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Sample records for permissible weekly dose

  1. Maximum permissible dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This chapter presents a historic overview of the establishment of radiation guidelines by various national and international agencies. The use of maximum permissible dose and maximum permissible body burden limits to derive working standards is discussed

  2. Determination of permissible exposure doses under the provisions of the regulations on installation and operation of marine reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The Ministry of Transportation defines on radioactive doses in the controlled area that exterior radioactive dose shall be 30 mili-rem for a week; concentrations of radioactive materials in the air or under the water shall be permissible concentrations otherwise specified for the employees multiplied by 0.75 in average for a week and that densities of radioactive materials on the surface of the things contaminated by such materials shall be 1/10 of permissible surface densities provided in a table attached. Permissible exposure dose outside the inspected surrounding area is 0.5 rem for a year. Permissible surface densities are included in a list attached. Permissible accumulative dose for the employees is the figure (unit rem) calculated by the formula D = 5(N-18), when D means permissible accumulative dose and N number of the age. Permissible exposure dose is 3 rem for 3 months for the employees, 1.5 rem for a year for persons other than the employees and 12 rem for the urgent work. Permissible densities for the employees, calculation of doses by interior exposure and permissible densities outside the inspected surrounding area are stipulated in detail with attached lists. (Okada, K.)

  3. Determination of permissible doses under the provisions of the regulations on installation and operation of reactors for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The determination is defined under the regulations on installation and operation of reactors for power generation. In the controlled area exterior radiation dose shall be 30 mili-rem for a week by the Minister of International Trade and Industry. The concentrations of radioactive materials in the air or under the water shall be permissible concentrations specified for the employees multiplied by 0.75 in average for a week. The densities of radioactive materials on the surface of the things contaminated by such materials shall be 1/10 of permissible surface densities stipulated in the table attached. Permissible exposure dose outside the inspected surrounding area is 0.5 rem for a year. Permissible surface densities are included in the table attached. Permissible accumulative dose for the employees is the figure (unit rem) calculated by the formula D = 5(N-18), when D means permissible accumulative dose and N number of the age. Permissible exposure dose is 3 rem for 3 months for the employees, 1.5 rem for a year for persons other than the employees and 12 rem for the urgent work. Permissible concentrations are defined in detail for the employees and outside the inspected surrounding area. Calculation of exposure dose in the case of interior exposure is particularly provided for. (Okada, K.)

  4. Hazards and maximum permissible doses of radiation for man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walinder, G.

    1977-11-01

    Maximum permissible dose levels are primarely based on risks for genetic damage and cancer. The reason for this is the observation that such late effects of radiation seem to arise even after doses that are to low to give rise to acute effects. In contrast to the tumour incidence found in irradiated human populations no genetic effects of radiation have been observed in man. This does not mean that genetic effects have not been induced but that it has been impossible to find an increase or to discern them among all the congenital defects, that can not be ascribed to the irradiation. As a consequence, the radiological risk estimation has been concentrated on the hazard of malignant diseases. Tumour risks are generally expressed as excess rates of incidence and mortality per million persons per rem. These figures are, however, not obtained from direct epidemiological observations but have been calculated from such data under the assumption of a linear relationship between effect and radiation dose. This formal extrapolation of observed data involves an uncertainty which, of course, is proportionately greater for the calculated effects in the millirem range. However, although the calculated tumour risks can not be said to be founded on direct scientific evidence, there are scientific reasons to believe that the figures derived from the formal extrapolations constitute an upper limit of possible ri02050

  5. Studies on the establishment of maximum permissible exposure dose for reference Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.J.; Lee, K.S.; Chun, K.C.; Kim, C.B.; Chung, K.H.; Kim, S.L.; Kim, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In order to establish the Reference Korean and maximum permissible exposure dose of Reference Korean, for the first year a total of 9,758 males and 7,019 females were surveyed for the height, weight, a body surface area, and a total of 879 individuals of 180 households located in different 30 localities were analyzed for food consumption and a total of radioactive substances (β-ray) contained in food per capita per day. In this report the external and internal exposure dose were also estimated on the basis of data mostly published in other country as well as in Korea in part

  6. Dose Estimation from Daily and Weekly Dosimetry Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrouchov, G.

    2001-11-16

    Statistical analyses of data from epidemiologic studies of workers exposed to radiation have been based on recorded annual radiation doses (yearly dose of record). It is usually assumed that the dose values are known exactly, although it is generally recognized that the data contain uncertainty due to measurement error and bias. In our previous work with weekly data, a probability distribution was used to describe an individual's dose during a specific period of time and statistical methods were developed for estimating it from weekly film dosimetry data. This study showed that the yearly dose of record systematically underestimates doses for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) workers. This could result in biased estimates of dose-response coefficients and their standard errors. The results of this evaluation raise serious questions about the suitability of the yearly dose of record for direct use in low-dose studies of nuclear industry workers. Here, we extend our previous work to use full information in Pocket meter data and develop the Data Synthesis for Individual Dose Estimation (DSIDE) methodology. Although the DSIDE methodology in this study is developed in the context of daily and weekly data to produce a cumulative yearly dose estimate, in principle it is completely general and can be extended to other time period and measurement combinations. The new methodology takes into account the ''measurement error'' that is produced by the film and pocket-meter dosimetry systems, the biases introduced by policies that lead to recording left-censored doses as zeros, and other measurement and recording practices. The DSIDE method is applied to a sample of dose histories obtained from hard copy dosimetry records at ORNL for the years 1945 to 1955. First, the rigorous addition of daily pocket-meter information shows that the negative bias is generally more severe than was reported in our work based on weekly film data only, however, the

  7. Dose Estimation from Daily and Weekly Dosimetry Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrouchov, G.

    2001-01-01

    Statistical analyses of data from epidemiologic studies of workers exposed to radiation have been based on recorded annual radiation doses (yearly dose of record). It is usually assumed that the dose values are known exactly, although it is generally recognized that the data contain uncertainty due to measurement error and bias. In our previous work with weekly data, a probability distribution was used to describe an individual's dose during a specific period of time and statistical methods were developed for estimating it from weekly film dosimetry data. This study showed that the yearly dose of record systematically underestimates doses for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) workers. This could result in biased estimates of dose-response coefficients and their standard errors. The results of this evaluation raise serious questions about the suitability of the yearly dose of record for direct use in low-dose studies of nuclear industry workers. Here, we extend our previous work to use full information in Pocket meter data and develop the Data Synthesis for Individual Dose Estimation (DSIDE) methodology. Although the DSIDE methodology in this study is developed in the context of daily and weekly data to produce a cumulative yearly dose estimate, in principle it is completely general and can be extended to other time period and measurement combinations. The new methodology takes into account the ''measurement error'' that is produced by the film and pocket-meter dosimetry systems, the biases introduced by policies that lead to recording left-censored doses as zeros, and other measurement and recording practices. The DSIDE method is applied to a sample of dose histories obtained from hard copy dosimetry records at ORNL for the years 1945 to 1955. First, the rigorous addition of daily pocket-meter information shows that the negative bias is generally more severe than was reported in our work based on weekly film data only, however, the amount of bias also varies

  8. Tofacitinib in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a phase II, 16-week, randomised, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijde, Désirée; Deodhar, Atul; Wei, James C; Drescher, Edit; Fleishaker, Dona; Hendrikx, Thijs; Li, David; Menon, Sujatha; Kanik, Keith S

    2017-08-01

    To compare efficacy and safety of various doses of tofacitinib, an oral Janus kinase inhibitor, with placebo in patients with active ankylosing spondylitis (AS, radiographic axial spondyloarthritis). In this 16-week (12-week treatment, 4-week washout), phase II, multicentre, dose-ranging trial, adult patients with active AS were randomised (N=51, 52, 52, 52, respectively) to placebo or tofacitinib 2, 5 or 10 mg twice daily. The primary efficacy endpoint was Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society 20% improvement (ASAS20) response rate at week 12. Secondary endpoints included objective measures of disease activity, patient-reported outcomes and MRI of sacroiliac joints and spine. Safety was monitored. Emax model analysis of the primary endpoint predicted a tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily ASAS20 response rate of 67.4%, 27.3% higher than placebo. Supportive normal approximation analysis demonstrated tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily ASAS20 response rate significantly higher than placebo (80.8% vs 41.2%; ptofacitinib 2 and 10 mg twice daily demonstrated greater response rate than placebo (51.9% and 55.8%, respectively; not significant). Secondary endpoints generally demonstrated greater improvements with tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg twice daily than placebo. Objective (including MRI) endpoints demonstrated clear dose response. Adverse events were similar across treatment groups with no unexpected safety findings. Dose-dependent laboratory outcome changes returned close to baseline by week 16. Tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg twice daily demonstrated greater clinical efficacy versus placebo in reducing signs, symptoms and objective endpoints of active AS in adult patients with a similar 12-week safety profile as reported in other indications. NCT01786668. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Phase I dose-finding study of cabazitaxel administered weekly in patients with advanced solid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumoleau, Pierre; Trigo, Jose Manuel; Isambert, Nicolas; Sémiond, Dorothée; Gupta, Sunil; Campone, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Cabazitaxel is approved in patients with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer previously treated with a docetaxel-containing regimen. This study evaluated a weekly cabazitaxel dosing regimen. Primary objectives were to report dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) and to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics were secondary objectives. Cabazitaxel was administered weekly (1-hour intravenous infusion at 1.5–12 mg/m2 doses) for the first 4 weeks of a 5-week cycle in patients with solid tumours. Monitoring of DLTs was used to determine the MTD and the recommended weekly dose. Thirty-one patients were enrolled. Two of six patients experienced DLTs at 12 mg/m 2 , which was declared the MTD. Gastrointestinal disorders were the most common adverse event. Eight patients developed neutropenia (three ≥ Grade 3); one occurrence of febrile neutropenia was reported. There were two partial responses (in breast cancer) and 13 patients had stable disease (median duration of 3.3 months). Increases in C max and AUC 0–t were dose proportional for the 6–12 mg/m 2 doses. The MTD of weekly cabazitaxel was 12 mg/m 2 and the recommended weekly dose was 10 mg/m 2 . The observed safety profile and antitumour activity of cabazitaxel were consistent with those observed with other taxanes in similar dosing regimens. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov as http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01755390

  10. Time-Dependent Kinetics of Tretinoin in Chronic Myelogenous Leukaemia during Intermittent Dose Scheduling: 1 Week On/1 Week Off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regazzi, M B; Russo, D; Iacona, I; Sacchi, S; Visani, G; Lazzarino, M; Avvisati, G; Pelicci, P G; Dastoli, G; Grandi, C; Spreafico, S; Grattoni, R; Galieni, P; Rupoli, S; Maiolo, A M; Guerra, E; Liberati, A M

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of tretinoin during alternating cycles of 1 week of tretinoin treatment and 1 week drug-free in patients with Ph1+ chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) in the chronic phase. Eighteen patients with CML were treated with tretinoin 80 mg/m(2)/day (in two divided doses) for 7 consecutive days every other week (one cycle = 1 week on/1 week off). Body systemic exposure to tretinoin as determined by the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) decreased significantly during the first week of drug administration, from (mean +/- SD) 678.3 +/- 498.1 to 258.7 +/- 272.4 microg/L.h. In about 40% of the patients the decline in plasma concentrations was >/=80%, while 17% of the population did not experience any decline. On day 7 of cycle 1, the mean apparent oral clearance (CL/F) was 2.6 times the corresponding value on day 1. After 1 week without tretinoin, the mean AUC on day 1 of cycle 2 was lower (down 15%) but not statistically different from the corresponding value observed on day 1 of cycle 1; 62% of patients showed an increase in the AUC, which was 40% higher than the corresponding value on day 7 of cycle 1. On day 1 of cycle 6, the AUC and CL/F of tretinoin during a dosage interval were not statistically different from those observed on day 1 of cycle 1 and cycle 2. On all occasions the peak plasma concentration (C(max)) was strongly correlated to the corresponding AUC. No significant change in the time to observed C(max) (t(max)) and in the elimination half-life (t((1/2))) was observed during the whole study. These results confirmed that the metabolism of tretinoin is rapidly up-regulated in CML patients, with significant declines in plasma drug exposure during the first week of drug administration. After tretinoin was discontinued, a return to the noninduced state followed a mean time-cycle similar to the induction. The strong decrease in the apparent oral drug clearance and the absence of significant variations

  11. Sustained platelet-sparing effect of weekly low dose paclitaxel allows effective, tolerable delivery of extended dose dense weekly carboplatin in platinum resistant/refractory epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagden Sarah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platinum agents have shown demonstrable activity in the treatment of patients with platinum resistant, recurrent ovarian cancer when delivered in a "dose-dense" fashion. However, the development of thrombocytopenia limits the weekly administration of carboplatin to no greater than AUC 2. Paclitaxel has a well-described platelet sparing effect however its use to explicitly provide thromboprotection in the context of dose dense carboplatin has not been explored. Methods We treated seven patients with platinum resistant ovarian cancer who had previously received paclitaxel or who had developed significant peripheral neuropathy precluding the use of further full dose weekly paclitaxel. Results We were able to deliver carboplatin AUC 3 and paclitaxel 20 mg/m2 with no thrombocytopenia or worsening of neuropathic side-effects, and with good activity. Conclusions We conclude that this regimen may be feasible and active, and could be formally developed as a "platinum-focussed dose-dense scaffold" into which targeted therapies that reverse platinum resistance can be incorporated, and merits further evaluation.

  12. Five-Week Outcomes From a Dosing Trial of Therapeutic Massage for Chronic Neck Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Karen J.; Cook, Andrea J.; Wellman, Robert D.; Hawkes, Rene J.; Kahn, Janet R.; Deyo, Richard A.; Cherkin, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE This trial was designed to evaluate the optimal dose of massage for individuals with chronic neck pain. METHODS We recruited 228 individuals with chronic nonspecific neck pain from an integrated health care system and the general population, and randomized them to 5 groups receiving various doses of massage (a 4-week course consisting of 30-minute visits 2 or 3 times weekly or 60-minute visits 1, 2, or 3 times weekly) or to a single control group (a 4-week period on a wait list). We assessed neck-related dysfunction with the Neck Disability Index (range, 0–50 points) and pain intensity with a numerical rating scale (range, 0–10 points) at baseline and 5 weeks. We used log-linear regression to assess the likelihood of clinically meaningful improvement in neck-related dysfunction (≥5 points on Neck Disability Index) or pain intensity (≥30% improvement) by treatment group. RESULTS After adjustment for baseline age, outcome measures, and imbalanced covariates, 30-minute treatments were not significantly better than the wait list control condition in terms of achieving a clinically meaningful improvement in neck dysfunction or pain, regardless of the frequency of treatments. In contrast, 60-minute treatments 2 and 3 times weekly significantly increased the likelihood of such improvement compared with the control condition in terms of both neck dysfunction (relative risk = 3.41 and 4.98, P = .04 and .005, respectively) and pain intensity (relative risk = 2.30 and 2.73; P = .007 and .001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS After 4 weeks of treatment, we found multiple 60-minute massages per week more effective than fewer or shorter sessions for individuals with chronic neck pain. Clinicians recommending massage and researchers studying this therapy should ensure that patients receive a likely effective dose of treatment. PMID:24615306

  13. Clinical responses after total body irradiation by over permissible dose of γ-rays in one time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Benrong; Wang Guilin; Liu Huilan; Tang Xingsheng; Ai Huisheng

    1990-01-01

    The clinical responses of patients after total body over permissilbe dose γ-ray irradiation were observed and analysed. The results showed: when the dose was above 5 cGy, there was some immunological depression, but no significant change in hematopoietic functions. 5 cases showed some transient changes of ECG, perhaps due to vagotonia caused by psychological imbalance, One case vomitted 3-4 times after 28 cGy irradiation, this suggested that a few times of vomitting had no significance in the estimation of the irradiated dose and the whole clinical manifestations must be concretely analysed

  14. Radiation therapy and concurrent fixed dose amifostine with escalating doses of twice-weekly gemcitabine in advanced pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, A. Aydin; Aydin, Fazil; Yavuz, Melek N.; Ilis, Esra; Ozdemir, Feyyaz

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of twice-weekly gemcitabine (TW-G) when administered in conjunction with fixed dose amifostine (A) during external radiotherapy (RT) in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with previously untreated, locally advanced, or asymptomatic-metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma were enrolled in this study. RT was delivered by using the standard four-field technique (1.8 Gy daily fractions, 45 Gy followed by a boost of 5.4 Gy, in 5-1/2 weeks). The starting dose of TW-G was 60 mg/m 2 (i.v., 30-min infusion), which is equal to the upper limit of previously reported MTD of TW-G when given without A during RT. A was given just before the TW-G, at a fixed dose of 340 mg/m 2 (i.v., rapid infusion). TW-G doses were escalated by 30-mg/m 2 increments in successive cohorts of 3 to 6 additional patients until DLT was observed. Toxicities were graded using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2.0. Results: In general, therapy was well tolerated in patients treated at the first two dose levels of 60 mg/m 2 and 90 mg/m 2 . The DLT of TW-G given in conjunction with A during RT were neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and nausea/vomiting at the dose level of 120 mg/m 2 . Of the 10 patients eligible for a median follow-up of 10 months, 5 remain alive; 1 complete responder, 3 partial responders, and 1 with stable disease. Conclusion: A dose of TW-G at a level of 90 mg/m 2 produced tolerable toxicity and it may possess significant activity when delivered in conjunction with 340 mg/m 2 dose of A during RT of the upper abdomen. Due to the higher MTD of TW-G seen in our study, we consider that the A supplementation may optimize the therapeutic index of TW-G-based chemoradiotherapy protocols in patients with pancreatic carcinoma

  15. Weekly dose-dense paclitaxel and carboplatin in recurrent ovarian carcinoma: A phase II trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shawky, H.; Tawfik, H.; Hewidy, M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate efficacy and toxicity of the dose-dense weekly paclitaxel (T) and carboplatin (C) in the management of platinum-resistant/sensitive recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) previously treated with 3 weekly paclitaxel/carboplatin. Methods: Thirty two patients with recurrent EOC who had received 3 weekly TC before were enrolled. Nine patients relapsed within 6 months (platinum-resistant), 13 patients relapsed after 12 months (platinum-sensitive) and in 10 patients recurrence occurred between 6 and 12 months (intermediate platinum-sensitive). Weekly (T) at a dose of 80 mg/m2, followed by weekly (C) AUC 2 on day 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle for 6 planned cycles were administrated. End-points were overall response rate (ORR), progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and toxicity. Results: The ORR was 62.5%. For the platinum-resistant, intermediate platinum-sensitive and platinum-sensitive patients the ORR was 44.4% (4/9), 60% (6/10) and 76.9% (10/13), respectively, and 1 (11.1%), 2 (20%) and 5 (38.46%) patients, respectively had CR. PFS was 9.1 months (6.13, 9.1 and 12.17 months, for the 3 groups, respectively) (P < 0.001). OS was 14 months (9.17, 15.2, and 19.23 months, for the 3 groups, respectively) (P < 0.001). Treatment-related adverse events were manageable with only 1 patient (3.1%) suffering from grade 4 neutropenia. Grade 3 hematological and non-hematological toxicities were neutropenia in 8 (25%), and peripheral neuropathy in 4 (12.5%) patients, respectively. Conclusion: Weekly TC is active and well-tolerated in platinum-resistant and platinum-sensitive patients with recurrent EOC previously treated with TC given every 3 weeks

  16. Weekly, low-dose docetaxel combined with estramustine for Japanese castration-resistant prostate cancer: its efficacy and safety profile compared with tri-weekly standard-dose treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yasutomo; Nishimura, Kazuo; Nakayama, Masashi; Uemura, Motohide; Takayama, Hitoshi; Nonomura, Norio; Tsujimura, Akira

    2014-02-01

    We retrospectively investigated the efficacy and safety profile of weekly low-dose docetaxel (DTX) with estramustine in comparison with triweekly standard-dose DTX treatment for Japanese patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Between April 2002 and January 2011, 75 CRPC patients were treated with triweekly DTX (60-75 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks) (standard-dose group), and 76 CRPC patients were treated with weekly low-dose DTX (20-30 mg/m(2) on days 2 and 9 with estramustine 560 mg on days 1-3 and 8-10) every 3 weeks (low-dose group). Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response and progression-free and overall survival were analyzed in each group. Median serum PSA level of the standard-dose group and low-dose group was 25.0 and 35.5 ng/ml, respectively. In the standard-dose and low-dose groups, 57.8 and 65.2 % of patients, respectively, achieved a PSA decline ≥ 50 %. There was no significant difference in either median time to progression between the standard-dose group (10.0 months) and low-dose group (7.1 months) or in median duration of survival between the standard-dose group (24.2 months) and low-dose group (30.6 months). Multivariate analysis with a Cox proportional hazards regression model showed that DTX treatment protocol did not influence the risk of death. Incidences of grade 3-4 neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia were significantly higher in the standard-dose versus low-dose group (58.7 vs. 7.9 %, 16.0 vs. 3.9 %, and 8.0 vs. 0 %, respectively). For Japanese CRPC patients, weekly low-dose DTX combined with estramustine has similar efficacy to standard-dose DTX but with fewer adverse events.

  17. Study of four week repeated dose toxic test of Sweet Bee Venom in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Seuk Park

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyse four week repeated dose toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV extracted from the bee venom in Beagle dogs. Methods: All experiments were conducted under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical study authorized institution. Male and female Beagle dogs of 5-6 months old were chosen for the pilot study of four week repeated dose toxicity of Sweet BV which was administered at the level of 0.56㎎/㎏ body weight which is eighty times higher than the clinical application dosage as the high dosage, followed by 0.28 and 0.14㎎/㎏ as midium and low dosage, respectively. Equal amount of excipient(normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered as the control group every day for four weeks. Results: 1. No mortality was witnessed in all of the experiment groups. 2. All experiment groups were appealed pain sense in the treating time compared to the control group, and hyperemia and movement disorder were observed around the area of administration in all experiment groups, and higher occurrence in the higher dosage treatment. 3. For weight measurement, Neither male nor female groups showed significant changes. 4. In the urine analysis, CBC and biochemistry didn't show any significant changes in the experiment groups compared with control group. 5. For weight measurement of organs, experiment groups didn't show any significant changes compared with control group. 6. To verify abnormalities of organs and tissues, thigh muscle which treated with Sweet BV, cerebrum, liver, lung, kidney, and spinal cords were removed and conducted histologocal observation with H-E staining. In the histologocal observation of thigh muscle, cell infiltration, inflammatory, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis were found in both thigh tissue. And the changes were depend on the dose of Sweet BV. But another organs were not detected in any abnormalities. 7

  18. Study on a 4-Week Recovery Test of Sweet Bee Venom after a 13-Week, Repeated, Intramuscular Dose Toxicity Test in Sprague-Dawley Rats

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    Chungsan Lim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:This study was performed to check for reversibility in the changes induced by a 13-week, repeated, dose toxicity test of Sweet Bee Venom (SBV in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Methods:Fifteen male and 15 female SD rats were treated with 0.28 mg/kg of SBV (high-dosage group and the same numbers of male and female SD rats were treated with 0.2 mL/kg of normal saline (control group for 13 weeks. We selected five male and five female SD rats from the high-dosage group and the same numbers of male and female SD rats from the control group, and we observed these rats for four weeks. We conducted body-weight measurements, ophthalmic examinations, urinalyses and hematology, biochemistry, histology tests. Results:(1 Hyperemia and movement disorder were observed in the 13-week, repeated, dose toxicity test, but these symptoms were not observed during the recovery period. (2 The rats in the high-dose group showed no significant changes in weight compared to the control group. (3 No significant differences in the ophthalmic parameters, urine analyses, complete blood cell counts (CBCs, and biochemistry were observed among the recovery groups. (4 No changes in organ weights were observed during the recovery period. (5 Histological examination of the thigh muscle indicated cell infiltration, inflammation, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis during the treatment period, but these changes were not observed during the recovery period. The fatty liver change that was observed during the toxicity test was not observed during the recovery period. No other organ abnormalities were observed. Conclusion:The changes that occurred during the 13-week, repeated, dose toxicity test are reversible, and SBV can be safely used as a treatment modality.

  19. Reduced Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines after Eight Weeks of Low-Dose Naltrexone for Fibromyalgia

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    Luke Parkitny

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia (FM is a complex, multi-symptom condition that predominantly affects women. The majority of those affected are unlikely to gain significant symptomatic control from the few treatments that are approved for FM. In this 10-week, single-blind, crossover trial we tested the immune effects of eight weeks of oral administration of low-dose naltrexone (LDN. We enrolled eight women with an average age of 46 years, symptom severity of 62 out of 100, and symptom duration of 14 years. We found that LDN was associated with reduced plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-17A, IL-27, interferon (IFN-α, transforming growth factor (TGF-α, TGF-β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF. We also found a 15% reduction of FM-associated pain and an 18% reduction in overall symptoms. The findings of this pilot trial suggest that LDN treatment in fibromyalgia is associated with a reduction of several key pro-inflammatory cytokines and symptoms. The potential role of LDN as an atypical anti-inflammatory medication should be explored further.

  20. Treatment of local recurrent breast cancer by divided dose electron beam radiation twice a week

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Ichiro; Suzuki, Yoshihiko; Miyaishi, Kazuo; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Kimura, Makoto

    1978-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of divided dose electron beam radiation twice a week (with a focal dose of 600 rads at a time) on local recurrent tumors of postoperative breast cancer and to compare it with the conventional photon radiation in the hope that it might be better tolerated by the patients, with less damage to normal skin and lung tissues. Out of 261 patients with breast cancer who came to the Department of Radiology, at Gunma Univ. Hospital, Maebashi, during the period Jan., 1970, through Jun., 1976, 41 patients who received electron beam radiation for local recurrence (in 81 sites) and 31 who received prophylactic radiation over the chest wall postoperatively. Tumors completely disappeared from 73 out of 81 sites irradiated for local recurrence (accounting 90% of the 81 sites). The local recurrent lesions were classified to the ''disseminated'' and the ''focal'' type to compare the effects of the radiation, and it was found that the radiation eliminated the tumors from all (100%) of the 63 sites of the former type, while the radiation was capable of eliminating the tumors from only 10 out of the 18 sites of the latter type (56%). When the focal type tumors were classified by histopathologic typing to compare the effects of the radiation, the radiation was assessed effective in papillotubular carcinoma, medullary tubular carcinoma and scirrhous carcinoma in the decreasing sequence of significance. Pulmonary disorders occurred in 12% of all the observed sites. However, it is possible to further reduce this incidence by the adequate use of the tissue compensating filter, Mix-R. A skin disorder (erosion) was observed in 59% of all the sites observed. However, it may be anticipated that the topical application of a suitable corticoid (Beta-methasone-17-valerate cream) preparation will by prophylactically effective. (auth.)

  1. Treatment with α-Lipoic Acid over 16 Weeks in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Symptomatic Polyneuropathy Who Responded to Initial 4-Week High-Dose Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Garcia-Alcala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective treatment of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy remains a challenge. To assess the efficacy and safety of α-lipoic acid (ALA over 20 weeks, we conducted a multicenter randomized withdrawal open-label study, in which 45 patients with type 2 diabetes and symptomatic polyneuropathy were initially treated with ALA (600 mg tid for 4 weeks (phase 1. Subsequently, responders were randomized to receive ALA (600 mg qd; n=16 or to ALA withdrawal (n=17 for 16 weeks (phase 2. During phase 1, the Total Symptom Score (TSS decreased from 8.9 ± 1.8 points to 3.46 ± 2.0 points. During phase 2, TSS improved from 3.7 ± 1.9 points to 2.5 ± 2.5 points in the ALA treated group (p<0.05 and remained unchanged in the ALA withdrawal group. The use of analgesic rescue medication was higher in the ALA withdrawal group than ALA treated group (p<0.05. In conclusion, in type 2 diabetic patients with symptomatic polyneuropathy who responded to initial 4-week high-dose (600 mg tid administration of ALA, subsequent treatment with ALA (600 mg qd over 16 weeks improved neuropathic symptoms, whereas ALA withdrawal was associated with a higher use of rescue analgesic drugs. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02439879.

  2. [Toxicity studies of landiolol hydrochloride (ONO-1101) (2). 4-week repeated dose intravenous toxicity study in rats with 4-week recovery test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, K; Yanagi, H; Shimizu, K; Sakai, M; Nishibata, K; Oida, H; Shinomiya, K; Suzuki, Y; Yonezawa, H; Fujita, T

    1997-12-01

    4-week repeated dose toxicity study with 4-week recovery test of landiolol hydrochloride (ONO-1101), a novel ultra short acting beta-blocker, was conducted in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. ONO-1101 was administered intravenously to rats of both sexes at a dose level of 0 (control), 12.5, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg/day. In the 100 mg/kg/day group, bradypnea or dyspnea was seen in all animals, pale in ear, eye and foot, tremor, reddish lacrimation and loss of righting reflex were also observed in some animals right after administration, and then those signs disappeared within 1 min after administration. During the treatment period, 3/20 animals of each sex in the 100 mg/kg/day showed clonic convulsion and died within 2 min after administration. No clinical changes were seen in the 50 mg/kg/day group or lower. Histopathological findings showed atrophy of the submaxillary gland in females and vessel-wall thickening and perivascular fibrosis of the injection site (tail) in both sexes at 100 mg/kg/day, however those changes were reversible. ONO-1101 did not effect on body weight, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, blood chemistry, organ weights or necropsy at any doses. These results indicate that the no-adverse-effect level of ONO-1101 in rats is 50 mg/kg/day for both sexes in this study.

  3. [Weekly low-dose methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis. Review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganelli, P; Troise Rioda, W

    1993-10-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is an antifolic drug that in recent years has been largely employed in the treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Both short and long term clinical trials have demonstrated its efficacy and good tolerability. It induces a significant improvement of all clinical variables and a decrease in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and other acute phase reactants with a steroid sparing effect. The probability of continuing MTX therapy for up to 5 years is 46-55% whereas that of continuing gold, hydroxychloroquine, sulfasalazine or D-penicillamine therapy is less than 20%. MTX is a rapidly acting drug with a clinical response within 4 weeks and a plateau phase after 6 months of therapy. Discontinuation of long-term MTX therapy induces a flare-up of the disease so that patients receiving long-term MTX must continue the drug to maintain clinical benefits. In spite of its clinical efficacy, MTX does not seem to have a significant effect on disease progression as determined radiographically. In this respect, MTX appears to have some superiority when compared to azathioprine, but not when compared to gold salts. MTX has been employed in patients with RA unresponsive to other Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs (DMARDs), but according to some recent views on the therapeutic strategy of RA, it could be used in early RA as a first choice drug. Toxic effects are the main reason in limiting long-term MTX treatment. Hepatic toxicity is one of the more common side-effects of MTX, but the recognition of its "risk factors" such as alcohol abuse, may reduce it. Acute pneumonitis is one of the more severe complications of MTX therapy and may be life-threatening. In RA patients treated with MTX are also reported complications of immunosuppression, such as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia whose clinical-radiological picture may be similar to that of acute pneumonitis. The mechanism of action of low-dose weekly MTX in RA is still unclear, but it might be more

  4. Reduced lung lesions in pigs challenged 25 weeks after the administration of a single dose of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine at approximately 1 week of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, S C; St Aubin, L B; Sabbadini, L G; Kula, J; Vogelaar, J; Runnels, P; Peters, A R

    2009-09-01

    Two independent studies assessed the duration of immunity of an inactivated adjuvanted Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine against mycoplasmal pneumonia in seronegative (study A, n=52) and seropositive (study B, n=52) pigs. The pigs were allocated randomly to treatment and were then injected with a single dose of either the vaccine or a placebo at approximately 1 week of age. Twenty-five weeks after treatment administration, the pigs were challenged with a virulent strain (LI 36, Strain 232) of M. hyopneumoniae and the extent of lung lesions consistent with mycoplasmal pneumonia was assessed 4 weeks later. In study A, the geometric mean lung lesion score (expressed as least squares mean percentages of lung lesions) was significantly (P=0.0001) lower in vaccinated (0.3%, n=20) than in control pigs (5.9%, n=24) seronegative to M. hyopneumoniae at enrolment; similarly, in study B, the extent of lung lesions was significantly reduced (P=0.0385) in seropositive vaccinated pigs (2.0%, n=22) compared to controls (4.5%, n=26). At the end of the investigation period, 4 weeks after challenge, mean antibody sample-to-positive (S/P) ratios were significantly higher both in seronegative (P=0.0012) and seropositive (P=0.0001) vaccinated pigs (mean values=0.77 and 0.81, respectively) than in controls (mean values=0.51 and 0.38, respectively).

  5. Effect of weekly high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation on serum cholecalciferol concentrations in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitris, Michelle C; Perumal, Nandita; Craig-Barnes, Hayley A; Leadley, Michael; Mahmud, Abdullah A; Baqui, Abdullah H; Roth, Daniel E

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin D status is conventionally defined by the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. However, it has been proposed that the serum cholecalciferol concentration (D3) also determines functional vitamin D sufficiency. The objective of this study was to describe the effect of weekly high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation on inter-dose serum D3 in pregnant women. We conducted a sub-study of a completed randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D3 (35,000 IU/week) supplementation in late pregnancy (AViDD trial) in Dhaka, Bangladesh. This study included pregnant women enrolled at 26-29 weeks gestation who fully adhered to the prenatal supplement intervention for ≥8 consecutive weeks and for whom serum samples were available for D3 analysis (n=65). Serum D3 was uniformly low at enrolment. Mean D3 increased and was maximal at 1 day after vitamin D dose administration (152.09nmol/L, SD 25.11nmol/L) and remained significantly higher in VitD vs. Pl at 7 days (29.59nmol/L vs. 1.92nmol/L, p=0.007). Daily average of the group mean D3 during the week following dosing was 66.97nmol/L in VitD versus 2.13nmol/L in Pl. In conclusion, serum D3 remained significantly elevated throughout the week following ≥8 consecutive weekly doses of 35,000 IU D3 in pregnant women. However, the clinically significant minimum threshold of serum D3 remains to be established. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Double strand break induction and kinetics indicate preserved hypersensitivity in keratinocytes to subtherapeutic doses for 7weeks of radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvarnström, Fredrik; Simonsson, Martin; Nyman, Jan; Hermansson, Ingegerd; Book, Majlis; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Turesson, Ingela

    2017-01-01

    Previously we reported that hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) was evidenced by quantifying DNA double strand break (DSB) foci in epidermis biopsies collected after delivering radiotherapeutic one and five dose fractions. The aim of this study was to determine whether HRS was preserved throughout a 7-week radiotherapy treatment, and also to examine the rate of foci decline and foci persistence between dose fractions. 42 patients with prostate cancer received 7-week fractionated radiotherapy treatment (RT) with daily dose fractions of 0.05-1.10Gy to the skin. Before RT, and at several times throughout treatment, skin biopsies (n=452) were collected at 30min, and 2, 3, 24, and 72h after dose fractions. DSB-foci markers, γH2AX and 53BP1, were labelled in epidermal keratinocytes with immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical staining. Foci were counted both with digital image analysis and manually. HRS in keratinocytes was evidenced by the dose-response relationships of DSB foci, observed throughout the treatment course, independent of sampling time and quantification method. Foci observed at 24h after dose fractions indicated considerable DSB persistence. Accordingly, foci significantly accumulated after 5 consecutive dose fractions. For doses below 0.3Gy, persistent foci could be observed even at 72h after damage induction. A comparison of γH2AX and 53BP1 quantifications in double-stained biopsies showed similar HRS dose-response relationships. These results represented the first evidence of preserved HRS, assessed by γH2AX- and 53BP1-labelled DSB foci, throughout a 7-week treatment course with daily repeated subtherapeutic dose fractions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Single and 2-week repeated intravenous dose toxicity studies of disodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Fumio; Yabuuchi, Kazuya; Ohno, Kouji; Muraoka, Yoshihiro [Shionogi and Co. Ltd., Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan). Developmental Research Lab.; Ikeuchi, Isao

    1998-10-01

    Disodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is a boron compound used in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for malignant brain tumors. Intravenous single and 2-week repeated dose toxicity studies of BSH were performed in Sprague-Dawley rats. In the single-dose study, BSH was administered at doses of 100, 300 or 600 mg/kg. Death occurred within 10 min (acute type) or from 5 hr to 2 days (delayed type) after dosing in the 600 mg/kg group. No differences in mortality by sex and dosing speed were observed. Major causes of death were considered to be circulatory disorder in acute death and renal injury in delayed death. The renal injury was observed in the 300 and 600 mg/kg groups. In the 2-week repeated dose study, BSH was administered at doses of 30, 100 or 300 mg/kg/day for 14 days. Body weight gain was suppressed in the 100 and 300 mg/kg groups. One male in the 300 mg/kg group died due to renal and pulmonary lesions at day 8. Slight anemia was observed in the 300 mg/kg group. Pathologically, the kidney showed tubular regeneration with increase of weight in the 300 mg/kg. From these results, the NOAEL of BSH is 30 mg/kg/day. (author)

  8. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial of tafenoquine for weekly prophylaxis against Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Braden R; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Fryauff, David J; Koram, Kwadwo A; Adjuik, Martin; Oduro, Abraham R; Prescott, W Roy; Baird, J Kevin; Nkrumah, Francis; Ritchie, Thomas L; Franke, Eileen D; Binka, Fred N; Horton, John; Hoffman, Stephen L

    2003-03-01

    Tafenoquine is a promising new 8-aminoquinoline drug that may be useful for malaria prophylaxis in nonpregnant persons with normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) function. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled chemoprophylaxis trial was conducted with adult residents of northern Ghana to determine the minimum effective weekly dose of tafenoquine for the prevention of infection by Plasmodium falciparum. The primary end point was a positive malaria blood smear result during the 13 weeks of study drug coverage. Relative to the placebo, all 4 tafenoquine dosages demonstrated significant protection against P. falciparum infection: for 25 mg/week, protective efficacy was 32% (95% confidence interval [CI], 20%-43%); for 50 mg/week, 84% (95% CI, 75%-91%); for 100 mg/week, 87% (95% CI, 78%-93%); and for 200 mg/week, 86% (95% CI, 76%-92%). The mefloquine dosage of 250 mg/week also demonstrated significant protection against P. falciparum infection (protective efficacy, 86%; 95% CI, 72%-93%). There was little difference between study groups in the adverse events reported, and there was no evidence of a relationship between tafenoquine dosage and reports of physical complaints or the occurrence of abnormal laboratory parameters. Tafenoquine dosages of 50, 100, and 200 mg/week were safe, well tolerated, and effective against P. falciparum infection in this study population.

  9. A 4-Week Repeated-Dose Oral Toxicity Study of Bojungikgi-Tang in Crl:CD Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae-Rom Yoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional herbal medicines have been used for centuries in Asian countries. However, recent studies have led to increasing concerns about the safety and toxicity of herbal prescriptions. Bojungikgi-tang (BJIGT, a herbal decoction, has been used in Korea to improve physical strength. To establish the safety information, BJIGT water extract was evaluated in a 4-week repeated-dose oral toxicity test in Crl:CD Sprague Dawley rats. BJIGT was orally administered in daily doses of 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks via oral gavage in male and female rats. We examined the mortality, clinical signs, body weight change, food intake, organ weights, hematology, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis parameters. No significant changes were observed in mortality, clinical sings, body weight, food intake, organ weights, hematology, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis parameters between the control group and the BJIGT-treated groups in the rats of both sexes. The results indicate that BJIGT did not induce toxic effects at a dose level up to 2000 mg/kg in rats. Thus, this concentration is considered the nonobservable effect dose in rats and is appropriate for a 13-week subchronic toxicity study.

  10. Inter fractional dose variation during intensity-modulated radiation therapy for cervical cancer assessed by weekly CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Youngyih; Shin, Eun Hyuk; Huh, Seung Jae; Lee, Jung Eun; Park, Won

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the inter fractional dose variation of a small-bowel displacement system (SBDS)-assisted intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of cervical cancer. Methods: Four computed tomography (CT) scans were carried out in 10 patients who received radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer. The initial CT was taken by use of the SBDS, before the beginning of radiotherapy, and 3 additional CT scans with the SBDS were done in subsequent weeks. IMRT was planned by use of the initial CT, and the subsequent images were fused with the initial CT set. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) changes of the targets (planning target volume [PTV] = clinical target volume [CTV] + 1.5 cm) and of the critical organs were evaluated after obtaining the volumes of each organ on 4 CT sets. Results: No significant differences were found in PTV volumes. Changes on the DVH of the CTVs were not significant, whereas DVH changes of the PTVs at 40% to 100% of the prescription dose level were significant (V 90% ; 2nd week: p = 0.0091, 3rd week: p = 0.0029, 4th week: p = 0.0050). The changes in the small-bowel volume included in the treatment field were significant. These were 119.5 cm 3 (range, 26.9-251.0 cm 3 ), 126 cm 3 (range, 38.3-336 cm 3 ), 161.9 cm 3 (range, 37.7-294.6 cm 3 ), and 149.1 cm 3 (range, 38.6-277.8 cm 3 ) at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th weeks, respectively, and were significantly correlated with the DVH change in the small bowel, which were significant at the 3rd (V 80% ; p = 0.0230) and 4th (V 80% ; p = 0.0263) weeks. The bladder-volume change correlated to the large volume change (>20%) of the small-bowel volume. Conclusions: Significant DVH differences for the small bowel can result because of interfractional position variations, whereas the DVH differences of the CTV were not significant. Strict bladder-filling control and an accurate margin for the PTV, as well as image-guided position verification, are important to achieve the goal of IMRT

  11. Collaborative work to evaluate toxicity on male reproductive organs by repeated dose studies in rats 22). Effects of 2- and 4-week administration of theobromine on the testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabashi, H; Fujioka, M; Kohchi, M; Tateishi, Y; Matsuoka, N

    2000-10-01

    The effects of theobromine, a xanthine derivative, on the testis were compared between rats dosed for 2 and 4 weeks to determine whether a 2-week dosing period is long enough to detect toxicity. Theobromine was administered orally to male Sprague-Dawley rats at dose levels of 250 and 500 mg/kg for 2 weeks starting at the age of 6 or 8 weeks, and for 4 weeks from the age of 6 weeks. Histopathological examination of reproductive organs revealed toxic findings in the testis at 500 mg/kg after 2 weeks of dosing at both ages, and at 250 and 500 mg/kg after 4 weeks of dosing. The primary findings were degeneration/necrosis and desquamation of spermatids and spermatocytes, vacuolization of seminiferous tubules, and multinucleated giant cell formation. These findings were present mainly in stages I-VI and XII-XIV. From these results, it is concluded that the toxic effects of theobromine on the testis can be detected by repeated dosing for 2 weeks as well as for 4 weeks.

  12. Using equilibrium passive dosing to maintain stable exposure concentrations of triclosan in a 6-week toxicity test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobek, A.; Ribbenstedt, A.; Mustajärvi, L.

    2015-01-01

    toxicity tests. Yet, the European Commission’s criteria for chemicals’ risk assessments aim at protecting higher levels in the environment. To achieve protection of populations and ecosystems, reliable long-term ecotoxicologial tests are needed. In this study, we used equilibrium passive dosing to maintain...... stable exposure concentrations of triclosan (log Kow 4.8) in a 6-week multigeneration test with the benthic copepod Nitocra spinipes. The tests were performed in 10 mL vials casted with 1000 mg of silicone (DC 1-2577). Based on a previous pilot study, three triclosan concentrations were selected...... and tested (15 μg L-1; 30 μg L-1; 60 μg L-1) as well as a control (no triclosan). At test beginning, each vial contained 12 individuals consisting of 3 individuals from four different life stages. The test includes feeding with phytoplankton three times a week, which can lead to declining freely dissolved...

