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Sample records for peroxide motor exhaust

  1. Assessing population exposures to motor vehicle exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Atten, Chris; Brauer, Michael; Funk, Tami; Gilbert, Nicolas L; Graham, Lisa; Kaden, Debra; Miller, Paul J; Bracho, Leonora Rojas; Wheeler, Amanda; White, Ronald H

    2005-01-01

    The need is growing for a better assessment of population exposures to motor vehicle exhaust in proximity to major roads and highways. This need is driven in part by emerging scientific evidence of adverse health effects from such exposures and policy requirements for a more targeted assessment of localized public health impacts related to road expansions and increasing commercial transportation. The momentum for improved methods in measuring local exposures is also growing in the scientific community, as well as for discerning which constituents of the vehicle exhaust mixture may exert greater public health risks for those who are exposed to a disproportionate share of roadway pollution. To help elucidate the current state-of-the-science in exposure assessments along major roadways and to help inform decision makers of research needs and trends, we provide an overview of the emerging policy requirements, along with a conceptual framework for assessing exposure to motor-vehicle exhaust that can help inform policy decisions. The framework includes the pathway from the emission of a single vehicle, traffic emissions from multiple vehicles, atmospheric transformation of emissions and interaction with topographic and meteorologic features, and contact with humans resulting in exposure that can result in adverse health impacts. We describe the individual elements within the conceptual framework for exposure assessment and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of various approaches that have been used to assess public exposures to motor vehicle exhaust.

  2. Infrared thermography application on predictive maintenance for exhaust fan motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I Wayan Widiana; Jakaria; Artadi Heru; Mulyono

    2013-01-01

    To determine the condition of the exhaust fan motor in terms of heat dissipation, predictive maintenance needs to be done. One way is to use infrared thermography. The method used is an infrared thermography with qualitative technique which the analysis focused on the distribution patterns of heat captured by the infrared camera. From measurement results expected to be obtained data of the heat distribution occurs in the motor exhaust fan so it can be given treatment or further improvements recommendations to avoid failure of the operation. Results of measurements on the motor exhaust fan 9 and the motor exhaust fan 10 indicates that there is excessive heat dissipation (over heating). The recommendation given is increasing the motor capacity of 11 kW to 18 kW with a consideration of the addition load on exhaust fan system and age of motor more than 22 years. (author)

  3. 75 FR 57191 - Compliance With Interstate Motor Carrier Noise Emission Standards: Exhaust Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... 28, 1975, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)'s Bureau of Motor Carrier Safety published in the... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 325 [Docket...: Exhaust Systems AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Direct final rule...

  4. Thermodynamic and chemical parameters of the exhaust effluents from the HARPOON booster motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. B.; Goldford, A. I.

    1978-01-01

    The exhaust products from the Harpoon booster motors were analyzed using both thermodynamic analysis and finite-rate chemistry. The resulting constituents are presented together with a discussion of the techniques employed.

  5. Numerical and experimental analysis of heat transfer in injector plate of hydrogen peroxide hybrid rocket motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guobiao; Li, Chengen; Tian, Hui

    2016-11-01

    This paper is aimed to analyze heat transfer in injector plate of hydrogen peroxide hybrid rocket motor by two-dimensional axisymmetric numerical simulations and full-scale firing tests. Long-time working, which is an advantage of hybrid rocket motor over conventional solid rocket motor, puts forward new challenges for thermal protection. Thermal environments of full-scale hybrid rocket motors designed for long-time firing tests are studied through steady-state coupled numerical simulations of flow field and heat transfer in chamber head. The motor adopts 98% hydrogen peroxide (98HP) oxidizer and hydroxyl-terminated poly-butadiene (HTPB) based fuel as the propellants. Simulation results reveal that flowing liquid 98HP in head oxidizer chamber could cool the injector plate of the motor. The cooling of 98HP is similar to the regenerative cooling in liquid rocket engines. However, the temperature of the 98HP in periphery portion of the head oxidizer chamber is higher than its boiling point. In order to prevent the liquid 98HP from unexpected decomposition, a thermal protection method for chamber head utilizing silica-phenolics annular insulating board is proposed. The simulation results show that the annular insulating board could effectively decrease the temperature of the 98HP in head oxidizer chamber. Besides, the thermal protection method for long-time working hydrogen peroxide hybrid rocket motor is verified through full-scale firing tests. The ablation of the insulating board in oxygen-rich environment is also analyzed.

  6. Trace elements in particles of motor vehicle exhaust in Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Da; Qiu Zhijun; Lu Rongrong; Qiu Huiyuan; Zhu Jieqing; Li Xiaolin

    2002-01-01

    A nuclear microprobe with high spatial resolution and high analytical sensitivity was applied to analyze trace elements, especially lead, in vehicle exhaust of Shanghai city. The result shows that the chemical composition and its corresponding x-ray relative intensity are different among different vehicle exhausts. There are many kinds of metal elements in particles of vehicle exhaust, most are harmful to people, such as Ti, Cr, Mn, Pb, etc. The authors found that the lead concentration was 6820 μg/g and the bromine concentration was 5300 μg/g in the exhaust from Santana using leaded gasoline (SULG), which is higher than any other kinds of vehicle exhausts. The authors have also detected the minimum lead in the particles of unleaded gasoline and its content varies from one to another. Its mean concentration was 450 μg/g and the highest reached 6210 μg/g. The unleaded gasoline's Pb existed in the whole particle while the leaded gasoline's enriched in the surface of the particle and was more harmful to the human beings

  7. Animals afflicted with lead poisoning from motor exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheel-Thomsen, A

    1956-01-01

    Three cases of dogs treated for ulcerous conditions of the oral cavity and a trembling of the limbs, which were eventually discovered to be lead poisoning derived from constant exposure to gasoline and automotive exhaust, are reported. The first case, typical of all three, was first treated in April 1951. The lesions healed after a stay in the hospital but recurred after he returned home. The dog was also asymptomatic when at the owner's summer home for any length of time. It was discovered that at his winter home the dog spent much of his time around a large automobile garage. After treatment with Antoxol (dimercaprol) and benzyl benzoate, he recovered and had no more symptoms of lead poisoning until his death from cancer several years later. Each of the three involved an animal whose daily activities exposed him to the continual presence of gasolines and exhaust fumes containing tetraethyl lead.

  8. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THERMAL POWER PLANTS SMOKE EXHAUSTERS INDUCTION MOTORS SYSTEM OPERATION MODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Vasyliv

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of a model-software complex (MSC for computer analysis of modes of the system of induction motors (IM of smoke exhausters of thermal power plant (TPP, the basic elements of which are mathematical models and corresponding software written in the programming language FORTRAN. Methodology. Mathematical model serves as a system of differential equations of electrical and mechanical condition. The equation of electric state is written in phase coordinates based on Kirchhoff's laws, and mechanical condition described by the d'Alembert equation. Mathematical model focuses on explicit numerical integration methods. Scientific novelty. The equation of state of electrical connections takes into account the mutual electromagnetic circuits for transformer of own needs (TON and induction motors and interdependence (in all possible combinations between: TON (from which motors powered and each of the two IM and blood pressure between themselves. The complex allows to simulate electromagnetic and electromechanical processes in transitional and steady, symmetric and asymmetric modes including modes of self-induction motors. Results. Complex is used for computer analysis of electromagnetic and electromechanical processes and established the basic laws of motion modes of starting, stopping and self-start of IM of smoke exhausters of the TPP unit. Practical value. The complex is suitable for computer analysis of modes of other similar units of own needs of thermal power plants.

  9. Recovery of motor deficit, cerebellar serotonin and lipid peroxidation levels in the cortex of injured rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno-Nava, Antonio; Gonzalez-Pina, Rigoberto; Alfaro-Rodriguez, Alfonso; Nekrassov-Protasova, Vladimir; Durand-Rivera, Alfredo; Montes, Sergio; Ayala-Guerrero, Fructuoso

    2010-10-01

    The sensorimotor cortex and the cerebellum are interconnected by the corticopontocerebellar (CPC) pathway and by neuronal groups such as the serotonergic system. Our aims were to determine the levels of cerebellar serotonin (5-HT) and lipid peroxidation (LP) after cortical iron injection and to analyze the motor function produced by the injury. Rats were divided into the following three groups: control, injured and recovering. Motor function was evaluated using the beam-walking test as an assessment of overall locomotor function and the footprint test as an assessment of gait. We also determined the levels of 5-HT and LP two and twenty days post-lesion. We found an increase in cerebellar 5-HT and a concomitant increase in LP in the pons and cerebellum of injured rats, which correlated with their motor deficits. Recovering rats showed normal 5-HT and LP levels. The increase of 5-HT in injured rats could be a result of serotonergic axonal injury after cortical iron injection. The LP and motor deficits could be due to impairments in neuronal connectivity affecting the corticospinal and CPC tracts and dysmetric stride could be indicative of an ataxic gait that involves the cerebellum.

  10. Effect of Maximal Versus Supra-Maximal Exhausting Race on Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Activity and Muscle-Damage Biomarkers in Long-Distance and Middle-Distance Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Said; Lamya, Ncir; Hamda, Mansour

    2016-03-01

    Exhausting physical exercise increases lipid peroxidation and causes important muscle damages. The human body tries to mitigate these adverse effects by mobilizing its antioxidant defenses. This study aims to investigate the effect of a maximal versus supra-maximal race sustained until exhaustion on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity and muscle-damage biomarkers in trained (i.e. long-distance and middle-distance runners) and sedentary subjects. The study has been carried out on 8 middle-distance runners (MDR), 9 long-distance runners (LDR), and 8 sedentary subjects (SS). Each subject has undergone two exhaustive running tests, the first one is an incremental event (VAMEVAL test), the second one is a constant supra-maximal intensity test (limited-time test). Blood samples were collected at rest and immediately after each test. A significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations was observed in SS and MDR after the VAMEVAL test and in LDR after the Limited-Time test. A significant difference was also observed between LDR and the other two groups after the VAMEVAL test, and between LDR and MDR after the Limited-Time test. Significant modifications, notably, in myoglobin, CK, LDH, IL-6, TNF-α, and TAS were likewise noted but depending on the race-type and the sportive specialty. Maximal and supra-maximal races induce a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and cause non-negligible inflammation and muscle damage. These effects were relatively related to the physical exercise type and the sportive specialty.

  11. A fuel-based approach to estimating motor vehicle exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Brett Craig

    Motor vehicles contribute significantly to air pollution problems; accurate motor vehicle emission inventories are therefore essential to air quality planning. Current travel-based inventory models use emission factors measured from potentially biased vehicle samples and predict fleet-average emissions which are often inconsistent with on-road measurements. This thesis presents a fuel-based inventory approach which uses emission factors derived from remote sensing or tunnel-based measurements of on-road vehicles. Vehicle activity is quantified by statewide monthly fuel sales data resolved to the air basin level. Development of the fuel-based approach includes (1) a method for estimating cold start emission factors, (2) an analysis showing that fuel-normalized emission factors are consistent over a range of positive vehicle loads and that most fuel use occurs during loaded-mode driving, (3) scaling factors relating infrared hydrocarbon measurements to total exhaust volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations, and (4) an analysis showing that economic factors should be considered when selecting on-road sampling sites. The fuel-based approach was applied to estimate carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from warmed-up vehicles in the Los Angeles area in 1991, and CO and VOC exhaust emissions for Los Angeles in 1997. The fuel-based CO estimate for 1991 was higher by a factor of 2.3 +/- 0.5 than emissions predicted by California's MVEI 7F model. Fuel-based inventory estimates for 1997 were higher than those of California's updated MVEI 7G model by factors of 2.4 +/- 0.2 for CO and 3.5 +/- 0.6 for VOC. Fuel-based estimates indicate a 20% decrease in the mass of CO emitted, despite an 8% increase in fuel use between 1991 and 1997; official inventory models predict a 50% decrease in CO mass emissions during the same period. Cold start CO and VOC emission factors derived from parking garage measurements were lower than those predicted by the MVEI 7G model. Current inventories

  12. IR radiation characteristics of rocket exhaust plumes under varying motor operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglin NIU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The infrared (IR irradiance signature from rocket motor exhaust plumes is closely related to motor type, propellant composition, burn time, rocket geometry, chamber parameters and flight conditions. In this paper, an infrared signature analysis tool (IRSAT was developed to understand the spectral characteristics of exhaust plumes in detail. Through a finite volume technique, flow field properties were obtained through the solution of axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations with the Reynolds-averaged approach. A refined 13-species, 30-reaction chemistry scheme was used for combustion effects and a k-ε-Rt turbulence model for entrainment effects. Using flowfield properties as input data, the spectrum was integrated with a line of sight (LOS method based on a single line group (SLG model with Curtis-Godson approximation. The model correctly predicted spectral distribution in the wavelengths of 1.50–5.50 μm and had good agreement for its location with imaging spectrometer data. The IRSAT was then applied to discuss the effects of three operating conditions on IR signatures: (a afterburning; (b chamber pressure from ignition to cutoff; and (c minor changes in the ratio of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB binder to ammonium perchlorate (AP oxidizer in propellant. Results show that afterburning effects can increase the size and shape of radiance images with enhancement of radiation intensity up to 40%. Also, the total IR irradiance in different bands can be characterized by a non-dimensional chamber pressure trace in which the maximum discrepancy is less than 13% during ignition and engine cutoff. An increase of chamber pressure can lead to more distinct diamonds, whose distance intervals are extended, and the position of the first diamond moving backwards. In addition, an increase in HTPB/AP causes a significant jump in spectral intensity. The incremental rates of radiance intensity integrated in each band are linear with the increase of HTPB

  13. Analyze Experiment For Vigas and Pertamax to Performance and Exhaust Gas Emission for Gasoline Motor 2000cc

    Science.gov (United States)

    As'adi, Muhamad; Chrisna Ayu Dwiharpini Tupan, Diachirta

    2018-02-01

    The purpose and target for this analyze experiment is we get the performance variabel from gasoline motor which used LGV for fuel and Pertamax, so can give knowledge to community if LGV can be using LGV for fuel to transportation industry and more economic. We used experiment method of engine gasoline motor with 2000 cc which is LGV and Pertamax for fuel. The experiment with static experiment tes above Dyno Test. The result is engine perform to subscribe Torque, power, fuel consumption. Beside the static test we did the Exhaust Steam Emission. The result is the used LGV with the commercial brand Vigas can increase the maximum Engine Power 20.86% and Average Power 14.1%, the maximum torque for Motor which is use LGV as fuel is smaller than Motor with Pertamax, the decrease is 0.94%.Using Vigas in Motor can increase the mileage until 6.9% compare with the Motor with pertamax.Air Fuel Ratio (AFR) for both of the fuels still below the standard, so still happen waste of fuel, specially in low compression.Using Vigas can reduce the Exhaust Steam Emission especially CO2

  14. Lead absorption in sheep fed forage contaminated with motor vehicle exhaust gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, R; Bovay, E; Luginbuehl, H R; Loenig, H

    1972-01-01

    For a period of 24 weeks three sheep received hay contaminated with lead deposits from motor vehicle exhaust gases. The aim of this study was to compare the lead accumulation in different organs and tissues of two young sheep (I and II) consuming every day forage containing 8 and 73 ppM lead respectively (= milligrams per kg of dried substance). A third animal (III) was fed with forage containing 73 ppM Pb and received in addition water with 200 mg Pb/liter. The analyses made after slaughtering of the animals revealed a marked accumulation of lead in the liver, the bones of the pelvis, the kidneys, and the spleen. However, a notable proportion of lead is also excreted with the urine and feces. Histological studies revealed some changes in the hepatocytes of animals II and III. These lesions were more significant in animal III, which received the highest level of lead, than in animal II. It is possible that these alterations have been caused by toxic substances.

  15. THIN FILM-BASED SENSOR FOR MOTOR VEHICLE EXHAUST GAS, NH3, AND CO DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sujarwata

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A copper phthalocyanine (CuPc thin film based gas sensor with FET structure and channel length 100 μm has been prepared by VE method and lithography technique to detect NH3, motor cycle exhaust gases and CO. CuPc material layer was deposited on SiO2 by the vacuum evaporator (VE method at room temperature and pressure of 8 x10-4 Pa. The stages of manufacturing gas sensor were Si/SiO2 substrate blenching with ethanol in an ultrasonic cleaner, source, and drain electrodes deposition on the substrate by using a vacuum evaporator, thin film deposition between the source/drain and gate deposition. The sensor response times to NH3, motorcycle exhaust gases and CO were 75 s, 135 s, and 150, respectively. The recovery times were 90 s, 150 s and 225, respectively. It is concluded that the CuPc thin film-based gas sensor with FET structure is the best sensor to detect the NH3 gas.Sensor gas berbasis film tipis copper phthalocyanine (CuPc berstruktur FET dengan panjang channel 100 μm telah dibuatdengan metode VE dan teknik lithography untuk mendeteksi NH3 gas buang kendaraan bermotor dan CO. Lapisan bahan CuPc dideposisikan pada permukaan silikon dioksida (SiO2 dengan metode vacuum evaporator (VE pada temperatur ruang dengan tekanan 8 x10-4 Pa. Tahapan pembuatan sensor gas adalah pencucian substrat Si/SiO2 dengan etanol dalam ultrasonic cleaner, deposisi elektroda source dan drain di atas substrat dengan metode vacuum evaporator, deposisi film tipis diantara source/drain dan deposisi gate. Waktu tanggap sensor terhadap NH3, gas buang kendaraan bermotor dan CO berturut-turut adalah 75 s, 135 s,dan 150 s. Waktu pemulihan berturut-turut adalah 90 s, 150 s,dan 225 s. Disimpulkan bahwa sensor gas berstruktur FET berbasis film tipis CuPc merupakan sensor paling baik untuk mendeteksi adanya gas NH3.

  16. Fast monitoring of motor exhaust components by resonant multi-photon ionisation and time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Jochen; Frey, Rüdiger; Nagel, Holger

    1995-03-01

    A new analytical procedure is provided by the combination of two types of spectroscopy. Resonant ionization of selected compounds by multiphoton ionization is based on results of absorption spectroscopy for the compound molecules of interest and time-of-flight mass spectrometry serves for the unambigious detection of these compounds. An interesting application of this method is the fast exhaust gas analysis. In the development of future combustion engines, the management of dynamic motor processes becomes predominant because by more than 90 % of all the dangerous exhaust pollutions are produced in instationary motor phases such as fast speed or load changes. The investigation of dynamic processes however, requires fast analytical procedures with millisecond time resolution together with the capability to measure individual components in a very complex gas mixture The objectives for a development project of such an instrument were set by the Research Association for Combustion Engines (Forschungsvereinigung Verbrennungskraftmaschinen, FVV, Germany): Up to ten substances should be monitored synchroneously with a time resolution of about 10 milliseconds, with concentration limits of 1 part per million and with a precision better than 10 % relative standard deviation. Such a laser mass spectrometer for fast multi-component automotive exhaust analyses has been developed in a joint research project by Bruker-Franzen Analytik GmbH, Dornier GmbH and the Technical University of Munich. The system has been applied at a motor test facility to investigate the emissions of the aromatic hydrocarbons benzene, toluene and xylene, of nitric oxide and acetaldehyde in stationary and dynamic engine operation. These measurements demonstrate that strong emission of these pollutants takes place at instationary engine operation and in particular that these compounds are emitted at different times, giving new information about the processes in the combustion chamber and in the exhaust pipe.

  17. Design and Evaluation of a Turbojet Exhaust Simulator, Utilizing a Solid-Propellant Rocket Motor, for use in Free-Flight Aerodynamic Research Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    deMoraes, Carlos A.; Hagginbothom, William K., Jr.; Falanga, Ralph A.

    1954-01-01

    A method has been developed for modifying a rocket motor so that its exhaust characteristics simulate those of a turbojet engine. The analysis necessary to the design is presented along with tests from which the designs are evaluated. Simulation was found to be best if the exhaust characteristics to be duplicated were those of a turbojet engine at high altitudes and with the afterburner operative.

  18. Fundamental study of manganese dioxide for catalytic recombustion of exhaust gas of motor car

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyamada, T

    1974-01-01

    The catalytic activities of five manganese dioxide preparations were tested in a pulse reactor to assess their carbon monoxide-oxidizing capability in relation to the catalytic afterburning of automobile exhaust gases. Catalysts prepared from manganese sulfate showed diminished catalytic activity as a result of sulfate poisoning. Higher oxidation activity was obtained with a catalyst prepared by precipitating the permanganate salt in acidic solution. Two forms of carbon monoxide adsorption were demonstrated, each with a characteristic activation energy and reaction temperature.

  19. Continuous flow bioassay method to evaluate the effects of outboard motor exhausts and selected aromatic toxicants on fish. [Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenniman, G. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago); Hartung, R.; Weber, W.J. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A continuous flow bioassay system was designed to measure the effects of outboard motor exhaust (OME) emissions and selected volatile and evaporative aromatic toxicants on goldfish (Carassius auratus). Continuous flow bioassays were run for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 720 h to determine lethal concentrations for 50 percent of individuals (LC 50's) for leaded OME, non-leaded OME, toluene, xylene, and 1,3,5 trimethylbenzene, the three individual compounds having been identified as significant aromatic components of OME. The 96 h LC-50's for these substances were found to be 171, 168, 23, 17, and 13 ppm, respectively. The values of 171 and 168 ppm for the two OME's are given in terms of gallons of fuel burned per million gallons of water. The continuous flow bioassay method was demonstrated to be a more reliable indicator of the effects of OME pollutants on aquatic organisms than is the static bioassay method.

  20. Air pollution in southern Africa: The case of motor vehicle exhaust contribution in Dar Es Salaam city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    particulate matter (SPM), 0.64 for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and 0.74 for sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ). Gaussian , model NO 2 predictions were comparable to the measured NO 2 concentration. The average ratio of model calculated and measured concentrations is 0.60. The correlation coefficient between the measured concentrations and those predicted by the model was found to be 0.6. Remedial measures recommended include development of exhaust pipe emission standards and enforcing them in all countries in the Southern Africa Region. Annual check up of emission levels of SO 2 and SPM for motor vehicles is recommended. It is further recommended that imported used vehicles should be tested for emission level prior to their registration, and regular ambient air pollutants levels monitoring activities be introduced in cities and municipalities within the Southern Africa Region for selected gaseous pollutants which should include SO 2 , NO 2 , and SPM. (author)

  1. Prediction of cognitive and motor development in preterm children using exhaustive feature selection and cross-validation of near-term white matter microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadl, Kornél; Vassar, Rachel; Cahill-Rowley, Katelyn; Yeom, Kristin W; Stevenson, David K; Rose, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    Advanced neuroimaging and computational methods offer opportunities for more accurate prognosis. We hypothesized that near-term regional white matter (WM) microstructure, assessed on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), using exhaustive feature selection with cross-validation would predict neurodevelopment in preterm children. Near-term MRI and DTI obtained at 36.6 ± 1.8 weeks postmenstrual age in 66 very-low-birth-weight preterm neonates were assessed. 60/66 had follow-up neurodevelopmental evaluation with Bayley Scales of Infant-Toddler Development, 3rd-edition (BSID-III) at 18-22 months. Linear models with exhaustive feature selection and leave-one-out cross-validation computed based on DTI identified sets of three brain regions most predictive of cognitive and motor function; logistic regression models were computed to classify high-risk infants scoring one standard deviation below mean. Cognitive impairment was predicted (100% sensitivity, 100% specificity; AUC = 1) by near-term right middle-temporal gyrus MD, right cingulate-cingulum MD, left caudate MD. Motor impairment was predicted (90% sensitivity, 86% specificity; AUC = 0.912) by left precuneus FA, right superior occipital gyrus MD, right hippocampus FA. Cognitive score variance was explained (29.6%, cross-validated Rˆ2 = 0.296) by left posterior-limb-of-internal-capsule MD, Genu RD, right fusiform gyrus AD. Motor score variance was explained (31.7%, cross-validated Rˆ2 = 0.317) by left posterior-limb-of-internal-capsule MD, right parahippocampal gyrus AD, right middle-temporal gyrus AD. Search in large DTI feature space more accurately identified neonatal neuroimaging correlates of neurodevelopment.

  2. Two stage catalytic converter system to reduce exhaust emissions of HC, CO and NO in a motor vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagalingam, B; Gopalakrishnan, K V; Murthy, B S

    1978-09-01

    Two-stage catalytic converter system is currently receiving considerable attention as a means to control the primary pollutants, namely, HC, CO and NO in the automobile exhaust. In order to explore the possibility of developing catalysts from indigenous and inexpensive sources of materials, sponge iron for NO reduction and manganese ore pebbles for HC/CO oxidation were tested as candidate-catalysts in an engine dynamometer test bed to study their catalytic activity. The results of these experiments are reported.

  3. Evaluation of the correlation between concentration of volatile organic compounds and temperature of the exhaust gases in motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrętowicz, Maria; Wróbel, Radosław; Andrych-Zalewska, Monika

    2017-11-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the group of organic compounds which are one of the most important air pollutants. One of the main sources of VOCs are combustion processes including fuel combustion is internal combustion engines. Volatile organic compounds are very dangerous pollution, because even in very low concentrations they have significant harmful effect on human health. A lot of that compounds are mutagenic and carcinogenic, in addition they could cause asthma, intoxication or allergy. The measurements of VOCs are quite problematic, because it is required using the specialist analytical apparatus, ex. chromatograph. However, not always it is need to measure the content of that compounds in engine exhaust with high precision and sometimes it is enough only to estimate the level of the concentration. Emission of the VOCs mainly depends on the combustion process in the engine and this determines the temperature of the exhaust gases. In this paper authors tried to determine if the correlation between temperature of exhaust gases and VOCs' concentration exist and is able to determine.

  4. 49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 325.91 Section 325.91... EMISSION STANDARDS Exhaust Systems and Tires § 325.91 Exhaust systems. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 57193, Sept. 20, 2010. A motor vehicle does not conform to the visual exhaust system inspection...

  5. 49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 393.83 Section 393.83... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.83 Exhaust systems. (a) Every motor... shall have a system to direct the discharge of such fumes. No part shall be located where its location...

  6. Studi Experimental Penggunaan Venturi Scrubber Dan Cyclonic Separator Untuk Meningkatkan Kinerja Pada Sistem Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Dalam Menurunkan NOX Pada Motor Diesel

    OpenAIRE

    N, Samsu Dlukha; Ariana, I Made; Fathallah, Aguk Z. M

    2012-01-01

    Salah satu cara yang efektif untuk mengurangi NOX adalah dengan menggunakan metode Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). Dengan metode EGR, oksigen yang masuk ke ruang bakar akan berkurang sehingga NOX dapat diturunkan dengan signifikan, akan tetapi power dari mesin tersebut juga akan berkurang dan Particulate Matter (PM) akan naik secara signifikan. Dalam penelitian ini dibahas penggunaan EGR yang telah di optimalkan dengan penambahan venturi scrubber dan cyclonic separator, tujuannya mengurangi ...

  7. Studi Experimental Penggunaan Venturi Scrubber dan Cyclonic Separator Untuk Meningkatkan Kinerja pada Sistem Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR dalam Menurunkan NOX pada Motor Diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsu Dlukha N

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu cara yang efektif untuk mengurangi NOX adalah dengan menggunakan metode Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR. Dengan metode EGR, oksigen yang masuk ke ruang bakar akan berkurang sehingga NOX dapat diturunkan dengan signifikan, akan tetapi power dari mesin tersebut juga akan berkurang dan Particulate Matter (PM akan naik secara signifikan. Dalam penelitian ini dibahas penggunaan EGR yang telah di optimalkan dengan penambahan venturi scrubber dan cyclonic separator, tujuannya mengurangi NOX tanpa meningkatkan PM. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan NOX turun sebesar 48.89% dan PM turun dari 69,87%  menjadi 9.87%.

  8. Exhaust gas processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Shin-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    The facility of the present invention comprises a radioactive liquid storage vessel, an exhaust gas dehumidifying device for dehumidifying gases exhausted from the vessel and an exhaust gas processing device for reducing radioactive materials in the exhaust gases. A purified gas line is disposed to the radioactive liquid storage vessel for purging exhaust gases generated from the radioactive liquid, then dehumidified and condensed liquid is recovered, and exhaust gases are discharged through an exhaust gas pipe disposed downstream of the exhaust gas processing device. With such procedures, the scale of the exhaust gas processing facility can be reduced and exhaust gases can be processed efficiently. (T.M.)

  9. Concentrations of motor vehicle exhaust emissions and ozone in the area surrounding a motorway; Konzentrationen von Kraftfahrzeugemissionen und Ozon im Nahbereich einer Autobahn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsmeier, U.; Vogel, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Umwelt und Technik (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung]|[Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.). (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung

    1998-01-01

    The measuring concept realized along the federal motorway BAB656, which makes use of meteorological and air-chemical measuring techniques under selected meteorological conditions, permits detecting the plume of motorway exhaust emissions beyond doubt. By simultaneous, comprehensive traffic surveys, the input parameters for numerical emission calculation models valid up to now could be verified. In part, as regards trafic density, fleet composition and driving speed, they were corrected. From the difference between the vertical profiles of the meteorological parameters and ozone concentration measured at the luff and lee sides of the motorway and from measurements of the concentrations of primarily emitted substances at ground level, the actual emissions of these substances for the motorway segment in kgh{sup 1} km{sup -}1 were calculated. (orig./KW) [Deutsch] Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass mit dem bei BAB656 realisierten Messkonzept mit Hilfe meteorologischer und luftchemischer Messtechnik bei ausgesuchten meteorologischen Bedingungen die Abluftfahne mit den auf einer Autobahn emittierten Substanzen zweifelsfrei detektiert werden kann. Durch gleichzeitige umfangreiche Verkehrserhebungen konnten die bisher gueltigen Eingabeparameter fuer numerische Emissionsberechnungsmodelle ueberprueft und was Verkehrsdichte, Flottenzusammensetzung und Fahrgeschwindigkeit angeht, teilweise korrigiert werden. Aus der Differenz der im Luv und Lee der Autobahn gemessenen Vertikalprofile meteorologischer Parameter und der Ozonkonzentration sowie der Messung der Konzentrationen primaer emittierter Substanzen am Boden konnten die Emissionen dieser Stoffe fuer den Autobahnabschnitt in kgh{sup -1} km{sup -1} aktuell berechnet werden. (orig./KW)

  10. Hydrogen peroxide safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, W.V.

    1993-01-01

    A literature survey was conducted to review the safety issues involved in handling hydrogen peroxide solutions. Most of the information found in the literature is not directly applicable to conditions at the Rocky Flats Plant, but one report describes experimental work conducted previously at Rocky Flats to determine decomposition reaction-rate constants for hydrogen peroxide solutions. Data from this report were used to calculate decomposition half-life times for hydrogen peroxide in solutions containing several decomposition catalysts. The information developed from this survey indicates that hydrogen peroxide will undergo both homogeneous and heterogeneous decomposition. The rate of decomposition is affected by temperature and the presence of catalytic agents. Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is catalyzed by alkalies, strong acids, platinum group and transition metals, and dissolved salts of transition metals. Depending upon conditions, the consequence of a hydrogen peroxide decomposition can range from slow evolution of oxygen gas to a vapor, phase detonation of hydrogen peroxide vapors

  11. Neurotoxic injury pathways in differentiated mouse motor neuron–neuroblastoma hybrid (NSC-34D) cells in vitro—Limited effect of riluzole on thapsigargin, but not staurosporine, hydrogen peroxide and homocysteine neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemendinger, Richelle A., E-mail: richelle.hemendinger@carolinashealthcare.org [ALS Translational Neuroscience Laboratory, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28203 (United States); Carolinas Neuromuscular/ALS-MDA Center, Department of Neurology, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28203 (United States); Armstrong, Edward J. [ALS Translational Neuroscience Laboratory, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28203 (United States); Carolinas Neuromuscular/ALS-MDA Center, Department of Neurology, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28203 (United States); Radio, Nick [ThermoScientific, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Brooks, Benjamin Rix [ALS Translational Neuroscience Laboratory, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28203 (United States); Carolinas Neuromuscular/ALS-MDA Center, Department of Neurology, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28203 (United States); University of North Carolina School of Medicine-Charlotte Campus (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The neuroblastoma–spinal motor neuron fusion cell line, NSC-34, in its differentiated form, NSC-34D, permits examining the effects of riluzole, a proven treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) on cell death induction by staurosporine (STS), thapsigargin (Thaps), hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and homocysteine (HCy). These neurotoxins, applied exogenously, have mechanisms of action related to the various proposed molecular pathogenetic pathways in ALS and are differentiated from endogenous cell death that is associated with cytoplasmic aggregate formation in motor neurons. Nuclear morphology, caspase-3/7 activation and high content imaging were used to assess toxicity of these neurotoxins with and without co-treatment with riluzole, a benzothiazole compound with multiple pharmacological actions. STS was the most potent neurotoxin at killing NSC-34D cells with a toxic concentration at which 50% of maximal cell death is achieved (TC{sub 50} = 0.01 μM), followed by Thaps (TC{sub 50} = 0.9 μM) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (TC{sub 50} = 15 μM) with HCy requiring higher concentrations to kill at the same level (TC{sub 50} = 2200 μM). Riluzole provided neurorescue with a 20% absolute reduction (47.6% relative reduction) in apoptotic cell death against Thaps-induced NSC-34D cell (p ≤ 0.05), but had no effect on STS-, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}- and HCy-induced NSC-34D cell death. This effect of riluzole on Thaps induction of cell death was independent of caspase-3/7 activation. Riluzole mitigated a toxin that can cause intracellular calcium dysregulation associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress but not toxins associated with other cell death mechanisms. -- Highlights: ► Calcium-dependent neurotoxins are potent cell death inducers in NSC-34D cells. ► Riluzole provides neurorescue against Thaps-induced NSC-34D cell death. ► Riluzole had no effect on neurotoxicity by STS, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Hcy. ► Riluzole reduces NSC-34D cell death independent of

  12. Production of uranium peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caropreso, F.E.; Kreuz, D.F.

    1977-01-01

    A process is claimed of recovering uranium values as uranium peroxide from an aqueous uranyl solution containing dissolved vanadium and sodium impurities by treating the uranyl solution with hydrogen peroxide in an amount sufficient to have an excess of at least 0.5 parts H 2 O 2 per part of vanadium (V 2 O 5 ) above the stoichiometric amount required to form the uranium peroxide, the hydrogen peroxide treatment is carried out in three sequential phases consisting of I, a precipitation phase in which the hydrogen peroxide is added to the uranyl solution to precipitate the uranium peroxide and the pH of the reaction medium maintained in the range of 2.5 to 5.5 for a period of from about 1 to 60 minutes after the hydrogen peroxide addition; II, a digestion phase in which the pH of the reaction medium is maintained in the range of 3.0 to 7.0 for a period of about 5 to 180 minutes and III, a final phase in which the pH of the reaction medium is maintained in the range of 4.0 to 7.0 for a period of about 1 to 60 minutes during which time the uranium peroxide is separated from the reaction solution containing the dissolved vanadium and sodium impurities. The excess hydrogen peroxide is maintained during the entire treatment up until the uranium peroxide is separated from the reaction medium

  13. Toxicity of power vehicles exhaust gases using bio fuels of different composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnins, I.; Berjoza, D.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the work is to state the influence of different bio fuels on the surrounding environment using them in diesel motors. The work summarises information on the composition of toxic components in vehicle exhaust gases, their influence on the surrounding environment. Characteristic features of different biofuels are summarised as well as their application possibilities in diesel motors. Measuring devices and measuring methods of toxic components of exhaust gases have been classified. Different measuring regimes of diesel motor exhaust gases have been described. Research in automobile Renault, equipped with diesel motor, exhaust gas smokiness using different biofuels has been carried out (author)

  14. Portable Exhauster Position Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRISKOVICH, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    This document identifies the tasks that are involved in preparing the ''standby'' portable exhauster to support Interim Stabilization's schedule for saltwell pumping. A standby portable exhaust system will be assigned to any facility scheduled to be saltwell pumped with the exception of 241-S farm, 241-SX farm or 241-T farm. The standby portable exhauster shall be prepared for use and placed in storage. The standby portable exhaust system shall be removed from storage and installed to ventilate tanks being pumped that reach 25% LFL. There are three tasks that are evaluated in this document. Each task shall be completed to support portable exhaust system installation and operation. They are: Pre Installation Task; Portable Exhaust System Storage Task; and Portable Exhaust System Installation and Operation Task

  15. Local Exhaust Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulla; Breum, N. O.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Capture efficiency of a local exhaust system, e.g. a kitchen hood, should include only contaminants being direct captured. In this study basic concepts of local exhaust capture efficiency are given, based on the idea of a control box. A validated numerical model is used for estimation of the capt......Capture efficiency of a local exhaust system, e.g. a kitchen hood, should include only contaminants being direct captured. In this study basic concepts of local exhaust capture efficiency are given, based on the idea of a control box. A validated numerical model is used for estimation...

  16. Exhaustion from prolonged gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities. Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion. Recently, three patients were seen at the Department of Emergency Medicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities. The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.

  17. Protein oxidation and peroxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are major targets for radicals and two-electron oxidants in biological systems due to their abundance and high rate constants for reaction. With highly reactive radicals damage occurs at multiple side-chain and backbone sites. Less reactive species show greater selectivity with regard...... to the residues targeted and their spatial location. Modification can result in increased side-chain hydrophilicity, side-chain and backbone fragmentation, aggregation via covalent cross-linking or hydrophobic interactions, protein unfolding and altered conformation, altered interactions with biological partners...... and modified turnover. In the presence of O2, high yields of peroxyl radicals and peroxides (protein peroxidation) are formed; the latter account for up to 70% of the initial oxidant flux. Protein peroxides can oxidize both proteins and other targets. One-electron reduction results in additional radicals...

  18. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Pico Geerdsen, Lars; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12...

  19. Duplex tab exhaust nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmark, Ephraim Jeff (Inventor); Martens, Steven (nmn) (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An exhaust nozzle includes a conical duct terminating in an annular outlet. A row of vortex generating duplex tabs are mounted in the outlet. The tabs have compound radial and circumferential aft inclination inside the outlet for generating streamwise vortices for attenuating exhaust noise while reducing performance loss.

  20. Exhaust gas purifying system for an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, H; Saito, Z

    1976-10-07

    The exhaust gas purification system is a so-called three-way catalytic converter. It consists of an oxidation converter, a reduction converter, or a thermal converter. An exhaust sensor made up of an oxygen sensor, a carbon sensor, a carbon monoxide sensor, hydrocarbon sensor, or a nitrogen peroxide sensor, tests the composition of the exhaust and controls the air-fuel feed system in dependence of the exhaust mixture in such a manner that in the intake system an air-fuel mixture is taken in which the stoichiometric air-fuel relation is produced. Moreover, a thermostatically controlled air intake device is built into the fuel injection system which supplies the air of the fuel injection system with a relatively consistent temperature.

  1. Tokamak fusion reactor exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, M.F.A.; Harbour, P.J.; Hotston, E.S.

    1981-08-01

    This report presents a compilation of papers dealing with reactor exhaust which were produced as part of the TIGER Tokamak Installation for Generating Electricity study at Culham. The papers are entitled: (1) Exhaust impurity control and refuelling. (2) Consideration of the physical problems of a self-consistent exhaust and divertor system for a long burn Tokamak. (3) Possible bundle divertors for INTOR and TIGER. (4) Consideration of various magnetic divertor configurations for INTOR and TIGER. (5) A appraisal of divertor experiments. (6) Hybrid divertors on INTOR. (7) Refuelling and the scrape-off layer of INTOR. (8) Simple modelling of the scrape-off layer. (9) Power flow in the scrape-off layer. (10) A model of particle transport within the scrape-off plasma and divertor. (11) Controlled recirculation of exhaust gas from the divertor into the scrape-off plasma. (U.K.)

  2. Peroxide organometallic compounds and their transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razuvaev, G.A.; Brilkina, T.G.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given experimental works on synthesis and reactions of peroxide organometallic compounds. Reactions have been considered of organometallic compounds with oxygen and organic peroxides which result in formation of both peroxide and non-peroxide products. Possible routes and mechanisms of chemical transformations of peroxide organometallic compounds have been discussed. Reactions of organometallic compounds with oxygen and peroxides have been considered

  3. High-speed schlieren imaging of rocket exhaust plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coultas-McKenney, Caralyn; Winter, Kyle; Hargather, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Experiments are conducted to examine the exhaust of a variety of rocket engines. The rocket engines are mounted in a schlieren system to allow high-speed imaging of the engine exhaust during startup, steady state, and shutdown. A variety of rocket engines are explored including a research-scale liquid rocket engine, consumer/amateur solid rocket motors, and water bottle rockets. Comparisons of the exhaust characteristics, thrust and cost for this range of rockets is presented. The variety of nozzle designs, target functions, and propellant type provides unique variations in the schlieren imaging.

  4. Measurements of ion concentration in gasoline and diesel engine exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fangqun; Lanni, Thomas; Frank, Brian P.

    The nanoparticles formed in motor vehicle exhaust have received increasing attention due to their potential adverse health effects. It has been recently proposed that combustion-generated ions may play a critical role in the formation of these volatile nanoparticles. In this paper, we design an experiment to measure the total ion concentration in motor vehicle engine exhaust, and report some preliminary measurements in the exhaust of a gasoline engine (K-car) and a diesel engine (diesel generator). Under the experimental set-up reported in this study and for the specific engines used, the total ion concentration is ca. 3.3×10 6 cm -3 with almost all of the ions smaller than 3 nm in the gasoline engine exhaust, and is above 2.7×10 8 cm -3 with most of the ions larger than 3 nm in the diesel engine exhaust. This difference in the measured ion properties is interpreted as a result of the different residence times of exhaust inside the tailpipe/connecting pipe and the different concentrations of soot particles in the exhaust. The measured ion concentrations appear to be within the ranges predicted by a theoretical model describing the evolution of ions inside a pipe.

  5. Dual-purpose power plants, experiences with exhaust gas purification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, R.

    1993-01-01

    From 1984 to 1988, the research and development project ''pollutant reduction for exhaust gases from heat production systems'' sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology (BMFT) has been carried out by TUeV in Bavaria. This project was to show the state of exhaust gas technology for small and medium-sized plants (boilers and motoric heat generators). When publishing the final report, no positive balance could be given. Based on the results, the succession project ''Exhaust gas purification plants in field test'' (ARIF) has been started. This project has the following objectives: -Measuring technical investigation of the exhaust gas purification of motoric driven heat generator systems in field test. - Suitability of hand measuring devices for emissions for a discontinuous control of the exhaust gas purification plat by the operator. - Control of new methods regarding pollutant reduction for motoric and conventional heat generators. (orig.) [de

  6. 21 CFR 172.802 - Acetone peroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acetone peroxides. 172.802 Section 172.802 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.802 Acetone peroxides. The food additive acetone peroxides may be safely used in... acetone peroxide, with minor proportions of higher polymers, manufactured by reaction of hydrogen peroxide...

  7. Selective gas exhaustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Yoichi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a method capable of evacuating gases at an exhaustion rate which varies depending on the kind of gases. For example, in a thermonuclear experimental device, a hydrogen gas exhaustion rate is determined to 0 and an exhaustion rate for other impure gases is made greater. Namely, a baffle plate is cooled to a temperature to a level at which the vapor pressure of gases to evacuate a baffle plate is required in a pump incorporating a baffle plate, for example, a cryopump or a sorption pump. In this case, the level of the vapor pressure required for evacuating the exhaustion gas ingredients is 1 x 10 -8 Torr or less, preferably, 1 x 10 -9 Torr. In a thermonuclear experimental device, a gas having a lower boiling point next to hydrogen is neon, but neon is scarcely present in natural world. Nitrogen has a lower boiling point next thereto, and if the temperature is lowered to such a level that the vapor pressure for evacuating gases such as nitrogen, and carbon monoxide, oxygen, fluorine, argon or methane having a boiling point at or lower than nitrogen is required. Then, evacuation rate sufficient for gases other than hydrogen gas can be obtained. (I.S.)

  8. Aerodynamic Control of Exhaust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Carl-Erik

    In the autumn of 1985 the Unive!Sity of Aalborg was approached by the manufacturer C. P. Aaberg, who had obtained aerodynilmic control of the exhaust by means of injection. The remaining investigations comprising optimizations of the system with regard to effect, consumption, requirements...

  9. Exhaust bypass flow control for exhaust heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael G.

    2015-09-22

    An exhaust system for an engine comprises an exhaust heat recovery apparatus configured to receive exhaust gas from the engine and comprises a first flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas and a second flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas. A heat exchanger/energy recovery unit is disposed in the second flow passage and has a working fluid circulating therethrough for exchange of heat from the exhaust gas to the working fluid. A control valve is disposed downstream of the first and the second flow passages in a low temperature region of the exhaust heat recovery apparatus to direct exhaust gas through the first flow passage or the second flow passage.

  10. Emissions of exhaust gases and health of the person

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanova, Tatiana; Kernozhitskaya, Anna

    2017-10-01

    The auto-road complex brings the considerable contribution to pollution and adverse change of environment. Influence of exhaust gases of cars is at the bottom of occurrence and developments of various forms of diseases. Every townsman feels the negative influence rendered by motor transport on himself. The modern city dweller is so accustomed to the smell of exhaust gases that he does not even notice it at all, continues to breathe a poisonous mixture, while neither the car nor the road can be isolated from the habitats of people. The higher the population density, the higher the need for motor transport. The health effects of emissions of exhaust gases and vapors, including regulated and unregulated pollutants, are discussed in this article.

  11. MTU series 1600 HCCI engine with extremely low exhaust emissions over the entire engine map; HCCI-Motor der MTU Baureihe 1600 mit extrem niedrigen Abgasemissionen im gesamten Motorkennfeld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teetz, Christoph; Bergmann, Dirk; Sauer, Christina; Schneemann, Arne [MTU, Friedrichshafen (Germany); Eichmeier, Johannes; Spicher, Ulrich [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). IFKM

    2012-11-01

    The main challenge when developing off-highway engines is to keep emissions within the limits to apply in the future while maintaining low fuel consumption and low CO{sub 2} output. In the USA in particular, diesel engines in the 130 - 560 kW power range are to be subject from 2014 to EPA Tier 4 legislation, which imposes limits of 0.4 g/kWh for NO{sub x} and 0.02 g/kWh for particulate matter. Diesel units can only satisfy those requirements using a combination of in-engine measures and exhaust aftertreatment systems (SCR, particulate filters), which makes them a good deal more complex and expensive. In the face of CO{sub 2} emissions regulations and the growing demand for diesel fuel, greater emphasis is now being placed on alternative fuels. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition or 'HCCI' provides an alternative to complex exhaust aftertreatment systems which generates virtually no soot or nitrous oxide emissions. It does, however, present new challenges with respect to combustion control and engine load. Up to the present, it has not been possible to exploit the full potential of this combustion process over the entire engine map, since the high ignition performance of diesel fuel at high loads results in excessively early combustion and inadmissible pressure gradients. The pre-development department of MTU Friedrichshafen worked with the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) to devise a research prototype for an industrial application which would allow semi-homogenous combustion with controlled self-ignition over the full engine map. The engine is based on a 6-cylinder version of the MTU Series 1600 unit and has a rated output of 300 kW. The fuels - gasoline or ethanol and diesel - are mixed in such a way as to avoid the disadvantages associated with most HCCI processes. Since the use of ethanol also enhances combustion efficiency, it has a two-fold positive effect on the CO{sub 2} situation. With

  12. Surface chloride salt formation on Space Shuttle exhaust alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofer, W. R., III; Pellett, G. L.; Sebacher, D. I.; Wakelyn, N. T.

    1984-01-01

    Aluminum oxide samples from the exhaust of Space Shuttle launches STS-1, STS-4, STS-5, and STS-6 were collected from surfaces on or around the launch pad complex and chemically analyzed. The results indicate that the particulate solid-propellant rocket motor (SRM) alumina was heavily chlorided. Concentrations of water-soluble aluminum (III) ion were large, suggesting that the surface of the SRM alumina particles was rendered soluble by prior reactions with HCl and H2O in the SRM exhaust cloud. These results suggest that Space Shuttle exhaust alumina particles are good sites for nucleation and condensation of atmospheric water. Laboratory experiments conducted at 220 C suggest that partial surface chloriding of alumina may occur in hot Space Shuttle exhaust plumes.

