International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnold, Vladimir I
2009-01-01
Decompositions into cycles for random permutations of a large number of elements are very different (in their statistics) from the same decompositions for algebraic permutations (defined by linear or projective transformations of finite sets). This paper presents tables giving both these and other statistics, as well as a comparison of them with the statistics of involutions or permutations with all their cycles of even length. The inclusions of a point in cycles of various lengths turn out to be equiprobable events for random permutations. The number of permutations of 2N elements with all cycles of even length turns out to be the square of an integer (namely, of (2N-1)!!). The number of cycles of projective permutations (over a field with an odd prime number of elements) is always even. These and other empirically discovered theorems are proved in the paper. Bibliography: 6 titles.
Structural consequences of cutting a binding loop: two circularly permuted variants of streptavidin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Trong, Isolde; Chu, Vano; Xing, Yi; Lybrand, Terry P.; Stayton, Patrick S.; Stenkamp, Ronald E.
2013-01-01
The crystal structures of two circularly permuted streptavidins probe the role of a flexible loop in the tight binding of biotin. Molecular-dynamics calculations for one of the mutants suggests that increased fluctuations in a hydrogen bond between the protein and biotin are associated with cleavage of the binding loop. Circular permutation of streptavidin was carried out in order to investigate the role of a main-chain amide in stabilizing the high-affinity complex of the protein and biotin. Mutant proteins CP49/48 and CP50/49 were constructed to place new N-termini at residues 49 and 50 in a flexible loop involved in stabilizing the biotin complex. Crystal structures of the two mutants show that half of each loop closes over the binding site, as observed in wild-type streptavidin, while the other half adopts the open conformation found in the unliganded state. The structures are consistent with kinetic and thermodynamic data and indicate that the loop plays a role in enthalpic stabilization of the bound state via the Asn49 amide–biotin hydrogen bond. In wild-type streptavidin, the entropic penalties of immobilizing a flexible portion of the protein to enhance binding are kept to a manageable level by using a contiguous loop of medium length (six residues) which is already constrained by its anchorage to strands of the β-barrel protein. A molecular-dynamics simulation for CP50/49 shows that cleavage of the binding loop results in increased structural fluctuations for Ser45 and that these fluctuations destabilize the streptavidin–biotin complex
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mariona Callís
Full Text Available Onconase® is a highly cytotoxic amphibian homolog of Ribonuclease A. Here, we describe the construction of circularly permuted Onconase® variants by connecting the N- and C-termini of this enzyme with amino acid residues that are recognized and cleaved by the human immunodeficiency virus protease. Uncleaved circularly permuted Onconase® variants are unusually stable, non-cytotoxic and can internalize in human T-lymphocyte Jurkat cells. The structure, stability and dynamics of an intact and a cleaved circularly permuted Onconase® variant were determined by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy and provide valuable insight into the changes in catalytic efficiency caused by the cleavage. The understanding of the structural environment and the dynamics of the activation process represents a first step toward the development of more effective drugs for the treatment of diseases related to pathogens expressing a specific protease. By taking advantage of the protease's activity to initiate a cytotoxic cascade, this approach is thought to be less susceptible to known resistance mechanisms.
Histone Variants and Composition in the Developing Brain: Should MeCP2 Care?
Zago, Valentina; Pinar-CabezaDeVaca, Cristina; Vincent, John B; Ausio, Juan
2017-01-01
Specific compositional chromatin features distinguish brain/neuronal chromatin from that of other tissues and are critical to this organ and cell type development and neuroplasticity. These features include a significant turnover of the major constitutive chromosomal proteins, including the (canonical) replication-dependent histones, the replication-independent replacement histone variants, as well as the chromatin associated transcriptional regulator MeCP2 (methyl CpG binding protein 2). Alterations of histones and MeCP2 have already been implicated in many brain disorders. Despite the relevance of histone variants to chromatin structure and function, only recently has some exciting literature started to re-emerge that directly relates them to neuron plasticity and cognition. However, the amount of information available on the functional role of these histones is still very limited. The purpose of this review is to focus attention to this important group of chromatin proteins, which, in the brain, possess overlapping structural and functional roles with the highly abundant presence of MeCP2. There is an imperative need to understand how all these proteins communicate with each other, and future research will hopefully provide us with answers.
Jones, Alicia M; Atkinson, Joshua T; Silberg, Jonathan J
2017-01-01
Rearrangements that alter the order of a protein's sequence are used in the lab to study protein folding, improve activity, and build molecular switches. One of the simplest ways to rearrange a protein sequence is through random circular permutation, where native protein termini are linked together and new termini are created elsewhere through random backbone fission. Transposase mutagenesis has emerged as a simple way to generate libraries encoding different circularly permuted variants of proteins. With this approach, a synthetic transposon (called a permuteposon) is randomly inserted throughout a circularized gene to generate vectors that express different permuted variants of a protein. In this chapter, we outline the protocol for constructing combinatorial libraries of circularly permuted proteins using transposase mutagenesis, and we describe the different permuteposons that have been developed to facilitate library construction.
Passman, Donald S
2012-01-01
This volume by a prominent authority on permutation groups consists of lecture notes that provide a self-contained account of distinct classification theorems. A ready source of frequently quoted but usually inaccessible theorems, it is ideally suited for professional group theorists as well as students with a solid background in modern algebra.The three-part treatment begins with an introductory chapter and advances to an economical development of the tools of basic group theory, including group extensions, transfer theorems, and group representations and characters. The final chapter feature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bantay, P.
2002-01-01
A general theory of permutation orbifolds is developed for arbitrary twist groups. Explicit expressions for the number of primaries, the partition function, the genus one characters, the matrix elements of modular transformations and for fusion rule coefficients are presented, together with the relevant mathematical concepts, such as Λ-matrices and twisted dimensions. The arithmetic restrictions implied by the theory for the allowed modular representations in CFT are discussed. The simplest nonabelian example with twist group S 3 is described to illustrate the general theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Xinshang, E-mail: sanmaosound@163.com; Zhao, Heng, E-mail: hengzhao2000@gmail.com; Chen, Yeyu, E-mail: cyyleaf@126.com; Luo, Huiying, E-mail: luohuiying@caas.cn; Yao, Bin, E-mail: binyao@caas.cn
2014-10-24
Highlights: • A TRIM gene and three splice variants were firstly cloned from elasmobranch fish. • The genes were constitutively expressed with high levels in spleen and kidney. • The gene products were distributed in cytoplasm alone or cytoplasm and nucleus. • As E3 ubiquitin ligases, the proteins differed in immune responses to challenges. - Abstract: The tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins play important roles in a broad range of biological processes, including apoptosis, cell proliferation and innate immunity response. In this study, a TRIM gene and its three splice variants were cloned from an elasmobranch fish—whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum Bennett). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the gene was closely related to TRIM35 homologs, thus termed CpTRIM35-like. Deduced CpTRIM35 has a RBCC-PRY/SPRY structure typical of TRIM proteins, and its splice variants (CpTRIM35-1–3) have different truncations at the C-terminus. The gene products were constitutively expressed in adult sharks with the highest levels in spleen and kidney. The different subcellular locations, upregulation upon LPS and poly I:C stimulation, and significant E3 ubiquitin ligase activities suggested their different roles in immune responses as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. This is the first TRIM protein ever characterized in elasmobranch fish.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Xinshang; Zhao, Heng; Chen, Yeyu; Luo, Huiying; Yao, Bin
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A TRIM gene and three splice variants were firstly cloned from elasmobranch fish. • The genes were constitutively expressed with high levels in spleen and kidney. • The gene products were distributed in cytoplasm alone or cytoplasm and nucleus. • As E3 ubiquitin ligases, the proteins differed in immune responses to challenges. - Abstract: The tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins play important roles in a broad range of biological processes, including apoptosis, cell proliferation and innate immunity response. In this study, a TRIM gene and its three splice variants were cloned from an elasmobranch fish—whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum Bennett). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the gene was closely related to TRIM35 homologs, thus termed CpTRIM35-like. Deduced CpTRIM35 has a RBCC-PRY/SPRY structure typical of TRIM proteins, and its splice variants (CpTRIM35-1–3) have different truncations at the C-terminus. The gene products were constitutively expressed in adult sharks with the highest levels in spleen and kidney. The different subcellular locations, upregulation upon LPS and poly I:C stimulation, and significant E3 ubiquitin ligase activities suggested their different roles in immune responses as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. This is the first TRIM protein ever characterized in elasmobranch fish
Diversification of Protein Cage Structure Using Circularly Permuted Subunits.
Azuma, Yusuke; Herger, Michael; Hilvert, Donald
2018-01-17
Self-assembling protein cages are useful as nanoscale molecular containers for diverse applications in biotechnology and medicine. To expand the utility of such systems, there is considerable interest in customizing the structures of natural cage-forming proteins and designing new ones. Here we report that a circularly permuted variant of lumazine synthase, a cage-forming enzyme from Aquifex aeolicus (AaLS) affords versatile building blocks for the construction of nanocompartments that can be easily produced, tailored, and diversified. The topologically altered protein, cpAaLS, self-assembles into spherical and tubular cage structures with morphologies that can be controlled by the length of the linker connecting the native termini. Moreover, cpAaLS proteins integrate into wild-type and other engineered AaLS assemblies by coproduction in Escherichia coli to form patchwork cages. This coassembly strategy enables encapsulation of guest proteins in the lumen, modification of the exterior through genetic fusion, and tuning of the size and electrostatics of the compartments. This addition to the family of AaLS cages broadens the scope of this system for further applications and highlights the utility of circular permutation as a potentially general strategy for tailoring the properties of cage-forming proteins.
Permutation parity machines for neural synchronization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reyes, O M; Kopitzke, I; Zimmermann, K-H
2009-01-01
Synchronization of neural networks has been studied in recent years as an alternative to cryptographic applications such as the realization of symmetric key exchange protocols. This paper presents a first view of the so-called permutation parity machine, an artificial neural network proposed as a binary variant of the tree parity machine. The dynamics of the synchronization process by mutual learning between permutation parity machines is analytically studied and the results are compared with those of tree parity machines. It will turn out that for neural synchronization, permutation parity machines form a viable alternative to tree parity machines
Permutation parity machines for neural cryptography.
Reyes, Oscar Mauricio; Zimmermann, Karl-Heinz
2010-06-01
Recently, synchronization was proved for permutation parity machines, multilayer feed-forward neural networks proposed as a binary variant of the tree parity machines. This ability was already used in the case of tree parity machines to introduce a key-exchange protocol. In this paper, a protocol based on permutation parity machines is proposed and its performance against common attacks (simple, geometric, majority and genetic) is studied.
Permutation parity machines for neural cryptography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reyes, Oscar Mauricio; Zimmermann, Karl-Heinz
2010-01-01
Recently, synchronization was proved for permutation parity machines, multilayer feed-forward neural networks proposed as a binary variant of the tree parity machines. This ability was already used in the case of tree parity machines to introduce a key-exchange protocol. In this paper, a protocol based on permutation parity machines is proposed and its performance against common attacks (simple, geometric, majority and genetic) is studied.
Permutation Entropy: New Ideas and Challenges
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karsten Keller
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Over recent years, some new variants of Permutation entropy have been introduced and applied to EEG analysis, including a conditional variant and variants using some additional metric information or being based on entropies that are different from the Shannon entropy. In some situations, it is not completely clear what kind of information the new measures and their algorithmic implementations provide. We discuss the new developments and illustrate them for EEG data.
Permutation orbifolds and chaos
Belin, A.
2017-01-01
We study out-of-time-ordered correlation functions in permutation orbifolds at large central charge. We show that they do not decay at late times for arbitrary choices of low-dimension operators, indicating that permutation orbifolds are non-chaotic theories. This is in agreement with the fact they
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mikel Aickin
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Permutation tests are often presented in a rather casual manner, in both introductory and advanced statistics textbooks. The appeal of the cleverness of the procedure seems to replace the need for a rigorous argument that it produces valid hypothesis tests. The consequence of this educational failing has been a widespread belief in a “permutation principle”, which is supposed invariably to give tests that are valid by construction, under an absolute minimum of statistical assumptions. Several lines of argument are presented here to show that the permutation principle itself can be invalid, concentrating on the Fisher-Pitman permutation test for two means. A simple counterfactual example illustrates the general problem, and a slightly more elaborate counterfactual argument is used to explain why the main mathematical proof of the validity of permutation tests is mistaken. Two modifications of the permutation test are suggested to be valid in a very modest simulation. In instances where simulation software is readily available, investigating the validity of a specific permutation test can be done easily, requiring only a minimum understanding of statistical technicalities.
A transposase strategy for creating libraries of circularly permuted proteins.
Mehta, Manan M; Liu, Shirley; Silberg, Jonathan J
2012-05-01
A simple approach for creating libraries of circularly permuted proteins is described that is called PERMutation Using Transposase Engineering (PERMUTE). In PERMUTE, the transposase MuA is used to randomly insert a minitransposon that can function as a protein expression vector into a plasmid that contains the open reading frame (ORF) being permuted. A library of vectors that express different permuted variants of the ORF-encoded protein is created by: (i) using bacteria to select for target vectors that acquire an integrated minitransposon; (ii) excising the ensemble of ORFs that contain an integrated minitransposon from the selected vectors; and (iii) circularizing the ensemble of ORFs containing integrated minitransposons using intramolecular ligation. Construction of a Thermotoga neapolitana adenylate kinase (AK) library using PERMUTE revealed that this approach produces vectors that express circularly permuted proteins with distinct sequence diversity from existing methods. In addition, selection of this library for variants that complement the growth of Escherichia coli with a temperature-sensitive AK identified functional proteins with novel architectures, suggesting that PERMUTE will be useful for the directed evolution of proteins with new functions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bourget, Antoine [Department of Physics, Universidad de Oviedo, Avenida Calvo Sotelo 18, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Troost, Jan [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de l’É cole Normale Supérieure, CNRS,PSL Research University, Sorbonne Universités, 75005 Paris (France)
2017-05-09
We discuss the permutation group G of massive vacua of four-dimensional gauge theories with N=1 supersymmetry that arises upon tracing loops in the space of couplings. We concentrate on superconformal N=4 and N=2 theories with N=1 supersymmetry preserving mass deformations. The permutation group G of massive vacua is the Galois group of characteristic polynomials for the vacuum expectation values of chiral observables. We provide various techniques to effectively compute characteristic polynomials in given theories, and we deduce the existence of varying symmetry breaking patterns of the duality group depending on the gauge algebra and matter content of the theory. Our examples give rise to interesting field extensions of spaces of modular forms.
Gray Code for Cayley Permutations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.-L. Baril
2003-10-01
Full Text Available A length-n Cayley permutation p of a total ordered set S is a length-n sequence of elements from S, subject to the condition that if an element x appears in p then all elements y < x also appear in p . In this paper, we give a Gray code list for the set of length-n Cayley permutations. Two successive permutations in this list differ at most in two positions.
Vogel, S. de; Wouters, K.A.D.; Gottschalk, R.W.H.; Schooten, F.J. van; Goeij, A.F.P.M. de; Bruïne, A.P. de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Weijenberg, M.P.; Engeland, M. van
2009-01-01
Aberrant DNA methylation affects carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer. Folate metabolizing enzymes may influence the bioavailability of methyl groups, whereas DNA and histone methyltransferases are involved in epigenetic regulation of gene expression. We studied associations of genetic variants of
Visual recognition of permuted words
Rashid, Sheikh Faisal; Shafait, Faisal; Breuel, Thomas M.
2010-02-01
In current study we examine how letter permutation affects in visual recognition of words for two orthographically dissimilar languages, Urdu and German. We present the hypothesis that recognition or reading of permuted and non-permuted words are two distinct mental level processes, and that people use different strategies in handling permuted words as compared to normal words. A comparison between reading behavior of people in these languages is also presented. We present our study in context of dual route theories of reading and it is observed that the dual-route theory is consistent with explanation of our hypothesis of distinction in underlying cognitive behavior for reading permuted and non-permuted words. We conducted three experiments in lexical decision tasks to analyze how reading is degraded or affected by letter permutation. We performed analysis of variance (ANOVA), distribution free rank test, and t-test to determine the significance differences in response time latencies for two classes of data. Results showed that the recognition accuracy for permuted words is decreased 31% in case of Urdu and 11% in case of German language. We also found a considerable difference in reading behavior for cursive and alphabetic languages and it is observed that reading of Urdu is comparatively slower than reading of German due to characteristics of cursive script.
Permutationally invariant state reconstruction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Moroder, Tobias; Hyllus, Philipp; Tóth, Géza
2012-01-01
Feasible tomography schemes for large particle numbers must possess, besides an appropriate data acquisition protocol, an efficient way to reconstruct the density operator from the observed finite data set. Since state reconstruction typically requires the solution of a nonlinear large-scale opti...... optimization, which has clear advantages regarding speed, control and accuracy in comparison to commonly employed numerical routines. First prototype implementations easily allow reconstruction of a state of 20 qubits in a few minutes on a standard computer.......-scale optimization problem, this is a major challenge in the design of scalable tomography schemes. Here we present an efficient state reconstruction scheme for permutationally invariant quantum state tomography. It works for all common state-of-the-art reconstruction principles, including, in particular, maximum...
Infinite permutations vs. infinite words
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna E. Frid
2011-08-01
Full Text Available I am going to compare well-known properties of infinite words with those of infinite permutations, a new object studied since middle 2000s. Basically, it was Sergey Avgustinovich who invented this notion, although in an early study by Davis et al. permutations appear in a very similar framework as early as in 1977. I am going to tell about periodicity of permutations, their complexity according to several definitions and their automatic properties, that is, about usual parameters of words, now extended to permutations and behaving sometimes similarly to those for words, sometimes not. Another series of results concerns permutations generated by infinite words and their properties. Although this direction of research is young, many people, including two other speakers of this meeting, have participated in it, and I believe that several more topics for further study are really promising.
SCOPES: steganography with compression using permutation search
Boorboor, Sahar; Zolfaghari, Behrouz; Mozafari, Saadat Pour
2011-10-01
LSB (Least Significant Bit) is a widely used method for image steganography, which hides the secret message as a bit stream in LSBs of pixel bytes in the cover image. This paper proposes a variant of LSB named SCOPES that encodes and compresses the secret message while being hidden through storing addresses instead of message bytes. Reducing the length of the stored message improves the storage capacity and makes the stego image visually less suspicious to the third party. The main idea behind the SCOPES approach is dividing the message into 3-character segments, seeking each segment in the cover image and storing the address of the position containing the segment instead of the segment itself. In this approach, every permutation of the 3 bytes (if found) can be stored along with some extra bits indicating the permutation. In some rare cases the segment may not be found in the image and this can cause the message to be expanded by some overhead bits2 instead of being compressed. But experimental results show that SCOPES performs overlay better than traditional LSB even in the worst cases.
1989-01-01
Contents: CP Phenomenology: Introduction to CP Violation (C Jarlskog); CP-Violation in the K 0 -K 0 -System (K Kleinknecht); The Quark Mixing Matrix, Charm Decays and B Decays (S Stone); The Question of CP Noninvariance - As Seen through the Eyes of Neutral Beauty (I I Bigi et al.); In Search of CP Noninvariance in Heavy Quark Systems (L-L Chau); CP Violation at High Energy e + e - Colliders (J Bernabéu & M B Gavela); CP Violation in the Standard Model with Four Families (A Datta & E A Paschos); CP Effects When Neutrinos are their Own Antiparticles (B Kayser); On Spontaneous CP Violation Trigg
On Permuting Cut with Contraction
Borisavljevic, Mirjana; Dosen, Kosta; Petric, Zoran
1999-01-01
The paper presents a cut-elimination procedure for intuitionistic propositional logic in which cut is eliminated directly, without introducing the multiple-cut rule mix, and in which pushing cut above contraction is one of the reduction steps. The presentation of this procedure is preceded by an analysis of Gentzen's mix-elimination procedure, made in the perspective of permuting cut with contraction. It is also shown that in the absence of implication, pushing cut above contraction doesn't p...
Sorting permutations by prefix and suffix rearrangements.
Lintzmayer, Carla Negri; Fertin, Guillaume; Dias, Zanoni
2017-02-01
Some interesting combinatorial problems have been motivated by genome rearrangements, which are mutations that affect large portions of a genome. When we represent genomes as permutations, the goal is to transform a given permutation into the identity permutation with the minimum number of rearrangements. When they affect segments from the beginning (respectively end) of the permutation, they are called prefix (respectively suffix) rearrangements. This paper presents results for rearrangement problems that involve prefix and suffix versions of reversals and transpositions considering unsigned and signed permutations. We give 2-approximation and ([Formula: see text])-approximation algorithms for these problems, where [Formula: see text] is a constant divided by the number of breakpoints (pairs of consecutive elements that should not be consecutive in the identity permutation) in the input permutation. We also give bounds for the diameters concerning these problems and provide ways of improving the practical results of our algorithms.
The Structure of a Thermophilic Kinase Shapes Fitness upon Random Circular Permutation.
Jones, Alicia M; Mehta, Manan M; Thomas, Emily E; Atkinson, Joshua T; Segall-Shapiro, Thomas H; Liu, Shirley; Silberg, Jonathan J
2016-05-20
Proteins can be engineered for synthetic biology through circular permutation, a sequence rearrangement in which native protein termini become linked and new termini are created elsewhere through backbone fission. However, it remains challenging to anticipate a protein's functional tolerance to circular permutation. Here, we describe new transposons for creating libraries of randomly circularly permuted proteins that minimize peptide additions at their termini, and we use transposase mutagenesis to study the tolerance of a thermophilic adenylate kinase (AK) to circular permutation. We find that libraries expressing permuted AKs with either short or long peptides amended to their N-terminus yield distinct sets of active variants and present evidence that this trend arises because permuted protein expression varies across libraries. Mapping all sites that tolerate backbone cleavage onto AK structure reveals that the largest contiguous regions of sequence that lack cleavage sites are proximal to the phosphotransfer site. A comparison of our results with a range of structure-derived parameters further showed that retention of function correlates to the strongest extent with the distance to the phosphotransfer site, amino acid variability in an AK family sequence alignment, and residue-level deviations in superimposed AK structures. Our work illustrates how permuted protein libraries can be created with minimal peptide additions using transposase mutagenesis, and it reveals a challenge of maintaining consistent expression across permuted variants in a library that minimizes peptide additions. Furthermore, these findings provide a basis for interpreting responses of thermophilic phosphotransferases to circular permutation by calibrating how different structure-derived parameters relate to retention of function in a cellular selection.
Deviation from bimaximal mixing and leptonic CP phases in S4 family symmetry and generalized CP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Cai-Chang; Ding, Gui-Jun
2015-01-01
The lepton flavor mixing matrix having one row or one column in common with the bimaximal mixing up to permutations is still compatible with the present neutrino oscillation data. We provide a thorough exploration of generating such a mixing matrix from S 4 family symmetry and generalized CP symmetry H CP . Supposing that S 4 ⋊H CP is broken down to Z 2 ST 2 SU ×H CP ν in the neutrino sector and Z 4 TST 2 U ⋊H CP l in the charged lepton sector, one column of the PMNS matrix would be of the form (1/2,1/√2,1/2) T up to permutations, both Dirac CP phase and Majorana CP phases are trivial to accommodate the observed lepton mixing angles. The phenomenological implications of the remnant symmetry K 4 (TST 2 ,T 2 U) ×H CP ν in the neutrino sector and Z 2 SU ×H CP l in the charged lepton sector are studied. One row of PMNS matrix is determined to be (1/2,1/2,−i/√2), and all the three leptonic CP phases can only be trivial to fit the measured values of the mixing angles. Two models based on S 4 family symmetry and generalized CP are constructed to implement these model independent predictions enforced by remnant symmetry. The correct mass hierarchy among the charged leptons is achieved. The vacuum alignment and higher order corrections are discussed.
Patterns in Permutations and Words
Kitaev, Sergey
2011-01-01
There has been considerable interest recently in the subject of patterns in permutations and words, a new branch of combinatorics with its roots in the works of Rotem, Rogers, and Knuth in the 1970s. Consideration of the patterns in question has been extremely interesting from the combinatorial point of view, and it has proved to be a useful language in a variety of seemingly unrelated problems, including the theory of Kazhdan--Lusztig polynomials, singularities of Schubert varieties, interval orders, Chebyshev polynomials, models in statistical mechanics, and various sorting algorithms, inclu
Tensor Permutation Matrices in Finite Dimensions
Christian, Rakotonirina
2005-01-01
We have generalised the properties with the tensor product, of one 4x4 matrix which is a permutation matrix, and we call a tensor commutation matrix. Tensor commutation matrices can be constructed with or without calculus. A formula allows us to construct a tensor permutation matrix, which is a generalisation of tensor commutation matrix, has been established. The expression of an element of a tensor commutation matrix has been generalised in the case of any element of a tensor permutation ma...
An AUC-based permutation variable importance measure for random forests.
Janitza, Silke; Strobl, Carolin; Boulesteix, Anne-Laure
2013-04-05
The random forest (RF) method is a commonly used tool for classification with high dimensional data as well as for ranking candidate predictors based on the so-called random forest variable importance measures (VIMs). However the classification performance of RF is known to be suboptimal in case of strongly unbalanced data, i.e. data where response class sizes differ considerably. Suggestions were made to obtain better classification performance based either on sampling procedures or on cost sensitivity analyses. However to our knowledge the performance of the VIMs has not yet been examined in the case of unbalanced response classes. In this paper we explore the performance of the permutation VIM for unbalanced data settings and introduce an alternative permutation VIM based on the area under the curve (AUC) that is expected to be more robust towards class imbalance. We investigated the performance of the standard permutation VIM and of our novel AUC-based permutation VIM for different class imbalance levels using simulated data and real data. The results suggest that the new AUC-based permutation VIM outperforms the standard permutation VIM for unbalanced data settings while both permutation VIMs have equal performance for balanced data settings. The standard permutation VIM loses its ability to discriminate between associated predictors and predictors not associated with the response for increasing class imbalance. It is outperformed by our new AUC-based permutation VIM for unbalanced data settings, while the performance of both VIMs is very similar in the case of balanced classes. The new AUC-based VIM is implemented in the R package party for the unbiased RF variant based on conditional inference trees. The codes implementing our study are available from the companion website: http://www.ibe.med.uni-muenchen.de/organisation/mitarbeiter/070_drittmittel/janitza/index.html.
CERN. Geneva
1999-01-01
In the first two lectures, CP violation in the K system is pedagogically reviewed: its manifestations in the neutral K meson systems, in rare K meson decays and in decays of charged K mesons, and results from classical and current experiments, are discussed. In the third lecture, CP Violation in the B system and the forthcoming experimental tests will be discussed.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We have just entered a period during which we expect considerable progress toward understanding CP violation. Here we review what we have learnt so far, and what is to be expected in the near future. To do this we cover the foundation of CP violation at a level which can be understood by physicists who are not working ...
Gog, Simon; Bader, Martin
2008-10-01
The problem of sorting signed permutations by reversals is a well-studied problem in computational biology. The first polynomial time algorithm was presented by Hannenhalli and Pevzner in 1995. The algorithm was improved several times, and nowadays the most efficient algorithm has a subquadratic running time. Simple permutations played an important role in the development of these algorithms. Although the latest result of Tannier et al. does not require simple permutations, the preliminary version of their algorithm as well as the first polynomial time algorithm of Hannenhalli and Pevzner use the structure of simple permutations. More precisely, the latter algorithms require a precomputation that transforms a permutation into an equivalent simple permutation. To the best of our knowledge, all published algorithms for this transformation have at least a quadratic running time. For further investigations on genome rearrangement problems, the existence of a fast algorithm for the transformation could be crucial. Another important task is the back transformation, i.e. if we have a sorting on the simple permutation, transform it into a sorting on the original permutation. Again, the naive approach results in an algorithm with quadratic running time. In this paper, we present a linear time algorithm for transforming a permutation into an equivalent simple permutation, and an O(n log n) algorithm for the back transformation of the sorting sequence.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gronau, M.
1995-01-01
We review the present status of the Standard Model of CP violation, which is based on a complex phase in the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. So far CP violation has been observed only in K 0 -K 0 mixing, consistent with a sizable phase. The implications of future CP nonconserving measusrements in K and B decays are discussed within the model. Direct CP violation in K→2π may be observed in the near future, however this would not be a powerful test of the model. B decays provide a wide variety of CP asymmetry measurements, which can serve as precise tests of the Standard Model in cases where the asymmetry is cleanly related to phases of CKM matrix elements. Some of the most promising cases are discussed. ((orig.))
Finite Cycle Gibbs Measures on Permutations of
Armendáriz, Inés; Ferrari, Pablo A.; Groisman, Pablo; Leonardi, Florencia
2015-03-01
We consider Gibbs distributions on the set of permutations of associated to the Hamiltonian , where is a permutation and is a strictly convex potential. Call finite-cycle those permutations composed by finite cycles only. We give conditions on ensuring that for large enough temperature there exists a unique infinite volume ergodic Gibbs measure concentrating mass on finite-cycle permutations; this measure is equal to the thermodynamic limit of the specifications with identity boundary conditions. We construct as the unique invariant measure of a Markov process on the set of finite-cycle permutations that can be seen as a loss-network, a continuous-time birth and death process of cycles interacting by exclusion, an approach proposed by Fernández, Ferrari and Garcia. Define as the shift permutation . In the Gaussian case , we show that for each , given by is an ergodic Gibbs measure equal to the thermodynamic limit of the specifications with boundary conditions. For a general potential , we prove the existence of Gibbs measures when is bigger than some -dependent value.
Tolerance of a knotted near infrared fluorescent protein to random circular permutation
Pandey, Naresh; Kuypers, Brianna E.; Nassif, Barbara; Thomas, Emily E.; Alnahhas, Razan N.; Segatori, Laura; Silberg, Jonathan J.
2016-01-01
Bacteriophytochrome photoreceptors (BphP) are knotted proteins that have been developed as near-infrared fluorescent protein (iRFP) reporters of gene expression. To explore how rearrangements in the peptides that interlace into the knot within the BphP photosensory core affect folding, we subjected iRFP to random circular permutation using an improved transposase mutagenesis strategy and screened for variants that fluoresce. We identified twenty seven circularly permuted iRFP that display biliverdin-dependent fluorescence in Escherichia coli. The variants with the brightest whole cell fluorescence initiated translation at residues near the domain linker and knot tails, although fluorescent variants were discovered that initiated translation within the PAS and GAF domains. Circularly permuted iRFP retained sufficient cofactor affinity to fluoresce in tissue culture without the addition of biliverdin, and one variant displayed enhanced fluorescence when expressed in bacteria and tissue culture. This variant displayed a similar quantum yield as iRFP, but exhibited increased resistance to chemical denaturation, suggesting that the observed signal increase arose from more efficient protein maturation. These results show how the contact order of a knotted BphP can be altered without disrupting chromophore binding and fluorescence, an important step towards the creation of near-infrared biosensors with expanded chemical-sensing functions for in vivo imaging. PMID:27304983
Tolerance of a Knotted Near-Infrared Fluorescent Protein to Random Circular Permutation.
Pandey, Naresh; Kuypers, Brianna E; Nassif, Barbara; Thomas, Emily E; Alnahhas, Razan N; Segatori, Laura; Silberg, Jonathan J
2016-07-12
Bacteriophytochrome photoreceptors (BphP) are knotted proteins that have been developed as near-infrared fluorescent protein (iRFP) reporters of gene expression. To explore how rearrangements in the peptides that interlace into the knot within the BphP photosensory core affect folding, we subjected iRFPs to random circular permutation using an improved transposase mutagenesis strategy and screened for variants that fluoresce. We identified 27 circularly permuted iRFPs that display biliverdin-dependent fluorescence in Escherichia coli. The variants with the brightest whole cell fluorescence initiated translation at residues near the domain linker and knot tails, although fluorescent variants that initiated translation within the PAS and GAF domains were discovered. Circularly permuted iRFPs retained sufficient cofactor affinity to fluoresce in tissue culture without the addition of biliverdin, and one variant displayed enhanced fluorescence when expressed in bacteria and tissue culture. This variant displayed a quantum yield similar to that of iRFPs but exhibited increased resistance to chemical denaturation, suggesting that the observed increase in the magnitude of the signal arose from more efficient protein maturation. These results show how the contact order of a knotted BphP can be altered without disrupting chromophore binding and fluorescence, an important step toward the creation of near-infrared biosensors with expanded chemical sensing functions for in vivo imaging.
EPC: A Provably Secure Permutation Based Compression Function
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bagheri, Nasour; Gauravaram, Praveen; Naderi, Majid
2010-01-01
The security of permutation-based hash functions in the ideal permutation model has been studied when the input-length of compression function is larger than the input-length of the permutation function. In this paper, we consider permutation based compression functions that have input lengths sh...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gilman, F.J.
1989-12-01
Predictions for CP violation in the three generation Standard Model are reviewed based on what is known about the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. Application to the K and B meson systems are emphasized. 43 refs., 13 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quinn, H.
1995-12-01
In this talk the author briefly reviews the cosmological importance of CP violation and the status of calculations of baryogenisis in the context of the Standard Model. The author then turns to a discussion of Standard Model Predictions for CP violation in B decays, stressing the importance of multiple measurements to overconstrain the model parameters and thus search for indications of beyond-Standard-Model physics
Permutation statistical methods an integrated approach
Berry, Kenneth J; Johnston, Janis E
2016-01-01
This research monograph provides a synthesis of a number of statistical tests and measures, which, at first consideration, appear disjoint and unrelated. Numerous comparisons of permutation and classical statistical methods are presented, and the two methods are compared via probability values and, where appropriate, measures of effect size. Permutation statistical methods, compared to classical statistical methods, do not rely on theoretical distributions, avoid the usual assumptions of normality and homogeneity of variance, and depend only on the data at hand. This text takes a unique approach to explaining statistics by integrating a large variety of statistical methods, and establishing the rigor of a topic that to many may seem to be a nascent field in statistics. This topic is new in that it took modern computing power to make permutation methods available to people working in the mainstream of research. This research monograph addresses a statistically-informed audience, and can also easily serve as a ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aleksan, R.
1993-06-01
The violation of the CP symmetry is a phenomenon, the origin of which is not yet well established and deserves a particular attention since it may be a fundamental property of Nature with very important consequences for the evolution of the universe. We propose in these lectures to have an overview of this phenomenon as we understand it so far. To this end, and after introducing the discrete space-time symmetries, we discuss the observation of the violation of the CP symmetry in the neutral kaon decays. We then derive the general formalism for any neutral system made of a particle and its antiparticle and discuss how CP violation is introduced. We show how this phenomenon is generated in the Standard Model of the electroweak interactions and what are the predictions that can be made. In particular we shall concentrate on the expected effects in the decays of mesons involving the b quark. We review the various possibilities for observing these effects, calculate their magnitudes and show how the consistency of the theory can be tested. Finally, we outline the experimental prospects for studying CP non conservation at an asymmetric B Factory to either verify the Standard Model mechanism or provide evidence for new physics. (author)
Sorting signed permutations by short operations.
Galvão, Gustavo Rodrigues; Lee, Orlando; Dias, Zanoni
2015-01-01
During evolution, global mutations may alter the order and the orientation of the genes in a genome. Such mutations are referred to as rearrangement events, or simply operations. In unichromosomal genomes, the most common operations are reversals, which are responsible for reversing the order and orientation of a sequence of genes, and transpositions, which are responsible for switching the location of two contiguous portions of a genome. The problem of computing the minimum sequence of operations that transforms one genome into another - which is equivalent to the problem of sorting a permutation into the identity permutation - is a well-studied problem that finds application in comparative genomics. There are a number of works concerning this problem in the literature, but they generally do not take into account the length of the operations (i.e. the number of genes affected by the operations). Since it has been observed that short operations are prevalent in the evolution of some species, algorithms that efficiently solve this problem in the special case of short operations are of interest. In this paper, we investigate the problem of sorting a signed permutation by short operations. More precisely, we study four flavors of this problem: (i) the problem of sorting a signed permutation by reversals of length at most 2; (ii) the problem of sorting a signed permutation by reversals of length at most 3; (iii) the problem of sorting a signed permutation by reversals and transpositions of length at most 2; and (iv) the problem of sorting a signed permutation by reversals and transpositions of length at most 3. We present polynomial-time solutions for problems (i) and (iii), a 5-approximation for problem (ii), and a 3-approximation for problem (iv). Moreover, we show that the expected approximation ratio of the 5-approximation algorithm is not greater than 3 for random signed permutations with more than 12 elements. Finally, we present experimental results that show
1-Colored Archetypal Permutations and Strings of Degree n
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gheorghe Eduard Tara
2012-10-01
Full Text Available New notions related to permutations are introduced here. We present the string of a 1-colored permutation as a closed planar curve, the fundamental 1-colored permutation as an equivalence class related to the equivalence in strings of the 1-colored permutations. We give formulas for the number of the 1-colored archetypal permutations of degree n. We establish an algorithm to identify the 1- colored archetypal permutations of degree n and we present the atlas of the 1-colored archetypal strings of degree n, n ≤ 7, based on this algorithm.
Permutation Tests for Stochastic Ordering and ANOVA
Basso, Dario; Salmaso, Luigi; Solari, Aldo
2009-01-01
Permutation testing for multivariate stochastic ordering and ANOVA designs is a fundamental issue in many scientific fields such as medicine, biology, pharmaceutical studies, engineering, economics, psychology, and social sciences. This book presents advanced methods and related R codes to perform complex multivariate analyses
N ecklaces~ Periodic Points and Permutation Representations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 11. Necklaces, Periodic Points and Permutation Representations - Fermat's Little Theorem. Somnath Basu Anindita Bose Sumit Kumar Sinha Pankaj Vishe. General Article Volume 6 Issue 11 November 2001 pp 18-26 ...
Defects and permutation branes in the Liouville field theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sarkissian, Gor
2009-01-01
The defects and permutation branes for the Liouville field theory are considered. By exploiting cluster condition, equations satisfied by permutation branes and defects reflection amplitudes are obtained. It is shown that two types of solutions exist, discrete and continuous families.......The defects and permutation branes for the Liouville field theory are considered. By exploiting cluster condition, equations satisfied by permutation branes and defects reflection amplitudes are obtained. It is shown that two types of solutions exist, discrete and continuous families....
Complete permutation Gray code implemented by finite state machine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Peng
2014-09-01
Full Text Available An enumerating method of complete permutation array is proposed. The list of n! permutations based on Gray code defined over finite symbol set Z(n = {1, 2, …, n} is implemented by finite state machine, named as n-RPGCF. An RPGCF can be used to search permutation code and provide improved lower bounds on the maximum cardinality of a permutation code in some cases.
Generalized permutation symmetry and the flavour problem in SU(2)sub(L)xU(1)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ecker, G.
1984-01-01
A generalized permutation group is introduced as a possible horizontal symmetry for SU(2)sub(L)xU(1) gauge theories. It leads to the unique two generation quark mass matrices with a correct prediction for the Cabibbo angle. For three generations the model exhibits spontaneous CP violation, correlates the Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing parameters s 1 and s 3 and predicts an upper bound for the running top quark mass of approximately 45 GeV. The hierarchy of generations is due to a hierarchy of vacuum expectation values rather than of Yukawa coupling constants. (orig.)
CP violation with an unbroken CP transformation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ratz, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California,Irvine, California 92697-4575 (United States); Trautner, Andreas [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics und Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn,Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany)
2017-02-21
A CP conserving SU(3) gauge theory is spontaneously broken to T{sub 7} by the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of a 15-plet. Even though the SU(3)-CP transformation is not broken by the VEV, the theory exhibits physical CP violation in the broken phase. This is because the SU(3)-CP transformation corresponds to the unique order-two outer automorphism of T{sub 7}, which is not a physical CP transformation for the T{sub 7} states, and there is no other possible CP transformation. We explicitly demonstrate that CP is violated by calculating a CP odd decay asymmetry in the broken phase. This scenario provides us with a natural protection for topological vacuum terms, ensuring that θ G{sub μν}G̃{sup μν} is absent even though CP is violated for the physical states of the model.
Magic informationally complete POVMs with permutations
Planat, Michel; Gedik, Zafer
2017-09-01
Eigenstates of permutation gates are either stabilizer states (for gates in the Pauli group) or magic states, thus allowing universal quantum computation (Planat, Rukhsan-Ul-Haq 2017 Adv. Math. Phys. 2017, 5287862 (doi:10.1155/2017/5287862)). We show in this paper that a subset of such magic states, when acting on the generalized Pauli group, define (asymmetric) informationally complete POVMs. Such informationally complete POVMs, investigated in dimensions 2-12, exhibit simple finite geometries in their projector products and, for dimensions 4 and 8 and 9, relate to two-qubit, three-qubit and two-qutrit contextuality.
Permutation 2-groups I: structure and splitness
Elgueta, Josep
2013-01-01
By a 2-group we mean a groupoid equipped with a weakened group structure. It is called split when it is equivalent to the semidirect product of a discrete 2-group and a one-object 2-group. By a permutation 2-group we mean the 2-group $\\mathbb{S}ym(\\mathcal{G})$ of self-equivalences of a groupoid $\\mathcal{G}$ and natural isomorphisms between them, with the product given by composition of self-equivalences. These generalize the symmetric groups $\\mathsf{S}_n$, $n\\geq 1$, obtained when $\\mathca...
Permutation Entropy for Random Binary Sequences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lingfeng Liu
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we generalize the permutation entropy (PE measure to binary sequences, which is based on Shannon’s entropy, and theoretically analyze this measure for random binary sequences. We deduce the theoretical value of PE for random binary sequences, which can be used to measure the randomness of binary sequences. We also reveal the relationship between this PE measure with other randomness measures, such as Shannon’s entropy and Lempel–Ziv complexity. The results show that PE is consistent with these two measures. Furthermore, we use PE as one of the randomness measures to evaluate the randomness of chaotic binary sequences.
Young module multiplicities and classifying the indecomposable Young permutation modules
Gill, Christopher C.
2012-01-01
We study the multiplicities of Young modules as direct summands of permutation modules on cosets of Young subgroups. Such multiplicities have become known as the p-Kostka numbers. We classify the indecomposable Young permutation modules, and, applying the Brauer construction for p-permutation modules, we give some new reductions for p-Kostka numbers. In particular we prove that p-Kostka numbers are preserved under multiplying partitions by p, and strengthen a known reduction given by Henke, c...
Permutation-invariant distance between atomic configurations
Ferré, Grégoire; Maillet, Jean-Bernard; Stoltz, Gabriel
2015-09-01
We present a permutation-invariant distance between atomic configurations, defined through a functional representation of atomic positions. This distance enables us to directly compare different atomic environments with an arbitrary number of particles, without going through a space of reduced dimensionality (i.e., fingerprints) as an intermediate step. Moreover, this distance is naturally invariant through permutations of atoms, avoiding the time consuming associated minimization required by other common criteria (like the root mean square distance). Finally, the invariance through global rotations is accounted for by a minimization procedure in the space of rotations solved by Monte Carlo simulated annealing. A formal framework is also introduced, showing that the distance we propose verifies the property of a metric on the space of atomic configurations. Two examples of applications are proposed. The first one consists in evaluating faithfulness of some fingerprints (or descriptors), i.e., their capacity to represent the structural information of a configuration. The second application concerns structural analysis, where our distance proves to be efficient in discriminating different local structures and even classifying their degree of similarity.
Permutation-invariant distance between atomic configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferré, Grégoire; Maillet, Jean-Bernard; Stoltz, Gabriel
2015-01-01
We present a permutation-invariant distance between atomic configurations, defined through a functional representation of atomic positions. This distance enables us to directly compare different atomic environments with an arbitrary number of particles, without going through a space of reduced dimensionality (i.e., fingerprints) as an intermediate step. Moreover, this distance is naturally invariant through permutations of atoms, avoiding the time consuming associated minimization required by other common criteria (like the root mean square distance). Finally, the invariance through global rotations is accounted for by a minimization procedure in the space of rotations solved by Monte Carlo simulated annealing. A formal framework is also introduced, showing that the distance we propose verifies the property of a metric on the space of atomic configurations. Two examples of applications are proposed. The first one consists in evaluating faithfulness of some fingerprints (or descriptors), i.e., their capacity to represent the structural information of a configuration. The second application concerns structural analysis, where our distance proves to be efficient in discriminating different local structures and even classifying their degree of similarity
Ordered groups and infinite permutation groups
1996-01-01
The subjects of ordered groups and of infinite permutation groups have long en joyed a symbiotic relationship. Although the two subjects come from very different sources, they have in certain ways come together, and each has derived considerable benefit from the other. My own personal contact with this interaction began in 1961. I had done Ph. D. work on sequence convergence in totally ordered groups under the direction of Paul Conrad. In the process, I had encountered "pseudo-convergent" sequences in an ordered group G, which are like Cauchy sequences, except that the differences be tween terms of large index approach not 0 but a convex subgroup G of G. If G is normal, then such sequences are conveniently described as Cauchy sequences in the quotient ordered group GIG. If G is not normal, of course GIG has no group structure, though it is still a totally ordered set. The best that can be said is that the elements of G permute GIG in an order-preserving fashion. In independent investigations around that t...
Exploring CP Violation in the MSSM
Arbey, A.; Godbole, R.M.; Mahmoudi, F.
2015-01-01
We explore the prospects for observing CP violation in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) with six CP-violating parameters, three gaugino mass phases and three phases in trilinear soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters, using the CPsuperH code combined with a geometric approach to maximize CP-violating observables subject to the experimental upper bounds on electric dipole moments. We also implement CP-conserving constraints from Higgs physics, flavour physics and the upper limits on the cosmological dark matter density and spin-independent scattering. We study possible values of observables within the constrained MSSM (CMSSM), the non-universal Higgs model (NUHM), the CPX scenario and a variant of the phenomenological MSSM (pMSSM). We find values of the CP-violating asymmetry A_CP in b -> s gamma decay that may be as large as 3%, so future measurements of A_CP may provide independent information about CP violation in the MSSM. We find that CP-violating MSSM contributions to the...
The magic of universal quantum computing with permutations
Planat, Michel; Rukhsan-Ul-Haq
2017-01-01
The role of permutation gates for universal quantum computing is investigated. The \\lq magic' of computation is clarified in the permutation gates, their eigenstates, the Wootters discrete Wigner function and state-dependent contextuality (following many contributions on this subject). A first classification of main types of resulting magic states in low dimensions $d \\le 9$ is performed.
Some topics on permutable subgroups in infinite groups
Ialenti, Roberto
2017-01-01
The aim of this thesis is to study permutability in different aspects of the theory of infinite groups. In particular, it will be studied the structure of groups in which all the members of a relevant system of subgroups satisfy a suitable generalized condition of permutability.
A permutations representation that knows what " Eulerian" means
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roberto Mantaci
2001-12-01
Full Text Available Eulerian numbers (and ``Alternate Eulerian numbers'' are often interpreted as distributions of statistics defined over the Symmetric group. The main purpose of this paper is to define a way to represent permutations that provides some other combinatorial interpretations of these numbers. This representation uses a one-to-one correspondence between permutations and the so-called subexceedant functions.
A Fast Algorithm for Generating Permutation Distribution of Ranks in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... function of the distribution of the ranks. This further gives insight into the permutation distribution of a rank statistics. The algorithm is implemented with the aid of the computer algebra system Mathematica. Key words: Combinatorics, generating function, permutation distribution, rank statistics, partitions, computer algebra.
The Magic of Universal Quantum Computing with Permutations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michel Planat
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The role of permutation gates for universal quantum computing is investigated. The “magic” of computation is clarified in the permutation gates, their eigenstates, the Wootters discrete Wigner function, and state-dependent contextuality (following many contributions on this subject. A first classification of a few types of resulting magic states in low dimensions d≤9 is performed.
Permutation entropy with vector embedding delays
Little, Douglas J.; Kane, Deb M.
2017-12-01
Permutation entropy (PE) is a statistic used widely for the detection of structure within a time series. Embedding delay times at which the PE is reduced are characteristic timescales for which such structure exists. Here, a generalized scheme is investigated where embedding delays are represented by vectors rather than scalars, permitting PE to be calculated over a (D -1 ) -dimensional space, where D is the embedding dimension. This scheme is applied to numerically generated noise, sine wave and logistic map series, and experimental data sets taken from a vertical-cavity surface emitting laser exhibiting temporally localized pulse structures within the round-trip time of the laser cavity. Results are visualized as PE maps as a function of embedding delay, with low PE values indicating combinations of embedding delays where correlation structure is present. It is demonstrated that vector embedding delays enable identification of structure that is ambiguous or masked, when the embedding delay is constrained to scalar form.
Permutation importance: a corrected feature importance measure.
Altmann, André; Toloşi, Laura; Sander, Oliver; Lengauer, Thomas
2010-05-15
In life sciences, interpretability of machine learning models is as important as their prediction accuracy. Linear models are probably the most frequently used methods for assessing feature relevance, despite their relative inflexibility. However, in the past years effective estimators of feature relevance have been derived for highly complex or non-parametric models such as support vector machines and RandomForest (RF) models. Recently, it has been observed that RF models are biased in such a way that categorical variables with a large number of categories are preferred. In this work, we introduce a heuristic for normalizing feature importance measures that can correct the feature importance bias. The method is based on repeated permutations of the outcome vector for estimating the distribution of measured importance for each variable in a non-informative setting. The P-value of the observed importance provides a corrected measure of feature importance. We apply our method to simulated data and demonstrate that (i) non-informative predictors do not receive significant P-values, (ii) informative variables can successfully be recovered among non-informative variables and (iii) P-values computed with permutation importance (PIMP) are very helpful for deciding the significance of variables, and therefore improve model interpretability. Furthermore, PIMP was used to correct RF-based importance measures for two real-world case studies. We propose an improved RF model that uses the significant variables with respect to the PIMP measure and show that its prediction accuracy is superior to that of other existing models. R code for the method presented in this article is available at http://www.mpi-inf.mpg.de/ approximately altmann/download/PIMP.R CONTACT: altmann@mpi-inf.mpg.de, laura.tolosi@mpi-inf.mpg.de Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Multiscale permutation entropy analysis of electrocardiogram
Liu, Tiebing; Yao, Wenpo; Wu, Min; Shi, Zhaorong; Wang, Jun; Ning, Xinbao
2017-04-01
To make a comprehensive nonlinear analysis to ECG, multiscale permutation entropy (MPE) was applied to ECG characteristics extraction to make a comprehensive nonlinear analysis of ECG. Three kinds of ECG from PhysioNet database, congestive heart failure (CHF) patients, healthy young and elderly subjects, are applied in this paper. We set embedding dimension to 4 and adjust scale factor from 2 to 100 with a step size of 2, and compare MPE with multiscale entropy (MSE). As increase of scale factor, MPE complexity of the three ECG signals are showing first-decrease and last-increase trends. When scale factor is between 10 and 32, complexities of the three ECG had biggest difference, entropy of the elderly is 0.146 less than the CHF patients and 0.025 larger than the healthy young in average, in line with normal physiological characteristics. Test results showed that MPE can effectively apply in ECG nonlinear analysis, and can effectively distinguish different ECG signals.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loden, L.O.; Sundman, A.
1989-01-01
This study is part of an investigation of the possibility of using chemically peculiar (CP) stars to map local galactic structure. Correct luminosities of these stars are therefore crucial. CP stars are generally regarded as main-sequence or near-main-sequence objects. However, some CP stars have been classified as giants. A selection of stars, classified in literature as CP giants, are compared to normal stars in the same effective temperature interval and to ordinary 'non giant' CP stars. There is no clear confirmation of a higher luminosity for 'CP giants', than for CP stars in general. In addition, CP characteristics seem to be individual properties not repeated in a component star or other cluster members. (author). 50 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs
Mass textures and wolfenstein parameters from breaking the flavour permutational symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mondragon, A; Rivera, T. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico,Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rodriguez Jauregui, E. [Deutsches Elekronen-Synchrotron, Theory Group, Hamburg (Germany)
2001-12-01
We will give an overview of recent progress in the phenomenological study of quark mass matrices, quark flavour mixings and CP-violation with emphasis on the possibility of an underlying discrete, flavour permutational symmetry and its breaking, from which realistic models of mass generation could be built. The quark mixing angles and CP-violating phase, as well as the Wolfenstein parameters are given in terms of four quark mass ratios and only two parameters (Z{sup 1}/2, {phi}) characterizing the symmetry breaking pattern. Excellent agreement with all current experimental data is found. [Spanish] Daremos una visita panoramica del progreso reciente en el estudio fenomenologico de las matrices de masas y de mezclas del sabor de los quarks y la violacion de PC, con enfasis en la posibilidad de que, subyacentes al problema, se halle una simetria discreta, permutacional del sabor y su rompimiento a partir de las cuales se puedan construir modelos realistas de la generacion de las masas. Los angulos de mezcla de los quarks y la fase que viola CP, asi como los parametros de Wolfenstein se dan en terminos de cuatro razones de masas de los quarks y solamente dos parametros (Z{sup 1}/2, {phi}) que caracterizan el patron del rompimiento de la simetria. Los resultados se encuentran en excelente acuerdo con todos los datos experimentales mas recientes.