  13. Single, 14-Day, and 13-Week Repeated Dose Toxicity Studies of Daily Oral Gelidium elegans Extract Administration to Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jia; Ryu, Su-Jung; Kim, Kui-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Min; Chung, Hee-Chul; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2018-01-20

    Gelidium elegans extract (GEE) is derived from a red alga from the Asia-Pacific region, which has antioxidant, anti-adipogenic, and anti-hyperglycemic effects. However, detailed studies of the toxicology of GEE have not been performed. We evaluated the single oral dose toxicity of GEE in male and female Sprague-Dawley (CD) rats. GEE did not cause deaths or have toxic effects at dosages of 5000 mg/kg/day, although compound-colored stools and diarrhea were observed in both sexes, which lasted 5000 mg/kg. We next evaluated the repeated oral dose toxicity of GEE in CD rats over 14 days and 13 weeks. GEE did not induce any significant toxicological changes in either sex at 2000 mg/kg/day. Repeated oral dose toxicity studies showed no adverse effects, in terms of clinical signs, mortality, body mass, food consumption, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy, organ masses, or histopathology, at dosages of 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg/day. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for GEE is thus likely to be >2000 mg/kg/day, and no pathology was identified in potential target organs. Therefore, this study indicates that repeated oral dosing with GEE is safe in CD rats.

  14. Single, 14-Day, and 13-Week Repeated Dose Toxicity Studies of Daily Oral Gelidium elegans Extract Administration to Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Choi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gelidium elegans extract (GEE is derived from a red alga from the Asia–Pacific region, which has antioxidant, anti-adipogenic, and anti-hyperglycemic effects. However, detailed studies of the toxicology of GEE have not been performed. We evaluated the single oral dose toxicity of GEE in male and female Sprague-Dawley (CD rats. GEE did not cause deaths or have toxic effects at dosages of 5000 mg/kg/day, although compound-colored stools and diarrhea were observed in both sexes, which lasted <2 days. Therefore, the LD50 of GEE is likely to be >5000 mg/kg. We next evaluated the repeated oral dose toxicity of GEE in CD rats over 14 days and 13 weeks. GEE did not induce any significant toxicological changes in either sex at 2000 mg/kg/day. Repeated oral dose toxicity studies showed no adverse effects, in terms of clinical signs, mortality, body mass, food consumption, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy, organ masses, or histopathology, at dosages of 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg/day. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL for GEE is thus likely to be >2000 mg/kg/day, and no pathology was identified in potential target organs. Therefore, this study indicates that repeated oral dosing with GEE is safe in CD rats.

  15. Regulatory Forum Opinion Piece*: Retrospective Evaluation of Doses in the 26-week Tg.rasH2 Mice Carcinogenicity Studies: Recommendation to Eliminate High Doses at Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) in Future Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjpe, Madhav G; Denton, Melissa D; Vidmar, Tom J; Elbekai, Reem H

    2015-07-01

    High doses in Tg.rasH2 carcinogenicity studies are usually set at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), although this dose selection strategy has not been critically evaluated. We analyzed the body weight gains (BWGs), mortality, and tumor response in control and treated groups of 29 Tg.rasH2 studies conducted at BioReliance. Based on our analysis, it is evident that the MTD was exceeded at the high and/or mid-doses in several studies. The incidence of tumors in high doses was lower when compared to the low and mid-doses of both sexes. Thus, we recommend that the high dose in male mice should not exceed one-half of the estimated MTD (EMTD), as it is currently chosen, and the next dose should be one-fourth of the EMTD. Because females were less sensitive to decrements in BWG, the high dose in female mice should not exceed two-third of EMTD and the next dose group should be one-third of EMTD. If needed, a third dose group should be set at one-eighth EMTD in males and one-sixth EMTD in females. In addition, for compounds that do not show toxicity in the range finding studies, a limit dose should be applied for the 26-week carcinogenicity studies. © 2014 by The Author(s).

  16. Regulatory Forum Opinion Piece*: Retrospective Evaluation of Doses in the 26-week Tg.rasH2 Mice Carcinogenicity Studies: Recommendation to Eliminate High Doses at Maximum Tolerated Dose in Future Studies. A Response to the Counterpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjpe, Madhav G; Denton, Melissa D; Vidmar, Tom J; Elbekai, Reem H

    2016-01-01

    We recently conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected from 29 Tg.rasH2 carcinogenicity studies conducted at our facility to determine how successful was the strategy of choosing the high dose of the 26-week studies based on an estimated maximum tolerated dose (MTD). As a result of our publication, 2 counterviews were expressed. Both counterviews illustrate very valid points in their interpretation of our data. In this article, we would like to highlight clarifications based on several points and issues they have raised in their papers, namely, the dose-level selection, determining if MTD was exceeded in 26-week studies, and a discussion on the number of dose groups to be used in the studies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Study of four weeks repeated-dose toxic test of Sweet Bee Venom in rats Original Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Hae-Yon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyse four weeks repeated -dose toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom (SBV-pure melittin, the major component of honey bee venom in rats. Methods: All experiments were conducted under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLPat Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical study authorized institution. Male and female rats of 5 weeks old were chosen for the pilot study of four weeks repeated-dose toxicity and was injected at the level of 0.56 mg/kg body weight (eighty times higher than the clinical application dosage as the high dosage, followed by 0.28 and 0.14 mg/kg as midium and low dosage, respectively. Equal amount of normal saline was injected as the control group every day for four weeks. Results: 1. No mortality was witnessed in all of the experiment groups. 2. All experiment groups appealed pain sense in the treating time compared to the control group, and side effects such as hyperemia and movement disorder were observed around the area of injection in all experiment groups, and the higher dosage in treatment, the higher occurrence in side effects. 3. Concerning weight measurement, neither male nor female groups showed significant changes compared to the control group. 4. Concerning to the CBC and biochemistry, all experiment groups didn't show any significant changes compared to the control group. 5. Concerning weight measurement of organs, experiment groups didn't show any significant changes compared to the control group. 6. To verify abnormalities of organs and tissues, those such as cerebellum, cerebrum, liver, lung, kidney,and spinal cords were removed and we conducted histologocal observation with H-E staining.Concerning the histologocal observation of liver tissues, some fatty changes were observed around portal vein in 0.56 mg/kg experiment group. But another organs were not detected in any abnormalities. 7. The proper high dosage of SBV for the thirteen weeks repeated test in rats may be 0.28 mg

  18. A 12-week DBPC dose-finding study with sublingual monomeric allergoid tablets in house dust mite-allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüser, C; Dieterich, P; Singh, J; Shah-Hosseini, K; Allekotte, S; Lehmacher, W; Compalati, E; Mösges, R

    2017-01-01

    In sublingual immunotherapy, optimal doses are a key factor for therapeutic outcomes. The aim of this study with tablets containing carbamylated monomeric house dust mite allergoids was to determine the most effective and safe dose. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-finding study, 131 patients with house dust mite-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis were randomized to 12-week treatments with 300 UA/day, 1000 UA/day, 2000 UA/day, 3000 UA/day or placebo. Conjunctival provocation tests (CPT) were performed before, during and after treatment. The change in mean allergic severity (primary endpoint), calculated from the severity of the CPT reaction, and the proportion of patients with an improved CPT threshold (secondary endpoint) determined the treatment effect. The mean allergic severity decreased in all groups, including the placebo group. It was lower in all active treatment groups (300 UA/day: 0.14, 1000 UA/day: 0.15, 2000 UA/day: 0.10, 3000 UA/day: 0.15) than in the placebo group (0.30). However, this difference was not statistically significant (P allergoid sublingual tablets is well tolerated and reduces the CPT reaction in house dust mite-allergic patients. © 2016 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Escitalopram in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized, placebo-controlled, paroxetine-referenced, fixed-dose, 24-week study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Dan J; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford; Tonnoir, Brigitte

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A randomized, placebo controlled fixed-dose trial was undertaken to determine the efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), using paroxetine as the active reference. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 466 adults with OCD from specialized...... clinical centres, psychiatric hospital departments, psychiatric practices, or general practice were randomized to one of four treatment groups: escitalopram 10 mg/day (n = 116), escitalopram 20 mg/day (n = 116), paroxetine 40 mg/day (n = 119), or placebo (n = 115) for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy...... of adverse events, and on changes in vital signs (blood pressure and pulse). Main outcome measures; RESULTS: Escitalopram 20 mg/day was superior to placebo on the primary and all secondary outcome endpoints, including remission. Escitalopram 10 mg/day and paroxetine 40 mg/day were also effective...

  20. Increased Tumor Oxygenation and Drug Uptake During Anti-Angiogenic Weekly Low Dose Cyclophosphamide Enhances the Anti-Tumor Effect of Weekly Tirapazamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doloff, J.C.; Khan, N.; Ma, J.; Demidenko, E.; Swartz, H.M.; Jounaidi, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Metronomic cyclophosphamide treatment is associated with anti-angiogenic activity and is anticipated to generate exploitable hypoxia using hypoxia-activated prodrugs. Weekly administration of tirapazamine (TPZ; 5 mg/kg body weight i.p.) failed to inhibit the growth of 9L gliosarcoma tumors grown s.c. in scid mice. However, the anti-tumor effect of weekly cyclophosphamide (CPA) treatment (140 mg/kg BW i.p.) was substantially enhanced by weekly TPZ administration. An extended tumor free period and increased frequency of tumor eradication without overt toxicity were observed when TPZ was given 3, 4 or 5 days after each weekly CPA treatment. Following the 2nd CPA injection, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Oximetry indicated significant increases in tumor pO2, starting at 48 hr, which further increased after the 3rd CPA injection. pO2 levels were, however, stable in growing untreated tumors. A strong negative correlation (−0.81) between tumor pO2 and tumor volume during 21 days of weekly CPA chemotherapy was observed, indicating increasing tumor pO2 with decreasing tumor volume. Furthermore, CPA treatment resulted in increased tumor uptake of activated CPA. CPA induced increases in VEGF RNA, which reached a maximum on day 1, and in PLGF RNA which was sustained throughout the treatment, while anti-angiogenic host thrombospondin-1 increased dramatically through day 7 post-CPA treatment. Weekly cyclophosphamide treatment was anticipated to generate exploitable hypoxia. However, our findings suggest that weekly CPA treatment induces a functional improvement of tumor vasculature, which is characterized by increased tumor oxygenation and drug uptake in tumors, thus counter-intuitively, benefiting intratumoral activation of TPZ and perhaps other bioreductive drugs. PMID:19754361

  1. Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Fu Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper wants to investigate the optimal retailer's lot-sizing policy with two warehouses under partially permissible delay in payments within the economic order quantity (EOQ framework. In this paper, we want to extend that fully permissible delay in payments to the supplier would offer the retailer partially permissible delay in payments. That is, the retailer must make a partial payment to the supplier when the order is received. Then the retailer must pay off the remaining balance at the end of the permissible delay period. In addition, we want to add the assumption that the retailer's storage space is limited. That is, the retailer will rent the warehouse to store these exceeding items when the order quantity is larger than retailer's storage space. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer's optimal cycle time and optimal order quantity. Three theorems are developed to efficiently determine the optimal replenishment policy for the retailer. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate these theorems and obtained a lot of managerial insights.

  2. Maximum permissible concentration (MPC) values for spontaneously fissioning radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, M.R.; Snyder, W.S.; Dillman, L.T.; Watson, S.B.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation hazards involved in handling certain of the transuranic nuclides that exhibit spontaneous fission as a mode of decay were reaccessed using recent advances in dosimetry and metabolic modeling. Maximum permissible concentration (MPC) values in air and water for occupational exposure (168 hr/week) were calculated for 244 Pu, 246 Cm, 248 Cm, 250 Cf, 252 Cf, 254 Cf, /sup 254m/Es, 255 Es, 254 Fm, and 256 Fm. The half-lives, branching ratios, and principal modes of decay of the parent-daughter members down to a member that makes a negligible contribution to the dose are given, and all daughters that make a significant contribution to the dose to body organs following inhalation or ingestion are included in the calculations. Dose commitments for body organs are also given

  3. Efficacy and tolerability of a high loading dose (25,000 IU weekly) vitamin D3 supplementation in obese children with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakishun, Nalini N E; van Vliet, Mariska; Poland, Dennis C W; Weijer, Olivier; Beijnen, Jos H; Brandjes, Dees P M; Diamant, Michaela; von Rosenstiel, Ines A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The recommended dose of vitamin D supplementation of 400 IU/day might be inadequate to treat obese children with vitamin D insufficiency. Therefore, we tested the efficacy and tolerability of a high loading dose vitamin D3 supplementation of 25,000 IU weekly in multiethnic obese

  4. Android Permission Model

    OpenAIRE

    Birendra, Chalise

    2016-01-01

    The recent evolution on the smart phone technology has made its application market huge and less secure. Every single day large number of apps introduced in the android market (mostly on google play store) without any particular inspections which creates a lot of security issues and they remain unresolved. There are a lot of recent and increasing security issues which are mostly caused by the android apps. Mainly, the access of user data through the apps relied on the users given permission t...

  5. Rethinking Permissioned Blockchains

    OpenAIRE

    Vukolic, Marko

    2017-01-01

    Current blockchain platforms, especially the recent permissioned systems, have architectural limitations: smart contracts run sequentially, all node executes all smart contracts, consensus protocols are hard-coded, the trust model is static and not exible, and non-determinism in smart-contract execution poses serious problems. Overcoming these limitations is critical for improving both functional properties of blockchains, such as con dentiality and consistency, as well as their non-functiona...

  6. Four weeks of treatment with liraglutide reduces insulin dose without loss of glycemic control in type 1 diabetic patients with and without residual beta-cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielgast, Urd; Krarup, Thure; Holst, Jens Juul

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of 4 weeks of treatment with liraglutide on insulin dose and glycemic control in type 1 diabetic patients with and without residual ß-cell function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Ten type 1 diabetic patients with residual ß-cell function (C-peptide positive) and 19.......1]; P Treatment with liraglutide in type 1 diabetic patients reduces insulin dose with improved or unaltered glycemic control....... activity was performed before (week 0) and during (week 4) treatment. Differences in insulin dose; HbA(1c); time spent with blood glucose 10, and 3.9-9.9 mmol/L; and body weight were evaluated. RESULTS Insulin dose decreased from 0.50 ± 0.06 to 0.31 ± 0.08 units/kg per day (P

  7. Dose rate effect from the relationship between ICRU rectal dose and local control rate in intracavitary radiotherapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Six fraction HDR and three-fraction LDR in three weeks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jingu, Kenichi; Akita, Yuzou; Ohmagari, Jyunichi

    2001-01-01

    The dose rate effect, low dose rate radiotherapy (LDR)/high dose rate radiotherapy (HDR), was calculated using the isoeffect ICRU rectal dose by intracavitary radiotherapy (ICRT) for uterine cervix cancer. The subjects analyzed consisted of 78 LDR and 74 HDR patients whose ICRU rectal dose could be calculated and whose local control as stage II/III cases could be evaluated. The point A dose in ICRT was 45-55 Gy/3 fractions/3 weeks for LDR and 30 Gy/6 fractions/3 weeks for HDR. The dose effect relationships associated with local control at each whole pelvis external radiation dose were calculated using the double integration method and Probit analysis, and the 50% and 90% local control ICRU rectal doses were calculated from this relationship. Finally, the dose rate effect LDR/HDR was determined from 50% and 90% local control doses. The dose rate effect calculated from the 50% local control dose was 1.24 and that from the 90% local control dose was 1.14. (author)

  8. Study of a 13-weeks, Repeated, Intramuscular Dose, Toxicity Test of Sweet Bee Venom in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunmin Kang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:This study was performed to analyze a 13-week repeated dose toxicity test of Sweet Bee Venom (SBV extracted from bee venom and administered in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Methods:Male and female 5-week-old SD rats were treated once daily with SBV (high-dosage group: 0.28 mg/kg; medium-dosage group: 0.14 mg/kg; or low-dosage group: 0.07 mg/kg for 13 weeks. Normal saline was administered to the control group in a similar manner (0.2 mL/kg. We conducted clinical observations, body weight measurements, ophthalmic examinations, urinalyses, hematology and biochemistry tests, and histological observations using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining to identify any abnormalities caused by the SBV treatment. Results:During this study, no mortality was observed in any of the experimental groups. Hyperemia and a movement disorder were observed around the area of in all groups that received SBV treatment, with a higher occurrence in rats treated with a higher dosage. Male rats receiving in the high-dosage group showed a significant decrease in weight during the treatment period. Compared to the control group, no significant changes in the ophthalmic parameters, the urine analyses, the complete blood cell count (CBC, and the biochemistry in the groups treated with SBV. Compared to the control group, some changes in organ weights were observed in the medium-and the high-dosage groups, but the low-dosage group showed no significant changes. Histological examination of thigh muscle indicated cell infiltration, inflammation, degeneration, and necrosis of muscle fiber, as well as fibrosis, in both the medium- and the high-dosage groups. Fatty liver change was observed in the periportal area of rats receiving medium and high dosages of SBV. No other organ abnormalities were observed. Conclusion:Our findings suggest that the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL of SBV is approximately 0.07 mg/kg in male and female SD rats.

  9. A Phase I-II dose escalation study of fixed-dose rate gemcitabine, oxaliplatin and capecitabine every two weeks in advanced cholangiocarcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Ulrik V; Jensen, Lars Henrik; Sorensen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    (O) and capecitabine (C), and evaluate the safety and efficacy of this regimen in patients with advanced cholangiocarcinoma (CC). Methods. In the Phase I part of the study a dose-escalation schedule of FDR G, O and C, administered every two weeks, was performed in patients with solid tumours...... and no other treatments or advanced CC. In the Phase II part response rate, toxicity, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival was evaluated in patients with newly diagnosed advanced CC. Results. Thirty-six patients entered the Phase I part and G 1 000 mg/m(2) day 1 and 15, O 60 mg/m(2) day 1...... and 15, and C 1 000 mg/m(2) BID day 1-7 and day 15-21 were established as MTD. In the Phase II part, 41 patients with advanced CC were included. Overall response rate was 34% and 51% had stable disease, resulting in a clinical benefit rate of 85%. Grade III and IV adverse events were rare. Median...

  10. Is the maximum permissible radiation burden for the population indeed permissible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renesse, R.L. van.

    1975-01-01

    It is argued that legislation based on the ICRP doses will, under economical influences, lead to a situation where the population is exposed to radiation doses near the maximum permissible dose. Due to cumulative radiation effects, this will introduce unacceptable health risks. Therefore, it will be necessary to lower the legal dose limit of 170 millrem per year per person by a factor 10 to 20

  11. Dose-associated changes in safety and efficacy parameters observed in a 24-week maintenance trial of olanzapine long-acting injection in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Susan B

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a recently published 24-week maintenance study of olanzapine long-acting injection (LAI in schizophrenia (Kane et al., 2010, apparent dose-associated changes were noted in both efficacy and safety parameters. To help clinicians balance safety and efficacy when choosing a dose of olanzapine LAI, we further studied these changes. Methods Outpatients with schizophrenia who had maintained stability on open-label oral olanzapine for 4 to 8 weeks were randomly assigned to "low" (150 mg/2 weeks; N = 140, "medium" (405 mg/4 weeks; N = 318, or "high" (300 mg/2 weeks; N = 141 dosages of olanzapine LAI for 24 weeks. Potential relationships between dose and several safety or efficacy measures were examined via regression analysis, the Jonckheere-Terpstra test (continuous data, or the Cochran-Armitage test (categorical data. Results Safety parameters statistically significantly related to dose were mean weight change (low: +0.67 [SD = 4.38], medium: +0.89 [SD = 3.87], high: +1.70 [SD = 4.14] kg, p = .024; effect size [ES] = 0.264 high vs. low dose, mean change in prolactin (low: -5.61 [SD = 12.49], medium: -2.76 [SD = 19.02], high: +3.58 [SD = 33.78] μg/L, p = .001; ES = 0.410 high vs. low dose, fasting triglycerides change from normal at baseline to high (low: 3.2%, medium: 6.0%, high: 18.9%, p = .001; NNT = 7 high vs. low dose and fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol change from normal at baseline to low (low: 13.8%, medium: 19.6%, high: 30.7%, p = .019; NNT = 6 high vs. low dose. Efficacy measures significantly related to dose included Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score mean change (low: +2.66 [SD = 14.95], medium: -0.09 [SD = 13.47], high: -2.19 [SD = 13.11], p Conclusions Analyses of several safety and efficacy parameters revealed significant associations with dose of olanzapine LAI, with the highest dose generally showing greater efficacy as well as greater adverse changes in metabolic safety measures. When

  12. Tumor control induced by Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) as a function of dose in an experimental model of liver metastases at 5 weeks follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzi, E C C; Trivillin, V A; Colombo, L L; Monti Hughes, A; Thorp, S; Cardoso, J E; Garabalino, M A; Molinari, A J; Heber, E M; Curotto, Paula; Miller, M; Itoiz, M E; Aromando, R F; Nigg, D W; Schwint, A E

    2012-01-01

    BNCT has been proposed for the treatment of multifocal, non-resectable, bilobar colorectal liver metastases that do not respond to chemotherapy. We recently reported that BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) induced significant remission of experimental colorectal tumor nodules in rat liver at 3 weeks follow-up with no contributory liver toxicity (Pozzi et al.,2012). The aim of the present study was to evaluate tumor control and potential liver toxicity of BPA-BNCT at 5 weeks follow-up. Prescribed dose was retrospectively evaluated based on blood boron values, allowing for assessment of response over a range of delivered dose values (author)

  13. A 12-week dose-escalating study of etelcalcetide (ONO-5163/AMG 416), a novel intravenous calcimimetic, for secondary hyperparathyroidism in Japanese hemodialysis patients
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Keitaro; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Shigematsu, Takashi; Akiba, Takashi; Fujii, Akifumi; Odani, Motoi; Akizawa, Tadao

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate dose-escalation of etelcalcetide (ONO-5163/AMG 416), a novel, intravenous (IV), long-acting calcium-sensing receptor agonist, for treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in Japanese hemodialysis patients. In this multicenter study, IV injections of etelcalcetide (3 times a week for 12 weeks) were administered, with dose escalation every 4 weeks depending on changes in serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and corrected calcium (cCa). A total of 24 patients participated in this study. Serum iPTH was reduced in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with reductions (in pg/mL) at 12 weeks of -226.1 ± 125.3, -362.5 ± 161.5, and -412.4 ± 130.2, respectively, for maximum doses of 5, 10, and 15 mg. At the end of the treatment, 50% of patients had serum iPTH levels within the target range (60 - 240 pg/mL). Serum cCa and phosphorus were reduced in parallel with iPTH. Adverse events (AEs) occurred in 20 patients (83.3%). The most frequently observed AEs (> 10%) were either mild or moderate nasopharyngitis (29.2%), decreased serum calcium (16.7%), and vomiting (12.5%). Dose-escalated triweekly etelcalcetide was effective for SHPT in Japanese hemodialysis patients and was satisfactorily tolerated.
.

  14. Weekly Dose-Volume Parameters of Mucosa and Constrictor Muscles Predict the Use of Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy During Exclusive Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Oropharyngeal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Gunn, G. Brandon; Parker, Brent C.; Endres, Eugene J.; Zeng Jing; Fiorino, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To define predictors of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) use during intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for oropharyngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: Data for 59 consecutive patients treated with exclusive IMRT at a single institution were recovered. Of 59 patients, 25 were treated with hyperfractionation (78 Gy, 1.3 Gy per fraction, twice daily; 'HYPER'); and 34 of 59 were treated with a once-daily fractionation schedule (66 Gy, 2.2 Gy per fraction, or 70 Gy, 2 Gy per fraction; 'no-HYPER'). On the basis of symptoms during treatment, a PEG tube could have been placed as appropriate. A number of clinical/dosimetric factors, including the weekly dose-volume histogram of oral mucosa (OM DVHw) and weekly mean dose to constrictors and larynx, were considered. The OM DVHw of patients with and without PEG were compared to assess the most predictive dose-volume combinations. Results: Of 59 patients, 22 needed a PEG tube during treatment (for 15 of 22, ≥3 months). The best cutoff values for OM DVHw were V9.5 Gy/week 3 and V10 Gy/week 3 . At univariate analysis, fractionation, mean weekly dose to OM and superior and middle constrictors, and OM DVHw were strongly correlated with the risk of PEG use. In a stepwise multivariate logistic analysis, OM V9.5 Gy/week (≥64 vs. 3 ) was the most predictive parameter (odds ratio 30.8, 95% confidence interval 3.7-254.2, p = 0.0015), confirmed even in the no-HYPER subgroup (odds ratio 21, 95% CI 2.1 confidence interval 210.1, p = 0.01). Conclusions: The risk of PEG use is drastically reduced when OM V9.5-V10 Gy/week is 3 . These data warrant prospective validation.

  15. Phase I dose-escalation study of vinflunine hard capsules administered twice a day for 2 consecutive days every week in patients with advanced/metastatic solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, E; Vermorken, J B; Hiret, S; Rodon, J; Cortes, J; Senellart, H; Van den Brande, J; Dyck, J; Pétain, A; Ferre, P; Bennouna, J

    2012-06-01

    Vinflunine is a new microtubule inhibitor of the vinca-alkaloid family. It is marketed in transitional cell carcinoma of urothelial tract as a 20 min infusion given every 3 weeks in Europe. In this phase I study, vinflunine was administered to patients with advanced malignancies as hard capsules given twice a day on days 1-2 every week, with 3 weeks cycles. Serial blood samples were collected during the first cycle for pharmacokinetic investigations. Thirty-six patients (pts) were treated at 6 dose levels 150 (3 pts), 190 (3 pts), 230 (8 pts), 300 mg/day (6 pts) and then 250 (3 pts) and 270 mg/day (13 pts). The Maximal Tolerated Dose (MTD) was reached at 300 mg/day where 2 patients out of 6 experienced a dose limiting toxicity (febrile neutropenia with diarrhea). The lower dose level of 270 mg/day was the recommended dose (RD), the toxicity profile being mainly anaemia, neutropenia, fatigue and constipation. The pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated the adequacy of the flat-fixed dosing regimen, as no correlation between clearance of vinflunine and body surface area was evidenced. Blood concentrations and exposure increased with dose, and a pharmacokinetic accumulation was observed, which is consistent with the terminal half-life of the compounds. The inter-individual exposure variability at the RD was 35%. Repeated weekly administration of oral vinflunine is feasible and exhibits a moderate inter-individual PK variability. The MTD was achieved at 300 mg/day given for 2 consecutive days. According to the protocol rules, the RD was established at 270 mg/day.

  16. A short 2 week dose titration regimen reduces the severity of flu-like symptoms with initial interferon gamma-1b treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devane, John G; Martin, Mary L; Matson, Mark A

    2014-06-01

    Flu-like symptoms (FLS) are commonly experienced by patients receiving interferon gamma-1b which may cause discontinuation or disruption of dosing during initial therapy or on re-initiation following a break in therapy. In contrast to Type I interferons, the impact of dose-titration on FLS has not been reported and is not a practice described or included in the approved prescribing information for interferon gamma-1b.The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a 2 week titration regimen on the severity of FLS during the initial 3 weeks of therapy with three times weekly subcutaneous injections of interferon gamma-1b. Healthy men and women were randomized into a double-blind, two-period, crossover study. Each study period was 3 weeks in duration and there was a minimum 15 day washout between treatment periods. Two treatment regimens were compared: No Titration dosing (full 50 mcg/m(2) subcutaneously [s.c.] three times weekly for 3 weeks) and Titration (15 mcg/m(2) s.c. three times weekly during week 1, 30 mcg/m(2) s.c. three times weekly during week 2 followed by the full dose of 50 mcg/m(2) s.c. three times weekly during week 3). Subjects remained in the clinic for at least 12 hours following each injection. FLS was based on a composite score for fever, chills, tiredness and muscle aches assessed at baseline and 4, 8 and 12 hours following each injection. Acetaminophen was allowed at the discretion of the PI. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in FLS severity at 8 hours averaged over the 3 weeks of treatment. Additional endpoints included FLS at 4 and 12 hours, individual flu-like symptoms, rates of discontinuation, incidence of FLS and acetaminophen use. NCT 01929382. Of the 40 subjects randomized, there were 15 (37.5%) discontinuations. Titration resulted in a significant reduction in FLS severity at 8 hours (p = 0.023) averaged over the 3 week treatment period. The difference in 3 week FLS severity reflects differences

  17. Comparing Once- versus Twice-Weekly Yoga Classes for Chronic Low Back Pain in Predominantly Low Income Minorities: A Randomized Dosing Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Saper

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous studies have demonstrated that once-weekly yoga classes are effective for chronic low back pain (cLBP in white adults with high socioeconomic status. The comparative effectiveness of twice-weekly classes and generalizability to racially diverse low income populations are unknown. Methods. We conducted a 12-week randomized, parallel-group, dosing trial for 95 adults recruited from an urban safety-net hospital and five community health centers comparing once-weekly (n=49 versus twice-weekly (n=46 standardized yoga classes supplemented by home practice. Primary outcomes were change from baseline to 12 weeks in pain (11-point scale and back-related function (23-point modified Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. Results. 82% of participants were nonwhite; 77% had annual household incomes <$40,000. The sample’s baseline mean pain intensity [6.9 (SD 1.6] and function [13.7 (SD 5.0] reflected moderate to severe back pain and impairment. Pain and back-related function improved within both groups (P<0.001. However, there were no differences between once-weekly and twice-weekly groups for pain reduction [-2.1 (95% CI -2.9, -1.3 versus −2.4 (95% CI -3.1, -1.8, P=0.62] or back-related function [-5.1 (95% CI -7.0, -3.2 versus −4.9 (95% CI -6.5, -3.3, P=0.83]. Conclusions. Twelve weeks of once-weekly or twice-weekly yoga classes were similarly effective for predominantly low income minority adults with moderate to severe chronic low back pain. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01761617.

  18. Phase II study of tailored S-1 monotherapy with a 1-week interval after a 2-week dosing period in elderly patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hisatsugu; Okano, Yoshio; Machida, Hisanori; Hatakeyama, Nobuo; Ogushi, Fumitaka; Haku, Takashi; Kanematsu, Takanori; Urata, Tomoyuki; Kakiuchi, Soji; Hanibuchi, Masaki; Sone, Saburo; Nishioka, Yasuhiko

    2018-01-01

    S-1 is an oral fluoropyrimidine that is active in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, an optimal treatment schedule and appropriate dose adjustments of S-1 in elderly patients have not yet been established. We conducted a phase II trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a 2-week S-1 monotherapy treatment followed by a 1-week interval as a first-line treatment of elderly NSCLC patients, by adjusting the dose based on the individual creatinine clearance (Ccr) and body surface area (BSA). The primary endpoint was the disease control rate. Forty patients were enrolled. The disease control and response rates were 89.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 79.8-99.2) and 7.9% (95% CI = 0.0-16.4), respectively. The median progression-free survival and overall survival times were 4.4 months (95% CI = 4.2-8.5) and 17.0 months (95% CI = 11.2-18.7), respectively. Neutropenia, anorexia, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and pneumonia of grade ≥ 3 occurred in 5.0%, 7.5%, 5.0%, 2.5%, and 2.5% of patients, respectively. Among the patient-reported outcomes, most of the individual factors in the patients' quality of life, including upper intestine-related symptoms improved with the treatment, except for dyspnea, which slightly albeit continuously worsened throughout the study. In elderly patients with previously untreated advanced NSCLC, a 2-week S-1 monotherapy treatment, tailored to both the Ccr and BSA, with a 1-week interval was well tolerated and demonstrated promising efficacy. This study was registered at the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) Center (ID: UMIN000002035), Japan. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. SU-E-J-229: Quantitative Assessment for Timely Adaptive Re-Planning Using Weekly Dose Monitoring for Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, Q; Liu, H; Greskovich, J; Koyfman, S; Xia, P [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Li, Z [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); the 6th people' s hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: For patients with head and neck (HN) cancer, mid-course adaptive radiation therapy (ART) is a common practice in our institution to accommodate anatomic changes. The aim of the study is to evaluate whether dose re-calculation on weekly verification images can provide quantitative assessment for timely adaptive re-planning with daily image-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods: We retrospectively selected sixty daily verification images acquired on CT-on-rail/CBCT from ten HN patients. These image sets were typically a week apart. Among these patients, six patients received a mid-course ART. Contours of the tumors and organ-at-risks (OARs) were manually delineated by a physician on each verification CT. After placing the treatment iso-center on the verification CTs according to the recorded clinical shifts, daily dose was re-calculated with the same beam configuration as the original plan. For the purpose of this study, electron densities for both verification CTs and planning CTs were set to 1.0 g/cm3. Results: Two patients had D99 of the CTV < 97% of the planned dose for more than three fractions due to remarkable tumor volume shrinkages. D-max of the spinal cord exceeded a tolerance of 45 Gy for four fractions in additional two patients. D-mean of the parotid increased within 25% of the planned value. D-max of the brainstem and D-mean of the oral cavity did not show significant variation. If the re-planning criteria included D99 of the CTV < 97% of the planned dose and D-max of the spinal cord > 45 Gy, two out ten patients required ART at week 2 and two patients required ART at week 3, respectively. Conclusion: Weekly dose monitoring with re-calculation on verification images can provide quantitative dose guidance for timely adaptive re-planning. Future work will include accumulative dose analysis for the decision of adaptive re-planning. The study is supported in part by Siemens Medical Solutions.

  20. A 13-week repeated dose study of three 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol fatty acid esters in F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onami, Saeko; Cho, Young-Man; Toyoda, Takeshi; Mizuta, Yasuko; Yoshida, Midori; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2014-04-01

    3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD), a rat renal and testicular carcinogen, has been reported to occur in various foods and food ingredients as free or esterified forms. Since reports about toxicity of 3-MCPD esters are limited, we conducted a 13-week rat subchronic toxicity study of 3-MCPD esters (palmitate diester: CDP, palmitate monoester: CMP, oleate diester: CDO). We administered a carcinogenic dose (3.6 × 10(-4) mol/kg B.W./day) of 3-MCPD or these esters at equimolar concentrations and two 1/4 lower doses by gavage with olive oil as a vehicle five times a week for 13 weeks to F344 male and female rats. As a result, five out of ten 3-MCPD-treated females died from acute renal tubular necrosis, but none of the ester-treated rats. Decreased HGB was observed in all high-dose 3-MCPD fatty acid ester-treated rats, except CDO-treated males. The absolute and relative kidney weights were significantly increased in the ester-treated rats at medium and high doses. Relative liver weights were significantly increased in the esters-treated rat at high dose, except for CMP females. Significant increase in apoptotic epithelial cells in the initial segment of the epididymis of high-dose ester-treated males was also observed. The results suggested that although acute renal toxicity was lower than 3-MCPD, these three 3-MCPD fatty acid esters have the potential to exert subchronic toxicity to the rat kidneys and epididymis, to a similar degree as 3-MCPD under the present conditions. NOAELs (no-observed-adverse-effect levels) of CDP, CMP and CDO were suggested to be 14, 8 and 15 mg/kg B.W./day, respectively.

  1. Hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy with concomitant integrated boost of 70-75 Gy in 5 weeks for advanced head and neck cancer. A phase I dose escalation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvek, J.; Skacelikova, E.; Otahal, B.; Halamka, M.; Feltl, D. [University Hospital Ostrava (Czech Republic). Dept. of Oncology; Kubes, J. [University Hospital Bulovka, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Kominek, P. [University Hospital Ostrava (Czech Republic). Dept. of Otolaryngology

    2012-08-15

    Background and purpose: The present study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of a new, 5-week regimen of 70-75 Gy hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy with concomitant integrated boost (HARTCIB) for locally advanced, inoperable head and neck cancer. Methods and materials: A total of 39 patients with very advanced, stage IV nonmetastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (median gross tumor volume 72 ml) were included in this phase I dose escalation study. A total of 50 fractions intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were administered twice daily over 5 weeks. Prescribed total dose/dose per fraction for planning target volume (PTV{sub tumor}) were 70 Gy in 1.4 Gy fractions, 72.5 Gy in 1.45 Gy fractions, and 75 Gy in 1.5 Gy fractions for 10, 13, and 16 patients, respectively. Uninvolved lymphatic nodes (PTV{sub uninvolved}) were irradiated with 55 Gy in 1.1 Gy fractions using the concomitant integrated boost. Results: Acute toxicity was evaluated according to the RTOG/EORTC scale; the incidence of grade 3 mucositis was 51% in the oral cavity/pharynx and 0% in skin and the recovery time was {<=} 9 weeks for all patients. Late toxicity was evaluated in patients in complete remission according to the RTOG/EORTC scale. No grade 3/4 late toxicity was observed. The 1-year locoregional progression-free survival was 50% and overall survival was 55%. Conclusion: HARTCIB (75 Gy in 5 weeks) is feasible for patients deemed unsuitable for chemoradiation. Acute toxicity was lower than predicted from radiobiological models; duration of dysphagia and confluent mucositis were particularly short. Better conformity of radiotherapy allows the use of more intensive altered fractionation schedules compared with older studies. These results suggest that further dose escalation might be possible when highly conformal techniques (e.g., stereotactic radiotherapy) are used.

  2. Effects of multiple low dose radiation on spleen T lymphocyte subgroups in eight-week diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Feng; Li Yanbo; Zhao Hongguang; Guo Wei; Wang Zhicheng; Gong Shouliang; Guo Caixia

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of spleen lymphocyte subgroups in diabetic rats after multiple low dose radiation (LDR). Methods: The experiment was divided into normal control group, pure diabetes mellitus (DM) group, and DM plus different doses of irradiation groups (the irradiation doses were 0.025, 0.050 and 0.075 Gy, respectively). The diabetic rat model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. After the diabetic rats were irradiated 15 times, the percentages of spleen CD4 + and CD8 + T cells and ratio of CD4 + /CD8 + T cells were detected with flow cytometry on the fourth weekend. Results: The diabetic rats manifested obvious polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria and weight loss. On the fourth weekend after irradiation, as compared with normal control group, the percentage of spleen CD4 + T cells increased significantly (P + T cells decreased significantly (P + /CD8 + T cells was increased significantly (P + T cells were declined markedly in both 0.050 and 0.075 Gy plus DM groups (P + T cells increased significantly in LDR plus DM groups (P + /CD8 + T cells was declined obviously (P<0.01). Conclusion: The multiple LDR could regulate the immune function in diabetic rats, and rectificate the immunological imbalance in order to protect body. (authors)

  3. Effect of an Early Dose of Measles Vaccine on Morbidity Between 18 Weeks and 9 Months of Age: A Randomized, Controlled Trial in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Vu An; Biering-Sorensen, Sofie; Fisker, Ane Bærent

    2017-01-01

    with a higher risk of the well-known adverse events of fever, rash, and convulsions within the first 14 days. From 15 days after randomization to age 9 months, early measles vaccination was associated with reductions in maternally reported diarrhea (hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI],.82-. 97......Background: Children in Guinea-Bissau receive measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months of age, but studies have shown that an additional dose before 9 months of age might have beneficial nonspecific effects. Within a randomized trial designed to examine nonspecific effects of early MV receipt on mortality......, we conducted a substudy to investigate the effect of early MV receipt on morbidity. Methods: Children were randomly assigned at a ratio of 2: 1 to receive 2 doses of MVat 18 weeks and age 9 months (intervention group) or 1 dose of MV at age 9 months, in accordance with current practice (control group...

  4. Pegylated Long-Acting Human Growth Hormone Possesses a Promising Once-Weekly Treatment Profile, and Multiple Dosing Is Well Tolerated in Adult Patients with Growth Hormone Deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Esben; Klose, Marianne Christina; Hansen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recombinant human GH (rhGH) replacement therapy in children and adults currently requires daily sc injections for several years or lifelong, which may be both inconvenient and distressing for patients. NNC126-0083 is a pegylated rhGH developed for once-weekly administration. Objectives......: Our objective was to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of multiple doses of NNC126-0083 in adult patients with GH deficiency (GHD). Subjects and Methods: Thirty-three adult patients with GHD, age 20-65 yr, body mass index 18.5-35.0 kg/m(2), and glycated...... to 240 h after the third dosing. Physical examination, antibodies, and local tolerability were assessed. Results: NNC126-0083 was well tolerated with no difference in local tolerability compared with placebo and with no signs of lipoatrophy. A more than dose-proportional exposure was observed...

  5. Six fractions per week of external beam radiotherapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix: A phase I/II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang Min; Huh, Seung Jae; Park, Won; Lee, Jeung Eun; Park, Young Je; Nam, Hee Rim; Lim, Do Hoon; Ahn, Yong Chan

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the treatment results of external beam radiotherapy administered in six fractions per week and high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for the treatment of cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: From July 2000 to July 2003, 43 patients were enrolled in this study. The patients received 45 Gy from a 10-MV photon beam using four-field box or anterior-posterior beams. Parametrial regions and the pelvic side walls were boosted with up to 50.4 Gy using a midline block. The daily fraction dose was 1.8 Gy administered in six-weekly fractions, from Monday to Saturday. HDR brachytherapy was also delivered at doses of 24 Gy to point A in six fractions twice a week. The median follow-up time was 37 months (range, 9-60 months). Results: The median overall treatment time was 51 days for all patients (range, 44-62 days). Thirty-four patients (79.1%) achieved complete remission and 8 (18.6%) achieved partial remission after radiotherapy. Locoregional recurrence occurred in 5 patients (11.6%), and a distant metastasis was encountered in 6 patients (13.9%). The 3-year overall survival, locoregional, and distant metastasis-free survival rates were 74.7%, 87.8%, and 84.7%, respectively. Grade 2 and 3 late rectal complications were encountered in 3 (6.5%) and 1 (2.2%), respectively. There were no Grade 3 late bladder complications. Conclusions: Six fractions per week of external beam radiotherapy and HDR brachytherapy is an effective treatment for patients with a carcinoma of the uterine cervix and can be used as a possible alternative to concomitant chemoradiotherapy in elderly patients or in patients with co-morbidity

  6. The Effects of 6 Weeks of Endurance Training and Consumption of Different Doses of Boldenone on Hematological Factors and Spleen Structure Changes in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asieh Abbassi Daloii

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Regardless of how many periods and how long the androgenic-anabolic steroids have been used, they can cause side effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect a 6-week endurance training and using different doses of anabolic steroid boldenone on hematological factors and changes in spleen structure in male Wistar rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 47 male Wistar rats aged 12 weeks, were randomly divided into 7 groups (control, sham, boldenone-1, boldenone-2, endurance training, endurance training+boldenone-1, endurance training+boldenone-2. Increasing endurance training program was performed at the speed of 10-30m/min (Vo2max, 75-80% for 6 weeks and 5 days/week. The drug was injected deeply into the quadriceps and hamstring muscles once a week, on an appointed day. After anesthesia and dissection, the spleen was removed. Finally, the selected microscopic sections, were studied using a light microscope after staining with hematoxylin and eosin. Data were analyzed by dependent t-, one-way ANOVA, and post-hoc LSD tests at α<0.05 level. Results: In this study, boldenone supplementation at different doses led to weight gain, non-significant decrease in spleen weight (p=0.297, increase in white blood cells (p=0.041, and increase in hematocrit level (p=0.017. Also, there was a significant difference between the effect of exercise and boldenone consumption on the extent of damage to white pulp, red pulp, and the spleen sinusoidal space (p=0.001. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed it is likely that short-term consumption of boldenone have negative effects on the spleen structure, followed by negative changes in hematological factors.

  7. Effects of administration of four different doses of Escherichia coli phytase on femur properties of 16-week-old turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Marcin R; Krupski, Witold; Kozłowski, Krzysztof; Drażbo, Aleksandra; Jankowski, Jan

    2015-03-18

    The enzyme phytase is able to initiate the release of phosphates from phytic acid, making it available for absorption within gastrointestinal tract and following utilization. The aim of the study was to determine effects of Escherichia coli phytase administration on morphological, densitometric and mechanical properties of femur in 16-week-old turkeys. One-day-old BUT Big-6 males were assigned to six weight-matched groups. Turkeys receiving diet with standard phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) content belonged to the positive control group (Group I). Negative control group (Group II) consisted of birds fed diet with lowered P and Ca content. Turkeys belonging to the remaining groups have received the same diet as group II but enriched with graded levels of Escherichia coli phytase: 125 (Group III), 250 (Group IV), 500 (Group V) and 1000 (Group VI) FTU/kg. At the age of 112 days of life, the final body weights were determined and the turkeys were sacrificed to obtain right femur for analyses. Geometric and densitometric properties of femur were determined using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) technique, while mechanical evaluation was performed in three-point bending test. Phytase administration increased cross-sectional area, second moment of inertia, mean relative wall thickness, cortical bone mineral density and maximum elastic strength decreasing cortical bone area of femur (P phytase administration on geometric, densitometric and mechanical properties of femur were observed in turkeys receiving 125 and 250 FTU/kg of the diet. Phytase administration at the dosages of 500 and 1000 FTU/kg of the diet improved the final body weight in turkeys. The results obtained in this study indicate a possible practical application of Escherichia coli phytase in turkey feeding to improve skeletal system properties and function.