  13. An experimental study on the effects of exhaust gas on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautala, E.L.; Holopainen, J.; Kaerenlampi, L. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J.; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Motor vehicle exhausts are significant contributors to air pollution. Besides fine particles and inorganic gases, like CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, exhaust gas contains a large group of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, many of which are phytotoxic. In field studies, exhausts are found to have both direct and indirect harmful effects on roadside plants. However, only few experimental studies have been made about the effects of exhaust gas emissions on coniferous trees. The aim of this study was to survey the effects of exhausts on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) in standardized conditions. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components in the chamber atmosphere were detected simultaneously. The effects of exhaust on epistomatal waxes of first-year spruce needles are described. (author)

  14. An experimental study on the effects of exhaust gas on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautala, E L; Holopainen, J; Kaerenlampi, L [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J; Ruuskanen, J [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    1996-12-31

    Motor vehicle exhausts are significant contributors to air pollution. Besides fine particles and inorganic gases, like CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, exhaust gas contains a large group of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, many of which are phytotoxic. In field studies, exhausts are found to have both direct and indirect harmful effects on roadside plants. However, only few experimental studies have been made about the effects of exhaust gas emissions on coniferous trees. The aim of this study was to survey the effects of exhausts on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) in standardized conditions. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components in the chamber atmosphere were detected simultaneously. The effects of exhaust on epistomatal waxes of first-year spruce needles are described. (author)

  15. Advanced exhaust nozzle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glidewell, R J; Warburton, R E

    1981-01-01

    Recent developments in turbine engine exhaust nozzle technology include nonaxisymmetric nozzles, thrust reversing, and thrust vectoring. Trade studies have been performed to determine the impact of these developments on the thrust-to-weight ratio and specific fuel consumption of an advanced high performance, augmented turbofan engine. Results are presented in a manner which provides an understanding of the sources and magnitudes of differences in the basic elements of nozzle internal performance and weight as they relate to conventional, axisymmetric nozzle technology. Conclusions are presented and recommendations are made with regard to future directions of advanced development and demonstration. 5 refs.

  16. 40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values for a model type. 600.208-12 Section 600... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values for a model type. (a) Fuel...

  17. The Potential for Ozone Depletion in Solid Rocket Motor Plumes by Heterogeneous Chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanning-Lee, M

    1996-01-01

    ... (hydroxylated alumina), respectively, over the temperature range -60 to 200 degrees C. This work addresses the potential for stratospheric ozone depletion by launch vehicle solid rocket motor exhaust...

  18. Catalytic exhaust control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, H

    1973-09-01

    Recent achievements and problems in the development of exhaust control devices in the USA are reviewed. To meet the 1976 emission standards, catalytic systems for the oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons and for the reduction of nitrogen oxides to nitrogen and water are needed. While oxidizing catalysts using platinum, palladium, copper, vanadium, and chromium appplied on alumina or ceramic materials are more or less effective in emission control, there are no catalytic devices for the reduction of nitrogen oxides with the required useful life of 25,000 to 50,000 miles as yet available. In the case of platinum catalysts on monolithic supports, the operating temperature of 650 to 750/sup 0/C as required for the oxidation process may cause inactivation of the catalysts and fusion of the support material. The oxidation of CO and hydrocarbons is inhibited by high concentrations of CO, nitric oxide, and hydrocarbons. The use of catalytic converters requires the use of lead-free or low-lead gasoline. The nitrogen oxides conversion efficiency is considerably influenced by the oxygen-to-CO ratio of the exhaust gas, which makes limitation of this ratio necessary.

  19. Air pollution from motor vehicle emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushevska, Ljubica

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents some aspects of air pollution from motor vehicle emissions as: characteristic primary and secondary pollutants, dependence of the motor vehicle emission from the engine type; the relationship of typical engine emission and performance to air-fuel ratio, transport of pollutants from mobile sources of emissions, as well as some world experiences in the control approaches for exhaust emissions. (author)

  20. Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, James F.; And Others

    Materials are provided for a 14-hour course designed to introduce the automotive mechanic to the basic operations of automotive fuel and exhaust systems incorporated on military vehicles. The four study units cover characteristics of fuels, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel systems, and exhaust system. Each study unit begins with a general…

  1. An efficiency analysis of modern and perspective methods and facilities to reduce of the automobile transport exhaust gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Петрович Юдін

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the degree of atmosphere pollution with automobile transport exhaust gases, the evolution of their rating in the European Union, and the reasons why Ukrainian automobile transport exhaust gases lag behind in meeting emission standards. Constructive, organizational, and regulating techniques aimed at reducing the amount of exhaust gases are analyzed; non-standard propositions concerning cooperation of motor vehicle owners and regulatory authorities are offered; the examples of successful practices employed in Zaporizhia region are given

  2. Uranium precipitation with hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Although hydrogen peroxide precipitation of uranium continues to be used primarily as means of producing a high purity yellowcake, it has also become an important process due to its superior physical properties. Processing costs such as filtering, drying and/or calcining and drumming, can be reduced. 5 refs

  3. Hydrogen peroxide: importance and determination

    OpenAIRE

    Mattos, Ivanildo Luiz de; Shiraishi, Karina Antonelli; Braz, Alexandre Delphini; Fernandes, João Roberto

    2003-01-01

    A brief discussion about the hydrogen peroxide importance and its determination is presented. It was emphasized some consideration of the H2O2 as reagent (separated or combined), uses and methods of analysis (techniques, detection limits, linear response intervals, sensor specifications). Moreover, it was presented several applications, such as in environmental, pharmaceutical, medicine and food samples.

  4. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R C; Anderson, M R; Miake-Lye, R C; Kolb, C E [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A A; Buriko, Y I [Scientific Research Center ` Ecolen` , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  5. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  6. 21 CFR 529.1150 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 529.1150 Section 529.1150 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS CERTAIN OTHER DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 529.1150 Hydrogen peroxide. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 396.1 milligrams (mg) hydrogen peroxide...

  7. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....

  8. Device for purifying exhaust gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makita, Kiyoshi.

    1973-01-01

    Purpose: To ensure the reliability in collection of krypton even on accident in liquidizing distillation tower. Constitution: Exhaust gas flows through active carbon adsorption tower where short half-life rare gas in exhaust gas is separated by adsorption, then through heat exchanger, then continuous distillation tower where krypton 85 is separated, then through batch distillation tower where krypton 85 is condensed, and then flows into storing cylinder. On accident in liquidizing distillation tower, at the first period exhaust gas flows through series connected active carbon adsorption tower, krypton 85 adsorbed in adsorption tower being transferred to cooling type adsorption tower, at the next period exhaust gas flows through tower, krypton 85 adsorbed in adsorption tower being transferred to tower. (M. K.)

  9. Thermochemistry of cyclic acetone peroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinditskii, V.P., E-mail: vps@rctu.ru [Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology, 9 Miusskaya Square, 125047 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kolesov, V.I.; Egorshev, V.Yu.; Patrikeev, D.I. [Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology, 9 Miusskaya Square, 125047 Moscow (Russian Federation); Dorofeeva, O.V. [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Old data on DADP and TATP enthalpies of formation have been revised. • Combining Gaussian-4 (G4) theory with an isodesmic reaction scheme allowed calculated enthalpies of formation of TATP and DADP. • Oxygen bomb calorimetry measurements allowed experimental enthalpies of formation of the peroxides. • Both experimental and calculated values show a satisfactory agreement between each other. • The newly obtained enthalpies reasonably account for the observed derivative parameters: heats of decomposition, combustion, and explosion. - Abstract: Two potentially initiating explosive peroxides, diacetonediperoxide (DADP) and triacetonetriperoxide (TATP), were studied in respect to their thermochemical properties. To get the internally self-consistent estimations of gas-phase enthalpy of formation of DADP and TATP, their values were calculated by combining Gaussian-4 (G4) theory with an isodesmic reaction scheme. The energies of combustion (Δ{sub c}U) were measured and the standard enthalpies of formation (Δ{sub f}H{sub 298}{sup °}) of DADP and TATP were derived using the standard enthalpies of formation of the combustion products. The heat of explosion was measured for small low-pressed charges of the peroxides. The obtained enthalpies of formation of DADP and TATP were found to agree well with quantum chemical calculations and reasonably account for the observed derivative parameters: heats of decomposition, combustion, and detonation.

  10. Hydrogen peroxide kinetics in water radiolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamatsu, Kazuhiro; Sundin, Sara; LaVerne, Jay A.

    2018-04-01

    The kinetics of the formation and reaction of hydrogen peroxide in the long time γ- radiolysis of water is examined using a combination of experiment with model calculations. Escape yields of hydrogen peroxide on the microsecond time scale are easily measured with added radical scavengers even with substantial amounts of initial added hydrogen peroxide. The γ-radiolysis of aqueous hydrogen peroxide solutions without added radical scavengers reach a steady state limiting concentration of hydrogen peroxide with increasing dose, and that limit is directly proportional to the initial concentration of added hydrogen peroxide. The dose necessary to reach that limiting hydrogen peroxide concentration is also proportional to the initial concentration, but dose rate has a very small effect. The addition of molecular hydrogen to aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide leads to a decrease in the high dose limiting hydrogen peroxide concentration that is linear with the initial hydrogen concentration, but the amount of decrease is not stoichiometric. Proton irradiations of solutions with added hydrogen peroxide and hydrogen are more difficult to predict because of the decreased yields of radicals; however, with a substantial increase in dose rate there is a sufficient decrease in radical yields that hydrogen addition has little effect on hydrogen peroxide decay.

  11. The Role of Hydrogen Bonds Of The Azeotropic Hydrous Ethanol Fuel Composition To The Exhaust Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Made Suarta, I.; Nyoman Gede Baliarta, I.; Sopan Rahtika, I. P. G.; Wijaya Sunu, Putu

    2018-01-01

    In this study observed the role of hydrogen bonding to the composition of exhaust emissions which is produced hydrous ethanol fuel (95.5% v). Testing is done by using single cylinder four stroke motor engine. The composition of exhaust gas emissions is tested using exhaust gas analyzer on lean and stoichiometry mixer. The exhaust emissions produced by anhydrous ethanol were also tested. The composition of emissions produced by that two fuels is compared. The results showed CO emissions levels produced by hydrous ethanol are slightly higher than anhydrous ethanol in stoichiometric mixtures. But the composition of CO hydrous ethanol emissions is lower in the lean mix. If lean the mixer the different in the composition of emissions is increasing. On hydrous ethanol emission CO2 content little bit lower on the stoichiometric mixer and higher on the lean mixture. Exhaust emissions of ethanol fuel also produce O2. O2 hydrous ethanol emissions is higher than anhydrous ethanol fuel.

  12. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 169.609 Section 169.609 Shipping COAST... Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations... Yacht Council, Inc. Standard P-1, “Safe Installation of Exhaust Systems for Propulsion and Auxiliary...

  13. Detection of hydrogen peroxide with graphyne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, R.; Karami, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of hydrogen peroxide on the electronic properties of graphyne has been investigated to explore the possibility of using graphyne based biosensor. We have used density functional theory to study the electronic properties of γ-graphyne in the presence of different number of hydrogen peroxide. The optimal adsorption position, orientation, and distance of hydrogen peroxide adsorbed on the graphyne sheet have been determined by calculating adsorption energy. It is found that γ-graphyne which is an intrinsic semiconductor becomes an n-type semiconductor due to the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The energy band gap of γ-graphyne is decreased by increasing the number of hydrogen peroxide. The results demonstrate that γ-graphyne is a promising candidate for biosensor application because of its electrical sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide.

  14. PEROXIDE PROCESS FOR SEPARATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaborg, G.T.; Perlman, I.

    1958-09-16

    reduced state, from hexavalent uranium. It consists in treating an aqueous solution containing such uranium and plutonium ions with sulfate ions in order to form a soluble uranium sulfate complex and then treating the solution with a soluble thorium compound and a soluble peroxide compound in order to ferm a thorium peroxide carrier precipitate which carries down with it the plutonium peroxide present. During this treatment the pH of the solution must be maintained between 2 and 3.

  15. Semiconductor industry wafer fab exhaust management

    CERN Document Server

    Sherer, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    Given the myriad exhaust compounds and the corresponding problems that they can pose in an exhaust management system, the proper choice of such systems is a complex task. Presenting the fundamentals, technical details, and general solutions to real-world problems, Semiconductor Industry: Wafer Fab Exhaust Management offers practical guidance on selecting an appropriate system for a given application. Using examples that provide a clear understanding of the concepts discussed, Sherer covers facility layout, support facilities operations, and semiconductor process equipment, followed by exhaust types and challenges. He reviews exhaust point-of-use devices and exhaust line requirements needed between process equipment and the centralized exhaust system. The book includes information on wet scrubbers for a centralized acid exhaust system and a centralized ammonia exhaust system and on centralized equipment to control volatile organic compounds. It concludes with a chapter devoted to emergency releases and a separ...

  16. The effect of oil additives on exhaust emission of internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrovski, M.B.; Kuzmanovski, K.A.

    1999-01-01

    An attempt was conducted to acquire data on connection between motor oil and motor oil additives and exhaust emission of internal combustion engine. The consulted literature did not contain enough data, so experiments were conducted. The results of the experiments are presented on diagrams that have been processed in the computer program EXCEL. Conclusions that were made out of that work show the need of expanding research on the subject. (Author)

  17. Ship exhaust gas plume cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Neele, P.P.

    2004-01-01

    The exhaust gas plume is an important and sometimes dominating contributor to the infrared signature of ships. Suppression of the infrared ship signatures has been studied by TNO for the Royal Netherlands Navy over considerable time. This study deals with the suppression effects, which can be

  18. Development of alternative ship propulsion in terms of exhaust emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowski Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of new emission limits for exhaust emissions of ship engines contributes to the development of new powertrain solutions. New solutions in the simplest approach concern the reduction of the concentration of sulfur in motor fuels. Typically, the aforementioned fuels have a lower value of viscosity which causes a number of supply system problems. It is becoming more and more common to use fuel cells in engine rooms of various types of marine vessels. Unlike conventional systems that use internal combustion engines, these systems have zero exhaust emissions. Hydrogen, methanol, methane and other substances may be used as a fuel in fuel cells. However, so far the best operating parameters are manifested by cells powered by hydrogen, which is associated with difficulties in obtaining and storing this fuel. Therefore, the use of turbine engines allows the obtaining of large operating and environmental advantages. The paper presents a comparison of the ecological parameters of turbine and piston engines.

  19. Diesel exhaust emissions : health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenier, M. [Natural Resources Canada, Sudbury, ON (Canada). CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories

    2009-07-01

    Despite modern day ventilation, underground miners are exposed to diesel particulate matter (DPM) composed of elemental carbon, organic carbon, sulphates, metals and ashes. Diesel exhaust contains over 40 air contaminants that have been recognized as toxic, carcinogenic or reproductive and developmental hazards. Nearly all components of diesel exhaust interact with the human body at the bloodstream or tissue level. This presentation discussed the following 4 potential levels of threat posed by the physical and chemical nature of diesel exhaust: (1) cancer of the lungs and bladder, (2) toxins that affect the nervous, endocrine, reproductive and immune system as well as the liver and kidneys, (3) fine particulate matter that can cause premature death and an increase in respiratory illness, and (4) nitrogen oxides that contribute to increased ozone and smog. Non-cancer health effects from short-term exposure include acute irritation and respiratory symptoms. This presentation also referred to cancer risk assessments of diesel exhaust by national, state, and world health organizations. Particulate exposure standards for Canada, Quebec, Ontario and the United States were listed along with the percentage of DPM samples in excess of various exposure limits in 2008 according to Canadian underground mine data. DPM concentration levels in mines are in the range that environmental agencies would consider high for general population exposure. Solutions for underground mines include pollution control at the source; use of modern engines with certification for underground mining; emissions based maintenance; exhaust treatment; use of clean or alternative fuels such as hydrogen; regular sampling and monitoring; ventilation; training and technology transfer; and regulations. tabs., figs.

  20. Phenol oxidation with hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramiez Cortina, R.C.; Hernadez Perez, I. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco, Div. de CBI, Dept. de Energia, Azcapotzalco (Mexico); Ortiz Lozoya, C.E. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco, Div. de CBI, Dept. de Energia, Azcapotzalco (Mexico)]|[Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Alonso Gutierrez, M.S. [Inst. National Polytechnique, ENSCT, Lab. of Chimie Agro-Industrielle, Toulouse (France)

    2003-07-01

    In this work the process application of advanced oxidation is investigated with hydrogen peroxide, for the phenol destruction. The experiments were carried out in a glass reactor of 750 mL. Three phenol concentrations were studied (2000, 1000 and 500 ppm) being oxidized with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (1, 2 and 3 M). The tests of oxidation had a reaction time of 48 h at ambient temperature and pressure. The phenol degradation was determined as COD at different reaction times and intermediate oxidation products were analyzed by chromatography. The results of this study show that it is possible to degrade phenol (1000 ppm) until 90% with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} 2M. Being achieved the best efficiency with a good molar relationship of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/phenol. Intends a reaction outline in the degradation of the phenol. (orig.)

  1. 7 CFR 58.431 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 58.431 Section 58.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.431 Hydrogen peroxide. The solution shall comply with the specification of the U.S...

  2. Problem of the lithium peroxide thermal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefedov, R A; Ferapontov, Yu A; Kozlova, N P

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of lithium peroxide and lithium peroxide monohydrate samples under heating in atmospheric air was studied by the method of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). It was found that in the temperature range of 32°C to 82°C the interaction of lithium peroxides and steam with the formation of lithium peroxide monohydrate occurs, which was confirmed chemically and by X-ray Single-qualitative analysis. It was experimentally found that lithium peroxide starts to decompose into the lithium oxide and oxygen in the temperature range of 340 ÷ 348°C. It was established that the resulting thermal decomposition of lithium oxide, lithium peroxide at the temperature of 422°C melts with lithium carbonate eutecticly. The manifestation of polymorphism was not marked(seen or noticed) under the heating of studied samples of lithium peroxide and lithium peroxide monohydrate in the temperature range of 25°C ÷ 34°C. (paper)

  3. Hydrogen peroxide treatment of TCE contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, D.H.; Robinson, K.G.; Siegrist, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Solvent contaminated soils are ubiquitous in the industrial world and represent a significant environmental hazard due to their persistence and potentially negative impacts on human health and the environment. Environmental regulations favor treatment of soils with options which reduce the volume and toxicity of contaminants in place. One such treatment option is the in-situ application of hydrogen peroxide to soils contaminated with chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE). This study investigated hydrogen peroxide mass loading rates on removal of TCE from soils of varying organic matter content. Batch experiments conducted on contaminated loam samples using GC headspace analysis showed up to 80% TCE removal upon peroxide treatment. Column experiments conducted on sandy loam soils with high organic matter content showed only 25% TCE removal, even at hydrogen peroxide additions of 25 g peroxide per kg soil

  4. Rearrangements of organic peroxides and related processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan A. Yaremenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This review is the first to collate and summarize main data on named and unnamed rearrangement reactions of peroxides. It should be noted, that in the chemistry of peroxides two types of processes are considered under the term rearrangements. These are conventional rearrangements occurring with the retention of the molecular weight and transformations of one of the peroxide moieties after O–O-bond cleavage. Detailed information about the Baeyer−Villiger, Criegee, Hock, Kornblum−DeLaMare, Dakin, Elbs, Schenck, Smith, Wieland, and Story reactions is given. Unnamed rearrangements of organic peroxides and related processes are also analyzed. The rearrangements and related processes of important natural and synthetic peroxides are discussed separately.

  5. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine exhaust. 1065.130 Section 1065... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.130 Engine exhaust. (a) General. Use the exhaust system installed with the engine or one that represents a typical in-use configuration. This...

  6. The problem of peroxidation in radiolis logy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraboj, V.A.; Chebotarev, E.E.

    1986-01-01

    A hypothesis is validated concerning the products of freeradical oxidation of lipids and the phenol compounds as a mediator of the stress-syndrome. The data are reviewed on activation of peroxidation under the effect of radiation, cytochemical agents, etc., secondarily stimulating the neurohumoral system function of homeostasis regulation. With the emotional-algesic and cold-stresses, the regulatory system stimulation is of primary, reflex, nature, but it secondarily promotes the peroxidation activation. The radiotoxins (of the quinoid and lipid nature) appearing in tissues under the effect of ionizing radiation, are smilar in structure and mechanism of action to peroxidation activation products formed under the effect of other stress-agents

  7. Inorganic precursor peroxides for antifouling coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.M.; Pedersen, L.T.; Hermann, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Modern antifouling coatings are generally based on cuprous oxide (Cu2O) and organic biocides as active ingredients. Cu2O is prone to bioaccumulation, and should therefore be replaced by more environmentally benign compounds when technically possible. However, cuprous oxide does not only provide...... antifouling properties, it is also a vital ingredient for the antifouling coating to obtain its polishing and leaching mechanism. In this paper, peroxides of strontium, calcium, magnesium, and zinc are tested as pigments in antifouling coatings. The peroxides react with seawater to create hydrogen peroxide...... matrix provides antifouling properties exceeding those of a similar coating based entirely on zinc oxide....

  8. The electric motor handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.W.; Feltham, P. (eds.)

    2004-05-01

    This handbook outlines the important role that electric motors play in modern society. It covers the field of motor applications from various motor types to their use and repair. It also presents practical applications of electric motors and methods on motor efficiency. More than half of all electricity generated, and 75 per cent of all industrial electricity consumption is consumed by electric motors. Electrical personnel must be aware of all factors involved in electric motors in order to choose and apply the appropriate size of electric motor. These factors include efficiency, sizing and proper application. The efficient use and maximum life expectancy of electric motors depends on proper motor protection, control and maintenance. This handbook includes articles from leading experts on electric motors in modern electrical systems. The content includes: design considerations; proper electric motor sizing techniques; optimal electric motor application; electric motor protection technology; electric motor control principles; electric motor maintenance and troubleshooting; induction electric motors; electric motor bearing currents; electric motor bearing lubrication; electromagnetism; electric motor enclosures; electric motor testing; electric motor repair; DC electric motor; electric motor starters; electric motor brushes; industrial electric motors; electric motor diagrams; AC electric motors; electric motor wiring; electric motor service; electric motor rewinding; electric motor winding; diagram of electric motor wiring; electric motor kit; and, troubleshooting electric motors. A directory of motor manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  9. Exhaust gas clean up process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R.J.

    1988-06-16

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ is described. The method involves prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ gas or nitrogen sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt. 4 figs.

  10. Getting older can be exhausting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rohit; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2014-07-29

    Sepsis is a disease that affects primarily the aged. Although mortality is higher in both older septic patients and aged septic mice, the mechanisms underlying decreased survival in older hosts are incompletely understood. New work by Inoue and colleagues demonstrates persistent inflammation and T-cell exhaustion in older septic patients and aged septic mice. The clinical significance of these findings is manifested not only in increased mortality but also in a marked difference in secondary infections in older patients as long as a month following ICU admission.

  11. Gas turbine exhaust system silencing design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozgur, D.

    1991-01-01

    Gas turbines are the preferred prime mover in many applications because of their high efficiency, fuel flexibility, and low environmental impact. A typical mid-size machine might have a power rating of 80 MW, a flow of about 1000 kg/hr, and an exhaust temperature of over 500C. The most powerful single source of noise is generally the exhaust, which may generate over a kilowatt of acoustic energy. This paper reports that there are two important ways in which exhaust systems can radiate noise. The first is through the discharge of the exhaust duct, with the exhaust gas. Because of the large quantity of hot gas, the duct exit is always oriented vertically; it may be fairly high in the air in order to promote dispersion of the exhaust plume. This source is almost always attenuated by means of a silencer located somewhere in the ductwork. The second source of noise is often called breakout; it is the radiation of exhaust noise through the walls of the ducting. Breakout is most important for those sections of the exhaust duct which lie upstream of the silencer, where sound levels inside the ducting are highest. Both exhaust duct exit noise and breakout noise can be calculated from the sound power level of the gas turbine exhaust and the sound transmission loss (TL) of the silencer and ducting

  12. Peroxides and radiation impairment of oxidative phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dovgii, I E; Akoev, I G

    1975-09-01

    An increase in the peroxidase activity of the mitochondria and a simultaneous rise in the amount of peroxide compounds, which are half lipid-like substances, are detected within the first 10 minutes after irradiation (1000 r). A mechanism of radiation impairment of oxidative phosphorylation is connected with the penetration of its inhibitors to the mitochondria due to the disturbed permeability of membranes affected by peroxides.

  13. Mechanisms of wet oxidation by hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, R.A.

    1987-08-01

    A research programme is currently under way at BNL and MEL to investigate the possible use of Hydrogen Peroxide with metal ion catalysts as a wet oxidation treatment system for CEGB organic radioactive wastes. The published literature relating to the kinetics and mechanism of oxidation and decomposition reactions of hydrogen peroxide is reviewed and the links with practical waste management by wet oxidation are examined. Alternative wet oxidation systems are described and the similarities to the CEGB research effort are noted. (author)

  14. Hydrogen peroxide as a sustainable energy carrier: Electrocatalytic production of hydrogen peroxide and the fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Yamada, Yusuke; Karlin, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    This review describes homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic reduction of dioxygen with metal complexes focusing on the catalytic two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide. Whether two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide or four-electron O 2 -reduction to produce water occurs depends on the types of metals and ligands that are utilized. Those factors controlling the two processes are discussed in terms of metal–oxygen intermediates involved in the catalysis. Metal complexes acting as catalysts for selective two-electron reduction of oxygen can be utilized as metal complex-modified electrodes in the electrocatalytic reduction to produce hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide thus produced can be used as a fuel in a hydrogen peroxide fuel cell. A hydrogen peroxide fuel cell can be operated with a one-compartment structure without a membrane, which is certainly more promising for the development of low-cost fuel cells as compared with two compartment hydrogen fuel cells that require membranes. Hydrogen peroxide is regarded as an environmentally benign energy carrier because it can be produced by the electrocatalytic two-electron reduction of O 2 , which is abundant in air, using solar cells; the hydrogen peroxide thus produced could then be readily stored and then used as needed to generate electricity through the use of hydrogen peroxide fuel cells.

  15. Hydrogen Peroxide as a Sustainable Energy Carrier: Electrocatalytic Production of Hydrogen Peroxide and the Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Yamada, Yusuke; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2012-11-01

    This review describes homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic reduction of dioxygen with metal complexes focusing on the catalytic two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide. Whether two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide or four-electron O 2 -reduction to produce water occurs depends on the types of metals and ligands that are utilized. Those factors controlling the two processes are discussed in terms of metal-oxygen intermediates involved in the catalysis. Metal complexes acting as catalysts for selective two-electron reduction of oxygen can be utilized as metal complex-modified electrodes in the electrocatalytic reduction to produce hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide thus produced can be used as a fuel in a hydrogen peroxide fuel cell. A hydrogen peroxide fuel cell can be operated with a one-compartment structure without a membrane, which is certainly more promising for the development of low-cost fuel cells as compared with two compartment hydrogen fuel cells that require membranes. Hydrogen peroxide is regarded as an environmentally benign energy carrier because it can be produced by the electrocatalytic two-electron reduction of O 2 , which is abundant in air, using solar cells; the hydrogen peroxide thus produced could then be readily stored and then used as needed to generate electricity through the use of hydrogen peroxide fuel cells.

  16. EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION CATALYST TESTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HALGREN DL

    2008-01-01

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) main treatment train includes the peroxide destruction module (PDM) where the hydrogen peroxide residual from the upstream ultraviolet light/hydrogen peroxide oxidation unit is destroyed. Removal of the residual peroxide is necessary to protect downstream membranes from the strong oxidizer. The main component of the PDM is two reaction vessels utilizing granular activated carbon (GAC) as the reaction media. The PDM experienced a number of operability problems, including frequent plugging, and has not been utilized since the ETF changed to groundwater as the predominant feed. The unit seemed to be underperforming in regards to peroxide removal during the early periods of operation as well. It is anticipated that a functional PDM will be required for wastewater from the vitrification plant and other future streams. An alternate media or methodology needs to be identified to replace the GAC in the PDMs. This series of bench scale tests is to develop information to support an engineering study on the options for replacement of the existing GAC method for peroxide destruction at the ETF. A number of different catalysts will be compared as well as other potential methods such as strong reducing agents. The testing should lead to general conclusions on the viability of different catalysts and identify candidates for further study and evaluation

  17. Health effects of subchronic inhalation exposure to gasoline engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M D; Barrett, E G; Campen, M J; Divine, K K; Gigliotti, A P; McDonald, J D; Seagrave, J C; Mauderly, J L; Seilkop, S K; Swenberg, J A

    2008-10-01

    Gasoline engine emissions are a ubiquitous source of exposure to complex mixtures of particulate matter (PM) and non-PM pollutants; yet their health hazards have received little study in comparison with those of diesel emissions. As a component of the National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC) multipollutant research program, F344 and SHR rats and A/J, C57BL/6, and BALBc mice were exposed 6 h/day, 7 days/week for 1 week to 6 months to exhaust from 1996 General Motors 4.3-L engines burning national average fuel on a simulated urban operating cycle. Exposure groups included whole exhaust diluted 1:10, 1:15, or 1:90, filtered exhaust at the 1:10 dilution, or clean air controls. Evaluations included organ weight, histopathology, hematology, serum chemistry, bronchoalveolar lavage, cardiac electrophysiology, micronuclei in circulating cells, DNA methylation and oxidative injury, clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the lung, and development of respiratory allergic responses to ovalbumin. Among the 120 outcome variables, only 20 demonstrated significant exposure effects. Several statistically significant effects appeared isolated and were not supported by related variables. The most coherent and consistent effects were those related to increased red blood cells, interpreted as likely to have resulted from exposure to 13-107 ppm carbon monoxide. Other effects supported by multiple variables included mild lung irritation and depression of oxidant production by alveolar macrophages. The lowest exposure level caused no significant effects. Because only 6 of the 20 significant effects appeared to be substantially reversed by PM filtration, the majority of effects were apparently caused by non-PM components of exhaust.

  18. Desulphurization of exhaust gases in chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.

    1981-01-01

    The sulfur content of exhaust gases can be reduced by: desulphurization of fuels; modification of processes; or treatment of resultant gases. In this paper a few selected examples from the chemical industry in the German Democratic Republic are presented. Using modified processes and treating the resultant gases, the sulphuric content of exhaust gases is effectively reduced. Methods to reduce the sulfur content of exhaust gases are described in the field of production of: sulphuric acid; viscose; fertilizers; and paraffin.

  19. Exhaust system of an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-09-04

    A catalytic converter system for internal combustion engines is described that includes a means to maintain the catalyst temperature within a predetermined range for the efficient reduction of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas. Upstream of the catalytic converter, the exhaust pipe is encased in a structure such that a space is provided for the flow of a coolant around the exhaust pipe in response to the sensed catalytic temperature. A coolant control valve is actuated in response to the temperature sensor.

  20. Ganoderma tsugae Hepatoprotection against Exhaustive Exercise-Induced Liver Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Teng Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been shown that accelerated apoptosis is involved in post-exercise lymphocytopenia and tissue damage after high-intensity exercise. Ganoderma tsugae (GT is one of the well-known medicinal mushrooms that possess various pharmacological functions. This mushroom has traditionally been used for health promotion purposes. This study investigates the hepatoprotective effects of GT on exhaustive exercise-induced liver damage. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups and designated as exhaustive exercise only (E, exhaustive exercise with low dosage (EL, medium dosage (EM and high dosage (EH GT at 0, 0.1875, 0.9375 and 1.875 g/kg/day, respectively. After 30 days all rats were euthanized immediately after an exhaustive running challenge on a motorized treadmill. The rat livers were immediately harvested. Evidence of apoptotic liver cell death was revealed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay and caspases mediated cascade events. DNA fragmentation, an apoptosis process, can be examined using TUNEL assay. A few TUNEL-positive hepatocytes, compared to the exercise only group, were observed in the livers from exhaustive animals supplemented with GT. Immunoblot analysis also showed that caspase-6-mediated specific cleavage of lamin A/C was increased significantly in the livers of group E, but was significantly decreased in the EM and EH groups. Our observations demonstrate that GT possesses anti-apoptotic and hepatoprotective potential after exhaustive exercise.

  1. Ganoderma tsugae hepatoprotection against exhaustive exercise-induced liver injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Huang, Wen-Ching; Yang, Suh-Ching; Chan, Chih-Chi; Lin, Wan-Teng

    2013-01-29

    Several studies have been shown that accelerated apoptosis is involved in post-exercise lymphocytopenia and tissue damage after high-intensity exercise. Ganoderma tsugae (GT) is one of the well-known medicinal mushrooms that possess various pharmacological functions. This mushroom has traditionally been used for health promotion purposes. This study investigates the hepatoprotective effects of GT on exhaustive exercise-induced liver damage. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups and designated as exhaustive exercise only (E), exhaustive exercise with low dosage (EL), medium dosage (EM) and high dosage (EH) GT at 0, 0.1875, 0.9375 and 1.875 g/kg/day, respectively. After 30 days all rats were euthanized immediately after an exhaustive running challenge on a motorized treadmill. The rat livers were immediately harvested. Evidence of apoptotic liver cell death was revealed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and caspases mediated cascade events. DNA fragmentation, an apoptosis process, can be examined using TUNEL assay. A few TUNEL-positive hepatocytes, compared to the exercise only group, were observed in the livers from exhaustive animals supplemented with GT. Immunoblot analysis also showed that caspase-6-mediated specific cleavage of lamin A/C was increased significantly in the livers of group E, but was significantly decreased in the EM and EH groups. Our observations demonstrate that GT possesses anti-apoptotic and hepatoprotective potential after exhaustive exercise.

  2. PIXE analysis of vehicle exhaust particulate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xianfeng; Yao Huiying; Liu Bo; Sun Minde; Xu Huawei; Mi Yong; Shen Hao

    2001-01-01

    PIXE technique on the analysis of vehicle exhaust particulate is introduced. The clement composition and concentration of particulate are obtained. Some elements which are related to environmental pollution such as sulfur lead, silicon and manganese, were analyzed and discussed in detail by PIXE technique Nowadays although unleaded gasoline is widely used, the lead concentration is still very high in exhaust particulate. The concentrations of silicon and manganese in exhaust particulate from different model vehicles are also quite high from measurements. It shows that an evidence for exhaust pollution control could be provided from this work

  3. PROCESS OF ELIMINATING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN SOLUTIONS CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, J.G.; Fries, B.A.

    1960-09-27

    A procedure is given for peroxide precipitation processes for separating and recovering plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution. When plutonium peroxide is precipitated from an aqueous solution, the supernatant contains appreciable quantities of plutonium and peroxide. It is desirable to process this solution further to recover plutonium contained therein, but the presence of the peroxide introduces difficulties; residual hydrogen peroxide contained in the supernatant solution is eliminated by adding a nitrite or a sulfite to this solution.

  4. Motor homopolar

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Muñoz, Agustín

    2007-01-01

    Mostramos la construcción de un modelo de motor homopolar, uno de los más antiguos tipos de motores eléctricos. Se caracterizan porque el campo magnético del imán mantiene siempre la misma polaridad (de ahí su nombre, del griego homos, igual), de modo que, cuando una corriente eléctrica atraviesa el campo magnético, aparece una fuerza que hace girar los elementos no fijados mecánicamente. En el sencillísimo motor homopolar colgado (Schlichting y Ucke 2004), el imán puede girar ...

  5. Improving catalase-based propelled motor endurance by enzyme encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmchen, Juliane; Baeza, Alejandro; Ruiz-Molina, Daniel; Vallet-Regí, Maria

    2014-07-01

    Biocatalytic propulsion is expected to play an important role in the future of micromotors as it might drastically increase the number of available fuelling reactions. However, most of the enzyme-propelled micromotors so far reported still rely on the degradation of peroxide by catalase, in spite of being vulnerable to relatively high peroxide concentrations. To overcome this limitation, herein we present a strategy to encapsulate the catalase and to graft the resulting enzyme capsules on motor particles. Significant improvement of the stability in the presence of peroxide and other aggressive agents has been observed.Biocatalytic propulsion is expected to play an important role in the future of micromotors as it might drastically increase the number of available fuelling reactions. However, most of the enzyme-propelled micromotors so far reported still rely on the degradation of peroxide by catalase, in spite of being vulnerable to relatively high peroxide concentrations. To overcome this limitation, herein we present a strategy to encapsulate the catalase and to graft the resulting enzyme capsules on motor particles. Significant improvement of the stability in the presence of peroxide and other aggressive agents has been observed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02459a

  6. Application of stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts, which is about practical using of stepping motor. The first part has six chapters. The contents of the first part are about stepping motor, classification of stepping motor, basic theory og stepping motor, characteristic and basic words, types and characteristic of stepping motor in hybrid type and basic control of stepping motor. The second part deals with application of stepping motor with hardware of stepping motor control, stepping motor control by microcomputer and software of stepping motor control. The last part mentions choice of stepping motor system, examples of stepping motor, measurement of stepping motor and practical cases of application of stepping motor.

  7. Safe handling of potential peroxide forming compounds and their corresponding peroxide yielded derivatives.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, Jeremiah Matthew; Boyle, Timothy J.; Dean, Christopher J.

    2013-06-01

    This report addresses recent developments concerning the identification and handling of potential peroxide forming (PPF) and peroxide yielded derivative (PYD) chemicals. PPF chemicals are described in terms of labeling, shelf lives, and safe handling requirements as required at SNL. The general peroxide chemistry concerning formation, prevention, and identification is cursorily presented to give some perspective to the generation of peroxides. The procedure for determining peroxide concentrations and the proper disposal methods established by the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility are also provided. Techniques such as neutralization and dilution are provided for the safe handling of any PYD chemicals to allow for safe handling. The appendices are a collection of all available SNL documentation pertaining to PPF/PYD chemicals to serve as a single reference.

  8. Automotive exhaust gas flow control for an ammonia–water absorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rêgo, A.T.; Hanriot, S.M.; Oliveira, A.F.; Brito, P.; Rêgo, T.F.U.

    2014-01-01

    A considerable part of the energy generated by an automotive internal combustion engine is wasted as heat in the exhaust system. This wasted heat could be recovered and applied to power auxiliary systems in a vehicle, contributing to its overall energy efficiency. In the present work, the experimental analysis of an absorption refrigeration system was performed. The exhaust system of an automotive internal combustion engine was connected to the generator element of an absorption refrigeration system. The performance of the absorption refrigerator was evaluated as a function of the supplied heat. The use of a control strategy for the engine exhaust gas mass flow rate was implemented to optimize the system. Exhaust gas flow was controlled by step-motor actuated valves commanded by a microcontroller in which a proportional-integral control scheme was implemented. Information such as engine torque, speed, key temperatures in the absorption cycle, as well as internal temperatures of the refrigerator was measured in a transient regime. The results indicated that the refrigeration system exhibited better performance when the amount of input heat is controlled based on the temperature of the absorption cycle generator. It was possible to conclude that, by dynamically controlling the amount of input heat, the utilisation range of the absorption refrigeration system powered by exhaust gas heat could be expanded in order to incorporate high engine speed operating conditions. - Highlights: •An absorption refrigerator was driven by automotive exhaust gas heat. •A system for controlling the refrigeration system heat input was developed. •Excessive exhaust gas heat leads to ineffective operation of the refrigerator. •Control of refrigerator's generator temperature led to better performance. •The use of exhaust gas was possible for high engine speeds

  9. Pemanfaatan Energi Gas Buang Motor Diesel Stasioner untuk Pemanas Air

    OpenAIRE

    Rahardjo Tirtoatmodjo

    1999-01-01

    Exhaust gas from a diesel engine is having a big deal of energy. In a stationer diesel engine, the enthalpy of water will be increased by flowing the water in a spiral pipe which is located in the exhaust manifold of the engine. Using copper pipes in this heat exchanger, it's efficiency is found up to 69,5 %. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Gas buang dari motor diesel masih memiliki sejumlah energi panas yang cukup tinggi. Pada motor diesel stasioner, dengan mengalirkan air pada pipa spiral ya...

  10. Vital exhaustion and risk for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Prescott, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Vital exhaustion, defined as feelings of depression and fatigue, has previously been investigated mainly as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The authors investigated the association between depressive feelings and fatigue as covered by the concept of vital exhaustion and the risk...... for cancer....

  11. Vacuum exhaust duct used for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Nobuo; Kondo, Mitsuaki; Honda, Tsutomu.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a vacuum exhaust duct used for a thermonuclear device. A cylindrical metal liners is lined with a gap to the inside of a vacuum exhaust duct main body. Bellows are connected to both ends of the metal liners and the end of the bellows is welded to the vacuum exhaust duct main body. Futher, a heater is mounted to the metal liner on the side of the vacuum exhaust duct main body, and the metal liner is heated by the heater to conduct baking for the vacuum exhaust duct main body. Accordingly, since there is no requirement for elevating the temperature of the vacuum exhaust duct upon conducting baking, the vacuum exhaust duct scarcely suffers substantial deformation due to heat expansion. Further, there is also no substantial deformation for the bellows disposed between the outer circumference of the vacuum vessel and a portion of a vacuum exhaust duct, so that the durability of the bellows is greatly improved. (I.S.)

  12. Vital exhaustion and risk for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Prescott, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Vital exhaustion, defined as feelings of depression and fatigue, has previously been investigated mainly as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The authors investigated the association between depressive feelings and fatigue as covered by the concept of vital exhaustion and the risk...

  13. Method for removing soot from exhaust gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suib, Steven L.; Dharmarathna, D. A. Saminda; Pahalagedara, Lakshitha R.

    2018-01-16

    A method for oxidizing soot from diesel exhaust gas from a diesel engine. The method involves providing a diesel particulate filter for receiving the diesel exhaust gas; coating a catalyst composition on the diesel particulate filter; and contacting the soot from the diesel exhaust gas with the catalyst coated diesel particulate filter at a temperature sufficient to oxidize the soot to carbon dioxide. The catalyst composition is a doped or undoped manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) material. A diesel exhaust gas treatment system that includes a diesel particulate filter for receiving diesel exhaust gas from a diesel engine and collecting soot; and a catalyst composition coated on the diesel particulate filter. The catalyst composition is a doped or undoped manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2).

  14. Radiation induced peroxidation in model lipid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan, K.Z.B.H.M.

    1981-08-01

    In the studies of radiation induced lipid peroxidation, lecithin-liposomes and aqueous micellar solutions of sodium linoleate (or linoleic acid) have been used as models of lipid membrane systems. The liposomes and aqueous linoleate micelles were irradiated in the presence of O 2 and N 2 O/O 2 (80/20 v/v). The peroxidation was initiated using gamma radiation from 60 Co radiation source and was monitored by measuring the increase in absorbance of conjugated diene at 232 nm and by the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. The oxidation products were also identified by GLC and GLC-MS analysis. (author)

  15. Precipitation of uranium concentrates by hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa Filho, O.; Teixeira, L.A.C.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental study on the precipitation of uranyl peroxide (UO 4 x H 2 O) has been carried out in a laboratory scale. The objective was to assess the possibility of the peroxide route as an alternative to a conventional ammonium diuranate process. A factorial design was used to evaluate the effects of the initial pH, precipitation pH and H 2 O 2 /UO 2 2+ ratio upon the process. The responses were measured in terms of: efficiency of U precipitation, content of U in the precipitates, and distribution of impurities in the precipitates. (Author) [pt

  16. Uranium peroxide precipitate drying temperature relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, C.; Dyck, B., E-mail: chick_rodgers@cameco.com [Cameco Corp., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Cameco Corporation is in the process of revitalizing the mill at its Key Lake operation in northern Saskatchewan. The current Key Lake process employs ammonia stripping and ammonia precipitation. As part of the revitalization, the company is considering installing strong acid stripping in solvent extraction as used at its Rabbit Lake operation. This change would lead to using hydrogen peroxide for uranium precipitation. As part of the process evaluation, tests were carried out to study how changes in the temperature of an indirect fired dryer affected the properties of uranium peroxide [yellowcake] precipitate. This paper discusses the results of the test work, including the relationships between drying temperature and the following: (author)

  17. Health effects of exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihlava, T.; Uuppo, M.; Niemi, S.

    2013-11-01

    This report introduces general information about diesel particles and their health effects. The purpose of this report is to introduce particulate matter pollution and present some recent studies made regarding the health effects of particulate matter. The aim is not to go very deeply into the science, but instead to keep the text understandable for the average layman. Particulate matter is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets. These small particles are made up of a number of components that include for example acids, such as nitrates and sulphates, as well as organic chemicals, metals and dust particles from the soil. Particulate matter comes from several sources, such as transportation emissions, industrial emissions, forest fires, cigarette smoke, volcanic ash and climate variations. Particles are divided into coarse particles with diameters less than 10 ..m, fine particles with diameters smaller than 2.5 ..m and ultra-fine particles with diameters less than 0.1 ..m. The particulate matter in diesel exhaust gas is a highly complex mixture of organic, inorganic, solid, volatile and partly volatile compounds. Many of these particles do not form until they reach the air. Many carcinogenic compounds have been found in diesel exhaust gas and it is considered carcinogenic to humans. Particulate matter can cause several health effects, such as premature death in persons with heart or lung disease, cancer, nonfatal heart attacks, irregular heartbeat, aggravated asthma, decreased lung function and an increase in respiratory symptoms, such as irritation of the airways, coughing or difficulty breathing. It is estimated that in Finland about 1300 people die prematurely due to particles and the economic loss in the EU due to the health effects of particles can be calculated in the billions. Ultra-fine particles are considered to be the most harmful to human health. Ultrafine particles usually make the most of their quantity and surface area

  18. Diesel exhaust controls and aftertreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubeli, B. [Natural Resources Canada, Sudbury, ON (Canada). CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed the safe use of diesel fuels in underground mines, with particular reference to advanced technology engines and system technology options for mines. The use of diesel fuels underground requires well designed diesel engines with an effective preventive maintenance programs utilizing diesel emissions testing. The mines must have a well-engineered ventilation system and an adequate air quality monitoring system. An outline of diesel pollutant formation was included in the presentation. Diesel emission control technologies can address localized air quality problems and control emissions at the source. This presentation summarized the best available diesel emission control technologies for underground mines, namely diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC); diesel particulate filters (DPF); active diesel particulate filters (A-DPF); selective catalytic reduction (SCR); water scrubbers; and fume diluters. An emissions control plan using aftertreatment technology should target the vehicles that are the biggest contributors to diesel exhaust. Low sulphur fuel is a prerequisite for most emission control technologies. The successful control of emissions requires knowledge of the high emitting vehicle groups; an integrated ventilation and emission control technology application plan; ambient and tailpipe emissions testing; and training of operators and mechanics. tabs., figs.

  19. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  20. A NEW EXHAUST VENTILATION SYSTEM DESIGN SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Asilian Mahabady

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A Microsoft Windows based ventilation software package is developed to reduce time-consuming and boring procedure of exhaust ventilation system design. This program Assure accurate and reliable air pollution control related calculations. Herein, package is tentatively named Exhaust Ventilation Design Software which is developed in VB6 programming environment. Most important features of Exhaust Ventilation Design Software that are ignored in formerly developed packages are Collector design and fan dimension data calculations. Automatic system balance is another feature of this package. Exhaust Ventilation Design Software algorithm for design is based on two methods: Balance by design (Static pressure balance and design by Blast gate. The most important section of software is a spreadsheet that is designed based on American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists calculation sheets. Exhaust Ventilation Design Software is developed so that engineers familiar with American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists datasheet can easily employ it for ventilation systems design. Other sections include Collector design section (settling chamber, cyclone, and packed tower, fan geometry and dimension data section, a unit converter section (that helps engineers to deal with units, a hood design section and a Persian HTML help. Psychometric correction is also considered in Exhaust Ventilation Design Software. In Exhaust Ventilation Design Software design process, efforts are focused on improving GUI (graphical user interface and use of programming standards in software design. Reliability of software has been evaluated and results show acceptable accuracy.

  1. Vitamin C Supplementation Reduces Peroxidative Damage without ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was designed to assess the effects of vitamin C supplementation on the lung function tests and peroxidative damage in asthmatic children. Methodology: Fifteen asthmatics aged between 8 - 14 years, all in the stable state were used in this study. Three millilitres of blood were drawn from the antecubital ...

  2. Relationship Between Calorie Restriction, Lipid Peroxidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the brain of the caloric restricted rats, there was little or no change in the tGSH and GSH, although the GSSG and GSSG/GSH% ratio were increased significantly. These results suggest that aging of rats had been decelerated by caloric restriction due to the decrease in the peroxidative damage in the lungs and brain.

  3. Study on the utilization of the energy produced by the exhaust gases and the cooling water of a internal combustion engine; Estudo do aproveitamento da energia obtida pelos gases de escapamento e pela agua de resfriamento de um motor de combustao interna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Andre Luiz dos; Arroyo, Narciso Angel Ramos [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Combustao e Motores Termicos]. E-mail: als2000@tutopia.com.br; arroyo@sinmec.ufsc.br

    2000-07-01

    This work is about heat balance of an automotive internal combustion engine of 4 cylinders, using ethylic alcohol, and utilize the energy obtained in the exhaust gas and the water cooling system. This paper show an theoretical - experimental model for use this energy in an absorption refrigeration system using the work fluid water and Li Br. In this paper are analyzed engines charges of 30%, 50% and 100%. The results shows that for this charges and for any speed of the engines, the energy obtained in the evaporator are significant. (author)

  4. Microsomal lipid peroxidation as a mechanism of cellular damage. [Dissertation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornbrust, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The NADPH/iron-dependent peroxidation of lipids in rat liver microsomes was found to be dependent on the presence of free ferrous ion and maintains iron in the reduced Fe/sup 2 +/ state. Chelation of iron by EDTA inhibited peroxidation. Addition of iron, after preincubation of microsomes in the absence of iron, did not enhance the rate of peroxidation suggesting that iron acts by initiating peroxidative decomposition of membrane lipids rather than by catalyzing the breakdown of pre-formed hydroperoxides. Liposomes also underwent peroxidation in the presence of ferrous iron at a rate comparable to intact microsomes and was stimulated by ascorbate. Carbon tetrachloride initiated lipid peroxidation in the absence of free metal ions. Rates of in vitro lipid peroxidation of microsomes and homogenates were found to vary widely between different tissues and species. The effects of paraquat on lipid peroxidation was also studied. (DC)

  5. Power and particle exhaust in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stambaugh, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    The status of power and particle exhaust research in tokamaks is reviewed in the light of ITER requirements. There is a sound basis for ITER's nominal design positions; important directions for further research are identified

  6. Soundproofed exhaust system; Gegen stoerenden Abgasschall. Akustik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul-Faerber, M.