Permutation based decision making under fuzzy environment using Tabu search
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahdi Bashiri
2012-04-01
Full Text Available One of the techniques, which are used for Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM is the permutation. In the classical form of permutation, it is assumed that weights and decision matrix components are crisp. However, when group decision making is under consideration and decision makers could not agree on a crisp value for weights and decision matrix components, fuzzy numbers should be used. In this article, the fuzzy permutation technique for MCDM problems has been explained. The main deficiency of permutation is its big computational time, so a Tabu Search (TS based algorithm has been proposed to reduce the computational time. A numerical example has illustrated the proposed approach clearly. Then, some benchmark instances extracted from literature are solved by proposed TS. The analyses of the results show the proper performance of the proposed method.
Permutation groups and transformation semigroups : results and problems
Araujo, Joao; Cameron, Peter Jephson
2015-01-01
J.M. Howie, the influential St Andrews semigroupist, claimed that we value an area of pure mathematics to the extent that (a) it gives rise to arguments that are deep and elegant, and (b) it has interesting interconnections with other parts of pure mathematics. This paper surveys some recent results on the transformation semigroup generated by a permutation group $G$ and a single non-permutation $a$. Our particular concern is the influence that properties of $G$ (related to homogeneity, trans...
CERN. Geneva HR-RFA
2006-01-01
The lecture introduces the concepts and phenomena of matter-antimatter symmetry violation, so-called "CP" violation. The lecture is organized in four courses, the first being devoted to a historical overview and an introduction into fundamental discrete symmetries. The second course introduces the most compelling CP-violating phenomena, and presents the first experimental discovery of CP violation in the neutral kaon system. The third course discusses how CP violation is beautifully incorporated into the Standard Model of particle interactions, and how modern B-meson "factories" provide precise tests of this picture. Finally, the fourth and last course introduces CP violation and the genesis of our matter world.
Electrophoretic variants of blood proteins in japanese, 5
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujita, Mikio; Satoh, Chiyoko; Asakawa, Jun-ichi; Nagahata, Yuko; Tanaka, Yoshiko; Hazama, Ryuji; Goriki, Kazuaki.
1985-08-01
The plasma ceruloplasmin (CP) of 22,367 children of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was examined for variants by electrophoresis. The sample was composed of 14,964 unrelated children and 7,403 siblings of the unrelated persons. A total of seven types of electrophoretic variants were detected; four migrating anodally and three cathodally to the normal B band. We have reported two of these variants, CP A sub(NG1) and CP C sub(NG1), previously but the other five, CP A sub(NG2), CP A sub(HR1), CP A sub(HR2), CP C sub(HR1), and CP C sub(HR2), are newly identified. The allelic frequency of CP*CNG1 was 0.00916, so that the variant is considered to be a polymorphic allele. Homozygosity for the CP*CNG1 allele was detected in five individuals. This is the first report of a homozygous phenotype for a CP variant in a Japanese population. Family study of the new five variants all demonstrated patterns of codominant inheritance. (author)
Exploring CP violation in the MSSM.
Arbey, Alexandre; Ellis, John; Godbole, Rohini M; Mahmoudi, Farvah
We explore the prospects for observing CP violation in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) with six CP-violating parameters, three gaugino mass phases and three phases in trilinear soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters, using the CPsuperH code combined with a geometric approach to maximise CP-violating observables subject to the experimental upper bounds on electric dipole moments. We also implement CP-conserving constraints from Higgs physics, flavour physics and the upper limits on the cosmological dark matter density and spin-independent scattering. We study possible values of observables within the constrained MSSM (CMSSM), the non-universal Higgs model (NUHM), the CPX scenario and a variant of the phenomenological MSSM (pMSSM). We find values of the CP-violating asymmetry [Formula: see text] in [Formula: see text] decay that may be as large as 3 %, so future measurements of [Formula: see text] may provide independent information about CP violation in the MSSM. We find that CP-violating MSSM contributions to the [Formula: see text] meson mass mixing term [Formula: see text] are in general below the present upper limit, which is dominated by theoretical uncertainties. If these could be reduced, [Formula: see text] could also provide an interesting and complementary constraint on the six CP-violating MSSM phases, enabling them all to be determined experimentally, in principle. We also find that CP violation in the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] couplings can be quite large, and so may offer interesting prospects for future [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] colliders.
Yamamoto, Hitoshi
2001-01-01
We review the physics of CP violation in B decays. After introducing the CKM matrix and how it causes CP violation, we cover three types of CP violation that can occur in B decays: CP violation in mixing, CP violation by mixing-decay interference, and CP violation in decay.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ecker, G.
1987-01-01
A short survey of the theoretical status of CP violation is presented. The Standart Model is confronted with the present experimental situation. Possible future tests of our notions of CP violation are discussed, concentrating on rare K decays. Other promising reactions such as B decays are briefly reviewed. Among alternative models of CP violation, multi-Higgs extensions of the Standart Model, left-right symmetric gauge theories and minimal SUSY models are discussed. Finally, the relevance of generalized CP invariance is emphasized. 64 refs., 7 figs. (Author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hagedorn, C.
2017-01-01
I summarize the status of theoretical predictions for the yet to be measured leptonic CP phases, the Dirac phase δ and the two Majorana phases α and β. I discuss different approaches based on: (a) a flavor symmetry without and with corrections, (b) different types of sum rules and (c) flavor and CP...... symmetries. I show their predictive power with examples. In addition, I present scenarios in which low and high energy CP phases are connected so that predictions for the CP phases α, β and δ become correlated to the sign of the baryon asymmetry YB of the Universe that is generated via leptogenesis....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gronau, M.
1984-01-01
Two ambiguities are noted in the definition of the concept of maximal CP violation. The phase convention ambiguity is overcome by introducing a CP violating phase in the quark mixing matrix U which is invariant under rephasing transformations. The second ambiguity, related to the parametrization of U, is resolved by finding a single empirically viable definition of maximal CP violation when assuming that U does not single out one generation. Considerable improvement in the calculation of nonleptonic weak amplitudes is required to test the conjecture of maximal CP violation. 21 references
Determination of Pavement Rehabilitation Activities through a Permutation Algorithm
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Sangyum Lee
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical programming model for optimal pavement rehabilitation planning. The model maximized the rehabilitation area through a newly developed permutation algorithm, based on the procedures outlined in the harmony search (HS algorithm. Additionally, the proposed algorithm was based on an optimal solution method for the problem of multilocation rehabilitation activities on pavement structure, using empirical deterioration and rehabilitation effectiveness models, according to a limited maintenance budget. Thus, nonlinear pavement performance and rehabilitation activity decision models were used to maximize the objective functions of the rehabilitation area within a limited budget, through the permutation algorithm. Our results showed that the heuristic permutation algorithm provided a good optimum in terms of maximizing the rehabilitation area, compared with a method of the worst-first maintenance currently used in Seoul.
Permutational symmetries for coincidence rates in multimode multiphotonic interferometry
Khalid, Abdullah; Spivak, Dylan; Sanders, Barry C.; de Guise, Hubert
2018-06-01
We obtain coincidence rates for passive optical interferometry by exploiting the permutational symmetries of partially distinguishable input photons, and our approach elucidates qualitative features of multiphoton coincidence landscapes. We treat the interferometer input as a product state of any number of photons in each input mode with photons distinguished by their arrival time. Detectors at the output of the interferometer count photons from each output mode over a long integration time. We generalize and prove the claim of Tillmann et al. [Phys. Rev. X 5, 041015 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevX.5.041015] that coincidence rates can be elegantly expressed in terms of immanants. Immanants are functions of matrices that exhibit permutational symmetries and the immanants appearing in our coincidence-rate expressions share permutational symmetries with the input state. Our results are obtained by employing representation theory of the symmetric group to analyze systems of an arbitrary number of photons in arbitrarily sized interferometers.
Secure physical layer using dynamic permutations in cognitive OFDMA systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meucci, F.; Wardana, Satya Ardhy; Prasad, Neeli R.
2009-01-01
This paper proposes a novel lightweight mechanism for a secure Physical (PHY) layer in Cognitive Radio Network (CRN) using Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). User's data symbols are mapped over the physical subcarriers with a permutation formula. The PHY layer is secured...... with a random and dynamic subcarrier permutation which is based on a single pre-shared information and depends on Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA). The dynamic subcarrier permutation is varying over time, geographical location and environment status, resulting in a very robust protection that ensures...... confidentiality. The method is shown to be effective also for existing non-cognitive systems. The proposed mechanism is effective against eavesdropping even if the eavesdropper adopts a long-time patterns analysis, thus protecting cryptography techniques of higher layers. The correlation properties...
Permutation entropy of fractional Brownian motion and fractional Gaussian noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zunino, L.; Perez, D.G.; Martin, M.T.; Garavaglia, M.; Plastino, A.; Rosso, O.A.
2008-01-01
We have worked out theoretical curves for the permutation entropy of the fractional Brownian motion and fractional Gaussian noise by using the Bandt and Shiha [C. Bandt, F. Shiha, J. Time Ser. Anal. 28 (2007) 646] theoretical predictions for their corresponding relative frequencies. Comparisons with numerical simulations show an excellent agreement. Furthermore, the entropy-gap in the transition between these processes, observed previously via numerical results, has been here theoretically validated. Also, we have analyzed the behaviour of the permutation entropy of the fractional Gaussian noise for different time delays
Infinity-Norm Permutation Covering Codes from Cyclic Groups
Karni, Ronen; Schwartz, Moshe
2017-01-01
We study covering codes of permutations with the $\\ell_\\infty$-metric. We provide a general code construction, which uses smaller building-block codes. We study cyclic transitive groups as building blocks, determining their exact covering radius, and showing linear-time algorithms for finding a covering codeword. We also bound the covering radius of relabeled cyclic transitive groups under conjugation.
A discriminative syntactic model for source permutation via tree transduction
Khalilov, M.; Sima'an, K.; Wu, D.
2010-01-01
A major challenge in statistical machine translation is mitigating the word order differences between source and target strings. While reordering and lexical translation choices are often conducted in tandem, source string permutation prior to translation is attractive for studying reordering using
A permutation test for the race model inequality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gondan, Matthias
2010-01-01
signals. Several statistical procedures have been used for testing the race model inequality. However, the commonly employed procedure does not control the Type I error. In this article a permutation test is described that keeps the Type I error at the desired level. Simulations show that the power...
Testing for changes using permutations of U-statistics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Horvath, L.; Hušková, Marie
2005-01-01
Roč. 2005, č. 128 (2005), s. 351-371 ISSN 0378-3758 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/00/0769 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : U-statistics * permutations * change-point * weighted approximation * Brownian bridge Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.481, year: 2005
CP violation and modular symmetries
Dent, Thomas
2001-01-01
We reconsider the origin of CP violation in fundamental theory. Existing string models of spontaneous CP violation make ambiguous predictions, due to the arbitrariness of CP transformation and the apparent non-invariance of the results under duality. We find an unambiguous modular CP invariance condition, applicable to predictive models of spontaneous CP violation, which circumvents these problems; it strongly constrains CP violation by heterotic string moduli. The dilaton is also evaluated a...
CP violation and modular symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dent, Thomas
2001-01-01
We reconsider the origin of CP violation in fundamental theory. Existing string models of spontaneous CP violation make ambiguous predictions, due to the arbitrariness of CP transformation and the apparent noninvariance of the results under duality. We find a modular CP invariance condition, applicable to any predictive model of spontaneous CP violation, which circumvents these problems; it strongly constrains CP violation by heterotic string moduli. The dilaton is also evaluated as a source of CP violation, but is likely experimentally excluded. We consider the prospects for explaining CP violation in strongly coupled strings and brane worlds
CP violation in gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Escobar, C.O.
Some aspects of CP violation in gauge theories are reviewed. The topics covered include a discussion of the Kobayashi-Maskawa six-quarks model, models of soft- CP violation (extended Higgs sector), the strong CP problem and finally some speculations relating CP violation and magnetic charges in non-abelian gauge theories. (Author) [pt
A Weak Quantum Blind Signature with Entanglement Permutation
Lou, Xiaoping; Chen, Zhigang; Guo, Ying
2015-09-01
Motivated by the permutation encryption algorithm, a weak quantum blind signature (QBS) scheme is proposed. It involves three participants, including the sender Alice, the signatory Bob and the trusted entity Charlie, in four phases, i.e., initializing phase, blinding phase, signing phase and verifying phase. In a small-scale quantum computation network, Alice blinds the message based on a quantum entanglement permutation encryption algorithm that embraces the chaotic position string. Bob signs the blinded message with private parameters shared beforehand while Charlie verifies the signature's validity and recovers the original message. Analysis shows that the proposed scheme achieves the secure blindness for the signer and traceability for the message owner with the aid of the authentic arbitrator who plays a crucial role when a dispute arises. In addition, the signature can neither be forged nor disavowed by the malicious attackers. It has a wide application to E-voting and E-payment system, etc.
Symbolic Detection of Permutation and Parity Symmetries of Evolution Equations
Alghamdi, Moataz
2017-06-18
We introduce a symbolic computational approach to detecting all permutation and parity symmetries in any general evolution equation, and to generating associated invariant polynomials, from given monomials, under the action of these symmetries. Traditionally, discrete point symmetries of differential equations are systemically found by solving complicated nonlinear systems of partial differential equations; in the presence of Lie symmetries, the process can be simplified further. Here, we show how to find parity- and permutation-type discrete symmetries purely based on algebraic calculations. Furthermore, we show that such symmetries always form groups, thereby allowing for the generation of new group-invariant conserved quantities from known conserved quantities. This work also contains an implementation of the said results in Mathematica. In addition, it includes, as a motivation for this work, an investigation of the connection between variational symmetries, described by local Lie groups, and conserved quantities in Hamiltonian systems.
Optimization and experimental realization of the quantum permutation algorithm
Yalçınkaya, I.; Gedik, Z.
2017-12-01
The quantum permutation algorithm provides computational speed-up over classical algorithms for determining the parity of a given cyclic permutation. For its n -qubit implementations, the number of required quantum gates scales quadratically with n due to the quantum Fourier transforms included. We show here for the n -qubit case that the algorithm can be simplified so that it requires only O (n ) quantum gates, which theoretically reduces the complexity of the implementation. To test our results experimentally, we utilize IBM's 5-qubit quantum processor to realize the algorithm by using the original and simplified recipes for the 2-qubit case. It turns out that the latter results in a significantly higher success probability which allows us to verify the algorithm more precisely than the previous experimental realizations. We also verify the algorithm for the first time for the 3-qubit case with a considerable success probability by taking the advantage of our simplified scheme.
Information sets as permutation cycles for quadratic residue codes
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Richard A. Jenson
1982-01-01
Full Text Available The two cases p=7 and p=23 are the only known cases where the automorphism group of the [p+1, (p+1/2] extended binary quadratic residue code, O(p, properly contains PSL(2,p. These codes have some of their information sets represented as permutation cycles from Aut(Q(p. Analysis proves that all information sets of Q(7 are so represented but those of Q(23 are not.
Successful attack on permutation-parity-machine-based neural cryptography.
Seoane, Luís F; Ruttor, Andreas
2012-02-01
An algorithm is presented which implements a probabilistic attack on the key-exchange protocol based on permutation parity machines. Instead of imitating the synchronization of the communicating partners, the strategy consists of a Monte Carlo method to sample the space of possible weights during inner rounds and an analytic approach to convey the extracted information from one outer round to the next one. The results show that the protocol under attack fails to synchronize faster than an eavesdropper using this algorithm.
A chronicle of permutation statistical methods 1920–2000, and beyond
Berry, Kenneth J; Mielke Jr , Paul W
2014-01-01
The focus of this book is on the birth and historical development of permutation statistical methods from the early 1920s to the near present. Beginning with the seminal contributions of R.A. Fisher, E.J.G. Pitman, and others in the 1920s and 1930s, permutation statistical methods were initially introduced to validate the assumptions of classical statistical methods. Permutation methods have advantages over classical methods in that they are optimal for small data sets and non-random samples, are data-dependent, and are free of distributional assumptions. Permutation probability values may be exact, or estimated via moment- or resampling-approximation procedures. Because permutation methods are inherently computationally-intensive, the evolution of computers and computing technology that made modern permutation methods possible accompanies the historical narrative. Permutation analogs of many well-known statistical tests are presented in a historical context, including multiple correlation and regression, ana...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriel Recchia
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Circular convolution and random permutation have each been proposed as neurally plausible binding operators capable of encoding sequential information in semantic memory. We perform several controlled comparisons of circular convolution and random permutation as means of encoding paired associates as well as encoding sequential information. Random permutations outperformed convolution with respect to the number of paired associates that can be reliably stored in a single memory trace. Performance was equal on semantic tasks when using a small corpus, but random permutations were ultimately capable of achieving superior performance due to their higher scalability to large corpora. Finally, “noisy” permutations in which units are mapped to other units arbitrarily (no one-to-one mapping perform nearly as well as true permutations. These findings increase the neurological plausibility of random permutations and highlight their utility in vector space models of semantics.
Sorting signed permutations by inversions in O(nlogn) time.
Swenson, Krister M; Rajan, Vaibhav; Lin, Yu; Moret, Bernard M E
2010-03-01
The study of genomic inversions (or reversals) has been a mainstay of computational genomics for nearly 20 years. After the initial breakthrough of Hannenhalli and Pevzner, who gave the first polynomial-time algorithm for sorting signed permutations by inversions, improved algorithms have been designed, culminating with an optimal linear-time algorithm for computing the inversion distance and a subquadratic algorithm for providing a shortest sequence of inversions--also known as sorting by inversions. Remaining open was the question of whether sorting by inversions could be done in O(nlogn) time. In this article, we present a qualified answer to this question, by providing two new sorting algorithms, a simple and fast randomized algorithm and a deterministic refinement. The deterministic algorithm runs in time O(nlogn + kn), where k is a data-dependent parameter. We provide the results of extensive experiments showing that both the average and the standard deviation for k are small constants, independent of the size of the permutation. We conclude (but do not prove) that almost all signed permutations can be sorted by inversions in O(nlogn) time.
Optimal control of hybrid qubits: Implementing the quantum permutation algorithm
Rivera-Ruiz, C. M.; de Lima, E. F.; Fanchini, F. F.; Lopez-Richard, V.; Castelano, L. K.
2018-03-01
The optimal quantum control theory is employed to determine electric pulses capable of producing quantum gates with a fidelity higher than 0.9997, when noise is not taken into account. Particularly, these quantum gates were chosen to perform the permutation algorithm in hybrid qubits in double quantum dots (DQDs). The permutation algorithm is an oracle based quantum algorithm that solves the problem of the permutation parity faster than a classical algorithm without the necessity of entanglement between particles. The only requirement for achieving the speedup is the use of a one-particle quantum system with at least three levels. The high fidelity found in our results is closely related to the quantum speed limit, which is a measure of how fast a quantum state can be manipulated. Furthermore, we model charge noise by considering an average over the optimal field centered at different values of the reference detuning, which follows a Gaussian distribution. When the Gaussian spread is of the order of 5 μ eV (10% of the correct value), the fidelity is still higher than 0.95. Our scheme also can be used for the practical realization of different quantum algorithms in DQDs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barr, S.M.
1992-01-01
Electric dipole moments of large atoms are an excellent tool to search for CP violation beyond the Standard Model. These tell us about the electron EDM but also about CP-violating electron-nucleon dimension-6 operators that arise from Higgs-exchange. Rapid strides are being made in searches for atomic EDMs. Limits on the electron EDM approaching the values which would be expected from Higgs-exchange mediated CP violation have been achieved. It is pointed out that in this same kind of model if tan β is large the effects in atoms of the dimension-6 e - n operators may outweigh the effect of the electron EDM. (author) 21 refs
Ellis, John R.
2001-01-01
Various developing topics in CP violation are reviewed. There are many theoretical reasons to hope that the CKM paradigm may be incomplete. It is surely too soon to be claiming new physics in \\epsilon^\\prime/\\epsilon or in D^0-\\bar D^0 mixing, but rare K decays offer interesting places to search for new physics. It is probably also premature to see a clash between global CKM fits and current estimates of sin \\beta and \\gamma, where much more precise data will soon be available. There are interesting possibilities to look for CP violation in neutrino oscillations and in Higgs physics. Rapid progress can be expected now that CP violation is moving to the top of the particle physics agenda.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quinn, H.R.
1993-02-01
Given the varied backgrounds of the members of this audience this talk will be a grab bag of topics related to the general theme of CP Violation. I do not have time to dwell in detail on any of them. First, for the astronomers and astrophysicists among you, I want to begin by reviewing the experimental status of evidence for CP violation in particle processes. There is only one system where this has been observed, and that is in the decays of neutral K mesons
Quinn, H. R.
1993-02-01
Given the varied backgrounds of the members of this audience this talk will be a grab bag of topics related to the general theme of CP Violation. I do not have time to dwell in detail on any of them. First, for the astronomers and astrophysicists among you, I want to begin by reviewing the experimental status of evidence for CP violation in particle processes. There is only one system where this has been observed, and that is in the decays of neutral K mesons.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dunietz, I.
1997-01-01
CP violation is observed to date only in K 0 decays and is parameterizable by a single quantity ε. Because it is one of the least understood phenomena in the Standard Model and holds a clue to baryogenesis, it must be investigated further. Highly specialized searches in K 0 decays are possible. Effects in B decays are much larger. In addition to the traditional B d → J/ψK S , π + π - asymmetries, CP violation could be searched for in already existing inclusive B data samples. The rapid B s --anti B s oscillations cancel in untagged B s data samples, which therefore allow feasibility studies for the observation of CP violation and the extraction of CKM elements with present vertex detectors. The favored method for the extraction of the CKM angle γ is shown to be unfeasible and a solution is presented involving striking direct CP violation in charged B decays. Novel methods for determining the B s mixing parameter Δm are described without the traditional requirement of flavor-specific final states
Computational fitness landscape for all gene-order permutations of an RNA virus.
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Kwang-il Lim
2009-02-01
Full Text Available How does the growth of a virus depend on the linear arrangement of genes in its genome? Answering this question may enhance our basic understanding of virus evolution and advance applications of viruses as live attenuated vaccines, gene-therapy vectors, or anti-tumor therapeutics. We used a mathematical model for vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, a prototype RNA virus that encodes five genes (N-P-M-G-L, to simulate the intracellular growth of all 120 possible gene-order variants. Simulated yields of virus infection varied by 6,000-fold and were found to be most sensitive to gene-order permutations that increased levels of the L gene transcript or reduced levels of the N gene transcript, the lowest and highest expressed genes of the wild-type virus, respectively. Effects of gene order on virus growth also depended upon the host-cell environment, reflecting different resources for protein synthesis and different cell susceptibilities to infection. Moreover, by computationally deleting intergenic attenuations, which define a key mechanism of transcriptional regulation in VSV, the variation in growth associated with the 120 gene-order variants was drastically narrowed from 6,000- to 20-fold, and many variants produced higher progeny yields than wild-type. These results suggest that regulation by intergenic attenuation preceded or co-evolved with the fixation of the wild type gene order in the evolution of VSV. In summary, our models have begun to reveal how gene functions, gene regulation, and genomic organization of viruses interact with their host environments to define processes of viral growth and evolution.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saavedra, A.F.
1995-01-01
Full text: In the standard model CP violation is generated by a non trivial complex phase in the CKM matrix. The Standard Model does not predict the elements of the CKM matrix, they need to be experimentally measured. This will show if all the CP violation phenomena can be accounted by the complex phase or there are other contributing mechanisms which lie beyond the scope of Standard Model. It is of interest to overconstraint the so called unitary triangle by measuring each angle (α, β and γ) from the CP asymmetry that occurs in different decay modes. During the initial low luminosity period of the LHC a large effort will be concentrated in studying B physics, especially CP violation in the B 0 - B-bar 0 system, with the ATLAS detector. The features of the detector which are important for CP studies are: sharp trigger from the muon spectrometer (muons will be identify down to p T ≅ 5GeV, be able to distinguish electrons from hadrons (down to p T ≅ 1 GeV) with the Straw Tracker and Transition detector and high resolution of tracks, secondary vertices with the Semiconductor Tracker (resolution of 10-90 μm. For some decays modes ATLAS is expected to obtain larger sample of events than the B-factories that are being proposed. It has been calculated that the systematic error σ sin (2 α) = 0.06 and σ sin ( 2 β) = 0.027 which is comparable with other future experiments
Asmundson, Anna L.; Taber, Alexandria M.; van der Walde, Adella; Lin, Danielle H.; Olson, John S.; Anthony-Cahill, Spencer J.
2009-01-01
For the first time, a circularly permuted human β-globin (cpβ) has been coexpressed with human α-globin in bacterial cells and shown to associate to form α-cpβ hemoglobin in solution. Flash photolysis studies of α-cpβ show markedly biphasic CO and O2 kinetics with the amplitudes for the fast association phases being dominant due the presence of large amounts of high-affinity liganded hemoglobin dimers. Extensive dimerization of liganded but not deoxygenated α-cpβ was observed by gel chromatography. The rate constants for O2 and CO binding to the R state forms of α-cpβ are almost identical to those of native HbA (k′R(CO) ≈ 5.0 μM−1 s−1; k′R(O2) ≈ 50 μM−1 s−1), and the rate of O2 dissociation from fully oxygenated α-cpβ is also very similar to that observed for HbA (kR(O2) ≈ 21–28 s−1). When the equilibrium deoxyHb form of α-cpβ is reacted with CO in rapid mixing experiments, the observed time courses are monophasic and the observed bimolecular association rate constant is ∼1.0 μM−1 s−1, which is intermediate between the R state rate measured in partial photolysis experiments (∼5 μM−1 s−1) and that observed for T state deoxyHbA (k′T(CO) ≈ 0.1 to 0.2 μM−1 s−1). Thus the deoxygenated permutated β subunits generate an intermediate, higher affinity, deoxyHb quaternary state. This conclusion is supported by equilibrium oxygen binding measurements in which α-cpβ exhibits a P50 of ∼1.5 mmHg and a low n-value (∼1.3) at pH 7, 20 °C, compared to 8.5 mmHg and n ≈ 2.8 for native HbA under identical, dilute conditions. PMID:19397368
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gilman, F.J.
1989-05-01
Recent theoretical and experimental progress on the manifestation of CP violation in K decays, and toward understanding whether CP violation originates in a phase, or phases, in the weak mixing matrix of quarks is reviewed. 23 refs., 10 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kayser, B.
1990-01-01
The study of CP-violating effects in B decays will be a good test of whether CP violation is caused by the known weak interaction. If this is its origin, then large, cleanly-predicted CP-violating effects are expected in certain neutral B decays to hadronic CP eigenstates. The phenomenology of CP violation in the B system is reviewed, and the genesis of these large effects is explained. In this it is shown that large, cleanly-predicted effects are also expected in some decays to states which are not CP eigenstates. The combined study of the latter decays and those to CP eigenstates may make it possible to obtain a statistically-significant CP-violating signal with fewer B mesons that would otherwise be required
Quantile-based permutation thresholds for quantitative trait loci hotspots.
Neto, Elias Chaibub; Keller, Mark P; Broman, Andrew F; Attie, Alan D; Jansen, Ritsert C; Broman, Karl W; Yandell, Brian S
2012-08-01
Quantitative trait loci (QTL) hotspots (genomic locations affecting many traits) are a common feature in genetical genomics studies and are biologically interesting since they may harbor critical regulators. Therefore, statistical procedures to assess the significance of hotspots are of key importance. One approach, randomly allocating observed QTL across the genomic locations separately by trait, implicitly assumes all traits are uncorrelated. Recently, an empirical test for QTL hotspots was proposed on the basis of the number of traits that exceed a predetermined LOD value, such as the standard permutation LOD threshold. The permutation null distribution of the maximum number of traits across all genomic locations preserves the correlation structure among the phenotypes, avoiding the detection of spurious hotspots due to nongenetic correlation induced by uncontrolled environmental factors and unmeasured variables. However, by considering only the number of traits above a threshold, without accounting for the magnitude of the LOD scores, relevant information is lost. In particular, biologically interesting hotspots composed of a moderate to small number of traits with strong LOD scores may be neglected as nonsignificant. In this article we propose a quantile-based permutation approach that simultaneously accounts for the number and the LOD scores of traits within the hotspots. By considering a sliding scale of mapping thresholds, our method can assess the statistical significance of both small and large hotspots. Although the proposed approach can be applied to any type of heritable high-volume "omic" data set, we restrict our attention to expression (e)QTL analysis. We assess and compare the performances of these three methods in simulations and we illustrate how our approach can effectively assess the significance of moderate and small hotspots with strong LOD scores in a yeast expression data set.
PERMUTATION-BASED POLYMORPHIC STEGO-WATERMARKS FOR PROGRAM CODES
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Denys Samoilenko
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Purpose: One of the most actual trends in program code protection is code marking. The problem consists in creation of some digital “watermarks” which allow distinguishing different copies of the same program codes. Such marks could be useful for authority protection, for code copies numbering, for program propagation monitoring, for information security proposes in client-server communication processes. Methods: We used the methods of digital steganography adopted for program codes as text objects. The same-shape symbols method was transformed to same-semantic element method due to codes features which makes them different from ordinary texts. We use dynamic principle of marks forming making codes similar to be polymorphic. Results: We examined the combinatorial capacity of permutations possible in program codes. As a result it was shown that the set of 5-7 polymorphic variables is suitable for the most modern network applications. Marks creation and restoration algorithms where proposed and discussed. The main algorithm is based on full and partial permutations in variables names and its declaration order. Algorithm for partial permutation enumeration was optimized for calculation complexity. PHP code fragments which realize the algorithms were listed. Discussion: Methodic proposed in the work allows distinguishing of each client-server connection. In a case if a clone of some network resource was found the methodic could give information about included marks and thereby data on IP, date and time, authentication information of client copied the resource. Usage of polymorphic stego-watermarks should improve information security indexes in network communications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fayard, L.
1989-11-01
Twenty-five years after the discovery of CP violation in the neutral Kaon system, we still dont know exactly the origin and the components of that weak non invariance. The two more precise experiments give slightly different answers concerning the direct way of CP violation NA 31 gives ε prime/ε incompatible with the Superweak Model (for which ε prime=0) and in agreement with Standard Model predictions compatible with both. Again, one needs new and precise results in order to conclude about ε prime. E731 and NA31 are actually working on their new data samples. Longer term ideas are also being discussed, looking for new experiments able to give ε prime/ε with a precision. Concerning CPT invariance the situation seems to be more clear
Vesterinen, Mika
2016-01-01
The study of $CP$ violation in the beauty hadron sector is a promising approach to search for the effects of physics beyond the Standard Model. Several recent measurements in this area from the LHCb experiment are reported in these proceedings. These are based on the Run-I dataset of 3~fb$^{-1}$ of data collected at proton-proton centre of mass energies of 7 and 8~TeV.
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Hossein Karimi
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The permutation method of multiple attribute decision making has two significant deficiencies: high computational time and wrong priority output in some problem instances. In this paper, a novel permutation method called adjusted permutation method (APM is proposed to compensate deficiencies of conventional permutation method. We propose Tabu search (TS and particle swarm optimization (PSO to find suitable solutions at a reasonable computational time for large problem instances. The proposed method is examined using some numerical examples to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The preliminary results show that both approaches provide competent solutions in relatively reasonable amounts of time while TS performs better to solve APM.
Permuting sparse rectangular matrices into block-diagonal form
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aykanat, Cevdet; Pinar, Ali; Catalyurek, Umit V.
2002-12-09
This work investigates the problem of permuting a sparse rectangular matrix into block diagonal form. Block diagonal form of a matrix grants an inherent parallelism for the solution of the deriving problem, as recently investigated in the context of mathematical programming, LU factorization and QR factorization. We propose graph and hypergraph models to represent the nonzero structure of a matrix, which reduce the permutation problem to those of graph partitioning by vertex separator and hypergraph partitioning, respectively. Besides proposing the models to represent sparse matrices and investigating related combinatorial problems, we provide a detailed survey of relevant literature to bridge the gap between different societies, investigate existing techniques for partitioning and propose new ones, and finally present a thorough empirical study of these techniques. Our experiments on a wide range of matrices, using state-of-the-art graph and hypergraph partitioning tools MeTiS and PaT oH, revealed that the proposed methods yield very effective solutions both in terms of solution quality and run time.
Tensor models, Kronecker coefficients and permutation centralizer algebras
Geloun, Joseph Ben; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye
2017-11-01
We show that the counting of observables and correlators for a 3-index tensor model are organized by the structure of a family of permutation centralizer algebras. These algebras are shown to be semi-simple and their Wedderburn-Artin decompositions into matrix blocks are given in terms of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of symmetric groups. The matrix basis for the algebras also gives an orthogonal basis for the tensor observables which diagonalizes the Gaussian two-point functions. The centres of the algebras are associated with correlators which are expressible in terms of Kronecker coefficients (Clebsch-Gordan multiplicities of symmetric groups). The color-exchange symmetry present in the Gaussian model, as well as a large class of interacting models, is used to refine the description of the permutation centralizer algebras. This discussion is extended to a general number of colors d: it is used to prove the integrality of an infinite family of number sequences related to color-symmetrizations of colored graphs, and expressible in terms of symmetric group representation theory data. Generalizing a connection between matrix models and Belyi maps, correlators in Gaussian tensor models are interpreted in terms of covers of singular 2-complexes. There is an intriguing difference, between matrix and higher rank tensor models, in the computational complexity of superficially comparable correlators of observables parametrized by Young diagrams.
Multiscale Permutation Entropy Based Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis
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Jinde Zheng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A new rolling bearing fault diagnosis approach based on multiscale permutation entropy (MPE, Laplacian score (LS, and support vector machines (SVMs is proposed in this paper. Permutation entropy (PE was recently proposed and defined to measure the randomicity and detect dynamical changes of time series. However, for the complexity of mechanical systems, the randomicity and dynamic changes of the vibration signal will exist in different scales. Thus, the definition of MPE is introduced and employed to extract the nonlinear fault characteristics from the bearing vibration signal in different scales. Besides, the SVM is utilized to accomplish the fault feature classification to fulfill diagnostic procedure automatically. Meanwhile, in order to avoid a high dimension of features, the Laplacian score (LS is used to refine the feature vector by ranking the features according to their importance and correlations with the main fault information. Finally, the rolling bearing fault diagnosis method based on MPE, LS, and SVM is proposed and applied to the experimental data. The experimental data analysis results indicate that the proposed method could identify the fault categories effectively.
Blazej, Robert; Toriello, Nicholas; Emrich, Charles; Cohen, Richard N.; Koppel, Nitzan
2015-07-14
This invention provides novel variant cellulolytic enzymes having improved activity and/or stability. In certain embodiments the variant cellulotyic enzymes comprise a glycoside hydrolase with or comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to one or more of residues F64, A226, and/or E246 in Thermobifida fusca Cel9A enzyme. In certain embodiments the glycoside hydrolase is a variant of a family 9 glycoside hydrolase. In certain embodiments the glycoside hydrolase is a variant of a theme B family 9 glycoside hydrolase.
Nicodemus, Kristin K; Malley, James D; Strobl, Carolin; Ziegler, Andreas
2010-02-27
Random forests (RF) have been increasingly used in applications such as genome-wide association and microarray studies where predictor correlation is frequently observed. Recent works on permutation-based variable importance measures (VIMs) used in RF have come to apparently contradictory conclusions. We present an extended simulation study to synthesize results. In the case when both predictor correlation was present and predictors were associated with the outcome (HA), the unconditional RF VIM attributed a higher share of importance to correlated predictors, while under the null hypothesis that no predictors are associated with the outcome (H0) the unconditional RF VIM was unbiased. Conditional VIMs showed a decrease in VIM values for correlated predictors versus the unconditional VIMs under HA and was unbiased under H0. Scaled VIMs were clearly biased under HA and H0. Unconditional unscaled VIMs are a computationally tractable choice for large datasets and are unbiased under the null hypothesis. Whether the observed increased VIMs for correlated predictors may be considered a "bias" - because they do not directly reflect the coefficients in the generating model - or if it is a beneficial attribute of these VIMs is dependent on the application. For example, in genetic association studies, where correlation between markers may help to localize the functionally relevant variant, the increased importance of correlated predictors may be an advantage. On the other hand, we show examples where this increased importance may result in spurious signals.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Baskar
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Permutation flow shop scheduling problems have been an interesting area of research for over six decades. Out of the several parameters, minimization of makespan has been studied much over the years. The problems are widely regarded as NP-Complete if the number of machines is more than three. As the computation time grows exponentially with respect to the problem size, heuristics and meta-heuristics have been proposed by many authors that give reasonably accurate and acceptable results. The NEH algorithm proposed in 1983 is still considered as one of the best simple, constructive heuristics for the minimization of makespan. This paper analyses the powerful job insertion technique used by NEH algorithm and proposes seven new variants, the complexity level remains same. 120 numbers of problem instances proposed by Taillard have been used for the purpose of validating the algorithms. Out of the seven, three produce better results than the original NEH algorithm.
Sukoriyanto; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji; Chandra, Tjang Daniel
2016-01-01
This article was written based on the results of a study evaluating students' errors in problem solving of permutation and combination in terms of problem solving steps according to Polya. Twenty-five students were asked to do four problems related to permutation and combination. The research results showed that the students still did a mistake in…
Linting, Marielle; van Os, Bart Jan; Meulman, Jacqueline J.
2011-01-01
In this paper, the statistical significance of the contribution of variables to the principal components in principal components analysis (PCA) is assessed nonparametrically by the use of permutation tests. We compare a new strategy to a strategy used in previous research consisting of permuting the columns (variables) of a data matrix…
On permutation polynomials over ﬁnite ﬁelds: diﬀerences and iterations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Anbar Meidl, Nurdagül; Odzak, Almasa; Patel, Vandita
2017-01-01
The Carlitz rank of a permutation polynomial f over a finite field Fq is a simple concept that was introduced in the last decade. Classifying permutations over Fq with respect to their Carlitz ranks has some advantages, for instance f with a given Carlitz rank can be approximated by a rational li...
Discriminating chaotic and stochastic dynamics through the permutation spectrum test
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kulp, C. W., E-mail: Kulp@lycoming.edu [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Lycoming College, Williamsport, Pennsylvania 17701 (United States); Zunino, L., E-mail: lucianoz@ciop.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Investigaciones Ópticas (CONICET La Plata—CIC), C.C. 3, 1897 Gonnet (Argentina); Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), 1900 La Plata (Argentina)
2014-09-01
In this paper, we propose a new heuristic symbolic tool for unveiling chaotic and stochastic dynamics: the permutation spectrum test. Several numerical examples allow us to confirm the usefulness of the introduced methodology. Indeed, we show that it is robust in situations in which other techniques fail (intermittent chaos, hyperchaotic dynamics, stochastic linear and nonlinear correlated dynamics, and deterministic non-chaotic noise-driven dynamics). We illustrate the applicability and reliability of this pragmatic method by examining real complex time series from diverse scientific fields. Taking into account that the proposed test has the advantages of being conceptually simple and computationally fast, we think that it can be of practical utility as an alternative test for determinism.
Permutation symmetry and the origin of fermion mass hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babu, K.S.; Mohapatra, R.N.
1990-01-01
A realization of the ''flavor-democracy'' approach to quark and lepton masses is provided in the context of the standard model with a horizontal S 3 permutation symmetry. In this model, t and b quarks pick up mass at the tree level, c, s-quark and τ-lepton masses arise at the one-loop level, u, d, and μ masses at the two-loop level, and the electron mass at the three-loop level, thus reproducing the observed hierarchial structure without fine tuning of the Yukawa couplings. The pattern of quark mixing angles also emerges naturally, with V us ,V cb ∼O(ε), V ub ∼O(ε 2 ), where ε is a loop expansion parameter
CP violating scalar Dark Matter
Cordero-Cid, A.; Hernández-Sánchez, J.; Keus, V.; King, S. F.; Moretti, S.; Rojas, D.; Sokołowska, D.
2016-12-01
We study an extension of the Standard Model (SM) in which two copies of the SM scalar SU(2) doublet which do not acquire a Vacuum Expectation Value (VEV), and hence are inert, are added to the scalar sector. We allow for CP-violation in the inert sector, where the lightest inert state is protected from decaying to SM particles through the conservation of a Z 2 symmetry. The lightest neutral particle from the inert sector, which has a mixed CP-charge due to CP-violation, is hence a Dark Matter (DM) candidate. We discuss the new regions of DM relic density opened up by CP-violation, and compare our results to the CP-conserving limit and the Inert Doublet Model (IDM). We constrain the parameter space of the CP-violating model using recent results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and DM direct and indirect detection experiments.
Image encryption based on permutation-substitution using chaotic map and Latin Square Image Cipher
Panduranga, H. T.; Naveen Kumar, S. K.; Kiran, HASH(0x22c8da0)
2014-06-01
In this paper we presented a image encryption based on permutation-substitution using chaotic map and Latin square image cipher. The proposed method consists of permutation and substitution process. In permutation process, plain image is permuted according to chaotic sequence generated using chaotic map. In substitution process, based on secrete key of 256 bit generate a Latin Square Image Cipher (LSIC) and this LSIC is used as key image and perform XOR operation between permuted image and key image. The proposed method can applied to any plain image with unequal width and height as well and also resist statistical attack, differential attack. Experiments carried out for different images of different sizes. The proposed method possesses large key space to resist brute force attack.
Circular Permutation of a Chaperonin Protein: Biophysics and Application to Nanotechnology
Paavola, Chad; Chan, Suzanne; Li, Yi-Fen; McMillan, R. Andrew; Trent, Jonathan
2004-01-01
We have designed five circular permutants of a chaperonin protein derived from the hyperthermophilic organism Sulfolobus shibatae. These permuted proteins were expressed in E. coli and are well-folded. Furthermore, all the permutants assemble into 18-mer double rings of the same form as the wild-type protein. We characterized the thermodynamics of folding for each permutant by both guanidine denaturation and differential scanning calorimetry. We also examined the assembly of chaperonin rings into higher order structures that may be used as nanoscale templates. The results show that circular permutation can be used to tune the thermodynamic properties of a protein template as well as facilitating the fusion of peptides, binding proteins or enzymes onto nanostructured templates.
Present status of CP violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ng, J.N.
1989-06-01
A review of the status of CP violation in kaons is given. Status of our knowledge of quark mixing angles in the standard six quark model is presented. The role Β d o - Βd o transition plays in this study is examined. A comparison of the estimates of CP violation effects from models beyond the standard one is given. Other experiments that have the capability of testing different CP violation models are also discussed. (Author) 35 refs., 6 figs., tab
Tomaschitz, R
1994-01-01
Spinor fields are studied in infinite, topologically multiply connected Robertson-Walker cosmologies. Unitary spinor representations for the discrete covering groups of the spacelike slices are constructed. The spectral resolution of Dirac's equation is given in terms of horospherical elementary waves, on which the treatment of spin and energy is based in these cosmologies. The meaning of the energy and the particle-antiparticle concept is explained in the context of this varying cosmic background. Discrete symmetries, in particular inversions of the multiply connected spacelike slices, are studied. The violation of the unitarity of the parity operator, due to self-interference of P-reflected wave packets, is discussed. The violation of the CP and CPT invariance - already on the level of the free Dirac equation on this cosmological background - is pointed out.
Leptogenesis and residual CP symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Peng; Ding, Gui-Jun; King, Stephen F.
2016-01-01
We discuss flavour dependent leptogenesis in the framework of lepton flavour models based on discrete flavour and CP symmetries applied to the type-I seesaw model. Working in the flavour basis, we analyse the case of two general residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, which corresponds to all possible semi-direct models based on a preserved Z 2 in the neutrino sector, together with a CP symmetry, which constrains the PMNS matrix up to a single free parameter which may be fixed by the reactor angle. We systematically study and classify this case for all possible residual CP symmetries, and show that the R-matrix is tightly constrained up to a single free parameter, with only certain forms being consistent with successful leptogenesis, leading to possible connections between leptogenesis and PMNS parameters. The formalism is completely general in the sense that the two residual CP symmetries could result from any high energy discrete flavour theory which respects any CP symmetry. As a simple example, we apply the formalism to a high energy S 4 flavour symmetry with a generalized CP symmetry, broken to two residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, recovering familiar results for PMNS predictions, together with new results for flavour dependent leptogenesis.
Flavour physics and CP violation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
It is well known that the study of flavour physics and CP violation is very important to critically test the Standard Model and to look for possible signature of new physics beyond it. The observation of CP violation in kaon system in 1964 has ignited a lot of experimental and theoretical efforts to understand its origin and to look ...
Predecessor and permutation existence problems for sequential dynamical systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Hunt, H. B. (Harry B.); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.); Rosenkrantz, D. J. (Daniel J.); Stearns, R. E. (Richard E.)
2002-01-01
A class of finite discrete dynamical systems, called Sequential Dynamical Systems (SDSs), was introduced in BMR99, BR991 as a formal model for analyzing simulation systems. An SDS S is a triple (G, F,n ),w here (i) G(V,E ) is an undirected graph with n nodes with each node having a state, (ii) F = (fi, fi, . . ., fn), with fi denoting a function associated with node ui E V and (iii) A is a permutation of (or total order on) the nodes in V, A configuration of an SDS is an n-vector ( b l, bz, . . ., bn), where bi is the value of the state of node vi. A single SDS transition from one configuration to another is obtained by updating the states of the nodes by evaluating the function associated with each of them in the order given by n. Here, we address the complexity of two basic problems and their generalizations for SDSs. Given an SDS S and a configuration C, the PREDECESSOR EXISTENCE (or PRE) problem is to determine whether there is a configuration C' such that S has a transition from C' to C. (If C has no predecessor, C is known as a garden of Eden configuration.) Our results provide separations between efficiently solvable and computationally intractable instances of the PRE problem. For example, we show that the PRE problem can be solved efficiently for SDSs with Boolean state values when the node functions are symmetric and the underlying graph is of bounded treewidth. In contrast, we show that allowing just one non-symmetric node function renders the problem NP-complete even when the underlying graph is a tree (which has a treewidth of 1). We also show that the PRE problem is efficiently solvable for SDSs whose state values are from a field and whose node functions are linear. Some of the polynomial algorithms also extend to the case where we want to find an ancestor configuration that precedes a given configuration by a logarithmic number of steps. Our results extend some of the earlier results by Sutner [Su95] and Green [@87] on the complexity of
Opposition-Based Memetic Algorithm and Hybrid Approach for Sorting Permutations by Reversals.
Soncco-Álvarez, José Luis; Muñoz, Daniel M; Ayala-Rincón, Mauricio
2018-02-21
Sorting unsigned permutations by reversals is a difficult problem; indeed, it was proved to be NP-hard by Caprara (1997). Because of its high complexity, many approximation algorithms to compute the minimal reversal distance were proposed until reaching the nowadays best-known theoretical ratio of 1.375. In this article, two memetic algorithms to compute the reversal distance are proposed. The first one uses the technique of opposition-based learning leading to an opposition-based memetic algorithm; the second one improves the previous algorithm by applying the heuristic of two breakpoint elimination leading to a hybrid approach. Several experiments were performed with one-hundred randomly generated permutations, single benchmark permutations, and biological permutations. Results of the experiments showed that the proposed OBMA and Hybrid-OBMA algorithms achieve the best results for practical cases, that is, for permutations of length up to 120. Also, Hybrid-OBMA showed to improve the results of OBMA for permutations greater than or equal to 60. The applicability of our proposed algorithms was checked processing permutations based on biological data, in which case OBMA gave the best average results for all instances.
Permutations avoiding an increasing number of length-increasing forbidden subsequences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elena Barcucci
2000-12-01
Full Text Available A permutation π is said to be τ-avoiding if it does not contain any subsequence having all the same pairwise comparisons as τ. This paper concerns the characterization and enumeration of permutations which avoid a set F j of subsequences increasing both in number and in length at the same time. Let F j be the set of subsequences of the form σ(j+1(j+2, σ being any permutation on {1,...,j}. For j=1 the only subsequence in F 1 is 123 and the 123-avoiding permutations are enumerated by the Catalan numbers; for j=2 the subsequences in F 2 are 1234 2134 and the (1234,2134 avoiding permutations are enumerated by the Schröder numbers; for each other value of j greater than 2 the subsequences in F j are j! and their length is (j+2 the permutations avoiding these j! subsequences are enumerated by a number sequence {a n } such that C n ≤ a n ≤ n!, C n being the n th Catalan number. For each j we determine the generating function of permutations avoiding the subsequences in F j according to the length, to the number of left minima and of non-inversions.
Testing New Indirect CP Violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grossman, Yuval; Nir, Yosef; Perez, Gilad
2009-01-01
If new CP violating physics contributes to neutral meson mixing, but its contribution to CP violation in decay amplitudes is negligible, then there is a model independent relation between four (generally independent) observables related to the mixing: the mass splitting (x), the width splitting (y), the CP violation in mixing (1-|q/p|), and the CP violation in the interference of decays with and without mixing (φ). For the four neutral meson systems, this relation can be written in a simple approximate form: ytanφ≅x(1-|q/p|). In the K system, all four observables have been measured and obey the relation to excellent accuracy. For the B s and D systems, new predictions are provided. The success or failure of these relations will probe the physics that is responsible for the CP violation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, C.G.
1980-01-01
Effects of Yang-Mills instantons on CP-violating strong interactions are studied. Using simplified models of CP-noninvariant weak interactions, we calculate the induced strong CP-violation. Even in the simple examples studied, the CP-violating phase of a vacuum-to-vacuum transition amplitude differs in general from the phase of the determinant of the quark mass matrix multiplied by the topological charge of the background Yang-Mills field. Then several CP-violating phenomena such as eta → 2π decay and neutron electric dipole moment induced by instantons are studied. The result of our explicit calculation of eta → 2π decay strength verifies the current algebraic method used by Crewther et al. We also present a calculation of the instanton contribution, in the dilute gas approximation for instanton gas, to the electric dipole moment of a free quark without using 't Hooft's effective Lagrangian
Grabarczyk, Alicja Monika; Oracz, Grzegorz; Wertheim-Tysarowska, Katarzyna; Kujko, Aleksandra Anna; Wejnarska, Karolina; Kolodziejczyk, Elwira; Bal, Jerzy; Koziel, Dorota; Kowalik, Artur; Gluszek, Stanislaw; Rygiel, Agnieszka Magdalena
2017-12-01
Genetic studies in adults/adolescent patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) identified chymotrypsinogen C (CTRC) genetic variants but their association with CP risk has been difficult to replicate. To evaluate the risk of CP associated with CTRC variants in CP pediatric patients-control study. The distribution of CTRC variants in CP pediatric cohort (n = 136, median age at CP onset 8 years) with no history of alcohol/smoking abuse was compared with controls (n = 401, median age 45). We showed that p.Arg254Trp (4.6%) and p.Lys247_Arg254del (5.3%) heterozygous mutations are frequent and significantly associated with CP risk in pediatric patients (odds ratio [OR] = 19.1; 95% CI 2.8-160; P = 0.001 and OR = 5.5; 95% CI 1.6-19.4; P = 0.001, respectively). For the first time, we demonstrated that the c.180TT genotype of common p.Gly60Gly variant is strong, an independent CP risk factor (OR = 23; 95% CI 7.7-70; P A variant, both CA and AA genotype, is significantly underrepresented in CP compared with controls (15% vs 35%; OR = 0.33; 95% CI 0.19-0.59; P risk factors. The c.493+51C>A variant may play a protective role against CP development.
Cai, Li
2006-02-01
A permutation test typically requires fewer assumptions than does a comparable parametric counterpart. The multi-response permutation procedure (MRPP) is a class of multivariate permutation tests of group difference useful for the analysis of experimental data. However, psychologists seldom make use of the MRPP in data analysis, in part because the MRPP is not implemented in popular statistical packages that psychologists use. A set of SPSS macros implementing the MRPP test is provided in this article. The use of the macros is illustrated by analyzing example data sets.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gutin, Gregory; Van Iersel, Leo; Mnich, Matthias
2010-01-01
A ternary Permutation-CSP is specified by a subset Π of the symmetric group S3. An instance of such a problem consists of a set of variables V and a multiset of constraints, which are ordered triples of distinct variables of V. The objective is to find a linear ordering α of V that maximizes...... the number of triples whose rearrangement (under α) follows a permutation in Π. We prove that all ternary Permutation-CSPs parameterized above average have kernels with quadratic numbers of variables....
A permutation testing framework to compare groups of brain networks.
Simpson, Sean L; Lyday, Robert G; Hayasaka, Satoru; Marsh, Anthony P; Laurienti, Paul J
2013-01-01
Brain network analyses have moved to the forefront of neuroimaging research over the last decade. However, methods for statistically comparing groups of networks have lagged behind. These comparisons have great appeal for researchers interested in gaining further insight into complex brain function and how it changes across different mental states and disease conditions. Current comparison approaches generally either rely on a summary metric or on mass-univariate nodal or edge-based comparisons that ignore the inherent topological properties of the network, yielding little power and failing to make network level comparisons. Gleaning deeper insights into normal and abnormal changes in complex brain function demands methods that take advantage of the wealth of data present in an entire brain network. Here we propose a permutation testing framework that allows comparing groups of networks while incorporating topological features inherent in each individual network. We validate our approach using simulated data with known group differences. We then apply the method to functional brain networks derived from fMRI data.