  8. Dose reduction of risperidone and olanzapine can improve cognitive function and negative symptoms in stable schizophrenic patients: A single-blinded, 52-week, randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanling; Li, Guannan; Li, Dan; Cui, Hongmei; Ning, Yuping

    2018-05-01

    The long-term effects of dose reduction of atypical antipsychotics on cognitive function and symptomatology in stable patients with schizophrenia remain unclear. We sought to determine the change in cognitive function and symptomatology after reducing risperidone or olanzapine dosage in stable schizophrenic patients. Seventy-five stabilized schizophrenic patients prescribed risperidone (≥4 mg/day) or olanzapine (≥10 mg/day) were randomly divided into a dose-reduction group ( n=37) and a maintenance group ( n=38). For the dose-reduction group, the dose of antipsychotics was reduced by 50%; for the maintenance group, the dose remained unchanged throughout the whole study. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Negative Symptom Assessment-16, Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side Effects, and Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Consensus Cognitive Battery were measured at baseline, 12, 28, and 52 weeks. Linear mixed models were performed to compare the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Negative Symptom Assessment-16, Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side Effects and MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery scores between groups. The linear mixed model showed significant time by group interactions on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptoms, Negative Symptom Assessment-16, Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side Effects, speed of processing, attention/vigilance, working memory and total score of MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (all pNegative Syndrome Scale negative subscale, Negative Symptom Assessment-16, Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side Effects, speed of processing, working memory and total score of MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery for the dose reduction group compared with those for the maintenance group (all pnegative symptoms in patients with stabilized schizophrenia.

  9. Lack of adverse health effects following 30-weeks of dietary exposure to acrylamide at low doses in male F344 rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayadev Raju

    Full Text Available Understanding the health hazards following exposure to food-borne acrylamide, especially at low levels typified by human diets, is an ongoing food safety issue. We recently published results from a study that aimed to understand the effects of acrylamide short-term exposure at doses known to cause tumors in rodents, demonstrating that a number of key toxicological end points were altered by acrylamide exposure. Additionally, we reported that at much lower doses for 30 weeks of exposure, dietary acrylamide was ‘not a complete carcinogen’ to the colon in an organ-specific rodent carcinogenesis study but acted as a co-carcinogen along with azoxymethane (AOM, a colon-specific carcinogen. Here, we present toxicological data from a sub-set of this long-term exposure study from animals that received saline (instead of AOM. Briefly, male F344 rats were randomized to receive acrylamide at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg diet (∼0.02, 0.04, and 0.09 mg/kg BW/day, respectively or no acrylamide (control, for 30 weeks; all rats were then euthanized and their tissues harvested and processed for toxicological evaluation. We report that at the doses tested, acrylamide did not cause any changes in general well-being, body weight or food intake. Similarly, acrylamide did not cause any biologically relevant change in parameters associated with immunophenotyping, serum biochemistry or hematology. Histopathology assessment of tissues showed no changes except in the testis, where non-specific mild lesions were observed in all the groups, inclusive of the controls. No neuropathological effects of acrylamide were observed in the brain and nerve tissues. Together, these results suggest that acrylamide administered to rats through the diet at low doses for 30 weeks did not cause any toxicologically relevant changes. Given that the doses of acrylamide in the current study are low and are comparable to human dietary exposure, this null-effect study provides data that

  10. Effect of kefir and low-dose aspirin on arterial blood pressure measurements and renal apoptosis in unhypertensive rats with 4 weeks salt diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbak, Güngör; Uzuner, Kubilay; Kuşat Ol, Kevser; Oğlakçı, Ayşegül; Kartkaya, Kazım; Şentürk, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We aim to study the effect of low-dose aspirin and kefir on arterial blood pressure measurements and renal apoptosis in unhypertensive rats with 4 weeks salt diet. Forty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: control, high-salt (HS) (8.0% NaCl), HS+aspirin (10 mg/kg), HS+kefir (10.0%w/v), HS+aspirin +kefir. We measured sistolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic pressure, pulse pressure in the rats. Cathepsin B, L, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activities were determined from rat kidney tissues and rats clearance of creatinine calculated. Although HS diet increased significantly SBP, MAP, diastolic pressure, pulse pressure parameters compared the control values. They were not as high as accepted hypertension levels. When compared to HS groups, kefir groups significantly decrease Cathepsin B and DNA fragmentation levels. Caspase levels were elevated slightly in other groups according to control group. While, we also found that creatinine clearance was higher in HS+kefir and HS+low-dose aspirin than HS group. Thus, using low-dose aspirin had been approximately decreased of renal function damage. Kefir decreased renal function damage playing as Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. But, low-dose aspirin together with kefir worsened rat renal function damage. Cathepsin B might play role both apoptosis and prorenin-processing enzyme. But not caspase pathway may be involved in the present HS diet induced apoptosis. In conclusion, kefir and low-dose aspirin used independently protect renal function and renal damage induced by HS diet in rats.

  11. Treatment Compliance with Fixed-Dose Combination of Vildagliptin/Metformin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Inadequately Controlled with Metformin Monotherapy: A 24-Week Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorios Rombopoulos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the differences in treatment compliance with vildagliptin/metformin fixed-dose versus free-dose combination therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in Greece. Design. Adult patients with T2DM, inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy, (850 mg bid, participated in this 24-week, multicenter, observational study. Patients were enrolled in two cohorts: vildagliptin/metformin fixed-dose combination (group A and vildagliptin metformin free-dose combination (group B. Results. 659 patients were enrolled, 360 were male, with mean BMI 30.1, mean T2DM duration 59.6 months, and mean HbA1c at baseline 8%; 366 patients were assigned to group A and 293 to group B; data for 3 patients was missing. In group A, 98.9% of patients were compliant with their treatment compared to 84.6% of group B. The odds ratio for compliance in group A versus B was (OR 18.9 (95% CI: 6.2, 57.7; P<0.001. In group A mean HbA1c decreased from 8.1% at baseline to 6.9% (P<0.001 at the study end and from 7.9% to 6.8% (P<0.001 in group B. Conclusions. Patients in group A were more compliant than patients in group B. These results are in accordance with international literature suggesting that fixed-dose combination therapies lead to increased compliance to treatment.

  12. High dose teriparatide (rPTH1-34) therapy increases callus volume and enhances radiographic healing at 8-weeks in a massive canine femoral allograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, Kohei; Mietus, Zachary; Beck, Christopher A; Ito, Hiromu; Matsuda, Shuichi; Awad, Hani A; Ehrhart, Nicole; Schwarz, Edward M

    2017-01-01

    Small animal studies have demonstrated significant high-dose recombinant parathyroid hormone1-34 (rPTH1-34) effects on intercalary allograft healing. Towards a human adjuvant therapy to decrease non-unions, we evaluated rPTH1-34 safety and efficacy in a clinically relevant canine femoral allograft model. Adult female mongrel hounds (n = 20) received a 5cm mid-diaphyseal osteotomy reconstructed with a plated allograft, and were randomized to: 1) Placebo (n = 5; daily saline), 2) Continuous rPTH1-34 (n = 7; 5 μg/kg/day s.c. from day 1-55 post-op), or 3) Delayed rPTH1-34 (n = 8; 5 μg/kg/day s.c. from day 14-28 post-op). Safety was assessed by physical behavior and blood calcium monitoring. Cone beam CT (CB-CT) was performed on days 14, 28 and 56 post-op to assess 2D cortical healing, 3D bone volume, and Union Ratio. Biomechanical testing and dynamic histomorphometry were also performed. The high drug dose was poorly tolerated, as most dogs receiving rPTH1-34 had to be given intravenous saline, and one dog died from hypercalcemia. Continuous rPTH1-34 significantly increased 2D healing and callus volumes at 4-weeks versus Placebo, and sustained the significant increase in cortical union at 8-week (p<0.05). These rPTH1-34 effects were confirmed by histomorphometry, revealing significant increases in mineral apposition rates (MAR) on host bone and graft-host junctions (p<0.05). Delayed rPTH1-34 significantly increased callus volume and MAR at 8 weeks (p<0.05). Although no biomechanical differences were observed, as expected for early healing, the results demonstrated that 2D RUST scoring significantly correlated with torsional biomechanics (p<0.01). In conclusion, 8-weeks of intermittent high-dose rPTH1-34 treatment significantly increases callus formation and accelerates bony union of intercalary massive allografts in a clinically relevant canine model, but with serious side-effects from hypercalcemia.

  13. High dose teriparatide (rPTH1-34 therapy increases callus volume and enhances radiographic healing at 8-weeks in a massive canine femoral allograft model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Nishitani

    Full Text Available Small animal studies have demonstrated significant high-dose recombinant parathyroid hormone1-34 (rPTH1-34 effects on intercalary allograft healing. Towards a human adjuvant therapy to decrease non-unions, we evaluated rPTH1-34 safety and efficacy in a clinically relevant canine femoral allograft model. Adult female mongrel hounds (n = 20 received a 5cm mid-diaphyseal osteotomy reconstructed with a plated allograft, and were randomized to: 1 Placebo (n = 5; daily saline, 2 Continuous rPTH1-34 (n = 7; 5 μg/kg/day s.c. from day 1-55 post-op, or 3 Delayed rPTH1-34 (n = 8; 5 μg/kg/day s.c. from day 14-28 post-op. Safety was assessed by physical behavior and blood calcium monitoring. Cone beam CT (CB-CT was performed on days 14, 28 and 56 post-op to assess 2D cortical healing, 3D bone volume, and Union Ratio. Biomechanical testing and dynamic histomorphometry were also performed. The high drug dose was poorly tolerated, as most dogs receiving rPTH1-34 had to be given intravenous saline, and one dog died from hypercalcemia. Continuous rPTH1-34 significantly increased 2D healing and callus volumes at 4-weeks versus Placebo, and sustained the significant increase in cortical union at 8-week (p<0.05. These rPTH1-34 effects were confirmed by histomorphometry, revealing significant increases in mineral apposition rates (MAR on host bone and graft-host junctions (p<0.05. Delayed rPTH1-34 significantly increased callus volume and MAR at 8 weeks (p<0.05. Although no biomechanical differences were observed, as expected for early healing, the results demonstrated that 2D RUST scoring significantly correlated with torsional biomechanics (p<0.01. In conclusion, 8-weeks of intermittent high-dose rPTH1-34 treatment significantly increases callus formation and accelerates bony union of intercalary massive allografts in a clinically relevant canine model, but with serious side-effects from hypercalcemia.

  14. Safe and Effective Use of the Once Weekly Dulaglutide Single-Dose Pen in Injection-Naïve Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matfin, Glenn; Van Brunt, Kate; Zimmermann, Alan G; Threlkeld, Rebecca; Ignaut, Debra A

    2015-04-21

    This 4-week, phase 3b, multicenter, open-label, single-arm, outpatient study demonstrated the safe and effective use of the dulaglutide single-dose pen containing 0.5 mL of placebo for subcutaneous injection in injection-naïve adult patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), with A1C ≤ 8.5% (69 mmol/mol), BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 and ≤ 45 kg/m(2). Patients completed a modified self-injecting subscale of the Diabetes Fear of Injecting and Self-Testing Questionnaire (mD-FISQ) and were trained to self-inject with the single-dose pen. Patients completed the initial self-injection at the site, injected at home for 2 subsequent weeks, and returned to the site for the final injection. The initial and final self-injections were evaluated for success; the final (initial) self-injection success rate was the primary (secondary) outcome measure, and the primary (secondary) objective was to demonstrate this success rate as being significantly greater than 80%. Patients recorded their level of pain after each injection. After the final injection, patients completed the mD-FISQ and the Medication Delivery Device Assessment Battery (MDDAB) to assess their perceptions of the single-dose pen, including ease of use and experience with the device. Among 211 patients (mean age: 61 years), the primary objective was met, with a final injection success rate of 99.1% (95% CI: 96.6% to 99.7%). Among 214 patients, the initial injection success rate was 97.2% (95% CI: 94.0% to 98.7%), meeting the key secondary objective. Overall, most patients (>96%) found the device easy to use, were satisfied with the device, and would be willing to continue to use the single-dose pen after the study. There was a significant reduction (P injecting, as measured by the mD-FISQ. The dulaglutide single-dose pen was found to be a safe and effective device for use by patients with T2D who were injection-naïve. A positive injection experience is an important factor for patients and providers when initiating injectable

  15. Once-Weekly, High-Dose Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Lung Cancer: 6-Year Analysis of 60 Early-Stage, 42 Locally Advanced, and 7 Metastatic Lung Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, Omar M.; Sandhu, Taljit S.; Lattin, Paul B.; Chang, Jung H.; Lee, Choon K.; Groshko, Gayle A.; Lattin, Cheryl J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To explore once-weekly stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in nonoperable patients with localized, locally advanced, or metastatic lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 102 primary (89 untreated plus 13 recurrent) and 7 metastatic tumors were studied. The median follow-up was 38 months, the average patient age was 75 years. Of the 109 tumors studied, 60 were Stage I (45 IA and 15 IB), 9 were Stage II, 30 were Stage III, 3 were Stage IV, and 7 were metastases. SBRT only was given in 73% (40 Gy in four fractions to the planning target volume to a total dose of 53 Gy to the isocenter for a biologically effective dose of 120 Gy 10 ). SBRT was given as a boost in 27% (22.5 Gy in three fractions once weekly for a dose of 32 Gy at the isocenter) after 45 Gy in 25 fractions to the primary plus the mediastinum. The total biologically effective dose was 120 Gy 10 . Respiration gating was used in 46%. Results: The overall response rate was 75%; 33% had a complete response. The overall response rate was 89% for Stage IA patients (40% had a complete response). The local control rate was 82%; it was 100% and 93% for Stage IA and IB patients, respectively. The failure rate was 37%, with 17% within the planning target volume. No Grade 3-4 acute toxicities developed in any patient; 12% and 7% of patients developed Grade 1 and 2 toxicities, respectively. Late toxicity, all Grade 2, developed in 3% of patients. The 5-year cause-specific survival rate for Stage I was 70% and was 74% and 64% for Stage IA and IB patients, respectively. The 3-year Stage III cause-specific survival rate was 30%. The patients with metastatic lung cancer had a 57% response rate, a 27% complete response rate, an 86% local control rate, a median survival time of 19 months, and 23% 3-year survival rate. Conclusions: SBRT is noninvasive, convenient, fast, and economically attractive; it achieves results similar to surgery for early or metastatic lung cancer patients who are older

  16. Suitability Of Nitisinone In Alkaptonuria 1 (SONIA 1): an international, multicentre, randomised, open-label, no-treatment controlled, parallel-group, dose-response study to investigate the effect of once daily nitisinone on 24-h urinary homogentisic acid excretion in patients with alkaptonuria after 4 weeks of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganath, Lakshminarayan R; Milan, Anna M; Hughes, Andrew T; Dutton, John J; Fitzgerald, Richard; Briggs, Michael C; Bygott, Helen; Psarelli, Eftychia E; Cox, Trevor F; Gallagher, James A; Jarvis, Jonathan C; van Kan, Christa; Hall, Anthony K; Laan, Dinny; Olsson, Birgitta; Szamosi, Johan; Rudebeck, Mattias; Kullenberg, Torbjörn; Cronlund, Arvid; Svensson, Lennart; Junestrand, Carin; Ayoob, Hana; Timmis, Oliver G; Sireau, Nicolas; Le Quan Sang, Kim-Hanh; Genovese, Federica; Braconi, Daniela; Santucci, Annalisa; Nemethova, Martina; Zatkova, Andrea; McCaffrey, Judith; Christensen, Peter; Ross, Gordon; Imrich, Richard; Rovensky, Jozef

    2016-02-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a serious genetic disease characterised by premature spondyloarthropathy. Homogentisate-lowering therapy is being investigated for AKU. Nitisinone decreases homogentisic acid (HGA) in AKU but the dose-response relationship has not been previously studied. Suitability Of Nitisinone In Alkaptonuria 1 (SONIA 1) was an international, multicentre, randomised, open-label, no-treatment controlled, parallel-group, dose-response study. The primary objective was to investigate the effect of different doses of nitisinone once daily on 24-h urinary HGA excretion (u-HGA24) in patients with AKU after 4 weeks of treatment. Forty patients were randomised into five groups of eight patients each, with groups receiving no treatment or 1 mg, 2 mg, 4 mg and 8 mg of nitisinone. A clear dose-response relationship was observed between nitisinone and the urinary excretion of HGA. At 4 weeks, the adjusted geometric mean u-HGA24 was 31.53 mmol, 3.26 mmol, 1.44 mmol, 0.57 mmol and 0.15 mmol for the no treatment or 1 mg, 2 mg, 4 mg and 8 mg doses, respectively. For the most efficacious dose, 8 mg daily, this corresponds to a mean reduction of u-HGA24 of 98.8% compared with baseline. An increase in tyrosine levels was seen at all doses but the dose-response relationship was less clear than the effect on HGA. Despite tyrosinaemia, there were no safety concerns and no serious adverse events were reported over the 4 weeks of nitisinone therapy. In this study in patients with AKU, nitisinone therapy decreased urinary HGA excretion to low levels in a dose-dependent manner and was well tolerated within the studied dose range. EudraCT number: 2012-005340-24. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCTO1828463. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Effect of an Early Dose of Measles Vaccine on Morbidity Between 18 Weeks and 9 Months of Age: A Randomized, Controlled Trial in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Vu An; Biering-Sorensen, Sofie; Fisker, Ane Bærent

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children in Guinea-Bissau receive measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months of age, but studies have shown that an additional dose before 9 months of age might have beneficial nonspecific effects. Within a randomized trial designed to examine nonspecific effects of early MV receipt on mortality......). Children were visited weekly from enrollment to age 9 months; the mother reported morbidity, and the field assistants examined the children. Using Cox and binomial regression models, we compared the 2 randomization groups. Results: Among the 1592 children, early measles vaccination was not associated...... with a higher risk of the well-known adverse events of fever, rash, and convulsions within the first 14 days. From 15 days after randomization to age 9 months, early measles vaccination was associated with reductions in maternally reported diarrhea (hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI],.82-. 97...

  18. Weekly Low-Dose Docetaxel-Based Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Oropharyngeal or Hypopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Retrospective, Single-Institution Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukada, Junichi; Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Takeda, Atsuya; Ohashi, Toshio; Tomita, Toshiki; Shiotani, Akihiro; Kunieda, Etsuo; Kawaguchi, Osamu; Fujii, Masato; Kubo, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively assess the efficacy, toxicity, and prognostic factors of weekly low-dose docetaxel-based chemoradiotherapy for Stage III/IV oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Between 2001 and 2005, 72 consecutive patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal carcinoma were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCR; radiation at 60 Gy plus weekly docetaxel [10 mg/m 2 ]). Thirty of these patients also received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC; docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil) before concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Survival was calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. The prognostic factors were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: The median follow-up was 33 months, with overall survival, disease-free survival, and locoregional control rates at 3 years of 59%, 45%, and 52%, respectively. Thirty-six patients (50%) experienced more than one Grade 3 to 4 acute toxicity. Grade 3 mucositis occurred in 32 patients (44%), Grade 4 laryngeal edema in 1 (1%). Grade ≥3 severe hematologic toxicity was observed in only 2 patients (3%). Grade 3 dysphagia occurred as a late complication in 2 patients (3%). Multivariate analyses identified age, T stage, hemoglobin level, and completion of weekly docetaxel, but not NAC, as significant factors determining disease-free survival. Conclusions: Docetaxel is an active agent used in both concurrent and sequential chemoradiotherapy regimens. Mucositis was the major acute toxicity, but this was well tolerated in most subjects. Anemia was the most significant prognostic factor determining survival. Further studies are warranted to investigate the optimal protocol for integrating docetaxel into first-line chemoradiotherapy regimens, as well as the potential additive impact of NAC.

  19. Take control of permissions in Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Permissions problems got you down? Turn to Unix expert Brian Tanaka's unique guide to the permissions in Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard that control access to your files, folders, and disks. You'll learn how to keep files private, when to set Ignore Permissions, what happens when you repair permissions, how to delete stuck files, and the best ways to solve permissions-related problems. Advanced concepts include the sticky bit, Leopard's more-important access control lists, bit masks, and symbolic versus absolute ways to set permissions. The book covers how to take control of permissions via the Finder

  20. Tg.rasH2 Mice and not CByB6F1 Mice Should Be Used for 28-Day Dose Range Finding Studies Prior to 26-Week Tg.rasH2 Carcinogenicity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjpe, Madhav G; Belich, Jessica; Vidmar, Tom J; Elbekai, Reem H; McKeon, Marie; Brown, Caren

    Our recent retrospective analysis of data, collected from 29 Tg.rasH2 mouse carcinogenicity studies, determined how successful the strategy of choosing the high dose for the 26-week studies was based on the estimated maximum tolerated dose (EMTD) derived from earlier 28-day dose range finding (DRF) studies conducted in CByB6F1 mice. Our analysis demonstrated that the high doses applied at EMTD in the 26-week Tg.rasH2 studies failed to detect carcinogenic effects. To investigate why the dose selection process failed in the 26-week carcinogenicity studies, the initial body weights, terminal body weights, body weight gains, food consumption, and mortality from the first 4 weeks of 26-week studies with Tg.rasH2 mice were compared with 28-day DRF studies conducted with CByB6F1 mice. Both the 26-week and the earlier respective 28-day studies were conducted with the exact same vehicle, test article, and similar dose levels. The analysis of our results further emphasizes that the EMTD and subsequent lower doses, determined on the basis of the 28-day studies in CByB6F1 mice, may not be an accurate strategy for selecting appropriate dose levels for the 26-week carcinogenicity studies in Tg.rasH2 mice. Based on the analysis presented in this article, we propose that the Tg.rasH2 mice and not the CByB6F1 mice should be used in future DRF studies. The Tg.rasH2 mice demonstrate more toxicity than the CByB6F1 mice, possibly because of their smaller size compared to CByB6F1 mice. Also, the Tg.rasH2 males appear to be more sensitive than the female Tg.rasH2 mice.

  1. Development of a 30-week-pregnant female tomographic model from computed tomography (CT) images for Monte Carlo organ dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Chengyu; Xu, X. George

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of radiation dose and risk to a pregnant woman and her fetus is an important task in radiation protection. Although tomographic models for male and female patients of different ages have been developed using medical images, such models for pregnant women had not been developed to date. This paper reports the construction of a partial-body model of a pregnant woman from a set of computed tomography (CT) images. The patient was 30 weeks into pregnancy, and the CT scan covered the portion of the body from above liver to below pubic symphysis in 70 slices. The thickness for each slice is 7 mm, and the image resolution is 512x512 pixels in a 48 cmx48 cm field; thus, the voxel size is 6.15 mm 3 . The images were segmented to identify 34 major internal organs and tissues considered sensitive to radiation. Even though the masses are noticeably different from other models, the three-dimensional visualization verified the segmentation and its suitability for Monte Carlo calculations. The model has been implemented into a Monte Carlo code, EGS4-VLSI (very large segmented images), for the calculations of radiation dose to a pregnant woman. The specific absorbed fraction (SAF) results for internal photons were compared with those from a stylized model. Small and large differences were found, and the differences can be explained by mass differences and by the relative geometry differences between the source and the target organs. The research provides the radiation dosimetry community with the first voxelized tomographic model of a pregnant woman, opening the door to future dosimetry studies

  2. Efficacy and safety of escitalopram versus citalopram in major depressive disorder: a 6-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, flexible-dose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Jian-Jun; Xun, Guang-Lei; Wu, Ren-Rong; Li, Le-Hua; Fang, Mao-Sheng; Zhang, Hong-Geng; Xie, Shi-Ping; Shi, Jian-Guo; Du, Bo; Yuan, Xue-Qin; Zhao, Jing-Ping

    2011-02-01

    S-citalopram (escitalopram) is the very active moiety of citalopram. It has been shown in many studies to be an effective and safe antidepressant for treating major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy and safety of escitalopram vs citalopram in Chinese MDD patients. In the double-blind study, 240 MDD patients were randomly assigned to treatment for 6 weeks either with escitalopram (10-20 mg/d) or citalopram (20-40 mg/d). The primary efficacy measurement was the change of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) total score from baseline to the end of study. The secondary efficacy measurements were response and remission rates. The adverse events (AEs) were recorded by the investigator. Two hundred and three (85%) patients completed the trial. The average dose was 13.9 mg/d in the escitalopram group and 27.6 mg/d in the citalopram group. No significant differences were found between the two groups in the change in HAMD-17 total score, response, and remission rate. These results were similar in severe MDD patients. No significant differences were found between the two groups in AEs. No serious AEs were observed in this study. The study suggests that escitalopram 10-20 mg/d are as effective and safe as citalopram 20-40 mg/d in the short-term treatment for Chinese MDD patients.

  3. Pharmacodynamic effects of steady-state fingolimod on antibody response in healthy volunteers: a 4-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multiple-dose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Craig; Meiser, Karin; David, Olivier J; Schmouder, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Fingolimod, a first-in-class oral sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) modulator, is approved in many countries for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, at a once-daily 0.5-mg dose. A reduction in peripheral lymphocyte count is an expected consequence of the fingolimod mechanism of S1PR modulation. The authors investigated if this pharmacodynamic effect impacts humoral and cellular immunogenicity. In this double-blind, parallel-group, 4-week study, 72 healthy volunteers were randomized to steady state, fingolimod 0.5 mg, 1.25 mg, or to placebo. The authors compared T-cell dependent and independent responses to the neoantigens, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), and pneumococcal polysaccharides vaccine (PPV-23), respectively, and additionally recall antigen response (tetanus toxoid [TT]) and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to KLH, TT, and Candida albicans. Fingolimod caused mild to moderate decreases in anti-KLH and anti-PPV-23 IgG and IgM levels versus placebo. Responder rates were identical between placebo and 0.5-mg groups for anti-KLH IgG (both > 90%) and comparable for anti-PPV-23 IgG (55% and 41%, respectively). Fingolimod did not affect anti-TT immunogenicity, and DTH response did not differ between placebo and fingolimod 0.5-mg groups. Expectedly, lymphocyte count reduced substantially in the fingolimod groups versus placebo but reversed by study end. Fingolimod was well tolerated, and the observed safety profile was consistent with previous reports.

  4. Potential Impact of Accelerating the Primary Dose of Rotavirus Vaccine in Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Halvorson, Elizabeth E.; Peters, Timothy R.; Snively, Beverly M.; Poehling, Katherine A.

    2012-01-01

    We estimated the potential impact of administering the first dose of rotavirus vaccine at 6 weeks (42 days of life) instead of 2 months of age, which is permissible for all U.S. vaccines recommended at 2 months of age, on rotavirus hospitalization rates. We used published data for hospitalization rates, vaccine coverage, and vaccine efficacy after one dose and assumed a two-week delay in seroconversion after vaccine administration in the United States. Administering the first dose of rotaviru...

  5. Vaccination of piglets up to 1 week of age with a single-dose Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine induces protective immunity within 2 weeks against virulent challenge in the presence of maternally derived antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen; Van Brussel, Leen; Saunders, Gillian; Runnels, Paul; Taylor, Lucas; Fredrickson, Dan; Salt, Jeremy

    2013-05-01

    Enzootic pneumonia, resulting from infection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, is of considerable economic importance to the pig industry and normally is controlled through active vaccination of piglets. We have demonstrated that administration of an inactivated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine to piglets less than 1 week old is efficacious under field conditions and reduces the level of lung lesions observed in comparison to that in control pigs. Here, the results of two separate studies, one in piglets with and the second one in piglets without maternal antibodies, conducted to satisfy the requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia (monograph no. 07/2009:2448), are reported. Piglets received either minimal titer Suvaxyn MH-One or saline at less than 1 week of age and were challenged with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae 2 weeks later. The number of lung lesions was recorded 4 weeks after challenge, and bronchial swab and lung tissue specimens were analyzed for quantification of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae DNA. In the presence and absence of maternal antibodies, vaccination of piglets at less than 1 week of age was efficacious, with vaccinated piglets having significantly lower percentages of lung with lesions and lower Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae counts detected in bronchial swab and lung tissue specimens at necropsy. In conclusion, the vaccination of piglets at 1 week of age with Suvaxyn MH-One is efficacious in the presence of high levels of maternal antibodies.

  6. Relative efficacy of weekly and two differing doses of daily iron-folate supplementation in improving hemoglobin in mild and moderately anemic children between 3 and 5 years of age: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, U; Sachdev, H P S; Dwivedi, S N; Pandey, R M; Upadhyay, A D; Sareen, N

    2013-04-01

    In India, 75% of children hemoglobin response with two dosages of daily (20 mg iron and 100 μg folic acid, or 40 mg iron and 200 μg folic acid) and weekly (40 mg iron and 200 μg folic acid) IFA supplementation in children of 3-5 years of age with mild or moderate anemia (hemoglobin 7-10 g/dl). Community-based cluster randomized control trial in nine adjoining Anganwadi Centers. Four hundred twenty six enrolled participants received directly supervised IFA tablet supplementation as per the above three groups. After 100 days, the number of available subjects in the NNACP daily dose (A), daily dose doubled (B) and weekly dose (C) groups were 112, 114 and 110, respectively. Hemoglobin was estimated at baseline, 50 and 100 days by the Cynmeth hemoglobin method. At 50 days, there were no differences between the three groups, but at 100 days, adjusted hemoglobin was lowered with weekly supplementation. The mean (95% confidence interval) hemoglobin (g/dl) differences were: (i) A-B: -0.05 (-0.17, 0.05), (ii) A-C: -0.38 (-0.50, -0.27) and (iii) B-C: -0.33, (-0.45, -0.21). Anemia reduction was 18.8%, 18.4% and 10.9%, respectively, in the three groups. Directly supervised IFA supplementation at the NNACP or double dose is equally efficacious but superior to weekly regimen.

  7. Changes in plasma thyroid hormone levels after a single dose of triiodothyronine in premature infants of less than 30 weeks gestational age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cools, F.; van Wassenaer, A. G.; Kok, J. H.; de Vijlder, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of thyroid hormone response to a single administration of triiodothyronine (T3) early postnatally to premature infants of <30 weeks gestational age. DESIGN: A prospective clinical trial with historical control. METHODS: Ten infants born <28 weeks gestational age and ten infants

  8. Efficacy and tolerability of concurrent weekly low dose cisplatin during radiation treatment of localised muscle invasive bladder transitional cell carcinoma: A report of two sequential Phase II studies from the Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogna, Nirdosh Kumar; Matthews, John H.L.; Turner, Sandra L.; Mameghan, Heidi; Duchesne, Gillian M.; Spry, Nigel; Berry, Martin P.; Keller, Jacqui; Tripcony, Lee

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: To determine the feasibility, toxicity, and clinical effectiveness of concurrent weekly cisplatin chemotherapy in conjunction with definitive radiation in the treatment of localised muscle invasive bladder cancer. Patients and methods: In January 1997 the Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group embarked on a Phase II study (TROG 97.01) of weekly cisplatin (35 mg/m 2 x 7 doses) plus radiation to a dose of 63 Gy over 7 weeks. Following an interim toxicity analysis, the dose intensity of cisplatin was reduced to 6 cycles and the radiation schedule changed to 64 Gy over 6.5 weeks leading to the second study (TROG 99.06). A total of 113 patients were enrolled. Results: Acute grade 3 urinary toxicity occurred in 23% of the patients. Acute grade 4 pelvic toxicity was not seen. Thirty-eight patients (33%) experienced grade 3 or 4 cisplatin related toxicities with 15 patients (12%) requiring significant dose modification. The reduced dose intensity in Study 99.06 improved tolerability. Incidence of significant late morbidity was low (6%). Seventy-nine patients (70%) achieved complete remission at the 6 month cystoscopic assessment. Local invasive recurrence was seen in 11 of the 79 patients (14%). In 18 patients (16%) isolated superficial TCC/CIS were detected (6 months and beyond).The local control rate was 45% with a functional bladder being retained in 69 of the 113 patients (61%). RFS and DSS at 5 years were 33% and 50%, respectively. Conclusion: Our two sequential Phase II studies have shown that concurrent chemoradiation using weekly cisplatin in the management of localised invasive bladder TCC is feasible and reasonably well tolerated. This approach is currently being investigated further in a randomised study

  9. Single-dose fluconazole versus standard 2-week therapy for oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients: a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamza, O.J.M.; Matee, M.I.N.; Bruggemann, R.J.M.; Moshi, M.J.; Simon, E.N.; Mugusi, F.; Mikx, F.H.M.; Lee, H.A.L. van der; Verweij, P.E.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most common opportunistic infection affecting patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Because of convenience, cost, and reluctance to complicate antiretroviral treatment regimens, single-dose fluconazole may be a favorable regimen for

  10. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  11. 12 CFR 703.14 - Permissible investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissible investments. 703.14 Section 703.14 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.14 Permissible investments. (a) Variable rate investment. A Federal...

  12. Permissive hypercapnia and risk for brain injury and developmental impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Erika W; Sadek-Badawi, Mona; Carlton, David P; Palta, Mari

    2008-09-01

    Permissive hypercapnia is a respiratory-care strategy that is used to reduce the risk for lung injury. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether permissive hypercapnia is associated with higher risk for intraventricular hemorrhage and early childhood behavioral and functional problems than normocapnia among very low birth weight infants. Very low birth weight infants from a statewide cohort were eligible for this study when they were born at <32 weeks' gestational age and survived at least 24 hours. Infants were classified as receiving a permissive hypercapnia, normocapnia, or unclassifiable respiratory strategy during the first 24 hours after birth according to an algorithm based on Pco(2) values and respiratory-treatment decisions that were abstracted from medical charts. Intraventricular hemorrhage diagnosis was also abstracted from the medical chart. Behavioral and functional outcomes were assessed by parent interview at 2 to 3 years. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between intraventricular hemorrhage and respiratory strategy; ordinary linear regression was used to evaluate differences in behavior and function scores between children by respiratory strategy. Infants who received a permissive hypercapnia strategy were not more likely to have intraventricular hemorrhage than those with normocapnia. There were no differences in any of the behavioral or functional scores among children according to respiratory strategy. There was a significant interaction between care strategy and 1-minute Apgar score, indicating that infants with lower Apgar scores may be at higher risk for intraventricular hemorrhage with permissive hypercapnia. This study suggests that permissive hypercapnia does not increase risk for brain injury and impairment among very low birth weight children. The interaction between respiratory strategy and Apgar score is a potential worrisome exception to this conclusion. Future research should further evaluate the effect

  13. Collaborative work on evaluation of ovarian toxicity. 13) Two- or four-week repeated dose studies and fertility study of PPAR alpha/gamma dual agonist in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Norihiro; Uchida, Keisuke; Nakajima, Mikio; Watanabe, Atsushi; Kohira, Terutomo

    2009-01-01

    The main focus of this study was to determine the optimal dosing period in a repeated dose toxicity study based on toxic effects as assessed by ovarian morphological changes. To assess morphological and functional changes induced in the ovary by a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha/gamma dual agonist, the compound was administered to female rats at dose levels of 0, 4, 20, and 100 mg/kg/day in a repeated dose toxicity study for 2 or 4 weeks, and from 2 weeks prior to mating to Day 7 of pregnancy in a female fertility study. In the repeated dose toxicity study, an increase in atresia of large follicles, a decrease in corpora lutea, and an increase in stromal cells were observed in the treated groups. In addition, the granulosa cell exfoliations into antrum of large follicles and corpora lutea with retained oocyte are morphological characteristics induced by this compound, and they might be related with abnormal condition of ovulation. In the female fertility study, the pregnancy rate tended to decrease in the 100 mg/kg/day group. At necropsy, decreases in the number of corpora lutea, implantations and live embryos were noted in the 20 and 100 mg/kg/day group. No changes were observed in animals given 4 mg/kg/day. These findings indicated that histopathological changes in the ovary are important endpoints for evaluation of drugs inducing ovarian damage. In conclusion, a 2-week administration period is sufficient to detect ovarian toxicity of this test compound in the repeated dose toxicity study.

  14. Effect of Tailored Dose-Dense Chemotherapy vs Standard 3-Weekly Adjuvant Chemotherapy on Recurrence-Free Survival Among Women With High-Risk Early Breast Cancer: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foukakis, Theodoros; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Bengtsson, Nils-Olof; Brandberg, Yvonne; Wallberg, Birgitta; Fornander, Tommy; Mlineritsch, Brigitte; Schmatloch, Sabine; Singer, Christian F; Steger, Günther; Egle, Daniel; Karlsson, Eva; Carlsson, Lena; Loibl, Sibylle; Untch, Michael; Hellström, Mats; Johansson, Hemming; Anderson, Harald; Malmström, Per; Gnant, Michael; Greil, Richard; Möbus, Volker; Bergh, Jonas

    2016-11-08

    Standard dosing of chemotherapy based on body surface area results in marked interpatient variation in pharmacokinetics, toxic effects, and efficacy. Whether tailored dosing can improve outcomes is unknown, as is the role of dose-dense adjuvant chemotherapy. To determine whether tailored dose-dense adjuvant chemotherapy improves the outcomes of early breast cancer compared with a standard 3-weekly chemotherapy schedule. A randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial of women aged 65 years and younger who had surgery for nonmetastatic node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer at 86 sites in Sweden, Germany, and Austria between February 20, 2007, and September 14, 2011. Patients were randomized 1:1 either to 4 cycles of leukocyte nadir-based tailored and dose-dense adjuvant epirubicin and cyclophosphamide every 2 weeks followed by 4 cycles of tailored dose-dense docetaxel every 2 weeks, or to standard-interval chemotherapy with 3 cycles of fluorouracil and epirubicin-cyclophosphamide every 3 weeks followed by 3 cycles of docetaxel every 3 weeks. The primary end point was breast cancer recurrence-free survival (BCRFS). Secondary end points included 5-year event-free survival (EFS), distant disease-free survival (DDFS), overall survival (OS), and rates of grade 3 or 4 toxic effects. Among 2017 randomized patients (1006 in the tailored dose-dense group and 1011 in the control group; median [IQR] age, 51 [45-58] years; 80% with hormone receptor-positive tumors; 97% with node-positive disease), 2000 received study treatment (≥1 cycle of chemotherapy; 1001 in the tailored dose-dense group and 999 in the control group). After a median follow-up of 5.3 years (IQR, 4.5-6.1 years), 269 BCRFS events were reported, 118 in the tailored dose-dense group and 151 in the control group (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.61-1.01; log-rank P = .06; 5-year BCRFS, 88.7% vs 85.0%). The tailored dose-dense group had significantly better EFS than the control group (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0

  15. Iron concentration in breast milk normalised within one week of a single high-dose infusion of iron isomaltoside in randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Charlotte; Thomsen, Lars Lykke; Nørgaard, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    AIM: We compared the iron concentration in breast milk after a single high-dose of intravenous iron isomaltoside or daily oral iron for postpartum haemorrhage. METHODS: In this randomised controlled trial, the women were allocated a single dose of intravenous 1,200mg iron isomaltoside or oral iron...... deviation) iron concentration in breast milk in the intravenous and oral groups were 0.72 ± 0.27 mg/L and 0.40 ± 0.18 mg/L at three days (p birth. CONCLUSION: A single high...

  16. Weekly low-dose docetaxel is an effective treatment with fewer adverse events for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in Taiwanese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Li Kao

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: For Taiwanese mCRPC patients, weekly DTX 30 mg/m2 is an efficient regimen for disease control with relatively low Grade 3 or 4 hematological adverse effects. The proper treatment duration of DTX therapy for mCRPC in Taiwanese patients is still uncertain, so further research is needed.

  17. Pegylated Long-Acting Human Growth Hormone Possesses a Promising Once-Weekly Treatment Profile, and Multiple Dosing Is Well Tolerated in Adult Patients with Growth Hormone Deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Esben; Klose, Marianne; Hansen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recombinant human GH (rhGH) replacement therapy in children and adults currently requires daily sc injections for several years or lifelong, which may be both inconvenient and distressing for patients. NNC126-0083 is a pegylated rhGH developed for once-weekly administration. Objectives...

  18. Efficacy and safety of concurrent chemoradiation with weekly cisplatin ± low-dose celecoxib in locally advanced undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a phase II-III clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad; Razmjou-Ghalaei, Sasan; Shafizad, Amin; Ashouri-Taziani, Yaghoub; Khademi, Bijan; Ahmadloo, Niloofar; Ansari, Mansour; Omidvari, Shapour; Mosalaei, Ahmad; Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin

    2011-01-01

    This is the first study that aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of concurrent chemoradiation with weekly cisplatin ± celecoxib 100 mg twice daily in locally advanced undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Eligible patients had newly diagnosed locally advanced (T3-T4, and/or N2-N3, M0) undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma, no prior therapy, Karnofsky performance status ≥ 70, and normal organ function. The patients were assigned to receive 7 weeks concurrent chemoradiation (70 Gy) with weekly cisplatin 30 mg/m 2 with either celecoxib 100 mg twice daily, (study group, n = 26) or placebo (control group, n = 27) followed by adjuvant combined chemotherapy with cisplatin 70 mg/m 2 on day 1 plus 5-fluorouracil 750 mg/m 2 /d with 8-h infusion on days 1-3, 3-weekly for 3 cycles. Overall clinical response rate was 100% in both groups. Complete and partial clinical response rates were 64% and 36% in the study group and 44% and 56% in the control group, respectively (P > 0.25). The addition of celecoxib to concurrent chemoradiation was associated with improved 2-year locoregional control rate from 84% to 100% (P = 0.039). The addition of celecoxib 100 mg twice daily to concurrent chemoradiation improved 2-year locoregional control rate.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of continuous once-a-week combination 17β-Estradiol/Low- or high-dose levonorgestrel transdermal delivery systems in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karara, Adel H; Harrison, Lester I; Melikian, Armen P; Poola, Nagaraju; Morrison, Dennis; Bourg, Dale; Bourg, Linda; Zurth, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Two open-label, randomized, two-period, crossover studies were performed to determine the safety, delivery rates, and pharmacokinetic properties of a combination estradiol (E2)/levonorgestrel (LNG) transdermal delivery system (TDS). Study 1 enrolled 24 postmenopausal women who received a single TDS containing 4.4 mg E2 and 1.39 mg of LNG (E2/LNG Low) or E2 0.050 mg/24 hours TDS and 0.090 mg LNG oral tablet. Study 2 enrolled 44 postmenopausal women who received either E2/LNG Low or TDS containing 4.4 mg E2 and 2.75 mg LNG (E2/LNG High) weekly for a period of 4 weeks. E2, estrone (E1), LNG, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) serum concentrations were determined. Overall, both E2/LNG TDS were well tolerated and had excellent adhesion properties. The average daily delivery for E2/LNG Low was 0.045 mg for E2 and 0.0132 mg for LNG. Following weekly delivery of E2/LNG Low or High for 4 weeks, the combination of E2 with two different strengths of LNG did not alter the pharmacokinetic profile of E2. SHBG, total cholesterol, and triglycerides concentrations significantly decreased compared to baseline. Both E2/LNG Low and High TDSs were well tolerated and provided continuous drug delivery over 7 days supporting the benefits of the transdermal route of administration in optimally delivering hormonal therapy. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  20. Three-Week Bright-Light Intervention Has Dose-Related Effects on Threat-Related Corticolimbic Reactivity and Functional Coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Patrick M; Madsen, Martin K; Mc Mahon, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    environmental stimuli (e.g., threat) and may underlie these effects. Serotonin signaling modulates this circuit and is implicated in the pathophysiology of seasonal and other affective disorders. METHODS: We evaluated the effects of a bright-light intervention protocol on threat-related corticolimbic reactivity......-related amygdala and prefrontal reactivity in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, amygdala-prefrontal and intraprefrontal functional coupling increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Genotype status significantly moderated bright-light intervention effects on intraprefrontal functional coupling....... CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to evaluate the effects of clinically relevant bright-light intervention on threat-related brain function. We show that amygdala-prefrontal reactivity and communication are significantly affected by bright-light intervention, an effect partly moderated by genotype...