    2008-03-15

    Acoustic emissions of heating systems are a nuisance, especially the humming noise of big heating boilers and cogeneration units. Noise reduction measures, e.g. with exhaust sound absorbers, should be considered already in the projecting stage. (orig.)

  7. Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuk, Carl T [Denver, IA

    2011-11-29

    An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.

  8. Ionizing radiation and lipid peroxidation in human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubileo, Gianfranco

    1997-07-01

    Lipids are organic compounds constituting the living cells. Lipid molecules can be disassembled through peroxidative pathways and hydrocarbons can be bred as end-product of lipid peroxidation in vivo. Lipid peroxidation can be started by an indirect effect of ionizing radiation. So a radioinduced cellular damage in human body can be detected by monitoring the production of specific hydrocarbons

  9. Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of aircrafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, R. [Institute of Flightmechanics, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The reduction of contamination of sensitive atmospheric layers by improved flight planning steps, is investigated. Calculated results have shown, that a further development of flight track planning allows considerable improvements on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Even if air traffic will further increase, optimistic investigations forecast a reduction of the environmental damage by aircraft exhausts, if the effects of improved flight track arrangement and engine innovations will be combined. (R.P.) 4 refs.

  10. Crystal structure of rubidium peroxide ammonia disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Grassl

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, Rb2O2·2NH3, has been obtained as a reaction product of rubidium metal dissolved in liquid ammonia and glucuronic acid. As a result of the low-temperature crystallization, a disolvate was formed. To our knowledge, only one other solvate of an alkali metal peroxide is known: Na2O2·8H2O has been reported by Grehl et al. [Acta Cryst. (1995, C51, 1038–1040]. We determined the peroxide bond length to be 1.530 (11 Å, which is in accordance with the length reported by Bremm & Jansen [Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. (1992, 610, 64–66]. One of the ammonia solvate molecules is disordered relative to a mirror plane, with 0.5 occupancy for the corresponding nitrogen atom.

  11. Functionalized Palladium Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Baccar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparison between two biosensors for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 detection. The first biosensor was developed by the immobilization of Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP enzyme on thiol-modified gold electrode. The second biosensor was developed by the immobilization of cysteamine functionalizing palladium nanoparticles on modified gold surface. The amino groups can be activated with glutaraldehyde for horseradish peroxidase immobilization. The detection of hydrogen peroxide was successfully observed in PBS for both biosensors using the cyclic voltammetry and the chronoamperometry techniques. The results show that the limit detection depends on the large surface-to-volume ratio attained with palladium nanoparticles. The second biosensor presents a better detection limit of 7.5 μM in comparison with the first one which is equal to 75 μM.

  12. Jidosha's Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Shirakawa Okuma, Rosely; Calderón Orejuela, Javier

    2016-01-01

    La tesis narra la situación de una empresa concesionaria de vehículos nuevos, Jidosha's Motors, perteneciente a una corporación japonesa que cuenta con una cultura muy arraigada de ética y de cumplimiento. Se plantean respuestas, se identifican problemas y sus alternativas de solución para una toma adecuada de decisiones por parte de los directivos, siguiendo una estructura de análisis de situaciones de negocios (ASN). Tesis

  13. 46 CFR 182.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 182.430 Section 182... 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.430 Engine exhaust pipe... equipment might come in contact with an exhaust pipe. (b) Exhaust gas must not leak from the piping or any...

  14. 46 CFR 119.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 119.430 Section 119... INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.430 Engine exhaust pipe installation. (a) The design of all... an exhaust pipe. (b) Exhaust gas must not leak from the piping or any connections. The piping must be...

  15. 46 CFR 119.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., all engine exhaust pipes must be water cooled. (1) Vertical dry exhaust pipes are permissible if installed in compliance with §§ 116.405(c) and 116.970 of this chapter. (2) Horizontal dry exhaust pipes are...) They are installed in compliance with §§ 116.405(c) and 116.970 of this chapter. (b) The exhaust pipe...

  16. Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Status in Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokeya Begum

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia is the most common and major medical complication of pregnancy with a high incidence of maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. During pregnancy abnormally increased lipid peroxidation and free radical formation as well as significantly decreased antioxidants production in maternal blood may lead to pathogenesis of preeclampsia. So, we designed this study as little information is known about lipid peroxidation and antioxidant level in preeclampsia. Objectives: To assess the serum malondialdehyde (MDA level as a lipid peroxidation product and vitamin E (antioxidant level in women with preeclampsia as well as in normal pregnancy and to compare the values. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 60 women aged from 25 to 35 years in the department of Biochemistry, Budi Kemuliaan Maternity Hospital (BKMH in Jakarta during the period April to July 2004. Twenty were normal pregnant women and 20 were preeclamptic patients. For comparison age matched 20 apparently healthy nonpregnant women were included in the study. The study subjects were selected from outpatient department (OPD of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of BKMH in Jakarta. Serum MDA (lipid peroxidation product level was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBRAS method and vitamin E was estimated spectroflurometrically. Data were analyzed by unpaired Student’s t test between the groups by using SPSS version 12. Results: The mean serum MDA levels were significantly higher in normal pregnancy and also in preeclampsia than that of nonpregnant control group women (p<0.001. Again the serum MDA levels were significantly higher in preeclampsia than that of normal pregnant women (p<0.001. The serum vitamin E levels were significantly lower in preeclampsia and also in normal pregnancy than that of nonpregnant control women (p<0.001. Moreover, the serum vitamin E levels were significantly lower in preeclampsia compared to that of normal

  17. Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robel, Wade J [Peoria, IL; Driscoll, James Joshua [Dunlap, IL; Coleman, Gerald N [Peterborough, GB

    2008-05-13

    A system of ammonia production for a selective catalytic reduction system is provided. The system includes producing an exhaust gas stream within a cylinder group, wherein the first exhaust gas stream includes NOx. The exhaust gas stream may be supplied to an exhaust passage and cooled to a predetermined temperature range, and at least a portion of the NOx within the exhaust gas stream may be converted into ammonia.

  18. Performance of Installed Cooking Exhaust Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.; Price, Philip N.

    2011-11-01

    The performance metrics of airflow, sound, and combustion product capture efficiency (CE) were measured for a convenience sample of fifteen cooking exhaust devices, as installed in residences. Results were analyzed to quantify the impact of various device- and installation-dependent parameters on CE. Measured maximum airflows were 70% or lower than values noted on product literature for 10 of the devices. Above-the-cooktop devices with flat bottom surfaces (no capture hood) – including exhaust fan/microwave combination appliances – were found to have much lower CE at similar flow rates, compared to devices with capture hoods. For almost all exhaust devices and especially for rear-mounted downdraft exhaust and microwaves, CE was substantially higher for back compared with front burner use. Flow rate, and the extent to which the exhaust device extends over the burners that are in use, also had a large effect on CE. A flow rate of 95 liters per second (200 cubic feet per minute) was necessary, but not sufficient, to attain capture efficiency in excess of 75% for the front burners. A-weighted sound levels in kitchens exceeded 57 dB when operating at the highest fan setting for all 14 devices evaluated for sound performance.

  19. Engineering task plan for five portable exhausters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rensink, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    Exhausters will be employed to ventilate certain single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping campaigns. Active ventilation is necessary to reduce the potential flammable gas inventory (LANL 1996a) in the dome space that may accumulate during steady-state conditions or during/after postulated episodic gas release events. The tanks described in this plan support the activities required to fabricate and test three 500 cfm portable exhausters in the 200 W area shops, and to procure, design, fabricate and test two 1000 cfm units. Appropriate Notice of Construction (NOC) radiological and toxic air pollutant permits will be obtained for the portable exhausters. The portable exhauster design media to be employed to support this task was previously developed for the 241-A-101 exhauster. The same design as A101 will be fabricated with only minor improvements to the design based upon operator input/lessons learned. The safety authorization basis for this program effort will follow SAD 36 (LANL 1996b), and each tank will be reviewed against this SAD for changes or updates. The 1000 cfm units will be designed by the selected offsite contractor according to the specification requirements in KHC-S-O490. The offsite units have been specified to utilize as many of the same components as the 500 cfm units to ensure a more cost effective operation and maintenance through the reduction of spare parts and additional procedures

  20. System for measuring engine exhaust constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carduner, K.R.; Colvin, A.D.; Leong, D.Y.W.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a system for measuring an automotive engine exhaust constituent. It comprises: a meter for determining the mass of air flowing through the engine and for generating an engine airflow signal corresponding to the airflow; sample handling apparatus; diluent adding means; processor means. This patent also describes a method for using an analyzer to determine the amount of lubricating oil consumed by an automotive engine. It comprises: determining the amount of sulfur dioxide within the room air being drawn into the engine; maintaining a constant total flow comprised of a constant fraction of the engine's exhaust gas and a diluent gas through the analyzer, while: determining the amount of sulfur dioxide contained within the engine's exhaust, determining the amount of sulfur dioxide contained within the engine's exhaust, while operating the engine on room air; determining an efficiency factor for the analyzer; and using the efficiency factor and the concentration of sulfur in the engine oil and the amounts of sulfur dioxide determined in steps a and d to determine the amount of lubrication oil leaving the engine through its exhaust

  1. Lightweight Exhaust Manifold and Exhaust Pipe Ducting for Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved exhaust system for an internal combustion gasoline-and/or diesel-fueled engine includes an engine exhaust manifold which has been fabricated from carbon- carbon composite materials in operative association with an exhaust pipe ducting which has been fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials. When compared to conventional steel. cast iron. or ceramic-lined iron paris. the use of carbon-carbon composite exhaust-gas manifolds and exhaust pipe ducting reduces the overall weight of the engine. which allows for improved acceleration and fuel efficiency: permits operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength: reduces the "through-the wall" heat loss, which increases engine cycle and turbocharger efficiency and ensures faster "light-off" of catalytic converters: and, with an optional thermal reactor, reduces emission of major pollutants, i.e. hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

  2. Air flow quality analysis of modenas engine exhaust system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriman A., B.; Mohamad Syafiq A., K.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Khairunizam W. A., N.; Hazry, D.; Afendi, Mohd; Daud, R.; Rahman, M. D. Tasyrif Abdul; Cheng, E. M.; Zaaba, S. K.

    2017-09-01

    The simulation process being conducted to determine the air flow effect between the original exhaust system and modified exhaust system. The simulations are conducted to investigate the flow distribution of exhaust gases that will affect the performance of the engine. The back flow pressure in the original exhaust system is predicted toward this simulation. The design modification to the exhaust port, exhaust pipe, and exhaust muffler has been done during this simulation to reduce the back flow effect. The new designs are introduced by enlarging the diameter of the exhaust port, enlarge the diameter of the exhaust pipe and created new design for the exhaust muffler. Based on the result obtained, there the pulsating flow form at the original exhaust port that will increase the velocity and resulting the back pressure occur. The result for new design of exhaust port, the velocity is lower at the valve guide in the exhaust port. New design muffler shows that the streamline of the exhaust flow move smoothly compare to the original muffler. It is proved by using the modification exhaust system, the back pressure are reduced and the engine performance can be improve.

  3. Baking exhaustion device in thermonuclear device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Mitsunori.

    1987-02-02

    Purpose: To rapidly remove tritium and impurity from the vacuum region in the access port of the baking exhaustion device in a thermonuclear device. Constitution: Each of the gaps at the boundary between a fixed shielding member and a blanket module and at the boundary between the blanket and a divertor is made extremely small so as to minimize the neutron streaming from plasmas. Accordingly, in the case of evacuating the vacuum region in the access port, the gap conductance is extremely poor and the exhaustion speed is low. Then, baking pipeways for flowing high temperature fluids are embedded to the surface layer at the position facing to the vacuum region and the plasma evacuation duct and the vacuum region are connected with an evacuation duct of the access port. By flowing high temperature fluids in the pipeways and conducting evacuation, baking exhaustion can be carried out rapidly. (Kamimura, M.).

  4. Hydrogen peroxide stabilization in one-dimensional flow columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jeremy T.; Ahmad, Mushtaque; Teel, Amy L.; Watts, Richard J.

    2011-09-01

    Rapid hydrogen peroxide decomposition is the primary limitation of catalyzed H 2O 2 propagations in situ chemical oxidation (CHP ISCO) remediation of the subsurface. Two stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide, citrate and phytate, were investigated for their effectiveness in one-dimensional columns of iron oxide-coated and manganese oxide-coated sand. Hydrogen peroxide (5%) with and without 25 mM citrate or phytate was applied to the columns and samples were collected at 8 ports spaced 13 cm apart. Citrate was not an effective stabilizer for hydrogen peroxide in iron-coated sand; however, phytate was highly effective, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals two orders of magnitude over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Both citrate and phytate were effective stabilizers for manganese-coated sand, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals by four-fold over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Phytate and citrate did not degrade and were not retarded in the sand columns; furthermore, the addition of the stabilizers increased column flow rates relative to unstabilized columns. These results demonstrate that citrate and phytate are effective stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide under the dynamic conditions of one-dimensional columns, and suggest that citrate and phytate can be added to hydrogen peroxide before injection to the subsurface as an effective means for increasing the radius of influence of CHP ISCO.

  5. PUREX exhaust ventilation system installation test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackaby, W.B.

    1997-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Report validates the testing performed, the exceptions logged and resolved and certifies this portion of the SAMCONS has met all design and test criteria to perform as an operational system. The proper installation of the PUREX exhaust ventilation system components and wiring was systematically evaluated by performance of this procedure. Proper operation of PUREX exhaust fan inlet, outlet, and vortex damper actuators and limit switches were verified, using special test equipment, to be correct and installed wiring connections were verified by operation of this equipment

  6. Alkaline Peroxide Delignification of Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Ashutosh [Biosciences; Katahira, Rui [National; Donohoe, Bryon S. [Biosciences; Black, Brenna A. [National; Pattathil, Sivakumar [Complex; Stringer, Jack M. [National; Beckham, Gregg T. [National

    2017-05-30

    Selective biomass fractionation into carbohydrates and lignin is a key challenge in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. In the present study, alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment was investigated to fractionate lignin from polysaccharides in corn stover (CS), with a particular emphasis on the fate of the lignin for subsequent valorization. The influence of peroxide loading on delignification during AHP pretreatment was examined over the range of 30-500 mg H2O2/g dry CS at 50 degrees C for 3 h. Mass balances were conducted on the solid and liquid fractions generated after pretreatment for each of the three primary components, lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose. AHP pretreatment at 250 mg H2O2/g dry CS resulted in the pretreated solids with more than 80% delignification consequently enriching the carbohydrate fraction to >90%. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) spectroscopy of the AHP pretreated residue shows that, under high peroxide loadings (>250 mg H2O2/g dry CS), most of the side chain structures were oxidized and the aryl-ether bonds in lignin were partially cleaved, resulting in significant delignification of the pretreated residues. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis shows that AHP pretreatment effectively depolymerizes CS lignin into low molecular weight (LMW) lignin fragments in the aqueous fraction. Imaging of AHP pretreated residues shows a more granular texture and a clear lamellar pattern in secondary walls, indicative of layers of varying lignin removal or relocalization. Enzymatic hydrolysis of this pretreated residue at 20 mg/g of glucan resulted in 90% and 80% yields of glucose and xylose, respectively, after 120 h. Overall, AHP pretreatment is able to selectively remove more than 80% of the lignin from biomass in a form that has potential for downstream valorization processes and enriches the solid pulp into a highly digestible material.

  7. Engineering bacterial motility towards hydrogen-peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgile, Chelsea; Hauk, Pricila; Wu, Hsuan-Chen; Shang, Wu; Tsao, Chen-Yu; Payne, Gregory F; Bentley, William E

    2018-01-01

    Synthetic biologists construct innovative genetic/biological systems to treat environmental, energy, and health problems. Many systems employ rewired cells for non-native product synthesis, while a few have employed the rewired cells as 'smart' devices with programmable function. Building on the latter, we developed a genetic construct to control and direct bacterial motility towards hydrogen peroxide, one of the body's immune response signaling molecules. A motivation for this work is the creation of cells that can target and autonomously treat disease, the latter signaled by hydrogen peroxide release. Bacteria naturally move towards a variety of molecular cues (e.g., nutrients) in the process of chemotaxis. In this work, we engineered bacteria to recognize and move towards hydrogen peroxide, a non-native chemoattractant and potential toxin. Our system exploits oxyRS, the native oxidative stress regulon of E. coli. We first demonstrated H2O2-mediated upregulation motility regulator, CheZ. Using transwell assays, we showed a two-fold increase in net motility towards H2O2. Then, using a 2D cell tracking system, we quantified bacterial motility descriptors including velocity, % running (of tumble/run motions), and a dynamic net directionality towards the molecular cue. In CheZ mutants, we found that increased H2O2 concentration (0-200 μM) and induction time resulted in increased running speeds, ultimately reaching the native E. coli wild-type speed of ~22 μm/s with a ~45-65% ratio of running to tumbling. Finally, using a microfluidic device with stable H2O2 gradients, we characterized responses and the potential for "programmed" directionality towards H2O2 in quiescent fluids. Overall, the synthetic biology framework and tracking analysis in this work will provide a framework for investigating controlled motility of E. coli and other 'smart' probiotics for signal-directed treatment.

  8. Peroxide coordination of tellurium in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhaylov, Alexey A.; Medvedev, Alexander G. [Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); The Casali Center of Applied Chemistry, The Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel); Churakov, Andrei V.; Grishanov, Dmitry A.; Prikhodchenko, Petr V. [Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lev, Ovadia [The Casali Center of Applied Chemistry, The Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel)

    2016-02-15

    Tellurium-peroxo complexes in aqueous solutions have never been reported. In this work, ammonium peroxotellurates (NH{sub 4}){sub 4}Te{sub 2}(μ-OO){sub 2}(μ-O)O{sub 4}(OH){sub 2} (1) and (NH{sub 4}){sub 5}Te{sub 2}(μ-OO){sub 2}(μ-O)O{sub 5}(OH).1.28 H{sub 2}O.0.72 H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (2) were isolated from 5 % hydrogen peroxide aqueous solutions of ammonium tellurate and characterized by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analysis, by Raman spectroscopy and thermal analysis. The crystal structure of 1 comprises ammonium cations and a symmetric binuclear peroxotellurate anion [Te{sub 2}(μ-OO){sub 2}(μ-O)O{sub 4}(OH){sub 2}]{sup 4-}. The structure of 2 consists of an unsymmetrical [Te{sub 2}(μ-OO){sub 2}(μ-O)O{sub 5}(OH)]{sup 5-} anion, ammonium cations, hydrogen peroxide, and water. Peroxotellurate anions in both 1 and 2 contain a binuclear Te{sub 2}(μ-OO){sub 2}(μ-O) fragment with one μ-oxo- and two μ-peroxo bridging groups. {sup 125}Te NMR spectroscopic analysis shows that the peroxo bridged bitellurate anions are the dominant species in solution, with 3-40 %wt H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and for pH values above 9. DFT calculations of the peroxotellurate anion confirm its higher thermodynamic stability compared with those of the oxotellurate analogues. This is the first direct evidence for tellurium-peroxide coordination in any aqueous system and the first report of inorganic tellurium-peroxo complexes. General features common to all reported p-block element peroxides could be discerned by the characterization of aqueous and crystalline peroxotellurates. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Study of transient in-cylinder air motion under motoring condition with diesel engine; Diesel engine no motoring ji no tonai ryudo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitasei, T; Nakagawa, T [Mitsubishi Motors Co., Tokyo (Japan); Yamazumi, N [Ryoyu Keisan Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The transient in-cylinder air motion have been investigated for reducing exhaust emissions and improving engine performance. A commercial CFD code was used for this purpose. For analyzing under engine motoring condition, the numerical model has a moving piston, intake and exhaust ports with moving valves. As result, exhaust port performance may be analyzed under steady condition, but intake port performance have to be analyzed under unsteady condition. Because transient in-cylinder air motion during intake process is different from steady in-cylinder air motion under influence of piston surface and air viscosity. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  10. Improvement of the thermal and mechanical flow characteristics in the exhaust system of piston engine through the use of ejection effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, L. V.; Zhilkin, B. P.; Brodov, Yu M.

    2017-11-01

    The results of experimental research of gas dynamics and heat transfer in the exhaust process in piston internal combustion engines are presented. Studies were conducted on full-scale models of piston engine in the conditions of unsteady gas-dynamic (pulsating flows). Dependences of the instantaneous flow speed and the local heat transfer coefficient from the crankshaft rotation angle in the exhaust pipe are presented in the article. Also, the flow characteristics of the exhaust gases through the exhaust systems of various configurations are analyzed. It is shown that installation of the ejector in the exhaust system lead to a stabilization of the flow and allows to improve cleaning of the cylinder from exhaust gases and to optimize the thermal state of the exhaust pipes. Experimental studies were complemented by numerical simulation of the working process of the DM-21 diesel engine (production of “Ural diesel-motor plant”). The object of modeling was the eight-cylinder diesel with turbocharger. The simulation was performed taking into account the processes nonstationarity in the intake and exhaust pipes for the various configurations of exhaust systems (with and without ejector). Numerical simulation of the working process of diesel was performed in ACTUS software (ABB Turbo Systems). The simulation results confirmed the stabilization of the flow due to the use of the ejection effect in the exhaust system of a diesel engine. The use of ejection in the exhaust system of the DM-21 diesel leads to improvement of cleaning cylinders up to 10 %, reduces the specific fuel consumption on average by 1 %.

  11. Effect of cadmium chloride on hepatic lipid peroxidation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H R; Andersen, O

    1988-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride to 8-12 weeks old CBA-mice enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation. A positive correlation between cadmium chloride dose and level of peroxidation was observed in both male and female mice. A sex-related difference in mortality was not observed...... but at a dose of 25 mumol CdCl2/kg the level of hepatic lipid peroxidation was higher in male mice than in female mice. The hepatic lipid peroxidation was not increased above the control level in 3 weeks old mice, while 6 weeks old mice responded with increased peroxidation as did 8-12 weeks old mice....... The mortality after an acute toxic dose of cadmium chloride was the same in the three age groups. Pretreatment of mice with several low intraperitoneal doses of cadmium chloride alleviated cadmium induced mortality and lipid peroxidation. The results demonstrate both age dependency and a protective effect...

  12. Swimming training induces liver mitochondrial adaptations to oxidative stress in rats submitted to repeated exhaustive swimming bouts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico D Lima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although acute exhaustive exercise is known to increase liver reactive oxygen species (ROS production and aerobic training has shown to improve the antioxidant status in the liver, little is known about mitochondria adaptations to aerobic training. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the aerobic training on oxidative stress markers and antioxidant defense in liver mitochondria both after training and in response to three repeated exhaustive swimming bouts. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into training (n = 14 and control (n = 14 groups. Training group performed a 6-week swimming training protocol. Subsets of training (n = 7 and control (n = 7 rats performed 3 repeated exhaustive swimming bouts with 72 h rest in between. Oxidative stress biomarkers, antioxidant activity, and mitochondria functionality were assessed. RESULTS: Trained group showed increased reduced glutathione (GSH content and reduced/oxidized (GSH/GSSG ratio, higher superoxide dismutase (MnSOD activity, and decreased lipid peroxidation in liver mitochondria. Aerobic training protected against exhaustive swimming ROS production herein characterized by decreased oxidative stress markers, higher antioxidant defenses, and increases in methyl-tetrazolium reduction and membrane potential. Trained group also presented higher time to exhaustion compared to control group. CONCLUSIONS: Swimming training induced positive adaptations in liver mitochondria of rats. Increased antioxidant defense after training coped well with exercise-produced ROS and liver mitochondria were less affected by exhaustive exercise. Therefore, liver mitochondria also adapt to exercise-induced ROS and may play an important role in exercise performance.

  13. Aerobic training suppresses exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and inflammation in overweight/obese adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Hala; Groussard, Carole; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Pincemail, Joel; Jacob, Christophe; Moussa, Elie; Fazah, Abdallah; Cillard, Josiane; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Delamarche, Arlette

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine whether aerobic training could reduce lipid peroxidation and inflammation at rest and after maximal exhaustive exercise in overweight/obese adolescent girls. Thirty-nine adolescent girls (14-19 years old) were classified as nonobese or overweight/obese and then randomly assigned to either the nontrained or trained group (12-week multivariate aerobic training program). Measurements at the beginning of the experiment and at 3 months consisted of body composition, aerobic fitness (VO2peak) and the following blood assays: pre- and postexercise lipid peroxidation (15F2a-isoprostanes [F2-Isop], lipid hydroperoxide [ROOH], oxidized LDL [ox-LDL]) and inflammation (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) markers. In the overweight/ obese group, the training program significantly increased their fat-free mass (FFM) and decreased their percentage of fat mass (%FM) and hip circumference but did not modify their VO2peak. Conversely, in the nontrained overweight/obese group, weight and %FM increased, and VO2peak decreased, during the same period. Training also prevented exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and/or inflammation in overweight/obese girls (F2-Isop, ROOH, ox-LDL, MPO). In addition, in the trained overweight/obese group, exercise-induced changes in ROOH, ox-LDL and F2-Isop were correlated with improvements in anthropometric parameters (waist-to-hip ratio, %FM and FFM). In conclusion aerobic training increased tolerance to exercise-induced oxidative stress in overweight/obese adolescent girls partly as a result of improved body composition.

  14. Hydrogen peroxide probes directed to different cellular compartments.

    OpenAIRE

    Mikalai Malinouski; You Zhou; Vsevolod V Belousov; Dolph L Hatfield; Vadim N Gladyshev

    2011-01-01

    Background Controlled generation and removal of hydrogen peroxide play important roles in cellular redox homeostasis and signaling. We used a hydrogen peroxide biosensor HyPer, targeted to different compartments, to examine these processes in mammalian cells. Principal Findings Reversible responses were observed to various redox perturbations and signaling events. HyPer expressed in HEK 293 cells was found to sense low micromolar levels of hydrogen peroxide. When targeted to various cellular ...

  15. Radiation-induced peroxidation of egg lecithin liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisby, R.H.; Cundall, R.B.; Tomaszewski, K.E.; Coleman, M.H.; Gould, G.

    1983-01-01

    Peroxidation of multilamellar vesicles of egg lecithin was measured following γ-irradiation of oxygen saturated suspensions. The addition of hydroxyl radical scavengers and the enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase was used to show that hydroxyl radicals were the major species initiating peroxidation. Superoxide radicals were found to be much less effective initiators of peroxidation. Trolox C, a water soluble analogue of vitamin E, was found to act as an efficient antioxidant in this system. (author)

  16. Fine motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gross (large, general) motor control. An example of gross motor control is waving an arm in greeting. Problems ... out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To ...

  17. Toxicological aspects of fuel and exhaust gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avella, F.

    1993-01-01

    Some aspects concerning fuels (gasoline) and gas exhaust vehicle emissions toxicology are briefly examined in light of the results reported in recent literature on this argument. Many experimental studies carried out on animals and men turn out incomplete and do not allow thorough evaluations, for every aspect, of the risk to which men and the environment are subjected

  18. Application of plasma techniques for exhaust aftertreatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, M.; Viden, I.; Šimek, Milan; Pekárek, S.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 27, 1-4 (2001), s. 306-314 ISSN 0143-3369 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/99/1298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : Non-thermal plasma, elctrical discharge, exhaust aftertreatment Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.190, year: 2001

  19. Malaria drives T cells to exhaustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle N Wykes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a significant global burden but after >30 years of effort there is no vaccine on the market. While the complex life cycle of the parasite presents several challenges, many years of research have also identified several mechanisms of immune evasion by Plasmodium spp.. Recent research on malaria, has investigated the Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1 pathway which mediates exhaustion of T cells, characterized by poor effector functions and recall responses and in some cases loss of the cells by apoptosis. Such studies have shown exhaustion of CD4+ T cells and an unappreciated role for CD8+ T cells in promoting sterile immunity against blood stage malaria. This is because PD-1 mediates up to a 95% reduction in numbers and functional capacity of parasite-specific CD8+ T cells, thus masking their role in protection. The role of T cell exhaustion during malaria provides an explanation for the absence of sterile immunity following the clearance of acute disease which will be relevant to future malaria-vaccine design and suggests the need for novel therapeutic solutions. This review will thus examine the role of PD-1-mediated T cell exhaustion in preventing lasting immunity against malaria.

  20. Cooking exhaust systems for low energy dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Borsboom, W.A.

    2017-01-01

    Especially in airtight low energy dwellings exhaust systems are of utmost importance as cooking can be a major source of PM2.5 exposure. Dwellings should be designed including facilities enabling extraction of at least 83 dm3/s (300 m3/h) directly to outside. Residents should be able to select an

  1. Exhaust gas treatment by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibamura, Yokichi; Suda, Shoichi; Kobayashi, Toshiki

    1991-01-01

    Among global environmental problems, atmospheric pollution has been discussed since relatively old days, and various countermeasures have been taken, but recently in connection with acid rain, the efficient and economical treatment technology is demanded. As the denitration and desulfurization technology for the exhaust gas from the combustion of fossil fuel, the incineration of city trash and internal combustion engines, three is the treatment method by electron beam irradiation. By irradiating electron beam to exhaust gas, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides are oxidized to nitric acid and sulfuric acid, and by promoting the neutralization of these acids with injected alkali, harmless salts are recovered. This method has the merit that nitrogen oxides and surfur oxides can be removed efficiently with a single system. In this report, as for the exhaust gas treatment by electron beam irradiation, its principle, features, and the present status of research and development are described, and in particular, the research on the recent exhaust gas treatment in city trash incineration is introduced. This treatment method is a dry process, accordingly, waste water disposal is unnecessary. The reaction products are utilized as fertilizer, and waste is not produced. (K.I.)

  2. Aircraft Piston Engine Exhaust Emission Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    A 2-day symposium on the reduction of exhaust emissions from aircraft piston engines was held on September 14 and 15, 1976, at the Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Papers were presented by both government organizations and the general aviation industry on the status of government contracts, emission measurement problems, data reduction procedures, flight testing, and emission reduction techniques.

  3. Exhaust gas afterburner for internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haertel, G

    1977-05-12

    The invention pertains to an exhaust gas afterburner for internal combustion engines, with an auxiliary fuel device arranged upstream from the afterburner proper and controlled by the rotational speed of the engine, which is additionally controlled by an oxygen or carbon monoxide sensor. The catalytic part of the afterburner, together with a rotochamber, is a separate unit.

  4. Comparative toxicity and mutagenicity of biodiesel exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel (BD) is commercially made from the transesterification of plant and animal derived oils. The composition of biodiesel exhaust (BE) depends on the type of fuel, the blend ratio and the engine and operating conditions. While numerous studies have characterized the health ...

  5. Precipitation of uranium concentrates by hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa Filho, O.

    1986-12-01

    An experimental study on the (UO 4 .xH 2 ) uranyl peroxide precipitation from a uranium process strip solution is presented. The runs were performed in a batch reactor, in laboratory scale. The main objective was to assess the possibility of the peroxide route as an alternative to a conventional ammonium diuranate process. The chemical composition of process solution was obtained. The experiments were conducted according to a factorial design, aiming to evaluate the effects of initial pH, precipitation pH and H 2 O 2 /UO 2 2+ ratio upon the process. The responses were measured in terms of the efficiency of U precipitation, the content of U in the precipitates and the distribution of impurities in the precipitates. The results indicated that the process works is satisfactory on the studied conditions and depending on conditions, it is possible to achieve levels of U precipitation efficiency greater than 99.9% in reaction times of 2 hours. The precipitates reach grades around 99% U 3 O 8 after calcination (900 0 C) and impurities fall below the limit for penalties established by the ASTM and the Allied Chemical Standards. The precipitates are composed of large aggregates of crystals of 1-4 μm, are fast settling and filtering, and are free-flowing when dry. (Author) [pt

  6. Antioxidant effect of bisphosphonates and simvastatin on chondrocyte lipid peroxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombrecht, E.J.; De Tollenaere, C.B.; Aerts, K.; Cos, P.; Schuerwegh, A.J.; Bridts, C.H.; Van Offel, J.F.; Ebo, D.G.; Stevens, W.J.; De Clerck, L.S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bisphosphonates (BPs) and simvastatin on chondrocyte lipid peroxidation. For this purpose, a flow cytometrical method using C11-BODIPY 581/591 was developed to detect hydroperoxide-induced lipid peroxidation in chondrocytes. Tertiary butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP) induced a time and concentration dependent increase in chondrocyte lipid peroxidation. Addition of a Fe 2+ /EDTA complex to t-BHP or hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) clearly enhanced lipid peroxidation. The lipophilic simvastatin demonstrated a small inhibition in the chondrocyte lipid peroxidation. None of three tested BPs (clodronate, pamidronate, and risedronate) had an effect on chondrocyte lipid peroxidation induced by t-BHP. However, when Fe 2+ /EDTA complex was added to t-BHP or H 2 O 2 , BPs inhibited the lipid peroxidation process varying from 25% to 58%. This study demonstrates that BPs have antioxidant properties as iron chelators, thereby inhibiting the chondrocyte lipid peroxidation. These findings add evidence to the therapeutic potential of bisphosphonates and statins in rheumatoid arthritis

  7. A survey of chemicals inducing lipid peroxidation in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, H

    1987-01-01

    A great number of drugs and chemicals are reviewed which have been shown to stimulate lipid peroxidation in any biological system. The underlying mechanisms, as far as known, are also dealt with. Lipid peroxidation induced by iron ions, organic hydroperoxides, halogenated hydrocarbons, redox cycling drugs, glutathione depleting chemicals, ethanol, heavy metals, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and a number of miscellaneous compounds, e.g. hydrazines, pesticides, antibiotics, are mentioned. It is shown that lipid peroxidation is stimulated by many of these compounds. However, quantitative estimates cannot be given yet and it is still impossible to judge the biological relevance of chemical-induced lipid peroxidation.

  8. Hydrogen Peroxide Probes Directed to Different Cellular Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinouski, Mikalai; Zhou, You; Belousov, Vsevolod V.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Controlled generation and removal of hydrogen peroxide play important roles in cellular redox homeostasis and signaling. We used a hydrogen peroxide biosensor HyPer, targeted to different compartments, to examine these processes in mammalian cells. Principal Findings Reversible responses were observed to various redox perturbations and signaling events. HyPer expressed in HEK 293 cells was found to sense low micromolar levels of hydrogen peroxide. When targeted to various cellular compartments, HyPer occurred in the reduced state in the nucleus, cytosol, peroxisomes, mitochondrial intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix, but low levels of the oxidized form of the biosensor were also observed in each of these compartments, consistent with a low peroxide tone in mammalian cells. In contrast, HyPer was mostly oxidized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Using this system, we characterized control of hydrogen peroxide in various cell systems, such as cells deficient in thioredoxin reductase, sulfhydryl oxidases or subjected to selenium deficiency. Generation of hydrogen peroxide could also be monitored in various compartments following signaling events. Conclusions We found that HyPer can be used as a valuable tool to monitor hydrogen peroxide generated in different cellular compartments. The data also show that hydrogen peroxide generated in one compartment could translocate to other compartments. Our data provide information on compartmentalization, dynamics and homeostatic control of hydrogen peroxide in mammalian cells. PMID:21283738

  9. Hydrogen peroxide probes directed to different cellular compartments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikalai Malinouski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled generation and removal of hydrogen peroxide play important roles in cellular redox homeostasis and signaling. We used a hydrogen peroxide biosensor HyPer, targeted to different compartments, to examine these processes in mammalian cells.Reversible responses were observed to various redox perturbations and signaling events. HyPer expressed in HEK 293 cells was found to sense low micromolar levels of hydrogen peroxide. When targeted to various cellular compartments, HyPer occurred in the reduced state in the nucleus, cytosol, peroxisomes, mitochondrial intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix, but low levels of the oxidized form of the biosensor were also observed in each of these compartments, consistent with a low peroxide tone in mammalian cells. In contrast, HyPer was mostly oxidized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Using this system, we characterized control of hydrogen peroxide in various cell systems, such as cells deficient in thioredoxin reductase, sulfhydryl oxidases or subjected to selenium deficiency. Generation of hydrogen peroxide could also be monitored in various compartments following signaling events.We found that HyPer can be used as a valuable tool to monitor hydrogen peroxide generated in different cellular compartments. The data also show that hydrogen peroxide generated in one compartment could translocate to other compartments. Our data provide information on compartmentalization, dynamics and homeostatic control of hydrogen peroxide in mammalian cells.

  10. Synthesis and thermal properties of strontium and calcium peroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Warren H.; Kraft, Patricia A.

    1989-01-01

    A practical synthesis and a discussion of some chemical properties of pure strontium peroxide and calcium peroxide are presented. The general synthesis of these peroxides involves precipitation of their octahydrates by addition of H2O2 to aqueous ammoniacal Sr(NO3)2 or CaCl2. The octahydrates are converted to the anhydrous peroxides by various dehydration techniques. A new x-ray diffraction powder pattern for CaO2 x 8H2O is given from which lattice parameters a=6.212830 and c=11.0090 were calculated on the basis of the tetragonal crystal system.

  11. Effect of antioxidants and silicates on peroxides in povidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Ajit S; Rao, Venkatramana M; Desai, Divyakant S

    2012-01-01

    Reactive peroxides in povidone often lead to degradation of oxidation-labile drugs. To reduce peroxide concentration in povidone, the roles of storage conditions, antioxidants, and silicates were investigated. Povidone alone and its physical mixtures with ascorbic acid, propyl gallate, sodium sulfite, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were stored at 25 °C and 40 °C, at 11%, 32%, and 50% relative humidity. In addition, povidone solution in methanol was equilibrated with silicates (silica gel and molecular sieves), followed by solvent evaporation to recover povidone powder. Peroxide concentrations in povidone were measured. The concentration of peroxides in povidone increased under very-low-humidity storage conditions. Among the antioxidants, ascorbic acid, propyl gallate, and sodium sulfite reduced the peroxide concentration in povidone, whereas BHA and BHT did not. Water solubility appeared to determine the effectiveness of antioxidants. Also, some silicates significantly reduced peroxide concentration in povidone without affecting its functionality as a tablet binder. Porosity of silicates was critical to their ability to reduce the peroxide concentration in povidone. A combination of these approaches can reduce the initial peroxide concentration in povidone and minimize peroxide growth under routine storage conditions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. High temperature sensors for exhaust diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenningstorp, Henrik

    2000-07-01

    One of the largest problems that we will have to deal with on this planet this millennium is to stop the pollution of our environment. In many of the ongoing works to reduce toxic emissions, gas sensors capable of enduring rough environments and high temperatures, would be a great tool. The different applications where sensors like this would be useful vary between everything from online measurement in the paper industry and food industry to measurement in the exhaust pipe of a car. In my project we have tested Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensor as gas sensors operating at high temperatures. The measurement condition in the exhaust pipe of a car is extremely tough, not only is the temperature high and the different gases quite harmful, there are also a lot of particles that can affect the sensors in an undesirable way. In my project we have been testing Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensors based on SiC as high temperature sensors, both in the laboratory with simulated exhaust and after a real engine. In this thesis we conclude that these sensors can work in the hostile environment of an engines exhaust. It is shown that when measuring in a gas mixture with a fixed I below one, where the I-value is controlled by the O{sub 2} concentration, a sensor with a catalytic gate metal as sensitive material respond more to the increased O{sub 2} concentration than the increased HC concentration when varying the two correspondingly. A number of different sensors have been tested in simulated exhaust towards NO{sub x}. It was shown that resistivity changes in the thin gate metal influenced the gas response. Tests have been performed where sensors were a part of a SCR system with promising results concerning NH{sub 3} sensitivity. With a working temperature of 300 deg C there is no contamination of the metal surface.

  13. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  14. Development of an exhaust sensor for control of internal combustion engines and exhaust treatment systems - CatSens. Final report; Entwicklung eines Abgassensors zur Regelung von Verbrennungsmotoren und Abgasnachbehandlungssystemen - CatSens. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepperhoff, G.; Milanovic, I.

    2002-05-01

    A sensor system for controlling combustion processes in small-scale furnaces and internal combustion engines and for on-board diagnosis of exhaust treatment systems, e.g. NO{sub x} adsorber catalytic converters in motor cars, was developed. [German] Im Rahmen des Verbundprojektes soll ein Sensorsystem zur Regelung der Verbrennungsprozesse in Kleinfeuerungsanlagen und Verbrennungsmotoren sowie zur Regelung und Ueberwachung (On-Board Diagnose) von Abgasnachbehandlungseinrichtungen wie z.B. NO{sub x}-Adsorberkatalysatoren in Kraftfahrzeugen, entwickelt werden. (orig.)

  15. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for... vehicle under § 600.113(a) and (b) and as approved in § 600.008-08(c), are used to determine FTP-based... value exists for an electric vehicle configuration, that value, rounded to the nearest tenth of a mile...

  16. Regenerative braking system of PM synchronous motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qian; Lv, Chengxing; Zhao, Na; Zang, Hechao; Jiang, Huilue; Zhang, Zhaowen; Zhang, Fengli

    2018-04-01

    Permanent-magnet synchronous motor is widely adopted in many fields with the advantage of a high efficiency and a high torque density. Regenerative Braking Systems (RBS) provide an efficient method to assist PMSM system achieve better fuel economy and lowering exhaust emissions. This paper describes the design and testing of the regenerative braking systems of PMSM. The mode of PWM duty has been adjusted to control regenerative braking of PMSM using energy controller for the port-controlled Hamiltonian model. The simulation analysis indicates that a smooth control could be realized and the highest efficiency and the smallest current ripple could be achieved by Regenerative Braking Systems.

  17. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  18. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  19. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition kinetics in aquaculture water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2015-01-01

    during the HP decomposition. The model assumes that the enzyme decay is controlled by an inactivation stoichiometry related to the HP decomposition. In order to make the model easily applicable, it is furthermore assumed that the COD is a proxy of the active biomass concentration of the water and thereby......Hydrogen peroxide (HP) is used in aquaculture systems where preventive or curative water treatments occasionally are required. Use of chemical agents can be challenging in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) due to extended water retention time and because the agents must not damage the fish...... reared or the nitrifying bacteria in the biofilters at concentrations required to eliminating pathogens. This calls for quantitative insight into the fate of the disinfectant residuals during water treatment. This paper presents a kinetic model that describes the HP decomposition in aquaculture water...

  20. Hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on titanium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Nur Hamidah Abdul; Heng, Lee Yook; Hashim, Uda

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a biosensor utilizing modified titania, TiO2 particles using aminopropyl-triethoxy-silane, (APTS) for developing hydrogen peroxide biosensor is presented. The surface of Ti-APTS particles is used as a support for hemoglobin immobilization via covalent bonding. The performance of the biosensor is determined by differential pulse voltammetry. The linear response was observed at the reduction current of redox mediator probe [FeCN6]3-/4- at potential between 0.22 V to 0.24 V. The preliminary result for electrochemistry study on this modified electrode is reported. The preliminary linear range is obtained from 1×10-2 M to 1×10-8 M.

  1. Hydrogen Peroxide Storage in Small Sealed Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, J.

    1999-01-01

    Unstabilized hydrogen peroxide of 85% concentration has been prepared in laboratory quantities for testing material compatibility and long term storage on a small scale. Vessels made of candidate tank and liner materials ranged in volume from 1 cc to 2540 cc. Numerous metals and plastics were tried at the smallest scales, while promising ones were used to fabricate larger vessels and liners. An aluminum alloy (6061-T6) performed poorly, including increasing homogeneous decay due to alloying elements entering solution. The decay rate in this high strength aluminum was greatly reduced by anodizing. Better results were obtained with polymers, particularly polyvinylidene fluoride. Data reported herein include ullage pressures as a function of time with changing decay rates, and contamination analysis results

  2. Children's Exhaustive Readings of Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, Alexandre; Tieu, Lyn; Chemla, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Questions, just like plain declarative sentences, can give rise to multiple interpretations. As discussed by Spector & Egré (2015), among others, questions embedded under know are ambiguous between "weakly exhaustive" (WE), "intermediate exhaustive" (IE), and "strongly exhaustive" (SE) interpretations (for…

  3. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working pressure...

  4. Specific emissions analysis for a combustion engine in dynamometer operation in relation to the thermal state of the exhaust gas aftertreatment systems in a modified NRSC test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkisz Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust gas aftertreatment systems have been present in motor vehicles for decades and have contributed to reducing their impact on the environment and people. Most of them for oxidation or reduction of harmful emissions of particulates and fumes require a certain temperature to be reached that changes with the exhaust temperature, i.e. the points of engine operation. The article describes the effect of oxidation reactor and particulate filter temperatures on specific emissions of gaseous compounds and particulate matter during the modified NRSC engine test. Before the first measurement cycle, the engine was idling, before the second measurement cycle, the exhaust system was heated with exhaust gases at full engine load until passive regeneration of the particle filter occurred (noticeable decrease in instantaneous particle concentration.

  5. Lipid peroxidation and ascorbic acid levels in Nigeria children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to establish data on the roles of lipid peroxidation and ascorbic acid in the pathology of malaria in Nigeria children. We measured the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation and ascorbic acid in the plasma of 406 parasitaemic and 212 non-parasitaemic Nigerian children.

  6. effect of hydrogen peroxide and thiourea on dormancy breaking of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (Claassens and. Vreugdenhil, 2000; Suttle, 2004). Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of hydrogen peroxide and thiourea on dormancy and sprouting of potato microtubers and field grown tubers is described. MATERIELS AND METHODS. Production of microtubers.

  7. Plasma lipid peroxidation and progression of disability in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, M.; Mostert, J.; Arutjunyan, A. V.; Stepanov, M.; Teelken, A.; Heersema, D.; De Keyser, J.

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS), but its relation to disease progression is uncertain. To evaluate the relationship of plasma lipid peroxidation with progression of disability in MS, we measured blood plasma fluorescent lipid peroxidation

  8. Propylene epoxydation with hydrogen peroxide in acidic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kertalli, E.; Rijnsoever, L.S.; Paunovic, V.; Schouten, J.C.; Neira d'Angelo, M.F.; Nijhuis, T.A.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, the epoxidation of propylene with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of acids and halides is studied. The presence of acids and halides is indispensable for increasing the selectivity of the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide, the first step of the direct propylene oxide

  9. Chromium-induced accumulation of peroxide content, stimulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chromium (Cr)-induced oxidative damage and changes in contents of chlorophyll, protein, peroxide and malondialdehyde (MDA) and activities of enzymatic antioxidants were investigated in 4-day-old green gram (Vigna radiata L. cv. Wilczek) seedlings. Cr increased the contents of peroxide and MDA but decreased the ...

  10. A hydrogen peroxide sensor for exhaled breath measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, T.V.A.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet; van den Berg, Albert

    2004-01-01

    An increase in produced hydrogen peroxide concentration in exhaled breath (EB) of patients, who suffer from some diseases related to lung function, has been observed and considered as a reliable indicator of lung diseases. In the EB of these patients, hydrogen peroxide is present in the vapour phase

  11. A hydrogen peroxide sensor for exhaled breath measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, T.V.A.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet

    2005-01-01

    An increase in hydrogen peroxide concentration in exhaled breath (EB) of patients, who suffer from some diseases related to the lung function, has been observed and considered as a reliable indicator of lung diseases. In the EB of these patients, hydrogen peroxide is present in the vapour phase

  12. Direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide in a microreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paunovic, V.; Schouten, J.C.; Nijhuis, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    The direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide in a microreactor is a safe and efficient process. Conventionally, hydrogen peroxide is produced using the anthraquinone autooxidation process, which is rather complex and can only be performed cost-effectively on a large scale. As a result, hydrogen

  13. The evaluation of hydrogen peroxide bleaching of Gonometa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of hydrogen peroxide bleaching on Gonometa postica silk and the influence that temperature, pH and time duration had on hydrogen peroxide release , colour change, breaking load and stiffness were determined. The best bleaching (81 delta E) of the Gonometa postica silk fabric was obtained with 60 minutes ...

  14. Contextualizing Emotional Exhaustion and Positive Emotional Display : The Signaling Effects of Supervisors' Emotional Exhaustion and Service Climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, Catherine K.; Huang, Xu; Janssen, Onne; Lam, K.C.