Efficiency and credit ratings: a permutation-information-theory analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bariviera, Aurelio Fernandez; Martinez, Lisana B; Zunino, Luciano; Belén Guercio, M; Rosso, Osvaldo A
2013-01-01
The role of credit rating agencies has been under severe scrutiny after the subprime crisis. In this paper we explore the relationship between credit ratings and informational efficiency of a sample of thirty nine corporate bonds of US oil and energy companies from April 2008 to November 2012. For this purpose we use a powerful statistical tool, relatively new in the financial literature: the complexity–entropy causality plane. This representation space allows us to graphically classify the different bonds according to their degree of informational efficiency. We find that this classification agrees with the credit ratings assigned by Moody’s. In particular, we detect the formation of two clusters, which correspond to the global categories of investment and speculative grades. Regarding the latter cluster, two subgroups reflect distinct levels of efficiency. Additionally, we also find an intriguing absence of correlation between informational efficiency and firm characteristics. This allows us to conclude that the proposed permutation-information-theory approach provides an alternative practical way to justify bond classification. (paper)
Information transmission and signal permutation in active flow networks
Woodhouse, Francis G.; Fawcett, Joanna B.; Dunkel, Jörn
2018-03-01
Recent experiments show that both natural and artificial microswimmers in narrow channel-like geometries will self-organise to form steady, directed flows. This suggests that networks of flowing active matter could function as novel autonomous microfluidic devices. However, little is known about how information propagates through these far-from-equilibrium systems. Through a mathematical analogy with spin-ice vertex models, we investigate here the input–output characteristics of generic incompressible active flow networks (AFNs). Our analysis shows that information transport through an AFN is inherently different from conventional pressure or voltage driven networks. Active flows on hexagonal arrays preserve input information over longer distances than their passive counterparts and are highly sensitive to bulk topological defects, whose presence can be inferred from marginal input–output distributions alone. This sensitivity further allows controlled permutations on parallel inputs, revealing an unexpected link between active matter and group theory that can guide new microfluidic mixing strategies facilitated by active matter and aid the design of generic autonomous information transport networks.
Discrete Chebyshev nets and a universal permutability theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schief, W K
2007-01-01
The Pohlmeyer-Lund-Regge system which was set down independently in the contexts of Lagrangian field theories and the relativistic motion of a string and which played a key role in the development of a geometric interpretation of soliton theory is known to appear in a variety of important guises such as the vectorial Lund-Regge equation, the O(4) nonlinear σ-model and the SU(2) chiral model. Here, it is demonstrated that these avatars may be discretized in such a manner that both integrability and equivalence are preserved. The corresponding discretization procedure is geometric and algebraic in nature and based on discrete Chebyshev nets and generalized discrete Lelieuvre formulae. In connection with the derivation of associated Baecklund transformations, it is shown that a generalized discrete Lund-Regge equation may be interpreted as a universal permutability theorem for integrable equations which admit commuting matrix Darboux transformations acting on su(2) linear representations. Three-dimensional coordinate systems and lattices of 'Lund-Regge' type related to particular continuous and discrete Zakharov-Manakov systems are obtained as a by-product of this analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nyvad, Anne Mette; Christensen, Ken Ramshøj; Vikner, Sten
2017-01-01
Based on data from extraction, embedded V2, and complementizer stacking, this paper proposes a cP/CP-analysis of CP-recursion in Danish. Because extraction can be shown to be possible from relative clauses, wh-islands, and adverbial clauses, and given that long extraction is successive......-cyclic, an extra specifier position has to be available as an escape hatch. Consequently, such extractions require a CP-recursion analysis, as has been argued for embedded V2 and for complementizer stacking. Given that CP-recursion in embedded V2 clauses does not allow extraction, whereas other types of CP......-recursion do, we suggest that embedded V2 is fundamentally different, in that main clause V2 and embedded V2 involve a CP (“big CP”), whereas all other clausal projections above IP are instances of cP (“little cP”). The topmost “little” c° has an occurrence feature that enables extraction but bars spell...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, K.; Kaplan, D.B.; Nelson, A.E.
1993-01-01
Conventional solutions to the strong CP problem all require the existence of global symmetries. However, quantum gravity may destroy global symmetries, making it hard to understand why the electric dipole moment of the neutron (EDMN) is so small. We suggest here that CP is actually a discrete gauge symmetry, and is therefore not violated by quantum gravity. We show that four-dimensional CP can arise as a discrete gauge symmetry in theories with dimensional compactification, if the original number of Minkowski dimensions equals 8k+1, 8k+2 or 8k+3, and if there are certain restrictions on the gauge group; these conditions are met by superstrings. CP may then be broken spontaneously below 10 9 GeV, explaining the observed CP violation in the kaon system without inducing a large EDMN. We discuss the phenomenology of such models, as well as the peculiar properties of cosmic 'SP strings' which could be produced at the compactification scale. Such strings have the curious property that a particle carried around the string is turned into its CP conjugate. A single CP string renders four-dimensional space-time nonorientable. (orig.)
A Permutation Approach for Selecting the Penalty Parameter in Penalized Model Selection
Sabourin, Jeremy A; Valdar, William; Nobel, Andrew B
2015-01-01
Summary We describe a simple, computationally effcient, permutation-based procedure for selecting the penalty parameter in LASSO penalized regression. The procedure, permutation selection, is intended for applications where variable selection is the primary focus, and can be applied in a variety of structural settings, including that of generalized linear models. We briefly discuss connections between permutation selection and existing theory for the LASSO. In addition, we present a simulation study and an analysis of real biomedical data sets in which permutation selection is compared with selection based on the following: cross-validation (CV), the Bayesian information criterion (BIC), Scaled Sparse Linear Regression, and a selection method based on recently developed testing procedures for the LASSO. PMID:26243050
Error-free holographic frames encryption with CA pixel-permutation encoding algorithm
Li, Xiaowei; Xiao, Dan; Wang, Qiong-Hua
2018-01-01
The security of video data is necessary in network security transmission hence cryptography is technique to make video data secure and unreadable to unauthorized users. In this paper, we propose a holographic frames encryption technique based on the cellular automata (CA) pixel-permutation encoding algorithm. The concise pixel-permutation algorithm is used to address the drawbacks of the traditional CA encoding methods. The effectiveness of the proposed video encoding method is demonstrated by simulation examples.
Computing the Jones index of quadratic permutation endomorphisms of O2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Szymanski, Wojciech; Conti, Roberto
2009-01-01
We compute the index of the type III1/2 factors arising from endomorphisms of the Cuntz algebra O2 associated to the rank-two permutation matrices. Udgivelsesdato: January......We compute the index of the type III1/2 factors arising from endomorphisms of the Cuntz algebra O2 associated to the rank-two permutation matrices. Udgivelsesdato: January...
Flavour Physics and CP Violation
Fleischer, Robert
2006-01-01
The starting point of these lectures is an introduction to the weak interactions of quarks and the Standard-Model description of CP violation, where the central role is played by the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix and the corresponding unitarity triangles. Since the B-meson system will govern the stage of (quark) flavour physics and CP violation in this decade, it will be our main focus. We shall classify B-meson decays, introduce the theoretical tools to deal with them, investigate the requirements for non-vanishing CP-violating asymmetries, and discuss the main strategies to explore CP violation and the preferred avenues for physics beyond the Standard Model to enter. This formalism is then applied to discuss the status of important B-factory benchmark modes, where we focus on puzzling patterns in the data that may indicate new-physics effects, as well as the prospects for B-decay studies at the LHC.
Flavour physics and CP violation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
status and prospectives of the flavour physics associated with the strange, charm and .... might reveal something completely unexpected. Standard Model weak ..... Thus, in order to have an observable CP violation effect in the SM, the mixing.
Permutation-based inference for the AUC: A unified approach for continuous and discontinuous data.
Pauly, Markus; Asendorf, Thomas; Konietschke, Frank
2016-11-01
We investigate rank-based studentized permutation methods for the nonparametric Behrens-Fisher problem, that is, inference methods for the area under the ROC curve. We hereby prove that the studentized permutation distribution of the Brunner-Munzel rank statistic is asymptotically standard normal, even under the alternative. Thus, incidentally providing the hitherto missing theoretical foundation for the Neubert and Brunner studentized permutation test. In particular, we do not only show its consistency, but also that confidence intervals for the underlying treatment effects can be computed by inverting this permutation test. In addition, we derive permutation-based range-preserving confidence intervals. Extensive simulation studies show that the permutation-based confidence intervals appear to maintain the preassigned coverage probability quite accurately (even for rather small sample sizes). For a convenient application of the proposed methods, a freely available software package for the statistical software R has been developed. A real data example illustrates the application. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Electromyographic permutation entropy quantifies diaphragmatic denervation and reinnervation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher Kramer
Full Text Available Spontaneous reinnervation after diaphragmatic paralysis due to trauma, surgery, tumors and spinal cord injuries is frequently observed. A possible explanation could be collateral reinnervation, since the diaphragm is commonly double-innervated by the (accessory phrenic nerve. Permutation entropy (PeEn, a complexity measure for time series, may reflect a functional state of neuromuscular transmission by quantifying the complexity of interactions across neural and muscular networks. In an established rat model, electromyographic signals of the diaphragm after phrenicotomy were analyzed using PeEn quantifying denervation and reinnervation. Thirty-three anesthetized rats were unilaterally phrenicotomized. After 1, 3, 9, 27 and 81 days, diaphragmatic electromyographic PeEn was analyzed in vivo from sternal, mid-costal and crural areas of both hemidiaphragms. After euthanasia of the animals, both hemidiaphragms were dissected for fiber type evaluation. The electromyographic incidence of an accessory phrenic nerve was 76%. At day 1 after phrenicotomy, PeEn (normalized values was significantly diminished in the sternal (median: 0.69; interquartile range: 0.66-0.75 and mid-costal area (0.68; 0.66-0.72 compared to the non-denervated side (0.84; 0.78-0.90 at threshold p<0.05. In the crural area, innervated by the accessory phrenic nerve, PeEn remained unchanged (0.79; 0.72-0.86. During reinnervation over 81 days, PeEn normalized in the mid-costal area (0.84; 0.77-0.86, whereas it remained reduced in the sternal area (0.77; 0.70-0.81. Fiber type grouping, a histological sign for reinnervation, was found in the mid-costal area in 20% after 27 days and in 80% after 81 days. Collateral reinnervation can restore diaphragm activity after phrenicotomy. Electromyographic PeEn represents a new, distinctive assessment characterizing intramuscular function following denervation and reinnervation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J Gordon Millichap
2003-01-01
Full Text Available The clinical manifestations in 15 patients (6 boys and 9 girls with middle interhemispheric variant (MIH of holoprosencephaly (HPE were compared with classic subtypes (alobar, semilobar, and lobar of HPE in a multicenter study at Stanford University School of Medicine and Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital; Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia; University of California at San Francisco; Texas Scottish Rite Hospital, Dallas; and Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD.
Measuring $CP$ violation with $\\Delta A_{CP}$ at LHCb
Pearce, Alex
2014-01-01
The control of systematic uncertainties is a key component of many analyses performed at the Large Hadron Collider, and will only become more important as more data are taken during Run II. Many of the CP measurements performed using the LHCb detector have statistical precisions below the per cent level, and so particular care must be taken in this area. One technique for dealing with the various production and detection asymmetries which can mask the physics asymmetry of interest, and increase the measurement’s systematic uncertainty, is $\\Delta A_{CP}$ . The application of $\\Delta A_{CP}$ in three separate LHCb analyses of $D^{0}$ and $\\Lambda_{b}^{0}$ decays will be discussed, along with prospects for applying the technique to $\\Lambda_{c}^{+}$ decays.
CpG + CpNpG Analysis of Protein-Coding Sequences from Tomato
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hobolth, Asger; Nielsen, Rasmus; Wang, Ying
2006-01-01
We develop codon-based models for simultaneously inferring the mutational effects of CpG and CpNpG methylation in coding regions. In a data set of 369 tomato genes, we show that there is very little effect of CpNpG methylation but a strong effect of CpG methylation affecting almost all genes. We...... further show that the CpNpG and CpG effects are largely uncorrelated. Our results suggest different roles of CpG and CpNpG methylation, with CpNpG methylation possibly playing a specialized role in defense against transposons and RNA viruses....
In vivo control of CpG and non-CpG DNA methylation by DNA methyltransferases.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julia Arand
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The enzymatic control of the setting and maintenance of symmetric and non-symmetric DNA methylation patterns in a particular genome context is not well understood. Here, we describe a comprehensive analysis of DNA methylation patterns generated by high resolution sequencing of hairpin-bisulfite amplicons of selected single copy genes and repetitive elements (LINE1, B1, IAP-LTR-retrotransposons, and major satellites. The analysis unambiguously identifies a substantial amount of regional incomplete methylation maintenance, i.e. hemimethylated CpG positions, with variant degrees among cell types. Moreover, non-CpG cytosine methylation is confined to ESCs and exclusively catalysed by Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b. This sequence position-, cell type-, and region-dependent non-CpG methylation is strongly linked to neighboring CpG methylation and requires the presence of Dnmt3L. The generation of a comprehensive data set of 146,000 CpG dyads was used to apply and develop parameter estimated hidden Markov models (HMM to calculate the relative contribution of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts for de novo and maintenance DNA methylation. The comparative modelling included wild-type ESCs and mutant ESCs deficient for Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, or Dnmt3a/3b, respectively. The HMM analysis identifies a considerable de novo methylation activity for Dnmt1 at certain repetitive elements and single copy sequences. Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b contribute de novo function. However, both enzymes are also essential to maintain symmetrical CpG methylation at distinct repetitive and single copy sequences in ESCs.
Kalinowski, Jan
1999-01-01
In a general two-Higgs-doublet model with CP violation in the Higgs sector, the three neutral physical Higgs bosons have no definite CP properties. A new sum rule relating Yukawa and Higgs-Z couplings implies that a neutral Higgs boson cannot escape detection at an e^+e^- collider if it is kinematically accessible in Z+Higgs, $b\\bar b+$Higgs and $t\\bar t+$Higgs production, irrespective of the mixing angles and the masses of the other neutral Higgs bosons. The implications of the sum rules for...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dowrick, N.J. (Dept. of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom)); McDougall, N.A. (National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))
1992-07-09
We show that two well-known solutions to the strong CP problem, the axion and a massless quark, may be understood in terms of the mechanism recently proposed by Samuel where long-range interactions between topological charges may be responsible for the removal of CP violation. We explain how the axion and a QCD meson (identified as the {eta}' if all quarks are massless) suppress fluctuations in global topological charge by almost identical dynamical although the masses, couplings and relevant length scales are very different. Furthermore, we elucidate the precise origin of the {eta}' mass. (orig.).
The impact of intragenic CpG content on gene expression.
Bauer, Asli Petra; Leikam, Doris; Krinner, Simone; Notka, Frank; Ludwig, Christine; Längst, Gernot; Wagner, Ralf
2010-07-01
The development of vaccine components or recombinant therapeutics critically depends on sustained expression of the corresponding transgene. This study aimed to determine the contribution of intragenic CpG content to expression efficiency in transiently and stably transfected mammalian cells. Based upon a humanized version of green fluorescent protein (GFP) containing 60 CpGs within its coding sequence, a CpG-depleted variant of the GFP reporter was established by carefully modulating the codon usage. Interestingly, GFP reporter activity and detectable protein amounts in stably transfected CHO and 293 cells were significantly decreased upon CpG depletion and independent from promoter usage (CMV, EF1 alpha). The reduction in protein expression associated with CpG depletion was likewise observed for other unrelated reporter genes and was clearly reflected by a decline in mRNA copy numbers rather than translational efficiency. Moreover, decreased mRNA levels were neither due to nuclear export restrictions nor alternative splicing or mRNA instability. Rather, the intragenic CpG content influenced de novo transcriptional activity thus implying a common transcription-based mechanism of gene regulation via CpGs. Increased high CpG transcription correlated with changed nucleosomal positions in vitro albeit histone density at the two genes did not change in vivo as monitored by ChIP.
The strong CP problem and the visibility of invisible axions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchmueller, W.
1986-12-01
The main subject of these lectures are general properties of axions and recent suggestions of how to detect invisible axions. After a brief review of the strong CP problem and the Peccei-Quinn mechanism in sects. 2 and 3, we discuss axion properties by means of an effective lagrangian approach in sect. 4. Experimental bounds on axion production and decays are reviewed in sect. 5. Sect. 6 deals briefly with the recently proposed variant axion models, and in sect. 7 we discuss the possible relevance of supersymmetry to the strong CP problem. In sect. 8 we then review the different proposals for the detection of invisible axions. Some conclusions are given in sect. 9. (orig./HSI)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Jun; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua, E-mail: hguo@unm.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)
2013-11-28
A rigorous, general, and simple method to fit global and permutation invariant potential energy surfaces (PESs) using neural networks (NNs) is discussed. This so-called permutation invariant polynomial neural network (PIP-NN) method imposes permutation symmetry by using in its input a set of symmetry functions based on PIPs. For systems with more than three atoms, it is shown that the number of symmetry functions in the input vector needs to be larger than the number of internal coordinates in order to include both the primary and secondary invariant polynomials. This PIP-NN method is successfully demonstrated in three atom-triatomic reactive systems, resulting in full-dimensional global PESs with average errors on the order of meV. These PESs are used in full-dimensional quantum dynamical calculations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onchi, T; Fujisawa, A; Sanpei, A; Himura, H; Masamune, S
2017-01-01
Permutation entropy and statistical complexity are measures for complex time series. The Bandt–Pompe methodology evaluates probability distribution using permutation. The method is robust and effective to quantify information of time series data. Statistical complexity is the product of Jensen–Shannon divergence and permutation entropy. These physical parameters are introduced to analyse time series of emission and magnetic fluctuations in low-aspect-ratio reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasma. The observed time-series data aggregates in a region of the plane, the so-called C – H plane, determined by entropy versus complexity. The C – H plane is a representation space used for distinguishing periodic, chaos, stochastic and noisy processes of time series data. The characteristics of the emissions and magnetic fluctuation change under different RFP-plasma conditions. The statistical complexities of soft x-ray emissions and magnetic fluctuations depend on the relationships between reversal and pinch parameters. (paper)
Heimann, G; Neuhaus, G
1998-03-01
In the random censorship model, the log-rank test is often used for comparing a control group with different dose groups. If the number of tumors is small, so-called exact methods are often applied for computing critical values from a permutational distribution. Two of these exact methods are discussed and shown to be incorrect. The correct permutational distribution is derived and studied with respect to its behavior under unequal censoring in the light of recent results proving that the permutational version and the unconditional version of the log-rank test are asymptotically equivalent even under unequal censoring. The log-rank test is studied by simulations of a realistic scenario from a bioassay with small numbers of tumors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quinn, H.R.
1994-02-01
She reviews how one can test the Standard Model predictions for CP violation. This test requires sufficient independent measurements to overconstrain the model parameters and thus be sensitive to possible beyond Standard Model contributions. She addresses the challenges for theory as well as for experiment to achieve such a test
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quinn, Helen R
2001-01-01
These lectures provide a basic overview of topics related to the study of CP Violation in B decays. In the first lecture, I review the basics of discrete symmetries in field theories, the quantum mechanics of neutral but flavor-non-trivial mesons, and the classification of three types of CP violation [1]. The actual second lecture which I gave will be separately published as it is my Dirac award lecture and is focused on the separate topic of strong CP Violation. In Lecture 2 here, I cover the Standard Model predictions for neutral B decays, and in particular discuss some channels of interest for CP Violation studies. Lecture 3 reviews the various tools and techniques used to deal with the hadronic physics effects. In Lecture 4, I briefly review the present and planned experiments that can study B decays. I cannot teach all the details of this subject in this short course, so my approach is instead to try to give students a grasp of the relevant concepts and an overview of the available tools. The level of these lectures is introductory. I will provide some references to more detailed treatments and current literature, but this is not a review article so I do not attempt to give complete references to all related literature. By now there are some excellent textbooks that cover this subject in great detail [1]. I refer students to these for more details and for more complete references to the original literature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quinn, H.
2002-01-01
These lectures provide a basic overview of topics related to the study of CP Violation in B decays. In the first lecture, I review the basics of discrete symmetries in field theories, the quantum mechanics of neutral but flavor-non-trivial mesons, and the classification of three types of CP violation. The actual second lecture which I gave will be separately published as it is my Dirac award lecture and is focussed on the separate topic of strong CP Violation. In Lecture 2 here, I cover the Standard Model predictions for neutral B decays, and in particular discuss some channels of interest for CP Violation studies. Lecture 3 reviews the various tools and techniques used to deal with the hadronic physics effects. In Lecture 4, I briefly review the present and planned experiments that can study B decays. I cannot teach all the details of this subject in this short course, so my approach is instead to try to give students a grasp of the relevant concepts and an overview of the available tools. The level of these lectures is introductory. I will provide some references to more detailed treatments and current literature, but this is not a review article so I do not attempt to give complete references to all related literature. By now there are some excellent textbooks that cover this subject in great detail. I refer students to these for more details and for more complete references to the original literature. (author)
Flavour Physics and CP Violation
Fleischer, Robert
2005-01-01
The starting point of these lectures is an introduction to the weak interactions of quarks and the Standard-Model description of CP violation, where the key element is the Cabibbo--Kobayashi--Maskawa matrix and the corresponding unitarity triangles. Since the B-meson system will govern the stage of (quark) flavour physics and CP violation in this decade, it will be -- after a brief look at the kaon system -- our main focus. We shall classify B-meson decays, introduce the theoretical tools to deal with them, explore the requirements for non-vanishing CP-violating asymmetries, and discuss B^0_q--B^0_q_bar mixing (q={d,s}). We will then turn to B-factory benchmark modes, discuss the physics potential of B^0_s mesons, which is particularly promising for B-decay experiments at hadron colliders, and emphasize the importance of studies of rare decays, which are absent at the tree level in the Standard Model, complement nicely the studies of CP violation, and provide interesting probes for new physics.
CP violation in neutral B decays to non-CP-eigenstates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kayser, B.
1992-01-01
If CP violation comes from complex phases in the quark mixing matrix, then neutral B decays to CP eigenstates will exhibit large, cleanly-predicted CP-violating effects. The authors show that the same is true of neutral B decays to several types of ''near-CP-eigenstates.'' By experimentally studying the latter decays as well as those to the CP eigenstates, one will be able to obtain more definitive information on CP violation from a given number of B mesons
A Comparison of Multiscale Permutation Entropy Measures in On-Line Depth of Anesthesia Monitoring.
Su, Cui; Liang, Zhenhu; Li, Xiaoli; Li, Duan; Li, Yongwang; Ursino, Mauro
2016-01-01
Multiscale permutation entropy (MSPE) is becoming an interesting tool to explore neurophysiological mechanisms in recent years. In this study, six MSPE measures were proposed for on-line depth of anesthesia (DoA) monitoring to quantify the anesthetic effect on the real-time EEG recordings. The performance of these measures in describing the transient characters of simulated neural populations and clinical anesthesia EEG were evaluated and compared. Six MSPE algorithms-derived from Shannon permutation entropy (SPE), Renyi permutation entropy (RPE) and Tsallis permutation entropy (TPE) combined with the decomposition procedures of coarse-graining (CG) method and moving average (MA) analysis-were studied. A thalamo-cortical neural mass model (TCNMM) was used to generate noise-free EEG under anesthesia to quantitatively assess the robustness of each MSPE measure against noise. Then, the clinical anesthesia EEG recordings from 20 patients were analyzed with these measures. To validate their effectiveness, the ability of six measures were compared in terms of tracking the dynamical changes in EEG data and the performance in state discrimination. The Pearson correlation coefficient (R) was used to assess the relationship among MSPE measures. CG-based MSPEs failed in on-line DoA monitoring at multiscale analysis. In on-line EEG analysis, the MA-based MSPE measures at 5 decomposed scales could track the transient changes of EEG recordings and statistically distinguish the awake state, unconsciousness and recovery of consciousness (RoC) state significantly. Compared to single-scale SPE and RPE, MSPEs had better anti-noise ability and MA-RPE at scale 5 performed best in this aspect. MA-TPE outperformed other measures with faster tracking speed of the loss of unconsciousness. MA-based multiscale permutation entropies have the potential for on-line anesthesia EEG analysis with its simple computation and sensitivity to drug effect changes. CG-based multiscale permutation
NDPA: A generalized efficient parallel in-place N-Dimensional Permutation Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Elsayed Ali
2015-09-01
Full Text Available N-dimensional transpose/permutation is a very important operation in many large-scale data intensive and scientific applications. These applications include but not limited to oil industry i.e. seismic data processing, nuclear medicine, media production, digital signal processing and business intelligence. This paper proposes an efficient in-place N-dimensional permutation algorithm. The algorithm is based on a novel 3D transpose algorithm that was published recently. The proposed algorithm has been tested on 3D, 4D, 5D, 6D and 7D data sets as a proof of concept. This is the first contribution which is breaking the dimensions’ limitation of the base algorithm. The suggested algorithm exploits the idea of mixing both logical and physical permutations together. In the logical permutation, the address map is transposed for each data unit access. In the physical permutation, actual data elements are swapped. Both permutation levels exploit the fast on-chip memory bandwidth by transferring large amount of data and allowing for fine-grain SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data operations. Thus, the performance is improved as evident from the experimental results section. The algorithm is implemented on NVidia GeForce GTS 250 GPU (Graphics Processing Unit containing 128 cores. The rapid increase in GPUs performance coupled with the recent and continuous improvements in its programmability proved that GPUs are the right choice for computationally demanding tasks. The use of GPUs is the second contribution which reflects how strongly they fit for high performance tasks. The third contribution is improving the proposed algorithm performance to its peak as discussed in the results section.
Discrete bat algorithm for optimal problem of permutation flow shop scheduling.
Luo, Qifang; Zhou, Yongquan; Xie, Jian; Ma, Mingzhi; Li, Liangliang
2014-01-01
A discrete bat algorithm (DBA) is proposed for optimal permutation flow shop scheduling problem (PFSP). Firstly, the discrete bat algorithm is constructed based on the idea of basic bat algorithm, which divide whole scheduling problem into many subscheduling problems and then NEH heuristic be introduced to solve subscheduling problem. Secondly, some subsequences are operated with certain probability in the pulse emission and loudness phases. An intensive virtual population neighborhood search is integrated into the discrete bat algorithm to further improve the performance. Finally, the experimental results show the suitability and efficiency of the present discrete bat algorithm for optimal permutation flow shop scheduling problem.
Discrete Bat Algorithm for Optimal Problem of Permutation Flow Shop Scheduling
Luo, Qifang; Zhou, Yongquan; Xie, Jian; Ma, Mingzhi; Li, Liangliang
2014-01-01
A discrete bat algorithm (DBA) is proposed for optimal permutation flow shop scheduling problem (PFSP). Firstly, the discrete bat algorithm is constructed based on the idea of basic bat algorithm, which divide whole scheduling problem into many subscheduling problems and then NEH heuristic be introduced to solve subscheduling problem. Secondly, some subsequences are operated with certain probability in the pulse emission and loudness phases. An intensive virtual population neighborhood search is integrated into the discrete bat algorithm to further improve the performance. Finally, the experimental results show the suitability and efficiency of the present discrete bat algorithm for optimal permutation flow shop scheduling problem. PMID:25243220
Flavour physics and CP violation
Nir, Y.
2015-05-22
We explain the many reasons for the interest in flavor physics. We describe flavor physics and the related CP violation within the Standard Model, and explain how the B-factories proved that the Kobayashi-Maskawa mechanism dominates the CP violation that is observed in meson decays. We explain the implications of flavor physics for new physics, with emphasis on the “new physics flavor puzzle”, and present the idea of minimal flavor violation as a possible solution. We explain why the values flavor parameters of the Standard Model are puzzling, present the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism as a possible solution, and describe how measurements of neutrino parameters are interpreted in the context of this puzzle. We show that the recently discovered Higgs-like boson may provide new opportunities for making progress on the various flavor puzzles.
Constraints on the CP-Violating MSSM
Arbey, A; Godbole, R M; Mahmoudi, F
2016-01-01
We discuss the prospects for observing CP violation in the MSSM with six CP-violating phases, using a geometric approach to maximise CP-violating observables subject to the experimental upper bounds on electric dipole moments. We consider constraints from Higgs physics, flavour physics, the dark matter relic density and spin-independent scattering cross section with matter.
CP violation without elementary scalar fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eichten, E.; Lane, K.; Preskill, J.
1980-04-01
Dynamically broken gauge theories of electroweak interactions provide a natural mechanism for generating CP violation. Even if all vacuum angles are unobservable, strong CP violation is not automatically avoided. In the absence of strong CP violation, the neutron electric dipole moment is expected to be of order 10 -24 e cm
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Recent results on CP-violation measurements in decays from energy asymmetric -factory experiments are reported. Thanks to large accumulated data samples, CP-violations in decays in mixing-decay interference and direct CP-violation are now firmly established. The measurements of three angles of the unitarity ...
Genetic variants influencing phenotypic variance heterogeneity.
Ek, Weronica E; Rask-Andersen, Mathias; Karlsson, Torgny; Enroth, Stefan; Gyllensten, Ulf; Johansson, Åsa
2018-03-01
Most genetic studies identify genetic variants associated with disease risk or with the mean value of a quantitative trait. More rarely, genetic variants associated with variance heterogeneity are considered. In this study, we have identified such variance single-nucleotide polymorphisms (vSNPs) and examined if these represent biological gene × gene or gene × environment interactions or statistical artifacts caused by multiple linked genetic variants influencing the same phenotype. We have performed a genome-wide study, to identify vSNPs associated with variance heterogeneity in DNA methylation levels. Genotype data from over 10 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and DNA methylation levels at over 430 000 CpG sites, were analyzed in 729 individuals. We identified vSNPs for 7195 CpG sites (P mean DNA methylation levels. We further showed that variance heterogeneity between genotypes mainly represents additional, often rare, SNPs in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the respective vSNP and for some vSNPs, multiple low frequency variants co-segregating with one of the vSNP alleles. Therefore, our results suggest that variance heterogeneity of DNA methylation mainly represents phenotypic effects by multiple SNPs, rather than biological interactions. Such effects may also be important for interpreting variance heterogeneity of more complex clinical phenotypes.
ANNIVERSARY: 25 years without CP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riordan, Michael
1989-01-01
In 1964 a small group of Princeton University physicists led by Jim Cronin and Val Fitch performed a landmark experiment at Brookhaven. Using a double-arm spectrometer, they showed that long-lived neutral kaons occasionally decayed into a pair of pions - violating the hitherto sacrosanct CP symmetry of combined mirror reflection and particle-antiparticle switching. From May 21-26 scientists gathered at the Chateau de Blois, southwest of Paris, to celebrate the 25th anniversary of this achievement
ANNIVERSARY: 25 years without CP
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riordan, Michael
1989-07-15
In 1964 a small group of Princeton University physicists led by Jim Cronin and Val Fitch performed a landmark experiment at Brookhaven. Using a double-arm spectrometer, they showed that long-lived neutral kaons occasionally decayed into a pair of pions - violating the hitherto sacrosanct CP symmetry of combined mirror reflection and particle-antiparticle switching. From May 21-26 scientists gathered at the Chateau de Blois, southwest of Paris, to celebrate the 25th anniversary of this achievement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iqbal, M.J.; Miller, G.A.
1990-01-01
The CP-violating (CPV) kaonic matrix elements ε', ImA 0 , and ImA 2 are used to compute CPV observables in baryonic systems. The numerical results for the electric dipole moment and the difference between Λ and bar Λ decay parameters are similar to other approaches that use quark operators. Relations between the neutron electric dipole moment, CPV pion-nucleon coupling constants, and Λ-decay parameters are derived
Cytosine methylation at CpCpG sites triggers accumulation of non-CpG methylation in gene bodies
Zabet, NR; Catoni, Marco; Prischi, F; Paszkowski, Jerzy Waclaw
2017-01-01
Methylation of cytosine is an epigenetic mark involved in the regulation of transcription, usually associated with transcriptional repression. In mammals, methylated cytosines are found predominantly in CpGs but in plants non-CpG methylation (in the CpHpG or CpHpH contexts, where H is A, C or T) is also present and is associated with the transcriptional silencing of transposable elements. In addition, CpG methylation is found in coding regions of active genes. In the absence of the demethylas...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paschos, E.A.
1992-01-01
These lectures present a pedagogical introduction to the topics quark mixing and CP violation. They explain how the mixing matrix comes about and reviews the values of constraints for its elements. The second chapter reviews the CP transformation properties of amplitudes and defines the quantities which are measured in the experiments. Then it reviews the theory of CP violation in the standard model. In addition to the phase and the angles introduced through the flavor matrix, numerical predictions also depend (a) on hadronic matrix elements of weak current operators and (b) the short distance expansion of effective Hamiltonians computed by methods of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). I also review these topics and present predictions for (ε'/ε) which are shown to be consistent with the experiments. Last but not least, the article is divided into sections which are as self-contained as possible. The article assumes a general knowledge of the electroweak theory. For guidance, the interested reader will find a table of contents at the end of the text. (author). 29 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab
CP violation experiment at Fermilab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsiung, Yee B.
1990-07-01
The E731 experiment at Fermilab has searched for ''direct'' CP violation in K 0 → ππ, which is parametrized by var-epsilon '/var-epsilon. For the first time, in 20% of the data set, all four modes of the K L,S → π + π - (π 0 π 0 ) were collected simultaneously, providing a great check on the systematic uncertainty. The result is Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon) = -0.0004 ± 0.0014 (stat) ± 0.0006(syst), which provides no evidence for ''direct'' CP violation. The CPT symmetry has also been tested by measuring the phase difference Δφ = φ 00 - φ ± between the two CP violating parameters η 00 and η ± . We fine Δφ = -0.3 degrees ± 2.4 degree(stat) ± 1.2 degree(syst). Using this together with the world average φ ± , we fine that the phase of the K 0 -bar K 0 mixing parameter var-epsilon is 44.5 degree ± 1.5 degree. Both of these results agree well with the predictions of CPT symmetry. 17 refs., 10 figs
The coupling analysis between stock market indices based on permutation measures
Shi, Wenbin; Shang, Pengjian; Xia, Jianan; Yeh, Chien-Hung
2016-04-01
Many information-theoretic methods have been proposed for analyzing the coupling dependence between time series. And it is significant to quantify the correlation relationship between financial sequences since the financial market is a complex evolved dynamic system. Recently, we developed a new permutation-based entropy, called cross-permutation entropy (CPE), to detect the coupling structures between two synchronous time series. In this paper, we extend the CPE method to weighted cross-permutation entropy (WCPE), to address some of CPE's limitations, mainly its inability to differentiate between distinct patterns of a certain motif and the sensitivity of patterns close to the noise floor. It shows more stable and reliable results than CPE does when applied it to spiky data and AR(1) processes. Besides, we adapt the CPE method to infer the complexity of short-length time series by freely changing the time delay, and test it with Gaussian random series and random walks. The modified method shows the advantages in reducing deviations of entropy estimation compared with the conventional one. Finally, the weighted cross-permutation entropy of eight important stock indices from the world financial markets is investigated, and some useful and interesting empirical results are obtained.
A Symmetric Chaos-Based Image Cipher with an Improved Bit-Level Permutation Strategy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chong Fu
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Very recently, several chaos-based image ciphers using a bit-level permutation have been suggested and shown promising results. Due to the diffusion effect introduced in the permutation stage, the workload of the time-consuming diffusion stage is reduced, and hence the performance of the cryptosystem is improved. In this paper, a symmetric chaos-based image cipher with a 3D cat map-based spatial bit-level permutation strategy is proposed. Compared with those recently proposed bit-level permutation methods, the diffusion effect of the new method is superior as the bits are shuffled among different bit-planes rather than within the same bit-plane. Moreover, the diffusion key stream extracted from hyperchaotic system is related to both the secret key and the plain image, which enhances the security against known/chosen plaintext attack. Extensive security analysis has been performed on the proposed scheme, including the most important ones like key space analysis, key sensitivity analysis, plaintext sensitivity analysis and various statistical analyses, which has demonstrated the satisfactory security of the proposed scheme
EPEPT: A web service for enhanced P-value estimation in permutation tests
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Knijnenburg Theo A
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In computational biology, permutation tests have become a widely used tool to assess the statistical significance of an event under investigation. However, the common way of computing the P-value, which expresses the statistical significance, requires a very large number of permutations when small (and thus interesting P-values are to be accurately estimated. This is computationally expensive and often infeasible. Recently, we proposed an alternative estimator, which requires far fewer permutations compared to the standard empirical approach while still reliably estimating small P-values 1. Results The proposed P-value estimator has been enriched with additional functionalities and is made available to the general community through a public website and web service, called EPEPT. This means that the EPEPT routines can be accessed not only via a website, but also programmatically using any programming language that can interact with the web. Examples of web service clients in multiple programming languages can be downloaded. Additionally, EPEPT accepts data of various common experiment types used in computational biology. For these experiment types EPEPT first computes the permutation values and then performs the P-value estimation. Finally, the source code of EPEPT can be downloaded. Conclusions Different types of users, such as biologists, bioinformaticians and software engineers, can use the method in an appropriate and simple way. Availability http://informatics.systemsbiology.net/EPEPT/
A novel chaos-based image encryption scheme with an efficient permutation-diffusion mechanism
Ye, Ruisong
2011-10-01
This paper proposes a novel chaos-based image encryption scheme with an efficient permutation-diffusion mechanism, in which permuting the positions of image pixels incorporates with changing the gray values of image pixels to confuse the relationship between cipher-image and plain-image. In the permutation process, a generalized Arnold map is utilized to generate one chaotic orbit used to get two index order sequences for the permutation of image pixel positions; in the diffusion process, a generalized Arnold map and a generalized Bernoulli shift map are employed to yield two pseudo-random gray value sequences for a two-way diffusion of gray values. The yielded gray value sequences are not only sensitive to the control parameters and initial conditions of the considered chaotic maps, but also strongly depend on the plain-image processed, therefore the proposed scheme can resist statistical attack, differential attack, known-plaintext as well as chosen-plaintext attack. Experimental results are carried out with detailed analysis to demonstrate that the proposed image encryption scheme possesses large key space to resist brute-force attack as well.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zunino, Luciano, E-mail: lucianoz@ciop.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Investigaciones Ópticas (CONICET La Plata – CIC), C.C. 3, 1897 Gonnet (Argentina); Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Olivares, Felipe, E-mail: olivaresfe@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso (PUCV), 23-40025 Valparaíso (Chile); Scholkmann, Felix, E-mail: Felix.Scholkmann@gmail.com [Research Office for Complex Physical and Biological Systems (ROCoS), Mutschellenstr. 179, 8038 Zurich (Switzerland); Biomedical Optics Research Laboratory, Department of Neonatology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Rosso, Osvaldo A., E-mail: oarosso@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), BR 104 Norte km 97, 57072-970, Maceió, Alagoas (Brazil); Instituto Tecnológico de Buenos Aires (ITBA) and CONICET, C1106ACD, Av. Eduardo Madero 399, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Complex Systems Group, Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad de los Andes, Av. Mons. Álvaro del Portillo 12.455, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile)
2017-06-15
A symbolic encoding scheme, based on the ordinal relation between the amplitude of neighboring values of a given data sequence, should be implemented before estimating the permutation entropy. Consequently, equalities in the analyzed signal, i.e. repeated equal values, deserve special attention and treatment. In this work, we carefully study the effect that the presence of equalities has on permutation entropy estimated values when these ties are symbolized, as it is commonly done, according to their order of appearance. On the one hand, the analysis of computer-generated time series is initially developed to understand the incidence of repeated values on permutation entropy estimations in controlled scenarios. The presence of temporal correlations is erroneously concluded when true pseudorandom time series with low amplitude resolutions are considered. On the other hand, the analysis of real-world data is included to illustrate how the presence of a significant number of equal values can give rise to false conclusions regarding the underlying temporal structures in practical contexts. - Highlights: • Impact of repeated values in a signal when estimating permutation entropy is studied. • Numerical and experimental tests are included for characterizing this limitation. • Non-negligible temporal correlations can be spuriously concluded by repeated values. • Data digitized with low amplitude resolutions could be especially affected. • Analysis with shuffled realizations can help to overcome this limitation.
Transformative decision rules, permutability, and non-sequential framing of decision problems
Peterson, M.B.
2004-01-01
The concept of transformative decision rules provides auseful tool for analyzing what is often referred to as the`framing', or `problem specification', or `editing' phase ofdecision making. In the present study we analyze a fundamentalaspect of transformative decision rules, viz. permutability. A
EXPLICIT SYMPLECTIC-LIKE INTEGRATORS WITH MIDPOINT PERMUTATIONS FOR SPINNING COMPACT BINARIES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luo, Junjie; Wu, Xin; Huang, Guoqing [Department of Physics and Institute of Astronomy, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Liu, Fuyao, E-mail: xwu@ncu.edu.cn [School of Fundamental Studies, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620 (China)
2017-01-01
We refine the recently developed fourth-order extended phase space explicit symplectic-like methods for inseparable Hamiltonians using Yoshida’s triple product combined with a midpoint permuted map. The midpoint between the original variables and their corresponding extended variables at every integration step is readjusted as the initial values of the original variables and their corresponding extended ones at the next step integration. The triple-product construction is apparently superior to the composition of two triple products in computational efficiency. Above all, the new midpoint permutations are more effective in restraining the equality of the original variables and their corresponding extended ones at each integration step than the existing sequent permutations of momenta and coordinates. As a result, our new construction shares the benefit of implicit symplectic integrators in the conservation of the second post-Newtonian Hamiltonian of spinning compact binaries. Especially for the chaotic case, it can work well, but the existing sequent permuted algorithm cannot. When dissipative effects from the gravitational radiation reaction are included, the new symplectic-like method has a secular drift in the energy error of the dissipative system for the orbits that are regular in the absence of radiation, as an implicit symplectic integrator does. In spite of this, it is superior to the same-order implicit symplectic integrator in accuracy and efficiency. The new method is particularly useful in discussing the long-term evolution of inseparable Hamiltonian problems.
Multiple comparisons permutation test for image based data mining in radiotherapy
Chen, Chun; Witte, Marnix; Heemsbergen, Wilma; van Herk, Marcel
2013-01-01
: Comparing incidental dose distributions (i.e. images) of patients with different outcomes is a straightforward way to explore dose-response hypotheses in radiotherapy. In this paper, we introduced a permutation test that compares images, such as dose distributions from radiotherapy, while tackling
On non-permutation solutions to some two machine flow shop scheduling problems
V. Strusevich (Vitaly); P.J. Zwaneveld (Peter)
1994-01-01
textabstractIn this paper, we study two versions of the two machine flow shop scheduling problem, where schedule length is to be minimized. First, we consider the two machine flow shop with setup, processing, and removal times separated. It is shown that an optimal solution need not be a permutation
A method for generating permutation distribution of ranks in a k ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... in a combinatorial sense the distribution of the ranks is obtained via its generating function. The formulas are defined recursively to speed up computations using the computer algebra system Mathematica. Key words: Partitions, generating functions, combinatorics, permutation test, exact tests, computer algebra, k-sample, ...
Some ideas for learning CP-theories
Fierens, Daan
2008-01-01
Causal Probabilistic logic (CP-logic) is a language for describing complex probabilistic processes. In this talk we consider the problem of learning CP-theories from data. We briefly discuss three possible approaches. First, we review the existing algorithm by Meert et al. Second, we show how simple CP-theories can be learned by using the learning algorithm for Logical Bayesian Networks and converting the result into a CP-theory. Third, we argue that for learning more complex CP-theories, an ...
B decays and models for CP violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, X.
1996-01-01
The decay modes B to ππ, ψK S , K - D, πK, and ηK are promising channels to study the unitarity triangle of the CP-violating Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. In this paper I study the consequences of these measurements in the Weinberg model. I show that using the same set of measurements, the following different mechanisms for CP violation can be distinguished: (1) CP is violated in the CKM sector only; (2) CP is violated spontaneously in the Higgs sector only; and (3) CP is violated in both the CKM and Higgs sectors. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vikner, Sten; Christensen, Ken Ramshøj; Nyvad, Anne Mette
2017-01-01
As in Nyvad et al. (2017), we will explore a particular derivation of (embedded) V2, in terms of a cP/CP-distinction, which may be seen as a version of the CP-recursion analysis (de Haan & Weerman 1986; Vikner 1995 and many others). e idea is that because embedded V2 clauses do not allow extraction......, whereas other types of CP-recursion clauses do (Christensen et al. 2013a; 2013b; Christensen & Nyvad 2014), CP-recursion in embedded V2 is assumed to be fundamentally di erent from other kinds of CP-recursion, in that main clause V2 and embedded V2 involve a CP (“big CP”), whereas other clausal...... projections above IP are instances of cP (“little cP”)....
CP invariance: a point of view
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohan, Gyan
1983-01-01
That the longlived component L of K 0 has both CP = +1 and CP = -1 modes of decay is often cited as evidence of violation of CP invariance. The careful ones find the compelling evidence to be the non-dilution of the regeneration interference pattern when the incident K 0 beam is mixed even substantially with anti-K 0 . However the two phenomena comprehensively imply that L has a CP = +1 component Lsub(+) and CP = -1 component Lsub(-) and that the longlived component of both K 0 and anti-K 0 are one and the same L. This does not demand abandoning CP invariance. It does imply that anti-K 0 is not the CP conjugate of K 0 . (author)
Flavor Physics & CP Violation 2015
"Flavor Physics & CP violation 2015" (FPCP 2015) was held in Nagoya, Japan, at Nagoya University, from May 25 to May 29 2015. This is the 13th meeting of the series of annual conferences started in Philadelphia, PA, USA in 2002. The aim of the conference is to review developments in flavor physics and CP violation, in both theory and experiment, exploiting the potential to study new physics at the LHC and future facilities. The topics include CP violation, rare decays, CKM elements with heavy quark decays, flavor phenomena in charged leptons and neutrinos, and also interplay between flavor and LHC high Pt physics. The FPCP2015 conference had more than 140 participants, including researchers from abroad and many young researchers (postdocs and students). The conference consisted of plenary talks and poster presentations. The plenary talks include 2 overview talks, 48 review talks, and 2 talks for outlook in theories and experiments, given by world leading researchers. There was also a special lecture by Prof. Makoto Kobayashi, one of the Nobel laureates in 2008. The poster session had 41 contributions. Many young researchers presented their works. These proceedings contain written documents for these plenary and poster presentations. The full scientific program and presentation materials can be found at http://fpcp2015.hepl.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp/. We would like to thank the International Advisory Committee for their invaluable assistance in coordinating the scientific program and in helping to identifying many speakers. Thanks are also due to the Local Organizing Committee for tireless efforts for smooth running of the conference and very enjoyable social activities. We also thank the financial supports provided by Japanese Scociety for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) unfer the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) "Probing New Physics with Tau-Lepton" (No. 26220706), by Nagoya University under the Program for Promoting the Enhancement of Research Universities, and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moinaud, C.
1984-01-01
Analysis of the experience acquired on the behaviour of the turbine itself, excluding alternators, superheaters... of the nuclear power plants of the French program contract CP1 (Fessenhein prototype): method of anomaly process (assumption, scenarios, calculations and hierarchy of the assumptions), study of the accidents on the shutdown valves and control valves (HP admission devices), on the LP admission devices, on the HP module (leakage at the parting line, bolt and screw accidents), on the LP module (diaphragm, diapragm support erosion, rotor anomaly, blade anomaly with rupture of the wire bracing), behaviour of the shafting and of the pillars (radial and axial floating) and at last global behaviour of the group [fr
B decays and models for CP violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, Xiao Gang
1995-12-01
The decay modes B to π π,υK S , K - D, πK and ηK are promising channels to study the unitarity triangle of the CP violating Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. The consequences of these measurements in the Weinberg model are discussed. It is shown that measurements of CP violation in B decay can be used to distinguish Standard Model from Weinberg model and that the following different mechanisms for CP violation can be distinguished: 1) CP is violated in the CKM sector only; 2) CP is violated spontaneously in the Higgs sector only; and 3) CP is violated in both the CKM and Higgs sectors. 27 refs., 4 figs
Multivariate Multi-Scale Permutation Entropy for Complexity Analysis of Alzheimer’s Disease EEG
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Isabella Palamara
2012-07-01
Full Text Available An original multivariate multi-scale methodology for assessing the complexity of physiological signals is proposed. The technique is able to incorporate the simultaneous analysis of multi-channel data as a unique block within a multi-scale framework. The basic complexity measure is done by using Permutation Entropy, a methodology for time series processing based on ordinal analysis. Permutation Entropy is conceptually simple, structurally robust to noise and artifacts, computationally very fast, which is relevant for designing portable diagnostics. Since time series derived from biological systems show structures on multiple spatial-temporal scales, the proposed technique can be useful for other types of biomedical signal analysis. In this work, the possibility of distinguish among the brain states related to Alzheimer’s disease patients and Mild Cognitive Impaired subjects from normal healthy elderly is checked on a real, although quite limited, experimental database.
Analyzing Permutations for AES-like Ciphers: Understanding ShiftRows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beierle, Christof; Jovanovic, Philipp; Lauridsen, Martin Mehl
2015-01-01
Designing block ciphers and hash functions in a manner that resemble the AES in many aspects has been very popular since Rijndael was adopted as the Advanced Encryption Standard. However, in sharp contrast to the MixColumns operation, the security implications of the way the state is permuted...... by the operation resembling ShiftRows has never been studied in depth. Here, we provide the first structured study of the influence of ShiftRows-like operations, or more generally, word-wise permutations, in AES-like ciphers with respect to diffusion properties and resistance towards differential- and linear...... normal form. Using a mixed-integer linear programming approach, we obtain optimal parameters for a wide range of AES-like ciphers, and show improvements on parameters for Rijndael-192, Rijndael-256, PRIMATEs-80 and Prøst-128. As a separate result, we show for specific cases of the state geometry...
A permutation information theory tour through different interest rate maturities: the Libor case.
Bariviera, Aurelio Fernández; Guercio, María Belén; Martinez, Lisana B; Rosso, Osvaldo A
2015-12-13
This paper analyses Libor interest rates for seven different maturities and referred to operations in British pounds, euros, Swiss francs and Japanese yen, during the period 2001-2015. The analysis is performed by means of two quantifiers derived from information theory: the permutation Shannon entropy and the permutation Fisher information measure. An anomalous behaviour in the Libor is detected in all currencies except euros during the years 2006-2012. The stochastic switch is more severe in one, two and three months maturities. Given the special mechanism of Libor setting, we conjecture that the behaviour could have been produced by the manipulation that was uncovered by financial authorities. We argue that our methodology is pertinent as a market overseeing instrument. © 2015 The Author(s).
A note on the estimation of the Pareto efficient set for multiobjective matrix permutation problems.
Brusco, Michael J; Steinley, Douglas
2012-02-01
There are a number of important problems in quantitative psychology that require the identification of a permutation of the n rows and columns of an n × n proximity matrix. These problems encompass applications such as unidimensional scaling, paired-comparison ranking, and anti-Robinson forms. The importance of simultaneously incorporating multiple objective criteria in matrix permutation applications is well recognized in the literature; however, to date, there has been a reliance on weighted-sum approaches that transform the multiobjective problem into a single-objective optimization problem. Although exact solutions to these single-objective problems produce supported Pareto efficient solutions to the multiobjective problem, many interesting unsupported Pareto efficient solutions may be missed. We illustrate the limitation of the weighted-sum approach with an example from the psychological literature and devise an effective heuristic algorithm for estimating both the supported and unsupported solutions of the Pareto efficient set. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.
Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based on ELCD Permutation Entropy and RVM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiang Xingmeng
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Aiming at the nonstationary characteristic of a gear fault vibration signal, a recognition method based on permutation entropy of ensemble local characteristic-scale decomposition (ELCD and relevance vector machine (RVM is proposed. First, the vibration signal was decomposed by ELCD; then a series of intrinsic scale components (ISCs were obtained. Second, according to the kurtosis of ISCs, principal ISCs were selected and then the permutation entropy of principal ISCs was calculated and they were combined into a feature vector. Finally, the feature vectors were input in RVM classifier to train and test and identify the type of rolling bearing faults. Experimental results show that this method can effectively diagnose four kinds of working condition, and the effect is better than local characteristic-scale decomposition (LCD method.