  1. The Ramazzini Institute 13-week pilot study on glyphosate and Roundup administered at human-equivalent dose to Sprague Dawley rats: effects on the microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qixing; Manservisi, Fabiana; Panzacchi, Simona; Mandrioli, Daniele; Menghetti, Ilaria; Vornoli, Andrea; Bua, Luciano; Falcioni, Laura; Lesseur, Corina; Chen, Jia; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Hu, Jianzhong

    2018-05-29

    Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) are broad-spectrum herbicides that act on the shikimate pathway in bacteria, fungi, and plants. The possible effects of GBHs on human health are the subject of an intense public debate for both its potential carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects, including its effects on microbiome. The present pilot study examines whether exposure to GBHs at doses of glyphosate considered to be "safe" (the US Acceptable Daily Intake - ADI - of 1.75 mg/kg bw/day), starting from in utero, may modify the composition of gut microbiome in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Glyphosate alone and Roundup, a commercial brand of GBHs, were administered in drinking water at doses comparable to the US glyphosate ADI (1.75 mg/kg bw/day) to F0 dams starting from the gestational day (GD) 6 up to postnatal day (PND) 125. Animal feces were collected at multiple time points from both F0 dams and F1 pups. The gut microbiota of 433 fecal samples were profiled at V3-V4 region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene and further taxonomically assigned and assessed for diversity analysis. We tested the effect of exposure on overall microbiome diversity using PERMANOVA and on individual taxa by LEfSe analysis. Microbiome profiling revealed that low-dose exposure to Roundup and glyphosate resulted in significant and distinctive changes in overall bacterial composition in F1 pups only. Specifically, at PND31, corresponding to pre-pubertal age in humans, relative abundance for Bacteriodetes (Prevotella) was increased while the Firmicutes (Lactobacillus) was reduced in both Roundup and glyphosate exposed F1 pups compared to controls. This study provides initial evidence that exposures to commonly used GBHs, at doses considered safe, are capable of modifying the gut microbiota in early development, particularly before the onset of puberty. These findings warrant future studies on potential health effects of GBHs in early development such as childhood.

  2. Estimates of the radiological dose to people living on Bikini Island for two weeks while diving in and around the sunken ships in Bikini Lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.

    1990-09-01

    Bikini Island and Bikini Lagoon were contaminated by fallout from nuclear weapons tests conducted at the atoll by the United States from 1946 to 1958. The second test, Baker, of the Crossroads series was an underwater detonation in 1946 that sank several ships in the lagoon, including the USS Saratoga and the Japanese battleship Nagato. The ships received high-intensity gamma-ray and neutron bombardment from the Baker test, which induced radioactivity in the metal structures. Some of the tests conducted after the Baker shot (there were 21 tests in all) injected contaminated carbonate particles into the air, some of which were deposited across the lagoon surface. Most of this contaminated soil then settled onto the ships' decks and other structures and on the lagoon bottom. These sunken ships provide an interesting location for divers. Recreational diving and swimming in and around the ships raises the question of the potential radiological dose from the radionuclides present in or on the ships and in the lagoon sediments. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to present an analysis of the potential radiological dose to persons who would dive near the sunken ships and live on Bikini Island for a short period of time

  3. Randomized, 6-Week, Placebo-Controlled Study of Treatment for Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Individualized Dosing of Osmotic-Release Oral System (OROS) Methylphenidate With a Goal of Symptom Remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, David W; Starr, H Lynn; Ma, Yi-Wen; Rostain, Anthony L; Ascher, Steve; Armstrong, Robert B

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of individualized dosing within the approved dose range for osmotic-release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate hydrochloride in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A double-blind, 6-week trial was conducted between July 2009 and February 2010 at 35 US sites. Adults with ADHD (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) and a screening ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) score > 24 were randomly assigned to OROS methylphenidate 18 mg or matching placebo. Treatment dose could be increased at 18 mg increments, up to 72 mg/d, until an optimal dose was achieved. AISRS score changes from baseline to end point (primary outcome) were analyzed using analysis of covariance. At baseline, the intent-to-treat population of 169 OROS methylphenidate and 172 placebo subjects (mean age = 35.8 years) had mean (standard deviation [SD]) AISRS scores of 37.8 (6.94) and 37.0 (7.51), respectively. OROS methylphenidate-treated subjects exhibited a significantly greater mean (SD) AISRS score improvement than placebo subjects (-17.1 [12.44] vs -11.7 [13.30]; P ADHD. OROS methylphenidate treatment with individualized doses titrated to achieve symptom remission demonstrated greater ADHD symptom reduction than placebo treatment. These data support the overall efficacy of OROS methylphenidate treatment in the management of adults with ADHD and provide new possibilities for additional intervention. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00937040. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  4. Twelve-week efficacy and safety study of mometasone furoate/formoterol 200/10 microg and 400/10 microg combination treatments in patients with persistent asthma previously receiving high-dose inhaled corticosteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinstein, Steven F; Corren, Jonathan; Murphy, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    A significant unmet medical need exists in patients with uncontrolled asthma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of mometasone furoate/formoterol (MF/F) 400/10 microg versus MF 400 microg administered twice-daily (b.i.d.) via metered-dose inhaler in patients...... with asthma uncontrolled on high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). In a 12-week, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group study, patients (>or=12 years of age) were randomized to MF/F 200/10 microg, MF/F 400/10 microg, or MF 400 microg, b.i.d. after a 2- to 3-week open-label run in with MF 400...... microg b.i.d. The primary end point was mean change in area under the curve from 0 to 12 hours in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1) AUC(0-12h)) from baseline to week 12 for MF/F 400/10 microg versus MF 400 microg. Effects of MF/F on asthma control and symptoms were evaluated and adverse events...

  5. Effectiveness and safety of a high-dose weekly vitamin D (20,000 IU) protocol in older adults living in residential care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Fabio; Moore, Crystal; da Silva, Liz; Gaspard, Gina; Gustafson, Larry; Singh, Sonia; Barr, Susan I; Kitts, David D; Li, Wangyang; Weiler, Hope A; Green, Timothy J

    2014-08-01

    To report 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations, an indicator of vitamin D status, in older adults living in residential care 1 year after a protocol of weekly 20,000 IU of vitamin D was started. Cross-sectional. Five residential care facilities in British Columbia, Canada. Residents aged 65 and older from five facilities (N=236). Participants provided a blood sample. Demographic and health information was obtained from the medical record. Mean 25OHD was 102 nmol/L (95% confidence interval (CI)=98-106 nmol/L). Three percent of residents had a 25OHD concentration of less than 40 nmol/L, 6% 2.6 mmol/L), a potential consequence of too much vitamin D, was present in 14%, although 25OHD levels did not differ in those with and without hypercalcemia (108 vs 101 nmol/L; P=.17). Twelve months after implementation of a 20,000-IU/wk vitamin D protocol for older adults in residential care, mean 25OHD concentrations were high, and there was no evidence of poor vitamin D status. Given the absence of demonstrated benefit of high 25OHD concentrations to the residential care population, dosages less than 20,000 IU/wk of vitamin D are recommended. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. Dose response of continuous subcutaneous infusion of recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 in combination with metformin and sulphonylurea over 12 weeks in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torekov, Signe Sørensen; Holst, J J; Ehlers, M R

    2014-01-01

    (7-36) amide (rGLP-1) administered by continuous subcutaneous infusion (CSCI) in subjects with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We compared the efficacy and safety of three doses of recombinant GLP-1, ranging from 1.25 to 5.0 pmol/kg/min (pkm) and placebo, given by continuous subcutaneous infusion over 3...... months in combination with metformin and sulphonylurea (SU), to lower haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose and weight in 95 type 2 diabetes patients with inadequate glycaemic control. RESULTS: The mean decreases in HbA1c at endpoint (week 12) were significantly greater for all three rGLP-1...... dose groups when each was compared with the placebo group, with the greatest decrease occurring in the 5.0 pkm dose group (-1.3%, s.d. ± 0.18, p fasting plasma glucose from baseline to endpoint were significantly greater for all three rGLP-1 dose groups than...

  7. Permission Marketing and Privacy Concerns - Why Do Customers (Not) Grant Permissions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krafft, Manfred; Arden, Christine M.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    Little is known about the influence of motivators that drive consumers to grant permission to be contacted via personalized communication. In this study, a framework is developed to investigate the effect of select drivers of consumers granting permission to receive personalized messages. The

  8. Permissive Subsorted Partial Logic in CASL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerioli, Maura; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Krieg-Brückner, Bernd

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a permissive subsorted partial logic used in the CoFI Algebraic Specification Language. In contrast to other order-sorted logics, subsorting is not modeled by set inclusions, but by injective embeddings allowing for more general models in which subtypes can have different data...

  9. User-centric android flexible permissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scoccia, Gian Luca; Malavolta, Ivano; Autili, Marco; Di Salle, Amleto; Inverardi, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Privacy in mobile apps is a fundamental aspect to be considered, particularly with regard to meeting end user expectations. Due to the rigidities of the Android permission model, desirable trade-offs are not allowed. End users are confined into a secondary role, having the only option of choosing

  10. Gender Differences In Premarital Sexual Permissiveness Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the concept of premariatal sexual permissiveness among selected University undergraduates in a state owned university in Nigeria, believing that the policy of non-residential status of the University will facilitate premarital sexual activity among the students. Using a total of 400 purposively selected ...

  11. Concurrent weekly cisplatin plus external beam radiotherapy and high-dose rate brachytherapy for advanced cervical cancer: A control cohort comparison with radiation alone on treatment outcome and complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.-W.; Liang, J.-A.; Hung, Y.-C.; Yeh, L.-S.; Chang, W.-C.; Lin, W.-C.; Yang, S.-N.; Lin, F.-J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To test, though a control-cohort study, the hypothesis that concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) using weekly cisplatin, plus high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDRICB) is superior to radiation (RT) alone in patients with advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 171 patients with Stage IIB-III cervical cancer were enrolled in this study. Seventy patients were treated with CCRT and the results were compared with those of 101 patients who had been treated with RT using the same protocol at an early period. RT consisted of 45 Gy in 25 fractions to the whole pelvis, followed by a 12.6-Gy boost to the parametrium. Four courses of HDRICB using 6.0 Gy to Point A were performed. Chemotherapy consisted of weekly cisplatin at a dose of 40 mg/m 2 for 5-6 cycles. Results: The 4-year actuarial survival was 74% for the CCRT group and 68% for the RT group (p = 0.60). The 4-year pelvic relapse-free survival was 87% for the CCRT group and 85% for the RT group (p = 0.37). The 4-year distant metastases-free survival was 75% for the CCRT group and 76% for the RT group (p = 0.44). The cumulative incidence of gastrointestinal and genitourinary injuries of grade 3 or above was 14.3% for the CCRT group and 7.9% for the RT group (p = 0.19). Conclusion: This study did not show a survival benefit of CCRT with weekly cisplatin and HDRICB for Stage II-III cervical cancer, nor did it demonstrate a significant increase of late complications when comparing with RT alone

  12. Rationalizing the Permissibility of Mosque Decoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spahic Omer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the subject of mosque decoration and some of the criteria which determine its permissibility or otherwise. Some aspects of the matter are somewhat sensitive and double-edged. Thus, the paper presents an objective, balanced and scientific account of the theme, steering clear of the sentimental aspects of the evidences often put forth by both the proponents and opponents of mosque decoration. The main thrusts of the paper are the issues pertaining to the legitimacy of decoration in general, the subject of the function of mosques vis-à-vis their decoration, as well as the broad guidelines that regulate mosque decoration emphasizing the decoration of the mihrab (praying niche area and the qiblah wall. The paper concludes that in principle mosque decoration is permissible so long as it conforms to the requirements of the Islamic spirituality and the quintessence of genuine Islamic art and architecture.

  13. A permissive graphical patcher for supercollider synths

    OpenAIRE

    Dufeu, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the first version of a permissive graphical patcher (referred to in the text as SCPGP) dedicated to fluid interconnection and control of SuperCollider Synths. With SCPGP, the user programs her/his SynthDefs normally as code in the SuperCollider environment, along with a minimal amount of additional information on these SynthDefs, and programs Patterns according to a simple SuperCollider-compliant syntax.\\ud From the execution of this SuperCollider session, the SCPGP inte...

  14. Analysis of nevirapine (NVP) resistance in Ugandan infants who were HIV infected despite receiving single-Dose (SD) NVP versus SD NVP plus daily NVP up to 6 weeks of age to prevent HIV vertical transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Jessica D; Omer, Saad B; Guay, Laura A; Huang, Wei; Lidstrom, Jessica; Musoke, Philippa; Mmiro, Francis; Jackson, J Brooks; Eshleman, Susan H

    2008-10-01

    Single-dose nevirapine (SD NVP) at birth plus NVP prophylaxis for the infant up to 6 weeks of age is superior to SD NVP alone for prevention of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through breastfeeding. We analyzed NVP resistance in HIV-infected Ugandan infants who received either SD NVP or extended NVP prophylaxis. We tested plasma HIV by using a genotyping assay (ViroSeq; Celera Diagnostics), a phenotypic resistance assay (PhenoSense; Monogram Biosciences), and sensitive point mutation assay (LigAmp, for K103N, Y181C, and G190A). When infants were 6 weeks old, ViroSeq detected NVP resistance in a higher proportion of infants in the extended NVP arm than in the SD NVP arm (21 of 25 [84%] vs. 12 of 24 [50%]; P = .01). Similar results were obtained with LigAmp and PhenoSense. In both study arms, infants who were HIV infected at birth frequently had NVP resistance detected. In contrast, infants in the extended NVP arm who were HIV infected after birth were more likely to have resistance detected at 6 weeks, compared with infants in the SD NVP arm. The use of extended NVP prophylaxis was also associated with detection of NVP resistance by ViroSeq at 6 months (7 of 7 [100%] infants in the extended NVP arm had resistance detected, compared with 1 of 6 [16.7%] infants in the SD NVP arm; P = .005). The use of extended NVP prophylaxis was associated with increased selection for and persistence of NVP resistance in HIV-infected Ugandan infants.

  15. Efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of mometasone furoate and formoterol fumarate in subjects with moderate to very severe COPD: results from a 52-week Phase III trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashkin DP

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Donald P Tashkin1, Dennis E Doherty2, Edward Kerwin3, Carlos E Matiz-Bueno4, Barbara Knorr5, Tulin Shekar5, Sibabrata Banerjee5, Heribert Staudinger51David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, 2Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 3Clinical Research Institute of Southern Oregon, Medford, OR USA; 4Fundación Salud Bosque, Bogota, Colombia; 5Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp, Whitehouse Station, NJ USABackground: A clinical trial of mometasone furoate/formoterol fumarate (MF/F administered via a metered-dose inhaler in subjects with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD investigated the efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of MF/F.Methods: This multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial had a 26-week treatment period and a 26-week safety extension. Subjects (n = 1055; ≥40 years were current or ex-smokers randomized to twice-daily treatment with inhaled MF/F 400/10 µg, MF/F 200/10 µg, MF 400 µg, F 10 µg, or placebo. The coprimary endpoints of the trial were mean changes from baseline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 over 0–12 hours (AUC0–12 FEV1 with MF/F versus MF, and in morning predose FEV1 with MF/F versus F. Key secondary endpoints were quality of life (Saint George’s Respiratory Questionnaire [SGRQ], symptom-free nights, and partly stable COPD at 26 weeks, as well as time to first COPD exacerbation.Results: Significant improvements in FEV1 AUC0–12 occurred at endpoint with MF/F 400/10 and MF/F 200/10 versus MF 400 (P ≤ 0.007. Significant bronchodilation occurred in 5 minutes with MF/F, and serial spirometry demonstrated sustained FEV1 improvements with MF/F over the treatment period. Significant improvements in morning predose FEV1 occurred with both MF/F doses, and these effects were further investigated by excluding results for subjects whose morning FEV1 data were collected >2 days after the last

  16. Study on the determination of permissible concentration in sea food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.M.; Lee, K.J.; Lee, W.K.

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive permissible concentration limit using the data which is suitable for Koreans is not established. In this paper, concentration limit is determined by using Korean food intake. Ministry of science of technology will adopt the new recommendation soon, so at this paper, dose limit of new value in ICRP 60 is used. Experts who have studied on this area worry about over-exposure by estimation of the case that intake contaminated a food by one radionuclide, therefore, complex intake limit is determined about all kinds of fishery products to solve this problem. Derived Food Concentration in single food divided by S(number of samples) and N(number of radionuclides) gives Complex intake limit (Derived Food Concentration in plural food). The value of N and S in this study is 3 and 12 respectively

  17. Experimental study, in rat wistar, of cadmium distribution and elimination as a function of administration route. Cadmium 109 maximum permissible concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, Marc.

    1979-01-01

    The absorption and the elimination of cadmium have been investigated in rats wistar after oral administration or after inhalation. Before studying gastro-intestinal absorption, it appeared necessary to precise acute toxicity of orally administred cadmium. The distribution of cadmium within organes was determined following a single or multiple oral doses, and we specially studied retention of a Cd dose ingested after several weeks of treatment with Cd-Acetate. Pulmonary and gastro-intestinal absorption of cadmium after ihalation of Cd-microparticles were studied. Data obtained from these studies on rats and extrapolated to man were used to calculate mximum permissible concentration (M.P.C.) of Cd-109 in water and in air [fr

  18. Control over Permissible Short Emergency Overloads in Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Anischenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a method for determination a permissible duration of short intermittent overloads of power transformers that permits to avoid non-permissible over-heating of winding insulation and fully utilize overloading transformer ability.

  19. Android Multi-Level System Permission Management Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Yang; Zhang, Qixun; Shen, Qingni; Liu, Hongzhi; Wu, Zhonghai

    2017-01-01

    With the expansion of the market share occupied by the Android platform, security issues (especially application security) have become attention focus of researchers. In fact, the existing methods lack the capabilities to manage application permissions without root privilege. This study proposes a dynamic management mechanism of Android application permissions based on security policies. The paper first describes the permissions by security policies, then implementes permission checking code ...

  20. 30 CFR 62.130 - Permissible exposure level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permissible exposure level. 62.130 Section 62... REGULATIONS OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE § 62.130 Permissible exposure level. (a) The mine operator must assure that no miner is exposed during any work shift to noise that exceeds the permissible exposure level. If...

  1. A Symbolic Approach to Permission Accounting for Concurrent Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Marieke; Mostowski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Permission accounting is fundamental to modular, thread-local reasoning about concurrent programs. This paper presents a new, symbolic system for permission accounting. In existing systems, permissions are numeric value-based and refer to the current thread only. Our system is based on symbolic

  2. On determination of limit of effective dose for living bodies concerning control areas of nuclear law material mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Notification is based on the prescriptions of the Safety Regulation of Metal Mines. The permissible levels of effective dose for living bodies and others concerning control areas are defined as follows: the effective dose of external radiation for living bodies should be less than 30 millirems in a consecutive week; the concentrations of radioactive substances in the air or in the water possibly drunk by men are specified respectively for Rn 220, Rn 222, Th and U; the densities of such substances on the surfaces of things contaminated by such elements in refineries should be less than 10 micro-micro-curies per centi-meter 2 , etc. Such permissible levels in residential quarters are defined as follows: the effective dose of external radiation for living bodies should be less than 10 millirems in a consecutive week; the concentrations of radioactive substances in the air or in the water possibly drunk by men are specified respectively for Rn 220, Rn 222, Th and U, etc. The permissible exposure dose for miners working regularly in control areas should be less than 3 rems in three consecutive months. The permissible limit of accumulated dose should be less than the figure, in the unit of rem, which is obtained by multiplying the figure of age of the miner concerned minus 18 by 5. (Okada, K.)

  3. Legal Permissibility of Unilateral Humanitarian Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Perisic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the status of unilateral humanitarian interventions in international law. The United Nations Charter prohibits the use of force, except in case of self-defense and the collective action authorized by the Security Council. The question is whether the non-existence of unilateral humanitarian intervention among these exceptions means that they are not in conformity with the Charter and if so, whether the right to such interventions exists as the part of customary law. The issue has become even more controversial after the adoption of the “responsibility to protect” principle. Findings of legal scholars on this issue differ significantly. This paper analyzes and interprets the Charter provisions in order to answer the question of compatibility of humanitarian interventions with the Charter and examines the state practice in order to conclude whether the customary law rule allowing the humanitarian intervention exists. The conclusion of the paper is that there is no evidence to support the contentions that interventions without the Security Council authorization are permissible, although there are elements which point to the possibility of the creation of customary law allowing them.

  4. Quantitative Security Risk Assessment of Android Permissions and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wang , Yang; Zheng , Jun; Sun , Chen; Mukkamala , Srinivas

    2013-01-01

    Part 6: Mobile Computing; International audience; The booming of the Android platform in recent years has attracted the attention of malware developers. However, the permissions-based model used in Android system to prevent the spread of malware, has shown to be ineffective. In this paper, we propose DroidRisk, a framework for quantitative security risk assessment of both Android permissions and applications (apps) based on permission request patterns from benign apps and malware, which aims ...

  5. Phase I trial of concurrent chemoradiotherapy for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers with bi-weekly docetaxel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Simizu, Shigetaka

    2005-01-01

    Docetaxel (DOC) has radiation-sensitizing effects because it synchronizes with the most radiation-sensitive G2/M phase of the cell cycle. From the results of concurrent radiotherapy with weekly DOC administrations in a phase I trial, dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was mucositis and the recommended dose was 10 mg/m 2 , but the administration schedule was a problem. We planned concurrent radiation therapy in a bi-weekly DOC phase I trial to improve the larynx preservation rate and to determine which schedule and dosage of DOC would yield its inherent cytotoxic effects. We decided the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and DLT to serve as an index of the appearance of adverse events. Patients with stage II or stage III T2N1 hypopharyngeal cancer or stage II or III laryngeal cancer were included in this study. DOC was administered on the days of initiation of bi-weekly radiation (day 1, day 15, day 29). Radiation was given (2 Gy/day: 5 days per week) for a total of 30 Fr, with a total of 60 Gy. The starting dose of DOC was 30 mg/m 2 (level 1) and the dosage was raised by 5 mg/m 2 at each level. DLT was observed due to mucositis and neutropenia at 40 mg/m 2 (level 3), the MTD was 40 mg/m 2 and the recommended dose (RD) was 35 mg/m 2 . Especially in hypopharyngeal cancer of Grade 3 or more, mucositis appeared, with swallowing difficulty in cases with a wide range of irradiation. At dosages of 35 mg/m 2 , the effectiveness was favorable and this was the suitable dosage recommended for the subsequent phase II trial. This clinical study was performed with permission of our IRB (Institutional Review Board). (author)

  6. 46 CFR 115.700 - Permission for repairs and alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... replacement in kind, of electrical wiring, fuel lines, tanks, boilers and other pressure vessels, and steering... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permission for repairs and alterations. 115.700 Section... AND CERTIFICATION Repairs and Alterations § 115.700 Permission for repairs and alterations. (a...

  7. 46 CFR 176.700 - Permission for repairs and alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... repair or replacement, other than replacement in kind, of electrical wiring, fuel lines, tanks, boilers... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permission for repairs and alterations. 176.700 Section... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Repairs and Alterations § 176.700 Permission for...

  8. 14 CFR 399.35 - Special tariff permission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.35 Special tariff permission. (a) Definition. As used in this section, to grant STP means to approve a... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special tariff permission. 399.35 Section...

  9. 42 CFR 433.66 - Permissible provider-related donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible provider-related donations. 433.66... Requirements State Financial Participation § 433.66 Permissible provider-related donations. (a) General rule... provider-related donations without a reduction in FFP, only in accordance with the requirements of this...

  10. 45 CFR 1639.4 - Permissible representation of eligible clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible representation of eligible clients... CORPORATION WELFARE REFORM § 1639.4 Permissible representation of eligible clients. Recipients may represent an individual eligible client who is seeking specific relief from a welfare agency. [62 FR 30766...

  11. The ecological determination of the permissible concentrations for radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononovich, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    It is supposed that all inhabitants of the ecosystem are enjoying equal rights. The report describes the approximate method of ecology normalizing of the permissible radionuclide concentrations. Definition of the permissible concentration is made by an indirect way, since the defining criterion is unknown

  12. May I sleep in your bed? Getting permission to book

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson, L.; Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Dolnicar, S.

    2017-01-01

    Demand for tourist accommodation offered on peer-to-peer networks is skyrocketing. In such networks tourists can only book if the accommodation provider (host) gives their permission. Needing permission to book accommodation is radically new in tourism. No hotel, motel or B&B assesses a tourist

  13. Decree of the Ministry of Health about conditions of irradiation of food, permissible additional substances or other food components, which can be subjected to ionizing radiation action, their specification, maximum irradiation doses as well as about requirements for marking and introducing into turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipinski, M.

    2003-01-01

    The decree refers to conditions of irradiation of food and its components for radappertization and radurization using gamma radiation from cobalt 60 or cesium 137, X radiation or electron beam up to maximum total medium absorbed dose 10 kGy

  14. A concept of dynamic permission mechanism on android

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Lukas; Hanacek, Petr

    2016-02-01

    This paper discuss the main security topic in mobile security area and this topic is protect user against the leakage of data. This work primarily contains the proposal of concept of dynamic permission mechanism for Android operating system. This mechanism deals with assignment or enforcement permissions to the application according to files that the application works with. Application has set of permissions that can use, but if the user opens confident files the application permissions should change its permission set and there should not be possible leakage of this secret data. The permissions set should be stricter according to opened confidential file or more open (without restriction) if the file is not secret file. The concept proposes the solution for protecting this data leakage. Idea covers rule that user should be avoided of change this permissions himself, but this behavior should be dynamic, automatic and independent. This proposal is mainly aimed to Android operating system, but the concept can be applied to other mobile platforms with some implementation changes.

  15. Clinical and neural effects of six-week administration of oxytocin on core symptoms of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Kuroda, Miho; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Aoki, Yuta; Iwashiro, Norichika; Tatsunobu, Natsubori; Takao, Hidemasa; Nippashi, Yasumasa; Kawakubo, Yuki; Kunimatsu, Akira; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2015-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder with no established pharmacological treatment for its core symptoms. Although previous literature has shown that single-dose administration of oxytocin temporally mitigates autistic social behaviours in experimental settings, it remains in dispute whether such potentially beneficial responses in laboratories can result in clinically positive effects in daily life situations, which are measurable only in long-term observations of individuals with the developmental disorder undergoing continual oxytocin administration. Here, to address this issue, we performed an exploratory, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial including 20 high-functional adult males with autism spectrum disorder. Data obtained from 18 participants who completed the trial showed that 6-week intranasal administration of oxytocin significantly reduced autism core symptoms specific to social reciprocity, which was clinically evaluated by Autism Diagnostic Observation Scale (P = 0.034, PFDR intervention were not larger than those seen in our previous single-dose intervention. These findings not only provide the evidence for clinically beneficial effects of continual oxytocin administration on the core social symptoms of autism spectrum disorder with suggesting its underlying biological mechanisms, but also highlight the necessity to seek optimal regimens of continual oxytocin treatment in future studies. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Permissive cytomegalovirus infection of primary villous term and first trimester trophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, D G; Kilani, R; Nykiforuk, C; Preiksaitis, J; Guilbert, L J

    1998-06-01

    Forty percent of women with primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections during pregnancy infect their fetuses with complications for the baby varying from mild to severe. How CMV crosses the syncytiotrophoblast, the barrier between maternal blood and fetal tissue in the villous placenta, is unknown. Virus may cross by infection of maternal cells that pass through physical breaches in the syncytiotrophoblast or by direct infection of the syncytiotrophoblast, with subsequent transmission to underlying fetal placental cells. In this study, we show that pure (>99.99%), long-term and healthy (>3 weeks) cultures of syncytiotrophoblasts are permissively infected with CMV. Greater than 99% of infectious progeny virus remained cell associated throughout culture periods up to 3 weeks. Infection of term trophoblasts required a higher virus inoculum, was less efficient, and progressed more slowly than parallel infections of placental and human embryonic lung fibroblasts. Three laboratory strains (AD169, Towne, and Davis) and a clinical isolate from a congenitally infected infant all permissively infected trophoblasts, although infection efficiencies varied. The infection of first trimester syncytiotrophoblasts with strain AD169 occurred at higher frequency and progressed more rapidly than infection of term cells but less efficiently and rapidly than infection of fibroblasts. These results show that villous syncytiotrophoblasts can be permissively infected by CMV but that the infection requires high virus titers and proceeds slowly and that progeny virus remains predominantly cell associated.

  17. Is the publication of exit poll results morally permissible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderholm, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    This article is about exit polls. It addresses the question of whether or not it is morally permissible to publish exit poll results. The conclusion of the article is that an affirmative answer should be given to this question. In section 2, the master argument in favor of the moral permissibility...... of the publication of exit poll results is introduced. This is a strong argument. It is, however, argued that it might be the case that the conclusion of this argument should be rejected if there are other, and weightier, arguments against the idea that the publication of exit poll results is morally permissible....... In section 3, the strongest arguments against the moral permissibility of the publication of exit poll results are outlined and discussed. The conclusion of this section is that all these arguments fail in their intended purpose. The conclusion of the article is therefore justified....

  18. Effect of high-dose ginsenoside complex (UG0712 supplementation on physical performance of healthy adults during a 12-week supervised exercise program: A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eon Sook Lee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ginseng has been used as an ergogenic agent, although evidence for its effectiveness is weak. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of a ginsenoside complex (UG0712 on changes in exercise performance. Methods: Sedentary individuals (n=117 were randomly assigned into one of three groups: low-dose ginsenoside supplementation (100 mg/d, n=39, high-dose ginsenoside supplementation (500 mg/d, n=39, or a placebo group (500 mg/d, n=39. All participants underwent a supervised 12-wk aerobic and resistance exercise training course. To assess the effects of supplementation on physical performance, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, anaerobic threshold (AT, lactic acid, and muscle strength of the dominant knee were measured at baseline, every visit, and after the training program. Results: Both ginsenoside groups showed significant increases in VO2max and muscular strength during exercise training. There were no definite changes in AT and lactic acid levels over time. After exercise training, there were definite differences in the VO2max (28.64.9 to 33.7±4.9 ml/kg/min in high-dose group vs. 30.4±6.7 to 32.8±6.6 ml/kg/min in placebo, p=0.029 and AT (19.3±4.2 to 20.9±3.5 ml/kg/min in high-dose group vs. 20.0±5.1 to 20.0±4.9 ml/kg/min in placebo, p=0.038 between the high-dose ginsenoside and placebo groups. However, there was no difference in VO2max between the low-dose ginsenoside and placebo groups (p=0.254. There were no differences in muscular strength during exercise training among the three groups. Conclusion: High-dose ginsenoside supplementation (UG0712 augmented the improvement of aerobic capacity by exercise training. Keywords: cardiopulmonary exercise test, ginsenoside, Panax ginseng, randomized controlled trial

  19. Contrasting amino acid profiles among permissive and non-permissive hosts of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, putative causal agent of Huanglongbing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoudou Sétamou

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing is a devastating disease of citrus. In this study, a comprehensive profile of phloem sap amino acids (AA in four permissive host plants of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas and three non-permissive Rutaceae plants was conducted to gain a better understanding of host factors that may promote or suppress the bacterium. The AA profiles of Diaphorina citri nymphs and adults were similarly analyzed. A total of 38 unique AAs were detected in phloem sap of the various plants and D. citri samples, with phloem sap of young shoots containing more AAs and at higher concentrations than their mature counterparts. All AAs detected in phloem sap of non-permissive plants were also present in CLas -permissive hosts plus additional AAs in the latter class of plants. However, the relative composition of 18 commonly shared AAs varied between CLas -permissive hosts and non-permissive plants. Multivariate analysis with a partial least square discriminant methodology revealed a total of 12 AAs as major factors affecting CLas host status, of which seven were positively related to CLas tolerance/resistance and five positively associated with CLas susceptibility. Most of the AAs positively associated with CLas susceptibility were predominantly of the glutamate family, notably stressed-induced AAs such as arginine, GABA and proline. In contrast, AAs positively correlated with CLas tolerance/resistance were mainly of the serine family. Further analysis revealed that whereas the relative proportions of AAs positively associated with CLas susceptibility did not vary with host developmental stages, those associated with CLas tolerance/resistance increased with flush shoot maturity. Significantly, the proline-to-glycine ratio was determined to be an important discriminating factor for CLas permissivity with higher values characteristic of CLas -permissive hosts. This ratio could be exploited as a biomarker in HLB-resistance breeding programs.

  20. Permissible annual depositions and radionuclide concentrations in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.A.; Golovko, M.Yu.

    1993-01-01

    It is established that it necessary to take into account the other ways of radionuclide intake apart from the inhalation one when determining the standards for radionuclide contamination of the atmospheric air. Whereby it is proposed to standardize annual depositions rather than permissible concentration in the atmospheric air for the ways related to radionuclide releases on the ground surface, which is explained by ambiguity of their dry deposition rate from the air. Formulae and results of calculation of standard characteristics are presented. The permissible radionuclide depositions, related to the intake through food chains are calculated with account for diet diversity, agroclimatic and phenological parameters in different regions of the country

  1. My week: Marc Armour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-11

    Marc Armour, is a fourth-year vet student at the Royal Veterinary College. Now on rotations, he chose to spend a week doing EMS with the BVA's journals, which are published by BMJ. Here's how he got on. British Veterinary Association.

  2. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  3. Verification of Snapshotable Trees using Access Permissions and Typestate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehnert, Hannes; Aldrich, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    We use access permissions and typestate to specify and ver- ify a Java library that implements snapshotable search trees, as well as some client code. We formalize our approach in the Plural tool, a sound modular typestate checking tool. We describe the challenges to verify- ing snapshotable tree...

  4. 50 CFR 216.252 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapon Missions in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.252 Permissible methods of taking. (a) Under Letters of Authorization issued pursuant to...

  5. 50 CFR 216.213 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Explosive Severance Activities Conducted During Offshore Structure Removal Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico § 216.213 Permissible...

  6. Substantiation of the permissible radioactive contamination of working clothes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, V.L.; Korostin, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    A permissible level of working clothes contamination was determined on the base of the main migration routes of radioactive contaminants: permeation directly through the clothes into subclothes space on skin surface, emission into the air with amount of contaminants subsequently got by the organism of a working person through inhalation as well as transfer in the process of contacting of contaminated working clothes and surfaces of premises equipment, working person hands with amount of contaminants posteriorly got by the organism by alimentary or inhalation ways. Using the experimental and literature data available the permissible levels of working clothes contamination for the mentioned migration routes of radioactive materials have been calculated. According to the data obtained the permissible levels of working clothes contamination must not exceed 4 alpha-part/(cm 2 xmin) for contamination with high-tonic isotopes, 20 alpha-part./(cm 2 xmin) with other alpha-detine isotopes, 1000 beta-part./(cm 2 xmin) with beta-active ones. The permissible level of contamination of additional materials of the individual protection in the case of their contamination with high-tonic alpha-actine isotopes must not exceed 50 alpha-part./(cm 2 xmin), 200 alpha-part./(cm 2 xmin) for contamination th other alpha-active isotopes and 400 beta-part./(cm 2 xmin) with beta-active isotopes

  7. Maximum Permissible Concentrations and Negligible Concentrations for pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crommentuijn T; Kalf DF; Polder MD; Posthumus R; Plassche EJ van de; CSR

    1997-01-01

    Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPCs) and Negligible Concentrations (NCs) derived for a series of pesticides are presented in this report. These MPCs and NCs are used by the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) to set Environmental Quality Objectives. For some of the

  8. 26 CFR 1.422-5 - Permissible provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of the incentive stock option are subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture and not transferable...) INCOME TAXES Certain Stock Options § 1.422-5 Permissible provisions. (a) General rule. An option that otherwise qualifies as an incentive stock option does not fail to be an incentive stock option merely...

  9. Dose from radiological examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Keiko; Uji, Teruyuki; Sakuyama, Keiko; Fujikawa, Mitsuhiro; Fujii, Masamichi

    1976-01-01

    Relatively high gonad doses, several hundred to one thousand mR, have been observed in case of pelvis, hip-joint, coccyx, lower abdomen and lumber examination. Dose to the ovary is especially high in barium enema and I.V.P. examinations. About 12 per cent of the 4-ray examination are high-dose. The gonad dose is relatively high in examination of abdomen and lower extremities, in infants. The dose to the eyes is especially high, 1.0 to 2.5R per exposure, in temporal bone and nasal sinuses tomography. X-ray doses have been compared with dose limits recommended by ICRP and with the gonad dose from natural radiations. The gonad dose in lumbar examination, barium enema, I.V.P. etc. is as high as the maximum permissible dose per year recommended by ICRP. Several devices have been made for dose reduction in the daily examinations: (1) separating the radiation field from the gonad by one centimeter decreases the gonad dose about one-half. (2) using sensitive screens and films. In pelvimetry and in infant hip-joint examination, the most sensitive screen and film are used. In the I.V.P. examination of adult, use of MS screen in place of FS screen decreases the dose to one-third, in combination with careful setting of radiation field, (3) use of grid increases the dose about 50 percent and the lead rubber protection (0.1mm lead equivalent) decreases the gonad dose to one-thirtieth in the spinal column examination of infant, (4) A lead protector, 1mm thickness and 2.5cm in diameter, on the eyes decreases the dose to about one-eighth in the face and nead examinations. These simple and effective methods for dose reduction. Should be carried out in as many examinations as possible in addition to observing dose limits recommended by ICRP. (Evans, J.)

  10. Permissive hypotension in the extremely low birthweight infant with signs of good perfusion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dempsey, E M

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Many practitioners routinely treat infants whose mean arterial blood pressure in mm Hg is less than their gestational age in weeks (GA). OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of utilising a combined approach of clinical signs, metabolic acidosis and absolute blood pressure (BP) values when deciding to treat hypotension in the extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infant. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of all live born ELBW infants admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit over a 4-year period. Patients were grouped as either normotensive (BP never less than GA), hypotensive and not treated (BPpermissive hypotension) and hypotensive treated (BPweeks). Treated patients had lower birth weight and GA, and significantly lower blood pressure at 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. Normotensive patients and patients designated as having permissive hypotension had similar outcomes. Mean blood pressure in the permissive group increased from 26 mm Hg at 6 h to 31 mm Hg at 24 h. In a logistic regression model, treated hypotension is independently associated with mortality, odds ratio 8.0 (95% CI 2.3 to 28, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Blood pressure spontaneously improves in ELBW infants during the first 24 h. Infants hypotensive on GA criteria but with clinical evidence of good perfusion had as good an outcome as normotensive patients. Treated low blood pressure was associated with adverse outcome.

  11. Soft Robotics Week

    CERN Document Server

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Iida, Fumiya; Cianchetti, Matteo; Margheri, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive, timely snapshot of current research, technologies and applications of soft robotics. The different chapters, written by international experts across multiple fields of soft robotics, cover innovative systems and technologies for soft robot legged locomotion, soft robot manipulation, underwater soft robotics, biomimetic soft robotic platforms, plant-inspired soft robots, flying soft robots, soft robotics in surgery, as well as methods for their modeling and control. Based on the results of the second edition of the Soft Robotics Week, held on April 25 – 30, 2016, in Livorno, Italy, the book reports on the major research lines and novel technologies presented and discussed during the event.

  12. CERN safety week

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    Following an increase in the number of accidents in 2008, the Safety Commission is organising a CERN safety week from 8 to 12 June for riders of bicycles, scooters and motorbikes. We invite you to take part in the programme, which will be held in the Main Building (Bldg. 500) and will consist of an exhibition, organised events and hands-on activities, including demonstrations of emergency braking, a driving simulator, simulation of what it feels like to drive under the influence of alcohol, demonstrations by the Fire Brigade, video projections, etc. There will also be a number of prizes to be won. Please sign up via your DSO.

  13. a week in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    collette, christian

    2016-04-01

    COLLETTE Christian Institut Saint Laurent Liège Belgium. I am a science teacher at a technical high school. Generally, my students don't come from a privileged social background and are not particularly motivated for studies. For 10 years, I organize, for one of my sections, a spatial (and special) school year that ends in a spatial week. Throughout this year, with the help of my colleagues, I will introduce into all themes a lot of concepts relating to space. French, history, geography, English, mathematics, technical courses, sciences, and even gymnastics will be training actors in space culture. In spring, I will accompany my class in the Euro Space Center (Redu- Belgium) where we will live one week 24 hours on "like astronauts" One third of the time is dedicated to astronaut training (moonwalk, remote manipulator system, mission simulation, weightless wall, building rockets, satellites, etc.), One third to more intellectual activities on space (lectures, research, discovery of the outside run) the last one third of time in outside visits (museums, site of ESA-Redu) or in movies about space (October sky, Apollo 13, etc.) During this year, the profits, so educational as human, are considerable!

  14. ATLAS overview week highlights

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Froidevaux

    2005-01-01

    A warm and early October afternoon saw the beginning of the 2005 ATLAS overview week, which took place Rue de La Montagne Sainte-Geneviève in the heart of the Quartier Latin in Paris. All visitors had been warned many times by the ATLAS management and the organisers that the premises would be the subject of strict security clearance because of the "plan Vigipirate", which remains at some level of alert in all public buildings across France. The public building in question is now part of the Ministère de La Recherche, but used to host one of the so-called French "Grandes Ecoles", called l'Ecole Polytechnique (in France there is only one Ecole Polytechnique, whereas there are two in Switzerland) until the end of the seventies, a little while after it opened its doors also to women. In fact, the setting chosen for this ATLAS overview week by our hosts from LPNHE Paris has turned out to be ideal and the security was never an ordeal. For those seeing Paris for the first time, there we...

  15. Larval diet affects mosquito development and permissiveness to Plasmodium infection

    OpenAIRE

    Gendrin, MEM; Christophides; Linenberg, Inbar

    2016-01-01

    The larval stages of malaria vector mosquitoes develop in water pools, feeding mostly on microorganisms and environmental detritus. Richness in the nutrient supply to larvae influences the development and metabolism of larvae and adults. Here, we investigated the effects of larval diet on the development, microbiota content and permissiveness to Plasmodium of Anopheles coluzzii . We tested three fish diets often used to rear mosquitoes in the laboratory, including two pelleted diets, Dr. Clar...

  16. Account of low temperature hardening in calculation of permissible stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, N.V.; Ul'yanenko, A.P.; Gorodyskij, N.I.

    1980-01-01

    Suggested is a calculation scheme of permissible stresses with the account of temperature hardening for steels and alloys, the dependences of strength, plasticity and rupture work of which on cooling temperature do not have threshold changes in a wide range of low temperatures (from 300 to 4.2 K). Application of the suggested scheme is considered on the example of 12Kh18N10T austenitic chromium-nickel steel

  17. The calculation of maximum permissible exposure levels for laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozer, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    The maximum permissible exposure data of the revised standard BS 4803 are presented as a set of decision charts which ensure that the user automatically takes into account such details as pulse length and pulse pattern, limiting angular subtense, combinations of multiple wavelength and/or multiple pulse lengths, etc. The two decision charts given are for the calculation of radiation hazards to skin and eye respectively. (author)

  18. Permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship undermines tobacco control support in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Olutola, Bukola G; Agaku, Israel T

    2016-06-01

    School personnel, who are respected members of the community, may exert significant influence on policy adoption. This study assessed the impact of school personnel's permissiveness toward tobacco industry sponsorship activities on their support for complete bans on tobacco advertisements, comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased tobacco prices. Representative data were obtained from the Global School Personnel Survey for 29 African countries (n = 17 929). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated using multi-variable Poisson regression models to assess the impact of permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship activities on support for tobacco control policies (p industry should be allowed to sponsor school events were significantly less likely to support complete bans on tobacco advertisements [aPR = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.95] and comprehensive smoke-free laws (aPR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.98). In contrast, support for complete tobacco advertisement bans was more likely among those who believed that the tobacco industry encourages youths to smoke (aPR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.17-1.37), and among those who taught about health sometimes (aPR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.11) or a lot (aPR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.10) compared with those who did not teach about health at all. These findings underscore the need to educate school personnel on tobacco industry's strategies to undermine tobacco control policies. This may help to build school personnel support for laws intended to reduce youth susceptibility, experimentation and established use of tobacco products. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Legitimate Permissions And Specifity Of Their Enforceability In Modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Subochev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Northern Caucasus Institute of Advanced Training (branch of Krasnodar University of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, 123, Malbahova Street, Nalshik, 360016, Russia. Abstract: The article investigates the basic legal permissions in Russian law - legal rights, freedoms and legitimate interests. Potential of these means of legal regulation is examined as well as their common features and essential differences. Authors argue that the effectiveness of the mechanism of legal regulation largely depends on the proper use of legal permissions. Particular attention is paid to such kind of legal mean as a legitimate interest. The article draws attention to the fact that if a legal right or freedom are such kind of permissions which are guaranteed by the law in order to sustain certain demands of subjects of law, the legitimate interest is qualitatively different mean of regulation. The authors suggest considering a legitimate interest as reflected in the objective law legal possibility of subjects of law to enjoy certain social benefits and to seek protection from the state authorities in order to meet their interests which are not contradictory to provisions of law. Qualitative difference between legitimate interest and legal right and freedom is that the legitimate interest is an opportunity, guaranteed to a lesser extent than the permitted behavior within a legal right or freedom. Legitimate interest is a mere permission, admitted by the state and to some extent supported by it. But legal right and freedom - are those means of regulation, which are directly approved and sanctioned by the state which presuppose duty of a person to a particular behavior. The author's vision of the specifity of legal enforcement of legitimate admissions is presented.