    In this study, we investigated how supervisors' emotional exhaustion and service climate jointly influence the relationship between subordinates' emotional exhaustion and their display of positive emotions at work. Using data from frontline sales employees and their immediate supervisors in a

  15. Evolution of on-road vehicle exhaust emissions in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Rahul; Guttikunda, Sarath K.

    2015-03-01

    For a 40-year horizon (1990-2030), on-road vehicle exhaust emissions were evaluated, retrospectively and prospectively, for the largest urban agglomeration in India - the Greater Delhi region with a combined population of 22 million in 2011 (Delhi along with Ghaziabad, Noida, Greater Noida, Faridabad and Gurgaon). Emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) reached their peak during late 1990s through early 2000s after which they reduced significantly through year 2012. On the other hand, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon dioxide show an increasing trend. The most reduction in emissions between 1998 and 2012 occurred as a result of implementation of four sets of vehicular emission standards, removal of lead, reduction of sulfur content, mandatory retirement of older commercial vehicles, and conversion of diesel and petrol run public transport vehicles to compressed natural gas. In addition, changes in the vehicular technology have also contributed to controlling emissions especially in case of auto-rickshaws and motorized two-wheelers, which changed from two-stroke to four-stroke. The rising trend of NOx along with the presence of VOCs indicates increasing tendency to form ground-level ozone and as a result, smog in the region. We predict that the current regime of vehicle technology, fuel standards, and high growth rate of private vehicles, is likely to nullify all the past emission reductions by the end of 2020s.

  16. Noise study in laboratories with exhaust fans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, G.H.; Hashmi, R.; Shareef, A.

    2005-01-01

    Noise study has been carried out in 25 laboratories fitted with exhaust fans. We have studied A- Weighted equivalent sound pressure levels (dB(A) LAeJ and equivalent octave band sound pressure levels (dB L/sub eq/ in each of the laboratories surveyed. The data collected has been analyzed for Preferred Speech Interference Levels (PSIL). The results show that the interior noise levels in these laboratories vary from 59.6 to 72.2 dB(A) L/sub Aeq/, which are very high and much beyond the interior noise limits recommended for laboratories. Some ways and means to limit emission of high-level noise from exhaust fans are also discussed. (author)

  17. Radiation effect on lipid peroxide content of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Nobutada; Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate the radiation-induced deterioration of lipid in spices, peroxide value, iodine value and acid value were measured after extraction by chloroform. Peroxide values of black pepper and white pepper were not increased by gamma-irradiation with doses below 30 kGy and gradually increased at higher dose up to 80 kGy in this study. On contrary, peroxide values of clove and rosemary increased rather quickly below 20 kGy of gamma-irradiation, and they became stationary at higher dose. Iodine values and acid values had relationship with peroxide values on each kind of spices. On the storage study of irradiated spices, peroxide values decreased quickly during 20 days storage as same as nonirradiated spices, and it became stationary after 20 to 50 days storage at 30degC. Enhancement of oxidized deterioration were not observed even higher irradiation doses up to 80 kGy in this study. (author)

  18. Determination of active oxygen content in rare earth peroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, Carlos A.S.; Abrao, Alcidio

    1993-01-01

    The content of active oxygen in rare earth peroxides have been determined after the dissolution of the samples with hydrocloridic acid in the presence of potassium iodide. The free generated iodine is titrated with sodium thiosulfate using starch as indicator. The oxidation of iodide to the free iodine indicates the presence of a higher valence state rare earth oxide, until now specifically recognized for the oxides of cerium (Ce O 2 ), praseodymium (Pr 6 O 1 1) and terbium (TB 4 O 7 ). recently the authors synthesized a new series of rare earth compounds, the peroxides. These new compounds were prepared by precipitating the rare earth elements complexed with carbonate ion by addition of hydrogen peroxide. the authors demonstrated that all rare earth elements, once solubilized by complexing with carbonate ion, are quantitatively precipitated as peroxide by addition of hydrogen peroxide. (author)

  19. Rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinjoh, Hirohumi

    2006-01-01

    The usage of rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts is demonstrated in this paper. Rare earth metals have been widely used in automotive catalysts. In particular, three-way catalysts require the use of ceria compounds as oxygen storage materials, and lanthana as both a stabilizer of alumina and a promoter. The application for diesel catalysts is also illustrated. Effects of inclusion of rare earth metals in automotive catalysts are discussed

  20. On Gas Dynamics of Exhaust Valves

    OpenAIRE

    Winroth, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    With increasing effects of global warming, efforts are made to make transportation in general more fuel efficient. When it comes to internal combustion engines, the most common way to improve fuel efficiency is through ‘downsizing’. Downsizing means that a smaller engine (with lower losses and less weight) performs the task of a larger engine. This is accomplished by fitting the smaller engine with a turbocharger, to recover some of the energy in the hot exhaust gases. Such engine systems nee...

  1. Concept of Heat Recovery from Exhaust Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowska, Maria; Nowak, Krzysztof; Proszak-Miąsik, Danuta; Rabczak, Sławomir

    2017-10-01

    The theme of the article is to determine the possibility of waste heat recovery and use it to prepare hot water. The scope includes a description of the existing sample of coal-fired boiler plant, the analysis of working condition and heat recovery proposals. For this purpose, a series of calculations necessary to identify the energy effect of exhaust temperature decreasing and transferring recovery heat to hot water processing. Heat recover solutions from the exhaust gases channel between boiler and chimney section were proposed. Estimation for the cost-effectiveness of such a solution was made. All calculations and analysis were performed for typical Polish conditions, for coal-fired boiler plant. Typicality of this solution is manifested by the volatility of the load during the year, due to distribution of heat for heating and hot water, determining the load variation during the day. Analysed system of three boilers in case of load variation allows to operational flexibility and adaptation of the boilers load to the current heat demand. This adaptation requires changes in the operating conditions of boilers and in particular assurance of properly conditions for the combustion of fuel. These conditions have an impact on the existing thermal loss and the overall efficiency of the boiler plant. On the boiler plant efficiency affects particularly exhaust gas temperature and the excess air factor. Increasing the efficiency of boilers plant is possible to reach by following actions: limiting the excess air factor in coal combustion process in boilers and using an additional heat exchanger in the exhaust gas channel outside of boilers (economizer) intended to preheat the hot water.

  2. Chemical laser exhaust pipe design research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunqiang; Huang, Zhilong; Chen, Zhiqiang; Ren, Zebin; Guo, Longde

    2016-10-01

    In order to weaken the chemical laser exhaust gas influence of the optical transmission, a vent pipe is advised to emissions gas to the outside of the optical transmission area. Based on a variety of exhaust pipe design, a flow field characteristic of the pipe is carried out by numerical simulation and analysis in detail. The research results show that for uniform deflating exhaust pipe, although the pipeline structure is cyclical and convenient for engineering implementation, but there is a phenomenon of air reflows at the pipeline entrance slit which can be deduced from the numerical simulation results. So, this type of pipeline structure does not guarantee seal. For the design scheme of putting the pipeline contract part at the end of the exhaust pipe, or using the method of local area or tail contraction, numerical simulation results show that backflow phenomenon still exists at the pipeline entrance slit. Preliminary analysis indicates that the contraction of pipe would result in higher static pressure near the wall for the low speed flow field, so as to produce counter pressure gradient at the entrance slit. In order to eliminate backflow phenomenon at the pipe entrance slit, concerned with the pipeline type of radial size increase gradually along the flow, flow field property in the pipe is analyzed in detail by numerical simulation methods. Numerical simulation results indicate that there is not reflow phenomenon at entrance slit of the dilated duct. However the cold air inhaled in the slit which makes the temperature of the channel wall is lower than the center temperature. Therefore, this kind of pipeline structure can not only prevent the leak of the gas, but also reduce the wall temperature. In addition, compared with the straight pipe connection way, dilated pipe structure also has periodic structure, which can facilitate system integration installation.

  3. Fronting and exhaustive exclusion in Biblical Hebrew

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    48, 2017, 219-222 doi: 10.5774/48-0-292. Fronting and exhaustive exclusion in Biblical Hebrew. Christo H. J. van der Merwe. Department of Ancient Studies, University of Stellenbosch, South ... Merwe, Naudé and Kroeze 2017: 491-493). .... “And I will give him to the Lord all the days of his life, and no razor shall touch his.

  4. Validation of Karolinska Exhaustion Scale: psychometric properties of a measure of exhaustion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboonchi, Fredrik; Perski, Aleksander; Grossi, Giorgio

    2013-12-01

    The syndrome of exhaustion is currently a medical diagnosis in Sweden. The description of the syndrome largely corresponds to the suggested core component of burnout, that is exhaustion. Karolinska Exhaustion Scale (KES) has been constructed to provide specific assessment of exhaustion in clinical and research settings. The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of this scale in its original and revised versions by examining the factorial structure and measures of convergent and discriminant validity. Data gathered from two independent samples (n1 = 358 & n2 = 403) consisting of patients diagnosed with 'reaction to severe stress, and adjustment disorder' were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis. The study's instruments were Karolinska Exhaustion Scale and Shirom Melam Burnout Measure. Correlation analyses were employed to follow up the established factorial structure of the scale. The study was ethically approved by Karolinska Institute regional ethic committee. The findings demonstrated adequate fit of the data to the measurement model provided by the revised version of KES Limitations: The main limitation of the present study is the lack of a gold standard of exhaustion for direct comparison with KES. (KES-26) and partially supported convergent validity and discriminant validity of the scale. The demonstrated psychometric properties of KES-26 indicate sound construct validity for this scale encouraging use of this scale in assessment of exhaustion. The factorial structure of KES-26 may also be used to provide information concerning possible different clinical profiles. © 2012 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  5. Particle and Power Exhaust in EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Ding, Fang; Yu, Yaowei; Gan, Kaifu; Liang, Yunfeng; Xu, Guosheng; Xiao, Bingjia; Sun, Youwen; Luo, Guangnan; Gong, Xianzu; Hu, Jiansheng; Li, Jiangang; Wan, Baonian; Maingi, Rajesh; Guo, Houyang; Garofalo, Andrea; EAST Team

    2017-10-01

    A total power injection up to 0.3GJ has been achieved in EAST long pulse USN operation with ITER-like water-cooling W-monoblock divertor, which has steady-state power exhaust capability of 10 MWm-2. The peak temperature of W target saturated at t = 12 s to the value T 500oC and a heat flux 3MWm-2was maintained. Great efforts to reduce heat flux and accommodate particle exhaust simultaneously have been made towards long pulse of 102s time scale. By exploiting the observation of Pfirsch-Schlüter flow direction in the SOL, the Bt direction with Bx ∇B away from the W divertor (more particles favor outer target in USN) was adopted along with optimizing the strike point location near the pumping slot, to facilitate particle and impurity exhaust with the top cryo-pump. By tailoring the 3D divertor footprint through edge magnetic topology change, the heat load was dispersed widely and thus peak heat flux and W sputtering was well controlled. Active feedback control of total radiative power with neon seeding was achieved within frad = 17-35%, exhibiting further potential for heat flux reduction with divertor and edge radiation. Other heat flux handling techniques, including quasi snowflake configuration, will also be presented.

  6. PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION TESTING FOR THE 200 AREA EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halgren, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    The hydrogen peroxide decomposer columns at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) have been taken out of service due to ongoing problems with particulate fines and poor destruction performance from the granular activated carbon (GAC) used in the columns. An alternative search was initiated and led to bench scale testing and then pilot scale testing. Based on the bench scale testing three manganese dioxide based catalysts were evaluated in the peroxide destruction pilot column installed at the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The ten inch diameter, nine foot tall, clear polyvinyl chloride (PVC) column allowed for the same six foot catalyst bed depth as is in the existing ETF system. The flow rate to the column was controlled to evaluate the performance at the same superficial velocity (gpm/ft 2 ) as the full scale design flow and normal process flow. Each catalyst was evaluated on peroxide destruction performance and particulate fines capacity and carryover. Peroxide destruction was measured by hydrogen peroxide concentration analysis of samples taken before and after the column. The presence of fines in the column headspace and the discharge from carryover was generally assessed by visual observation. All three catalysts met the peroxide destruction criteria by achieving hydrogen peroxide discharge concentrations of less than 0.5 mg/L at the design flow with inlet peroxide concentrations greater than 100 mg/L. The Sud-Chemie T-2525 catalyst was markedly better in the minimization of fines and particle carryover. It is anticipated the T-2525 can be installed as a direct replacement for the GAC in the peroxide decomposer columns. Based on the results of the peroxide method development work the recommendation is to purchase the T-2525 catalyst and initially load one of the ETF decomposer columns for full scale testing.

  7. Converting Chemical Energy to Electricity through a Three-Jaw Mini-Generator Driven by the Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Meng; Wang, Lei; Ji, Fanqin; Shi, Feng

    2016-05-11

    Energy conversion from a mechanical form to electricity is one of the most important research advancements to come from the horizontal locomotion of small objects. Until now, the Marangoni effect has been the only propulsion method to produce the horizontal locomotion to induce an electromotive force, which is limited to a short duration because of the specific property of surfactants. To solve this issue, in this article we utilized the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to provide the propulsion for a sustainable energy conversion from a mechanical form to electricity. We fabricated a mini-generator consisting of three parts: a superhydrophobic rotator with three jaws, three motors to produce a jet of oxygen bubbles to propel the rotation of the rotator, and three magnets integrated into the upper surface of the rotator to produce the magnet flux. Once the mini-generator was placed on the solution surface, the motor catalyzed the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. This generated a large amount of oxygen bubbles that caused the generator and integrated magnets to rotate at the air/water interface. Thus, the magnets passed under the coil area and induced a change in the magnet flux, thus generating electromotive forces. We also investigated experimental factors, that is, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and the turns of the solenoid coil, and found that the mini-generator gave the highest output in a hydrogen peroxide solution with a concentration of 10 wt % and under a coil with 9000 turns. Through combining the stable superhydrophobicity and catalyst, we realized electricity generation for a long duration, which could last for 26 000 s after adding H2O2 only once. We believe this work provides a simple process for the development of horizontal motion and provides a new path for energy reutilization.

  8. Exhaust gas recirculation apparatus for internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigemori, M; Eguchi, N

    1975-01-07

    An exhaust gas recirculation device to reduce nitrogen oxides emission from internal combustion engines is described. The recirculation is achieved by employing a tube connecting between the exhaust pipe and intake tube. A throttle valve is installed within the exhaust pipe between the muffler and recirculation tube, and regulated by exhaust gas temperature. Whenever the gas temperature is high, the valve closes and increases the gas flow to the intake tube. A temperature sensor is installed within the exhaust pipe and controls a solenoid or magnetic air valve linking to the throttle valve through a relay. The recirculation tube can be cooled by a fan to improve the engine power.

  9. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kevin P [Metamora, IL; Kieser, Andrew J [Morton, IL; Rodman, Anthony [Chillicothe, IL; Liechty, Michael P [Chillicothe, IL; Hergart, Carl-Anders [Peoria, IL; Hardy, William L [Peoria, IL

    2008-05-27

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  10. Engine with exhaust gas recirculation system and variable geometry turbocharger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Edward J.

    2015-11-03

    An engine assembly includes an intake assembly, an internal combustion engine defining a plurality of cylinders and configured to combust a fuel and produce exhaust gas, and an exhaust assembly in fluid communication with a first subset of the plurality of cylinders. Each of the plurality of cylinders are provided in fluid communication with the intake assembly. The exhaust assembly is provided in fluid communication with a first subset of the plurality of cylinders, and a dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system in fluid communication with both a second subset of the plurality of cylinders and with the intake assembly. The dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is configured to route all of the exhaust gas from the second subset of the plurality of cylinders to the intake assembly. Finally, the engine assembly includes a turbocharger having a variable geometry turbine in fluid communication with the exhaust assembly.

  11. In Healthy Young Men, a Short Exhaustive Exercise Alters the Oxidative Stress Only Slightly, Independent of the Actual Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Finkler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the apparent disagreement regarding the effect of a typical cycling progressive exercise, commonly used to assess VO2max, on the kinetics of ex vivo copper induced peroxidation of serum lipids. Thirty-two (32 healthy young men, aged 24–30 years, who do not smoke and do not take any food supplements, participated in the study. Blood was withdrawn from each participant at three time points (before the exercise and 5 minutes and one hour after exercise. Copper induced peroxidation of sera made of the blood samples was monitored by spectrophotometry. For comparison, we also assayed TBARS concentration and the activity of oxidation-related enzymes. The physical exercise resulted in a slight and reversible increase of TBARS and slight changes in the activities of the studied antioxidant enzymes and the lag preceding peroxidation did not change substantially. Most altered parameters returned to baseline level one hour after exercise. Notably, the exercise-induced changes in OS did not correlate with the physical fitness of the subjects, as evaluated in this study (VO2max = 30–60 mL/min/kg. We conclude that in healthy young fit men a short exhaustive exercise alters only slightly the OS, independent of the actual physical fitness.

  12. In Healthy Young Men, a Short Exhaustive Exercise Alters the Oxidative Stress Only Slightly, Independent of the Actual Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkler, Maya; Hochman, Ayala; Pinchuk, Ilya; Lichtenberg, Dov

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the apparent disagreement regarding the effect of a typical cycling progressive exercise, commonly used to assess VO2max, on the kinetics of ex vivo copper induced peroxidation of serum lipids. Thirty-two (32) healthy young men, aged 24-30 years, who do not smoke and do not take any food supplements, participated in the study. Blood was withdrawn from each participant at three time points (before the exercise and 5 minutes and one hour after exercise). Copper induced peroxidation of sera made of the blood samples was monitored by spectrophotometry. For comparison, we also assayed TBARS concentration and the activity of oxidation-related enzymes. The physical exercise resulted in a slight and reversible increase of TBARS and slight changes in the activities of the studied antioxidant enzymes and the lag preceding peroxidation did not change substantially. Most altered parameters returned to baseline level one hour after exercise. Notably, the exercise-induced changes in OS did not correlate with the physical fitness of the subjects, as evaluated in this study (VO2max = 30-60 mL/min/kg). We conclude that in healthy young fit men a short exhaustive exercise alters only slightly the OS, independent of the actual physical fitness.

  13. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation in human cataractous lens epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasavada Abhay

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior lens epithelial cells undergo a variety of degenerative and proliferative changes during cataract formation. Acid phosphatase is primarily responsible for tissue regeneration and tissue repair. The lipid hydroperoxides that are obtained by lipid peroxidation of polysaturated or unsaturated fatty acids bring about deterioration of biological membranes at cellular and tissue levels. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation activities were studied on the lens epithelial cells of nuclear cataract, posterior subcapsular cataract, mature cataract, and mixed cataract. Of these, mature cataractous lens epithelium showed maximum activity for acid phosphatase (516.83 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and maximum levels of lipid peroxidation (86.29 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. In contrast, mixed cataractous lens epithelium showed minimum activity of acid phosphatase (222.61 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and minimum levels of lipid peroxidation (54.23 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. From our study, we correlated the maximum activity of acid phosphatase in mature cataractous lens epithelium with the increased areas of superimposed cells associated with the formation of mature cataract. Likewise, the maximum levels of lipid peroxidation in mature cataractous lens epithelium was correlated with increased permeability of the plasma membrane. Conversely, the minimum levels of lipid peroxidation in mixed cataractous lens epithelium makes us presume that factors other than lipid peroxidation may also account for the formation of mixed type of cataract.

  14. Kinetics of Platinum-Catalyzed Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Tiffany A.; Colombo, D. Philip, Jr.

    2003-07-01

    CIBA Vision Corporation markets a contact lens cleaning system that consists of an AOSEPT disinfectant solution and an AOSEPT lens cup. The disinfectant is a buffered 3.0% m/v hydrogen peroxide solution and the cup includes a platinum-coated AOSEPT disc. The hydrogen peroxide disinfects by killing bacteria, fungi, and viruses found on the contact lenses. Because the concentration of hydrogen peroxide needed to disinfect is irritating to eyes, the hydrogen peroxide needs to be neutralized, or decomposed, before the contact lenses can be used again. A general chemistry experiment is described where the kinetics of the catalyzed decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide are studied by measuring the amount of oxygen generated as a function of time. The order of the reaction with respect to the hydrogen peroxide, the rate constant, and the energy of activation are determined. The integrated rate law is used to determine the time required to decompose the hydrogen peroxide to a concentration that is safe for eyes.

  15. Some peculiarities of lipides peroxide oxidation and anti oxidation therapy of duodenal peptic ulcer in the persons who stayed in the zone of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babak, O.Ya.; Chernyak, A.M.; Goncharova, L.Yi.; Pasyijeshvyilyi, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have studied the links of lipides peroxide oxidation (LPO) in the blood plasma, i.e. the level of antioxidant protection at duodenal peptic ulcer (DPU) in the persons who stayed in the zone of the accident at Chernobyl Atomic Power Station. LPO intensification takes place at the expense of the primary stages (spontaneous and hydrogen peroxide induced chemo luminescence) in the liquidators with DPU, when compared with the patients having DPU who did not stay in the zone of the accident. It suggests of exhaustion of cell membranes anti-oxidate protection level which provides atypical course of inflammatory processes in the gastrointestinal tract mucous membrane. The peculiarities of blood plasma LPO changes suggest that it would be reasonable to include antioxidants (Unithiolum) to the complex treatment of the liquidators

  16. Impact of the injection dose of exhaust gases, on work parameters of combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, W.; Śliwiński, K.

    2016-09-01

    This article is another one from the series in which were presented research results indicated the possible areas of application of the pneumatic injection using hot combustion gases proposed by Professor Jarnuszkiewicz. This publication present the results of the control system of exhaust gas recirculation. The main aim of this research was to determine the effect of exhaust gas recirculation to the operating parameters of the internal combustion engine on the basis of laboratory measurements. All measurements were performed at a constant engine speed. These conditions correspond to the operation of the motor operating an electrical generator. The study was conducted on the four-stroke two-cylinder engine with spark ignition. The study were specifically tested on the air injection system and therefore the selection of the rotational speed was not bound, as in conventional versions of operating parameters of the electrical machine. During the measurement there were applied criterion which used power control corresponding to the requirements of load power, at minimal values of engine speed. Recirculation value determined by the following recurrent position control valve of the injection doses inflator gas for pneumatic injection system. They were studied and recorded, the impact of dose of gases recirculation to the operating and ecological engine parameters such as power, torque, specific fuel consumption, efficiency, air fuel ratio, exhaust gas temperature and nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons.

  17. Numerical study on the influence of aluminum on infrared radiation signature of exhaust plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Ye, Qing-qing; Li, Shi-peng; Wang, Ning-fei

    2013-09-01

    The infrared radiation signature of exhaust plume from solid propellant rockets has been widely mentioned for its important realistic meaning. The content of aluminum powder in the propellants is a key factor that affects the infrared radiation signature of the plume. The related studies are mostly on the conical nozzles. In this paper, the influence of aluminum on the flow field of plume, temperature distribution, and the infrared radiation characteristics were numerically studied with an object of 3D quadrate nozzle. Firstly, the gas phase flow field and gas-solid multi phase flow filed of the exhaust plume were calculated using CFD method. The result indicates that the Al203 particles have significant effect on the flow field of plume. Secondly, the radiation transfer equation was solved by using a discrete coordinate method. The spectral radiation intensity from 1000-2400 cm-1 was obtained. To study the infrared radiation characteristics of exhaust plume, an exceptional quadrate nozzle was employed and much attention was paid to the influences of Al203 particles in solid propellants. The results could dedicate the design of the divert control motor in such hypervelocity interceptors or missiles, or be of certain meaning to the improvement of ingredients of solid propellants.

  18. Uranyl peroxide enhanced nuclear fuel corrosion in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Christopher R; Nyman, May; Shvareva, Tatiana; Sigmon, Ginger E; Burns, Peter C; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2012-02-07

    The Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident brought together compromised irradiated fuel and large amounts of seawater in a high radiation field. Based on newly acquired thermochemical data for a series of uranyl peroxide compounds containing charge-balancing alkali cations, here we show that nanoscale cage clusters containing as many as 60 uranyl ions, bonded through peroxide and hydroxide bridges, are likely to form in solution or as precipitates under such conditions. These species will enhance the corrosion of the damaged fuel and, being thermodynamically stable and kinetically persistent in the absence of peroxide, they can potentially transport uranium over long distances.

  19. Electron irradiation effects on lithium peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkawa, Jun; Shiotsuki, Taishi; Shimo, Yusuke; Koshiya, Shogo; Nagai, Takuro; Nito, Takehiro; Kimoto, Koji

    2018-03-01

    In this study, electron irradiation effects on lithium peroxide (Li2O2), which is an important discharge product of Li-air (or Li-O2) batteries, were investigated using selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) and high-energy resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). The results obtained show that Li2O2 to Li2O transformation occurs with 80 and 300 keV incident electrons under high electron dose rates at 20 and -183 °C. The Li2O2 to Li2O transformation rate for 300 keV was 1/5 of that for 80 keV with the irradiation taking place at -183 °C. We also present a series of the EELS spectra that can be used as a criterion to judge the molar ratio of Li2O to Li2O2 in the general systems where Li2O2 and Li2O coexist.

  20. Analysis of lipid peroxidation kinetics. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doktorov, Alexander B.; Lukzen, Nikita N.; Pedersen, Jørgen Boiden

    2008-01-01

    concentrations of reactants or different ways of initiating the re-  action. Nor has it been possible to predict the time dependence of the  products. The reason for these problems is the complicated structure  of the kinetic scheme, which includes a chain reaction. In this work  we perform an in depth analysis......  The kinetics of the lipid peroxidation reaction is only partly under-  stood. Although the set of reactions constituting the overall reaction  is believed to be known, it has not been possible to predict how the  reaction will respond to a change of one or more of the parameters, e.g.  initial...... of the importance of the individual  reaction steps and we introduce a new quasi-stationary concentration  method based on the assumption that one or more concentrations vary  much slower than the others. We show that it is justified to use a  quasi-stationary concentration approximation for the alkyl radical L...

  1. Plutonium peroxide precipitation: review and current research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, P.G.; Miner, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    Increasing the HNO 3 concentration decreases the filtration time but increases the plutonium concentration in the filtrate. A compromise was therefore necessary. If a minimum plutonium concentration is required in the filtrate, the acidity could be lowered to 1.9M with an approximate doubling in the filtration time. The H 2 O 2 concentration has little effect on filtration time. However, the higher the H 2 O 2 concentration, the less plutonium lost to the filtrate. Concentrations higher than the 22 moles/mole Pu recommended (at least up to 30 molar which was the highest investigated) would be beneficial if reagent costs are not excessive and production capacity exists for destroying the excess H 2 O 2 in the filtrate. Although the effect is not large, filtration time is shorter and the plutonium concentration in the filtrate is lower if metallic impurities are present. The slowest rate of H 2 O 2 addition investigated gives a plutonium peroxide precipitate with the fastest filtration time. The rate of addition has very little effect on the plutonium concentration in the filtrate. The temperature has little effect on the filtration time. 14 0 C is recommended since decomposition of H 2 O 2 would be slower at 14 0 C than at 22 0 C (min. Pu content in the filtrate). The effect of digestion time on both the filtration time and the plutonium content in the filtrate is minor, so the shortest digestion time investigated is recommended

  2. Electric motor handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, B J

    2013-01-01

    Electric Motor Handbook aims to give practical knowledge in a wide range of capacities such as plant design, equipment specification, commissioning, operation and maintenance. The book covers topics such as the modeling of steady-state motor performance; polyphase induction, synchronous, and a.c. commutator motors; ambient conditions, enclosures, cooling and loss dissipation; and electrical supply systems and motor drives. Also covered are topics such as variable-speed drives and motor control; materials and motor components; insulation types, systems, and techniques; and the installation, sit

  3. EGNAS: an exhaustive DNA sequence design algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kick Alfred

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular recognition based on the complementary base pairing of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA is the fundamental principle in the fields of genetics, DNA nanotechnology and DNA computing. We present an exhaustive DNA sequence design algorithm that allows to generate sets containing a maximum number of sequences with defined properties. EGNAS (Exhaustive Generation of Nucleic Acid Sequences offers the possibility of controlling both interstrand and intrastrand properties. The guanine-cytosine content can be adjusted. Sequences can be forced to start and end with guanine or cytosine. This option reduces the risk of “fraying” of DNA strands. It is possible to limit cross hybridizations of a defined length, and to adjust the uniqueness of sequences. Self-complementarity and hairpin structures of certain length can be avoided. Sequences and subsequences can optionally be forbidden. Furthermore, sequences can be designed to have minimum interactions with predefined strands and neighboring sequences. Results The algorithm is realized in a C++ program. TAG sequences can be generated and combined with primers for single-base extension reactions, which were described for multiplexed genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Thereby, possible foldback through intrastrand interaction of TAG-primer pairs can be limited. The design of sequences for specific attachment of molecular constructs to DNA origami is presented. Conclusions We developed a new software tool called EGNAS for the design of unique nucleic acid sequences. The presented exhaustive algorithm allows to generate greater sets of sequences than with previous software and equal constraints. EGNAS is freely available for noncommercial use at http://www.chm.tu-dresden.de/pc6/EGNAS.

  4. A study of automobile exhaust noise preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire, Jay B.; Carney, Melinda J.; Cheenne, Dominique J.

    2005-04-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between preferences in automobile exhaust noise and the demographic factors of a listening jury. Noise samples of four different vehicles were recorded at idle as well as at 3000 RPM, and 1/3 octave sound spectra were acquired simultaneously. The recordings were presented to the jury using headphones and a preference survey was administered. Zwicker loudness was computed for all samples. Demographic factors such as gender, age, current and future vehicle ownership, were correlated to listening preferences, and unforeseen results were found, especially in regards to sport utility vehicles (SUV).

  5. Comparison of responses of salivary antioxidant markers to exhaustive aerobic exercise in smoker and non-smoker young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazi, Hamid; Simaei, Esmat; Taati, Behzad

    2016-10-01

    Smoking is known as a serious global public health problem, and is also an important risk factor for oral diseases and cause of oxidative stress and cellular damage. Saliva is the first biological medium encountered during inhalation of cigarette smoke. Additionally, previous studies demonstrated that exhaustive aerobic exercise could increase oxidative stress and cellular damage. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to compare the response of salivary antioxidants (peroxides (POX), uric acid (UA), 1-1dipheny l-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) of exhaustive aerobic exercise between healthy smoker and non-smoker young girls. Ten smokers and 10 non-smokers were enrolled for this study. Subjects performed a progressive cycle ergometer with an initial load of 50 W that was increased 50Wevery 3 minutes at the speed of 60rpm, until exhaustion. Un-stimulated saliva samples were collected before, immediately and 1 hour after exercise. The results showed that POX activity and UA concentration significantly increased immediately after exercise in both groups when compared to the pre exercise values (Pexercise (PAerobic exercise caused a decrease in salivary DPPH activity immediately and 1 h after exercise in both groups (Pexercise (Paerobic exercise was induced oxidative stress in both groups but oxidative stress in smoking females was greater.

  6. Handbook on linear motor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This book guides the application for Linear motor. It lists classification and speciality of Linear Motor, terms of linear-induction motor, principle of the Motor, types on one-side linear-induction motor, bilateral linear-induction motor, linear-DC Motor on basic of the motor, linear-DC Motor for moving-coil type, linear-DC motor for permanent-magnet moving type, linear-DC motor for electricity non-utility type, linear-pulse motor for variable motor, linear-pulse motor for permanent magneto type, linear-vibration actuator, linear-vibration actuator for moving-coil type, linear synchronous motor, linear electromagnetic motor, linear electromagnetic solenoid, technical organization and magnetic levitation and linear motor and sensor.

  7. Computational and experimental optimization of the exhaust air energy recovery wind turbine generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabatabaeikia, Seyedsaeed; Ghazali, Nik Nazri Bin Nik; Chong, Wen Tong; Shahizare, Behzad; Izadyar, Nima; Esmaeilzadeh, Alireza; Fazlizan, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Studying the viability of harvesting wasted energy by exhaust air recovery generator. • Optimizing the design using response surface methodology. • Validation of optimization and computation result by performing experimental tests. • Investigation of flow behaviour using computational fluid dynamic simulations. • Performing the technical and economic study of the exhaust air recovery generator. - Abstract: This paper studies the optimization of an innovative exhaust air recovery wind turbine generator through computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. The optimization strategy aims to optimize the overall system energy generation and simultaneously guarantee that it does not violate the cooling tower performance in terms of decreasing airflow intake and increasing fan motor power consumption. The wind turbine rotor position, modifying diffuser plates, and introducing separator plates to the design are considered as the variable factors for the optimization. The generated power coefficient is selected as optimization objective. Unlike most of previous optimizations in field of wind turbines, in this study, response surface methodology (RSM) as a method of analytical procedures optimization has been utilised by using multivariate statistic techniques. A comprehensive study on CFD parameters including the mesh resolution, the turbulence model and transient time step values is presented. The system is simulated using SST K-ω turbulence model and then both computational and optimization results are validated by experimental data obtained in laboratory. Results show that the optimization strategy can improve the wind turbine generated power by 48.6% compared to baseline design. Meanwhile, it is able to enhance the fan intake airflow rate and decrease fan motor power consumption. The obtained optimization equations are also validated by both CFD and experimental results and a negligible deviation in range of 6–8.5% is observed.

  8. Effect of exhaust emissions on carbon monoxide levels in employees working at indoor car wash facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topacoglu, H; Katsakoglou, S; Ipekci, A

    2014-01-01

    Exhaust emissions from motor vehicles threaten the environment and human health. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, especially the use of exhaust gas CO in suicidal attempts is well known in the literature. Recently, indoor car wash facilities established in large shopping malls with closed parking, lots is a new risk area that exposes car wash employees to prolonged periods of high level CO emissions from cars. The aim of this study was to investigate how carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) blood levels of employees get affected in confined areas with relatively poor air circulation. Twenty male volunteers working in indoor parking car wash facilities were included in the study. Participants were informed about the aim of this study and their consent was obtained. Their pulse COHb levels were measured twice, at the beginning and at the end of the working day using Rad-57 pulse CO-oximeter device, allowing non-invasive measurement of COHb blood levels to compare the changes in their COHb levels before and after work. The mean age of the male volunteers was 29.8 ± 11.9 (range 18-55). While the mean COHb levels measured at the start of the working day was 2.1 ± 2.0 (range 0-9), it was increased to 5.2 ± 3.3 (range 1-15) at the end of work shift (Wilcoxon test, p car wash facility employees is directly impacted and gets elevated by motor vechile exhaust emissions. For the health of the employees at indoor parking car wash facilities, stricter precautions are needed and the government should not give permit to such operations.

  9. Quantifying intracellular hydrogen peroxide perturbations in terms of concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beijing K. Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular level, mechanistic understanding of the roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS in a variety of pathological conditions is hindered by the difficulties associated with determining the concentration of various ROS species. Here, we present an approach that converts fold-change in the signal from an intracellular sensor of hydrogen peroxide into changes in absolute concentration. The method uses extracellular additions of peroxide and an improved biochemical measurement of the gradient between extracellular and intracellular peroxide concentrations to calibrate the intracellular sensor. By measuring peroxiredoxin activity, we found that this gradient is 650-fold rather than the 7–10-fold that is widely cited. The resulting calibration is important for understanding the mass-action kinetics of complex networks of redox reactions, and it enables meaningful characterization and comparison of outputs from endogenous peroxide generating tools and therapeutics across studies.

  10. Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide (VHP) Decontamination of VX, GD, and HD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagner, George W; Sorrick, David C; Procell, Lawrence R; Hess, Zoe A; Brickhouse, Mark D; McVey, Iain F; Schwartz, Lewis I

    2003-01-01

    Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide (VHP) has been utilized for more than a decade to sterilize clean rooms and pharmaceutical processing equipment and, quite recently, to decontaminate anthrax-ridden buildings...

  11. Gold-catalyzed oxidation of substituted phenols by hydrogen peroxide

    KAUST Repository

    Cheneviere, Yohan; Caps, Valerie; Tuel, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles deposited on inorganic supports are efficient catalysts for the oxidation of various substituted phenols (2,6-di-tert-butyl phenol and 2,3,6-trimethyl phenol) with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. By contrast to more conventional

  12. Free standing graphene oxide film for hydrogen peroxide sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Pranay; Balakrishnan, Jayakumar; Thakur, Ajay D.

    2018-05-01

    We report hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)sensing using free standing graphene oxide thin films prepared using a cost effective scalable approach. Such sensors may find application in pharmaceutical and food processing industries.

  13. the effects of vitamin e supplementation on serum lipid peroxidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. C.O.NWAIGWE

    The effects of dietary supplementation of vitamin E on feed intake and serum lipid peroxidation formation were ... belongs to the family Birnaviridae and of the genus Birnavirus ... diseases, Alzheimer's disease and increased resistance to ...

  14. Lab-scale hydrogen peroxide data from ECBC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data from small lab scale tests conducted at ECBC. It contains efficacy data as well as data on env conditions such as temperature, RH, and hydrogen peroxide vapor...

  15. Potentiometric Titration Method for Quantitative Determination of Hydrogen Peroxide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bessette, Russell R

    2005-01-01

    An electrochemical potentiometric titration method that entails titration of a known volume of a catholyte containing an unknown amount of hydrogen peroxide in a titration cell having two electrodes...

  16. CARCINOGENICITY OF EXHAUST GASES OF AUTOMOBILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vnukova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor transport is the basic consumer of fuel from oil and determining in ecological pollu-tion of atmosphere in urban areas. The most dangerous to the person are joint influences of super toxins: oxides of nitrogen, cancerogenic hydrocarbons and firm particles. It is shown that the use of modern fuel with increased contents of aromatic hydrocarbons aggravates this environmental problem.

  17. Interacting adiabatic quantum motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Anton; Kusminskiy, Silvia Viola; Refael, Gil; von Oppen, Felix

    2018-05-01

    We present a field-theoretic treatment of an adiabatic quantum motor. We explicitly discuss a motor called the Thouless motor which is based on a Thouless pump operating in reverse. When a sliding periodic potential is considered to be the motor degree of freedom, a bias voltage applied to the electron channel sets the motor in motion. We investigate a Thouless motor whose electron channel is modeled as a Luttinger liquid. Interactions increase the gap opened by the periodic potential. For an infinite Luttinger liquid the coupling-induced friction is enhanced by electron-electron interactions. When the Luttinger liquid is ultimately coupled to Fermi liquid reservoirs, the dissipation reduces to its value for a noninteracting electron system for a constant motor velocity. Our results can also be applied to a motor based on a nanomagnet coupled to a quantum spin Hall edge.

  18. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  19. Effect of EGR on the exhaust gas temperature and exhaust opacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In diesel engines, NOx formation is a highly temperature-dependent phenomenon and takes place when the temperature in the combustion chamber exceeds 2000 K. Therefore, in order to reduce NOx emissions in the exhaust, it is necessary to keep peak combustion temperatures under control. One simple way of ...

  20. Aircraft exhaust aerosol formation and growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R C; Miake-Lye, R C; Anderson, M R; Kolb, C E [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics

    1998-12-31

    Aerosol formation and growth in the exhaust plume of the ATTAS aircraft at an altitude of approximately 9 km, burning fuels with 2 ppmm sulfur (`low`) and 266 ppmm (`high`) sulfur has been modeled using an aerosol dynamics model for nucleation, vapor condensation and coagulation, coupled to a 2-dimensional, axisymmetric flow code to treat plume dilution and turbulent mixing. For both the `low` and `high` sulfur fuels, approximately 60% of the available water had condensed within the first 200 m downstream of the exhaust exit. The contrail particle diameters ranged between 0.4 to 1.6 {mu}m. However, the size distributions as a function of radial position for the `low` sulfur plume were broader than the corresponding distributions for the `high` sulfur plume. The model results indicate for a fuel sulfur mass loading of 2 ppmm, sulfuric acid remains a viable activating agent and that the differences in the contrail particle size distributions for sulfur mass loadings between 2 ppmm and 260 ppmm would be difficult to detect. (author) 12 refs.

  1. Local Pain Dynamics during Constant Exhaustive Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agne Slapsinskaite

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to delineate the topological dynamics of pain and discomfort during constant exercise performed until volitional exhaustion. Eleven physical education students were tested while cycling and running at a "hard" intensity level (e.g., corresponding to Borg's RPE (6-20 = 15. During the tests, participants reported their discomfort and pain on a body map every 15s. "Time on task" for each participant was divided into five equal non-overlapping temporal windows within which their ratings were considered for analysis. The analyses revealed that the number of body locations with perceived pain and discomfort increased throughout the five temporal windows until reaching the mean (± SE values of 4.2 ± 0.7 and 4.1 ± 0.6 in cycling and running, respectively. The dominant locations included the quadriceps and hamstrings during cycling and quadriceps and chest during running. In conclusion, pain seemed to spread throughout the body during constant cycling and running performed up to volitional exhaustion with differences between cycling and running in the upper body but not in the lower body dynamics.

  2. On the exhaust of electromagnetic drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Grahn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports about propulsion without reaction mass have been met on one hand with enthusiasm and on the other hand with some doubts. Namely, closed metal cavities, when fueled with microwaves, have delivered thrust that could eventually maintain satellites on orbits using solar power. However, the measured thrust appears to be without any apparent exhaust. Thus the Law of Action-Reaction seems to have been violated. We consider the possibility that the exhaust is in a form that has so far escaped both experimental detection and theoretical attention. In the thruster’s cavity microwaves interfere with each other and invariably some photons will also end up co-propagating with opposite phases. At the destructive interference electromagnetic fields cancel. However, the photons themselves do not vanish for nothing but continue in propagation. These photon pairs without net electromagnetic field do not reflect back from the metal walls but escape from the resonator. By this action momentum is lost from the cavity which, according to the conservation of momentum, gives rise to an equal and opposite reaction. We examine theoretical corollaries and practical concerns that follow from the paired-photon conclusion.

  3. Aircraft exhaust aerosol formation and growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics

    1997-12-31

    Aerosol formation and growth in the exhaust plume of the ATTAS aircraft at an altitude of approximately 9 km, burning fuels with 2 ppmm sulfur (`low`) and 266 ppmm (`high`) sulfur has been modeled using an aerosol dynamics model for nucleation, vapor condensation and coagulation, coupled to a 2-dimensional, axisymmetric flow code to treat plume dilution and turbulent mixing. For both the `low` and `high` sulfur fuels, approximately 60% of the available water had condensed within the first 200 m downstream of the exhaust exit. The contrail particle diameters ranged between 0.4 to 1.6 {mu}m. However, the size distributions as a function of radial position for the `low` sulfur plume were broader than the corresponding distributions for the `high` sulfur plume. The model results indicate for a fuel sulfur mass loading of 2 ppmm, sulfuric acid remains a viable activating agent and that the differences in the contrail particle size distributions for sulfur mass loadings between 2 ppmm and 260 ppmm would be difficult to detect. (author) 12 refs.

  4. Efficacy of Mouthwashes Containing Hydrogen Peroxide on Tooth Whitening

    OpenAIRE

    Karadas, Muhammet; Hatipoglu, Omer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of mouthwashes containing hydrogen peroxide compared with 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) gel. Fifty enamel-dentin samples were obtained from bovine incisors and then stained in a tea solution. The stained samples were randomly divided into five groups according to the whitening product applied (n = 10): AS: no whitening (negative control), with the samples stored in artificial saliva; CR: Crest 3D White mouthwash; LS: Listerine Whitening mouthwas...

  5. Sodium Borohydride/Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cells For Space Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, T. I.; Deelo, M. E.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation examines Sodium Borohydride and Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cells as they are applied to space applications. The topics include: 1) Motivation; 2) The Sodium Borohydride Fuel Cell; 3) Sodium Borohydride Fuel Cell Test Stands; 4) Fuel Cell Comparisons; 5) MEA Performance; 6) Anode Polarization; and 7) Electrode Analysis. The benefits of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant and benefits of sodium borohydride as a fuel are also addressed.

  6. Piezoelectric Motors, an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Spanner; Burhanettin Koc

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectric motors are used in many industrial and commercial applications. Various piezoelectric motors are available in the market. All of the piezoelectric motors use the inverse piezoelectric effect, where microscopically small oscillatory motions are converted into continuous or stepping rotary or linear motions. Methods of obtaining long moving distance have various drive and functional principles that make these motors categorized into three groups: resonance-drive (piezoelectric ult...

  7. Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robel, Wade J.; Driscoll, James J.; Coleman, Gerald N.; Knox, Kevin J.

    2009-06-30

    A power source is provided for use with selective catalytic reduction systems for exhaust-gas purification. The power source includes a first cylinder group with a first air-intake passage and a first exhaust passage, and a second cylinder group with a second air-intake passage and a second exhaust passage. The second air-intake passage is fluidly isolated from the first air-intake passage. A fuel-supply device may be configured to supply fuel into the first exhaust passage, and a catalyst may be disposed downstream of the fuel-supply device to convert at least a portion of the exhaust stream in the first exhaust passage into ammonia.

  8. Exhaust constituent emission factors of printed circuit board pyrolysis processes and its exhaust control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung, E-mail: hlchiang@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Kuo-Hsiung [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Recycling of waste printed circuit boards is an important issue. • Pyrolysis is an emerging technology for PCB treatment. • Emission factors of VOCs are determined for PCB pyrolysis exhaust. • Iron-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was employed for the exhaust control. -- Abstract: The printed circuit board (PCB) is an important part of electrical and electronic equipment, and its disposal and the recovery of useful materials from waste PCBs (WPCBs) are key issues for waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste PCB compositions and their pyrolysis characteristics were analyzed in this study. In addition, the volatile organic compound (VOC) exhaust was controlled by an iron-impregnated alumina oxide catalyst. Results indicated that carbon and oxygen were the dominant components (hundreds mg/g) of the raw materials, and other elements such as nitrogen, bromine, and copper were several decades mg/g. Exhaust constituents of CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and NOx, were 60–115, 0.4–4.0, 1.1–10, 30–95, and 0–0.7 mg/g, corresponding to temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 °C. When the pyrolysis temperature was lower than 300 °C, aromatics and paraffins were the major species, contributing 90% of ozone precursor VOCs, and an increase in the pyrolysis temperature corresponded to a decrease in the fraction of aromatic emission factors. Methanol, ethylacetate, acetone, dichloromethane, tetrachloromethane and acrylonitrile were the main species of oxygenated and chlorinated VOCs. The emission factors of some brominated compounds, i.e., bromoform, bromophenol, and dibromophenol, were higher at temperatures over 400 °C. When VOC exhaust was flowed through the bed of Fe-impregnated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the emission of ozone precursor VOCs could be reduced by 70–80%.

  9. Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Thermal management enables more efficient and cost-effective motors. This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the technical accomplishments and progress in electric motor thermal management R&D over the last year. This project supports a broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management.

  10. Programmable dc motor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, J. E.

    1982-11-01

    A portable programmable dc motor controller, with features not available on commercial instruments was developed for controlling fixtures during welding processes. The controller can be used to drive any dc motor having tachometer feedback and motor requirements not exceeding 30 volts, 3 amperes. Among the controller's features are delayed start time, upslope time, speed, and downslope time.

  11. Physico Chemical Characteristic of Kappa Carrageenan Degraded Using Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizky Febriansyah Siregar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractKappa carrageenan is polysaccharide that widely used in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, textile and printing industries as coagulate agent, stabilizer and gelling agent. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is strong oxidator to degrade polysaccharide. Hydrogen peroxide has some advantades such as cheap, easy to get and savety environment. Degradation method using hydrogen peroxide is a technology based on establishment radical hydoxile reactive that attack the glycosidic of polysaccharides as a result reducing in molecular weight of polysaccharide. The aims of this study were to analyze the effect of hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature and degradation time to molecular weight of refined kappa carrageenan. Structural changes on kappa carrageenan degradation were characterized by viscometer, SEM and FTIR. Hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature and degradation time were significantly reducing molecular weight and changes in the structural function of refined kappa carrageenan. The lowest molecular weight of refined kappa carrageenan degraded was obtained from the treatment 3% of hydrogen peroxide at temperature 80°C and degradation time for 4 hours.

  12. Three-dimensional approach to exhaust gas energy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekavčnik, M.; Ogorevc, T.; Katrašnik, T.; Rodman-Oprešnik, S.

    2012-06-01

    Presented work is based on an extensive CFD simulation of the exhaust stroke of a single-cylinder four-stroke internal combustion engine with the exhaust manifold attached. Since the dynamics of the exhaust flow are extremely 3D, an innovative approach to calculate the local entropy generation is developed and implemented in the discussed 3D numerical model. It allows temporal and spatial determination of critical regions and periods of entropy generation in the process with objective to reduce it.

