage of oil in the presence of the above-mentioned dispersants, as exclusive sources of carbon, the bacteria were grown in culture medium for 28 days at 120 rpm, 30∘C, and their optical density was measured by spectrophotometry. Then, we tested biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD in microorganisms. Results. The highest growth rate was documented for the growth of microorganisms on either Pars 1 or Pars 2 dispersants or their mixtures with oil. However, the culture having microorganisms grown on Pars 1 had higher BOD and COD than the other two dispersants (9200 and 16800 versus 500 and 960, P<0.05. Mixture of oil and Pars 2 as well as oil and Pars 1 dispersants showed the highest BODs and CODs, respectively. In the Bahregan province, microorganisms grown on Pars 2 had maximum amount of BOD and COD in comparison with Pars 1 and Gamlen dispersants (7100 and 15200 versus 6000 and 10560, P<0.05. Conclusion. Pars 1 and Pars 2 were the most effective dispersants with highest degradability comparing Gamlen. In each region, the most suitable compound for removing oil spill from offshores with least secondary contamination should be investigated.

  1. Effects of Three Types of Oil Dispersants on Biodegradation of Dispersed Crude Oil in Water Surrounding Two Persian Gulf Provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolfaghari-Baghbaderani, A.; Bijani, S.; Zolfaghari-Baghbaderani, A.; Bijani, S.; Emtyazjoo, M.; Emtyazjoo, M.; Poursafa, P.; Mehrabian, S.; Farkhani, D.; Mirmoghtadaee, P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine the most effective and biodegradable dispersant of spilled oil in water surrounding two Persian Gulf provinces. Methods. This study compared the effects of three dispersants, Pars 1, Pars 2, and Gamlen OD4000 on removal of oil in two Persian Gulf provinces' water. Overall, 16 stations were selected. Using the Well method, the growth rate of isolated bacteria and fungi was identified. To specify the growth rate of microorganisms and their usage of oil in the presence of the above-mentioned dispersants, as exclusive sources of carbon, the bacteria were grown in culture medium for 28 days at 120 rpm, 30 C, and their optical density was measured by spectrophotometry. Then, we tested biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in microorganisms. Results. The highest growth rate was documented for the growth of microorganisms on either Pars 1 or Pars 2 dispersants or their mixtures with oil. However, the culture having microorganisms grown on Pars 1 had higher BOD and COD than the other two dispersants (9200 and 16800 versus 500 and 960, P<0.05). Mixture of oil and Pars 2 as well as oil and Pars 1 dispersants showed the highest BODs and CODs, respectively. In the Bahregan province, microorganisms grown on Pars 2 had maximum amount of BOD and COD in comparison with Pars 1 and Gamlen dispersants (7100 and 15200 versus 6000 and 10560, P<0.05). Conclusion. Pars 1 and Pars 2 were the most effective dispersants with highest degradability comparing Gamlen. In each region, the most suitable compound for removing oil spill from off shores with least secondary contamination should be investigated.

  2. Cascading of high salinity bottom waters from the Arabian/Persian Gulf to the northern Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Solovyev, Vladimir; Francis, Xavier; Hyder, Patrick; Chen, Feng; Asif, Muhammad

    2017-04-01

    Cascading (aka shelf convection) is a specific type of buoyancy driven current in which dense water is formed over the continental shelf and then descends down the slope to a greater depth. The cascades of dense water down continental slopes provide a mechanism for shelf-ocean exchange in many parts of the world's oceans (Shapiro et al, 2003). Dense water is formed on the shelf by a number of processes, with high evaporation, limited river discharge and low precipitation being the major processes in warm climates (Ivanov et al, 2004). The formation and outflow of high salinity waters in the near-bottom layer of the Arabian/Persian Gulf is an example of dense water cascading (Bower et al 2000). Despite of its importance for the self-cleaning and the state of the marine ecosystem in the Arabian/Persian Gulf, the properties of the outflow have so far mainly been analysed using climatologically averaged data or observations of a limited set of parameters (mainly temperature), see (Bower et al 2000). In this paper we study the dynamics of the flow using a comprehensive set of observational data (temperature, salinity velocity and turbidity profiles) obtained during the GRASP (Gulf Reconnaissance And Selective Profiling) observational campaign in the Gulf of Oman, which are complemented by the results of numerical modelling of the area using a number of 3D ocean models, and some ARGO T/S profiles. The GRASP measurements were carried out using an Aqualog climbing moored profiler, which was equipped with a Seabird CTD sensor, a Nortek Aquadopp current meter and a Seapoint turbidity meter. The Ocean circulation models used in the study include PGM4 and IND12 (UK Met Office); and AS20 and AG60 (University of Plymouth). All models are based on NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) codebase with a resolution from 9 km down to 1.8 km. The models were calibrated and validated against ARGO float profiles in the area. The study revealed the mesoscale and sub

  3. Fine-Scale Biogeographical Boundary Delineation and Sub-population Resolution in the Symbiodinium thermophilum Coral Symbiont Group From the Persian/Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman

    KAUST Repository

    Hume, Benjamin C. C.

    2018-04-24

    The adaptation of tropical coral communities to the world\\'s hottest sea, the Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG), has recently been associated with ecological selection acting on a group of coral-associated algal symbionts, the Symbiodinium thermophilum group. Previous studies have shown that considerable genetic diversity exists within the group and that group members found within the PAG are significantly differentiated from those found externally, in the Gulf of Oman and wider waters. However, little is known about this genetic diversity. As an initial step towards understanding whether this diversity could represent niche adapted, selectable populations within the S. thermophilum group that may act as natural sources of stress tolerant associations to Indo-Pacific reefs, we investigate whether the diversity is structured between populations and where the location of the internal-external genetic partition lies. We use regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and chloroplastic psbA gene (non-coding region) from >100 S. thermophilum group-harbouring Porites spp. (P. lobata, P. lutea, and P. harrisoni) sampled across steep temperature and salinity gradients to conduct analyses of variance and create maximum parsimony networks to assess genetic structure and (dis)similarity within and between populations of S. thermophilum found within the PAG and externally in the Gulf of Oman. Our analyses resolve a sharp genetic boundary between Symbiodinium populations in the western Strait of Hormuz and identify significant genetic structure between populations with as little as 20 km between them demonstrating that differentiation between populations is likely due to factors other than limited connectivity. Further, we hypothesize that genotypes identified outside of the PAG in the Gulf of Oman existing in near-oceanic salinities, yet thermally challenging waters, putatively represent candidates for stress-tolerant symbionts that could act as natural seed populations of

  4. Data on metals (Zn, Al, Sr, and Co and metalloid (As concentration levels of ballast water in commercial ships entering Bushehr port, along the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Soleimani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we determined the concentration levels of metals including Zn, Al, Sr, and Co and metalloid of As of ballast water in commercial ships entering Bushehr port, along the Persian Gulf. Ballast water samples were taken from commercial ships entering Bushehr port from 34 ports around the world during 15 February and 25 August 2016. The concentration levels of metals and metalloid were determined by using a graphite furnace absorption spectrometer (AAS.

  5. Study on the behaviour of radionuclides in seawater in the Persian Gulf and Caspian Sea area. Part of a coordinated programme on marine radioactivity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdavi, A.

    1976-12-01

    Results of the analysis of coastal waters from the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea are reported. Certain radionuclides, trace elements and salts (U, Ra226, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, Fe, Cd, Hg, Na, K, Ca, Cl, So 4 ) were determined in samples from the two different areas. The measured concentrations are given (table) and compared with reported values for open sea water in the areas studied. The results indicate an obvious difference between the two water bodies compared with open sea water

  6. Evolution of salt diapir and karst morphology during the last glacial cycle: Effects of sea-level oscillation, diapir and regional uplift, and erosion (Persian Gulf, Iran)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruthans, J.; Filippi, Michal; Zare, M.; Churáčková, Z.; Asadi, N.; Fuchs, M.; Adamovič, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 121, 3/4 (2010), s. 291-304 ISSN 0169-555X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB315040801; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB301110501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : salt karst * salt diapir * salt cave * uplift rate * Persian Gulf Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.352, year: 2010

  7. The Persian Gulf States: Issues for U.S. Policy, 2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    ... (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates). The Gulf states, which are all led by Sunni Muslim regimes, fear that Shiite Iran is unchecked now that Iraq is strategically weak...

  8. Using the Purdue University Public Affairs (C-SPAN) Video Archives in the Classroom To Study President George Bush and the Language of Aggression during the Persian Gulf War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Jim

    This paper describes the methodology employed to study videotapes of presentations made by President George Bush during the crisis in the Persian Gulf. Analysis of President Bush's language in relation to the events of the Gulf War was undertaken. Videotapes were used because they allowed for analysis of nonverbal communication as well as verbal…

  9. Intensities of drilling predation of molluscan assemblages in intertidal and subtidal soft substrates in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Sabine M.; Albano, Paolo G.; Bentlage, Rudolf; Drummond, Hannah; García-Ramos, Diego A.; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Intensities of drilling predation of molluscan assemblages in intertidal and subtidal soft substrates in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf Sabine Maria Handler1, Paolo G. Albano1, Rudolf Bentlage2, Hannah Drummond2, D.A. García-Ramos1, Martin Zuschin1 1 Department of Paleontology, University of Vienna, Austria 2 St. Lawrence University, Canton, New York 13617, USA Trace fossils left by predators in the skeleton of their prey are arguably one of the most powerful sources of direct data on predator-prey interactions available in the fossil record. Drill holes, especially those attributed to naticid and muricid gastropods, are unambiguous marks of predation and allow discriminating between successful and unsuccessful predation attempts (complete and incomplete holes, respectively). Latitude and water depth influence drilling frequency. We inspected death assemblages of an intertidal flat and of two subtidal (water depth between 6 and 20 m) sandy sites in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf, off the coast of the United Arab Emirates, to determine the patterns of predation on shelled molluscs along the depth gradient. The study is based on ~7,000 and ~60,000 shells from the intertidal and subtidal, respectively. Drilling Frequency (DF, the number of drilled individuals), Incomplete Drilling Frequency (IDF, number of incomplete drill holes), and Prey Effectiveness (ratio between the number of incomplete drill holes and the total number of drilling attempts) were used as metrics of drilling intensity. We observed major differences between the intertidal and subtidal study areas. Drilling frequencies were generally remarkably low and intertidal flats showed a much lower drilling frequency than the subtidal (1.4% and 6.7%, respectively). In the subtidal, we observed significant differences of drilling intensity among bivalve species and between the two sites. However, predation metrics did not correlate with environmental factors such as substrate type and depth, nor with species life

  10. Structural violence and the state: HIV and labour migration from Pakistan to the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Ayaz

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the biopolitics of HIV and labour migration from Pakistan (a country classified by UNAIDS as at 'high risk' of a generalised epidemic) to the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). The remittances by the labour migrants in the Gulf are an invaluable source of foreign exchange for Pakistan and a large number of households are entirely dependent upon them. At the same time, the National AIDS Control Programme regards Gulf migrants as a key risk factor for an HIV epidemic. The majority of HIV positive people in clinics comprise Gulf returnee migrants and their family members. This paper suggests that in the process of migrating, prospective migrants are subjected to structural violence that increases their HIV vulnerabilities. In this process, they are subjected to regimes of medical inspection, reduced to their certifiable labour power, inscribed with nationalist ideologies identifying HIV as a disease that strikes 'the other', and exposed to exploitation that increases their vulnerabilities. After migration, they are made to undergo compulsory periodic medical examinations in the GCC and, if found to be HIV positive, they are forcibly deported without papers, proper diagnosis or healthcare - only to return as 'failed subjects'. Taking a disaggregated view of the state, the paper argues that, in order to be effective, debates on structural violence and the HIV epidemic must make explicit the role of the state in producing migrants' vulnerabilities.

  11. American Policy in the Persian Gulf Region: Peace, Security, and the Spread of Democracy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fox, Darin J

    2008-01-01

    To achieve lasting security in the Arabian Gulf region, U.S. policy, though currently focused on Iraq, must engage Saudi Arabia and Iran with all of its instruments of national power to encourage the spread of democracy within the region...

  12. Ends Versus Means: A Critical Analysis of the Persian Gulf Crisis (1987- 1988)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    readily apparent that a 12 gjunX ýjM 1Q§ (Washington: National Archives and Records Service, uFo , 1981), p. 197. 13 Snyder, p. 81. 18 whole host of...the consequences of an Iranian victory in the Gulf War. . . . However, the Soviets also seek to avoid alienating Iran and, if possible, hope to improve

  13. The study of geochemical behavior of rare earth elements in apatites from the Hormoz Island, Persian Gulf

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    Ali Rostami

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study area is located about 3 km southwest of the Hormoz Island in the Hormozgan province, in the Persian Gulf. The main rock units in the region consist of a highly altered acidic pluton cratophyre, which is responsible for apatite formation, diabasic dike, marl and altered basalt. Apatite is the only phosphate mineral in the Hormoz Island, which has accumulated REE in its crystal structure. The amount of Na2O and SiO2 oxides in apatite are high and the average content of the main elements Fe, Mg, Al, Ca are 7.5 ppm, 365 ppm, 2880 ppm and 27.8%, respectively. The Y, Mn, Rb contents increase and Sr decreases with increasing magmatic differentiation. It shows that a moderate magmatic differentiation occurred during the crystallization of apatite. The total REE content in the Hormoz apatite is high (1.22-2.25%. LREE/HREE ratio is also high. This means that Hormoz apatites are enriched in light rare earth elements. The REE normalized pattern shows a negative slope with a negative Eu anomaly. According to various diagrams based on apatite composition, it is deduced that the Hormoz apatites belong to mafic I-type granitoids with high oxidation state (Fe2O3/FeO>1.

  14. Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Persian Gulf and its Biodegradability Using a Rotating Biological Contactor

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    Parvin Nahid

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are the main pollutants in oil pollution. PAHs accumulation in aqueous phase causes some aquatic and human diseases Biodegradation methods of PAHs removal were studied using flasks and a reactor. Standard sampling was performed from polluted areas in Persian Gulf and samples were analyzed. COD, TOC, PAHs and heavy metals were determined. Results Showed that, Emam Hassan (EM, Deilam and Shaghab were most polluted areas (PAHs equals 9.8, 4.2, 2.7ppm respectively and samples from the dept showed more pollution than from the surface. For the biological treatment, most active species of bacteria were isolated from the soil of the polluted stations. Most of them are among Pseudomonas, gram and catalazet+. Rotating biological contactor packed (RBCp by providing high acclimation time for the microbial mass, found very suitable process for removal of PHAs. The pure bacterial culture from EM showed, 80% removal efficiency for naphthalene. As the biodegradation of PAHs take a long time, RBCp reactor was selected and the ability of mixed culture in removal of pollutants was studied. The bioreactor was run in two stages. The acclimatization stage took place in 30 days and evaluation of bioreactor in terms of effluent COD concentration and MLSS with initial COD influent of 600 mg/l was operated. COD and PAHs removal of 73 and 66 percent were found respectively while the influent COD was 1200 mg/l.

  15. The sagittal otolith morphology of four selected mugilid species from Iranian waters of the Persian Gulf (Teleostei: Mugilidae

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    Vahideh Salehi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The members of mugilid species are usually difficult to recognize because of the well-known similarity observed in their external morphology. Nevertheless, their identification is very important for local fisheries management and conservation action. Therefore, in the present study we applied otolith morphology to evaluate its significance in identification of four selected mugilid species; Chelon subviridis (Valenciennes, 1836, Liza klunzingeri (Day, 1888, Ellochelon vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825 and Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, 1758 occurring in the Iranian waters of the Persian Gulf in southern Iran. The results indicated several otolith features to be important for identification of the selected mugilid species as follow; the position and sulcus centrality, the curvature of the cauda, and the type of anterior and posterior regions. Based on the total approach evidences, we conclude that otolith morphology in mugilid fishes can be evidently used for the species identification and probably estimation of their phylogeny. The findings are in agreement with the previous studies which documented taxonomic importance of otolith morphology.

  16. An 11-year analysis of satellite retrievals of dust aerosol over the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jamie; Brindley, Helen; Schepanski, Kerstin; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2017-04-01

    As enclosed seas bordering two large desert regions, the Saharan and Arabian deserts, the maritime environments of the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf are heavily influenced by the presence of desert dust aerosol. The inter-annual variability of dust presence over the Red Sea is analysed and presented, with respect to the summer-time latitudinal gradient in dust loading, which is at a maximum in the far south of the Red Sea and at a minimum in the far north. Two satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) products from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) and the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments are used to quantify this loading over the region. Over an eleven-year period from 2005-2015 the July mean SEVIRI AODs at 630 nm vary between 0.48 and 1.45 in the southern half of the Sea, while in the north this varies between 0.22 and 0.66. Inter-retrieval offsets are observed to occur at higher dust loadings, with pronounced positive MODIS-SEVIRI AOD offsets at AODs greater than 1, indicating substantial and systematic differences between the retrievals over the Red Sea at high dust loadings. These differences appear to be influenced in part by the differences in scattering angle range of the satellite measurements, implying that assumptions of particle shape introduce more substantial biases at the highest dust loadings.

  17. The end-Permian regression in the western Tethys: sedimentological and geochemical evidence from offshore the Persian Gulf, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Vahid; Naderi-Khujin, Mehrangiz; Seyedmehdi, Zahra

    2018-04-01

    Detailed sedimentological and geochemical records across the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) in five offshore wells of the central Persian Gulf served to interpret the end-Permian sea-level change in this region. A decrease in sea level at the PTB was established by petrographical and geochemical study of the boundary. Thin sections showed that Upper Permian strata are composed of dolomite with minor anhydrite, changing into limestone in Lower Triassic sediments. Brine dilution toward the boundary supports sea-level fall in the Permian-Triassic transition, reflected by a decrease in anhydrite content and a shallowing-upward trend from lagoonal to peritidal facies. Isotopic changes at the boundary are in favor of sea-level fall. Changes in both carbon (from about 4 to -1‰) and oxygen (from 2 to -5‰) stable isotopes show negative excursions. The shift in carbon isotope values is a global phenomenon and is interpreted as resulting from carbonate sediment interaction with 12C-rich waters at the end-Permian sea-level fall. However, the oxygen isotope shift is attributed to the effect of meteoric waters with negative oxygen isotope values. The increase in strontium isotope ratios is also consistent with the high rate of terrestrial input at the boundary. The effect of meteoric conditions during diagenesis is evident from vuggy and moldic porosities below the PTB. The following transgression at the base of the Triassic is evident from the presence of reworked fossils and intraclasts resulting from deposition from agitated water.

  18. Determination of mercury and vanadium concentration in Johnius belangerii (C) fish in Musa estuary in Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fard, Neamat Jaafarzadeh Haghighi; Ravanbakhsh, Maryam; Ramezani, Zahra; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Angali, Kambiz Ahmadi; Javid, Ahmad Zare

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hg & V in Johnius belangerii fish in Musa estuary, Persian Gulf was determined. • Significant reverse relationship was between concentrations of Hg & V. • Weight and length had significant direct relationship with Hg concentration. • Length had significant reverse relationship with V concentration. • Concentrations of Hg & V were higher than threshold limits. - Abstract: The main aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of mercury and vanadium in Johnius belangerii (C) fish in the Musa estuary. A total of 67 fishes were caught from the Musa estuary during five intervals of 15 days in the summer of 2013. After biometric measurements were conducted, the concentrations of mercury and vanadium were measured in the muscle tissue of fish using a direct method analyzer (DMA) and a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, respectively. The mean concentration of mercury and vanadium in the muscle tissue of fish was 3.154 ± 1.981 and 2.921 ± 0.873 mg/kg w.w, respectively. The generalized linear model (GLM) analysis showed a significantly positive relationship among mercury concentration, length, and weight (P = 0.000). In addition, there was a significantly negative relationship between vanadium concentration and fish length (P = 0.000). A reverse association was found between concentrations of mercury and vanadium. Mercury concentration exceeded the allowable standards of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in J. belangerii (C)

  19. A comparative study on the rheology and wave dissipation of kaolinite and natural Hendijan Coast mud, the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanpour, Mohsen; Samsami, Farzin

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the rheological behavior of kaolinite and Hendijan mud, located at the northwest part of the Persian Gulf, and the dissipative role of this muddy bed on surface water waves. A series of laboratory rheological tests was conducted to investigate the rheological response of mud to rotary and cyclic shear rates. While a viscoplastic Bingham model can successfully be applied for continuous controlled shear-stress tests, the rheology of fluid mud displays complex viscoelastic behavior in time-periodic motion. The comparisons of the behavior of natural Hendijan mud with commercial kaolinite show rheological similarities. A large number of laboratory wave-flume experiments were carried out with a focus on the dissipative role of the fluid mud. Assuming four rheological models of viscous, Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic, Bingham viscoplastic, and viscoelastic-plastic for fluid mud layer, a numerical multi-layered model was applied to analyze the effects of different parameters of surface wave and muddy bed on wave attenuation. The predicted results based on different rheological models generally agree with the obtained wave-flume data implying that the adopted rheological model does not play an important role in the accuracy of prediction.

  20. A Novel GH-92 Nano-Adsorbent Using the Sponge from the Persian Gulf for Lead and Cadmium Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ghafourian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Removing pollutants from aquatic ecosystems, especially from drinking water, has always been a major concern for scientists. Recent decades have witnessed the widespread application of natural compounds used as adsorbents to remove various pollutants. On the other hand, studies have proved nanotechnology to be an effective way of removing pollutants. A new type of sponge belonging to the family Demospongiae that has nano holes and is native to the Persian Gulf was investigated for the first time in the present study for use as an adsorbent to remove calcium, magnesium, cobalt, cadmium, and lead ions from water. For this purpose, adbsorption in sponges of different aggregate sizes, contact time, particle size, and ambient pH were measured. The results showed that the proposed sponge is capable of adsorbing the above-mentioned metal ions to various degrees. While small amounts of calcium, magnesium, and cobalt were adsorbed by this sponge, cadmium recorded a higher adsorption of 2.37 mg/g at pH=5. The highest adsorption level of 79.19 mg per gram of adsorbent was recorded for lead at a pH range of 4.5-5 with a mesh size of 230. This is the highest adsorption ever recorded for lead in the literature on selective separation of lead from the other ions.

  1. Evaluation of wet bulb globe temperature index for estimation of heat strain in hot/humid conditions in the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Habibolah; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Jafari, Mohammad J; Maracy, Mohammad R

    2012-12-01

    Heat exposure among construction workers in the Persian Gulf region is a serious hazard for health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) Index for estimation of heat strain in hot/humid conditions by the use of Physiological Strain Index (PSI) as the gold standard. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 71 workers of two Petrochemical Companies in South of Iran in 2010 summer. The WBGT index, heart rate, and aural temperature were measured by Heat Stress Monitor (Casella Microtherm WBGT), Heart Rate Monitor (Polar RS100), and Personal Heat Strain Monitor (Questemp II), respectively. The obtained data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation analysis. The mean (SD) of WBGT values was 33.1 (2.7). The WBGT values exceed from American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) standard (30°C) in 96% work stations, whereas the PSI values were more than 5.0 (moderate strain) in 11% of workstations. The correlation between WBGT and PSI values was 0.61 (P = 0.001). When WBGT values were less and more than 34°C, the mean of PSI was 2.6 (low strain) and 5.2 (moderate strain), respectively. In the Persian Gulf weather, especially hot and humid in the summer months, due to the WBGT values exceeding 30°C (in 96% of cases) and weak correlation between WBGT and PSI, the work/rest cycles of WBGT Index is not suitable for heat stress management. Therefore, in Persian Gulf weather, heat stress evaluation based on physiologic variables may have higher validity than WBGT index.

  2. Evaluation of wet bulb globe temperature index for estimation of heat strain in hot/humid conditions in the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibolah Dehghan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heat exposure among construction workers in the Persian Gulf region is a serious hazard for health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT Index for estimation of heat strain in hot/humid conditions by the use of Physiological Strain Index (PSI as the gold standard. Material and Methods : This cross-sectional study was carried out on 71 workers of two Petrochemical Companies in South of Iran in 2010 summer. The WBGT index, heart rate, and aural temperature were measured by Heat Stress Monitor (Casella Microtherm WBGT, Heart Rate Monitor (Polar RS100, and Personal Heat Strain Monitor (Questemp II, respectively. The obtained data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation analysis. Results: The mean (SD of WBGT values was 33.1 (2.7. The WBGT values exceed from American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH standard (30°C in 96% work stations, whereas the PSI values were more than 5.0 (moderate strain in 11% of workstations. The correlation between WBGT and PSI values was 0.61 ( P = 0.001. When WBGT values were less and more than 34°C, the mean of PSI was 2.6 (low strain and 5.2 (moderate strain, respectively. Conclusion: In the Persian Gulf weather, especially hot and humid in the summer months, due to the WBGT values exceeding 30°C (in 96% of cases and weak correlation between WBGT and PSI, the work/rest cycles of WBGT Index is not suitable for heat stress management. Therefore, in Persian Gulf weather, heat stress evaluation based on physiologic variables may have higher validity than WBGT index.

  3. J.M. Gratale on Tore T. Petersen’s Richard Nixon, Great Britain and the Anglo-American Alignment in the Persian Gulf and Arabian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Tore T. Petersen. Richard Nixon, Great Britain and the Anglo-American Alignment in the Persian Gulf and Arabian Peninsula: Making Allies out of Clients. Sussex Academic Press, 2009.  172pp.  978-1-84519-277-8.Since the events of 9-11 there has been a sizeable quantity of books published on American foreign policy in broad terms, as well as more focused studies on contemporary developments in southwest Asia, more commonly referred to as the Middle East. Many of these volumes are highly politic...

  4. Evaluation of wet bulb globe temperature index for estimation of heat strain in hot/humid conditions in the Persian Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    Habibolah Dehghan; Seyed Bagher Mortazavi; Mohammad J Jafari; Mohammad R Maracy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Heat exposure among construction workers in the Persian Gulf region is a serious hazard for health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) Index for estimation of heat strain in hot/humid conditions by the use of Physiological Strain Index (PSI) as the gold standard. Material and Methods : This cross-sectional study was carried out on 71 workers of two Petrochemical Companies in South of Iran in 2010 summer. The WBGT index, heart...

  5. Total petroleum systems of the Paleozoic and Jurassic, Greater Ghawar Uplift and adjoining provinces of central Saudi Arabia and northern Arabian-Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollastro, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    The greater Paleozoic and Jurassic petroleum systems of the Arabian Peninsula form two of the most prolific petroleum-producing systems in the world. Source rocks of these systems extend throughout the eastern Arabian Peninsula and Arabian-Persian Gulf. Primary elements of these Paleozoic and Jurassic petroleum systems - source, reservoir, and seal rocks - are of great areal extent and exceptional quality. The combination of these regionally extensive, exceptional petroleum-system elements, and the formation of large subtle structural closures prior to, or coincident with, peak oil generation and migration, have produced oil and gas fields with reserve volumes second to none.

  6. The associaty of Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori Herpes simplex virus type 1 and Cytomegalovirus in the northern Persian Gulf population

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    Mehdad Kayedi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is not known whether infection by a specific pathogens is associated with type 2. We examined the association between chronic infection with four pathogens (Chlaydia pneumonia, Helicopacter pylori, Herpes simplex virus type 1 and cytomegalovirus and type 2 diabetes mellitus in a general Iranian population, in the northern Persian Gulf. Materials and Methods : In a population-based study of men and women aged >25 years, a random sample of 1754 (49.2 % males, 50.8 % females subjects were evaluated. Sera were analyzed for immunoglobulin G antibodies to C. pneumoniae, HSV-1, H. pylori, and CMV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was defined according to criteria of American Diabetes association. Results: A total of 150 (8.6% subjects had type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the diabetic group, 42% were seropositive for C. pneumoniae, 64.7% for H. pylori, 92.9% for HSV-1 and 94.7% for CMV. In multiple logistic regression analyses, seropositivity for C.pneumoniae (OR=0.89, CI: 0.60-1.34, P=0.602, H. pylori(OR= 0.95, CI: 0.64-1.41, P= 0.808, HSV-1(OR= 1.76, CI: 0.86-3.62, P=0.120 ,CMV(OR=0.99, CI: 0.43-2.27, P=0.982 did not show a significant independent association with type 2 diabetes mellitus after adjustment for age, sex, chronic low-grade inflammation, and cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion: There was not a strong association between type 2 dibetes mellitus and prior infection with viral and bacterial pathogens that had been previously correlated with coronary artery disease as well as carotid atherosclerosis.

  7. Survey of microbiological and chemical quality of the swimming beaches along the Persian Gulf in Bushehr port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Swimming is highly recommended because of its potentially beneficial effects on the joints and people’s general sense of well-being. But unfortunately the discharing of urban and industrial wastewaters into sea with their high level of pathogens, heavy metals and other pollutants, increase concerns about its consequences on swimmers’ health and ecology. The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial and chemical quality of Persian Gulf Sea beaches in Bushehr port and compare it to the existing standards. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 samples were taken from the beaches at TV-Park, Daneshjo-Park and Eskele-Jofreh, in August 2012. The mean values of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, pseudomonas, HPC, heavy metals and BOD were determined by standard methods. Results: The mean values of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and pseudomonas along Bushehr port beaches were 540, 165.56 and 6 MPN/100ml respectively.The mean value of HPC was 1580.66 CFU/ml. Also the mean concentrations of Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and BOD were 0.1676, 0.013, 0.025, 0.0016, 0.039, 0 and 21.3 mg/l respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that the mean values of indicator microorganisms in all stations were higher than the existing standards and the mean concentration of heavy metals were lower than the existing standard, which indicates higher pollution more due to urban wastewater compare to industrial wastewater. Therefore Bushehr port beaches are contaminated considering indicator bacteria measurments that can be dangerous for swimmers health.

  8. Isolation of keratinophilic fungi from the soil of islands of Greater Tunb, Abu-Musa and Sirri, Persian Gulf, Iran

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    Mohsen Nosratabadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Keratinophilic fungi are among the important groups of fungi living in the soil. This study aimed to isolate and identify keratinophilic fungi from the soil of three Iranian islands, namely Greater Tunb, Abu Musa, and Sirri, located in the Persian Gulf using morphological and molecular (polymerase chain reaction methods. Materials and Methods: In this study, a total of 60 soil samples were collected from the three islands of Greater Tunb, Abu Musa, and Sirri. The samples were analyzed for the presence of the keratinophilic fungi using a hair baiting technique. Furthermore, the identification of keratinophilic fungi was accomplished through the employment of molecular and sequencing techniques. Results: A total of 130 fungal isolates, including 11 genera with 24 species, were collected. Accordingly, Chrysosporium tropicum (24;18.5%, C. keratinophilum (17; 13.1%,  Chrysosporium  species (15; 11.5%, Aspergillus  species ( 8;6.1%, Aspergillus flavus (8; 6.1%, Penicillium  species (8;6.1%, Alternaria spp ( 6; 4.6%, Phoma  species (5;  3.8%, Aphanoascus verrucosus (4;3.1%, Fusarium chlamydosporum (4; 3.1%, Aspergillus trreus (4;3.1%, Acremonium  species (4; 3.1%, and other fungi( 23; 17.8 % isolates were identified . All isolates of keratinophilic fungi were isolated from the soils with the pH range of 7-9. Conclusion: The results of this study contributed towards a better conceptualization of the incidence pattern of keratinophilic fungi in the regions of Iran. Given that no study has investigated this issue, the findings of the present study can be beneficial for the management of public health surveillance, physicians, and epidemiologists.  

  9. The first report on coagulation and phospholipase A2 activities of Persian Gulf lionfish, Pterois russelli, an Iranian venomous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memar, Bahareh; Jamili, Shahla; Shahbazzadeh, Delavar; Bagheri, Kamran Pooshang

    2016-04-01

    Pterois russelli is a venomous fish belonging to scorpionidae family. Regarding to high significance value for tracing potential therapeutic molecules and special agents from venomous marine creatures, the present study was aimed to characterization of the Persian Gulf lionfish venom. Proteolytic, phospholipase, hemolytic, coagulation, edematogenic and dermonecrotic activities were determined for extracted venom. The LD50 of P. russelli venom was determined by intravenous injection in white Balb/c mice. Phospholipase A2 activity was recorded at 20 μg of total venom. Coagulation activity on human plasma was shown by Prothrombin Time (PT) and activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) assays and coagulation visualized after 7 and 14 s respectively for 60 μg of crude venom. LD50 was calculated as 10.5 mg/kg. SDS-PAGE revealed the presence of major and minor protein bands between 6 and 205 kDa. Different amounts of crude venom ranged from 1.87 to 30 μg showed proteolytic activity on casein. The highest edematic activity was detected at 20 μg. Our findings showed that the edematic activity was dose dependent and persisted for 48 h after injection. The crude venom did not induce dermonecrotic activity on rabbit skin and showed no hemolytic activity on human, mouse and rabbit erythrocytes. This is the first report for phospholipase A2 and coagulation activity in venomous fish and venomous marine animals respectively. Proteolytic activity of P. russelli venom is in accordance with the other genara of scorpionidae family. According to venom activity on intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways, lionfish venom would be contained an interesting pharmaceutical agent. This study is pending to further characterization of phospholipase A2, coagulation, and protease activities and also in vivo activity on animal model of surface and internal bleeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of gill pathological responses in the tropical fish yellowfin seabream of Persian Gulf under mercury exposure

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    Leila Hassaninezhad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gill histomorphological alterations were used to assess the effects of chronic exposure to HgCl2 on the yellowfin seabream, Acanthopagrus latus. In this regard, 90 A. latus were exposed to sublethal concentrations of HgCl2 (10, 20, 35 and 50 μg/L for 3 weeks. Treated fish were erratic and showed respiratory distress. The most common morphological abnormalities included: filaments disorganization, increase of mucus secretion, debris and blood plaques on the filaments, losing or shortening of some filaments. The most frequent histopathological changes detected in the gills included extensive lifting of the lamellar epithelium and edema of lamellae with enlarged sub-epithelial spaces, exfoliated epithelium of lamellae, telangiectasia, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the epithelial cell resulted in partial fusion of the secondary lamellae and a reduction of the water space, club shaping of gill lamellae, blood congestion. Some more severe alternations found in the gill of fish exposed to higher levels of HgCl2 (35 and 50 μg/L included lamellar aneurysm and hemorrhages with rupture of the lamellar epithelium. According to the results of the present study, mercuric chloride could cause major histomorphological changes in the gill of A. latus, decreasing its gas exchange capability. Two mercury concentrations (10 and 20 μg/L used in the present study were in agreement with the concentration of mercury in the water of different parts of Mahshahr creeks (the north of Persian Gulf (3.66 to 15 μg/L. Therefore, based on the results the presence of pathological alteration in A. latus inhibited in the natural environment (Mahshahr creeks seems to be logical.

  11. The effect of antiviral activity of a green seaweed from the Persian Gulf, Caulerpa sertularioides on Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

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    Keyvan Zandi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: By considering the daily increase in drug resistance of various viruses, novel antiviral compounds extracted from natural resources – due to their fewer side effects, had always been important to researchers. In the present study, we investigated antiviral activity of the hot water extract of a green seaweed, Caulerpa sertularioides, collected from coastal water of Bushehr in the Persian Gulf, against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1. Methods: The hot water extract of a green seaweed, Caulerpa sertularioides was sterilized by autoclave and filtration methods. After determining its cytotoxic concentration 50 (CC50 value, the effect of the extract on the inhibition of HSV-1 replication was examined in Vero cell culture. Results: The extract showed antiviral activity against HSV-1 in both attachment and entry of virus to the Vero cells and also on post attachment stages of virus replication. Inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50 values of the autoclaved extract were 81µg/ml and 126 µg/ml for attachment and post attachment stages, respectively. IC50 values of the filtered extract were 73 µg/ml and 104 µg/ml for attachment and post attachment stages, respectively. CC50 values for autoclaved and filtered extracts were 3140 µg/ml and 3095 µg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The hot water extract of Caulerpa sertularioides of the Persian Gulf had antiviral effect against HSV-1.

  12. A study on the diversity of gastropods in Hormuz Island with first record of two species from the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabiallah Kheirabadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the diversity of gastropod species in the intertidal zone of Hormuz Island in the Persian Gulf. Seasonal sampling was conducted in 7 selected sites by throwing nine random quadrates (0.5×0.5 m in each site. Samples of each site were separately transferred to the laboratory and identified by the standard keys and verified by the Conchology Museum of Tokyo University of Science. Forty -nine gastropod species were identified, from which 2 species, Turicula nelliae and Linatella caudata were recorded for the first time from the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf. The highest number of gastropods in one site was 28 species in site 1 (East of Marine Research Center, Also highest number of gastropods in one season was 35 species in winter and lowest number was in 28 species in summer. Simpson dominance index, Shannon-Wiener species diversity index, Margalef richness index and evenness index were calculated in the different sites and results showed that site 1 contained the most amount of the Shannon-Wiener and Margalef indices and site 6 (West of Island contained the most amount of the Simpson index. Also, site 3 (Mangrove forest showed the lowest amount of the Simpson, Shannon-Wiener and Margalef indices, while maximum amount of evenness index occurred in this site.

  13. Occurrence, distribution, and potential sources of antibiotics pollution in the water-sediment of the northern coastline of the Persian Gulf, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafaei, Raheleh; Papari, Fatemeh; Seyedabadi, Mohammad; Sahebi, Soleyman; Tahmasebi, Rahim; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Sorial, George A; Asgari, Ghorban; Ramavandi, Bahman

    2018-06-15

    Occurrence and frequency of six most prescribed antibiotics (tetracycline, norfloxacin, azithromycin, anhydro erythromycin, cephalexin, and amoxicillin) were assessed in three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and in water and sediments of the Persian Gulf at Bushehr coastline, Iran. The antibiotics concentration in the influent and effluent of septic tank (the hospital WWTP), activated sludge (the hospital WWTP), and stabilization pond (municipal WWTP) ranged between 7.89 and 149.63, 13.49-198.47, 6.55-16.37 ng/L, respectively. Conventional treatment resulted in incomplete removal of most of the studied antibiotics. Furthermore, the activated sludge was more effective in terms of antibiotic elimination compared to the stabilization pond or septic tank. The mean concentration of antibiotics ranged 1.21-51.50 ng/L in seawater and 1.40-25.32 ng/g in sediments during summer and winter. Norfloxacin was the dominant detected antibiotic in seawater, sediments, and influent of two hospital WWTPs. Seasonal comparisons showed significant differences for erythromycin and amoxicillin concentrations in seawater. Spatial variation indicated the role of physicochemical properties on distribution of antibiotics in seawater and sediments. The results emphasize the need to pay attention to antibiotic contamination in water and sediments of the Persian Gulf. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of heavy metals in the tissues of different species of shrimps collected from coastal waters of Bushehr, Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Movahed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The occumulation of heavy metals which are as the results of industrial, urban and agricultural sewages are usually resistant to chemical dissociation. They can easily contaminate aquatic animals especially shrimps which are one of the food chains of humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of heavy metals in the tissues of different types of shrimps (wild and farmed in the sea waters of province of Bushehr (Persian Gulf. Material and Methods: Wild shrimps from different areas of the province and also three types of farmed shrimps including Ferropenaeus, penaeus semisulcatus and Litopenaeusvannamei were caught and collected. Then cleaned, washed, dried and made into powder and then made into ash in a furnace at 550 °C. Heavy metals including Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, and Zn were measured by atomic absorption flame photometry. Results: The mean values of the concentration of the heavy metals including Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu present in the wild shrimps were, 2.86, 9.53, 0.45, 1.36 ppm respectively. The amount of Hg found to be 2.8 ppb. Also the mean values of the concentration of the heavy metals in the farmed shrimps were measured as 3, 9.8, 0.42 and 1.37 ppm respectively and the amount of Hg was 2.7 ppb. There was no difference between the amount of heavy metals estimated in the tissues from wild shrimps and the farmed one. Conclusion: The results of this investigation showed that the concentration of heavy metals including Zn,Cu and Hg in both types of the shrimps were less than the amounts reported by WHO and so not risky for health. However the concentration of Pb and Cd in both types were more than the recommended consumption limit for the humans, and they can be considered as risk factors for many diseases. This suggests that attempts should be taken by the responsible authorities to prevent the contamination of sea waters.

  15. Evidence for the existence of Persian Gulf Water and Red Sea Water in the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vineet; Shankar, D.; Vinayachandran, P. N.; Kankonkar, A.; Chatterjee, Abhisek; Amol, P.; Almeida, A. M.; Michael, G. S.; Mukherjee, A.; Chatterjee, Meenakshi; Fernandes, R.; Luis, R.; Kamble, Amol; Hegde, A. K.; Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Das, Umasankar; Neema, C. P.

    2017-05-01

    The high-salinity water masses that originate in the North Indian Ocean are Arabian Sea High-Salinity Water (ASHSW), Persian Gulf Water (PGW), and Red Sea Water (RSW). Among them, only ASHSW has been shown to exist in the Bay of Bengal. We use CTD data from recent cruises to show that PGW and RSW also exist in the bay. The presence of RSW is marked by a deviation of the salinity vertical profile from a fitted curve at depths ranging from 500 to 1000 m; this deviation, though small (of the order of 0.005 psu and therefore comparable to the CTD accuracy of 0.003 psu), is an order of magnitude larger than the 0.0003 psu fluctuations associated with the background turbulence or instrument noise in this depth regime, allowing us to infer the existence of RSW throughout the bay. PGW is marked by the presence of a salinity maximum at 200-450 m; in the southwestern bay, PGW can be distinguished from the salinity maximum due to ASHSW because of the intervening Arabian Sea Salinity Minimum. This salinity minimum and the maximum associated with ASHSW disappear east and north of the south-central bay (85°E, 8°N) owing to mixing between the fresher surface waters that are native to the bay (Bay of Bengal Water or BBW) with the high-salinity ASHSW. Hence, ASHSW is not seen as a distinct water mass in the northern and eastern bay and the maximum salinity over most of the bay is associated with PGW. The surface water over most of the bay is therefore a mixture of ASHSW and the low-salinity BBW. As a corollary, we can also infer that the weak oxygen peak seen within the oxygen-minimum zone in the bay at a depth of 250-400 m is associated with PGW. The hydrographic data also show that these three high-salinity water masses are advected into the bay by the Summer Monsoon Current, which is seen to be a deep current extending to 1000 m. These deep currents extend into the northern bay as well, providing a mechanism for spreading ASHSW, PGW, and RSW throughout the bay.