  20. LEGITIMATE PERMISSIONS AND SPECIFITY OF THEIR ENFORCEABILITY IN MODERN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Subochev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Northern Caucasus Institute of Advanced Training (branch of Krasnodar University of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, 123, Malbahova Street, Nalshik, 360016, Russia. Abstract: The article investigates the basic legal permissions in Russian law - legal rights, freedoms and legitimate interests. Potential of these means of legal regulation is examined as well as their common features and essential differences. Authors argue that the effectiveness of the mechanism of legal regulation largely depends on the proper use of legal permissions. Particular attention is paid to such kind of legal mean as a legitimate interest. The article draws attention to the fact that if a legal right or freedom are such kind of permissions which are guaranteed by the law in order to sustain certain demands of subjects of law, the legitimate interest is qualitatively different mean of regulation. The authors suggest considering a legitimate interest as reflected in the objective law legal possibility of subjects of law to enjoy certain social benefits and to seek protection from the state authorities in order to meet their interests which are not contradictory to provisions of law. Qualitative difference between legitimate interest and legal right and freedom is that the legitimate interest is an opportunity, guaranteed to a lesser extent than the permitted behavior within a legal right or freedom. Legitimate interest is a mere permission, admitted by the state and to some extent supported by it. But legal right and freedom - are those means of regulation, which are directly approved and sanctioned by the state which presuppose duty of a person to a particular behavior. The author's vision of the specifity of legal enforcement of legitimate admissions is presented.

  1. Android Apps and Permissions: Security and Privacy Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Boksasp, Trond; Utnes, Eivind

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates the permissions requested by Android applications, and the possibility of identifying suspicious applications based only on information presented to the user before an application is downloaded. During the course of this project, a large data set consisting of applications published on Google Play and three different third-party Android application markets was collected over a two-month period. These applications are analysed using manual pattern recognition and k-mea...

  2. Parental permissiveness, control, and affect and drug use among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becoña, Elisardo; Martínez, Úrsula; Calafat, Amador; Fernández-Hermida, José Ramón; Juan, Montse; Sumnall, Harry; Mendes, Fernando; Gabrhelík, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Parents play an important role in determining the risk of children's drug use. The aim of this study was to analyse how certain family-related variables (permissiveness toward drug use, and parental control and affect) were linked to the use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis, based on young people's self-report of such variables. The sample was composed of 1,428 school children (51.8% males) aged between 11 and 19 from Mallorca (Spain). We found that the young people who perceived their parents as permissive and those who perceived less maternal control and higher levels of both paternal and maternal affect were more likely to use alcohol, tobacco and cannabis. Sex differences were found within this pattern. Variables of maternal affect and control were not influential among males, whereas the general pattern was maintained among females. This study highlights the importance of perceived permissiveness and the need of considering parent's and children's gender when providing control and affect, as fathers will influence male children whereas mothers will influence female children.

  3. Influence of Permissive Parenting on Youth Farm Risk Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinnah, Hamida A; Stoneman, Zolinda

    2016-01-01

    Farm youth continue to experience high rates of injuries and premature deaths as a result of agricultural activities. Increased parental permissiveness is positively associated with many different types of high-risk behaviors in youth. This study explored whether permissive parenting (fathering and mothering) predicts youth unsafe behaviors on the farm. Data were analyzed for 67 youth and their parents. Families were recruited from a statewide farm publication, through youth organizations (i.e., FFA [Future Farmers of America]), local newspapers, farmer referrals, and through the Cooperative Extension Network. Hierarchical multiple regression was completed. Results revealed that fathers and mothers who practiced lax-inconsistent disciplining were more likely to have youth who indulged in unsafe farm behaviors. Key hypotheses confirmed that permissive parenting (lax-inconsistent disciplining) by parents continued to predict youth unsafe farm behaviors, even after youth age, youth gender, youth personality factor of risk-taking, and father's unsafe behaviors (a measure associated with modeling) were all taken into account. A key implication is that parents may play an important role in influencing youth farm safety behaviors. Parents (especially fathers) need to devote time to discuss farm safety with their youth. Farm safety interventions need to involve parents as well as address and respect the culture and values of families. Interventions need to focus not only on safe farm practices, but also promote positive parenting practices, including increased parent-youth communication about safety, consistent disciplining strategies, and increased monitoring and modeling of safe farm behaviors by parents.

  4. [Behavior of Orf virus in permissive and nonpermissive systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, M; Czerny, C P; Schumm, M

    1995-04-01

    Dogs were immunized i.m. with attenuated poxvirus vaccines (vaccinia virus, Orf-virus) and a bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) vaccine. After intradermal (i.d.) application of the vaccine viruses a specific delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction of the skin occurred only with vaccinia virus. The i.d. application of Orf-virus caused a short-term, non-specific inflammatory reaction of the skin, even in dogs not immunized with Orf-virus. Out of 30 sera from Orf-virus immunized beagles (n = 4) only eight were found reactive to Orf-virus in a competition ELISA. Three sera from dogs not Orf-virus immunized but skin-tested with the virus contained low antibody titers. Using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) in flow cytometry, the existence of Orf-virus antigens was examined on the surface and in the cytoplasm of permissive (BFK and Vero)- and questionable permissive MDCK cells. The canine kidney MDCK cell line was found to be non-permissive for Orf-virus replication; the occurrence of an Orf-(ecthyma contagiosum) like disease in dogs is unlikely.

  5. Photobook Week Aarhus 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The discussions of the festival concentrated on distribution and markets. Using a regional axis, which mapped the Scandinavian practice in the global context, discussions were on themes related to publishing, distributing, buying, trading, and collecting photobooks. There was also a focus...... with UNSEEN Photobook Market in Amsterdam. The festival included a Dummy Doctoring Workshop, gallery talks, and the selection of shortlisted dummies from both the FotoBookFestival Kassel and the Nordic Dummy Award. Local and international booksellers offered the best from their shelves, and research based...... exhibitions were curated by Anne Elisabeth Toft (DK) and Claus Peder Pedersen (DK). As a special feature for Photobook Week Aarhus 2017, German collector and photo historian Thomas Wiegand curated an exhibition on the late German photographer Michael Schmidt’s photobooks, on shown at Aros Aarhus Art Museum....

  6. Pregnancy Calendar: A Week-by-Week Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español A Week-by-Week Pregnancy Calendar KidsHealth / For Parents / A Week-by-Week ...

  7. A memorable week

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    This has been a memorable week for CERN, starting with the award of a Special Fundamental Physics Prize and ending with the handover of the CERN Council Presidency from Michel Spiro to Agnieszka Zalewska. In between, the LHC team demonstrated its expertise with a successful pilot run with 25 nanosecond bunch spacing, a new application for Associate Membership was received, and we had good news on the budget.   The award of the Fundamental Physics Prize, and the manner in which it was divided between ATLAS, CMS and the LHC, is fitting recognition of the efforts of the thousands of people who have contributed over many years to the success of our flagship scientific endeavour. In making the award, the Milner Foundation aims to raise the profile of fundamental physics and its value to society. The Fundamental Physics Prize comes hot on the heels of the European Physical Society’s first Edison Volta Prize, which Sergio Bertolucci, Steve Myers and I were honoured to accept on behalf of t...

  8. Permissive hypercapnia for the prevention of morbidity and mortality in mechanically ventilated newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, P G; Davies, M W

    2001-01-01

    combined data was possible for three outcomes. There was no evidence that permissive hypercapnia reduced the incidence of death or chronic lung disease at 36 weeks (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.78, 1.15), intraventricular haemorrhage grade 3 or 4 (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.54, 1.31) or periventricular leukomalacia (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.49, 2.12). There were no differences in any other reported outcomes when the strategy of permissive hypercapnia/minimal ventilation was compared to routine ventilation in newborn infants. Long term neurodevelopmental outcomes were not reported. One trial reported that permissive hypercapnia reduced the incidence of chronic lung disease in the 501 to 750 gram subgroup. This review does not demonstrate any significant overall benefit of a permissive hypercapnia/minimal ventilation strategy compared to a routine ventilation strategy. At present, therefore, these ventilation strategies cannot be recommended to reduce mortality, or pulmonary and neurodevelopmental morbidity. Ventilatory strategies which target high levels of PCO2 (> 55 mmHg) should only be undertaken in the context of well-designed controlled clinical trials. These trials should aim to establish the safe, or ideal, range for CO2 in ventilated newborns, and examine the role of protective ventilatory techniques in achieving this target.

  9. Maximum permissible body burdens and maximum permissible concentrations of radionuclides in air and in water for occupational exposure. Recommendations of the National Committee on Radiation Protection. Handbook 69

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-06-05

    The present Handbook and its predecessors stem from the Second International Congress of Radiology, held in Stockholm in 1928. At that time, under the auspices of the Congress, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) was organized to deal initially with problems of X-ray protection and later with radioactivity protection. At that time 'permissible' doses of X-rays were estimated primarily in terms of exposures which produced erythema, the amount of exposure which would produce a defined reddening of the skin. Obviously a critical problem in establishing criteria for radiation protection was one of developing useful standards and techniques of physical measurement. For this reason two of the organizations in this country with a major concern for X-ray protection, the American Roentgen Ray Society and the Radiology Society of North America, suggested that the National Bureau of Standards assume responsibility for organizing representative experts to deal with the problem. Accordingly, early in 1929, an Advisory Committee on X-ray and Radium Protection was organized to develop recommendations on the protection problem within the United States and to formulate United States points of view for presentation to the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The organization of the U.S. Advisory Committee included experts from both the medical and physical science fields. The recommendations of this Handbook take into consideration the NCRP statement entitled 'Maximum Permissible Radiation Exposures to Man', published as an addendum to Handbook 59 on April 15, 1958. As noted above this study was carried out jointly by the ICRP and the NCRP, and the complete report is more extensive than the material contained in this Handbook.

  10. Maximum permissible body burdens and maximum permissible concentrations of radionuclides in air and in water for occupational exposure. Recommendations of the National Committee on Radiation Protection. Handbook 69

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The present Handbook and its predecessors stem from the Second International Congress of Radiology, held in Stockholm in 1928. At that time, under the auspices of the Congress, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) was organized to deal initially with problems of X-ray protection and later with radioactivity protection. At that time 'permissible' doses of X-rays were estimated primarily in terms of exposures which produced erythema, the amount of exposure which would produce a defined reddening of the skin. Obviously a critical problem in establishing criteria for radiation protection was one of developing useful standards and techniques of physical measurement. For this reason two of the organizations in this country with a major concern for X-ray protection, the American Roentgen Ray Society and the Radiology Society of North America, suggested that the National Bureau of Standards assume responsibility for organizing representative experts to deal with the problem. Accordingly, early in 1929, an Advisory Committee on X-ray and Radium Protection was organized to develop recommendations on the protection problem within the United States and to formulate United States points of view for presentation to the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The organization of the U.S. Advisory Committee included experts from both the medical and physical science fields. The recommendations of this Handbook take into consideration the NCRP statement entitled 'Maximum Permissible Radiation Exposures to Man', published as an addendum to Handbook 59 on April 15, 1958. As noted above this study was carried out jointly by the ICRP and the NCRP, and the complete report is more extensive than the material contained in this Handbook

  11. ESTABLISHMENT OF THE PERMISSIBLE TRAIN SPEED ON THE CURVED TURNOUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Patlasov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Turnouts play a key role in the railway transportation process. One-sided and many-sided curved turnouts were railed over the last 20 years in difficult conditions (curved sections, yard necks. They have a number of geometric features, unlike the conventional one-sided turnouts. Today the normative documents prohibit laying such turnouts in curved track sections and only partially regulate the assessment procedure of their real condition. The question of establishment the permissible train speed within the curved turnouts is still open. In this regard, authors propose to set the train speed according to the driving comfort criterion using the results of field measurements of ordinates from the baseline for the particular curved turnout. Methodology. The article considers the criteria using which one can set the permissible speed on the turnouts. It defines the complexity of their application, advantages and disadvantages. Findings. The work analyzes the speed distribution along the length of the real curved turnout for the forward and lateral directions. It establishes the change rate values of unbalanced accelerations for the existing norms of the curved track sections maintenance according to the difference in the adjacent bend versine at speeds up to 160 km/h. Originality. A method for establishing the trains’ speed limit within the curved turnouts was developed. It takes into account the actual geometric position in the plan of forward and lateral turnout directions. This approach makes it possible to establish a barrier places in plan on the turnouts limiting the train speed. Practical value. The proposed method makes it possible to objectively assess and set the trains’ permissible speed on the basis of the ordinate measurement of the forward and lateral directions of the curved turnouts from the baseline using the driving comfort criteria. The method was tested using real turnouts, which are located within the Pridneprovsk

  12. Swedish or American heterosexual college youth: who is more permissive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, M S; Lottes, I L; Shaver, F M

    1995-08-01

    Theories of human sexuality have proposed that two factors reduce the double standard of sexuality and lead to a convergence of male and female sexual behavior: the degree of social benefits and amount of power women have in basic societal institutions and the extent to which a society accepts permissive sexual norms. As these factors increase, the strength of the double standard will decrease and the convergence between male and female behaviors will increase. Compared to the United States, Sweden has instituted more policies to promote gender equality and has been thought to accept more permissive premarital sexual attitudes. The focus of the research reported here is to examine country and gender differences in sexual attitudes and sexual behavior for a sample of university students in the United States (N = 407) and Sweden (N = 570). Results indicate that Swedish students endorsed more similar sexual standards for women and men and reported more accepting attitudes than did American students. For sexual behavior, American men reported the most sexual experience, Swedish men the least, with the women of both countries generally in the middle category. Notwithstanding this more permissive behavior on the part of American men, gender convergence with respect to sexual behavior is stronger in Sweden on several of the dimensions examined: age of first engaging in partner-related sexual activities for those who were sexually experienced, relationship with first partner, number of partners both in the last year and in their lifetime, and affective reactions to first coitus. Gender convergence, however, is weaker in Sweden than in the United States with respect to the incidence and frequency of various sexual activities and the degree of satisfaction with current sex life. Findings are discussed with respect to the questions they raise about the current theories that framed this research and the differential amount of sex education provided in the two countries.

  13. Parental feeding practices predict authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Kennedy, Tay Seacord; Page, Melanie C; Topham, Glade L; Harrist, Amanda W

    2008-07-01

    Our goal was to identify how parental feeding practices from the nutrition literature link to general parenting styles from the child development literature to understand how to target parenting practices to increase effectiveness of interventions. Stand-alone parental feeding practices could be targeted independently. However, parental feeding practices linked to parenting styles require interventions treating underlying family dynamics as a whole. To predict parenting styles from feeding practices and to test three hypotheses: restriction and pressure to eat are positively related whereas responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are negatively related to an authoritarian parenting style; responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are positively related whereas restriction and pressure to eat are negatively related to an authoritative parenting style; a permissive parenting style is negatively linked with all six feeding practices. Baseline data of a randomized-controlled intervention study. Two hundred thirty-nine parents (93.5% mothers) of first-grade children (134 boys, 105 girls) enrolled in rural public schools. Parental responses to encouraging and modeling questionnaires and the Child Feeding Questionnaire, as well as parenting styles measured by the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses. Feeding practices explained 21%, 15%, and 8% of the variance in authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting, respectively. Restriction, pressure to eat, and monitoring (negative) significantly predicted an authoritarian style (Hypothesis 1); responsibility, restriction (negative), monitoring, and modeling predicted an authoritative style (Hypothesis 2); and modeling (negative) and restriction significantly predicted a permissive style (Hypothesis 3). Parental feeding practices with young children predict general parenting styles. Interventions that fail to address underlying parenting styles

  14. Immortalized sheep microglial cells are permissive to a diverse range of ruminant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, James B; Swanson, Beryl; Orozco, Edith; Muñoz-Gutiérrez, Juan F; Evermann, James F; Ridpath, Julia F

    2017-12-01

    Ruminants, including sheep and goats (small ruminants), are key agricultural animals in many parts of the world. Infectious diseases, including many viral diseases, are significant problems to efficient production of ruminants. Unfortunately, reagents tailored to viruses of ruminants, and especially small ruminants, are lacking compared to other animals more typically used for biomedical research. The purpose of this study was to determine the permissibility of a stably immortalized, sheep microglial cell line to viruses that are reported to infect ruminants: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Sublines A and H of previously isolated, immortalized, and characterized (CD14-positive) ovine microglial cells were used. Bovine turbinate cells and goat synovial membrane cells were used for comparison. Cytopathic changes were used to confirm infection of individual wells, which were then counted and used to calculate the 50% tissue culture infectious dose. Uninoculated cells served as negative controls and confirmed that the cells were not previously infected with these viruses using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Inoculation of the two microglial cell sublines with laboratory and field isolates of BVDV, BoHV-1, and BRSV resulted in viral infection in a manner similar to bovine turbinate cells. Immortalized microglia cells are also permissive to SRLV, similar to goat synovial membrane cells. These immortalized sheep microglial cells provide a new tool for the study of ruminant viruses in ruminant microglial cell line.

  15. Maximum permissible dietary contamination after the accidental release of radioactive materials from a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochin, E E; Rock Carling, Ernest; Court Brown, W M [Medical Research Council, Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations, London (United Kingdom); and others

    1960-12-01

    After the accident to No. 1 pile at Windscale on October 10, 1957 (Atomic Energy Office, 1957), the Atomic Energy Authority asked the Medical Research Council for advice on the maximum intake of certain radioactive isotopes that should be regarded as permissible, under emergency conditions, for members of the general population living in, or deriving food from, an area contaminated owing to an accident to a reactor. The Council's Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations, together with its Subcommittees on Internal and External Radiations, has considered this problem, and concludes that the intake of radioactive materials by ingestion of contaminated food would generally be the limiting source of hazard after any such accident. Intake by inhalation, or radiation from the exterior, would become of importance only in rather special circumstances. In the following report, therefore, the Committee proposes maximum permissible levels of dietary contamination for the relevant isotopes in the emergency conditions envisaged. In proposing these levels, the Protection Committee has used the fullest information available on the radiation doses that would be delivered to different body tissues and at different ages by the isotopes concerned, and on the ways in which these materials would enter the body.

  16. Maximum permissible dietary contamination after the accidental release of radioactive materials from a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.; Rock Carling, Ernest; Court Brown, W.M.

    1960-01-01

    After the accident to No. 1 pile at Windscale on October 10, 1957 (Atomic Energy Office, 1957), the Atomic Energy Authority asked the Medical Research Council for advice on the maximum intake of certain radioactive isotopes that should be regarded as permissible, under emergency conditions, for members of the general population living in, or deriving food from, an area contaminated owing to an accident to a reactor. The Council's Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations, together with its Subcommittees on Internal and External Radiations, has considered this problem, and concludes that the intake of radioactive materials by ingestion of contaminated food would generally be the limiting source of hazard after any such accident. Intake by inhalation, or radiation from the exterior, would become of importance only in rather special circumstances. In the following report, therefore, the Committee proposes maximum permissible levels of dietary contamination for the relevant isotopes in the emergency conditions envisaged. In proposing these levels, the Protection Committee has used the fullest information available on the radiation doses that would be delivered to different body tissues and at different ages by the isotopes concerned, and on the ways in which these materials would enter the body

  17. NASA Space Radiation Protection Strategies: Risk Assessment and Permissible Exposure Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, J. L.; Patel, Z. S.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2017-01-01

    Permissible exposure limits (PELs) for short-term and career astronaut exposures to space radiation have been set and approved by NASA with the goal of protecting astronauts against health risks associated with ionizing radiation exposure. Short term PELs are intended to prevent clinically significant deterministic health effects, including performance decrements, which could threaten astronaut health and jeopardize mission success. Career PELs are implemented to control late occurring health effects, including a 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) from cancer, and dose limits are used to prevent cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases. For radiation protection, meeting the cancer PEL is currently the design driver for galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event shielding, mission duration, and crew certification (e.g., 1-year ISS missions). The risk of cancer development is the largest known long-term health consequence following radiation exposure, and current estimates for long-term health risks due to cardiovascular diseases are approximately 30% to 40% of the cancer risk for exposures above an estimated threshold (Deep Space one-year and Mars missions). Large uncertainties currently exist in estimating the health risks of space radiation exposure. Improved understanding through radiobiology and physics research allows increased accuracy in risk estimation and is essential for ensuring astronaut health as well as for controlling mission costs, optimization of mission operations, vehicle design, and countermeasure assessment. We will review the Space Radiation Program Element's research strategies to increase accuracy in risk models and to inform development and validation of the permissible exposure limits.

  18. A radiotherapeutic clinical trial of twice per week vs. five times per week in oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handa, K.; Edoliya, T.N.; Pandey, R.P.; Agarwal, Y.C.; Sinha, N.

    1980-01-01

    135 cases of oral cancer have been treated by two fractions per week, and the results are compared with 115 approximately identical cases treated by conventional five days a week schedule with other parameters being identical. Radical irradiation was done by 6000 to 6500 rd in 6-6 1/2 weeks (NSD 1800-1900 ret) and palliative dose was 4500 R4 weeks (NSD 1532 ret). Tumour regression was found markedly superior by conventional regime in radically irradiated cases but much less superior for palliative treatment. Acute and late reaction as well as tumour control at 1 year was better with daily treatment, more so in cases treated for radical cure, while in palliative treatment, the superiority of daily regime was less marked. Our study provides evidence that only for palliation in advanced cases, radiation therapy by 2 fractions a week can be alternatively used. (orig.) [de

  19. Larval diet affects mosquito development and permissiveness to Plasmodium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linenberg, Inbar; Christophides, George K; Gendrin, Mathilde

    2016-12-02

    The larval stages of malaria vector mosquitoes develop in water pools, feeding mostly on microorganisms and environmental detritus. Richness in the nutrient supply to larvae influences the development and metabolism of larvae and adults. Here, we investigated the effects of larval diet on the development, microbiota content and permissiveness to Plasmodium of Anopheles coluzzii. We tested three fish diets often used to rear mosquitoes in the laboratory, including two pelleted diets, Dr. Clarke's Pool Pellets and Nishikoi Fish Pellets, and one flaked diet, Tetramin Fish-Flakes. Larvae grow and develop faster and produce bigger adults when feeding on both types of pellets compared with flakes. This correlates with a higher microbiota load in pellet-fed larvae, in agreement with the known positive effect of the microbiota on mosquito development. Larval diet also significantly influences the prevalence and intensity of Plasmodium berghei infection in adults, whereby Nishikoi Fish Pellets-fed larvae develop into adults that are highly permissive to parasites and survive longer after infection. This correlates with a lower amount of Enterobacteriaceae in the midgut microbiota. Together, our results shed light on the influence of larval feeding on mosquito development, microbiota and vector competence; they also provide useful data for mosquito rearing.

  20. Procedures for permission of installation of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Yoriaki

    1980-01-01

    The locations of atomic power stations are first selected by electric power enterprises in consultation with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry or under the guidance of authorities concerned. The surveys of the climate, topography, water and plants in the planned sites and the influences of nuclear power generation to the surrounding areas are made by the enterprisers under the administrative guidance of the MITI. Secondly, the basic project shall be submitted to and decided by the Power Resource Development Council headed by the Prime Minister (Article 10, the Power Resource Development Law). The Council shall, if necessary, call for the attendance of the governors of prefectures concerned and hear their opinions (Article 11, the Law). As the third and most complicated phase, various procedures include; (a) permission of the changes of electrical facilities under the Electricity Enterprises Act; (b) authorization of the installation of reactors under the Nuclear Reactor Regulation Law; (c) permission or authorization under other regulations including the Agricultural Land Act, etc.; (d) additional procedures related to the indemnification to fishery and so forth. Finally the reactors are to be operated after receiving the certificates of the Minister of ITI on the inspections of construction works, nuclear fuel materials used for the reactors and welding processes of reactor containment vessels, boilers, turbines, etc. (Okada, K.)

  1. Resident alveolar macrophages are susceptible to and permissive of Coxiella burnetii infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Calverley

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is a zoonotic disease with potentially life-threatening complications in humans. Inhalation of low doses of Coxiella bacteria can result in infection of the host alveolar macrophage (AM. However, it is not known whether a subset of AMs within the heterogeneous population of macrophages in the infected lung is particularly susceptible to infection. We have found that lower doses of both phase I and phase II Nine Mile C. burnetii multiply and are less readily cleared from the lungs of mice compared to higher infectious doses. We have additionally identified AM resident within the lung prior to and shortly following infection, opposed to newly recruited monocytes entering the lung during infection, as being most susceptible to infection. These resident cells remain infected up to twelve days after the onset of infection, serving as a permissive niche for the maintenance of bacterial infection. A subset of infected resident AMs undergo a distinguishing phenotypic change during the progression of infection exhibiting an increase in surface integrin CD11b expression and continued expression of the surface integrin CD11c. The low rate of phase I and II Nine Mile C. burnetii growth in murine lungs may be a direct result of the limited size of the susceptible resident AM cell population.

  2. Collective dose, conceptual basis and practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonka, H.

    1985-01-01

    In the ICRP Publications no. 22(1973) and no. 26(1977), the ICRP recommends that the maximum permissible whole-body dose by kept below the dose limits corresponding to the sum of all effective dose equivalents of the persons concerned, i.e. the collective dose. The effective dose equivalent is recommended by the ICRP for use as a new quantity for evaluating the stochastic radiation dose for individual persons. Examples are given by the author explaining cost-benefit analyses according to ICRP recommendations, especially discussing the definition of optimum local dose limits with regard to shielding design in nuclear installations. (DG) [de

  3. Permissive weight bearing in trauma patients with fracture of the lower extremities: prospective multicenter comparative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmet, Pishtiwan H S; Meys, Guido; V Horn, Yvette Y; Evers, Silvia M A A; Seelen, Henk A M; Hustinx, Paul; Janzing, Heinrich; Vd Veen, Alexander; Jaspars, Coen; Sintenie, Jan Bernard; Blokhuis, Taco J; Poeze, Martijn; Brink, Peter R G

    2018-02-02

    The standard aftercare treatment in surgically treated trauma patients with fractures around or in a joint, known as (peri)- or intra-articular fractures of the lower extremities, is either non-weight bearing or partial weight bearing. We have developed an early permissive weight bearing post-surgery rehabilitation protocol in surgically treated patients with fractures of the lower extremities. In this proposal we want to compare our early permissive weight bearing protocol to the existing current non-weight bearing guidelines in a prospective comparative cohort study. The study is a prospective multicenter comparative cohort study in which two rehabilitation aftercare treatments will be contrasted, i.e. permissive weight bearing and non-weight bearing according to the AO-guideline. The study population consists of patients with a surgically treated fracture of the pelvis/acetabulum or a surgically treated (peri)- or intra-articular fracture of the lower extremities. The inclusion period is 12 months. The duration of follow up is 6 months, with measurements taken at baseline, 2,6,12 and 26 weeks post-surgery. ADL with Lower Extremity Functional Scale. Outcome variables for compliance, as measured with an insole pressure measurement system, encompass peak load and step duration. This study will investigate the (cost-) effectiveness of a permissive weight bearing aftercare protocol. The results will provide evidence whether a permissive weight bearing protocol is more effective than the current non-weight bearing protocol. The study is registered in the Dutch Trial Register ( NTR6077 ). Date of registration: 01-09-2016.

  4. Estimating permissible /sup 129/I-emission rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebschmann, W G

    1976-06-01

    A mathematical method of iodine release limitation is presented which, in assessing the radiological effectiveness of /sup 129/I, takes advantage of the fact that the chemical behaviour of /sup 129/I resembles that of /sup 131/I and relies on the already extensive knowledge of the chemical and biological behaviour of /sup 131/I. If this method is used for calculating permissible /sup 129/I emission rates it is stated that no unnecessary restrictions need be imposed on a fuel reprocessing plant and that the grazing season for the pasture-cow-milk pathway can be taken into account. The concept is currently in use at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center and seems to be appropriate for licensing of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants.

  5. Statistic method of research reactors maximum permissible power calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosheva, N.A.; Kirsanov, G.A.; Konoplev, K.A.; Chmshkyan, D.V.

    1998-01-01

    The technique for calculating maximum permissible power of a research reactor at which the probability of the thermal-process accident does not exceed the specified value, is presented. The statistical method is used for the calculations. It is regarded that the determining function related to the reactor safety is the known function of the reactor power and many statistically independent values which list includes the reactor process parameters, geometrical characteristics of the reactor core and fuel elements, as well as random factors connected with the reactor specific features. Heat flux density or temperature is taken as a limiting factor. The program realization of the method discussed is briefly described. The results of calculating the PIK reactor margin coefficients for different probabilities of the thermal-process accident are considered as an example. It is shown that the probability of an accident with fuel element melting in hot zone is lower than 10 -8 1 per year for the reactor rated power [ru

  6. Robot Lies in Health Care: When Is Deception Morally Permissible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Autonomous robots are increasingly interacting with users who have limited knowledge of robotics and are likely to have an erroneous mental model of the robot's workings, capabilities, and internal structure. The robot's real capabilities may diverge from this mental model to the extent that one might accuse the robot's manufacturer of deceiving the user, especially in cases where the user naturally tends to ascribe exaggerated capabilities to the machine (e.g. conversational systems in elder-care contexts, or toy robots in child care). This poses the question, whether misleading or even actively deceiving the user of an autonomous artifact about the capabilities of the machine is morally bad and why. By analyzing trust, autonomy, and the erosion of trust in communicative acts as consequences of deceptive robot behavior, we formulate four criteria that must be fulfilled in order for robot deception to be morally permissible, and in some cases even morally indicated.

  7. Application of ICRP recommendations relevant to internal dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowser, K.E.; Snyder, W.S.; Struxness, E.G.

    1969-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to review several of the basic concepts of radiation protection (with emphasis on internal dose) currently recommended by the International Commission on radiological Protection (ICRP), to summarize the assumptions and methods used in the calculation of internal dose, and to illustrate by example the practical application of the pertinent guidelines. Two broad subject areas are considered: (1) standards of radiation protection and (2) bases of internal dose estimation. Topics discussed within the framework of radiation protection standards include maximum permissible dose, categories of radiation exposure, maximum permissible dose commitment, simultaneous internal and external exposure, multiple organ exposure, and size of the exposed group. Discussion of internal dose estimation is limited to selected items that include the body burden of radionuclides and the calculation of absorbed dose, the dose equivalent, the derivation of maximum permissible concentration (MPC), the relationship of stable element intake to the MPC, and short term and chronic exposure situations. (author)

  8. Application of ICRP recommendations relevant to internal dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowser, K E; Snyder, W S; Struxness, E G [Health Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The intent of this paper is to review several of the basic concepts of radiation protection (with emphasis on internal dose) currently recommended by the International Commission on radiological Protection (ICRP), to summarize the assumptions and methods used in the calculation of internal dose, and to illustrate by example the practical application of the pertinent guidelines. Two broad subject areas are considered: (1) standards of radiation protection and (2) bases of internal dose estimation. Topics discussed within the framework of radiation protection standards include maximum permissible dose, categories of radiation exposure, maximum permissible dose commitment, simultaneous internal and external exposure, multiple organ exposure, and size of the exposed group. Discussion of internal dose estimation is limited to selected items that include the body burden of radionuclides and the calculation of absorbed dose, the dose equivalent, the derivation of maximum permissible concentration (MPC), the relationship of stable element intake to the MPC, and short term and chronic exposure situations. (author)

  9. Can ‘Mobile Platform’ and ‘Permission Marketing’ dance a tango to the consumers' tune? Modeling adoption of ‘SMS based Permission Advertising’

    OpenAIRE

    Prerna Bamoriya

    2015-01-01

    Many a times situation of advertising clutter is further aggrieved by the markers’ intrusive practices i.e. not asking for consumer’s explicit permission. It results in consumers’ alienation and reduced advertising effectiveness. Solution could be integration of Permission Marketing with an innovative advertising platform like Mobile. This study aimed to develop and validate a comprehensive model for understanding consumers’ adoption behavior towards SMS Based Permission Advertising (SBPA). F...

  10. Considerations on the establishment of maximum permissible exposure of man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.

    1974-01-01

    An attempt is made in the information lecture to give a quantitative analysis of the somatic radiation risk and to illustrate a concept to fix dose limiting values. Of primary importance is the limiting values. Of primary importance is the limiting value of the radiation exposure to the whole population. By consequential application of the risk concept, the following points are considered: 1) Definition of the risk for radiation late damages (cancer, leukemia); 2) relationship between radiation dose and thus caused radiation risk; 3) radiation risk and the dose limiting values at the time; 4) criteria for the maximum acceptable radiation risk; 5) limiting value which can be expected at the time. (HP/LH) [de

  11. Religiosity and Premarital Sexual Permissiveness: A Response to the Reiss-Heltsley and Broderick Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Howard J., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    When religiosity among college students was measured by Faulkner and DeJong's 5-D Scale of Religiosity" and the Reiss scale was used to measure permissiveness, the expected stronger relationship between religiosity and permissiveness in groups with traditions of low sexual permissiveness than in groups with traditions of high sexual…

  12. Small Animal Models for Human Metapneumovirus: Cotton Rat is More Permissive than Hamster and Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Niewiesk, Stefan; Li, Jianrong

    2014-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is the second most prevalent causative agent of pediatric respiratory infections worldwide. Currently, there are no vaccines or antiviral drugs against this virus. One of the major hurdles in hMPV research is the difficulty to identify a robust small animal model to accurately evaluate the efficacy and safety of vaccines and therapeutics. In this study, we compared the replication and pathogenesis of hMPV in BALB/c mice, Syrian golden hamsters, and cotton rats. It was found that BALB/c mice are not permissive for hMPV infection despite the use of a high dose (6.5 log10 PFU) of virus for intranasal inoculation. In hamsters, hMPV replicated efficiently in nasal turbinates but demonstrated only limited replication in lungs. In cotton rats, hMPV replicated efficiently in both nasal turbinate and lung when intranasally administered with three different doses (4, 5, and 6 log10 PFU) of hMPV. Lungs of cotton rats infected by hMPV developed interstitial pneumonia with mononuclear cells infiltrates and increased lumen exudation. By immunohistochemistry, viral antigens were detected at the luminal surfaces of the bronchial epithelial cells in lungs. Vaccination of cotton rats with hMPV completely protected upper and lower respiratory tract from wildtype challenge. The immunization also elicited elevated serum neutralizing antibody. Collectively, these results demonstrated that cotton rat is a robust small animal model for hMPV infection. PMID:25438015

  13. Human T Lymphocytes Are Permissive for Dengue Virus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Guilherme F; Wowk, Pryscilla F; Cataneo, Allan H D; Dos Santos, Paula F; Delgobo, Murilo; Stimamiglio, Marco A; Lo Sarzi, Maria; Thomazelli, Ana Paula F S; Conchon-Costa, Ivete; Pavanelli, Wander R; Antonelli, Lis R V; Báfica, André; Mansur, Daniel S; Dos Santos, Claudia N Duarte; Bordignon, Juliano

    2018-05-15

    Dengue virus (DV) infection can cause either a self-limiting flu-like disease or a threatening hemorrhage that may evolve to shock and death. A variety of cell types, such as dendritic cells, monocytes, and B cells, can be infected by DV. However, despite the role of T lymphocytes in the control of DV replication, there remains a paucity of information on possible DV-T cell interactions during the disease course. In the present study, we have demonstrated that primary human naive CD4 + and CD8 + T cells are permissive for DV infection. Importantly, both T cell subtypes support viral replication and secrete viable virus particles. DV infection triggers the activation of both CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocytes, but preactivation of T cells reduces the susceptibility of T cells to DV infection. Interestingly, the cytotoxicity-inducing protein granzyme A is highly secreted by human CD4 + but not CD8 + T cells after exposure to DV in vitro Additionally, using annexin V and polycaspase assays, we have demonstrated that T lymphocytes, in contrast to monocytes, are resistant to DV-induced apoptosis. Strikingly, both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells were found to be infected with DV in acutely infected dengue patients. Together, these results show that T cells are permissive for DV infection in vitro and in vivo , suggesting that this cell population may be a viral reservoir during the acute phase of the disease. IMPORTANCE Infection by dengue virus (DV) causes a flu-like disease that can evolve to severe hemorrhaging and death. T lymphocytes are important cells that regulate antibody secretion by B cells and trigger the death of infected cells. However, little is known about the direct interaction between DV and T lymphocytes. Here, we show that T lymphocytes from healthy donors are susceptible to infection by DV, leading to cell activation. Additionally, T cells seem to be resistant to DV-induced apoptosis, suggesting a potential role as a viral reservoir in humans. Finally, we show

  14. Elective caesarean section at 38 weeks versus 39 weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glavind, Julie; Kindberg, S F; Uldbjerg, N

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether elective caesarean section before 39 completed weeks of gestation increases the risk of adverse neonatal or maternal outcomes.......To investigate whether elective caesarean section before 39 completed weeks of gestation increases the risk of adverse neonatal or maternal outcomes....

  15. WBDOC Weekly Workload Status Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Weekly reports of workloads processed in the Wilkes Barre Data Operation Center. Reports on quantities of work received, processed, pending and average processing...

  16. Behavior of water gel permissibles in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribovich, J.; Watson, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the successful use of water gel permissibles, since their introduction in 1970, with an emphasis on some problems of behavior in their field application. One is the metal clip or ties used to seal the water gel package. Miners are occasionally hit by the 2.4 mm metal wire expelled from boreholes in normal shooting operations. Manufacturers have consequently reduced the mass of the metal ties by 25-50%, providing a partial solution. Another problem concerned two reported instances of misfired water gel burning after coal shooting operations. Extensive tests have offered no satisfactory solution as yet, except to point up a principal shortcoming of water gels: that of pressure desensitization. Two other factors affecting sensitivity, and possibly resulting in misfires, are low temperature and aging. There is a decline in air-gap sensitivity with prolonged storage but all approved water gels seem capable of meeting requirements for long periods under normal storage conditions. Low temperature tests indicate the majority of water gels become insensitive to a No. 6 EBC at temperatures easily attained in cold weather storage. An attempt was made to determine the minimum temperature at which a nitroglycerin-sensitized permisslbe could be initiated with a No. 8 cap; a particularly granular one was initiated as low as minus 196 C. (5 refs.) (In English)

  17. Oral keratinocytes support non-replicative infection and transfer of harbored HIV-1 to permissive cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacharaksa, Anjalee; Asrani, Anil C; Gebhard, Kristin H; Fasching, Claudine E; Giacaman, Rodrigo A; Janoff, Edward N; Ross, Karen F; Herzberg, Mark C

    2008-07-17

    Oral keratinocytes on the mucosal surface are frequently exposed to HIV-1 through contact with infected sexual partners or nursing mothers. To determine the plausibility that oral keratinocytes are primary targets of HIV-1, we tested the hypothesis that HIV-1 infects oral keratinocytes in a restricted manner. To study the fate of HIV-1, immortalized oral keratinocytes (OKF6/TERT-2; TERT-2 cells) were characterized for the fate of HIV-specific RNA and DNA. At 6 h post inoculation with X4 or R5-tropic HIV-1, HIV-1gag RNA was detected maximally within TERT-2 cells. Reverse transcriptase activity in TERT-2 cells was confirmed by VSV-G-mediated infection with HIV-NL4-3Deltaenv-EGFP. AZT inhibited EGFP expression in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that viral replication can be supported if receptors are bypassed. Within 3 h post inoculation, integrated HIV-1 DNA was detected in TERT-2 cell nuclei and persisted after subculture. Multiply spliced and unspliced HIV-1 mRNAs were not detectable up to 72 h post inoculation, suggesting that HIV replication may abort and that infection is non-productive. Within 48 h post inoculation, however, virus harbored by CD4 negative TERT-2 cells trans infected co-cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or MOLT4 cells (CD4+ CCR5+) by direct cell-to-cell transfer or by releasing low levels of infectious virions. Primary tonsil epithelial cells also trans infected HIV-1 to permissive cells in a donor-specific manner. Oral keratinocytes appear, therefore, to support stable non-replicative integration, while harboring and transmitting infectious X4- or R5-tropic HIV-1 to permissive cells for up to 48 h.

  18. Oral keratinocytes support non-replicative infection and transfer of harbored HIV-1 to permissive cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacaman Rodrigo A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral keratinocytes on the mucosal surface are frequently exposed to HIV-1 through contact with infected sexual partners or nursing mothers. To determine the plausibility that oral keratinocytes are primary targets of HIV-1, we tested the hypothesis that HIV-1 infects oral keratinocytes in a restricted manner. Results To study the fate of HIV-1, immortalized oral keratinocytes (OKF6/TERT-2; TERT-2 cells were characterized for the fate of HIV-specific RNA and DNA. At 6 h post inoculation with X4 or R5-tropic HIV-1, HIV-1gag RNA was detected maximally within TERT-2 cells. Reverse transcriptase activity in TERT-2 cells was confirmed by VSV-G-mediated infection with HIV-NL4-3Δenv-EGFP. AZT inhibited EGFP expression in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that viral replication can be supported if receptors are bypassed. Within 3 h post inoculation, integrated HIV-1 DNA was detected in TERT-2 cell nuclei and persisted after subculture. Multiply spliced and unspliced HIV-1 mRNAs were not detectable up to 72 h post inoculation, suggesting that HIV replication may abort and that infection is non-productive. Within 48 h post inoculation, however, virus harbored by CD4 negative TERT-2 cells trans infected co-cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs or MOLT4 cells (CD4+ CCR5+ by direct cell-to-cell transfer or by releasing low levels of infectious virions. Primary tonsil epithelial cells also trans infected HIV-1 to permissive cells in a donor-specific manner. Conclusion Oral keratinocytes appear, therefore, to support stable non-replicative integration, while harboring and transmitting infectious X4- or R5-tropic HIV-1 to permissive cells for up to 48 h.

  19. Targeted ultraviolet B phototherapy in vitiligo: A comparison between once-weekly and twice-weekly treatment regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Majid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Targeted ultraviolet B (T-UVB phototherapy in vitiligo is usually administered twice or thrice a week on non-consecutive days. It is difficult for many patients to adhere to this regimen, forcing them to discontinue treatment. Aim: The study aimed to compare the efficacy of twice-weekly and once-weekly targeted ultraviolet B phototherapy regimens in vitiligo. Methods: Sixty patients with non-segmental vitiligo on the face, neck or trunk were divided into two groups of 30 patients each. The patients in group A received targeted ultraviolet B twice weekly, while those in group B received targeted ultraviolet B once weekly. Repigmentation was monitored and graded as excellent (≥75% repigmentation, good (50−74% repigmentation and poor (<50% repigmentation. The extent of repigmentation at each body site (primary outcome measure, the number of doses required for initiation of pigmentation, and the cumulative dose of targeted ultraviolet B administered was calculated and compared between both groups. Results: A total of 90 lesions (48 in the twice weeklygroup and 42 in the once weekly group were treated on the face, neck and trunk. Excellent results were obtained in 62.5% (30/48 of lesions treated twice weekly, and 64.3% (27/42 in lesions treated once weekly. The mean number of doses required for initiation of pigmentation was 4.69 in the twice weekly group, and 4.35 in the once weekly group. The patients in the twice weekly group received a mean cumulative dose of 8.26 J/cm 2, while the once weekly group received 7.69 J/cm 2. No statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups with respect to the outcome, with respect to the total repigmentation, the number of doses till onset of pigmentation, as well as the cumulative dose of targeted UVB. Conclusion: Once-weekly targeted ultraviolet B phototherapy appears to be as efficacious as the twice-weekly regimen in vitiligo.