  13. Effects of exhaust temperature on helicopter infrared signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng-xiong, Pan; Jing-zhou, Zhang; Yong, Shan

    2013-01-01

    The effects of exhaust temperature on infrared signature (in 3–5 μm band) for a helicopter equipped with integrative infrared suppressor were numerically investigated. The internal flow of exhaust gas and the external downwash flow, as well as the mixing between exhaust gas and downwash were simulated by CFD software to determine the temperature distributions on the helicopter skin and in the exhaust plume. Based on the skin and plume temperature distributions, a forward–backward ray-tracing method was used to calculate the infrared radiation intensity from the helicopter with a narrow-band model. The results show that for a helicopter with its integrative infrared suppressor embedded inside its rear airframe, the exhaust temperature has significant influence on the plume radiation characteristics, while the helicopter skin radiation intensity has little impact. When the exhaust temperature is raised from 900 K to 1200 K, the plume radiation intensity in 3–5 μm band is increased by about 100%, while the skin radiation intensity is increased by only about 5%. In general, the effects of exhaust temperature on helicopter infrared radiation intensity are mainly concentrated on plume, especially obvious for a lower skin emissivity case. -- Highlights: ► The effect of exhaust temperature on infrared signature for a helicopter is numerically investigated. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter skin temperature is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on plume radiation characteristics is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter skin radiation is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter's total infrared radiation intensity is revealed

  14. Removing method for radon gas exhausted from nuclear fuel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kenji.

    1993-01-01

    A centrifugal separator is disposed in the midway of an exhaustion pipe of a nuclear fuel handling facility, and exhausted gases are sent into a rotational cylinder of the separator. Radon gases in the midway of exhaustion are separated from the exhaustion gases by the centrifugal force of the separator and caused to stagnate at the periphery of the circumferential wall of the rotational cylinder. At the same time, the exhaustion gases having the radon gases separated therefrom are exhausted from the periphery of a rotational shaft of the rotational cylinder. Then, the radon gases stagnated in the rotational cylinder are decayed depending on the half-decay time. With such procedures, the radon gases can be removed continuously without discharging them to the outside. Further, it is preferred that an exhaustion blower or the like for putting the inside of the nuclear fuel handing facility to a negative pressure is disposed as in a conventional case. Further, a plurality of centrifugal separators may be disposed to exhaustion pipes, to remove radon gases in the exhaust gases by a multi stage way. Radon gases can be removed in a saved space with no requirement for exchange of adsorbents or temperature control. (T.M.)

  15. A study of a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine for motor vehicle application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Ryoji; Okazaki, Syunki; Somyo, Nobuhiro; Akagi, Yuji

    1993-03-01

    A study of a direct-injection stratified-charge system (DISC), as applied to a rotary engine (RE) for motor vehicle usage, was undertaken. The goals of this study were improved fuel consumption and reduced exhaust emissions. These goals were thought feasible due to the high thermal efficiency associated with the DISC-RE. This was the first application of this technology to a motor vehicle engine. Stable ignition and ideal stratification systems were developed by means of numerical calculations, air-fuel mixture measurements, and actual engine tests. The use of DISC resulted in significantly improved fuel consumption and reduced exhaust emissions. The use of an exhaust gas recirculating system was studied and found to be beneficial in NOx reduction.

  16. Motor/generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickam, Christopher Dale [Glasford, IL

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  17. GASOLINE VEHICLE EXHAUST PARTICLE SAMPLING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittelson, D; Watts, W; Johnson, J; Zarling, D Schauer,J Kasper, K; Baltensperger, U; Burtscher, H

    2003-08-24

    The University of Minnesota collaborated with the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Wisconsin (UWI) and Ricardo, Inc to physically and chemically characterize the exhaust plume from recruited gasoline spark ignition (SI) vehicles. The project objectives were: (1) Measure representative particle size distributions from a set of on-road SI vehicles and compare these data to similar data collected on a small subset of light-duty gasoline vehicles tested on a chassis dynamometer with a dilution tunnel using the Unified Drive Cycle, at both room temperature (cold start) and 0 C (cold-cold start). (2) Compare data collected from SI vehicles to similar data collected from Diesel engines during the Coordinating Research Council E-43 project. (3) Characterize on-road aerosol during mixed midweek traffic and Sunday midday periods and determine fleet-specific emission rates. (4) Characterize bulk- and size-segregated chemical composition of the particulate matter (PM) emitted in the exhaust from the gasoline vehicles. Particle number concentrations and size distributions are strongly influenced by dilution and sampling conditions. Laboratory methods were evaluated to dilute SI exhaust in a way that would produce size distributions that were similar to those measured during laboratory experiments. Size fractionated samples were collected for chemical analysis using a nano-microorifice uniform deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI). In addition, bulk samples were collected and analyzed. A mixture of low, mid and high mileage vehicles were recruited for testing during the study. Under steady highway cruise conditions a significant particle signature above background was not measured, but during hard accelerations number size distributions for the test fleet were similar to modern heavy-duty Diesel vehicles. Number emissions were much higher at high speed and during cold-cold starts. Fuel specific number emissions range from 1012 to 3 x 1016 particles/kg fuel. A simple

  18. Spectroscopic studies of europium-tetracyclines complexes and their applications in detection of hydrogen peroxide and urea peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, Andrea Nastri

    2010-01-01

    In this work were studied the spectroscopic properties of trivalent europium ion complexed with components of tetracycline family, chlorotetracycline, oxytetracycline and metacycline, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and urea peroxide. Optical parameters were obtained such as absorption, emission, lifetime and calibration curves were constructed for luminescence spectra. Experiments were carried out with both inorganic compounds and europium-tetracyclines complexes in order to verify possible interferences. Studies for glucose determination were also described using europium-tetracyclines complexes as biosensors. Results show that europium tetracyclines complexes emit a narrow band in the visible region and, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide or urea peroxide there is a greater enhancement in their luminescence and lifetime. Thus, europium-tetracyclines complexes studied can be used as biosensors for hydrogen and urea peroxides determination as a low cost and room temperature method. An indirect method for glucose determination was studied by adding glucose oxidase enzyme in europium-tetracyclines complex in the presence of glucose promoting as product hydrogen peroxide. (author)

  19. Piezoelectric Motors, an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Spanner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric motors are used in many industrial and commercial applications. Various piezoelectric motors are available in the market. All of the piezoelectric motors use the inverse piezoelectric effect, where microscopically small oscillatory motions are converted into continuous or stepping rotary or linear motions. Methods of obtaining long moving distance have various drive and functional principles that make these motors categorized into three groups: resonance-drive (piezoelectric ultrasonic motors, inertia-drive, and piezo-walk-drive. In this review, a comprehensive summary of piezoelectric motors, with their classification from initial idea to recent progress, is presented. This review also includes some of the industrial and commercial applications of piezoelectric motors that are presently available in the market as actuators.

  20. Motor degradation prediction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  1. Neuroplasticity & Motor Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye

    Practice of a new motor task is usually associated with an improvement in performance. Indeed, if we stop practicing and return the next day to the same task, we find that our performance has been maintained and may even be better than it was at the start of the first day. This improvement...... is a measure of our ability to form and store a motor memory of the task. However, the initial memory of the task is labile and may be subject to interference. During and following motor learning plastic changes occur within the central nervous system. On one hand these changes are driven by motor practice......, on the other hand the changes underlie the formation of motor memory and the retention of improved motor performance. During motor learning changes may occur at many different levels within the central nervous system dependent on the type of task and training. Here, we demonstrate different studies from our...

  2. Infrared Imagery of Solid Rocket Exhaust Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert P.; Houston, Janice D.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test program consisted of a series of 18 solid rocket motor static firings, simulating the liftoff conditions of the Ares I five-segment Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Vehicle. Primary test objectives included acquiring acoustic and pressure data which will be used to validate analytical models for the prediction of Ares 1 liftoff acoustics and ignition overpressure environments. The test article consisted of a 5% scale Ares I vehicle and launch tower mounted on the Mobile Launch Pad. The testing also incorporated several Water Sound Suppression Systems. Infrared imagery was employed during the solid rocket testing to support the validation or improvement of analytical models, and identify corollaries between rocket plume size or shape and the accompanying measured level of noise suppression obtained by water sound suppression systems.

  3. Vital Exhaustion and Coronary Heart Disease Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frestad, Daria; Prescott, Eva

    2017-01-01

    INFO (1980 to July 2015; articles in English and published articles only), and bibliographies. Information on aim, study design, sample size, inclusion and exclusion criteria, assessment methods of psychological risk factors, and results of crude and adjusted regression analyses were abstracted independently......OBJECTIVES: The construct of vital exhaustion has been identified as a potential independent psychological risk factor for incident and recurrent coronary heart disease (CHD). Despite several decades of research, no systematic review or meta-analysis has previously attempted to collate.......22-1.85) for prospective studies, and 2.61 (95% CI = 1.66-4.10) for case-control studies using hospital controls. Risk of recurrent events in patients with CHD was 2.03 (95% CI = 1.54-2.68). The pooled adjusted risk of chronic heart failure in healthy populations was 1.37 (95% CI = 1.21-1.56), but this was based...

  4. Inerting Aircraft Fuel Systems Using Exhaust Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehemann, David G.

    2002-01-01

    Our purpose in this proposal was to determine the feasibility of using carbon dioxide, possibly obtained from aircraft exhaust gases as a substance to inert the fuel contained in fuel tanks aboard aircraft. To do this, we decided to look at the effects carbon dioxide has upon commercial Jet-A aircraft fuel. In particular, we looked at the solubility of CO2 in Jet-A fuel, the pumpability of CO2-saturated Jet-A fuel, the flashpoint of Jet-A fuel under various mixtures of air and CO2, the static outgassing of CO2-Saturated Jet-A fuel and the dynamic outgassing of Jet-A fuel during pumping of Jet-A fuel.

  5. Research on the Efficiency of Side Exhausters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Tetsman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the relevant technology of environmental protection which includes an effective collection, disposal and control of aerosol and gases contaminants removed from the evaporating surfaces of electroplating tanks. The task of the paper is to help with finding the new ways of collecting and disposing aerosol pollution and to reduce the quantity of equipment and service costs. The article also discusses pollution formation and sorts and performance of side draft and slot hoods for vapour capture. Besides, the paper deals with the formation of vapour over the tank and the features of benefit that depend on absorber‘s shape. Exhaust velocity and its dependencies are analyzed.Article in Lithuanian

  6. The Effect of Unemployment Insurance Exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann

    In this article we investigate how the long-term unemployed react to the threat of running out of unemployment insurance (UI) in a system in which other social benefits are available. The empirical analysis is based on very precise administrative records of unemployment spells in Denmark...... risk model to estimate the conditional probability of leaving unemployment to enter employment or receive other social benefits. We restrict our analysis to men aged 25-44 in 1998. Our results show that even for men having an initial UI entitlement for 4 years the threat of running out of UI indeed....... To identify the effect of UI exhaustion, we exploit the 1999 legislative change in the duration of benefit that progressively reduced regular UI entitlement from five to four years. According to time of entry into the UI system, all UI recipients had their potential UI period shortened. We use a competing...

  7. Reduction method of exhaust gas quantity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Y.; Morishita, K.

    1975-02-08

    A cleaning method for automobile exhaust through contact with sintered oxide semiconductors consisting of tin, antimony, manganese, and palladium oxides is discussed. This device has a much higher efficiency and lasts longer than any similar device developed previously consisting of oxides of iron, manganese cobalt, nickel, aluminum, and other rare earth metals. This sintered oxide semiconductor device is composed of: tin oxide: 30 wt ratio, tin hydrogen oxide: 30 wt ratio, antimony oxide: 2 wt ratio, manganese chloride: 2 wt ratio, palladium chloride: 1 wt ratio, carbon powder: 4 wt ratio, and ammonium carbonate: 10 wt ratio, for example. This device converts 100 percent of carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide at 350 C. This compound provides oxygen to CO at higher temperatures and absorbs oxygen from air at normal temperatures. There is no effect on efficiency.

  8. Neural activation in stress-related exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavelin, Hanna Malmberg; Neely, Anna Stigsdotter; Andersson, Micael

    2017-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the association between burnout and neural activation during working memory processing in patients with stress-related exhaustion. Additionally, we investigated the neural effects of cognitive training as part of stress rehabilitation. Fifty...... association between burnout level and working memory performance was found, however, our findings indicate that frontostriatal neural responses related to working memory were modulated by burnout severity. We suggest that patients with high levels of burnout need to recruit additional cognitive resources...... to uphold task performance. Following cognitive training, increased neural activation was observed during 3-back in working memory-related regions, including the striatum, however, low sample size limits any firm conclusions....

  9. Diesel Exhaust Exposure, Wheezing and Sneezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The rising incidence of allergic disorders in developed countries is unexplained. Exposure to traffic related air pollutants may be an important cause of wheezing and asthma in childhood. Experimental evidence from human studies suggests that diesel exhaust particles, constituents of fine particulate matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), may act to enhance IgE mediated aeroallergen sensitization and Th2 directed cytokine responses. To date, epidemiologic investigations indicate that children living in close proximity to heavily travelled roads are more likely to be atopic and wheeze. The Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS) birth cohort study was initiated to test the hypothesis that early high exposure to traffic related air pollutants is associated with early aeroallergen sensitization and allergic respiratory phenotypes. Using an exposure cohort design, more than 700 infants born to atopic parents were recruited at age 1 living either less than 400 meters (high traffic pollutant exposure) or greater than 1,500 meters (low exposure) from a major road. Children were medically evaluated and underwent skin prick testing with aeroallergen at screening, and re-evaluated sequentially at ages 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7. In this study, both proximity and land use regression (LUR) models of traffic air pollutant exposure have been assessed. Proximity to stop and go traffic with large concentrations of bus and truck traffic predicted persistent wheezing during infancy. The LUR model estimated elemental carbon attributable to traffic (ECAT) as a proxy for diesel exhaust particulate exposure. High ECAT was significantly associated with wheezing at age 1 as well as persistent wheezing at age 3. High mold exposure predicted a well defined asthma phenotype at age 7. PMID:22754710

  10. The Amoebicidal Effect of Ergosterol Peroxide Isolated from Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Menchaca, Thuluz; Suárez-Medellín, Jorge; Del Ángel-Piña, Christian; Trigos, Ángel

    2015-12-01

    Dysentery is an inflammation of the intestine caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica and is a recurrent health problem affecting millions of people worldwide. Because of the magnitude of this disease, finding novel strategies for treatment that does not affect human cells is necessary. Ergosterol peroxide is a sterol particularly known as a major cytotoxic agent with a wide spectrum of biological activities produced by edible and medicinal mushrooms. The aim of this report is to evaluate the amoebicidal activity of ergosterol peroxide (5α, 8α-epidioxy-22E-ergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol isolated from 5α, 8α-epidioxy-22E-ergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol) (Jacq.) P. Kumm. f. sp. Florida. Our results show that ergosterol peroxide produced a strong cytotoxic effect against amoebic growth. The inhibitory concentration IC50 of ergosterol peroxide was evaluated. The interaction between E. histolytica and ergosterol peroxide in vitro resulted in strong amoebicidal activity (IC50  = 4.23 nM) that may be due to the oxidatory effect on the parasitic membrane. We also tested selective toxicity of ergosterol peroxide using a cell line CCL-241, a human epithelial cell line isolated from normal human fetal intestinal tissue. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the cytotoxicity of ergosterol peroxide against E. histolytica, which uncovers a new biological property of the lipidic compound isolated from Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. f. sp. Florida. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Different modes of hydrogen peroxide action during seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz eWojtyla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide was initially recognized as a toxic molecule that causes damage at different levels of cell organization and thus losses in cell viability. From the 1990s, the role of hydrogen peroxide as a signaling molecule in plants has also been discussed. The beneficial role of H2O2 as a central hub integrating signaling network in response to biotic and abiotic stress and during developmental processes is now well established. Seed germination is the most pivotal phase of the plant life cycle, affecting plant growth and productivity. The function of hydrogen peroxide in seed germination and seed aging has been illustrated in numerous studies; however, the exact role of this molecule remains unknown. This review evaluates evidence that shows that H2O2 functions as a signaling molecule in seed physiology in accordance with the known biology and biochemistry of H2O2. The importance of crosstalk between hydrogen peroxide and a number of signaling molecules, including plant phytohormones such as abscisic acid, gibberellins and ethylene and reactive molecules such as nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide acting on cell communication and signaling during seed germination, is highlighted. The current study also focuses on the detrimental effects of H2O2 on seed biology, i.e., seed aging that leads to a loss of germination efficiency. The dual nature of hydrogen peroxide as a toxic molecule on one hand and as a signal molecule on the other is made possible through the precise spatial and temporal control of its production and degradation. Levels of hydrogen peroxide in germinating seeds and young seedlings can be modulated via pre-sowing seed priming/conditioning. This rather simple method is shown to be a valuable tool for improving seed quality and for enhancing seed stress tolerance during post-priming germination. In this review, we outline how seed priming/conditioning affects the integrative role of hydrogen peroxide in seed germination and

  12. Lipid Peroxidation: Pathophysiology and Pharmacological Implications in the Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Fatou eNjie-Mbye

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen-derived free radicals such as hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl species have been shown to oxidize phospholipids and other membrane lipid components leading to lipid peroxidation. In the eye, lipid peroxidation has been reported to play an important role in degenerative ocular diseases (age-related macular degeneration, cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy. Indeed, ocular tissues are prone to damage from reactive oxygen species due to stress from constant exposure of the eye to sunlight, atmospheric oxygen and environmental chemicals. Furthermore, free radical catalyzed peroxidation of long chain polyunsaturated acids (LCPUFAs such as arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid leads to generation of LCPUFA metabolites including isoprostanes and neuroprostanes that may further exert pharmacological/toxicological actions in ocular tissues. Evidence from literature supports the presence of endogenous defense mechanisms against reactive oxygen species in the eye, thereby presenting new avenues for the prevention and treatment of ocular degeneration. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and synthetic peroxides can exert pharmacological and toxicological effects on tissues of the anterior uvea of several mammalian species. There is evidence suggesting that the retina, especially retinal ganglion cells can exhibit unique characteristics of antioxidant defense mechanisms. In the posterior segment of the eye, H2O2 and synthetic peroxides produce an inhibitory action on glutamate release (using [3H]-D-aspartate as a marker, in vitro and on the endogenous glutamate and glycine concentrations in vivo. In addition to peroxides, isoprostanes can elicit both excitatory and inhibitory effects on norepinephrine (NE release from sympathetic nerves in isolated mammalian iris ciliary bodies. Whereas isoprostanes attenuate dopamine release from mammalian neural retina, in vitro, these novel arachidonic acid metabolites exhibit a biphasic regulatory effect on glutamate release

  13. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study Auxiliary Findings on 2007-Compliant Diesel Engines: A Comparison With Diesel Exhaust Genotoxicity Effects Prior to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance M Hallberg

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its beginning, more than 117 years ago, the compression-ignition engine, or diesel engine, has grown to become a critically important part of industry and transportation. Public concerns over the health effects from diesel emissions have driven the growth of regulatory development, implementation, and technological advances in emission controls. In 2001, the United States Environmental Protection Agency and California Air Resources Board issued new diesel fuel and emission standards for heavy-duty engines. To meet these stringent standards, manufacturers used new emission after-treatment technology, and modified fuel formulations, to bring about reductions in particulate matter and nitrogen oxides within the exhaust. To illustrate the impact of that technological transition, a brief overview of pre-2007 diesel engine exhaust biomarkers of genotoxicity and health-related concerns is provided, to set the context for the results of our research findings, as part of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES, in which the effects of a 2007-compliant diesel engine were examined. In agreement with ACES findings reported in other tissues, we observed a lack of measurable 2007-compliant diesel treatment–associated DNA damage, in lung tissue (comet assay, blood serum (8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG] assay, and hippocampus (lipid peroxidation assay, across diesel exhaust exposure levels. A time-dependent assessment of 8-OHdG and lipid peroxidation also suggested no differences in responses across diesel exhaust exposure levels more than 24 months of exposure. These results indicated that the 2007-compliant diesel engine reduced measurable reactive oxygen species–associated tissue derangements and suggested that the 2007 standards–based mitigation approaches were effective.

  14. Microfluidic-assisted fabrication of flexible and location traceable organo-motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kyoung Duck; Kwak, Byung Kook; Sanchez, Samuel; Kim, Dong Sung

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we fabricate a flexible and location traceable micromotor, called organo-motor, assisted by microfluidic devices and with high throughput. The organo-motors are composed of organic hydrogel material, poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA), which can provide the flexibility of their structure. For spatial and temporal traceability of the organo-motors under magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION; Fe3O4) were incorporated into the PEGDA microhydrogels. Furthermore, a thin layer of platinum (Pt) was deposited onto one side of the SPION-PEGDA microhydrogels providing geometrical asymmetry and catalytic propulsion in aqueous fluids containing hydrogen peroxide solution, H2O2. Furthermore, the motion of the organo-motor was controlled by a small external magnet enabled by the presence of SPION in the motor architecture.

  15. The Effect of Condensing Steam Turbine Exhaust Hood Body Geometry on Exhaust Performance Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribin, V. G.; Paramonov, A. N.; Mitrokhova, O. M.

    2018-06-01

    The article presents data from combined numerical and experimental investigations of the effect that the overall dimensions of the exhaust hood of a steam turbine with an underslung condenser has on the aerodynamic losses in the hood. Owing to the properly selected minimum permissible overall dimensions of the exhaust hood, more efficient operation of this turbine component is achieved, better vibration stability of the turbine set shaft line is obtained, and lower costs are required for arranging the steam turbine plant in the turbine building. Experiments have shown that the main overall dimensions of the hood body have a determining effect on the exhaust hood flow path profile and on its aerodynamic performance. Owing to properly selected ratios between the exhaust hood body main sizes without a diffuser, a total loss coefficient equal to approximately unity has been obtained. By using an axial-radial diffuser, the energy loss can be decreased by 30-40% depending on the geometrical parameters and level of velocities in the inlet section of a hood having the optimal overall dimensions. By using the obtained results, it becomes possible to evaluate the overall dimensions necessary for achieving the maximal aerodynamic hood efficiency and, as a consequence, to obtain better technical and economic indicators of the turbine plant as a whole already at the initial stage of its designing. If a need arises to select overall dimensions smaller than their optimal values, the increase of energy loss can be estimated using the presented dependences. The cycle of investigations was carried out on the experimental setups available in the fundamental research laboratory of the Moscow Power Engineering Institute National University's Department of Steam and Gas Turbines with due regard to the operating parameters and similarity criteria.

  16. Singlet oxygen-mediated formation of protein peroxides within cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.; Policarpio, V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Singlet oxygen is generated by a number of cellular, enzymatic and chemical reactions as well as by exposure to UV, or visible light in the presence of a sensitizer; as a consequence this oxidant has been proposed as a damaging agent in a number of pathologies including photo-aging and skin cancer. Proteins are major targets for singlet oxygen as a result of their abundance and high rate constants for reaction. In this study it is shown that illumination of viable, sensitizer-loaded, THP-1 (human monocyte-like) cells with visible light gives rise to intra-cellular protein-derived peroxides. The peroxide yield increases with illumination time, requires the presence of the sensitizer, is enhanced in D 2 O, and decreased by azide; these data are consistent with the mediation of singlet oxygen. The concentration of peroxides detected, which is not affected by glucose or ascorbate loading of the cells, corresponds to ca. 1.5 nmoles peroxide per 10 6 cells using rose bengal as sensitizer, or 10 nmoles per mg cell protein and account for up to ca. 15% of the O 2 consumed by the cells. Similar peroxides have been detected on isolated cellular proteins exposed to light in the presence of rose bengal and oxygen. After cessation of illumination, the cellular protein peroxide levels decreases with t 1/2 ca. 4 hrs at 37 deg C, and this is associated with increased cell lysis. Decomposition of protein peroxides formed within cells, or on isolated cellular proteins, by metal ions, gives rise to radicals as detected by EPR spin trapping. These protein peroxides, and radicals derived from them, can inactivate key cellular enzymes (including caspases, GAPDH and glutathione reductase) and induce DNA base oxidation, strand breaks and DNA-protein cross-links. These studies demonstrate that exposure of intact cells to visible light in the presence of a sensitizer gives rise to novel long-lived, but reactive, intra-cellular protein peroxides via singlet oxygen

  17. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion: Incentive Effects on Job-Finding Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filges, Trine; Geerdsen, Lars Pico; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12 studies for final analysis and interpretation.…

  18. 46 CFR 63.25-7 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 63.25-7 Section 63.25-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-7 Exhaust gas boilers. (a) Construction...

  19. Perceived social support and emotional exhaustion in HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Counsellors have been identified as a group of professionals at elevated risk of burnout in general and emotional exhaustion in particular. Considering the nature of the illness, ... the quality of the services they provide. Key words: Emotional exhaustion, perceived social support, burnout syndrome, demographic variables.

  20. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43... § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion shall be released entirely outside the... conditions. (b) Battery containers shall be vented and batteries kept from gassing excessively. ...

  1. 30 CFR 36.25 - Engine exhaust system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (see § 36.23(b)(2)). (3) In lieu of a space-place flame arrester, an exhaust-gas cooling box or... exhaust system for convenient, temporary attachment of a pressure gage at a point suitable for measuring the total back pressure in the system. The connection also shall be suitable for temporary attachment...

  2. Diesel Engine Exhaust: Basis for Occupational Exposure Limit Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxell, Piia; Santonen, Tiina

    2017-08-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in transport and power supply, making occupational exposure to diesel exhaust common. Both human and animal studies associate exposure to diesel exhaust with inflammatory lung effects, cardiovascular effects, and an increased risk of lung cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated diesel exhaust as carcinogenic to humans. Yet national or regional limit values for controlling occupational exposure to diesel exhaust are rare. In recent decades, stricter emission regulations have led to diesel technologies evolving significantly, resulting in changes in exhaust emissions and composition. These changes are also expected to influence the health effects of diesel exhaust. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the health effects of diesel exhaust and the influence of new diesel technologies on the health risk. It discusses the relevant exposure indicators and perspectives for setting occupational exposure limit values for diesel exhaust, and outlines directions for future research. The review is based on a collaborative evaluation report by the Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals and the Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Safety. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Experimental studies of impact of exhaust gas recirculation on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper considers the problem of reducing the nitrogen oxides emissions in exhaust gases (EG) of diesel engine by exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Based on the carried out study the influence of EGR on technical-and-economic and environmental performance of a diesel engine was found as well as main directions of ...

  4. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the following cases, you may use a raw exhaust flow meter signal that does not give the actual value... dew and pressure, p total at the flow meter inlet. Use these values in emission calculations according... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.230 Raw exhaust...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1342-90 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exhaust sample in sampling solution, µg/ml. (vii) VAE = Volume of sampling solution for dilute exhaust... sampling solution, µg/ml. (xiii) VAA = Volume of sampling solution for dilution air formaldehyde sample, ml... paragraph (d)(3) of this section): Wet concentration = Kw × dry concentration. Where: (1)(i) For English...

  6. 30 CFR 36.26 - Composition of exhaust gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Composition of exhaust gas. 36.26 Section 36.26... EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.26 Composition of exhaust gas. (a) Preliminary engine... methane) is a satisfactory substitute for pure methane in these tests. (c) Coupling or adapter. The...

  7. Effect of diesel generator exhaust pollutants on growth of Vinca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of exhaust pollutants of generator on root and shoot length, root and shoot weight, number of leaflets and leaf area, leaf and total plant dry weight of Vinca rosea and Ruellia tuberosa were studied. The treatment of exhaust pollutants produced significant effects on root, shoot growth, number of leaflet and leaf ...

  8. Emotional exhaustion may trigger cut in working hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, L.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in the Netherlands have been examining to what extent workers are modifying their hours to cope with high levels of work-related emotional exhaustion. Findings reveal that most full-time employees would prefer a cut in their hours, with those reporting emotional exhaustion wanting a

  9. 40 CFR 86.211-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.211-94 Section 86.211-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.211-94 Exhaust gas...

  10. PHYSICAL AND NUMERICAL MODELING OF ASD EXHAUST DISPERSION AROUND HOUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the use of a wind tunnel to physically model the dispersion of exhaust plumes from active soil depressurization (ASD) radon mitigation systems in houses. he testing studied the effects of exhaust location (grade level vs. above the eave), as house height, roo...

  11. Physicochemical and FTIR Study of Diesel-Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad Khan, Muhammad; Ahmed, Iqbal; Lal, Bhajan; Idris, Al-Amin; Albeirutty, Muhammad H.; Ayoub, Muhammad; Sufian, Suriati binti

    2018-04-01

    Physicochemical properties of combustion fuels play a key role in determining the qualitative and quantitative characteristics, reliability and health effects associated with emissions. This paper reports the preparation of polysaccharide (PS) based emulsifier for stable blending of petroleum diesel-hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and investigated the influence of H2O2 as diesel fuel blends on the physicochemical properties and characteristics. The quantity of PS-emulsifier was kept at 5 volume % (vol. %) and the volume ratio of H2O2 were varied 5-15 vol. % to reference diesel (RD), respectively. The blended diesel/H2O2 fuel were prepared under inert oxygen (O2) gas closed heating system; afterthought, physiochemical properties of diesel/H2O2 blend were evaluated at standard ASTM D-975 testing method. The kinetic properties show the interaction of RD and H2O2 blend at presence of PS emulsifier which exhibit the phenomenon to diminish the interfacial tension among the two different phases to form a homogenized stable solution. Results revealed that H2O2 is capable of enhancing the diesel fuel properties and showed that the addition of H2O2 in a diesel fuel blend are lied within the ranges of standard ASTM D-975. Due to further oxygen atom present in H2O2, it can facilitate the combustion process which ultimately effect on exhaust emission.

  12. Probing skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zonios, George [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Dimou, Aikaterini [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Galaris, Dimitrios [Laboratory of Biological Chemistry, School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2008-01-07

    Hydrogen peroxide is an important oxidizing agent in biological systems. In dermatology, it is frequently used as topical antiseptic, it has a haemostatic function, it can cause skin blanching, and it can facilitate skin tanning. In this work, we investigated skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide, non-invasively, using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. We observed transient changes in the oxyhaemoglobin and deoxyhaemoglobin concentrations as a result of topical application of dilute H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solutions to the skin, with changes in deoxyhaemoglobin concentration being more pronounced. Furthermore, we did not observe any appreciable changes in melanin absorption properties as well as in the skin scattering properties. We also found no evidence for production of oxidized haemoglobin forms. Our observations are consistent with an at least partial decomposition of hydrogen peroxide within the stratum corneum and epidermis, with the resulting oxygen and/or remaining hydrogen peroxide inducing vasoconstriction to dermal blood vessels and increasing haemoglobin oxygen saturation. An assessment of the effects of topical application of hydrogen peroxide to the skin may serve as the basis for the development of non-invasive techniques to measure skin antioxidant capacity and also may shed light onto skin related disorders such as vitiligo.

  13. Probing skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zonios, George; Dimou, Aikaterini; Galaris, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is an important oxidizing agent in biological systems. In dermatology, it is frequently used as topical antiseptic, it has a haemostatic function, it can cause skin blanching, and it can facilitate skin tanning. In this work, we investigated skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide, non-invasively, using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. We observed transient changes in the oxyhaemoglobin and deoxyhaemoglobin concentrations as a result of topical application of dilute H 2 O 2 solutions to the skin, with changes in deoxyhaemoglobin concentration being more pronounced. Furthermore, we did not observe any appreciable changes in melanin absorption properties as well as in the skin scattering properties. We also found no evidence for production of oxidized haemoglobin forms. Our observations are consistent with an at least partial decomposition of hydrogen peroxide within the stratum corneum and epidermis, with the resulting oxygen and/or remaining hydrogen peroxide inducing vasoconstriction to dermal blood vessels and increasing haemoglobin oxygen saturation. An assessment of the effects of topical application of hydrogen peroxide to the skin may serve as the basis for the development of non-invasive techniques to measure skin antioxidant capacity and also may shed light onto skin related disorders such as vitiligo

  14. Safety issues of tooth whitening using peroxide-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Greenwall, L

    2013-07-01

    In-office tooth whitening using hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) has been practised in dentistry without significant safety concerns for more than a century. While few disputes exist regarding the efficacy of peroxide-based at-home whitening since its first introduction in 1989, its safety has been the cause of controversy and concern. This article reviews and discusses safety issues of tooth whitening using peroxide-based materials, including biological properties and toxicology of H₂O₂, use of chlorine dioxide, safety studies on tooth whitening, and clinical considerations of its use. Data accumulated during the last two decades demonstrate that, when used properly, peroxide-based tooth whitening is safe and effective. The most commonly seen side effects are tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation, which are usually mild to moderate and transient. So far there is no evidence of significant health risks associated with tooth whitening; however, potential adverse effects can occur with inappropriate application, abuse, or the use of inappropriate whitening products. With the knowledge on peroxide-based whitening materials and the recognition of potential adverse effects associated with the procedure, dental professionals are able to formulate an effective and safe tooth whitening regimen for individual patients to achieve maximal benefits while minimising potential risks.

  15. Destruction of oxalate by reaction with hydrogen peroxide. [Hydrazine oxalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mailen, J.C.; Tallent, O.K.; Arwood, P.C.

    1981-09-01

    The destruction of oxalate by oxidation to carbon dioxide using hydrogen peroxide was studied as an alternative method for the disposal of oxalate in connection with the possible use of an aqueous hydrazine oxalate solution as a scrubbing agent for solvent cleanup in processes for the recovery of uranium, plutonium, and thorium by solvent extraction. The rate of oxidation of oxalate by hydrogen peroxide in acid solution at the reflux temperature was adequate for process application; reaction half-times at 100/sup 0/C were less than one hour when the hydrogen peroxide concentration was greater than 0.5 M. The reaction was first order with respect to both the oxalate and hydrogen peroxide concentrations and had an activation energy of 58.7 kJ/g-mol. The rate increased with the hydrogen ion concentration as (H/sup +/)/sup 0/ /sup 3/ but was not significantly affected by the presence of 100 ppM of uranium or copper in solution. In the near-neutral hydrazine oxalate solutions, the reaction of either component with hydrogen peroxide was too slow for process application.

  16. Aluminum induces lipid peroxidation and aggregation of human blood platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.J.C. Neiva

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al3+ intoxication is thought to play a major role in the development of Alzheimer's disease and in certain pathologic manifestations arising from long-term hemodialysis. Although the metal does not present redox capacity, it can stimulate tissue lipid peroxidation in animal models. Furthermore, in vitro studies have revealed that the fluoroaluminate complex induces diacylglycerol formation, 43-kDa protein phosphorylation and aggregation. Based on these observations, we postulated that Al3+-induced blood platelet aggregation was mediated by lipid peroxidation. Using chemiluminescence (CL of luminol as an index of total lipid peroxidation capacity, we established a correlation between lipid peroxidation capacity and platelet aggregation. Al3+ (20-100 µM stimulated CL production by human blood platelets as well as their aggregation. Incubation of the platelets with the antioxidants nor-dihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA (100 µM and n-propyl gallate (NPG (100 µM, inhibitors of the lipoxygenase pathway, completely prevented CL and platelet aggregation. Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA (100 µM, an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase pathway, was a weaker inhibitor of both events. These findings suggest that Al3+ stimulates lipid peroxidation and the lipoxygenase pathway in human blood platelets thereby causing their aggregation

  17. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in male infertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandekar S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Mammalian spermatozoa are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and are very susceptible to attack by reactive oxygen species (ROS and membrane lipid peroxide ion. Normally a balance is maintained between the amount of ROS produced and that scavenged. Cellular damage arises when this equilibrium is disturbed. A shift in the levels of ROS towards pro-oxidants in semen and vaginal secretions can induce an oxidative stress on spermatozoa. The aim was to study lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD and to correlate the same, with the ′water test′, in male infertility. SETTINGS: Experimental study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ejaculates from a total of 83 infertile and fertile healthy individuals were obtained. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels were studied and correlated with water test. RESULTS: The results indicate that (i the antioxidant enzyme catalase showed no significant changes in the various pathological samples, (ii antioxidant enzymes SOD and glutathione peroxidase correlate positively with asthenozoospermic samples and (iii the degree of lipid peroxidation also correlates positively with the poorly swollen sperm tails. The increase in SOD and glutathione peroxidase values, in the pathological cases represents an attempt made to overcome the reactive oxygen species. CONCLUSION: Water test could be used as a preliminary marker test for sperm tail damage by reactive oxygen species, since it correlates very well with lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes.

  18. A chemiluminescent method for determination of lipid peroxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Xiaofeng; Hu Tianxi; Fan Xiaobing

    2003-01-01

    We established a chemiluminescent system for determination of lipid peroxidation and screening anti-oxidants. The lipid containing unsaturated fatly acids was injected into a galls tube. Luminol solution and the deionized water were added into it too. The glass tube was put into a preincubation box to incubate it for 0.5 h at 37 degree C. AAPH solution was injected into the tube for immediate measurement in a biochemiluminometer at 38-39 degree C. The pulses /6s(CP6s) were determined with T-2 program. Chemiluminescent dynamic and lipid peroxidation changes were observed continuously. Once the CL intensity of lipid peroxidation got peak, the antioxidant which has different concentration was added immediately in situ. A certain CL intensity (CP6s) was chosen as evaluation index to compare the activity of antioxidants. A luminol chemiluminescent system for determination of lipid peroxidation has been made. It was found that Vit. C, teapolyphenol, and glutathione have effects on scavenging lipid free radicals. The new method is quick, sensitive, and simple for determination of lipid peroxidation and screening antioxidants

  19. Engine with pulse-suppressed dedicated exhaust gas recirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Edward J.; Baker, Rodney E.

    2016-06-07

    An engine assembly includes an intake assembly, a spark-ignited internal combustion engine, and an exhaust assembly. The intake assembly includes a charge air cooler disposed between an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) mixer and a backpressure valve. The charge air cooler has both an inlet and an outlet, and the back pressure valve is configured to maintain a minimum pressure difference between the inlet of the charge air cooler and an outlet of the backpressure valve. A dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is provided in fluid communication with at least one cylinder and with the EGR mixer. The dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is configured to route all of the exhaust gas from the at least one cylinder to the EGR mixer for recirculation back to the engine.

  20. Dedicated exhaust gas recirculation control systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczomak, David P.; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Keating, Edward J.

    2018-05-01

    An engine control system of a vehicle includes a fuel control module that controls fuel injection of a first cylinder of an engine based on a first target air/fuel ratio that is fuel lean relative to a stoichiometric air/fuel ratio and that controls fuel injection of a second cylinder of the engine based on a second target air/fuel ratio that is fuel rich relative to stoichiometry. The first cylinder outputs exhaust to a first three way catalyst (TWC), and the second cylinder outputs exhaust to an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve. An EGR control module controls opening of the EGR valve to: (i) a second TWC that reacts with nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the exhaust and outputs ammonia to a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst; and (ii) a conduit that recirculates exhaust back to an intake system of the engine.

  1. Exhaust pressure pulsation observation from turbocharger instantaneous speed measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macián, V.; Luján, J. M.; Bermúdez, V.; Guardiola, C.

    2004-06-01

    In internal combustion engines, instantaneous exhaust pressure measurements are difficult to perform in a production environment. The high temperature of the exhaust manifold and its pulsating character make its application to exhaust gas recirculation control algorithms impossible. In this paper an alternative method for estimating the exhaust pressure pulsation is presented. A numerical model is built which enables the exhaust pressure pulses to be predicted from instantaneous turbocharger speed measurements. Although the model is data based, a theoretical description of the process is also provided. This combined approach makes it possible to export the model for different engine operating points. Also, compressor contribution in the turbocharger speed pulsation is discussed extensively. The compressor contribution is initially neglected, and effects of this simplified approach are analysed.

  2. Influence of ingredients of motor transport exhausts on the seed productivity of adornment flowering plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. P. Pryimak

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Basic descriptions of the seminal productivity for some ornamental flowering plants under influence of cars’ emissions are presented. Decreasing of the seminal productivity, germinating capacity of seeds and mass of thousand seeds was found. Recommendations on plants using for planting of the cities environment polluted by vehicles emissions are proposed.

  3. Acceptance test procedure for SY Tank Farm replacement exhauster unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becken, G.W.

    1994-12-16

    The proper functioning of a new 241-SY Tank Farm replacement exhauster will be acceptance tested, to establish operability and to provide an operational baseline for the equipment. During this test, a verification of all of the alarm and control circuits associated with the exhaust, which provide operating controls and/or signals to local and remote alarm/annunciator panels, shall be performed. Test signals for sensors that provide alarms, warnings, and/or interlocks will be applied to verify that alarm, warning, and interlock setpoints are correct. Alarm and warning lights, controls, and local and remote readouts for the exhauster will be verified to be adequate for proper operation of the exhauster. Testing per this procedure shall be conducted in two phases. The first phase of testing, to verify alarm, warning, and interlock setpoints primarily, will be performed in the MO-566 Fab Shop. The second phase of testing, to verify proper operation and acceptable interface with other tank farm systems, will be conducted after the exhauster and all associated support and monitoring equipment have been installed in the SY Tank Farm. The exhauster, which is mounted on a skid and which will eventually be located in the SY tank farm, receives input signals from a variety of sensors mounted on the skid and associated equipment. These sensors provide information such as: exhauster system inlet vacuum pressure; prefilter and HEPA filter differential pressures; exhaust stack sampler status; exhaust fan status; system status (running/shut down); and radiation monitoring systems status. The output of these sensors is transmitted to the exhauster annunciator panel where the signals are displayed and monitored for out-of-specification conditions.

  4. Impact of reformulated fuels on motor vehicle emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchstetter, Thomas

    Motor vehicles continue to be an important source of air pollution. Increased vehicle travel and degradation of emission control systems have offset some of the effects of increasingly stringent emission standards and use of control technologies. A relatively new air pollution control strategy is the reformulation of motor vehicle fuels, both gasoline and diesel, to make them cleaner- burning. Field experiments in a heavily traveled northern California roadway tunnel revealed that use of oxygenated gasoline reduced on-road emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) by 23 +/- 6% and 19 +/- 8%, respectively, while oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions were not significantly affected. The introduction of reformulated gasoline (RFG) in California led to large changes in gasoline composition including decreases in alkene, aromatic, benzene, and sulfur contents, and an increase in oxygen content. The combined effects of RFG and fleet turnover between summers 1994 and 1997 were decreases in on-road vehicle exhaust emissions of CO, non-methane VOC, and NOx by 31 +/- 5, 43 +/- 8, and 18 +/- 4%, respectively. Although it was difficult to separate the fleet turnover and RFG contributions to these changes, it was clear that the effect of RFG was greater for VOC than for NOx. The RFG effect on exhaust emissions of benzene was a 30-40% reduction. Use of RFG reduced the reactivity of liquid gasoline and gasoline headspace vapors by 23 and 19%, respectively. Increased use of methyl tert-butyl ether in gasoline led to increased concentrations of highly reactive formaldehyde and isobutene in vehicle exhaust. As a result, RFG reduced the reactivity of exhaust emissions by only about 5%. Per unit mass of fuel burned, heavy-duty diesel trucks emit about 25 times more fine particle mass and 15-20 times the number of fine particles compared to light-duty vehicles. Exhaust fine particle emissions from heavy-duty diesels contain more black carbon than particulate

  5. Psychosocial risk factors, pre-motor symptoms and first-time hospitalization with Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Ritz, B; Prescott, E

    2013-01-01

    ), as well as to identify potential pre-motor symptoms for PD in a large prospective cohort study. METHODS: In 1991-1993, a total of 9955 women and men free of PD from the Copenhagen City Heart Study were asked about major life events, economic hardship, social network, impaired sleep and vital exhaustion...... social network in the current study. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the hypothesis that psychosocial risk factors affect the risk of PD is not supported. The results, however, suggest that vital exhaustion may be a pre-motor marker of the neurodegenerative process eventually leading to motor symptoms and clinical......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Experimental studies support a link between stress and development of parkinsonian symptoms, but prospective population studies are lacking. The aim of the current study is to determine the effects of several psychosocial factors on the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD...

  6. Motor degradation prediction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor's duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures

  7. Reproducing Phenomenology of Peroxidation Kinetics via Model Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruslanov, Anatole D.; Bashylau, Anton V.

    2010-06-01

    We studied mathematical modeling of lipid peroxidation using a biochemical model system of iron (II)-ascorbate-dependent lipid peroxidation of rat hepatocyte mitochondrial fractions. We found that antioxidants extracted from plants demonstrate a high intensity of peroxidation inhibition. We simplified the system of differential equations that describes the kinetics of the mathematical model to a first order equation, which can be solved analytically. Moreover, we endeavor to algorithmically and heuristically recreate the processes and construct an environment that closely resembles the corresponding natural system. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to theoretically predict both the kinetics of oxidation and the intensity of inhibition without resorting to analytical and biochemical research, which is important for cost-effective discovery and development of medical agents with antioxidant action from the medicinal plants.

  8. Synthesis of unstable cyclic peroxides for chemiluminescence studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoloni, Fernando H.; Oliveira, Marcelo A. de; Augusto, Felipe A.; Ciscato, Luiz Francisco M.L.; Bastos, Erick L.; Baader, Wilhelm J., E-mail: wjbaader@iq.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Fundamental

    2012-11-15

    Cyclic four-membered ring peroxides are important high-energy intermediates in a variety of chemi and bioluminescence transformations. Specifically, a-peroxy lactones (1,2-dioxetanones) have been considered as model systems for efficient firefly bioluminescence. However, the preparation of such highly unstable compounds is extremely difficult and, therefore, only few research groups have been able to study the properties of these substances. In this study, the synthesis, purification and characterization of three 1,2-dioxetanones are reported and a detailed procedure for the known synthesis of diphenoyl peroxide, another important model compound for the chemical generation of electronically excited states, is provided. For most of these peroxides, the complete spectroscopic characterization is reported here for the first time. (author)

  9. Electrochemical behaviour of platinum in hydrogen peroxide solution (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prost, G.H.

    1963-06-01

    The relative stability of hydrogen peroxide in aqueous solution at 25 deg. C, allows its amperometric determination from the theory, using either its cathodic reduction or its anodic oxidation. The cathodic reduction yields a wave on a platinum electrode only when some oxygen is present in the solution. It cannot, therefore, be used for electrochemical determination. On the other hand, the anodic oxidation on platinum produces a wave which might be used. However, a passivation of platinum occurs at the same time. This passivation process is studied by means of potentio-kinetic, potentio-static, intensio-static curves and of pH measurements in the vicinity of the anode. A mechanism for passivation is presented, which takes into account the role of hydrogen peroxide as a reducing agent. This passivation rules out any analytical application of the oxidation reaction of hydrogen peroxide. (author) [fr

  10. Determination of hydrogen peroxide in water by chemiluminescence detection, (1). Flow injection type hydrogen peroxide detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashiro, Naoya; Uchida, Shunsuke; Satoh, Yoshiyuki; Morishima, Yusuke; Yokoyama, Hiroaki; Satoh, Tomonori; Sugama, Junichi; Yamada, Rie

    2004-01-01

    A flow injection type hydrogen peroxide detection system with a sub-ppb detection limit has been developed to determine hydrogen peroxide concentration in water sampled from a high temperature, high pressure hydrogen peroxide water loop. The hydrogen peroxide detector is based on luminol chemiluminescence spectroscopy. A small amount of sample water (20 μl) is mixed with a reagent mixture, an aqueous solution of luminol and Co 2+ catalyst, in a mixing cell which is installed just upstream from the detection cell. The optimum values for pH and the concentrations of luminol and Co 2+ ion have been determined to ensure a lower detectable limit and a higher reproducibility. The photocurrent detected by the detection system is expressed by a linear function of the hydrogen peroxide concentration in the region of lower concentration ([H 2 O 2 ] 2 O 2 ] in the region of higher concentration ([H 2 O 2 ] > 10 ppb). The luminous intensity of luminol chemiluminescence is the highest when pH of the reagent mixture is 11.0. Optimization of the major parameters gives the lowest detectable limit of 0.3 ppb. (author)

  11. Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2004-01-01

    Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

  12. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  13. Selective Electrochemical Generation of Hydrogen Peroxide from Water Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; Hansen, Heine Anton; Nørskov, Jens K.

    2015-01-01

    evolution and form hydrogen peroxide. Using density functional theory calculations, we show that the free energy of adsorbed OH* can be used to determine selectivity trends between the 2e(-) water oxidation to H2O2 and the 4e(-) oxidation to O2. We show that materials which bind oxygen intermediates...... sufficiently weakly, such as SnO2, can activate hydrogen peroxide evolution. We present a rational design principle for the selectivity in electrochemical water oxidation and identify new material candidates that could perform H2O2 evolution selectively....

  14. Intercommunication of factors the energy products and peroxidation at training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evdokimov E.I.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the training loading on the state of some parameters, characterizing the basic ways of power providing and lipid peroxidation is studied. In research took part 34 footballers in the age 19 - 25 years. Trainings were conducted in aerobic-anaerobic mode. It is set that as a result of training duration 90 minutes the endogenous antioxidant systems of man adequately get along at the processes of peroxidase. Meaningful correlative connections are exposed statistically between the intermediate products of carbohydrate, lipidic, albuminous exchange and lipid peroxidation.