Shao, Zhongshi; Pi, Dechang; Shao, Weishi
2017-11-01
This article proposes an extended continuous estimation of distribution algorithm (ECEDA) to solve the permutation flow-shop scheduling problem (PFSP). In ECEDA, to make a continuous estimation of distribution algorithm (EDA) suitable for the PFSP, the largest order value rule is applied to convert continuous vectors to discrete job permutations. A probabilistic model based on a mixed Gaussian and Cauchy distribution is built to maintain the exploration ability of the EDA. Two effective local search methods, i.e. revolver-based variable neighbourhood search and Hénon chaotic-based local search, are designed and incorporated into the EDA to enhance the local exploitation. The parameters of the proposed ECEDA are calibrated by means of a design of experiments approach. Simulation results and comparisons based on some benchmark instances show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm for solving the PFSP.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lian Zhigang; Gu Xingsheng; Jiao Bin
2008-01-01
It is well known that the flow-shop scheduling problem (FSSP) is a branch of production scheduling and is NP-hard. Now, many different approaches have been applied for permutation flow-shop scheduling to minimize makespan, but current algorithms even for moderate size problems cannot be solved to guarantee optimality. Some literatures searching PSO for continuous optimization problems are reported, but papers searching PSO for discrete scheduling problems are few. In this paper, according to the discrete characteristic of FSSP, a novel particle swarm optimization (NPSO) algorithm is presented and successfully applied to permutation flow-shop scheduling to minimize makespan. Computation experiments of seven representative instances (Taillard) based on practical data were made, and comparing the NPSO with standard GA, we obtain that the NPSO is clearly more efficacious than standard GA for FSSP to minimize makespan
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chonez, Nicole
1968-12-01
This report contains the assembly list, the flow chart and some comments about each of the IBM 360 assembler language programmes used for preparing one of the subject indexes contained in the bibliographical bulletin entitled: 'Index de la Litterature nucleaire francaise'; this bulletin has been produced by the French C.E.A. since 1968. Only the processing phases from the magnetic tape file of the bibliographical references, assumed correct, to the printing out of the permuted index obtained with the French titles of the documents on the tape are considered here. This permuted index has the peculiarity of automatically regrouping synonyms and certain grammatical variations of the words. (author) [fr
Determining the parity of a permutation using an experimental NMR qutrit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dogra, Shruti; Arvind,; Dorai, Kavita
2014-01-01
We present the NMR implementation of a recently proposed quantum algorithm to find the parity of a permutation. In the usual qubit model of quantum computation, it is widely believed that computational speedup requires the presence of entanglement and thus cannot be achieved by a single qubit. On the other hand, a qutrit is qualitatively more quantum than a qubit because of the existence of quantum contextuality and a single qutrit can be used for computing. We use the deuterium nucleus oriented in a liquid crystal as the experimental qutrit. This is the first experimental exploitation of a single qutrit to carry out a computational task. - Highlights: • NMR implementation of a quantum algorithm to determine the parity of a permutation. • Algorithm implemented on a single qutrit. • Computational speedup achieved without quantum entanglement. • Single qutrit shows quantum contextuality
Qiao, Jiangwei; Cai, Mengxian; Yan, Guixin; Wang, Nian; Li, Feng; Chen, Binyun; Gao, Guizhen; Xu, Kun; Li, Jun; Wu, Xiaoming
2016-01-01
Brassica napus (rapeseed) is a recent allotetraploid plant and the second most important oilseed crop worldwide. The origin of B. napus and the genetic relationships with its diploid ancestor species remain largely unresolved. Here, chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) from 488 B. napus accessions of global origin, 139 B. rapa accessions and 49 B. oleracea accessions were populationally resequenced using Illumina Solexa sequencing technologies. The intraspecific cpDNA variants and their allelic frequencies were called genomewide and further validated via EcoTILLING analyses of the rpo region. The cpDNA of the current global B. napus population comprises more than 400 variants (SNPs and short InDels) and maintains one predominant haplotype (Bncp1). Whole-genome resequencing of the cpDNA of Bncp1 haplotype eliminated its direct inheritance from any accession of the B. rapa or B. oleracea species. The distribution of the polymorphism information content (PIC) values for each variant demonstrated that B. napus has much lower cpDNA diversity than B. rapa; however, a vast majority of the wild and cultivated B. oleracea specimens appeared to share one same distinct cpDNA haplotype, in contrast to its wild C-genome relatives. This finding suggests that the cpDNA of the three Brassica species is well differentiated. The predominant B. napus cpDNA haplotype may have originated from uninvestigated relatives or from interactions between cpDNA mutations and natural/artificial selection during speciation and evolution. These exhaustive data on variation in cpDNA would provide fundamental data for research on cpDNA and chloroplasts. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
CDKL5 is a brain MeCP2 target gene regulated by DNA methylation.
Carouge, Delphine; Host, Lionel; Aunis, Dominique; Zwiller, Jean; Anglard, Patrick
2010-06-01
Rett syndrome and its "early-onset seizure" variant are severe neurodevelopmental disorders associated with mutations within the MECP2 and the CDKL5 genes. Antidepressants and drugs of abuse induce the expression of the epigenetic factor MeCP2, thereby influencing chromatin remodeling. We show that increased MeCP2 levels resulted in the repression of Cdkl5 in rat brain structures in response to cocaine, as well as in cells exposed to serotonin, or overexpressing MeCP2. In contrast, Cdkl5 was induced by siRNA-mediated knockdown of Mecp2 and by DNA-methyltransferase inhibitors, demonstrating its regulation by MeCP2 and by DNA methylation. Cdkl5 gene methylation and its methylation-dependent binding to MeCP2 were increased in the striatum of cocaine-treated rats. Our data demonstrate that Cdkl5 is a MeCP2-repressed target gene providing a link between genes the mutation of which generates overlapping symptoms. They highlight DNA methylation changes as a potential mechanism participating in the long-term plasticity triggered by pharmacological agents.
Generating All Permutations by Context-Free Grammars in Chomsky Normal Form
Asveld, P.R.J.; Spoto, F.; Scollo, Giuseppe; Nijholt, Antinus
2003-01-01
Let $L_n$ be the finite language of all $n!$ strings that are permutations of $n$ different symbols ($n\\geq 1$). We consider context-free grammars $G_n$ in Chomsky normal form that generate $L_n$. In particular we study a few families $\\{G_n\\}_{n\\geq 1}$, satisfying $L(G_n)=L_n$ for $n\\geq 1$, with
Generating all permutations by context-free grammars in Chomsky normal form
Asveld, P.R.J.
2006-01-01
Let $L_n$ be the finite language of all $n!$ strings that are permutations of $n$ different symbols ($n\\geq1$). We consider context-free grammars $G_n$ in Chomsky normal form that generate $L_n$. In particular we study a few families $\\{G_n\\}_{n\\geq1}$, satisfying $L(G_n)=L_n$ for $n\\geq1$, with
Generating All Permutations by Context-Free Grammars in Chomsky Normal Form
Asveld, P.R.J.
2004-01-01
Let $L_n$ be the finite language of all $n!$ strings that are permutations of $n$ different symbols ($n\\geq 1$). We consider context-free grammars $G_n$ in Chomsky normal form that generate $L_n$. In particular we study a few families $\\{G_n\\}_{n\\geq1}$, satisfying $L(G_n)=L_n$ for $n\\geq 1$, with
A studentized permutation test for three-arm trials in the 'gold standard' design.
Mütze, Tobias; Konietschke, Frank; Munk, Axel; Friede, Tim
2017-03-15
The 'gold standard' design for three-arm trials refers to trials with an active control and a placebo control in addition to the experimental treatment group. This trial design is recommended when being ethically justifiable and it allows the simultaneous comparison of experimental treatment, active control, and placebo. Parametric testing methods have been studied plentifully over the past years. However, these methods often tend to be liberal or conservative when distributional assumptions are not met particularly with small sample sizes. In this article, we introduce a studentized permutation test for testing non-inferiority and superiority of the experimental treatment compared with the active control in three-arm trials in the 'gold standard' design. The performance of the studentized permutation test for finite sample sizes is assessed in a Monte Carlo simulation study under various parameter constellations. Emphasis is put on whether the studentized permutation test meets the target significance level. For comparison purposes, commonly used Wald-type tests, which do not make any distributional assumptions, are included in the simulation study. The simulation study shows that the presented studentized permutation test for assessing non-inferiority in three-arm trials in the 'gold standard' design outperforms its competitors, for instance the test based on a quasi-Poisson model, for count data. The methods discussed in this paper are implemented in the R package ThreeArmedTrials which is available on the comprehensive R archive network (CRAN). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Superweak-like models of CP violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lavoura, L.
1992-01-01
I put forward a two-Higgs-doublet model in which CP violation is mediated only by the neutral Higgs bosons, via the mechanism of scalar-pseudoscalar mixing. In this model there is no CP violation in the exchange of either W bosons or of charged Higgs bosons. The model is therefore an approximate realization of the superweak theory of CP violation. It has only two basic CP-violating quantities. I point out that other models of this kind, but with more than two Higgs doublets, may also be built
Research of Planetary Gear Fault Diagnosis Based on Permutation Entropy of CEEMDAN and ANFIS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moshen Kuai
2018-03-01
Full Text Available For planetary gear has the characteristics of small volume, light weight and large transmission ratio, it is widely used in high speed and high power mechanical system. Poor working conditions result in frequent failures of planetary gear. A method is proposed for diagnosing faults in planetary gear based on permutation entropy of Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise (CEEMDAN Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS in this paper. The original signal is decomposed into 6 intrinsic mode functions (IMF and residual components by CEEMDAN. Since the IMF contains the main characteristic information of planetary gear faults, time complexity of IMFs are reflected by permutation entropies to quantify the fault features. The permutation entropies of each IMF component are defined as the input of ANFIS, and its parameters and membership functions are adaptively adjusted according to training samples. Finally, the fuzzy inference rules are determined, and the optimal ANFIS is obtained. The overall recognition rate of the test sample used for ANFIS is 90%, and the recognition rate of gear with one missing tooth is relatively high. The recognition rates of different fault gears based on the method can also achieve better results. Therefore, the proposed method can be applied to planetary gear fault diagnosis effectively.
Hippocampal activation during face-name associative memory encoding: blocked versus permuted design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Vogelaere, Frederick; Vingerhoets, Guy; Santens, Patrick; Boon, Paul; Achten, Erik
2010-01-01
The contribution of the hippocampal subregions to episodic memory through the formation of new associations between previously unrelated items such as faces and names is established but remains under discussion. Block design studies in this area of research generally tend to show posterior hippocampal activation during encoding of novel associational material while event-related studies emphasize anterior hippocampal involvement. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the involvement of anterior and posterior hippocampus in the encoding of novel associational material compared to the viewing of previously seen associational material. We used two different experimental designs, a block design and a permuted block design, and applied it to the same associative memory task to perform valid statistical comparisons. Our results indicate that the permuted design was able to capture more anterior hippocampal activation compared to the block design, which emphasized more posterior hippocampal involvement. These differences were further investigated and attributed to a combination of the polymodal stimuli we used and the experimental design. Activation patterns during encoding in both designs occurred along the entire longitudinal axis of the hippocampus, but with different centers of gravity. The maximal activated voxel in the block design was situated in the posterior half of the hippocampus while in the permuted design this was located in the anterior half. (orig.)
Hippocampal activation during face-name associative memory encoding: blocked versus permuted design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Vogelaere, Frederick; Vingerhoets, Guy [Ghent University, Laboratory for Neuropsychology, Department of Neurology, Ghent (Belgium); Santens, Patrick; Boon, Paul [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Ghent (Belgium); Achten, Erik [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ghent (Belgium)
2010-01-15
The contribution of the hippocampal subregions to episodic memory through the formation of new associations between previously unrelated items such as faces and names is established but remains under discussion. Block design studies in this area of research generally tend to show posterior hippocampal activation during encoding of novel associational material while event-related studies emphasize anterior hippocampal involvement. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the involvement of anterior and posterior hippocampus in the encoding of novel associational material compared to the viewing of previously seen associational material. We used two different experimental designs, a block design and a permuted block design, and applied it to the same associative memory task to perform valid statistical comparisons. Our results indicate that the permuted design was able to capture more anterior hippocampal activation compared to the block design, which emphasized more posterior hippocampal involvement. These differences were further investigated and attributed to a combination of the polymodal stimuli we used and the experimental design. Activation patterns during encoding in both designs occurred along the entire longitudinal axis of the hippocampus, but with different centers of gravity. The maximal activated voxel in the block design was situated in the posterior half of the hippocampus while in the permuted design this was located in the anterior half. (orig.)
Traversaro, Francisco; O. Redelico, Francisco
2018-04-01
In nonlinear dynamics, and to a lesser extent in other fields, a widely used measure of complexity is the Permutation Entropy. But there is still no known method to determine the accuracy of this measure. There has been little research on the statistical properties of this quantity that characterize time series. The literature describes some resampling methods of quantities used in nonlinear dynamics - as the largest Lyapunov exponent - but these seems to fail. In this contribution, we propose a parametric bootstrap methodology using a symbolic representation of the time series to obtain the distribution of the Permutation Entropy estimator. We perform several time series simulations given by well-known stochastic processes: the 1/fα noise family, and show in each case that the proposed accuracy measure is as efficient as the one obtained by the frequentist approach of repeating the experiment. The complexity of brain electrical activity, measured by the Permutation Entropy, has been extensively used in epilepsy research for detection in dynamical changes in electroencephalogram (EEG) signal with no consideration of the variability of this complexity measure. An application of the parametric bootstrap methodology is used to compare normal and pre-ictal EEG signals.
Weighted multiscale Rényi permutation entropy of nonlinear time series
Chen, Shijian; Shang, Pengjian; Wu, Yue
2018-04-01
In this paper, based on Rényi permutation entropy (RPE), which has been recently suggested as a relative measure of complexity in nonlinear systems, we propose multiscale Rényi permutation entropy (MRPE) and weighted multiscale Rényi permutation entropy (WMRPE) to quantify the complexity of nonlinear time series over multiple time scales. First, we apply MPRE and WMPRE to the synthetic data and make a comparison of modified methods and RPE. Meanwhile, the influence of the change of parameters is discussed. Besides, we interpret the necessity of considering not only multiscale but also weight by taking the amplitude into account. Then MRPE and WMRPE methods are employed to the closing prices of financial stock markets from different areas. By observing the curves of WMRPE and analyzing the common statistics, stock markets are divided into 4 groups: (1) DJI, S&P500, and HSI, (2) NASDAQ and FTSE100, (3) DAX40 and CAC40, and (4) ShangZheng and ShenCheng. Results show that the standard deviations of weighted methods are smaller, showing WMRPE is able to ensure the results more robust. Besides, WMPRE can provide abundant dynamical properties of complex systems, and demonstrate the intrinsic mechanism.
Research of Planetary Gear Fault Diagnosis Based on Permutation Entropy of CEEMDAN and ANFIS.
Kuai, Moshen; Cheng, Gang; Pang, Yusong; Li, Yong
2018-03-05
For planetary gear has the characteristics of small volume, light weight and large transmission ratio, it is widely used in high speed and high power mechanical system. Poor working conditions result in frequent failures of planetary gear. A method is proposed for diagnosing faults in planetary gear based on permutation entropy of Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise (CEEMDAN) Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) in this paper. The original signal is decomposed into 6 intrinsic mode functions (IMF) and residual components by CEEMDAN. Since the IMF contains the main characteristic information of planetary gear faults, time complexity of IMFs are reflected by permutation entropies to quantify the fault features. The permutation entropies of each IMF component are defined as the input of ANFIS, and its parameters and membership functions are adaptively adjusted according to training samples. Finally, the fuzzy inference rules are determined, and the optimal ANFIS is obtained. The overall recognition rate of the test sample used for ANFIS is 90%, and the recognition rate of gear with one missing tooth is relatively high. The recognition rates of different fault gears based on the method can also achieve better results. Therefore, the proposed method can be applied to planetary gear fault diagnosis effectively.
Sampling solution traces for the problem of sorting permutations by signed reversals
2012-01-01
Background Traditional algorithms to solve the problem of sorting by signed reversals output just one optimal solution while the space of all optimal solutions can be huge. A so-called trace represents a group of solutions which share the same set of reversals that must be applied to sort the original permutation following a partial ordering. By using traces, we therefore can represent the set of optimal solutions in a more compact way. Algorithms for enumerating the complete set of traces of solutions were developed. However, due to their exponential complexity, their practical use is limited to small permutations. A partial enumeration of traces is a sampling of the complete set of traces and can be an alternative for the study of distinct evolutionary scenarios of big permutations. Ideally, the sampling should be done uniformly from the space of all optimal solutions. This is however conjectured to be ♯P-complete. Results We propose and evaluate three algorithms for producing a sampling of the complete set of traces that instead can be shown in practice to preserve some of the characteristics of the space of all solutions. The first algorithm (RA) performs the construction of traces through a random selection of reversals on the list of optimal 1-sequences. The second algorithm (DFALT) consists in a slight modification of an algorithm that performs the complete enumeration of traces. Finally, the third algorithm (SWA) is based on a sliding window strategy to improve the enumeration of traces. All proposed algorithms were able to enumerate traces for permutations with up to 200 elements. Conclusions We analysed the distribution of the enumerated traces with respect to their height and average reversal length. Various works indicate that the reversal length can be an important aspect in genome rearrangements. The algorithms RA and SWA show a tendency to lose traces with high average reversal length. Such traces are however rare, and qualitatively our results
Yu, Xue; Chen, Wei-Neng; Gu, Tianlong; Zhang, Huaxiang; Yuan, Huaqiang; Kwong, Sam; Zhang, Jun
2017-08-07
This paper studies a specific class of multiobjective combinatorial optimization problems (MOCOPs), namely the permutation-based MOCOPs. Many commonly seen MOCOPs, e.g., multiobjective traveling salesman problem (MOTSP), multiobjective project scheduling problem (MOPSP), belong to this problem class and they can be very different. However, as the permutation-based MOCOPs share the inherent similarity that the structure of their search space is usually in the shape of a permutation tree, this paper proposes a generic multiobjective set-based particle swarm optimization methodology based on decomposition, termed MS-PSO/D. In order to coordinate with the property of permutation-based MOCOPs, MS-PSO/D utilizes an element-based representation and a constructive approach. Through this, feasible solutions under constraints can be generated step by step following the permutation-tree-shaped structure. And problem-related heuristic information is introduced in the constructive approach for efficiency. In order to address the multiobjective optimization issues, the decomposition strategy is employed, in which the problem is converted into multiple single-objective subproblems according to a set of weight vectors. Besides, a flexible mechanism for diversity control is provided in MS-PSO/D. Extensive experiments have been conducted to study MS-PSO/D on two permutation-based MOCOPs, namely the MOTSP and the MOPSP. Experimental results validate that the proposed methodology is promising.
LHCb : Measuring $CP$ violation with $\\Delta A_{CP}$ at LHCb
Pearce, A
2014-01-01
Measurements are presented of direct $CP$ violation in $D^{0}$ meson decays in LHCb, using the $\\Delta A_{CP}$ technique, and a proposal is outlined to make similar measurements in the decays of the charmed baryon $\\Lambda_{c}^{+}$. The motivations for use of the $\\Delta A_{CP}$ method are discussed, along with the current results and future prospects.
Registration of 'CP 09-2392' Sugarcane
CP 09-2392’ (Reg. No.____; PI _____) sugarcane, a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp, was developed through cooperative research conducted by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc., and was released to growers in June 2016. ‘CP 09-2392’ was selected from a cro...
Spontaneous CP violation on the lattice
Laine, Mikko
2000-01-01
At finite temperatures around the electroweak phase transition, the thermodynamics of the MSSM can be described by a three-dimensional two Higgs doublet effective theory. This effective theory has a phase where CP is spontaneously violated. We study spontaneous CP violation with non-perturbative lattice simulations, and analyse whether one could end up in this phase for any physical MSSM parameter values.
Liu, Cui; Chen, Jin; Li, Entao; Fan, Qiang; Wang, Deyun; Li, Peng; Li, Xiuping; Chen, Xingying; Qiu, Shulei; Gao, Zhenzhen; Li, Hongquan; Hu, Yuanliang
2015-02-01
Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide (CP) was extracted, purified and modified by chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method to obtain a sulfated CP (sCP). Their antioxidative activities in vitro were compared through the free radical-scavenging test. The results demonstrated that the scavenging capabilities of sCP were significantly stronger than those of CP. In vivo test, the mice hepatic injury model was prepared by BCG/LPS method, then administrated respectively with sCP and CP at three dosages, the biochemical indexes in serum, antioxidative indexes in liver homogenate and histopathological change in liver of the mice were compared. The results showed that in high (200mg/kg) and middle (150mg/kg) dosages of sCP groups, the contents of ALT, AST and TNF-α in serum and MDA in liver homogenate were significantly lower than those in the model group and numerically lower than those in the CP groups, the activities of SOD and GSH-Px in liver homogenate were significantly higher than those in the model group and numerically higher than those in the CP groups. In the model group there were obvious pathological changes in the liver, while in the sCP groups were near normal. These results indicate that sCP and CP possess antioxidative activity in vitro and in vivo, the activity of sCP is stronger than that of CP and sulfation modification can enhance the antioxidative and hepatoprotective activities of Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
CP nonconservation in dynamically broken gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lane, K.
1981-01-01
The recent proposal of Eichten, Lane, and Preskill for CP nonconservation in electroweak gauge theories with dynamical symmetry breaking is reviewed. Through the alignment of the vacuum with the explicit chiral symmetry breaking Hamiltonian, these theories provide a natural way to understand the dynamical origin of CP nonconservation. Special attention is paid to the problem of strong CP violation. Even through all vacuum angles are zero, this problem is not automatically avoided. In the absence of strong CP violation, the neutron electric dipole moment is expected to be 10 -24 -10 -26 e-cm. A new class of models is proposed in which both strong CP violation and large /ΔS/ = 2 effects may be avoided. In these models, /ΔC/ = 2 processes such as D/sup o/ D/sup -o/ mixing may be large enough to observe
CP violation and the top quark
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atwood, D.
1994-02-01
We consider signals of CP violation in semi-leptonic decay of the top quark. We show that the transverse polarization asymmetries of the τ-lepton in the decay t → brv is extremely sensitive CP violation. As an illustration we consider CP phases arising from the charged Higgs exchange in the Weinberg three Higgs doublet model. Qualitatively, the polarization asymmetries are enhanced over rate or energy asymmetries by a factor of O(m t /m r ) ∼ 100 with a corresponding increase in sensitivity to CP violating parameters. We also examine τ polarization in b decays via b → cvr and find that may also be very effective in constraining CP violating effects such as those that arise from an extended Higgs sector
Theory prospective on leptonic CP violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petcov, S.T.
2016-01-01
The phenomenology of 3-neutrino mixing, the current status of our knowledge about the 3-neutrino mixing parameters, including the absolute neutrino mass scale, and of the Dirac and Majorana CP violation in the lepton sector are reviewed. The problems of CP violation in neutrino oscillations and of determining the nature – Dirac or Majorana – of massive neutrinos are discussed. The seesaw mechanism of neutrino mass generation and the related leptogenesis scenario of generation of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe are considered. The results showing that the CP violation necessary for the generation of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe in leptogenesis can be due exclusively to the Dirac and/or Majorana CP-violating phase(s) in the neutrino mixing matrix U are briefly reviewed. The discrete symmetry approach to understanding the observed pattern of neutrino mixing and the related predictions for the leptonic Dirac CP violation are also reviewed.
Auriemma, Giulio
2003-12-01
The origin of the asymmetry between matter and antimatter that is evident in our part of the Universe is one of the open questions in cosmology, because the CPT symmetry between matter and antimatter seems to be absolutely conserved at microscopic level. We repeat here the classical proofs which exclude the viability of a Universe baryon symmetric on the average, or the observed asymmetry as an initial conditions. The current understanding is that the asymmetry should have been dynamically generated before nucleosynthesis, by B, C, and CP violating processes, acting out of thermodynamical equilibrium, as suggested by Sakharov in the 70's. The physical realizations of these conditions would be possible, in principle, also in the framework of the Standard Model of elementary particles, but the present limits on the mass of the higgs particle exclude this possibility. Finally we present the model of baryogenesis through leptogenesis, which is allowed by a minimal extension of the Standard Model, which has the appeal of being testable in future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments.
The structure of completely positive matrices according to their CP-rank and CP-plus-rank
Dickinson, Peter James Clair; Bomze, Immanuel M.; Still, Georg J.
2015-01-01
We study the topological properties of the cp-rank operator $\\mathrm{cp}(A)$ and the related cp-plus-rank operator $\\mathrm{cp}^+(A)$ (which is introduced in this paper) in the set $\\mathcal{S}^n$ of symmetric $n\\times n$-matrices. For the set of completely positive matrices, $\\mathcal{CP}^n$, we
Strong CP, flavor, and twisted split fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harnik, Roni; Perez, Gilad; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Shirman, Yuri
2005-01-01
We present a natural solution to the strong CP problem in the context of split fermions. By assuming CP is spontaneously broken in the bulk, a weak CKM phase is created in the standard model due to a twisting in flavor space of the bulk fermion wavefunctions. But the strong CP phase remains zero, being essentially protected by parity in the bulk and CP on the branes. As always in models of spontaneous CP breaking, radiative corrections to theta bar from the standard model are tiny, but even higher dimension operators are not that dangerous. The twisting phenomenon was recently shown to be generic, and not to interfere with the way that split fermions naturally weaves small numbers into the standard model. It follows that out approach to strong CP is compatible with flavor, and we sketch a comprehensive model. We also look at deconstructed version of this setup which provides a viable 4D model of spontaneous CP breaking which is not in the Nelson-Barr class. (author)
A permutation-based multiple testing method for time-course microarray experiments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
George Stephen L
2009-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Time-course microarray experiments are widely used to study the temporal profiles of gene expression. Storey et al. (2005 developed a method for analyzing time-course microarray studies that can be applied to discovering genes whose expression trajectories change over time within a single biological group, or those that follow different time trajectories among multiple groups. They estimated the expression trajectories of each gene using natural cubic splines under the null (no time-course and alternative (time-course hypotheses, and used a goodness of fit test statistic to quantify the discrepancy. The null distribution of the statistic was approximated through a bootstrap method. Gene expression levels in microarray data are often complicatedly correlated. An accurate type I error control adjusting for multiple testing requires the joint null distribution of test statistics for a large number of genes. For this purpose, permutation methods have been widely used because of computational ease and their intuitive interpretation. Results In this paper, we propose a permutation-based multiple testing procedure based on the test statistic used by Storey et al. (2005. We also propose an efficient computation algorithm. Extensive simulations are conducted to investigate the performance of the permutation-based multiple testing procedure. The application of the proposed method is illustrated using the Caenorhabditis elegans dauer developmental data. Conclusion Our method is computationally efficient and applicable for identifying genes whose expression levels are time-dependent in a single biological group and for identifying the genes for which the time-profile depends on the group in a multi-group setting.
Nagarajan, Raman P; Hogart, Amber R; Gwye, Ynnez; Martin, Michelle R; LaSalle, Janine M
2006-01-01
Mutations in MECP2, encoding methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2), cause most cases of Rett syndrome (RTT), an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder. Both RTT and autism are "pervasive developmental disorders" and share a loss of social, cognitive and language skills and a gain in repetitive stereotyped behavior, following apparently normal perinatal development. Although MECP2 coding mutations are a rare cause of autism, MeCP2 expression defects were previously found in autism brain. To further study the role of MeCP2 in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), we determined the frequency of MeCP2 expression defects in brain samples from autism and other ASDs. We also tested the hypotheses that MECP2 promoter mutations or aberrant promoter methylation correlate with reduced expression in cases of idiopathic autism. MeCP2 immunofluorescence in autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders was quantified by laser scanning cytometry and compared with control postmortem cerebral cortex samples on a large tissue microarray. A significant reduction in MeCP2 expression compared to age-matched controls was found in 11/14 autism (79%), 9/9 RTT (100%), 4/4 Angelman syndrome (100%), 3/4 Prader-Willi syndrome (75%), 3/5 Down syndrome (60%), and 2/2 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (100%) frontal cortex samples. One autism female was heterozygous for a rare MECP2 promoter variant that correlated with reduced MeCP2 expression. A more frequent occurrence was significantly increased MECP2 promoter methylation in autism male frontal cortex compared to controls. Furthermore, percent promoter methylation of MECP2 significantly correlated with reduced MeCP2 protein expression. These results suggest that both genetic and epigenetic defects lead to reduced MeCP2 expression and may be important in the complex etiology of autism.
CP -symmetry of order 4 and its consequences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanov, Igor P.
2017-01-01
Extended Higgs sectors offer rich opportunities for various forms of CP -violation. Here, we describe a new form of CP-conservation and discuss its consequences. We give a concrete example of a three-Higgs-doublet model dubbed CP4-3HDM with a CP -symmetry of order 4 and no other other accidental symmetries. If the vacuum conserves this symmetry, the model is CP -conserving with pairwise mass-degenerate extra neutral Higgs bosons. These fields cannot be classified as CP -even or CP -odd but they can be combined into complex physical fields which are CP -half-odd, that is, they pick up the i factor upon CP transformation. These CP -half-odd scalars can be Yukawa-coupled to the fermion bilinears in a CP -conserving way. We discuss fundamental and phenomenological features of the model, and stress a peculiar clash between the CP -symmetry and any convention for the particle-antiparticle assignment. (paper)
A Colour Image Encryption Scheme Using Permutation-Substitution Based on Chaos
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xing-Yuan Wang
2015-06-01
Full Text Available An encryption scheme for colour images using a spatiotemporal chaotic system is proposed. Initially, we use the R, G and B components of a colour plain-image to form a matrix. Then the matrix is permutated by using zigzag path scrambling. The resultant matrix is then passed through a substitution process. Finally, the ciphered colour image is obtained from the confused matrix. Theoretical analysis and experimental results indicate that the proposed scheme is both secure and practical, which make it suitable for encrypting colour images of any size.
A Studentized Permutation Test for the Comparison of Spatial Point Patterns
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hahn, Ute
of empirical K-functions are compared by a permutation test using a studentized test statistic. The proposed test performs convincingly in terms of empirical level and power in a simulation study, even for point patterns where the K-function estimates on neighboring subsamples are not strictly exchangeable....... It also shows improved behavior compared to a test suggested by Diggle et al. (1991, 2000) for the comparison of groups of independently replicated point patterns. In an application to two point patterns from pathology that represent capillary positions in sections of healthy and tumorous tissue, our...
Wilson, S.
1977-01-01
A method is presented for the determination of the representation matrices of the spin permutation group (symmetric group), a detailed knowledge of these matrices being required in the study of the electronic structure of atoms and molecules. The method is characterized by the use of two different coupling schemes. Unlike the Yamanouchi spin algebraic scheme, the method is not recursive. The matrices for the fundamental transpositions can be written down directly in one of the two bases. The method results in a computationally significant reduction in the number of matrix elements that have to be stored when compared with, say, the standard Young tableaux group theoretical approach.
Brain Computation Is Organized via Power-of-Two-Based Permutation Logic
Xie, Kun; Fox, Grace E.; Liu, Jun; Lyu, Cheng; Lee, Jason C.; Kuang, Hui; Jacobs, Stephanie; Li, Meng; Liu, Tianming; Song, Sen; Tsien, Joe Z.
2016-01-01
There is considerable scientific interest in understanding how cell assemblies—the long-presumed computational motif—are organized so that the brain can generate intelligent cognition and flexible behavior. The Theory of Connectivity proposes that the origin of intelligence is rooted in a power-of-two-based permutation logic (N = 2i–1), producing specific-to-general cell-assembly architecture capable of generating specific perceptions and memories, as well as generalized knowledge and flexible actions. We show that this power-of-two-based permutation logic is widely used in cortical and subcortical circuits across animal species and is conserved for the processing of a variety of cognitive modalities including appetitive, emotional and social information. However, modulatory neurons, such as dopaminergic (DA) neurons, use a simpler logic despite their distinct subtypes. Interestingly, this specific-to-general permutation logic remained largely intact although NMDA receptors—the synaptic switch for learning and memory—were deleted throughout adulthood, suggesting that the logic is developmentally pre-configured. Moreover, this computational logic is implemented in the cortex via combining a random-connectivity strategy in superficial layers 2/3 with nonrandom organizations in deep layers 5/6. This randomness of layers 2/3 cliques—which preferentially encode specific and low-combinatorial features and project inter-cortically—is ideal for maximizing cross-modality novel pattern-extraction, pattern-discrimination and pattern-categorization using sparse code, consequently explaining why it requires hippocampal offline-consolidation. In contrast, the nonrandomness in layers 5/6—which consists of few specific cliques but a higher portion of more general cliques projecting mostly to subcortical systems—is ideal for feedback-control of motivation, emotion, consciousness and behaviors. These observations suggest that the brain’s basic computational
Remark on Hopf images in quantum permutation groups $S_n^+$
Józiak, Paweł
2016-01-01
Motivated by a question of A.~Skalski and P.M.~So{\\l}tan about inner faithfulness of the S.~Curran's map, we revisit the results and techniques of T.~Banica and J.~Bichon's Crelle paper and study some group-theoretic properties of the quantum permutation group on $4$ points. This enables us not only to answer the aforementioned question in positive in case $n=4, k=2$, but also to classify the automorphisms of $S_4^+$, describe all the embeddings $O_{-1}(2)\\subset S_4^+$ and show that all the ...
Adaptive Tests of Significance Using Permutations of Residuals with R and SAS
O'Gorman, Thomas W
2012-01-01
Provides the tools needed to successfully perform adaptive tests across a broad range of datasets Adaptive Tests of Significance Using Permutations of Residuals with R and SAS illustrates the power of adaptive tests and showcases their ability to adjust the testing method to suit a particular set of data. The book utilizes state-of-the-art software to demonstrate the practicality and benefits for data analysis in various fields of study. Beginning with an introduction, the book moves on to explore the underlying concepts of adaptive tests, including:Smoothing methods and normalizing transforma
CP violation in the baryon sector
Smith, Eluned Anne
2017-01-01
The study of CP violation in the baryon sector is still a relatively new field and offers the possibility to make many CP measurements which could complement those performed in the meson sector. This is especially true of late given the large number of baryons currently being produced at the LHC. Such measurements could help further over-constrain the CKM unitary triangle, as well as furthering our understand of baryongenesis. These proceedings will give an overview of the current state of the search for CP violation in the baryon sector.
CP violation in CMS expected performance
Stefanescu, J
1999-01-01
The CMS experiment can contribute significantly to the measurement of the CP violation asymmetries. A recent evaluation of the expected precision on the CP violation parameter sin 2 beta in the channel B /sub d//sup 0/ to J/ psi $9 K/sub s//sup 0/ has been performed using a simulation of the CMS tracker including full pattern recognition. CMS has also studied the possibility to observe CP violation in the decay channel B/sub s//sup 0/ to J/ psi phi . The $9 results of these studies are reviewed. (7 refs).
CP Violation in Single Top Quark Production
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geng, Weigang [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)
2012-01-01
We present a search for CP violation in single top quark production with the DØ experiment at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. CP violation in the top electroweak interaction results in different single top quark production cross sections for top and antitop quarks. We perform the search in the single top quark final state using 5.4 fb^{-1} of data, in the s-channel, t-channel, and for both combined. At this time, we do not see an observable CP asymmetry.
Baryogenesis and standard model CP violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huet, P.
1994-08-01
The standard model possesses a natural source of CP violation contained in the phase of the CKM matrix. Whether the latter participated to the making of the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the observable universe is a fundamental question which has been addressed only recently. The generation of a CP observable occurs through interference of quantum paths along which a sequence of flavor mixings and chirality flips take place. The coherence of this phenomenon in the primeval plasma is limited by the fast quark-gluon interactions. At the electroweak era, this phenomenon of decoherence forbids a successful baryogenesis based on the sole CP violation of the CKM matrix
The seesaw path to leptonic CP violation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Caputo, A.; Hernandez, P. [Universidad de Valencia and CSIC, Edificio Institutos Investigacion, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Paterna (Spain); CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Kekic, M.; Salvado, J. [Universidad de Valencia and CSIC, Edificio Institutos Investigacion, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Paterna (Spain); Lopez-Pavon, J. [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland)
2017-04-15
Future experiments such as SHiP and high-intensity e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders will have a superb sensitivity to heavy Majorana neutrinos with masses below M{sub Z}. We show that the measurement of the mixing to electrons and muons of one such state could establish the existence of CP violating phases in the neutrino mixing matrix, in the context of low-scale seesaw models. We quantify in the minimal model the CP reach of these future experiments, and demonstrate that CP violating phases in the mixing matrix could be established at 5σ CL in a very significant fraction of parameter space. (orig.)
The seesaw path to leptonic CP violation
Caputo, A.; Kekic, M.; López-Pavón, J.; Salvado, J.
2017-04-24
Future experiments such as SHiP and high-intensity $e^+ e^-$ colliders will have a superb sensitivity to heavy Majorana neutrinos with masses below $M_Z$. We show that the measurement of the mixing to electrons and muons of one such state could imply the discovery of leptonic CP violation in the context of seesaw models. We quantify in the minimal model the CP discovery potential of these future experiments, and demonstrate that a 5$\\sigma$ CL discovery of leptonic CP violation would be possible in a very significant fraction of parameter space.
Flavor physics and CP violation
Chang, Paoti; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, Wei-Shu
2017-11-01
We currently live in the age of the CKM paradigm. The 3 × 3 matrix that links (d , s , b) quarks to (u , c , t) in the charged current weak interaction, being complex and nominally with 18 parameters, can be accounted for by just 3 rotation angles and one CP violating (CPV) phase, with unitarity and the CKM phases triumphantly tested at the B factories. But the CKM picture is unsatisfactory and has too many parameters. The main aim of Flavor Physics and CP violation (FPCP) studies is the pursuit to uncover New Physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). Two highlights of LHC Run 1 period are the CPV phase ϕs of Bs mixing and Bs →μ+μ- decay, which were found to be again consistent with SM, though the saga is yet unfinished. We also saw the emergence of the P5‧ angular variable anomaly in B0 →K∗0μ+μ- decay and R K (∗) anomaly in B →K (∗)μ+μ- to B →K (∗)e+e- rate ratios, and the BaBar anomaly in B →D (∗) τν decays, which suggest possible New Physics in these flavor processes, pointing to extra Z‧, charged Higgs, or leptoquarks. Charmless hadronic, semileptonic, purely leptonic and radiative B decays continue to offer various further windows on New Physics. Away from B physics, the rare K → πνν decays and ε‧ / ε in the kaon sector, μ → e transitions, muon g - 2 and electric dipole moments of the neutron and electron, τ → μγ , μμμ , eee, and a few charm physics probes, offer broadband frontier windows on New Physics. Lastly, flavor changing neutral transitions involving the top quark t and the 125 GeV Higgs boson h, such as t → ch and h → μτ, offer a new window into FPCP, while a new Z‧ related or inspired by the P5‧ anomaly, could show up in analogous top quark processes, perhaps even link with low energy phenomena such as muon g - 2 or rare kaon processes. In particular, we advocate the potential new SM, the two Higgs doublet model without discrete symmetries to control flavor violation, as SM2. As we are
Kalscheuer, Vera M.; Hennig, Friederike; Leonard, Helen; Downs, Jenny; Clarke, Angus; Benke, Tim A.; Armstrong, Judith; Pineda, Mercedes; Bailey, Mark E.S.; Cobb, Stuart R.
2017-01-01
Objective: To provide new insights into the interpretation of genetic variants in a rare neurologic disorder, CDKL5 deficiency, in the contexts of population sequencing data and an updated characterization of the CDKL5 gene. Methods: We analyzed all known potentially pathogenic CDKL5 variants by combining data from large-scale population sequencing studies with CDKL5 variants from new and all available clinical cohorts and combined this with computational methods to predict pathogenicity. Results: The study has identified several variants that can be reclassified as benign or likely benign. With the addition of novel CDKL5 variants, we confirm that pathogenic missense variants cluster in the catalytic domain of CDKL5 and reclassify a purported missense variant as having a splicing consequence. We provide further evidence that missense variants in the final 3 exons are likely to be benign and not important to disease pathology. We also describe benign splicing and nonsense variants within these exons, suggesting that isoform hCDKL5_5 is likely to have little or no neurologic significance. We also use the available data to make a preliminary estimate of minimum incidence of CDKL5 deficiency. Conclusions: These findings have implications for genetic diagnosis, providing evidence for the reclassification of specific variants previously thought to result in CDKL5 deficiency. Together, these analyses support the view that the predominant brain isoform in humans (hCDKL5_1) is crucial for normal neurodevelopment and that the catalytic domain is the primary functional domain. PMID:29264392
Mahjani, Behrang; Toor, Salman; Nettelblad, Carl; Holmgren, Sverker
2017-01-01
In quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping significance of putative QTL is often determined using permutation testing. The computational needs to calculate the significance level are immense, 10 4 up to 10 8 or even more permutations can be needed. We have previously introduced the PruneDIRECT algorithm for multiple QTL scan with epistatic interactions. This algorithm has specific strengths for permutation testing. Here, we present a flexible, parallel computing framework for identifying multiple interacting QTL using the PruneDIRECT algorithm which uses the map-reduce model as implemented in Hadoop. The framework is implemented in R, a widely used software tool among geneticists. This enables users to rearrange algorithmic steps to adapt genetic models, search algorithms, and parallelization steps to their needs in a flexible way. Our work underlines the maturity of accessing distributed parallel computing for computationally demanding bioinformatics applications through building workflows within existing scientific environments. We investigate the PruneDIRECT algorithm, comparing its performance to exhaustive search and DIRECT algorithm using our framework on a public cloud resource. We find that PruneDIRECT is vastly superior for permutation testing, and perform 2 ×10 5 permutations for a 2D QTL problem in 15 hours, using 100 cloud processes. We show that our framework scales out almost linearly for a 3D QTL search.
Aspects of soft and spontaneous CP violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frampton, P.H.; Harada, M.
1999-01-01
We study four different models for CP violation: the standard Kobayashi-Maskawa (KM) model, the aspon model of spontaneous breaking, and two models of soft breaking. In all except the standard model, the strong CP problem is addressed and solved. Testable predictions for the area of the unitarity triangle and for (ε ' /ε) K are emphasized. The issue of CP violation may well become the first place where the standard model of particle theory is shown definitively to be deficient. There are two reasons for expecting this to happen: (1) the strong CP problem is still not understood in the unadorned standard model and (2) the KM mechanism, although unquestionably present, may not provide the full explanation of ε K and (ε ' /ε) K . copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
CP violation in B and D decays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bigi, I.I.
1986-06-01
Non-leptonic B decays offer the best opportunity to discover the violation of CP invariance outside the neutral K system. Employing the Standard Model one predicts - with reasonable confidence - CP asymmetries of up to 205 (or even more in some cases). The branching ratios for the individual exclusive modes of interest are not expected to exceed the 10 -3 level in most cases; the identification of such decays poses non-trivial problems. It is shown that by summing intelligently over appropriate classes of decays one can greatly enhance statistics without jeopardizing the signal. Data that contain 10 6 produced B mesons would allow meaningful searches for CP violation. It is noted that ''New Physics'' could lead to CP asymmetries in D 0 decays of order 1%. Due to higher branching ratios one can search for such effects in samples of 10 6 produced D mesons. 7 refs
Instantons, CP-violation and axions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choudhury, S. R.
1980-07-01
Some specific aspects of the developments in pseudoparticle solutions of Gauge theories are discussed. The general features of the Lagrangian are described. The concepts of instantons, confinement, O-vacua and CP nonconservation are explained.
AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00341004
2016-01-01
Latest LHCb measurements of $CP$ violation in b-hadrons are presented based on $pp$ collision data collected in 2011 and 2012 at centre-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{s}=7$ $\\rm TeV$ and $8\\ \\rm TeV$ respectively. The total integrated luminosity collected is 3.0 fb$^{-1}$. Results include recent measurements of $CP$ violation in $B_d$ and $B_s$ mixing, along with those of quantifying the effects of $b\\to c\\bar{c} s$ loop pollution. Standard Model $CP$ violation tests in loop transitions are discussed with results consistent with expectations. New decays of b-baryons are presented and preliminary studies of $CP$ violation are performed.
A definition of maximal CP-violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roos, M.
1985-01-01
The unitary matrix of quark flavour mixing is parametrized in a general way, permitting a mathematically natural definition of maximal CP violation. Present data turn out to violate this definition by 2-3 standard deviations. (orig.)
First evidence for direct CP violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaffer, A.C.
1988-06-01
The double ratio R of the relative decay rates of the short-and long-lived neutral kaons into two charged and two neutral pions was measured to be 0.980 ± 0.004 ± 0.005. The deviation of R from unity implies CP violation in the transition of the CP-odd K 2 into two pions with ε , / ε = (3.3 ± 1.1) X 10 -3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ukawa, A.
1995-01-01
The CP-PACS Project, which started in April 1992, is a five-year plan to develop a massively parallel computer for carrying out research in computational physics with primary emphasis on lattice QCD. This article describes the architectural design of the CP-PACS computer, the entire computing system including the front end and mass storage, and results of benchmarks for the expected performance for lattice QCD applications. ((orig.))
Toimintaterapeuttinen nukkekoti CP-vammaisille lapsille
Ruotsalainen, Ulla; Tokola, Eveliina
2009-01-01
Toiminnallisen opinnäytetyön tarkoitus oli suunnitella ja rakentaa toimintaterapeuttinen nukkekoti CP-vammaisille lapsille. Työn toimeksiantajana oli toimintaterapeutti Päivi Raitanen Terapiapajalta. Työn tavoitteena oli toteuttaa mukana kuljetettava ja lapsen pyörätuolin pöytälevylle sopiva nukkekoti, jolla leikkiminen tukee CP-vammaisen lapsen toimintaterapiaa. Yleisimpiä tavoitteita ovat muun muuassa hienomotoristen taitojen, leikkitaitojen, syy-seuraussuhteiden ja visuaalisen hahmott...
Heavy quarks and CP: Moriond 1985
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bjorken, J.D.
1985-03-01
The presentations at the Fifth Moriond Workshop on Heavy Quarks, Flavor Mixing, and CP Violation (La Plagne, France, January 13-19, 1985) are summarized. The following topics are reviewed. What's New (beyond the top, top quarks, bottom quarks, charm quarks, strange quarks, and others); why is all this being done (strong interactions and hadron structure, and electroweak properties); and what next (facilities and can one see CP violation in the B-anti B system). 64 refs., 10 figs
Penguins and cp violation in β decays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, X.C.
1996-11-01
The measurement of the ε-parameter in the K 0 - K-bar 0 meson system is the only direct evidence for CP violation in the laboratory. The Standard Model (SM) of three generations with the source for CP violation arising from the phases in the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix is consistent with the experiment. An unique feature of this model is that the CKM matrix is a 3 x 3 unitary matrix. (author)
Neutrino mass textures with maximal CP violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aizawa, Ichiro; Kitabayashi, Teruyuki; Yasue, Masaki
2005-01-01
We show three types of neutrino mass textures, which give maximal CP violation as well as maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing. These textures are described by six real mass parameters: one specified by two complex flavor neutrino masses and two constrained ones and the others specified by three complex flavor neutrino masses. In each texture, we calculate mixing angles and masses, which are consistent with observed data, as well as Majorana CP phases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Kaixuan, E-mail: kaixuanxubjtu@yeah.net; Wang, Jun
2017-02-26
In this paper, recently introduced permutation entropy and sample entropy are further developed to the fractional cases, weighted fractional permutation entropy (WFPE) and fractional sample entropy (FSE). The fractional order generalization of information entropy is utilized in the above two complexity approaches, to detect the statistical characteristics of fractional order information in complex systems. The effectiveness analysis of proposed methods on the synthetic data and the real-world data reveals that tuning the fractional order allows a high sensitivity and more accurate characterization to the signal evolution, which is useful in describing the dynamics of complex systems. Moreover, the numerical research on nonlinear complexity behaviors is compared between the returns series of Potts financial model and the actual stock markets. And the empirical results confirm the feasibility of the proposed model. - Highlights: • Two new entropy approaches for estimation of nonlinear complexity are proposed for the financial market. • Effectiveness analysis of proposed methods is presented and their respective features are studied. • Empirical research of proposed analysis on seven world financial market indices. • Numerical simulation of Potts financial dynamics is preformed for nonlinear complexity behaviors.
Refined composite multiscale weighted-permutation entropy of financial time series
Zhang, Yongping; Shang, Pengjian
2018-04-01
For quantifying the complexity of nonlinear systems, multiscale weighted-permutation entropy (MWPE) has recently been proposed. MWPE has incorporated amplitude information and been applied to account for the multiple inherent dynamics of time series. However, MWPE may be unreliable, because its estimated values show large fluctuation for slight variation of the data locations, and a significant distinction only for the different length of time series. Therefore, we propose the refined composite multiscale weighted-permutation entropy (RCMWPE). By comparing the RCMWPE results with other methods' results on both synthetic data and financial time series, RCMWPE method shows not only the advantages inherited from MWPE but also lower sensitivity to the data locations, more stable and much less dependent on the length of time series. Moreover, we present and discuss the results of RCMWPE method on the daily price return series from Asian and European stock markets. There are significant differences between Asian markets and European markets, and the entropy values of Hang Seng Index (HSI) are close to but higher than those of European markets. The reliability of the proposed RCMWPE method has been supported by simulations on generated and real data. It could be applied to a variety of fields to quantify the complexity of the systems over multiple scales more accurately.
Analysis of crude oil markets with improved multiscale weighted permutation entropy
Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun; Liu, Cheng
2018-03-01
Entropy measures are recently extensively used to study the complexity property in nonlinear systems. Weighted permutation entropy (WPE) can overcome the ignorance of the amplitude information of time series compared with PE and shows a distinctive ability to extract complexity information from data having abrupt changes in magnitude. Improved (or sometimes called composite) multi-scale (MS) method possesses the advantage of reducing errors and improving the accuracy when applied to evaluate multiscale entropy values of not enough long time series. In this paper, we combine the merits of WPE and improved MS to propose the improved multiscale weighted permutation entropy (IMWPE) method for complexity investigation of a time series. Then it is validated effective through artificial data: white noise and 1 / f noise, and real market data of Brent and Daqing crude oil. Meanwhile, the complexity properties of crude oil markets are explored respectively of return series, volatility series with multiple exponents and EEMD-produced intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) which represent different frequency components of return series. Moreover, the instantaneous amplitude and frequency of Brent and Daqing crude oil are analyzed by the Hilbert transform utilized to each IMF.
Linear algebra of the permutation invariant Crow-Kimura model of prebiotic evolution.
Bratus, Alexander S; Novozhilov, Artem S; Semenov, Yuri S
2014-10-01
A particular case of the famous quasispecies model - the Crow-Kimura model with a permutation invariant fitness landscape - is investigated. Using the fact that the mutation matrix in the case of a permutation invariant fitness landscape has a special tridiagonal form, a change of the basis is suggested such that in the new coordinates a number of analytical results can be obtained. In particular, using the eigenvectors of the mutation matrix as the new basis, we show that the quasispecies distribution approaches a binomial one and give simple estimates for the speed of convergence. Another consequence of the suggested approach is a parametric solution to the system of equations determining the quasispecies. Using this parametric solution we show that our approach leads to exact asymptotic results in some cases, which are not covered by the existing methods. In particular, we are able to present not only the limit behavior of the leading eigenvalue (mean population fitness), but also the exact formulas for the limit quasispecies eigenvector for special cases. For instance, this eigenvector has a geometric distribution in the case of the classical single peaked fitness landscape. On the biological side, we propose a mathematical definition, based on the closeness of the quasispecies to the binomial distribution, which can be used as an operational definition of the notorious error threshold. Using this definition, we suggest two approximate formulas to estimate the critical mutation rate after which the quasispecies delocalization occurs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Snyder, Dalton T; Szalwinski, Lucas J; Cooks, R Graham
2017-10-17
Methods of performing precursor ion scans as well as neutral loss scans in a single linear quadrupole ion trap have recently been described. In this paper we report methodology for performing permutations of MS/MS scan modes, that is, ordered combinations of precursor, product, and neutral loss scans following a single ion injection event. Only particular permutations are allowed; the sequences demonstrated here are (1) multiple precursor ion scans, (2) precursor ion scans followed by a single neutral loss scan, (3) precursor ion scans followed by product ion scans, and (4) segmented neutral loss scans. (5) The common product ion scan can be performed earlier in these sequences, under certain conditions. Simultaneous scans can also be performed. These include multiple precursor ion scans, precursor ion scans with an accompanying neutral loss scan, and multiple neutral loss scans. We argue that the new capability to perform complex simultaneous and sequential MS n operations on single ion populations represents a significant step in increasing the selectivity of mass spectrometry.
Rank-based permutation approaches for non-parametric factorial designs.
Umlauft, Maria; Konietschke, Frank; Pauly, Markus
2017-11-01
Inference methods for null hypotheses formulated in terms of distribution functions in general non-parametric factorial designs are studied. The methods can be applied to continuous, ordinal or even ordered categorical data in a unified way, and are based only on ranks. In this set-up Wald-type statistics and ANOVA-type statistics are the current state of the art. The first method is asymptotically exact but a rather liberal statistical testing procedure for small to moderate sample size, while the latter is only an approximation which does not possess the correct asymptotic α level under the null. To bridge these gaps, a novel permutation approach is proposed which can be seen as a flexible generalization of the Kruskal-Wallis test to all kinds of factorial designs with independent observations. It is proven that the permutation principle is asymptotically correct while keeping its finite exactness property when data are exchangeable. The results of extensive simulation studies foster these theoretical findings. A real data set exemplifies its applicability. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Use of spatial symmetry in atomic--integral calculations: an efficient permutational approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rouzo, H.L.