  16. People-Technology-Ecosystem Integration: A Framework to Ensure Regional Interoperability for Safety, Sustainability, and Resilience of Interdependent Energy, Water, and Seafood Sources in the (Persian) Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkati, Najmedin; Tabibzadeh, Maryam; Farshid, Ali; Rahimi, Mansour; Alhanaee, Ghena

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the interdependencies of human and organizational subsystems of multiple complex, safety-sensitive technological systems and their interoperability in the context of sustainability and resilience of an ecosystem. Recent technological disasters with severe environmental impact are attributed to human factors and safety culture causes. One of the most populous and environmentally sensitive regions in the world, the (Persian) Gulf, is on the confluence of an exponentially growing number of two industries--nuclear power and seawater desalination plants--that is changing its land- and seascape. Building upon Rasmussen's model, a macrosystem integrative framework, based on the broader context of human factors, is developed, which can be considered in this context as a "meta-ergonomics" paradigm, for the analysis of interactions, design of interoperability, and integration of decisions of major actors whose actions can affect safety and sustainability of the focused industries during routine and nonroutine (emergency) operations. Based on the emerging realities in the Gulf region, it is concluded that without such systematic approach toward addressing the interdependencies of water and energy sources, sustainability will be only a short-lived dream and prosperity will be a disappearing mirage for millions of people in the region. This multilayered framework for the integration of people, technology, and ecosystem--which has been applied to the (Persian) Gulf--offers a viable and vital approach to the design and operation of large-scale complex systems wherever the nexus of water, energy, and food sources are concerned, such as the Black Sea. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  17. Occurrence of ascaridoid nematodes in selected edible fish from the Persian Gulf and description of Hysterothylacium larval type XV and Hysterothylacium persicum n. sp. (Nematoda: Raphidascarididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Shokoofeh; Ghadam, Masoumeh; Suthar, Jaydipbhai; Ebrahimzadeh Mousavi, Hoseinali; Soltani, Mehdi; Mirzargar, Saeed

    2016-11-07

    Despite several reports on the presence of the potentially zoonotic nematodes among edible fishes in the Persian Gulf, there is still no study on the specific identification of these parasites or their genetic characterisation. In the present study, a total of 600 fish belonging to five popular species of fish in the region, including Otolithes ruber, Psettodes erumei, Saurida tumbil, Scomberomorus commerson and Sphyraena jello were examined for infection with nematode parasites. Detailed microscopy of nematodes found in the present study followed by characterisation of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2, respectively) showed that they belong to five distinct taxa that could be potentially zoonotic. Anisakis type I was found in four species of fish, had identical ITS sequences as Anisakis typica previously reported in Australian waters and was different from those reported in the Nearctic. Hysterothylacium type VI in the present study was morphologically similar to those previously described from Australasian waters and ITS sequences were identical among Australian specimens and those found in the present study. Another Hysterothylacium larval type was also found in the present study which had identical ITS sequences and similar morphology to those previously reported and identified as H. amoyense in China Sea. Since no ITS sequence data from a well identified adult H. amoyense with an identifiable museum voucher number is yet available and due to some other issues discussed in the article we suggest assignment of this larval type from the China Sea and the Persian Gulf to H. amoyense is doubtful until future studies on a well identified male specimen of H. amoyense or other species reveals the specific identity of this larval type. We propose to refer to this larval type as Hysterothylacium larval type XV. In the present study we also describe a new species, Hysterothylacium persicum and discuss how to differentiate it from closely

  18. Physical, current, and other data from CTD casts, current meters, and drifting buoys from the NOAA ship Mt Mitchell in the Persian Gulf as part of the Straits of Hormuz project from 26 February 1992 to 22 June 1992 (NODC Accession 9600082)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, current, and other data were collected from CTD casts, current meters, and drifting buoys from the NOAA ship Mt Mitchell in the Persian Gulf and other...

  19. Cytotoxicity evaluation of extracts and fractions of five marine sponges from the Persian Gulf and HPLC fingerprint analysis of cytotoxic extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Davood; Mahdian; Milad; Iranshahy; Abolfazl; Shakeri; Azar; Hoseini; Hoda; Yavari; Melika; Nazemi; Mehrdad; Iranshahi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To screen the cytotoxic effects of some marine sponges extracts on HeLa and PC12 cells.Methods: Five marine sponges including Ircinia echinata(I. echinata), Dysidea avara,Axinella sinoxea, Haliclona tubifera and Haliclona violacea were collected from the Persian Gulf(Hengam Island). The cytotoxic effect of these sponges was evaluated by using MTT assay. The metabolic high performance liquid chromatography fingerprint of I. echinata was also carried out at two wavelengths(254 and 280 nm).Results: Among the sponges tested in this study, the extracts of I. echinata and Dysidea avara possessed the cytotoxic effect on HeLa and PC12 cells. The obtained fractions from high performance liquid chromatography were evaluated for their cytotoxic properties against the cell lines. The isolated fractions did not show significant cytotoxic properties.Conclusions: I. echinata could be considered as a potential extract for chemotherapy.Further investigation is needed to determine the accuracy of mechanism.

  20. Cytotoxicity evaluation of extracts and fractions of ifve marine sponges from the Persian Gulf and HPLC ifngerprint analysis of cytotoxic extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Davood Mahdian; Milad Iranshahy; Abolfazl Shakeri; Azar Hoseini; Hoda Yavari; Melika Nazemi; Mehrdad Iranshahi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To screen the cytotoxic effects of some marine sponges extracts on HeLa and PC12 cells. Methods: Five marine sponges including Ircinia echinata (I. echinata), Dysidea avara, Axinella sinoxea, Haliclona tubifera and Haliclona violacea were collected from the Persian Gulf (Hengam Island). The cytotoxic effect of these sponges was evaluated by using MTT assay. The metabolic high performance liquid chromatography fingerprint of I. echinata was also carried out at two wavelengths (254 and 280 nm). Results:Among the sponges tested in this study, the extracts of I. echinata and Dysidea avara possessed the cytotoxic effect on HeLa and PC12 cells. The obtained fractions from high performance liquid chromatography were evaluated for their cytotoxic properties against the cell lines. The isolated fractions did not show significant cytotoxic properties. Conclusions:I. echinata could be considered as a potential extract for chemotherapy. Further investigation is needed to determine the accuracy of mechanism.

  1. Investigation and measurement of radio thermoluminescence properties of some calci tic mollusc shells of the Persian Gulf and the Oman Sea (for γ radiation dosimetry)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafourian, H.; Rabbani, M.; Rouhi, U.

    2000-01-01

    Biogenic Calcium Carbonate, particularly as naturally thermoluminescent calci tic mollusc shells may serve as excellent radio thermoluminescent dosimeters. In this study the radio thermoluminescence properties of 8 different bivalves of the Persian Gulf, the Oman Sea and the internal calcite shell of Sepia sp. are investigated. The results of this investigation have shown that the shells of Sepia sp., Pinctata radiata and Card ita bicolor as appropriate dosimeters for both personal and industrial dosimetry purposes, among which Sepia sp. is the most sensitive one. Callista umbonella and Mactra sp. are relatively less thermoluminescent while Saccostrea Cucullata and Chlamys ruschenbergerii are completely inert with respect to γ - thermoluminescence. Thermoluminescence properties of Anadara refescens and Anadara secticostata decrease surprisingly by an increase in the absorbed dose of γ radiation, which can mainly be interpreted as the result of crystal lattice destruction caused by ionizing radiation

  2. Distribution of radioactive pollution of 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs in northwestern coasts of Persian Gulf, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reza Abdi, Mohammad; Kamali, Mehdi; Vaezifar, Sedigheh

    2008-01-01

    A reconnaissance study has been made of the distribution of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs and geochemical features in soils and sediments samples at various locations in the northwestern coast of Persian Gulf. Activity concentration levels due to radionuclides were measured in 30 soil and sediment samples collected from this region. From the measured spectra, activity concentrations were determined for 40 K (range from 146 to 500 Bq kg -1 ), 137 Cs (from 5 to 20 Bq kg -1 ), 238 U (from 21 to 65 Bq kg -1 ) and 232 Th (from 15 to 45 Bq kg -1 ) with lowest limit detection (LLD) of 68, 3.2, 4.3 and 4.3 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The dose rate from ambient air at the soil ranges was between 19 and 58 nGy h -1 with an average of 37.41 ± 9.66 nGy h -1

  3. Metal concentrations in selected tissues and main prey species of the annulated sea snake (Hydrophis cyanocinctus) in the Hara Protected Area, northeastern coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaie-Atagholipour, Mohsen; Riyahi-Bakhtiari, Alireza; Sajjadi, Mirmasoud; Yap, Chee Kong; Ghaffari, Sanaz; Ebrahimi-Sirizi, Zohreh; Ghezellou, Parviz

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first detailed ecotoxicological study of the annulated sea snake, Hydrophis cyanocinctus. Concentrations of lead, cadmium, nickel and vanadium were evaluated in muscle, liver, kidney, skin and blood of the annulated sea snake (H. cyanocinctus) and in the whole bodies of its main prey species (Periophthalmus waltoni and Boleophthalmus dussumieri) in the Hara Protected Area, the Persian Gulf. The mean concentrations of lead and vanadium were highest in the kidney, which identified the kidney as a target organ for metals in sea snakes as it is in other reptilian groups. Mean concentrations of cadmium and nickel were highest in the liver and skin, respectively. Mean cadmium concentrations were significantly higher in the liver compared to prey species, which indicated that prey items may be a source of cadmium for the annulated sea snake in the study area. Data presented here may be considered as a baseline for further ecotoxicological studies in sea snakes.

  4. INVESTIGATION THE BEHAVIOR OF MODIS OCEAN COLOR PRODUCTS UNDER THE 2008 RED TIDE IN THE EASTERN PERSIAN GULF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghanea

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biophysical properties of water undergo serious variations under red tide (RT outbreak. During RT conditions, algal blooms spread out in the estuarine, marine and fresh waters due to different triggering factors such as nutrient loading, marine currents, and monsoonal winds. The Persian Gulf (PG was a talent region subjected to different RTs in recent decade. A massive RT started from the Strait of Hormuz in October 2008 and extended towards the northern parts of the PG covering more than 1200 km of coastlines. The bloom of microorganism C. Polykrikoides was the main specie that generated large fish mortalities, and hampered marine industries, and water desalination appliances. Ocean color satellite data have many advantages to monitor and alarm RT occurrences, such as wide and continuous extent, short time of imagery, high accessibility, and appropriate estimation of ocean color parameters. Since 1999, MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS satellite sensor has estimated satellite derived chlorophyll-a (Chl-a, normalized fluorescence line height (nFLH, and diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490nm (kd490. It provides a capability to study the behavior of these parameters during RT and normal conditions. This study monitors variations in satellite derived Chl-a, nFLH, and kd490 under both RT and normal conditions of the PG between 2002 and 2008. Up to now, daily and monthly variations in these products were no synchronously investigated under RT conditions in the PG. In doing so, the MODIS L1B products were provided from NASA data archive. They were corrected for Rayleigh scattering and gaseous absorption, and atmospheric interference in turbid coastal waters, and then converted to level 2 data. In addition, Enhanced Red Green Blue (ERGB image was used to illustrate better water variations. ERGB image was built with three normalized leaving water radiance between 443 to 560nm. All the above data processes were applied by SeaDAS 7

  5. Spatial distribution, ecological and health risk assessment of heavy metals in marine surface sediments and coastal seawaters of fringing coral reefs of the Persian Gulf, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar Jafarabadi, Ali; Riyahi Bakhtiyari, Alireza; Shadmehri Toosi, Amirhossein; Jadot, Catherine

    2017-10-01

    Concentrations of 13 heavy metals (Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, Co, Ni, V, As, Cd, Hg, Pb) in 360 reef surface sediments (0-5 cm) and coastal seawater samples from ten coral Islands in the Persian Gulf were analyzed to determine their spatial distribution and potential ecological risks. Different sediment quality indices were applied to assess the surface sediment quality. The mean concentrations of metals in studied sediments followed the order: Al > Fe > Ni > V > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > Co > As > Cd > Pb > As. Average Cd and Hg exceeded coastal background levels at most sampling sites. With the exception of As, concentrations of heavy metals decreased progressively from the west to the east of the Persian Gulf. Based on the Enrichment Factor (EF) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI), concentrations of V, Ni, Hg and Cd indicated moderate contamination and is of some concern. The mean values of heavy metals Toxic Units (TUs) were calculated in the following order: Hg (0.75)> Cr (0.41)> Cd (0.27)> As (0.23)> Cu (0.12)> Zn (0.05)> Pb (0.009). Furthermore, the mean contributing ratios of six heavy metals to Toxic Risk Index (TRI) values were 79% for Hg, 11.48% for Cd, 6.16% for Cr, 3.27% for Cu, 0.07% for Zn and 0.01% for Pb. Calculated values of potential ecological risk factor, revealed that the risk of the heavy metals followed the order Cd > Pb > Ni > Cr > V > Cu > Zn. The results reflected that the level of heavy metals, especially Hg and Cd, are on rise due to emerging oil exploration, industrial development, and oil refineries along the entire Gulf. Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, V and Ni concentrations in seawater were significantly higher (p heavy metals in the sampling sites. A health risk assessment using the hazard quotient index (HQ) recommended by the USEPA suggests that there is no adverse health effect through dermal exposure, and there is no carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic harm to human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  6. The Effect of Crude Extract of Turbo coronatus from the Persian Gulf on Serum Biochemical Parameters and Hematiological Parameters of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Vazirizadeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available : Turbotoxins are marine secondary metabolites that produce in Turbinidae family and were isolated from Japanese Turbo marmorata for the first time. A few research has been done on these metabolites so far. Another species, Turbo coronatus exists in Iran. The main aim of the current project was to investigate some biological effects of the crude extract of Turbo coronatus from the Persian Gulf . Materials and methods: In this study, 18 rats were selected in three groups including the control group. The experimental groups received ½ and 1/3 lethal doses intravenously and serum levels of liver and muscle enzymes, electrolytes and complete blood counts (CBC were measured after 24 hours. : The levels of liver and muscle enzymes, amylase, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, ferrous, haptoglobin, albumin and creatinine were significantly increased in experimental group compared with the control group by injection of crude extract of Turbo coronatus; however, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, red blood cell count, magnesium, and glucose levels were significantly decreased in the experimental group compared with the control group. : Intravenous injection of ½ and 1/3 lethal doses of the crude extract of Turbo coronatus to rats produced rhabdomyolysis and hepatocytes injury. In addition, the crude extract injection acted as a haematoxin and decreased hemoglobin and MCV.

  7. Risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in Bushehr Port on the basis of The WHO MONICA Project The Persian Gulf Healthy Heart Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amiri

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The majority of all deaths attributable to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are in developing countries. There is now a pressing need for developing countries to define and implement preventive interventions for CVDs. We used WHO MONICA Project protocols to measure trends in coronary risk factors in Bushehr Port in the Persian Gulf Healthy Heart Project. Coronary risk factors of 2092 , aged >= 25 years men and women were evaluated in a cross-sectional study. Of the studied population, 97.7% had at least one coronary risk factor, 44.3% of men and 69% of women had at least two coronary risk factors. The high prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus (8.6%, central obesity (59.4%, obesity (26.8%, hypertension (24.5%, smoking (15.7%, physical inactivity (71.1%, hypercholesterolemia (24% and low HDL-cholesterol (61.5% showed that coronary risk factors prevail in Bushehr Port. Therefore, preventive strategies should be implemented immediately to avoid cardiovascular epidemic in the near future.

  8. The association of metabolic syndrome and Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus type 1: The Persian Gulf Healthy Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazoki Raha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome together with insulin resistance and their consequences are basic factors in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Chronic infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1, cytomegalovirus (CMV, and Chlamydia pneumoniae are associated with the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The infectious aspects of metabolic syndrome have not been investigated. Methods In a cross-sectional, population-based study, we used National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-Adult Treatment Panel (ATP-III criteria in 1791 subjects, aged 25 years and over, selected by cluster random sampling in three Iranian ports in the northern Persian Gulf. Sera were analyzed for IgG antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae, HSV-1, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori and CMV using ELISA. Results In multiple logistic regression analysis, of the infectious agents, CMV [OR = 1.81 (1.05–3.10; p = 0.03], H. pylori [OR = 1.50 (1.12–2.00; p = 0.007] and Chlamydia pneumoniae [OR = 1.69 (1.27–2.25; p Conclusion The metabolic syndrome, which occurs very frequently in the general population, has a significant association with prior infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus type 1. Hypothesis about participation of infection in pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome should be investigated.

  9. Distribution of radioactive pollution of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs in northwestern coasts of Persian Gulf, Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reza Abdi, Mohammad [Department of Physics, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81747-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: r.abdi@phys.ui.ac.ir; Kamali, Mehdi [Central Laboratory, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81747-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vaezifar, Sedigheh [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81747-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    A reconnaissance study has been made of the distribution of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs and geochemical features in soils and sediments samples at various locations in the northwestern coast of Persian Gulf. Activity concentration levels due to radionuclides were measured in 30 soil and sediment samples collected from this region. From the measured spectra, activity concentrations were determined for {sup 40}K (range from 146 to 500 Bq kg{sup -1}), {sup 137}Cs (from 5 to 20 Bq kg{sup -1}), {sup 238}U (from 21 to 65 Bq kg{sup -1}) and {sup 232}Th (from 15 to 45 Bq kg{sup -1}) with lowest limit detection (LLD) of 68, 3.2, 4.3 and 4.3 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The dose rate from ambient air at the soil ranges was between 19 and 58 nGy h{sup -1} with an average of 37.41 {+-} 9.66 nGy h{sup -1}.

  10. The study of Forest Hara Biosphere Reserve in coast of Persian Gulf and the importance of heavy metal accumulation; Case study: feathers of great cormorant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIR MEHRDAD MIRSANJARI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mirsanjari MM, Sheybanifar F, Arjmand F. 2014. The study of forest Hara Biosphere Reserve in coast of Persian Gulf and the importance of heavy metal accumulation; Case study: feathers of great cormorant. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 159-164. In recent years, concerns about the long term effects of heavy metals as environmental polluters have arisen, since considerable quantities of heavy metals have been released into the environment as a result of extensive human activities. Heavy metal has been determined as a serious threat to the stability of ecosystems. In this study, we examined the levels of zinc‚ copper‚ lead, and cadmium in the feathers of twenty great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo, collected from Hara Biosphere Reserve during November and December in 2012. The results revealed that the mean concentration of heavy metals in the feathers of males is significantly higher than females (P < 0.05. In addition‚ no significant difference was observed in heavy metal concentration between juvenile and adult birds. Moreover, according to the results, the high concentration of heavy metals in some samples indicated this fact that birds are potentially exposed to the risk of heavy metals in their habitat.

  11. Danish Gulf War Veterans Revisited: No Evidence of Increased Sickness Absence or Reduced Labor Market Outcome After Deployment to the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Stoltenberg, Christian; Nielsen, Anni B Sternhagen; Vedtofte, Mia S; Marott, Jacob L; Gyntelberg, Finn; Guldager, Bernadette

    2016-11-01

    To examine the assumption that postdeployment incidence of sickness and other absence from work are higher among Gulf War Veterans compared with nonveterans. A prospective registry study including a cohort of 721 Danish Gulf War Veterans and a control cohort of 3,629 nonveterans selected from the general Danish population. Outcome measures were up to 23 years postdeployment incidence of (1) long-term sickness absence and (2) long-term all types of absence from work. Long term with regard to sickness and other absence was defined as exceeding 8 weeks. The association between outcomes and information on deployment history was studied using time-to-event analysis. The index date was the return date from the last deployment to the Gulf. The follow-up period was the time from index date until April 27, 2014. As the main finding, no difference was found between veterans and nonveterans in the incidence rate of long-term sickness absence. After an initial short period (3 months) with elevated incidence rate of long-term absence from work among veterans, there was no difference between the cohorts. Among Danish Gulf War Veterans, no postdeployment increased risk of long-term sickness absence or long-term absence from work was found as compared with nonveterans. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  12. Great Power Interests and Conflicting Objectives in the Mediterranean-Middle East-Persian Gulf Region. Part I. Background Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-01

    Tunisia , and Algeria; between Italy and 1ibya; and between Britain and Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, and the Persia.i Gulf. The British now have little more... Petrole : la troisieme guerre mondiale, pp. 215 ff (Paris, 1974) 56 All this adds up to a mixed bag of conceptual and structural differences which is...signed an agree- ment with Morocco (for two patrol vessels) and Tunisia (one patrol vessel) and expanded its arms deals with Libya. Germany and Italy

  13. Press coverage of the Persian Gulf War: historical perspectives and questions of policy beyond the shadow of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Cochran, Kimberly Ann

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Widely held views of military-press relations in the United States rest upon an incomplete image of the past. This became overwhelmingly evident during the recent Gulf War with its generalizations about the experience of the Vietnam War. This thesis seeks to correct such failings through a brief discussion of the role the First Amendment guarantee of freedom of the press has played regarding U.S. national security interests, followed...

  14. Conversational Persian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svare, Homa; And Others

    These language materials were first prepared at the State University of Utah in connection with Peace Corps language programs in Persian. They are reproduced here with only slight modifications. This text is divided into seven main chapters: (1) Persian Vocabulary and Expressions for History, Law and Government (this section contains dialogues…

  15. Prevalence, risk factors and molecular evaluation of hepatitis E virus infection among pregnant women resident in the northern shores of Persian Gulf, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshadpour, Fatemeh; Ravanbod, Mohamad Reza; Eghbali, Seyed Sajjad; Taherkhani, Sakineh; Mahdavi, Easa

    2018-01-01

    Background Although Iran is reported to be an endemic country for hepatitis E virus (HEV), data on the prevalence of HEV infection among pregnant women are scarce and the epidemiology of HEV is unknown in most parts of the country. Therefore, this study was conducted to elucidate the prevalence, risk factors and genotypic pattern of HEV infection among pregnant women resident in the northern shores of Persian Gulf. This is the first report on the epidemiology of HEV infection among pregnant women in this territory. Methods From October 2016 to May 2017, 1331 pregnant women participated in this study. The mean age ± SD of participants was 27.93±5.7 years with a range of 14–45 years. Serum samples of pregnant women were screened for the presence of anti-HEV total antibodies, anti-HEV IgG and anti-HEV IgM using commercially available ELISA kits (DIA.PRO, Milan, Italy). All anti-HEV IgG and anti-HEV IgM positive samples were tested for HEV RNA using two independent reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, targeting ORF2 and ORF3 of HEV genome. In addition, 92 anti-HEV seronegative samples as well as 50 pooled seronegative samples were evaluated by two independent RT-PCR assays for validation of results. Results Of the 1331 pregnant women, 84 women (6.3%, 95% CI: 5.1%-7.7%) were positive for anti-HEV antibodies, of which 83 women had anti-HEV IgG, and 11 women (0.83%, 95% CI: 0.47%-1.47%) had anti-HEV IgM. The highest rate of HEV seroprevalence was observed among Afghan immigrants (68.0%), uneducated pregnant women (46.51%) and those residents in Bushehr city (8.75%). All anti-HEV IgG and/or IgM positive samples were found to be negative for HEV RNA. In addition, all of the evaluated anti-HEV seronegative samples were negative for HEV RNA. HEV seropositivity among pregnant women was statistically associated with age, ethnicity, place of residence, number of pregnancies, and level of education. So that, low education levels, Afghan, residence

  16. Microfunnel-supported liquid-phase microextraction: application to extraction and determination of Irgarol 1051 and diuron in the Persian Gulf seawater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Abolfazl; Sheijooni Fumani, Neda; Molaei, Saeideh

    2014-08-22

    In the present work, microfunnel-supported liquid-phase microextraction method (MF-LPME) based on applying low density organic solvent was developed for the determination of antifoulings (Irgarol 1051, diuron and 3,4-dichloroaniline) from seawater samples. In this method, home-designed MF device was used for facile loading and retrieving of organic solvent during the extraction procedure. The extraction was carried out with introduction of 400 μL of toluene via syringe into the MF device placed on the surface of sample solution (300 mL) containing analytes. After the extraction, extractant layer was narrowed into the capillary part of MF by pushing the device inside the sample and withdrawn by using a syringe to evaporate by nitrogen purging. The residual redissolved into 50 μL methanol, diluted to 100 μL with deionized water and injected into the high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV). Several factors influencing the extraction such as the type and volume of extraction solvent, sample pH, extraction time and ionic strength were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection in seawater were 1.4, 4.8 and 1.0 ng L(-1) for 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA), diuron and Irgarol 1051, respectively. Enrichment factors were obtained 333, 150 and 373 for DCA, diuron and Irgarol 1051, respectively. The precision of the technique was evaluated in terms of repeatability which was less than 12.0% (n=5). The applicability of the proposed method was evaluated by the extraction and determination of antifoulings from seawater samples collected from harbors of Bushehr located in northern Persian Gulf coast. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Un Manifesto economico per i paesi del Golfo Persico esportatori di petrolio(An Economic Manifesto for the Oil Exporting Countries of the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The oil-exporting countries of the Persian Gulf have failed economically and socially. It is time for a radical new approach to managing oil revenues while oil and gas reserves last. We propose an approach to cut the level of oil revenues available to governments to zero while incorporating a formal "Oil Fund for All Generations". Others have proposed and implemented oil funds but in our proposal the government would (in time lose all access to oil revenues; by taking easy money away from governments and rulers, waste, corruption, military expenditures and wars will be reduced, there will be better chance of adopting and implementing rational economic policies, and equity across generations may be enhanced. Hope may be slowly restored to a region that has lost hope. I paesi del Golfo Persico esportatori di petrolio hanno fallito dal punto di vista economico e sociale. È tempo di adottare un approccio radicalmente nuovo alla gestione dei ricavi petroliferi finché vi sono ancora riserve di petrolio e di gas. Noi proponiamo un approccio finalizzato ad azzerare il livello dei ricavi disponibili per i governi, istituendo allo stesso tempo un formale “Fondo petrolifero per tutte le generazioni”. Fondi petroliferi sono stati ipotizzati e realizzati anche da altri, ma nella nostra proposta il governo perderebbe (col tempo qualunque accesso ai ricavi petroliferi; sottraendo denaro facile ai governi e ai sovrani, la probabilità di sprechi, corruzione e guerre risulterebbe ridotta, e vi sarebbe maggiore possibilità di adottare e mettere in pratica politiche economiche razionali finalizzate ad accrescere l’equità tra le generazioni.  JEL Codes: O13, O53, Q48Keywords: Gas; Oil

  18. Determination of Mercury Daily Intake and Hair-to-Blood Mercury Concentration Ratio in People Resident of the Coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okati, Narjes; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to understand the mercury daily intake and hair-to-blood mercury ratio in fishermen and non-fishermen families in the coast of the Persian Gulf in Iran. The mean mercury concentration in the hair of fishermen and non-fishermen families was 5.76 and 2.27 μg/g, respectively. The mean mercury concentrations of RBCs were obtained for fishermen families and non-fishermen families: 35.96 and 17.18 μg/L, respectively. Hair mercury concentrations in 17% of people were higher than 10 μg/g, the No Observed Adverse Effects Level set by the World Health Organization. 78% of people had a blood mercury value > 5.8 μg/L, the standard level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A significant correlation (r = 0.94, p = 0.000) was seen between log hair and RBCs mercury concentrations. The mean mercury daily intake for fishermen and non-fishermen families was 0.42 and 0.20 µg/kg BW per day, respectively. The mean mercury daily intake of fishermen families was higher than the provisional tolerable daily intake (0.23 µg/kg BW per day) suggested by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. Mercury daily intake significantly correlated with fish consumption (r = 0.50, p = 0.000) and log hair mercury (r = 0.88, p = 0.000). The total mean of hair-to-blood mercury concentration ratio was 306. We conclude that the use of mercury concentrations in the hair and RBCs could have been suitable biomarkers for predicting mercury exposure of people with a high rate of fish consumption.

  19. Description of histopathological changes induced by the venom of the Persian Gulf Lionfish (Pterois russelli) in a mouse model of multiorgan toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memar, Bahareh; Jamili, Shahla; Shahbazzadeh, Delavar; Pooshang Bagheri, Kamran

    2016-11-01

    Pterois russelli is a venomous fish belongs to Scorpaenidae family. Envenomation by the Persian Gulf lionfish is associated with local pain, marked inflammation and local heat. The present study was aimed to document the histopathological changes in liver, heart, lung, kidney and alterations in release of critical enzymes such as LDH, CK. AST, ALT and ALP induced by the administration of various doses of P. russelli venom in a mouse model. LD50 of venom was determined by intravenous injection in Balb/c mice. Histopathological alterations of lung, liver, heart and kidney following injection of one LD50, 1/2 and 1/3 LD50 doses of the venom were evaluated. Simultaneously, release of LDH, CK, AST, ALT and ALP were measured in serum following administration of 1/2 and1/3 LD50 doses of the venom too. LD50 was calculated as 10.5 mg/kg. The level of all enzymes were increased after 3 h and significantly raised after 24 h and rapidly reduced after 48 h. Histological studies showed that one LD50 and 1/2 LD50 doses of the venom induced significant histological alterations in the lungs, liver, heart and kidneys including congestion, hemorrhage, necrosis, apoptosis, edema, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. The results indicate that the venom of P. russelli has nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, cardiotoxic and pneumotoxic effects in mouse model. Among four examined vital organs, the highest critical events were seen in liver. The findings are useful to give new insight in the fish's venom studies. Gathering the data resulted from this study together will be directed us toward a good aspect concerning the toxicity of potential therapeutic molecules in the venom of lionfish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Production and Optimization of Alkaline Lipase by a Novel Psychrotolerant and Halotolerant Strain Planomicrobium okeanokoites ABN-IAUF-2 Isolated from Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Akbari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available lipases have many different applications in detergents, cleaners, food industry, pharmaceutical industry, pulp and paper production and leather industry, but the extremophile lipases have more range applications. These enzymes are resistant to the high salty, temperature and alkaline conditions. Halophiles were isolated from Persian Gulf, Iran at 20°C in the presence of 10% NaCl. For screening the lipase producing bacteria, Rhodamine B agar and minimal medium were used. Then in order to find the best growth condition for the production of lipase, singlefactor optimization was carried out. The best environmental conditions and their interactions for lipase production were obtained using 16 levels Taguchi statistical test. The WS4 isolate indicated a good lipase activity. The 16srDNA sequencing revealed that the WS4 isolate was Planomicrobium okeanokoites. We named this novel strain Planomicrobium okeanokoites ABN-IAUF-2 and its 16s-rDNA sequence was deposited in GenBank, NCBI, under accession number of KP403724. The most enzyme production was measured after 72 hours incubation at 20°C in the presence of hazelnut oil as carbon source and yeast extract as nitrogen source and pH 7. The analysis of Taguchi test showed that the most effective factors in enzyme production were carbon source with 54.65% and nitrogen source with 19% of effectiveness. This is the first report of alkaline lipase production by Planomicrobium okeanokoites. This lipase was resistant to low-temperature and 15% saline, so it has wide applications in medical as well as microbial biotechnology.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the coastal sea water, the surface sediment and Mudskipper Boleophthalmus dussumieri from coastal areas of the Persian Gulf: source investigation, composition pattern and spatial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaei, Mahmood; Mashinchian, Ali

    2014-03-10

    Persian Gulf is an exposed and stressed area as a result of oil pollution and other fossil fuels containing PAHs. The susceptibility of using mudskippers to monitor marine pollution, like PAHs, points to the fact that mudskippers are able to accumulate and record the PAHs presented in the coastal environments. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were examined in the coastal waters, the sediments and biota (i.e., Boleophthalmus dussumieri) along the coast of the Persian Gulf. PAHs concentrations were measured with HPLC method. Total PAH concentrations in the sea water, the sediments, the liver and the gill tissues ranged between 0.80-18.34 μg/l, 113.50-3384.34 ng g-1 (d w), 3.99-46.64 ng g-1 (d w) and 3.11-17.76 ng g-1 (d w), respectively. PAHs distribution patterns in the sediment and the liver tissue samples were dominated by three-and four-ring structures whereas two-and three-rings were dominated in the water and the gill. This finding revealed a negative eco-risk effects occasionally occur in this area. The higher presence of low condensate ring structures reflected a predominant origin of petrogenic and some cases of pyrolitic sources.

  2. Dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea: Polyonchoinea parasitizing the gills of snappers (Perciformes: Lutjanidae: revision of Euryhaliotrema with new and previously described species from the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, the eastern and Indo-west Pacific Ocean, and the Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delane C. Kritsky

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty one of 29 species of snappers (Lutjanidae, examined for dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea from the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, the Indo-west and eastern Pacific Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea were parasitized by 16 new and 11 previously described species of Euryhaliotrema: Euryhaliotrema adelpha sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema anecorhizion sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema cardinale sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema chrysotaeniae, Euryhaliotrema cognatus sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema cryptophallus sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema diplops sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema distinctum sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema fajeravilae sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema fastigatum, Euryhaliotrema fatuum sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema ferocis sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema hainanense, Euryhaliotrema longibaculum, Euryhaliotrema mehen comb. nov., Euryhaliotrema paracanthi, Euryhaliotrema paululum sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema perezponcei, Euryhaliotrema ramulum sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema seyi sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema simplicis sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema spirotubiforum, Euryhaliotrema tormocleithrum sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema torquecirrus, Euryhaliotrema tubocirrus, Euryhaliotrema xinyingense, and Euryhaliotrema youngi sp. nov. Six species of Euryhaliotrema, previously reported from lutjanid hosts, were not collected: Euryhaliotrema anguiformis comb. nov., Euryhaliotrema guangdongense, Euryhaliotrema johni, Euryhaliotrema lutiani, Euryhaliotrema lutjani, and Euryhaliotrema nanaoense comb. nov. The diagnosis of Euryhaliotrema was emended to include species having tandem or slightly overlapping gonads, a pretesticular germarium, a globose haptor with morphologically similar anchors and hooks, a coiled or meandering male copulatory organ, a dextral vaginal pore, and hooks with upright acute thumbs and slender shanks comprised of one subunit. A bulbous base of the MCO and presence of an accessory piece in the copulatory complex were no longer considered features defining the genus. As a result, Euryhaliotrematoides and Aliatrema were

  3. Clinical Evaluation of a Proposed New Gulf War Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levine, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Thus far, studies on Gulf War veterans have not defined any syndrome specific to deployed Gulf War veterans, but have only suggested that Persian Gulf War veterans have a higher frequency of a number...

  4. Spatial distribution and composition of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and hopanes in superficial sediments of the coral reefs of the Persian Gulf, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar Jafarabadi, Ali; Riyahi Bakhtiari, Alireza; Aliabadian, Mansour; Shadmehri Toosi, Amirhossein

    2017-05-01

    This study is the first quantitative report on petroleum biomarkers from the coral reefs systems of the Persian Gulf. 120 reef surface sediment samples from ten fragile coral reef ecosystems were collected and analyzed for grain size, biogenic elements, elemental ratios, and petroleum biomarkers (n-alkanes, PAHs 1 and Hopanes) to assess the sources and early diagenesis of sedimentary organic matter. The mean grain size of the reef sediments ranged from 13.56 to 37.11% (Clay), 26.92 to 51.73% (Sand) and 35.97 to 43.85% (Silt). TOC 2 (3.35-9.72 mg.g -1 ) and TON 3 (0.4-1.10 mg.g -1 ) were identified as influencing factors on the accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons, whilst BC 4 (1.08-3.28 mg.g -1 ) and TIN 5 (0.13-0.86) did not exhibit any determining effect. Although BC and TIN demonstrated heterogeneous spatial distribution, TOC and TON indicated homogenous distribution with continually upward trend in concentration from the east to west ward of the Gulf. The mean calculated TOC/TN ratios vacillated according to the stations (p TOC/TN ratios were observed in the Hengam (8.64), Kharg (8.04) and Siri (6.29), respectively, suggesting a predominant marine origin. The mean concentrations of ∑C 11-35 n-alkanes, ∑30 PAHs and ∑9Hopanes were found in the ranges of 385-937 μg.g -1 dw, (overall mean:590 μg.g -1 dw), 326-793 ng.g -1 dw (499 ng.g -1 dw), 88 to 568 ng.g -1 d (258 ng.g -1 dw), respectively. Higher concentrations of detected petroleum biomarkers in reef sediments were chiefly distributed near main industrial areas, Kharg, Lavan and Siri, whilst the lower concentrations were in Hormoz and Qeshm. In addition, one-way ANOVA 6 analysis demonstrated considerably significant differences (p maintenance of organic matter by high clay content in the sediments. Furthermore, most sediment samples, except for Hormoz, Qeshm and Hengam showed an even carbon preference for n-alkanes which could be correlated to bacterial input. NPMDS 7 analysis also

  5. Dari Persian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tadayon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Persian Dari is a language which has been used not only by the people of Madain and western cities on the coast of Arvand river but also by the people in eastern cities like Balkh and Marv . Nevertheless most of the researchers of Persian language or literature are trying to prove that Dari has been a limited language or a dialect of Persian belonged to some eastern districts of Iran and it has been extended to other parts of Iran by some Samanid governors. This article tries to clarify this subject as far as possible and prove that Dari title has been derived from Sasanid Darbar and has not any relation with eastern governors in third or fourth century.

  6. Canada as the emerging energy superpower : testing the case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hester, A.

    2007-10-01

    The need for forward-thinking energy sector policies that promote Canada as a leader in the responsible and effective management of energy resources was discussed. This paper proposed a set of strategies and policy options designed to ensure that Canada becomes an energy superpower with the ability to control access to supplies and leverage energy resources in order to extend its sphere of political influence. The historical evolution of energy provision was examined in order to better define the criteria needed to attain energy superpower status. The paper also examined current global energy markets and provided a summary of Canada's current energy industry. The impact of the oil sands industry on the Canadian economy was also discussed. It was concluded that although Canada does not qualify as an energy super-power, the energy sector will play an important role in Canada's future. The implementation of forward-thinking policies may mean that Canada will emerge as a superpower in the future. 42 refs

  7. High resolution seismic stratigraphic analysis. An integrated approach to the subsurface geology of the SE Persian Gulf[Paper 2 is not open for the public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzadi, Pourdad

    2006-07-01

    The integration of seismic stratigraphy with depositional-sequence concepts has revolutionized the geologist's ability to predict subsurface stratigraphy. Describing sub-seismic-scale geometric and depositional cycle relationships within the larger, seismic-scale chronostratigraphic framework has given fascinating insights into carbonate platform evolution. Carbonates deposited on passive continental margins, such as on northeastern Arabian Platform which is the subject of this study, contain some of the major hydrocarbon accumulations of the world. As such, the study of their stratal geometric evolution has considerable relevance to hydrocarbon exploration. The first stage of this study focuses on the Cenomanian Mishrif and Khatiyah Formations in SE Persian Gulf. Working with 40 Hz conventional 3D seismic data in the first stage illustrated that, in comparison with high-resolution outcrop-defined sequences in the literature, the third-order sequence scale (composite sequence scale) within the Cenomanian Mishrif and Khatiyah Formations is seismically resolvable. This study brings new insight into carbonate platform evolution from the interpretation of the Khatiyah Formation, which is known only as a regional source rock, leading to recognition of a very low-risk prospect reservoir. The new information gained from the successive stages of drowning and back-stepping of carbonate platforms has important implications for reservoir development and can serve as a reference for regional stratigraphy. The seismic interpretation of the Aptian Dariyan Formation, a potential regional reservoir unit, illustrates that conventional seismic data are insufficient to reveal the internal heterogeneity. Outcrop examples of the laterally-equivalent Shu'aiba Formation, a prolific carbonate reservoir in the UAE, indicate the Dariyan Formation should have a complex internal architecture. However complex internal geometries are apparently not seismically resolvable in the

  8. Superpower proton linear accelerators for neutron generators and electronuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarev, N.V.; Kozodaev, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The report is a review of projects on the superpower proton linear accelerators (SPLA) for neutron generators (NG) and electronuclear facilities, proposed in the recent years. The beam average output capacity in these projects reaches 100 MW. The basic parameters of certain operating NGs, as well as some projected NGs will the SPLA drivers are presented. The problems on application of superconducting resonators in the SPLA as well as the issues of the SPLA reliability and costs are discussed [ru

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nickel and vanadium in air dust from Bahrein (Persian Gulf): Measurements and Puff model calculations for this area during the burning of the oil wells in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaessen, H.A.M.G.; Wilbers, A.A.M.M.; Jekel, A.A.; Van Pul, W.A.J.; Van der Meulen, A.; Bloemen, H.J.Th.; De Boer, J.L.M.

    1993-01-01

    When Kuwait's oil wells were at fire in 1991, air particulate matter (inhalable fraction) was sampled in Bahrain (soot clouds were over that region at that time) and analysed for PAHs, nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V). Also in that period Puff-model calculations were carried out to forecast the dispersion of the combustion products and the impact on the environment in the Persian Gulf region. Based on the outcome of the model calculations and the analytical findings the major conclusions are that: (a) the PAH contamination level of the air particulate matter is equal or below that found for rural areas in the Netherlands and on average one order of magnitude below the findings of the model calculations; (b) there is no link between the air particulate matter content and the PAH contamination measured. The benzo(a)pyrene fraction of the PAH contamination is 10-14% which is surprisingly constant; (c) the strongly significant correlation between the Ni- and V-content both mutually and with respect to the air particulate matter content strongly suggests a common origin i.e. the burning oil wells in Kuwait; (d) the air particulate matter content measured is one up to two orders of magnitudes over the findings of the model calculations; (e) the emission factors applied in the Puff-model calculations, most probably, insufficiently match the combustion conditions of oil wells at fire. 6 figs., 3 tabs.,

  10. A numerical investigation into the ability of the Poisson PDE to extract the mass-density from land-based gravity data: A case study of salt diapirs in the north coast of the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    AllahTavakoli, Yahya; Safari, Abdolreza

    2017-08-01

    This paper is counted as a numerical investigation into the capability of Poisson's Partial Differential Equation (PDE) at Earth's surface to extract the near-surface mass-density from land-based gravity data. For this purpose, first it focuses on approximating the gradient tensor of Earth's gravitational potential by means of land-based gravity data. Then, based on the concepts of both the gradient tensor and Poisson's PDE at the Earth's surface, certain formulae are proposed for the mass-density determination. Furthermore, this paper shows how the generalized Tikhonov regularization strategy can be used for enhancing the efficiency of the proposed approach. Finally, in a real case study, the formulae are applied to 6350 gravity stations located within a part of the north coast of the Persian Gulf. The case study numerically indicates that the proposed formulae, provided by Poisson's PDE, has the ability to convert land-based gravity data into the terrain mass-density which has been used for depicting areas of salt diapirs in the region of the case study.

  11. Epidemiologic evidence of health effects from long-distance transit of chemical weapons fallout from bombing early in the 1991 Persian Gulf War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Robert W; Tuite, James J

    2013-01-01

    Military intelligence data published in a companion paper explain how chemical fallout from US and Coalition bombing of Iraqi chemical weapons facilities early in the air campaign transited long distance, triggering nerve agent alarms and exposing US troops. We report the findings of a population-based survey designed to test competing hypotheses on the impact on chronic Gulf War illness of nerve agent from early-war bombing versus post-war demolition. The US Military Health Survey performed computer-assisted telephone interviews of a stratified random sample of Gulf War-era veterans (n = 8,020). Early-war exposure was measured by having heard nerve agent alarms and post-war exposure, by the computer-generated plume from the Khamisiyah demolition. Gulf War illness was measured by two widely published case definitions. The OR (95% CI) for the association of alarms with the Factor case definition was 4.13 (95% CI 2.51-6.80) compared with 1.21 (95% CI 0.86-1.69) for the Khamisiyah plume. There was a dose-related trend for the number of alarms (p(trend) war demolition. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Insertion in Persian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambuziya, Aliyeh Kord-e Zafaranlu; Dehghan, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates epenthesis process in Persian to catch some results in relating to vowel and consonant insertion in Persian lexicon. This survey has a close relationship to the description of epenthetic consonants and the conditions in which these consonants are used. Since no word in Persian may begin with a vowel, so that hiatus can't be…

  13. Persian music meets West

    OpenAIRE

    Ardalan, Afshin

    2012-01-01

    I have based my bachelor Thesis on the presentation of a completely different musical world, compared with the western musical world, which is Persian Music. As a Persian, I started to study music as a Persian Setar player; then I followed my musical experience through western classical music by playing classical guitar. As an ambition I have always thought about how to express Persian music in an understandable way for that of non-Persians. In this thesis I began with a short history of Pers...