  20. Exploring Permission-Induced Risk in Android Applications for Malicious Application Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wei

    2014-10-07

    Android has been a major target of malicious applications (malapps). How to detect and keep the malapps out of the app markets is an ongoing challenge. One of the central design points of Android security mechanism is permission control that restricts the access of apps to core facilities of devices. However, it imparts a significant responsibility to the app developers with regard to accurately specifying the requested permissions and to the users with regard to fully understanding the risk of granting certain combinations of permissions. Android permissions requested by an app depict the app\\'s behavioral patterns. In order to help understanding Android permissions, in this paper, we explore the permission-induced risk in Android apps on three levels in a systematic manner. First, we thoroughly analyze the risk of an individual permission and the risk of a group of collaborative permissions. We employ three feature ranking methods, namely, mutual information, correlation coefficient, and T-test to rank Android individual permissions with respect to their risk. We then use sequential forward selection as well as principal component analysis to identify risky permission subsets. Second, we evaluate the usefulness of risky permissions for malapp detection with support vector machine, decision trees, as well as random forest. Third, we in depth analyze the detection results and discuss the feasibility as well as the limitations of malapp detection based on permission requests. We evaluate our methods on a very large official app set consisting of 310 926 benign apps and 4868 real-world malapps and on a third-party app sets. The empirical results show that our malapp detectors built on risky permissions give satisfied performance (a detection rate as 94.62% with a false positive rate as 0.6%), catch the malapps\\' essential patterns on violating permission access regulations, and are universally applicable to unknown malapps (detection rate as 74.03%).

  1. Recombinant pestivirus E2 glycoproteins prevent viral attachment to permissive and non permissive cells with different efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfor, A S; Wakeley, P R; Drew, T W; Paton, D J

    2014-08-30

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important animal pathogen, which like other pestiviruses has similar molecular biological features to hepaciviruses, including human Hepatitis C virus. The pestivirus E2 glycoproteins are the major target for virus-neutralising antibodies, as well as playing a role in receptor binding and host range restriction. In this study, recombinant E2 glycoproteins (rE2) derived from three different pestivirus species were examined for their inhibitory effects on pestivirus infectivity in cell culture. Histidine-tagged rE2 glycoproteins of BVDV type 2 strain 178003, BVDV type 1 strain Oregon C24V and CSFV strain Alfort 187 were produced in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells and purified under native conditions. The ability of rE2 glycoprotein to inhibit the infection of permissive cells by both homologous and heterologous virus was compared, revealing that the inhibitory effects of rE2 glycoproteins correlated with the predicted similarity of the E2 structures in the recombinant protein and the test virus. This result suggests that the sequence and structure of E2 are likely to be involved in the host specificity of pestiviruses at their point of uptake into cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Lutzomyia migonei is a permissive vector competent for Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Vanessa Cristina Fitipaldi Veloso; Pruzinova, Katerina; Sadlova, Jovana; Volfova, Vera; Myskova, Jitka; Filho, Sinval Pinto Brandão; Volf, Petr

    2016-03-17

    Leishmania infantum is the most widespread etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the world, with significant mortality rates in human cases. In Latin America, this parasite is primarily transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis, but the role of Lutzomyia migonei as a potential vector for this protozoan has been discussed. Laboratory and field investigations have contributed to this hypothesis; however, proof of the vector competence of L. migonei has not yet been provided. In this study, we evaluate for the first time the susceptibility of L. migonei to L. infantum. Females of laboratory-reared L. migonei were fed through a chick-skin membrane on rabbit blood containing L. infantum promastigotes, dissected at 1, 5 and 8 days post-infection (PI) and checked microscopically for the presence, intensity and localisation of Leishmania infections. In addition, morphometric analysis of L. infantum promastigotes was performed. High infection rates of both L. infantum strains tested were observed in L. migonei, with colonisation of the stomodeal valve already on day 5 PI. At the late-stage infection, most L. migonei females had their cardia and stomodeal valve colonised by high numbers of parasites, and no significant differences were found compared to the development in L. longipalpis. Metacyclic forms were found in all parasite-vector combinations since day 5 PI. We propose that Lutzomyia migonei belongs to sand fly species permissive to various Leishmania spp. Here we demonstrate that L. migonei is highly susceptible to the development of L. infantum. This, together with its known anthropophily, abundance in VL foci and natural infection by L. infantum, constitute important evidence that L. migonei is another vector of this parasite in Latin America.

  3. A prescrição semanal de sulfato ferroso pode ser altamente efetiva para reduzir níveis endêmicos de anemia na infância Long-term preventive mass prescription of weekly doses of iron sulfate may be highly effective to reduce endemic child anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Monteiro

    2002-04-01

    important nutritional problems faced by developing countries. Well-controlled efficacy studies show that intermittent iron supplementation can improve children's iron status as well as the traditional daily schedule. This gives new impetus to controlling child anemia by weekly preventive iron supplementation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of long-term preventive provision of weekly doses of iron sulfate to all children from 6 to 59 months of age, in a child population in which anemia is highly prevalent. Children from both the intervention and control groups were selected from a random cross-sectional sample of the child population of the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Parents in the intervention group were visited in their homes and received nutrition education plus a solution of iron sulfate with the request to give it to their children once a week until a follow-up visit occurred in approximately six months. Parents in the control group received only nutrition education. The effect of the intervention was assessed by changes in hemoglobin concentration and the prevalence of anemia. Comparisons between the two groups were made based on an intention-to-treat approach, and all estimates were adjusted for initial hemoglobin concentration, initial age, total duration of follow-up and family income. The average hemoglobin gain due to the intervention was 4.0 g/l, with a fall of more than 50% in the prevalence of anemia among the children. The intervention was particularly effective in preventing declines in hemoglobin concentration during the first two years of life. This study demonstrates that long-term preventive weekly iron supplementation for preschool children significantly reduces the risk of anemia under conditions similar to those possible in routine public health programs.

  4. Permissivity of the NCI-60 cancer cell lines to oncolytic Vaccinia Virus GLV-1h68

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascierto, Maria Libera; Bedognetti, Davide; Uccellini, Lorenzo; Rossano, Fabio; Ascierto, Paolo A; Stroncek, David F; Restifo, Nicholas P; Wang, Ena; Szalay, Aladar A; Marincola, Francesco M; Worschech, Andrea; Yu, Zhiya; Adams, Sharon; Reinboth, Jennifer; Chen, Nanhai G; Pos, Zoltan; Roychoudhuri, Rahul; Di Pasquale, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Oncolytic viral therapy represents an alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer. We previously described GLV-1h68, a modified Vaccinia Virus with exclusive tropism for tumor cells, and we observed a cell line-specific relationship between the ability of GLV-1h68 to replicate in vitro and its ability to colonize and eliminate tumor in vivo. In the current study we surveyed the in vitro permissivity to GLV-1h68 replication of the NCI-60 panel of cell lines. Selected cell lines were also tested for permissivity to another Vaccinia Virus and a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) strain. In order to identify correlates of permissity to viral infection, we measured transcriptional profiles of the cell lines prior infection. We observed highly heterogeneous permissivity to VACV infection amongst the cell lines. The heterogeneity of permissivity was independent of tissue with the exception of B cell derivation. Cell lines were also tested for permissivity to another Vaccinia Virus and a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) strain and a significant correlation was found suggesting a common permissive phenotype. While no clear transcriptional pattern could be identified as predictor of permissivity to infection, some associations were observed suggesting multifactorial basis permissivity to viral infection. Our findings have implications for the design of oncolytic therapies for cancer and offer insights into the nature of permissivity of tumor cells to viral infection

  5. Plant Operation: Work Week, Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A four-day work week for maintenance workers in the Jefferson County Public Schools in Lakewood, Colorado, reduces absenteeism and increases productivity; a basic manual for physical plant directors is reviewed. (Author/MLF)

  6. Evaluation of permissible exposure to plutonium in occupational workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, W.S.S.; Kimmel, D.B.

    1980-01-01

    No human toxicity data exist from which to evaluate the current MPBB for 239 Pu of 0.04 μCi. The current method of estimating MPBB for 239 Pu in humans uses 239 Pu: 226 Ra ratios in terms of an average skeletal dose in dogs, then compares them to the experience with 226 Ra and 228 Ra in humans. In this paper, a new approach is used that is based on data about 239 Pu toxicity in dogs and on the cellular distribution of the dose. This information has been assimilated in a computerized model of the skeleton which stimulates 239 Pu location as a function of the bone turnover rate; the model then calculates the total number of bone cell- 239 Pu disintegration interactions occurring after one intravenous injection. The number obtained is compared for beagles with a 12.5-year life span and humans with a 50-year life span. We conclude that the current human MPBB for 239 Pu from a single intravenous exposure is adequate for skeletal protection

  7. An Ethics of Permission: A Response to the California End of Life Option Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Craig

    2016-01-01

    An ethics of permission can be helpful in framing a response to the ethical differences surrounding the California End of Life Option Act. Law does not define morality, and reaching a moral understanding demands thorough reflection. An ethics of permission examines the ethical demands of a permissive law for both clinician and patient. Serving the good of the patient, respecting professional conscience, and following the law are three ethical elements. Although developing an ethics of permission includes these three elements, these elements do not exhaust all the moral implications involved. An ethics of permission also includes the importance of exercising professional tolerance in the honoring of clinicians who choose to participate or refuse to participate. In addition, an ethics of permission also provides insight in implementing just and fair behavior among medical professionals.

  8. Concerning permission of change in nuclear fuel processing business of Japan Nuclear Fuel Co. , Ltd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    In response to an inquiry on the title issue received on Jun. 17, 1988, the Nuclear Safety Commission made a study and submitted the findings to the Prime Minister on Jul. 21, 1988. The study was intended to determine the conformity of the permission to the applicable criteria specified in laws relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor. The proposed modification plan included changes in the facilities in the No.1 processing building and changes in processing methods which were required to perform processing of blanket fuel assemblies for fast breeder reactor. It also included changes in the facilities in the No.2 building which were required to improve the processes. The safety study covered the anti-earthquake performance, fire/explosion prevention, criticality control, containment performance, radioactive waste disposal, and other major safety issues. Other investigations included exposure dose evaluation and accident analysis. Study results were examined on the basis of the Basic Guidelines for Nuclear Fuel Facilities Safety Review and the Uranium Processing Safety Review Guidelines. It was concluded that the modifications would not have adverse effect on the safety of the facilities. (Nogami, K.).

  9. Concerning permission of change in nuclear fuel processing business of Japan Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In response to an inquiry on the title issue received on Jun. 17, 1988, the Nuclear Safety Commission made a study and submitted the findings to the Prime Minister on Jul. 21, 1988. The study was intended to determine the conformity of the permission to the applicable criteria specified in laws relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor. The proposed modification plan included changes in the facilities in the No.1 processing building and changes in processing methods which were required to perform processing of blanket fuel assemblies for fast breeder reactor. It also included changes in the facilities in the No.2 building which were required to improve the processes. The safety study covered the anti-earthquake performance, fire/explosion prevention, criticality control, containment performance, radioactive waste disposal, and other major safety issues. Other investigations included exposure dose evaluation and accident analysis. Study results were examined on the basis of the Basic Guidelines for Nuclear Fuel Facilities Safety Review and the Uranium Processing Safety Review Guidelines. It was concluded that the modifications would not have adverse effect on the safety of the facilities. (Nogami, K.)

  10. On the substantion of permissible concentrations of plutonium isotopes in the water of fresh water and sea water NPP cooling reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grachev, M.I.; Gusev, D.I.; Stepanova, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    Substantiation of maximum permissible concentration (PC) of plutonium isotopes ( 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu) in fresh and sea water cooling reservoirs of NPP with fast neutron reactors is given. The main criterion when calculating permissible plutonium content in water of surface reservoirs is the requirement not to exceed the established limits for radiation doses to persons resulted from water use. Data on coefficients of plutonium concentration in sea and fresh water hydrobionts are presented as well as on plutonium PC in water of fresh and sea water cooling reservoirs and bottom sediments of sea water cooling reservoirs. It is shown that doses to critical groups of population doesn't exceed potentially hazardous levels due to plutonium intake through food chains. But the calculation being carried out further should be corrected

  11. The ATLAS Glasgow Overview Week

    CERN Multimedia

    Richard Hawkings

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS Overview Weeks always provide a good opportunity to see the status and progress throughout the experiment, and the July week at Glasgow University was no exception. The setting, amidst the traditional buildings of one of the UK's oldest universities, provided a nice counterpoint to all the cutting-edge research and technology being discussed. And despite predictions to the contrary, the weather at these northern latitudes was actually a great improvement on the previous few weeks in Geneva. The meeting sessions comprehensively covered the whole ATLAS project, from the subdetector and TDAQ systems and their commissioning, through to offline computing, analysis and physics. As a long-time ATLAS member who remembers plenary meetings in 1991 with 30 people drawing detector layouts on a whiteboard, the hardware and installation sessions were particularly impressive - to see how these dreams have been translated into 7000 tons of reality (and with attendant cabling, supports and services, which certainly...

  12. Comparison of the efficacy and safety profiles of two fixed-dose combinations of antihypertensive agents, amlodipine/benazepril versus valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension: a 16-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, noninferiority study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Te; Hung, Yi-Jen; Chen, Jung-Fu; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Lee, Wen-Jane; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng

    2012-08-01

    Hypertension is a prevalent condition that is closely associated with chronic complications in patients with diabetes. Fixed-dose combination therapy is currently recommended for the treatment of hypertension due to the advantage of reducing the pill burden. However, the effects of combination therapy may be diverse because of the different components. We examined blood pressure reduction and metabolic alterations after amlodipine/benazepril and valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension and microalbuminuria. This randomized, double-blind, parallel comparison, noninferiority clinical trial included patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension and microalbuminuria detected within the past year. After a 2-week, placebo run-in period, patients were assigned to treatment with amlodipine/benazepril or valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide for 16 weeks. The primary end point was mean change in diastolic blood pressure. The prespecified boundary for noninferiority was 3.5 mm Hg of the mean change in diastolic blood pressure between treatments (amlodipine/benazepril minus valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide). If the upper limit of the 95% CI fell within 3.5 mm Hg, amlodipine/benazepril would be considered noninferior to valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide. Of the 226 patients assessed for eligibility, 169 satisfied the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were assigned to a treatment group; 83 patients (54.2% male, mean age of 60.5 [10.0] years) in the amlodipine/benazepril group and 84 patients (64.3% male, mean age of 59.0 [10.6] years) in the valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide group received at least 1 dose of study medication and were included in the intention-to-treat population. In the per-protocol population, amlodipine/benazepril (n = 74) was noninferior to valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide (n = 78) with regard to the mean change in diastolic blood pressure (difference, -0.9 mm Hg; 95% CI, -3.5 to 1.6). The mean change in systolic

  13. A Randomized controlled trial on safety and efficacy of single intramuscular versus staggered oral dose of 600 000IU Vitamin D in treatment of nutritional rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Krishanu; Seth, Anju; Marwaha, Raman K; Dhanwal, Dinesh; Aneja, Satinder; Singh, Ritu; Sonkar, Pitambar

    2014-06-01

    Comparison of efficacy and safety of two different regimens of vitamin D-600 000 IU as a single intramuscular dose, and 60 000IU orally once a week for 10 weeks-in treatment of nutritional rickets. Children with nutritional rickets (age: 0.5-5 years, n = 61) were randomized to receive either 60 000IU vitamin D orally once a week for 10 weeks or 600 000IU single intramuscular injection. Serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, urinary calcium/creatinine ratio, serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D and radiological score were compared at 12-week follow-up. No difference was found in efficacy of the two regimens on comparing biochemical and radiological parameters. Serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D >100 ng/ml was found in two children in the oral group and one child in the intramuscular group. No child developed hypercalcemia or hypercalciuria after starting treatment. Staggered oral and one-time intramuscular administrations of 600 000IU vitamin D are equally effective and safe in treatment of nutritional rickets. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Phase III Randomized Study of 4 Weeks of High-Dose Interferon-α-2b in Stage T2bNO, T3a-bNO, T4a-bNO, and T1-4N1a-2a (microscopic) Melanoma: A Trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-American College of Radiology Imaging Network Cancer Research Group (E1697).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, Sanjiv S; Lee, Sandra J; Yip, Waiki; Rao, Uma N; Tarhini, Ahmad A; Cohen, Gary I; Reintgen, Douglas S; Evans, Terry L; Brell, Joanna M; Albertini, Mark R; Atkins, Michael B; Dakhil, Shaker R; Conry, Robert M; Sosman, Jeffrey A; Flaherty, Lawrence E; Sondak, Vernon K; Carson, William E; Smylie, Michael G; Pappo, Alberto S; Kefford, Richard F; Kirkwood, John M

    2017-03-10

    Purpose To test the efficacy of 4 weeks of intravenous (IV) induction with high-dose interferon (IFN) as part of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group regimen compared with observation (OBS) in patients with surgically resected intermediate-risk melanoma. Patients and Methods In this intergroup international trial, eligible patients had surgically resected cutaneous melanoma in the following categories: (1) T2bN0, (2) T3a-bN0, (3) T4a-bN0, and (4) T1-4N1a-2a (microscopic). Patients were randomly assigned to receive IFN α-2b at 20 MU/m 2 /d IV for 5 days (Monday to Friday) every week for 4 weeks (IFN) or OBS. Stratification factors were pathologic lymph node status, lymph node staging procedure, Breslow depth, ulceration of the primary lesion, and disease stage. The primary end point was relapse-free survival. Secondary end points included overall survival, toxicity, and quality of life. Results A total of 1,150 patients were randomly assigned. At a median follow-up of 7 years, the 5-year relapse-free survival rate was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.74) for OBS and 0.70, (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.74) for IFN ( P = .964). The 5-year overall survival rate was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.79 to 0.86) for OBS and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.80 to 0.86) for IFN ( P = .558). Treatment-related grade 3 and higher toxicity was 4.6% versus 57.9% for OBS and IFN, respectively ( P weeks of IV induction as part of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group high-dose IFN regimen is not better than OBS alone for patients with intermediate-risk melanoma as defined in this trial.

  15. A week of Israeli restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, T.

    2006-01-01

    In Israeli discourse, Israel is always the side exercising restraint in its conflict with the Palestinians. This was true again for the events of the past week: As the Qassam rockets were falling on the Southern Israeli town of Sderot, it was “leaked” that the Israeli Minister of Defense had

  16. 17 CFR 230.433 - Conditions to permissible post-filing free writing prospectuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... writing prospectus used at the same time as a communication in a business combination transaction subject... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conditions to permissible post... Prospectuses § 230.433 Conditions to permissible post-filing free writing prospectuses. (a) Scope of section...

  17. 29 CFR 3.6 - Payroll deductions permissible with the approval of the Secretary of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Payroll deductions permissible with the approval of the Secretary of Labor. 3.6 Section 3.6 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS ON....6 Payroll deductions permissible with the approval of the Secretary of Labor. Any contractor or...

  18. 47 CFR 74.790 - Permissible service of digital TV translator and LPTV stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible service of digital TV translator... DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.790 Permissible service of digital TV translator and LPTV stations. (a) Digital TV translator stations provide a means whereby the...

  19. Follow My Recommendations: A Personalized Privacy Assistant for Mobile App Permissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Schaarup; Liu, Bin; Schaub, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Modern smartphone platforms have millions of apps, many of which request permissions to access private data and resources, like user accounts or location. While these smartphone platforms provide varying degrees of control over these permissions, the sheer number of decisions that users are expec...

  20. Axiomatizations of Banzhaf Permisson Values for Games with a Hierarchical Permission Structure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    In games with a permission structure it is assumed that players in a cooperative transferable utility game are hierarchically ordered in the sense that there are players that need permission from other players before they are allowed to cooperate. We provide axiomatic characterizations of Banzhaf

  1. Permissive Parenting and Mental Health in College Students: Mediating Effects of Academic Entitlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Alison L.; Hirsch, Jameson K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Student mental health may suffer due to unreasonable expectations associated with academic entitlement; permissive parenting may be one source of these expectations. The authors examined the role of academic entitlement as a mediator of the relationship between permissive parenting and psychological functioning. Participants:…

  2. 36 CFR 223.12 - Permission to cut, damage, or destroy trees without advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... destroy trees without advertisement. 223.12 Section 223.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... § 223.12 Permission to cut, damage, or destroy trees without advertisement. Permission may be granted to cut, damage, or destroy trees, portions of trees, or other forest products on National Forest System...

  3. 20 CFR 416.1321 - Suspension for not giving us permission to contact financial institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contact financial institutions. 416.1321 Section 416.1321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY....1321 Suspension for not giving us permission to contact financial institutions. (a) If you don't give us permission to contact any financial institution and request any financial records about you when...

  4. Blood-pressure-independent wall thickening of intramyocardial arterioles in experimental uraemia: evidence for a permissive action of PTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, K; Törnig, J; Flechtenmacher, C; Nabokov, A; Mall, G; Ritz, E

    1995-11-01

    Abnormalities in cardiovascular structures, e.g. LV hypertrophy and thickening of vessels (arteries, arterioles, veins) are hallmarks of renal failure. They are in part independent of elevated blood pressure. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been shown to affect cardiac function and has also been identified as a permissive factor in the genesis of cardiac fibrosis. The present study in rats with experimental renal failure was designed to examine whether PTH was permissive for wall thickening of intramyocardial arterioles as well. Male SD rats were sham operated or subtotally nephrectomized and maintained for 2 weeks. Subgroups of subtotally nephrectomized (SNX) rats were parathyroidectomized (PTX). Saline or rat 1, 34 PTH was administered by osmotic minipump. Eucalcaemia was maintained in PTX animals by a high-calcium diet (3%). Serum calcium was not statistically different between the groups. After perfusion fixation, intramyocardial arterioles were assessed using stereological techniques (wall thickness; wall/lumen ratio; minimal lumen diameter; length density). In random samples of the left ventricle, wall thickness of arterioles was 2.2 +/- 0.25 microns in sham-op controls and 2.76 +/- 0.41 in SNX (n = at least 8 animals per group). SNX-PTX animals+solvent did not differ significantly from sham-op controls (2.08 +/- 0.42 microns), while SNX-PTX animals+PTH had values not significantly different from SNX (2.59 +/- 0.54 microns). Differences in wall thickness were not paralleled by differences in systolic blood pressure (sham-op 110 +/- 13.3 mmHg; SNX 138 +/- 8.4 mmHg, SNX-PTX+solvent 142 +/- 5.2 mmHg; SNX-PTX+PTH 148 +/- 5.7 mmHg). PTH treated animals showed signs of marked vascular smooth-muscle cell and endothelial-cell activation. The data suggest that wall thickening of intramyocardial arterioles in short-term experimental uraemia is dependent upon the presence of PTH (permissive effect).

  5. Astronomy Week in Madeira, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, P.; Sobrinho, J. L.

    2012-05-01

    The outreach programme Semanas da Astronomia (Astronomy Weeks) is held in late spring or summer on the island of Madeira, Portugal. This programme has been attracting enough interest to be mentioned in the regional press/TV/radio every year and is now, without doubt, the astronomical highlight of the year on Madeira. We believe that this programme is a good case study for showing how to attract the general public to astronomy in a small (population 250 000, area 900 km2) and fairly isolated place such as Madeira. Our Astronomy Weeks have been different each year and have so far included exhibitions, courses, talks, a forum, documentaries, observing sessions (some with blackouts), music and an astro party. These efforts may contribute towards putting Madeira on the map with respect to observational astronomy, and have also contributed to the planned installation of two observatories in the island.

  6. Can ‘Mobile Platform’ and ‘Permission Marketing’ dance a tango to the consumers' tune? Modeling adoption of ‘SMS based Permission Advertising’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna Bamoriya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many a times situation of advertising clutter is further aggrieved by the markers’ intrusive practices i.e. not asking for consumer’s explicit permission. It results in consumers’ alienation and reduced advertising effectiveness. Solution could be integration of Permission Marketing with an innovative advertising platform like Mobile. This study aimed to develop and validate a comprehensive model for understanding consumers’ adoption behavior towards SMS Based Permission Advertising (SBPA. For this, data was collected using systematic random sampling from 524 respondents and was analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling. Study revealed some critical variables along with complex relationships among such variables, in form of an empirically validated model. At last, study made some important implications for practitioners and researchers.

  7. ATLAS Overview Week at Brookhaven

    CERN Multimedia

    Pilcher, J

    Over 200 ATLAS participants gathered at Brookhaven National Laboratory during the first week of June for our annual overview week. Some system communities arrived early and held meetings on Saturday and Sunday, and the detector interface group (DIG) and Technical Coordination also took advantage of the time to discuss issues of interest for all detector systems. Sunday was also marked by a workshop on the possibilities for heavy ion physics with ATLAS. Beginning on Monday, and for the rest of the week, sessions were held in common in the well equipped Berkner Hall auditorium complex. Laptop computers became the norm for presentations and a wireless network kept laptop owners well connected. Most lunches and dinners were held on the lawn outside Berkner Hall. The weather was very cooperative and it was an extremely pleasant setting. This picture shows most of the participants from a view on the roof of Berkner Hall. Technical Coordination and Integration issues started the reports on Monday and became a...

  8. On permission of waste-burying business in Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Answer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    As to this case written in the title which was inquired on July 19, 1994, from the prime minister, and changed partly on November 21, 1994, the Nuclear Safety Commission answered to the prime minister as follows after the prudent deliberation. As for the application of the criteria for permission, the technical capability is adequate, and the results of the examination of safety by the expert committee for examining nuclear fuel safety is adequate. It was judged that the safety after the permission of this waste-burying business can be secured. The expert committee reported on the policy of the investigation and deliberation, and the contents of the investigation and deliberation, such as the basic location conditions, namely, site, weather, ground, hydraulics, earthquakes and social environment, the radioactive wastes to be buried, the method of determining radioactivity concentration, the expected time of changing the measures to be taken for security, the safety design for the waste-burying facility related to radiation control, environment safety, earthquakes, fires and explosion, the loss of electric power and the standards and criteria to be conformed, and the assessment of dose equivalent in normal state, after finishing the period of control and safety evaluation, and the course of the investigation and deliberation. (K.I.)

  9. Permissive tolerance of the patent ductus arteriosus may increase the risk of Chronic Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaempf JW

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Joseph W Kaempf,1 Robert Huston,2 YingXing Wu,1 Andrew J Kaempf,1 Lian Wang,1 Gary Grunkemeier,1 Rebecca Mischel,2 Howard Cohen,3 Bret Freitag41Providence St Vincent Medical Center, Portland, OR, 2Randall Children’s Hospital at Legacy Emanuel, Portland, OR, 3Salem Hospital, Salem, OR, 4Legacy Salmon Creek Hospital, Vancouver, WA, USAPurpose: Because early closure therapies of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA have not been shown to confer benefit to premature infants, the authors’ four neonatal intensive care units adopted a less aggressive PDA management protocol.Study design: A before–after investigation in infants with PDAs born 501–1500 g. Era 1 (January 2005 to December 2007 featured traditional management with indomethacin and/or surgical ligation used early to close PDAs; Era 2 (January 2008 to June 2009 featured fluid restriction and watchful waiting for PDA closure, limiting indomethacin or surgical ligation to only those infants with large PDAs needing significant respiratory support.Results: Era 2 infants (n = 129, mean ± standard deviation 27 ± 2 weeks received less and later indomethacin and less Day 1–28 total fluids as compared to Era 1 infants (n = 240, mean ± standard deviation 27 ± 2 weeks. The Chronic Lung Disease (CLD rate was higher in Era 2 (48% versus 34%, P < 0.01 as was the combined outcome of Death after Day 7 or CLD (57% versus 42%, P < 0.01. Multiple regression analysis showed Era 2 birth was a predictor of CLD. However, Poisson regression analysis determined the predictors of all seven major Vermont Oxford Network morbidities were earlier gestational age, lower birth weight, and male gender, not the era of birth. Significantly more infants were discharged home with PDAs in Era 2.Conclusion: Permissive tolerance of PDAs may increase the risk of CLD and Death after Day 7 or CLD but is not associated with significant changes in other Vermont Oxford Network morbidities.Keywords: premature infant

  10. A new model for deteriorating items with inflation under permissible delay in payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Tripathi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Inflation is an important factor influencing traditional economic order quality models. Marketing strategy depends on inflation due to public demand and availability of the materials. This paper presents an optimal inventory policy for deteriorating items using exponential demand rate under permissible delay in payments. Mathematical model has been derived under two cases: case I: cycle time is greater than or equal to permissible delay period, case II: cycle time is less than permissible delay period by considering holding cost as a function of time. Numerical examples and sensitivity analysis are given to reflect the numerical results. Mathematica software is used for finding optimal solutions.

  11. DOSE COEFFICIENTS FOR LIVER CHEMOEMBOLISATION PROCEDURES USING MONTE CARLO CODE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavasilis, E; Dimitriadis, A; Gonis, H; Pappas, P; Georgiou, E; Yakoumakis, E

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study is the estimation of radiation burden during liver chemoembolisation procedures. Organ dose and effective dose conversion factors, normalised to dose-area product (DAP), were estimated for chemoembolisation procedures using a Monte Carlo transport code in conjunction with an adult mathematical phantom. Exposure data from 32 patients were used to determine the exposure projections for the simulations. Equivalent organ (H T ) and effective (E) doses were estimated using individual DAP values. The organs receiving the highest amount of doses during these exams were lumbar spine, liver and kidneys. The mean effective dose conversion factor was 1.4 Sv Gy -1 m -2 Dose conversion factors can be useful for patient-specific radiation burden during chemoembolisation procedures. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The concept of the effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.

    1975-01-01

    Irradiation of the human body by external or internal sources leads mostly to a simultaneous exposure of several organs. However, so far no clear and consistent recommendations for the combination of organ doses and the assessment of an exposure limit under such irradiation conditions are available. Following a proposal described in ICRP-publication 14 one possible concept for the combination of organ doses is discussed in this paper. This concept is based on the assumption that at low doses the total radiation detriment to the exposed person is given by the sum of radiation detriments to the single organs. Taking into account a linear dose-risk relationship, the sum of weighted organ doses leads to the definition of an 'Effective Dose'. The applicability and consequences of this 'Effective Dose Concept' are discussed especially with regard to the assessment of the maximum permissible intake of radionuclides into the human body and the combination of external and internal exposure. (orig.) [de

  13. Permission of the alteration in nuclear fuel material processing business in the Kumatori Works of Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd. (report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    A report by the Nuclear Safety Commission to the Prime Minister concerning the permission of the alteration in nuclear fuel material processing business in the Kumatori Works, Nuclear Fuel Industries Ltd., was presented. The technical capability of NFI and the safety of the business alteration were confirmed. The items of the safety examination concerning the alteration, made by the Committee on Examination of Nuclear Fuel Safety of NSC, are as follows: the aseismic design and fire prevention measures of the No.2 processing building and the No.3 waste storage building to be newly installed; criticality control concerning the No.2 processing building; the release control of gaseous and liquid wastes; the management of solid wastes; radiation control; the exposure dose of general public. (J.P.N.)

  14. Releasable activity and maximum permissible leakage rate within a transport cask of Tehran Research Reactor fuel samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaeian Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Containment of a transport cask during both normal and accident conditions is important to the health and safety of the public and of the operators. Based on IAEA regulations, releasable activity and maximum permissible volumetric leakage rate within the cask containing fuel samples of Tehran Research Reactor enclosed in an irradiated capsule are calculated. The contributions to the total activity from the four sources of gas, volatile, fines, and corrosion products are treated separately. These calculations are necessary to identify an appropriate leak test that must be performed on the cask and the results can be utilized as the source term for dose evaluation in the safety assessment of the cask.

  15. Nuclear Medicine week in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhy, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    During the week of 6-12 October 2003 the IAEA organized a Research Coordination Meeting on 'Relationship between lower Respiratory Tract Infection, Gastroesophageal reflux and bronchial Asthma in children' at Hospital San Ignacio in Bogota. Besides there were four workshops in Bogota; workshops on Bone infection and Bone scan in Pediatric ortopaedics at Hospital Militar and Fundacion CardioInfantil, a workshop for Nuclear Medicine Technologists and a workshop on Sentinel Lymph Node mapping and Surgical Gamma Probe Application at Institute of Oncology. A nuclear cardiology workshop was organized in Medellin, and finally crowning them all was the 9th Congress of the Colombian Association of Nuclear Medicine at Cali from 10-12 October, 2003; probably the largest and best Colombian nuclear medicine congress every held in the country. A workshop was also organized in Cali for nuclear medicine technologists in conjunction with the Annual Convention. It was a mix of IAEA's Technical Cooperation and Regular Budget activities along with the activities of Colombian Association of Nuclear Medicine, bringing in absolute synergy to galvanize the entire nuclear medicine community of the country. The week saw nuclear medicine scientists from more than 20 IAEA Member States converging on Colombia to spread the message of nuclear medicine, share knowledge and to foster International understanding and friendship among the nuclear medicine people of the world

  16. Permissive parenting and mental health in college students: Mediating effects of academic entitlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Alison L; Hirsch, Jameson K

    2016-01-01

    Student mental health may suffer due to unreasonable expectations associated with academic entitlement; permissive parenting may be one source of these expectations. The authors examined the role of academic entitlement as a mediator of the relationship between permissive parenting and psychological functioning. Participants were 524 undergraduate students at a single institution (52% female; age range = 18-22). Data collection was completed in May 2011. Cross-sectional design. Participants completed online self-report measures of parenting styles, academic entitlement, stress, depressive symptoms, and well-being. Permissive parenting was associated with greater academic entitlement and, in turn, to more perceived stress and poorer mental health. Mother/father differences were found in some cases. Academic entitlement may partially explain why permissive parenting is detrimentally related to mental health for college students. Implications for academic affairs and counseling include helping students develop an appreciation of the role of self-regulation in college success.

  17. Exploring Permission-Induced Risk in Android Applications for Malicious Application Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Xing; Feng, Dawei; Liu, Jiqiang; Han, Zhen; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2014-01-01

    Android has been a major target of malicious applications (malapps). How to detect and keep the malapps out of the app markets is an ongoing challenge. One of the central design points of Android security mechanism is permission control

  18. Maximum permissible concentrations and negligible concentrations for antifouling substances. Irgarol 1051, dichlofluanid, ziram, chlorothalonil and TCMTB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel AP van; Vlaardingen P van; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This report presents maximum permissible concentrations and negligible concentrations that have been derived for various antifouling substances used as substitutes for TBT. Included here are Irgarol 1051, dichlofluanide, ziram, chlorothalonil and TCMTB.

  19. State-of-the-art literature review on permissive/protected left-turn control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    In spring 2010, the Illinois Department of Transportation initiated an areawide implementation to integrate the : flashing yellow arrow as the display for the left-turn permissive interval at more than 100 intersections operating : with protected/per...

  20. Assessment of permissible low-level releases of radionuclides into the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.; Sazykina, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    The subject of this paper is radio-ecological assessment of permissible low-level releases of radionuclides in sea waters ensuring the radiological protection of the human population, as well as marine biota. (author)

  1. Drug evaluation and the permissive principle: continuities and contradictions between standards and practices in antidepressant regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, John; Davis, Courtney

    2009-08-01

    Pharmaceuticals are not permitted on to the market unless they are granted regulatory approval. The regulatory process is, therefore, crucial in whether or not a drug is widely prescribed. Regulatory agencies have developed standards of performance that pharmaceuticals are supposed to meet before entering the market. Regulation of technologies is often discussed by reference to the precautionary principle. In contrast, this paper develops the concept of the 'permissive principle' as a way of understanding the departure of regulators' practices from standards of drug efficacy to which regulatory agencies themselves subscribe. By taking a case study of antidepressant regulation in the UK and the USA, the mechanisms of permissive regulatory practices are examined. An STS methodology of both spatial (international) and temporal comparisons of regulatory practices with regulatory standards is employed to identify the nature and extent of the permissive regulation. It is found that the permissive principle was adopted by drug regulators in the UK and the USA, but more so by the former than the latter. Evidently, permissive regulation, which favours the commercial interests of the drug manufacturer, but is contrary to the interests of patients, may penetrate to the heart of regulatory science. On the other hand, permissive regulation of specific drugs should not be regarded as an inevitable result of marketing strategies and concomitant networks deployed by powerful pharmaceutical companies, because the extent of permissive regulation may vary according to the intra-institutional normative commitments of regulators to uphold their technical standards against the commercial interests of the manufacturer. Likely sociological factors that can account for such permissive regulatory practices are 'corporate bias', secrecy and excessive regulatory trust in the pharmaceutical industry in the UK, political expediency and ideological capture in the USA, combined in both countries

  2. Procedures for permission under atomic energy laws in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnt, D.

    1980-01-01

    The selection of proper locations by the enterprisers responsible for projects is usually accompanied in recent years by the active location policy of the state. The application for the permission of locations and projects shall be filed to one or more ministries of the province where the facilities are to be installed. The papers describing the projects, especially safety reports and summaries shall be attached to the applications. The applications shall be published on a bulletin of the government office or daily newspapers, and every person has access to the applications, the safety reports and the summaries for two months. When objections are lodged within the period, closed hearings are held to examine the protests with attendance of the objector, the enterpriser of the project and the government office which has joined the decision. Following the phase of public participation and after the confirmation of facts highly important to the decision, fact examination is carried out with cooperation of specialists by the government office authorized for permission. As a special feature of the procedures under Atomgesetz, the government office is not necessarily obliged to give permission considering the safety policy, even when the pre-requisites of permission are all fulfilled. In other respects, permission may be offered for each partial installation of the facilities and various stages of operation by particular administrative measures (partial permission). The experiences of past 20 years indicate the virtual defects of the laws applied, and the amendment is urgently required. (Okada, K.)

  3. Perceived realism moderates the relation between sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes in Dutch adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Doornwaard, Suzan M; Rommes, Els; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined whether the development of sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes would be more strongly interrelated when adolescents perceived sexualized media images as highly realistic. We used data from a three-wave longitudinal sample of 444 Dutch adolescents aged 13-16 years at baseline. Results from parallel process latent growth modeling multigroup analyses showed that higher initial levels of sexualized media consumption were associated with higher initial level of permissive sexual attitudes. Moreover, increases of sexualized media consumption over time were associated with increases of permissive sexual attitudes over time. Considering the moderation by perceived realism, we found these effects only for those who perceived sexualized media as more realistic. Findings for male and female adolescents were similar except for the relations between initial levels and subsequent development. Among male adolescents who perceived sexualized media images to be realistic, higher initial levels of permissive sexual attitudes were related to subsequent less rapid development of sexualized media consumption. For male adolescents who perceived sexualized media to be less realistic, higher initial levels of sexualized media consumption were related to a subsequent less rapid development of permissive sexual attitudes. These relations were not found for female adolescents. Overall, our results suggest that, in male and female adolescents, those with a high level of perceived realism showed a correlated development of sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes. These findings point to a need for extended information on how to guide adolescents in interpreting and handling sexualized media in everyday life.

  4. Natural penetrating radiation inside silicate dwellings in Chengdu and recommendation on permissible limits for radioactivity of building material made of silicate cinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangzao

    1984-01-01

    This paper reports the results of external exposure rate of penetrating radiation inside silicate dwellings in Chengdu. The average exposure rate was 24.3+-3.5 R/h. It was evidently higher than of red brick dwellings. The average effective equivalent of the population in silicate dwellings was 123.4+-10.4 mrem/y and the average additional dose was 29.5+-12.5 mrem/y. The permissible limits recommended for silicate building material would be 6 pCi/g, 7 pCi/g and 102 pCi/g for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively. The total activity must fulfill the formula of Csub(Ra)/6 + Csub(Th)/7 + Csub(k)/102 1. Under ordinary condition the exposure rate (10+background) R/h of penetrating radiation from the surface of dry building material might be taken as the permissible limit for dwellings and other public buildings

  5. Permissible dose from external sources of ionizing radiation. Recommendations of the National Committee on Radiation Protection. Handbook 59

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1954-09-24

    The Advisory Committee on X-ray and Radium Protection was formed in 1929 upon the recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, under the sponsorship of the National Bureau of Standards, and with the cooperation of the leading radiological organizations. The small committee functioned effectively until the advent of atomic energy, which introduced a large number of new and serious problems in the field of radiation protection. The present report deals primarily with the protection of persons occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation from external sources. An attempt has been made to cover most of the situations encountered in practice. However, it has not always been possible to make recommendations in quantitative terms. In such cases the recommendations are intended to serve as practical guides. The recommendations are based on presently available information and cannot be regarded as permanent. For this reason and on general grounds it is strongly recommended that exposure to radiation be kept at the lowest practicable level in all cases.

  6. Permissible dose from external sources of ionizing radiation. Recommendations of the National Committee on Radiation Protection. Handbook 59

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1954-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on X-ray and Radium Protection was formed in 1929 upon the recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, under the sponsorship of the National Bureau of Standards, and with the cooperation of the leading radiological organizations. The small committee functioned effectively until the advent of atomic energy, which introduced a large number of new and serious problems in the field of radiation protection. The present report deals primarily with the protection of persons occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation from external sources. An attempt has been made to cover most of the situations encountered in practice. However, it has not always been possible to make recommendations in quantitative terms. In such cases the recommendations are intended to serve as practical guides. The recommendations are based on presently available information and cannot be regarded as permanent. For this reason and on general grounds it is strongly recommended that exposure to radiation be kept at the lowest practicable level in all cases

  7. Breakout Session: Fight for Your Right to Copy: How One Library Acquired the Copyright Permissions Service and Reduced Students’ Costs. Presented by Emily Riha, Copyright Permissions Coordinator, University of Minnesota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Strittmatter

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Emily Riha, Copyright Permissions Coordinator at the University of Minnesota, presented at the 2017 Kraemer Copyright Conference her experience when the process of securing copyright permissions moved from Printing Services to the University Libraries.

  8. A comparison of twice-weekly MPD-PUVA and three times-weekly skin typing-PUVA regimens for the treatment of psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, D.A.; Rogers, S. [City of Dublin Skin and Cancer Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Healy, E. [Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    1995-09-01

    The most frequent PUVA treatment regimen in current use is three times weekly, using skin typing to estimate the starting dose. Recently, it was suggested that twice-weekly treatment, using the minimal phototoxic dose- (MPD) to calculate suberythmal starting doses of UVA, achieved similar clearance rates with fewer treatments and a lower cumulative UVA dose. We have carried out a trial on 83 patients, comparing twice-weekly MPD-PUVA with three times-weekly skin typing-PUVA, in order to test this hypothesis. Although clearance rates were comparable between the two regimens, there was no overall significant difference in the number of treatments or in the cumulative UVA doses at clearance. However, for patients with skin types I and II the cumulative UVA dose was significantly higher using the twice-weekly MPD regimen (70.OJ/cm{sup 2} vs. 55.8J/cm{sup 2}; P<0.05). Our results do not confirm that there is a reduction in cumulative UVA dosage with twice-weekly MPD-PUVA. (Author).

  9. A busy week for Council

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    This has been a busy week for the CERN Council, and there is much to report. Firstly, I’m pleased to say that Council approved the Organization’s Medium Term Plan, and with it the budget for financial year 2010. In a time of global recession, this is a strong vote of confidence from the Member States. This meeting of Council provided an opportunity for the working group on the scientific and geographical enlargement of CERN to set out a roadmap towards its final report, which is to be made at Council’s December session this year. One part of the process over the coming months is to bring the major players in particle physics from beyond the European region into the discussion, ensuring that the working group’s recommendations lead to an optimum position for CERN and European particle physics in the global context. An indicator of the continuing attractiveness of CERN is the fact that Council has received four new applications...