  15. New catalysts for exhaust gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkoenen, M [Kemira Metalkat Oy, Oulu (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Major challenge for future catalyst systems was to develop thermally more stable washcoats for close coupled operating conditions and for engines operating under high speed and load conditions. To design these future emission systems extensive research and development was undertaken to develop methods to disperse and stabilize the key catalytic materials for operation at much higher temperatures. Second priority was to design catalysts that are more effective under low temperature exhaust conditions and have improved oxygen storage properties in the washcoats. Incorporating new materials and modified preparation technology a new generation of metallic catalyst formulations emerged, those being trimetallic K6 (Pt:Pd:Rh and bimetallic K7) (Pd+Pd:Rh). The target was to combine the best property of Pt:Rh (good NO{sub x} reduction) with that of the good HC oxidation activity of Pd and to ensure that precious metal/support interactions were positively maintained. Both K6 and K7 concepts contain special catalyst structures with optimized washcoat performance which can be brick converter configuration. Improvement in light-off, thermal stability and transient performance with these new catalyst formulations have clearly been shown in both laboratory and vehicle testing. (author) (20 refs.)

  16. New catalysts for exhaust gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkoenen, M. [Kemira Metalkat Oy, Oulu (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Major challenge for future catalyst systems was to develop thermally more stable washcoats for close coupled operating conditions and for engines operating under high speed and load conditions. To design these future emission systems extensive research and development was undertaken to develop methods to disperse and stabilize the key catalytic materials for operation at much higher temperatures. Second priority was to design catalysts that are more effective under low temperature exhaust conditions and have improved oxygen storage properties in the washcoats. Incorporating new materials and modified preparation technology a new generation of metallic catalyst formulations emerged, those being trimetallic K6 (Pt:Pd:Rh and bimetallic K7) (Pd+Pd:Rh). The target was to combine the best property of Pt:Rh (good NO{sub x} reduction) with that of the good HC oxidation activity of Pd and to ensure that precious metal/support interactions were positively maintained. Both K6 and K7 concepts contain special catalyst structures with optimized washcoat performance which can be brick converter configuration. Improvement in light-off, thermal stability and transient performance with these new catalyst formulations have clearly been shown in both laboratory and vehicle testing. (author) (20 refs.)

  17. Neutron activation analysis of automobile exhaust pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Furr, A.K.; Adair, D.J.; Parkinson, T.F.

    1977-01-01

    An approximation of the distribution of lead particulate from vehicular exhausts is given. Soil and grass (Poa trivialis) samples were collected at five-foot intervals from the roadside out to 300 feet, at ten-foot intervals from 300 to 350 feet, and at 25-foot intervals from 350 to 600 feet. All samples were irradiated twice: once for a brief period of from 10 to 120 seconds and later for periods of from 6 to 8 hours. The short irradiations were at a thermal neutron flux of 1.2x10 12 ncm -2 sec -1 (decay time=1 min, counting time=8 min). The long irradiations were at a thermal neutron flux of 1.3x10 12 ncm -2 sec -1 , and the samples counted twice at decay intervals of two days and twelve days. The counting intervals were one hour. The spectra were stored on magnetic tape for processing by an IBM 370/158 computer. This initial neutron-activation analysis study has shown that there is an extremely detailed pattern of the effluent from vehicular highway traffic which is strongly affected by micrometeorological conditions. In order to detect these patterns it is necessary to use a very compact sample grid with every possible precaution taken to ensure sample homogeneity and cleanliness. A possibility of elevated levels of pollution may exist at considerable distances from the highway, perhaps even greater than at the immediate roadside. (T.G.)

  18. Potential hazards of particulate noble metal emissions from car exhaust catalysts. Gefaehrdungspotential von partikulaeren Edelmetallemissionen aus Automobilabgas-Katalysatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeber, W.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of the present bibliographical study is to investigate into the possibility of health impairment by emissions of eroded and particulate precious metals of catalytic converters for motor-car exhaust gas. Connected therewith is a survey of environmental pollution so far caused by platinum metals and of their biological impact. The risk estimation relates solely to the data on emission obtained during normal operation; research work is still needed with respect to the chemical composition, the size distribution and the particle forms of the precious metals emitted. Besides, only limited data are available as to the environmental behaviour of the precious metals.

  19. Applications of hydrogen peroxide in electrochemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Gallegos, Alberto Armando

    1998-12-01

    It is demonstrated that hydrogen peroxide can be produced with a current efficiency of 40-70% by the cathodic reduction of oxygen at a reticulated vitreous carbon electrode in a divided flow-cell using catholytes consisting of aqueous chloride or sulphate media, pH >>{sub 2}. The supporting electrolyte does not influence either the current efficiency for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or its rate of production. The current efficiency for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is not a strong function of the potential and this suggests that 2e- and 4e- reduction of oxygen occurs in parallel at different sites on the carbon surface. Voltammetry experiments showed that (a) the I-E response for oxygen reduction at pH >>{sub 2} is a function of the electrode surface and/or the supporting electrolyte; (b) both H{sub 2} evolution and oxygen reduction are retarded on carbon with increasing ionic strength; (c) the presence of ferrous ions lead to the homogeneous decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} away from the cathode surface but their effectiveness as a catalyst for this decomposition depends on their speciation in solution which changes during an electrolysis. The use of a three-dimensional electrode fabricated from reticulated vitreous carbon allows Fenton`s reagent to be electroproduced at a practical rate which makes possible the removal of organics in slightly acidic aqueous media. A wide range of highly toxic organic molecules (phenol, catechol, hydroquinone, p-benzoquinone, oxalic acid, aniline, cresol and amaranth) have been oxidised in mild conditions and a significant fraction of the organic carbon is evolved as CO{sub 2}. In all cases studied the initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) was depleted to levels higher than 85%, indicating a complete mineralisation of the organic pollutants. The life-time of the reticulated vitreous carbon cathode was demonstrated to be over 1000 hours during two and a half years of experiments. During this time the cathode performance was very good, leading to

  20. The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge 1992: Exhaust emissions testing and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimkus, W. A.; Larsen, R. P.; Zammit, M. G.; Davies, J. G.; Salmon, G. S.; Bruetsch, R. I.

    The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the U.S. Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

  1. Correction of Measured Taxicab Exhaust Emission Data Based on Cmem Modle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Jia, T.

    2017-09-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions from urban road traffic mainly come from automobile exhaust. However, the carbon dioxide emissions obtained by the instruments are unreliable due to time delay error. In order to improve the reliability of data, we propose a method to correct the measured vehicles' carbon dioxide emissions from instrument based on the CMEM model. Firstly, the synthetic time series of carbon dioxide emissions are simulated by CMEM model and GPS velocity data. Then, taking the simulation data as the control group, the time delay error of the measured carbon dioxide emissions can be estimated by the asynchronous correlation analysis, and the outliers can be automatically identified and corrected using the principle of DTW algorithm. Taking the taxi trajectory data of Wuhan as an example, the results show that (1) the correlation coefficient between the measured data and the control group data can be improved from 0.52 to 0.59 by mitigating the systematic time delay error. Furthermore, by adjusting the outliers which account for 4.73 % of the total data, the correlation coefficient can raise to 0.63, which suggests strong correlation. The construction of low carbon traffic has become the focus of the local government. In order to respond to the slogan of energy saving and emission reduction, the distribution of carbon emissions from motor vehicle exhaust emission was studied. So our corrected data can be used to make further air quality analysis.

  2. Elevated exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

    2012-04-17

    A system includes an electrical heater and a particulate matter (PM) filter that is arranged one of adjacent to and in contact with the electrical heater. A control module selectively increases an exhaust gas temperature of an engine to a first temperature and that initiates regeneration of the PM filter using the electrical heater while the exhaust gas temperature is above the first temperature. The first temperature is greater than a maximum exhaust gas temperature at the PM filter during non-regeneration operation and is less than an oxidation temperature of the PM.

  3. Capture of Heat Energy from Diesel Engine Exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuen-Sen Lin

    2008-12-31

    Diesel generators produce waste heat as well as electrical power. About one-third of the fuel energy is released from the exhaust manifolds of the diesel engines and normally is not captured for useful applications. This project studied different waste heat applications that may effectively use the heat released from exhaust of Alaskan village diesel generators, selected the most desirable application, designed and fabricated a prototype for performance measurements, and evaluated the feasibility and economic impact of the selected application. Exhaust flow rate, composition, and temperature may affect the heat recovery system design and the amount of heat that is recoverable. In comparison with the other two parameters, the effect of exhaust composition may be less important due to the large air/fuel ratio for diesel engines. This project also compared heat content and qualities (i.e., temperatures) of exhaust for three types of fuel: conventional diesel, a synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel with a small amount of hydrogen. Another task of this project was the development of a computer-aided design tool for the economic analysis of selected exhaust heat recovery applications to any Alaskan village diesel generator set. The exhaust heat recovery application selected from this study was for heating. An exhaust heat recovery system was fabricated, and 350 hours of testing was conducted. Based on testing data, the exhaust heat recovery heating system showed insignificant effects on engine performance and maintenance requirements. From measurements, it was determined that the amount of heat recovered from the system was about 50% of the heat energy contained in the exhaust (heat contained in exhaust was evaluated based on environment temperature). The estimated payback time for 100% use of recovered heat would be less than 3 years at a fuel price of $3.50 per gallon, an interest rate of 10%, and an engine operation of 8 hours per day. Based on experimental data

  4. Modeling Induction Motor Imbalances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armah, Kabenla; Jouffroy, Jerome; Duggen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a study into the development of a generalized model for a three-phase induction motor that offers flexibility of simulating balanced and unbalanced parameter scenarios. By analyzing the interaction of forces within the motor, we achieve our main objective of deriving the system d...

  5. Artificial molecular motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassem, Salma; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Lubbe, Anouk S.; Wilson, Miriam R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Leigh, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Motor proteins are nature's solution for directing movement at the molecular level. The field of artificial molecular motors takes inspiration from these tiny but powerful machines. Although directional motion on the nanoscale performed by synthetic molecular machines is a relatively new

  6. Innovative MAN Euro V engines without exhaust aftertreatment; Innovative MAN Euro V Motorisierung ohne Abgasnachbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, W.; Raab, G.; Schaller, K.V.; Gotre, W.; Lehmann, H.; Moeller, H.; Schroeppel, W. [MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Muenchen (Germany); MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Nuernberg (Germany); MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Steyr (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) always is eager to offer products for the respective markets whereby the products are interesting for the customer under economic criteria. Additionally, the products shall not lack in the travelling comfort under consideration of the legal emission borders. Thus, a AdBlue {sup registered} free technology for all MAN series was already offered before the legal introduction of EURO IV. This technology is based on an internal-motor solution with external, cooled AGR and a PM-Cat {sup registered} -filter. This solution is esteemed highly by our customers because apart from the well-known advantages in relation to a SCR technology there were no losses with the operating cost. With EURO V which is inserted in some countries MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG returns to a long-term experience with SCR technology. The motivation for the development of a AdBlue {sup registered} free solution was the positive feedback of our customers on the basis of MAN EURO IV AGR/PM Cat technology. With the developed EURO V AGR solution, other EURO IV solutions in line with market conditions for the 'Emerging markets' can be derived with which a technology without exhaust post-treatment can be offered worldwide for our customers. This technology presents the basis for a platform concept EURO IV/V and EURO VI. In this concept, EURO IV can be presented without subsequent treatment of exhaust gases, EURO V in connection with an Oxicat and EURO VI with a SCRT system. Here, the vehicle/engine concept presents the most important components for the individual series in particular. By means of these components, the goal EURO V was achieved internal-motor without losses of operating cost and life span in relation to SCR technologies.

  7. To What Extent Can Motor Imagery Replace Motor Execution While Learning a Fine Motor Skill?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Szarkiewicz, Sylwia; Prekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Jaskowski, Wojciech; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Motor imagery is generally thought to share common mechanisms with motor execution. In the present study, we examined to what extent learning a fine motor skill by motor imagery may substitute physical practice. Learning effects were assessed by manipulating the proportion of motor execution and

  8. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Charles Joseph [QM Power, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    The objective of this project was to design and build a cost competitive, more efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) motor than what is currently available on the market. Though different potential motor architectures among QMP’s primary technology platforms were investigated and evaluated, including through the building of numerous prototypes, the project ultimately focused on scaling up QM Power, Inc.’s (QMP) Q-Sync permanent magnet synchronous motors from available sub-fractional horsepower (HP) sizes for commercial refrigeration fan applications to larger fractional horsepower sizes appropriate for HVAC applications, and to add multi-speed functionality. The more specific goal became the research, design, development, and testing of a prototype 1/2 HP Q-Sync motor that has at least two operating speeds and 87% peak efficiency compared to incumbent electronically commutated motors (EC or ECM, also known as brushless direct current (DC) motors), the heretofore highest efficiency HVACR fan motor solution, at approximately 82% peak efficiency. The resulting motor prototype built achieved these goals, hitting 90% efficiency and .95 power factor at full load and speed, and 80% efficiency and .7 power factor at half speed. Q-Sync, developed in part through a DOE SBIR grant (Award # DE-SC0006311), is a novel, patented motor technology that improves on electronically commutated permanent magnet motors through an advanced electronic circuit technology. It allows a motor to “sync” with the alternating current (AC) power flow. It does so by eliminating the constant, wasteful power conversions from AC to DC and back to AC through the synthetic creation of a new AC wave on the primary circuit board (PCB) by a process called pulse width modulation (PWM; aka electronic commutation) that is incessantly required to sustain motor operation in an EC permanent magnet motor. The Q-Sync circuit improves the power factor of the motor by removing all

  9. Effect of Terminalia chebula fruit extract on lipid peroxidation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-20

    Aug 20, 2007 ... products mainly edible vegetables and spices, have a key role in chemopreventers ... protein; dunit/minute/mg protein ; eµg/mg protein; fn moles of H2O2 ... induce peroxidation of cell membrane lipids (Bhattacharya et al., 1999). .... catalase – like activities in seminal plasma and spermatozoa. Int. J. Androl.

  10. Blood lipid metabolites and meat lipid peroxidation responses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esnart Mukumbo

    2017-06-19

    Jun 19, 2017 ... Fat and protein contents of thigh muscle and abdominal fat weight were measured and reported. Chickens fed LPO had greater serum triacylglycerol and very low ... favour lipid peroxidation, inhibit synthesis of higher homologous of ... The ambient temperature was gradually decreased from 33 °C at first.

  11. Effect of americium-241 on luminous bacteria. Role of peroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrova, M., E-mail: maka-alexandrova@rambler.r [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Rozhko, T. [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Vydryakova, G. [Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok 50, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Kudryasheva, N. [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok 50, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-15

    The effect of americium-241 ({sup 241}Am), an alpha-emitting radionuclide of high specific activity, on luminous bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum was studied. Traces of {sup 241}Am in nutrient media (0.16-6.67 kBq/L) suppressed the growth of bacteria, but enhanced luminescence intensity and quantum yield at room temperature. Lower temperature (4 {sup o}C) increased the time of bacterial luminescence and revealed a stage of bioluminescence inhibition after 150 h of bioluminescence registration start. The role of conditions of exposure the bacterial cells to the {sup 241}Am is discussed. The effect of {sup 241}Am on luminous bacteria was attributed to peroxide compounds generated in water solutions as secondary products of radioactive decay. Increase of peroxide concentration in {sup 241}Am solutions was demonstrated; and the similarity of {sup 241}Am and hydrogen peroxide effects on bacterial luminescence was revealed. The study provides a scientific basis for elaboration of bioluminescence-based assay to monitor radiotoxicity of alpha-emitting radionuclides in aquatic solutions. - Highlights: {yields} Am-241 in water solutions (A = 0.16-6.7 kBq/L) suppresses bacterial growth.{yields} Am-241 (A = 0.16-6.7 kBq/L) stimulate bacterial luminescence. {yields} Peroxides, secondary radiolysis products, cause increase of bacterial luminescence.

  12. Peroxidative damage of mitochondrial respiration is substrate-dependent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Endlicher, R.; Křiváková, P.; Rauchová, Hana; Nůsková, Hana; Červinková, Z.; Drahota, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 5 (2009), s. 685-692 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA303/06/1261 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : mitochondrial enzymes * peroxidative damage * tert-butyl hydroperoxide Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.430, year: 2009

  13. Catalytic wet peroxide oxidation of formic acid in wastewater with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-03

    Jul 3, 2016 ... The reaction was monitored by ATR FTIR by following the disappearance of the O-H ..... of hydrogen peroxide than other iron ions such as FeCl2, FeCl3, ..... HWANG D-S, LEE E-H, KIM K-W, LEE K-I and PARK S-J (1999).

  14. Combined effect of vanadium and nickel on lipid peroxidation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The exposure to nickel led to a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in SOD, GST activities in liver and GSH content in kidney and a significant (p < 0.001) increase in the hepatic MDA content and renal SOD activity. When the metals were administered in combination, the elevation of lipid peroxidation did not potentiate. However ...

  15. Hydrogen peroxide as a fungicide for fish culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, V.K.; Rach, J.J.; Schreier, Theresa M.

    1994-01-01

    Antifungal agents are needed to maintain healthy stocks of fish in the intensive culture systems currently employed in fish hatcheries. Malachite green has been the most widely used antifungal agent; however, its potential for producing teratology in animals and fish precludes further use in fish culture. Preliminary studies at the National Fisheries Research Center, La Crosse, WI, USA (La Crosse Center) indicate that hydrogen peroxide is effective for control of Saprolegnia sp. fungus on incubating eggs of rainbow trout. It is also effective against a wide variety of other organisms such as bacteria, yeasts, viruses, and spores, and has been proposed as a treatment for sea lice on salmon. Hydrogen peroxide and its primary decomposition products, oxygen and water, are not systemic poisons and are considered environmentally compatible. In response to a petition from the La Crosse Center, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently classified hydrogen peroxide as a 'low regulatory priority' when used for control of fungus on fish and fish eggs. Preliminary tests conducted at the La Crosse Center suggest that prophylactic treatments of 250 to 500 ppm (based on 100% active ingredient) for 15 minutes every other day will inhibit fungal infections on healthy rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs. This treatment regime also seems to inhibit fungal development and increase hatching success among infected eggs. Efficacy and safety of hydrogen peroxide as a fungicide for fish are currently being evaluated.

  16. Sperm DNA damage in relation to lipid peroxidation following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationships between lipid peroxidation (LPO) and sperm DNA damage following freezing-thawing of boar semen in different extenders. The comet assay was used to measure the extent of sperm DNA damage in a cryoprotectant-free extender or in cryoprotectant-based extenders after single ...

  17. Effect of foliar application of salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 42; Issue 2. Effect of foliar application of salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide and a xyloglucan oligosaccharide on capsiate content and gene expression associatedwith capsinoids synthesis in Capsicum annuum L. AY ZUNUN-PÉREZ T GUEVARA-FIGUEROA SN ...

  18. The kinetic study of oxidation of iodine by hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrel, L.; Chopin, J.

    1996-01-01

    Iodine chemistry is one of the most important subjects of research in the field of reactor safety because this element can form volatile species which represent a biological hazard for environment. As the iodine and the peroxide are both present in the sump of the containment in the event of a severe accident on a light water nuclear reactor, it can be important to improve the knowledge on the reaction of oxidation of iodine by hydrogen peroxide. The kinetics of iodine by hydrogen peroxide has been studied in acid solution using two different analytical methods. The first is a UV/Vis spectrophotometer which records the transmitted intensity at 460 nm as a function of time to follow the decrease of iodine concentration, the second is an amperometric method which permits to record the increase of iodine+1 with time thanks to the current of reduction of iodine+1 to molecular iodine. The iodine was generated by Dushman reaction and the series of investigations were made at 40 o C in a continuous stirring tank reactor. The influence of the initial concentrations of iodine, iodate, hydrogen peroxide, H + ions has been determined. The kinetics curves comprise two distinct chemical phases both for molecular iodine and for iodine+1. The relative importance of the two processes is connected to the initial concentrations of [I 2 ], [IO 3 - ], [H 2 O 2 ] and [H + ]. A rate law has been determined for the two steps for molecular iodine. (author) figs., tabs., 22 refs

  19. Blood lipid metabolites and meat lipid peroxidation responses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were collected from broilers to evaluate serum biochemical metabolites on day 41. Thigh meat samples were provided and analysed after 1, 5 and 10 days' storage to evaluate lipid peroxidation at the end of the experiment. Fat and protein contents of thigh muscle and abdominal fat weight were measured ...

  20. Hydrogen peroxide in exhaled air of healthy children: reference values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Q. Jobsis (Quirijn); R.H. Raatgeep (Rolien); S.L. Schellekens; W.C.J. Hop (Wim); P.W.M. Hermans (Peter); J.C. de Jongste (Johan)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAn increased content of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a marker of inflammation, has been described in the condensate of exhaled air from adults and children with inflammatory lung disorders, including asthma. However, the normal range of [H2O2] in the exhaled

  1. Plasma Lipid Peroxidation and Total Antioxidant Status among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: The oxidative modification hypothesis of atherosclerosis predicts that low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) oxidation is an early event in atherosclerosis and that oxidized LDL-C contributes to atherogenesis. OBJECTIVE: To determine a link, if any, between the plasma lipid peroxidation and total ...

  2. Sol – Gel synthesis and characterization of magnesium peroxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaison, J; Chan, Y S; Ashok raja, C; Balakumar, S

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium peroxide is an excellent source of oxygen in agriculture applications, for instance it is used in waste management as a material for soil bioremediation to remove contaminants from polluted underground water, biological wastes treatment to break down hydrocarbon, etc. In the present study, sol-gel synthesis of magnesium peroxide (MgO 2 ) nanoparticles is reported. Magnesium peroxide is odourless; fine peroxide which releases oxygen when reacts with water. During the sol-gel synthesis, the magnesium malonate intermediate is formed which was then calcinated to obtain MgO 2 nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using Thermo gravimetric -Differential Thermal Analysis (TG- DTA), X-Ray Diffraction studies (XRD) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM). Our study provides a clear insight that the formation of magnesium malonate during the synthesis was due to the reaction between magnesium acetate, oxalic acid and ethanol. In our study, we can conclude that the calcination temperature has a strong influence on particle size, morphology, monodispersity and the chemistry of the particles. (paper)

  3. Can hydrogen peroxide and quercetin improve production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present work was to determine if hydrogen peroxide in combination with quercetin or indole butyric acid, can modify some characteristics related to rooting and development in cuttings of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla. Cuttings were periodically evaluated at 30, 60 and 90 days according to the ...

  4. Hydrogen peroxide and radiation water chemistry of boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, E.; Watanabe, A.; Endo, M.; Takahashi, M.; Karasawa, H.

    1991-01-01

    G-values and rate constants at elevated temperature are reviewed and updated for computer simulation of water radiolysis in BWRs. Quantitative relationship between g-values of H 2 and OH was found out to govern numerically the radiolytic environment in the BWR primary system. Thermal decomposition of hydrogen peroxide was measured in stagnant water in a quartz cell and the rate constant was determined at 2.4 x 10 -7 s -1 with the activation energy of 53.3 kJ/mol. Behaviors of hydrogen peroxide under HWC simulated with updated variables were consistent with plant observation at Forsmark 1 and 2. The most likely decomposition scheme of hydrogen peroxide at surface was identified as H 2 O 2 → H + HO 2 . Based on the surface decomposition process, actual level of hydrogen peroxide was estimated at 200-400 ppb under NWC condition from measured at BWR sampling stations. The estimation was consistent with the numerical simulation of BWR water radiolysis with updated variables. (author)

  5. Desiccation-induced changes in viability, lipid peroxidation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-05-31

    May 31, 2012 ... Key words: Intermediate seeds, desiccation, reactive oxygen species, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation,. Mimusops ... between ROS production and cell defenses determines ... needed for reduction of dehydroascorbate, which is .... was calculated using the extinction coefficient (6.2 mM-1cm-1) for.

  6. Electrochemical reduction of hydrogen peroxide on stainless steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    wide range of industrial processes such as food processing (e.g. in the ... tron transfer effect of mitochondria.4 These radicals. (reactive .... of H2O2 without undergoing fouling or poisoning due to any inter- .... adsorbed OHads species was shown operative at po- tentials of .... Douglass W C 2003 Hydrogen peroxide medical.

  7. The basic chemistry and photochemistry behind hydrogen peroxide tooth whitening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, N.D.; Fairley, P.D.; Mohan, V.; Jumeaux, C.

    2013-01-01

    Tooth whitening using hydrogen peroxide gel formulation is a complexprocess which involves both chemistry and physics, and there is still some controversy about the efficiency of whitening processes, particularly with respect to the roles of temperature and irradiation with light. In this work we

  8. Linear motor coil assembly and linear motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    An ironless linear motor (5) comprising a magnet track (53) and a coil assembly (50) operating in cooperation with said magnet track (53) and having a plurality of concentrated multi-turn coils (31 a-f, 41 a-d, 51 a-k), wherein the end windings (31E) of the coils (31 a-f, 41 a-e) are substantially

  9. Spinal cord: motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, Kourosh; Roos, Raymond P

    2013-02-01

    Spinal cord motor neuron diseases affect lower motor neurons in the ventral horn. This article focuses on the most common spinal cord motor neuron disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which also affects upper motor neurons. Also discussed are other motor neuron diseases that only affect the lower motor neurons. Despite the identification of several genes associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the pathogenesis of this complex disease remains elusive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of administration of the standardized Panax ginseng extract G115 on hepatic antioxidant function after exhaustive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voces, J; Alvarez, A I; Vila, L; Ferrando, A; Cabral de Oliveira, C; Prieto, J G

    1999-06-01

    The effect of prolonged treatment with the standardized Panax ginseng extract G115 on the antioxidant capacity of the liver was investigated. For this purpose, rats that had received G115 orally at different doses for 3 months and untreated control rats were subjected to exhaustive exercise on a treadmill. A bell-shaped dose response on running time was obtained. The results showed that the administration of G115 significantly increases the hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity (GPX) and the reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in the liver, with a dose-dependent reduction of the thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS). After the exercise, there is reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation, as evidenced by the TBARS levels in both the controls and the treated animals. The GPX (glutathione peroxidase) and SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity are also significantly increased in the groups receiving G115, compared with the controls. The hepatic transaminase levels, ALT (Alanine-amino-transferase) and AST (Aspartate-amino-transferase), in the recuperation phase 48 h after the exercise, indicate a clear hepatoprotective effect related to the administration of the standardized Panax ginseng extract G115. At hepatic level, G115 increases the antioxidant capacity, with a marked reduction of the effects of the oxidative stress induced by the exhaustive exercise.

  11. LIPID PEROXIDATION AND JOB STRESS IN DENTAL HEALTHCARE WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Melnikova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study devoted to the lipid peroxidation indices in dentists target group as a marker of psycho-emotional state. We revealed increase in the level of TBA-active products in female and male dentists during job stress. There was strong decrease in level of TBA-active products in control group of dentist that study during the lectures. Activation of lipid peroxidation in dentists during dentist examination can be considered as non-specific component of reactions towards the stressors of professional activities. We also revealed that the initial level of TBA-active products in female and male dentists before the outpatient dental reception was higher than that of dentists that study before lectures. This is indicates the mobilization of sympathetic nervous system before beginning of the working day. The contents of the level of TBA-active products in the oral fluid of female and male dentists after dental examination significantly increased, whereas these indices decreased in the group of dentists that study after the lectures. The increasing of TBA-active products in dentists after outpatient dental reception was by 42.5 % and 77 % higher compared with a group of dentists that study in the lecture classes. The results of correlation analysis suggest the influence of lipid peroxidation processes on the cardiovascular and blood system of dentists during job stress. Activation of lipid peroxidation in dentists during dental examination can be considered as non-specific component of the body's response to stressors influence in professional activities. Key words: dentists, activation of lipid peroxidation, psychoemotional stress, job stress.

  12. Dose Rate Calculations for Rotary Mode Core Sampling Exhauster

    CERN Document Server

    Foust, D J

    2000-01-01

    This document provides the calculated estimated dose rates for three external locations on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) exhauster HEPA filter housing, per the request of Characterization Field Engineering.

  13. Dose Rate Calculations for Rotary Mode Core Sampling Exhauster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FOUST, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides the calculated estimated dose rates for three external locations on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) exhauster HEPA filter housing, per the request of Characterization Field Engineering

  14. Effect Effects of Auricularia auricula Polysaccharides on Exhaustive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exhaustive Swimming Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Mice. Haitao Hao .... of the College of Life Sciences, China Jiliang. University ..... The delicate physiological balance between oxidative ... This work was supported by funds from.

  15. Muscle interstitial potassium kinetics during intense exhaustive exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai; Mohr, Magni; Pedersen, Lasse Dannemann

    2003-01-01

    Interstitial K+ ([K+]i) was measured in human skeletal muscle by microdialysis during exhaustive leg exercise, with (AL) and without (L) previous intense arm exercise. In addition, the reproducibility of the [K+]i determinations was examined. Possible microdialysis-induced rupture of the sarcolemma...... was assessed by measurement of carnosine in the dialysate, because carnosine is only expected to be found intracellularly. Changes in [K+]i could be reproduced, when exhaustive leg exercise was performed on two different days, with a between-day difference of approximately 0.5 mM at rest and 1.5 m......M at exhaustion. The time to exhaustion was shorter in AL than in L (2.7 +/- 0.3 vs. 4.0 +/- 0.3 min; P exercise period in AL compared with L (9.2 +/- 0.7 vs. 6.4 +/- 0.9 mM; P

  16. Effect of diesel generator exhaust pollutants on growth of Vinca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The effects of exhaust pollutants of generator on root and shoot length, root and shoot weight, number of .... single cylinders with cooling system of air dry. The frequency is 50 .... and reproduction along CO2 gradients. Nonlinear.

  17. Hydrogen peroxide oxidant fuel cell systems for ultra-portable applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, T. I.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will address the issues of using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant fuel in a miniature DMFC system. Cell performance for DMFC based fuel cells operating on hydrogen peroxide will be presented and discussed.

  18. Evidence of significant central fatigue in patients with cancer-related fatigue during repetitive elbow flexions till perceived exhaustion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Cai

    Full Text Available To investigate whether fatigue induced by an intermittent motor task in patients with cancer-related fatigue (CRF is more central or peripheral.Ten patients with CRF who were off chemo and radiation therapies and 14 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Participants completed a Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI and performed a fatigue task consisting of intermittent elbow-flexion contractions at submaximal (40% maximal voluntary contraction intensity till self-perceived exhaustion. Twitch force was elicited by an electrical stimulation applied to the biceps brachii muscle. The relative degree of peripheral (muscle vs. central contribution to fatigue induced by the intermittent motor task (IMT was assessed using twitch force ratio (TF ratio defined as post IMT twitch force to pre IMT twitch force. The total number of trials (intermittent contractions and total duration of all trials performed by each subject were also quantified.BFI scores were higher (p < 0.001 in CRF than controls, indicating greater feeling of fatigue in CRF patients than controls. A significantly smaller number of trials and shorter total duration of the trials (p < 0.05 were observed in CRF than control participants. The TF ratio (0.81 ± 0.05 in CRF was higher (p < 0.05 compared with that of controls (0.62 ± 0.05, suggesting CRF patients experienced a significantly lower degree of muscle (peripheral fatigue at the time of perceived exhaustion.Consistent with prior findings for fatigue under submaximal sustained contraction, our results indicate that motor fatigue in CRF is more of central than peripheral origin during IMT. Significant central fatigue in CRF patients limits their ability to prolong motor performance.

  19. Exhaustible natural resources, normal prices and intertemporal equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Parrinello, Sergio

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes an extension of the classical theory of normal prices to an n-commodity economy with exhaustible natural resources. The central idea is developed by two analytical steps. Firstly, it is assumed that a given flow of an exhaustible resource in short supply is combined with the coexistence of two methods of production using that resource. Sraffa’s equations are reinterpreted by adopting the concept of effectual supply of natural resources and avoiding the assumption of perfec...

  20. A system recovering heat from exhaust gases. Abgasenergie-Rueckgewinnungseinrichtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, E; Hultsch, H; Brendorp, W

    1990-08-16

    The proposed exhaust gas heat recovery system is provided with a hydraulic clutch (8) which is located between a gas tubine (2) to be driven by the exhaust gases of an internal combustion engine (20) and a drive unit (18) of the internal combustion engine (20). A mechanical blocking device (6) prevents the turbine from running at explosion speed when the hydraulic clutch (8) is emptied or when the oil pressure of the hydraulic clutch drops below a certain minimum.

  1. Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0644 TITLE: Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Chun-Ju...Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0644 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a cell population with acquired perpetuating self-renewal properties which

  2. LOFT diesel generator ''A'' exhaust stack seismic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    A stress analysis of the LOFT Diesel Generator ''A'' Exhaust Stack was performed to determine its reaction to Safe-Shutdown Earthquake loads. The exhaust stack silencer and supporting foundation was found to be inadequate for the postulated seismic accelerations. Lateral support is required to prevent overturning of the silencer pedestal and reinforcement of the 4'' x 0.5'' silencer base straps is necessary. Basic requirements for this additional support are discussed

  3. [Children and motor competence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmundsson, H; Haga, M

    2000-10-20

    Recently, the topic of motor competence has figured prominently in the media. The claims made are many, but the research that support the statements is seldom cited. The aim of this review article is to address that deficiency by documenting what is really known about the motor competence of children. Motor competence not only allows children to carry out everyday practical tasks, but it is also an important determinant of their level of self-esteem and of their popularity and status in their peer group. While many studies have shown a significant correlation between motor problems and other problems in the social sphere, it has been difficult to establish causal relationships with any degree of confidence, as there appear to be several interactions which need to be taken into account. Research has shown that 6-10% of Norwegian children in the 7 to 10 year age group have a motor competence well below the norm. It is unusual for motor problems to simply disappear over time. In the absence of intervention the syndrome is likely to continue to manifest itself. More recent research points to some of the circularity in this causal network, children with motor problems having been shown to be less physically active than their peers. In a larger health perspective this in itself can have very serious consequences for the child.

  4. Diesel engine exhaust particulate filter with intake throttling incineration control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludecke, O.; Rosebrock, T.

    1980-07-08

    A description is given of a diesel engine exhaust filter and particulate incineration system in combination with a diesel engine having a normally unthrottled air induction system for admitting combustion air to the engine and an exhaust system for carrying off spent combustion products exhausted from the engine, said filter and incineration system comprising: a combustion resistant filter disposed in the exhaust system and operative to collect and retain portions of the largely carbonaceous particulate matter contained in the engine exhaust products, said fiber being capable of withstanding without substantial damage internal temperatures sufficient to burn the collected particulate matter, a throttle in the indication system and operable to restrict air flow into the engine to reduce the admittance of excess combustion air and thereby increase engine exhaust gas temperature, and means to actuate said throttle periodically during engine operation to an air flow restricting burn mode capable of raising the particulates in said filter to their combustion temperature under certain engine operating conditions and to maintain said throttle mode for an interval adequate to burn retained particulates in the filter.

  5. Simulation of exhaust gas heat recovery from a spray dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golman, Boris; Julklang, Wittaya

    2014-01-01

    This study explored various alternatives in improving the energy utilization of spray drying process through the exhaust gas heat recovery. Extensible and user-friendly simulation code was written in Visual Basic for Applications within Microsoft Excel for this purpose. The effects of process parameters were analyzed on the energy efficiency and energy saving in the industrial-scale spray drying system with exhaust gas heat recovery in an air-to-air heat exchanger and in the system with partial recirculation of exhaust air. The spray dryer is equipped with an indirect heater for heating the drying air. The maximum gains of 16% in energy efficiency and 50% in energy saving were obtained for spray drying system equipped with heat exchanger for exhaust air heat recovery. In addition, 34% in energy efficiency and 61% in energy saving for system with recirculation of exhaust air in the present range of process parameters. The high energy efficiency was obtained during drying of large amount of dilute slurry. The energy saving was increased using the large amount of hot drying air. - Highlights: • We model industrial-scale spray drying process with the exhaust gas heat recovery. • We develop an Excel VBA computer program to simulate spray dryer with heat recovery. • We examine effects of process parameters on energy efficiency and energy saving. • High energy efficiency is obtained during drying of large amount of dilute slurry. • Energy saving is increased using the large amount of hot drying air

  6. Protective mechanisms against peptide and protein peroxides generated by singlet oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Philip E; Dean, Roger T; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    or detoxify such peroxides. It is shown that catalase, horseradish peroxidase, and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase do not react rapidly with these peroxides. Oxymyoglobin and oxyhemoglobin, but not the met (Fe3+) forms of these proteins, react with peptide but not protein, peroxides with oxidation of the heme iron...

  7. Effects of gasoline and ethanol-gasoline exhaust exposure on human bronchial epithelial and natural killer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Michèle; Usemann, Jakob; Bisig, Christoph; Comte, Pierre; Czerwinski, Jan; Mayer, Andreas C R; Beier, Konstantin; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Latzin, Philipp; Müller, Loretta

    2017-12-01

    Air pollution exposure, including passenger car emissions, may cause substantial respiratory health effects and cancer death. In western countries, the majority of passenger cars are driven by gasoline fuel. Recently, new motor technologies and ethanol fuels have been introduced to the market, but potential health effects have not been thoroughly investigated. We developed and verified a coculture model composed of bronchial epithelial cells (ECs) and natural killer cells (NKs) mimicking the human airways to compare toxic effects between pure gasoline (E0) and ethanol-gasoline-blend (E85, 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline) exhaust emitted from a flexfuel gasoline car. We drove a steady state cycle, exposed ECs for 6h and added NKs. We assessed exhaust effects in ECs alone and in cocultures by RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and oxidative stress assay. We found no toxic effects after exposure to E0 or E85 compared to air controls. Comparison between E0 and E85 exposure showed a weak association for less oxidative DNA damage after E85 exposure compared to E0. Our results indicate that short-term exposure to gasoline exhaust may have no major toxic effects in ECs and NKs and that ethanol as part of fuel for gasoline cars may be favorable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exhaust duct excludes the length of pipe representative of the vehicle exhaust pipe) shall be minimized... exhaust manifold, immediately after exhaust aftertreatment systems, or after a length of pipe representative of the vehicle exhaust pipe; or (iv) Partial dilution of the exhaust gas prior to entering the...

  9. A comparative study on two explosive acetone peroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorshev, V. Yu.; Sinditskii, V.P., E-mail: vps@rctu.ru; Smirnov, S.P.

    2013-12-20

    Highlights: • The most accurate heats of DADP and TATP sublimation were evaluated from experimental vapor pressures in a widened temperature range. • DADP is more volatile while more thermally stable peroxide than TATP. • DADP reveals lesser sensitivity to drop-weight impact, flame temperature, burning rate, and initiating efficiency as compared with TATP. - Abstract: Two explosive cyclic acetone peroxides, diacetone diperoxide (DADP) and triacetone triperoxide (TATP) have been studied in respect of thermal decomposition, burning behavior, impact sensitivity, and initiating efficiency. Using the glass Bourdon gauge technique, the vapor pressures of TATP and DADP were determined over the temperature range 75–144 °C and 67–120 °C, respectively. The kinetic parameters of decomposition of the peroxides in the gas phase have been obtained in the temperature interval of 140–200 °C. The decomposition of both DADP and TATP followed the first-order reaction to high degrees of decay with close activation energies of 159.2 kJ/mol (38.0 kcal/mol) and 165.8 kJ/mol (39.6 kcal/mol), respectively. The decomposition rate constants of DADP were found to be approximately 2 times less than those of TATP. The linear burning rate of DADP measured in a constant-pressure window bomb appeared to be approximately 5 times less than that of TATP. Temperature profiles in the combustion wave were measured at subatmospheric pressures with the help of thin tungsten-rhenium thermocouples. The leading reaction on combustion of both volatile peroxides was assumed to occur in the gas phase. Kinetic parameters of the leading reaction derived from the combustion data showed a good agreement with kinetic parameters of low-temperature thermal decomposition extrapolated to the high-temperature flame zone. In the drop-weight impact test, DADP appeared to be notably less sensitive peroxide than TATP. No deflagration-to-detonation transition was observed when RDX was attempted to explode by

  10. Impacts of outboard motors on aquatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, M.J.; Woodin, B.R.; Shea, D.S.; Stegeman, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Outboard motor emissions often are localized in coastal and freshwater ponds, which may make their impact comparable to larger sources that discharge at greater distances from these locales. Outboard motor exhaust gases are rapidly cooled with some fractions being condensed and remaining in the water column rather than being released into the atmosphere. Here the authors compare the hydrocarbon emissions and biochemical effects of 2-cycle vs. 4-cycle engines. The engines were run for the same periods in 30-gallon containers and quantities and identities of hydrocarbons in the water were determined. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons including 2-ring to 5-ring compounds and alkylated derivatives were detected. The concentration of total polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was 5-fold less in the water from the 4 cycle than from the 2 cycle engine. However, the concentrations of 4- and 5-ring PAHs were not significantly different in water from the two engines. Exposure of killifish (Fundulus diaphanus) to diluted water containing emissions caused an induction of the content and catalytic activity of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A), a sensitive biomarker for hydrocarbon exposure. CYP1A protein was induced by both, but inhibition of EROD induction occurred with greater concentrations of 4-cycle water. Relating these results to field data for CYP1A in fish from ponds that are or are not exposed to boating activity suggests that boating could account for a substantial part of the induction seen

  11. Design and Experimental Analysis of an Exhaust Air Energy Recovery Wind Turbine Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fazlizan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT was positioned at the discharge outlet of a cooling tower electricity generator. To avoid a negative impact on the performance of the cooling tower and to optimize the turbine performance, the determination of the VAWT position in the discharge wind stream was conducted by experiment. The preferable VAWT position is where the higher wind velocity matches the positive torque area of the turbine rotation. With the proper matching among the VAWT configurations (blade number, airfoil type, operating tip-speed-ratio, etc. and exhaust air profile, the turbine system was not only able to recover the wasted kinetic energy, it also reduced the fan motor power consumption by 4.5% and increased the cooling tower intake air flow-rate by 11%. The VAWT had a free running rotational speed of 479 rpm, power coefficient of 10.6%, and tip-speed-ratio of 1.88. The double multiple stream tube theory was used to explain the VAWT behavior in the non-uniform wind stream. For the actual size of a cooling tower with a 2.4 m outlet diameter and powered by a 7.5 kW fan motor, it was estimated that a system with two VAWTs (side-by-side can generate 1 kW of power which is equivalent to 13% of energy recovery.

  12. Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  13. Motor Carrier Crash Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Contains data on large trucks and buses involved in Federally reportable crashes as per Title 49 U.S.C. Part 390.5 (crashes involving a commercial motor vehicle, and...

  14. High Power Density Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascak, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    With the growing concerns of global warming, the need for pollution-free vehicles is ever increasing. Pollution-free flight is one of NASA's goals for the 21" Century. , One method of approaching that goal is hydrogen-fueled aircraft that use fuel cells or turbo- generators to develop electric power that can drive electric motors that turn the aircraft's propulsive fans or propellers. Hydrogen fuel would likely be carried as a liquid, stored in tanks at its boiling point of 20.5 K (-422.5 F). Conventional electric motors, however, are far too heavy (for a given horsepower) to use on aircraft. Fortunately the liquid hydrogen fuel can provide essentially free refrigeration that can be used to cool the windings of motors before the hydrogen is used for fuel. Either High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) or high purity metals such as copper or aluminum may be used in the motor windings. Superconductors have essentially zero electrical resistance to steady current. The electrical resistance of high purity aluminum or copper near liquid hydrogen temperature can be l/lOO* or less of the room temperature resistance. These conductors could provide higher motor efficiency than normal room-temperature motors achieve. But much more importantly, these conductors can carry ten to a hundred times more current than copper conductors do in normal motors operating at room temperature. This is a consequence of the low electrical resistance and of good heat transfer coefficients in boiling LH2. Thus the conductors can produce higher magnetic field strengths and consequently higher motor torque and power. Designs, analysis and actual cryogenic motor tests show that such cryogenic motors could produce three or more times as much power per unit weight as turbine engines can, whereas conventional motors produce only 1/5 as much power per weight as turbine engines. This summer work has been done with Litz wire to maximize the current density. The current is limited by the amount of heat it

  15. Split-phase motor running as capacitor starts motor and as capacitor run motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Asizehi ENESI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the input parameters of a single phase split-phase induction motor is taken to investigate and to study the output performance characteristics of capacitor start and capacitor run induction motor. The value of these input parameters are used in the design characteristics of capacitor run and capacitor start motor with each motor connected to rated or standard capacitor in series with auxiliary winding or starting winding respectively for the normal operational condition. The magnitude of capacitor that will develop maximum torque in capacitor start motor and capacitor run motor are investigated and determined by simulation. Each of these capacitors is connected to the auxiliary winding of split-phase motor thereby transforming it into capacitor start or capacitor run motor. The starting current and starting torque of the split-phase motor (SPM, capacitor run motor (CRM and capacitor star motor (CSM are compared for their suitability in their operational performance and applications.

  16. The effect of cinnamon extract and long-term aerobic training on heart function, biochemical alterations and lipid profile following exhaustive exercise in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalzadeh, Reza; Shaghaghi, Mehrnoush; Mohammadi, Mustafa; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Mohammadi, Zeynab

    2014-12-01

    Regular training is suggested to offer a host of benefits especially on cardiovascular system. In addition, medicinal plants can attenuate oxidative stress-mediated damages induced by stressor insults. In this study, we investigated the concomitant effect of cinnamon extract and long-term aerobic training on cardiac function, biochemical alterations and lipid profile following exhaustive exercise. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided into five groups depending on receiving regular training, cinnamon bark extraction, none or both of them, and then encountered with an exhausted exercise in last session. An 8-week endurance training program was designed with a progressive increase in training speed and time. Myocardial hemodynamics was monitored using a balloon-tipped catheter inserted into left ventricles. Blood samples were collected for analyzing biochemical markers, lipid profiles and lipid-peroxidation marker, malondealdehyde (MDA). Trained animals showed an enhanced cardiac force and contractility similar to cinnamon-treated rats. Co-application of regular training and cinnamon had additive effect in cardiac hemodynamic (Ptraining and supplementation with cinnamon significantly decreased serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level and HDL/LDL ratio as compared to control group (Ptraining significantly reduced MDA level elevation induced by exhausted exercise (Ptraining improved cardiac hemodynamic through an additive effect. The positive effects of cinnamon and regular training on cardiac function were associated with a reduced serum MDA level and an improved blood lipid profile.

  17. Electrodynamic linear motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munehiro, H

    1980-05-29

    When driving the carriage of a printer through a rotating motor, there are problems regarding the limited accuracy of the carriage position due to rotation or contraction and ageing of the cable. In order to solve the problem, a direct drive system was proposed, in which the printer carriage is driven by a linear motor. If one wants to keep the motor circuit of such a motor compact, then the magnetic flux density in the air gap must be reduced or the motor travel must be reduced. It is the purpose of this invention to create an electrodynamic linear motor, which on the one hand is compact and light and on the other hand has a relatively high constant force over a large travel. The invention is characterised by the fact that magnetic fields of alternating polarity are generated at equal intervals in the magnetic field, and that the coil arrangement has 2 adjacent coils, whose size corresponds to half the length of each magnetic pole. A logic circuit is provided to select one of the two coils and to determine the direction of the current depending on the signals of a magnetic field sensor on the coil arrangement.

  18. Differential sensitivity of cellular membranes to peroxidative processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijbers, W.A.R.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a morphological and cytochemical investigation into the effects of both vitamin E deficiency and X-irradiation on the ultrastructure and enzyme activities of several cellular membranes, particularly the plasma membrane and the membranes of lysosomes, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. In the vitamin E deficient situation, the radicals and peroxides only originate near mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, so that these membrane systems suffer from changes. After irradiation of the liver of both the control duckling and the deficient duckling, radicals originate in all parts of the cell. Due to their high content of lipids and cholesterols, peroxides will occur mainly in plasma membranes and lysosomal membranes. Moreover, in these membranes there is hardly any protection by vitamin E

  19. Ultraviolet- and sunlight-induced lipid peroxidation in liposomal membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, T.K.; Chatterjee, S.N.

    1980-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation and sunlight caused lipid peroxidation in the liposomal membrane (as detected by measurement of the oxidation index, A 233 /A 215 , and the amount of malondialdehyde formed) and made the membrane leaky (as revealed by the release of the trapped chromate anions). The oxidation index and the formation of malondialdehyde increased linearly with increasing dose of radiation and depended significantly on the dose rate. The effects were smaller in liposomes derived from Vibrio cholerae phospholipid than in those derived from egg lecithin. The effects of the radiation dose and dose rate on hemolysis and peroxidation (MDA formation) of the erythrocyte membrane followed a similar pattern. A direct correlation between the percentage leakage of chromate (Y) and the oxidation index (X) of the liposomal system was obtained as Y = 236.5 x X

  20. Assay to detect lipid peroxidation upon exposure to nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Timothy M; Neun, Barry W; Stern, Stephan T

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes a method for the analysis of human hepatocarcinoma cells (HEP G2) for lipid peroxidation products, such as malondialdehyde (MDA), following treatment with nanoparticle formulations. Oxidative stress has been identified as a likely mechanism of nanoparticle toxicity, and cell-based in vitro systems for evaluation of nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress are widely considered to be an important component of biocompatibility screens. The products of lipid peroxidation, lipid hydroperoxides, and aldehydes, such as MDA, can be measured via a thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. In this assay, which can be performed in cell culture or in cell lysate, MDA combines with thiobarbituric acid (TBA) to form a fluorescent adduct that can be detected at an excitation wavelength of 530 nm and an emission wavelength of 550 nm. The results are then expressed as MDA equivalents, normalized to total cellular protein (determined by Bradford assay).