  14. Artificial neural network modeling and cluster analysis for organic facies and burial history estimation using well log data: A case study of the South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Bahram; Najjari, Saeid; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali

    2012-08-01

    Intelligent and statistical techniques were used to extract the hidden organic facies from well log responses in the Giant South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran. Kazhdomi Formation of Mid-Cretaceous and Kangan-Dalan Formations of Permo-Triassic Data were used for this purpose. Initially GR, SGR, CGR, THOR, POTA, NPHI and DT logs were applied to model the relationship between wireline logs and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The correlation coefficient (R2) between the measured and ANN predicted TOC equals to 89%. The performance of the model is measured by the Mean Squared Error function, which does not exceed 0.0073. Using Cluster Analysis technique and creating a binary hierarchical cluster tree the constructed TOC column of each formation was clustered into 5 organic facies according to their geochemical similarity. Later a second model with the accuracy of 84% was created by ANN to determine the specified clusters (facies) directly from well logs for quick cluster recognition in other wells of the studied field. Each created facies was correlated to its appropriate burial history curve. Hence each and every facies of a formation could be scrutinized separately and directly from its well logs, demonstrating the time and depth of oil or gas generation. Therefore potential production zone of Kazhdomi probable source rock and Kangan- Dalan reservoir formation could be identified while well logging operations (especially in LWD cases) were in progress. This could reduce uncertainty and save plenty of time and cost for oil industries and aid in the successful implementation of exploration and exploitation plans.

  15. A new species of decorator crabs, genus Menaethiops Alcock, 1895 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Majoidea: Epialthidae), from Abu-Musa Island, Persian Gulf, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderloo, Reza

    2015-03-02

    Menaethiops abumusa n. sp. is closely similar to M. bicornis Alcock, 1985, and M. gadaniensis Kazmi & Tirmizi, 1999, regarding the relatively contiguous rostral spines. The new species is easily distinguishable from its two congeners by having distinctly round angles of orbital eaves and distally divergent rostral spines. Whereas in M. bicornis, and M. gadaniensis, the angles of orbital eaves are anteriorly produced and rostral spines are closely attached to each other along their entire length.  Other morphological differences include the carapace spination/granulation, basal antennal segments, and morphology of the male's first gonopod. Menaethiops gadaniensis was described from Gadani, Pakistan and was only known from the type locality, but is here recorded for the first time from the Gulf of Oman.

  16. Persian fencing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous manuscripts, poems and stories that describe, specifically and in detail, the different techniques used in Persian swordsmanship. The present article explains the origins and the techniques of Persian swordsmanship. The article also describes the traditional code of conduct for Persian warriors. Additionally, it describes an array of techniques that were deployed in actual combat in Iran’s history. Some of these techniques are represented via the miniatures that are reproduced herein. This is the first article on Persian swordsmanship published in any periodical.

  17. Meteorological and intelligence evidence of long-distance transit of chemical weapons fallout from bombing early in the 1991 Persian Gulf War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuite, James J; Haley, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Coalition bombings on the night of 18-19 January 1991, early in the Gulf War, targeted the Iraqi chemical weapons infrastructure. On 19 January 1991, nerve agent alarms sounded within Coalition positions hundreds of kilometers to the south, and the trace presence of sarin vapor was identified by multiple technologies. Considering only surface dispersion of plumes from explosions, officials concluded that the absence of casualties around bombed sites precluded long-distance transit of debris to US troop positions to explain the alarms and detections. Consequently, they were discounted as false positives, and low-level nerve agent exposure early in the air war was disregarded in epidemiologic investigations of chronic illnesses. Newly assembled evidence indicates that plumes from those nighttime bombings of Iraqi chemical facilities would have traversed the stable nocturnal boundary layer and penetrated the residual layer where they would be susceptible to rapid transit by supergeostrophic winds. This explanation is supported by plume height predictions, available weather charts, weather satellite images showing transit of a hot air mass, effects of solar mixing of atmospheric layers, and observations of a stationary weather front and thermal inversion in the region. Current evidence supports long-distance transit. Epidemiologic studies of chronic postwar illness should be reassessed using veterans' reports of hearing nerve agent alarms as the measure of exposure. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Old Persian corpus [Dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bavant, M.

    2011-01-01

    XML Old Persian corpus. The corpus is based on publicly available data on the Web. Those data can be traced back to the grammar of Old Persian by Kent (1950). The corpus contains those data and is arranged in a way suitable for corpus searches.

  19. 76 FR 21099 - Determinations Concerning Illnesses Discussed In National Academy of Sciences Reports on Gulf War...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... of Sciences Reports on Gulf War and Health, Volumes 4 and 8 AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs... that the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, under the authority granted by the Persian Gulf War Veterans...), respectively titled Gulf War and Health, Volume 4: Health Effects of Serving in the Gulf War (Volume 4) and...

  20. Saudis map $450 million gulf spill cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Saudi Arabia which has earmarked about $450 million to clean up Persian Gulf beaches polluted by history's worst oil spills, created during the Persian Gulf crisis. Details of the proposed cleanup measures were outlined by Saudi environmental officials at a seminar on the environment in Dubai, OPEC News Agency reported. The seminar was sponsored by the Gulf Area Oil Companies Mutual Aid Organization, an environmental cooperative agency set up by Persian Gulf governments. Meantime, a Saudi government report has outlined early efforts designed to contain the massive oil spills that hit the Saudi coast before oil could contaminate water intakes at the huge desalination plants serving Riyadh and cooling water facilities at Al Jubail

  1. Conversion of 3D seismic attributes to reservoir hydraulic flow units using a neural network approach: An example from the Kangan and Dalan carbonate reservoirs, the world's largest non-associated gas reservoirs, near the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Dezfoolian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an intelligent model based on probabilistic neural networks (PNN to produce a quantitative formulation between seismic attributes and hydraulic flow units (HFUs. Neural networks have been used for the last several years to estimate reservoir properties. However, their application for hydraulic flow unit estimation on a cube of seismic data is an interesting topic for research. The methodology for this application is illustrated using 3D seismic attributes and petrophysical and core data from 6 wells from the Kangan and Dalan gas reservoirs in the Persian Gulf basin. The methodology introduced in this study estimates HFUs from a large volume of 3D seismic data. This may increase exploration success rates and reduce costs through the application of more reliable output results in hydrocarbon exploration programs. 4 seismic attributes, including acoustic impedance, dominant fre- quency, amplitude weighted phase and instantaneous phase, are considered as the optimal inputs for pre- dicting HFUs from seismic data. The proposed technique is successfully tested in a carbonate sequence of Permian-Triassic rocks from the studied area. The results of this study demonstrate that there is a good agreement between the core and PNN-derived flow units. The PNN used in this study is successful in modeling flow units from 3D seismic data for which no core data or well log data are available.  Resumen Este estudio presenta un modelo inteligente basado en redes neuronales probabilísticas (PNN para pro- ducir una formulación cuantitativa entre atributos sísmicos y unidades de flujo hidráulico (HFU. Las redes neuronales han sido utilizadas durante los últimos años para estimar las propiedades de reserva. Sin embargo, su aplicación para estimación de unidades de flujo hidráulico en un cubo de datos sísmicos es un tema importante de investigación. La metodología para esta aplicación está ilustrada a partir de datos tridimensionales y

  2. World crude output overcomes Persian Gulf disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Several OPEC producers made good on their promises to replace 2.7 MMbpd of oil exports that vanished from the world market after Iraq took over Kuwait. Even more incredibly, they accomplished this while a breathtaking 1.2- MMbopd reduction in Soviet output took place during the course of 1991. After Abu Dhabi, Indonesia, Iran, Libya, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela turned the taps wide open, their combined output rose 2.95 MMbopd. Put together with a 282,000-bopd increase by Norway and contributions from smaller producers, this enabled world oil production to remain within 400,000 bopd of its 1990 level. The 60.5-MMbopd average was off by just 0.7%. This paper reports that improvement took place in five of eight regions. Largest increases were in Western Europe and Africa. Greatest reductions occurred in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. Fifteen nations produced 1 MMbopd or more last year, compared with 17 during 1990

  3. Fatigue in Persian Gulf Syndrome - Physiologic Mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haller, Ronald

    2000-01-01

    ...)Veterans matched for age, height and weight. Serum OK, incidence of elevated OK, and muscle histology and fatigue rate and level of oxygen uptake relative to 02 delivery during forearm exercise were similar in both groups...

  4. Building Security in the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Erin- Elizabeth Johnson, Steve Kistler, and Jocelyn Lofstrom. Most of all, the author expresses his deep appre- ciation and thanks to his spouse...modified Brus - sels Treaty, through which West Germany and Italy were admitted into what was then to be called the Western European Union, replaced that

  5. Major reproductive health characteristics in male Gulf War Veterans. The Danish Gulf War Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishøy, T; Andersson, A M; Suadicani, Poul Vilhelm

    2001-01-01

    The male reproductive system could have been affected by various hazardous agents and exposures during and in the aftermath of the Persian Gulf War scenario. We tested the hypothesis that, compared to controls, male Danish Gulf War Veterans would have adverse sex hormone levels, decreased fertility...

  6. The United States and the Arab Gulf Monarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kechichian, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The United States has enduring strategic interests in the Persian Gulf region. To understand these interests and the Usa policy towards the Arab Gulf Monarchies, the french institute of international relations (IFRI) proposes this document. The following chapters are detailed: the United States and the Arab Gulf Monarchies, overview, Chief Unites States Objective: Access to oil, re-evaluating United States Foreign Policy in the Gulf, the second term (Usa strategy). (A.L.B.)

  7. Persian architecture and mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volulme features eight original papers dedicated to the theme “Persian Architecture and Mathematics,” guest edited by Reza Sarhangi. All papers were approved through a rigorous process of blind peer review and edited by an interdisciplinary scientific editorial committee. Topics range from symmetry in ancient Persian architecture to the elaborate geometric patterns and complex three-dimensional structures of standing monuments of historical periods, from the expression of mathematical ideas to architectonic structures, and from decorative ornament to the representation of modern group theory and quasi-crystalline patterns. The articles discuss unique monuments Persia, including domed structures and two-dimensional patterns, which have received significant scholarly attention in recent years. This book is a unique contribution to studies of Persian architecture in relation to mathematics.

  8. Vaguely Speaking in Persian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvaresh, Vahid; Tayebi, Tahmineh

    2014-01-01

    The present study sets out to investigate the structures and functions of vague expressions in Persian. The data under scrutiny include a 15-hour corpus of informal conversations. The corpus reveals some unique vague expressions including "rhyming words," "replacing expressions," and "the affective completer."…

  9. The Superpowers: Nuclear Weapons and National Security. Teacher's Guide. National Issues Forums in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Tedd

    This teacher's guide is designed to accompany the National Issues Forums'"The Superpowers: Nuclear Weapons and National Security." Activities and ideas are provided to challenge students to debate and discuss the United States-Soviet related issues of nuclear weapons and national security. The guide is divided into sections that…

  10. First report of bioaccumulation and bioconcentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) and persistent organic pollutants (PAHs, PCBs and PCNs) and their effects on alcyonacea and scleractinian corals and their endosymbiotic algae from the Persian Gulf, Iran: Inter and intra-species differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar Jafarabadi, Ali; Riyahi Bakhtiari, Alireza; Aliabadian, Mansour; Laetitia, Hédouin; Shadmehri Toosi, Amirhossein; Yap, Chee Kong

    2018-06-15

    The coral reefs of the Persian Gulf are the most diverse systems of life in the marine environment of the Middle East. Unfortunately, they are highly threatened by local and global stressors, particularly oil pollutants. This is the first quantitative and qualitative study aimed at assessing the concentration and sources of n-alkanes and POPs (PAHs, PCBs and PCNs) in coral tissues, symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae), reef sediments and seawaters in coral reefs of Lark and Kharg in the Persian Gulf, Iran. This work was conducted on eight species of six genera and three families of hard corals and one family of soft coral. A significant variation in the concentration of ∑30n-alkanes and POPs (∑40PAHs, ∑22PCBs and 20PCNs) was found in the decreasing order: zooxanthellae > coral tissue > skeleton > reef sediment > seawater. The bioaccumulation of these compounds was 2-times higher in ahermatypic than in hermatypic corals, among which significant variations were observed in both sites. In Kharg, Porites lutea had the highest mean concentration of ∑30n-alkanes and ∑40PAHs in soft tissue, whereas the lowest values were in Platygyra daedalea. A contrasting trend was documented for ∑22PCBs and 20PCNs, with the highest level reported in soft tissue of P. daedalea and the lowest in P. lutea at Kharg. Compositional pattern of AHs and PAHs demonstrated the predominance of LMW-PAHs and n-alkanes. In skeleton and reef sediments, tetra, penta and tri-CBs were the most abundant PCBs congeners followed by di-CB > hexa-CB > hepta-CB > octa-CB,whiletri-CB > di-CB > tetra-CB > penta-CB > hexa-CB > hepta-CB > octa-CB was observed for soft tissue, zooxanthellae and seawater. The results of RAD test indicated significantly negative correlation between total concentration of these compounds with zooxanthellae density, the chlorophyll-a and C 2 in corals at both reefs. This is the first report on levels, health assessment and

  11. Epidemiological Studies Persian Gulf War Illnesses Persian Gulf Women’s Health Linkage Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Ectopic/Tubal Pregnancy Amenorrhea Abnormal Uterine Bleeding 33 Have you ever been pregnant? Yes No GO to QUESTION 38 34. What was you age at your...pregnancy. MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS Pregl Preg2 Preg3 Preg4 Preg5 Preg6 Preg7 Preg8 Infection during pregnancy Gestational Diabetes Pregnancy- induced ...Cigarettes Use Illegal Drugs Abuse Prescription Drugs Drink Caffeinated Beverages Exercise Regularly SECTION SEVEN: HUSBAND or PARTNER HEALTH 49

  12. Odors, Deployment Stress, and Health: A Conditioning Analysis of Gulf War Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dalton, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    Troops deployed in the Persian Gulf War were exposed to an unusually diverse mix of odorous chemicals at the same time as they were exposed to physiological and psychological stressors B a scenario...

  13. Odors, Deployment Stress, and Health: A Conditioning Analysis of Gulf War Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dalton, Pamela

    2004-01-01

    Troops deployed in the Persian Gulf War were exposed to an unusually diverse mix of odorous chemicals at the same time that they were exposed to physiological and psychological stressors, a scenario...

  14. Odors, Deployment Stress and Health: A Conditioning Analysis of Gulf War Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dalton, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    Troops deployed in the Persian Gulf War were exposed to an unusually diverse mix of odorous chemicals at the same time as they were exposed to physiological and psychological stressors B a scenario...

  15. Odors, Deployment Stress, and Health: A Conditioning Analysis of Gulf War Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dalton, Pamela

    2002-01-01

    Troops deployed in the Persian Gulf War were exposed to an unusually diverse mix of odorous chemicals at the same time as they were exposed to physiological and psychological stressors B a scenario...

  16. GULF WAR ILLNESSES: Procedural and Reporting Improvements Are Needed in DoD's Investigative Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    Many servicemembers who served in the Persian Gulf War have subsequently experienced health problems such as fatigue, muscle and joint pain, gastrointestinal complaints, headaches, memory loss, and sleep disturbances...

  17. Superpower Crises in a Less Confrontational World: Results of an Experimental Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    interteam communications via RAND’s electronic mail system for gaming purposes. 2 The "pilot runs" were designated Games Three and Four, and are referred... game , the impact of a changing real-world international context-a more benign image of the adversary and a less competitive superpower relationship...information overload they faced. Several believed that these problems were game artifacts (which they attributed to our use of the electronic mail system

  18. Gulf gas - tomorrow's nest-egg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Persian Gulf remains the world's largest crude oil reservoir but it also contains some of the world's biggest gas reserves and for much of the 1990s the countries that grew rich on the oil booms of the 1970s and 1980s will be seeking to develop their gas resources as well as their oilfields. (author)

  19. Agreement in Persian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lofti, Ahmad R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates agreement as a number marking mechanism in Persian. The mechanism differs from number marking on nominals in that with an inanimate plural subject, the SG verbal ending signals a collective conceptualization of the experience where the members of the group are considered together as a single unit. The PL ending, on the other hand, signals a distributive conceptualization where the entities are individuated; hence, they are considered to be dispersed over space, or distinct in sort or time. Autonomy - whether the entity is conceived of as governing the course of events or not - seems to underlie the choice between SG and PL.

  20. Policing Iranian Sanctions: Trade, Identity, and Smuggling Networks in the Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Kegan Paul International, 1994), 9–10. 22 A.W. Stiffe, “Ancient Trading Centres of the Persian Gulf: VII Bahrain,” The Geographical Journal 18, no... Kegan Paul International, 1994. Al Naboodah, H.M. “The Commercial Activity of Bahrain and Oman in the Early Middle Ages.” Proceedings of the...Byman, Daniel and Jerrold Green . Political Violence and Stability in the States of the Northern Persian Gulf. California: RAND, 1999. Castles

  1. Canada as an energy superpower : how clean, how powerful, how super?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, M.

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, Canada's Prime Minister declared Canada to be an emerging energy superpower due to its vast reserves of oil, gas, and uranium. This article clarified the attributes of a superpower and explained how they can be used to evaluate Canada's situation. The attributes of a superpower include a capability to potentially influence the behaviour of other countries and the course of world events; the capacity to deploy that capability when it can be effective; a clear understanding of one's national interests and policies; and, a will to use the energy capacity when called upon. This framework was used to test the hypothesis of Canada as a power in energy. It was agreed that in terms of reserves, production and exports, Canada is a significant player by world standards. Canada has technological leadership in some parts of the fuel cell industry, possibly nuclear energy and the deployment of advanced technology in resource extraction. However, it was argued that deployment capacity must be maintained and enhanced. The author claimed that Canada's ability to exercise power through unilateral deployment of energy resources is modest, although Canada does have an implicit policy expressed through international treaties such as its membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO), International Energy Agency (IEA), and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Canada also benefits from pipeline and powerline regulations for shared regulation of electricity reliability. It was suggested that Canada has the capability to be a voice in support of market-based approaches to energy and an open international trade and investment regime. It was determined that Canada is committed to market-based energy policies and to North American partnership in a broader international context. The author suggested that although Canada has many capabilities regarding energy resources and the capacity to deliver them to markets, it lacks energy policy at the national level, and requires

  2. Word Order Acquisition in Persian Speaking Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Jalilevand

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: Despite the fact that the spoken-Persian language has no strict word order, Persian-speaking children tend to use other logically possible orders of subject (S, verb (V, and object (O lesser than the SOV structure.

  3. The greening of superpower relations: Cooperative ventures in environmental protection and conservation of resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClave, D.

    1989-01-01

    Ronald Reagan's favorite Russian expression doveryay, no proveryay (trust, but verify). Improbably as it all seemed just five years ago, the superpower verification business has been booming. Each day seems to bring with it a new and wondrous event. In June: Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Admiral Crowe in the cockpit of a BLACKJACK strategic bomber; a team of American scientists measuring the radiation of a cruise-nuclear warhead aboard the Slova, one of the Soviet navy's most powerful ships of the line; in 1988 American inspectors bringing home shrapnel souvenirs of SS-20 missiles exploded deep in Central Asia; General Akhromeyev on a guided tour of the Pentagon and in a B-1B bomber. Consequently, no proposal for building confidence is too farfetched. That assumption underlies the content and the thrust of this paper. In energy and the environment, as in many areas, there is a strong element of parallelism in superpower experience. There is a rising environmental consciousness in the both countries. Strong ecological and geographical incentives exist for cooperation. Specific efforts are also discussed

  4. Development of Dietary Polyphenol Preparations for Treating Veterans with Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    research study because you are a Gulf War Veteran who was deployed to the Persian Gulf between August 1990 and August 1991 and you fit the definition of...Friday, April 01, 2016 3:16 PM To: Pasinetti, Giulio Cc: Grants; King , Michael; Bennett, Jodi H CIV USARMY MEDCOM USAMRMC (US); Dubner, Lauren; Winter

  5. Epilepsy and Persian culture: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzan, A; Paladin, F

    1992-01-01

    This article reviews the manner in which Persian culture viewed the problem of epilepsy. Beginning with the Avesta, the earliest Persian text on health and sickness, the medical literature on treatments of epilepsy common in Iran are reviewed. The article also explores popular Persian concepts that try to explain the causes of the morbus sacer.

  6. The United States and the Arab Gulf Monarchies; Les Etats-Unis et les monarchie arabes du Golfe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kechichian, J A

    1999-07-01

    The United States has enduring strategic interests in the Persian Gulf region. To understand these interests and the Usa policy towards the Arab Gulf Monarchies, the french institute of international relations (IFRI) proposes this document. The following chapters are detailed: the United States and the Arab Gulf Monarchies, overview, Chief Unites States Objective: Access to oil, re-evaluating United States Foreign Policy in the Gulf, the second term (Usa strategy). (A.L.B.)

  7. Data on heavy metals and selected anions in the Persian popular herbal distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtkar, Mozhgan; Dobaradaran, Sina; Soleimani, Farshid; Karbasdehi, Vahid Noroozi; Mohammadi, Mohammad Javad; Mirahmadi, Roghayeh; Ghasemi, Fatemeh Faraji

    2016-09-01

    In this data article, we determined the concentration levels of heavy metals including Pb, Co, Cd, Mn, Mg, Fe and Cu as well as selected anions including [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] in the most used and popular herbal distillates in Iran. It is well known that heavy metals may pose a serious health hazard due to their bioaccumulation throughout the trophic chain ("Heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb) content in two fish species of Persian Gulf in Bushehr Port, Iran" (Dobaradaran et al., 2013) [1]; "Comparative investigation of heavy metal, trace, and macro element contents in commercially valuable fish species harvested off from the Persian Gulf" (Abadi et al., 2015) [2]) as well as some other environmental pollutions, "Assessment of sediment quality based on acid-volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted metals in heavily industrialized area of Asaluyeh, Persian Gulf: concentrations, spatial distributions, and sediment bioavailability/toxicity" (Arfaeinia et al., 2016) [3]. The concentration levels of heavy metals and anions in herbal distillates samples were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, Varian AA240, Australia) and a spectrophotometer (M501 Single Beam Scanning UV/VIS, UK) respectively.

  8. OPEC's Dr. Subroto examines the market after Gulf war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a relatively strong oil market emerging from the Persian Gulf war according to an Opec spokesperson. Opec is expected to remain a viable force, perhaps more cohesive than before, no matter what happens to Kuwait and Iraq

  9. Iran: Politics, Gulf Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-30

    U.S. Policy Congressional Research Service Contents Political History ...Research Service 1 Political History Iran is a country of nearly 80 million people, located in the heart of the Persian Gulf region. The United...Iran government figure was 27), including a 19-year-old woman , Neda Soltani, who subsequently became an emblem of the uprising. The opposition

  10. A Strategic Analysis of the Gulf War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-25

    the case of the Gulf War, the general precipitants may be traced to the cultural divide that has separated the Arabs and Persians since at... Mesopotamian Plain in the vicinity of Kirkuk. A position should also be established at As Sulaymaniyah to block the eastern approach to the important...because both Iran and Iraq had sent the military advisors of both the United States and USSR home . Finally, neither

  11. Recognizing emotional speech in Persian: a validated database of Persian emotional speech (Persian ESD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtiari, Niloofar; Kuhlmann, Michael; Eslami, Moharram; Klann-Delius, Gisela

    2015-03-01

    Research on emotional speech often requires valid stimuli for assessing perceived emotion through prosody and lexical content. To date, no comprehensive emotional speech database for Persian is officially available. The present article reports the process of designing, compiling, and evaluating a comprehensive emotional speech database for colloquial Persian. The database contains a set of 90 validated novel Persian sentences classified in five basic emotional categories (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness), as well as a neutral category. These sentences were validated in two experiments by a group of 1,126 native Persian speakers. The sentences were articulated by two native Persian speakers (one male, one female) in three conditions: (1) congruent (emotional lexical content articulated in a congruent emotional voice), (2) incongruent (neutral sentences articulated in an emotional voice), and (3) baseline (all emotional and neutral sentences articulated in neutral voice). The speech materials comprise about 470 sentences. The validity of the database was evaluated by a group of 34 native speakers in a perception test. Utterances recognized better than five times chance performance (71.4 %) were regarded as valid portrayals of the target emotions. Acoustic analysis of the valid emotional utterances revealed differences in pitch, intensity, and duration, attributes that may help listeners to correctly classify the intended emotion. The database is designed to be used as a reliable material source (for both text and speech) in future cross-cultural or cross-linguistic studies of emotional speech, and it is available for academic research purposes free of charge. To access the database, please contact the first author.

  12. Categorization and Pathology of Persian Stylistic Researches

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Dorpar

    2014-01-01

     Abstract In following article, surveys and researches about Persian style were categorized in two branches of historical and formalistic styles Mohammad Taghi Bahar founded stylistics as an autonomous knowledge by publishing his book, History of the evolution of Persian prose (1331), for teaching in University of Tehran. This book which has been influenced by verbal instructions of qajar dynastyâs scholars made the way generally has been followed by researchers in Persian stylistics up ...

  13. Alaska, Gulf spills share similarities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, D.

    1991-01-01

    The accidental Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska and the deliberate dumping of crude oil into the Persian Gulf as a tactic of war contain both glaring differences and surprising similarities. Public reaction and public response was much greater to the Exxon Valdez spill in pristine Prince William Sound than to the war-related tragedy in the Persian Gulf. More than 12,000 workers helped in the Alaskan cleanup; only 350 have been involved in Kuwait. But in both instances, environmental damages appear to be less than anticipated. Natures highly effective self-cleansing action is primarily responsible for minimizing the damages. One positive action growing out of the two incidents is increased international cooperation and participation in oil-spill clean-up efforts. In 1990, in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill, 94 nations signed an international accord on cooperation in future spills. The spills can be historic environmental landmarks leading to creation of more sophisticated response systems worldwide

  14. Virtual superheroes: using superpowers in virtual reality to encourage prosocial behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin S Rosenberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that playing prosocial video games leads to greater subsequent prosocial behavior in the real world. However, immersive virtual reality allows people to occupy avatars that are different from them in a perceptually realistic manner. We examine how occupying an avatar with the superhero ability to fly increases helping behavior. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a two-by-two design, participants were either given the power of flight (their arm movements were tracked to control their flight akin to Superman's flying ability or rode as a passenger in a helicopter, and were assigned one of two tasks, either to help find a missing diabetic child in need of insulin or to tour a virtual city. Participants in the "super-flight" conditions helped the experimenter pick up spilled pens after their virtual experience significantly more than those who were virtual passengers in a helicopter. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that having the "superpower" of flight leads to greater helping behavior in the real world, regardless of how participants used that power. A possible mechanism for this result is that having the power of flight primed concepts and prototypes associated with superheroes (e.g., Superman. This research illustrates the potential of using experiences in virtual reality technology to increase prosocial behavior in the physical world.

  15. Data on heavy metals and selected anions in the Persian popular herbal distillates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Keshtkar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this data article, we determined the concentration levels of heavy metals including Pb, Co, Cd, Mn, Mg, Fe and Cu as well as selected anions including NO3− , NO2−, PO4−3 and SO4−2 in the most used and popular herbal distillates in Iran. It is well known that heavy metals may pose a serious health hazard due to their bioaccumulation throughout the trophic chain (“Heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb content in two fish species of Persian Gulf in Bushehr Port, Iran” (Dobaradaran et al., 2013 [1]; “Comparative investigation of heavy metal, trace, and macro element contents in commercially valuable fish species harvested off from the Persian Gulf” (Abadi et al., 2015 [2] as well as some other environmental pollutions, “Assessment of sediment quality based on acid-volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted metals in heavily industrialized area of Asaluyeh, Persian Gulf: concentrations, spatial distributions, and sediment bioavailability/toxicity” (Arfaeinia et al., 2016 [3]. The concentration levels of heavy metals and anions in herbal distillates samples were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, Varian AA240, Australia and a spectrophotometer (M501 Single Beam Scanning UV/VIS, UK respectively. Keywords: Daily intake, Herbal distillates, Heavy metals, Selected anions

  16. The New Unabridged English-Persian Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanpur, Abbas; Saleh, Jahan Shah

    This five-volume English-Persian dictionary is based on Webster's International Dictionary (1960 and 1961) and The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (1959); it attempts to provide Persian equivalents of all the words of Oxford and all the key-words of Webster. Pronunciation keys for the English phonetic transcription and for the difficult Persian…

  17. Russian Loanword Adaptation in Persian; Optimal Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambuziya, Aliye Kord Zafaranlu; Hashemi, Eftekhar Sadat

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyzed some of the phonological rules of Russian loanword adaptation in Persian, on the view of Optimal Theory (OT) (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004). It is the first study of phonological process on Russian loanwords adaptation in Persian. By gathering about 50 current Russian loanwords, we selected some of them to analyze. We…

  18. Characteristics of mineral dust impacting the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmady-Birgani, Hesam; McQueen, Kenneth G.; Mirnejad, Hassan

    2018-02-01

    It is generally assumed that severe dust events in western Iran could be responsible for elevated levels of toxic and radioactive elements in the region. Over a period of 5 months, from January 2012 to May 2012, dust particles in the size range PM10 (i.e. chemical compositions of dust and aerosol samples collected during the non-dusty periods and during two severe dust events. Results of ICP-MS analysis of components indicate that during dust events the concentrations of major elements such as Ca, Mg, Al and K increase relative to ambient conditions when Fe and trace elements such as Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn are in higher proportions. Toxic trace elements that are generally ascribed to human activities, including industrial and urban pollution, are thus proportionately more abundant in the dust under calm conditions than during dust events, when their concentration is diluted by more abundant mineral particles of quartz, calcite and clay. The variability of chemical species during two dust events, noted by tracking the dust plumes in satellite images, was also assessed and the results relate to two different source areas, namely northern Iraq and northwestern Syria.

  19. Illness Among Persian Gulf War Veterans: Case Validation Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doebbeling, Bradley

    1999-01-01

    ..., and fibromyalgia were particularly elevated. The existence of a causal relationship between either military exposures or other risk factors and documented illness for most symptomatic PGW veterans remains to be demonstrated...

  20. Ecological sensitivity of the Persian Gulf coastal region (Case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    geo-referencing photo mosaic Land Sat Satellite images (2003) and IRS' (2004) were taken and basic maps of two influential areas were evaluated within the above mentioned limits which included the coastal village boundaries. The coastal line of the area being evaluated (set back line) was 673.62 kms comprising an ...

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of anemone fishes of the Persian Gulf using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... genetic diversity among samples was investigated by phylogenetic analysis. Results show that there is ... more about the living organisms found in this region. Many marine ... Kish (modified from Pous et al., 2004). Table 2.

  2. Book Analysis of Arms and Insecurity in the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    AND P. Exercise induced changes in blood ammonia levels in humans. Eur. VANAmEE. Respiratory alkalosis accompanying ammonia toxicity. J. AppL PhysioL...HA. to ensure uniform exercise intensity. Respiratory gas exchange and ventilation during ex- Submaximal Exercise ercise were measured using a...BTPS, 02 consumption (Vo 2) and CO2 group. Relative exercise intensity (%Vo, mx) was not production converted to STPD, and respiratory exchange

  3. Comparison of Key West and Persian Gulf Seawaters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Jason S; Ray, Richard I; Little, Brenda J

    2007-01-01

    ... of storage and environmental conditions. Exposure to an anaerobic atmosphere containing a mixed gas of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen generated the highest microflora concentration, especially sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB...

  4. Ancient Persian Skywatching and Calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sołtysiak, Arkadiusz

    The peoples of Iran used lunisolar calendars until the early fifth century BCE when the 365-day calendar with 30 months and 5 epagomenal days was introduced. This calendar was not corrected to the actual length of the tropical year, and therefore, seasonal festivals gradually moved away from their seasons. Finally, around the turn of the fifth century CE, a partially successful calendar reform was undertaken, and the feasts were restored to their original seasons. In that time, Sasanian kings were interested in astrology, and some Greek and Hindu astrological texts were translated into Persian, but there is no evidence of indigenous contributions to skywatching.

  5. Digesters in traditional Persian medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudpour, Zeinab; Shirafkan, Hoda; Mojahedi, Morteza; Gorji, Narjes; Mozaffarpur, Seyyed Ali

    2018-01-01

    Background: Functional gastrointestinal diseases are common in general populations and comprise more than 40% visits to gastroenterologists. Treatment options of gastrointestinal diseases have been limited. There are a few medications for functional gastrointestinal diseases and some of medications are not available in the market or in the place where the patient lives. Traditional Persian medicine (TPM) is a branch of alternative and traditional medicine based on individual viewpoint and humoral theory, focuses on lifestyle modification and uses natural products to manage the patients. Methods: In this study, a set of compound drugs known as digesters (jawarishes) and other applications are described based on main TPM text books. Results: Jawarishes have different formulations containing various medicinal herbs used for better food digestion and improved gastric functions and also used for other disorders including reinforcing the brain, heart, liver and some therapeutic approaches. Conclusions: By reviewing medieval Persian pharmaceutical manuscripts, we can conclude that many herbs are effective in different systems of the body and improve gastric functions. Zingiber officinalis and Piper nigrum are mixed together to get various formulations. The variety of jawarishes formulations and their different clinical applications can indicate continuity of their use. PMID:29387312

  6. Pen- Name in Persian and Arabic Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Khodayar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract Pen-name (Takhalloss is one of the main features of Persian poetry. It has been a matter of concern among many of Persian language geography poets in the orient at least up to the Mashrouteh era. Pen-name has been promoted among the other Muslim nations throuph Persian poetry. Although it is not as famous in the Arab nations as in the Persian speaking nations, it is known as “Alqab-o-shoara” among the Arab nations and, through this way, it has affected the poetrical wealth of the Arabic poets.   The Present paper, using description-analystic approach, compares the pen-names of Persian and Arabic poets under the title of “pen-names” and investigates their features in both cultures. The main research question is: What are the similarities and differences of poetic-names, in Persian and Arabic poets in terms of the type of name, position and importance? The results showed that Pseudonym by its amazing expansion in Persian poetry has also influenced Arabic poetry. In addition to the factors affecting in the choice of pen-names (like pseudonym, pen-name, nickname..., sometimes such external factors as events, commends, community benefactors and climate, as well as internal factors including the poets’ inner beliefs are associated too. .

  7. Data on heavy metals and selected anions in the Persian popular herbal distillates

    OpenAIRE

    Keshtkar, Mozhgan; Dobaradaran, Sina; Soleimani, Farshid; Karbasdehi, Vahid Noroozi; Mohammadi, Mohammad Javad; Mirahmadi, Roghayeh; Ghasemi, Fatemeh Faraji

    2016-01-01

    In this data article, we determined the concentration levels of heavy metals including Pb, Co, Cd, Mn, Mg, Fe and Cu as well as selected anions including NO3− , NO2−, PO4−3 and SO4−2 in the most used and popular herbal distillates in Iran. It is well known that heavy metals may pose a serious health hazard due to their bioaccumulation throughout the trophic chain (“Heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb) content in two fish species of Persian Gulf in Bushehr Port, Iran” (Dobaradaran et al., 2013) [1...

  8. Persian Gardens: Meanings, Symbolism, and Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Mahmoudi Farahani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Culture and identity in a society can be represented in the architecture and the meanings intertwined with it. In this sense, the architecture and design are the interface for transferring meaning and identity to the nation and future generations. Persian gardens have been evolved through the history of Persian Empire in regard to the culture and beliefs of the society. This paper aims to investigate the patterns of design and architecture in Persian gardens and the meanings intertwined with their patterns and significant elements such as water and trees. Persian gardens are not only about geometries and shapes; but also manifest different design elements, each representing a specific symbol and its significance among the society. This paper seeks to explore Persian gardens in terms of their geometric structure, irrigation system, network construction and pavilions alongside design qualities such as hierarchy, symmetry, centrality, rhythm and harmony. In the second stage, the paper investigates the fundamental symbols and their philosophy in the creation of Persian gardens and in relation to the architecture and design.

  9. Progress in scale-up of second-generation high-temperature superconductors at SuperPower Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Y.-Y.; Knoll, A.; Chen, Y.; Li, Y.; Xiong, X.; Qiao, Y.; Hou, P.; Reeves, J.; Salagaj, T.; Lenseth, K.; Civale, L.; Maiorov, B.; Iwasa, Y.; Solovyov, V.; Suenaga, M.; Cheggour, N.; Clickner, C.; Ekin, J.W.; Weber, C.; Selvamanickam, V.

    2005-01-01

    SuperPower is focused on scaling up second-generation (2-G) high-temperature superconductor (HTS) technology to pilot-scale manufacturing. The emphasis of this program is to develop R and D solutions for scale-up issues in pilot-scale operations to lay the foundation for a framework for large-scale manufacturing. Throughput continues to be increased in all process steps including substrate polishing, buffer and HTS deposition. 2-G HTS conductors have been produced in lengths up to 100 m. Process optimization with valuable information provided by several unique process control and quality-control tools has yielded performances of 6000-7000 A m (77 K, 0 T) in 50-100 m lengths using two HTS fabrication processes: metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Major progress has been made towards the development of practical conductor configurations. Modifications to the HTS fabrication process have resulted in enhanced performance in magnetic fields. Industrial slitting and electroplating processes have been successfully adopted to fabricate tapes in width of 4 mm and with copper stabilizer for cable and coil applications. SuperPower's conductor configuration has yielded excellent mechanical properties and overcurrent carrying capability. Over 60 m of such practical conductors with critical current over 100 A/cm-width have been delivered to Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. for prototype cable construction

  10. Microtubule Abnormalities Underlying Gulf War Illness in Neurons from Human Induced Pluripotent Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    fallout from bombing early in the 1991 Persian Gulf War. Neuroepidemiology. 2012;40(3):178-189. 6. Steele L, Sastre A, Gerkovich MM, Cook MR. Complex...phosphate pesticides: a systematic and meta-analytic review. Crit Rev Toxicol 2013;43:21–44. 4. Abou-Donia MB, Abou-Donia MM, ElMasry EM , Monro JA

  11. English as a Medium of Instruction in the Gulf: When Students and Teachers Speak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhiah, Hassan; Elhami, Maha

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the effectiveness of English as a medium of instruction (EMI) in the Arabian/Persian Gulf, with special focus on the situation in the United Arab Emirates. The study, undertaken at six universities located in major cities of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Al Ain, Sharjah, Ajman, and Ras Al Khaimah, examines students' and teachers'…

  12. Affective Norms for 362 Persian Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Bagheri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the past two decades, a great deal of research has been conducted on developing affective norms for words in various languages, showing that there is an urgent need to create such norms in Persian language, too. The present study intended to develop a set of 362 Persian words rated according to their emotional valence, arousal, imageability, and familiarity so as to prepare the ground for further research on emotional word processing. This was the first attempt to set affective norms for Persian words in the realm of emotion.  Methods: Prior to the study, a multitude of words were selected from Persian dictionary and academic books in Persian literature. Secondly, three independent proficient experts in the Persian literature were asked to extract the suitable words from the list and to choose the best (defined as grammatically correct and most often used. The database normalization process was based on the ratings by a total of 88 participants using a 9-point Likert scale. Each participant evaluated about 120 words on four different scales.  Results: There were significant relationships between affective dimensions and some psycholinguistic variables. Also, further analyses were carried out to investigate the possible relationship between different features of valences (positive, negative, and neutral and other variables included in the dataset.  Conclusion: These affective norms for Persian words create a useful and valid dataset which will provide researchers with applying standard verbal materials as well as materials applied in other languages, e.g. English, German, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, etc.

  13. Evidence of selection signatures that shape the Persian cat breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Francesca; Gandolfi, Barbara; Kim, Eui Soo; Haase, Bianca; Lyons, Leslie A; Rothschild, Max F

    2016-04-01

    The Persian cat is mainly characterized by an extremely brachycephalic face as part of the standard body conformation. Despite the popularity, world-wide distribution, and economic importance of the Persian cat as a fancy breed, little is known about the genetics of their hallmark morphology, brachycephaly. Over 800 cats from different breeds including Persian, non-Persian breeds (Abyssinian, Cornish Rex, Bengal, La Perm, Norwegian Forest, Maine Coon, Manx, Oriental, and Siamese), and Persian-derived breeds (British Shorthair, Scottish Fold, Selkirk Rex) were genotyped with the Illumina 63 K feline DNA array. The experimental strategy was composed of three main steps: (i) the Persian dataset was screened for runs of homozygosity to find and select highly homozygous regions; (ii) selected Persian homozygous regions were evaluated for the difference of homozygosity between Persians and those considered non-Persian breeds, and, (iii) the Persian homozygous regions most divergent from the non-Persian breeds were investigated by haplotype analysis in the Persian-derived breeds. Four regions with high homozygosity (H > 0.7) were detected, each with an average length of 1 Mb. Three regions can be considered unique to the Persian breed, with a less conservative haplotype pattern in the Persian-derived breeds. Moreover, two genes, CHL1 and CNTN6 known to determine face shape modification in humans, reside in one of the identified regions and therefore are positional candidates for the brachycephalic face in Persians. In total, the homozygous regions contained several neuronal genes that could be involved in the Persian cat behavior and can provide new insights into cat domestication.

  14. PERSIAN DOMES: HISTORY, MORPHOLOGY AND TYPOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ashkan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Persian master builders had introduced an architectural innovation which had an imperishable effect on dome architecture in the Middle East and Central Asia: surmounting a dome on squinches. This paper aims to provide a broader perspective of Persian domes as the most significant feature of Eastern domes in the Middle East. As opposed to previous general historic studies, this paper introduces a new analytical approach directed towards analysis of architectural concepts and stylistic attributes of Persian domes based on an epistemological premise of their space syntax. By analytic reviewing of examples, the paper addresses the origin of Persian domes, their formal morphological constitutions, and their typological forms based on the diversity of the external shell over the specific timeline, from the pre-Islamic era through the Qajar period in Iran. The study of the Persian dome’s characteristics can illustrate undiscovered information about the essences of developing dome constructions in the Middle East. It can also establish new design standards regarding the frameworks of domical building configurations to be used for creating typological diversity in dome design and to renew the morphological principles of the traditional dome compositions in contemporary architectural designs. Finally, the insights gained can inform conservation efforts on domical structures in the region and elsewhere.