  10. The link between maternal sleep and permissive parenting during late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Kelly M; Elmore-Staton, Lori; Buckhalt, Joseph A; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2018-03-05

    Utilizing a multi-method design, the present study examined the association between maternal sleep, assessed via actigraphy and self-reports, and permissive parenting (e.g. lax, inconsistent discipline) during adolescence, as well as the extent to which this association differed by mothers' race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The sample was comprised of 234 mothers (M age = 41.76 years, SD = 6.25; 67% European-American, 31% African-American, 2% other race/ethnicities) and 237 adolescents (113 boys, 124 girls; M age = 15.80 years, SD = 0.80; 66% European-American, 34% African-American). Mothers' sleep duration (actual sleep minutes) and quality (sleep efficiency, latency, long wake episodes) were assessed using actigraphy. Mothers also reported on their sleep problems and adolescents reported on mothers' permissive parenting behaviours. Results revealed that actigraphy-based longer sleep duration and shorter sleep latency were associated with lower levels of permissive parenting. Further, mothers' race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status moderated the association between actigraphy-based sleep quality (i.e. sleep efficiency, long wake episodes) and permissive parenting. Specifically, a negative association between sleep efficiency and permissive parenting was evident only for African-American mothers. In addition, a positive association between more frequent night wakings and permissive parenting was evident only for mothers from lower socioeconomic status households. The findings highlight the benefits of longer and higher-quality sleep for reducing the risk of permissive parenting, especially among ethnic minority mothers and mothers from lower socioeconomic status households. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.

  11. A Dynamic Operation Permission Technique Based on an MFM Model and Numerical Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akio, Gofuku; Masahiro, Yonemura

    2011-01-01

    It is important to support operator activities to an abnormal plant situation where many counter actions are taken in relatively short time. The authors proposed a technique called dynamic operation permission to decrease human errors without eliminating creative idea of operators to cope with an abnormal plant situation by checking if the counter action taken is consistent with emergency operation procedure. If the counter action is inconsistent, a dynamic operation permission system warns it to operators. It also explains how and why the counter action is inconsistent and what influence will appear on the future plant behavior by a qualitative influence inference technique based on a model by the Mf (Multilevel Flow Modeling). However, the previous dynamic operation permission is not able to explain quantitative effects on plant future behavior. Moreover, many possible influence paths are derived because a qualitative reasoning does not give a solution when positive and negative influences are propagated to the same node. This study extends the dynamic operation permission by combining the qualitative reasoning and the numerical simulation technique. The qualitative reasoning based on an Mf model of plant derives all possible influence propagation paths. Then, a numerical simulation gives a prediction of plant future behavior in the case of taking a counter action. The influence propagation that does not coincide with the simulation results is excluded from possible influence paths. The extended technique is implemented in a dynamic operation permission system for an oil refinery plant. An MFM model and a static numerical simulator are developed. The results of dynamic operation permission for some abnormal plant situations show the improvement of the accuracy of dynamic operation permission and the quality of explanation for the effects of the counter action taken

  12. Dose limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, L.

    1987-12-01

    The dose limit is defined to be the level of harmfulness which must not be exceeded, so that an activity can be exercised in a regular manner without running a risk unacceptable to man and the society. The paper examines the effects of radiation categorised into stochastic and non-stochastic. Dose limits for workers and the public are discussed

  13. A phase II randomized trial comparing radiotherapy with concurrent weekly cisplatin or weekly paclitaxel in patients with advanced cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geara, Fady B; Shamseddine, Ali; Khalil, Ali; Abboud, Mirna; Charafeddine, Maya; Seoud, Muhieddine

    2010-01-01

    This is a prospective comparison of weekly cisplatin to weekly paclitaxel as concurrent chemotherapy with standard radiotherapy for locally advanced cervical carcinoma. Between May 2000 and May 2004, 31 women with FIGO stage IB2-IVA cervical cancer or with postsurgical pelvic recurrence were enrolled into this phase II study and randomized to receive on a weekly basis either 40 mg/m 2 Cisplatin (group I; 16 patients) or 50 mg/m 2 paclitaxel (group II; 15 patients) concurrently with radiotherapy. Median total dose to point A was 74 Gy (range: 66-92 Gy) for group I and 66 Gy (range: 40-98 Gy) for group II. Median follow-up time was 46 months. Patient and tumor characteristics were similar in both groups. The mean number of chemotherapy cycles was also comparable with 87% and 80% of patients receiving at least 4 doses in groups I and II, respectively. Seven patients (44%) of group I and 8 patients (53%) of group II developed tumor recurrence. The Median Survival time was not reached for Group I and 53 months for group II. The proportion of patients surviving at 2 and 5 years was 78% and 54% for group I and 73% and 43% for group II respectively. This small prospective study shows that weekly paclitaxel does not provide any clinical advantage over weekly cisplatin for concurrent chemoradiation for advanced carcinoma of the cervix

  14. Comparison of 2-Dose and 3-Dose 9-Valent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Schedules in the United States: A Cost-effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laprise, Jean-François; Markowitz, Lauri E; Chesson, Harrell W; Drolet, Mélanie; Brisson, Marc

    2016-09-01

    A recent clinical trial using the 9-valent human papillomavirus virus (HPV) vaccine has shown that antibody responses after 2 doses are noninferior to those after 3 doses, suggesting that 2 and 3 doses may have comparable vaccine efficacy. We used an individual-based transmission-dynamic model to compare the population-level effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of 2- and 3-dose schedules of 9-valent HPV vaccine in the United States. Our model predicts that if 2 doses of 9-valent vaccine protect for ≥20 years, the additional benefits of a 3-dose schedule are small as compared to those of 2-dose schedules, and 2-dose schedules are likely much more cost-efficient than 3-dose schedules. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The Four Day School Week. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Can four-day school weeks help districts save money? How do districts overcome the barriers of moving to a four-day week? What is the effect of a four-day week on students, staff and the community? This paper enumerates the benefits for students and teachers of four-day school weeks. Recommendations for implementation of a four-day week are also…

  16. A single-blinded randomised clinical trial of permissive underfeeding in patients requiring parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owais, Anwar Elias; Kabir, Syed Irfan; Mcnaught, Clare; Gatt, Marcel; MacFie, John

    2014-12-01

    The importance of adequate nutritional support is well established, but characterising what 'adequate nutrition' represents remains contentious. In recent years there has been increasing interest in the concept of 'permissive underfeeding' where patients are intentionally prescribed less nutrition than their calculated requirements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of permissive underfeeding on septic and nutrition related morbidity in patients requiring short term parenteral nutrition (PN). This was a single-blinded randomised clinical trial of 50 consecutive patients requiring parenteral nutritional support. Patients were randomized to receive either normocaloric or hypocaloric feeding (respectively 100% vs. 60% of estimated requirements). The primary end point was septic complications. Secondary end points included the metabolic, physiological and clinical outcomes to the two feeding protocols. Permissive underfeeding was associated with fewer septic complications (3 vs. 12 patients; p = 0.003), and a lower incidence of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (9 vs. 16 patients; p = 0.017). Permissively underfed patients had fewer feed related complications (2 vs. 9 patients; p = 0.016). Permissive underfeeding in patients requiring short term PN appears to be safe and may results in reduced septic and feed-related complications. NCT01154179 TRIAL REGISTRY: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01154179. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  17. Fast neutron dose equivalent rates in heavy ion target areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulmer, C.B.; Butler, H.M.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Mosko, S.W.

    1978-01-01

    At heavy ion accelerators, personnel access to areas near the target is sometimes important for successful performance of experiments. Radiation levels determine the amount of time that can be spent in these areas without exceeding maximum permissible exposures. Inasmuch as the fast neutrons contribute the major part of the Rem dose rates in these areas, knowledge of the fast neutron levels is important for planning permissive entry to target areas. Fast neutron dose rates were measured near thick medium mass targets bombarded with beams of C, N, O, and Ne ions. beam energies ranged from 3 to 16 MeV/amu. Dose rates (mrem/h) 1 meter from the target 90 degrees from the beam direction range from approx. 0.05 at MeV/amu to approx. 50 at 16 MeV/amu. These data should be helpful in planning permissive entry to heavy ion target areas

  18. Fast neutron dose equivalent rates in heavy ion target areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulmer, C.B.; Butler, H.M.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Mosko, S.W.

    1978-01-01

    At heavy ion accelerators, personnel access to areas near the target is sometimes important for successful performance of experiments. Radiation levels determine the amount of time that can be spent in these areas without exceeding maximum permissible exposures. Inasmuch as the fast neutrons contribute the major part of the Rem dose rates in these areas, knowledge of the fast neutron levels is important for planning permissive entry to target areas. Fast neutron dose rates were measured near thick medium mass targets bombarded with beams of C, N, O, and Ne ions. beam energies ranged from 3 to 16 MeV/amu. Dose rates (mrem/h) 1 meter from the target 90 degrees from the beam direction range from approx. 0.05 at MeV/amu to approx. 50 at 16 MeV/amu. These data should be helpful in planning permissive entry to heavy ion target areas.

  19. A thirteen week ad libitum administration toxicity study of tartrazine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tartrazine is a colorant widely used in food products, drugs and cosmetics. The current study evaluates the effect of sub-chronic ingestion of tartrazine in drinking water at doses of 0, 0.1, 0.45, 1 and 2.5% for 13 weeks in mice. Our results show that female body weight gain and food consumption decreased in all treated ...

  20. Safety and convenience of once-weekly somapacitan in adult GH deficiency: a 26-week randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsson, Gudmundur; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Håkonsson, Ida Holme; Biering, Henrik; Rodien, Patrice; Tahara, Shigeyuki; Toogood, Andrew; Rasmussen, Michael Højby

    2018-05-01

    Somapacitan is a reversible albumin-binding growth hormone (GH) derivative, developed for once-weekly administration. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of once-weekly somapacitan vs once-daily Norditropin ® . Local tolerability and treatment satisfaction were also assessed. 26-week randomized, controlled phase 3 safety and tolerability trial in six countries (Nbib2382939). Male or female patients aged 18-79 years with adult GH deficiency (AGHD), treated with once-daily GH for ≥6 months, were randomized to once-weekly somapacitan ( n  = 61) or once-daily Norditropin ( n  = 31) administered subcutaneously by pen. Both treatments were dose titrated for 8 weeks to achieve insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) standard deviation score (SDS) levels within the normal range, and then administered at a fixed dose. Outcome measures were adverse events (AEs), including injection site reactions; occurrence of anti-somapacitan/anti-GH antibodies and change in treatment satisfaction, assessed using the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication-9 (TSQM-9). Mean IGF-I SDS remained between 0 and 2 SDS throughout the trial in both groups. AEs were mostly mild or moderate and transient in nature. The most common AEs were nasopharyngitis, headache and fatigue in both groups. More than 1500 somapacitan injections were administered and no clinically significant injection site reactions were reported. No anti-somapacitan or anti-GH antibodies were detected. The TSQM-9 score for convenience increased significantly more with somapacitan vs Norditropin ( P  = 0.0171). In this 26-week trial in patients with AGHD, somapacitan was well tolerated and no safety issues were identified. Once-weekly somapacitan was reported to be more convenient than once-daily Norditropin. © 2018 The authors.

  1. Maternal risk factors in fetal alcohol syndrome: provocative and permissive influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, E L; Hannigan, J H

    1995-01-01

    We present an hypothesis integrating epidemiological, clinical case, and basic biomedical research to explain why only relatively few women who drink alcohol during pregnancy give birth to children with alcohol-related birth defects (ARBDs), in particular, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). We argue that specific sociobehavioral risk factors, e.g., low socioeconomic status, are permissive for FAS in that they provide the context for increased vulnerability. We illustrate how these permissive factors are related to biological factors, e.g., decreased antioxidant status, which in conjunction with alcohol, provoke FAS/ARBDs in vulnerable fetuses. We propose an integrative heuristic model hypothesizing that these permissive and provocative factors increase the likelihood of FAS/ARBDs because they potentiate two related mechanisms of alcohol-induced teratogenesis, specifically, maternal/fetal hypoxia and free radical formation.

  2. Weekly infusional high-dose fluorouracil (HD-FU), HD-FU plus folinic acid (HD-FU/FA), or HD-FU/FA plus biweekly cisplatin in advanced gastric cancer: randomized phase II trial 40953 of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Gastrointestinal Group and the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Internistische Onkologie.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, M.P.; Wilke, H.; Wagener, D.J.T.; Vanhoefer, U.; Jeziorski, K.; Hegewisch-Becker, S.; Balleisen, L.; Joossens, E.; Jansen, R.L.; Debois, M.; Bethe, U.; Praet, M.; Wils, J.; Cutsem, E. van

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: This multicentric, randomized, two-stage phase II trial evaluated three simplified weekly infusional regimens of fluorouracil (FU) or FU plus folinic acid (FA) and cisplatin (Cis) with the aim to select a regimen for future phase III trials. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 145 patients

  3. Controllable dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.; Anaya M, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    With the purpose of eliminating the controversy about the lineal hypothesis without threshold which found the systems of dose limitation of the recommendations of ICRP 26 and 60, at the end of last decade R. Clarke president of the ICRP proposed the concept of Controllable Dose: as the dose or dose sum that an individual receives from a particular source which can be reasonably controllable by means of any means; said concept proposes a change in the philosophy of the radiological protection of its concern by social approaches to an individual focus. In this work a panorama of the foundations is presented, convenient and inconveniences that this proposal has loosened in the international community of the radiological protection, with the purpose of to familiarize to our Mexican community in radiological protection with these new concepts. (Author)

  4. WifiLeaks: Underestimated Privacy Implications of the ACCESS_WIFI_STATE Android Permission

    OpenAIRE

    Achara , Jagdish Prasad; Cunche , Mathieu; Roca , Vincent; Francillon , Aurélien

    2014-01-01

    A short version has been accepted for publication in: 7th ACM Conference on Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks (WISEC'14) Oxford, United Kingdom, July 23rd -- 25th 2014; On Android, users can choose to install an application, or not, based on the permissions it requests. These permissions are later enforced on the application by the system, e.g., when accessing sensitive user data. In this work, we focus on the access to Wi-Fi related information, which is protected by the A...

  5. A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR MANAGING RADIATION DOSE TO PATIENTS IN DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY USING REFERENCE DOSE LEVELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almén, Anja; Båth, Magnus

    2016-06-01

    The overall aim of the present work was to develop a conceptual framework for managing radiation dose in diagnostic radiology with the intention to support optimisation. An optimisation process was first derived. The framework for managing radiation dose, based on the derived optimisation process, was then outlined. The outset of the optimisation process is four stages: providing equipment, establishing methodology, performing examinations and ensuring quality. The optimisation process comprises a series of activities and actions at these stages. The current system of diagnostic reference levels is an activity in the last stage, ensuring quality. The system becomes a reactive activity only to a certain extent engaging the core activity in the radiology department, performing examinations. Three reference dose levels-possible, expected and established-were assigned to the three stages in the optimisation process, excluding ensuring quality. A reasonably achievable dose range is also derived, indicating an acceptable deviation from the established dose level. A reasonable radiation dose for a single patient is within this range. The suggested framework for managing radiation dose should be regarded as one part of the optimisation process. The optimisation process constitutes a variety of complementary activities, where managing radiation dose is only one part. This emphasises the need to take a holistic approach integrating the optimisation process in different clinical activities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. NEUTRON AND PHOTON DOSE MAPPING OF A DD NEUTRON GENERATOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwally, Walid A; Taqatqa, Osama A; Ballaith, Mohammed M; Chen, Allan X; Piestrup, Melvin A

    2017-11-01

    Neutron generators are an excellent tool that can be effectively utilized in educational institutions for applications such as neutron activation analysis, neutron radiography, and profiling and irradiation effects. For safety purposes, it is imperative that appropriate measures are taken in order to minimize the radiation dose from such devices to the operators, students and the public. This work presents the simulation and measurement results for the neutron and photon dose rates in the vicinity of the neutron generator installed at the University of Sharjah. A very good agreement is found between the simulated and measured dose rates. All of the public dose constraints were found to be met. The occupational dose constraint was also met after imposing a 200 cm no entry zone around the generator room. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. 78 FR 69749 - American Education Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Education Week offers a chance to express our gratitude to educators across our Nation. Let us do so with a... Education Week, 2013 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 224...

  8. Understanding Infidelity: An Interview with Gerald Weeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Travis

    2011-01-01

    In this interview, Gerald Weeks shares his expertise on the topic of infidelity and couples counseling. Dr. Weeks defines infidelity, presents assessment strategies for treating the issue of infidelity, and discusses an intersystemic model for infidelity treatment when counseling couples. Dr. Weeks also provides insight into common mistakes made…

  9. Permissiveness toward divorce : The influence of divorce experiences in three social contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we assess whether divorce experiences in three social contexts shape individual’s permissiveness toward divorce. Using European Values Study data from 44 countries, we find that—net of personal divorce experience—parental divorce before the age of 18 (socialization context); parental

  10. Permissiveness toward divorce: The influence of divorce experiences in three social contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we assess whether divorce experiences in three social contexts shape individual’s permissiveness toward divorce. Using European Values Study data from 44 countries, we find that—net of personal divorce experience—parental divorce before the age of 18 (socialization context); parental

  11. The study on the adaptation for regulation - the permission of a radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung Il; Choi, Won Seok; Jung, Yong Moon [Gallup Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-08-15

    The restriction -the permission of a radioisotope keeps satisfaction with almost parts for example, awareness, observance and so on. Moreover two concepts are considered fully -too strict about certain specific control rules and needed more discriminated application standards to each organization related to KINS, it's preserved and controlled properly even if the penalties are downsized.

  12. A colorimetric sensor array for identification of toxic gases below permissible exposure limits†

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Liang; Musto, Christopher J.; Kemling, Jonathan W.; Lim, Sung H.; Suslick, Kenneth S.

    2010-01-01

    A colorimetric sensor array has been developed for the rapid and sensitive detection of 20 toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) at their PELs (permissible exposure limits). The color changes in an array of chemically responsive nanoporous pigments provide facile identification of the TICs with an error rate below 0.7%.

  13. Student Learning with Permissive and Restrictive Cell Phone Policies: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Alexander L.

    2018-01-01

    Based on Finn and Ledbetter's (2013; 2014) work regarding classroom technology policies, this experimental study examined the implementation of a permissive and a restrictive cellular phone policy and the effect of these policies on students' cognitive and affective learning in two sections of a public speaking course. College students (N = 31)…

  14. 34 CFR 222.194 - Are “in-kind” contributions permissible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (b) Third party in-kind contributions mean property or services that benefit this grant program and... indirect costs, the provisions of 34 CFR 80.24 govern the allowability and valuation of in-kind contributions, except that it is permissible for a third party to contribute real property to a grantee for a...

  15. Corruption and the Other(s): Scope of Superordinate Identity Matters for Corruption Permissibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisor, Anne C; Gurven, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The decision to engage in corruption-public and private corruption, nepotism, and embezzlement-is often attributed to rational actors maximizing benefits to themselves. However, the importance of reciprocal relationships in humans suggests that an actor may weigh the costs of harms of her corrupt behavior to individuals who may generate future benefits for her. We hypothesize that actors who have a larger circle of actual and potential social partners will have more individuals to consider when generating harms and will thus be less likely to find corrupt acts permissible than actors with smaller circles of valued others. Using data from the World Values Survey and European Values Study (WVS), we explore whether participants with a larger geographic identity or a greater number of group memberships (i.e. a larger scope of actual and potential social partners) are less likely to find accepting bribes permissible. We find mixed support for our hypotheses, but consistently find that WVS participants with local, country, continent, or world geographic identities are less likely to find accepting a bribe permissible than those with regional identities-that is, actors whose primary identities that encompass more than their region find corruption less permissible. We discuss the importance of considering an actor's valuation of others when modeling corruption persistence, noting that establishing scopes of positive valuation is a precursor to predicting where actors will target benefits and shunt costs.

  16. 17 CFR 240.12f-1 - Applications for permission to reinstate unlisted trading privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reinstate unlisted trading privileges. 240.12f-1 Section 240.12f-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Rules and Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Unlisted Trading § 240.12f-1 Applications for permission to reinstate unlisted trading privileges. (a) An application to reinstate unlisted...

  17. 12 CFR 714.2 - What are the permissible leasing arrangements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the permissible leasing arrangements? 714.2 Section 714.2 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING... leasing. In direct leasing, you purchase personal property from a vendor, becoming the owner of the...

  18. 30 CFR 75.504 - Permissibility of new, replacement, used, reconditioned, additional, and rebuilt electric face...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.504 Permissibility of new, replacement... new, replacement, used, reconditioned, and additional electric face equipment used in any mine..., unless in the opinion of the Secretary, such equipment or necessary replacement parts are not available...

  19. 49 CFR 350.319 - What are permissible uses of High Priority Activity Funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Activity Funds? 350.319 Section 350.319 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... permissible uses of High Priority Activity Funds? (a) The FMCSA may generally use these funds to support, enrich, or evaluate State CMV safety programs and to accomplish the five objectives listed below: (1...

  20. Guidance document on the derivation of maximum permissible risk levels for human intake of soil contaminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen PJCM; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1997-01-01

    This report contains a basic step-to-step description of the procedure followed in the derivation of the human-toxicological Maximum Permissible Risk (MPR ; in Dutch: Maximum Toelaatbaar Risico, MTR) for soil contaminants. In recent years this method has been applied for a large number of compounds

  1. Android Application Install-time Permission Validation and Run-time Malicious Pattern Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    The open source structure of Android applications introduces security vulnerabilities that can be readily exploited by third-party applications. We address certain vulnerabilities at both installation and runtime using machine learning. Effective classification techniques with neural networks can be used to verify the application categories on installation. We devise a novel application category verification methodology that involves machine learning the application permissions...

  2. AN OPTIMAL REPLENISHMENT POLICY FOR DETERIORATING ITEMS WITH RAMP TYPE DEMAND UNDER PERMISSIBLE DELAY IN PAYMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sanjay Jain

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop an optimal replenishment policy for inventory models of deteriorating items with ramp type demand under permissible delay in payments. Deterioration of items begins on their arrival in stock.  An example is also presented to illustrate the application of developed model.

  3. Early alcohol use with parental permission: Psychosocial characteristics and drinking in late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colder, Craig R; Shyhalla, Kathleen; Frndak, Seth E

    2018-01-01

    The earliest experiences with alcohol for many children occur in the family context with parental supervision. The current study examined individual and sociocultural characteristics associated with early (prior to age 13years) sipping and tasting alcohol with parental permission in two longitudinal community samples. Early sipping/tasting was also tested as a predictor of frequency and quantity of alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems seven years later in late adolescence. Early sipping/tasting with parental permission was associated with a sociocultural context supportive of alcohol use (e.g., parental alcohol use, permissive rules about alcohol use in the home, parental attitudes about underage drinking, perceived peer norms), adolescent sensation seeking and disinhibition (e.g., surgency, externalizing behavior) and appraisals of alcohol (negative outcome expectancies and negative implicit alcohol associations). Early sipping/tasting predicted increased frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption, and increased alcohol-related problems in late adolescence, even after controlling sociocultural and individual difference variables. Findings suggest that early sipping/tasting with parental permission is not benign and is a viable target for preventive interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 42 CFR 433.67 - Limitations on level of FFP for permissible provider-related donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provider-related donations. 433.67 Section 433.67 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... permissible provider-related donations. (a)(1) Limitations on bona fide donations. There are no limitations on the amount of bona fide provider-related donations that a State may receive without a reduction in FFP...

  5. A cash flow oriented EOQ model under permissible delay in payments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cash flow oriented EOQ model under permissible delay in payments. RP Tripathi, SS Misra, HS Shukla. Abstract. This study presents an inventory model to determine an optimal ordering policy for non-deteriorating items and timedependent demand rate with delay in payments permitted by the supplier under inflation and ...

  6. 77 FR 17367 - Permissible Sharing of Client Records by Customs Brokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ...-0038] RIN 1651-AA80 Permissible Sharing of Client Records by Customs Brokers AGENCY: U.S. Customs and... would allow brokers, upon the client's consent in a written authorization, to share client information... services to the broker's clients. Although the proposed rule was prepared in response to a request from a...

  7. 75 FR 66050 - Permissible Sharing of Client Records by Customs Brokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    .... USCBP-2010-0038] RIN 1651-AA80 Permissible Sharing of Client Records by Customs Brokers AGENCIES... the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) pertaining to the obligations of customs brokers to keep clients' information confidential. The proposed amendment would allow brokers, upon the client's consent in a written...

  8. 36 CFR 223.7 - Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER General Provisions § 223.7 Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas. Similar material may be cut outside of a free-use area without permit in cases of emergency, but the person taking such material shall promptly notify...

  9. 26 CFR 1.414(w)-1 - Permissible withdrawals from eligible automatic contribution arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contribution arrangements. 1.414(w)-1 Section 1.414(w)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Plans, Etc. § 1.414(w)-1 Permissible withdrawals from eligible automatic contribution arrangements. (a) Overview. Section 414(w) provides rules under which certain employees are permitted to elect to make a...

  10. Maximum Permissible Risk Levels for Human Intake of Soil Contaminants: Fourth Series of Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen PJCM; Apeldoorn ME van; Engelen JGM van; Schielen PCJI; Wouters MFA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the human-toxicological risk assessment work done in 1996 and 1997 at RIVM's Centre for Substances and Risk Assessment within the scope of the RIVM project on soil intervention values for soil clean-up. The method used for derivation of the Maximum Permissible Risk, as

  11. Corruption and the Other(s: Scope of Superordinate Identity Matters for Corruption Permissibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne C Pisor

    Full Text Available The decision to engage in corruption-public and private corruption, nepotism, and embezzlement-is often attributed to rational actors maximizing benefits to themselves. However, the importance of reciprocal relationships in humans suggests that an actor may weigh the costs of harms of her corrupt behavior to individuals who may generate future benefits for her. We hypothesize that actors who have a larger circle of actual and potential social partners will have more individuals to consider when generating harms and will thus be less likely to find corrupt acts permissible than actors with smaller circles of valued others. Using data from the World Values Survey and European Values Study (WVS, we explore whether participants with a larger geographic identity or a greater number of group memberships (i.e. a larger scope of actual and potential social partners are less likely to find accepting bribes permissible. We find mixed support for our hypotheses, but consistently find that WVS participants with local, country, continent, or world geographic identities are less likely to find accepting a bribe permissible than those with regional identities-that is, actors whose primary identities that encompass more than their region find corruption less permissible. We discuss the importance of considering an actor's valuation of others when modeling corruption persistence, noting that establishing scopes of positive valuation is a precursor to predicting where actors will target benefits and shunt costs.

  12. Weekly infusional high-dose fluorouracil (HD-FU), HD-FU plus folinic acid (HD-FU/FA), or HD-FU/FA plus biweekly cisplatin in advanced gastric cancer: randomized phase II trial 40953 of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Gastrointestinal Group and the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Internistische Onkologie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Manfred P; Wilke, Hansjochen; Wagener, D J Theo; Vanhoefer, Udo; Jeziorski, Krzysztof; Hegewisch-Becker, Susanna; Balleisen, Leopold; Joossens, Eric; Jansen, Rob L; Debois, Muriel; Bethe, Ullrich; Praet, Michel; Wils, Jacques; Van Cutsem, Eric

    2007-06-20

    This multicentric, randomized, two-stage phase II trial evaluated three simplified weekly infusional regimens of fluorouracil (FU) or FU plus folinic acid (FA) and cisplatin (Cis) with the aim to select a regimen for future phase III trials. A total of 145 patients with advanced gastric cancer where randomly assigned to weekly FU 3,000 mg/m2/24 hours (HD-FU), FU 2,600 mg/m2/24 hours plus dl-FA 500 mg/m2 or l-FA 250 mg/m2 (HD-FU/FA), or FU 2000 mg/m2/24 hours plus FA plus biweekly Cis 50 mg/m2, each administered for 6 weeks with a 1-week rest. The primary end point was the response rate. Confirmed responses were observed in 6.1% (two of 33) of the eligible patients treated with HD-FU, in 25% (12 of 48, including one complete remission [CR]) with HD-FU/FA, and in 45.7% (21 of 46, including four CRs) with HD-FU/FA/Cis. The HD-FU arm was closed after stage 1 because the required minimum number of responses was not met. The median progression-free survival of all patients in the HD-FU, HD-FU/FA, and HD-FU/FA/Cis arm was 1.9, 4.0, and 6.1 months, respectively. The median overall survival was 7.1, 8.9, and 9.7 months, and the survival rate at 1 year was 24.3%, 30.3%, and 45.3%, respectively. Grade 4 toxicities were rare. The most relevant grade 3/4 toxicities were neutropenia in 1.9%, 5.4%, and 19.6%, and diarrhea in 2.7%, 1.9%, and 3.9% of the cycles in the HD-FU, HD-FU/FA, and HD-/FU/Cis arms, respectively. Weekly infusional FU/FA plus biweekly Cis is effective and safe in patients with gastric cancer.

  13. Bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% preservative-free ophthalmic solution versus bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution (Ganfort) for glaucoma or ocular hypertension: a 12-week randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ivan; Gil Pina, Rafael; Lanzagorta-Aresti, Aitor; Schiffman, Rhett M; Liu, Charlie; Bejanian, Marina

    2014-07-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of single-dose bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% preservative-free (PF) ophthalmic solution with bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. In this multicentre, randomised, parallel-group study, patients were randomised to bimatoprost/timolol PF or bimatoprost/timolol once daily in the morning for 12 weeks. Primary efficacy endpoints, reflecting differing regional regulatory requirements, included change from baseline in worse eye intraocular pressure (IOP) in the per-protocol population at week 12, and the average eye IOP at weeks 2, 6 and 12 in the intent-to-treat population. 561 patients were randomised (278 to bimatoprost/timolol PF; 283 to bimatoprost/timolol); 96.3% completed the study. Both treatment groups showed statistically and clinically significant mean decreases from baseline in worse eye IOP and in average eye IOP at all follow-up time points (p<0.001). Bimatoprost/timolol PF met all pre-established criteria for non-inferiority and equivalence to bimatoprost/timolol. Ocular adverse events were similar between treatment groups, with conjunctival hyperaemia being the most frequent. Most were mild or moderate in severity. Bimatoprost/timolol PF demonstrated non-inferiority and equivalence in IOP lowering compared with bimatoprost/timolol, with no significant differences in safety and tolerability. NCT01177098. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Telemedicine-guided, very low-dose international normalized ratio self-control in patients with mechanical heart valve implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koertke, Heinrich; Zittermann, Armin; Wagner, Otto; Secer, Songuel; Sciangula, Alfonso; Saggau, Werner; Sack, Falk-Udo; Ennker, Jürgen; Cremer, Jochen; Musumeci, Francesco; Gummert, Jan F

    2015-06-01

    To study in patients performing international normalized ratio (INR) self-control the efficacy and safety of an INR target range of 1.6-2.1 for aortic valve replacement (AVR) and 2.0-2.5 for mitral valve replacement (MVR) or double valve replacement (DVR). In total, 1304 patients undergoing AVR, 189 undergoing MVR and 78 undergoing DVR were randomly assigned to low-dose INR self-control (LOW group) (INR target range, AVR: 1.8-2.8; MVR/DVR: 2.5-3.5) or very low-dose INR self-control once a week (VLO group) and twice a week (VLT group) (INR target range, AVR: 1.6-2.1; MVR/DVR: 2.0-2.5), with electronically guided transfer of INR values. We compared grade III complications (major bleeding and thrombotic events; primary end-points) and overall mortality (secondary end-point) across the three treatment groups. Two-year freedom from bleedings in the LOW, VLO, and VLT groups was 96.3, 98.6, and 99.1%, respectively (P = 0.008). The corresponding values for thrombotic events were 99.0, 99.8, and 98.9%, respectively (P = 0.258). The risk-adjusted composite of grade III complications was in the per-protocol population (reference: LOW-dose group) as follows: hazard ratio = 0.307 (95% CI: 0.102-0.926; P = 0.036) for the VLO group and = 0.241 (95% CI: 0.070-0.836; P = 0.025) for the VLT group. The corresponding values of 2-year mortality were = 1.685 (95% CI: 0.473-5.996; P = 0.421) for the VLO group and = 4.70 (95% CI: 1.62-13.60; P = 0.004) for the VLT group. Telemedicine-guided very low-dose INR self-control is comparable with low-dose INR in thrombotic risk, and is superior in bleeding risk. Weekly testing is sufficient. Given the small number of MVR and DVR patients, results are only valid for AVR patients. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Weldon Spring dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, H.W.; Hill, G.S.; Perdue, P.T.

    1978-09-01

    In response to a request by the Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) Office of the Department of Energy (DOE) for assistance to the Department of the Army (DA) on the decommissioning of the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant, the Health and Safety Research Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performed limited dose assessment calculations for that site. Based upon radiological measurements from a number of soil samples analyzed by ORNL and from previously acquired radiological data for the Weldon Spring site, source terms were derived to calculate radiation doses for three specific site scenarios. These three hypothetical scenarios are: a wildlife refuge for hunting, fishing, and general outdoor recreation; a school with 40 hr per week occupancy by students and a custodian; and a truck farm producing fruits, vegetables, meat, and dairy products which may be consumed on site. Radiation doses are reported for each of these scenarios both for measured uranium daughter equilibrium ratios and for assumed secular equilibrium. Doses are lower for the nonequilibrium case

  16. Gastrointestinal tolerability with ibandronate after previous weekly bisphosphonate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Richard; Kohles, Joseph D; Babbitt, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Data from two open-label trials (PRIOR and CURRENT) of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteopenia were evaluated to assess whether monthly oral and quarterly intravenous (IV) ibandronate dosing improved self-reported gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability for patients who had previously experienced GI irritation with bisphosphonate (BP) use. In PRIOR, women who had discontinued daily or weekly BP treatment due to GI intolerance received monthly oral or quarterly IV ibandronate for 12 months. The CURRENT subanalysis included women receiving weekly BP treatment who switched to monthly oral ibandronate for six months. GI symptom severity and frequency were assessed using the Osteoporosis Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire. In PRIOR, mean GI tolerability scores increased significantly at month 1 from screening for both treatment groups (oral: 79.3 versus 54.1; IV: 84.4 versus 51.0; p 90% at Month 10). In the CURRENT subanalysis >60% of patients reported improvements in heartburn or acid reflux and >70% indicated improvement in other stomach upset at month 6. Postmenopausal women with GI irritability with daily or weekly BPs experienced improvement in symptoms with extended dosing monthly or quarterly ibandronate compared with baseline.

  17. Dose and dose rate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakova, O.; Ryba, J.; Slezak, V.; Svobodova, B.; Viererbl, L.

    1984-10-01

    The methods are discussea of measuring dose rate or dose using a scintillation counte. A plastic scintillator based on polystyrene with PBD and POPOP activators and coated with ZnS(Ag) was chosen for the projected monitor. The scintillators were cylindrical and spherical in shape and of different sizes; black polypropylene tubes were chosen as the best case for the probs. For the counter with different plastic scintillators, the statistical error 2σ for natural background was determined. For determining the suitable thickness of the ZnS(Ag) layer the energy dependence of the counter was measured. Radioisotopes 137 Cs, 241 Am and 109 Cd were chosen as radiation sources. The best suited ZnS(Ag) thickness was found to be 0.5 μm. Experiments were carried out to determine the directional dependence of the detector response and the signal to noise ratio. The temperature dependence of the detector response and its compensation were studied, as were the time stability and fatigue manifestations of the photomultiplier. The design of a laboratory prototype of a dose rate and dose monitor is described. Block diagrams are given of the various functional parts of the instrument. The designed instrument is easiiy portable, battery powered, measures dose rates from natural background in the range of five orders, i.e., 10 -2 to 10 3 nGy/s, and allows to determine a dose of up to 10 mGy. Accouracy of measurement in the energy range of 50 keV to 1 MeV is better than +-20%. (E.S.)

  18. TFH cells accumulate in mucosal tissues of humanized-DRAG mice and are highly permissive to HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Atef; Majji, Sai; Peachman, Kristina; Jagodzinski, Linda; Kim, Jiae; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Wijayalath, Wathsala; Merbah, Melanie; Kim, Jerome H.; Michael, Nelson L.; Alving, Carl R.; Casares, Sofia; Rao, Mangala

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ T follicular helper cells (TFH) in germinal centers are required for maturation of B-cells. While the role of TFH-cells has been studied in blood and lymph nodes of HIV-1 infected individuals, its role in the mucosal tissues has not been investigated. We show that the gut and female reproductive tract (FRT) of humanized DRAG mice have a high level of human lymphocytes and a high frequency of TFH (CXCR5+PD-1++) and precursor-TFH (CXCR5+PD-1+) cells. The majority of TFH-cells expressed CCR5 and CXCR3 and are the most permissive to HIV-1 infection. A single low-dose intravaginal HIV-1 challenge of humanized DRAG mice results in 100% infectivity with accumulation of TFH-cells mainly in the Peyer’s patches and FRT. The novel finding of TFH-cells in the FRT may contribute to the high susceptibility of DRAG mice to HIV-1 infection. This mouse model thus provides new opportunities to study TFH-cells and to evaluate HIV-1 vaccines. PMID:26034905

  19. Pooled analysis of phase II trials evaluating weekly or conventional cisplatin as first-line therapy for advanced urothelial carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maughan, Benjamin L; Agarwal, Neeraj; Hussain, Syed A

    2013-01-01

    Weekly gemcitabine with GC every 3-4 weeks is considered conventional first-line chemotherapy for advanced urothelial carcinoma (UC). Weekly split-dose cisplatin with wGC might be less toxic and have similar activity, but has not been compared with GC. We pooled published phase II trials of GC an...

  20. Model of organ dose combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valley, J.-F.; Lerch, P.

    1977-01-01

    The ICRP recommendations are based on the limitation of the dose to each organ. In the application and for a unique source the critical organ concept allows to limit the calculation and represents the irradiation status of an individuum. When several sources of radiation are involved the derivation of the dose contribution of each source to each organ is necessary. In order to represent the irradiation status a new parameter is to be defined. Propositions have been made by some authors, in particular by Jacobi introducing at this level biological parameters like the incidence rate of detriment and its severity. The new concept is certainly richer than a simple dose notion. However, in the actual situation of knowledge about radiation effects an intermediate parameter, using only physical concepts and the maximum permissible doses to the organs, seems more appropriate. The model, which is a generalization of the critical organ concept and shall be extended in the future to take the biological effects into account, will be presented [fr

  1. Permissive and instructive anterior patterning rely on mRNA localization in the wasp embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Ava E; Yucel, Gozde; Small, Stephen; Desplan, Claude

    2007-03-30

    The long-germ mode of embryogenesis, in which segments arise simultaneously along the anteriorposterior axis, has evolved several times in different lineages of the holometabolous, or fully metamorphosing, insects. Drosophila's long-germ fate map is established largely by the activity of the dipteran-specific Bicoid (Bcd) morphogen gradient, which operates both instructively and permissively to accomplish anterior patterning. By contrast, all nondipteran long-germ insects must achieve anterior patterning independently of bcd. We show that bcd's permissive function is mimicked in the wasp by a maternal repression system in which anterior localization of the wasp ortholog of giant represses anterior expression of the trunk gap genes so that head and thorax can properly form.

  2. Mycobacteria exploit nitric oxide-induced transformation of macrophages into permissive giant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharun, Kourosh; Senges, Julia; Seidl, Maximilian; Lösslein, Anne; Kolter, Julia; Lohrmann, Florens; Fliegauf, Manfred; Elgizouli, Magdeldin; Vavra, Martina; Schachtrup, Kristina; Illert, Anna L; Gilleron, Martine; Kirschning, Carsten J; Triantafyllopoulou, Antigoni; Henneke, Philipp

    2017-12-01

    Immunity to mycobacteria involves the formation of granulomas, characterized by a unique macrophage (MΦ) species, so-called multinucleated giant cells (MGC). It remains unresolved whether MGC are beneficial to the host, that is, by prevention of bacterial spread, or whether they promote mycobacterial persistence. Here, we show that the prototypical antimycobacterial molecule nitric oxide (NO), which is produced by MGC in excessive amounts, is a double-edged sword. Next to its antibacterial capacity, NO propagates the transformation of MΦ into MGC, which are relatively permissive for mycobacterial persistence. The mechanism underlying MGC formation involves NO-induced DNA damage and impairment of p53 function. Moreover, MGC have an unsurpassed potential to engulf mycobacteria-infected apoptotic cells, which adds a further burden to their antimycobacterial capacity. Accordingly, mycobacteria take paradoxical advantage of antimicrobial cellular efforts by driving effector MΦ into a permissive MGC state. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. A Rational Threshold Signature Model and Protocol Based on Different Permissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a novel model and protocol used in some specific scenarios, in which the participants of multiple groups with different permissions can finish the signature together. We apply the secret sharing scheme based on difference equation to the private key distribution phase and secret reconstruction phrase of our threshold signature scheme. In addition, our scheme can achieve the signature success because of the punishment strategy of the repeated rational secret sharing. Besides, the bit commitment and verification method used to detect players’ cheating behavior acts as a contributing factor to prevent the internal fraud. Using bit commitments, verifiable parameters, and time sequences, this paper constructs a dynamic game model, which has the features of threshold signature management with different permissions, cheat proof, and forward security.

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Permissiveness to Dengue Virus Serotype 2 Infection in Primary Rodent Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Prada-Arismendy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with dengue virus presents a broad clinical spectrum, which can range from asymptomatic cases to severe cases that are characterised by haemorrhagic syndrome and/or shock. The reason for such variability remains unknown. This work evaluated the in vitro permissiveness of mouse, rat, hamster and guinea pig macrophages to infection by dengue virus 2 (DENV2. The results established that macrophages derived from the BALB/c mouse strain showed higher permissiveness to DENV2 infection than macrophages from other rodent species, although all rodent species studied had the C820T mutation in the oligoadenylate synthetase 1b gene, indicating no relationship to the different in vitro susceptibilities of mouse cells at this locus. Other molecular mechanisms related to flavivirus susceptibility remain to be explored.

  5. A Static Android Malware Detection Based on Actual Used Permissions Combination and API Calls

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoqing Wang; Junfeng Wang; Xiaolan Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Android operating system has been recognized by most application developers because of its good open-source and compatibility, which enriches the categories of applications greatly. However, it has become the target of malware attackers due to the lack of strict security supervision mechanisms, which leads to the rapid growth of malware, thus bringing serious safety hazards to users. Therefore, it is critical to detect Android malware effectively. Generally, the permissions declared in the An...

  6. Determination of Permissible Short-Time Emergency Overloading of Turbo-Generators and Synchronous Compensators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Anischenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that failure to take into account variable ratio of short-time emergency overloading of turbo-generators (synchronous compensators that can lead to underestimation of overloading capacity or impermissible insulation over-heating.A method has been developed for determination of permissible duration of short-time emergency over-loading that takes into account changes of over-loading ratio in case of a failure.

  7. PROBABILISTIC APPROACH FOR THE DETERMINATION OF CUTS PERMISSIBLE BRAKING MODES ON THE GRAVITY HUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr BOBROVSKYI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research results of cuts braking modes on the gravity humps. The objective of this paper is developing the methods for assessment of braking modes of cuts under conditions of fuzziness of their rolling properties, as well as selecting the permissible starting speed range of cuts from retardant positions. As a criterion for assessing the modes of target control of cut rolling speed, it was proposed to use an average gap size on a classification track at the established norms of probable exceeding of permissible speed of cars collision and their stop in retarders. As a criterion for evaluating the modes of interval control of cuts rolling speed, using the risk of their non-separation on the switches was proposed. Using the simulation modeling and mathematical statistics, the configuration of the range of permissible speed of cuts coming out from retardant positions has been set. The conducted researches allow simplifying the choice of cut braking modes in systems of automatic control of cut rolling speed.