  1. Hydrogen Peroxide: A Key Chemical for Today's Sustainable Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciriminna, Rosaria; Albanese, Lorenzo; Meneguzzo, Francesco; Pagliaro, Mario

    2016-12-20

    The global utilization of hydrogen peroxide, a green oxidant that decomposes in water and oxygen, has gone from 0.5 million tonnes per year three decades ago to 4.5 million tonnes per year in 2014, and is still climbing. With the aim of expanding the utilization of this eminent green chemical across different industrial and civil sectors, the production and use of hydrogen peroxide as a green industrial oxidant is reviewed herein to provide an overview of the explosive growth of its industrial use over the last three decades and of the state of the art in its industrial manufacture, with important details of what determines the viability of the direct production from oxygen and hydrogen compared with the traditional auto-oxidation process. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Study on the agglomeration kinetics of uranium peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, M.; Mojica Rodriguez, L.A. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, RadioChemistry and Process Department, 17171, Bagnols-sur-Ceze 30207 (France); Muhr, H.; Plasari, E. [Reaction and Process Engineering Laboratory, CNRS, University of Lorraine. 1 rue Grandville, BP 20451, Nancy 54001 (France); Auger, F. [Areva Mines/SEPA. 2 route de Lavaugrasse, Bessines-sur-Gartempe 87250 (France)

    2016-07-01

    Considering the previous study dealing with thermodynamic and kinetic phenomena (nucleation and crystal growth) during the uranium peroxide precipitation, this work focuses on the agglomeration mechanism. It provides the results obtained from the experiments carried out in a mixed suspension - mixed product removal (MSMPR) mixer operating at steady state. The influence of the operating parameters on the uranium peroxide agglomerates was studied in order to identify the agglomeration kernel. The method is based on the resolution of the population balance equation using the method of moments and the experimental particle size distributions. The results lead to a size-independent kernel directly proportional to the crystal growth rate. Under the stirring conditions studied, the agglomeration appears to be significantly reduced by mixing which results in a kernel inversely proportional to the average shear rate. The agglomeration kinetic law obtained in this study will be used for the process modelling in a further study. (authors)

  3. Carbon catalysts for electrochemical hydrogen peroxide production in acidic media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Čolić, Viktor; Yang, Sungeun; Révay, Zsolt

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is a commodity chemical, as it is an environmentally friendly oxidant. The electrochemical production of H2O2 from oxygen and water by the reduction of oxygen is of great interest, as it would allow the decentralized, on-site, production of pure H2O2. The ability to run...... the reaction in an acidic electrolyte with high performance is particularly important, as it would allow the use of polymer solid electrolytes and the production of pH-neutral hydrogen peroxide. Carbon catalysts, which are cheap, abundant, durable and can be highly selective show promise as potential catalysts...... for such systems. In this work, we examine the electrocatalytic performance and properties of seven commercially available carbon materials for H2O2 production by oxygen electroreduction. We show that the faradaic efficiencies for the reaction lie in a wide range of 18-82% for different carbon catalysts. In order...

  4. Study on the agglomeration kinetics of uranium peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, M.; Mojica Rodriguez, L.A.; Muhr, H.; Plasari, E.; Auger, F.

    2016-01-01

    Considering the previous study dealing with thermodynamic and kinetic phenomena (nucleation and crystal growth) during the uranium peroxide precipitation, this work focuses on the agglomeration mechanism. It provides the results obtained from the experiments carried out in a mixed suspension - mixed product removal (MSMPR) mixer operating at steady state. The influence of the operating parameters on the uranium peroxide agglomerates was studied in order to identify the agglomeration kernel. The method is based on the resolution of the population balance equation using the method of moments and the experimental particle size distributions. The results lead to a size-independent kernel directly proportional to the crystal growth rate. Under the stirring conditions studied, the agglomeration appears to be significantly reduced by mixing which results in a kernel inversely proportional to the average shear rate. The agglomeration kinetic law obtained in this study will be used for the process modelling in a further study. (authors)

  5. Lycopene control of benzophenone-sensitized lipid peroxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Dragan; Marković, Dejan

    2012-05-01

    Lycopene antioxidant activity in the presence of two different mixtures of phospholipids in hexane solution, under continuous regime of UV-irradiation from three different ranges (UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C) has been evaluated in this work. Lycopene expected role was to control lipid peroxidation, by scavenging free radicals generated by UV-irradiation, in the presence and in the absence of selected photosensitizer, benzophenone. This work shows that lycopene undergoes to UV-induced destruction (bleaching), highly dependent on the incident photons energy input, more expressed in the presence than in the absence of benzophenone. The further increase ("excess") of its bleaching is undoubtedly related to the further increase of its antioxidant activity in the presence of benzophenone, having the same cause: increase of (phospholipids peroxidation) chain-breaking activities.

  6. Preparation of water soluble chitosan by hydrolysis using hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhenqiang; Wu, Shengjun; Chen, Jinhua

    2013-08-01

    Chitosan is not soluble in water, which limits its wide application particularly in the medicine and food industry. In the present study, water soluble chitosan (WSC) was prepared by hydrolyzing chitosan using hydrogen peroxide under the catalysis of phosphotungstic acid in homogeneous phase. Factors affecting hydrolysis were investigated and the optimal hydrolysis conditions were determined. The WSC structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The resulting products were composed of chitooligosaccharides of DP 2-9. The WSC content of the product and the yield were 94.7% and 92.3% (w/w), respectively. The results indicate that WSC can be effectively prepared by hydrolysis of chitosan using hydrogen peroxide under the catalysis of phosphotungstic acid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Study on mechanism of decreased lipid peroxide by low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Okazoe, Yoko; Akimaru, Kunihiro; Sato, E.F.; Utsumi, Kozo.

    1991-01-01

    We examined the effect of SOD on lipid peroxidation in biomembrane from V.E-deficient rats, in order to study the mechanism of increased SOD activities and decreased lipid peroxide by low dose irradiation. The following results were obtained. i. Active oxygen (O 2 - ) strongly enhances lipid peroxidations in biomembrane with the Fe 3+ as catalyst. ii. SOD evidently inhibits lipid peroxidations under above conditions. iii. We suggested that the effect of SOD enhanced by low dose irradiation results in inhibition of lipid peroxidation. (author)

  8. Markov process of muscle motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratiev, Yu; Pechersky, E; Pirogov, S

    2008-01-01

    We study a Markov random process describing muscle molecular motor behaviour. Every motor is either bound up with a thin filament or unbound. In the bound state the motor creates a force proportional to its displacement from the neutral position. In both states the motor spends an exponential time depending on the state. The thin filament moves at a velocity proportional to the average of all displacements of all motors. We assume that the time which a motor stays in the bound state does not depend on its displacement. Then one can find an exact solution of a nonlinear equation appearing in the limit of an infinite number of motors

  9. Electric vehicle motors and controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  10. Chemical composition of gas-phase organic carbon emissions from motor vehicles and implications for ozone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentner, Drew R; Worton, David R; Isaacman, Gabriel; Davis, Laura C; Dallmann, Timothy R; Wood, Ezra C; Herndon, Scott C; Goldstein, Allen H; Harley, Robert A

    2013-10-15

    Motor vehicles are major sources of gas-phase organic carbon, which includes volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other compounds with lower vapor pressures. These emissions react in the atmosphere, leading to the formation of ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). With more chemical detail than previous studies, we report emission factors for over 230 compounds from gasoline and diesel vehicles via two methods. First we use speciated measurements of exhaust emissions from on-road vehicles in summer 2010. Second, we use a fuel composition-based approach to quantify uncombusted fuel components in exhaust using the emission factor for total uncombusted fuel in exhaust together with detailed chemical characterization of liquid fuel samples. There is good agreement between the two methods except for products of incomplete combustion, which are not present in uncombusted fuels and comprise 32 ± 2% of gasoline exhaust and 26 ± 1% of diesel exhaust by mass. We calculate and compare ozone production potentials of diesel exhaust, gasoline exhaust, and nontailpipe gasoline emissions. Per mass emitted, the gas-phase organic compounds in gasoline exhaust have the largest potential impact on ozone production with over half of the ozone formation due to products of incomplete combustion (e.g., alkenes and oxygenated VOCs). When combined with data on gasoline and diesel fuel sales in the U.S., these results indicate that gasoline sources are responsible for 69-96% of emissions and 79-97% of the ozone formation potential from gas-phase organic carbon emitted by motor vehicles.

  11. Glycerophosphate-dependent hydrogen peroxide production by rat liver mitochondria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ješina, Pavel; Kholová, D.; Bolehovská, R.; Červinková, Z.; Drahota, Zdeněk; Houštěk, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2004), s. 305-310 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/03/0799; GA MŠk OC 918.50 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenace * triiodothyronine * hydrogen peroxide Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2004

  12. Hydrogen peroxide removal with magnetically responsive Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafařík, Ivo; Maděrová, Zdeňka; Šafaříková, Miroslava

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 56, - (2008), s. 7925-7928 ISSN 0021-8561 R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-1TP1/094; GA MŠk OC 157 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : magnetic alginate beads * catalase * magnetic separation * Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells * hydrogen peroxide Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 2.562, year: 2008

  13. Role of lipid peroxidation in pathogenesis of senile cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisić Bojana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background /Aim. Cataract is a structural, biochemical and optical change in the eye lens, which changes transmission and refraction of light rays reducing keenness and clarity of a figure on the retina. Its occurrence is highest in older people, over the age of 65 (45.9%, thus a certain degree of opacification exists practically in all people over the 70. Our research was directed to measuring of lipid peroxidation products in cataract lenses involved in early stages of cataractogenesis through oxidative stress and in the development of mature cataract. Methods. Clinical and biochemical research was carried out in 101 patients with cataract, 46 women and 55 men. The average age of the group was 72.47 (ґ = 7.98. According to the cataract maturity degree the patients were classified into two groups as follows: cataracta senilis incipiens (n = 41 and cataracta senilis matura (n = 60. Measuring of diene conjugates was carried out by spectrophotometer. Fluorescent lipid peroxidation products were measured by a spectrofluorophotometer, and malondialdehyde (MDA concentration was measured by colorimeter as a product of a reaction with thiobarbituric acid (TBA. Result. Significantly higher diene conjugated concentration in lenses was measured in the patients with the diagnosis cataracta senilis incipiens (p < 0.001 as well as the intensity of fluorescent iminopropens (p < 0.001. Significantly higher MDA concentration in lens (p < 0.001 was measured in the patients with cataracta senilis matura. Conclusion. The lens structure changes caused by lipid peroxidation can, with other risk factors present, influence the occurrence and development of mature cataract. Some cataract types show different lipid peroxidation intensity with the most distinct changes in cataract which started as corticonuclear.

  14. The kinetic study of oxidation of iodine by hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrel, L [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, IPNS, CEN Cadarache, Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Chopin, J [Laboratoire d` Electrochimie Inorganique, ENSSPICAM, Marseille (France)

    1996-12-01

    Iodine chemistry is one of the most important subjects of research in the field of reactor safety because this element can form volatile species which represent a biological hazard for environment. As the iodine and the peroxide are both present in the sump of the containment in the event of a severe accident on a light water nuclear reactor, it can be important to improve the knowledge on the reaction of oxidation of iodine by hydrogen peroxide. The kinetics of iodine by hydrogen peroxide has been studied in acid solution using two different analytical methods. The first is a UV/Vis spectrophotometer which records the transmitted intensity at 460 nm as a function of time to follow the decrease of iodine concentration, the second is an amperometric method which permits to record the increase of iodine+1 with time thanks to the current of reduction of iodine+1 to molecular iodine. The iodine was generated by Dushman reaction and the series of investigations were made at 40{sup o}C in a continuous stirring tank reactor. The influence of the initial concentrations of iodine, iodate, hydrogen peroxide, H{sup +} ions has been determined. The kinetics curves comprise two distinct chemical phases both for molecular iodine and for iodine+1. The relative importance of the two processes is connected to the initial concentrations of [I{sub 2}], [IO{sub 3}{sup -}], [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] and [H{sup +}]. A rate law has been determined for the two steps for molecular iodine. (author) figs., tabs., 22 refs.

  15. Determination of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Bodiroga Milanka; Ognjanović Jasminka

    2002-01-01

    Iodometric and permanganometric titrations were used for determination of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the mixture. Two procedures were described and compared. Titrations could be done in only one vessel, in the same reaction mixture, when iodometric titration of peracetic acid was continued after the permanganometric titration of H2O2, (procedure A). Peracetic acid and H2O2, as oxidizing agents, reacted with potassium iodide in an acid medium, evolving iodine. This reaction...

  16. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Benzoyl Peroxide Resembling Impetigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changhyun; Craiglow, Brittany G; Watsky, Kalman L; Antaya, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with recurring severe dermatitis of the face of 5-months duration that resembled impetigo. He had been treated with several courses of antibiotics without improvement. Biopsy showed changes consistent with allergic contact dermatitis and patch testing later revealed sensitization to benzoyl peroxide, which the patient had been using for the treatment of acne vulgaris. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The basic chemistry and photochemistry behind hydrogen peroxide tooth whitening

    OpenAIRE

    Young, N.D.; Fairley, P.D.; Mohan, V.; Jumeaux, C.

    2013-01-01

    Tooth whitening using hydrogen peroxide gel formulation is a complexprocess which involves both chemistry and physics, and there is still some controversy about the efficiency of whitening processes, particularly with respect to the roles of temperature and irradiation with light. In this work we avoid the complications of the physics bystudying the basic interactions between whitening agents and stainmolecules in simple solutions. We demonstrate that blue light irradiation has a clear and la...

  18. Oxidation of hydrogen peroxide by [Ni (cyclam)] in aqueous acidic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Oxidation of hydrogen peroxide by tris(2,2 -bipyridine) and tris(4,4 -dimethyl-2,2 - bipyridine) complexes of osmium(III), iron(III), ruthenium(III), and nickel(III) studied in acidic and neutral aqueous media, show an inverse acid depen- dence over the pH the range 6.0–8.5.12 Kinetic mea- surements with an excess of H2O2 ...

  19. Effect of exercise on lipid peroxidation in student soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    Puspaningtyas, Desty Ervira; Afriani, Yuni; Mahfida, Silvi Lailatul; Kushartanti, Wara; Farmawati, Arta

    2018-01-01

    Training is conducted to improve physiological functions that can support improvementof cardio-respiratory function (O2max). However, intensive training can lead to oxidativestress, which can contribute to health problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluatethe effect of training on serum lipid peroxidation levels in student soccer players. Thestudy was pre-experimental study with a one-shot case design conducted in April 2014.Twelve student soccer players from UGM who chosen by purposi...

  20. Continuous precipitation of uranium peroxide in process pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinelato, A.L.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study on uranium peroxide precipitation has been carried out with the objective to evaluate the influence of the main process parameters with a technological approach. The uraniferous solution used was obtained from the hydrometallurgical processing of an ore from Itataia - CE. Studies were developed in two distinct experimental stages. In the first stage, the precipitation was investigated by means of laboratory batch tests and, in the second stage, by means of continuous operation in a process pilot plant. (author)

  1. Description of broadband structure-borne and airborne noise transmission from the powertrain (engine-gear combination including engine intake and exhaust system) in modern combustion process as well as new systems for variable control of gas exchange. Binaural transfer path analysis and synthesis. Interim report; Beschreibung der breitbandigen Koerper- und Luftschallausbreitung aus dem Powertrain (Motor-Getriebe-Verband inklusive Ansaug- und Abgasanlage) bei modernen Verbrennungsverfahren sowie neuer Systeme zur variablen Ladungswechselsteuerung. Binaurale Transferpfadanalyse und -synthese. Zwischenbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sottek, R. [HEAD acoustics GmbH, Herzogenrath (Germany); Behler, G.; Kellert, T. [RWTH Aachen (DE). Inst. fuer Technische Akustik (ITA); Bernhard, U.

    2004-07-01

    The modern combustion procedures and new valve train generations lead to a different temporal and spectral behaviour of the vibrations between the interfaces of a powertrain and the adjoining structures and at the same time to a different airborne sound radiation via the engine compartment and the orifices and component surfaces at the intake and exhaust system into the passenger compartment. The influence of the high-frequency components on the vehicle interior noise becomes more and more important. Coupling and mass effects have to be taken into consideration now, because otherwise results might increasingly be misinterpreted. Previous methods including the binaural transfer path analysis and synthesis do not take account of these effects. This research project shall fill this gap. Regarding the airborne sound component the engine compartment can at best be considered as a pressure chamber for low frequencies only. However, for higher frequencies the positions of the partial sound sources, the corresponding transfer functions, near-field effects and modal structures in the engine compartment become increasingly relevant. In this project these influencing parameters shall be classified with regard to quality and quantity. This knowledge is also of fundamental interest for the determination of the primary sound sources on the test bench and the transferability of the results to the vehicle. The most important aim of this project is to develop simplified models for the structure-borne and airborne noise transmission from a precise and complex database and to reduce them to the essential by means of parameter studies. In the final stage of the project, the complicated fine structures of the transfer functions will be reduced to a few model functions, similar to the procedure of the modal analysis. From this simple model a ''black box'' will be derived which is the basis for simulating driving conditions, applying modifications and judging them

  2. Cooling of Electric Motors Used for Propulsion on SCEPTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Robert J.; Dubois, Arthur; Derlaga, Joseph M.

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing a suite of hybrid-electric propulsion technologies for aircraft. These technologies have the benefit of lower emissions, diminished noise, increased efficiency, and reduced fuel burn. These will provide lower operating costs for aircraft operators. Replacing internal combustion engines with distributed electric propulsion is a keystone of this technology suite, but presents many new problems to aircraft system designers. One of the problems is how to cool these electric motors without adding significant aerodynamic drag, cooling system weight or fan power. This paper discusses the options evaluated for cooling the motors on SCEPTOR (Scalable Convergent Electric Propulsion Technology and Operations Research): a project that will demonstrate Distributed Electric Propulsion technology in flight. Options for external and internal cooling, inlet and exhaust locations, ducting and adjustable cowling, and axial and centrifugal fans were evaluated. The final design was based on a trade between effectiveness, simplicity, robustness, mass and performance over a range of ground and flight operation environments.

  3. Membrane lipid peroxidation by UV-A: Mechanism and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, B.; Agarwal, S.; Chatterjee, S.N.

    1990-01-01

    UV-A produced a dose-dependent linear increase of lipid peroxidation in liposomal membrane, as detected by the assay of (i) conjugated dienes, (ii) lipid hydroperoxides, (iii) malondialdehydes (MDA), and (iv) the fluorescent adducts formed by the reaction of MDA with glycine and also a linear dose-dependent increase of [ 14 C]glucose efflux from the liposomes. UV-A-induced MDA production could not be inhibited by any significant degree by sodium formate, dimethyl sulfoxide, EDTA, or superoxide dismutase but was very significantly inhibited by butylated hydroxytoluene, alpha-tocopherol, sodium azide, L-histidine, dimethylfuran, and beta-carotene. MDA formation increased with an increase in the D 2 O content in water, leading to a maximal amount of nearly 50% enhancement of lipid peroxidation in 100% D 2 O vis-a-vis water used as dispersion medium. The experimental findings indicate the involvement of singlet oxygen as the initiator of the UV-A-induced lipid peroxidation

  4. MOLYBDENUM CATALYZED ACID PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF EUCALYPTUS KRAFT PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos S. Rabelo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum catalyzed peroxide bleaching (PMo Stage consists of pulp treatment with hydrogen peroxide under acidic conditions in the presence of a molybdenum catalyst. Molybdenum is applied in catalytic doses (50-200 mg/kg pulp and may originate from various sources, including (NH46Mo7O24.4H2O, Na2MoO4.2H2O, siliconmolybdate, etc. This work is aimed at optimizing the PMo stage and evaluating its industrial application in the OAZDP sequence. Optimum PMo stage conditions for bleaching eucalyptus pulp were 90 ºC, pH 3.5, 2 h, 0.1 kg/adt Mo and 5 kg/adt H2O2. The PMo stage was more efficient to remove pulp hexenuronic acids than lignin. Its efficiency decreased with increasing pH in the range of 1.5-5.5, while it increased with increasing temperature and peroxide and molybdenum doses. The application of the PMo stage as replacement for the A-stage of the AZDP sequence significantly decreased chlorine dioxide demand. The PMo stage caused a decrease of 20-30% in the generation of organically bound chlorine. The quality parameters of the pulp produced during the PMo stage mill trial were comparable to those obtained with the reference A-stage.

  5. Levels of oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation in thyroid neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, Orla

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: This study assessed the presence of oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation in thyroid neoplasia. METHODS: Using tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry, we assessed levels of DNA damage (8-oxo-dG) and lipid peroxidation (4-HNE) in 71 follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA), 45 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and 17 follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and matched normal thyroid tissue. RESULTS: Cytoplasmic 8-oxo-dG and 4-HNE expression was significantly higher in FTA, FTC, and PTC tissue compared to matched normal tissue (all p values < .001). Similarly, elevated nuclear levels of 8-oxo-dG were seen in all in FTA, FTC, and PTC tissue compared to matched normal (p values < .07, < .001, < .001, respectively). In contrast, a higher level of 4-HNE expression was detected in normal thyroid tissue compared with matched tumor tissue (p < .001 for all groups). Comparing all 3 groups, 4-HNE levels were higher than 8-oxo-dG levels (p < .001 for all groups) except that cytoplasmic levels of 8-oxo-dG were higher than 4-HNE in all (p < .001). These results were independent of proliferation status. CONCLUSION: High levels of DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasia indicates this damage is an early event that may influence disease progression.

  6. Effect of irradiation of lipid peroxidation in serum, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisa, Yoshio

    1976-01-01

    With blood obtained from patients irradiated for cervical uterine cancer (consisting of 4 cases of Stage I, 5 cases of Stage II and 4 cases of Stage III), changes of blood picture, serum lipid weight and serum lipid peroxide accompanying irradiation were studied on 3 occasions, before, during and after the irradiation. The following results were obtained. Serum lipid and serum lipid peroxide were found to increase along with the advance of uterine cancer from Stage I to II and III. At the termination of irradiation the serum lipid and serum lipid peroxide in the cases of cervical uterine cancer at Stage III were found to have recovered to close to the levels before irradiation, but in the other cases these values tended to increase with irradiation. Except the termination of irradiation treatment of cervical uterine cancer of Stage III, the decrease of leucocyte count has a mutual relationship with the increase of serum thiobarbituric acid (TBA), so that change in the serum TBA level can be assumed to be a criterion for irradiation injury. (auth.)

  7. Nitrophenylboronic acids as highly chemoselective probes to detect hydrogen peroxide in foods and agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chun-Ping; Lin, Chieh-Ti; Chang, Ching-Ming; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Lo, Lee-Chiang

    2011-11-09

    Hydrogen peroxide is commonly used in the food processing industry as a chlorine-free bleaching and sterilizing agent, but excessive amounts of residual hydrogen peroxide have led to cases of food poisoning. Here we describe the development of a novel nonenzymatic colorimetric method for the determination of residual hydrogen peroxide in foods and agricultural products. Nitrophenylboronic acids chemoselectively react with hydrogen peroxide under alkaline conditions to produce yellow nitrophenolates. Of the three nitrophenylboronic acid isomers tested, the p-isomer displayed the highest sensitivity for hydrogen peroxide and the fastest reaction kinetics. The reaction product, p-nitrophenolate, has an absorption maximum at 405 nm and a good linear correlation between the hydrogen peroxide concentration and the A(405) values was obtained. We successfully applied this convenient and rapid method for hydrogen peroxide determination to samples of dried bean curds and disposable chopsticks, thereby demonstrating its potential in foods and agricultural industries.

  8. REVIEW ARTICLE: MODELLING AND ANALYSIS OF A GASOLINE ENGINE EXHAUST GAS SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Barhm Mohamad

    2018-01-01

    The engine exhaust gas behaviour is strongly influencing the engine performance. This paper presents the modelling and analysis of four stroke - gasoline engine exhaust gas systems. An automotive example is considered whereby the pulsating exhausts gas flow through an exhaust pipe and silencer are considered over a wide range of speeds. Analytical procedures are outlined enabling the general analysis and modelling of vehicle engine exhaust gas systems also in this paper present...

  9. Variation of particle exhaust with changes in divertor magnetic balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, T.W.; Allen, S.L.; Brooks, N.H.

    2006-01-01

    Recent experiments on DIII-D point to the importance of two factors in determining how effectively the deuterium particle inventory in a tokamak plasma can be controlled through pumping at the divertor target(s): (1) the divertor magnetic balance, i.e. the degree to which the divertor topology is single-null or double-null (DN) and (2) the direction of the of B x ∇B ion drift with respect to the X-point(s). Changes in divertor magnetic balance near the DN shape have a much stronger effect on the particle exhaust rate at the inner divertor target(s) than on the particle exhaust rate at the outer divertor target(s). The particle exhaust rate for the DN shape is strongest at the outer strike point opposite the B x ∇B ion particle drift direction. Our data suggests that the presence of B x ∇B and E x B ion particle drifts in the scrape-off layer and divertor(s) play an important role in the particle exhaust rates of DN and near-DN plasmas. Particle exhaust rates are shown to depend strongly on the edge (pedestal) density. These results have implications for particle control in ITER and other future tokamaks

  10. Design and experimental study on desulphurization process of ship exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mingyang; Hao, Shan; Zhou, Junbo; Gao, Liping

    2018-02-01

    This desulfurization process involves removing sulfur oxides with seawater or alkaline aqueous solutions and then treating the effluent by aeration and pH adjustment before discharging it into the ocean. In the desulfurization system, the spray tower is the key equipment and the venturi tubes are the pretreatment device. The two stages of plates are designed to fully absorb sulfur oxides in exhaust gases. The spiral nozzles atomize and evenly spray the desulfurizers into the tower. This study experimentally investigated the effectiveness of this desulfurization process and the factors influencing it under laboratory conditions, with a diesel engine exhaust used to represent ship exhaust. The experimental results show that this process can effectively absorb the SO2 in the exhaust. When the exhaust flow rate was 25 m3/h and the desulfurizer flow rate was 4 L/min, the sulfur removal efficiency (SRE) reached 99.7%. The flow rate, alkalinity, and temperature of seawater were found to have significant effects on the SRE. Adjusting seawater flow rate (SWR) and alkalinity within certain ranges can substantially improve the SRE.

  11. Simulation of Wake Vortex Radiometric Detection via Jet Exhaust Proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Taumi S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis of the potential of an airborne hyperspectral imaging IR instrument to infer wake vortices via turbine jet exhaust as a proxy. The goal was to determine the requirements for an imaging spectrometer or radiometer to effectively detect the exhaust plume, and by inference, the location of the wake vortices. The effort examines the gas spectroscopy of the various major constituents of turbine jet exhaust and their contributions to the modeled detectable radiance. Initially, a theoretical analysis of wake vortex proxy detection by thermal radiation was realized in a series of simulations. The first stage used the SLAB plume model to simulate turbine jet exhaust plume characteristics, including exhaust gas transport dynamics and concentrations. The second stage used these plume characteristics as input to the Line By Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) to simulate responses from both an imaging IR hyperspectral spectrometer or radiometer. These numerical simulations generated thermal imagery that was compared with previously reported wake vortex temperature data. This research is a continuation of an effort to specify the requirements for an imaging IR spectrometer or radiometer to make wake vortex measurements. Results of the two-stage simulation will be reported, including instrument specifications for wake vortex thermal detection. These results will be compared with previously reported results for IR imaging spectrometer performance.

  12. Non-exhaust PM emissions from electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Victor R. J. H.; Achten, Peter A. J.

    2016-06-01

    Particulate matter (PM) exposure has been linked to adverse health effects by numerous studies. Therefore, governments have been heavily incentivising the market to switch to electric passenger cars in order to reduce air pollution. However, this literature review suggests that electric vehicles may not reduce levels of PM as much as expected, because of their relatively high weight. By analysing the existing literature on non-exhaust emissions of different vehicle categories, this review found that there is a positive relationship between weight and non-exhaust PM emission factors. In addition, electric vehicles (EVs) were found to be 24% heavier than equivalent internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). As a result, total PM10 emissions from EVs were found to be equal to those of modern ICEVs. PM2.5 emissions were only 1-3% lower for EVs compared to modern ICEVs. Therefore, it could be concluded that the increased popularity of electric vehicles will likely not have a great effect on PM levels. Non-exhaust emissions already account for over 90% of PM10 and 85% of PM2.5 emissions from traffic. These proportions will continue to increase as exhaust standards improve and average vehicle weight increases. Future policy should consequently focus on setting standards for non-exhaust emissions and encouraging weight reduction of all vehicles to significantly reduce PM emissions from traffic.

  13. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-008/Skid F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Portable Exhauster POR-008 was procured via HNF-0490, Specification for a Portable Exhausted System for Waste Tank Ventilation. Prior to taking ownership, acceptance testing was performed at the vendors. However at the conclusion of testing a number of issues remained that required resolution before the exhausters could be used by Project W-320. The purpose of acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-O49O, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document

  14. Exposure assessment in studies on health effects of traffic exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setaelae, S [Association for the Pulmonary Disabled, Helsinki (Finland); Jaakkola, J J.K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Public Health

    1996-12-31

    A main source of outdoor air pollution is road traffic, which produces a complex mixture of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile hydrocarbons, airborne particles and some other compounds. Traffic exhaust affects also the concentrations of ozone and other photo chemical oxidants. In earlier studies those components have had remarkable health effects. Several studies on occupational exposure to automobile exhaust have been published and several studies have been observed an association between both outdoor and indoor pollutant levels and health outcomes. However, there are only a few epidemiological studies in which traffic exhaust, a complex mixture, has been studied in its entirety. During recent years, interesting epidemiological studies of the health effects of this complex mixture have been published. Human exposure assessment for traffic exhaust can be categorized according to the environment of exposure (indoors, outdoors, in-traffic) or to the method of exposure assessment (direct or indirect methods). In this presentation the methods are further categorized into (1) traffic activity, (2) air concentration measurements, and (3) dispersion models, in order to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. The objective of this presentation is to make a critical review of exposure assessments in the epidemiological studies on health effects of traffic exhaust. (author)

  15. Exposure assessment in studies on health effects of traffic exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setaelae, S. [Association for the Pulmonary Disabled, Helsinki (Finland); Jaakkola, J.J.K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Public Health

    1995-12-31

    A main source of outdoor air pollution is road traffic, which produces a complex mixture of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile hydrocarbons, airborne particles and some other compounds. Traffic exhaust affects also the concentrations of ozone and other photo chemical oxidants. In earlier studies those components have had remarkable health effects. Several studies on occupational exposure to automobile exhaust have been published and several studies have been observed an association between both outdoor and indoor pollutant levels and health outcomes. However, there are only a few epidemiological studies in which traffic exhaust, a complex mixture, has been studied in its entirety. During recent years, interesting epidemiological studies of the health effects of this complex mixture have been published. Human exposure assessment for traffic exhaust can be categorized according to the environment of exposure (indoors, outdoors, in-traffic) or to the method of exposure assessment (direct or indirect methods). In this presentation the methods are further categorized into (1) traffic activity, (2) air concentration measurements, and (3) dispersion models, in order to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. The objective of this presentation is to make a critical review of exposure assessments in the epidemiological studies on health effects of traffic exhaust. (author)

  16. Vacuum exhaustion system for thermonuclear reactor and cryopump thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shigetada.

    1992-01-01

    An impurity removing device is connected to a gas exhaust side of a plasma vacuum vessel by way of a gate valve, a cryopump is connected to the exit side of the device by way of an exit valve, a fuel transfer line is disposed for transferring fuels to a fuel purification system and a vacuum pump line is disposed to an exhaust gas line. Further, a tritium monitor is disposed to an exhaustion line and the line on the side of the exit of the monitor is branched into two ways, in which a tritium transfer pipe is disposed to one of them and an atmosphere release pipe is disposed on the other of them by way of an atmosphere releasing valve. Further, a condensation shebron is disposed for flowing in and out fuel isotope gases discharged from the plasma vacuum vessel, and a funnel discharge pipe is disposed for discharging a liquefied and condensed fluid. Since the gases to be exhausted are liquefied and condensed without coagulation or coagulation products are removed while operating the pump, the exhaust gases are processed continuously to reduce tritium inventory and make the regeneration step unnecessary and remarkably improve the heat efficiency. (N.H.)

  17. Occurrence of Metastudtite (Uranium Peroxide Dihydrate) at a FUSRAP Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, C.M.; Nelson, K.A.; Stevens, G.T.; Grassi, V.J.

    2006-01-01

    Uranium concentrations in groundwater in a localized area of a site exceed the USEPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) by a factor of one thousand. Although the groundwater seepage velocity ranges up to 0.7 meters per day (m/day), data indicate that the uranium is not migrating in groundwater. We believe that the uranium is not mobile because of local geochemical conditions and the unstable nature of the uranium compound present at the site; uranium peroxide dihydrate (metastudtite). Metastudtite [UO 4 .2(H 2 O) or (U(O 2 )|O|(OH) 2 ).3H 2 O] has been identified at other sites as an alteration product in casks of spent nuclear fuel, but neither enriched nor depleted uranium were present at this site. Metastudtite was first identified as a natural mineral in 1983, although documented occurrences in the environment are uncommon. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is conducting a remedial investigation at the DuPont Chambers Works in Deep water New Jersey under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) to evaluate radioactive contamination resulting from historical activities conducted in support of Manhattan Engineering District operations. From 1942 to 1947, Chambers Works converted uranium oxides to uranium tetrafluoride and uranium metal. More than half of the production at this facility resulted from the recovery process, where uranium-bearing dross and scrap were reacted with hydrogen peroxide to produce uranium peroxide dihydrate. The 280-hectare Chambers Works has produced some 600 products, including petrochemicals, aromatics, fluoro-chemicals, polymers, and elastomers. Contaminants resulting from these processes, including separate-phase petrochemicals, have also been detected within the boundaries of the FUSRAP investigation. USACE initiated remedial investigation field activities in 2002. The radionuclides of concern are natural uranium (U nat ) and its short-lived progeny. Areas of impacted soil generally correspond to the

  18. Plutonium(IV) peroxide formation in nitric medium and kinetics Pu(VI) reduction by hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, C.; Adnet, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Reduction of plutonium (VI) to Pu(IV) with hydrogen peroxide is a step in industrial processes used to purify plutonium nitrate solutions. This operation must be carefully controlled, in order to avoid any formation of the Pu(IV) peroxide green precipitate and to obtain exclusively Pu(IV). This led us to study the acidity and Pu and H 2 O 2 concentrations influences on the precipitate appearance and to perform a Pu(VI) reduction kinetic study on a wide range of acidities ([HNO 3 ]: 0.5 to 8 M), plutonium concentrations ([Pu(VI)]: 0.1 to 0.8 M) and [H 2 O 2 ]/[Pu(VI)] ratio (from 1 to 8). Thus, the domain of Pu(IV) peroxide formation and the reactional paths were established. With the exception of 0.5 M nitric acid medium, the kinetic curves show two distinct regims: the first one corresponds to an induction period where the Pu(VI) concentration doesn't change, the second corresponds to a linear decrease of Pu(VI). An increase of the temperature greatly accelerates the Pu(VI) reduction rate while [H 2 O 2 ]/[Pu(VI)] has almost no influence. The Pu(VI) total reduction time decreases when initial concentration of plutonium increases. By increasing nitric acid concentration from 0.5 M to 6 M, the total Pu(VI) reduction time decreases. This time increases when [HNO 3 ] varies from 6 M to 8 M. (orig.)

  19. A versatile stepping motor controller for systems with many motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, S.K.; Siddons, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    A versatile system for controlling beamlines or complex experimental setups is described. The system as currently configured can control up to 32 motors, with all motors capable of full speed operation concurrently. There are 2 limit switch inputs for each motor, and a further input to accept a reference position marker. The motors can be controlled via a front panel keyboard with display, or by a host computer over an IEEE-488 interface. Both methods can be used together if required. There is an ''emergency stop'' key on the front panel keyboard to stop the motion of all motors without losing track of the motors' position. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  20. Economic analysis of gradual "social exhaustion" of waste management capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, Hideo; Nakayama, Hirofumi

    2013-12-01

    This article proposes to analyze the quantitative effects of a gradual physical and "social" exhaustion of a landfill site on an equilibrium waste management service. A gradual social exhaustion of a landfill is defined here as an upward shift of a "subjective factor" associated with the amount of waste, based on the plausible hypothesis that an individual will not accept excessive presence of landfilled waste. Physical exhaustion occurs when the absolute capacity of a landfill site decreases. The paper shows some numerical examples using specific functions and parameters, and proposes appropriate directions for three policy objectives: to decrease the equilibrium waste disposal, to increase the economic surplus of the individual and/or the waste management firm, and to lower the equilibrium collection fee. Copyright © 2013 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Schlieren image velocimetry measurements in a rocket engine exhaust plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Rudy; Peguero, Julio; Hargather, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Schlieren image velocimetry (SIV) measures velocity fields by tracking the motion of naturally-occurring turbulent flow features in a compressible flow. Here the technique is applied to measuring the exhaust velocity profile of a liquid rocket engine. The SIV measurements presented include discussion of visibility of structures, image pre-processing for structure visibility, and ability to process resulting images using commercial particle image velocimetry (PIV) codes. The small-scale liquid bipropellant rocket engine operates on nitrous oxide and ethanol as propellants. Predictions of the exhaust velocity are obtained through NASA CEA calculations and simple compressible flow relationships, which are compared against the measured SIV profiles. Analysis of shear layer turbulence along the exhaust plume edge is also presented.

  2. Emotional exhaustion and defense mechanisms in intensive therapy unit nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Anna; Howard, Ruth A; Oyebode, Jan R

    2009-05-01

    Contrary to its original conceptualization, research has found that emotional demands do not lead to burnout in nurses. According to psychoanalytic theory, unconscious defense mechanisms may protect nurses from conscious awareness of work-related anxiety. This prevents self-report and may explain research findings. The maturity of defense style influences how anxiety is managed. Immature defenses prevent the conscious processing necessary for resolution of anxiety. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the use of immature defenses will lead to emotional exhaustion. This cross-sectional study used questionnaires to explore the defense mechanisms of 87 Intensive Therapy Unit nurses. Although the sample endorsed a predominantly mature defense style, the use of immature defenses predicted emotional exhaustion. Also, lower levels of reported stress associated with emotional demands predicted emotional exhaustion. Although this strongly implies the mediating role of immature defense mechanisms, the results were not statistically significant.

  3. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes Acceptance Testing performed on Portable Exhauster POR-007/Skid E. It includes measurements of bearing vibration levels, pressure decay testing, programmable logic controller interlocks, high vacuum, flow and pressure control functional testing. The purpose of Acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-0490, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document

  4. Opportunity to reduce the exhaust gases with engine adjust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrovski, Mile; Mucevski, Kiril

    2002-01-01

    According to statistics in the Republic of Macedonia, the number of old vehicles is about 90%. These are vehicles produced between 1975 and 1990 with classical systems for forming and burning the fuel mixture. The most of them do not have system for processing exhaust gases (catalytic converter) and are serious air pollutants of carbon monoxide (CO). In this article we try to make an attempt to reduce exhaust gases in some kinds of these vehicles with adjusting to the system for burning fuel mixture and with adjusting to the system for forming fuel mixture (carburetor). At the same time the changes on the rotate bending moment and engine power are followed. It is noticed that with a proper adjustment the emission of exhaust gases can be reduced without a serious depreciation of the rotate bending moment and the engine power. (Author)

  5. Device for the elimination of noxious components of exhaust gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, A

    1975-04-24

    A device for the removal of noxious components from the exhaust gases of an internal combustion engine is described. It consists of a chemical reactor installed in the tail-pipe. Behind the reactor, in the flow direction of the exhaust gases, there is a catalytic temperature sensor whose electrical output is transmitted to an analyzer which provides a signal if the reactor fails. The temperature sensor is situated directly in the waste gas duct or in a branch of the tail-pipe which is supplied with air. There is also another, catalytically inactive, temperature sensor. A failure is signalled (a) if the chemical reactor has failed, and (b) if there is not enough oxygen in the exhaust gas to keep up a chemical reaction.

  6. Device on a diesel motor to supply power to emergency aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, C.; Boekemeier, V.; Schilling, R.

    1977-01-01

    The invented arrangement of a diesel motor for the emergency supply of a nuclear power plant ensures that in the case of a fire in the environment of the emergency feeding building, no air with too much flue gas reaches the diesel motor via the suction pipe. The discharge pipe with a nozzle-shaped discharge opening and the suction pipe running above it pass horizontally through a wall of the building. There are vertical walls on both sides of the openings which prevent a sideways flowing of air to the exhaust gas flow in the vicinity of the building. (HGOE) [de

  7. IC ENGINE SUPERCHARGING AND EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION USING JET COMPRESSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhimoulame Kalaisselvane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercharging is a process which is used to improve the performance of an engine by increasing the specific power output whereas exhaust gas recirculation reduces the NOx produced by engine because of supercharging. In a conventional engine, supercharger functions as a compressor for the forced induction of the charge taking mechanical power from the engine crankshaft. In this study, supercharging is achieved using a jet compressor. In the jet compressor, the exhaust gas is used as the motive stream and the atmospheric air as the propelled stream. When high pressure motive stream from the engine exhaust is expanded in the nozzle, a low pressure is created at the nozzle exit. Due to this low pressure, atmospheric air is sucked into the expansion chamber of the compressor, where it is mixed and pressurized with the motive stream. The pressure of the mixed stream is further increased in the diverging section of the jet compressor. A percentage volume of the pressurized air mixture is then inducted back into the engine as supercharged air and the balance is let out as exhaust. This process not only saves the mechanical power required for supercharging but also dilutes the constituents of the engine exhaust gas thereby reducing the emission and the noise level generated from the engine exhaust. The geometrical design parameters of the jet compressor were obtained by solving the governing equations using the method of constant rate of momentum change. Using the theoretical design parameters of the jet compressor, a computational fluid dinamics analysis using FLUENT software was made to evaluate the performance of the jet compressor for the application of supercharging an IC engine. This evaluation turned out to be an efficient diagnostic tool for determining performance optimization and design of the jet compressor. A jet compressor was also fabricated for the application of supercharging and its performance was studied.

  8. Noise Radiation Of A Strongly Pulsating Tailpipe Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peizi, Li; Genhua, Dai; Zhichi, Zhu

    1993-11-01

    The method of characteristics is used to solve the problem of the propagation of a strongly pulsating flow in an exhaust system tailpipe. For a strongly pulsating exhaust, the flow may shock at the pipe's open end at some point in a pulsating where the flow pressure exceeds its critical value. The method fails if one insists on setting the flow pressure equal to the atmospheric pressure as the pipe end boundary condition. To solve the problem, we set the Mach number equal to 1 as the boundary condition when the flow pressure exceeds its critical value. For a strongly pulsating flow, the fluctuations of flow variables may be much higher than their respective time averages. Therefore, the acoustic radiation method would fail in the computation of the noise radiation from the pipe's open end. We simulate the exhaust flow out of the open end as a simple sound source to compute the noise radiation, which has been successfully applied in reference [1]. The simple sound source strength is proportional to the volume acceleration of exhaust gas. Also computed is the noise radiation from the turbulence of the exhaust flow, as was done in reference [1]. Noise from a reciprocating valve simulator has been treated in detail. The radiation efficiency is very low for the pressure range considered and is about 10 -5. The radiation efficiency coefficient increases with the square of the frequency. Computation of the pipe length dependence of the noise radiation and mass flux allows us to design a suitable length for an aerodynamic noise generator or a reciprocating internal combustion engine. For the former, powerful noise radiation is preferable. For the latter, maximum mass flux is desired because a freer exhaust is preferable.

  9. Particle size determination in small solid propellant rocket motors using the diffractively scattered light method.

    OpenAIRE

    Cramer, Robert Grewelle.

    1982-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited A dual beam apparatus was developed which simultaneously measured particle size (D32) at the entrance and exit of an exhaust nozzle of a small solid propellant rocket motor. The diameters were determined using measurements of dif fractiveiy scattered laser power spectra. The apparatus was calibrated by using spherical glass beads and aluminum oxide powder. Measurements were successfully made at both locations. Because of...

  10. System for exposing animals to radiolabeled diesel exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, J.A.; Wolf, I.; Wolff, R.K.; Sun, J.D.; Mokler, B.V.

    1981-01-01

    One approach to determining the deposition and fate of inhaled diesel particles is the conduct of inhalation exposure studies with radiolabeled diesel fuel. A system was designed, constructed and tested for the simultaneous exposure of animals to radiolabeled diesel exhaust and collection of large quantities of radiolabeled diesel exhaust particles from a single cylinder diesel engine. The system performance was characterized and evaluated over a range of operating conditions: 0 to 1800 watts of engine load, 1000 to 2500 rpm and dilution air rates of 1:2 and 1:10. The exposure system met required design and operating criteria for safety, portability, space and flexibility

  11. Numerical Simulation of Ionospheric Electron Concentration Depletion by Rocket Exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yong; Shi Jiaming; Yuan Zhongcai

    2011-01-01

    In terms of the diffusive process of the gases injected from rocket exhaust into the ionosphere and the relevant chemical reactions between the gases and the composition of ionosphere, the modifications in ionosphere caused by the injected hydrogen and carbon dioxide gas from the rocket exhaust are investigated. The results show that the diffusive process of the injected gases at the ionospheric height is very fast, and the injected gases can lead to a local depletion of electron concentration in the F-region. Furthermore, the plasma 'hole' caused by carbon dioxide is larger, deeper and more durable than that by the hydrogen. (astrophysics and space plasma)

  12. ATR Prohibits Replication Catastrophe by Preventing Global Exhaustion of RPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toledo Lazaro, Luis Ignacio; Altmeyer, Matthias; Rask, Maj-Britt

    2013-01-01

    origin firing generates an excess of single-stranded DNA that exhausts the nuclear pool of RPA. Partial reduction of RPA accelerated fork breakage, and forced elevation of RPA was sufficient to delay such "replication catastrophe" even in the absence of ATR activity. Conversely, unscheduled origin firing...... induced breakage of stalled forks even in cells with active ATR. Thus, ATR-mediated suppression of dormant origins shields active forks against irreversible breakage via preventing exhaustion of nuclear RPA. This study elucidates how replicating genomes avoid destabilizing DNA damage. Because cancer cells...

  13. Acceptance test report MICON software exhaust fan control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    This test procedure specifies instructions for acceptance testing of software for exhaust fan control under Project ESPT (Energy Savings Performance Contract). The software controls the operation of two emergency exhaust fans when there is a power failure. This report details the results of acceptance testing for the MICON software upgrades. One of the modifications is that only one of the emergency fans will operate at all times. If the operating fan shuts off or fails, the other fan will start and the operating fan will be stopped

  14. Flood-proof motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Marcus [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Even before the Fukushima event occurred some German nuclear power plants (NPP) have considered flooding scenarios. As a result of one of these studies, AREVA performed an upgrade project in NPP Isar 1 with flood-proof motors as a replacement of existing air-cooled low-voltage and high-voltage motors of the emergency cooling chain. After the Fukushima event, in which the cooling chains failed, the topic flood-proof equipment gets more and more into focus. This compact will introduce different kinds of flood-proof electrical motors which are currently installed or planned for installation into NPPs over the world. Moreover the process of qualification, as it was performed during the project in NPP Isar 1, will be shown. (orig.)

  15. Advanced AC Motor Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmierkowski, M.P. [Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Warszawa (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper a review of control methods for high performance PWM inverter-fed induction motor drives is presented. Starting from the description of an induction motor by the help of the space vectors, three basic control strategic are discussed. As first, the most popular Field Oriented Control (FOC) is described. Secondly, the Direct Torque and Flux vector Control (DTFC) method, which - in contrast to FOC - depart from idea of coordinate transformation and analogy with DC motor, is briefly characterized. The last group is based on Feedback Linearization Control (FLC) and can be easy combined with sliding mode control. The simulation and experimental oscillograms that illustrate the performance of the discussed control strategies are shown. (orig.) 35 refs.

  16. Flood-proof motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Even before the Fukushima event occurred some German nuclear power plants (NPP) have considered flooding scenarios. As a result of one of these studies, AREVA performed an upgrade project in NPP Isar 1 with flood-proof motors as a replacement of existing air-cooled low-voltage and high-voltage motors of the emergency cooling chain. After the Fukushima event, in which the cooling chains failed, the topic flood-proof equipment gets more and more into focus. This compact will introduce different kinds of flood-proof electrical motors which are currently installed or planned for installation into NPPs over the world. Moreover the process of qualification, as it was performed during the project in NPP Isar 1, will be shown. (orig.)