  15. Dyslexic Children and Their Difficulties in Reading Persian Orthography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesari, Shahram Jamali; Kamari, Elahe

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the word reading performance of Persian speaking dyslexic children through the use of a reading test. For this reason, 15 Persian elementary developmental dyslexic student with the mean age of 9.6, (SD= 1.5) and 15 Persian unimpaired elementary student with the mean age of 9.6 (SD= 1.4) were compared. The performance of…

  16. Contrastive Analysis of Sentence Patterns in English and Persian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Reza

    2011-01-01

    Complements, adjuncts and predicator are the three main elements of the clause structure. This paper primarily aims at presenting a general classification of clause structure in Persian. In this context, transitive and intransitive structures in Modern Persian are also analyzed. In this research, five canonical Persian constructions are identified…

  17. Comparison of auditory temporal resolution between monolingual Persian and bilingual Turkish-Persian individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, Shaghayegh; Jafari, Zahra; Tahaei, Ali Akbar; Salehi, Masoud

    2013-04-01

    The aims of this study were to prepare a Persian version of the temporal resolution test using the method of Phillips et al (1994) and Stuart and Phillips (1996), and to compare the word-recognition performance in the presence of continuous and interrupted noise as well as the temporal resolution abilities between monolingual (ML) Persian and bilingual (BL) Turkish-Persian young adults. Word-recognition scores (WRSs) were obtained in quiet and in the presence of background competing continuous and interrupted noise at signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of -20, -10, 0, and 10 dB. Two groups of 33 ML Persian and 36 BL Turkish-Persian volunteers participated. WRSs significantly differed between ML and BL subjects at four sensation levels in the presence of continuous and interrupted noise. However, the difference in the release from masking between ML and BL subjects was not significant at the studied SNRs. BL Turkish-Persian listeners seem to show poorer performance when responding to Persian words in continuous and interrupted noise. However, bilingualism may not affect auditory temporal resolution ability.

  18. Green Urine in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolouri, Sepideh; Daneshfard, Babak; Jaladat, Amir-Mohammad; Tafazoli, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    The color of urine is an important factor in urine examination, which can help physicians differentiate various diseases. Today, it is known that certain dyes, drug intoxications, and diseases can induce green urine discoloration. In the view of traditional Persian medicine, which is based on humoral medicine, green urine discoloration is generally referred to the dominance of coldness in the body. In fact, it is considered to be a result of a special kind of humoral imbalance and fluid depletion or retention in the human body. Persian scholars believed that green urine could be an indicator of intoxication or a predictor of an imminent spasm or convulsion in pediatric patients. Further investigations could result in finding new diagnostic scales of urine color based on the teachings of traditional Persian medicine. PMID:27103627

  19. Beyond the Cold-War Reprise of the Arctic Super-Powers. Decoding the Structural Meaning of the Ukrainian Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McMurtry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The “Ukraine crisis” repeats a script as old as the Cold War, of which the Arctic was one of its main theatres and that, as suggested by Irina Zhilina in her 2013 study about NATO in the far north for issue 8(1 of Nordicum-Mediterraneum, could regain such a role, were frictions between East and West to resurface. And they have resurfaced. The ongoing Cold-War-like narrative vis-à-vis Ukraine features rising attacks by corporate states and media on the traditional whipping boy of Russia. As usual, “escalating the crisis” is the other Arctic super-power: the US. As usual, alarm about “increasing lawless aggression” is projection of US policy itself.

  20. Prosodic Function Row in Persian Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mansouri

    2017-04-01

    The main reason for the emergence of rows in Persian poetry is its prosodic function that has already been paid less. I just found something in the book Ghosn al-ban which the author had some similar view to the row. In this study, we made our attempt to show another reason for the entry and spread of the row in Persian poetry by means of a new approach. It should also be noted that in these lines to avoid as much as possible the repetitive and stereotyped points regarding the row.

  1. On the future role of Gulf oil in meeting world energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy Eltony, M.

    1996-01-01

    The validity of the view of a growing dependence of the world on oil from the Persian Gulf, and the resulting implications for the economies of the Gulf countries were examined. The prevailing view in the countries of the Persian Gulf is that the demand for oil will continue to rise, resulting in the inevitable increase in prices which will in turn alleviate the budget deficit problems currently encountered by most of the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states. The author argues that the implication of this view is that GCC countries are failing to address the fundamental structural problems within their economies, and raise questions that tend to undermine this hypothesis of continuing dependence on Gulf oil by the rest of the world. Some of these factors are growing reliance on electricity and natural gas, environmental concerns, development of alternative fuels, political instability in the Gulf states and the potential interruption in supply, all of which tend to accelerate the trend towards reduced demand for Gulf oil. The following have been recommended as ways of avoiding the ultimate risk of huge unwanted oil reserves: diversification of the economies of GCC countries; reduced spending and increased investment in developing further capacity from non-GCC sources through cooperation and joint ventures between developing countries and international companies; a more active role in worldwide decisions relating to environmental concerns; and finally, a systematic monitoring and evaluation of the likely impacts of new developments in all areas of alternative energy. 17 refs

  2. Gulf War Syndrome: a review of current knowledge and understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshall, D

    2014-01-01

    The 1991 Persian Gulf War was a resounding military success for coalition forces, who liberated Kuwait following the Iraqi invasion. The medical legacy we have from the conflict is the poorly understood, yet remarkable, phenomenon of Gulf War Syndrome, which surfaced soon after. Epidemiological research has proven beyond doubt that Gulf War veterans report a wide variety of symptoms, in excess of appropriately matched control subjects, and experience worse general health. Numerous toxic environmental hazards have been suggested as causes of Gulf War Syndrome, yet exhaustive scientific study has failed to provide conclusive proof of any link. No novel or recognised disease has been found to account for the symptomatic burden of veterans, and the optimal treatment remains uncertain. This understanding can be added to from an anthropological perspective, where the narratives of those afflicted provide further insight. The nature of military life was changing at the time of the Gulf War, challenging the identity and beliefs of some veterans and causing socio-cultural distress. The symptomatic presentation of Gulf War Syndrome can be considered an articulation of this disharmony. Gulf War Syndrome can also be considered within the group of post-combat disorders such as shellshock, the like of which have occurred after major wars in the last century. With the current withdrawal from Afghanistan, the Defence Medical Services (DMS) should heed the lessons of history.

  3. The freshness of Persian Information: the case of Persian Newspapers indexed in Google, Yahoo and Bing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam yaghtin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to study the freshness of Persian information, the study attempted to explore the indexing speed of Persian newspapers in Google, Yahoo and Bing. The present study was conducted using a webometric method. The population study comprised all the online newspapers published in Persian. The study sample was identified using a targeted method. It included those Persian newspapers listed on the Magiran database with their electronic versions regularly published on their respective websites. The results revealed that Google outperforms the two other search engines in terms of timely indexing the Persian newspapers. Furthermore, it generally enjoys a more consistent and stable indexing model. Yahoo and Bing are not only slower in indexing the newspapers, but also experience a comparably lower consistency level in their indexing models. Yahoo and Bing show to be comparable in their indexing speeds. In this study, the indexing status of Persian newspapers on different internet search engines was investigated for the first time. Results showed that those accessing these newspapers using internet search engines will have a higher chance of accessing their most updated versions using Google.

  4. Supportive Discourse Moves in Persian Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Allami, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study designed to investigate the types of supportive discourse moves employed by Persian speakers in their Requestive Speech Acts. 372 respondents took a Discourse Completion Test (DCT) with six scenarios ranging from formal to informal degrees of Perceived Situational Seriousness, and returned 2232 Requestive…

  5. Geriatric management in medieval Persian medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Morteza; Sadeghpour, Omid; Zarshenas, Mohammad M.

    2013-01-01

    In Iran, a large group of patients are elderly people and they intend to have natural remedies as treatment. These remedies are rooted in historical of Persian and humoral medicine with a backbone of more than 1000 years. The current study was conducted to draw together medieval pharmacological information related to geriatric medicine from some of the most often manuscripts of traditional Persian medicine. Moreover, we investigated the efficacy of medicinal plants through a search of the PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases. In the medieval Persian documents, digestible and a small amount of food such as chicken broth, honey, fig and plum at frequent intervals as well as body massage and morning unctioning are highly recommended. In the field of pharmacotherapy, 35 herbs related to 25 families were identified. Plants were classified as tonic, anti-aging, appetizer, memory and mood enhancer, topical analgesic and laxative as well as health improvement agents. Other than historical elucidation, this paper presents medical and pharmacological approaches that medieval Persian practitioners applied to deal with geriatric complications. PMID:24381461

  6. Mixing English in Persian Print Advertising Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Gooniband Shooshtari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article intended to illustrate a profile of the role and impact of English in magazine print advertising in Iran, by examining the quantitative results obtained from discourse analysis. Three issues of Khanevadeh Sabz and two issues of Zendegi Ideal were collected and a total of 261 advertisements were analyzed. Results indicated that English has consistently been utilized in Persian magazine advertisements, representing attention-getting, persuasion, international brands, prestige, modernity, globalization, premium quality, fun, innovation and creativity. However, using English in Persian magazine advertisements is culturally and linguistically constrained. Culturally, in advertising traditional products English is only employed to introduce the name and e-mail address. Linguistically, although some English written slogans in Persian magazines had puns in them; the English used in Persian magazine advertisements mostly consists of easy-to-read vocabulary. Overall, in spite of the public’s generally low proficiency in English, it is predicted that English mixing will continue to thrive in magazine advertising discourse in Iran.

  7. Categorization and Pathology of Persian Stylistic Researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Dorpar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In following article, surveys and researches about Persian style were categorized in two branches of historical and formalistic styles Mohammad Taghi Bahar founded stylistics as an autonomous knowledge by publishing his book, History of the evolution of Persian prose (1331, for teaching in University of Tehran. This book which has been influenced by verbal instructions of qajar dynasty’s scholars made the way generally has been followed by researchers in Persian stylistics up to now. However, researchers and critics have introduced various theories and approaches during last four decades.  Stagnation in Persian stylistic researches is the main problem which is considered in current article. The main questions are: What branch of stylistics should be the performed Persian stylistic researches? “what are the weak points of surveys” and “what should be done for getting rid of this stagnation?” The main objective of current article is taking steps for removing stagnation from Persian stylistics.  Malek osh-Shoara Bahar used periodization in studying prose styles and analyzed revolution of Persian prose in lexical aspect (obsolete words, Arabic words, synonyms, words repetition, morphological aspect (verbal prefixes, comparative adjective suffixes, syntactic aspect (precedence of verb over its belongings, omission of verbs and rhetorical aspect (simile and allegory, metonymy and metaphor, prolixity and periphrasis, riming prose and harmony. In fact he tried to show both health and strength and laxity and corruption period of prose. We call Bahar stylistics and all researches done in his way historical stylistics with traditional attitude. In this method, styles' consistency and evolution through history have been studied and preiodization of styles has been taken into account. Mentioned researches periodized styles, finding formal similarities and differences. Since, neglecting meaning and text functionality they have only paid

  8. Categorization and Pathology of Persian Stylistic Researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Dorpar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract In following article, surveys and researches about Persian style were categorized in two branches of historical and formalistic styles Mohammad Taghi Bahar founded stylistics as an autonomous knowledge by publishing his book, History of the evolution of Persian prose (1331, for teaching in University of Tehran. This book which has been influenced by verbal instructions of qajar dynasty’s scholars made the way generally has been followed by researchers in Persian stylistics up to now. However, researchers and critics have introduced various theories and approaches during last four decades.  Stagnation in Persian stylistic researches is the main problem which is considered in current article. The main questions are: What branch of stylistics should be the performed Persian stylistic researches? “what are the weak points of surveys” and “what should be done for getting rid of this stagnation?” The main objective of current article is taking steps for removing stagnation from Persian stylistics.  Malek osh-Shoara Bahar used periodization in studying prose styles and analyzed revolution of Persian prose in lexical aspect (obsolete words, Arabic words, synonyms, words repetition, morphological aspect (verbal prefixes, comparative adjective suffixes, syntactic aspect (precedence of verb over its belongings, omission of verbs and rhetorical aspect (simile and allegory, metonymy and metaphor, prolixity and periphrasis, riming prose and harmony. In fact he tried to show both health and strength and laxity and corruption period of prose. We call Bahar stylistics and all researches done in his way historical stylistics with traditional attitude. In this method, styles' consistency and evolution through history have been studied and preiodization of styles has been taken into account. Mentioned researches periodized styles, finding formal similarities and differences. Since, neglecting meaning and text

  9. Increased psychological distress among Danish Gulf War veterans--without evidence for a neurotoxic background. The Danish Gulf War Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishøy, Torben; Knop, Joachim; Suadicani, Poul

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Compared with controls, up to six years after their return, Danish Gulf War veterans have a significantly higher prevalence of self-reported neuropsychological symptoms, potentially as a result of neurotoxic exposure during deployment. We tested the hypotheses that: 1) GW veterans...... of neuropsychological symptoms, and stratified according to SCL-90-R score, no trends were found suggesting reduced motor function with increasing symptoms. Of nine dimensions constructed on the basis of the SCL-90-R items, six were significantly associated with being a Gulf War veteran. Statistically, the strongest...... would perform less well than controls using a computerized neuromotor test battery; and that 2) GW veterans have a psychological profile different from that of controls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 686 subjects who had been deployed in the Persian Gulf within the period August 2...

  10. Management of Breast Milk Oversupply in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri, Marya; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Sohrabvand, Farnaz; Bioos, Soodabeh; Babaeian, Mohammad

    2017-10-01

    Comprehensive explanation about milk oversupply is not available in the current literature because few studies have been done on this topic. In traditional Persian medicine, milk oversupply and its management have been described. The aim of this study was to investigate milk oversupply from the perspective of medieval Persian practitioners. In this study, some main medical resources of traditional Persian medicine such as Al-Havi and the Canon of Medicine were studied to extract valuable information about milk oversupply. Etiology of milk overproduction according to traditional Persian medicine is based on humors theory and cannot be easily compared with current medical concepts. Diet modifications and natural remedies have been applied for managing this condition but the majority of traditional Persian medicine interventions for reducing milk oversupply have not been scientifically investigated in modern medicine. The knowledge of milk oversupply in traditional Persian medicine may be helpful to conduct further related studies.

  11. 2015 Gulf Guardian Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gulf of Mexico Program Partnership developed the Gulf Guardian awards as a way to recognize and honor the businesses, community groups, individuals, and agencies that are taking positive steps to keep the Gulf healthy, beautiful and productive.

  12. A study on caesura in Persian prosody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Jahedjah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract                                                                                           Caesura is a pause in a line of poetry that were used primarily in Greek poetry and moreover in the poetry of most indo- European languages: Latin, Sanskrit, Avestan, German and old English. Although in Persian prosody, Caesura has an important place critics have paid little attention to it and consequently, its relations with prosodic meter of Persian poetry remains unclear. In first view it seems that the main situation of caesuras in Persian prosody is between two hemistiches of line or in middle of hemistiches with cyclical (symmetrical meter but in this study we tried to observe other inter-hemistich caesuras. The principle question we follow is the functions of caesura in Persian prosodic poem. We tried to prove that caesura is rarely the basic element of meter and in most cases, its main assistant. Primarily, we recognized caesuras in two kinds of meter: meter with obligatory caesura (that caesura is the main factor of its rhythm and meter with voluntary caesura (that caesura is an assistant of its rhythm. Meter with obligatory caesura In prosodic Persian poetry, these meters are low usage and in order to their rhythm be heard, it is necessary to set caesuras strictly in proper place. It must notice that these meters, contrary to most of Persian prosodic ones, are not composed of two syllable types (long & short syllables. They are made exclusively of long syllables. It seems that caesura in this kind of meter, is replaced with short syllables and made possible to form syllabic ordered sets so these meters could be considered as a different kind of ordinary quantitative Persian prosodic meter.   Meter with voluntary caesura In this kind, Caesura is an assistant of meter and so, there is no obligation to pause at its place, however, on the one hand it

  13. Poetic Return in Afghanistan Persian Poem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Shafagh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Poetic return movement was started by a group of poets like Moshtagh and Shole Esfehani in the second half of 12 century. Their goal was restoring Persian poem and deliverance of Hindi style decline. Esfahan’s poets initiative was considered only in Iran but in other Persian language and literature areas like India, Afghanistan and Transoxiana it was ignored. After the failure of constitutional Movement in Afghanistan, motion similar poetic return was happened that caused poetic themes, which had gone towards modernism, return to Hindi style again.The present paper attempts to analyze the poetic atmosphere in Afghanistan synchronous the poetic return movement in Iran and investigate socio- political backgrounds of return to Hindi style in Afghanistan after constitution failure.

  14. A study on caesura in Persian prosody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Jahedjah

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract                                                                                           Caesura is a pause in a line of poetry that were used primarily in Greek poetry and moreover in the poetry of most indo- European languages: Latin, Sanskrit, Avestan, German and old English. Although in Persian prosody, Caesura has an important place critics have paid little attention to it and consequently, its relations with prosodic meter of Persian poetry remains unclear. In first view it seems that the main situation of caesuras in Persian prosody is between two hemistiches of line or in middle of hemistiches with cyclical (symmetrical meter but in this study we tried to observe other inter-hemistich caesuras. The principle question we follow is the functions of caesura in Persian prosodic poem. We tried to prove that caesura is rarely the basic element of meter and in most cases, its main assistant. Primarily, we recognized caesuras in two kinds of meter: meter with obligatory caesura (that caesura is the main factor of its rhythm and meter with voluntary caesura (that caesura is an assistant of its rhythm. Meter with obligatory caesura In prosodic Persian poetry, these meters are low usage and in order to their rhythm be heard, it is necessary to set caesuras strictly in proper place. It must notice that these meters, contrary to most of Persian prosodic ones, are not composed of two syllable types (long & short syllables. They are made exclusively of long syllables. It seems that caesura in this kind of meter, is replaced with short syllables and made possible to form syllabic ordered sets so these meters could be considered as a different kind of ordinary quantitative

  15. Progress in scale-up of second-generation high-temperature superconductors at SuperPower Inc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Y.-Y. [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Ave., Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)]. E-mail: yxie@igc.com; Knoll, A. [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Ave., Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States); Chen, Y. [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Ave., Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States); Li, Y. [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Ave., Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States); Xiong, X. [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Ave., Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States); Qiao, Y. [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Ave., Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States); Hou, P. [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Ave., Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States); Reeves, J. [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Ave., Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States); Salagaj, T. [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Ave., Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States); Lenseth, K. [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Ave., Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States); Civale, L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Maiorov, B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Iwasa, Y. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Solovyov, V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Suenaga, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Cheggour, N. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Clickner, C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Ekin, J.W. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Weber, C. [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Ave., Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States); Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Ave., Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)

    2005-10-01

    SuperPower is focused on scaling up second-generation (2-G) high-temperature superconductor (HTS) technology to pilot-scale manufacturing. The emphasis of this program is to develop R and D solutions for scale-up issues in pilot-scale operations to lay the foundation for a framework for large-scale manufacturing. Throughput continues to be increased in all process steps including substrate polishing, buffer and HTS deposition. 2-G HTS conductors have been produced in lengths up to 100 m. Process optimization with valuable information provided by several unique process control and quality-control tools has yielded performances of 6000-7000 A m (77 K, 0 T) in 50-100 m lengths using two HTS fabrication processes: metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Major progress has been made towards the development of practical conductor configurations. Modifications to the HTS fabrication process have resulted in enhanced performance in magnetic fields. Industrial slitting and electroplating processes have been successfully adopted to fabricate tapes in width of 4 mm and with copper stabilizer for cable and coil applications. SuperPower's conductor configuration has yielded excellent mechanical properties and overcurrent carrying capability. Over 60 m of such practical conductors with critical current over 100 A/cm-width have been delivered to Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. for prototype cable construction.

  16. Space View of the 1991 Gulf War Kuwaiti Oil Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, O.; Bhartia, P. K.; Larko, D.

    2014-12-01

    During the 1991 Persian Gulf War, over 700 oil wells in Kuwait were set ablaze by the withdrawing Iraqi army with the apparent intent of hindering satellite reconnaissance and intelligence gathering activities by the coalition of forces repelling Iraq from occupied Kuwait. The oil fires that burned for an estimated 10 months, created a huge smoke plume whose spatial extent went at times beyond the Persian Gulf region, mobilized across the Saharan Desert reaching as far west as the North Atlantic Ocean. The Nimbus-7 TOMS Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, in operation from October 1978 to May 1993, measured the near UV radiances that in the mid-1990's became the input in the calculation of the well know Absorbing Aerosol Index that represented a major breakthrough in satellite-based aerosol remote sensing. Thus, unknowingly to the world, the N7-TOMS sensor was collecting in 1991 an unprecedented daily record of what can be considered the worst environmental catastrophe affecting the atmosphere since the beginning of the era of space-based remote sensing in the 1970's. An overview of the temporal and spatial extent of the synoptic scale 1991 Gulf War smoke plume as seen by the Nimbus-7 TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index will be presented.

  17. Venezuela positioning itself to take key market role in wake of Gulf War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Venezuela which continues efforts to position itself in world markets to capitalize on fallout from the Persian Gulf war. The central government and state oil company Petroleos de Venezuela SA have accelerated already ambitious plans to expand activities in upstream and downstream oil and gas sectors. Pvdsa has sharply increased its 1991-96 investment program from the level planned at the end of last year. The goal is to put Venezuela on a par with major Persian Gulf oil exporters in terms of productive capacity. Linchpin of those efforts could well be further steps toward privatization of Venezuela's oil sector. For the first time since nationalization in 1976, private foreign and domestic companies are being permitted to participate in Venezuelan exploration and development. In addition, the government is trimming the onerous tax burden the oil sector has carried in Venezuela, as well as its heavy subsidy of domestic petroleum products

  18. The Development of the Causative Construction in Persian Child Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Family, Neiloufar; Allen, Shanley E. M.

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of systematic patterns and exceptions in different languages can be readily examined using the causative construction. Persian allows four types of causative structures, including one productive multiword structure (i.e. the light verb construction). In this study, we examine the development of all four structures in Persian child…

  19. Gulf War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2003-01-01

    As it became a non‐permanent member of the UN Security Council in January 2003, Germany stepped up its opposition to war with Iraq. The stage was set for a repeat of Germany's uncomfortable position during the 1991 Gulf War. At that time, as most of Germany's allies rallied behind Washington......, Germany made only financial contributions, and hundreds of thousands of Germans took to the streets to protest against the war. Yet, since 1991, Germany had come a long way in its attitudes towards military force. From a policy of complete abstention from military deployments beyond NATO's area (so...

  20. Comparing Narrative Microstructure between Bilingual Balochi-Persian and Monolingual Persian Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Arabpour

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, with rapid increase of bilingual children, more attention about different patterns of the bilingual children narratives is needed. The aim of this study was to compare microstructure level of narratives generated by typical developing kindergarten children who were bilingual in Persian and Balochi with monolingual Persian speakers. Method: Thirty Persian-speaking monolingual and thirteen available bilingual children (aged 48 months old participated in this study. Children’s story telling was audio-recorded and analyzed using the Persian-NAP (Narrative Assessment Protocol guidelines. Results: All of the NAP indicators include of group structure, phrase structure, modifiers, noun and verbs didn’t show significant difference between monolingual and bilingual children (0.06≤p≤0.5. Conclusion: We didn’t find different performance in the five NAP indicators between bilingual and monolingual children. It may be suggested that the different patterns of creating phrases and sentences in two languages don’t affect the grammatical use of them in second language.

  1. Persian Words Used in Kazi Nazrul Islam's Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mumit Al Rashid

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Kazi Nazrul Islam, the national poet of Bangladesh, popularly known as Nazrul-the rebel poet, is undoubtedly one who may rightly be called as one of the greatest “poets of people” of the world. He was the first poet in Bengali literature that used extensive Arabic and Persian words to express his views and to create a Muslim renaissance within the whole Bengali nation. He was a multi-lingual poet. That’s why we see huge Arabic, Persian, Hindi, Sanskrit and Urdu words, even sentences in almost everywhere of his literature. This article is about the Persian words that Nazrul had used in his poetry. Though the majority of his poems consists of more or less Persian words, in this article, we discussed five of his poems named Shat-il-Arab, Moharram, Kamal Pasha, Qorbani and the 12th Fateha that has most Persian words comparatively.

  2. The Iranian century: the tension between Iran and the Gulf States

    OpenAIRE

    Al Kaabi, Yousef H.; Al Kaabi, Khaled M.

    2011-01-01

    The Arabian Gulf represents a significant part in the world because of its oil wealth. During the last thirty years, three wars have taken place in the region resulting in regional and global instability: the Iran-Iraq war; the Persian Gulf War of 1990-1991, and the U.S. led invasion of Iraq in 2003. The fall of Iraq made Iran more powerful in the region, and as a domination strategy, Iran launched its nuclear program. Iran represents a major power in the region; it can destabilize the region...

  3. Increased Postdeployment Use of Medication for Common Mental Disorders in Danish Gulf War Veterans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Stoltenberg, Christian Ditlev Gabriel; Vedtofte, Mia Sadowa

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gulf War veterans (GWVs) have an elevated risk of reporting symptoms of mental disorders as compared with nondeployed military controls. A difficulty in the Gulf War health research is that most health outcomes are self-reported; therefore, it is highly relevant to study objective....../hypnotic medication, and (3) number of postdeployment psychiatric contacts. The association between outcomes and GWVs status was studied by using time-to-event analysis. The index date was the return date from the last deployment to the Gulf. The follow-up period was the time from index date until December 31, 2014...... and anxiolytic or hypnotic medicine among GWVs compared with NVs were rather surprising since we recently, by using the same study population, found that deployment to the Persian Gulf was not associated with increased sickness absence or reduced labor market attachment. However, our results indicate...

  4. Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems

    KAUST Repository

    Feary, David A.

    2013-07-01

    Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/Persian Gulf (thereafter \\'Gulf\\') coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems

    KAUST Repository

    Feary, David A.; Burt, John A.; Bauman, Andrew G.; Al Hazeem, Shaker; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A R; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa A.; Anderson, Donald M.; Amos, Carl L.; Baker, Andrew C.; Bartholomew, Aaron; Bento, Rita; Cavalcante, Geó rgenes H.; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Coles, Steve L.; Dab, Koosha; Fowler, Ashley M.; George, David Glen; Grandcourt, Edwin Mark; Hill, Ross; John, David Michael; Jones, David Alan; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Mahmoud, Huda M A; Moradi Och Tapeh, Mahdi; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Naser, Humood A.; Pichon, Michel; Purkis, Sam J.; Riegl, Bernhard M.; Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Sheppard, Charles R C; Vajed Samiei, Jahangir; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wiedenmann, Jö rg

    2013-01-01

    Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/Persian Gulf (thereafter 'Gulf') coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Persian Native Speakers Reading Persian and English Texts: Their Strategic Behavior to Overcome Syntactic and Semantic Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimorad, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to discover semantic and syntactic problems Persian native speakers might have while reading English and Persian texts and different strategies they use to overcome those problems. To this end, a convenient sample of 40 intermediate students studying English Literature at Shiraz University was selected. Twenty of them were asked…

  7. Pollutants from the Gulf War serve as water mass tracer in the Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plähn, Olaf; Rhein, Monika; Fine, Rana A.; Sullivan, Kevin F.

    In 1995, concentrations of the chlorofluorocarbon compound CFC-12 in the outflow water from the Persian Gulf were 8-40 fold higher than normally caused by air-sea gas exchange. At that time, the anomaly was restricted to the Gulf of Oman north of 20°N, while in 1998 the signal had spread southwestward to 12°N. The sources of this CFC-12 input of about 6400 kg are most likely the fire extinguishers and solvents used during and after the Gulf War in 1991. This CFC-12 signal is a new feature of the Persian Gulf Water (PGW) which can be used to track and quantify the spreading and dilution of PGW in the northern Indian Ocean. The contaminated PGW spreads southward with a mean velocity of 0.02-0.025 m s-1. At 20°N, the anomaly is diluted by a factor of more than two, and east of the island Socotra by a factor of four. A mean transport of less than 0.5·106 m³ s-1 is calculated for PGW assuming a mean dilution rate of 30% from the source signal in the Gulf of Oman to the western Arabian Sea.

  8. Nasal Drug Delivery in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi; Zargaran, Arman; Müller, Johannes; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2013-01-01

    Background Over one hundred different pharmaceutical dosage forms have been recorded in literatures of Traditional Persian Medicine among which nasal forms are considerable. Objectives This study designed to derive the most often applied nasal dosage forms together with those brief clinical administrations. Materials and Methods In the current study remaining pharmaceutical manuscripts of Persia during 9th to 18th century AD have been studied and different dosage forms related to nasal application of herbal medicines and their therapeutic effects were derived. Results By searching through pharmaceutical manuscripts of medieval Persia, different nasal dosage forms involving eleven types related to three main groups are found. These types could be derived from powder, solution or liquid and gaseous forms. Gaseous form were classified into fumigation (Bakhoor), vapor bath (Enkebab), inhalation (Lakhlakheh), aroma agents (Ghalieh) and olfaction or smell (Shomoom). Nasal solutions were as drops (Ghatoor), nasal snuffing drops (Saoot) and liquid snuff formulations (Noshoogh). Powders were as nasal insufflation or snorting agents (Nofookh) and errhine or sternutator medicine (Otoos). Nasal forms were not applied only for local purposes. Rather systemic disorders and specially CNS complications were said to be a target for these dosage forms. Discussion While this novel type of drug delivery is known as a suitable substitute for oral and parenteral administration, it was well accepted and extensively mentioned in Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts and other traditional systems of medicine as well. Accordingly, medieval pharmaceutical standpoints on nasal dosage forms could still be an interesting subject of study. Therefore, the current work can briefly show the pharmaceutical knowledge on nasal formulations in medieval Persia and clarify a part of history of traditional Persian pharmacy. PMID:24624204

  9. Pollution in the Gulf: Monitoring the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    More than 2 years after the Gulf conflict, scientists are continuing to keep a close watch on marine pollution stemming from the war. Following the conflict in early 1991, major concern was raised worldwide when an estimated four to eight million barrels of crude oil were directly released into the Persian Gulf from the Sea Island terminal in Kuwait. Such amounts clearly made it the largest oil spill in history. The catastrophe was exacerbated when Kuwaiti oil fields were ignited. The magnitude of the pollution, and the types of toxic contaminants involved, led to a worldwide response through the United Nations system. An inter-agency plan of action was developed quickly. As one of its steps, the co-ordinating agency - the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) - asked the IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) in Monaco to help make a preliminary assessment of the situation. The Laboratory's main goal in initial surveys was to map the extent and general degree of the war-related pollution throughout the Gulf. Since the initial surveys were done, IAEA-MEL scientists have been engaged in regional follow-up activities in ongoing attempts to obtain a clearer picture of the oil pollution's effects on the Gulf's marine environment. This article highlights the laboratory's work in the Gulf following the 1991 conflict, within the context of co-operative programmes and projects. 1 fig

  10. 16 CFR 301.8 - Use of terms “Persian Lamb,” “Broadtail Lamb,” and “Persian-broadtail Lamb” permitted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of terms âPersian Lamb,â âBroadtail Lamb... Regulations § 301.8 Use of terms “Persian Lamb,” “Broadtail Lamb,” and “Persian-broadtail Lamb” permitted. (a) The term Persian Lamb may be used to describe the skin of the young lamb of the Karakul breed of sheep...

  11. Soil in Persian Poetry and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazem AlaviPanah, Seyed; Taghavibayat, Aida; Behifar, Maedeh; Alavipanah, Sadroddin

    2017-04-01

    Almost everybody knows that soils are the foundation of food production and foodsecurity, supplying plants with nutrients, water and supports for their roots, but how many people or policy makes know that: Soil is a Complex, Dynamic, Open System and life also is the same! Increasing public awareness about soil-related outreach involves the dissemination and acceptance of information about soil to stakeholders who have not been aware of its importance. Public awareness can support efforts to involve private sector, indigenous and local communities and NGOs to engage on soil related activities. In this regard utilization of cultural and traditional understanding of soil issues (ethnopedology, art, literature, customs, and poems) is essential and vital to promote soil awareness among policy-makers, donors and the general public in order to find better understanding of soil's role in global issues such as climate change. In this paper we extensively analysis Persian and Iranian poems in order to get better understanding of cultural patterns of soils and its contribution to society. In ancient Cultures Classical elements (earth(Soil), water, air, fire,) explained the nature of all matters around the world, same as many other, in Persian. Each of these elements has their nature and personalities. Soil also refers to one part of human's life cycle. After death we join to soil. Therefore in Persian culture and poetry there is lots of poem which express these concepts such as poem below of Umar Khayyam Neyshabouri which noted the importance and the nature of soil and its relation to vegetation, and their cause-effect relationships about one thousand years ago. "Every unique herb vegetated next to a stream/ is as if grown from the lip of an angelical beauty/ don't stampede (degrade) that herb/ because it is vegetated from the soil of a beauty whose face is like a tulip". and Look how the morning breeze has helped the rosebud bloom/ And how at the sight of the rose the

  12. Physiopathology of dementia from the perspective of traditional Persian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifaddini, Rostam; Tajadini, Haleh; Choopani, Rasool

    2015-07-01

    The most common cognitive disorder that is disabling is dementia. During the medieval period, traditional Persian medicine was an outstanding source of medicine that was used as standard references in medical schools of in the West and Middle East. In ancient manuscripts of traditional Persian medicine, a condition has been introduced similar to dementi (raoonat and homgh). In this article, by collecting materials of traditional medicine texts on dementia, we aim to provide theories for further studies on this topics, as there is an obvious difference between traditional Persian medicine and modern medicine with regard to dementia; however, since modern medicine has not found a suitable response to treatment for all diseases, reviewing traditional Persian medicine for finding better treatment strategies is wise. Use of all medical potentials approved by the World Health Organization beside classic medicine like traditional medicine and considering the availability and acceptability among people is recommended. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Comparison of Leiomyoma of Modern Medicine and Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansaz, Mojgan; Tajadini, Haleh

    2016-04-01

    Leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor of the pelvic that is associated with reproductive problems such as infertility, frequent abortions, and undesirable prenatal outcomes. High prevalence of leiomyoma and its relation with important gynecological complications, especially during reproductive ages, on the one hand, and high medical expenses and significant complications of common treatments, on the other, made us search traditional Persian medicine texts for a similar disease. In traditional Persian medicine, a condition has been introduced similar to leiomyoma (Oram-e-rahem). In this article, by collecting materials from traditional medicine texts on leiomyoma, we aim to provide theories for further studies on this topic, as there is an obvious difference between traditional Persian medicine and modern medicine with regard to leiomyoma. When modern medicine has not found a suitable response to treatment, reviewing of traditional Persian medicine for finding better treatment strategies is wise. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Nutritional aspects to prevent heart diseases in traditional Persian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Kenari, Hoorieh Mohammadi; Esfahani, Mohammad Mehdi; Ardakani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Nazem, Esmaeil; Moghimi, Maryam; Zargaran, Arman

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are major health complications currently in various societies. Management of heart diseases as a prevention step or as treatment with low-cost procedures like lifestyle modifications including nutrition are important current trends. Although the term nutrition dates back to 2 past centuries, Persian physicians contributed to this term at least from 1000 years ago. Rhazes (865-925 AD) was one of the pioneers in this field. He preferred using foods in treating illnesses. "Foods and drinks" were 1 subject from 6 principles (Setteh Zarorieh) that Persian physicians believed can affect human health. In this review, we described some medieval Persian views on the role of nutrition in heart diseases and compare their prescriptions with current findings. Interestingly, current investigations mostly support Persian medicine principles. Historically, this work shows that the concept of nutrition in heart diseases has had a successful background at least from 1000 years ago in Persia. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Bahrain and the global balance of power after the Arab spring

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Lars Erslev

    2012-01-01

    The global balance of power is changing, and the role of the US as the only superpower is being challenged by emerging new powers and a still more powerful China. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the Persian Gulf. Two wars in Afghanistan and Iraq and continually rising debt have meant that the position of the US has declined. At the same time, Asian states are increasing their economic expansion in the Persian Gulf. Increasing political influence, including a bigger role in hard security...

  16. Practical astronomy in Indo-Persian sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, S. M. R.

    In the classical survey of zij literature (by E. Kennedy, 1956), out of 220 listed zijes only three zijes compiled in India are mentioned. They are: Zij-i Jami', ca 1461/62 (Kennedy serial No. X220); Zij-i Shahjahani, ca 1610 (X204); Zij-i Muhammad Shahi, ca 1730 (X203). However, since that classical survey, a number of Indian zijes have been found to be extant. They are: Zij-i Nasiri (ca 1260), Zij-i Nizami (ca 1780), Zij-i Hindi (1805), Zij-i 'Alami (ca 1808), Zij-i Ashki (1816), Zij-i Safdari (1819), Zij-i Sulayman Jahi (1830) and Zij-i Bahadur Khani (1838). It is well known that a zij comprises astronomical-mathematical and also astrological tables for use in practical or observational astronomy. From the standpoint of applied astronomy, it consists of particularly eclipse tables, visibility tables - for lunar crescent, apparitions and disappearances of planets - geographical and star tables. Evidently, this tabulated material can be used for the studies in applied astronomy. Besides zijes, we find also other classes of literature in which are treated the observations of comets, fireballs and meteorites. They are treatises on atmospheric phenomena (Athar-i 'Ulawi), chronicles and histories of Medieval India in Persian. For instance, we have histories by Abul Fadl and 'Arif Qandhari (16-17th c.), al-Husayni (18th c.), to name just a few. In this paper, we describe briefly the above-mentioned Indo-Persian sources, list the various celestial phenomena along with their short account as given in these sources, particularly in the Indian zijes. Finally, we make some remarks about their use in applied astronomy.

  17. Spatial analysis of the etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis among 1991 Gulf War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Alicia Overstreet Galeano, M; Tassone, Eric; Allen, Kelli D; Horner, Ronnie D

    2008-11-01

    Veterans of the 1991 Gulf War have an increased risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but the etiology is unknown. This study sought to identify geographic areas with elevated risk for the later development of ALS among military personnel who served in the first Gulf War. A unified geographic information system (GIS) was constructed to allow analysis of secondary data on troop movements in the 1991 Gulf War theatre in the Persian Gulf region including Iraq, northern Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait. We fit Bayesian Poisson regression models to adjust for potential risk factors, including one relatively discrete environmental exposure, and to identify areas associated with elevated risk of ALS. We found that service in particular locations of the Gulf was associated with an elevated risk for later developing ALS, both before and after adjustment for branch of service and potential of exposure to chemical warfare agents in and around Khamisiyah, Iraq. Specific geographic locations of troop units within the 1991 Gulf War theatre are associated with an increased risk for the subsequent development of ALS among members of those units. The identified spatial locations represent the logical starting points in the search for potential etiologic factors of ALS among Gulf War veterans. Of note, for locations where the relative odds of subsequently developing ALS are among the highest, specific risk factors, whether environmental or occupationally related, have not been identified. The results of spatial models can be used to subsequently look for risk factors that follow the spatial pattern of elevated risk.

  18. Request Strategies in Everyday Interactions of Persian and English Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiler Yazdanfar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cross-cultural studies of speech acts in different linguistic contexts might have interesting implications for language researchers and practitioners. Drawing on the Speech Act Theory, the present study aimed at conducting a comparative study of request speech act in Persian and English. Specifically, the study endeavored to explore the request strategies used in daily interactions of Persian and English speakers based on directness level and supportive moves. To this end, English and Persian TV series were observed and requestive utterances were transcribed. The utterances were then categorized based on Blum-Kulka and Olshtain’s Cross-Cultural Study of Speech Act Realization Pattern (CCSARP for directness level and internal and external mitigation devises. According to the results, although speakers of both languages opted for the direct level as their most frequently used strategy in their daily interactions, the English speakers used more conventionally indirect strategies than the Persian speakers did, and the Persian speakers used more non-conventionally indirect strategies than the English speakers did. Furthermore, the analyzed data revealed the fact that American English speakers use more mitigation devices in their daily interactions with friends and family members than Persian speakers.

  19. Construction and Validation of the Persian Version of Self-Management Scale of Chronic Spinal Pains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Bazyari Meymand

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, one of the most important concepts in the health system associated with the treatment and reduction of chronic spinal pain is self- management. According to the gap of a tool to measure this concept, this study was performed with the aim of construction and validation of Persian version of self- management scale of chronic spinal pains. Materials & Methods: The present study was descriptive and correlational study that it was performed in 2016 on 301 patients with chronic spinal pains who were referred to the Persian Gulf Martyrs Hospital, Salman Farsi, Physiotherapeutic centers and orthopedist and physical medicine and spine rehabilitation doctors' offices in Bushehr by using convenient simple sampling. In this study, the statistical methods of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, convergent and content validity and test-retest reliability and Cronbach's alpha using SPSS 21 software and AMOS 20 were used. Results: Based on the results three factors including medical emotional and functional self management were extracted which overall, it could explain 39.32% of self-management variable of chronic spinal pain. Also, fitness indexes were estimated at an acceptable level (AGFI=0.91, GFI=0.95, NFI=0.92, GFI=0.95, RMSEA=0.08, c2/df=2.65. Content validity (0.80, convergent validity (with Nicolas self management of chronic pain, psychological hardiness, self-efficacy of pain, pain catastrophic thoughts and beliefs and perception of pain with coefficient 0.68, 0.47, 0.50, -0.26 and -0.33, test-retest reliability (0.87 and reliability using Cronbach's alpha (0.79 were confirmed. Conclusion: According to all the indicators of reliability and validity were estimated in a satisfactory condition, so it can be used in areas of research, evaluation and treatment of chronic spinal pain. 

  20. Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, David A.; Burt, John A.; Bauman, Andrew G.; Al Hazeem, Shaker; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A.; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa A.; Anderson, Donald M.; Amos, Carl; Baker, Andrew; Bartholomew, Aaron; Bento, Rita; Cavalcante, Geórgenes H.; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Coles, Steve L.; Dab, Koosha; Fowler, Ashley M.; George, David; Grandcourt, Edwin; Hill, Ross; John, David M.; Jones, David A.; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Mahmoud, Huda; Moradi Och Tapeh, Mahdi; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Naser, Humood; Pichon, Michel; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Sheppard, Charles; Vajed Samiei, Jahangir; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wiedenmann, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/ Persian Gulf (thereafter ‘Gulf’) coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. PMID:23643407

  1. « New Persian glosses in East Syriac texts of the eighth to tenth centuries », in : Ludwig Paul, ed., Persian origins: Early Judaeo-Persian and the emergence of New Persian: collected papers of the symposium, Göttingen 1999. Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz,

    OpenAIRE

    Rédaction,

    2007-01-01

    Study of twenty-five Persian glosses, including some hapax legomena, that are contained in three East-Syriac commentaries on the Pentateuch and show southwestern dialectal features contrasting with the northeastern ones of Classical New Persian in Arabic script.