1979-01-01
The minimal number of independent nonzero atomic integrals that occur over arbitrarily oriented basis orbitals of the form R(r).Y/sub lm/(Ω) is theoretically derived. The corresponding method can be easily applied to any point group, including the molecular continuous groups C/sub infinity v/ and D/sub infinity h/. On the basis of this (theoretical) lower bound, the efficiency of the permutational approach in generating sets of independent integrals is discussed. It is proved that lobe orbitals are always more efficient than the familiar Cartesian Gaussians, in the sense that GLOS provide the shortest integral lists. Moreover, it appears that the new axial GLOS often lead to a number of integrals, which is the theoretical lower bound previously defined. With AGLOS, the numbers of two-electron integrals to be computed, stored, and processed are divided by factors 2.9 (NH 3 ), 4.2 (C 5 H 5 ), and 3.6 (C 6 H 6 ) with reference to the corresponding CGTOS calculations. Remembering that in the permutational approach, atomic integrals are directly computed without any four-indice transformation, it appears that its utilization in connection with AGLOS provides one of the most powerful tools for treating symmetrical species. 34 references
Permutation flow-shop scheduling problem to optimize a quadratic objective function
Ren, Tao; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Da; Liu, Bingqian; Yuan, Huawei; Bai, Danyu
2017-09-01
A flow-shop scheduling model enables appropriate sequencing for each job and for processing on a set of machines in compliance with identical processing orders. The objective is to achieve a feasible schedule for optimizing a given criterion. Permutation is a special setting of the model in which the processing order of the jobs on the machines is identical for each subsequent step of processing. This article addresses the permutation flow-shop scheduling problem to minimize the criterion of total weighted quadratic completion time. With a probability hypothesis, the asymptotic optimality of the weighted shortest processing time schedule under a consistency condition (WSPT-CC) is proven for sufficiently large-scale problems. However, the worst case performance ratio of the WSPT-CC schedule is the square of the number of machines in certain situations. A discrete differential evolution algorithm, where a new crossover method with multiple-point insertion is used to improve the final outcome, is presented to obtain high-quality solutions for moderate-scale problems. A sequence-independent lower bound is designed for pruning in a branch-and-bound algorithm for small-scale problems. A set of random experiments demonstrates the performance of the lower bound and the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Kaixuan; Wang, Jun
2017-01-01
In this paper, recently introduced permutation entropy and sample entropy are further developed to the fractional cases, weighted fractional permutation entropy (WFPE) and fractional sample entropy (FSE). The fractional order generalization of information entropy is utilized in the above two complexity approaches, to detect the statistical characteristics of fractional order information in complex systems. The effectiveness analysis of proposed methods on the synthetic data and the real-world data reveals that tuning the fractional order allows a high sensitivity and more accurate characterization to the signal evolution, which is useful in describing the dynamics of complex systems. Moreover, the numerical research on nonlinear complexity behaviors is compared between the returns series of Potts financial model and the actual stock markets. And the empirical results confirm the feasibility of the proposed model. - Highlights: • Two new entropy approaches for estimation of nonlinear complexity are proposed for the financial market. • Effectiveness analysis of proposed methods is presented and their respective features are studied. • Empirical research of proposed analysis on seven world financial market indices. • Numerical simulation of Potts financial dynamics is preformed for nonlinear complexity behaviors.
Zheng, Jinde; Pan, Haiyang; Yang, Shubao; Cheng, Junsheng
2018-01-01
Multiscale permutation entropy (MPE) is a recently proposed nonlinear dynamic method for measuring the randomness and detecting the nonlinear dynamic change of time series and can be used effectively to extract the nonlinear dynamic fault feature from vibration signals of rolling bearing. To solve the drawback of coarse graining process in MPE, an improved MPE method called generalized composite multiscale permutation entropy (GCMPE) was proposed in this paper. Also the influence of parameters on GCMPE and its comparison with the MPE are studied by analyzing simulation data. GCMPE was applied to the fault feature extraction from vibration signal of rolling bearing and then based on the GCMPE, Laplacian score for feature selection and the Particle swarm optimization based support vector machine, a new fault diagnosis method for rolling bearing was put forward in this paper. Finally, the proposed method was applied to analyze the experimental data of rolling bearing. The analysis results show that the proposed method can effectively realize the fault diagnosis of rolling bearing and has a higher fault recognition rate than the existing methods.
A hybrid genetic algorithm for the distributed permutation flowshop scheduling problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian Gao
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Distributed Permutation Flowshop Scheduling Problem (DPFSP is a newly proposed scheduling problem, which is a generalization of classical permutation flow shop scheduling problem. The DPFSP is NP-hard in general. It is in the early stages of studies on algorithms for solving this problem. In this paper, we propose a GA-based algorithm, denoted by GA_LS, for solving this problem with objective to minimize the maximum completion time. In the proposed GA_LS, crossover and mutation operators are designed to make it suitable for the representation of DPFSP solutions, where the set of partial job sequences is employed. Furthermore, GA_LS utilizes an efficient local search method to explore neighboring solutions. The local search method uses three proposed rules that move jobs within a factory or between two factories. Intensive experiments on the benchmark instances, extended from Taillard instances, are carried out. The results indicate that the proposed hybrid genetic algorithm can obtain better solutions than all the existing algorithms for the DPFSP, since it obtains better relative percentage deviation and differences of the results are also statistically significant. It is also seen that best-known solutions for most instances are updated by our algorithm. Moreover, we also show the efficiency of the GA_LS by comparing with similar genetic algorithms with the existing local search methods.
Classifying epileptic EEG signals with delay permutation entropy and Multi-Scale K-means.
Zhu, Guohun; Li, Yan; Wen, Peng Paul; Wang, Shuaifang
2015-01-01
Most epileptic EEG classification algorithms are supervised and require large training datasets, that hinder their use in real time applications. This chapter proposes an unsupervised Multi-Scale K-means (MSK-means) MSK-means algorithm to distinguish epileptic EEG signals and identify epileptic zones. The random initialization of the K-means algorithm can lead to wrong clusters. Based on the characteristics of EEGs, the MSK-means MSK-means algorithm initializes the coarse-scale centroid of a cluster with a suitable scale factor. In this chapter, the MSK-means algorithm is proved theoretically superior to the K-means algorithm on efficiency. In addition, three classifiers: the K-means, MSK-means MSK-means and support vector machine (SVM), are used to identify seizure and localize epileptogenic zone using delay permutation entropy features. The experimental results demonstrate that identifying seizure with the MSK-means algorithm and delay permutation entropy achieves 4. 7 % higher accuracy than that of K-means, and 0. 7 % higher accuracy than that of the SVM.
Limited Rationality and Its Quantification Through the Interval Number Judgments With Permutations.
Liu, Fang; Pedrycz, Witold; Zhang, Wei-Guo
2017-12-01
The relative importance of alternatives expressed in terms of interval numbers in the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process aims to capture the uncertainty experienced by decision makers (DMs) when making a series of comparisons. Under the assumption of full rationality, the judgements of DMs in the typical analytic hierarchy process could be consistent. However, since the uncertainty in articulating the opinions of DMs is unavoidable, the interval number judgements are associated with the limited rationality. In this paper, we investigate the concept of limited rationality by introducing interval multiplicative reciprocal comparison matrices. By analyzing the consistency of interval multiplicative reciprocal comparison matrices, it is observed that the interval number judgements are inconsistent. By considering the permutations of alternatives, the concepts of approximation-consistency and acceptable approximation-consistency of interval multiplicative reciprocal comparison matrices are proposed. The exchange method is designed to generate all the permutations. A novel method of determining the interval weight vector is proposed under the consideration of randomness in comparing alternatives, and a vector of interval weights is determined. A new algorithm of solving decision making problems with interval multiplicative reciprocal preference relations is provided. Two numerical examples are carried out to illustrate the proposed approach and offer a comparison with the methods available in the literature.
Random walk generated by random permutations of {1, 2, 3, ..., n + 1}
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oshanin, G; Voituriez, R
2004-01-01
We study properties of a non-Markovian random walk X (n) l , l = 0, 1, 2, ..., n, evolving in discrete time l on a one-dimensional lattice of integers, whose moves to the right or to the left are prescribed by the rise-and-descent sequences characterizing random permutations π of [n + 1] = {1, 2, 3, ..., n + 1}. We determine exactly the probability of finding the end-point X n = X (n) n of the trajectory of such a permutation-generated random walk (PGRW) at site X, and show that in the limit n → ∞ it converges to a normal distribution with a smaller, compared to the conventional Polya random walk, diffusion coefficient. We formulate, as well, an auxiliary stochastic process whose distribution is identical to the distribution of the intermediate points X (n) l , l < n, which enables us to obtain the probability measure of different excursions and to define the asymptotic distribution of the number of 'turns' of the PGRW trajectories
Mozrzymas, Marek; Studziński, Michał; Horodecki, Michał
2018-03-01
Herein we continue the study of the representation theory of the algebra of permutation operators acting on the n -fold tensor product space, partially transposed on the last subsystem. We develop the concept of partially reduced irreducible representations, which allows us to significantly simplify previously proved theorems and, most importantly, derive new results for irreducible representations of the mentioned algebra. In our analysis we are able to reduce the complexity of the central expressions by getting rid of sums over all permutations from the symmetric group, obtaining equations which are much more handy in practical applications. We also find relatively simple matrix representations for the generators of the underlying algebra. The obtained simplifications and developments are applied to derive the characteristics of a deterministic port-based teleportation scheme written purely in terms of irreducible representations of the studied algebra. We solve an eigenproblem for the generators of the algebra, which is the first step towards a hybrid port-based teleportation scheme and gives us new proofs of the asymptotic behaviour of teleportation fidelity. We also show a connection between the density operator characterising port-based teleportation and a particular matrix composed of an irreducible representation of the symmetric group, which encodes properties of the investigated algebra.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nader Ghaffari-Nasab
2010-07-01
Full Text Available During the past two decades, there have been increasing interests on permutation flow shop with different types of objective functions such as minimizing the makespan, the weighted mean flow-time etc. The permutation flow shop is formulated as a mixed integer programming and it is classified as NP-Hard problem. Therefore, a direct solution is not available and meta-heuristic approaches need to be used to find the near-optimal solutions. In this paper, we present a new discrete firefly meta-heuristic to minimize the makespan for the permutation flow shop scheduling problem. The results of implementation of the proposed method are compared with other existing ant colony optimization technique. The preliminary results indicate that the new proposed method performs better than the ant colony for some well known benchmark problems.
CP and CP-PGN protect mice against MRSA infection by inducing M1 macrophages.
Zhang, Yang; Li, Xiang-Xiang; Ma, Yuan; Xu, Jie; Zhao, Li-Na; Qian, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Xian-Feng; Shi, Jin-Fang; Han, Qing-Zhen
2017-12-04
Corynebacterium pyruviciproducens (C. pyruviciproducens, CP), as a newly discovered immunomodulator, has been confirmed to have a stronger immunoregulation than Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) of the traditional immune adjuvant, by previous experiments with model antigen ovalbumin and sheep red blood cells. Here, it was designed to assess its ability to resist methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), since MRSA as a vital gram positive pathogen is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. In this report, it was indicated that C. pyruviciproducens and its peptidoglycan (CP-PGN) could help to be against bloodstream infection of MRSA with raised survival rate, decreased bacteria load and alleviated systemic inflammation, and these effects of CP-PGN were more pronounced. However, the whole CP was inclined to prevent localized abdominal infection of MRSA from progressing to a systemic infection. And they showed the potential as a therapeutic drug alone or combined with vancomycin. The diversity of capacity of activating macrophages induced by CP and CP-PGN may result in distinct resistance to MRSA in different infection models. Furthermore, both CP and CP-PGN induced M1 macrophages. In conclusion, CP and its PGN could act as promising immune agents to treat and prevent MRSA infection.
Synthesis and oxidation of CpIrIII compounds: functionalization of a Cp methyl group.
Park-Gehrke, Lisa S; Freudenthal, John; Kaminsky, Werner; Dipasquale, Antonio G; Mayer, James M
2009-03-21
[CpIrCl(2)](2) () and new CpIr(III)(L-L)X complexes (L-L = N-O or C-N chelating ligands; X = Cl, I, Me) have been prepared and their reactivity with two-electron chemical oxidants explored. Reaction of with PhI(OAc)(2) in wet solvents yields a new chloro-bridged dimer in which each of the Cp ligands has been singly acetoxylated to form [Cp(OAc)Ir(III)Cl(2)](2) () (Cp(OAc) = eta(5)-C(5)Me(4)CH(2)OAc). Complex and related carboxy- and alkoxy-functionalized Cp(OR) complexes can also be prepared from plus (PhIO)(n) and ROH. [Cp(OAc)Ir(III)Cl(2)](2) () and the methoxy analogue [Cp(OMe)Ir(III)Cl(2)](2) () have been structurally characterized. Treatment of [CpIrCl(2)](2) () with 2-phenylpyridine yields CpIr(III)(ppy)Cl () (ppy = cyclometallated 2-phenylpyridyl) which is readily converted to its iodide and methyl analogues CpIr(III)(ppy)I and CpIr(III)(ppy)Me (). CpIr(III) complexes were also prepared with N-O chelating ligands derived from anthranilic acid (2-aminobenzoic acid) and alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (H(2)NCMe(2)COOH), ligands chosen to be relatively oxidation resistant. These complexes and were reacted with potential two-electron oxidants including PhI(OAc)(2), hexachlorocyclohexadienone (C(6)Cl(6)O), N-fluoro-2,4,6-trimethylpyridinium (Me(3)pyF(+)), [Me(3)O]BF(4) and MeOTf (OTf = triflate, CF(3)SO(3)). Iridium(V) complexes were not observed or implicated in these reactions, despite the similarity of the potential products to known CpIr(V) species. The carbon electrophiles [Me(3)O]BF(4) and MeOTf appear to react preferentially at the N-O ligands, to give methyl esters in some cases. Overall, the results indicate that Cp is not inert under oxidizing conditions and is therefore not a good supporting ligand for oxidizing organometallic complexes.
Variants of cellobiohydrolases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bott, Richard R.; Foukaraki, Maria; Hommes, Ronaldus Wilhelmus; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley R.; Kralj, Slavko; Nikolaev, Igor; Sandgren, Mats; Van Lieshout, Johannes Franciscus Thomas; Van Stigt Thans, Sander
2018-04-10
Disclosed are a number of homologs and variants of Hypocrea jecorina Ce17A (formerly Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I or CBH1), nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The homologs and variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted and/or deleted.
CP and other gauge symmetries in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dine, M.; Leigh, R.G.; MacIntire, D.A.
1992-01-01
We argue that CP is a gauge symmetry in string theory. As a consequence, CP cannot be explicitly broken either perturbatively or nonperturbatively; there can be no nonperturbative CP-violating parameters. String theory is thus an example of a theory where all θ angles arise due to spontaneous CP violation, and are in principle calculable
Brain computation is organized via power-of-two-based permutation logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kun Xie
2016-11-01
Full Text Available There is considerable scientific interest in understanding how cell assemblies - the long-presumed computational motif - are organized so that the brain can generate cognitive behavior. The Theory of Connectivity proposes that the origin of intelligence is rooted in a power-of-two-based permutation logic (N=2i–1, giving rise to the specific-to-general cell-assembly organization capable of generating specific perceptions and memories, as well as generalized knowledge and flexible actions. We show that this power-of-two-based computational logic is widely used in cortical and subcortical circuits across animal species and is conserved for the processing of a variety of cognitive modalities including appetitive, emotional and social cognitions. However, modulatory neurons, such as dopaminergic neurons, use a simpler logic despite their distinct subtypes. Interestingly, this specific-to-general permutation logic remained largely intact despite the NMDA receptors – the synaptic switch for learning and memory – were deleted throughout adulthood, suggesting that it is likely developmentally pre-configured. Moreover, this logic is implemented in the cortex vertically via combining a random-connectivity strategy in superficial layers 2/3 with nonrandom organizations in deep layers 5/6. This randomness of layers 2/3 cliques – which preferentially encode specific and low-combinatorial features and project inter-cortically – is ideal for maximizing cross-modality novel pattern-extraction, pattern-discrimination, and pattern-categorization using sparse code, consequently explaining why it requires hippocampal offline-consolidation. In contrast, the non-randomness in layers 5/6 - which consists of few specific cliques but a higher portion of more general cliques projecting mostly to subcortical systems – is ideal for robust feedback-control of motivation, emotion, consciousness, and behaviors. These observations suggest that the brain’s basic
Did the CP audits promote the enterprises' CP? A case study in Beijing.
Yu, Gang; Huang, Jun; Chen, Qing
2002-03-09
Seven enterprises that have had recent Cleaner Production (CP) audits in Beijing were interviewed to identify whether these enterprises implemented the audit recommendations. If enterprises did implement the recommendations, their reasons and the results were analyzed. Finally, some suggestions on how to promote enterprise-wide CP were given.
Flavor and CP invariant composite Higgs models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Redi, Michele; Weiler, Andreas
2011-09-01
The flavor protection in composite Higgs models with partial compositeness is known to be insufficient. We explore the possibility to alleviate the tension with CP odd observables by assuming that flavor or CP are symmetries of the composite sector, broken by the coupling to Standard Model fields. One realization is that the composite sector has a flavor symmetry SU(3) or SU(3) U x SU(3) D which allows us to realize Minimal Flavor Violation. We show how to avoid the previously problematic tension between a flavor symmetric composite sector and electro-weak precision tests. Some of the light quarks are substantially or even fully composite with striking signals at the LHC. We discuss the constraints from recent dijet mass measurements and give an outlook on the discovery potential. We also present a different protection mechanism where we separate the generation of flavor hierarchies and the origin of CP violation. This can eliminate or safely reduce unwanted CP violating effects, realizing effectively ''Minimal CP Violation'' and is compatible with a dynamical generation of flavor at low scales. (orig.)
Flavor and CP invariant composite Higgs models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Redi, Michele [CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; INFN, Firenze (Italy); Weiler, Andreas [CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2011-09-15
The flavor protection in composite Higgs models with partial compositeness is known to be insufficient. We explore the possibility to alleviate the tension with CP odd observables by assuming that flavor or CP are symmetries of the composite sector, broken by the coupling to Standard Model fields. One realization is that the composite sector has a flavor symmetry SU(3) or SU(3){sub U} x SU(3){sub D} which allows us to realize Minimal Flavor Violation. We show how to avoid the previously problematic tension between a flavor symmetric composite sector and electro-weak precision tests. Some of the light quarks are substantially or even fully composite with striking signals at the LHC. We discuss the constraints from recent dijet mass measurements and give an outlook on the discovery potential. We also present a different protection mechanism where we separate the generation of flavor hierarchies and the origin of CP violation. This can eliminate or safely reduce unwanted CP violating effects, realizing effectively ''Minimal CP Violation'' and is compatible with a dynamical generation of flavor at low scales. (orig.)
CP-even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the electron in muon decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuznetsov, A.
1981-01-01
A model of the weak interaction which contains intermediate vector bosons of the most general form and which admits CP violation in muon decay is used to calculate the CP-even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the μ-decay electrons with inclusion of radiative corrections. It is shown that these corrections are important only at the beginning of the spectrum, and their contribution reduces the observed effects of the transverse polarization. The transverse polarization grows appreciably at electron energies close to the maximum energy and at small emission angles. It is expedient to search for the CP-even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the electrons at energies E/sub e/ = 0.975E/sup max//sub e/ and emission angles theta = 25--35 0
CP-even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the electron in the muon decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuznetsov, A.V.
1981-01-01
In the most general weak interaction model with intermediate vector bosons, allowing CP breaking in the muon decay, CP- even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the μ-decay electrons is calculated taking into account the radiative corrections. It is shown that such corrections are essential only at the beginning of the spectrum reducing the observed transverse polarization effects. When the electron energy is close to its maximum and the emission angles are small, the transverse polarization considerably grows. Search for CP-even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the electrons should be carried out at energies Esub(e) approximately equal to O.975 Esub(e)sup(max) and emission angles THETA approximately equal to 25+35 deg [ru
A non-permutation flowshop scheduling problem with lot streaming: A Mathematical model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Rossit
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the use of lot streaming in non-permutation flowshop scheduling problems. The objective is to minimize the makespan subject to the standard flowshop constraints, but where it is now permitted to reorder jobs between machines. In addition, the jobs can be divided into manageable sublots, a strategy known as lot streaming. Computational experiments show that lot streaming reduces the makespan up to 43% for a wide range of instances when compared to the case in which no job splitting is applied. The benefits grow as the number of stages in the production process increases but reach a limit. Beyond a certain point, the division of jobs into additional sublots does not improve the solution.
Quantum tests for the linearity and permutation invariance of Boolean functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hillery, Mark [Department of Physics, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10021 (United States); Andersson, Erika [SUPA, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)
2011-12-15
The goal in function property testing is to determine whether a black-box Boolean function has a certain property or is {epsilon}-far from having that property. The performance of the algorithm is judged by how many calls need to be made to the black box in order to determine, with high probability, which of the two alternatives is the case. Here we present two quantum algorithms, the first to determine whether the function is linear and the second to determine whether it is symmetric (invariant under permutations of the arguments). Both require order {epsilon}{sup -2/3} calls to the oracle, which is better than known classical algorithms. In addition, in the case of linearity testing, if the function is linear, the quantum algorithm identifies which linear function it is. The linearity test combines the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm and amplitude amplification, while the test to determine whether a function is symmetric uses projective measurements and amplitude amplification.
Tag-KEM from Set Partial Domain One-Way Permutations
Abe, Masayuki; Cui, Yang; Imai, Hideki; Kurosawa, Kaoru
Recently a framework called Tag-KEM/DEM was introduced to construct efficient hybrid encryption schemes. Although it is known that generic encode-then-encrypt construction of chosen ciphertext secure public-key encryption also applies to secure Tag-KEM construction and some known encoding method like OAEP can be used for this purpose, it is worth pursuing more efficient encoding method dedicated for Tag-KEM construction. This paper proposes an encoding method that yields efficient Tag-KEM schemes when combined with set partial one-way permutations such as RSA and Rabin's encryption scheme. To our knowledge, this leads to the most practical hybrid encryption scheme of this type. We also present an efficient Tag-KEM which is CCA-secure under general factoring assumption rather than Blum factoring assumption.
Permutation entropy analysis of financial time series based on Hill's diversity number
Zhang, Yali; Shang, Pengjian
2017-12-01
In this paper the permutation entropy based on Hill's diversity number (Nn,r) is introduced as a new way to assess the complexity of a complex dynamical system such as stock market. We test the performance of this method with simulated data. Results show that Nn,r with appropriate parameters is more sensitive to the change of system and describes the trends of complex systems clearly. In addition, we research the stock closing price series from different data that consist of six indices: three US stock indices and three Chinese stock indices during different periods, Nn,r can quantify the changes of complexity for stock market data. Moreover, we get richer information from Nn,r, and obtain some properties about the differences between the US and Chinese stock indices.
Molecular symmetry: Why permutation-inversion (PI) groups don't render the point groups obsolete
Groner, Peter
2018-01-01
The analysis of spectra of molecules with internal large-amplitude motions (LAMs) requires molecular symmetry (MS) groups that are larger than and significantly different from the more familiar point groups. MS groups are described often by the permutation-inversion (PI) group method. It is shown that point groups still can and should play a significant role together with the PI groups for a class of molecules with internal rotors. In molecules of this class, several simple internal rotors are attached to a rigid molecular frame. The PI groups for this class are semidirect products like H ^ F, where the invariant subgroup H is a direct product of cyclic groups and F is a point group. This result is used to derive meaningful labels for MS groups, and to derive correlation tables between MS groups and point groups. MS groups of this class have many parallels to space groups of crystalline solids.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McIntee, Erin; Viglino, Emilie; Rinke, Caitlin; Kumor, Stephanie; Ni Liqiang; Sigman, Michael E.
2010-01-01
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been investigated for the discrimination of automobile paint samples. Paint samples from automobiles of different makes, models, and years were collected and separated into sets based on the color, presence or absence of effect pigments and the number of paint layers. Twelve LIBS spectra were obtained for each paint sample, each an average of a five single shot 'drill down' spectra from consecutive laser ablations in the same spot on the sample. Analyses by a nonparametric permutation test and a parametric Wald test were performed to determine the extent of discrimination within each set of paint samples. The discrimination power and Type I error were assessed for each data analysis method. Conversion of the spectral intensity to a log-scale (base 10) resulted in a higher overall discrimination power while observing the same significance level. Working on the log-scale, the nonparametric permutation tests gave an overall 89.83% discrimination power with a size of Type I error being 4.44% at the nominal significance level of 5%. White paint samples, as a group, were the most difficult to differentiate with the power being only 86.56% followed by 95.83% for black paint samples. Parametric analysis of the data set produced lower discrimination (85.17%) with 3.33% Type I errors, which is not recommended for both theoretical and practical considerations. The nonparametric testing method is applicable across many analytical comparisons, with the specific application described here being the pairwise comparison of automotive paint samples.
Cerivastatin, Genetic Variants, and the Risk of Rhabdomyolysis
Marciante, Kristin D.; Durda, Jon P.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Lumley, Thomas; Rice, Ken; McKnight, Barbara; Totah, Rheem A.; Tamraz, Bani; Kroetz, Deanna L.; Fukushima, Hisayo; Kaspera, Rüdiger; Bis, Joshua C.; Glazer, Nicole L.; Li, Guo; Austin, Thomas R.; Taylor, Kent D.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Jaquish, Cashell E.; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Tracy, Russell P.; Psaty, Bruce M.
2011-01-01
Objective The withdrawal of cerivastatin involved an uncommon but serious adverse reaction, rhabdomyolysis. The bimodal response--rhabdomyolysis in a small proportion of users-- points to genetic factors as a potential cause. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate genetic markers for cerivastatin-associated rhabdomyolysis. Methods The study had two components: a candidate gene study to evaluate variants in CYP2C8, UGT1A1, UGT1A3, and SLCO1B1; and a genome-wide association (GWA) study to identify risk factors in other regions of the genome. 185 rhabdomyolysis cases were frequency matched to statin-using controls from the Cardiovascular Health Study (n=374) and the Heart and Vascular Health Study (n=358). Validation relied on functional studies. Results Permutation test results suggested an association between cerivastatin-associated rhabdomyolysis and variants in SLCO1B1 (p = 0.002), but not variants in CYP2C8 (p = 0.073) or the UGTs (p = 0.523). An additional copy of the minor allele of SLCO1B1 rs4149056 (p.Val174Ala) was associated with the risk of rhabdomyolysis (OR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.40 to 2.56). In transfected cells, this variant reduced cerivastatin transport by 40% compared with the reference transporter (p rhabdomyolysis (OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.63). Conclusion We identified modest genetic risk factors for an extreme response to cerivastatin. Disabling genetic variants in the candidate genes were not responsible for the bimodal response to cerivastatin. PMID:21386754
Lectures on Flavor Physics and CP Violation
Grinstein, Benjamín
2016-12-20
These lectures on flavor physics are an introduction to the subject. First lec- ture: We discuss the meaning of flavor and the importance of flavor physics in restricting extensions of the Standard Model (SM) of Electroweak interactions. We explain the origin of the KM matrix and how its elements are determined. We discuss FCNC and the GIM mechanism, followed by how a principle of Minimal Flavor Violation leads to SM extensions that are safe as far as FCNC are concerned even if the new physics comes in at low, TeVish scales. This is illustrated by the example of B radiative decays ( b → sγ ). Second lecture: We then turn our attention to CP-violation. We start by presenting neutral meson mixing. Then we consider various CP-asymmetries, culminating in the theoretically clean interference between mixing and decay into CP eigenstates.
CP asymmetries in semiinclusive B0 decays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dunietz, Isard
1999-02-01
It was recently pointed out that inclusive B^0(t) decays could show CP violation. The totally inclusive asymmetry is expected to be tiny [O(10^{-3})] because of large cancellations among the asymmetries in the charmless, single charm and double charm final states. Enriching particular final state configurations could significantly increase the CP-asymmetry and observability. Such studies can extract fundamental CKM (Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa) parameters, and (perhaps) even Delta m(B_s). A superb vertex detector could see CP violation with 10^5 (10^6) flavor-tagged B_s (B_d) mesons within the CKM model. Because the effects could be significantly larger due to new physics, they should be searched for in existing or soon available data samples.
On the measurement of leptonic CP violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burguet Castell, J.; Gavela, M.B.; Gomez Cadenas, J.J.; Hernandez, P.; Mena, O.
2001-01-01
We show that the simultaneous determination of the leptonic CP-odd phase δ and the angle θ 13 from the subleading transitions ν e →ν μ and ν-bar e →ν-bar μ results generically, at fixed neutrino energy and baseline, in two degenerate solutions. In light of this, we refine a previous analysis of the sensitivity to leptonic CP violation at a neutrino factory, in the LMA-MSW scenario, by exploring the full range of δ and θ 13 . Furthermore, we take into account the expected uncertainties on the solar and atmospheric oscillation parameters and in the average Earth matter density along the neutrino path. An intermediate baseline of O(3000) km is still the best option to tackle CP violation, although a combination of two baselines turns out to be very important in resolving degeneracies
The CpG island searcher: a new WWW resource.
Takai, Daiya; Jones, Peter A
2003-01-01
Clusters of CpG dinucleotides in GC rich regions of the genome called "CpG islands" frequently occur in the 5' ends of genes. Methylation of CpG islands plays a role in transcriptional silencing in higher organisms in certain situations. We have established a CpG-island-extraction algorithm, which we previously developed [Takai and Jones, 2002], on a web site which has a simple user interface to identify CpG islands from submitted sequences of up to 50kb. The web site determines the locations of CpG islands using parameters (lower limit of %GC, ObsCpG/ExpCpG, length) set by the user, to display the value of parameters on each CpG island, and provides a graphical map of CpG dinucleotide distribution and borders of CpG islands. A command-line version of the CpG islands searcher has also been developed for larger sequences. The CpG Island Searcher was applied to the latest sequence and mapping information of human chromosomes 20, 21 and 22, and a total of 2345 CpG islands were extracted and 534 (23%) of them contained first coding exons and 650 (28%) contained other exons. The CpG Island Searcher is available on the World Wide Web at http://www.cpgislands.com or http://www.uscnorris.com/cpgislands/cpg.cgi.
Chiral vacuum alignment and spontaneous CP violation by four-Fermi operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rador, Tonguc
2009-01-01
In models where there is a global chiral symmetry which spontaneously breaks to its vectorial subgroup, the introduction of an explicit symmetry breaking perturbation will define the true vacuum of the theory. This true vacuum is found via the minimization of the expectation value of the perturbing Hamiltonian between different vacua as prescribed by Dashen. The procedure of finding the correct vacuum of the theory may result in the spontaneous breaking of CP symmetry even if one initially demands CP invariance on the perturbation. In this work we study, in detail, models where the perturbation is provided by four-Fermi operators. We present the exact treatment for models with two fermion flavors and study the three flavor case in depth numerically. We show that after the Dashen procedure is applied the solutions for the true vacuum fall in three classes with different CP breaking patterns. Critical transitions are possible between these classes as one varies the parameters of the perturbation. We rigorously show that at these transitions a pseudo-Goldstone boson mass vanishes. We also advocate, and substantiate with numerical statistical analysis for various types of models, that if one imposes CP invariance on the perturbation before solving the vacuum alignment, the resulting vacuum structure will have a sizable probability for a light pseudo-Goldstone boson mass. That is a statistical variant of Peccei-Quinn mechanism can be speculated to operate.
A possible explanation of the CP puzzle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takhtamyshev, Georgij
1996-03-01
The problem of mirror-reflection symmetry (MRS) and time-reversal symmetry (TRS) in our world is discussed. The opinion is expressed, that well-known experiments on parity violation and CP-violation can be treated as signals of some new, yet unknown, level of matter. An hypothesis, which can be used as a base for some future model or theory is formulated. In the framework of this hypothesis, experiments will demonstrate parity violation or CP-violation do not contradict MRS or TRS conservation. (author). 14 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ecker, G.
1990-01-01
The investigation of rare K decays calls for a unified treatment of short- and long-distance aspects as provided by chiral perturbation theory. For the standard model with three generations, the theoretical predictions for signals of CP violation in those decays are reviewed. With direct CP violation as the main target, special emphasis is given to the charge asymmetries in charged K decays and to the especially rare decays K L → π 0 ll-bar. Time dependent rate asymmetries in K 0 decays and the longitudinal muon polarization in K L → μ + μ - are also discussed. 50 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab. (Author)
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Natural strong CP conservation in flipped physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frampton, P.H. (Institute of Field Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (USA)); Kephart, T.W. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (USA))
1990-08-13
A natural axion-free solution of the strong {ital CP} problem {ital at} {ital tree} {ital level} is noted within an E(6) grand unified theory. Using this as a springboard, it is shown that several flipped SU(5) theories which occur in superstring phenomenology contain within them a mechanism which enforces {bar {theta}}=0 at high accuracy.
CP and B Physics: Progress and prospects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bjorken, J.D.
1997-06-01
This summary of the 2nd International Conference on B Physics and CP Violation (Honolulu, 24--27 March, 1997) contains, in addition to what is implied in the title, some extended remarks on the limitations of theory as well as speculations regarding nonperturbative enhancement of decay modes of the class b → s+ charmless hadrons
CP violating phenomena and theoretical results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grimus, W.
1987-01-01
An introduction to CP violating phenomena is given and the standard model and its most popular low energy extensions in this context are reviewed. The discussion comprises the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model, left-right symmetry, the standard model with more than one Higgs doublet and gauged horizontal symmetries. (Author)
Discrete symmetries, strong CP problem and gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Senjanovic, G.
1993-05-01
Spontaneous breaking of parity or time reversal invariance offers a solution to the strong CP problem, the stability of which under quantum gravitational effects provides an upper limit on the scale of symmetry breaking. Even more important, these Planck scale effects may provide a simple and natural way out of the resulting domain wall problem. (author). 22 refs
Sigma decomposition: the CP-odd Lagrangian
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hierro, I.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Galilei”, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy); Merlo, L. [Instituto de Física Teórica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Rigolin, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Galilei”, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy)
2016-04-04
In Alonso et al., http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP12(2014)034, the CP-even sector of the effective chiral Lagrangian for a generic composite Higgs model with a symmetric coset has been constructed, up to four momenta. In this paper, the CP-odd couplings are studied within the same context. If only the Standard Model bosonic sources of custodial symmetry breaking are considered, then at most six independent operators form a basis. One of them is the weak-θ term linked to non-perturbative sources of CP violation, while the others describe CP-odd perturbative couplings between the Standard Model gauge bosons and an Higgs-like scalar belonging to the Goldstone boson sector. The procedure is then applied to three distinct exemplifying frameworks: the original SU(5)/SO(5) Georgi-Kaplan model, the minimal custodial-preserving SO(5)/SO(4) model and the minimal SU(3)/(SU(2)×U(1)) model, which intrinsically breaks custodial symmetry. Moreover, the projection of the high-energy electroweak effective theory to the low-energy chiral effective Lagrangian for a dynamical Higgs is performed, uncovering strong relations between the operator coefficients and pinpointing the differences with the elementary Higgs scenario.
Masses, flavor mix and CP violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaussard, L.
2004-06-01
The author describes the relationships between masses, mixing of flavors and CP violation. This document is divided into 4 chapters: 1) fermions' masses, 2) mixing of flavors and CP violation, 3) beauty physics and 4) neutrino physics. In chapter 1 an attempt is made to explain what is behind the concepts of lepton mass and quark mass. As for neutrinos, the only neutral fermion, Dirac's and Majorana's views are exposed as well as their consequences. Fermion flavors are mixed in the process of mass generation and this mix is responsible for the breaking of CP and T symmetries. In chapter 2 the author shows how the analysis of particle oscillations from neutral mesons (K 0 , D 0 , B d 0 and B s 0 ) and from neutrinos can shed light on CP violation. Chapter 3 is dedicated to the contribution of beauty physics to the determination of the unitary triangle, through the oscillations of beauty mesons. In chapter 4 the author reviews the experimental results obtained recently concerning neutrino mass and neutrino oscillations and draws some perspectives on future neutrino experiments. (A.C.)
CP violation in exclusive B decays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Numata, Ken
1991-01-01
We review some decay modes of B 0 or B-bar 0 , with which we measure CP violation or phases of Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix elements. For simplicity, we restrict the topics to the cases of B d 0 -B d -bar 0 system. (author)
CP violation in B decays and supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbieri, R.; Strumia, A.
1997-01-01
CP violation in hadronic B decays is studied in a definite and well-motivated framework of flavour physics and supersymmetry. Possible deviations from the standard model both in mixing and in decay amplitudes are discussed. An attempt is made to describe an experimental strategy for looking at these deviations and for measuring the relevant parameters. (orig.)
[Review of experiments measuring CP nonconservation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gollin, G.D.
1985-08-01
Recent experiments setting limits on the magnitude of the ratio of two CP nonconservation parameters epsilon'/epsilon are discussed. Gauge theory calculations suggest that epsilon'/epsilon > .005, somewhat at odds with the results epsilon'/epsilon = -.0046 +- .0058 from a Chicago-Saclay measurement and epsilon'/epsilon = .0017 +- .0082 from a Yale-BNL experiment. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs
A standard form for generalized CP transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ecker, G.; Grimus, W.; Neufeld, H.
1987-01-01
The investigation of general CP transformations leads to transformations of the form U → W T UW with unitary matrices U, W. It is shown that a basis for weak eigenstates can always be chosen such that W T UW has a certain real standard form. (Author)
CP violation in $b$ hadrons at LHCb
Hicheur, Adlene
2017-01-01
The most recent results on $CP$ violation in b hadrons obtained by the LHCb Collaboration with Run I and years 2015-2016 of Run II are reviewed. The different types of violation are covered by the studies presented in this paper.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tjaart A P de Beer
Full Text Available The 1000 Genomes Project data provides a natural background dataset for amino acid germline mutations in humans. Since the direction of mutation is known, the amino acid exchange matrix generated from the observed nucleotide variants is asymmetric and the mutabilities of the different amino acids are very different. These differences predominantly reflect preferences for nucleotide mutations in the DNA (especially the high mutation rate of the CpG dinucleotide, which makes arginine mutability very much higher than other amino acids rather than selection imposed by protein structure constraints, although there is evidence for the latter as well. The variants occur predominantly on the surface of proteins (82%, with a slight preference for sites which are more exposed and less well conserved than random. Mutations to functional residues occur about half as often as expected by chance. The disease-associated amino acid variant distributions in OMIM are radically different from those expected on the basis of the 1000 Genomes dataset. The disease-associated variants preferentially occur in more conserved sites, compared to 1000 Genomes mutations. Many of the amino acid exchange profiles appear to exhibit an anti-correlation, with common exchanges in one dataset being rare in the other. Disease-associated variants exhibit more extreme differences in amino acid size and hydrophobicity. More modelling of the mutational processes at the nucleotide level is needed, but these observations should contribute to an improved prediction of the effects of specific variants in humans.
Stark, Zornitza; Dashnow, Harriet; Lunke, Sebastian; Tan, Tiong Y; Yeung, Alison; Sadedin, Simon; Thorne, Natalie; Macciocca, Ivan; Gaff, Clara; Oshlack, Alicia; White, Susan M; James, Paul A
2017-11-01
Rapid identification of clinically significant variants is key to the successful application of next generation sequencing technologies in clinical practice. The Melbourne Genomics Health Alliance (MGHA) variant prioritization framework employs a gene prioritization index based on clinician-generated a priori gene lists, and a variant prioritization index (VPI) based on rarity, conservation and protein effect. We used data from 80 patients who underwent singleton whole exome sequencing (WES) to test the ability of the framework to rank causative variants highly, and compared it against the performance of other gene and variant prioritization tools. Causative variants were identified in 59 of the patients. Using the MGHA prioritization framework the average rank of the causative variant was 2.24, with 76% ranked as the top priority variant, and 90% ranked within the top five. Using clinician-generated gene lists resulted in ranking causative variants an average of 8.2 positions higher than prioritization based on variant properties alone. This clinically driven prioritization approach significantly outperformed purely computational tools, placing a greater proportion of causative variants top or in the top 5 (permutation P-value=0.001). Clinicians included 40 of the 49 WES diagnoses in their a priori list of differential diagnoses (81%). The lists generated by PhenoTips and Phenomizer contained 14 (29%) and 18 (37%) of these diagnoses respectively. These results highlight the benefits of clinically led variant prioritization in increasing the efficiency of singleton WES data analysis and have important implications for developing models for the funding and delivery of genomic services.
Measurement of CP-Violating Asymmetries in B0 Decays to CP Eigenstates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
MacFarlane, David B
2001-02-26
We present measurements of time-dependent CP-violating asymmetries in neutral B decays to several CP eigenstates. The measurement uses a data sample of 23 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric B Factory at SLAC. In this sample, we find events where one neutral B meson is fully reconstructed in a CP eigenstate containing charmonium and the flavor of the other neutral B meson is determined from its decay products. The amplitude of the CP-violating asymmetry, which in the Standard Model is proportional to sin2{beta}, is derived from the decay time distributions in such events. The result is sin2{beta} = 0.34 {+-} 0.20 (stat) {+-} 0.05 (syst).
Measurement of CP-violating asymmetries in B0 decays to CP eigenstates.
Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; De Bonis, I; Gaillard, J M; Jeremie, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Palano, A; Chen, G P; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Reinertsen, P L; Stugu, B; Abbott, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Clark, A R; Dardin, S; Day, C; Dow, S F; Elioff, T; Fan, Q; Gaponenko, I; Gill, M S; Goozen, F R; Gowdy, S J; Gritsan, A; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Jared, R C; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Karcher, A; Kerth, L T; Kipnis, I; Kluth, S; Kolomensky, Y G; Kral, J F; Lafever, R; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lewis, S A; Lionberger, C; Liu, T; Long, M; Lynch, G; Marino, M; Marks, K; Meyer, A B; Mokhtarani, A; Momayezi, M; Nyman, M; Oddone, P J; Ohnemus, J; Oshatz, D; Patton, S; Perazzo, A; Peters, C; Pope, W; Pripstein, M; Quarrie, D R; Rasson, J E; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Stone, R; Telnov, A V; von der Lippe, H; Weber, T; Wenzel, W A; Zisman, M S; Bright-Thomas, P G; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Kirk, A; Knowles, D J; O'Neale, S W; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Deppermann, T; Koch, H; Krug, J; Kunze, M; Lewandowski, B; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Andress, J C; Barlow, N R; Bhimji, W; Chevalier, N; Clark, P J; Cottingham, W N; De Groot, N; Dyce, N; Foster, B; Mass, A; McFall, J D; Wallom, D; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Camanzi, B; Jolly, S; McKemey, A K; Tinslay, J; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Bukin, D A; Buzykaev, A R; Dubrovin, M S; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kolachev, G M; Korol, A A; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Salnikov, A A; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Y I; Telnov, V I; Yushkov, A N; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; McMahon, S; Stoker, D P; Ahsan, A; Buchanan, C; Chun, S; MacFarlane, D B; Prell, S; Rahatlou, S; Raven, G; Sharma, V; Burke, S; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Hale, D; Hart, P A; Kuznetsova, N; Kyre, S; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Witherell, M; Yellin, S; Beringer, J; Dorfan, D E; Eisner, A M; Frey, A; Grillo, A A; Grothe, M; Heusch, C A; Johnson, R P; Kroeger, W; Lockman, W S; Pulliam, T; Sadrozinski, H; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spencer, E N; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hanson, J E; Hitlin, D G; Metzler, S; Oyang, J; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Weaver, M; Yang, S; Zhu, R Y; Devmal, S; Geld, T L; Jayatilleke, S; Jayatilleke, S M; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Bloom, P; Fahey, S; Ford, W T; Gaede, F; van Hoek, W C; Johnson, D R; Michael, A K; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Park, H; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Sen, S; Smith, J G; Wagner, D L; Blouw, J; Harton, J L; Krishnamurthy, M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Warner, D W; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dahlinger, G; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Eckstein, P; Futterschneider, H; Krause, R; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Otto, S; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Behr, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Ferrag, S; Fouque, G; Gastaldi, F; Matricon, P; Mora de Freitas, P; Renard, C; Roussot, E; T'Jampens, S; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Anjomshoaa, A; Bernet, R; Di Lodovico, F; Khan, A; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Falbo, M; Bozzi, C; Dittongo, S; Folegani, M; Piemontese, L; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Xie, Y; Zallo, A; Bagnasco, S; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Pallavicini, M; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patrignani, C; Pia, M G; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Morii, M; Bartoldus, R; Dignan, T; Hamilton, R; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Fischer, P A; Lamsa, J; McKay, R; Meyer, W T; Rosenberg, E I; Albert, J N; Beigbeder, C; Benkebil, M; Breton, D; Cizeron, R; Du, S; Grosdidier, G; Hast, C; Höcker, A; LePeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Truong, K; Valassi, A; Wormser, G; Bionta, R M; Brigljević, V; Brooks, A; Fackler, O; Fujino, D; Lange, D J; Mugge, M; O'Connor, T G; Pedrotti, B; Shi, X; van Bibber, K; Wenaus, T J; Wright, D M; Wuest, C R; Yamamoto, B; Carroll, M; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, M; Kay, M; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Aspinwall, M L; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Gunawardane, N J; Martin, R; Nash, J A; Price, D R; Sanders, P; Smith, D; Azzopardi, D E; Back, J J; Dixon, P; Harrison, P F; Newman-Coburn, D; Potter, R J; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Williams, M I; Cowan, G; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McGrath, P; McMahon, T R; Salvatore, F; Scott, I; Vaitsas, G; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Ford, K; Li, Y; Pavlovich, J; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Boyd, J T; Fullwood, J; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Savvas, N; Simopoulos, E T; Thompson, R J; Weatherall, J H; Bard, R; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Lillard, V; Olsen, J; Roberts, D A; Schieck, J R; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Lin, C S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Wittlin, J; Brau, B; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Britton, D I; Milek, M; Patel, P M; Trischuk, J; Lanni, F; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Booke, M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenberg, V; Kroeger, R; Reep, M; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Beaulieu, M; Martin, J P; Nief, J Y; Seitz, R; Taras, P; Zacek, V; Nicholson, H; Sutton, C S; Cavallo, N; Cartaro, C; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; LoSecco, J M; Alsmiller, J R; Gabriel, T A; Handler, T; Heck, J; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Iwasaki, M; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Borsato, E; Colecchia, F; Dal Corso, F; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Marzolla, M; Michelon, G; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Torassa, E; Voci, C; Bailly, P; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; De La Vaissière, C; Del Buono, L; Genat, J F; Hamon, O; Le Diberder, F; Lebbolo, H; Leruste, P; Lory, J; Martin, L; Roos, L; Stark, J; Versillé, S; Zhang, B; Manfredi, P F; Ratti, L; Re, V; Speziali, V; Frank, E D; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J H; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bosi, F; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Simi, G; Triggiani, G; Walsh, J; Hairre, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Turnbull, L; Wagoner, D E; Albert, J; Bula, C; Fernholz, R; Lu, C; McDonald, K T; Miftakov, V; Sands, B; Schaffner, S F; Smith, A J; Tumanov, A; Varnes, E W; Bronzini, F; Buccheri, A; Bulfon, C; Cavoto, G; del Re, D; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Fratini, K; Lamanna, E; Leonardi, E; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Serra, M; Voena, C; Waldi, R; Jacques, P F; Kalelkar, M; Plano, R J; Adye, T; Claxton, B; Franek, B; Galagedera, S; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Lidbury, J; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Besson, P; Bourgeois, P; De Domenico, G; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Gosset, L; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Serfass, B; Vasseur, G; Yeche, C; Zito, M; Copty, N; Purohit, M V; Singh, H; Yumiceva, F X; Adam, I; Anthony, P L; Aston, D; Baird, K; Bartelt, J; Becla, J; Bell, R; Bloom, E; Boeheim, C T; Boyarski, A M; Boyce, R F; Bulos, F; Burgess, W; Byers, B; Calderini, G; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Coombes, R; Cottrell, L; Coupal, D P; Coward, D H; Craddock, W W; DeStaebler, H; Dorfan, J; Doser, M; Dunwoodie, W; Ecklund, S; Fieguth, T H; Field, R C; Freytag, D R; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G L; Grosso, P; Haller, G; Hanushevsky, A; Harris, J; Hasan, A; Hewett, J L; Himel, T; Huffer, M E; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kawahara, H; Keller, L; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Klaisner, L A; Kocian, M L; Krebs, H J; Kunz, P F; Langenegger, U; Langeveld, W; Leith, D W; Louie, S K; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; MacDonald, J; Manzin, G; Mariske, H; McCulloch, M; McShurley, D; Menke, S; Messner, R; Metcalfe, S; Moffeit, K C; Mount, R; Muller, D R; Nelson, D; Nordby, M; O'Grady, C P; O'Neill, F G; Oxoby, G; Pavel, T; Perl, J; Petrak, S; Putallaz, G; Quinn, H; Raines, P E; Ratcliff, B N; Reif, R; Robertson, S H; Rochester, L S; Roodman, A; Russell, J J; Sapozhnikov, L; Saxton, O H; Schietinger, T; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Seeman, J T; Serbo, V V; Skarpass, K; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Spanier, S M; Stahl, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Talby, M; Tanaka, H A; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weinstein, A J; White, J L; Wienands, U; Wisniewski, W J; Young, C C; Zioulas, G; Burchat, P R; Cheng, C H; Kirkby, D; Meyer, T I; Roat, C; De Silva, A; Henderson, R; Berridge, S; Bugg, W; Cohn, H; Hart, E; Weidemann, A W; Benninger, T; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Turcotte, M; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Di Girolamo, B; Gamba, D; Smol, A; Zanin, D; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Pompili, A; Poropat, P; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Brown, C M; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Charles, E; Dasu, S; Elmer, P; Hu, H; Johnson, J R; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Scott, I J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Zobernig, H; Kordich, T M; Moore, T B; Neal, H
2001-03-19
We present measurements of time-dependent CP-violating asymmetries in neutral B decays to several CP eigenstates. The measurement uses a data sample of 23x10(6) Upsilon(4S)-->BbarB decays collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric B Factory at SLAC. In this sample, we find events in which one neutral B meson is fully reconstructed in a CP eigenstate containing charmonium and the flavor of the other neutral B meson is determined from its decay products. The amplitude of the CP-violating asymmetry, which in the standard model is proportional to sin2beta, is derived from the decay time distributions in such events. The result is sin2beta = 0.34+/-0.20 (stat)+/-0.05 (syst).
Amplitude-aware permutation entropy: Illustration in spike detection and signal segmentation.
Azami, Hamed; Escudero, Javier
2016-05-01
Signal segmentation and spike detection are two important biomedical signal processing applications. Often, non-stationary signals must be segmented into piece-wise stationary epochs or spikes need to be found among a background of noise before being further analyzed. Permutation entropy (PE) has been proposed to evaluate the irregularity of a time series. PE is conceptually simple, structurally robust to artifacts, and computationally fast. It has been extensively used in many applications, but it has two key shortcomings. First, when a signal is symbolized using the Bandt-Pompe procedure, only the order of the amplitude values is considered and information regarding the amplitudes is discarded. Second, in the PE, the effect of equal amplitude values in each embedded vector is not addressed. To address these issues, we propose a new entropy measure based on PE: the amplitude-aware permutation entropy (AAPE). AAPE is sensitive to the changes in the amplitude, in addition to the frequency, of the signals thanks to it being more flexible than the classical PE in the quantification of the signal motifs. To demonstrate how the AAPE method can enhance the quality of the signal segmentation and spike detection, a set of synthetic and realistic synthetic neuronal signals, electroencephalograms and neuronal data are processed. We compare the performance of AAPE in these problems against state-of-the-art approaches and evaluate the significance of the differences with a repeated ANOVA with post hoc Tukey's test. In signal segmentation, the accuracy of AAPE-based method is higher than conventional segmentation methods. AAPE also leads to more robust results in the presence of noise. The spike detection results show that AAPE can detect spikes well, even when presented with single-sample spikes, unlike PE. For multi-sample spikes, the changes in AAPE are larger than in PE. We introduce a new entropy metric, AAPE, that enables us to consider amplitude information in the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malace, Simona; Lucaci-Timoce, Angela; Lazanu, I.
2003-01-01
In the last twenty years there have been made many experimental and theoretical efforts to measure and verify the prediction of the Standard Model, as well as to put in evidence small deviation from these values. In the present paper, we discuss some aspects of possible regularities of the formalism of mixing and oscillation phenomena of the mass eigenstates in particle physics and possible consequences of hidden proprieties of the systems. In the literature representations of lepton flavour mixing with different parametrisation are used for three generations of leptons and quarks. Although these are mathematically equivalent, only one of them are likely to describe the underlying physics in a more transparent way, and particularly convenient in the analysis of experimental data or is able to establish a concordance with these ones. Flavour permutational symmetry of the mixing matrix, 'maximal democracy' and maximal CP violation give a simple and efficient way to understand the essential characteristics of the phenomena, with a minimum number of parameters. The deviations of the experimental data of these predicted values represent a simple clue to study phenomenologically the breaking of symmetries. The interplay of gravitation and linear superposition of different mass eigenstates, and their consequences on the oscillation clocks, phases and the physical observability are also briefly discussed. (authors)
A search for CP violation in hyperon decays by the hyper-CP experiment at Fermilab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holmstrom, T.