  17. Kinetics and mechanism of the furan peroxide formation in the reaction of furfural with hydrogen peroxide in the presence and absence of sodium molybdate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunskaya, E.P.; Badovskaya, L.A.; Kaklyugina, T.Ya.; Poskonin, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    Kinetics of the initial stage of the reaction of furfural with hydrogen peroxide are studied in the presence of Na 2 MoO 4 in water and without catalytic additions in n-butanol. Organic peroxide having in its disposal Mo(6), which is the only product on the initial stage of the reaction, is formed since the first minutes of oxidation of furfural by hydrogen peroxide with the presence of Na 2 MoO 4 . The mechanisms of conversion of furfural in the Na 2 MoO 4 - H 2 O system and its oxidation by peroxide without sodium molybdate are discussed. Schemes of formation of furfural complexes based on the results of kinetic studies are suggested. Comparison of obtained data demonstrates that presence of the sodium molybdates in the reaction medium trends to change of reaction procedure in the hydrogen peroxide [ru

  18. Mechanical design of electric motors

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Rapid increases in energy consumption and emphasis on environmental protection have posed challenges for the motor industry, as has the design and manufacture of highly efficient, reliable, cost-effective, energy-saving, quiet, precisely controlled, and long-lasting electric motors.Suitable for motor designers, engineers, and manufacturers, as well as maintenance personnel, undergraduate and graduate students, and academic researchers, Mechanical Design of Electric Motors provides in-depth knowledge of state-of-the-art design methods and developments of electric motors. From motor classificati

  19. Transformers and motors

    CERN Document Server

    Shultz, George

    1991-01-01

    Transformers and Motors is an in-depth technical reference which was originally written for the National Joint Apprenticeship Training Committee to train apprentice and journeymen electricians. This book provides detailed information for equipment installation and covers equipment maintenance and repair. The book also includes troubleshooting and replacement guidelines, and it contains a minimum of theory and math.In this easy-to-understand, practical sourcebook, you'll discover:* Explanations of the fundamental concepts of transformers and motors* Transformer connections and d

  20. Linear induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkman, W.E.; Adams, W.Q.; Berrier, B.R.

    1978-01-01

    A linear induction motor has been operated on a test bed with a feedback pulse resolution of 5 nm (0.2 μin). Slewing tests with this slide drive have shown positioning errors less than or equal to 33 nm (1.3 μin) at feedrates between 0 and 25.4 mm/min (0-1 ipm). A 0.86-m (34-in)-stroke linear motor is being investigated, using the SPACO machine as a test bed. Initial results were encouraging, and work is continuing to optimize the servosystem compensation

  1. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    Human studies in the past three decades have provided us with an emerging understanding of how cortical and spinal networks collaborate to ensure the vast repertoire of human behaviors. We differ from other animals in having direct cortical connections to spinal motoneurons, which bypass spinal...... the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...

  2. Electrodynamic ratchet motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jiufu; Sader, John E; Mulvaney, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Brownian ratchets produce directed motion through rectification of thermal fluctuations and have been used for separation processes and colloidal transport. We propose a flashing ratchet motor that enables the transduction of electrical energy into rotary micromechanical work. This is achieved through torque generation provided by boundary shaping of equipotential surfaces. The present device contrasts to previous implementations that focus on translational motion. Stochastic simulations elucidate the performance characteristics of this device as a function of its geometry. Miniaturization to nanoscale dimensions yields rotational speeds in excess of 1 kHz, which is comparable to biomolecular motors of similar size.

  3. The effect of induction motor shaft diameter on motor performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asım Gökhan Yetgin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Induction motors are used in many areas from the past to the present and in different fields with the development of technology has continued to be used. It is obvious that induction motors as an improvement to the efficiency in terms of energy saving would cause great benefit. In that context, induction motor manufacturers and designers are constantly trying out new methods to improve motor performance and efficiency. In this study, what would be the optimum diameter of the shaft in order to increase the efficiency of the induction motor were investigated. In the study, 5.5 kW, 7.5 kW and 11 kW motors analyzes were also performed. Obtained shaft diameter values were compared with the manufacturer values. In addition, critical points such as the magnetic flux values, weight values and performances of the motors were examined and optimal shaft diameter values for each motor have been determined.

  4. Motor vehicles and internal combustion engines; Kraftfahrwesen und Verbrennungsmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargende, M.; Wiedemann, J. [eds.

    1999-07-01

    The book comprises the papers presented at the 3rd Stuttgart symposium. It reviews the state of the art in science and engineering and outlines future perspectives in the fields of motor vehicles and internal combustion engines. As the conference, the book comprises three sections: 'Engines' on DI spark ignition engines and diesel engines, mixing, combustion and exhaust purification. 'Motor cars' discusses acoustics and aeroacoustics, aerodynamics and wind tunnel technology, comfort, driving gear and stability control. 'Motor vehicle systems' contains papers on thermomanagement, control and automation, real-time applications in motor car simulation, software tools in the control systems development process, and simulation in motor vehicle systems development. Finally, the plenary paper 'Fuel cells, a solution for non-polluting motor car drives' by Dr.-Ing. F. Panik is also contained in the book. [German] Das vorliegende Buch enthaelt die Vortraege des 3. Stuttgarter Symposiums. Es gibt einen Ueberblick ueber den aktuellen Stand von Wissenschaft und Technik und zeigt zukuenftige Perspektiven im Bereich Kraftfahrwesen und Verbrennungsmotoren. Entsprechend der Tagung gliedert sich das Buch in drei Teile. Teil 1 'Motoren' besteht aus Vortraegen ueber Ottomotoren mit Direkteinspritzung und Dieselmotoren, Gemischbildung, Verbrennung und Abgasnachbehandlung, Analyse, Simulation und Motorkomponenten. Teil 2 'Kraftfahrzeuge' enthaelt Arbeiten ueber Fahrzeugakustik und Aeroakustik, Fahrzeug-Aerodynamik und Windkanaltechnik, Fahrzeugkomfort, Fahrwerk und Fahrdynamik. Teil 3 'Kraftfahrzeugsystemtechnik' enthaelt Beitraege ueber Thermomanagement, Regelungs- und Automatisierungstechnik, Echtzeitanwendungen in der Kfz-Simulationstechnik, Softwaretools im Steuergeraete-Entwicklungsprozess und Simulation in der Kraftfahrzeug-Systementwicklung. Der abschliessende Plenarvortrag des Symposiums &apos

  5. HTSL massive motor. Project: Motor field calculation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutt, H.J.; Gruener, A.

    2003-01-01

    HTS motors up to 300 kW were to be developed and optimized. For this, specific calculation methods were enhanced to include superconducting rotor types (hysteresis, reluctance and permanent magnet HTS rotors). The experiments were carried out in a SHM70-45 hysteresis motor. It was shown how static and dynamic trapped field magnetisation of the rotor with YBCO rings will increase flux in the air gap motor, increasing the motor capacity to twice its original level. (orig.) [de

  6. Effect of light energy on peroxide tooth bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Karen; Tam, Laura; Hubert, Manfred

    2004-02-01

    Light-activated bleaching is a method of tooth whitening. The authors conducted a study to compare the whitening effects and tooth temperature changes induced by various combinations of peroxide bleaches and light sources. The authors randomly assigned 250 extracted human teeth halves into experimental groups (n = 10). A placebo gel (control), a 35 percent hydrogen peroxide or a 10 percent carbamide peroxide bleach was placed on the tooth surface and was irradiated with no light (control); a halogen curing light; an infrared, or IR, light; an argon laser; or a carbon dioxide, or CO2, laser. Color changes were evaluated immediately, one day and one week after treatment using a value-oriented shade guide and an electronic dental color analyzer. The outer enamel and inner dentin surface temperatures were monitored before and immediately after each 30-second application of light using a thermocouple thermometer. Color and temperature changes were significantly affected by an interaction of the bleach and light variables. The application of lights significantly improved the whitening efficacy of some bleach materials, but it caused significant temperature increases in the outer and inner tooth surfaces. The IR and CO2 laser lights caused the highest tooth temperature increases. Dentists performing an in-office bleaching technique with the use of an additional light source to accelerate tooth whitening should consider the specific bleaching agent being used, as well as the potential risks of heating teeth. A specific combination of bleach and light that demonstrates good color change and little temperature rise should be selected for in-office tooth bleaching.

  7. Studies on lipid peroxidation and anti-LPO chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chongdao; Qiang Yizhong; Lao Qinhua

    1995-02-01

    The contents of lipid peroxides (LPO) in sera and tissues were determined by the modified spectrophotometry of TBA, and the effects of three chemicals on lipid peroxidation induced by radiation were observed. The items studied included: (1) the normal values of LPO of sera in rats and adults: (2) the normal values in some tissues of rats; (3) the changes of LPO levels of sera in patients with some mental diseases and patients with malignant tumours before and after local gamma irradiation exposure; (4) the changes of LPO contents of some tissues in rats after whole-body gamma irradiation exposure; (5) the changes of LPO contents of some tissues in mice after internal exposure by Th(NO 3 ) 4 solution; (6) the effects of chinonin, tannic acid and squalene on lipid peroxidation induced by irradiation. The results were as follows: (1) the LPO contents in patients with some mental diseases dramatically increased; (2) there was marked difference between the LPO levels before and after local gamma irradiation exposure in patients with malignant tumours; (3) the LPO contents in some tissues of rats remarkably increased after whole-body gamma irradiation exposure; (4) the LPO contents in some tissues of mice dramatically increased and their protein contents markedly reduced after internal exposure, showing a negative correlation between them; (5) a gradual increase in LPO contents in some tissues of mice appeared with increasing dosage of whole-body gamma irradiation exposure at dose range from 0 to 4 Gy. A linear relationship between the dose and the LPO contents was observed; (6) all three chemicals could reduce the LPO levels in liver, spleen and kidney of the irradiated mice. The efficacy of chinonin was better than that of tannic acid and squalene. (5 tabs., 1 fig.)

  8. Stepping Motor - Hydraulic Motor Servo Drives for an NC Milling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper the retrofit design of the control system of an NC milling machine with a stepping motor and stepping motor - actuated hydraulic motor servo mechanism on the machines X-axis is described. The servo designed in the course of this study was tested practically and shown to be linear - the velocity following errors ...

  9. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF CMP PULP USING MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Zeinaly

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional bleaching of hardwood CMP pulp with magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH2 show significant benefits over bleaching with sodium hydroxide (NaOH under various conditions. Magnesium hydroxide bleaching generate higher optical properties, higher pulp yield and lower effluent COD at the same chemical charge, but the physical properties were found to be similar for both processes. The initial freeness of the bleached pulps and refining value to reach a target freeness (about 350 ml. CSF were more for the Mg(OH2-based process. The residual peroxide of filtrate from the Mg(OH2-based process was very high as compared to conventional bleaching.

  10. Peroxide formation and kinetics of sodium dissolution in alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidaran, P.; Chandran, K.; Ganesan, V.; Periaswami, G.

    1997-01-01

    Suitable techniques for sodium removal and decontamination of sodium wetted components of Liquid Metal Fast Reactors (LMFRs) are necessary both for repair, reuse and decommissioning of such components. Among the methods followed for sodium removal, alcohol dissolution is usually employed for small components like bellow sealed valves, gripping tools to handle core components and sodium sampling devices (primary and secondary). One of the concerns in the alcohol dissolution method is the possible role of peroxide formation in the ethoxy group during storage and handling leading to explosion. This paper describes the study of peroxide formation in ethyl carbitol and butyl cellosolve as well as some of the results of dissolution kinetic studies carried out in our laboratory using different alcohols. The peroxide formation of ethyl carbitol and butyl cellosolve were studied by iodometric technique. It has been found that the peroxide formation is less in sodium containing alcohol than in pure one. Ethyl carbitol, butyl cellosolve and Jaysol-SS (mixture of ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol and methyl isobutyl ketone) were used in dissolution kinetics studies. The effects due to area and orientation of the fresh sodium surface have also been investigated. The reaction rates were studied in the temperature range of 303-343 K. The rate of dissolution was estimated by measuring the sodium content of alcohol at periodic intervals. It is found that the reaction rate varies in the order of ethyl alcohol-water mixture > Jaysol-SS > butyl cellosolve > ethyl carbitol. While cleaning sodium using alcohol, the concentration of alcohol is held essentially constant throughout the process. The rate of reaction depends only on the amount of sodium and follows pseudo-first order kinetics. Increase in surface area has a marked impact on the dissolution rate at lower temperatures while at higher temperatures, the temperature factor overrides the effect due to surface area

  11. Petroleum Contaminated Soil Treatment Using Surfactant and Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilza Lobo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of washing soil with surfactants, sodium lauryl ether sulphate (LESS and sodium lauryl sulphate (SDS was combined with chemical oxidation using hydrogen peroxide, with a view to in situ remediation of clay soil contaminated with hydrocarbons oil. The evaluation of the efficiency of the procedure was the removal of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and the comparison of physical and chemical characteristics of contaminated soil and uncontaminated from the same region. The combination of these two techniques, soil washing and application of an oxidizing agent, presented as a process of effective remediation for soils contaminated with petroleum products in subtropical regions.

  12. Inhibition of Lipid Peroxidation by Enzymatic Hydrolysates from Wheat Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Cao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat bran, an important by-product of the cereal industry, is rich in potentially health-promoting phenolic compounds. The phenolics are mainly esterified to the cell wall polysaccharides. In our previous paper, wheat bran was destarched and deproteinated by α-amylase, protease and amyloglucosidase successively and further hydrolyzed using Bacillus subtilis xylanases, and the enzymatic hydrolysates from wheat bran (EHWB showed good scavenging activity in vitro. The aim of this study is to further characterize the antioxidant potential of EHWB against various systems, both ex vivo and in vivo, namely, rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation systems induced by Fe2+/H2O2 and Fe3+-adenosine diphosphate (ADP/dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH, copper- and 2,2’-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH-induced human low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation systems, and alloxan-induced in vivo lipid peroxidation in mice. EHWB inhibited lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes induced by Fe2+/H2O2 and Fe3+-ADP/NADPH in a concentration-dependent manner with 90.3 and 87 % inhibition of lipid peroxidation at 50 mg/L, respectively, which were similar to that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT at 20 mg/L. The antioxidant potential of EHWB at a concentration ranging from 10 to 20 mg/L in the nonenzymatic system was more effective than in the enzymatic system. EHWB strongly inhibited in vitro copper- and AAPH-mediated oxidation of LDL in a concentration- and time-dependent manner with 52.41 and 63.03 % inhibition at 20 mg/L, respectively, which were similar to that of ascorbate at 10 mg/L. EHWB significantly decreased the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and increased the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD in serum and liver of alloxan-treated mice compared with the control. These results demonstrated that EHWB might be efficient in the protection of

  13. Historical Survey: German Research on Hydrogen Peroxide/Alcohol Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmeter, John E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Discussion of HP/fuel explosives in the scientific literature dates back to at least 1927. A paper was published that year in a German journal entitled On Hydrogen Peroxide Explosives [Bamberger and Nussbaum 1927]. The paper dealt with HP/cotton/Vaseline formulations, specifically HP89/cotton/Vaseline (76/15/9) and (70/8.5/12.5). The authors performed experiments with charge masses of 250-750 g and charge diameters of 35-45 mm. This short paper provides brief discussion on the observed qualitative effects of detonations but does not report detonation velocities.

  14. Electron beam treatment of simulated marine diesel exhaust gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licki Janusz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The exhaust gases from marine diesel engines contain high SO2 and NOx concentration. The applicability of the electron beam flue gas treatment technology for purification of marine diesel exhaust gases containing high SO2 and NOx concentration gases was the main goal of this paper. The study was performed in the laboratory plant with NOx concentration up to 1700 ppmv and SO2 concentration up to 1000 ppmv. Such high NOx and SO2 concentrations were observed in the exhaust gases from marine high-power diesel engines fuelled with different heavy fuel oils. In the first part of study the simulated exhaust gases were irradiated by the electron beam from accelerator. The simultaneous removal of SO2 and NOx were obtained and their removal efficiencies strongly depend on irradiation dose and inlet NOx concentration. For NOx concentrations above 800 ppmv low removal efficiencies were obtained even if applied high doses. In the second part of study the irradiated gases were directed to the seawater scrubber for further purification. The scrubbing process enhances removal efficiencies of both pollutants. The SO2 removal efficiencies above 98.5% were obtained with irradiation dose greater than 5.3 kGy. For inlet NOx concentrations of 1700 ppmv the NOx removal efficiency about 51% was obtained with dose greater than 8.8 kGy. Methods for further increase of NOx removal efficiency are presented in the paper.

  15. Systems for eliminating pathogens from exhaust air of animal houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, A.J.A.; Landman, W.J.M.; Melse, R.W.; Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,

    2005-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of highly infectious viral diseases like swine fever and avian influenza in The Netherlands have shown that despite extensive bio-security measures aiming at minimizing physical contacts between farms, disease spread could not be halted. Dust in exhaust air from swine and chicken

  16. 7 CFR 400.56 - Administrative appeal exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contained in 7 CFR part 400, subpart J. Administrative remedies through the appeal process must be exhausted prior to any action for judicial review. The approved APH yield determined as a result of the appeal process will be the yield applicable to the crop year. ...

  17. Exhaustive Weakly Wandering Sequences and Alpha-type Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Eigen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing sequence of integers, $\\mathbb{B}$, is given for which there exists a family of ergodic, infinite measure preserving transformations $T_\\alpha$, $0 \\leq \\alpha \\leq 1$ so that (1 $T_\\alpha$ is of $\\alpha$-type and (2 $\\mathbb{B}$ is an exhaustive weakly wandering sequence for each $T_\\alpha$.

  18. A Numerical and Experimental Study of Local Exhaust Capture Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, U.; Breum, N. O.; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    1993-01-01

    Direct capture efficiency of a local exhaust system is defined by introducing an imaginary control box surrounding the contaminant source and the exhaust opening. The imaginary box makes it possible to distinguish between contaminants directly captured and those that escape. Two methods for estim...... location is less important for the case studied. The choice of sampling strategy to obtain a representative background concentration is essential as substantial differences on direct capture efficiency are found. Recommendations are given......Direct capture efficiency of a local exhaust system is defined by introducing an imaginary control box surrounding the contaminant source and the exhaust opening. The imaginary box makes it possible to distinguish between contaminants directly captured and those that escape. Two methods...... for estimation of direct capture efficiency are given: (1) a numerical method based on the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for turbulent flows; and (2) a field method based on a representative background concentration. Direct capture efficiency is sensitive to the size of the control box, whereas its...

  19. Fast exhaustive search for polynomial systems in F2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouillaguet, C.; Chen, H.-C.; Cheng, C.M.; Chou, T.; Niederhagen, R.F.; Shamir, A.; Yang, B.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract. We analyze how fast we can solve general systems of multivariate equations of various low degrees over F2; this is a well known hard problem which is important both in itself and as part of many types of algebraic cryptanalysis. Compared to the standard exhaustive-search technique, our

  20. Fast exhaustive search for polynomial systems in F2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouillaguet, C.; Chen, H.-C.; Cheng, C.M.; Chou, T.; Niederhagen, R.F.; Shamir, A.; Yang, B.Y.; Mangard, S.; Standaert, F.X.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: We analyze how fast we can solve general systems of multivariate equations of various low degrees over $F_2$; this is a well known hard problem which is important both in itself and as part of many types of algebraic cryptanalysis. Compared to the standard exhaustive search technique, our

  1. Optimal Design of an Automotive Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagehi, Hassan; Attar, Alaa; Lee, Hosung

    2018-07-01

    The consumption of energy continues to increase at an exponential rate, especially in terms of conventional automobiles. Approximately 40% of the applied fuel into a vehicle is lost as waste exhausted to the environment. The desire for improved fuel efficiency by recovering the exhaust waste heat in automobiles has become an important subject. A thermoelectric generator (TEG) has the potential to convert exhaust waste heat into electricity as long as it is improving fuel economy. The remarkable amount of research being conducted on TEGs indicates that this technology will have a bright future in terms of power generation. The current study discusses the optimal design of the automotive exhaust TEG. An experimental study has been conducted to verify the model that used the ideal (standard) equations along with effective material properties. The model is reasonably verified by experimental work, mainly due to the utilization of the effective material properties. Hence, the thermoelectric module that was used in the experiment was optimized by using a developed optimal design theory (dimensionless analysis technique).

  2. Herpes viruses, cytokines, and altered hemostasis in vital exhaustion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Diest, R. van; Hamulyak, K.; Maes, M.; Bruggeman, C.A.; Appels, A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Infections with herpes viruses have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that vital exhaustion (VE) is associated with multiple herpesvirus infections, such as herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and

  3. Exhaustible-resource theory and the uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Y.L.

    1982-01-01

    Exhaustible-resource theory has been developed rapidly by economists since the OPEC shocks of 1973-1974 and the theory now provides a framework for analyzing the optimal production pattern for resource commodities. However, applications of the theory to particular markets, such as crude oil, have not provided accurate predictions due no doubt to theoretical problems in explaining exploration and discovery events, market organization changes, and uncertainty. This thesis investigated the uranium market in an effort to determine how well the exhaustible-resource theory explains the past price and quantity time paths of this energy resource, and what might be expected in the future. The exhaustible-resource theory was first developed in a form appropriate to an application to the uranium market. An econometric simulation model that combines the history of uranium price formation and the exhaustible-resource theory was developed to forecast future uranium prices. The model was designed not only to reflect the physical processes of drilling activities, changing reserves, production, and prices of uranium through individual equations, but also to account for the interaction of all these interrelationships at the same time

  4. Exhaustive Search for Sparse Variable Selection in Linear Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yasuhiko; Takenaka, Hikaru; Nakanishi-Ohno, Yoshinori; Uemura, Makoto; Ikeda, Shiro; Okada, Masato

    2018-04-01

    We propose a K-sparse exhaustive search (ES-K) method and a K-sparse approximate exhaustive search method (AES-K) for selecting variables in linear regression. With these methods, K-sparse combinations of variables are tested exhaustively assuming that the optimal combination of explanatory variables is K-sparse. By collecting the results of exhaustively computing ES-K, various approximate methods for selecting sparse variables can be summarized as density of states. With this density of states, we can compare different methods for selecting sparse variables such as relaxation and sampling. For large problems where the combinatorial explosion of explanatory variables is crucial, the AES-K method enables density of states to be effectively reconstructed by using the replica-exchange Monte Carlo method and the multiple histogram method. Applying the ES-K and AES-K methods to type Ia supernova data, we confirmed the conventional understanding in astronomy when an appropriate K is given beforehand. However, we found the difficulty to determine K from the data. Using virtual measurement and analysis, we argue that this is caused by data shortage.

  5. Test Program for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Exhaust Diffuser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Thomas R.

    2009-12-31

    This research relates to improving the efficiency of flow in a turbine exhaust, and thus, that of the turbine and power plant. The Phase I SBIR project demonstrated the technical viability of “strutlets” to control stalls on a model diffuser strut. Strutlets are a novel flow-improving vane concept intended to improve the efficiency of flow in turbine exhausts. Strutlets can help reduce turbine back pressure, and incrementally improve turbine efficiency, increase power, and reduce greenhouse gas emmission. The long-term goal is a 0.5 percent improvement of each item, averaged over the US gas turbine fleet. The strutlets were tested in a physical scale model of a gas turbine exhaust diffuser. The test flow passage is a straight, annular diffuser with three sets of struts. At the end of Phase 1, the ability of strutlets to keep flow attached to struts was demonstrated, but the strutlet drag was too high for a net efficiency advantage. An independently sponsored followup project did develop a highly-modified low-drag strutlet. In combination with other flow improving vanes, complicance to the stated goals was demonstrated for for simple cycle power plants, and to most of the goals for combined cycle power plants using this particular exhaust geometry. Importantly, low frequency diffuser noise was reduced by 5 dB or more, compared to the baseline. Appolicability to other diffuser geometries is yet to be demonstrated.

  6. The isotopic composition of CO in vehicle exhaust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, S.; Röckmann, T.; Popa, M.E.

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the isotopic composition of CO in the exhaust of individual vehicles. Additionally, the CO 2 isotopes, and the CO:CO 2 , CH 4 :CO 2 and H 2 :CO gas ratios were measured. This was done under idling and revving conditions, and for three vehicles in a full driving cycle on a testbench.

  7. Organic positive ions in aircraft gas-turbine engine exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Andrey; Arnold, Frank

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) represent a significant fraction of atmospheric aerosol. However the role of organic species emitted by aircraft (as a consequence of the incomplete combustion of fuel in the engine) in nucleation of new volatile particles still remains rather speculative and requires a much more detailed analysis of the underlying mechanisms. Measurements in aircraft exhaust plumes have shown the presence of both different non-methane VOCs (e.g. PartEmis project) and numerous organic cluster ions (MPIK-Heidelberg). However the link between detected organic gas-phase species and measured mass spectrum of cluster ions is uncertain. Unfortunately, up to now there are no models describing the thermodynamics of the formation of primary organic cluster ions in the exhaust of aircraft engines. The aim of this work is to present first results of such a model development. The model includes the block of thermodynamic data based on proton affinities and gas basicities of organic molecules and the block of non-equilibrium kinetics of the cluster ions evolution in the exhaust. The model predicts important features of the measured spectrum of positive ions in the exhaust behind aircraft. It is shown that positive ions emitted by aircraft engines into the atmosphere mostly consist of protonated and hydrated organic cluster ions. The developed model may be explored also in aerosol investigations of the background atmosphere as well as in the analysis of the emission of fine aerosol particles by automobiles.

  8. Base flow and exhaust plume interaction. Part 1 : Experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoones, M.M.J.; Bannink, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental study of the flow field along an axi-symmetric body with a single operating exhaust nozzle has been performed in the scope of an investigation on base flow-jet plume interactions. The structure of under-expanded jets in a co-flowing supersonic free stream was described using

  9. Generation and characterization of gasoline engine exhaust inhalation exposure atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jacob D; Barr, Edward B; White, Richard K; Kracko, Dean; Chow, Judith C; Zielinska, Barbara; Grosjean, Eric

    2008-10-01

    Exposure atmospheres for a rodent inhalation toxicology study were generated from the exhaust of a 4.3-L gasoline engine coupled to a dynamometer and operated on an adapted California Unified Driving Cycle. Exposure levels were maintained at three different dilution rates. One chamber at the lowest dilution had particles removed by filtration. Each exposure atmosphere was characterized for particle mass, particle number, particle size distribution, and detailed chemical speciation. The majority of the mass in the exposure atmospheres was gaseous carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organics, with small amounts of particle-bound carbon/ions and metals. The atmospheres varied according to the cycle, with the largest spikes in volatile organic and inorganic species shown during the "cold start" portion of the cycle. Ammonia present from the exhaust and rodents interacted with the gasoline exhaust to form secondary inorganic particles, and an increase in exhaust resulted in higher proportions of secondary inorganics as a portion of the total particle mass. Particle size had a median of 10-20 nm by number and approximately 150 nm by mass. Volatile organics matched the composition of the fuel, with large proportions of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons coupled to low amounts of oxygenated organics. A new measurement technique revealed organics reacting with nitrogen oxides have likely resulted in measurement bias in previous studies of combustion emissions. Identified and measured particle organic species accounted for about 10% of total organic particle mass and were mostly aliphatic acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  10. Technique for radiation treatment of exhaust gas due to combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Sueo

    1978-01-01

    As the Japanese unique research in the field of preservation of environment, the technique to remove simultaneously sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in exhaust gas using electron beam irradiation is noteworthy. This research was started by the experiment in the central research laboratory of Ebara Manufacturing Co., Ltd., in which it was found that the sulphur dioxide of initial concentration of 1,000 ppm was almost completely vanished when the exhaust gas of heavy oil combustion in a batch type vessel was irradiated for 9 minutes by electron beam. Based on this experiment, JAERI installed a continuous irradiation equipment with a large accelerator, and has investigated the effect of various parameters such as dose rate, irradiation temperature, total dose and agitation. This resulted in the remarkable finding that nitrogen oxides were also completely removed as well as sulphur dioxide when the exhaust gas containing both sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides was irradiated for a few seconds. In this case, if water of about 0.3% is added, removal rate of sulphur dioxide is greatly increased. The research group of University of Tokyo obtained other findings concerning removal rates. Then, after the pilot plant stage in Ebara Manufacturing Co., Ltd. from 1974, the test plant of exhaust gas treatment for a sintering machine, having the capacity of 3,000 Nm 3 /hr, has been constructed in Yawata Works of Nippon Steel Corp. This is now operating properly. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  11. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and serum cytokine levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dai, Yufei; Ren, Dianzhi; Bassig, Bryan A.; Vermeulen, Roel; Hu, Wei; Niu, Yong; Duan, Huawei; Ye, Meng; Meng, Tao; Xu, Jun; Li, Ping; Shen, Meili; Yang, Jufang; Fu, Wei; Meliefste, Kees; Silverman, Debra T.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Zheng, Yuxin

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a human lung carcinogen. Given that inflammation is suspected to be an important underlying mechanism of lung carcinogenesis, we evaluated the relationship between DEE exposure and the inflammatory response

  12. Psychic and moral exhaustion in primary care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Brandão Bacci Pegoraro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To report the experience of developing a workshop proposal to assist local managers with the identification, management and prevention of primary care workers' psychic and moral exhaustion. METHOD The workshop was developed through a literature review performed between November 2014 and June 2015. The temporal cut considered studies of the ten previous years. The selection included studies describing collective interventions for situations generating psychic and moral exhaustion, preferably in primary care services. RESULTS Thirty-five articles were analyzed. The workshop provides five meetings with an average duration of one hour. The themes are: awareness; recognizing personal stress; dealing with personal stress; recognizing team stress; and dealing with team stress. The workshop is based on five key principles: detection and coping; attention to interpersonal relationships; communication; self-knowledge and mindfulness. CONCLUSION Psychic and moral exhaustion may reflect negatively on workers' health, the care, and the organization. The proposal of measures to recognize, deal with and prevent psychic and moral exhaustion is relevant and strategic in the constant search for improvement of satisfaction and quality.

  13. 40 CFR 86.240-94 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 86.240-94 Section 86.240-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium...

  14. Optimal Design of an Automotive Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagehi, Hassan; Attar, Alaa; Lee, Hosung

    2018-04-01

    The consumption of energy continues to increase at an exponential rate, especially in terms of conventional automobiles. Approximately 40% of the applied fuel into a vehicle is lost as waste exhausted to the environment. The desire for improved fuel efficiency by recovering the exhaust waste heat in automobiles has become an important subject. A thermoelectric generator (TEG) has the potential to convert exhaust waste heat into electricity as long as it is improving fuel economy. The remarkable amount of research being conducted on TEGs indicates that this technology will have a bright future in terms of power generation. The current study discusses the optimal design of the automotive exhaust TEG. An experimental study has been conducted to verify the model that used the ideal (standard) equations along with effective material properties. The model is reasonably verified by experimental work, mainly due to the utilization of the effective material properties. Hence, the thermoelectric module that was used in the experiment was optimized by using a developed optimal design theory (dimensionless analysis technique).

  15. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  16. Neuropsychological sequelae of work-stress-related exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österberg, Kai; Skogsliden, Sofia; Karlson, Björn

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to assess long-term cognitive performance after substantial recovery from work-stress-related exhaustion, in relation to subjective cognitive complaints and return to active work. In total, 54 patients previously diagnosed with work-stress-related exhaustion participated in a neuropsychological examination ∼2 years after initial sick leave. Most participants were substantially recovered at follow-up, with only 13% still meeting the criteria for exhaustion disorder suggested by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. When participants' scores on 14 neuropsychological tests were compared to a matched group of 50 controls, the former patient group showed lower performance mainly on attention tests of the reaction time type, but also slightly lower scores on visuo-spatial constructional ability. However, the former patient group performed better than controls on two memory tests and, in part, on a test of simultaneous capacity. Self-ratings of everyday cognitive problems remained significantly higher in the former patient group than among controls, but the extent of self-rated cognitive problems was generally unrelated to performance on the neuropsychological tests. No relationship between performance on these tests and the extent of work resumption was observed. In summary, persons with previous work-stress-related exhaustion showed persistent signs of a minor attention deficit, despite considerable general recovery and return to work.

  17. A Lagrangian Simulation of Subsonic Aircraft Exhaust Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Morris, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    To estimate the effect of subsonic and supersonic aircraft exhaust on the stratospheric concentration of NO(y), we employ a trajectory model initialized with air parcels based on the standard release scenarios. The supersonic exhaust simulations are in good agreement with 2D and 3D model results and show a perturbation of about 1-2 ppbv of NO(y) in the stratosphere. The subsonic simulations show that subsonic emissions are almost entirely trapped below the 380 K potential temperature surface. Our subsonic results contradict results from most other models, which show exhaust products penetrating above 380 K, as summarized. The disagreement can likely be attributed to an excessive vertical diffusion in most models of the strong vertical gradient in NO(y) that forms at the boundary between the emission zone and the stratosphere above 380 K. Our results suggest that previous assessments of the impact of subsonic exhaust emission on the stratospheric region above 380 K should be considered to be an upper bound.

  18. Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

  19. Reciprocating Linear Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldowsky, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    Features include structural simplicity and good force/displacement characteristics. Reciprocating motor has simple, rugged construction, relatively low reciprocating weight, improved power delivery, and improved force control. Wear reduced by use of magnetic bearings. Intended to provide drivers for long-lived Stirling-cycle cryogenic refrigerators, concept has less exotic applications, such as fuel pumps.

  20. Switched reluctance motor drives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Davis RM, Ray WF, Blake RJ 1981 Inverter drive for switched reluctance: circuits and component ratings. Inst. Elec. Eng. Proc. B128: 126-136. Ehsani M. 1991 Position Sensor elimination technique for the switched reluctance motor drive. US Patent No. 5,072,166. Ehsani M, Ramani K R 1993 Direct control strategies based ...

  1. Motor Incoordination in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between motor performance, attention deficit, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity in 42 school-aged children with ADHD (36 males, 6 females; mean age 8 years 2 months; range 6-11 years was studied at National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

  2. Deafness and motor abilities level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zwierzchowska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The audition injury hinders some motor motions and the organised coordination at the higher level and may be a cause of disturbances and disorder in some motor abilities adoption. It was assumed that deafness including its aetiology and injury mechanism may significantly influence the motor development of human being. The study aimed in checking if the deafness, as a result of various unfavourable factors, determines the motor development of children and youngsters. Consequently the dependency between qualitative features i.e.: signed motor level and aetiology, audition injury mechanism and the deafness degree was examined. The mechanism and aetiology of hearing correlated with the motor abilities displayed statistically significant dependencies in few motor trials only. Revealed correlations regarded mostly the coordination trials excluding the flexibility one. Statistically significant dependencies between the audition diminution and the motor abilities level were not found.

  3. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single-shell tanks during salt well pumping; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOMAN, N.A.

    1999-01-01

    (LFL). Safety analyses indicate that the LFL might be exceeded in some tanks during certain postulated accident scenarios. Also, the potential for electrical (pump motor, heat tracing) and mechanical (equipment installation) spark sources exist. Therefore, because of the presence of ignition sources and the potential for release of flammable gases, active ventilation might be required in some SSTs to reduce the ''time at risk'' while salt well pumping. For this reason, portable exhausters will be installed as a precautionary measure and used when flammable gas concentrations exceed 25 percent of the LFL during salt well pumping

  4. Removal of Reactive Red 198 by Nanoparticle Zero Valent Iron in the Presence of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siroos Shojaei

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although dyes are widely used in textile industries, they are carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic. Industries discharge their wastewater containing a variety of colors into water resources and make harmful effect on the environment. The present study aims to Evaluate removal of reactive red 198 by nanoparticle zero valent iron (NZVI in the presence of hydrogen peroxide from aqueous solution. The effective parameters on the removal of dye such as the hydrogen peroxide concentration of NZVI, contact time, pH and dye concentration were investigated and optimized. According to the results, the combination of NZVI with hydrogen peroxide is more effective than single hydrogen peroxide. At pH = 4, contact time= 40 min, 200 M of hydrogen peroxide, dye concentration= 75 mg/L and concentration of NZVI 2g/L, color removal was achieved 91% approximately. Based on the results of experiments, using hydrogen peroxide- NZVI has high efficiency in removal of azo dye type.

  5. A biosensor for hydrogen peroxide detection based on electronic properties of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Roya

    2013-01-01

    Density functional theory has been used to study the effect of hydrogen peroxide on the electronic properties of single walled carbon nanotubes. The metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes have been considered in the presence of different number of hydrogen peroxide. The results indicate that hydrogen peroxide has no significant effect on the metallic nanotube and these nanotubes remain to be metallic. In contrast, the electronic properties of the semiconducting nanotubes are so sensitive to hydrogen peroxide. The energy band gap of these nanotubes is decreased by increasing the number of hydrogen peroxide. The electronic sensivity of the carbon nanotubes to hydrogen peroxide opens new insights into developing biosensors based on the single walled carbon nanotubes.

  6. Apparatus and method for treating pollutants in a gas using hydrogen peroxide and UV light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Charles David (Inventor); Clausen, Christian Anthony (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus for treating pollutants in a gas may include a source of hydrogen peroxide, and a treatment injector for creating and injecting dissociated hydrogen peroxide into the flow of gas. The treatment injector may further include an injector housing having an inlet, an outlet, and a hollow interior extending therebetween. The inlet may be connected in fluid communication with the source of hydrogen peroxide so that hydrogen peroxide flows through the hollow interior and toward the outlet. At least one ultraviolet (UV) lamp may be positioned within the hollow interior of the injector housing. The at least one UV lamp may dissociate the hydrogen peroxide flowing through the tube. The dissociated hydrogen peroxide may be injected into the flow of gas from the outlet for treating pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides.

  7. MOTORIC STIMULATION RELATED TO FINE MOTORIC DEVELOPMENT ON CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Triharini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Motor developmental stimulation is an activity undertaken to stimulate the children basic skills and so they can grow and develop optimally. Children who obtain a direct stimulus will grow faster than who get less stimulus. Mother’s behavior of stimulation is very important for children, it is considering as the basic needs of children and it must be fulfilled. Providing good stimulation could optimize fine motor development in children. The purpose of this study was to analyze mother’s behavior about motor stimulation with fine motor development in toddler age 4-5 years old. Method: Design have been  used in this study was cross sectional. Population were mothers and their toddler in Group A of Dharma Wanita Persatuan Driyorejo Gresik Preschool. Sample were 51 respondents recruited by using purposive sampling technique according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The independent variable was mother’s behavior about motor stimulation whereas dependent variable was fine motor development in toddler. The data were collected using questionnaire and conducting observation on fine motor development based on Denver Development Screening Test (DDST. Data then analyzed using Spearman Rho (r test to find relation between mother’s behaviors about stimulation motor on their toddler fine motor development. Result: Results  of this study showed that there were correlations between mother’s knowledge and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, between mother’s attitude and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, and between mother’s actions and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000. Analysis: In sort study found that there were relation between fine motor development and mother’s behavior. Discussion: Therefore mother’s behavior needed to be improved. Further research about stimulation motor and fine motor development aspects in toddler is required.

  8. Heat exhaustion in a deep underground metalliferous mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, A M; Sinclair, M J; Bates, G P

    2000-03-01

    To examine the incidence, clinical state, personal risk factors, haematology, and biochemistry of heat exhaustion occurring at a deep underground metalliferous mine. To describe the underground thermal conditions associated with the occurrence of heat exhaustion. A 1 year prospective case series of acute heat exhaustion was undertaken. A history was obtained with a structured questionnaire. Pulse rate, blood pressure, tympanic temperature, and specific gravity of urine were measured before treatment. Venous blood was analysed for haematological and biochemical variables, during the acute presentation and after recovery. Body mass index (BMI) and maximum O2 consumption (VO2 max) were measured after recovery. Psychrometric wet bulb temperature, dry bulb temperature, and air velocity were measured at the underground sites where heat exhaustion had occurred. Air cooling power and psychrometric wet bulb globe temperature were derived from these data. 106 Cases were studied. The incidence of heat exhaustion during the year was 43.0 cases/million man-hours. In February it was 147 cases/million man-hours. The incidence rate ratio for mines operating below 1200 m compared with those operating above 1200 m was 3.17. Mean estimated fluid intake was 0.64 l/h (SD 0.29, range 0.08-1.50). The following data were increased in acute presentation compared with recovery (p value, % of acute cases above the normal clinical range): neutrophils (p air velocity was 0.54 m/s (SD 0.57, range 0.00-4.00). Mean air cooling power was 148 W/m2 (SD 49, range 33-290) Mean psychrometric wet bulb globe temperature was 31.5 degrees C (SD 2.0, range 25.2-35.3). Few cases (air velocity > 1.56 m/s, air cooling power > 248 W/m2, or psychrometric wet bulb globe temperature air cooling power > 250 W/m2 at all underground work sites.

  9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has distinct adaptive responses to both hydrogen peroxide and menadione.

    OpenAIRE

    Jamieson, D J

    1992-01-01

    Treatment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells with low concentrations of either hydrogen peroxide or menadione (a superoxide-generating agent) induces adaptive responses which protect cells from the lethal effects of subsequent challenge with higher concentrations of these oxidants. Pretreatment with menadione is protective against cell killing by hydrogen peroxide; however, pretreatment with hydrogen peroxide is unable to protect cells from subsequent challenge with menadione. This suggests th...

  10. Microprocessor controller for stepping motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, B.G.; Thuot, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    A new concept for digital computer control of multiple stepping motors which operate in a severe electromagnetic pulse environment is presented. The motors position mirrors in the beam-alignment system of a 100-kJ CO 2 laser. An asynchronous communications channel of a computer is used to send coded messages, containing the motor address and stepping-command information, to the stepping-motor controller in a bit serial format over a fiber-optics communications link. The addressed controller responds by transmitting to the computer its address and other motor information, thus confirming the received message. Each controller is capable of controlling three stepping motors. The controller contains the fiber-optics interface, a microprocessor, and the stepping-motor driven circuits. The microprocessor program, which resides in an EPROM, decodes the received messages, transmits responses, performs the stepping-motor sequence logic, maintains motor-position information, and monitors the motor's reference switch. For multiple stepping-motor application, the controllers are connected in a daisy chain providing control of many motors from one asynchronous communications channel of the computer

  11. Multiple stage miniature stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niven, W.A.; Shikany, S.D.; Shira, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A stepping motor comprising a plurality of stages which may be selectively activated to effect stepping movement of the motor, and which are mounted along a common rotor shaft to achieve considerable reduction in motor size and minimum diameter, whereby sequential activation of the stages results in successive rotor steps with direction being determined by the particular activating sequence followed

  12. Experiments with a DC Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    Experiments with an electric motor provide good opportunity to demonstrate some basic laws of electricity and magnetism. The aim of the experiments with a low-power dc motor is to show how the motor approaches its steady rotation and how its torque, mechanical power and efficiency depend on the rotation velocity. The tight relationship between the…

  13. Fundamental Principles underlying Motor Reflexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Zhou (Kuikui)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe cerebellum has been suggested to be involved in motor control ever since the early 19th century. The motor control ranges from timing and strength of simple reflexes to multiple joint/limb coordination and complex motor sequence acquisition. The current thesis discusses the

  14. Motor Vehicle Theft. Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Caroline Wolf

    Thirteen years of data from the National Crime Survey were analyzed to examine the characteristics of motor vehicle theft, to identify trends during the past 13 years, and to determine who are most likely to be victims of motor vehicle theft. All motor vehicle thefts reported to the National Crime Survey from 1973 through 1985 were examined.…

  15. The diesel exhaust in miners study: IV. Estimating historical exposures to diesel exhaust in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, R.; Coble, J.B.; Lubin, J.H.; Portengen, L.; Blair, A.; Attfield, M.D.; Silverman, D.T.; Stewart, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposures to respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, including lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners at eight non-metal mining facilities [the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS)]. Because there were no

  16. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners study: a nested case-control study of lung cancer and diesel exhaust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silverman, D.T.; Samanic, C.; Lubin, J.H.; Blair, A.; Stewart, P.A.; Vermeulen, R.; Schleiff, P.L.; Travis, W.D.; Ziegler, R.; Wacholder, S.; Attfield, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Most studies of the association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer suggest a modest, but consistent, increased risk. However, to our knowledge, no study to date has had quantitative data on historical diesel exposure coupled with adequate sample size to evaluate the

  17. Shifts in the relationship between motor unit recruitment thresholds versus derecruitment thresholds during fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matt S; Mota, Jacob A

    2017-12-01

    Muscle fatigue is associated with diminished twitch force amplitude. We examined changes in the motor unit recruitment versus derecruitment threshold relationship during fatigue. Nine men (mean age = 26 years) performed repeated isometric contractions at 50% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) knee extensor force until exhaustion. Surface electromyographic signals were detected from the vastus lateralis, and were decomposed into their constituent motor unit action potential trains. Motor unit recruitment and derecruitment thresholds and firing rates at recruitment and derecruitment were evaluated at the beginning, middle, and end of the protocol. On average, 15 motor units were studied per contraction. For the initial contraction, three subjects showed greater recruitment thresholds than derecruitment thresholds for all motor units. Five subjects showed greater recruitment thresholds than derecruitment thresholds for only low-threshold motor units at the beginning, with a mean cross-over of 31.6% MVC. As the muscle fatigued, many motor units were derecruited at progressively higher forces. In turn, decreased slopes and increased y-intercepts were observed. These shifts were complemented by increased firing rates at derecruitment relative to recruitment. As the vastus lateralis fatigued, the central nervous system's compensatory adjustments resulted in a shift of the regression line of the recruitment versus derecruitment threshold relationship. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Salinity-gradient energy driven microbial electrosynthesis of hydrogen peroxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaohu; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a strong oxidant, is widely used in various chemical industries and environmental remediation processes. In this study, we developed an innovative method for cost-effective production of H2O2 by using a microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cell (MREC). In the......Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a strong oxidant, is widely used in various chemical industries and environmental remediation processes. In this study, we developed an innovative method for cost-effective production of H2O2 by using a microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cell (MREC......). In the MREC, electrical potential generated by the exoelectrogens and the salinity-gradient between salt and fresh water were utilized to drive the high-rate H2O2 production. Operational parameters such as air flow rate, pH, cathodic potential, flow rate of salt and fresh water were investigated. The optimal...... H2O2 production was observed at salt and fresh water flow rate of 0.5 mL min−1, air flow rate of 12–20 mL min−1, cathode potential of −0.485 ± 0.025 V (vs Ag/AgCl). The maximum H2O2 accumulated concentration of 778 ± 11 mg L−1 was obtained at corresponding production rate of 11.5 ± 0.5 mg L−1 h−1...

  19. Antifungal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide in dental unit waterline disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, Jolanta

    2006-01-01

    The concentration and composition of fungal flora in dental unit waterlines (DUWL) were evaluated. For this purpose, water samples from unit reservoirs and high-speed handpieces, and biofilm samples from the waterline walls from units were collected. Subsequently, analogous samples from DUWL were taken before and after disinfection using agent containing hydrogen peroxide. In the examined samples, the yeast-like fungi Candida albicans and Candida curvata were found. The following species of mould were also identified: Aspergillus amstelodami, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus glaucus group, Aspergillus (=Eurotium herbariorum) repens, Citromyces spp., Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium (glabrum) frequentans, Penicillium pusillum, Penicillium turolense and Sclerotium sclerotiorum (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum). Before disinfection, Candida curvata and Candida albicans constituted the greatest proportion of the total fungi in the reservoirs water; in the water of handpieces--Candida albicans and Aspergillus glaucus group; and in the biofilm samples--Aspergillus glaucus group and Candida albicans. After disinfection, in all 3 kinds of samples, Candida albicans prevailed, constituting from 31.2-85.7 % of the total fungi. The application of agent containing hydrogen peroxide caused a significant decrease both in the number of total fungi and individual fungal species, which confirms the product effectiveness in fungal decontamination of DUWL.

  20. INTERACTION OF ALDEHYDES DERIVED FROM LIPID PEROXIDATION AND MEMBRANE PROTEINS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania ePizzimenti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A great variety of compounds are formed during lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids of membrane phospholipids. Among them, bioactive aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxyalkenals, malondialdehyde (MDA and acrolein, have received particular attention since they have been considered as toxic messengers that can propagate and amplify oxidative injury. In the 4-hydroxyalkenal class, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE is the most intensively studied aldehyde, in relation not only to its toxic function, but also to its physiological role. Indeed, HNE can be found at low concentrations in human tissues and plasma and participates in the control of biological processes, such as signal transduction, cell proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, at low doses, HNE exerts an anti-cancer effect, by inhibiting cell proliferation, angiogenesis, cell adhesion and by inducing differentiation and/or apoptosis in various tumor cell lines. It is very likely that a substantial fraction of the effects observed in cellular responses, induced by HNE and related aldehydes, be mediated by their interaction with proteins, resulting in the formation of covalent adducts or in the modulation of their expression and/or activity. In this review we focus on membrane proteins affected by lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes, under physiological and pathological conditions.