  2. Zoonotic intestinal protozoan of the wild boars, Sus scrofa, in Persian Gulf’s coastal area (Bushehr province, Southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Yaghoobi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Wild boars, Sus scrofa, are potential reservoirs of many zoonotic diseases, and there are a possibility of transmission of the zoonotic diseases from these animals to humans and also domestic animals. This study aimed to evaluate the protozoan contamination of wild boars in the Persian Gulf’s coastal area (Bushehr Province, southwestern Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 crossbred boars were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in Bushehr province, in 2013. Samples were collected from the gastrointestinal tracts of each boar in 5% formalin, Bouin’s solution, sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and polyvinyl alcohol fixatives. Fixed stool smears examined by trichrome and Ziehl–Neelsen staining. Results: Each of the 25 wild boars was infected with at least one of the intestinal protozoans. The rate of contamination with intestinal protozoan was 64% for Balantidium coli, 76% for Iodamoeba sp., 52% for Entamoeba polecki, 44% for Blastocystis sp. and 8% for Chilomastix sp. No intestinal coccidian was detected in studied boars when the stool samples were evaluated by Ziehl–Neelsen staining method. Conclusion: Findings of this study demonstrated that wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area are contaminated by many protozoans, including zoonotic protozoan, which poses a potential risk to locals as well as the domestic animals of the area.

  3. 2015 Gulf Guardian Award Winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gulf of Mexico Program Partnership developed the Gulf Guardian awards as a way to recognize and honor the businesses, community groups, individuals, and agencies that are taking positive steps to keep the Gulf healthy, beautiful and productive.

  4. 2017 Gulf Guardian Award Winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gulf of Mexico Program Partnership developed the Gulf Guardian awards as a way to recognize and honor the businesses, community groups, individuals, and agencies that are taking positive steps to keep the Gulf healthy, beautiful and productive.

  5. Functional Food in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Roghayeh; Hosseinkhani, Ayda

    2016-05-01

    During the last decades, there have been great advancements in the field of preventive medicine. Research has demonstrated that nutrition plays a crucial role in the prevention of chronic diseases. The concept of functional food was first introduced in Japan during the 1980s. It proposes to consider food not only vital to survive, but also a mean for mental and physical well-being, contributing to the prevention and reduction of risk factors for diseases. However, there is evidence that the concept was believed by ancient physicians as well. One of the traditional systems of medicines is traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Rhazes said; "as long as a disease could be treated with food, medicine should be avoided". We carried out a review of Avicenna's Canon of medicine and Rhazes books for the definition of food and drug and similar concepts of functional food. We listed the identified concepts along with their examples. The classification of food and their therapeutic use were explained in Canon of medicine. Rhazes has a book called 'Manafe al-Aghziyeh', in which he writes about the medicinal benefits of different nutrition. Five concepts (food, drug, medicinal food, nutritional medicine and antidote or poison) were noted in these books. There are many recommendations on food for the prevention and treatment of diseases in TPM books, which can be the basis for novel research studies.

  6. Functional Food in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Roghayeh; Hosseinkhani, Ayda

    2016-01-01

    Background: During the last decades, there have been great advancements in the field of preventive medicine. Research has demonstrated that nutrition plays a crucial role in the prevention of chronic diseases. The concept of functional food was first introduced in Japan during the 1980s. It proposes to consider food not only vital to survive, but also a mean for mental and physical well-being, contributing to the prevention and reduction of risk factors for diseases. However, there is evidence that the concept was believed by ancient physicians as well. One of the traditional systems of medicines is traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Rhazes said; “as long as a disease could be treated with food, medicine should be avoided” Methods: We carried out a review of Avicenna’s Canon of medicine and Rhazes books for the definition of food and drug and similar concepts of functional food. We listed the identified concepts along with their examples. Results: The classification of food and their therapeutic use were explained in Canon of medicine. Rhazes has a book called ‘Manafe al-Aghziyeh’, in which he writes about the medicinal benefits of different nutrition. Five concepts (food, drug, medicinal food, nutritional medicine and antidote or poison) were noted in these books. Conclusion: There are many recommendations on food for the prevention and treatment of diseases in TPM books, which can be the basis for novel research studies. PMID:27840499

  7. Skin Aging Remedies in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirbeigi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Traditional persian medicine (TPM is an ancient temperamental medicine with a rich literature about aging mechanism. Temperament has an important function in maintaining the ideal healthy status of human body. Aging process and skin aging could be postponed by applying herbal medicine and some specific traditional rules. Evidence Acquisition The aim of this review study was gathering and discussing the mechanism of whole body aging and skin aging from perspective of TPM and introducing remedies to prevent it. Skin aging is caused by external and internal factors. According to TPM, loss of fat and water content in different skin layers is the main cause of skin aging and it could be avoided by considering simple essential commands. Results Skin aging begins with whole body aging process and entire body gets cold and dry in elderly. Wrinkle formation is highly associated with loss of “skin natural moisture”. In the management, specific food supplements, simple massage therapy as well as herbal drugs were suggested. The current investigation was performed to show the knowledge of ancient Iranian scientists on aging process and related interventions. Conclusions Reported herbal drugs might be beneficial for further studies for the management of skin aging and aging process.

  8. Developing the Persian version of the homophone meaning generation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimipour, Mona; Motamed, Mohammad Reza; Ashayeri, Hassan; Modarresi, Yahya; Kamali, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Finding the right word is a necessity in communication, and its evaluation has always been a challenging clinical issue, suggesting the need for valid and reliable measurements. The Homophone Meaning Generation Test (HMGT) can measure the ability to switch between verbal concepts, which is required in word retrieval. The purpose of this study was to adapt and validate the Persian version of the HMGT. The first phase involved the adaptation of the HMGT to the Persian language. The second phase concerned the psychometric testing. The word-finding performance was assessed in 90 Persian-speaking healthy individuals (20-50 year old; 45 males and 45 females) through three naming tasks: Semantic Fluency, Phonemic Fluency, and Homophone Meaning Generation Test. The participants had no history of neurological or psychiatric diseases, alcohol abuse, severe depression, or history of speech, language, or learning problems. The internal consistency coefficient was larger than 0.8 for all the items with a total Cronbach's alpha of 0.80. Interrater and intrarater reliability were also excellent. The validity of all items was above 0.77, and the content validity index (0.99) was appropriate. The Persian HMGT had strong convergent validity with semantic and phonemic switching and adequate divergent validity with semantic and phonemic clustering. The Persian version of the Homophone Meaning Generation Test is an appropriate, valid, and reliable test to evaluate the ability to switch between verbal concepts in the assessment of word-finding performance.

  9. Manifestations of developmental dyslexia in monolingual Persian speaking students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouretemad, Hamid R; Khatibi, Ali; Zarei, Mojtaba; Stein, John

    2011-07-01

    Manifestations of dyslexia depend on language systems and scripts. This study explored the prevalence and clinical features of developmental dyslexia among monolingual Persian students and provided insights on mechanisms involved in reading Persian. To measure reading ability we developed a new instrument, Analysis of Persian Reading Ability, which had acceptable validity and reliability. A total of 1562 children aged 6 ½ - 14 were randomly selected from a population of 109696 primary school students in the city of Qom, Iran. Using a variety of statistical and clinical criteria, 82 (5.2%) of the sample were classified as dyslexics. A detailed analysis of reading errors revealed eight types of errors related to three categories. The most frequent category in both dyslexic and the matched control group was phonological, followed by pragmatic and visual errors. The observed prevalence rate of dyslexia and reading error categories would suggest that Persian in vowel-free format is an opaque language and predominant use of a sub-lexical strategy is involved when reading Persian.

  10. Word-level prominence in Persian: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Vahid

    2017-12-01

    Previous literature on the phonetics of stress in Persian has reported that fundamental frequency is the only reliable acoustic correlate of stress, and that stressed and unstressed syllables are not differentiated from each other in the absence of accentuation. In this study, the effects of lexical stress on duration, overall intensity and spectral tilt were examined in Persian both in the accented and unaccented conditions. Results showed that syllable duration is consistently affected by stress in Persian in both the accented and unaccented conditions across all vowel types. Unlike duration, the results for overall intensity and spectral tilt were significant only in the accented condition, suggesting that measures of intensity are not a correlate of stress in Persian but they are mainly caused by the presence of a pitch movement. The findings are phonologically interpreted as suggesting that word-level prominence in Persian is typologically similar to 'stress accent' languages, in which multiple phonetic cues are used to signal the prominence contrast in the accented condition, and stressed and unstressed syllables are different from each other even when the word is not pitch-accented.

  11. Metadiscourse Markers of Online Texts: English and Persian Online Headlines Use of Metadiscourse Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Akram; Salehi, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to illuminate the differences between Persian and English in online headlines in terms of applying metadiscourse markers in the first two months of the year 2015. To fulfill this purpose, 100 Persian and English online headlines (each 50 headlines) were chosen randomly from English and Persian newscasts such as…

  12. Studying the Quality of Colloquial Infinitives in Moin Persian Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Shekoohi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Moin has been considered as one of the most committed literary men of the present time who recorded a considerable amount of Persian words, expressions, and declarations in his own 6 volumes Persian dictionary according to scientific research methods and in a different way in comparison to the previous dictionaries. This article argues the quality of colloquial infinitives which have been recorded in Moin Persian Dictionary. The most important obstacles in all researches related to literature and colloquial language is the recognition criterion of "being colloquial". In this article, the recognition criterion is that of Moin's criterion who was a great master in this field. In the other words, any infinitives in front of which he put the abbreviation "Ɂam", have been extracted and at the next stage, according to the syntactic resources, have been divided into 8 categories. Finally, the examples of each category have been presented through tables.

  13. Printed Persian Subword Recognition Using Wavelet Packet Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Nasrollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new approach to offline OCR (optical character recognition for printed Persian subwords using wavelet packet transform. The proposed algorithm is used to extract font invariant and size invariant features from 87804 subwords of 4 fonts and 3 sizes. The feature vectors are compressed using PCA. The obtained feature vectors yield a pictorial dictionary for which an entry is the mean of each group that consists of the same subword with 4 fonts in 3 sizes. The sets of these features are congregated by combining them with the dot features for the recognition of printed Persian subwords. To evaluate the feature extraction results, this algorithm was tested on a set of 2000 subwords in printed Persian text documents. An encouraging recognition rate of 97.9% is got at subword level recognition.

  14. Persian Linguistic and Rhetorical Pathology in The Telegram Communication Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hedayat Mofidi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, the mobile phone, with its wide range of features, is an inexpensive, easy to use, and most modern communication tool. One of the special applications of smart phones is providing spaces and facilities such as SMS services, virtual networks, and interactive groups that link people and groups from different linguistic and cultural background. In this paper, we tried to study the messages of the Farsi-speaking users of the Telegram communication network from the linguistics perspective. In this regard, the linguistics and rhetorical correspondence of short messages in Persian language was studied by the content-analysis method. The statistical population consisted of 150 messages which contained 327 sentences. These messages were randomly selected from 5 different groups. Persian language used in cyberspace differs from standard Persian language. The first step in correcting communication language errors in cyberspace is to inform the users about the type of errors.

  15. Congruence between SMS Language and the Standard Persian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Zandi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available These days cell phone, as the modern instrument has various, cheap, and user-friendly accessories and possibilities. As a result SMS is now one of the most important media used in different situations. In this study, the SMS was analyzed from a linguistic point of view. Using the content analysis method, the grammatical and semantic congruence of the short-messages with standard Persian was examined. Furthermore, the SMS content (quotations, love messages, empathy and greetings, ironies, and jokes and language (Persian, English, Pinglish were studied. For this purpose, 1795 SMSs were received and analyzed during the first half of 2007. The analysis and comparison of the SMSs showed that there is still no specific, uniform language used in their writing. The results showed that though the general tendency is to write in Persian, many SMSs are written in Pinglish.

  16. A Persian version of Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mohammad; Rashedi, Vahid; Khedmati Morasae, Esmaeil

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to translate the original English version of the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) into a Persian version and to assess the preliminary psychometric properties of the translated index among a sample of Persian elders. Twelve items included in GOHAI were first translated into Persian using a back-translation technique and then were compared with the original version. Four hundred and seventeen elderly subjects who were admitted to a day care centre answered GOHAI and an attached socio-demographic questionnaire. Internal consistency of the Persian version was measured by Cronbach's alpha. Test-retest reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and weighted kappa. Factor structure of GOHAI was evaluated by principal component factor analysis. Mean of GOHAI score was 45.71 (SD: 5.14; range: 27-51). The mean of GOHAI score was higher for the elders who rated their oral and general health as 'good'. The Cronbach's alpha for GOHAI score was 0.748, indicating a high degree of internal consistency and homogeneity between the GOHAI items. The test-retest correlation for the total GOHAI score using ICC was 0.763 (95% CI = 0.713-0.809). Factor analysis revealed a three-factor solution that bolstered the theoretical construction of the index. Significant differences in the GOHAI scores were found for income and current number of teeth. The Persian version of the GOHAI can be used reliably to identify oral health-related concerns of older Persian speakers, but further research is needed to confirm its cultural consonance in this population. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Aphasia in Persian: Implications for cognitive models of lexical processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Mehdi; Jafary, Reyhane; Weekes, Brendan S

    2017-09-01

    Current models of oral reading assume that different routes (sublexical, lexical, and semantic) mediate oral reading performance and reliance on different routes during oral reading depends on the characteristics of print to sound mappings. Studies of single cases of acquired dyslexia in aphasia have contributed to the development of such models by revealing patterns of double dissociation in object naming and oral reading skill that follow brain damage in Indo-European and Sino-Tibetan languages. Print to sound mapping in Persian varies in transparency because orthography to phonology translation depends uniquely on the presence or absence of vowel letters in print. Here a hypothesis is tested that oral reading in Persian requires a semantic reading pathway that is independent of a direct non-semantic reading pathway, by investigating whether Persian speakers with aphasia show selective impairments to object naming and reading aloud. A sample of 21 Persian speakers with aphasia ranging in age from 18 to 77 (mean = 53, SD = 16.9) was asked to name a same set of 200 objects and to read aloud the printed names of these objects in different sessions. As an additional measure of sublexical reading, patients were asked to read aloud 30 non-word stimuli. Results showed that oral reading is significantly more preserved than object naming in Persian speakers with aphasia. However, more preserved object naming than oral reading was also observed in some cases. There was a moderate positive correlation between picture naming and oral reading success (p Persian for the first time. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Effect of incubation temperature, seed age and scarification on germination and emergence of persian shallot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, J.; Sabet, S.A.K.; Golshani, M.; Mortazavi, S.N.; Jafari, F.; Chirani, J.A.O.

    2010-01-01

    Persian shallot grows as a wild plant in some mountains of Iran, The aim of our research was to study the relationship between different temperatures, seed age and duration of sulfuric acid treatment on Persian shallot seed germination. The interactive effect of incubation temperature, seed age and scarification treatments had a significant effect on the germination and emergence percentage of Persian shallot. It is concluded that suitable condition for Persian shallot seed germination is scarification of one year old seeds with sulfuric acid for 15 min, and stratification at 4 deg. C. In fact Persian shallot seeds need both scarification and stratification for germination enhancement. (author)

  19. Traditional Persian topical medications for gastrointestinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Dehghani Tafti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug delivery across the skin is used for several millennia to ease gastrointestinal (GI ailments in Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM. TPM topical remedies are generally being applied on the stomach, lower abdomen, lower back and liver to alleviate GI illnesses such as dyspepsia, gastritis, GI ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal worms and infections. The aim of the present study is to survey the topical GI remedies and plant species used as ingredients for these remedies in TPM. In addition, pharmacological activities of the mentioned plants have been discussed. For this, we searched major TPM textbooks to find plants used to cure GI problems in topical use. Additionally, scientific databases were searched to obtain pharmacological data supporting the use of TPM plants in GI diseases. Rosa × damascena, Pistacia lentiscus, Malus domestica, Olea europaea and Artemisia absinthium are among the most frequently mentioned ingredients of TPM remedies. β-asarone, amygdalin, boswellic acids, guggulsterone, crocin, crocetin, isomasticadienolic acid, and cyclotides are the most important phytochemicals present in TPM plants with GI-protective activities. Pharmacological studies demonstrated GI activities for TPM plants supporting their extensive traditional use. These plants play pivotal role in alleviating GI disorders through exhibiting numerous activities including antispasmodic, anti-ulcer, anti-secretory, anti-colitis, anti-diarrheal, antibacterial and anthelmintic properties. Several mechanisms underlie these activities including the alleviation of oxidative stress, exhibiting cytoprotective activity, down-regulation of the inflammatory cytokines, suppression of the cellular signaling pathways of inflammatory responses, improving re-epithelialization and angiogenesis, down-regulation of anti-angiogenic factors, blocking activity of acetylcholine, etc.

  20. Beyond the Gulf Metropolises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    The extended studies on urbanisation in the Gulf region that came up in the early 2000s concentrated on the main centres with their worldwide-admired mega-projects and branding strategies. Only rather recently did a more general interest arise in the second-tier range of Gulf cities, which also s...

  1. A Contrastive Analysis of the American and Persian Newspaper Editorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homayounzadeh, Maryam; Mehrpour, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Based on the principles of critical discourse analysis this contrastive study sought to investigate the effect of culture on the journalistic style and the strategies used to report news in the American and Persian newspaper editorials. To this end, articles were selected from the New York Times, the Washington Post, Kayhan and Ettelaat, taking…

  2. The periphrastic perfect of Old Persian revisited (slides) [Dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bavant, M.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The voice of the periphrastic perfect of Old Persian has long been a controversial issue. This document is a slide set to present the matter. It illustrates the contents of an article on the same theme: "Retour sur le parfait périphrastique du vieux perse".

  3. Persian Speakers' Use of Refusal Strategies across Politeness Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the preferred refusal strategies in Persian. 3047 refusals collected by 108 field workers as well as 376 refusals collected through face to face interviews were analyzed and classified according to the descriptions proposed by Liao (1994) and Liao and Bresnahan (1996). The frequencies of the resulting direct and…

  4. An Investigation into the Prehistory of the Persian Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekri-Ershad, J.; Mehrabi, F.

    2006-01-01

    Persian Languages is one of the widespread branches of Indo-European languages that for long have comprised several important languages. The importance of these languages which lies in the strength of Median, Achamenian, Parthian, and Sasanid Empires during different eras caused a number of researchers to increase their studies about these…

  5. Gulf war illness--better, worse, or just the same? A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotopf, Matthew; David, Anthony S; Hull, Lisa; Nikalaou, Vasilis; Unwin, Catherine; Wessely, Simon

    2003-12-13

    Firstly, to describe changes in the health of Gulf war veterans studied in a previous occupational cohort study and to compare outcome with comparable non-deployed military personnel. Secondly, to determine whether differences in prevalence between Gulf veterans and controls at follow up can be explained by greater persistence or greater incidence of disorders. Occupational cohort study in the form of a postal survey. Military personnel who served in the 1991 Persian Gulf war; personnel who served on peacekeeping duties to Bosnia; military personnel who were deployed elsewhere ("Era" controls). All participants had responded to a previous survey. United Kingdom. Self reported fatigue measured on the Chalder fatigue scale; psychological distress measured on the general health questionnaire, physical functioning and health perception on the SF-36; and a count of physical symptoms. Gulf war veterans experienced a modest reduction in prevalence of fatigue (48.8% at stage 1, 43.4% at stage 2) and psychological distress (40.0% stage 1, 37.1% stage 2) but a slight worsening of physical functioning on the SF-36 (90.3 stage 1, 88.7 stage 2). Compared with the other cohorts Gulf veterans continued to experience poorer health on all outcomes, although physical functioning also declined in Bosnia veterans. Era controls showed both lower incidence of fatigue than Gulf veterans, and both comparison groups showed less persistence of fatigue compared with Gulf veterans. Gulf war veterans remain a group with many symptoms of ill health. The excess of illness at follow up is explained by both higher incidence and greater persistence of symptoms.

  6. Gulf war illness—better, worse, or just the same? A cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotopf, Matthew; David, Anthony S; Hull, Lisa; Nikalaou, Vasilis; Unwin, Catherine; Wessely, Simon

    2003-01-01

    Objectives Firstly, to describe changes in the health of Gulf war veterans studied in a previous occupational cohort study and to compare outcome with comparable non-deployed military personnel. Secondly, to determine whether differences in prevalence between Gulf veterans and controls at follow up can be explained by greater persistence or greater incidence of disorders. Design Occupational cohort study in the form of a postal survey. Participants Military personnel who served in the 1991 Persian Gulf war; personnel who served on peacekeeping duties to Bosnia; military personnel who were deployed elsewhere (“Era” controls). All participants had responded to a previous survey. Setting United Kingdom. Main outcome measures Self reported fatigue measured on the Chalder fatigue scale; psychological distress measured on the general health questionnaire, physical functioning and health perception on the SF-36; and a count of physical symptoms. Results Gulf war veterans experienced a modest reduction in prevalence of fatigue (48.8% at stage 1, 43.4% at stage 2) and psychological distress (40.0% stage 1, 37.1% stage 2) but a slight worsening of physical functioning on the SF-36 (90.3 stage 1, 88.7 stage 2). Compared with the other cohorts Gulf veterans continued to experience poorer health on all outcomes, although physical functioning also declined in Bosnia veterans. Era controls showed both lower incidence of fatigue than Gulf veterans, and both comparison groups showed less persistence of fatigue compared with Gulf veterans. Conclusions Gulf war veterans remain a group with many symptoms of ill health. The excess of illness at follow up is explained by both higher incidence and greater persistence of symptoms. PMID:14670878

  7. Hydrogeology of salt karst under different cap soils and climates (Persian Gulf and Zagros Mts., Iran)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruthans, J.; Kamas, J.; Filippi, Michal; Zare, M.; Mayo, A. L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 2 (2017), s. 303-320 ISSN 0392-6672 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB315040801 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : diapir * salt karst * soil * arid * chemistry * isotope Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 1.439, year: 2016

  8. Clinico-epidemiologic Study on Marine Envenomations and Injuries in South Iran, Persian Gulf Coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Nabipour

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Scorpionfish attacks are the common cause of marine animal exposures in south Iran and should be taken seriously. Men at young ages are the victims of this environmental and occupational hazard.

  9. The eu-Energy Security and Geopolitical Economy : The Persian Gulf, the Caspian Region and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amineh, Mehdi P.; Crijns-Graus, Wina H.J.

    2018-01-01

    Although energy supply security is an important long-term goal of the eu, member states are in control over external supplies and their domestic energy mix, and an overarching institutional structure is lacking. In this paper, we focus on the availability of oil and gas and the risks of supply

  10. The EU-Energy Security and Geopolitical Economy : The Persian Gulf, the Caspian Region and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amineh, M.P.; Crijns-Graus, W.H.J.

    2018-01-01

    Although energy supply security is an important long-term goal of the EU, member states are in control over external supplies and their domestic energy mix, and an overarching institutional structure is lacking. In this paper, we focus on the availability of oil and gas and the risks of supply

  11. Near East/North Africa Report, Number 2620. Status of Women in Persian Gulf Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-15

    prayers were recited. Women also held literary gatherings while they worked on their embroidery . At these gatherings women composed verse, competing...coffee parties, embroidery sessions and handcraft displays only." Rawdah Sa’id: "I will talk about another aspect: inviting every young, unmarried

  12. Patterns of Illness and Care Before Deployment to the Persian Gulf War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Richard

    2003-01-01

    .... Cases were defined as those registrants assigned code diagnoses such as somatization disorder, myalgia and myositis unspecified, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, unexplained musculoskeletal...

  13. Stress and Arousal Symptoms in Individuals and Groups - Persian Gulf War Symptoms as a Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    Symptoms." Psychological Medicine, 1991:21: 1029-1045, quotation from pp. 1040-1041. 18Kellner R., "Functional Somatic Symptoms and Hypochondriasis ...quasi-specific for future patterns of research into the somatic and other consequences of combat stress, deployment stress and other stresses of...psychiatric folklore. Much of the earlier research into the somatic consequences of stress and indeed into medicine as a whole, was correlational in

  14. Cytotoxic, antioxidant and phytochemical analysis of Gracilaria species from Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ghannadi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Considerable phytochemicals, high antioxidant potential, and moderate cytotoxic activity of G. salicornia and G. corticata make them appropriate candidates for further studies and identification of their bioactive principles.

  15. Venom Apparatus Structure and Conutoxins Granules formation in Cone Snail (Conus coronatus of Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferial Monsef

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today use conotoxin as a neurotoxin and cytotoxin in medical science is obvious. These compounds are produced by venomous cone snails. Toxins produced by the venom apparatus of this snail and injected into the prey. To obtain and identification of these toxins, study of venom apparatus and the manufacture formation is necessary. Materials and Methods: In order to study the organ, specimens of C. coronatus were collected from the Coast of Gheshm Island. After dissection were fixed in Bouin's for 48 hours and transferred to laboratory into 70% ethanol. After dehydration and Paraffin embedded were cutted by microtome and then collected on glass slides and stained then photographed and studied. Results: Observation showed that, the venom bulb was muscular and in their middle part a channel with epithelial cells was observable that secreted some material. Venom duct walls composed of 3 parts including the outer layer of connective tissue with muscle an inner layer of columnar epithelial cells with basal nucleus and the inner lumens which filled by the. Departed nucleus by secretion exist in all 3 part of venom duct. In radula sac sections, lots growing radula were observed. Conclusion: Venom bulb was a weak secretion role and venom duct near the pharynx have a more mature granule than the other part. Holocrine secretion happened in all part of venom duct. Most suitable part for extract the conotoxin was the venom bulb end part.

  16. Satellite retrievals of dust aerosol over the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf (2005–2015)

    KAUST Repository

    Banks, Jamie R.; Brindley, Helen E.; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Schepanski, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    loadings. When both records are stratified by AOD retrievals from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), opposing behaviour is revealed at high MISR AODs (> 1), with offsets of C 0.19 for MODIS and 0.06 for SEVIRI. Similar behaviour is also seen

  17. Conduct of the Persian Gulf War: Final Report to Congress. Appendices A- S. Sanitized Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    groups, consisting of 25 ships, including three aircraft carriers; providing technical, material and on-site support for USS Biddle (CG 34) rudder F-57...Team [USA] NGFS - Naval gunfire support NIC - National Intelligence Council NITF - national imagery transmission format NLSF - Navy Logistics Support...Army Medical Materiel Center -Saudi Arabia: G-22 US Army Support Group: F-62 US Army, Europe: E-27,K-39 USS Adroit: H-16 USS Avenger:D-21 USS Biddle : F

  18. The Impact of Iran Phobia on Arms Race in Persian Gulf After 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Soleiman Pour

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the Islamic Revolution in 1979, America's vital interest in the region was seriously challenged. Since this time, the project of Iran-phobia in various fields of military, political, economic, advertising and media, especially in the Western countries and America, was on the agenda and eventually led to the fear of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the Middle East. The main question of this research is that, what is the relation between Iran-phobia and Middle East arms purchases? The hypothesis of this paper is that instilling fear of Iran leads to obtain greater economic benefits for Western countries and America through the sale of weapons to countries in the Middle East. The present article is using new approach as a conceptual framework, and using descriptive and analytical method to evaluate the effect of Iran-phobia on the upward movement of weapons purchases in the Middle East.

  19. Stress and Arousal Symptoms in Individuals and Groups - Persian Gulf War Symptoms as a Paradigm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dine, Sarah

    1999-01-01

    ... and other stresses of military life. It is our conclusion that the time has come to move away from the general and only partially meaningful definitions of "stress" to more tightly operational and measurable ones...

  20. Elemental characterization of the Persian Gulf sediments near the Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabpour, M.

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-three sediment samples from four shoreline and three sea positions in a defined sampling grid around the Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) have been taken over six sampling periods during 1996-1997. Elemental analysis of the samples has been performed with neutron activation and concentrations of seventeen elements have been obtained. Cross-correlation analysis has been carried out and four categories of related elements have been defined. (author)

  1. Retrofit of Ressalat jacket platform (Persian Gulf) using friction damper device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komachi, Y.; Tabeshpour, M. R.; Golafshani, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    A friction damper device (FDD) is used for vibration control of an existing steel jacket platform under seismic excitation. First, the damping is presented for vibration mitigation of structures located in seismically active zones. A new method for quick design of friction or yielding damping dev...

  2. Geochemical evaluation of Pabdeh Formation in Nosrat field, southeast Persian Gulf using Rock- Eval VI pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad sadeghi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed on 59 drillhole cuttings from Pabdeh Formation in Nosrat oil field using Rock- Eval VI pryrolysis. Geochemical analysis indicated that Pabdeh Formation possesses poor to good hydrocarbon potential. Plotting S1 against TOC suggests that samples were not affected by polluting substances such as crude oil and lubricants while drilling operation. Jones organic fancies diagram shows B-BC area indicating that Pabdeh Formation was deposited in marine anoxic to oxic environments. HI vesus Tmax shows that most samples initially have had type II kerogen and now reflecting a mixture of type II to III kerogen (capable of generating oil that have already entered oil generation window. In addition, S1+S2 versus TOC plot also suggests that Pabdeh Formation can be considered as a capable hydrocarbon generating source rock in the study area.

  3. Determination of nickel and thallium concentration in Cynoglossus arel fish in Musa estuary, Persian Gulf, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafarzadeh Haghighi Fard, Neamat; Zare Javid, Ahmad; Ravanbakhsh, Maryam; Ramezani, Zahra; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Angali, Kambiz Ahmadi; Ardeshirzadeh, Shirin

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metals with high bioaccumulation capacity are considered as important contaminants and may be available in high concentrations in environment and biota samples. The main aim of this study was to determine the concentration of nickel and thallium in Cynoglossus arel fish in Musa estuary. Sixty-seven fish samples were collected from Musa estuary during five intervals of 15 days in summer 2013. After biometric measurements, the concentrations of nickel and thallium were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean concentration of nickel and thallium in muscle tissue of fish samples was 2.458 ± 0.910 and 0.781 ± 1.754 mg kg -1 /ww, respectively. The GLM analysis showed a significant negative relationship between nickel concentration and length. In addition, there was a significant positive relationship between thallium concentration and fish length. Nickel concentration exceeded the allowable standards of WHO and FDA in Cynoglossus arel. Therefore, regarding with high consumption of seafood in this region, it is recommended that these fishes should be consumed under a nutritionist counseling.

  4. Topical Bibliography of Published Works Regarding the Health of Veterans of the Persian Gulf War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Defining the chronic fatigue syndrome [editorial]. Arch Intern Med. 1992;152:1569-1570. Straus S, Tosato G, Armstrong G, et al. Persisting illness and...catecholamine excretion and severity of PTSD symptoms in Vietnam combat veterans. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1992;180(5):321-325. Yitzhaki T, Solomon Z, Kotler M

  5. Stress and Arousal Symptoms in Individuals and Groups - Persian Gulf War Symptoms as a Paradigm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dine, Sarah

    1999-01-01

    .... This report makes a series of recommendations, some general, and some quasi-specific for future patterns of research into the somatic and other consequences of combat stress, deployment stress...

  6. A Re-Examination of Neuropsychological Functioning in Persian Gulf War Era Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    headache, numbness, dizziness), musculoskeletal (joint pain, backache, neck ache), dermatologic (skin rash, eczema , skin allergies), and gastrointestinal...as well as the influence of exposure on emotional and personality bol Digit Modalities, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, WAIS-I1I Digit functioning...another study (Axelrod & Milner, 1997) 80 White were reanalyzed considering " emotional factors" such When comparing performance on olfactory tests among

  7. Phospholipase A2 activity of the Persian Gulf upside-down jellyfish venom (Cassiopea andromeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossean Mohebbi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The venomous jellyfish Cassiopea andromeda can produce envenomation and different toxicological and biological effects by their nematocysts. The phospholipase A2 enzymes (PLA2 are toxic and induce various pharmacological effects including neurotoxicity, myotoxicity and anticoagulant activities. The main aim of the current project was to screen the in vitro PLA2 activity of the C. andromeda crude venom. To better understand the experimental result; a molecular docking study was also performed. Materials and methods: The live specimens were collected from Nayband lagoon, by a trawl net, and separation of their tentacles was done according to Bloom 's et al., method. The PLA2 activity of crude venom was performed according to the acidimetric method of Tan and Tan. The lyophilized venom was subjected to Gas Chromatography/ Mass Spectroscopy, and the obtained structures were used for docking study against PLA2. The indoxam was considered as standard control. Results: The PLA2 activity of the jellyfish crude venom was 413 ±0.08 µmol/min/mg. Analysis of the crude venom detected seven compounds (i-vii using GC-MS. Docking data was also confirmed the experimental results. According to the docking results, the highest affinity (-6.7 (kcal/mol was observed in the compound “Pregn-5-ene-3,11-dione, 17,20:20,21 bis [methylenebis(oxy]-, cyclic 3-(1,2-ethane diyl acetal”. Conclusions: A high PLA2 level was found in the venom of C. andromeda. There was a good correlation between in vitro and in silico studies.

  8. The Persian version of phonological test of diagnostic evaluation articulation and phonology for Persian speaking children and investigating its validity and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talieh Zarifian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Speech and language pathologists (SLP often refer to phonological data as part of their assessment protocols in evaluating the communication skills of children. The aim of this study was to develop the Persian version of the phonological test in evaluating and diagnosing communication skills in Persian speaking children and to evaluate its validity and reliability.Methods: The Persian phonological test (PPT was conducted on 387 monolingual Persian speaking boys and girls (3-6 years of age who were selected from 12 nurseries in the northwest region of Tehran. Content validity ratio (CVR and content validity index (CVI were assessed by speechtherapists and linguists. Correlation between speech and language pathologists experts' opinions and Persian phonological test results in children with and without phonological disorders was evaluated to investigate the Persian phonological test validity. In addition, the Persian phonological test test-retest reliability was investigated.Results: Both content validity ratio and content validity index were found to be acceptable (CVR≥94.71 and CVI=97.35. The PPT validity was confirmed by finding a good correlation between s peech and language pathologists experts' opinions and Persian phonological test results ( r Kappa =0.73 and r Spearman =0.76. The percent of agreement between transcription and analyzing error patterns in test-retest (ranging from 86.27%-100% and score-rescore (ranging from 94.28%-100% showed that Persian phonological test had a very high reliability.Conclusion: The results of this study show that the Persian phonological test seems to be a suitable tool in evaluating phonological skills of Persian speaking children in clinical settings and research projects.

  9. Persian version of frontal assessment battery: Correlations with formal measures of executive functioning and providing normative data for Persian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaadi, Sina; Ashrafi, Farzad; Omidbeigi, Mahmoud; Nasiri, Zahra; Pakdaman, Hossein; Amini-Harandi, Ali

    2016-01-05

    Cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) mainly involves executive function (EF). The frontal assessment battery (FAB) is an efficient tool for the assessment of EFs. The aims of this study were to determine the validity and reliability of the psychometric properties of the Persian version of FAB and assess its correlation with formal measures of EFs to provide normative data for the Persian version of FAB in patients with PD. The study recruited 149 healthy participants and 49 patients with idiopathic PD. In PD patients, FAB results were compared to their performance on EF tests. Reliability analysis involved test-retest reliability and internal consistency, whereas validity analysis involved convergent validity approach. FAB scores compared in normal controls and in PD patients matched for age, education, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score. In PD patients, FAB scores were significantly decreased compared to normal controls, and correlated with Stroop test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). In healthy subjects, FAB scores varied according to the age, education, and MMSE. In the FAB subtest analysis, the performances of PD patients were worse than the healthy participants on similarities, fluency tasks, and Luria's motor series. Persian version of FAB could be used as a reliable scale for the assessment of frontal lobe functions in Iranian patients with PD. Furthermore, normative data provided for the Persian version of this test improve the accuracy and confidence in the clinical application of the FAB.

  10. DE PODER NULO A SUPERPODER: O JUDICIÁRIO DE MONTESQUIEU, REVISITADO | FROM NULL TO SUPER-POWER: MONTESQUIEU’S JUDICIARY REVIEWED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Luís Tomás Ballande Romanelli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the Judiciary within the doctrine of separation of powers, aiming to provide historical and political data that could explain judicial protagonism. This is achieved through book reviews of contemporary political science literature and classic authors from the 18 th century. Therefore, it aims to examine in depth some chapters of Montesquieu’s “Spirit of laws” classic book, expressing how its theory of judicial power was deeply linked with ancient régime’s judicial system, in a context where 18 th century French Judiciary Power was a great source of threat to both political and legislative powers. The paper addresses how the American Constitution bended the original theory, moving from an absolute separation of powers towards a super-powered Judiciary in defence of individual liberties, acting as counterbalance to state assemblies and local political powers. In conclusion, it stands that Judicial Power protagonism doesn’t violate the classic theory of separation of powers.

  11. Gulf operations still recovering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that reports of damage caused by Hurricane Andrew were leveling off last week at the U.S. Minerals Management Service as Gulf of Mexico operators pressed ahead with repairs. The hurricane struck South Florida Aug. 4, churned west into the gulf, then swung north and hit the South Louisiana coast Aug. 5. By the close of business Sept. 8 MMS had received damage reports covering 83 pipeline segments and 193 platforms and satellite installations. MMS last week estimated about 500 MMcfd of gas production had been restored in the gulf and 100,000-150,000 b/d of oil. Production still lost as a result of Andrew was estimated at 2-2.5 bcfd of gas and 90,000-120 b/d of oil. MMS estimates Gulf of Mexico wells before the storm were producing about 12.5-13 bcfd of gas and 750,000 b/d of oil

  12. Gulf Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Landings - This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by the larger vessels that fish near and offshore for...

  13. Bioaccumulation of 210Po in common gastropod and bivalve species from the northern Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, S; Bebhehani, M

    2014-06-01

    This study sets the baseline for the concentration of the natural-series radionuclide polonium-210 in two species of gastropods and four species of bivalves that are common to the Northern Arabian/Persian Gulf. (210)Po is primarily absorbed from water and via ingestion of detrital material by gastropoda and bivalves. This concentrated (210)Po can then be passed along to the next trophic level of the marine food web. The lowest (210)Po concentration was measured in the gastropod Stomatella auricular (10.36-12.39Bq kg(-1)dry) and the highest in the bivalve Marica marmorata (193.51-215.60Bq kg(-1)dry). The measured concentration factor for these molluscs in the northern Gulf varied between 4.8 and 115×10(3), values very similar to the IAEA recommended value for bivalves and gastropods of 2×10(4). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of Care Dependency Scale in Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Gholamreza; Namadmalan, Masoume; Dijkstra, Ate; Ghasemzade, Roya; Foroughan, Mahshid; Zahednejad, Shahla

    The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Care Dependency Scale (CDS) in nursing homes. Instrument development. The English version of the CDS was translated into Persian. A convenience sample of 140 (100 older people without dementia and 40 patients with dementia) Persian-speaking people were selected from the nursing homes in Ahvaz, Iran. Cronbach's alpha, discriminant validity, and construct validity (exploratory factor analysis) were examined. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the CDS has two factors, including psychosocial and somatic factors. Discriminant validity showed that the CDS can differentiate patients with dementia from the older adults without dementia. The results of the study showed that the Persian CDS is a reliable and valid scale when used in nursing homes. The Persian version of the CDS can help clinicians and nurses to assess patients' need and the degree of care dependency among older adults in Persian-speaking areas.

  15. Going native: Iranian Émigré poets and Indo-Persian

    OpenAIRE

    Dudney, Arthur Dale

    2017-01-01

    Iranian men of letters who came to the Indian subcontinent during the Mughal period contributed greatly to the development of Persianate culture in South Asia. Modern scholars who have addressed this migration have tended to assume that Iranians brought authentic knowledge of a Persian mother culture to Indians who struggled with some kind of inferior local product that was replaced by higher quality imported Persian as it was made available. This article addresses the neglected question of w...

  16. Gulf War veterans' health: medical evaluation of a U.S. cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Seth A; Kang, Han K; Murphy, Frances M; Blanchard, Melvin S; Reda, Domenic J; Henderson, William G; Toomey, Rosemary; Jackson, Leila W; Alpern, Renee; Parks, Becky J; Klimas, Nancy; Hall, Coleen; Pak, Hon S; Hunter, Joyce; Karlinsky, Joel; Battistone, Michael J; Lyons, Michael J

    2005-06-07

    United States military personnel reported various symptoms after deployment to the Persian Gulf during the 1991 Gulf War. However, the symptoms' long-term prevalence and association with deployment remain controversial. To assess and compare the prevalence of selected medical conditions in a national cohort of deployed and nondeployed Gulf War veterans who were evaluated by direct medical and teledermatologic examinations. A cross-sectional prevalence study performed 10 years after the 1991 Gulf War. Veterans were examined at 1 of 16 Veterans Affairs medical centers. Deployed (n = 1061) and nondeployed (n = 1128) veterans of the 1991 Gulf War. Primary outcome measures included fibromyalgia, the chronic fatigue syndrome, dermatologic conditions, dyspepsia, physical health-related quality of life (Short Form-36 [SF-36]), hypertension, obstructive lung disease, arthralgias, and peripheral neuropathy. Of 12 conditions, only 4 conditions were more prevalent among deployed than nondeployed veterans: fibromyalgia (deployed, 2.0%; nondeployed, 1.2%; odds ratio, 2.32 [95% CI, 1.02 to 5.27]); the chronic fatigue syndrome (deployed, 1.6%; nondeployed 0.1%; odds ratio, 40.6 [CI, 10.2 to 161]); dermatologic conditions (deployed, 34.6%; nondeployed, 26.8%; odds ratio, 1.38 [CI, 1.06 to 1.80]), and dyspepsia (deployed, 9.1%; nondeployed, 6.0%; odds ratio, 1.87 [CI, 1.16 to 2.99]). The mean physical component summary score of the SF-36 for deployed and nondeployed veterans was 49.3 and 50.8, respectively. Relatively low participation rates introduce potential participation bias, and deployment-related illnesses that resolved before the research examination could not, by design, be detected. Ten years after the Gulf War, the physical health of deployed and nondeployed veterans is similar. However, Gulf War deployment is associated with an increased risk for fibromyalgia, the chronic fatigue syndrome, skin conditions, dyspepsia, and a clinically insignificant decrease in the SF-36

  17. Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS): a Study on Persian Language Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigdeli, Imanollah; Corazza, Ornella; Aslanpour, Zoe; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    During the past few years, there has been an increasing recognition that Internet is playing a significant role in the synthesis, the distribution and the consumption of Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS).The aim of this study was to assess the online availability of NPS in Persian language websites. The Google search engine was used to carry out an accurate qualitative assessment of information available on NPS in a sample of 104 websites. The monitoring has led to the identification of 14 NPS including herbal, synthetic, pharmaceutical and combination drugs that have been sold online. The availability of online marketing of NPS in Persian language websites may constitute a public health challenge at least across three Farsi-speaking countries in the Middle East. Hence, descriptions of this phenomenon are valuable to clinicians and health professional in this region. Further international collaborative efforts may be able to tackle the growth and expansion of regular offer of NPS.

  18. Linguistic approaches to the study of Persian Literature

    OpenAIRE

    محمد امین ناصح

    2010-01-01

    Since the start of the last century, along with those literary men who took a literary approach to the study of literary texts, there has been another group who has taken a linguistic approach. The ancient and ever flourishing tradition of literary studies of translation can no doubt take benefit from linguistic methods and tools in the investigations of literary texts. As a result of this we come across linguistic terms in three high school textbooks of Persian language and literature. In f...