2002-01-01
The Hyper-CP collaboration is performing a precision search for CP violation in hyperon decays, these decays are sensitive to sources of CP violation to which neutral kaon decays are not. The measured CP observable is proportional to the difference between the product of the Ξ and Λ decay α parameters and that of the CP-conjugate decays. About 2.5 billion fully-reconstructed Ξ - → Λπ - → pπ - π - and Ξ-bar + → Λ-barπ + → p-barπ + π + decays were taken in 2 fixed-target runs at Fermilab, allowing a statistical sensitivity of about 2.10 -4 in the CP asymmetry. These 2 runs gave us the largest sample of Ξ and Ω ever collected. An initial study has been done on a fraction of the data and we have obtained: A ΞΛ equals (-7±12(statistical)±6.2(systematic))*10 -4 . Other preliminary results are also presented in this series of slides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xing Zhizhong
2012-01-01
The Daya Bay collaboration has recently reported its first ν-bar e → ν-bar e oscillation result which points to θ 13 ≅ 8.8° ±0.8° (best-fit ±1φ range) or θ 13 ≠0° at the 5.2a level. The fact that this smallest neutrino mixing angle is not strongly suppressed motivates us to look into the underlying structure of lepton flavor mixing and CP violation. Two phenomenological strategies are outlined: (1) the lepton flavor mixing matrix U consists of a constant leading term U 0 and a small perturbation term ΔU; and (2) the mixing angles of U are associated with the lepton mass ratios. Some typical patterns of U 0 are reexamined by constraining their respective perturbations with current experimental data. We illustrate a few possible ways to minimally correct U 0 in order to fit the observed values of three mixing angles. We point out that the structure of U may exhibit an approximate μ-τ permutation symmetry in modulus, and reiterate the geometrical description of CP violation in terms of the leptonic unitarity triangles. The salient features of nine distinct parametrizations of U are summarized, and its Wolfenstein-like expansion is presented by taking U 0 to be the democratic mixing pattern. (author)
Di Giulio, Massimo
2008-08-07
An evolutionary analysis is conducted on the permuted tRNA genes of Cyanidioschyzon merolae, in which the 5' half of the tRNA molecule is codified at the 3' end of the gene and its 3' half is codified at the 5' end. This analysis has shown that permuted genes cannot be considered as derived traits but seem to possess characteristics that suggest they are ancestral traits, i.e. they originated when tRNA molecule genes originated for the first time. In particular, if the hypothesis that permuted genes are a derived trait were true, then we should not have been able to observe that the most frequent class of permuted genes is that of the anticodon loop type, for the simple reason that this class would derive by random permutation from a class of non-permuted tRNA genes, which instead is the rarest. This would not explain the high frequency with which permuted tRNA genes with perfectly separate 5' and 3' halves were observed. Clearly the mechanism that produced this class of permuted genes would envisage the existence, in an advanced stage of evolution, of minigenes codifying for the 5' and 3' halves of tRNAs which were assembled in a permuted way at the origin of the tRNA molecule, thus producing a high frequency of permuted genes of the class here referred. Therefore, this evidence supports the hypothesis that the genes of the tRNA molecule were assembled by minigenes codifying for hairpin-like RNA molecules, as suggested by one model for the origin of tRNA [Di Giulio, M., 1992. On the origin of the transfer RNA molecule. J. Theor. Biol. 159, 199-214; Di Giulio, M., 1999. The non-monophyletic origin of tRNA molecule. J. Theor. Biol. 197, 403-414]. Moreover, the late assembly of the permuted genes of C. merolae, as well as their ancestrality, strengthens the hypothesis of the polyphyletic origins of these genes. Finally, on the basis of the uniqueness and the ancestrality of these permuted genes, I suggest that the root of the Eukarya domain is in the super
Structural and Electrochemical Consequences of [Cp*] Ligand Protonation.
Peng, Yun; Ramos-Garcés, Mario V; Lionetti, Davide; Blakemore, James D
2017-09-05
There are few examples of the isolation of analogous metal complexes bearing [η 5 -Cp*] and [η 4 -Cp*H] (Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) complexes within the same metal/ligand framework, despite the relevance of such structures to catalytic applications. Recently, protonation of Cp*Rh(bpy) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridyl) has been shown to yield a complex bearing the uncommon [η 4 -Cp*H] ligand, rather than generating a [Rh III -H] complex. We now report the purification and isolation of this protonated species, as well as characterization of analogous complexes of 1,10-phenanthroline (phen). Specifically, reaction of Cp*Rh(bpy) or Cp*Rh(phen) with 1 equiv of Et 3 NH + Br - affords rhodium compounds bearing endo-η 4 -pentamethylcyclopentadiene (η 4 -Cp*H) as a ligand. NMR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies confirm protonation of the Cp* ligand, rather than formation of metal hydride complexes. Analysis of new structural data and electronic spectra suggests that phen is significantly reduced in Cp*Rh(phen), similar to the case of Cp*Rh(bpy). Backbonding interactions with olefinic motifs are activated by formation of [η 4 -Cp*H]; protonation of [Cp*] stabilizes the low-valent metal center and results in loss of reduced character on the diimine ligands. In accord with these changes in electronic structure, electrochemical studies reveal a distinct manifold of redox processes that are accessible in the [Cp*H] complexes in comparison with their [Cp*] analogues; these processes suggest new applications in catalysis for the complexes bearing endo-η 4 -Cp*H.
Higgs pair production in the MSSM with explicit CP violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demir, D.A.
1999-07-01
In the minimal supersymmetric standard model with explicit CP violation, associated production of the lightest Higgs boson with heavier ones is analyzed. Due to explicit CP violation, the Higgs bosons are no longer CP eigenstates so that both of the heavy Higgs bosons contribute to the process. While the radiative corrections in the Higgs sector turn out to be quite important, the vertex radiative corrections remain small as in the CP conserving theory. (author)
Testing CP in K/sub μ/3 decays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leurer, M.
1989-01-01
K factories will open the way for high-precision CP tests in K/sub μ/ 3 decays. The standard model does not predict CP breaking in this process. We consider here the effects of nonstandard interactions mediated by vector and scalar particles and by leptoquarks. We show that, for the only experimentally measurable quantity, vector particles alone never induce CP violation, and give a general expression for the CP breaking induced by scalars and leptoquarks
Soft CP violation in K-meson systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montero, J.C.; Nishi, C.C.; Pleitez, V.; Ravinez, O.; Rodriguez, M.C.
2006-01-01
We consider a model with soft CP violation which accommodates the CP violation in the neutral kaons even if we assume that the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix is real and the sources of CP violation are three complex vacuum expectation values and a trilinear coupling in the scalar potential. We show that for some reasonable values of the masses and other parameters the model allows us to explain all the observed CP violation processes in the K 0 -K 0 system
Widespread occurrence of organelle genome-encoded 5S rRNAs including permuted molecules.
Valach, Matus; Burger, Gertraud; Gray, Michael W; Lang, B Franz
2014-12-16
5S Ribosomal RNA (5S rRNA) is a universal component of ribosomes, and the corresponding gene is easily identified in archaeal, bacterial and nuclear genome sequences. However, organelle gene homologs (rrn5) appear to be absent from most mitochondrial and several chloroplast genomes. Here, we re-examine the distribution of organelle rrn5 by building mitochondrion- and plastid-specific covariance models (CMs) with which we screened organelle genome sequences. We not only recover all organelle rrn5 genes annotated in GenBank records, but also identify more than 50 previously unrecognized homologs in mitochondrial genomes of various stramenopiles, red algae, cryptomonads, malawimonads and apusozoans, and surprisingly, in the apicoplast (highly derived plastid) genomes of the coccidian pathogens Toxoplasma gondii and Eimeria tenella. Comparative modeling of RNA secondary structure reveals that mitochondrial 5S rRNAs from brown algae adopt a permuted triskelion shape that has not been seen elsewhere. Expression of the newly predicted rrn5 genes is confirmed experimentally in 10 instances, based on our own and published RNA-Seq data. This study establishes that particularly mitochondrial 5S rRNA has a much broader taxonomic distribution and a much larger structural variability than previously thought. The newly developed CMs will be made available via the Rfam database and the MFannot organelle genome annotator. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Transportation Mode Detection Based on Permutation Entropy and Extreme Learning Machine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lei Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available With the increasing prevalence of GPS devices and mobile phones, transportation mode detection based on GPS data has been a hot topic in GPS trajectory data analysis. Transportation modes such as walking, driving, bus, and taxi denote an important characteristic of the mobile user. Longitude, latitude, speed, acceleration, and direction are usually used as features in transportation mode detection. In this paper, first, we explore the possibility of using Permutation Entropy (PE of speed, a measure of complexity and uncertainty of GPS trajectory segment, as a feature for transportation mode detection. Second, we employ Extreme Learning Machine (ELM to distinguish GPS trajectory segments of different transportation. Finally, to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, we make experiments on GeoLife dataset. Experiments results show that we can get more than 50% accuracy when only using PE as a feature to characterize trajectory sequence. PE can indeed be effectively used to detect transportation mode from GPS trajectory. The proposed method has much better accuracy and faster running time than the methods based on the other features and SVM classifier.
Tunneling and Speedup in Quantum Optimization for Permutation-Symmetric Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Siddharth Muthukrishnan
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Tunneling is often claimed to be the key mechanism underlying possible speedups in quantum optimization via quantum annealing (QA, especially for problems featuring a cost function with tall and thin barriers. We present and analyze several counterexamples from the class of perturbed Hamming weight optimization problems with qubit permutation symmetry. We first show that, for these problems, the adiabatic dynamics that make tunneling possible should be understood not in terms of the cost function but rather the semiclassical potential arising from the spin-coherent path-integral formalism. We then provide an example where the shape of the barrier in the final cost function is short and wide, which might suggest no quantum advantage for QA, yet where tunneling renders QA superior to simulated annealing in the adiabatic regime. However, the adiabatic dynamics turn out not be optimal. Instead, an evolution involving a sequence of diabatic transitions through many avoided-level crossings, involving no tunneling, is optimal and outperforms adiabatic QA. We show that this phenomenon of speedup by diabatic transitions is not unique to this example, and we provide an example where it provides an exponential speedup over adiabatic QA. In yet another twist, we show that a classical algorithm, spin-vector dynamics, is at least as efficient as diabatic QA. Finally, in a different example with a convex cost function, the diabatic transitions result in a speedup relative to both adiabatic QA with tunneling and classical spin-vector dynamics.
A multipopulation PSO based memetic algorithm for permutation flow shop scheduling.
Liu, Ruochen; Ma, Chenlin; Ma, Wenping; Li, Yangyang
2013-01-01
The permutation flow shop scheduling problem (PFSSP) is part of production scheduling, which belongs to the hardest combinatorial optimization problem. In this paper, a multipopulation particle swarm optimization (PSO) based memetic algorithm (MPSOMA) is proposed in this paper. In the proposed algorithm, the whole particle swarm population is divided into three subpopulations in which each particle evolves itself by the standard PSO and then updates each subpopulation by using different local search schemes such as variable neighborhood search (VNS) and individual improvement scheme (IIS). Then, the best particle of each subpopulation is selected to construct a probabilistic model by using estimation of distribution algorithm (EDA) and three particles are sampled from the probabilistic model to update the worst individual in each subpopulation. The best particle in the entire particle swarm is used to update the global optimal solution. The proposed MPSOMA is compared with two recently proposed algorithms, namely, PSO based memetic algorithm (PSOMA) and hybrid particle swarm optimization with estimation of distribution algorithm (PSOEDA), on 29 well-known PFFSPs taken from OR-library, and the experimental results show that it is an effective approach for the PFFSP.
A Multipopulation PSO Based Memetic Algorithm for Permutation Flow Shop Scheduling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ruochen Liu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The permutation flow shop scheduling problem (PFSSP is part of production scheduling, which belongs to the hardest combinatorial optimization problem. In this paper, a multipopulation particle swarm optimization (PSO based memetic algorithm (MPSOMA is proposed in this paper. In the proposed algorithm, the whole particle swarm population is divided into three subpopulations in which each particle evolves itself by the standard PSO and then updates each subpopulation by using different local search schemes such as variable neighborhood search (VNS and individual improvement scheme (IIS. Then, the best particle of each subpopulation is selected to construct a probabilistic model by using estimation of distribution algorithm (EDA and three particles are sampled from the probabilistic model to update the worst individual in each subpopulation. The best particle in the entire particle swarm is used to update the global optimal solution. The proposed MPSOMA is compared with two recently proposed algorithms, namely, PSO based memetic algorithm (PSOMA and hybrid particle swarm optimization with estimation of distribution algorithm (PSOEDA, on 29 well-known PFFSPs taken from OR-library, and the experimental results show that it is an effective approach for the PFFSP.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. K. L. B. Adikaram
2014-01-01
Full Text Available With the increasing demand for online/inline data processing efficient Fourier analysis becomes more and more relevant. Due to the fact that the bit reversal process requires considerable processing time of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT algorithm, it is vital to optimize the bit reversal algorithm (BRA. This paper is to introduce an efficient BRA with multiple memory structures. In 2009, Elster showed the relation between the first and the second halves of the bit reversal permutation (BRP and stated that it may cause serious impact on cache performance of the computer, if implemented. We found exceptions, especially when the said index mapping was implemented with multiple one-dimensional memory structures instead of multidimensional or one-dimensional memory structure. Also we found a new index mapping, even after the recursive splitting of BRP into equal sized slots. The four-array and the four-vector versions of BRA with new index mapping reported 34% and 16% improvement in performance in relation to similar versions of Linear BRA of Elster which uses single one-dimensional memory structure.
van der Ham, Joris L
2016-05-19
Forensic entomologists can use carrion communities' ecological succession data to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI). Permutation tests of hierarchical cluster analyses of these data provide a conceptual method to estimate part of the PMI, the post-colonization interval (post-CI). This multivariate approach produces a baseline of statistically distinct clusters that reflect changes in the carrion community composition during the decomposition process. Carrion community samples of unknown post-CIs are compared with these baseline clusters to estimate the post-CI. In this short communication, I use data from previously published studies to demonstrate the conceptual feasibility of this multivariate approach. Analyses of these data produce series of significantly distinct clusters, which represent carrion communities during 1- to 20-day periods of the decomposition process. For 33 carrion community samples, collected over an 11-day period, this approach correctly estimated the post-CI within an average range of 3.1 days. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Ritchie, Scott C; Watts, Stephen; Fearnley, Liam G; Holt, Kathryn E; Abraham, Gad; Inouye, Michael
2016-07-01
Network modules-topologically distinct groups of edges and nodes-that are preserved across datasets can reveal common features of organisms, tissues, cell types, and molecules. Many statistics to identify such modules have been developed, but testing their significance requires heuristics. Here, we demonstrate that current methods for assessing module preservation are systematically biased and produce skewed p values. We introduce NetRep, a rapid and computationally efficient method that uses a permutation approach to score module preservation without assuming data are normally distributed. NetRep produces unbiased p values and can distinguish between true and false positives during multiple hypothesis testing. We use NetRep to quantify preservation of gene coexpression modules across murine brain, liver, adipose, and muscle tissues. Complex patterns of multi-tissue preservation were revealed, including a liver-derived housekeeping module that displayed adipose- and muscle-specific association with body weight. Finally, we demonstrate the broader applicability of NetRep by quantifying preservation of bacterial networks in gut microbiota between men and women. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Permutation entropy of finite-length white-noise time series.
Little, Douglas J; Kane, Deb M
2016-08-01
Permutation entropy (PE) is commonly used to discriminate complex structure from white noise in a time series. While the PE of white noise is well understood in the long time-series limit, analysis in the general case is currently lacking. Here the expectation value and variance of white-noise PE are derived as functions of the number of ordinal pattern trials, N, and the embedding dimension, D. It is demonstrated that the probability distribution of the white-noise PE converges to a χ^{2} distribution with D!-1 degrees of freedom as N becomes large. It is further demonstrated that the PE variance for an arbitrary time series can be estimated as the variance of a related metric, the Kullback-Leibler entropy (KLE), allowing the qualitative N≫D! condition to be recast as a quantitative estimate of the N required to achieve a desired PE calculation precision. Application of this theory to statistical inference is demonstrated in the case of an experimentally obtained noise series, where the probability of obtaining the observed PE value was calculated assuming a white-noise time series. Standard statistical inference can be used to draw conclusions whether the white-noise null hypothesis can be accepted or rejected. This methodology can be applied to other null hypotheses, such as discriminating whether two time series are generated from different complex system states.
Zunino, Luciano; Bariviera, Aurelio F.; Guercio, M. Belén; Martinez, Lisana B.; Rosso, Osvaldo A.
2016-08-01
In this paper the permutation min-entropy has been implemented to unveil the presence of temporal structures in the daily values of European corporate bond indices from April 2001 to August 2015. More precisely, the informational efficiency evolution of the prices of fifteen sectorial indices has been carefully studied by estimating this information-theory-derived symbolic tool over a sliding time window. Such a dynamical analysis makes possible to obtain relevant conclusions about the effect that the 2008 credit crisis has had on the different European corporate bond sectors. It is found that the informational efficiency of some sectors, namely banks, financial services, insurance, and basic resources, has been strongly reduced due to the financial crisis whereas another set of sectors, integrated by chemicals, automobiles, media, energy, construction, industrial goods & services, technology, and telecommunications has only suffered a transitory loss of efficiency. Last but not least, the food & beverage, healthcare, and utilities sectors show a behavior close to a random walk practically along all the period of analysis, confirming a remarkable immunity against the 2008 financial crisis.
The CP 1 type separators-superheaters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palacio, G.
1984-01-01
Analysis of the functionnement of the separators superheaters in the first French 900 MW PWR units (Fessenhein 1-2 and Bugey 2-3-4-5) and in the program CP 1 units: localization of the separators superheaters, design, tests and choice of the materials, description of the separators superheaters (shells, separators, superheater bundles, internal lagging, purging tank and condensate stank, steam line equipments); study of the various operation modes (nominals, transients, malfunctions, conservation during shutdowns) and the in service behaviour of the components; study of the modifications on the CP 1 equipments and their behaviour; description of the measures, tests and on site controls (controls during planned shutdowns and controls during service) [fr
A CP violetion model of cosmological origin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Truppel, W.L.
1987-01-01
It's presented a model of spontaneous violation of the CP symmetry whose mechanism of symmetry breaking is of cosmological nature. The main feature is the conformal coupling of the field of a λφ 4 theory with a background gravitational field. We show that, for the open Friedmann model of the universe, the reason of the critical temperaTure for the symmetry restoration to the equilibrium temperature of the universe rrmains constant, so that either the symmetry breaking never happened or, if happened, it can't be reverted by means of thermal effects. Upon coupling the boson to a fermion, this symmetry breaking id related to the CP non-conservation in two distinct ways: violating the P and T symmetries, and violating the C and T symmetries. (author) [pt
Origin of CP-violation through quark mass matrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, K.
1990-01-01
After a brief review of the CP violation models, we trace the origin of CP-phases from the phases of a class of quark mass matrices compatible with the calculability condition. The case of three generations corresponding to the standard milliweak CP model is discussed explicitly for the generic case of Fritzsch-type mass matrices. (orig.)
James Cronin, CP Violation, and the Pierre Auger Observatory
dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis James Cronin, CP Violation and the Pierre Auger Observatory matter over antimatter."1 "The experiment uncovered the CP [charge-parity] violation, or a with Additional Information Additional information about James Cronin and the charge-parity (CP
Val L. Fitch, the CP Violation, and Antimatter
dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis Val L. Fitch, the CP Violation, and Antimatter Resources ) 'to verify a fundamental tenet of physics, known as CP [charge-parity] symmetry, by showing that two into two pi mesons. Cronin and Fitch had found an example of CP violation. The discovery's
Neutrinos as a probe of CP-violation and leptogenesis
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Establishing CP-violation in the lepton sector is one of the most challenging future tasks in neutrino physics. The lepton mixing matrix contains one Dirac phase and, if neutrinos are Majorana particles, two additional CP-violating phases. I will review the main theoretical aspects of CP-violation in the lepton sector. Then, I will ...
Light Higgs boson in THDM with explicit CP violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akhmetzyanova, Eh.N.; Dolgopolov, M.V.; Smirnov, I.A.; Dubinin, M.N.
2005-01-01
The effective Lagrangian of the two-doublet Higgs sector with complex parameters is considered in the case of Minimal Supersymmetric Model with explicit CP violation. Light Higgs boson decay widths are calculated for the scenario with maximal mixing of CP even and CP odd states [ru
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iqbal, M.J.; Miller, G.A.
1989-12-01
The CP violating (CPV) kaonic matrix elements ε', ImA 0 , and ImA 2 , are used to compute CPV observables in baryonic systems. The numerical results for the electric dipole moment and the difference between Λ and Λ - decay parameters are similar to other approaches that use quark operators. Relations between the neutron electric dipole moment, CPV pion-nucleon coupling constants, and Λ decay parameters are derived
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oide, Katsunobu.
1982-11-01
A NODAL interpreter which works under CP/M operating system is made for microcomputers. This interpreter language named NODAL-80 has a similar structure to the NODAL of SPS, but its commands, variables, and expressions are modified to increase the flexibility of programming. NODAL-80 also uses a simple intermediate code to make the execution speed fast without imposing any restriction on the dynamic feature of NODAL language. (author)
Status of CP violation in hyperon decays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, X.G.; Steger, H.; Valencia, G.
1991-01-01
We update the estimate of CP violating observables in hyperon decays. We consider the effect of a heavy top quark, as well as recent bounds on the CKM angles. We present an estimate of the uncertainties associated with the evaluation of the hadronic matrix elements by comparing different models. We find that A(Λ - 0 ) is likely to occur at the 10 -5 level within the standard model, although it could reach 10 -4 . (orig.)
CP violating mixings of toponium states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loew, U.
1988-01-01
In the present thesis the possibility of an admixture χ of the 2 1 P 1 toponium state which has the CP quantum number -1 to the 2 3 S 1 toponium state with CP quantum number +1 is discussed. The value of χ was estimated in 3 different models of the electroweak interaction. In the standard model the lowest contribution to χ is of 6th order in the weak coupling g or of 4th order in g and of 2nd order in the strong coupling g S . The Feynman diagrams which contribute to χ contain 2 loops. According to a crude estimate of these diagrams it is expected that they yield a contribution smaller than 10 -10 . In the model with extended Higgs sector - for a top-quark mass of 45 GeV - a value of 7x10 -4 resulted for χ. For a top-quark mass of 100 GeV it is expected that χ is even of the order of magnitude of 10 -2 . The large contributions originate from CP violating coupling neutral Higgs particles. In the right-left symmetric model two contributions to χ were calculated. The first one results from the exchange of the right- and left-handed W bosons. For a mass m R =500 GeV this contribution lies at χ ≅ 10 -14 . The second contribution is again based on the exchange of two neutral CP violating coupling Higgs particles. It lies in the order of magnitude at 10 -8 . Possibilities were indicated to find the estimated admixture χ in an experiment. A correlation in the 3-gluon decay of toponium and the decay of toponium into exclusive decays was discussed. (orig./HSI) [de
CP-violation and electric dipole moments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Le Dall, Matthias; Ritz, Adam, E-mail: aritz@uvic.ca [University of Victoria, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada)
2013-03-15
Searches for intrinsic electric dipole moments of nucleons, atoms and molecules are precision flavour-diagonal probes of new -odd physics. We review and summarise the effective field theory analysis of the observable EDMs in terms of a general set of CP-odd operators at 1 GeV, and the ensuing model-independent constraints on new physics. We also discuss the implications for supersymmetric models, in light of the mass limits emerging from the LHC.
CP asymmetries in Strange Baryon Decays
Bigi, I. I.; Kang, Xian-Wei; Li, Hai-Bo
2018-01-01
While indirect and direct CP violation (CPV) has been established in the decays of strange and beauty mesons, no CPV has yet been found for baryons. There are different paths to finding CP asymmetry in the decays of strange baryons; they are all highly non-trivial. The HyperCP Collaboration has probed CPV in the decays of single Ξ and Λ [1]. We discuss future lessons from {{{e}}}+{{{e}}}- collisions at BESIII/BEPCII: probing decays of pairs of strange baryons, namely Λ, Σ and Ξ. Realistic goals are to learn about non-perturbative QCD. One can hope to find CPV in the decays of strange baryons; one can also dream of finding the impact of New Dynamics. We point out that an important new era will start with the BESIII/BEPCII data accumulated by the end of 2018. This also supports new ideas to trigger {{J}}/{{\\psi }}\\to \\bar{{{Λ }}}{{Λ }} at the LHCb collaboration. Supported by National Science Foundation (PHY-1520966), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11335009, 11125525), Joint Large-Scale Scientific Facility Funds of the NSFC and CAS (U1532257), the National Key Basic Research Program of China (2015CB856700), Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, CAS, (QYZDJ-SSW-SLH003), XWK’s work is also supported by MOST (Taiwan) (104-2112-M-001-022)
Mason, E.; Orio, M.; Mukai, K.; Bianchini, A.; deMartino, D.; diMille, F.; Williams, R. E.
2013-01-01
We present new X-ray and optical spectra of the old nova CP Pup (nova Pup 1942) obtained with Chandra and the CTIO 4m telescope. The X-ray spectrum reveals a multi-temperature optically thin plasma reaching a maximum temperature of 36+19 keV 16 absorbed by local complex neutral material. The time resolved optical spectroscopy confirms the presence of the 1.47 hr period, with cycle-to-cycle amplitude changes, as well as of an additional long term modulation which is suggestive either of a longer pe- riod or of non-Keplerian velocities in the emission line regions. These new observational facts add further support to CP Pup as a magnetic cataclysmic variable (mCV). We compare the mCV and the non-mCV scenarios and while we cannot conclude whether CP Pup is a long period system, all observational evidences point at an intermediate polar (IP) type CV.
CP Violation in Heavy MSSM Higgs Scenarios
Carena, M; Lee, J S; Pilaftsis, A; Wagner, C E M
2016-01-01
We introduce and explore new heavy Higgs scenarios in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) with explicit CP violation, which have important phenomenological implications that may be testable at the LHC. For soft supersymmetry-breaking scales M_S above a few TeV and a charged Higgs boson mass M_H+ above a few hundred GeV, new physics effects including those from explicit CP violation decouple from the light Higgs boson sector. However, such effects can significantly alter the phenomenology of the heavy Higgs bosons while still being consistent with constraints from low-energy observables, for instance electric dipole moments. To consider scenarios with a charged Higgs boson much heavier than the Standard Model (SM) particles but much lighter than the supersymmetric particles, we revisit previous calculations of the MSSM Higgs sector. We compute the Higgs boson masses in the presence of CP violating phases, implementing improved matching and renormalization group (RG) effects, as well as two-loop RG...
Quaternionic potentials and CP-violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishi, Celso Chikahiro
2000-01-01
Full text follows: In the formulation of Quantum Mechanics by using a non-commutative ring of quaternions, we attempt to solve the Schroedinger equation with quaternionic potentials. Decay processes can easily be modeled by including complex imaginary potentials. Although, it could be explained as a transition between states under action of a perturbation. Purely imaginary quaternionic potentials can be used to describe CP-violation effects. The neutral kaon system, K 0 - K-bar 0 or K L - K S , represents an example of CP-violation phenomenon. The inclusion of quaternionic potentials imply a reformulation of the whole quantum theory. The use of a quaternionic algebra in discussing the Schroedinger equation leads to the lost of time reversal invariance (T), closely connected to CP violation by the well-known CPT theorem. In particular, we study the Schroedinger equation in presence of a quaternionic potential barrier given in terms of V, real potential acting in the region of width a, and jW, purely quaternionic potential acting in the region of width b. Different cases, |W|/V and b/a, are discussed in view of possible deviations of standard Quantum Mechanics. The complex linear Schroedinger equation is solved for stationary states. The explicit solution contains complex and quaternionic transmission/reflection coefficients. A wave packet treatment needs to make a more realistic and physical description. We briefly discuss possible interpretations and remaining questions. (author)
Zainal Abidin, Syafiq Asnawi; Rajadurai, Pathmanathan; Hoque Chowdhury, Md Ezharul; Othman, Iekhsan; Naidu, Rakesh
2018-06-08
The aim of this study is to investigate the potential anti-cancer activity of l-amino acid oxidase (CP-LAAO) purified from the venom of Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus on SW480 and SW620 human colon cancer cells. Mass spectrometry guided purification was able to identify and purify CP-LAAO. Amino acid variations identified from the partial protein sequence of CP-LAAO may suggest novel variants of these proteins. The activity of the purified CP-LAAO was confirmed with o-phenyldiamine (OPD)-based spectrophotometric assay. CP-LAAO demonstrated time- and dose-dependent cytotoxic activity and the EC 50 value was determined at 13 µg/mL for both SW480 and SW620 cells. Significant increase of caspase-3 activity, reduction of Bcl-2 levels, as well as morphological changes consistent with apoptosis were demonstrated by CP-LAAO. Overall, these data provide evidence on the potential anti-cancer activity of CP-LAAO from the venom of Malaysian C. purpureomaculatus for therapeutic intervention of human colon cancer.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seck Tuoh Mora, J. C. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)
2001-06-01
We present a review of reversible one dimensional cellular automata and their representation by block permutations. We analyze in detail the behavior of such block permutations to get their characterization. [Spanish] En el siguiente escrito se da una revision a la representacion y comportamiento de automatas celulares unidimensionales reversibles por medio de permutaciones en bloque. Hacemos un analisis detallado del comportamiento de dichas permutaciones para obtener su caracterizacion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dova, Maria Teresa; Ferrari, Sergio
2005-01-01
We present a method to investigate the CP quantum numbers of the Higgs boson in the process e + e - ->Zφ at a future e + e - linear collider (LC), where φ, a generic Higgs boson, is a mixture of CP-even and CP-odd states. The procedure consists of a comparison of the data with predictions obtained from Monte Carlo simulations corresponding to the productions of scalar and pseudoscalar Higgs and the interference term which constitutes a distinctive signal of CP violation. We present estimates of the sensitivity of the method from Monte Carlo studies using hypothetical data samples with a full LC detector simulation taking into account the background signals
CP violation outside the standard model phenomenology for pedestrians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipkin, H.J.
1993-01-01
So far the only experimental evidence for CP violation is the 1964 discovery of K L →2π where the two mass eigenstates produced by neutral meson mixing both decay into the same CP eigenstate. This result is described by two parameters ε and ε'. Today ε ∼ its 1964 value, ε' data are still inconclusive and there is no new evidence for CP violation. One might expect to observe similar phenomena in other systems and also direct CP violation as charge asymmetries between decays of charge conjugate hadrons H ± → f ± . Why is it so hard to find CP violation? How can B Physics help? Does CP lead beyond the standard model? The author presents a pedestrian symmetry approach which exhibits the difficulties and future possibilities of these two types of CP-violation experiments, neutral meson mixing and direct charge asymmetry: what may work, what doesn't work and why
CP asymmetries in the supersymmetric trilepton signal at the LHC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bornhauser, S.; Drees, M.; Dreiner, H.; Eboli, O.J.P.; Kim, J.S.; Kittel, O.
2012-01-01
In the CP-violating Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, we study the production of a neutralino-chargino pair at the LHC. For their decays into three leptons, we analyze CP asymmetries which are sensitive to the CP phases of the neutralino and chargino sector. We present analytical formulas for the entire production and decay process, and identify the CP-violating contributions in the spin correlation terms. This allows us to define the optimal CP asymmetries. We present a detailed numerical analysis of the cross sections, branching ratios, and the CP observables. For light neutralinos, charginos, and squarks, the asymmetries can reach several 10%. We estimate the discovery potential for the LHC to observe CP violation in the trilepton channel. (orig.)
Analysis list: Cp190 [Chip-atlas[Archive
Lifescience Database Archive (English)
Full Text Available Cp190 Cell line,Embryo,Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/...target/Cp190.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Cp190.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Cp190.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Cp190.Cell_l...ine.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Cp190.Embryo.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Cp190.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/
Permutation tests for goodness-of-fit testing of mathematical models to experimental data.
Fişek, M Hamit; Barlas, Zeynep
2013-03-01
This paper presents statistical procedures for improving the goodness-of-fit testing of theoretical models to data obtained from laboratory experiments. We use an experimental study in the expectation states research tradition which has been carried out in the "standardized experimental situation" associated with the program to illustrate the application of our procedures. We briefly review the expectation states research program and the fundamentals of resampling statistics as we develop our procedures in the resampling context. The first procedure we develop is a modification of the chi-square test which has been the primary statistical tool for assessing goodness of fit in the EST research program, but has problems associated with its use. We discuss these problems and suggest a procedure to overcome them. The second procedure we present, the "Average Absolute Deviation" test, is a new test and is proposed as an alternative to the chi square test, as being simpler and more informative. The third and fourth procedures are permutation versions of Jonckheere's test for ordered alternatives, and Kendall's tau(b), a rank order correlation coefficient. The fifth procedure is a new rank order goodness-of-fit test, which we call the "Deviation from Ideal Ranking" index, which we believe may be more useful than other rank order tests for assessing goodness-of-fit of models to experimental data. The application of these procedures to the sample data is illustrated in detail. We then present another laboratory study from an experimental paradigm different from the expectation states paradigm - the "network exchange" paradigm, and describe how our procedures may be applied to this data set. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Histone variants and lipid metabolism
Borghesan, Michela; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Sheedfar, Fareeba; Oben, Jude; Pazienza, Valerio; Vinciguerra, Manlio
2014-01-01
Within nucleosomes, canonical histones package the genome, but they can be opportunely replaced with histone variants. The incorporation of histone variants into the nucleosome is a chief cellular strategy to regulate transcription and cellular metabolism. In pathological terms, cellular steatosis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ecker, G.; Grimus, W.; Neufeld, H.
1987-01-01
A specific ansatz for the Yukawa couplings of a four-generation SU(2) L x U(I) model with two Higgs doublets is discussed which leads to neutral flavour conservation, spontaneous CP violation and to a genuinely complex mixing matrix. W exchange conserves CP in the limit m t' = m t only. The decay rate for t → b is reduced by a factor two compared to the Standard Model with three generations. The phenomenological implications for K 0 -K-bar 0 and B 0 -B-bar 0 are investigated. (Author)
Radiative violation of CP-symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galvan Herrera, J.B.
1990-01-01
The left-right quiral symmetry is not conserved by the Standard model. A subgroup of the standard gauge group (SU(2) L ) breaks this symmetry in a explicit way. Moreover, the standard model, if there are theree or more matter generations, violates the CP discrete symmetry. This prediction has been experimentally demonstrated correct in the Kaon anti Kaon system. In this work some possible explanations to the CP violation parameter magnitude are researched. We have studied the variation of the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix with the energy scale. To realize this work we have developed a general method to calculate the renormalization group equations of the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix parameters. From these equations we could also calculate the renormalization group equation of the J parameter that characterizes the CP violation. This calculus has been applied in a concrete example: a typical supersymmetric model from superstring theories. This model can be seen like a natural extension of the supersymmetric standard model. This kind of models have a gauge group bigger that the standard one more particles and new terms of the Lagrangian. We have verified that such model provides us of a correct low energy fenomenology and, moreover other results, some particle spectrums have been developed. In the elaboration of this model some conditions, that the model has to respected to be compatible with the actual fenomenology, have been studied. The most interesting results of this thesis are the develop of a general method to calculate the renormalization group equations of the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix parameters and the develop of a new mechanism of the radiative violation. This mechanism is related with the new terms of the Lagrangian. (Author)
The HyperCP data acquisition system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaplan, D.M.
1997-06-01
For the HyperCP experiment at Fermilab, we have assembled a data acquisition system that records on up to 45 Exabyte 8505 tape drives in parallel at up to 17 MB/s. During the beam spill, data are acquired from the front-end digitization systems at ∼ 60 MB/s via five parallel data paths. The front-end systems achieve typical readout deadtime of ∼ 1 micros per event, allowing operation at 75-kHz trigger rate with approx-lt 30% deadtime. Event building and tapewriting are handled by 15 Motorola MVME167 processors in 5 VME crates
Gravitational leptogenesis, C, CP and strong equivalence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McDonald, Jamie I.; Shore, Graham M.
2015-01-01
The origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry is one of the most important outstanding problems at the interface of particle physics and cosmology. Gravitational leptogenesis (baryogenesis) provides a possible mechanism through explicit couplings of spacetime curvature to appropriate lepton (or baryon) currents. In this paper, the idea that these strong equivalence principle violating interactions could be generated automatically through quantum loop effects in curved spacetime is explored, focusing on the realisation of the discrete symmetries C, CP and CPT which must be broken to induce matter-antimatter asymmetry. The related issue of quantum corrections to the dispersion relation for neutrino propagation in curved spacetime is considered within a fully covariant framework.
The CKM matrix and CP violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nir, Y.
1991-10-01
The CKM picture of the quark sector is reviewed. We explain how the phenomena of quark mixing, CP violation and the absence of flavor changing neutral currents arise in the Standard Model. We describe the determination of the CKM elements from direct measurements, from unitarity and from indirect measurements. We discuss the motivation for schemes of quark mass matrices and analyze the Fritzsch scheme as an example. Finally, we list the experimental and theoretical improvements expected in the future in the determination of the CKM matrix. 86 refs., 6 figs
CP violating decays in leptogenesis scenarios
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Covi, L.; Roulet, E.; Vissani, F.
1996-05-01
We compute the CP violation in the decays of heavy electroweak singlet neutrinos, arising from both the one-loop vertex corrections and the wave function mixing. We extend the computation to the supersymmetric version of the model and discuss the implications for the generation of a lepton number asymmetry by the out of equilibrium decay of the heavy (s)neutrinos in the early Universe, to be reprocessed later in the observed baryon excess by anomalous electroweak processes. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs
Gravitational leptogenesis, C, CP and strong equivalence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McDonald, Jamie I.; Shore, Graham M. [Department of Physics, Swansea University,Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)
2015-02-12
The origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry is one of the most important outstanding problems at the interface of particle physics and cosmology. Gravitational leptogenesis (baryogenesis) provides a possible mechanism through explicit couplings of spacetime curvature to appropriate lepton (or baryon) currents. In this paper, the idea that these strong equivalence principle violating interactions could be generated automatically through quantum loop effects in curved spacetime is explored, focusing on the realisation of the discrete symmetries C, CP and CPT which must be broken to induce matter-antimatter asymmetry. The related issue of quantum corrections to the dispersion relation for neutrino propagation in curved spacetime is considered within a fully covariant framework.
Martínez, Cecilia; Manzano, Susana; Megías, Zoraida; Barrera, Alejandro; Boualem, Adnane; Garrido, Dolores; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Jamilena, Manuel
2014-06-01
A number of Cucurbita pepo genotypes showing instable monoecy or partial andromonoecy, i.e. an incomplete conversion of female into bisexual flowers, have been detected. Given that in melon and cucumber andromonoecy is the result of reduction of ethylene production in female floral buds, caused by mutations in the ethylene biosynthesis genes CmACS7 and CsACS2; we have cloned and characterized two related C. pepo genes, CpACS27A and CpACS27B. The molecular structure of CpACS27A and its specific expression in the carpels of female flowers during earlier stages of flower development suggests that this gene is the Cucurbita ortholog of CmACS7 and CsACS2. CpACS27B is likely to be a paralogous pseudogene since it has not been found to be expressed in any of the analyzed tissues. CpACS27A was sequenced in Bolognese (Bog) and Vegetable Spaghetti (Veg), two monoecious inbred lines whose F2 was segregating for partial andromonoecy. The Bog allele of CpACS27A carried a missense mutation that resulted in a substitution of the conserved serine residue in position 176 by an alanine. Segregation analysis indicated that this mutant variant is necessary but not sufficient to confer the andromonoecious phenotype in squash. In concordance with its involvement in stamen arrest, a reduction in CpACS27A expression has been found in bisexual flower buds at earlier stages of development. This reduction in CpACS27A expression was concomitant with a downregulation of other ethylene biosynthesis and signaling genes during earlier and later stages of ovary development. The role of CpACS27A is discussed regarding the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling genes in the control of andromonoecy-associated traits, such as the delayed maturation of corolla and stigma as well as the parthenocarpic development of the fruit.
Variants of glycoside hydrolases
Teter, Sarah [Davis, CA; Ward, Connie [Hamilton, MT; Cherry, Joel [Davis, CA; Jones, Aubrey [Davis, CA; Harris, Paul [Carnation, WA; Yi, Jung [Sacramento, CA
2011-04-26
The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.
Glucocorticoid receptor gene expression and promoter CpG modifications throughout the human brain.
Cao-Lei, Lei; Suwansirikul, Songkiet; Jutavijittum, Prapan; Mériaux, Sophie B; Turner, Jonathan D; Muller, Claude P
2013-11-01
Glucocorticoids and the glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors have been implicated in many processes, particularly in negative feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Epigenetically programmed GR alternative promoter usage underlies transcriptional control of GR levels, generation of GR 3' splice variants, and the overall GC response in the brain. No detailed analysis of GR first exons or GR transcript variants throughout the human brain has been reported. Therefore we investigated post mortem tissues from 28 brain regions of 5 individuals. GR first exons were expressed throughout the healthy human brain with no region-specific usage patterns. First exon levels were highly inter-correlated suggesting that they are co-regulated. GR 3' splice variants (GRα and GR-P) were equally distributed in all regions, and GRβ expression was always low. GR/MR ratios showed significant differences between the 28 tissues with the highest ratio in the pituitary gland. Modification levels of individual CpG dinucleotides, including 5-mC and 5-hmC, in promoters 1D, 1E, 1F, and 1H were low, and diffusely clustered; despite significant heterogeneity between the donors. In agreement with this clustering, sum modification levels rather than individual CpG modifications correlated with GR expression. Two-way ANOVA showed that this sum modification was both promoter and brain region specific, but that there was however no promoter*tissue interaction. The heterogeneity between donors may however hide such an interaction. In both promoters 1F and 1H modification levels correlated with GRα expression suggesting that 5-mC and 5-hmC play an important role in fine tuning GR expression levels throughout the brain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bc meson weak decays and CP violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, J.; Chao, K.
1997-01-01
The form factors for B c transitions are calculated with a relativistic constituent quark model based on the Bethe-Salpeter formalism. The rates for some semileptonic and nonleptonic B c weak decays and CP-violating asymmetries for two-body hardonic B c decays are estimated as well. The calculated widths are compared with those predicted in other quark models of mesons. For the most promising signatures for the discovery of B c : B c →ψlν→(l '+ l '- )lν and B c →ψπ→(l '+ l '- )π (with l ' =e or μ), the combined branching ratios are, respectively, estimated to be 1.06x10 -3 and 4.8a 1 2 x10 -5 for τ B c =0.5 ps and as large as 2.56x10 -3 and 1.15a 1 2 x10 -4 for τ B c =1.2 ps. There are large CP-violating effects in some B c decay modes, and the rates for some of these (e.g., B c →ψD * ,η c D, and η c D * , etc.) are large too. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Structural, Dynamical, and Energetical Consequences of Rett Syndrome Mutation R133C in MeCP2
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tugba G. Kucukkal
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Rett Syndrome (RTT is a progressive neurodevelopmental disease affecting females. RTT is caused by mutations in the MECP2 gene and various amino acid substitutions have been identified clinically in different domains of the multifunctional MeCP2 protein encoded by this gene. The R133C variant in the methylated-CpG-binding domain (MBD of MeCP2 is the second most common disease-causing mutation in the MBD. Comparative molecular dynamics simulations of R133C mutant and wild-type MBD have been performed to understand the impact of the mutation on structure, dynamics, and interactions of the protein and subsequently understand the disease mechanism. Two salt bridges within the protein and two critical hydrogen bonds between the protein and DNA are lost upon the R133C mutation. The mutation was found to weaken the interaction with DNA and also cause loss of helicity within the 141-144 region. The structural, dynamical, and energetical consequences of R133C mutation were investigated in detail at the atomic resolution. Several important implications of this have been shown regarding protein stability and hydration dynamics as well as its interaction with DNA. The results are in agreement with previous experimental studies and further provide atomic level understanding of the molecular origin of RTT associated with R133C variant.
Is CP violation observable in long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanimoto, M.
1997-01-01
We have studied CP violation originating from the phase of the neutrino-mixing matrix in the long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. The direct measurement of CP violation is the difference of the transition probabilities between CP-conjugate channels. In those experiments, the CP-violating effect is not suppressed if the highest neutrino mass scale is taken to be 1 endash 5 eV, which is appropriate for the cosmological hot dark matter. Assuming the hierarchy for the neutrino masses, the upper bounds of CP violation have been calculated for three cases, in which mixings are constrained by the recent short baseline ones. The calculated upper bounds are larger than 10 -2 , which will be observable in the long baseline accelerator experiments. The matter effect, which is not CP invariant, has been also estimated in those experiments. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
SU(4) x U(1) gauge theory. II. CP nonconservation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deshpande, N.G.; Hwa, R.C.; Mannheim, P.D.
1979-01-01
We exploit the higher symmetry inherent in an SU(4) x U(1) gauge theory to construct a spontaneously broken theory of CP nonconservation. Higgs multiplets in the adjoint representation of SU(4) contain both even and odd CP fields; thus, requiring the simultaneous nonvanishing of the vacuum expectation values of these fields leads to CP noninvariance of the vacuum. We find that all the CP-nonconserving effects are mediated in our theory by the superheavy gauge bosons of the broken SU(4) x U(1) symmetry. In fact, the very existence of CP violation sets an upper limit on the masses of these bosons. In our model the dominant CP effect lies in the neutral kaon system and is found to arise through a direct (ΔS = 2) K 1 -K 2 transition. The model has all the features of a superweak theory, with a neutron electric dipole moment substantially smaller than 10 -24 e cm
CP violation in the K and B systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kayser, B.
1997-01-01
Although CP violation was discovered more than thirty years ago, its origin is still unknown. In these lectures, we describe the CP-violation effects which have been seen in K decays, and explain how CP violation can be caused by the Standard Model weak interaction. The hypothesis that this interaction is indeed the origin of CP violation will be incisively tested by future experiments on B and K decays. We explain what quantities these experiments will try to determine, and how they will be able to determine them in a theoretically clean way. To clarify the physics of the K system, we give a phase-convention-free description of CP violation in this system. We conclude by briefly exploring whether electric dipole moments actually violate CP even if CPT invariance is not assumed. (author)
Invariant approach to CP in unbroken Δ(27
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gustavo C. Branco
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The invariant approach is a powerful method for studying CP violation for specific Lagrangians. The method is particularly useful for dealing with discrete family symmetries. We focus on the CP properties of unbroken Δ(27 invariant Lagrangians with Yukawa-like terms, which proves to be a rich framework, with distinct aspects of CP, making it an ideal group to investigate with the invariant approach. We classify Lagrangians depending on the number of fields transforming as irreducible triplet representations of Δ(27. For each case, we construct CP-odd weak basis invariants and use them to discuss the respective CP properties. We find that CP violation is sensitive to the number and type of Δ(27 representations.
CP violation in the K and B systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kayser, B.
1996-11-01
Although CP violation was discovered more than thirty years ago, its origin is still unknown. In these lectures, we describe the CP- violating effects which have been seen in K decays, and explain how CP violation can be caused by the Standard Model weak interaction. The hypothesis that this interaction is indeed the origin of CP violation will be incisively tested by future experiments on B and K decays. We explain what quantities these experiments will try to determine, and how they will be able to determine them in a theoretically clean way. To clarify the physics of the K system, we give a phase-convention-free description of CP violation in this system. We conclude by briefly exploring whether electric dipole moments actually violate CP even if CPT invariance is not assumed
CP violation in the lepton sector and implications for leptogenesis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hagedorn, C.; Mohapatra, R. N.; Molinaro, E.
2018-01-01
We review the current status of the data on neutrino masses and lepton mixing and the prospects for measuring the CP-violating phases in the lepton sector. The possible connection between low energy CP violation encoded in the Dirac and Majorana phases of the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata mixing...... matrix and successful leptogenesis is emphasized in the context of seesaw extensions of the Standard Model with a flavor symmetry Gf (and CP symmetry)....
Benchmark test of CP-PACS for lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshie, Tomoteru
1996-01-01
The CP-PACS is a massively parallel computer dedicated for calculations in computational physics and will be in operation in the spring of 1996 at Center for Computational Physics, University of Tsukuba. In this paper, we describe the architecture of the CP-PACS and report the results of the estimate of the performance of the CP-PACS for typical lattice QCD calculations. (author)
Discrete ambiguities in CP-violating asymmetries in B decays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
London, David
1998-01-01
The CP-angles α, β and γ can be extracted from CP-violating asymmetries in the B system, but only up to discrete ambiguities. These discrete ambiguities make it difficult to determine with certainty whether or not new physics is present. I show that, if the condition α+β+γ=π is imposed, there remains a twofold ambiguity in the CP-angle set (α,β,γ), and I discuss ways to cleanly resolve this final discrete ambiguity
A brief introduction to the strong CP problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Dan-di; Melbourne Univ., Parkville
1991-09-01
The present status of the strong CP problem is briefly reviewed in a heuristic way. A crisis in EDMN calculation is explained. The equation of vacuum alignment obtained by the author and collaborators last year put a constraint on strong CP parameters. Thus the strong CP will be forced to vanish in one of the three scenarios characterized by axion, zero quark mass, and vanishing quark condensate. 12 refs
Phenomenology of CP violation from the Kobayashi-Maskawa model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, L.L.C.
1980-01-01
The CP violation consequences of the K-M model, which Kobayashi, Maskawa introduced in 1977 for the purpose of incorporating CP violation via the complexity in the mixing matrix of the quarks are discussed. Much of the talk is a review of current work on the subject. Some new results on the CP violation effects in exclusive and inclusive decays of bottom, charm and strange particles are also given
Rephasing-invariant CP violating parameters with Majorana neutrinos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nieves, Jose F.; Pal, Palash B.
2001-06-01
We analyze the dependence of the squared amplitudes on the rephasing-invariant CP-violating parameters of the lepton sector, involving Majorana neutrinos, for various lepton- conserving and lepton-violating processes. We analyze the conditions under which the CP-violating effects in such processes vanish, in terms of the minimal set of rephasing invariants, giving special attention to the dependence on the extra CP-violating parameters that are due to the Majorana nature of the neutrinos. (author)
MeCP2 regulates ethanol sensitivity and intake.
Repunte-Canonigo, Vez; Chen, Jihuan; Lefebvre, Celine; Kawamura, Tomoya; Kreifeldt, Max; Basson, Oan; Roberts, Amanda J; Sanna, Pietro Paolo
2014-09-01
We have investigated the expression of chromatin-regulating genes in the prefrontal cortex and in the shell subdivision of the nucleus accumbens during protracted withdrawal in mice with increased ethanol drinking after chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor exposure and in mice with a history of non-dependent drinking. We observed that the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) was one of the few chromatin-regulating genes to be differentially regulated by a history of dependence. As MeCP2 has the potential of acting as a broad gene regulator, we investigated sensitivity to ethanol and ethanol drinking in MeCP2(308/) (Y) mice, which harbor a truncated MeCP2 allele but have a milder phenotype than MeCP2 null mice. We observed that MeCP2(308/) (Y) mice were more sensitive to ethanol's stimulatory and sedative effects than wild-type (WT) mice, drank less ethanol in a limited access 2 bottle choice paradigm and did not show increased drinking after induction of dependence with exposure to CIE vapors. Alcohol metabolism did not differ in MeCP2(308/) (Y) and WT mice. Additionally, MeCP2(308/) (Y) mice did not differ from WT mice in ethanol preference in a 24-hour paradigm nor in their intake of graded solutions of saccharin or quinine, suggesting that the MeCP2(308/) (Y) mutation did not alter taste function. Lastly, using the Gene Set Enrichment Analysis algorithm, we found a significant overlap in the genes regulated by alcohol and by MeCP2. Together, these results suggest that MeCP2 contributes to the regulation of ethanol sensitivity and drinking. © 2013 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.
A rare male patient with classic Rett syndrome caused by MeCP2_e1 mutation.