  19. Pruritus Treatment in Viewpoints of Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazani, Arezoo Moini; Azgomi, Ramin Nasimi Doost; Shirbeigi, Leila

    2016-05-01

    Pruritus is an unpleasant feeling that can cause the desire of scratching in a person and can be the symptoms of systemic, infectious, and neurological diseases. Pruritus is the most common clinical manifestation of skin diseases. Pruritus prevalence is 8-38% in the general population. Causes and treatments of pruritus have been described by traditional Persian medicine scientists. The aim of this study was to derive general principles of the proposed treatment to reduce or relieve pruritus. This descriptive study, review traditional medicine books including Al canon fil tibb, Al-Hawi, Makhzan ul-adviyyah, Al-Abniyah an-Haghyegh el-adviyah, Tuhfat ul-Momineen and Exir-e-Azam. The above-mentioned documents were derived and classified by keywords such as pruritus, hakka, jarab and sherry. In traditional Persian medicine, there are different causes for pruritus such as accumulation of vapors or acute humors in subcutaneous tissue or weakness of expulsive (Dafi'a) faculty and its treatment is based on removing the causes. Proper nutrition, bathing, and removing pathogenic humors are involved in the treatment. According to this study, some plants such as Cassia fistula, Purslane, Violets, Fumaria, Barley, Coriander, Rose and Terminalia chebula are anti-itching. Proper nutrition is the most important point in health and treatment of humors production with appropriate quality and quantity. Pruritus can be treated by lifestyle modification and using medicinal plants. It could be concluded that traditional Persian medicine therapies can be effective in the treatment of pruritus with mild side effects. By further investigation and research, we can reach more effective treatment methods in the field of traditional Persian medicine along with other new medical therapies.

  20. A Persian Cued Speech Website Fromthe Deaf Professionals’ Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guita Movallali

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Increasingly people are using the internet to find information about medical and educational issues and one of the simplest ways to obtain information is internet. Persian Cued Speech is a very new system to Iranian families with deaf child and the professionals and a few educators have enough knowledge about it, so the purpose of this study was to introduce Persian Cued Speech website to deaf educators and rehabilitation professionals and assess their views about the website and their accessibility to important information through its use. Methods:The sample group was randomly selected fromdeaf educators and rehabilitation professionals working in different educational settings for deaf children in Tehran, our capital .They completed a questionnaire which was adopted from different website assessing questionnaires. Researchers also completed an interview with the sample group. Results: Our findings show that from the deaf educators and rehabilitation professionals point of view,the Persian Cued Speech website was a helpful and informing website. They also wanted more pictures and videos,bigger font sizes and more practical parts.So we decide to change some parts of the website to be more usable for them. Discussion: Using informational websites can be a very helpful tool in the internet area. Helpful websites are those which are more accessible, readable and appropriately designed and are user-friendly.

  1. Functional dyspepsia: A new approach from traditional Persian medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Pasalar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the most common global disorders is related to gastrointestinal system. Functional dyspepsia (FD defined as upper abdominal pain and discomfort in the absence of organic ailments is a prevalent disease without any confirmed medication. The purpose of this study was to find gastric disorders which might be coincidental to FD based on traditional Persian medicine (TPM. Materials and Methods: We searched the main textbooks of TPM including Al-Havi (by Rhazes, Canon of medicine (by Avicenna, ZakhireKhawrazmshahi (by Ismail Jorjani, Moalijat-e Aghili and Makhzan Al-adviya (by Mohammad Hosein AghiliShirazi, and ExirAzam (by Hakim Azam Khan. Also, we searched Pubmed, Scopus, Science Direct, Medline, scientific information database (SID, Iranmedex and Google Scholar from 1980 to 1 August 2014 for dyspepsia, gastrointestinal disease, traditional Persian medicine, and gastric dystemperaments. Results: There is no equivalent term for FD in traditional Persian medicine although similar signs and symptoms are visible in terms like simple cold dystemperament of stomach, indigestion, and digestion debility in TPM sources. Some treatments mentioned in TPM have shown promising results in the current experimental tests. Conclusion: Finding these similarities in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM textbooks may lead to discovering new remedies for this widespread disease.

  2. Functional dyspepsia: A new approach from traditional Persian medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalar, Mehdi; Nimrouzi, Majid; Choopani, Rasool; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Bagheri Lankarani, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Objective: One of the most common global disorders is related to gastrointestinal system. Functional dyspepsia (FD) defined as upper abdominal pain and discomfort in the absence of organic ailments is a prevalent disease without any confirmed medication. The purpose of this study was to find gastric disorders which might be coincidental to FD based on traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Materials and Methods: We searched the main textbooks of TPM including Al-Havi (by Rhazes), Canon of medicine (by Avicenna), ZakhireKhawrazmshahi (by Ismail Jorjani), Moalijat-e Aghili and Makhzan Al-adviya (by Mohammad Hosein AghiliShirazi), and ExirAzam (by Hakim Azam Khan). Also, we searched Pubmed, Scopus, Science Direct, Medline, scientific information database (SID), Iranmedex and Google Scholar from 1980 to 1 August 2014 for dyspepsia, gastrointestinal disease, traditional Persian medicine, and gastric dystemperaments. Results: There is no equivalent term for FD in traditional Persian medicine although similar signs and symptoms are visible in terms like simple cold dystemperament of stomach, indigestion, and digestion debility in TPM sources. Some treatments mentioned in TPM have shown promising results in the current experimental tests. Conclusion: Finding these similarities in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) textbooks may lead to discovering new remedies for this widespread disease. PMID:27222829

  3. Ultrasonographic biometry of the normal eye of the Persian cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshahi, A; Shafigh, S H; Azizzadeh, M

    2014-07-01

    To describe the normal ultrasonographic biometry of the Persian cat's eyes using B-mode ultrasonography. In a cross-sectional study, 20 healthy Persian cats with no history of previous ophthalmic disease were examined. Ocular biometry of the left and right eyes was measured using B-mode ultrasonography. Comparison of the average measurements between left and right eyes and between vertical and horizontal planes was performed using paired-sample t test. Correlation of ocular parameters with sex, age, head circumference and eye colour was evaluated. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) measurements of the ocular structures of anterior chamber, lens thickness, vitreous chamber and anterior to posterior dimension of the globe in 40 eyes were 4.1 ± 0.7, 7.7 ± 0.5, 8.2 ± 0.4 and 20.7 ± 1.0 mm, respectively. No significant difference was found between the ocular biometry of the left and right eyes or the horizontal and vertical planes. Of the ocular parameters, the following had a significant positive correlation with head circumference: axial globe length, anterior chamber and lens thickness. The vitreous body had a positive correlation with age. Regarding the breed predisposition of Persian cats to ocular problems, the present study provides baseline information for further clinical investigations of ocular abnormalities using B-mode ultrasonography. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  4. Genetic screening in the Persian Jewish community: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaback, Michael; Lopatequi, Jean; Portuges, Amin Riley; Quindipan, Cathy; Pariani, Mitchel; Salimpour-Davidov, Nilou; Rimoin, David L

    2010-10-01

    Israeli investigators have identified several relatively frequent disorders due to founder point mutations in Persian (Iranian) Jews, who, for nearly three centuries up to the Islamic Revolution of 1979, were completely isolated reproductively. Using a community-based model previously employed with Tay-Sachs disease prevention, we developed a pilot program for the Persian Jewish community of greater Los Angeles. We screened for mutations responsible for four relatively frequent autosomal recessive conditions in Persian Jews in which effective interventions are available for each: Pseudocholinesterase deficiency (butyryl cholinesterase deficiency); Congenital hypoaldosteronism (corticosterone methyl oxidase II); Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy (autoimmune regulatory element); and Hereditary Inclusion Body myopathy. One thousand individuals volunteered. Mutations were assessed in saliva-derived DNA and were positive for 121/1000 butyryl cholinesterase deficiency; 92/1000 Hereditary Inclusion Body myopathy; 38/1000 corticosterone methyl oxidase II; and 37/1000 autoimmune regulatory element. Ten homozygous individuals (9 butyryl cholinesterase deficiency and 1 Hereditary Inclusion Body myopathy) and 10 "at-risk" couples (seven for butyryl cholinesterase deficiency and one each for the other three disorders) were identified. These frequencies are comparable with those in Israel and indicate an extraordinary level of inbreeding, as anticipated. A carefully planned effort can be delivered to an "increased risk" community if detailed attention is given to planning and organization. However, availability of an effective intervention for those found to be "at-risk" or possibly affected, is essential before embarking.

  5. Description and grammatical analysis of Persian to Persian teaching series of Jame’at al-Mostafa al-‘alamiye books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafise Raisi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Persian as the second language of the world of Islam is closely related to the teachings of this divine religion, so learning Persian besides Islamic and Shia teachings would be helpful for Islamic scholars. In this regard, Jame’at al-Mostafa al-‘alamiye in the context of the Persian language tries to train Islamic scholars, translators and missioners. Center of language education and Islamic teachings which is the subset of Jame’at al-Mostafa, has formulated a collection of eight books named Persian to Persian teaching which is taught in different centers of Jame’at al-Mostafa inside and outside of the country. High goals of this Shia association represents the importance of authoring and analyzing education books. So their accuracy needs more attention and research. This essay aimed at describing and grammatical analyzing of this educational series. The present study deals with the importance and methods of teaching grammar to non-Persian speakers after introducing the Jame’at al-Mostafa al-‘alamiye; also, besides introducing the required grammatical issues, it describes eight volumes books of teaching Persian-to-Persian grammatically. Then the grammatical difficulties of these books are investigated in ten separate sections with giving some examples. The study ends with providing some strategies to improve the grammatical issues of this educational set and other books of teaching Persian language to non-Persian speakers. In the early years after the Islamic revolution, some foreign students came to Iran to study Islamic studies so the supervisory board of non-Iranian students was established to answer and to organize their educational and livelihood status in 1979. “Jame’at al-Mostafa al-‘alamiye” was founded in Qom and other cities after the continuous changes in 2007. This center tries to grow the Islamic scholar, translator, and missionary by teaching Persian language; in this way, center of language and

  6. Description and grammatical analysis of Persian to Persian teaching series of Jame’at al-Mostafa al-‘alamiye books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafise Raisi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract Persian as the second language of the world of Islam is closely related to the teachings of this divine religion, so learning Persian besides Islamic and Shia teachings would be helpful for Islamic scholars. In this regard, Jame’at al-Mostafa al-‘alamiye in the context of the Persian language tries to train Islamic scholars, translators and missioners. Center of language education and Islamic teachings which is the subset of Jame’at al-Mostafa, has formulated a collection of eight books named Persian to Persian teaching which is taught in different centers of Jame’at al-Mostafa inside and outside of the country. High goals of this Shia association represents the importance of authoring and analyzing education books. So their accuracy needs more attention and research. This essay aimed at describing and grammatical analyzing of this educational series. The present study deals with the importance and methods of teaching grammar to non-Persian speakers after introducing the Jame’at al-Mostafa al-‘alamiye; also, besides introducing the required grammatical issues, it describes eight volumes books of teaching Persian-to-Persian grammatically. Then the grammatical difficulties of these books are investigated in ten separate sections with giving some examples. The study ends with providing some strategies to improve the grammatical issues of this educational set and other books of teaching Persian language to non-Persian speakers. In the early years after the Islamic revolution, some foreign students came to Iran to study Islamic studies so the supervisory board of non-Iranian students was established to answer and to organize their educational and livelihood status in 1979. “Jame’at al-Mostafa al-‘alamiye” was founded in Qom and other cities after the continuous changes in 2007. This center tries to grow the Islamic scholar, translator, and missionary by teaching Persian

  7. Excretion of depleted uranium by Gulf war veterans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toohey, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    During the Persian Gulf War, in 1991, approximately 100 US military personnel had potential intakes of depleted uranium (DU), including shrapnel wounds. In 1993, the US government initiated a follow-up study of 33 Gulf War veterans who had been exposed to DU, many of whom contained embedded fragments of DU shrapnel in their bodies. The veterans underwent medical evaluation, whole-body counting, and urinalysis for uranium by kinetic phosphorescence analysis (KPA). Data are available from seven individuals who exceeded the detection limit for whole-body counting and also had elevated urinary uranium. Urinary excretion rates, in μg U g -1 creatinine, were determined in 1997 and 1999. The body contents, in mg DU, were determined in 1997; it is assumed there were no significant decreases in total body content in the interim. For the 1997 data, the mean fractional excretion was (2.4 ± 2.8) x 10 -5 g -1 creatinine, and for the 1999 data, the mean was (1.1 ± 0.6) x 10 -5 g -1 creatinine. However, these means are not significantly different, nor is there any correlation of excretion rate with body content. Thus, human data available to date do not provide any basis for determining the effects of particle surface area, composition and solubility, and biological processes such as encapsulation, on the excretion rate. (author)

  8. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of Persian Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Naghdi, Soofia; Hasanvand, Sahar; Fakhari, Zahra; Kordi, Ramin; Nilsson-Helander, Katarina

    2016-04-01

    To cross-culturally adapt the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) to Persian language and to preliminary evaluate the reliability and validity of a Persian ATRS. A cross-sectional and prospective cohort study was conducted to translate and cross-culturally adapt the ATRS to Persian language (ATRS-Persian) following steps described in guidelines. Thirty patients with total Achilles tendon rupture and 30 healthy subjects participated in this study. Psychometric properties of floor/ceiling effects (responsiveness), internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, standard error of measurement (SEM), smallest detectable change (SDC), construct validity, and discriminant validity were tested. Factor analysis was performed to determine the ATRS-Persian structure. There were no floor or ceiling effects that indicate the content and responsiveness of ATRS-Persian. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach's α 0.95). Item-total correlations exceeded acceptable standard of 0.3 for the all items (0.58-0.95). The test-retest reliability was excellent [(ICC)agreement 0.98]. SEM and SDC were 3.57 and 9.9, respectively. Construct validity was supported by a significant correlation between the ATRS-Persian total score and the Persian Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (PFAOS) total score and PFAOS subscales (r = 0.55-0.83). The ATRS-Persian significantly discriminated between patients and healthy subjects. Explanatory factor analysis revealed 1 component. The ATRS was cross-culturally adapted to Persian and demonstrated to be a reliable and valid instrument to measure functional outcomes in Persian patients with Achilles tendon rupture. II.

  9. The Effect of superficial cracks of the concrete on the behavior and corrosion rate of steel rebars in Persian Golf (Booshehr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afshar, A.; Rajabi, A.

    2001-01-01

    The presence of superficial cracks in concrete increases the diffusion of destructive agents into concrete and the corrosion of rebars will take place. In the present work, the effects of cracks width on the behavior and corrosion rate of steel rebars in the concrete containing cements type I and II at Persian Gulf water have been studied. The results show that the corrosion rate of steel rebars in the concrete with cracks width less than 0.4 mm is negligible, but with increasing the cracks width to 0.7 mm, the corrosion rate increase rapidly. Also, the corrosion gate of gebars in the concrete containing cement type I is more than that of cement type II. The visual inspection of the surface area of gebars shows that the corroded area is 6-7 times of the crack width and length

  10. Gulf of Mexico development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenz, D.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) has seen significant deepwater growth. An overview of the GOM deepwater leaseholds by Shell and developments by competing companies is presented. Deepwater GOM developments, total production from the shelf and from deepwater wells, new offshore pipeline capacity and ownership, and processing plant capacity are also discussed. Significant deepwater growth in the Gulf is anticipated. Despite significant economic and technological challenges, the area is judged to be the prime exploration and production opportunity in the lower 48 states of the USA. tabs., figs

  11. Learning to Read and Spell in Persian: A Cross-Sectional Study from Grades 1 to 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbari, Noriyeh; Senechal, Monique

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the reading and spelling development of 140 Persian children attending Grades 1-4 in Iran. Persian has very consistent letter-sound correspondences, but it varies in transparency because 3 of its 6 vowel phonemes are not marked with letters. Persian also varies in spelling consistency because 6 phonemes have more than one…

  12. Investigation of the Reliability of the SSI-3 for Preschool Persian-Speaking Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Mehdi; Seifpanahi, Sadegh; Ansari, Hossein; Ghanadzade, Mehdi; Packman, Ann

    2010-01-01

    There is a pressing need in Iran for the translation of widely used speech-language assessment tools into Persian. This study reports the interjudge and intrajudge reliability of a Persian translation of the Stuttering Severity Instrument-3 (SSI-3) (Riley, 1994). There was greater than 80% interjudge and intrajudge agreement on scale scores for…

  13. Lexical and Nonlexical Processes in the Skilled Reading and Spelling of Persian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbari, Noriyeh; Senechal, Monique

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the contribution of lexical and nonlexical processes to skilled reading and spelling in Persian. Persian is a mixed orthography that allows one to study within one language characteristics typically found in shallow orthographies as well as those found in deeper orthographies. 61 senior high-school…

  14. Validity and cross-cultural adaptation of the persian version of the oxford elbow score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Kachooei, Amir Reza; Vahedi, Ehsan; Moradi, Ali; Mashayekhi, Zeinab; Hallaj-Moghaddam, Mohammad; Azami, Mehran; Birjandinejad, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Oxford Elbow Score (OES) is a patient-reported questionnaire used to assess outcomes after elbow surgery. The aim of this study was to validate and adapt the OES into Persian language. After forward-backward translation of the OES into Persian, a total number of 92 patients after elbow surgeries completed the Persian OES along with the Persian DASH and SF-36. To assess test-retest reliability, 31 randomly selected patients (34%) completed the Persian OES again after three days while abstaining from all forms of therapeutic regimens. Reliability of the Persian OES was assessed by measuring intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for test-retest reliability and Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to test the construct validity. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.92 showing excellent reliability. Cronbach's alpha for function, pain, and social-psychological subscales was 0.95, 0.86, and 0.85, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.85 for the overall questionnaire and 0.90, 0.76, and 0.75 for function, pain, and social-psychological subscales, respectively. Construct validity was confirmed as the Spearman correlation between OES and DASH was 0.80. Persian OES is a valid and reliable patient-reported outcome measure to assess postsurgical elbow status in Persian speaking population.

  15. Contrastive Analysis of Place of Adjuncts in English and Persian Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzahoseini, Zeynab; Gowhary, Habib; Azizifar, Akbar; Mirzahoseini, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the position of adjuncts in sentences in English and Persian languages. The numbers of 136 sentences are collected from English story books and their Persian translations. The frequencies of each position (initial, middle, final) of adjuncts are determined by SPSS software and frequencies in English sentences are matched…

  16. Cross-cultural adaptation, validation, and reliability of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire among Persian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Birjandinejad, Ali; Kachooei, Amir Reza

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to validate a cross-culturally adapted version of the Persian Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHOQ). We followed the Beaton's guideline to translate the questionnaire to Persian. We administered the final version to 223 patients among which 79 patients returned 3 days later to respond to the Persian MHOQ for the second time. In the first visit, respondents also filled the Disabilities of the Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and rated the pain based on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Cronbach's alpha for the total MHOQ was 0.79 which showed good internal consistency. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the total MHOQ was 0.84 which demonstrated good reliability between test and retest. The absolute correlation coefficient between total MHOQ and the DASH was as high as 0.74. Persian version of the MHOQ proved to be a reliable and valid instrument to be implemented among Persian population with the hand and wrist disorders.

  17. A SVM-based method for sentiment analysis in Persian language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajmohammadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Ibrahim, Roliana

    2013-03-01

    Persian language is the official language of Iran, Tajikistan and Afghanistan. Local online users often represent their opinions and experiences on the web with written Persian. Although the information in those reviews is valuable to potential consumers and sellers, the huge amount of web reviews make it difficult to give an unbiased evaluation to a product. In this paper, standard machine learning techniques SVM and naive Bayes are incorporated into the domain of online Persian Movie reviews to automatically classify user reviews as positive or negative and performance of these two classifiers is compared with each other in this language. The effects of feature presentations on classification performance are discussed. We find that accuracy is influenced by interaction between the classification models and the feature options. The SVM classifier achieves as well as or better accuracy than naive Bayes in Persian movie. Unigrams are proved better features than bigrams and trigrams in capturing Persian sentiment orientation.

  18. The Persian version of satisfaction assessment module of Orthotics and Prosthetics Users' Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadadi, Mohammad; Ghoseiri, Kamiar; Fardipour, Shima; Kashani, Reza Vahab; Asadi, Farnoosh; Asghari, Azizeh

    2016-01-01

    Orthotics and Prosthetics User's Survey (OPUS) was developed to measure patient satisfaction in Prosthetic and Orthotic (P&O) field. To translate the satisfaction assessment module of OPUS (OPUS-SM) into Persian language (Persian OPUS-SM) and investigate its psychometric properties. For cross-cultural adaptation of the OPUS-SM, the guideline suggested by the World Health Organization was recruited. A sample of 116 Persian-speaking people who received P&O devices and services, participated in this study. During the first session, participants filled out the Persian OPUS-SM and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) regarding their satisfaction from delivered devices and services. Drawing from the above sample of 116 participants, 41 participants retook the Persian OPUS-SM 5-7 days after their first time. The results of the first and second administration sessions were analyzed to assess internal consistency, test-retest reliability, item-subscale correlation, minimal detectable change, floor and ceiling effects, criterion validity, and dimensionality of the Persian OPUS-SM. The Cronbach's alphas of the Persian OPUS-SM were 0.71 and 0.89 for device and service satisfaction subscales, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.76 and 0.90 for device and service satisfaction subscales, respectively. The SEM and MDC for device satisfaction were 6.21 and ±17.21, respectively. The SEM and MDC for service satisfaction were 2.25 and ±6.22, respectively. There was a strong correlation between VAS and satisfaction subscales of the Persian OPUS-SM. Dimensionality assessment revealed that Persian OPUS-SM is a unidimensional measure. The adapted and translated Persian OPUS-SM is a reliable and validated measure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Some Problems of American Students in Mastering Persian Phonology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadessy, Esmael

    1988-12-01

    An adult learning to speak a foreign language normally retains an "accent" which may affect the intelligibility of certain sounds, but more often simply conveys the fact that the speaker is a non-native speaker. Various scholars have experimented and discussed the elements involved in a foreign accent. However, in Iran very few researchers have attempted to verify scientifically what are the phonetic and phonological aspects of an "accent." This author tried to determine whether or not a selected group of words, emphasizing stop voicing, produced by native speakers of Persian had significant phonetic and phonemic differences from those achieved by the American students. Subjects for the experiments were three groups of students, one Iranian, two American. A contrastive analysis of the Persian and the English stop consonants was made. An identical measurement test for all three groups was administered. Utilized was a Kay Sona-graph for acoustic analysis, and all spoken data from the Iranian group were compared with those of the American groups. An examination of acoustic correlates of Tehran stops produced by American students shows that the phonetically different but similar feature of /voice/ found in Tehran, Persian and English stops is intuitive to the Americans, and that the language learner cannot readily disassociate a phonological feature from habits of articulation. The results of this research support using the phonetic method for adult learners who want to improve their pronunciation ability. Further research and experimentation is necessary on the effect of the suprasegmental elements on a foreign accent and the most effective teaching materials and methods and to explore other possible techniques in the teaching process.

  20. The PERSIAN Cohort: Providing the Evidence Needed for Healthcare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghtesad, Sareh; Mohammadi, Zahra; Shayanrad, Amaneh; Faramarzi, Elnaz; Joukar, Farahnaz; Hamzeh, Behrooz; Farjam, Mojtaba; Zare Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad; Miri-Monjar, Mohammadreza; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Hakimi, Hamid; Rahimi Kazerooni, Salar; Cheraghian, Bahman; Ahmadi, Ali; Nejatizadeh, Azim; Mohebbi, Iraj; Pourfarzi, Farhad; Roozafzai, Farzin; Motamed-Gorji, Nazgol; Montazeri, Seyed Ali; Masoudi, Sahar; Amin-Esmaeili, Masoumeh; Danaie, Navid; Mirhafez, Seyed Reza; Hashemi, Hasan; Poustchi, Hossein; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2017-11-01

    In the past, communicable diseases caused the highest mortality in Iran. Improvements in socioeconomic status and living standards including access to safe drinking water, along with the inception of Health Houses in the 1980s, have changed disease patterns, decreasing the spread of and deaths from infectious and communicable diseases. The incidence and prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD), however, have now increased in Iran, accounting for nearly 80% of deaths and disabilities. Without interventions, NCD are predicted to impose a substantial human and economic burden in the next 2 decades. However, Iran's health system is not equipped with the necessary policies to combat this growth and must refocus and reform. Therefore, in the year 2013, the Ministry of Health and Medical Education funded a well-designed nationwide cohort study-Prospective Epidemiological Research Studies in IrAN (PERSIAN)-in order to assess the burden of NCD and investigate the risk factors associated with them in the different ethnicities and geographical areas of Iran. The PERSIAN Cohort, which aims to include 200000 participants, has 4 components: Adult (main), Birth, Youth and Elderly, which are being carried out in 22 different regions of Iran. Having an enormous dataset along with a biobank of blood, urine, hair and nail samples, the PERSIAN Cohort will serve as an important infrastructure for future implementation research and will provide the evidence needed for new healthcare policies in order to better control, manage and prevent NCD. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.

  1. Diabetes and related remedies in medieval Persian medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarshenas, Mohammad M.; Khademian, Sedigheh; Moein, Mahmoodreza

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is a common metabolic disorder presenting increased amounts of serum glucose and will cover 5.4% of population by year 2025. Accordingly, this review was performed to gather and discuss the stand points on diagnosis, pathophysiology, non-pharmacological therapy and drug management of diabetes this disorder as described in medieval Persian medicine. To this, reports on diabetes were collected and analyzed from selected medical and pharmaceutical textbooks of Traditional Persian Medicine. A search on databases as Pubmed, Sciencedirect, Scopus and Google scholar was also performed to reconfirm the Anti diabetic activities of reported herbs. The term, Ziabites, was used to describe what is now spoken as diabetes. It was reported that Ziabites, is highly associated with kidney function. Etiologically, Ziabites was characterized as kidney hot or cold dystemperament as well as diffusion of fluid from other organs such as liver and intestines into the kidneys. This disorder was categorized into main types as hot (Ziabites-e-har) and cold (Ziabites-e-barid) as well as sweet urine (Bole-e-shirin). Most medieval cite signs of Ziabites were remarked as unusual and excessive thirst, frequent urination and polydipsia. On the management, life style modification and observing the essential rules of prevention in Persian medicine as well as herbal therapy and special simple manipulations were recommended. Current investigation was done to clarify the knowledge of medieval scientists on diabetes and related interventions. Reported remedies which are based on centuries of experience might be of beneficial for- further studies to the management of diabetes. PMID:24741508

  2. Perspectives of Medieval Persian Medicine on Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Parviz, Mohsen; Sheibani, Behnam; Schiess, Nicoline; Ghorbanifar, Zahra; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Nazem, Esmail; Sadeghpour, Omid; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein

    2018-01-01

    Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) was the prevailing practice of medicine in the Eurasia region up through the 18th century, a practice of medicine stemming back to Hippocrates and to the 5000 year old civilization of the region. It is a school of medicine which touches on many a delicate points which may seem unimaginable within the realm of modern allopathic medicine. This practice of ancient medicine besides shedding light on various possible theoretical modern day disorders serves as a vast resource for therapeutics. In this paper, we present study of the manuscripts of this ancient medical practice in search of symptom presentations coinciding with presentation of multiple sclerosis (MS). This paper represents a comprehensive search through TPM texts and manuscripts with the intention to seek possible clues on MS from potentially valuable age-old resources. We predominantly focused our search on the works of five eminent physicians of Medieval Persia: Avicenna (980-1037 AD), Haly Abbas (949-982 AD), Rhazes (865-925 AD), Averroes (1126-1198 AD) and Jorjani (1042-1137 AD). In this paper, the authors attempt a theory and conclude with high probability that a conjunction of a series of signs, symptoms found in TPM texts under the terms khadar, isterkha and falej form the symptoms and the disease pattern of modern day MS. This theory draws upon existent similarities in terms of disease pathology, disease patterns and predisposing factors seen between MS and the related morbidities within Persian Medicine. We recommend further examinations of such potentially valuable long-standing resources, examining the diagnoses and treatments as set forth by Persian Medicine through international collaboration within the global scientific community. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Medicinal Plants in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Perspective of Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Shahpiri, Zahra; Mehri, Mohammad Reza; Bahramsoltani, Roodabeh; Rezaei, Mahdi; Raeesdana, Azade; Rahimi, Roja

    2018-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are a progressive loss of structure and/or function of neurons. Weak therapeutic response and progressive nature of the diseases, as well as a wide range of side effects caused by conventional therapeutic approaches make patients seek for complementary and alternative medicine. The aim of the present paper is to discuss the neuropharmacological basis of medicinal plants and their principle phytochemicals which have been used in traditional Persian medicine for different types of neurodegenerative diseases. Medicinal plants introduced in traditional Persian medicine perform beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases via various cellular and molecular mechanisms including suppression of apoptosis mediated by an increase in the expression of anti-apoptotic agents (e.g. Bcl-2) as well as a decrease in the expression and activity of proapoptotic proteins (e.g. Bax, caspase 3 and 9). Alleviating inflammatory responses and suppressing the expression and function of pro-inflammatory cytokines like Tumor necrosis factor α and interleukins, as well as improvement in antioxidative performance mediated by superoxide dismutase and catalase, are among other neuroprotective mechanisms of traditional medicinal plants. Modulation of transcription, transduction, intracellular signaling pathways including ERK, p38, and MAPK, with upstream regulatory activity on inflammatory cascades, apoptosis and oxidative stress associated pathways, play an essential role in the preventive and therapeutic potential of the plants in neurodegenerative diseases. Medicinal plants used in traditional Persian medicine along with their related phytochemicals by affecting various neuropharmacological pathways can be considered as future drugs or adjuvant therapies with conventional pharmacotherapeutics; though, further clinical studies are necessary for the confirmation of their safety and efficacy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  4. The kinds of Ya in today Persian languag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Mohammadreza Ebnorrasool

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diversity of suffix ‘-i’, called ‘ya’, in Persian language, which is of important consideration, for any reason, has not been able to attract scholars and grammarians in the field of Persian language. Here is an attempt to mention different kinds of ‘ya’ and to explain their applications, relying on grammar books, dictionaries, and today native application. The character generally has three types of applications in Persian language. It is firstly one of the Persian alphabet, so it primarily functions as a ‘phoneme’. It is applied in its second function when appears in the form of ’morpheme’, such as ‘-i’ in ‘mardi rad shod’ (a man passed with usage of indefinite article. The third function appears when it comes in the place of a word, because it is one of the six types of pronouns. So, ‘ya’ is applied in three forms: phoneme, morpheme and word. In continue, it is attempted to explain these kinds in more details. ‘ya’ as indefinite maker (Nakare: This kind of ‘ya’ is called the mark of indefinite by many of the Persian grammarians, including doctor Mohammad Moin. Dehkhoda says ‘ya’ is added to the end of the word to make it an indefinite one, such as the last word and it is a sign of indefinite types " of " is unknown, such as‘-i’ in ‘pesari ra didam’ (I saw a boy. ‘ya’ as numerical suffix means one (vahdat:  This kind is added to the last  of the word, and means "one". The difference between this one and the previous, ‘ya’ as indefinite maker, is just in their meanings. ‘ya’ as attributive suffix: This ‘ya’ is joined by various kinds of Persian words an attributes them to someone, some place or something, such as ‘Shirazi’(from shiraz, ‘farsi’(Persian, ‘Irani’(Iraian, Barmaki (Barmakian. This kind also sometimes has other meanings like emphasis, adverbial, degradation, similarity, vehicle, type, distance, and so on. ‘ya’ as addressing suffix (khetab

  5. Two superpowers at EXPO '58

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pair, le G.; Bezooijen, van R.

    2012-01-01

    The 1958 Brussels World's Fair was the first universal world expo after World War II. With the Cold War in progress at this time, the world was flabbergasted when the USA and USSR were assigned adjacent lots at EXPO 58.

  6. Tides and seiches in gulfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierini, S.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper Garrett's theory of tides in gulfs is extended so that its formalism includes the free oscillations (seiches) of the gulf. The elevation of the free surface zeta and the velocity field u are obtained in a rectangular, one-dimensional gulf opening into an infinite ocean. An application of the results to the Adriatic sea can explain qualitatively the long life of the uninodal seiche of that basin. (author)

  7. Gulf operators resuming production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Gulf of Mexico operators last week were gradually restoring production at installations struck by Hurricane Andrew. The Minerals Management Service continued receiving reports of more damage. By the end of the day Sept. 8, MMS had received reports of damage to 83 pipeline segments and 193 platforms and satellite installations. Damage reports listed 112 installations with structural damage, 13 platforms toppled and five leaning, and 30 satellite platforms toppled and 33 leaning. But despite the extent of damage the storm inflicted on oil and gas installations in the gulf, it pales in comparison to the misery and suffering the storm caused in Florida and Louisiana, an oil company official said

  8. Hurricane slams gulf operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that reports of damage by Hurricane Andrew escalated last week as operators stepped up inspections of oil and gas installations in the Gulf of Mexico. By midweek, companies operating in the gulf and South Louisiana were beginning to agree that earlier assessments of damage only scratched the surface. Damage reports included scores of lost, toppled, or crippled platforms, pipeline ruptures, and oil slicks. By midweek the U.S. coast Guard had received reports of 79 oil spills. Even platforms capable of resuming production in some instances were begin curtailed because of damaged pipelines. Offshore service companies the another 2-4 weeks could be needed to fully assess Andrew's wrath. Lack of personnel and equipment was slowing damage assessment and repair

  9. Validity and Reliability of the Persian Version of the Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadollahpour, Faezeh; Baghban, Kowsar; Asadi, Mozhgan

    2015-05-01

    The Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI) is one of the instruments used for measuring a dysphagic patient's self-assessment. In some ways, it reflects the patient's quality of life. Although it has been recognized and widely applied in English speaking populations, it has not been used in its present forms in Persian speaking countries. The purpose of this study was to adapt a Persian version of the DHI and to evaluate its validity, consistency, and reliability in the Persian population with oropharyngeal dysphagia. Some stages for cross-cultural adaptation were performed, which consisted in translation, synthesis, back translation, review by an expert committee, and final proof reading. The generated Persian DHI was administered to 85 patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia and 89 control subjects at Zahedan city between May 2013 and August 2013. The patients and control subjects answered the same questionnaire 2 weeks later to verify the test-retest reliability. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated. The results of the patients and the control group were compared. The Persian DHI showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficients range from 0.82 to 0.94). Also, good test-retest reliability was found for the total scores of the Persian DHI (r=0.89). There was a significant difference between the DHI scores of the control group and those of the oropharyngeal dysphagia group (P‹0.001). The Persian version of the DHI achieved Face and translation validity. This study demonstrated that the Persian DHI is a valid tool for self-assessment of the handicapping effects of dysphagia on the physical, functional, and emotional aspects of patient life and can be a useful tool for screening and treatment planning for the Persian-speaking dysphagic patients, regardless of the cause or the severity of the dysphagia.

  10. Persian Medicine in the World of Research; Review of Articles on Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeini, Reihaneh; Gorji, Narjes

    2016-05-01

    Due to negligence, Persian (Iranian) traditional medicine has had a weak presence in the world of research for a long time. However, in recent years, a variety of activates by research and faculty centers have created awareness and a platform to introduce and promote Persian medicine to the world. The aim of this study is to present and analyze scientific achievements of Persian medicine in the world of research. Articles were collected from PubMed database using keywords such as "Persian medicine", "Persian traditional medicine", "Iranian medicine", and "Iranian traditional medicine". All data were classified based on the type of research (review, intervention, case reports, etc.), the field of study (neurology, cardiovascular, metabolic, historical studies, etc.), publication year, and journal type. A total of 501 articles were identified until the end of 2015, comprising of 222 reviews and 219 interventional (108 animal, 57 clinical and 54 cellular). Most studies were on neurology (20.1%), gastroenterology (14.5%), and cardiovascular diseases (10.4%). The publications in 2015 and 2014 had the highest hit rate with 139 and 132 articles, respectively, with 1:2 publication ratio between foreign and Iranian journals. The most published articles, both foreign and Iranian, were in "Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine" and "Iranian Red Crescent Medicine" journals. The contribution of foreign authors was 5%. The primary focus of the articles was on "Basic concepts of Persian medicine", "Healthy lifestyle according to Persian medicine", and "Historical aspects", by 3.1%, 2.9%, and 6.7%, respectively. During the last 2 years, the number of articles published in Persian (Iranian) medicine, particularly clinical studies had significant growth in comparison with the years before. The tendency of foreign researchers to use the keywords "Iranian" or "Persian" medicine is notable. This research was only based on the designated keyword and other keywords were

  11. Validity and Reliability of the Persian Version of the Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    faezeh asadollahpour

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI is one of the instruments used for measuring a dysphagic patient’s self-assessment. In some ways, it reflects the patient’s quality of life. Although it has been recognized and widely applied in English speaking populations, it has not been used in its present forms in Persian speaking countries. The purpose of this study was to adapt a Persian version of the DHI and to evaluate its validity, consistency, and reliability in the Persian population with oropharyngeal dysphagia.   Materials and Methods: Some stages for cross-cultural adaptation were performed, which consisted in translation, synthesis, back translation, review by an expert committee, and final proof reading. The generated Persian DHI was administered to 85 patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia and 89 control subjects at Zahedan city between May 2013 and August 2013. The patients and control subjects answered the same questionnaire 2 weeks later to verify the test-retest reliability. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated. The results of the patients and the control group were compared.   Results: The Persian DHI showed good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha coefficients range from 0.82 to 0.94. Also, good test-retest reliability was found for the total scores of the Persian DHI (r=0.89. There was a significant difference between the DHI scores of the control group and those of the oropharyngeal dysphagia group (P‹0.001.   Conclusion:  The Persian version of the DHI achieved Face and translation validity. This study demonstrated that the Persian DHI is a valid tool for self-assessment of the handicapping effects of dysphagia on the physical, functional, and emotional aspects of patient life and can be a useful tool for screening and treatment planning for the Persian-speaking dysphagic patients, regardless of the cause or the severity of the dysphagia.

  12. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Persian version of COOP/WONCA charts in Persian-speaking Iranians with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Morteza; Salavati, Mahyar; Nabavi, Seyed Massood; Akhbari, Behnam; Ebrahimi Takamjani, Ismail; Negahban, Hossein; Rajabzadeh, Fatemeh

    2018-03-01

    Translation, cross-culturally adaptation and validation of a Persian version of COOP/WONCA charts in Persian-speaking Iranians with multiple sclerosis (MS). The Persian version of COOP/WONCA charts was developed after a standard forward translation, synthesis and backward translation. A total of 197 subjects with MS participated in this study. They were asked to complete the COOP/WONCA charts and Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). The COOP/WONCA charts were re-administered to 50 patients, 4 weeks after the first session. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) was also scored for each subject by the referring physician. Construct validity was assessed by testing linear relationship between corresponding domains of the COOP/WONCA charts, the SF-36 and the EDSS. Test-retest reliability was examined using interclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change (MDC) values. Related domains of COOP/WONCA charts and SF-36 demonstrated strong linear relationships with Spearman's coefficients ranging from -0.51 to -0.75 (p0.70) except for feelings and quality-of-life domains that were 0.50 and 0.51, respectively. The Persian version of the COOP/WONCA charts was shown to be psychometrically appropriate to evaluate the functional level and quality of life in Persian-speaking Iranians with MS. Implications for rehabilitation COOP/WONCA charts are now available in Persian and demonstrate good psychometric properties. COOP/WONCA charts demonstrate excellent reliability and construct validity in a Persian-speaking Iranian population with MS. Minimal detectable change in COOP/WONCA is now available in MS to guide within and between group analyses. Knowledge on a wide variety of physical, mental and emotional parameters as well as the status of patients' symptoms, daily activities and quality of life helps rehabilitation clinicians and service providers plan preventive and remedial interventions more effectively.

  13. Medicinal Behavior in Persian Literature by Emphasis on Ibn-Sina Popular Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahdouzan, Akbar; Vahabi, Fataneh

    2013-01-01

    Content of Persian literature comes from innocents, has special effect on social and individual people life. We understand worth of medical science, physician and sick people relationship in society and impact of religion behavior in treatment. Persian literature contains some recommendation that improve belief, trust, and secretary in medical society. In this article we chose some Persian literature about medicinal behavior and discuss trough: physician relationship with GOD and its impact on treatment, and sick people with others. We hope by studying this article physician can work better and sick people obey their orders more. PMID:23687466

  14. Climate change impacts on marine biodiversity, fisheries and society in the Arabian Gulf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette C C Wabnitz

    Full Text Available Climate change-reflected in significant environmental changes such as warming, sea level rise, shifts in salinity, oxygen and other ocean conditions-is expected to impact marine organisms and associated fisheries. This study provides an assessment of the potential impacts on, and the vulnerability of, marine biodiversity and fisheries catches in the Arabian Gulf under climate change. To this end, using three separate niche modelling approaches under a 'business-as-usual' climate change scenario, we projected the future habitat suitability of the Arabian Gulf (also known as the Persian Gulf for 55 expert-identified priority species, including charismatic and non-fish species. Second, we conducted a vulnerability assessment of national economies to climate change impacts on fisheries. The modelling outputs suggested a high rate of local extinction (up to 35% of initial species richness by 2090 relative to 2010. Spatially, projected local extinctions are highest in the southwestern part of the Gulf, off the coast of Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates (UAE. While the projected patterns provided useful indicators of potential climate change impacts on the region's diversity, the magnitude of changes in habitat suitability are more uncertain. Fisheries-specific results suggested reduced future catch potential for several countries on the western side of the Gulf, with projections differing only slightly among models. Qatar and the UAE were particularly affected, with more than a 26% drop in future fish catch potential. Integrating changes in catch potential with socio-economic indicators suggested the fisheries of Bahrain and Iran may be most vulnerable to climate change. We discuss limitations of the indicators and the methods used, as well as the implications of our overall findings for conservation and fisheries management policies in the region.

  15. Climate change impacts on marine biodiversity, fisheries and society in the Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Vicky W. Y.; Reygondeau, Gabriel; Teh, Lydia C. L.; Al-Abdulrazzak, Dalal; Khalfallah, Myriam; Pauly, Daniel; Palomares, Maria L. Deng; Zeller, Dirk; Cheung, William W. L.

    2018-01-01

    Climate change–reflected in significant environmental changes such as warming, sea level rise, shifts in salinity, oxygen and other ocean conditions–is expected to impact marine organisms and associated fisheries. This study provides an assessment of the potential impacts on, and the vulnerability of, marine biodiversity and fisheries catches in the Arabian Gulf under climate change. To this end, using three separate niche modelling approaches under a ‘business-as-usual’ climate change scenario, we projected the future habitat suitability of the Arabian Gulf (also known as the Persian Gulf) for 55 expert-identified priority species, including charismatic and non-fish species. Second, we conducted a vulnerability assessment of national economies to climate change impacts on fisheries. The modelling outputs suggested a high rate of local extinction (up to 35% of initial species richness) by 2090 relative to 2010. Spatially, projected local extinctions are highest in the southwestern part of the Gulf, off the coast of Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). While the projected patterns provided useful indicators of potential climate change impacts on the region’s diversity, the magnitude of changes in habitat suitability are more uncertain. Fisheries-specific results suggested reduced future catch potential for several countries on the western side of the Gulf, with projections differing only slightly among models. Qatar and the UAE were particularly affected, with more than a 26% drop in future fish catch potential. Integrating changes in catch potential with socio-economic indicators suggested the fisheries of Bahrain and Iran may be most vulnerable to climate change. We discuss limitations of the indicators and the methods used, as well as the implications of our overall findings for conservation and fisheries management policies in the region. PMID:29718919

  16. Climate change impacts on marine biodiversity, fisheries and society in the Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabnitz, Colette C C; Lam, Vicky W Y; Reygondeau, Gabriel; Teh, Lydia C L; Al-Abdulrazzak, Dalal; Khalfallah, Myriam; Pauly, Daniel; Palomares, Maria L Deng; Zeller, Dirk; Cheung, William W L

    2018-01-01

    Climate change-reflected in significant environmental changes such as warming, sea level rise, shifts in salinity, oxygen and other ocean conditions-is expected to impact marine organisms and associated fisheries. This study provides an assessment of the potential impacts on, and the vulnerability of, marine biodiversity and fisheries catches in the Arabian Gulf under climate change. To this end, using three separate niche modelling approaches under a 'business-as-usual' climate change scenario, we projected the future habitat suitability of the Arabian Gulf (also known as the Persian Gulf) for 55 expert-identified priority species, including charismatic and non-fish species. Second, we conducted a vulnerability assessment of national economies to climate change impacts on fisheries. The modelling outputs suggested a high rate of local extinction (up to 35% of initial species richness) by 2090 relative to 2010. Spatially, projected local extinctions are highest in the southwestern part of the Gulf, off the coast of Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). While the projected patterns provided useful indicators of potential climate change impacts on the region's diversity, the magnitude of changes in habitat suitability are more uncertain. Fisheries-specific results suggested reduced future catch potential for several countries on the western side of the Gulf, with projections differing only slightly among models. Qatar and the UAE were particularly affected, with more than a 26% drop in future fish catch potential. Integrating changes in catch potential with socio-economic indicators suggested the fisheries of Bahrain and Iran may be most vulnerable to climate change. We discuss limitations of the indicators and the methods used, as well as the implications of our overall findings for conservation and fisheries management policies in the region.

  17. Determinants of long-term neuropsychological symptoms. The Danish Gulf War Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suadicani, P; Ishøy, T; Guldager, B; Appleyard, M; Gyntelberg, F

    1999-11-01

    Compared with controls, up to six years after their return, Danish Gulf War Veterans have a significantly higher prevalence of self-reported neuropsychological symptoms. Independent associations are found for concentration or memory problems, repeated fits of headache, balance disturbances or fits of dizziness, abnormal fatigue not caused by physical activity, and problems sleeping all night. We investigated whether psychosocial, physical, chemical or biological exposures were associated with these symptoms. This study is a prevalence study using retrospective data on exposure. Some 686 subjects who had been deployed in the Persian Gulf within the period August 2 1990 until December 31 1997 were included; the control group comprised 257 subjects matched according to age, gender and profession. All participants underwent clinical and paraclinical examinations, and were interviewed by a physician based on a completed questionnaire. A clustering of three to five of the above symptoms were found in 21.4% of Gulf War Veterans vs. 6.2% in controls, p work conditions known to be important in civilian life, and also environmental factors, should be improved to minimize the risk of long-term neuropsychological symptoms.

  18. Event-Related Potential Patterns Associated with Hyperarousal in Gulf War Illness Syndrome Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Gail D.; Calley, Clifford S.; Green, Timothy A.; Buhl, Virginia I.; Biggs, Melanie M.; Spence, Jeffrey S.; Briggs, Richard W.; Haley, Robert W.; Hart, John; Kraut, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    An exaggerated response to emotional stimuli is one of several symptoms widely reported by veterans of the 1991 Persian Gulf War. Many have attributed these symptoms to post-war stress; others have attributed the symptoms to deployment-related exposures and associated damage to cholinergic, dopaminergic, and white matter systems. We collected event-related potential (ERP) data from 20 veterans meeting Haley criteria for Gulf War Syndromes 1–3 and from 8 matched Gulf War veteran controls, who were deployed but not symptomatic, while they performed an auditory three-condition oddball task with gunshot and lion roar sounds as the distractor stimuli. Reports of hyperarousal from the ill veterans were significantly greater than those from the control veterans; different ERP profiles emerged to account for their hyperarousability. Syndromes 2 and 3, who have previously shown brainstem abnormalities, show significantly stronger auditory P1 amplitudes, purported to indicate compromised cholinergic inhibitory gating in the reticular activating system. Syndromes 1 and 2, who have previously shown basal ganglia dysfunction, show significantly weaker P3a response to distractor stimuli, purported to indicate dysfunction of the dopaminergic contribution to their ability to inhibit distraction by irrelevant stimuli. All three syndrome groups showed an attenuated P3b to target stimuli, which could be secondary to both cholinergic and dopaminergic contributions or disruption of white matter integrity. PMID:22691951

  19. Hurricane shuts down gulf activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that producers in the Gulf of Mexico and plant operators in South Louisiana last week were checking for damage wrought by Hurricane Andrew. In its wake Andrew left evacuated rigs and platforms in the gulf and shuttered plants across a wide swath of the Gulf Coast. Operations were beginning to return to normal late last week. Not all gulf operators, especially in the central gulf, expected to return to offshore facilities. And even producers able to book helicopters did not expect to be able to fully assess damage to all offshore installations before the weekend. MMS officials in Washington estimated that 37,500 offshore workers were evacuated from 700 oil and gas installations on the gulf's Outer Continental Shelf. Gulf oil and gas wells account for about 800,000 b/d of oil and one fourth of total U.S. gas production. MMS was awaiting an assessment of hurricane damage before estimating how soon and how much gulf oil and gas production would be restored

  20. Application of 99mTc-DTPA Radiotracer in Persian Cat's Renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Kidney, Persian cat, Radiotracer, Scintigraphy, Technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentacaetic acid ... tracer can be detected in the body by medical equipment .... studies, such as kidney failure, allergic reactions and fatal side ...

  1. The Persian developmental sentence scoring as a clinical measure of morphosyntax in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilevand, Nahid; Kamali, Mohammad; Modarresi, Yahya; Kazemi, Yalda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Developmental Sentence Scoring (DSS) was developed as a numerical measurement and a clinical method based on the morphosyntactic acquisition in the English language. The aim of this study was to develop a new numerical tool similar to DSS to assess the morphosyntactic abilities in Persian-speaking children. Methods: In this cross-sectional and comparative study, the language samples of 115 typically developing Persian-speaking children aged 30 - 65 months were audio recorded during the free play and picture description sessions. The Persian Developmental Sentence Score (PDSS) and the Mean Length of Utterance (MLU) were calculated. Pearson correlation and one - way Analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used for data analysis. Results: The correlation between PDSS and MLU in morphemes (convergent validity) was significant with a correlation coefficient of 0.97 (pPersian-speaking children.

  2. Excretory urography by subcutaneous injection of iodixanol in Persian squirrel (Sciurus anomalous)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veshkini, A.; Tavana, M.; Haghdost, I.S.; Masouleh, M.N.; Savojbolaghi, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    There are many indications for excretory urography in humans and animals. Intravenous urography (IVU) is the most practical method about other urography techniques are used because of difficulties for finding veins in IVU, due to small size of the patients. This study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of subcutaneous injection of iodixanol in providing a safe and diagnostic urogram in Persian squirrel. Twelve clinically healthy adult Persian squirrels were prepared and kept for two weeks prior to study. Blood tests were performed 7 days prior to the study. After eighteen hour fasting, animals were sedated by using xylazine/diazepam cocktail (xylazine 5mg/kg, diazepam 30mg/kg). Lateral and ventrodorsal control radiographs were taken. Thirteen hundred and 1800 mg iodine per kilogram body weight of iodixanol was injected subcutaneously over shoulder area in Persian squirrels (each dose for six Persian squirrels). Lateral and ventrodorsal radiographs were taken every 5 m

  3. Commonsense knowledge extraction for Persian language: A combinatory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Moradi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Putting human commonsense knowledge into computers has always been a long standing dream of artificial intelligence (AI. The cost of several tens of millions of dollars and times have been covered so that the computers could know about “objects falling, not rising.”,” running is faster than walking. The large database was built, automated and semi-automated methods were introduced and volunteers’ efforts were utilized to achieve this, but an automated, high-throughput and low-noise method for commonsense collection still remains as the holy grail of AI. The aim of this study was to build commonsense knowledge ontology using three approaches namely Hearst method, machine translation and using structured resources. Using three Persian corpuse and Applying aforementioned methods, we could extract 7 different relations. 70000 assertions have been extracted. Finally, average accuracy of Hearst, MT and structured resource were 75%, 75% and 100% respectively.

  4. Object attraction effects during subject-verb agreement in Persian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiz, Aazam; Cowles, Wind

    2018-04-01

    Subject-verb agreement provides insight into how grammatical and semantic features interact during sentence production, and prior studies have found attraction errors when an intervening local noun is grammatically part of the subject. Two major types of theories have emerged from these studies: control based and competition-based. The current study used an subject-object-verb language with optional subject-verb agreement, Persian, to test the competition-based hypothesis that intervening object nouns may also cause attraction effects, even though objects are not part of the syntactic relationship between the subject and verb. Our results, which did not require speakers to make grammatical errors, show that objects can be attractors for agreement, but this effect appears to be dependent on the type of plural marker on the object. These results support competition-based theories of agreement production, in which agreement may be influenced by attractors that are outside the scope of the subject-verb relationship.

  5. Crossed fused renal ectopia in a Persian cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyuk Seo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Case summary This report describes a rare case of crossed fused renal ectopia (CFRE in a cat. A mature intact male Persian cat presented with bloody nasal discharge and ascites. Diagnostic studies revealed an ectopic left kidney fused with an orthotopic right kidney and a concurrent feline infectious peritonitis (FIP infection. The FIP was responsible for clinical signs in this cat, while clinical signs associated with CFRE were not obvious. Despite receiving intensive treatment, the cat died. A post-mortem examination was not performed because the owners declined approval. Relevance and novel information To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of L-shaped CFRE in a cat. In addition, this report describes the CT features of L-shaped CFRE in a cat.

  6. Postposing and Information Structure in English and Farsi/Persian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiei Soheila

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The term postposing denotes any construction in which a phrasal constituent appears to the right of its canonical position, leaving its initial position either empty or occupied by an expletive. Ward and Birner (2004 argue that postposed constructions preserve the old-before-new information structure paradigm in English. The present paper investigates postposed constituents in Persian to find out the information structure paradigm of such constructions. The data have been taken from 34 interviews. The findings show that various constituents might undergo postposing in spoken Farsi (known as Tehrani dialect, and, in contrast to English, NPs were found to be triggered in postposed position when the referent was hearer-old.

  7. Anorexia: Highlights in Traditional Persian medicine and conventional medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrouzi, Majid; Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Anorexia and impaired appetite (Dysorexia) are common symptoms with varying causes, and often need no serious medical intervention. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a chronic psychiatric disease with a high mortality rate. In Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM), anorexia is a condition in which anorexic patients lose appetite due to dystemperament. This review aims to discuss the common points of traditional and conventional approaches rather than introducing Persian medical recommendations suitable for nowadays use. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, Avicenna's Canon of Medicine, main TPM resources and important databases were reviewed using the related keywords. Results: Despite complex hormonal explanation, etiology of AN in conventional approach is not completely understood. In TPM approach, the etiology and recommended interventions are thoroughly defined based on humoral pathophysiology. In TPM approach, disease states are regarded as the result of imbalances in organs’ temperament and humors. In anorexia with simple dystemperament, the physician should attempt to balance the temperament using foods and medicaments which have opposite quality of temperament. Lifestyle, spiritual diseases (neuro – psychological) and gastrointestinal worms are the other causes for reducing appetite. Also, medicines and foods with warm temperaments (such as Pea soup and Mustard) are useful for these patients (cold temperament). Conclusion: Although the pathophysiology of AN in TPM is different in comparison with conventional views, TPM criteria for treatment this disorder is similar to those of current medicine. Recommending to have spiritual support and a healthy lifestyle are common in both views. Simple safe interventions recommended by TPM may be considered as alternative medical modalities after being confirmed by well-designed clinical trials. PMID:29387569

  8. Medical Mucilage Used in Traditional Persian Medicine Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydarirad, Ghazaleh; Choopani, Rasool; Mehdi, Pasalar; Jafari, Jamileh Mahdavi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mucilage compounds are pharmaceutically important polysaccharides that have an extensive range of applications, including binding agents, thickeners, water retention agents, emulsion stabilizers, suspending agents, disintegrates, film formers, and gelling agents. A historical approach to medical science written by Iranian scholars could help in identifying excellent ideas and provide valuable information in this field for proper application. The aim of the current study was to introduce some mucilage uses derived from traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Methods: In this literature review, we assessed a few main traditional manuscripts of Iranian medicine, including the books Al Havi, Canon of Medicine, Qarabadine-kabir, Zakhireh-ye Khwarazm shahi, Tuhfat ul-Momineen and Makhzan-ul-Adwiah. The word “loab” in the aforementioned books were searched and all data about mucilage compounds were collected. Results: The use of medicinal plants containing mucilage in Iran dates back to ancient times. In traditional Persian manuscripts, mucilage is one of the most cited applications of medicinal plants for therapeutic objectives. There are various mucilage-producing plants in TPM such as Malva silvestris, Linum usitissimum, Althaea officinalis, Plantago psyllium, Descureania sophia and Ziziphus vulgaris. They have been used traditionally via oral or topical routes for respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary, musculoskeletal, and genital systems as well as skin disorders. Certain applications are unique and promising for today’s chronic ailments. Conclusion: A scientific assessment of these valuable manuscripts would provide a better insight into the thoughts of the past sages and applicable for clinical use of the mucilage compounds. This may lead to research opportunities in the future. PMID:27840507

  9. Porosity and Health: Perspective of Traditional Persian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafazoli, Vahid; Nimrouzi, Majid; Daneshfard, Babak

    2016-01-01

    Background: The authors of this manuscript aimed to show the importance of porosity and condensation in health according to traditional Persian medicine (TPM) with consideration of new evidence in conventional medicine. Methods: Cardinal traditional medical and pharmacological texts were searched for the traditional terms of takhalkhol (porosity) and takassof (condensity) focused on preventive methods. The findings were classified and compared with new medical findings. Results: According to traditional Persian medicine, porosity and condensity are the two crucial items that contribute to human health. Somatotype is a taxonomy based on embryonic development, which may be considered in parallel with porosity and condensation. However, these terms are not completely the same. There are many causes for acquired porosity comprising hot weather, too much intercourse, rage, starvation, and heavy exercises. In general, porosity increases the risk of diseases as it makes the body organs vulnerable to external hot and cold weather. On the other hand, the porose organs are more susceptible to accumulation of morbid matters because the cellular wastes cannot be evacuated in the normal way. There are some common points between traditional and conventional medicine in the context of porosity and condensity. The relation between diet and somatotype is an example. Conclusion: Condensity and porosity are the two basic items cited in the TPM resources and contribute to health maintenance and disease prevention of body organs. Creating a balance between these two states in different body organs, strongly contributes to disease prevention, treatment and diminishing chronic diseases period. Choosing proper modality including diet, drug therapy, and manual therapy depends on the amount porosity and stiffness of the considered organ and the preferred porosity of the affected organ keeping in a normal healthy state. PMID:27840513

  10. Olfactory dysfunction in persian patients suffering from parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanzadeh, Akbar; Shams, Mehdi; Noorolahi, Hamid; Ghorbani, Askar; Fatehi, Farzad

    2011-01-01

    Looking in literature reveals that aging is accompanied by olfactory dysfunction and hyposmia/anosmia is a common manifestation in some neurodegenerative disorders. Olfactory dysfunction is regarded as non-motor manifestations of Parkinson disease (PD). The main goal of this study was to examine the extent of olfactory dysfunction in Persian PD patients. We used seven types of odors including rosewater, mint, lemon, garlic which were produced by Barij Essence Company in Iran. Additionally, coffee and vinegar were used. Subjects had to distinguish and name between seven previously named odors, stimuli were administered to each nostril separately. Totally, 92 patients and 40 controls were recruited. The mean (standard deviation) (SD) age patients was 64.88 (11.30) versus 61.05 (7.93) in controls. The male: female ratio in patients was 50:42 versus 22:18 in control group. Also, mean UPDRS score (SD) in patients was 24.42 (5.08) and the disease duration (SD) was 3.72 (3.53). Regarding the number of truly detected odors, there were a significant higher number of correct identified odors in control group in comparison with the PD patients. Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation between number of correct diagnosed smells and UPDRS (Pearson Correlation= -0.27, P = 0.009); conversely, no significant correlation between the duration of Parkinson disease and number of correct diagnosed smells (P > 0.05). Smelling dysfunction is a major problem in Persian PD patients and it requires vigilant investigation for the cause of olfactory dysfunction exclusively in elder group and looking for possible PD disease.

  11. Validation of the Persian Version of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ)

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjbar, Hadi; Thatcher, Andrew; Greyling, Michael; Arab, Mansour; Nasri, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Objective The most commonly used instrument for the research and treatment of excessive internet use is Young?s Internet Addiction Test (IAT). While the IAT has been translated to several languages (including Persian) and has demonstrated good psychometric properties across several independent studies, there is still a room for alternative assessment instruments. This study reports a validation of the Persian version of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ). Method A sample (n = 2...

  12. Combination of verbs in Russian language and their translation in Persian language

    OpenAIRE

    احمدی ، شیخی احمدی ، شیخی

    2009-01-01

    Like sentences, combination of words is the main part of syntax in Persian language as well as in Russian language and plays an important role in sentence structures of these languages. Combination of words in Russian language is divided into three categories: verbal combinations, nominal and adverbial combinations. The writers of this article have studied combination of verbs in Russian language and their translation in Persian language.

  13. Russian language for Persian learners A research on the difficulties of learning motion verbs of

    OpenAIRE

    ایزانلو ایزانلو

    2009-01-01

    Since motion verbs of Russian language is one of those complex issues in Russian language syntax, Iranian students who are learning Russian language face problems when learning this grammatical category. These problems in learning appear in two stages. a)The stage of learning and understanding the meaning of these verbs in the Russian language itself; b) The stage of transition of these verbs from Russian language into Persian language when translating texts into Persian. It seems that the di...

  14. Explicitation in Translation: Culture-Specific Items from Persian into English

    OpenAIRE

    MORADI, Neda; RAHBAR, Muhamad; OLFATI, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Investigating the concept of explicitation has been the center of attention to many scholars recent years. A lot of studies have been carried out dealing with the exploitation of explicitation on the culture-specific items on the translation of English source text into Persian. However, few studies has been carried out investigating such culture-specific items on Persian source text translated into English. The present article aims at providing sufficient data to cover the identific...

  15. Designing and standardization of Persian version of verbal fluency test among Iranian bilingual (Turkish-Persian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyoub Malek

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The present study aims to design and standardize the verbal fluency test (VFT among bilingual (Turkish-Persian adolescents in Tabriz, Iran. METHODS: In the designing stage, 190 adolescents who were already selected randomly from among the guidance and high school students in Tabriz were classified into three age groups (11-12, 13-15, 16-18. The screening test including 33 Persian letters and three ‘animal’, ‘fruit’, and ‘supermarket stuff’ categories, and SDQ was administered to them. The results were the three letters ‘M’, ‘D’, and ‘B’ for phonological fluency, and two ‘animal’ and ‘supermarket stuff’ categories for semantic fluency in the Persian language. In the standardization stage, the letters and categories specified in the designing stage were administered in the same order to 302 adolescents. Moreover, 28 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD were selected to estimate the discriminant validity of VFT. RESULTS: Pearson correlation coefficient between test-retest of the three letters ‘M’, ‘D’, and ‘B’ for phonological fluency were estimated at 0.67, 0.66, and 0.75, respectively. Furthermore, for the two categories of ‘animal’ and ‘supermarket stuff’ it was estimated to be 0.80 and 0.65, respectively. All these amounts were significant (P < 0.01. The discriminant validity, which was estimated through comparison between the scores of normal and ADHD adolescents, showed that the obtained t value for all indices except for the letter ‘B’ was meaningful. The results of MANOVA between two gender groups were significant at P < 0.05 for three ‘M’, ‘D’, and ‘B’ variables of verbal fluency and ‘animal’ semantic fluency. In both verbal and semantic fluency the mean of subjects’ performance scores showed that females outperformed males. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the current study indicated that VFT is reliable in the studied sample group, and has a valid psychometric

  16. Validation of the Persian Version of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Ranjbar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly used instrument for the research and treatment of excessive internet use is Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT. While the IAT has been translated to several languages (including Persian and has demonstrated good psychometric properties across several independent studies, there is still a room for alternative assessment instruments. This study reports a validation of the Persian version of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ.A sample (n = 296 from Kerman, Iran was administered the translated Persian version of the PIUQ as well as the Persian version of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA Loneliness scale, Satisfaction With Life scale, and questions related to use of technology and the internet.Analyses using confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses demonstrated that the Persian version of the PIUQ had good internal reliability and concurrent validity (with loneliness and satisfaction with life, but they also had an alternative factor structure that did not support the original factor structure.The Persian version of the PIUQ produced adequate psychometric properties (internal reliability and concurrent validity, but care should be taken in the interpretation of the factor structure.

  17. Validation of the Persian Version of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Hadi; Thatcher, Andrew; Greyling, Michael; Arab, Mansour; Nasri, Nahid

    2014-10-01

    The most commonly used instrument for the research and treatment of excessive internet use is Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT). While the IAT has been translated to several languages (including Persian) and has demonstrated good psychometric properties across several independent studies, there is still a room for alternative assessment instruments. This study reports a validation of the Persian version of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ). A sample (n = 296) from Kerman, Iran was administered the translated Persian version of the PIUQ as well as the Persian version of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness scale, Satisfaction With Life scale, and questions related to use of technology and the internet. Analyses using confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses demonstrated that the Persian version of the PIUQ had good internal reliability and concurrent validity (with loneliness and satisfaction with life), but they also had an alternative factor structure that did not support the original factor structure. The Persian version of the PIUQ produced adequate psychometric properties (internal reliability and concurrent validity), but care should be taken in the interpretation of the factor structure.

  18. Psychometric Properties of the Persian Translation of the Sexual Quality of Life–Male Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maasoumi, Raziyeh; Mokarami, Hamidreza; Nazifi, Morteza; Stallones, Lorann; Taban, Abrahim; Yazdani Aval, Mohsen; Samimi, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction has been demonstrated to be related to a poor quality of life. These dysfunctions are especially prevalent among men. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the Persian translation of the Sexual Quality of Life–Male (SQOL-M), translated and adapted to measure sexual quality of life among Iranian men. Forward–backward procedures were applied in translating the original SQOL-M into Persian, and then the psychometric properties of the Persian translation of the SQOL-M were studied. A total of 181 participants (23-60 years old) were included in the study. Validity was assessed by construct validity using confirmatory factor analysis, convergent validity, and content validity. The international index of erectile function (IIEF) and the work ability index were used to study the convergent validity. Reliability was evaluated through internal consistency and test–retest reliability analyses. The results from confirmatory factor analysis confirmed a one-factor solution for the Persian version of the SQOL-M. Content validity of the translated measure was endorsed by 10 specialists. Pearson correlations indicated that work ability index score, dimensions of the IIEF, and the IIEF total score were positively correlated with the Persian version of the SQOL-M (p Persian version of the SQOL-M has good to excellent psychometric properties and can be used to assess the sexual quality of life among Iranian men. PMID:26856758

  19. Hakim Mohammad: A Persian Military Surgeon in Safavid Era (1501-1736 CE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaie, S-Ali; Ghaffari, Farzaneh; Zargaran, Arman; Naseri, Mohsen

    2017-12-31

    Wars and injuries have accompanied mankind throughout history. Physicians and surgeons from various civilizations made difficult attempts to manage wounds and injuries. Among various civilizations, the Persian Empires had great armies which were well equipped. One of the most important organizations in Persian troops was the military surgery. This study presents a brief biography of Hakim Mohammad (a military surgeon in Safavid era) and introduces his book, Dhakhira-yi-Kamilah. Safavid kings (1501-1736 CE) with unifying all of Persian regions and provinces reconstructed the Persian Empire. Great scholars and physicians were raised in this era. It seems that Persian physicians and surgeons were well trained in Safavid era and many of them were even employed by other countries like Ottoman Empire and India. Hakim Mohammad as a military surgeon was one of such physicians who served in Ottoman Empire for some time. He gathered his surgical experiences and others in the book of Dhakhira-yi-Kamilah. This book was written in Persian. He has mainly written about the management of wounds and practical techniques. Later, he came back to his homeland and dedicated his book to the king of Persia.

  20. Persian Agricultural Journals and Standard: Degree of Compatibility of Persian Scientific Agricultural Journals with International Standard Organization (ISO Publishing standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Gilvari

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Standard is a collection of recipes, guidelines or recommendations which use in production, creating or making of goods, products, documents or special resources. Extent of adaptation of Persian Agricultural scientific journals which are publishing in Iran with ISO publishing standards was evaluated in this research. The information items which were necessary to be presented in different sections of Agricultural scientific journals were examined. Items which were needed to be present in cover page, content, title page, running title, and endnote, abstract, first page of an article, references and its structure were among the information items. 47 Agricultural scientific journals were publishing until February 2009 consisted of the research population. Descriptive survey method is used. Results showed the adaption rate with ISO standards in research population was 53.47 percent. There was no private publisher which publishes agricultural scientific journals. The extent of adaptation with ISO standards was high in journal sections such as abstracts and keywords.

  1. Oxford Shoulder Score: A Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation Study of the Persian Version in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Birjandinejad, Ali; Razi, Shiva; Mardani-Kivi, Mohsen; Reza Kachooei, Amir

    2015-09-01

    Oxford shoulder score is a specific 12-item patient-reported tool for evaluation of patients with inflammatory and degenerative disorders of the shoulder. Since its introduction, it has been translated and culturally adapted in some Western and Eastern countries. The aim of this study was to translate the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) in Persian and to test its validity and reliability in Persian speaking population in Iran. One hundred patients with degenerative or inflammatory shoulder problem participated in the survey in 2012. All patients completed the Persian version of OSS, Persian DASH and the SF-36 for testing validity. Randomly, 37 patients filled out the Persian OSS again three days after the initial visit to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.93. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.93. In terms of validity, there was a significant correlation between the Persian OSS and DASH and SF-36 scores (P Persian version of the OSS proved to be a valid, reliable, and reproducible tool as demonstrated by high Cronbach's alpha and Pearson's correlation coefficients. The Persian transcript of OSS is administrable to Persian speaking patients with shoulder condition and it is understandable by them.

  2. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Injury-Psychological Readiness to Return to Sport scale to Persian language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghdi, Soofia; Nakhostin Ansari, Noureddin; Farhadi, Yasaman; Ebadi, Safoora; Entezary, Ebrahim; Glazer, Douglas

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and provide validation statistics for the Persian Injury-Psychological Readiness to Return to Sport scale (I-PRRS) following a cross-sectional and prospective cohort study design. The I-PRRS was forward/back-translated and culturally adapted into Persian language. The Persian I-PRRS was administered to 100 injured athletes (93 male; age 26.0 ± 5.6 years; time since injury 4.84 ± 6.4 months) and 50 healthy athletes (36 male; mean age 25.7 ± 6.0 years). The Persian I-PRRS was re-administered to 50 injured athletes at 1 week to examine test-retest reliability. There were no floor or ceiling effects confirming the content validity of Persian I-PRRS. The internal consistency reliability was good. Excellent test-retest reliability and agreement were demonstrated. The statistically significant difference in Persian I-PRRS total scores between the injured athletes and healthy athletes provides an evidence of discriminative validity. The Persian I-PRRS total scores were positively correlated with the Farsi Mood Scale (FARMS) total scores, showing construct validity. The principal component analysis indicated a two-factor solution consisting of "Confidence to play" and "Confidence in the injured body part and skill level". The Persian I-PRRS showed excellent reliability and validity and can be used to assess injured athletes' psychological readiness to return to sport among Persian-speaking populations.

  3. Actual situation investigation utilizing a crude oil tanker for the air pollution in the Persion Gulf due to Kuwaiti oil field fire. Gen'yu tanker wo riyoshita Kuwait yusei kasai ni yoru Perushawan no taiki osen no jittai chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S. (Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology)

    1992-01-10

    Very serious air pollution was brought about by the fire in oil fields at the end of February, 1991 after the Middle East Gulf War had come to an end. The present report explained the investigation result of actual air pollution situation obtained through measurement by implements mounted on board of the Japan Violet, crude oil tanker which made navigation in the Persian Gulf from 17 to 29 August, 1991. Non-marine salinity sulfate and nitrate in the dust particulates which are representative substances for the air pollution were 10.5 and 3.7[mu]g/m[sup 3], respectively in mean atmospheric content. Such a content level was nearly equal to that in the air-polluted land area and very high for the offshore air. It is judged to be resultant from the particulate formation of non-marine salinity salt from SO2 and NOx which were abundantly emitted, dispersed in the Persian Gulf and oxidized. However as a result of the neutralization by Ca contained in high content sanddust in the atmosphere of the Persian Golf, the acidity of sanddust was not so high. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  4. What Drives The Changes In The Gulf Oil Monarchies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kjurchiski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies four main events driving the current changes in thePersian Gulfoil monarchies. Located in a troubled and unstable region of the Middle East with the oil prices declining after the events of the “Arab spring” and election of Donald Trump as president of theUnited States, Gulf oil monarchies are under pressure from inside and outside to undergo significant changes. As a consequence, validity of the theory of «monarchical exclusiveness» is called into question. The political elites in the monarchies recognize the need to depart from the status quo, although the phenomenon of the «king’s dilemma» is still present there. The author argues that the monarchy should undergo conservative liberalization. To avoid political destabilization they should apply a gradual, evolutionary approach to liberalization providing their societies with enough time to adapt to new developments. Along with the gradual liberalisation process there is also need in institutional development to make institutions stronger and more independent.

  5. The oil policies of the Gulf Arab Nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripple, R.D.; Hagen, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    At its heart, Arab oil policy is inseparable from Arab economic and social policy. This holds whether we are talking about the Arab nations as a group or each separately. The seven Arab nations covered in this report-Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates--participate in several organizations focusing on regional cooperation regarding economic development, social programs, and Islamic unity, as well as organizations concerned with oil policies. This report focuses on the oil-related activities of the countries that may reveal the de facto oil policies of the seven Persian Gulf nations. Nevertheless it should be kept in mind that the decision makers participating in the oil policy organizations are also involved with the collaborative efforts of these other organizations. Oil policies of five of the seven Arab nations are expressed within the forums of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC). Only Oman, among the seven, is not a member of either OAPEC or OPEC; Bahrain is a member of OAPEC but not of OPEC. OPEC and OAPEC provide forums for compromise and cooperation among their members. Nevertheless, each member state maintains its own sovereignty and follows its own policies. Each country deviates from the group prescription from time to time, depending upon individual circumstances.

  6. Normal Doppler velocimetry of renal vasculature in Persian cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Cibele F; Chammas, Maria C

    2011-06-01

    Renal diseases are common in older cats. Decreased renal blood flow may be the first sign of dysfunction and can be evaluated by Doppler ultrasound. But previous studies suggest that the resistive index (RI) has a low sensitivity for detecting renal disease. Doppler waveforms of renal and intrarenal arteries demonstrate decreased blood flow before there are any changes in the RI. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the normal Doppler flowmetrics parameters of renal arteries (RAs), interlobar arteries (IAs) and abdominal aorta (AO) in adult healthy, Persian cats. Twenty-five Persian cats (13 females and 12 males with mean age of 30 months and an age range 12-60 months) with normal clinical examinations and biochemical tests and normal systemic blood pressure were given B-mode ultrasonographies in order to exclude all nephropathies, including polycystic kidney disease. All measurements were performed on both kidneys. Both kidneys (n=50) were examined by color mapping of the renal vasculature. Pulsed Doppler was used to examine both RAs, the IAs at cranial, middle and caudal sites, and the AO. The RI was calculated for all of the vessels. Early systolic acceleration (ESA) of RA and IA was obtained with Doppler spectral analysis. Furthermore, the ratio indices between RA/AO, and IA/RA velocities were calculated. The mean values of peak systolic velocity (PSV) and the diameter for AO were 53.17±13.46 cm/s and 0.38±0.08 cm, respectively. The mean RA diameter for all 50 kidneys was 0.15±0.02 cm. Considering the velocimetric values in both RAs, the mean PSV and RI that were obtained were 41.17±9.40 cm/s and 0.54±0.07. The RA had a mean ESA of 1.12±1.14 m/s(2) and the calculated upper limit of the reference value was 3.40 m/s(2). The mean renal-aortic ratio was 0.828±0.296. The IA showed PSV and RI values of 32.16±9.33 cm/s and 0.52±0.06, respectively. The mean ESA of all IAs was 0.73±0.61 m/s(2). The calculated upper limit of the reference value was 2.0m

  7. Translation, validity, and reliability of a persian version of the iowa tinnitus handicap questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arian Nahad, Homa; Rouzbahani, Masomeh; Jarollahi, Farnoush; Jalaie, Shohreh; Pourbakht, Akram; Mokrian, Helnaz; Mahdi, Parvane; Amali, Amin; Nodin Zadeh, Abdolmajid

    2014-04-01

    Tinnitus is a common otologic symptom that can seriously affect a patient's quality of life. The purpose of the present study was to translate and validate the Iowa Tinnitus Handicap Questionnaire (THQ) into the Persian language, and to make it applicable as a tool for determining the effects of tinnitus on a patient's life. The main version of the THQ was translated into the Persian language. The agreed Persian version was administered to 150 tinnitus patients. The validity of the Persian THQ was evaluated and internal reliability was confirmed using Cronbach's α-coefficient. Finally, the effect of independent variables such as age, mean patient threshold, gender, and duration of tinnitus were considered in order to determine the psychometric properties of tinnitus. After an exact translation process, the Persian THQ was found to exhibit face validity. In terms of content validity, content validity index in total questionnaire was 0.93. Further, in structural validity measurements, intermediate correlation with annoyance from tinnitus (r=0.49), low correlation with duration of tinnitus (r=0.34) and high correlation with the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) questionnaire (r=0.84) were demonstrated. Additionally, a negligible effect of gender and age was noted on degree of tinnitus handicap (P= 0.754, P= 0.573, respectively). In the internal reliability assessment for Factors 1, 2, 3, and the whole questionnaire, Cronbach`s α-coefficient was 0.95, 0.92, 0.25 and 0.88, respectively. The Persian version of the Iowa THQ demonstrates high validity and reliability and can be used for the determination of tinnitus handicap and for following-up in the intervention process in Persian tinnitus patients.

  8. The psychometric properties of the Persian version of the metacognitions about Smoking Questionnaire among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Mahmoud; Khosravani, Vahid; Shahhosseini, Meysam; Afshari, Amirhossein

    2018-09-01

    It has been shown that smoking may be affected by metacognitions. This study aimed to evaluate the factor structure, reliability and validity of the Persian version of the Metacognitions about Smoking Questionnaire (MSQ) among a sample of Iranian male smokers. When the English to Persian translation of the MSQ was performed, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were completed according to the four-factor solution of the original MSQ. Three hundred male treatment-seeking smokers (mean age = 41.37, SD = 15.90) filled out the Persian-translated version of the MSQ, the Smoking Effects Questionnaire (SEQ), and the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS). The results of EFA revealed that the Persian version of the MSQ had a four-factor structure named positive metacognitions about cognitive regulation (PM-CR), positive metacognitions about emotional regulation (PM-ER), negative metacognitions about uncontrollability (NM-U), and negative metacognitions about cognitive interference (NM-CI). The findings of CFA also indicated that the four-factor structure of the Persian version of the MSQ had appropriate fit. Validity and reliability of the Persian version of the MSQ were found to be good. Negative metacognitions about smoking predicted nicotine dependence over and above smoking outcome expectancies. Positive metacognitions about emotion regulation explained daily cigarette use independent of smoking outcome expectancies. The findings suggested that the Persian version of the MSQ had adequate psychometric properties among Iranian male treatment-seeking smokers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12, translation, adaptation and validation for the Persian language population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhostin Ansari, Noureddin; Naghdi, Soofia; Mohammadi, Roghaye; Hasson, Scott

    2015-02-01

    The Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12) is a multi-item rating scale used to assess the perspectives of patients about the impact of MS on their walking ability. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the MSWS-12 in Persian speaking patients with MS. The MSWS-12 questionnaire was translated into Persian language according to internationally adopted standards involving forward-backward translation, reviewed by an expert committee and tested on the pre-final version. In this cross-sectional study, 100 participants (50 patients with MS and 50 healthy subjects) were included. The MSWS-12 was administered twice 7 days apart to 30 patients with MS for test and retest reliability. Internal consistency reliability was Cronbach's α 0.96 for test and 0.97 for retest. There were no significant floor or ceiling effects. Test-retest reliability was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] agreement of 0.98, 95% CI, 0.95-0.99) confirming the reproducibility of the Persian MSWS-12. Construct validity using known group methods was demonstrated through a significant difference in the Persian MSWS-12 total score between the patients with MS and healthy subjects. Factor analysis extracted 2 latent factors (79.24% of the total variance). A second factor analysis suggested the 9-item Persian MSWS as a unidimensional scale for patients with MS. The Persian MSWS-12 was found to be valid and reliable for assessing walking ability in Persian speaking patients with MS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Visual event-related potentials as markers of hyperarousal in Gulf War Illness: evidence against a stress-related etiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Gail D.; Calley, Clifford S.; Green, Timothy A.; Buhl, Virginia I.; Biggs, Melanie M.; Spence, Jeffrey S.; Briggs, Richard W.; Haley, Robert W.; Kraut, Michael A.; Hart, John

    2012-01-01

    An exaggerated response to emotional stimuli is among the many symptoms widely reported by veterans of the 1991 Persian Gulf War. These symptomologies have been attributed to damage and dysfunction associated with deployment-related exposures. We collected event-related potential data from 22 veterans meeting Haley criteria for Gulf War (GW) Syndromes 1-3 and from 8 matched GW veteran controls, who were deployed but not symptomatic, while they performed a visual three-condition oddball task where images authenticated to be associated with the 1991 Persian Gulf War were the distractor stimuli. Hyperarousal reported by ill veterans was significantly greater than that by control veterans, but this was not paralleled by higher amplitude P3a in their ERP responses to GW-related distractor stimuli. Whereas previous studies of PTSD patients have shown higher amplitude P3b responses to target stimuli that are placed amid trauma-related nontarget stimuli, ill veterans in this study showed P3b amplitudes to target stimuli—placed amid GW-related nontarget stimuli—that were significantly lower than those of the control group. Hyperarousal scores reliably predicted P3b, but not P3a, amplitudes. Although many factors may contribute to P3b amplitude differences—most notably depression and poor sleep quality, symptoms that are prevalent in the GW syndrome groups—our findings in context of previous studies on this population are consistent with the contention that dysfunction in cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems, and in white matter and basal ganglia may be contributing to impairments in GW veterans. PMID:23149040

  11. Danish Gulf War Veterans Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Stoltenberg, Christian; Nielsen, Anni B Sternhagen

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the assumption that postdeployment incidence of sickness and other absence from work are higher among Gulf War Veterans compared with nonveterans. METHODS: A prospective registry study including a cohort of 721 Danish Gulf War Veterans and a control cohort of 3,629 nonveterans...... and nonveterans in the incidence rate of long-term sickness absence. After an initial short period (3 months) with elevated incidence rate of long-term absence from work among veterans, there was no difference between the cohorts. CONCLUSION: Among Danish Gulf War Veterans, no postdeployment increased risk...... outcomes and information on deployment history was studied using time-to-event analysis. The index date was the return date from the last deployment to the Gulf. The follow-up period was the time from index date until April 27, 2014. RESULTS: As the main finding, no difference was found between veterans...

  12. "Lands below the Winds" as Part of the Persian Cosmopolis: An Inquiry into Linguistic and Cultural Borrowings from the Persianate societies in the Malay World

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrů, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2016), s. 147-161. ISBN 979-10-320-0066-3. ISSN 1620-3224 Institutional support: RVO:68378009 Keywords : Persian language * culture * Malay World Subject RIV: AB - History http://moussons.revues.org/3572

  13. Persian shallot, Allium hirtifolium Boiss, induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Farzaneh Sadat; Falahati-Pour, Soudeh Khanamani; Hajizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Khoshdel, Alireza; Mirzaei, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadirad, Hadis; Behroozi, Reza; Jafari, Nesa; Mahmoodi, Mehdi

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the potential of Persian shallot extract as an anticancer agent in HepG2 tumor cell line, an in vitro human hepatoma cancer model system. The inhibitory effect of Persian shallot on the growth of HepG2 cells was measured by MTT assay. To explore the underlying mechanism of cell growth inhibition of Persian shallot, the activity of Persian shallot in inducing apoptosis was investigated through the detection of annexin V signal by flow cytometry and expression of some apoptosis related genes such p21, p53, puma, caspase-8 family-Bcl-2 proteins like bid, bim, bcl-2 and bax were measured by real-time PCR in HepG2 cells. Persian shallot extract inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The IC 50 value (inhibiting cell growth by 50%) was 149 μg/ml. The results of real-time PCR revealed a significant up-regulation of bid, bim, caspase-8, puma, p53, p21 and bax genes and a significant downregulation of bcl-2 gene in HepG2 cells treated with Persian shallot extract significantly. Therefore, this is the first report on an increased expression of bid, bim, caspase-8, puma, p53, p21 and bax genes and down regulation of bcl-2 gene indicating that the Persian shallot extract possibly induced the process of cell death through the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways and triggers the programmed cell death in HepG2 tumor cell lines by modulating the expression of pro-/anti-apoptotic genes. Furthermore, we showed that Persian shallot extract increased annexin V signal and expression, resulting in apoptotic cell death of HepG2 cells after 24 h treatment. Therefore, according to the results of this study, the Persian shallot extract could be considered as a potential candidate for production of drug for the prevention or treatment of human hepatoma.

  14. Herbal diuretics in medieval Persian and Arabic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Bosmia, Anand N; Fakhree, Mohammad A A; Jouyban, Abolghasem; Balch, Margaret Wood; Loukas, Marios; Khodadoust, Kazem; Khalili, Majid; Eknoyan, Garabed

    2015-06-01

    In accord with the notions of humoralism that prevailed in medieval medicine, therapeutic interventions, including diuretics, were used to restore the disturbed balance among the four humors of the human body: blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. Most diuretics were derived from plants. The primary textual reference on herbal diuretics was Dioscorides's De Materia Medica, which was written during the first century CE. The authors reviewed the medieval medical texts written in Persian and Arabic and compiled a list of 135 herbal diuretics used by the medieval medical authorities for treating various ailments. Between the 8th and 11th centuries CE, Middle Eastern physicians systematically reviewed extant books on medicine and pharmacotherapy and compiled new and expanded lists of herbal medicines, diuretics in particular. Furthermore, they introduced new chemical methods of extraction, distillation, and compounding in the use of herbal medicines. Several herbal remedies now are considered as potentially safe and affordable alternatives to chemical pharmaceuticals. Thus, research on medieval herbal therapies may prove to be relevant to the practice of current cardiovascular and renal pharmacotherapy. The authors propose that modern research methods can be employed to determine which of these agents actually are effective as diuretics.