Tokaji, Narumi; Ito, Hiromichi; Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Naruto, Takuya; Takahashi, Rizu; Goji, Aya; Mori, Tatsuo; Toda, Yoshihiro; Saito, Masako; Tange, Shoichiro; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Kagami, Shoji; Imoto, Issei
2018-03-01
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder typically affecting females. It is mainly caused by loss-of-function mutations that affect the coding sequence of exon 3 or 4 of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). Severe neonatal encephalopathy resulting in death before the age of 2 years is the most common phenotype observed in males affected by a pathogenic MECP2 variant. Mutations in MECP2 exon 1 affecting the MeCP2_e1 isoform are relatively rare causes of RTT in females, and only one case of a male patient with MECP2-related severe neonatal encephalopathy caused by a mutation in MECP2 exon 1 has been reported. This is the first reported case of a male with classic RTT caused by a 5-bp duplication in the open-reading frame of MECP2 exon 1 (NM_001110792.1:c.23_27dup) that introduced a premature stop codon [p.(Ser10Argfs*36)] in the MeCP2_e1 isoform, which has been reported in one female patient with classic RTT. Therefore, both males and females displaying at least some type of MeCP2_e1 mutation may exhibit the classic RTT phenotype. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Measurements of direct CP violation in charm decays at LHCb
INSPIRE-00257861
2013-01-01
Two searches for direct CP violation in D 0 ! h h + (where h = K or ) are presented using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb 1 collected in 2011 by LHCb in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. One analysis uses D 0 mesons produced via a D resonance and the other analysis uses D 0 mesons originating from semileptonic b - decays. In the rst case the avour is tagged by the charge of the accompanying pion and in the latter by the muon charge. The dierence of the CP -violating asymmetries ( A CP = A CP ( K K + ) A CP ( + )) in the two decay channels is measured to be A CP (muon tagged) = (0 : 49 0 : 30 (stat) 0 : 14 (syst))% ; A CP (pion tagged) = ( 0 : 35 0 : 15 (stat) 0 : 10 (syst))% ; A CP (LHCb) = ( 0 : 15 0 : 16)% : These results do not conrm evidence for CP violation in the charm sector
Evidence for non-CpG methylation in mammals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yan, Jie; Zierath, Juleen R; Barres, Romain
2011-01-01
In mammals, the existence of cytosine methylation on non-CpG sequences is controversial. Here, we adapted a LuminoMetric-based Assay (LUMA) to determine global non-CpG methylation levels in rodent and human tissues. We observed that......In mammals, the existence of cytosine methylation on non-CpG sequences is controversial. Here, we adapted a LuminoMetric-based Assay (LUMA) to determine global non-CpG methylation levels in rodent and human tissues. We observed that...
CP violation conditions in N-Higgs-doublet potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishi, C. C.
2006-01-01
Conditions for CP violation in the scalar potential sector of general N-Higgs-doublet models are analyzed from a group theoretical perspective. For the simplest two-Higgs-doublet model potential, a minimum set of conditions for explicit and spontaneous CP violation is presented. The conditions can be given a clear geometrical interpretation in terms of quantities in the adjoint representation of the basis transformation group for the two doublets. Such conditions depend on CP-odd pseudoscalar invariants. When the potential is CP invariant, the explicit procedure to reach the real CP-basis and the explicit CP transformation can also be obtained. The procedure to find the real basis and the conditions for CP violation are then extended to general N-Higgs-doublet model potentials. The analysis becomes more involved and only a formal procedure to reach the real basis is found. Necessary conditions for CP invariance can still be formulated in terms of group invariants: the CP-odd generalized pseudoscalars. The problem can be completely solved for three Higgs-doublets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Littenberg, L.S.
1989-01-01
It's been appreciated for many years that the decays K L → π 0 ell bar ell are CP violating to lowest order in the Standard Model, and that the component of direct CP violation in these decays is likely to be comparable to that of the CP violation due to state mixing (ε). This is to be contrasted with the case of K 0 → ππ wherein the latter contribution is predicted to be hundreds of times larger than the former. This paper investigates this CP violation further. 19 refs., 2 figs
Frequency Constrained ShiftCP Modeling of Neuroimaging Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai; Madsen, Kristoffer H.
2011-01-01
The shift invariant multi-linear model based on the CandeComp/PARAFAC (CP) model denoted ShiftCP has proven useful for the modeling of latency changes in trial based neuroimaging data[17]. In order to facilitate component interpretation we presently extend the shiftCP model such that the extracted...... components can be constrained to pertain to predefined frequency ranges such as alpha, beta and gamma activity. To infer the number of components in the model we propose to apply automatic relevance determination by imposing priors that define the range of variation of each component of the shiftCP model...
Investigation of Inclusive CP Asymmetries in B$^{0}$ Decays
Barate, R; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Merle, E; Minard, M N; Pietrzyk, B; Bravo, S; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Graugès-Pous, E; Martínez, M; Merino, G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Pacheco, A; Ruiz, H; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Boix, G; Buchmüller, O L; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Dissertori, G; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Greening, T C; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Lehraus, Ivan; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Moutoussi, A; Ranjard, F; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Spagnolo, P; Tejessy, W; Teubert, F; Tournefier, E; Wright, A E; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Badaud, F; Chazelle, G; Deschamps, O; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Petersen, B; Wäänänen, A; Daskalakis, G; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Vayaki, Anna; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Swynghedauw, M; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Zachariadou, K; Antonelli, A; Antonelli, M; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Halley, A W; Lynch, J G; Negus, P; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Cavanaugh, R J; Dhamotharan, S; Geweniger, C; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Girone, M; Marinelli, N; Sedgbeer, J K; Thompson, J C; Thomson, E; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Buck, P G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Robertson, N A; Giehl, I; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Wachsmuth, H W; Zeitnitz, C; Bonissent, A; Carr, J; Coyle, P; Leroy, O; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Aleppo, M; Ragusa, F; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Heister, A; Hüttmann, K; Lütjens, G; Mannert, C; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Azzurri, P; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Chen, S; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacholkowska, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Schune, M H; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Yuan, C; Zerwas, D; Bagliesi, G; Boccali, T; Calderini, G; Ciulli, V; Foà, L; Giassi, A; Ligabue, F; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Sguazzoni, G; Tenchini, Roberto; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Cowan, G D; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Norton, P R; Tomalin, I R; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Konstantinidis, N P; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Lehto, M H; Thompson, L F; Affholderbach, K; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Grupen, Claus; Misiejuk, A; Prange, G; Sieler, U; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Cranmer, K; Elmer, P; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y; González, S; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; Kile, J; McNamara, P A; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Zobernig, G
2001-01-01
A search for CP violating effects in the mixing of neutral B mesons is performed using a sample of 4.1 million hadronic Z decays collected with the ALEPH detector from 1991 to 1995. By studying time-dependent asymmetries in flavour-tagged samples of semileptonic and fully inclusive b-hadron decays, two measurements of the semileptonic asymmetry a_cp are extracted. No evidence for CP violation is observed, and the combined value a_cp = -0.013 +- 0.026 is obtained.
CpG island mapping by epigenome prediction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christoph Bock
2007-06-01
Full Text Available CpG islands were originally identified by epigenetic and functional properties, namely, absence of DNA methylation and frequent promoter association. However, this concept was quickly replaced by simple DNA sequence criteria, which allowed for genome-wide annotation of CpG islands in the absence of large-scale epigenetic datasets. Although widely used, the current CpG island criteria incur significant disadvantages: (1 reliance on arbitrary threshold parameters that bear little biological justification, (2 failure to account for widespread heterogeneity among CpG islands, and (3 apparent lack of specificity when applied to the human genome. This study is driven by the idea that a quantitative score of "CpG island strength" that incorporates epigenetic and functional aspects can help resolve these issues. We construct an epigenome prediction pipeline that links the DNA sequence of CpG islands to their epigenetic states, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin accessibility. By training support vector machines on epigenetic data for CpG islands on human Chromosomes 21 and 22, we identify informative DNA attributes that correlate with open versus compact chromatin structures. These DNA attributes are used to predict the epigenetic states of all CpG islands genome-wide. Combining predictions for multiple epigenetic features, we estimate the inherent CpG island strength for each CpG island in the human genome, i.e., its inherent tendency to exhibit an open and transcriptionally competent chromatin structure. We extensively validate our results on independent datasets, showing that the CpG island strength predictions are applicable and informative across different tissues and cell types, and we derive improved maps of predicted "bona fide" CpG islands. The mapping of CpG islands by epigenome prediction is conceptually superior to identifying CpG islands by widely used sequence criteria since it links CpG island detection to
CpG island mapping by epigenome prediction.
Bock, Christoph; Walter, Jörn; Paulsen, Martina; Lengauer, Thomas
2007-06-01
CpG islands were originally identified by epigenetic and functional properties, namely, absence of DNA methylation and frequent promoter association. However, this concept was quickly replaced by simple DNA sequence criteria, which allowed for genome-wide annotation of CpG islands in the absence of large-scale epigenetic datasets. Although widely used, the current CpG island criteria incur significant disadvantages: (1) reliance on arbitrary threshold parameters that bear little biological justification, (2) failure to account for widespread heterogeneity among CpG islands, and (3) apparent lack of specificity when applied to the human genome. This study is driven by the idea that a quantitative score of "CpG island strength" that incorporates epigenetic and functional aspects can help resolve these issues. We construct an epigenome prediction pipeline that links the DNA sequence of CpG islands to their epigenetic states, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin accessibility. By training support vector machines on epigenetic data for CpG islands on human Chromosomes 21 and 22, we identify informative DNA attributes that correlate with open versus compact chromatin structures. These DNA attributes are used to predict the epigenetic states of all CpG islands genome-wide. Combining predictions for multiple epigenetic features, we estimate the inherent CpG island strength for each CpG island in the human genome, i.e., its inherent tendency to exhibit an open and transcriptionally competent chromatin structure. We extensively validate our results on independent datasets, showing that the CpG island strength predictions are applicable and informative across different tissues and cell types, and we derive improved maps of predicted "bona fide" CpG islands. The mapping of CpG islands by epigenome prediction is conceptually superior to identifying CpG islands by widely used sequence criteria since it links CpG island detection to their characteristic
Search for CP violation in baryon decays at LHCb
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
The phenomenon of CP violation has been observed in the K- and B-meson systems, but not yet with any baryonic particle. We report on searches for CP violation in baryon decays at LHCb using Run I data. We find evidence for CP violation in Lambda0b -> p pi- pi+ pi- decays with a statistical significance corresponding to 3.3 standard deviations, including systematic uncertainties. This represents the first evidence of CP violation in the baryon sector. An overview of other recent results of baryon decays will be presented, along with some highlights of the charmless B-decay programme.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsai, Y.S.
1998-01-01
In the Standard Model no CP violation can occur in decay processes involving leptons either as a parent or a daughter because these processes involve one W exchange and thus, even if the CP violating complex coupling exists in these decays, its effect will not show up when the amplitude is squared. The author needs two diagrams to interfere with each other to see the CP violating effects. Here, he discusses ways to find CP violation in the decay of τ ± → ν τ + 3π from unpolarized as well as polarized τ ±
A model for the origin and mechanisms of CP violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Y.
1995-01-01
In this talk I will show that the two-Higgs doublet model with vacuum CP violation and approximate global U(1) family symmetries may provide one of the simplest and attractive models for understanding the origin and mechanisms of CP violation. It is shown that the mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking provides not only a mechanism for generating masses of the bosons and fermions, but also a mechanism for creating CP-phases of the bosons and fermions, so that CP violation occurs, after spontaneous symmetry breaking, in all possible ways from a single CP phase of the vacuum and is generally classified into four types of CP-violating mechanism. A new type of CP-violating mechanism in the charged Higgs boson interactions of the fermions is emphasized and can provide a consistent description for both established and reported CP-, P-, and T-violating phenomena. Of particular importance is the new source of CP violation for charged Higgs boson interactions that lead to the value of ε'/ε as large as 10 -3 independent of the CKM phase. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Accurate genotyping across variant classes and lengths using variant graphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sibbesen, Jonas Andreas; Maretty, Lasse; Jensen, Jacob Malte
2018-01-01
of read k-mers to a graph representation of the reference and variants to efficiently perform unbiased, probabilistic genotyping across the variation spectrum. We demonstrate that BayesTyper generally provides superior variant sensitivity and genotyping accuracy relative to existing methods when used...... collecting a set of candidate variants across discovery methods, individuals and databases, and then realigning the reads to the variants and reference simultaneously. However, this realignment problem has proved computationally difficult. Here, we present a new method (BayesTyper) that uses exact alignment...... to integrate variants across discovery approaches and individuals. Finally, we demonstrate that including a ‘variation-prior’ database containing already known variants significantly improves sensitivity....
Single isospin decay amplitude and CP violation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deshpande, N.G. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Theoretical Science; He, Xiaogang [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Pakvasa, S. [Hawaii Univ., Honolulu, HI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
1996-06-01
While for K meson or hyperon decays, the partial rate asymmetries are always zero if the final states are single isospin states, in B decays the situation is dramatically different and partial rate asymmetries can be non-zero if the final states are single isospin states. Partial rate asymmetries were calculated for several B decays with single isospin amplitude in the finale states using factorization approximation. It was found that more intermediate on-shell states with different Cabbibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa factors are allowed in B decay and CP violating partial rate asymmetries need not to be zero even if the final state contains only a single isospin state. 17 refs., 4 figs.
60 years controlled nuclear fission: CP-1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
2002-01-01
On December 2, 1942, the Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) went critical for the first time. In this way, the scientists and engineers involved in the project under the leadership of Enrico Fermi succeeded in demonstrating that a self-sustaining nuclear reaction with nuclear fission processes was technically feasible. Only four years after the discovery and proof of nuclear fission by Otto Hahn, Fritz Strassmann, and Lise Meitner, the experiment consisting of graphite blocks as the moderator and uranium dioxide pellets as the fuel, as well as instrumentation and control devices, had been set up in the former squash court of the field and track stadium of the University of Chicago. Precisely at 3.36 a.m. Chicago time, after control rods had been withdrawn, the instruments showed the chain reaction by the neutron flux they indicated. An important cornerstone in the use of nuclear power had thus been laid. (orig.)
Experimental hint for gravitational CP violation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gharibyan, Vahagn [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany). MDI Group
2016-01-15
An equality of particle and antiparticle gravitational interactions holds in general relativity and is supported by indirect observations. Gravity dependence on rotation or spin direction is experimentally constrained only at low energies. Here a method based on high energy Compton scattering is developed to measure the gravitational interaction of accelerated charged particles. Within that formalism the Compton spectra measured at HERA rule out the positron's anti-gravity and hint for a gravitational CP violation around 13 GeV energies, at a maximal level of 1.3±0.2% for the charge and 0.68±0.09% for the space parity. A stronger gravitational coupling to left helicity electrons relative to right helicity positrons is detected.
Experimental hint for gravitational CP violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gharibyan, Vahagn
2016-01-01
An equality of particle and antiparticle gravitational interactions holds in general relativity and is supported by indirect observations. Gravity dependence on rotation or spin direction is experimentally constrained only at low energies. Here a method based on high energy Compton scattering is developed to measure the gravitational interaction of accelerated charged particles. Within that formalism the Compton spectra measured at HERA rule out the positron's anti-gravity and hint for a gravitational CP violation around 13 GeV energies, at a maximal level of 1.3±0.2% for the charge and 0.68±0.09% for the space parity. A stronger gravitational coupling to left helicity electrons relative to right helicity positrons is detected.
Hypermutability of CpG dinucleotides in the propeptide-encoding sequence of the human albumin gene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brennan, S.O.; Peach, R.; Myles, T.; George, P.; Arai, Kunio; Madison, J.; Watkins, S.; Putnam, F.W.; Laurell, C.B.; Galliano, M.
1990-01-01
An electrophoretically slow albumin variant was detected with a phenotype frequency of about 1:1,000 in Sweden and was also found in a family of Scottish descent from Kaikoura, New Zealand, and in five families in Tradate, Italy. Structural study established that the major variant component was arginyl-albumin, in which arginine at the -1 position of the propeptide is still attached to the processed albumin. A minor component with the amino-terminal sequence of proalbumin was also present as 3-6% of the total albumin. After amplification of the gene segment encoding the prepro sequence of albumin, specific hybridization of DNA to an oligonucleotide probe encoding cysteine at position -2 indicated the mutation of arginine at the -2 position to cysteine (-2 Arg → Cys). This produced the propeptide sequence Arg-Gly-Val-Phe-Cys-Arg. This was confirmed by sequence analysis after pyridylethylation of the cysteine. This mutation produces an alternate signal peptidase cleavage site in the variant proalbumin precursor of arginyl-albumin giving rise to two possible products, arginyl-albumin and the variant proalbumin. Another plasma from Bremen had an alloalbumin with a previously described substitution (1 Asp → Val), which also affects propeptide cleavage. Hypermutability of two CpG dinucleotides in the codons for the diarginyl sequence may account for the frequency of mutations in the propeptide. Mutation at these two sites results in a series of recurrent proalbumin variants that have arisen independently in diverse populations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qingping Xu
Full Text Available NlpC/P60 superfamily papain-like enzymes play important roles in all kingdoms of life. Two members of this superfamily, LRAT-like and YaeF/YiiX-like families, were predicted to contain a catalytic domain that is circularly permuted such that the catalytic cysteine is located near the C-terminus, instead of at the N-terminus. These permuted enzymes are widespread in virus, pathogenic bacteria, and eukaryotes. We determined the crystal structure of a member of the YaeF/YiiX-like family from Bacillus cereus in complex with lysine. The structure, which adopts a ligand-induced, "closed" conformation, confirms the circular permutation of catalytic residues. A comparative analysis of other related protein structures within the NlpC/P60 superfamily is presented. Permutated NlpC/P60 enzymes contain a similar conserved core and arrangement of catalytic residues, including a Cys/His-containing triad and an additional conserved tyrosine. More surprisingly, permuted enzymes have a hydrophobic S1 binding pocket that is distinct from previously characterized enzymes in the family, indicative of novel substrate specificity. Further analysis of a structural homolog, YiiX (PDB 2if6 identified a fatty acid in the conserved hydrophobic pocket, thus providing additional insights into possible function of these novel enzymes.
Pan, Wei
2003-07-22
Recently a class of nonparametric statistical methods, including the empirical Bayes (EB) method, the significance analysis of microarray (SAM) method and the mixture model method (MMM), have been proposed to detect differential gene expression for replicated microarray experiments conducted under two conditions. All the methods depend on constructing a test statistic Z and a so-called null statistic z. The null statistic z is used to provide some reference distribution for Z such that statistical inference can be accomplished. A common way of constructing z is to apply Z to randomly permuted data. Here we point our that the distribution of z may not approximate the null distribution of Z well, leading to possibly too conservative inference. This observation may apply to other permutation-based nonparametric methods. We propose a new method of constructing a null statistic that aims to estimate the null distribution of a test statistic directly. Using simulated data and real data, we assess and compare the performance of the existing method and our new method when applied in EB, SAM and MMM. Some interesting findings on operating characteristics of EB, SAM and MMM are also reported. Finally, by combining the idea of SAM and MMM, we outline a simple nonparametric method based on the direct use of a test statistic and a null statistic.
Variants of Moreau's sweeping process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siddiqi, A.H.; Manchanda, P.
2001-07-01
In this paper we prove the existence and uniqueness of two variants of Moreau's sweeping process -u'(t) is an element of Nc (t) (u(t)), where in one variant we replace u(t) by u'(t) in the right-hand side of the inclusion and in the second variant u'(t) and u(t) are respectively replaced by u''(t) and u'(t). (author)
Search for neutral Higgs bosons in CP-conserving and CP-violating MSSM scenarios
Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Buesser, K.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Ciocca, C.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harel, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kramer, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kruger, K.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J.G.; Lellouch, D.; Lettso, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, J.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McKenna, J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, Niels T.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija
2004-01-01
This report summarizes the final results from the OPAL collaboration on searches for neutral Higgs bosons predicted by the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). CP-conserving and for the first time at LEP CP-violating scenarios are studied. New scenarios are also included, which aim to set the stage for Higgs searches at future colliders. The results are based on the data collected with the OPAL detector at e+e- centre-of-mass energies up to 209 GeV. The data are consistent with the prediction of the Standard Model with no Higgs boson produced. Model-independent limits are derived for the cross-section of a number of events topologies motivated by prediction of the MSSM. Limits on Higgs boson masses and other MSSM parameters are obtained for a number of representative MSSM benchmark scenarios. For example, in the CP-conserving scenario mh-max where the MSSM parameters are adjusted to predict the largest range of values for mh at each tan beta, and for a top quark mass of 174.3 GeV, the domain 0.784.5 ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quadri, Mohammad I.; Al-Sheikh, Iman H.
2001-01-01
Hairy cell leukaemia variant is a very rare chronic lymphoproliferative disorder and is closely related to hairy cell leukemia. We hereby describe a case of hairy cell leukaemia variant for the first time in Saudi Arabia. An elderly Saudi man presented with pallor, massive splenomegaly, and moderate hepatomegaly. Hemoglobin was 7.7 g/dl, Platelets were 134 x109/l and white blood count was 140x10 9/l with 97% being abnormal lymphoid cells with cytoplasmic projections. The morphology, cytochemistry, and immunophenotype of the lymphoid cells were classical of hairy cell leukaemia variant. The bone marrow was easily aspirated and findings were consistent with hairy cell leukaemia variant. (author)
Synthesis and reactivity of dimolybdathiaborane cluster [(Cp Mo ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Cluster 2 has a bicapped octahedral geometry with the {Fe(CO)3} fragment occupying one of the ... thesis and characterization of [(Cp. ∗ ... Infrared spectra were obtained on a Nicolet 6700 FT-. IR spectrometer. Microanalyses for C, H, and N were performed on .... tains signals attributable to the one type of Cp. ∗ ligand.
Solution of the strong CP problem by color exchange
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barr, S.M.; Zee, A.
1985-08-01
We present a new way to solve the strong CP problem in models with a spontaneously broken CP invariance. It is simpler than existing non-Peccei-Quinn approaches. It predicts the existence of light (i.e. weak scale) colored Higgs bosons which could be seen in colliders. 25 refs., 3 figs
Proceedings of the Workshop on CP Violation at KAON Factory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ng, J.N.
1989-07-01
These proceedings contain the written version of eight talks delivered at the Workshop on CP Violation at KAON Factory. The articles contain reviews on the exploration of CP violation effects associated with the s-quark. Discussion on the use of intense kaon fluxes, which will be available at the proposed KAON Factory, are included
Isospin analysis of CP asymmetries in B decays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gronau, M.; London, D.
1990-09-01
There is some theoretical uncertainty in the predictions for CP violating hadronic asymmetries in neutral B decays to CP eigenstates due to the existence of penguin diagrams. Using isospin relatins, we show that it is possible to remove this uncertainty for the decays B d 0 → ππ, up to a 4-fold ambiguity. (orig.)
A mini review on CP-violating minimal supersymmetric Standard
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We discuss the present status of the Higgs sector of the CP-violating minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (CPVMSSM). In the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics, the only source of CP violation is the complex phase in the Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa (CKM) matrix. By now we all know that this singlephase is ...
Difficulty for Weinberg model of CP nonconservation through Higgs exchange
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deshpande, N.G.
1981-01-01
We evaluate the CP violation parameter element of'/element of in the Weinberg model of CP nonconservation. When gluon exchange effects are included, we find element of'/element of approx. -.045, which is in conflict with the experimental measurement element of'/element of = -.003 +- .015
On the determination of the CP of the Higgs boson
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skjold, A.
1995-12-31
While the Higgs particle of the Standard Models is a Cp-even scalar particle, extended models may contain Higgs particles that are odd under CP, and also models invoking Higgs-like particles which are not eigenstates of CP may be considered. In the context of Higgs production via the Bjorken process and Higgs decay to tour fermions distributions that are sensitive to the CP parity are discussed. The author also discuss observables which may demonstrate presence of CP violation and identify a phase shift {delta} which is a measure of the strength of CP violation in the Higgs-vector-vector coupling, and which can be measured directly in the relevant distribution. In the case of Higgs production via the Bjorken process at a future e{sup +}e{sup -}collider, Monte Carlo data on the expected efficiency is presented, and it is concluded that it is relatively easy to determine whether the produced particle is even or odd under CP. However, observation of any CP violation would require a very large amount of data. It is argued that the analogous prospects at LEP2 or at a future hadron collider like the LHC seem to be less promising. 63 refs.
On the determination of the CP of the Higgs boson
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skjold, A.
1995-01-01
While the Higgs particle of the Standard Models is a Cp-even scalar particle, extended models may contain Higgs particles that are odd under CP, and also models invoking Higgs-like particles which are not eigenstates of CP may be considered. In the context of Higgs production via the Bjorken process and Higgs decay to tour fermions distributions that are sensitive to the CP parity are discussed. The author also discuss observables which may demonstrate presence of CP violation and identify a phase shift δ which is a measure of the strength of CP violation in the Higgs-vector-vector coupling, and which can be measured directly in the relevant distribution. In the case of Higgs production via the Bjorken process at a future e + e - collider, Monte Carlo data on the expected efficiency is presented, and it is concluded that it is relatively easy to determine whether the produced particle is even or odd under CP. However, observation of any CP violation would require a very large amount of data. It is argued that the analogous prospects at LEP2 or at a future hadron collider like the LHC seem to be less promising. 63 refs
Why does CP violation matter to the universe?
Ellis, Jonathan Richard
1999-01-01
The seemingly obscure phenomenon of CP violation is increasingly being viewed as the key to a deeper understanding of both the behaviour of elementary particles and the big bang origin of the universe. Here, John Ellis of CERN explains how far and how deep the implications of CP violation extend. (0 refs).
On the determination of the CP of the Higgs boson
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skjold, A
1996-12-31
While the Higgs particle of the Standard Models is a Cp-even scalar particle, extended models may contain Higgs particles that are odd under CP, and also models invoking Higgs-like particles which are not eigenstates of CP may be considered. In the context of Higgs production via the Bjorken process and Higgs decay to tour fermions distributions that are sensitive to the CP parity are discussed. The author also discuss observables which may demonstrate presence of CP violation and identify a phase shift {delta} which is a measure of the strength of CP violation in the Higgs-vector-vector coupling, and which can be measured directly in the relevant distribution. In the case of Higgs production via the Bjorken process at a future e{sup +}e{sup -}collider, Monte Carlo data on the expected efficiency is presented, and it is concluded that it is relatively easy to determine whether the produced particle is even or odd under CP. However, observation of any CP violation would require a very large amount of data. It is argued that the analogous prospects at LEP2 or at a future hadron collider like the LHC seem to be less promising. 63 refs.
CP violation searches in the charm sector at LHCb
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
LHCb has collected the world's largest sample of charmed hadrons, thus enabling measurements of direct and indirect CP violation parameters of D^0 mesons to be made with unprecedented precision. The difference in CP asymmetries between the singly Cabibbo-suppressed (SCS) D^0 -> K+K- and D^0 -> pi+pi- decays (Delta A_CP) has emerged as a powerful observable to search for direct CPV in the charm sector. By taking the difference between the two modes, most of the asymmetries induced by the detector or coming from the production mechanism are cancelled. The measurement of Delta A_CP done at LHCb is the most precise measurement of a time-integrated CP asymmetry in the charm sector from a single experiment, with a precision reaching the sub-permille level. Two independent measurements of Delta A_CP based on complementary data sets will be presented. Related 2-body searches and searches for direct CP violation in multi-body decays of the D^0 mesons will be discussed. Indirect CP violation in charm is measured throug...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anil K Giri
Full Text Available A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS identified association with variants in X-linked CLDN2 and MORC4, and PRSS1-PRSS2 loci with chronic pancreatitis (CP in North American patients of European ancestry. We selected 9 variants from the reported GWAS and replicated the association with CP in Indian patients by genotyping 1807 unrelated Indians of Indo-European ethnicity, including 519 patients with CP and 1288 controls. The etiology of CP was idiopathic in 83.62% and alcoholic in 16.38% of 519 patients. Our study confirmed a significant association of 2 variants in CLDN2 gene (rs4409525-OR 1.71, P = 1.38 x 10-09; rs12008279-OR 1.56, P = 1.53 x 10-04 and 2 variants in MORC4 gene (rs12688220-OR 1.72, P = 9.20 x 10-09; rs6622126-OR 1.75, P = 4.04x10-05 in Indian patients with CP. We also found significant association at PRSS1-PRSS2 locus (OR 0.60; P = 9.92 x 10-06 and SAMD12-TNFRSF11B (OR 0.49, 95% CI [0.31-0.78], P = 0.0027. A variant in the gene MORC4 (rs12688220 showed significant interaction with alcohol (OR for homozygous and heterozygous risk allele -14.62 and 1.51 respectively, P = 0.0068 suggesting gene-environment interaction. A combined analysis of the genes CLDN2 and MORC4 based on an effective risk allele score revealed a higher percentage of individuals homozygous for the risk allele in CP cases with 5.09 fold enhanced risk in individuals with 7 or more effective risk alleles compared with individuals with 3 or less risk alleles (P = 1.88 x 10-14. Genetic variants in CLDN2 and MORC4 genes were associated with CP in Indian patients.
Product Variant Master as a Means to Handle Variant Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hildre, Hans Petter; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup
1996-01-01
be implemented in the CAD system I-DEAS. A precondition for high degree of computer support is identification of a product variant master from which new variants can be derived. This class platform defines how a product build up fit certain production methods and rules governing determination of modules...
$CP$ violation in the B system at LHCb
AUTHOR|(CDS)2067431
2014-01-01
A selection of recent LHCb results on $CP$ violation in the $B$ system is presented. These include direct $CP$ violation measurements in $B^0 \\to \\phi K^*(892)^0$, $B_{(s)}^0 \\to K^\\pm\\pi^\\pm$, $B^\\pm \\to K^\\pm \\pi^+\\pi^-$, $B^\\pm \\to K^\\pm K^+K^-$ and $B^\\pm \\to \\phi K^\\pm$ decays; time-dependent $CP$ violation measurements in $B_s^0 \\to K^+K^-$ and $B^0 \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-$ decays; determination of the flavour-specific $CP$-violating asymmetry $a_{sl}^s$ in $B_s^0$ decays; and study of the mixing-induced $CP$ violation in $B_s^0 \\to J/\\psi K^+K^-$ and $B_s^0 \\to J/\\psi \\pi^+\\pi^-$ decays.
The possibility of leptonic CP-violation measurement with JUNO
Smirnov, M. V.; Hu, Zh. J.; Li, S. J.; Ling, J. J.
2018-06-01
The existence of CP-violation in the leptonic sector is one of the most important issues for modern science. Neutrino physics is a key to the solution of this problem. JUNO (under construction) is the near future of neutrino physics. However CP-violation is not a priority for the current scientific program. We estimate the capability of δCP measurement, assuming a combination of the JUNO detector and a superconductive cyclotron as the antineutrino source. This method of measuring CP-violation is an alternative to conventional beam experiments. A significance level of 3σ can be reached for 22% of the δCP range. The accuracy of measurement lies between 8o and 22o. It is shown that the dominant influence on the result is the uncertainty in the mixing angle Θ23.
Neutrino mixing and lepton CP-phase in neutrino oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryzhikh, D.A.; Ter-Martirosyan, K.A.
2001-01-01
One studied oscillations of the Dirac neutrinos belonging to three generations in vacuum with regard to the effect of the lepton CP-breaking phase on them in the matrix of lepton mixing (analogue of the quark CP-phase). In the general form one obtained formulae for probabilities of transition of neutrino of one kind to another at oscillations depending on three angles of mixing and on CP-phase. It was pointed that when measuring oscillation average probabilities of transition of neutrino of one kind to another one might in principle, restore the value of lepton CP-phase. Manifestation of CP-phase in the form of deviation of the values of probabilities of direct neutrino transition from reverse one is the effect practically escaping observation [ru
Testing non-standard CP violation in neutrino propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winter, Walter
2009-01-01
Non-standard physics which can be described by effective four fermion interactions may be an additional source of CP violation in the neutrino propagation. We discuss the detectability of such a CP violation at a neutrino factory. We assume the current baseline setup of the international design study of a neutrino factory (IDS-NF) for the simulation. We find that the CP violation from certain non-standard interactions is, in principle, detectable significantly below their current bounds - even if there is no CP violation in the standard oscillation framework. Therefore, a new physics effect might be mis-interpreted as the canonical Dirac CP violation, and a possibly even more exciting effect might be missed
Implications of maximal Jarlskog invariant and maximal CP violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez-Jauregui, E.; Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico
2001-04-01
We argue here why CP violating phase Φ in the quark mixing matrix is maximal, that is, Φ=90 . In the Standard Model CP violation is related to the Jarlskog invariant J, which can be obtained from non commuting Hermitian mass matrices. In this article we derive the conditions to have Hermitian mass matrices which give maximal Jarlskog invariant J and maximal CP violating phase Φ. We find that all squared moduli of the quark mixing elements have a singular point when the CP violation phase Φ takes the value Φ=90 . This special feature of the Jarlskog invariant J and the quark mixing matrix is a clear and precise indication that CP violating Phase Φ is maximal in order to let nature treat democratically all of the quark mixing matrix moduli. (orig.)
Four-dimensional CP2 model on a lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bitar, K.M.; Raja, R.
1983-01-01
We investigate the phenomenon of dynamical generation of gauge interactions from CP/sup N/-1 models in four dimensions. We do this for the CP 2 model on a lattice. The phase diagram of a model that interpolates between CP 2 and U(1) gauge theory on a lattice is first mapped out. The potential between static charges in various regions of this diagram is also measured. Contrary to hopes based on the large-N behavior of similar models in two dimensions and on our phase diagram, we find that the potentials generated by CP 2 do not bear any resemblance to those of U(1). They are rather similar to the Higgs phase of an Abelian gauge theory in both phases displayed by CP 2
On the energy crisis in noncommutative CP(1) model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sourrouille, Lucas
2010-01-01
We study the CP(1) system in (2+1)-dimensional noncommutative space with and without Chern-Simons term. Using the Seiberg-Witten map we convert the noncommutative CP(1) system to an action written in terms of the commutative fields. We find that this system presents the same infinite size instanton solution as the commutative Chern-Simons-CP(1) model without a potential term. Based on this result we argue that the BPS equations are compatible with the full variational equations of motion, rejecting the hypothesis of an 'energy crisis'. In addition we examine the noncommutative CP(1) system with a Chern-Simons interaction. In this case we find that when the theory is transformed by the Seiberg-Witten map it also presents the same instanton solution as the commutative Chern-Simons-CP(1) model.
Addressing the strong CP problem with quark mass ratios
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diaz-Cruz, J.L.; Saldana-Salazar, U.J. [Benemerita Univ. Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico). Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas; Hollik, W.G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2016-05-15
The strong CP problem is one of many puzzles in the theoretical description of elementary particles physics that still lacks an explanation. Solutions to that problem usually comprise new symmetries or fields or both. The main problem seems to be how to achieve small CP in the strong interactions despite large CP violation in weak interactions. Observation of CP violation is exclusively through the Higgs-Yukawa interactions. In this letter, we show that with minimal assumptions on the structure of mass (Yukawa) matrices the strong CP problem does not exist in the Standard Model and no extension to solve this is needed. However, to solve the flavor puzzle, models based on minimal SU(3) flavor groups leading to the proposed flavor matrices are favored.
Addressing the strong CP problem with quark mass ratios
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diaz-Cruz, J.L.; Saldana-Salazar, U.J.
2016-05-01
The strong CP problem is one of many puzzles in the theoretical description of elementary particles physics that still lacks an explanation. Solutions to that problem usually comprise new symmetries or fields or both. The main problem seems to be how to achieve small CP in the strong interactions despite large CP violation in weak interactions. Observation of CP violation is exclusively through the Higgs-Yukawa interactions. In this letter, we show that with minimal assumptions on the structure of mass (Yukawa) matrices the strong CP problem does not exist in the Standard Model and no extension to solve this is needed. However, to solve the flavor puzzle, models based on minimal SU(3) flavor groups leading to the proposed flavor matrices are favored.
CP violation in the lepton sector with Majorana neutrinos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aguila, F. del
1995-01-01
We study CP violation in the lepton sector in extended models with right-handed neutrinos, without and with left-right symmetry, and with arbitrary mass terms. We find the conditions which must be satisfied by the neutrino and charged lepton mass matrices for CP conservation. These constraints, which are independent of the choice of weak basis, are proven to be also sufficient in simple cases. This invariant formulation makes apparent the necessary requirements for CP violation, as well as the size of CP violating effects. As an example, we show that CP violation can be much larger in left-right symmetric models than in models with only additional right-handed neutrinos, i.e., without right-handed currents. (orig.)
Strong-Weak CP Hierarchy from Non-Renormalization Theorems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hiller, Gudrun
2002-01-28
We point out that the hierarchy between the measured values of the CKM phase and the strong CP phase has a natural origin in supersymmetry with spontaneous CP violation and low energy supersymmetry breaking. The underlying reason is simple and elegant: in supersymmetry the strong CP phase is protected by an exact non-renormalization theorem while the CKM phase is not. We present explicit examples of models which exploit this fact and discuss corrections to the non-renormalization theorem in the presence of supersymmetry breaking. This framework for solving the strong CP problem has generic predictions for the superpartner spectrum, for CP and flavor violation, and predicts a preferred range of values for electric dipole moments.
A Variant of the Autophagy-Related 5 Gene Is Associated with Child Cerebral Palsy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianhua Xu
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Cerebral palsy (CP is a major cause of childhood disability in developed and developing countries, but the pathogenic mechanisms of CP development remain largely unknown. Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular self-digestion of damaged organelles and dysfunctional macromolecules. Growing evidence suggests that autophagy-related gene 5 (ATG5-dependent autophagy is involved in neural development, neuronal differentiation, and neurological degenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze ATG5 protein expression and gene polymorphisms in Chinese patients with CP and to evaluate the importance of ATG5 in the development of CP. Five polymorphisms from different regions of the ATG5 gene (rs510432, rs3804338, rs573775, rs2299863, and rs6568431 were analyzed in 715 CP patients and 658 controls using MassARRAY. Of these, 58 patients and 56 controls were selected for measurement of plasma ATG5 level using ELISA. The relevance of disease-associated SNPs was evaluated using the SHEsis program. We identified a significant association between rs6568431 and CP (OR = 1.388, 95% CI = 1.173~1.643, Pallele = 0.0005, Pgenotype = 0.0015. Subgroup analysis showed a highly significant association of rs6568431 with spastic CP (n = 468, OR = 1.511, 95% CI = 1.251~1.824, Pallele = 8.50e−005, Pgenotype = 1.57e−004 and spastic quadriplegia (OR = 1.927, 95% CI = 1.533~2.421, Pallele = 7.35e−008, Pgenotype = 3.24e−009. Furthermore, mean plasma ATG5 levels were lower in CP patients than in controls, and individuals carrying the AA genotype of rs6568431 that was positively associated with CP had lower plasma ATG5 levels (P < 0.05. This study demonstrated an association of an ATG5 gene variant and low level of ATG5 protein with CP, and stronger associations with severe clinical manifestations were identified. Our results provide novel evidence for a role of ATG5 in CP and shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying this neurodevelopmental disorder.
This study was conducted as an initial assessment of a newly available genotyping assay containing about 34,000 common SNP included on previous SNP chips, and 199,000 sequence variants predicted to affect gene function. Objectives were to identify functional variants associated with birth weight in...
Leptogenesis and low energy CP-violation in neutrino physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pascoli, S.; Petcov, S.T.; Riotto, A.
2007-01-01
Taking into account the recent progress in the understanding of the lepton flavor effects in leptogenesis, we investigate in detail the possibility that the CP-violation necessary for the generation of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is due exclusively to the Dirac and/or Majorana CP-violating phases in the PMNS neutrino mixing matrix U, and thus is directly related to the low energy CP-violation in the lepton sector (e.g., in neutrino oscillations, etc.). We first derive the conditions of CP-invariance of the neutrino Yukawa couplings λ in the see-saw Lagrangian, and of the complex orthogonal matrix R in the 'orthogonal' parametrization of λ. We show, e.g. that under certain conditions (i) real R and specific CP-conserving values of the Majorana and Dirac phases can imply CP-violation, and (ii) purely imaginary R does not necessarily imply breaking of CP-symmetry. We study in detail the case of hierarchical heavy Majorana neutrino mass spectrum, presenting results for three possible types of light neutrino mass spectrum: (i) normal hierarchical, (ii) inverted hierarchical, and (iii) quasi-degenerate. Results in the alternative case of quasi-degenerate in mass heavy Majorana neutrinos, are also derived. The minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard theory with right-handed Majorana neutrinos and see-saw mechanism of neutrino mass generation is discussed as well. We illustrate the possible correlations between the baryon asymmetry of the Universe and (i) the rephasing invariant J CP controlling the magnitude of CP-violation in neutrino oscillations, or (ii) the effective Majorana mass in neutrinoless double beta decay, in the cases when the only source of CP-violation is respectively the Dirac or the Majorana phases in the neutrino mixing matrix
Measurements of the B0 bar B0 CP asymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lueth, V.
1993-01-01
A figure of merit for a measurement of CP violation is the error on the intrinsic asymmetry A CP . The observed asymmetry A obs will always be smaller than A CP due to a number of effects that dilute the measurement. If one defines A obs =DA CP , where D represents the product of all dilution factors, then the error on A CP , δA CP is related to the number of produced B 0 or bar B 0 , N prod , needed to obtain a given error on δA CP by N prod =1/((δA CP ) 2 D 2 εBr). To determine the figure of merit for a particular decay mode one must determine the number of reconstructed events N obs and calculate the corresponding dilution factor D. N obs depends on the luminosity and production cross section, on the branching ratio of the B 0 or bar B 0 into the specific final state under study, Br, and on ε, the reconstruction efficiency for both the combination of the signal CP state and any tagging signal. The production rate N prod , the dilution factor D, and the efficiency ε, differ substantially in magnitude as a function of energy and detector layout. The detection efficiency and dilution factor can both be written as a product of several factors that can be estimated for a particular experiment. These factors depend critically on the decay mode under study, the tagging method, the detector configuration, and more generally on the production process, backgrounds, and detector performance. Furthermore, the present knowledge of these quantities varies largely, as well as ones ability to ultimately measure the dilution factor which relates the experimentally observed asymmetry to the true CP asymmetry
Arsenic-Rich Polyarsenides Stabilized by Cp*Fe Fragments.
Schmidt, Monika; Konieczny, David; Peresypkina, Eugenia V; Virovets, Alexander V; Balázs, Gabor; Bodensteiner, Michael; Riedlberger, Felix; Krauss, Hannes; Scheer, Manfred
2017-06-12
The redox chemistry of [Cp*Fe(η 5 -As 5 )] (1, Cp*=η 5 -C 5 Me 5 ) has been investigated by cyclic voltammetry, revealing a redox behavior similar to that of its lighter congener [Cp*Fe(η 5 -P 5 )]. However, the subsequent chemical reduction of 1 by KH led to the formation of a mixture of novel As n scaffolds with n up to 18 that are stabilized only by [Cp*Fe] fragments. These include the arsenic-poor triple-decker complex [K(dme) 2 ][{Cp*Fe(μ,η 2:2 -As 2 )} 2 ] (2) and the arsenic-rich complexes [K(dme) 3 ] 2 [(Cp*Fe) 2 (μ,η 4:4 -As 10 )] (3), [K(dme) 2 ] 2 [(Cp*Fe) 2 (μ,η 2:2:2:2 -As 14 )] (4), and [K(dme) 3 ] 2 [(Cp*Fe) 4 (μ 4 ,η 4:3:3:2:2:1:1 -As 18 )] (5). Compound 4 and the polyarsenide complex 5 are the largest anionic As n ligand complexes reported thus far. Complexes 2-5 were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, 1 H NMR spectroscopy, EPR spectroscopy (2), and mass spectrometry. Furthermore, DFT calculations showed that the intermediate [Cp*Fe(η 5 -As 5 )] - , which is presumably formed first, undergoes fast dimerization to the dianion [(Cp*Fe) 2 (μ,η 4:4 -As 10 )] 2- . © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Savio, Andrea J; Bapat, Bharati
2017-06-03
The MLH1 promoter polymorphism rs1800734 is associated with MLH1 CpG island hypermethylation and expression loss in colorectal cancer (CRC). Conversely, variant rs1800734 is associated with MLH1 shore, but not island, hypomethylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA. To explore these distinct patterns, MLH1 CpG island and shore methylation was assessed in CRC cell lines stratified by rs1800734 genotype. Cell lines containing the variant A allele demonstrated MLH1 shore hypomethylation compared to wild type (GG). There was significant enrichment of transcription factor AP4 at the MLH1 promoter in GG and GA cell lines, but not the AA cell line, by chromatin immunoprecipitation studies. Preferential binding to the G allele was confirmed by sequencing in the GA cell line. The enhancer-associated histone modification H3K4me1 was enriched at the MLH1 shore; however, H3K27ac was not, indicating the shore is an inactive enhancer. These results demonstrate the role of variant rs1800734 in altering transcription factor binding as well as epigenetics at regions beyond the MLH1 CpG island in which it is located.
Integration of CpG-free DNA induces de novo methylation of CpG islands in pluripotent stem cells
Takahashi, Yuta; Wu, Jun; Suzuki, Keiichiro; Martinez-Redondo, Paloma; Li, Mo; Liao, Hsin-Kai; Wu, Min-Zu; Herná ndez-Bení tez, Reyna; Hishida, Tomoaki; Shokhirev, Maxim Nikolaievich; Esteban, Concepcion Rodriguez; Sancho-Martinez, Ignacio; Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisua
2017-01-01
that insertion of CpG-free DNA into targeted CGIs induces de novo methylation of the entire CGI in human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). The methylation status is stably maintained even after CpG-free DNA removal, extensive passaging, and differentiation
First CP violation results from BABAR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hitlin, D.G.
2001-01-01
We present a preliminary measurement of time-dependent Cp-violating asymmetries in B 0 → J/ψK 0 S and B 0 → ψ(2S)K 0 S decays recorded by the BABAR. detector at the PEP-2 asymmetric B Factory at SLAC. The data sample consists of 9.0 fb -1 collected at the γ(4S) resonance and 0.8 fb -1 off-resonance. One of the neutral B mesons, produced in pairs at the γ(4S), is fully reconstructed. The flavor of the other neutral B meson is tagged at the time of its decay, mainly with the charge of identified leptons and kaons. The time difference between the decays is determined by measuring the distance between the decay vertices. Wrong-tag probabilities and the time resolution function are measured with samples of fully-reconstructed semileptonic and hadronic neutral B final states. The value of the asymmetry amplitude, sin 2β, is determined from a maximum likelihood fit to the time distribution of 120 tagged B 0 → J/ψK 0 S and B 0 → ψ(2S)K 0 S candidates: sin 2β=0.12±O.37(stat)±0.09(syst). (author)
Swanson, David M; Blacker, Deborah; Alchawa, Taofik; Ludwig, Kerstin U; Mangold, Elisabeth; Lange, Christoph
2013-11-07
The advent of genome-wide association studies has led to many novel disease-SNP associations, opening the door to focused study on their biological underpinnings. Because of the importance of analyzing these associations, numerous statistical methods have been devoted to them. However, fewer methods have attempted to associate entire genes or genomic regions with outcomes, which is potentially more useful knowledge from a biological perspective and those methods currently implemented are often permutation-based. One property of some permutation-based tests is that their power varies as a function of whether significant markers are in regions of linkage disequilibrium (LD) or not, which we show from a theoretical perspective. We therefore develop two methods for quantifying the degree of association between a genomic region and outcome, both of whose power does not vary as a function of LD structure. One method uses dimension reduction to "filter" redundant information when significant LD exists in the region, while the other, called the summary-statistic test, controls for LD by scaling marker Z-statistics using knowledge of the correlation matrix of markers. An advantage of this latter test is that it does not require the original data, but only their Z-statistics from univariate regressions and an estimate of the correlation structure of markers, and we show how to modify the test to protect the type 1 error rate when the correlation structure of markers is misspecified. We apply these methods to sequence data of oral cleft and compare our results to previously proposed gene tests, in particular permutation-based ones. We evaluate the versatility of the modification of the summary-statistic test since the specification of correlation structure between markers can be inaccurate. We find a significant association in the sequence data between the 8q24 region and oral cleft using our dimension reduction approach and a borderline significant association using the
Collider Probes of the MSSM Higgs Sector with Explicit CP Violation
Carena, M S; Mrenna, S; Pilaftsis, Apostolos; Wagner, C E M
2003-01-01
We investigate the hadron collider phenomenology of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) with explicit CP violation for Higgs bosons that can be observed in Standard Model search channels: W/ZH(->b-bbar) at the Tevatron, and gg->H(->gamma-gamma), t-tbar-H(->b-bbar) and WW->H(->tau+tau-) at the LHC. Our numerical analysis is based on a benchmark scenario proposed earlier called CPX, which has been designed to showcase the effects of CP violation in the MSSM, and on several variant benchmarks. In most of the CPX parameter space, these hadron colliders will find one of the neutral MSSM Higgs bosons. However, there are small regions of parameter space in which none of the neutral Higgs bosons can be detected in the standard channels at the Tevatron and the LHC. This occurs because the neutral Higgs boson with the largest coupling to W and Z bosons decays predominantly into either two lighter Higgs bosons or a Higgs boson and a gauge boson, whilst the lighter Higgs boson has only small couplings to the...
MeCP2-Related Diseases and Animal Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chinelo D. Ezeonwuka
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The role of epigenetics in human disease has become an area of increased research interest. Collaborative efforts from scientists and clinicians have led to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which epigenetic regulation is involved in the pathogenesis of many human diseases. Several neurological and non-neurological disorders are associated with mutations in genes that encode for epigenetic factors. One of the most studied proteins that impacts human disease and is associated with deregulation of epigenetic processes is Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2. MeCP2 is an epigenetic regulator that modulates gene expression by translating epigenetic DNA methylation marks into appropriate cellular responses. In order to highlight the importance of epigenetics to development and disease, we will discuss how MeCP2 emerges as a key epigenetic player in human neurodevelopmental, neurological, and non-neurological disorders. We will review our current knowledge on MeCP2-related diseases, including Rett Syndrome, Angelman Syndrome, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Hirschsprung disease, and Cancer. Additionally, we will briefly discuss about the existing MeCP2 animal models that have been generated for a better understanding of how MeCP2 impacts certain human diseases.
Li, Yongbo; Li, Guoyan; Yang, Yuantao; Liang, Xihui; Xu, Minqiang
2018-05-01
The fault diagnosis of planetary gearboxes is crucial to reduce the maintenance costs and economic losses. This paper proposes a novel fault diagnosis method based on adaptive multi-scale morphological filter (AMMF) and modified hierarchical permutation entropy (MHPE) to identify the different health conditions of planetary gearboxes. In this method, AMMF is firstly adopted to remove the fault-unrelated components and enhance the fault characteristics. Second, MHPE is utilized to extract the fault features from the denoised vibration signals. Third, Laplacian score (LS) approach is employed to refine the fault features. In the end, the obtained features are fed into the binary tree support vector machine (BT-SVM) to accomplish the fault pattern identification. The proposed method is numerically and experimentally demonstrated to be able to recognize the different fault categories of planetary gearboxes.
Mayr, Andreas; Schmid, Matthias; Pfahlberg, Annette; Uter, Wolfgang; Gefeller, Olaf
2017-06-01
Measurement errors of medico-technical devices can be separated into systematic bias and random error. We propose a new method to address both simultaneously via generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) in combination with permutation tests. More precisely, we extend a recently proposed boosting algorithm for GAMLSS to provide a test procedure to analyse potential device effects on the measurements. We carried out a large-scale simulation study to provide empirical evidence that our method is able to identify possible sources of systematic bias as well as random error under different conditions. Finally, we apply our approach to compare measurements of skin pigmentation from two different devices in an epidemiological study.
CP violation as a probe of flavor origin in supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demir, D.A.; Masiero, A.; Vives, O.
1999-11-01
We address the question of the relation between supersymmetry breaking and the origin of flavor in the context of CP violating phenomena. We prove that, in the absence of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa phase, a general Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with all possible phases in the soft-breaking terms, but no new flavor structure beyond the usual Yukawa matrices, can never give a sizeable contribution to ε K , ε'/ε or hadronic B 0 CP asymmetries. Observation of supersymmetric contributions to CP asymmetries in B decays would hint at a non-flavor blind mechanism of supersymmetry breaking. (author)
CP nonconservation in decays of W and Z bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hou, W.; Deshpande, N.G.; Eilam, G.; Soni, A.
1986-01-01
The possibility of CP asymmetries in decays of W and Z bosons is examined. The asymmetries studied are the differences in the branching ratios of charge-conjugate modes such as W + →tb-bar vs W - →t-barb or Z→b-bars vs Z→bs-bar. In the standard model, with three generations, such effects are found to be vanishingly small. With four generations, flavor-changing transitions such as Z→bs-bar or b'b-bar may be observable, but the prospects for observing CP asymmetries appear discouraging. We also discuss the situation in some other models of CP nonconservation
Constructing co-Higgs bundles on CP^2
Rayan, Steven
2013-01-01
On a complex manifold, a co-Higgs bundle is a holomorphic vector bundle with an endomorphism twisted by the tangent bundle. The notion of generalized holomorphic bundle in Hitchin's generalized geometry coincides with that of co-Higgs bundle when the generalized complex manifold is ordinary complex. Schwarzenberger's rank-2 vector bundle on the projective plane, constructed from a line bundle on the double cover CP^1 \\times CP^1 \\to CP^2, is naturally a co-Higgs bundle, with the twisted endom...
Towards a dynamical solution of the strong CP problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schierholz, G.
1994-01-01
One may argue that QCD solves the strong CP problem by itself. To test this idea, a lattice simulation suggests itself. In view of the difficulty of such a calculation we have, as a first step, investigated the problem in the CP 3 model. The CP 3 model is in many respects similar to QCD. In this talk I present some first results of our calculation. Among other things it is shown that the model has a first order deconfining phase transition in θ and that the critical value of θ decreases towards zero as β is taken to infinity. This suggests that θ is tuned to zero in the continuum limit. ((orig.))
arXiv Flavour Physics and CP Violation
Kamenik, J.F.