  15. PERSONALITY TYPE AND TRANSLATION PERFORMANCE OF PERSIAN TRANSLATOR TRAINEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shaki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the relationship between the personality typology of a sample of Iranian translation students and their translation quality in terms of expressive, appellative, and informative text types. The study also attempted to identify the personality types that can perform better in English to Persian translation of the three text types. For that purpose, the personality type and the translation quality of the participants was assessed using Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI personality test and translation quality assessment (TQA, respectively. The analysis of the data revealed that the personality type of the participants seemed relevant to the translation quality of all the text types. The translation quality of the participants with intuitive and thinking types was significantly better than the sensing type counterparts in translating expressive texts. The participants with intuitive and feeling types also performed better than their counterparts with sensing type in translation of the informative text. Moreover, the participants with intuitive, feeling, and thinking personality types performed more successfully than the participants with sensing type in translation of the appellative text. The findings of the study are discussed in light of the existing research literature.

  16. Story retelling skills in Persian speaking hearing-impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarollahi, Farnoush; Mohamadi, Reyhane; Modarresi, Yahya; Agharasouli, Zahra; Rahimzadeh, Shadi; Ahmadi, Tayebeh; Keyhani, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-05-01

    Since the pragmatic skills of hearing-impaired Persian-speaking children have not yet been investigated particularly through story retelling, this study aimed to evaluate some pragmatic abilities of normal-hearing and hearing-impaired children using a story retelling test. 15 normal-hearing and 15 profound hearing-impaired 7-year-old children were evaluated using the story retelling test with the content validity of 89%, construct validity of 85%, and reliability of 83%. Three macro structure criteria including topic maintenance, event sequencing, explicitness, and four macro structure criteria including referencing, conjunctive cohesion, syntax complexity, and utterance length were assessed. The test was performed with live voice in a quiet room where children were then asked to retell the story. The tasks of the children were recorded on a tape, transcribed, scored and analyzed. In the macro structure criteria, utterances of hearing-impaired students were less consistent, enough information was not given to listeners to have a full understanding of the subject, and the story events were less frequently expressed in a rational order than those of normal-hearing group (P hearing students who obtained high scores, hearing-impaired students failed to gain any scores on the items of this section. These results suggest that Hearing-impaired children were not able to use language as effectively as their hearing peers, and they utilized quite different pragmatic functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Spelling Errors Made By Persian Children With Developmental Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadpanah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background According to recent estimates, approximately 4% - 12% of Iranians experience difficulty in learning to read and spell, possibly as a result of developmental dyslexia. Objectives The study was intended to investigate spelling error patterns among Persian children with developmental dyslexia and compare those patterns with the errors exhibited by control groups. Patients and Methods Some 90 students participated in this study. There were 30 fifth grade students who had been diagnosed as dyslexic by professionals, 30 normal fifth grade readers, and 30 younger normal readers. There were 15 boys and 15 girls in each of the groups. Qualitative and quantitative methods for the analysis of errors were used. Results This study found similar spelling error profiles among the dyslexic students and the reading-level-matched group, and these profiles were different from those of the age-matched group. However, the performances of the dyslexic group and the reading-level-matched group were different and inconsistent in some cases. Conclusions However, performances of dyslexic group and reading level matched group were different and inconsistent in some cases.

  18. Holistic approach to functional constipation: Perspective of traditional Persian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrouzi, Majid; Zarshenas, Mohammad M

    2015-11-23

    Traditional Persian medicine (TPM) proposes a different viewpoint to the chronic diseases. Diagnosis and implemented treatment are based on individual differences among patients. Constipation or Ea'teghal-e-batn is a condition in which the patient develops difficult or painful defecation. Based on TPM concepts, the fifirst digestion step starts from halq (oral cavity), and ends via defecation from the maq'ad (anus). Avicenna believed that four faculties, ha'zemeh (digestive), ja'zebeh (absorptive), ma'sekeh (retentive) and da'fe'eh (propulsive), are involved in the process of digestion and absorption of the ingested food and expelling the waste materials. The bowel movement and appearance of the stool is a measure for evaluating the gastrointestinal healthy function. Defecation should be with no pain and fecal material should have no burning and acuity. Low food intake or foods with dry temperament, dryness of gastrointestinal tract, diaphoresis and heavy exercise as well as intestine sensory loss were discussed as main causes of constipation. Management of constipation in TPM includes dietary schemes, oil massages and subsequently simple herbal medicines. According to TPM theories, the fifirst step in treating a disease is the elimination of disease causes (asbabe- maraz) and also providing the causes of health (asbab-e-sehhat). Health care providers should know the proper condition which the herbal medicines should be administered in and be able to guide the patients about the benefifits and hazards of herbal remedies, commonly used in their living origin.

  19. Persian Back Channel Responses in Formal versus Informal Contexts

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    Shahla Sharifi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Utterances like /xob/ (okay, /doroste/ (right, /hmm/, /ee/, /?re/ (yeah, occur frequently in Persian conversations, but have thus far escaped from the systematic studies. Good listeners generally produce these short utterances, called "back channel responses", in appropriate times to show their participation in the conversation, but the rules governing back channeling vary from one context to another. The usage of back channel responses is different in various contexts, due to politeness or formality. This paper studies the types and functions of the back channel responses in both formal and informal settings and provides a comparison of the usage of these responses in these two kinds of contexts. The results show /bale/ (yes and /doroste/ (right are used with formal or polite verbal form, while /xob/ (okay is used with the informal style of speech and less polite verbal form. With respect to the function of back channels, signaling the understanding is the main function of back channels in informal contexts. Also, back channels signaling agreement are more frequent in formal contexts, where emotional function is less likely.

  20. Types of headache and those remedies in traditional persian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarshenas, Mohammad M; Petramfar, Peyman; Firoozabadi, Ali; Moein, Mahmood Reza; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2013-01-01

    The history of headache, as a common neurological complication, goes back to almost 9000 years ago. Many ancient civilizations present references to headaches and the coherent treatment strategies. Accordingly, several documents comprising headache complications embodying precise medical information stem from Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) that can provide useful opportunities for more comprehensive treatment. We conducted a survey on headache through original important pharmacopeias and other important medical manuscripts of TPM which were written during 9(th) to 19(th) centuries and have derived all headache categories and herbal remedies. An extensive search of scientific data banks, such as Medline and Scopus, has also been exercised to find results relating to the anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, and analgesic effects of denoted medicinal herbs. The concept of headache and treatments in TPM covers over 20 various types of headache and more than 160 different medicinal plants administered for oral, topical, and nasal application according to 1000 years of the subject documents. Nearly, 60% of remarked medicinal herbs have related anti-inflammatory or analgesic effects and some current headache types have similarities and conformities to those of traditional types. Beside historical approaches, there are many possible and available strategies that can lead to development of new and effective headache treatment from medicinal plants so that this study can provide beneficial information on clinical remedies based on centuries of experience in the field of headache which can stand as a new candidate for further investigations.

  1. Reassembling Formal Features in Articles by L1 Persian Learners of L2 English

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    Marjansadat Momenzadeh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable debate over what the sources of morphological variation in second language acquisition are. From among various hypotheses put forth on the topic, the feature reassembly hypothesis (Lardiere, 2005 assumes that it is the reconfiguration of features in the L2 which causes variation between the performance of natives and non-natives. Acknowledged as one of the most difficult elements of English grammar to be acquired by learners, the article system was the focus of the present study which aimed at attending to the acquisition of that system by Persian learners. This descriptive piece of research focused on how the article system functions in English and Persian, the similarities found across the two languages and the possible sources of difficulty for Persian learners in using English articles as related to their L1. The participants included Persian learners at three levels of grammatical knowledge. A group of English native speakers also took part in the study. A grammaticality judgment test and a translation test were conducted to collect data. Comparisons were made among the four groups, using ANOVAs. Based on the results, it is argued that the observed pattern of article use among Persian speaking learners can be best accounted for by the feature reassembly hypothesis.

  2. Validation of Addenbrooke's cognitive examination (ACE) in a Persian-speaking population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouretemad, Hamid Reza; Khatibi, Ali; Ganjavi, Anahita; Shams, Jamal; Zarei, Mojtaba

    2009-01-01

    Use of reliable screening and diagnostic tests for assessment of cognitive abilities in neurological patients is rapidly increasing in clinical practice. This is due to the increase in the prevalence of dementias and the raised awareness of cognitive impairment in neurological disorders. Two well-known bedside screening tests for dementias among the English-speaking population are the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE). However, such tests have not been developed for the Persian-speaking population, which is estimated at 120 million worldwide. In this study we developed the Persian ACE and MMSE, adopted from the English version. We also assessed the sensitivity and specificity of these tests in the identification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We found that the Persian ACE at a cutoff point of 84, has a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 91% in discriminating MCI from a normal population; at 78, the test has a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 93% in differentiating MCI from AD, and at a similar cutoff point has a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 96% in discriminating AD from a normal population. We conclude that the Persian ACE is a valuable tool in clinical practice in the Persian-speaking population. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Dementia Etiologies and Remedies in Traditional Persian Medicine; A Review of Medicinal Plants and Phytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirbeigi, Laila; Dalfardi, Behnam; Abolhassanzadeh, Zohreh; Nejatbakhsh, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    Dementia is a chronic neurodegenerative disease causing progressive and gradual impairment of different brain's cognitive functions. The prevalence of dementia is about 3 to 7% in different parts of the world. The aim of this study was to determine the etiologies of dementia according to the Traditional Persian Medicine scientists' viewpoint and introduce their recommended herbal remedies for this disease. The authors explored six main Traditional Persian Medicine textbooks for the disease of dementia, its etiologies and related recommended herbal treatments. Two main keywords of "Lisarghes" and" Nesyan" were searched for this purpose. Medical databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Science Direct were searched for related articles published between 1966 and 2016 to review the pharmacological components and active ingredients of suggested herbal medicines. According to the Traditional Persian Medicine, dementia is resulted from brain dystemperament, a condition caused by cold and moist or cold and dry tempers. To treat this disease, Traditional Persian scientists recommended various herbal remedies. Current studies have demonstrated that some of these medicinal plants have beneficial effects for the aforementioned disease, including acetyl cholinesterase inhibitory function, neuroprotective effects, and memory enhancing role. The Traditional Persian Medicine literature suggested different herbal remedies for treating dementia. Modern studies support the usefulness of some of these medicines. However, the effect of a large number of these remedies has remained unexamined, a matter which needs to be investigated in future researches. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Reliability and validity of the persian version of the scoliosis research society-22r questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Sayed Javad; Mobini, Bahram; Mehdian, Hossein; Akbarnia, Behrouz; Bouzari, Behshad; Askary-Ashtiani, Ahmadreza; Montazeri, Ali; Parnianpour, Mohamad

    2010-04-01

    Cross-sectional validation study to investigate psychometric properties of adapted Persian version of the Scoliosis Research Society-22r (SRS-22r) questionnaire. OBJECTIVES.: To translate the SRS-22r into Persian and to evaluate the internal consistency, reliability, and validity of the Persian SRS-22r. The SRS-22r has not been translated and validated for Persian-speaking patients with idiopathic scoliosis. This was to provide a validated instrument to measure health-related quality of life in patients with idiopathic scoliosis in Iran. The translation and cultural adaptation of the original questionnaire were carried out in accordance with the published guidelines. About 84 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were participated in the study. The Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to test convergent validity of the Persian SRS-22r. Moderate to high correlations were found between the SRS-22r domains and SF-36 subscales. The correlations ranged from 0.54 to 0.67 (function/activity domain), 0.48 to 0.74 (pain domain), 0.45 to 0.55 (self image domain), 0.66 to 0.85 (mental health domain), and 0.35 to 0.55 (satisfaction domain) (P adolescent patients with scoliosis in Iran. It is simple and easy to use and now can be applied in clinical settings and future outcome studies in Iran.

  5. The validity and reliability of the Persian version of the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavidel Parsa, Banafsheh; Amir Maafi, Alireza; Haghdoost, Afrooz; Arabi, Yasaman; Khojamli, Monire; Chatrnour, Gelayol; Bidari, Ali

    2014-02-01

    The Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR), an updated version of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) achieved a better balance among different domains (i.e., function, overall impact, and symptom severity) and attempts to address the limitations of FIQ. As there is no Persian version of the FIQR available, we aimed to investigate the validity and reliability of a Persian translation of the FIQR in Iranian patients. After translating the FIQR into Persian, it was administered to 77 female patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. All of the patients filled out the questionnaire together with a Persian version of the FIQ, short form-12 (SF-12). The tender-point count was also calculated. One week later, FM patients filled out the Persian FIQR at their second visit. Reliability was analyzed by internal consistency and reproducibility including Cronbach's α coefficient and intra-class correlation coefficient. Construct validity was evaluated by Spearman's correlation coefficient and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS for Windows version 17.0. All patients included in this study were female, and the mean age was 38.23 ± 10.68 years. The total scores of the FIQR and FIQ were 49.77 ± 18.27 and 54.05 ± 14.00 that were closely correlated (r = 0.63, p FIQ domains (r = 0.36-0.63, p fibromyalgia.

  6. Exploring the Rendition of Humor in Dubbed English Comedy Animations into Persian

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    Hamid Reza Sadeghpour

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dubbing is one of the developing areas in Translation Studies, and this study aimed at investigating the translation strategies used in the dubbing of comedy animations from English to Persian. Since colloquial, idiomatic, and humorous expressions have the capacity to elicit laughter and as it is not always easy to draw a clear-cut line between these three types of expressions, this study examines all three types, investigating the strategies used in translating these expressions. The data was collected from five popular American comedy animations dubbed into Persian. The original humorous, colloquial, and idiomatic expressions and their Persian translations were written down and the strategies used in translating them were identified and classified into nine groups for further analysis. The findings from the sample demonstrate that the Persian translators tend to use familiar expressions rather than translate literally and that beside humorous expressions, the translators tend to use idiomatic and colloquial expressions to produce laughter mostly in cases where the original animation has not used them. In short, the Persian translators have frequently and freely used idiomatic and colloquial expressions in their secondary function to elicit laughter which is a strategy that can be used in the translation of comedies, especially for children, where there are numerous linguistic and cultural barriers across the cultures.

  7. Comparison of Iranian Monolingual and Bilingual EFL Students' Listening Comprehension in Terms of Watching English Movie with Latinized Persian Subtitles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamchi, Roghayeh; Kumar, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    The main concern of the present study was to compare Iranian monolingual and bilingual EFL students' listening comprehension in terms of Latinized Persian subtitling of English movie to see whether there was a significant difference between monolinguals and bilinguals on immediate linguistic comprehension of the movie. Latinized Persian subtitling…

  8. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Persian Version of the Oxford Knee Score in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

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    Mohammad Hosein Ebrahimzadeh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Oxford Knee Score (OKS is a short patient-reported outcome instrument that measures pain and physical activity related to knee osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate, construct validity and consistent reliability of the Persian version of the OKS. Methods: The case series consisted of 80 patients who were clinically diagnosed with having knee osteoarthritis. All patients were requested to fill-in the Persian OKS and Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36. Correlation analysis between the Persian versions of these two instruments was then carried out. The scores of the Persian SF-36 were used to evaluate convergent and divergent validity of the 12-item Persian OKS. Results: From a total of 80 patients, 63 were female (79% and the remaining 17 were male (21% with a mean age of 52.2 years. In the present study, high Cronbach’s alpha of 0.95 confirms excellent internal consistency of the Persian OKS scale similar to previous investigations. The results confirm that the Persian version of this instrument is valid and reliable, similar to its English index and its subsequent translations in different languages. Conclusion: The Persian OKS is a reliable instrument to evaluate knee function in patients with knee osteoarthritis and is a useful tool for outcome measurement in clinical research.

  9. A Comparative Study of the Figures of Speech between Top 50 English and Persian Pop Song Lyrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Farshid Tayari; Derakhshesh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a corpus-based comparative discourse analysis of top fifty pop English and Persian song lyrics in 2014 to investigate the production of four figures of speech including metaphor, simile, personification, and hyperbole. The English corpus was compiled from the End-Year 2014 Chart of Billboard and the Persian corpus was complied from…

  10. Validation of the Persian version of the brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhari, Shahrzad; Parvaresh, Nooshin; Eslami Shahrbabaki, Mahin; Sadeghi, Mohammad M; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Keefe, Richard S E

    2014-02-01

    The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) is designed for assessment of cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia. Versions of the BACS in English and other languages have been shown to be as sensitive to cognitive dysfunction as a standard test battery, with the advantage of brief administration and scoring time. The present study aimed to test the concurrent validity of the Persian version of the BACS (Persian-BACS). A group of 50 patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and a group of 50 healthy controls received the Persian-BACS in a first session, and in a second session a standard neurocognitive battery. Cronbach's alpha for the Persian-BACS was 0.74. All the Persian-BACS subscales were significantly correlated with the corresponding standard neurocognitive subscales and the Pearson correlation of the composite scores from the two instruments was 0.71. Moreover, a one-factor solution was found that accounted for 67.9% of the variance. Finally, the Persian-BACS demonstrated high ability to discriminate patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls. Good psychometric properties of the Persian-BACS suggest that it is a useful tool for assessing cognition in schizophrenic patients with Persian as their primary language. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  11. The Psychometric Analysis of the Persian Version of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning of Rebecca L. Oxford

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

    2012-01-01

    The current study aims to analyze the psychometric qualities of the Persian adapted version of Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) developed by Rebecca L. Oxford (1990). Three instruments were used: Persian adapted version of SILL, a Background Questionnaire, and Test of English as a Foreign Language. Two hundred and thirteen Iranian…

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the persian version of the oxford knee score in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Hosein; Makhmalbaf, Hadi; Birjandinejad, Ali; Soltani-Moghaddas, Seyed Hosein

    2014-11-01

    The Oxford Knee Score (OKS) is a short patient-reported outcome instrument that measures pain and physical activity related to knee osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate, construct validity and consistent reliability of the Persian version of the OKS. The case series consisted of 80 patients who were clinically diagnosed with having knee osteoarthritis. All patients were requested to fill-in the Persian OKS and Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). Correlation analysis between the Persian versions of these two instruments was then carried out. The scores of the Persian SF-36 were used to evaluate convergent and divergent validity of the 12-item Persian OKS. From a total of 80 patients, 63 were female (79%) and the remaining 17 were male (21%) with a mean age of 52.2 years. In the present study, high Cronbach's alpha of 0.95 confirms excellent internal consistency of the Persian OKS scale similar to previous investigations. The results confirm that the Persian version of this instrument is valid and reliable, similar to its English index and its subsequent translations in different languages. The Persian OKS is a reliable instrument to evaluate knee function in patients with knee osteoarthritis and is a useful tool for outcome measurement in clinical research.

  13. 76 FR 54375 - Safety Zone; Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange Beach, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange Beach, AL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... portion of the Gulf of Mexico for the waters off Orange Beach, Alabama. This action is necessary for the... conduct a high speed boat race on the Gulf of Mexico, south of Orange Beach, Alabama to occur from October...

  14. The Symptomatic Persian Gulf Veterans Protocol: An Analysis of Risk Factors with an Immunologic and Neuropsychiatric Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blackburn, Warren

    1998-01-01

    The goals of this proposal are to evaluate self-reported conditions, determine potential risk factors, and determine if there is a definable immunologic abnormality or evidence of mycoplasma infection...

  15. Matrix Model for Methamphetamine Dependence Among Iranian Female Methadone Patients: The First Report From the Most Populated Persian Gulf Country

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    Omid Massah

    2017-09-01

    Discussion: The results indicated that the Matrix Model is effective for treating MA dependence. However, the long length of the treatment, lack of cost-effectiveness, and intensive staff training are significant problems associated with providing MA treatment. Further studies are suggested to evaluate the role of brief interventions in reducing these problems in methadone treatment services.

  16. War Powers: Reforming the Law, With Case Studies of U.S. Military Participation in the Persian Gulf and Haiti

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Polloni, Mario

    2000-01-01

    .... From the constitutional viewpoint, this lack of friendly environment arises from the fact that the Constitution shares war powers between the presidency and the Congress, producing the conflict...

  17. Images of Conflict: Learning from Media Coverage of the Persian Gulf War. A Media Literacy Workshop Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Barbara; Davis, J. Francis

    This workshop kit consists of: (1) 30-page "Leaders Guide and Handout Masters"; (2) 12-minute videotape, "Lines in the Sand"; (3) special 24-page issue of the journal "Media & Values" on the theme "The Media: in War and Peace"; and (4) an 8-page booklet on the basics of media literacy, "From…

  18. Screening of marine algae (Padina sp. from the Lengeh Port, Persian Gulf for antibacterial and antifungal activities

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    Azadeh Taherpour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of different solvent extracts of Padina sp. against selected human pathogenic bacteria and fungi species such as Escherichia coli, Shigella sp., Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans. Methods: Various solvents including methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and hexane were used to acquire crude extracts from marine algae Padina sp. After crude preparation, antibacterial and antifungal activities were screened against clinically important human pathogenic bacteria using disc and well diffusion methods. For all the bacterial species used in this research, minimum inhibitory concentration was undertaken considering various solvent extracts of Padina sp. To ensure the accuracy of experiments, a positive control was also included. Results: Confirmed that hexane is the best solvent to extract antimicrobial agents from Padina sp. Among selected bacteria, S. aureus was the most sensitive test microorganism. While, all other microorganisms showed resistance against methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform extracts. In fact, by increasing concentration of hexane extract, inhibition of S. aureus growth or antimicrobial activity was increased. Growth inhibition zone in well method showed better results compared to disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of hexane extract were 15 and 30 mg/mL against S. aureus, respectively. All Padina sp. extracts did not reveal any antifungal activities against fungi species in this study. Conclusions: Brown algae extracts showed sufficient antibacterial properties against S. aureus. Therefore, Padina sp. in this research can be a good candidate to design and manufacture novel antibacterial agents used in pharmaceutical industries.

  19. Selective toxicity of persian gulf sea cucumber holothuria parva on human chronic lymphocytic leukemia b lymphocytes by direct mitochondrial targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Ahmad; Motallebi, Abbasali; Ayatollahi, Maryam; Seydi, Enayatollah; Mohseni, Ali Reza; Nazemi, Melika; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2017-04-01

    Natural products isolated from marine environment are well known for their pharmacodynamic potential in diversity of disease treatments such as cancer or inflammatory conditions. Sea cucumbers are one of the marine animals of the phylum Echinoderm. Many studies have shown that the sea cucumber contains antioxidants and anti-cancer compounds. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a disease characterized by the relentless accumulation of CD5 + B lymphocytes. CLL is the most common leukemia in adults, about 25-30% of all leukemias. In this study B lymphocytes and their mitochondria (cancerous and non-cancerous) were obtained from peripheral blood of human subjects and B lymphocyte cytotoxicity assay, and caspase 3 activation along with mitochondrial upstream events of apoptosis signaling including reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and mitochondrial swelling were determined following the addition of Holothuria parva extract to both cancerous and non-cancerous B lymphocytes and their mitochondria. Our in vitro finding showed that mitochondrial ROS formation, MMP collapse, and mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release were significantly (P < 0.05) increased after addition of different concentrations of H. parva only in cancerous BUT NOT normal non-cancerous mitochondria. Consistently, different concentrations of H. parva significantly (P < 0.05) increased cytotoxicity and caspase 3 activation only in cancerous BUT NOT normal non-cancerous B lymphocytes. These results showed that H. parva methanolic extract has a selective mitochondria mediated apoptotic effect on chronic lymphocytic leukemia B lymphocytes hence may be promising in the future anticancer drug development for treatment of CLL. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1158-1169, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Sexual Harassment and Assault as Predictors of PTSD Symptomatology among U.S. Female Persian Gulf Military Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Jessica; Sharkansky, Erica J.; Read, Jennifer P.; Dawson, Ree; Ouimette, Paige Crosby; Martin, James A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines sexual harassment and assault of women in a wartime military example. Explores the impacts of these stressors and combat exposure on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. Harassment and assault were higher than in civilian and peacetime military samples. The number of postwar stressful life events mediated the relationship…

  1. The Effective Deterrence of Environmental Damage during Armed Conflict: A Case Analysis of the Persian Gulf War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    understandings, the United States never ratified either of them. Id. at 459- * 68. 7Id. at 460. 79MOORE, supra note 5, at 81. See also Paul C. Szasz ...supra note 3, at 64. 󈧉Although no source concludes that the 1977 ENMOD Convention is customary international law, see Szasz , supra note 79, at 216-17...156M. at 3-4. 1571d. at 4. 1581d. at 4-6. 1591d. at 6. 16° Szasz , supra note 79, at 217. 16ld. at 216-17. 162LAWS OF WAR, supra note 9, at 4. 100 0

  2. The knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors in elementary school students in Bushehr Port The Persian Gulf Healthy Heart Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Sanaei Dashty

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases are among the first leading causes of death in the world, whose main risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, obesity, hypertension and smoking are somehow closely related to childhood. The process of atherosclerosis may begin developing during childhood. Methods: In order to evaluate the knowledge of elementary school students of Bushehr Port regarding heart function and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, 1128 students educating in 3rd and 4th grades were randomly selected and assessed with a 30-item questionnaire including four sections heart anatomy, smoking, exercise and nutrition. The minimum score was considered zero, the maximum 30 and the passing score was to gain 51% of the maximum score (or 15.30 out of 30. Results: The mean of total score was 13.1 5. The mean-score of the 3rd grade students was higher than the mean of the score in the 4th grade ones (P<0.05. There was no significant difference between total mean-score of girls and boys. The mean of the anatomy section score was higher in girls and those of the three other sections were higher in boys. Only 36% of students gained the passing score and 64% of them failed to pass the examination. Conclusion: The level of knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors is low in elementary school students in Bushehr Port. We suggest preparing attractive teaching booklets regarding healthy heart, to be taught routinely in schools, beside other health issues.

  3. Challenges to Persian Gulf Security: How Should the United States Respond? (Strategic Forum, Number 237, November 2008)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yaphe, Judith S

    2008-01-01

    .... Iran's quest for regional preeminence, driven by the impulses of exceptionalism and self-sufficiency that are deeply engrained in the country's political psyche, will not slacken any time soon...

  4. The sagittal otolith morphology of four selected mugilid species from Iranian waters of the Persian Gulf (Teleostei: Mugilidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vahideh Salehi; Majid Askari Hesni; Azad Teimori; Mohammad Reza Lashkari

    2016-01-01

    The members of mugilid species are usually difficult to recognize because of the well-known similarity observed in their external morphology. Nevertheless, their identification is very important for local fisheries management and conservation action. Therefore, in the present study we applied otolith morphology to evaluate its significance in identification of four selected mugilid species; Chelon subviridis (Valenciennes, 1836), Liza klunzingeri (Day, 1888), Ellochelon vaigiensis (Quoy & Gai...

  5. Isolation and purification of a novel anticancer 60 K daltons protein from the Persian Gulf sea hare, Aplysia Dactylomela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Zandi

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Sea hares have attracted the interest of many workers investigating chemical defense substances. Most of these substances are low molecular weight compounds derived from algal diets. Anticancer effects of a novel protein isolated from purple fluid of A. dactylomela are reported. The purification procedure consisted basically of ammonium sulphate fractionation, ion exchange and ultrafiltration techniques. For cytotoxicity effects, L929, K562, HL60 and NB4 cell lines and MTT assay were used. A protein of 60000 Da of the purple fluid of A. dactylomela had antiproliferative effects on the cell lines it was maximally active at 0.5-1.5 microgram/ml on NB4 cell line. Therefore, the purple fluid of A. dactylomela has a novel antiproliferative agent.

  6. Seasonal variations in biomass and species composition of seaweeds along the northern coasts of Persian Gulf (Bushehr Province)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadolahi-Sohrab, A.; Garavand-Karimi, M.; Riahi, H.; Pashazanoosi, H.

    2012-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the seasonal variations of seaweed biomass and species composition at six different sites along the coastal areas in Bushehr Province. Sampling depths varied among sites, from 0.3 to 2.0 m below mean sea level. A total of 37 (i.e., 10 Chlorophyta, 12 Phaeophyta and 15 Rhodophyta) seaweed species were collected. Studies were conducted for quantifying the seaweeds during four seasons from October 2008 until July 2009. During present research, Ulva intestinalis and Cladophora nitellopsis of green, Polycladia myrica, Sirophysalia trinodis and Sargassum angustifolium of brown and Gracilaria canaliculata and Hypnea cervicornis of red seaweeds showed highest biomass in coastal areas of Bushehr Province. The Cheney`s ratio of 2.1 indicated a temperate algal flora to this area. All sites exhibited more than 50% similarity of algal species, indicating a relatively homogenous algal distribution. Total biomass showed the highest value of 3280.7 ± 537.8 g dry wt m - 2 during summer and lowest value of 856.9 ± 92.0 g dry wt m - 2 during winter. During this study, the highest and lowest seaweed biomass were recorded on the site 2 (2473.7 ± 311.0 g dry wt m - 2) and site 5 (856.7 ± 96.8 g dry wt m - 2), respectively.

  7. The origin of oil in the Cretaceous succession from the South Pars Oil Layer of the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Omeid; Aali, Jafar; Junin, Radzuan; Mohseni, Hassan; Padmanabhan, Eswaran; Azdarpour, Amin; Zarza, Sahar; Moayyed, Mohsen; Ghazanfari, Parviz

    2013-07-01

    The origin of the oil in Barremian-Hauterivian and Albian age source rock samples from two oil wells (SPO-2 and SPO-3) in the South Pars oil field has been investigated by analyzing the quantity of total organic carbon (TOC) and thermal maturity of organic matter (OM). The source rocks were found in the interval 1,000-1,044 m for the Kazhdumi Formation (Albian) and 1,157-1,230 m for the Gadvan Formation (Barremian-Hauterivian). Elemental analysis was carried out on 36 samples from the source rock candidates (Gadvan and Kazhdumi formations) of the Cretaceous succession of the South Pars Oil Layer (SPOL). This analysis indicated that the OM of the Barremian-Hauterivian and Albian samples in the SPOL was composed of kerogen Types II and II-III, respectively. The average TOC of analyzed samples is less than 1 wt%, suggesting that the Cretaceous source rocks are poor hydrocarbon (HC) producers. Thermal maturity and Ro values revealed that more than 90 % of oil samples are immature. The source of the analyzed samples taken from Gadvan and Kazhdumi formations most likely contained a content high in mixed plant and marine algal OM deposited under oxic to suboxic bottom water conditions. The Pristane/nC17 versus Phytane/nC18 diagram showed Type II-III kerogen of mixture environments for source rock samples from the SPOL. Burial history modeling indicates that at the end of the Cretaceous time, pre-Permian sediments remained immature in the Qatar Arch. Therefore, lateral migration of HC from the nearby Cretaceous source rock kitchens toward the north and south of the Qatar Arch is the most probable origin for the significant oils in the SPOL.

  8. The Symptomatic Persian Gulf Veterans Protocol: An Analysis of Risk Factors with an Immunologic and Neuropsychiatric Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    of mycoplasma or ureaplasma organisms by culture and PCR revealed no discernable significant differences. Similarly, no significant differences have...blood mononuclear cells, throat swabs and urines have been evaluated for the presence of mycoplasma or ureaplasma . Methodology is described in the...culture; b) direct PCR for M. fermentans; and c) by PCR with a universal mycoplasma primer. Mycoplasma or ureaplasma were detected frequently in

  9. Evidence for the existence of Persian Gulf water and Red Sea water in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jain, V.; Shankar, D.; Vinayachandran, P.N.; Kankonkar, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Amol, P.; Almeida, A.M.; Michael, G.S.; Mukherjee, A.; Chatterjee, M.; Fernandes, R.; Luis, R.; Kamble, A.; Hegde, A.; Chatterjee, S.; Das, U.; Neema, C.P.

    data from recent cruises to show that PGW and RSW also exist in the bay. The presence of RSW is marked by a deviation of the salinity vertical profile from a fitted curve at depths ranging from 500 to 1000 m; this deviation, though small (of the order...

  10. Globalization, values, interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojičić Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the international politics, after the Cold War directed by the U.S. as the only current super-power, are considered in the text. The author’s intention is to stress the main points of divergence between moralistic-valuable rhetoric and the foreign policy practice of the U.S. In that sense, the examples of the American stand, i.e. the active treatment of the Yugoslav crisis, on the one hand, and the crisis in the Persian Gulf, on the other hand, is considered. The author’s conclusion is that the foreign policy of the only current super-power is still directed by interests rather then by values. In the concluding part, the author presents an anthropologic argument in favor of reestablishing "balance of power" as the only guarantee for peace and stability of the world.

  11. PRESSURE - WATER and Other Data from FIXED STATIONS From Persian Gulf (Gulf of Iran) and Others from 19720508 to 19720927 (NCEI Accession 7400263)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information related to this accession are in analog format only. Please contact Services.NODC@noaa.gov for additional information.

  12. Melancholia in medieval Persian literature: The view of Hidayat of Al-Akhawayni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalfardi, Behnam; Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2014-06-22

    "Melancholia" seems to be the oldest term used to describe the manifestations of depression. Throughout the history of medicine, melancholia has been the focus of consideration of many scholars who have provided varying definitions of this disorder and its manifestations. This continual process has resulted in the gradual development of the concept of melancholia over time. Persian scholars were among the scientists who have studied the melancholia and contributed to its concept. One figure, Al-Akhawayni Bukhari (?-983 AD), a Persian physician whose reputation was based on the treatment of patients with mental problems, investigated this disorder. He described Melancholia and explained its clinical manifestations and treatment methods. Al-Akhawayni provided an early classification of the patients suffering from this disorder. Since the medieval Persian concept of melancholia is not well-known, this paper aims to review Al-Akhawayni's 10(th) century knowledge on melancholia which can represent the early concept of this disorder in the Near East.

  13. Survey on infestation of Persian cats in Tabriz area by Toxocara cati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Shirazi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxocara cati is among the most common feline parasites which can infect human especially children and cause various symptoms. Due to close connection of this species with humans as pets and with other stray cats either directly or indirectly; this study was conducted specially for the first time to determine the infection status of Persian cats of Tabriz area to this parasite. In this study, from a total of 50 Persian cats studied, 13 (26% were infected by a variety of enteric parasites and 37 (74% were without infection and 10 (20% of the cats were infected by Toxocara cati. According to the results, significant difference in infection rate was observed between Persian cats kept indoors and those that were kept in cattery and also there was significant differences in infection rate between males and females (p

  14. Validity and Reliability of Persian Version of Onyx Social Capital Scale in Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Eftekharian

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: The Persian version of the questionnaire for this population has acceptable levels of face validity based on clarity, simplicity, and understandability of the questions, answers, and explanations of the Persian version of the social capital questionnaire. This version of the questionnaire also had acceptable levels in terms of suitability of the translation of the questionnaire, its suitability for Iranian community, its understandability, and suitability for needs assessment, discriminate validity (the internal consistency of the Persian version of questionnaire, test-retest reliability (absolute, and relative, and internal consistency. Therefore, this instrument is suitable for evaluating the level of social capital among the Iranian elderly people.

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of language sample measures with Persian-speaking preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Yalda; Klee, Thomas; Stringer, Helen

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the diagnostic accuracy of selected language sample measures (LSMs) with Persian-speaking children. A pre-accuracy study followed by phase I and II studies are reported. Twenty-four Persian-speaking children, aged 42 to 54 months, with primary language impairment (PLI) were compared to 27 age-matched children without PLI on a set of measures derived from play-based, conversational language samples. Results showed that correlations between age and LSMs were not statistically significant in either group of children. However, a majority of LSMs differentiated children with and without PLI at the group level (phase I), while three of the measures exhibited good diagnostic accuracy at the level of the individual (phase II). We conclude that general LSMs are promising for distinguishing between children with and without PLI. Persian-specific measures are mainly helpful in identifying children without language impairment while their ability to identify children with PLI is poor.

  16. Blind links, a big challenge in the linked data idea: Analysis of Persian Subject Headings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Sharif

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this survey, Linked data concept as exposing, sharing, and connecting pieces of data, information, and knowledge on the Semantic Web and some potential problems in converting Persian subject headings (PSHs Records into linked data were discussed. A data set (11233 records of PSHs was searched in three information retrieval systems including National Library of Iran (NLI online catalog, Library of Congress (LC online catalog and NOSA books. Correct links between Persian and English subject headings in the 9519 common records of two catalogs were recorded. The results indicate that the links between Persian and English subjects in 20% of records were failed. The maximum error was associated with the anonymous databases (6/7 % in NLI online catalog. It is recommended to preprocess the PSHs records before any conversion projects. It seems that, during the preprocessing, the potential errors could be identified and corrected.

  17. Gulf War illness: an overview of events, most prevalent health outcomes, exposures, and clues as to pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Kathleen J

    2015-01-01

    During or very soon after the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War, veterans of the conflict began to report symptoms of illness. Common complaints included combinations of cognitive difficulties, fatigue, myalgia, rashes, dyspnea, insomnia, gastrointestinal symptoms and sensitivity to odors. Gradually in the USA, and later in the UK, France, Canada, Denmark and Australia, governments implemented medical assessment programs and epidemiologic studies to determine the scope of what was popularly referred to as "the Gulf War syndrome". Attention was drawn to numerous potentially toxic deployment-related exposures that appeared to vary by country of deployment, by location within the theater, by unit, and by personal job types. Identifying a single toxicant cause was considered unlikely and it was recognized that outcomes were influenced by genetic variability in xenobiotic metabolism. Derived from primary papers and key reports by the Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses and the Institute of Medicine, a brief overview is presented of war related events, symptoms and diagnostic criteria for Gulf War illness (GWV), some international differences, the various war-related exposures and key epidemiologic studies. Possible exposure interactions and pathophysiologic mechanisms are discussed. Exposures to pyridostigmine bromide, pesticides, sarin and mustard gas or combinations thereof were most associated with GWI, especially in some genotype subgroups. The resultant oxidant stress and background exposome must be assumed to have played a role. Gulf War (GW) exposures and their potential toxic effects should be considered in the context of the human genome, the human exposome and resultant oxidant stress to better characterize this unique environmentally-linked illness and, ultimately, provide a rationale for more effective interventions and future prevention efforts.

  18. Psychometric Properties of the Persian Language Version of Yang Internet Addiction Questionnaire: An Explanatory Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadsalehi, Narges; Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Jadidi, Rahmatollah; Anbari, Zohreh; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Akbari, Mojtaba

    2015-09-01

    Reliability and validity are the key concepts in measurement processes. Young internet addiction test (YIAT) is regarded as a valid and reliable questionnaire in English speaking countries for diagnosis of Internet-related behavior disorders. This study aimed at validating the Persian version of YIAT in the Iranian society. A pilot and a cross-sectional study were conducted on 28 and 254 students of Qom University of Medical Sciences, respectively, in order to validate the Persian version of YIAT. Forward and backward translations were conducted to develop a Persian version of the scale. Reliability was measured by test-retest, Cronbach's alpha and interclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Face, content and construct validity were approved by the importance score index, content validity ratio (CVR), content validity index (CVI), correlation matrix and factor analysis. The SPSS software was used for data analysis. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.917 (CI 95%; 0.901 - 0.931). The average of scale-level CVI was calculated to be 0.74; the CVI index for each item was higher than 0.83 and the average of CVI index was equal to 0.89. Factor analysis extracted three factors including personal activities disorder (PAD), emotional and mood disorder (EMD) and social activities disorder (SAD), with more than 55.8% of total variances. The ICC for different factors of Persian version of Young Questionnaire including PAD, EMD and for SAD was r = 0.884; CI 95%; 0.861 - 0.904, r = 0.766; CI 95%; 0.718 - 0.808 and r = 0.745; CI 95%; 0.686 - 0.795, respectively. Our study showed that the Persian version of YIAT is good and usable on Iranian people. The reliability of the instrument was very good. Moreover, the validity of the Persian translated version of the scale was sufficient. In addition, the reliability and validity of the three extracted factors of YIAT were evaluated and were acceptable.

  19. An Evidence-Based Review on Medicinal Value of Clays in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinkhani, Ayda; Montaseri, Hashem; Hosamo, Ammar; Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    The use of earths and clays for medical purposes dates back to antiquity. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in researches on traditional remedies in the hope of discovering new drug. Iran is an ancient country with a medical backbone acquired from the experiences of ancient Persian scholars, who had made a great contribution to the development of the medical sciences. Many medical and pharmaceutical books by early Persian scientists still exist and may have the potential of leading researchers to new drug discoveries. Owing to the emergence of new and antimicrobial-resistant infections, present-day medicine has recently begun focusing on medicinal earths and clays especially as mineral antimicrobials. The current study is, therefore, aimed at gathering information regarding medicinal clays in traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Five main Persian materia medica with the key word 'tin' (clay) and current databases such as PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar were searched by key words 'white, green, red, maroon, violet, black, grey and pink clays' and 'pharmacological effects'. Twenty three clays were found in Persian manuscripts. Although their mineralogical compositions are unknown, different pharmacological properties have been attributed to these mineral medicaments. Clay's properties were widely used in medieval times for the treatment of infections to poisoning. They were also used in compound formulations, possibly for their pharmaceutical formulation modifying effects. Modern scientific proofs have also been found in many of the medicinal clays reported in Persian manuscripts. Although many of the reported clays are still unknown, their characterization may lead to new medicinal developments. Novel analytical methods available today make it possible to elucidate the chemical compositions of these minerals as parameters responsible for their medicinal effects. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please

  20. Development and Evaluation of a Speech Recognition Test for Persian Speaking Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mosleh

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Method and Materials: This research is carried out for development and evaluation of 25 phonemically balanced word lists for Persian speaking adults in two separate stages: development and evaluation. In the first stage, in order to balance the lists phonemically, frequency -of- occurrences of each 29phonems (6 vowels and 23 Consonants of the Persian language in adults speech are determined. This section showed some significant differences between some phonemes' frequencies. Then, all Persian monosyllabic words extracted from the Mo ‘in Persian dictionary. The semantically difficult words were refused and the appropriate words choosed according to judgment of 5 adult native speakers of Persian with high school diploma. 12 openset 25 word lists are prepared. The lists were recorded on magnetic tapes in an audio studio by a professional speaker of IRIB. "nIn the second stage, in order to evaluate the test's validity and reliability, 60 normal hearing adults (30 male, 30 female, were randomly selected and evaluated as test and retest. Findings: 1- Normal hearing adults obtained 92-1 0O scores for each list at their MCL through test-retest. 2- No significant difference was observed a/ in test-retest scores in each list (‘P>O.05 b/ between the lists at test or retest scores (P>0.05, c/between sex (P>0.05. Conclusion: This research is reliable and valid, the lists are phonemically balanced and equal in difficulty and valuable for evaluation of Persian speaking adults speech recognition.