2016-01-01
These notes represent a summary of three lectures on flavour and CP violation, given at the CERNs European School of High Energy Physics in 2014. They cover flavour physics within the standard model, phenomenology of CP violation in meson mixing and decays, as well as constraints of flavour observableson physics beyond the standard model. In preparing the lectures (and consequently this summary) I drew heavily from several existing excellent and exhaustive sets of lecture notes and reviews on flavour physics and CP violation [1]. The reader is encouraged to consult those as well as the original literature for a more detailed study.
CP violation in K- and B-meson decays
2000-01-01
These lectures will describe CP violation in K- and B-meson decays and will include the following topics:i) Grand view of the field including CKM matrix and the unitarily triangle ii) General aspects of the theoretical framework iii) Fundamentals of particle-antiparticle mixing iv) Fundamentals of CP violation v) Standard analysis of the unitarily triangle vi) The ratio e'/e including most recent developments vii) CP Violation in rare K- decays viii) Violation in B-Decays (asymmetries and other strategies) ix) A brief look beyond the Standard Model
Methods for detection of methyl-CpG dinucleotides
Dunn, John J.
2012-09-11
The invention provides methods for enriching methyl-CpG sequences from a DNA sample. The method makes use of conversion of cytosine residues to uracil under conditions in which methyl-cytosine residues are preserved. Additional methods of the invention enable to preservation of the context of me-CpG dinucleotides. The invention also provides a recombinant, full length and substantially pure McrA protein (rMcrA) for binding and isolation of DNA fragments containing the sequence 5'-C.sup.MeCpGG-3'. Methods for making and using the rMcrA protein, and derivatives thereof are provided.
First Search for {ital CP} Violation in Tau Lepton Decay
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anderson, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lee, S.J.; ONeill, J.J.; Poling, R.; Riehle, T.; Smith, A. [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Alam, M.S.; Athar, S.B.; Ling, Z.; Mahmood, A.H.; Timm, S.; Wappler, F. [State University of New York at Albany, Albany, New York 12222 (United States); Anastassov, A.; Duboscq, J.E.; Fujino, D.; Gan, K.K.; Hart, T.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Schwarthoff, H.; Spencer, M.B.; Sung, M.; Undrus, A.; Wolf, A.; Zoeller, M.M. [The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Richichi, S.J.; Severini, H.; Skubic, P. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Bishai, M.; Fast, J.; Hinson, J.W.; Menson, N.; Miller, D.H.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.; Yurko, M. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Glenn, S.; Kwon, Y.; Lyon, A.L.; Roberts, S.; Thorndike, E.H. [University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Jessop, C.P.; Lingel, K.; Marsiske, H.; Perl, M.L.; Savinov, V.; Ugolini, D.; Zhou, X. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States); Coan, T.E.; Fadeyev, V.; Korolkov, I.; Maravin, Y.; Narsky, I.; Shelkov, V.; Staeck, J.; Stroynowski, R.; Volobouev, I.; Ye, J. [Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75275 (United States); Artuso, M.; Azfar, F.; Efimov, A.; Goldberg, M.; He, D.; Kopp, S.; Moneti, G.C.; Mountain, R.; Schuh, S.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Viehhauser, G.; Wang, J.C.; Xing, X. [Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States); Bartelt, J.; Csorna, S.E.; Jain, V.; McLean, K.W.; Marka, S. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Godang, R.; Kinoshita, K.; Lai, I.C.; Pomianowski, P.; Schrenk, S. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Bonvicini, G.; Cinabro, D.; Greene, R.; Perera, L.P.; Zhou, G.J. [Wayne State Univ., (United States)
1998-11-01
We have performed the first search for CP violation in tau lepton decay. CP violation in lepton decay does not occur in the minimal standard model but can occur in extensions such as the multi-Higgs doublet model. It appears as a characteristic difference between the {tau}{sup {minus}} and {tau}{sup +} decay angular distributions for the semileptonic decay modes such as {tau}{sup {minus}}{r_arrow}K{sup 0}{pi}{sup {minus}}{nu} . We define an observable asymmetry to exploit this and find no evidence for any CP violation. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society }
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kathryn Nicholson
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Multimorbidity, or the co-occurrence of multiple chronic health conditions within an individual, is an increasingly dominant presence and burden in modern health care systems. To fully capture its complexity, further research is needed to uncover the patterns and consequences of these co-occurring health states. As such, the Multimorbidity Cluster Analysis Tool and the accompanying Multimorbidity Cluster Analysis Toolkit have been created to allow researchers to identify distinct clusters that exist within a sample of participants or patients living with multimorbidity. Development: The Tool and Toolkit were developed at Western University in London, Ontario, Canada. This open-access computational program (JAVA code and executable file was developed and tested to support an analysis of thousands of individual records and up to 100 disease diagnoses or categories. Application: The computational program can be adapted to the methodological elements of a research project, including type of data, type of chronic disease reporting, measurement of multimorbidity, sample size and research setting. The computational program will identify all existing, and mutually exclusive, combinations and permutations within the dataset. An application of this computational program is provided as an example, in which more than 75,000 individual records and 20 chronic disease categories resulted in the detection of 10,411 unique combinations and 24,647 unique permutations among female and male patients. Discussion: The Tool and Toolkit are now available for use by researchers interested in exploring the complexities of multimorbidity. Its careful use, and the comparison between results, will be valuable additions to the nuanced understanding of multimorbidity.
Plummer, J T; Evgrafov, O V; Bergman, M Y; Friez, M; Haiman, C A; Levitt, P; Aldinger, K A
2013-10-22
Single nucleotide variants (SNV) in the gene encoding the MET receptor tyrosine kinase have been associated with an increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The MET promoter SNV rs1858830 C 'low activity' allele is enriched in ASD, associated with reduced protein expression, and impacts functional and structural circuit connectivity in humans. To gain insight into the transcriptional regulation of MET on ASD-risk etiology, we examined an interaction between the methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) and the MET 5' promoter region. Mutations in MeCP2 cause Rett syndrome (RTT), a predominantly female neurodevelopmental disorder sharing some ASD clinical symptoms. MeCP2 binds to a region of the MET promoter containing the ASD-risk SNV, and displays rs1858830 genotype-specific binding in human neural progenitor cells derived from the olfactory neuroepithelium. MeCP2 binding enhances MET expression in the presence of the rs1858830 C allele, but MET transcription is attenuated by RTT-specific mutations in MeCP2. In the postmortem temporal cortex, a region normally enriched in MET, gene expression is reduced dramatically in females with RTT, although not due to enrichment of the rs1858830 C 'low activity' allele. We newly identified a sex-based reduction in MET expression, with male ASD cases, but not female ASD cases compared with sex-matched controls. The experimental data reveal a prominent allele-specific regulation of MET transcription by MeCP2. The mechanisms underlying the pronounced reduction of MET in ASD and RTT temporal cortex are distinct and likely related to factors unique to each disorder, including a noted sex bias.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cottrell, W.B.; Klein, A.
1975-04-01
This issue of the Index to Nuclear Safety covers only articles included in Nuclear Safety, Vol. 11, No. 1, through Vol. 15, No. 6. This index is presented in three sections as follows: Chronological List of Articles by Volume; Permuted Title (KWIC) Index; and Author Index. (U.S.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nancy D Merner
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Many encoded gene products responsible for neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs like autism spectrum disorders (ASD, schizophrenia (SCZ, intellectual disability (ID, and idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE converge on networks controlling synaptic function. An increase in KCC2 (SLC12A5 Cl- transporter activity drives the developmental GABA excitatory-inhibitory sequence, but the role of KCC2 in human NDs is essentially unknown. Here, we report two rare, non-synonymous (NS, functionally-impairing variants in the KCC2 C-terminal regulatory domain (CTRD in human ASD (R952H and R1049C and SCZ (R952H previously linked with IGE and familial febrile seizures, and another novel NS KCC2 variant in ASD (R1048W with highly-predicted pathogenicity. Exome data from 2517 simplex families in the ASD Simon Simplex Collection revealed significantly more KCC2 CTRD variants in ASD cases than controls, and interestingly, these were more often synonymous and predicted to disrupt or introduce a CpG site. Furthermore, full gene analysis showed ASD cases are more likely to contain rare KCC2 variants affecting CpG sites than controls. These data suggest genetically-encoded dysregulation of KCC2-dependent GABA signaling may contribute to multiple human NDs.
GaussianCpG: a Gaussian model for detection of CpG island in human genome sequences.
Yu, Ning; Guo, Xuan; Zelikovsky, Alexander; Pan, Yi
2017-05-24
As crucial markers in identifying biological elements and processes in mammalian genomes, CpG islands (CGI) play important roles in DNA methylation, gene regulation, epigenetic inheritance, gene mutation, chromosome inactivation and nuclesome retention. The generally accepted criteria of CGI rely on: (a) %G+C content is ≥ 50%, (b) the ratio of the observed CpG content and the expected CpG content is ≥ 0.6, and (c) the general length of CGI is greater than 200 nucleotides. Most existing computational methods for the prediction of CpG island are programmed on these rules. However, many experimentally verified CpG islands deviate from these artificial criteria. Experiments indicate that in many cases %G+C is human genome. We analyze the energy distribution over genomic primary structure for each CpG site and adopt the parameters from statistics of Human genome. The evaluation results show that the new model can predict CpG islands efficiently by balancing both sensitivity and specificity over known human CGI data sets. Compared with other models, GaussianCpG can achieve better performance in CGI detection. Our Gaussian model aims to simplify the complex interaction between nucleotides. The model is computed not by the linear statistical method but by the Gaussian energy distribution and accumulation. The parameters of Gaussian function are not arbitrarily designated but deliberately chosen by optimizing the biological statistics. By using the pseudopotential analysis on CpG islands, the novel model is validated on both the real and artificial data sets.
Dynamical symmetry breaking: Exotic quarks and the strong CP problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furlong, R.C.
1988-10-01
Decuplet quarks (quens) transforming as 10's under SU(3)/sub C/ are shown to be superior to sextet quarks (quixes) in their ability to resolve the Strong CP problem, resulting in composite invisible axions (CIAs). 8 refs
Measurement of CP violation at a Neutrino Factory
Gómez-Cadenas, J J
2001-01-01
The prospects of measuring CP violation in the leptonic sector using the intense neutrino beams arising from muon decay in the straight sections of a muon accumulator ring (the so-called neutrino factory) are discussed.
LHC experimental sensitivity to CP violating gtt couplings
Sjölin, J
2003-01-01
The level of CP violation in pp to tt+X induced by the standard model is known to be below the experimental sensitivity by many orders of magnitude. However, in some effective theories, it is plausible that new CP violating physics could reveal itself as additional non- renormalizable terms in the Lagrangian. Since these should respect the symmetries of the low-energy gauge interaction, violate CP and generate the correct event topology, the set of allowed terms is highly restricted. This analysis gives an estimate of the expected experimental sensitivity to the lowest order effective CP violating gtt interaction term beyond the standard model using simulated data from the ATLAS detector at the LHC. (36 refs).
Introduction to heavy meson decays and CP asymmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ligeti, Zoltan
2003-01-01
These lectures are intended to provide an introduction to heavy meson decays and CP violation. The first lecture contains a brief review of the standard model and how the CKM matrix and CP violation arise, mixing and CP violation in neutral meson systems, and explanation of the cleanliness of the sin 2β measurement. The second lecture deals with the heavy quark limit, some applications of heavy quark symmetry and the operator product expansion for exclusive and inclusive semileptonic B decays. The third lecture concerns with theoretically clean CP violation measurements that may become possible in the future, and some developments toward a better understanding of nonleptonic B decays. The conclusions include a subjective best buy list for the near future
CP-violating profile of the electroweak bubble wall
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Funakubo, Koichi [Saga Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kakuto, Akira; Otsuki, Shoichiro; Takenaga, Kazunori; Toyoda, Fumihiko
1995-11-01
In any scenario of the electroweak baryogenesis, the profile of the CP violating bubble wall, created at the first-order phase transition, plays an essential role. We attempt to determine it by solving the equations of motion for the scalars in the two-Higgs-doublet model at the transition temperature. According to the parameters in the potential, we found three solutions. Two of them smoothly connect the CP-violating broken phase and the symmetric phase, while the other connects CP-conserving vacua but violates CP in the intermediate region. We also estimate the chiral charge flux, which will be turned into the baryon density in the symmetric phase by the sphaleron process. (author).
50 years of CP violation — What have we learned?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McKellar, Bruce H. J. [Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terrascale School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Australia 3010 (Australia)
2015-04-24
Early after the discovery of CP violation, the explanation of how the Standard Model of particle physics could allow CP violation was quickly given, but it took many years for the original observation to be unequivocally explained on that basis. It was also proposed that this observation opened up the possibility that we could now explain the fact that the universe is made of matter. Remarkably, 50 years later we have no evidence in particle physics that there is any CP violation except that of the Kobayashi Maskawa mechanism of the standard model. Yet we fail completely to explain the baryon asymmetry of the Universe through that mechanism. After reviewing the main points in the history I describe the present experimental attempts to find CP violation beyond the standard model, and explain the theoretical attempts to explain the matter in the Universe.
CP violation in multibody decays of beauty baryons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Durieux, Gauthier
2016-08-15
Beauty baryons are being observed in large numbers in the LHCb detector. The rich kinematic distributions of their multibody decays are therefore becoming accessible and provide us with new opportunities to search for CP violation. We analyse the angular distributions of some three- and four-body decays of spin-1/2 baryons using the Jacob-Wick helicity formalism. The asymmetries that provide access to small differences of CP-odd phases between decay amplitudes of identical CP-even phases are notably discussed. The understanding gained on processes featuring specific resonant intermediate states allows us to establish which asymmetries are relevant for what purpose. It is for instance shown that some CP-odd angular asymmetries measured by the LHCb collaboration in the Λ{sub b}→Λφ→pπ K{sup +}K{sup -} decay are expected to vanish identically.
Flavour Physics and CP Violation : Expecting the LHC
Fleischer, Robert
2008-01-01
The starting point of these lectures is an introduction to the weak interactions of quarks and the Standard-Model description of CP violation, where the central role is played by the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix and the corresponding unitarity triangles. Since the B-meson system governs the stage of (quark) flavour physics and CP violation, it is our main focus: we shall classify B-meson decays, introduce the theoretical tools to deal with them, investigate the requirements for non-vanishing CP-violating asymmetries, and discuss the main strategies to explore CP violation and the preferred avenues for physics beyond the Standard Model to enter. This formalism allows us then to discuss important benchmark modes, where we will also address the question of how much space for new-physics effects in the B studies at the LHC is left by the recent experimental results from the B factories and the Tevatron.
CP violating observables in e$^{-}$e$^{+}$ --> W$^{-}$W$^{+}$
Chang, D; Phillips, I
1993-01-01
We consider various integrated lepton charge-energy asymmetries and azimuthal asymmetries as tests of CP violation in the process $e^-e^+ \\to W^-W^+$. These asymmetries are sensitive to different linear combinations of the CP violating form factors in the three gauge boson $W^-W^+$ production vertex, and can distinguish dispersive and absorptive parts of the form factors. It makes use of purely hadronic and purely leptonic modes of $W$'s decays as well as the mixed modes. The techniques of using the kinematics of jets or missing momentum to construct CP--odd observables are also employed. These CP violating observables are illustrated in the generalized Left-Right Model and the Charged Higgs Model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongshuai Jiang
Full Text Available Traditional permutation (TradPerm tests are usually considered the gold standard for multiple testing corrections. However, they can be difficult to complete for the meta-analyses of genetic association studies based on multiple single nucleotide polymorphism loci as they depend on individual-level genotype and phenotype data to perform random shuffles, which are not easy to obtain. Most meta-analyses have therefore been performed using summary statistics from previously published studies. To carry out a permutation using only genotype counts without changing the size of the TradPerm P-value, we developed a Monte Carlo permutation (MCPerm method. First, for each study included in the meta-analysis, we used a two-step hypergeometric distribution to generate a random number of genotypes in cases and controls. We then carried out a meta-analysis using these random genotype data. Finally, we obtained the corrected permutation P-value of the meta-analysis by repeating the entire process N times. We used five real datasets and five simulation datasets to evaluate the MCPerm method and our results showed the following: (1 MCPerm requires only the summary statistics of the genotype, without the need for individual-level data; (2 Genotype counts generated by our two-step hypergeometric distributions had the same distributions as genotype counts generated by shuffling; (3 MCPerm had almost exactly the same permutation P-values as TradPerm (r = 0.999; P<2.2e-16; (4 The calculation speed of MCPerm is much faster than that of TradPerm. In summary, MCPerm appears to be a viable alternative to TradPerm, and we have developed it as a freely available R package at CRAN: http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/MCPerm/index.html.
CP violation in the B and D systems at LHCb
Romero Vidal, A
2014-01-01
The large samples of mesons containing a $b$ or a $c$ quark collected by the LHCb experiment in 2011 and 2012, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb$^{-1}$, provide an unprecedent framework to perform high precision measurements of CP violation. A comparison of measurements of CP violating observables with the Standard Model predictions can reveal contributions from physics beyond the Standard Model. Studies of $B$ and $D$ meson decays at LHCb are presented in this document.
Quark flavor mixing, CP violation, and all that
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gilman, F.J.
1988-04-01
We review the present state of knowledge of the mixing of quark flavors under weak interactions and the associated explanation of CP violation inherent in the single nontrivial phase present in the three-generation mixing matrix. In this context we present the phenomenological basis for the increasing possibility that large CP violation asymmetries can be experimentally observed in the B meson system. 39 refs., 11 figs.,
New results on Bs mixing and CP violation from LHCb
CERN. Geneva
2013-01-01
Oscillation effects in the Bs meson system provide a window on physics beyond the Standard Model. The latest results from LHCb on the mass and width differences between the two physical eigenstates, and the CP violating phase measured in the Bs -> J/psi phi decay channel are presented. In addition, results of a first study of the CP violating phase in the penguin-dominated Bs -> phiphi decays are shown.
14th Conference on Flavor Physics and CP Violation
2016-01-01
The 2016 edition of the Conference on Flavor Physics and CP Violation will be held at on the campus of the California Institute of Technology on 6-9 June. The FPCP conference series was founded in 2002 through the merger of the Heavy Flavor (HF) and B Physics and CP Violation (BPCP) conference series. A list of previous FPCP venues can be found here.
[Stress-corrosion test of TIG welded CP-Ti].
Li, H; Wang, Y; Zhou, Z; Meng, X; Liang, Q; Zhang, X; Zhao, Y
2000-12-01
In this study TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welded CP-Ti were subjected to stress-corrosion test under 261 MPa in artificial saliva of 37 degrees C for 3 months. No significant difference was noted on mechanical test (P > 0.05). No color-changed and no micro-crack on the sample's surface yet. These results indicate that TIG welded CP-Ti offers excellent resistance to stress corrosion.
Dynamical CP violation of the generalized Yang-Mills model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Dianfu; Chang Xiaojing; Sun Xiaoyu
2011-01-01
Starting from the generalized Yang-Mills model which contains, besides the vector part V μ , also a scalar part S and a pseudoscalar part P . It is shown, in terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) mechanism, that CP violation can be realized dynamically. The combination of the generalized Yang-Mills model and the NJL mechanism provides a new way to explain CP violation. (authors)
Search for CP violation in D0 decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bartelt, J.; Csorna, S.E.; Egyed, Z.; Jain, V.; Gibaut, D.; Kinoshita, K.; Pomianowski, P.; Barish, B.; Chadha, M.; Chan, S.; Cowen, D.F.; Eigen, G.; Miller, J.S.; O'Grady, C.; Urheim, J.; Weinstein, A.J.; Wuerthwein, F.; Asner, D.M.; Athanas, M.; Bliss, D.W.; Brower, W.S.; Masek, G.; Paar, H.P.; Gronberg, J.; Korte, C.M.; Kutschke, R.; Menary, S.; Morrison, R.J.; Nakanishi, S.; Nelson, H.N.; Nelson, T.K.; Qiao, C.; Richman, J.D.; Roberts, D.; Ryd, A.; Tajima, H.; Witherell, M.S.; Balest, R.; Cho, K.; Ford, W.T.; Lohner, M.; Park, H.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.; Alexander, J.P.; Bebek, C.; Berger, B.E.; Berkelman, K.; Bloom, K.; Browder, T.E.; Cassel, D.G.; Cho, H.A.; Coffman, D.M.; Crowcroft, D.S.; Dickson, M.; Drell, P.S.; Dumas, D.J.; Ehrlich, R.; Elia, R.; Gaidarev, P.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S.W.; Hartill, D.L.; Heltsley, B.K.; Henderson, S.; Jones, C.D.; Jones, S.L.; Kandaswamy, J.; Katayama, N.; Kim, P.C.; Kreinick, D.L.; Lee, T.; Liu, Y.; Ludwig, G.S.; Masui, J.; Mevissen, J.; Mistry, N.B.; Ng, C.R.; Nordberg, E.; Patterson, J.R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Soffer, A.; Avery, P.; Freyberger, A.; Lingel, K.; Rodriguez, J.; Yang, S.; Yelton, J.; Brandenburg, G.; Cinabro, D.; Liu, T.; Saulnier, M.; Wilson, R.; Yamamoto, H.; Bergfeld, T.; Eisenstein, B.I.; Ernst, J.
1995-01-01
Using 2.7 fb -1 of data taken with the CLEO II detector, we have searched for CP violation in the charm system. We looked for asymmetries in the number of decays of D 0 's and bar D 0 's to the CP eigenstates K + K - , K S 0 φ, and K S 0 π 0 . Confidence intervals (90%) on these asymmetries were found to be -0.020 KK KS 0 φ KS 0 π 0 <0.031, respectively
A Chiang-type lagrangian in CP^2
Cannas da Silva, Ana
2018-03-01
We analyse a monotone lagrangian in CP^2 that is hamiltonian isotopic to the standard lagrangian RP^2, yet exhibits a distinguishing behaviour under reduction by one of the toric circle actions, namely it intersects transversally the reduction level set and it projects one-to-one onto a great circle in CP^1. This lagrangian thus provides an example of embedded composition fitting work of Wehrheim-Woodward and Weinstein.
A violation of CP symmetry in B meson decays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karyotakis, Y.; Monchenault, G.H. de
2002-01-01
This article reviews the issue of CP-violation and reports the most recent results about the observation of large CP asymmetries in the decay of neutral B-mesons. Some of the CP asymmetries in the neutral B-meson decay are expected to be large. CP-violation always involves quantum mechanical interference. This occurs for instance when there are 2 paths for a particle to decay into a given final state. The interference between the mixing-induced amplitude (B 0 → B-bar 0 → f) and the decay amplitude (B 0 → f) to a CP eigenstate f leads to a time dependent CP asymmetry that can be interpreted in terms of the angles of the unitary triangle (sin(2β)). The experimental challenge comes from the fact that B decays to some CP eigenstates have very small branching ratios and low efficiencies for complete reconstruction of the final state. It is therefore necessary to produce a very large number of B-mesons to perform a CP-measurement. To make the measurement possible, a new type of e + e - collider, called asymmetric B-factory has been designed. 2 asymmetric B-factories are operating in the world: PEP2 (Stanford, Usa) fitted with the Babar detector and KEK-B (Japan) which hosts Belle detector. The measurements given by Babar and Belle are in good agreement and can be combined. The average value is sin(2β) = 0.78 ± 0.08 and this value is in excellent agreement with the standard model predictions based on available experimental data. (A.C.)
Report of the CP-violation working group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoffman, C.M.
1982-01-01
The CP-Violation Working Group met twice during the workshop. A nice summary of our present knowledge of CP-violation was presented in the talk by Prof. James W. Cronin. In the final paragraph of his talk, Prof. Cronin argues that higher precision experiments studying CP-violation at LAMPF II will be extremely important no matter what additional knowledge we acquire in the time before LAMPF II is constructed. The crucial issue at present is to uncover the underlying mechanism responsible for CP-violation. The Working Group heard several talks aimed at reviewing the theoretical status of CP-violation and the directions that future experimental efforts might take. These talks included: Kaon Experiments at KEK, T. Yamazaki, University of Tokyo; Mechanisms for CP Violation, P. Herczeg, Los Alamos; and The Experimental Status of eta 00 Experiments, J.W. Cronin, Univ. of Chicago. There were also extended discussions on which experiments appear to be the most important and how to best perform these measurements. A summary of these discussions is given
A bottom-up approach to the strong CP problem
Diaz-Cruz, J. L.; Hollik, W. G.; Saldana-Salazar, U. J.
2018-05-01
The strong CP problem is one of many puzzles in the theoretical description of elementary particle physics that still lacks an explanation. While top-down solutions to that problem usually comprise new symmetries or fields or both, we want to present a rather bottom-up perspective. The main problem seems to be how to achieve small CP violation in the strong interactions despite the large CP violation in weak interactions. In this paper, we show that with minimal assumptions on the structure of mass (Yukawa) matrices, they do not contribute to the strong CP problem and thus we can provide a pathway to a solution of the strong CP problem within the structures of the Standard Model and no extension at the electroweak scale is needed. However, to address the flavor puzzle, models based on minimal SU(3) flavor groups leading to the proposed flavor matrices are favored. Though we refrain from an explicit UV completion of the Standard Model, we provide a simple requirement for such models not to show a strong CP problem by construction.
New physics effects on CP violation in B decays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nir, Y.
1993-01-01
The author reviews new physics effects on CP violation in B decays. In chapter 2 he introduces the formalism, and discusses the Standard Model picture of CP violation in B decays, with special emphasis on the cleanliness of the predictions. Chapter 3 gives a general discussion of new physics effects: he points out the ingredients in the analysis that are sensitive to new physics and deduces the type of new physics that is most likely to modify the Standard Model predictions. Explicit examples are given in chapter 4: a model with Z-mediated flavor changing neutral currents demonstrates in which ways the new physics will manifest itself in CP asymmetries in B decays; a supersymmetric model with open-quotes quark-squark alignmentclose quotes mechanism shows that supersymmetry may affect CP asymmetries in B decays, even though the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model does not; multi-scalar models may affect the asymmetries even in the absence of new CP violating phases; schemes for quark mass matrices will be crucially tested by the CP asymmetries. In chapter 5 he explains how, if deviations from the Standard Model predictions are measured, one will be able to learn detailed features of the New Physics that is responsible for that
CP violation and supersymmetry-breaking in superstring models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dent, T.E.
2000-09-01
In this thesis I discuss aspects of the phenomenology of heterotic string, theory, using low-energy effective supergravity models. I investigate the origin of CP violation, the implications for low-energy physics of the modular invariance of the theory, supersymmetry-breaking via gaugino condensation in a hidden sector, and the interplay between these topics. I review the theory of CP violation and the problem of CP violation in supersymmetry phenomenology. In a scenario where the origin of CP violation lies in the compactification of the extra dimensions of string theory, I present simple models which include a duality symmetry acting on the compactification modulus and on observable fields. I show how the structure of the theory affects CP-violating observables, and discuss the effect of such a symmetry on low-energy physics in general. I present a detailed investigation of supersymmetry-breaking by gaugino condensation in supergravity, in particular as applied to the stabilisation of string moduli. For hidden sectors with or without matter I calculate corrections to the usual formulae for the scalar potential and soft supersymmetry-breaking terms. I discuss the phenomenological implications of these corrections and show that they may affect the value of the compactification modulus. and consequently the prospects for predictions of CP violation in string models. (author)
CP-violation and Todd effects at lep-II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bilal, A.; Masso, E.; Rujula, A. de
1991-01-01
LEP-II will be a tool study CP-violation in processes involving vector bosons, and will test in particular the CP properties of the coupling of photons and Z's to W-pairs. While it is difficult to observe truly CP-odd effects, it is easy to measure T-odd ones. The latter can originate from CP-violation, or from radiative corrections involving the absorptive part of the scattering amplitude. T-odd effects are interesting in themselves, in that they accurately test the standard model and are sensitive to its unmeasured ingredients, such as the WW→WW scattering amplitude of the masses of the top quark and the elementary scalar. The prediction of the standard T-odd effects is a necessary stepping stone in the search for an honest-to-goodness violation of CP in the pure gauge sector. We thoroughly analyse the T-odd observables in the e + e - →W + W - process within the standard model, as well as the extra effects to be expected if the γW + W - and/or ZW + W - vertices were to violate CP in a non-standard fashion. (orig.)
A Cp-theory problem book compactness in function spaces
Tkachuk, Vladimir V
2015-01-01
This third volume in Vladimir Tkachuk's series on Cp-theory problems applies all modern methods of Cp-theory to study compactness-like properties in function spaces and introduces the reader to the theory of compact spaces widely used in Functional Analysis. The text is designed to bring a dedicated reader from basic topological principles to the frontiers of modern research covering a wide variety of topics in Cp-theory and general topology at the professional level. The first volume, Topological and Function Spaces © 2011, provided an introduction from scratch to Cp-theory and general topology, preparing the reader for a professional understanding of Cp-theory in the last section of its main text. The second volume, Special Features of Function Spaces © 2014, continued from the first, giving reasonably complete coverage of Cp-theory, systematically introducing each of the major topics and providing 500 carefully selected problems and exercises with complete solutions. This third volume is self-contained...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adler, S.L.
1999-01-01
We construct extensions of the standard model based on the hypothesis that Higgs bosons also exhibit a family structure and that the flavor weak eigenstates in the three families are distinguished by a discrete Z 6 chiral symmetry that is spontaneously broken by the Higgs sector. We study in detail at the tree level models with three Higgs doublets and with six Higgs doublets comprising two weakly coupled sets of three. In a leading approximation of S 3 cyclic permutation symmetry the three-Higgs-doublet model gives a open-quotes democraticclose quotes mass matrix of rank 1, while the six-Higgs-doublet model gives either a rank-1 mass matrix or, in the case when it spontaneously violates CP, a rank-2 mass matrix corresponding to nonzero second family masses. In both models, the CKM matrix is exactly unity in the leading approximation. Allowing small explicit violations of cyclic permutation symmetry generates small first family masses in the six-Higgs-doublet model, and first and second family masses in the three-Higgs-doublet model, and gives a nontrivial CKM matrix in which the mixings of the first and second family quarks are naturally larger than mixings involving the third family. Complete numerical fits are given for both models, flavor-changing neutral current constraints are discussed in detail, and the issues of unification of couplings and neutrino masses are addressed. On a technical level, our analysis uses the theory of circulant and retrocirculant matrices, the relevant parts of which are reviewed. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Integration of CpG-free DNA induces de novo methylation of CpG islands in pluripotent stem cells
Takahashi, Yuta
2017-05-05
CpG islands (CGIs) are primarily promoter-associated genomic regions and are mostly unmethylated within highly methylated mammalian genomes. The mechanisms by which CGIs are protected from de novo methylation remain elusive. Here we show that insertion of CpG-free DNA into targeted CGIs induces de novo methylation of the entire CGI in human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). The methylation status is stably maintained even after CpG-free DNA removal, extensive passaging, and differentiation. By targeting the DNA mismatch repair gene MLH1 CGI, we could generate a PSC model of a cancer-related epimutation. Furthermore, we successfully corrected aberrant imprinting in induced PSCs derived from an Angelman syndrome patient. Our results provide insights into how CpG-free DNA induces de novo CGI methylation and broaden the application of targeted epigenome editing for a better understanding of human development and disease.
Measurement of the direct $CP$-violating parameter $A_{CP}$ in the decay $D^+ \\to K^-\\pi^+\\pi^+$
Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; Adams, Mark Raymond; Adams, Todd; Agnew, James P; Alexeev, Guennadi D; Alkhazov, Georgiy D; Alton, Andrew K; Askew, Andrew Warren; Atkins, Scott; Augsten, Kamil; Avila, Carlos A; Badaud, Frederique; Bagby, Linda F; Baldin, Boris; Bandurin, Dmitry V; Banerjee, Sunanda; Barberis, Emanuela; Baringer, Philip S; Bartlett, JFrederick; Bassler, Ursula Rita; Bazterra, Victor; Bean, Alice L; Begalli, Marcia; Bellantoni, Leo; Beri, Suman B; Bernardi, Gregorio; Bernhard, Ralf Patrick; Bertram, Iain A; Besancon, Marc; Beuselinck, Raymond; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bhatia, Sudeep; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Blazey, Gerald Charles; Blessing, Susan K; Bloom, Kenneth A; Boehnlein, Amber S; Boline, Daniel Dooley; Boos, Edward E; Borissov, Guennadi; Borysova, Maryna; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Oleg; Brock, Raymond L; Bross, Alan D; Brown, Duncan Paul; Bu, Xue-Bing; Buehler, Marc; Buescher, Volker; Bunichev, Viacheslav Yevgenyevich; Burdin, Sergey; Buszello, Claus Peter; Camacho-Perez, Enrique; Casey, Brendan Cameron Kieran; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; Caughron, Seth Aaron; Chakrabarti, Subhendu; Chan, Kwok Ming Leo; Chandra, Avdhesh; Chapon, Emilien; Chen, Guo; Cho, Sung-Woong; Choi, Suyong; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Cihangir, Selcuk; Claes, Daniel R; Clutter, Justace Randall; Cooke, Michael P; Cooper, William Edward; Corcoran, Marjorie D; Couderc, Fabrice; Cousinou, Marie-Claude; Cutts, David; Das, Amitabha; Davies, Gavin John; de Jong, Sijbrand Jan; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Deliot, Frederic; Demina, Regina; Denisov, Dmitri S; Denisov, Sergei P; Desai, Satish Vijay; Deterre, Cecile; DeVaughan, Kayle Otis; Diehl, HThomas; Diesburg, Michael; Ding, Pengfei; Dominguez, DAaron M; Dubey, Abhinav Kumar; Dudko, Lev V; Duperrin, Arnaud; Dutt, Suneel; Eads, Michael T; Edmunds, Daniel L; Ellison, John A; Elvira, VDaniel; Enari, Yuji; Evans, Harold G; Evdokimov, Valeri N; Faure, Alexandre; Feng, Lei; Ferbel, Thomas; Fiedler, Frank; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fisk, HEugene; Fortner, Michael R; Fox, Harald; Fuess, Stuart C; Garbincius, Peter H; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Garcia-Gonzalez, Jose Andres; Gavrilov, Vladimir B; Geng, Weigang; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Gershtein, Yuri S; Ginther, George E; Gogota, Olga; Golovanov, Georgy Anatolievich; Grannis, Paul D; Greder, Sebastien; Greenlee, Herbert B; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Gris, Phillipe Luc; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gruenendahl, Stefan; Gruenewald, Martin Werner; Guillemin, Thibault; Gutierrez, Gaston R; Gutierrez, Phillip; Haley, Joseph Glenn Biddle; Han, Liang; Harder, Kristian; Harel, Amnon; Hauptman, John Michael; Hays, Jonathan M; Head, Tim; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hedin, David R; Hegab, Hatim; Heinson, Ann; Heintz, Ulrich; Hensel, Carsten; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Herner, Kenneth Richard; Hesketh, Gavin G; Hildreth, Michael D; Hirosky, Robert James; Hoang, Trang; Hobbs, John D; Hoeneisen, Bruce; Hogan, Julie; Hohlfeld, Mark; Holzbauer, Jenny Lyn; Howley, Ian James; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hynek, Vlastislav; Iashvili, Ia; Ilchenko, Yuriy; Illingworth, Robert A; Ito, Albert S; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jaffre, Michel J; Jayasinghe, Ayesh; Jeong, Min-Soo; Jesik, Richard L; Jiang, Peng; Johns, Kenneth Arthur; Johnson, Emily; Johnson, Marvin E; Jonckheere, Alan M; Jonsson, Per Martin; Joshi, Jyoti; Jung, Andreas Werner; Juste, Aurelio; Kajfasz, Eric; Karmanov, Dmitriy Y; Katsanos, Ioannis; Kaur, Manbir; Kehoe, Robert Leo Patrick; Kermiche, Smain; Khalatyan, Norayr; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchilava, Avto; Kharzheev, Yuri N; Kiselevich, Ivan Lvovich; Kohli, Jatinder M; Kozelov, Alexander V; Kraus, James Alexander; Kumar, Ashish; Kupco, Alexander; Kurca, Tibor; Kuzmin, Valentin Alexandrovich; Lammers, Sabine Wedam; Lebrun, Patrice; Lee, Hyeon-Seung; Lee, Seh-Wook; Lee, William M; Lei, Xiaowen; Lellouch, Jeremie; Li, Dikai; Li, Hengne; Li, Liang; Li, Qi-Zhong; Lim, Jeong Ku; Lincoln, Donald W; Linnemann, James Thomas; Lipaev, Vladimir V; Lipton, Ronald J; Liu, Huanzhao; Liu, Yanwen; Lobodenko, Alexandre; Lokajicek, Milos; Lopes de Sa, Rafael; Luna-Garcia, Rene; Lyon, Adam Leonard; Maciel, Arthur KA; Madar, Romain; Magana-Villalba, Ricardo; Malik, Sudhir; Malyshev, Vladimir L; Mansour, Jason; Martinez-Ortega, Jorge; McCarthy, Robert L; Mcgivern, Carrie Lynne; Meijer, Melvin M; Melnitchouk, Alexander S; Menezes, Diego D; Mercadante, Pedro Galli; Merkin, Mikhail M; Meyer, Arnd; Meyer, Jorg Manfred; Miconi, Florian; Mondal, Naba K; Mulhearn, Michael James; Nagy, Elemer; Narain, Meenakshi; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer A; Negret, Juan Pablo; Neustroev, Petr V; Nguyen, Huong Thi; Nunnemann, Thomas P; Hernandez Orduna, Jose de Jesus; Osman, Nicolas Ahmed; Osta, Jyotsna; Pal, Arnab; Parashar, Neeti; Parihar, Vivek; Park, Sung Keun; Partridge, Richard A; Parua, Nirmalya; Patwa, Abid; Penning, Bjoern; Perfilov, Maxim Anatolyevich; Peters, Reinhild Yvonne Fatima; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrillo, Gianluca; Petroff, Pierre; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Podstavkov, Vladimir M; Popov, Alexey V; Prewitt, Michelle; Price, Darren; Prokopenko, Nikolay N; Qian, Jianming; Quadt, Arnulf; Quinn, Breese; Ratoff, Peter N; Razumov, Ivan A; Ripp-Baudot, Isabelle; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rominsky, Mandy Kathleen; Ross, Anthony; Royon, Christophe; Rubinov, Paul Michael; Ruchti, Randal C; Sajot, Gerard; Sanchez-Hernandez, Alberto; Sanders, Michiel P; Santos, Angelo Souza; Savage, David G; Savitskyi, Mykola; Sawyer, HLee; Scanlon, Timothy P; Schamberger, RDean; Scheglov, Yury A; Schellman, Heidi M; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwienhorst, Reinhard H; Sekaric, Jadranka; Severini, Horst; Shabalina, Elizaveta K; Shary, Viacheslav V; Shaw, Savanna; Shchukin, Andrey A; Simak, Vladislav J; Skubic, Patrick Louis; Slattery, Paul F; Smirnov, Dmitri V; Snow, Gregory R; Snow, Joel Mark; Snyder, Scott Stuart; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; Sonnenschein, Lars; Soustruznik, Karel; Stark, Jan; Stoyanova, Dina A; Strauss, Michael G; Suter, Louise; Svoisky, Peter V; Titov, Maxim; Tokmenin, Valeriy V; Tsai, Yun-Tse; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tuchming, Boris; Tully, Christopher George T; Uvarov, Lev; Uvarov, Sergey L; Uzunyan, Sergey A; Van Kooten, Richard J; van Leeuwen, Willem M; Varelas, Nikos; Varnes, Erich W; Vasilyev, Igor A; Verkheev, Alexander Yurievich; Vertogradov, Leonid S; Verzocchi, Marco; Vesterinen, Mika; Vilanova, Didier; Vokac, Petr; Wahl, Horst D; Wang, Michael HLS; Warchol, Jadwiga; Watts, Gordon Thomas; Wayne, Mitchell R; Weichert, Jonas; Welty-Rieger, Leah Christine; Williams, Mark Richard James; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Wobisch, Markus; Wood, Darien Robert; Wyatt, Terence R; Xie, Yunhe; Yamada, Ryuji; Yang, Siqi; Yasuda, Takahiro; Yatsunenko, Yuriy A; Ye, Wanyu; Ye, Zhenyu; Yin, Hang; Yip, Kin; Youn, Sungwoo; Yu, Jiaming; Zennamo, Joseph; Zhao, Tianqi Gilbert; Zhou, Bing; Zhu, Junjie; Zielinski, Marek; Zieminska, Daria; Zivkovic, Lidija
2014-12-11
We measure the direct CP-violating parameter A_CP for the decay of the charged charm meson, D+ -> K-pi+pi+ (and charge conjugate), using the full 10.4 fb-1 sample of ppbar collisions at sqrt(s) = 1.96 TeV collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We extract the raw reconstructed charge asymmetry by fitting the invariant mass distributions for the sum and difference of charge-specific samples. This quantity is then corrected for detector-related asymmetries using data-driven methods and for possible physics asymmetries (from B -> D processes) using input from Monte Carlo simulation. We measure A_CP = [-0.16 +- 0.15 (stat.) +- 0.09 (syst.)]%, which is consistent with zero, as expected from the standard model prediction of CP conservation, and is the most precise measurement of this quantity to date
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minakata, Hisakazu; Nunokawa, Hiroshi
2003-01-01
We introduce a 'CP trajectory diagram in bi-probability space' as a powerful tool for a pictorial representation of the genuine CP and the matter effects in neutrino oscillations. The existence of correlated ambiguity in the determination of CP-violating phase δ and the sign of Δm 13 2 is uncovered. The principles of tuning the beam energy for a given baseline distance are proposed to resolve the ambiguity and to maximize the CP-odd effect. We finally point out, quite contrary to what is usually believed, that the ambiguity may be resolved with ∼50% chance in the super-JHF experiment despite its relatively short baseline of 300 km
CP determination and tests for CP or P violation by the V1V2 decay mode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelson, C.A.
1984-01-01
A decay mode such as phiphi, UPSILONUPSILON, K/sup asterisk+/K/sup asterisk-/, or D/sup asterisk+/D/sup asterisk-/ can be used to distinguish between a neutral spin-0 technipion and a neutral spin-0 Higgs particle. By this generalization of phiphi parity test, the CP eigenvalue γ/sub C/P can be determined for an X particle of any spin J which decays CP invariantly into VV, or VV-bar, where each vector meson either decays into two spin-0 bosons, or is ω. The absence in a VV, or VV-bar, decay channel of sin2phi and sinphi terms in the azimuthal distribution is due to CP invariance and/or P invariance. For a V 1 V 2 decay channel without a V 1 bold-arrow-left-rightV 2 exchange property, and in a mode like K/sup asterisk+/K /sup asterisk0/, such terms would imply that P is violated. For a V 1 V 2 mode such as phiω where each vector meson is its own antiparticle, such terms would imply that both P and CP are violated; when CP invariance holds, the γ/sub C/P(-)/sup J/ eigenvalue of X can be determined provided certain amplitudes do not accidentally vanish
Study of inclusive CP-asymmetries in B0 decays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huettmann, K.
2000-01-01
The object of the present thesis is the search for CP-violating effects in the mixing of neutral B mesons. For this the time-dependent CP asymmetry in the decay of completely inclusively reconstructed B 0 mesons was studied. The basis of the analysis were about 4.1 millions hadronic Z decays, which were token up in the years 1991-1995 with the ALEPH detector at the e + e - storage ring LEP at CERN. From the data b hadron decays were inclusively reconstructed by means of a search for secondary decay vertices. By a fit to the decay-time spectra od identified B 0 and anti B 0 decays the following value of the semileptonic asymmetry in the B d 0 - anti B d 0 system could be determined: a CP =0.016±0.034(stat.)±0.009(syst.). This value can be alternatively interpreted as a measurement of the CP-violating parameter Re ε B : Re εB/(1+ vertical stroke ε B vertical stroke 2 )=0.004±0.009(stat.)±0.002(syst.). Furthermore a combination of the results of this analysis with a further ALEPH measurement was performed. The value of a CP determined from this, which was obtained under regardment of the statistical correlation of both measurements as well as correlated systematic uncertainties, is: a CP =-0.013±0.026. The present result is compatible with the standard model prediction and yields no significant hint to CP violation in the B d 0 - anti B 0 d mixing. (orig.) [de
77 FR 37098 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8038-CP
2012-06-20
... 8038-CP AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... Form 8038-CP, Return for Credit Payments to Issuers of Qualified Bonds. DATES: Written comments should... Issuers of Qualified Bonds. OMB Number: 1545-2142. Form Number: Form 8038-CP. Abstract: Form 8038-CP...
Search for CP-violation in the charm sector at LHCb
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coombes, M.P.
2014-01-01
Results of searches for CP-violation in charm hadrons and measurements of CP-violating and D 0 mixing parameters are presented for LHCb data accumulated during 2010 and 2011. A time-integrated CP-violating asymmetry in two-body D 0 decays constitutes the first evidence of CP violation in the decay of charm hadrons. No CP violation has been found in D + → K - K + π + decays. Concerning mixing and time-dependent CP asymmetries in D 0 decays, results are compatible with the absence of CP-violation
CT-1-CP-induced ventricular electrical remodeling in mice.
Chen, Shu-fen; Wei, Tao-zhi; Rao, Li-ya; Xu, Ming-guang; Dong, Zhan-ling
2015-02-01
The chronic effects of carboxyl-terminal polypeptide of Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1-CP) on ventricular electrical remodeling were investigated. CT-1-CP, which contains 16 amino acids in sequence of the C-terminal of Cardiotrophin-1, was selected and synthesized, and then administered to Kunming mice (aged 5 weeks) by intraperitoneal injection (500 ng·g⁻¹·day⁻¹) (4 groups, n=10 and female: male=1:1 in each group) for 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks, respectively. The control group (n=10, female: male=1:1) was injected by physiological saline for 4 weeks. The epicardial monophasic action potential (MAP) was recorded by using a contact-type MAP electrode placed vertically on the left ventricular (LV) epicardium surface, and the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal in lead II was monitored synchronously. ECG intervals (RR, PR, QRS and QT) and the amplitude of MAP (Am), the maximum upstroke velocity (Vmax), as well as action potential durations (APDs) at different repolarization levels (APD30, APD50, APD70, and APD90) of MAP were determined and analyzed in detail. There were no significant differences in RR and P intervals between CT-1-CP-treated groups and control group, but the PR segment and the QRS complex were greater in the former than in the latter (F=2.681 and 5.462 respectively, PCP-treated groups than in control group, the QT dispersion (QTd) of them was greater in the latter than in the former (F=3.090, PCP-treated groups and the prolongation of QT intervals increased gradually along with the time of exposure to CT-1-CP. The QRS complex had no significant change in control group, one-week and three-week CT-1-CP-treated groups, but prolonged significantly in two-week and four-week CT-1-CP-treated groups. Interestingly, the QTd after chest-opening was significantly greater than that before chest-opening in control group (t=5.242, PCP-treated groups. The mean MAP amplitude, Vmax and APD were greater in CT-1-CP-treated groups than those in control group, and became more obvious
Measurement of Indirect CP Violation in Charm at LHCb
AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00342046
This thesis describes two pieces of work. The first is a study of the resolution of the LHCb vertex locator throughout Run 1. The second comprises analyses to measure the charm mixing and $CP$ violation observables $A_{\\Gamma}$ and $y_{CP}$. An estimate of the resolution of the LHCb vertex locator is required for use in the track fits. A method to measure the resolution with collision data has been developed and tested. The performance of the sub-detector throughout Run 1 of the LHC has been assessed. A significant degrading of the resolution has been seen. The effects of this on the track reconstruction has been examined with little change in the measured quantities being observed. The measurement of indirect $CP$ violation in neutral $D$ meson transitions has been measured through the observables $A_{\\Gamma}$ and $y_{CP}$, using $fb^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions with a centre of mass energy $7 TeV$, collected by the LHCb detector in 2011. $A_{\\Gamma}$ describes the $CP$ asymmetry of the lifetime of the $D^0$ dec...
CP-odd phase correlations and electric dipole moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olive, Keith A.; Pospelov, Maxim; Ritz, Adam; Santoso, Yudi
2005-01-01
We revisit the constraints imposed by electric dipole moments (EDMs) of nucleons and heavy atoms on new CP-violating sources within supersymmetric theories. We point out that certain two-loop renormalization group corrections induce significant mixing between the basis-invariant CP-odd phases. In the framework of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, the CP-odd invariant related to the soft trilinear A-phase at the grand unified theory (GUT) scale, θ A , induces nontrivial and distinct CP-odd phases for the three gaugino masses at the weak scale. The latter give one-loop contributions to EDMs enhanced by tanβ, and can provide the dominant contribution to the electron EDM induced by θ A . We perform a detailed analysis of the EDM constraints within the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, exhibiting the reach, in terms of sparticle spectra, which may be obtained assuming generic phases, as well as the limits on the CP-odd phases for some specific parameter points where detailed phenomenological studies are available. We also illustrate how this reach will expand with results from the next generation of experiments which are currently in development
CPLEAR et BABAR, all aspects of CP violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeche, Ch.
2003-06-01
This report of French 'Habilitation a diriger les recherches' summarizes my scientific activity from 1993 to 2003. During this decade, my research work was related to two particle physics experiments: CPLEAR and BABAR. The first one, CPLEAR, has recorded data from 1988 to 1995 on the low energy anti-proton ring (LEAR) at CERN. This experiment was devoted to the study of T, CPT et CP discrete symmetries. The second experiment, BABAR, has been running since 1999, on the PEP-II B factory at SLAC. This experiment searches for CP violation and tests the Standard Model through the measurements of the angles and the sides of the Unitarity Triangle. My research work is divided in five main topics: Study of CP and CPT violation in K 0 → π + π - decays; Performance optimization of the particle identification detector (DIRC) of the BABAR experiment; B meson tagging in BABAR experiment; Δm d measurement and Search for CP and T violation in mixing with dilepton events; Search for CP violation in B 0 → ρ ± π ± and B 0 → π ± K ± decays. (author)
CP symmetry violation. The search for its origin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cronin, J.W.
1981-01-01
The present experimental situation on detection of CP symmetry violation is presented. Interference between decays of long-lived (Ksub(L)sup(0)) and short-lived (Ksub(S)sup(0)) mesons into two charged pions serves a direct demonstration of the fact that the effect is caused by CP symmetry breaking. The time distribution of decays into π + π - when the 4-10 GeV Ksub(L) meson beam passes through a carbon regenerator is given as an example of the measurement accuracy. The measurements of the charge asymmetry in half-lepton channels of Ksub(L)→π +- l +- ν decay where l is an electron or a muon are discussed. It is noted that the presence of the charge asymmetry serves an indication of CP invariance violation and permits to carry out experimental differentiation between the matter and antimatter. Different theoretical assumptions on the nature of CP invariance violation are discussed. A list of experiments on search for CP, T and C invariance violation carried out in different laboratories of the world is given [ru
Worm Algorithm for CP(N-1) Model
Rindlisbacher, Tobias
2017-01-01
The CP(N-1) model in 2D is an interesting toy model for 4D QCD as it possesses confinement, asymptotic freedom and a non-trivial vacuum structure. Due to the lower dimensionality and the absence of fermions, the computational cost for simulating 2D CP(N-1) on the lattice is much lower than that for simulating 4D QCD. However, to our knowledge, no efficient algorithm for simulating the lattice CP(N-1) model has been tested so far, which also works at finite density. To this end we propose a new type of worm algorithm which is appropriate to simulate the lattice CP(N-1) model in a dual, flux-variables based representation, in which the introduction of a chemical potential does not give rise to any complications. In addition to the usual worm moves where a defect is just moved from one lattice site to the next, our algorithm additionally allows for worm-type moves in the internal variable space of single links, which accelerates the Monte Carlo evolution. We use our algorithm to compare the two popular CP(N-1) l...
Bayesian CP Factorization of Incomplete Tensors with Automatic Rank Determination.
Zhao, Qibin; Zhang, Liqing; Cichocki, Andrzej
2015-09-01
CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) tensor factorization of incomplete data is a powerful technique for tensor completion through explicitly capturing the multilinear latent factors. The existing CP algorithms require the tensor rank to be manually specified, however, the determination of tensor rank remains a challenging problem especially for CP rank . In addition, existing approaches do not take into account uncertainty information of latent factors, as well as missing entries. To address these issues, we formulate CP factorization using a hierarchical probabilistic model and employ a fully Bayesian treatment by incorporating a sparsity-inducing prior over multiple latent factors and the appropriate hyperpriors over all hyperparameters, resulting in automatic rank determination. To learn the model, we develop an efficient deterministic Bayesian inference algorithm, which scales linearly with data size. Our method is characterized as a tuning parameter-free approach, which can effectively infer underlying multilinear factors with a low-rank constraint, while also providing predictive distributions over missing entries. Extensive simulations on synthetic data illustrate the intrinsic capability of our method to recover the ground-truth of CP rank and prevent the overfitting problem, even when a large amount of entries are missing. Moreover, the results from real-world applications, including image inpainting and facial image synthesis, demonstrate that our method outperforms state-of-the-art approaches for both tensor factorization and tensor completion in terms of predictive performance.