  8. Efficacy and safety of once-weekly intravenous epoetin alfa in maintaining hemoglobin levels in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Francesco; Villa, Giuseppe; Messa, Piergiorgio; Filippini, Armando; Cannella, Giuseppe; De Ferrari, Giacomo; Naso, Agostino; Rossi, Egidio; Formica, Marco; Lombardi, Luigi; Rotolo, Ugo; Conte, Feruccio

    2008-01-01

    Although an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) is most frequently administered intravenously for treatment of anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease who are on dialysis, few studies have compared the efficacy of different intravenous (i.v.) dosing schedules. This multicenter, phase IIIb, open-label, controlled study randomized 289 stable hemodialysis patients to continue with conventional dosing of i.v. epoetin alfa or darbepoetin, or to switch to once-weekly i.v. epoetin alfa at the same cumulative weekly starting dose, to maintain hemoglobin levels at 11.0-13.0 g/dL, and within 1.0 g/dL of the baseline value. Hemoglobin levels and ESA doses were recorded every 4 weeks for 28 weeks. Hemoglobin levels fell significantly and ESA doses increased significantly between baseline and week 28 (mean of week 16-28 values) in the once-weekly epoetin alfa group, compared with the conventional treatment group (phemoglobin levels between the groups was 0.73 g/dL (greater than the threshold for therapeutic equivalence of 0.5 g/dL). The changes between groups from baseline was significant at all time points for hemoglobin levels (0.36, 0.46, 0.81, 0.87, 0.78, 0.62 and 0.49 g/dL) and from week 12 for ESA dose (718.5, 1,326.5, 1,732.0, 1,839.7 and 1,959.1 IU/week; p=0.005). Hemoglobin was maintained at the target level in 78% and 84% of patients on conventional dosing, and 67% and 64% of those on once-weekly epoetin alfa in the intention-to-treat (p=0.1) and per protocol (p=0.016) populations, respectively. This study did not show therapeutic equivalence of once-weekly i.v. epoetin alfa with conventional dosing regimens.

  9. Low and high dose rate heavy ion radiation-induced intestinal and colonic tumorigenesis in APC1638N/+ mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Shubhankar; Kumar, Santosh; Moon, Bo-Hyun; Fornace, Albert J.; Datta, Kamal

    2017-05-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a recognized risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) and astronauts undertaking long duration space missions are expected to receive IR doses in excess of permissible limits with implications for colorectal carcinogenesis. Exposure to IR in outer space occurs at low doses and dose rates, and energetic heavy ions due to their high linear energy transfer (high-LET) characteristics remain a major concern for CRC risk in astronauts. Previously, we have demonstrated that intestinal tumorigenesis in a mouse model (APC1638N/+) of human colorectal cancer was significantly higher after exposure to high dose rate energetic heavy ions relative to low-LET γ radiation. The purpose of the current study was to compare intestinal tumorigenesis in APC1638N/+ mice after exposure to energetic heavy ions at high (50 cGy/min) and relatively low (0.33 cGy/min) dose rate. Male and female mice (6-8 weeks old) were exposed to either 10 or 50 cGy of 28Si (energy: 300 MeV/n; LET: 70 keV/μm) or 56Fe (energy: 1000 MeV/n; LET: 148 keV/μm) ions at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory in Brookhaven National Laboratory. Mice (n = 20 mice/group) were euthanized and intestinal and colon tumor frequency and size were counted 150 days after radiation exposure. Intestinal tumorigenesis in male mice exposed to 56Fe was similar for high and low dose rate exposures. Although male mice showed a decreasing trend at low dose rate relative to high dose rate exposures, the differences in tumor frequency between the two types of exposures were not statistically significant after 28Si radiation. In female mice, intestinal tumor frequency was similar for both radiation type and dose rates tested. In both male and female mice intestinal tumor size was not different after high and low dose rate radiation exposures. Colon tumor frequency in male and female mice after high and low dose rate energetic heavy ions was also not significantly different. In conclusion, intestinal and colonic tumor

  10. Regularity and irreversibility of weekly travel behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kitamura, R.; van der Hoorn, A.I.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Dynamic characteristics of travel behavior are analyzed in this paper using weekly travel diaries from two waves of panel surveys conducted six months apart. An analysis of activity engagement indicates the presence of significant regularity in weekly activity participation between the two waves.

  11. Student Time Usage during Fall Reading Week

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Ken; Pschibul, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the time usage and levels of perceived stress, academic workload, and recreation time for 177 students at the University of Windsor before, during, and after Fall Reading Week (FRW). Over a three-week span (at various times of the day), students received a message to their smartphone to complete a 20-second survey…

  12. Celebrating partnerships for International Development Week 2018 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-31

    Jan 31, 2018 ... International Development Week, observed February 4-10 this year, is an opportunity to focus on Canada's contributions ... This event is part of the 2018 International Development Week conference at the University of Ottawa. ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  13. Practice It: Create a Weekly Activity Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    At the beginning of the week, create an activity plan to help you reach your goals. Start by identifying your goals for the week. Based on your goals, write down when you are going to exercise and what you are going to do.

  14. 30 CFR 75.364 - Weekly examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weekly examination. 75.364 Section 75.364... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.364 Weekly examination. (a) Worked-out... bleeder system. (b) Hazardous conditions. At least every 7 days, an examination for hazardous conditions...

  15. 77 FR 42941 - Captive Nations Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ..., 2012 Captive Nations Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation When... unbreakable bonds endure. During Captive Nations Week, America renews our abiding ties to all peoples who... sound the call for reform. We see the same fierce hope in those who defy censorship and reach beyond an...

  16. Just one week 'til GridWorld

    CERN Multimedia

    Harris, Derrick

    2006-01-01

    "Here we are, one week from GridWorld, and I can feel the pressure rising. Although the news has been a little slow recently, I know that won't last long, and between next week and mid-November, I have a feelling I'll have heard from just about every vendor and organization in the Grid space." (1 page)

  17. A double Weekly Bulletin over Easter

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    During the Easter period, the weeks of 12 and 19 April, there will be only one issue of the Weekly Bulletin (no. 16-17/2004). Announcements for publication in the next issue (no. 18/2004) should be sent on Tuesday 20 April midday at the latest. Publication Section Tel. 79971

  18. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  19. The Impact of Different Permissible Exposure Limits on Hearing Threshold Levels Beyond 25 dBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayapathi, Balachandar S; Su, Anselm Ting; Koh, David

    2014-10-01

    Development of noise-induced hearing loss is reliant on a few factors such as frequency, intensity, and duration of noise exposure. The occurrence of this occupational malady has doubled from 120 million to 250 million in a decade. Countries such as Malaysia, India, and the US have adopted 90 dBA as the permissible exposure limit. According to the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the exposure limit for noise is 90 dBA, while that of the US National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is 85 dBA for 8 hours of noise exposure. This study aimed to assess the development of hearing threshold levels beyond 25 dBA on adoption of 85 dBA as the permissible exposure limit compared to 90 dBA. This is an intervention study done on two automobile factories. There were 203 employees exposed to noise levels beyond the action level. Hearing protection devices were distributed to reduce noise levels to a level between the permissible exposure limit and action level. The permissible exposure limits were 90 and 85 dBA in factories 1 and 2, respectively, while the action levels were 85 and 80 dBA, respectively. The hearing threshold levels of participants were measured at baseline and at first month of postshift exposure of noise. The outcome was measured by a manual audiometer. McNemar and chi-square tests were used in the statistical analysis. We found that hearing threshold levels of more than 25 dBA has changed significantly from pre-intervention to post-intervention among participants from both factories (3000 Hz for the right ear and 2000 Hz for the left ear). There was a statistically significant association between participants at 3000 Hz on the right ear at 'deteriorated' level ( χ² (1) = 4.08, φ = - 0.142, P = 0.043), whereas there was worsening of hearing threshold beyond 25 dBA among those embraced 90 dBA. The adoption of 85 dBA as the permissible exposure limit has preserved hearing threshold level among participants at 3000 Hz

  20. Delayed Dosing of Oral Rotavirus Vaccine Demonstrates Decreased Risk of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Associated With Serum Zinc: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgate, E Ross; Haque, Rashidul; Dickson, Dorothy M; Carmolli, Marya P; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Nayak, Uma; Qadri, Firdausi; Alam, Masud; Walsh, Mary Claire; Diehl, Sean A; Zaman, K; Petri, William A; Kirkpatrick, Beth D

    2016-09-01

    Rotavirus is the world's leading cause of childhood diarrheal death. Despite successes, oral rotavirus vaccines are less effective in developing countries. In an urban slum of Dhaka, we performed active diarrhea surveillance to evaluate monovalent G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine (RV1) efficacy and understand variables contributing to risk of rotavirus diarrhea (RVD). We performed a randomized controlled trial of monovalent oral rotavirus vaccine (RV1). Seven hundred healthy infants received RV1 or no RV1 (1:1) using delayed dosing (10 and 17 weeks) and were followed for 1 year. Intensive diarrhea surveillance was performed. The primary outcome was ≥1 episode of RVD. Nutritional, socioeconomic, and immunologic factors were assessed by logistic regression best-subsets analysis for association with risk of RVD and interactions with vaccine arm. Incidence of all RVD was 38.3 cases per 100 person-years. Per-protocol RV1 efficacy was 73.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 45.8%-87.0%) against severe RVD and 51% (95% CI, 33.8%-63.7%) against all RVD. Serum zinc level (odds ratio [OR], 0.77; P = .002) and lack of rotavirus immunoglobulin A (IgA) seroconversion (OR, 1.95; P = .018) were associated with risk of RVD, independent of vaccination status. Water treatment and exclusive breastfeeding were of borderline significance. Factors not associated with RVD included height for age at 10 weeks, vitamin D, retinol binding protein, maternal education, household income, and sex. In an urban slum with high incidence of RVD, the efficacy of RV1 against severe RVD was higher than anticipated in the setting of delayed dosing. Lower serum zinc level and lack of IgA seroconversion were associated with increased risk of RVD independent of vaccination. NCT01375647. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Dose rate constants for new dose quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschurlovits, M.; Daverda, G.; Leitner, A.

    1992-01-01

    Conceptual changes and new quantities made is necessary to reassess dose rate quantities. Calculations of the dose rate constant were done for air kerma, ambient dose equivalent and directional dose equivalent. The number of radionuclides is more than 200. The threshold energy is selected as 20 keV for the dose equivalent constants. The dose rate constant for the photon equivalent dose as used mainly in German speaking countries as a temporary quantity is also included. (Author)

  2. 29 CFR 3.5 - Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor. 3.5 Section 3.5 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND... STATES § 3.5 Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor...

  3. 11 CFR 114.15 - Permissible use of corporate and labor organization funds for certain electioneering communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissible use of corporate and labor organization funds for certain electioneering communications. 114.15 Section 114.15 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL CORPORATE AND LABOR ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY § 114.15 Permissible use of corporate...

  4. Time-dose modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kian Ang, K.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in fractionation schedule can be made by various approaches. However, from the first principle, it is anticipated that strategies of hyperfractionation and/or accelerated fractionation offer the most promised in improving the therapeutic ratio. Hyperfractionation is defined as a treatment schedule in which a large number of significantly reduced dose fractions (--1.2 Gy/fraction) is used to give a greater total dose in a conventional overall time period. The results of the pilot studies testing the efficacy of hyperfractionation have been encouraging. The most valid clinical trial of pure hyperfractionation, however, is that conducted by the EORTC. This study compared 70 Gy in 35 fractions or 80.5 Gy in 70 fractions over 7 weeks in the treatment of patients with oropharyngeal carcinomas. The local tumor control was significantly improved in the hyperfractionated arm without increasing the morbidity. Accelerated fractionation is defined as a schedule in which the overall time of treatment is reduced without significant changes in the total dose and fraction size. The strategy has been used to treat patients with malignant gliomas, melanomas and Head and Neck cancers. The data in Head and Neck Cancers seem to be promising

  5. Corticosteroid administration within 2 weeks after renal transplantation affects the incidence of femoral head osteonecrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masazumi; Ueshima, Keiichiro; Fujioka, Mikihiro; Ishida, Masashi; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Arai, Yuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Fukushima, Wakaba; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose It has been suggested that avascular osteonecrosis (AVN) of the femoral head occurs early after systemic steroid administration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risks regarding development of AVN at a very early stage after renal transplantation. Methods The presence or absence of AVN was determined by MRI at 4 weeks, at 6–12 weeks, at 24 weeks, and at 12 months after renal transplantation in 286 patients (183 males) with a mean age of 39 (16–65) years. The relationship between AVN and age, sex, absence or presence of acute rejection (AR), type of transplanted kidney (living or cadaveric), type of immune suppressor, and total dose of orally administered steroids given in the 2-week period after transplantation was investigated. Results There were no statistically significant correlations between the development of AVN and age, sex, absence or presence of AR, type of transplanted kidney, or type of immune suppressor. A significant dose-response relationship was found between development of AVN and the total dose of steroid administered in the first 2 weeks after surgery. Interpretation We found a relationship between AVN development and steroid dose in the early postoperative period, and we also showed a dose-response relationship. PMID:24786907

  6. Vehicle Technologies Fact of the Week 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Diegel, Susan W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert G. [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts (back to 2009) are archived and still available at: http://energy.gov/eere/vehicles/current-and-past-years-facts-week. Each Fact of the Week website page includes a link to an Excel file. That file contains the data from the Supporting Information section of the page so that researchers can easily use data from the Fact of the Week in their work. Beginning in August of 2015, a subscription list is available on the DOE website so that those interested can sign up for an email to be sent each Monday which includes the text and graphic from the current week s Fact. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2015. The Facts were created, written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  7. Challenges to obtaining parental permission for child participation in a school-based waterpipe tobacco smoking prevention intervention in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkash, Rima T; Al Mulla, Ahmad; Torossian, Lena; Karhily, Roubina; Shuayb, Lama; Mahfoud, Ziyad R; Janahi, Ibrahim; Al Ansari, Al Anoud; Afifi, Rema A

    2014-09-30

    Involving children in research studies requires obtaining parental permission. A school-based intervention to delay/prevent waterpipe use for 7th and 8th graders in Qatar was developed, and parental permission requested. Fifty three percent (2308/4314) of the parents returned permission forms; of those 19.5% of the total (840/4314) granted permission. This paper describes the challenges to obtaining parental permission. No research to date has described such challenges in the Arab world. A random sample of 40 schools in Doha, Qatar was selected for inclusion in the original intervention. Permission forms were distributed to parents for approval of their child's participation. The permission forms requested that parents indicate their reasons for non-permission if they declined. These were categorized into themes. In order to understand reasons for non-permission, interviews with parents were conducted. Phone numbers of parents were requested from the school administration; 12 of the 40 schools (30%) agreed to provide the contact information. A random sample of 28 parents from 12 schools was interviewed to reach data saturation. Thematic analysis was used to analyze their responses. Reasons for non-permission documented in both the forms and interviews included: poor timing; lack of interest; the child not wanting to participate; and the child living in a smoke-free environment. Interviews provided information on important topics to include in the consent forms, parents' decision-making processes regarding their child's participation, and considerations for communicating with parents. Many parents also indicated that this was the first time they had been asked to give an informed consent for their child's participation in a study. Results indicate that more attention needs to be given to the informed parental consent process. Researchers should consider enhancing both the methods of communicating information as well the specific information provided. Before

  8. Endometrial safety of ultra-low-dose estradiol vaginal tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, James; Nachtigall, Lila; Ulrich, Lian G

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17ß-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy.......To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17ß-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy....

  9. Endometrial safety of ultra-low-dose estradiol vaginal tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, James; Nachtigall, Lila; Ulrich, Lian G

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17β-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy.......To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17β-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy....

  10. 78 FR 71431 - National Family Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ..., same-sex couple, single parent, or guardian--families are the building blocks of American society... Family Week, 2013 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 229...

  11. Imperfect Reworking Process Consideration in Integrated Inventory Model under Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Cheng Lo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops an improved inventory model to help the enterprises to advance their profit increasing and cost reduction in a single vendor single-buyer environment with general demand curve, adjustable production rate, and imperfect reworking process under permissible delay in payments. For advancing practical use in a real world, we are concerned with the following strategy determining, which includes the buyer's optimal selling price, order quantity, and the number of shipments per production run from the vendor to the buyer. An algorithm and numerical analysis are used to illustrate the solution procedure.

  12. Free Radical Oxidation in Rat Myocardium after Maximum Permissible Hepatic Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolaev, P A; Khramykh, T P; Barskaya, L O

    2016-03-01

    Free radical oxidation in rat myocardial homogenate was studied by chemiluminescent assay during the early terms after maximum permissible liver resection. During this period, activation of free radical oxidation was biphasic. The critical terms characterized by dramatic intensification of free radical oxidation in the myocardium are the first hour and the first day after surgery. The period from 3 to 12 h after surgery, in which the indices of chemiluminescence decrease, can be tentatively termed as the period of "putative wellbeing". Normalization of the free radical oxidation processes in the myocardium occurred by day 7 after surgery.

  13. Determination of the longest permissible distance between expansion compensators in gas transmission pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huening, R [Fachhochschule Muenster, Burgsteinfurt (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich Versorgungstechnik

    1977-01-01

    In order to effectively protect long-distance gas pipelines against mountain damage in the areas in which underground mining is done, expansion compensators must be built in at certain distances. The tests to determine the slippage resistance and the highest permissible distance of expanders Lsub(max) in a transmission line NW 600 having a plastic insulation are described in this work. In addition, a way of calculating the Lsub(max) value from the existing data for pipes of varying diameter and different insulating material is shown.

  14. Influence of the composition of radionuclide mixtures on the maximum permissible concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillinger, K.; Schuricht, V.

    1975-08-01

    By dividing radionuclides according to their formation mechanisms it is possible to assess the influence of separate partial mixtures on the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of the total mixture without knowing exactly their contribution to the total activity. Calculations showed that the MPC of a total mixture of unsoluble radionuclides, which may occur in all fields of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, depends on the gastrointestinal tract as the critical organ and on the composition of the fission product mixture. The influence of fractionation on the MPC can be reglected in such a case, whereas in case of soluble radionuclides this is not possible

  15. Two warehouse inventory model for deteriorating item with exponential demand rate and permissible delay in payment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliraman Naresh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A two warehouse inventory model for deteriorating items is considered with exponential demand rate and permissible delay in payment. Shortage is not allowed and deterioration rate is constant. In the model, one warehouse is rented and the other is owned. The rented warehouse is provided with better facility for the stock than the owned warehouse, but is charged more. The objective of this model is to find the best replenishment policies for minimizing the total appropriate inventory cost. A numerical illustration and sensitivity analysis is provided.

  16. The Impact of Different Permissible Exposure Limits on Hearing Threshold Levels Beyond 25 dBA

    OpenAIRE

    Sayapathi, Balachandar S; Su, Anselm Ting; Koh, David

    2014-01-01

    Background: Development of noise-induced hearing loss is reliant on a few factors such as frequency, intensity, and duration of noise exposure. The occurrence of this occupational malady has doubled from 120 million to 250 million in a decade. Countries such as Malaysia, India, and the US have adopted 90 dBA as the permissible exposure limit. According to the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the exposure limit for noise is 90 dBA, while that of the US National Institut...

  17. Prototype Centralized Managing Permissions System Based on the Election Multibiometric Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Nikolaevich Ruchay

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to develop a prototype system of centralized managing permissions based on the election multibiometric authentication. The novelty of this work is to develop the principles of distinction and multi-factor authentication, because at the moment there is no such development. Depending on various conditions and factors, including the availability of electronic means and convenience, resistance to attacks and exploits, disease or injury of users the biometric authentication can be selected on the basis of any such biometrics as rhythm password, voice, dynamic signatures and graphics recognition.

  18. The Weekly Structure of US Stock Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Guglielmo Maria Caporale; Luis A. Gil-Alana

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we use fractional integration techniques to examine the degree of integration of four US stock market indices, namely the Standard and Poor, Dow Jones, Nasdaq and NYSE, at a daily frequency from January 2005 till December 2009. We analyse the weekly structure of the series and investigate their characteristics depending on the specific day of the week. The results indicate that the four series are highly persistent; a small degree of mean reversion (i.e., orders of integration s...

  19. Teaching Crossroads: 8th IPB Erasmus Week

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Elisabete Mendes (Ed.); Pais, Clarisse (Ed.); Pais, L.S. (Ed.)

    2013-01-01

    We are proud to present the second number of Teaching Crossroads, within the 8th IPB Erasmus week which took place in May 2012. This publication is the result of the papers delivered during our Erasmus Week that is becoming increasingly popular among teaching and non-teaching staff from several Erasmus partner Universities. Similarly to last year, we are continuing the publication of Teaching Crossroads whose main purpose is to reach students and teaching staff of the IPB...

  20. A double Weekly Bulletin over Easter

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    During the Easter period, the weeks of 12 and 19 April, there will be only one issue of the Weekly Bulletin (no. 16-17/2004). Items for publication in this double issue should reach the Publication section or Staff Association, as appropriate, before midday on Tuesday 6 April. Announcements for publication in the next issue (no. 18/2004) should be sent on Tuesday 20 April midday at the latest. Publication Section Tel. 79971

  1. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  2. Gastrointestinal tolerability with ibandronate after previous weekly bisphosphonate treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Derman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Richard Derman1, Joseph D Kohles2, Ann Babbitt31Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Christiana Hospital, Newark, DE, USA; 2Roche, Nutley, NJ, USA; 3Greater Portland Bone and Joint Specialists, Portland, ME, USAAbstract: Data from two open-label trials (PRIOR and CURRENT of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteopenia were evaluated to assess whether monthly oral and quarterly intravenous (IV ibandronate dosing improved self-reported gastrointestinal (GI tolerability for patients who had previously experienced GI irritation with bisphosphonate (BP use. In PRIOR, women who had discontinued daily or weekly BP treatment due to GI intolerance received monthly oral or quarterly IV ibandronate for 12 months. The CURRENT subanalysis included women receiving weekly BP treatment who switched to monthly oral ibandronate for six months. GI symptom severity and frequency were assessed using the Osteoporosis Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire™. In PRIOR, mean GI tolerability scores increased significantly at month 1 from screening for both treatment groups (oral: 79.3 versus 54.1; IV: 84.4 versus 51.0; p < 0.001 for both. Most patients reported improvement in GI symptom severity and frequency from baseline at all post-screening assessments (>90% at Month 10. In the CURRENT subanalysis >60% of patients reported improvements in heartburn or acid reflux and >70% indicated improvement in other stomach upset at month 6. Postmenopausal women with GI irritability with daily or weekly BPs experienced improvement in symptoms with extended dosing monthly or quarterly ibandronate compared with baseline.Keywords: ibandronate, osteoporosis, bisphosphonate, gastrointestinal

  3. Adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, L-folinic acid and levamisole for patients with colorectal cancer: non-randomised comparison of weekly versus four-weekly schedules--less pain, same gain. QUASAR Colorectal Cancer Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, D J; Gray, R; McConkey, C; Barnwell, J

    2000-08-01

    QUASAR is a large trial of adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer in which clinicians could choose to deliver a standard adjuvant cytotoxic chemotherapy regimen, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and L-folinic acid (L-FA), in either a once-weekly or a four-weekly schedule. We report results of a non-randomised comparison between these schedules with respect to survival, recurrence and differential toxicity. In a factorial (2 x 2) trial design, QUASAR compared high-dose (175 mg) versus low-dose (25 mg) L-FA and levamisole versus placebo. The dose of 5-FU was fixed at 370 mg/m2 and although the recommended schedule was i.v. bolus delivery, daily for 5 days repeated four-weekly for 6 months, a significant proportion of randomising clinicians were constrained to deliver once-weekly 5-FU-L-FA for 30 weeks. Four thousand nine hundred twenty-seven patients were entered into QUASAR between May 1994 and October 1997, eighteen hundred twenty-nine of whom have recurred and sixteen hundred eighty-nine died. Similar numbers 2370 vs. 2559 were treated with the once-weekly and four-weekly schedules and the demographic features of the 2 groups were well balanced: stage C, 73.3% once-weekly vs. 71.0% four-weekly; colon, 68.0% vs. 68.3%; high-dose FA, 50.1% vs. 49.9%; levamisole, 49.3% vs. 49.3%; females, 40.2% vs. 41.7%; median age (years) 62 vs. 61. The risk of recurrence and survival were similar regardless of schedule: three-year survival was 70.6% once-weekly vs. 71.0% four-weekly; three-year recurrence risk was 35.6% once-weekly vs. 35.5% four-weekly; But, the once-weekly regimen was much less toxic: number of patients for whom toxicity was reported (once-weekly: four-weekly), stomatitis, 37 vs. 337; diarrhoea, 260 vs. 440; neutropenia, 20 vs. 153. The once-weekly regimen is much less toxic than and, apparently, about as effective as the four-weekly schedule. This suggests that the toxicity of 5-FU-L-FA adjuvant chemotherapy could be reduced substantially by weekly scheduling without

  4. Primary Human Placental Trophoblasts are Permissive for Zika Virus (ZIKV) Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Kjersti M; Lahon, Anismrita; Suter, Melissa A; Arya, Ravi P; Seferovic, Maxim D; Vogt, Megan B; Hu, Min; Stossi, Fabio; Mancini, Michael A; Harris, R Alan; Kahr, Maike; Eppes, Catherine; Rac, Martha; Belfort, Michael A; Park, Chun Shik; Lacorazza, Daniel; Rico-Hesse, Rebecca

    2017-01-27

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne (Aedes genus) arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family. Although ZIKV has been predominately associated with a mild or asymptomatic dengue-like disease, its appearance in the Americas has been accompanied by a multi-fold increase in reported incidence of fetal microcephaly and brain malformations. The source and mode of vertical transmission from mother to fetus is presumptively transplacental, although a causal link explaining the interval delay between maternal symptoms and observed fetal malformations following infection has been missing. In this study, we show that primary human placental trophoblasts from non-exposed donors (n = 20) can be infected by primary passage ZIKV-FLR isolate, and uniquely allowed for ZIKV viral RNA replication when compared to dengue virus (DENV). Consistent with their being permissive for ZIKV infection, primary trophoblasts expressed multiple putative ZIKV cell entry receptors, and cellular function and differentiation were preserved. These findings suggest that ZIKV-FLR strain can replicate in human placental trophoblasts without host cell destruction, thereby serving as a likely permissive reservoir and portal of fetal transmission with risk of latent microcephaly and malformations.

  5. Access to a Loaded Gun Without Adult Permission and School-Based Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simckes, Maayan S; Simonetti, Joseph A; Moreno, Megan A; Rivara, Frederick P; Oudekerk, Barbara A; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali

    2017-09-01

    Gun access and bullying are risk factors for sustaining or perpetrating violence among adolescents. Our knowledge of gun access among bullied students is limited. We used data on students, aged 12-18 years, from the 2011 and 2013 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey to assess the association between self-reported bullying victimization (traditional and cyber) and access to a loaded gun without adult permission. Prevalence ratios (PRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained from multivariable Poisson regression using the Taylor series after controlling for student age, sex, family income, public/private school, and race. Of 10,704 participants, 4.2% (95% CI: 3.8%-4.6%) reported gun access. Compared with nonbullied students, those who reported traditional bullying (PR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.7-2.4), cyberbullying (PR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.6-4.9), and both (PR = 5.9; 95% CI: 4.6-7.7) were more likely to also report gun access. Adolescents who experience bullying, particularly those who report both traditional bullying and cyberbullying, are more likely to report access to a loaded gun without adult permission. These findings highlight the importance of developing interventions focused on these modifiable risk factors for preventing self-directed or interpersonal violence among youth. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A guide for the calculation of the maximum permissible costs for shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzlose, H.

    1981-01-01

    Among other things, this paper has the aim to define the scope which is reasonable for shelter costs as well as to inform about their real amount. Various assumptions have been made and examples have been given which seldom coincide with the specific facts. Thus, the possibility of how to find solutions which are precisely appropriate for persons is shown in a formula. The less the income, life expectancy and the number of persons to be considered the less are the maximum permissible costs for shelters. Under certain conditions the permissible costs are lower than the real costs. Thus, taking those assumptions into account, the shelter is not profitable any more. This case, for example, really applies to a couple, 57 years old, without children, with an income of 40,000 DM/year who intend to build an interior shelter. For a family with children who are under age, however, it is always profitable to build an interior basic shelter. (orig.) [de

  7. EFFECTIVE DOSE TO PATIENTS FROM THORACIC SPINE EXAMINATIONS WITH TOMOSYNTHESIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svalkvist, Angelica; Söderman, Christina; Båth, Magnus

    2016-06-01

    The purposes of the present work were to calculate the average effective dose to patients from lateral tomosynthesis examinations of the thoracic spine, compare the results with the corresponding conventional examination and to determine a conversion factor between dose-area product (DAP) and effective dose for the tomosynthesis examination. Thoracic spine examinations from 17 patients were included in the study. The registered DAP and information about the field size for each projection radiograph were, together with patient height and mass, used to calculate the effective dose for each projection radiograph. The total effective doses for the tomosynthesis examinations were obtained by adding the effective doses from the 60 projection radiographs included in the examination. The mean effective dose was 0.47 mSv (range 0.24-0.81 mSv) for the tomosynthesis examinations and 0.20 mSv (range 0.07-0.29 mSv) for the corresponding conventional examinations (anteroposterior + left lateral projection). For the tomosynthesis examinations, a conversion factor between total DAP and effective dose of 0.092 mSv Gycm(-2) was obtained. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Salivary gland doses from dental radiographic exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Masaharu; Kato, Kazuo; Wada, Takuro; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Russell, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Salivary gland doses incurred during dental radiography were measured by phantom dosimetry, and these dose data and data obtained during a two-week survey of Hiroshima and Nagasaki dental hospitals and clinics were used to estimate the respective doses to members of the populations of the two cities. The results obtained were used to supplement previously determined doses to the thyroid gland, lens, and pituitary gland from dental radiography. No significant differences in doses were observed by age, sex or city. Doses to the salivary glands during dental radiography are probably not sufficiently large to cause bias in assessments of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects. However, the steadily increasing use of dental radiography underscores the need for continued monitoring of dental radiography doses in the interests of these assessments. (author)

  9. Hand Dose in Nuclear Medicine Staff Members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, T.M.; Shahein, A.Y.; Hassan, R.

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of the hand dose during preparation and injection of radiopharmaceuticals is useful in the assessment of the extremity doses received by nuclear medicine personnel. Hand radiation doses to the occupational workers that handling 99m Tc-labeled compounds, 131 I for diagnostic in nuclear medicine were measured by thermoluminescence dosimetry. A convenient method is to use a TLD ring dosimeter for measuring doses of the diagnostic units of different nuclear medicine facilities . Their doses were reported in millisieverts that accumulated in 4 weeks. The radiation doses to the hands of nuclear medicine staff at the hospitals under study were measured. The maximum expected annual dose to the extremities appeared to be less than the annual limit (500 mSv/y) because all of these workers are on rotation and do not constantly handle radioactivity throughout the year

  10. Absence of in vivo genotoxicity of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol and associated fatty acid esters in a 4-week comprehensive toxicity study using F344 gpt delta rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onami, Saeko; Cho, Young-Man; Toyoda, Takeshi; Horibata, Katsuyoshi; Ishii, Yuji; Umemura, Takashi; Honma, Masamitsu; Nohmi, Takehiko; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2014-07-01

    3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is regarded as a rat renal and testicular carcinogen and has been classified as a possible human carcinogen (group 2B) by International Agency for Research on Cancer. This is potentially of great importance given that esters of this compound have recently found to be generated in many foods and food ingredients as a result of food processing. There have been a few reports about their toxicity, although we have recently found that the toxicity profile of 3-MCPD esters was similar to that of 3-MCPD in a rat 13-week repeated dose study, except for the acute renal toxicity seen in 3-MCPD-treated females. In the present study, to examine in vivo genotoxicity we administered equimolar doses of 3-MCPD or 3-MCPD fatty acid esters (palmitate diester, palmitate monoester and oleate diester) to 6-week-old male F344 gpt delta rats carrying a reporter transgene for 4 weeks by intragastric administration. In vivo micronucleus, Pig-a mutation and gpt assays were performed, as well as investigations of major toxicological parameters including histopathological features. As one result, the relative kidney weights of the 3-MCPD and all three ester groups were significantly increased compared with the vehicle control group. However, the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes and Pig-a mutant red blood cells did not differ among groups. Moreover, no changes were observed in mutant frequencies of gpt and red/gam (Spi(-)) genes in the kidney and the testis of 3-MCPD and 3-MCPD-fatty-acid-esters-treated rats. In histopathological analyses, no treatment related changes were observed, except for decrease of eosinophilic bodies in the kidneys of all treated groups. These results suggest that 3-MCPD and its fatty acid esters are not in vivo genotoxins, although they may exert renal toxicity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  11. Radiation research contracts: Biological effects of small radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hug, O [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Health, Safety and Waste Disposal, Vienna (Austria)

    1959-04-15

    To establish the maximum permissible radiation doses for occupational and other kinds of radiation exposure, it is necessary to know those biological effects which can be produced by very small radiation doses. This particular field of radiation biology has not yet been sufficiently explored. This holds true for possible delayed damage after occupational radiation exposure over a period of many years as well as for acute reactions of the organism to single low level exposures. We know that irradiation of less than 25 Roentgen units (r) is unlikely to produce symptoms of radiation sickness. We have, however, found indications that even smaller doses may produce certain instantaneous reactions which must not be neglected

  12. Vehicle Technologies Fact of the Week 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2013. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  13. 78 FR 52915 - Notice of Proposals to Engage In or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... to be closely related to banking and permissible for bank holding companies. Unless otherwise noted..., Vice President) 2200 North Pearl Street, Dallas, Texas 75201-2272: 1. Rio Financial Services, Inc...

  14. Maternal methadone dosing schedule and fetal neurobehavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Lauren M.; DiPietro, Janet A.; Velez, Martha; Elko, Andrea; Knauer, Heather; Kivlighan, Katie T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Daily methadone maintenance is the standard of care for opiate dependency during pregnancy. Previous research has indicated that single-dose maternal methadone administration significantly suppresses fetal neurobehaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine if split-dosing would have less impact on fetal neurobehavior than single-dose administration. Methods Forty methadone-maintained women were evaluated at peak and trough maternal methadone levels on single- and split-dosing schedules. Monitoring sessions occurred at 36 and 37 weeks gestation in a counterbalanced study design. Fetal measures included heart rate, variability, accelerations, motor activity and fetal movement-heart rate coupling (FM-FHR). Maternal measures included heart period, variability, skin conductance, respiration and vagal tone. Repeated measure analysis of variance was used to evaluate within-subject changes between split- and single-dosing regimens. Results All fetal neurobehavioral parameters were suppressed by maternal methadone administration, regardless of dosing regimen. Fetal parameters at peak were significantly lower during single vs. split methadone administration. FM-FHR coupling was less suppressed from trough to peak during split-dosing vs. single-dosing. Maternal physiologic parameters were generally unaffected by dosing condition. Conclusion Split- dosed fetuses displayed less neurobehavioral suppression from trough to peak maternal methadone levels as compared to single-dosed fetuses. Split-dosing may be beneficial for methadone-maintained pregnant women. PMID:19085624

  15. Pulmonary infection by Yersinia pestis rapidly establishes a permissive environment for microbial proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Paul A; Jin, Jianping; Goldman, William E

    2012-02-21

    Disease progression of primary pneumonic plague is biphasic, consisting of a preinflammatory and a proinflammatory phase. During the long preinflammatory phase, bacteria replicate to high levels, seemingly uninhibited by normal pulmonary defenses. In a coinfection model of pneumonic plague, it appears that Yersinia pestis quickly creates a localized, dominant anti-inflammatory state that allows for the survival and rapid growth of both itself and normally avirulent organisms. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the relatively recent progenitor of Y. pestis, shows no similar trans-complementation effect, which is unprecedented among other respiratory pathogens. We demonstrate that the effectors secreted by the Ysc type III secretion system are necessary but not sufficient to mediate this apparent immunosuppression. Even an unbiased negative selection screen using a vast pool of Y. pestis mutants revealed no selection against any known virulence genes, demonstrating the transformation of the lung from a highly restrictive to a generally permissive environment during the preinflammatory phase of pneumonic plague.

  16. An EPQ model under cash discount and permissible delay in payments derived without derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yung-Fu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the case where the retailer’s unit selling price and the purchasing price per unit are not necessarily equal within the economic production quantity (EPQ framework under cash discount and permissible delay in payments. We establish the retailer’s inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer’s optimal inventory cycle time, optimal order quantity and optimal payment time. This paper provides an algebraic approach to determine the optimal cycle time, optimal order quantity and optimal payment time. This approach provides one theorem to efficiently determine the optimal solution. Some previously published results of other researchers are deduced as special cases. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the result and the managerial insights are also obtained.

  17. Analysis of Customary Institutions’ Position and Roles in Business Permission Bureaucracy: Case of Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddi Wibowo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Uneven investment activities distribution in Bali result in economic disparity which causes not only social tension but also endanger cultural heritage. Preservation of Balinese culture could be threatened if economic and business activities are not managed properly and in line with efforts to preserve the culture of Bali in the long term. This study aims to assess the empirical and normative sociological legal jurisdiction over existing regulations related to economic and business activities in the Province of Bali which can be considered a potential threat to the preservation of Balinese culture and tradition. Based on the problem mapping that is the result of the empirical and normative juridical study, we are able to do the analysis of regulatory and institutional rearrangement of business and investment permission bureaucracy in the Bali province by considering the preservation of cultural and traditional law enforcement in Bali.

  18. 78 FR 30729 - World Trade Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... ways we can do that is by boosting manufacturing and expanding trade that allows us to sell more of our..., high-standard trade agreement: the Trans-Pacific Partnership. Once realized, the deal would boost our... creates jobs and grows our economy. During World Trade Week, we recognize workers, growers, and...

  19. First week nutrition for broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamot, David

    2017-01-01

    During the first week of life, broiler chickens undergo various developmental changes that are already initiated during incubation. Ongoing development of organs such as the gastro- intestinal tract and the immune system may affect the nutritional requirements during this age period. Despite the

  20. 76 FR 22001 - National Park Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    .... America is fortunate to have a long history of conservation pioneers, like President Theodore Roosevelt... National Park Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Every day, America... and vitality of all Americans. In no place is America's natural and historic legacy more evident than...

  1. 76 FR 63801 - Fire Prevention Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Proclamation Fires, whether caused by people or nature, can have devastating effects. Hundreds of thousands of... practice fire safety throughout the year. This year's Fire Prevention Week theme, ``Protect Your Family... mowing dry grasses to two inches or less, and by clearing brush, leaves, green grass, and lumber from...

  2. 77 FR 22177 - National Volunteer Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ..., service and social innovation will play an essential role in achieving our highest ambitions--from a world-class education for every child to an economy built to last. During National Volunteer Week, we pay... landmark national service law that laid out a strategy to link service with innovation, established the...

  3. 75 FR 29393 - Small Business Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ..., and gives entrepreneurs the security they need to innovate and take risks. We have also enacted new... year's State of the Union address, I proposed creating a $30 billion lending fund to help increase the... small business owners acquire loans and hire workers. This week, we celebrate the role of entrepreneurs...

  4. 75 FR 20885 - National Park Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... hope at the Statue of Liberty to the harrowing Battle of Gettysburg and the quest for freedom on the... Part II The President Proclamation 8498--National Park Week, 2010 Proclamation 8499--National... / Presidential Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President [[Page 20887

  5. Impact of the 20-week scan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleurke-Rozema, Hanneke

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of a number of studies on the efficacy of the 20-week scan in detecting severe congenital anomalies. Data from two of the eight regional centers for prenatal screening was used, located in the Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam and the Academic Medical Center in

  6. Does an 'activity-permissive' workplace change office workers' sitting and activity time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Gorman

    Full Text Available To describe changes in workplace physical activity, and health-, and work-related outcomes, in workers who transitioned from a conventional to an 'activity-permissive' workplace.A natural pre-post experiment conducted in Vancouver, Canada in 2011. A convenience sample of office-based workers (n=24, 75% women, mean [SD] age = 34.5 [8.1] years were examined four months following relocation from a conventional workplace (pre to a newly-constructed, purpose-built, movement-oriented physical environment (post. Workplace activity- (activPAL3-derived stepping, standing, and sitting time, health- (body composition and fasting cardio-metabolic blood profile, and work- (performance; job satisfaction related outcomes were measured pre- and post-move and compared using paired t-tests.Pre-move, on average (mean [SD] the majority of the day was spent sitting (364 [43.0] mins/8-hr workday, followed by standing (78.2 [32.1] mins/8-hr workday and stepping (37.7 [15.6] mins/8-hr workday. The transition to the 'activity-permissive' workplace resulted in a significant increase in standing time (+18.5, 95% CI: 1.8, 35.2 mins/8-hr workday, likely driven by reduced sitting time (-19.7, 95% CI: -42.1, 2.8 mins/8-hr workday rather than increased stepping time (+1.2, 95% CI: -6.2, 8.5 mins/8-hr workday. There were no statistically significant differences observed in health- or work-related outcomes.This novel, opportunistic study demonstrated that the broader workplace physical environment can beneficially impact on standing time in office workers. The long-term health and work-related benefits, and the influence of individual, organizational, and social factors on this change, requires further evaluation.

  7. Retailer’s replenishment policies under conditions of permissible delay in payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yung-Fu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Goyal (1985 is frequently cited when the inventory systems under conditions of permissible delay in payments are discussed. Goyal implicitly assumed that: 1. The unit selling price and the unit purchasing price are equal; 2. At the end of the credit period, the account is settled. The retailer starts paying for higher interest charges on the items in stock and returns money of the remaining balance immediately when the items are sold. But these assumptions are debatable in real-life situations. The main purpose of this paper is to modify Goyal’s model to allow the unit selling price and the unit purchasing price not necessarily be equal to reflect the real-life situations. Furthermore, this paper will adopt different payment rule. We assume that the retailer uses sales revenue during the permissible credit period to make payment to the supplier at the end of the credit period. If it is not enough to pay off the purchasing cost of all items, the retailer will pay off the remaining balance by taking loan from the bank. So, the retailer starts paying for the interest charges on the amount of loan from the bank after the account is settled. Then the retailer will return money to the bank at the end of the inventory cycle. Under these conditions, we model the retailer’s inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer’s optimal cycle time and optimal order quantity. Four cases are developed to efficiently determine the optimal cycle time and the optimal order quantity. Numerical examples are given to illustrate these cases. Comparing with Goyal’s model, we also find that the optimal cycle times in this paper are not longer than those of Goyal’s model.

  8. Between reason and coercion: ethically permissible influence in health care and health policy contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal-Barby, J S

    2012-12-01

    In bioethics, the predominant categorization of various types of influence has been a tripartite classification of rational persuasion (meaning influence by reason and argument), coercion (meaning influence by irresistible threats-or on a few accounts, offers), and manipulation (meaning everything in between). The standard ethical analysis in bioethics has been that rational persuasion is always permissible, and coercion is almost always impermissible save a few cases such as imminent threat to self or others. However, many forms of influence fall into the broad middle terrain-and this terrain is in desperate need of conceptual refining and ethical analysis in light of recent interest in using principles from behavioral science to influence health decisions and behaviors. This paper aims to address the neglected space between rational persuasion and coercion in bioethics. First, I argue for conceptual revisions that include removing the "manipulation" label and relabeling this space "nonargumentative influence," with two subtypes: "reason-bypassing" and "reason-countering." Second, I argue that bioethicists have made the mistake of relying heavily on the conceptual categories themselves for normative work and instead should assess the ethical permissibility of a particular instance of influence by asking several key ethical questions, which I elucidate, that relate to (1) the impact of the form of influence on autonomy and (2) the relationship between the influencer and the influenced. Finally, I apply my analysis to two examples of nonargumentative influence in health care and health policy: (1) governmental agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) trying to influence the public to be healthier using nonargumentative measures such as vivid images on cigarette packages to make more salient the negative effects of smoking, and (2) a physician framing a surgery in terms of survival rates instead of mortality rates to influence her patient to consent to

  9. Does an 'activity-permissive' workplace change office workers' sitting and activity time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Erin; Ashe, Maureen C; Dunstan, David W; Hanson, Heather M; Madden, Ken; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; McKay, Heather A; Healy, Genevieve N

    2013-01-01

    To describe changes in workplace physical activity, and health-, and work-related outcomes, in workers who transitioned from a conventional to an 'activity-permissive' workplace. A natural pre-post experiment conducted in Vancouver, Canada in 2011. A convenience sample of office-based workers (n=24, 75% women, mean [SD] age = 34.5 [8.1] years) were examined four months following relocation from a conventional workplace (pre) to a newly-constructed, purpose-built, movement-oriented physical environment (post). Workplace activity- (activPAL3-derived stepping, standing, and sitting time), health- (body composition and fasting cardio-metabolic blood profile), and work- (performance; job satisfaction) related outcomes were measured pre- and post-move and compared using paired t-tests. Pre-move, on average (mean [SD]) the majority of the day was spent sitting (364 [43.0] mins/8-hr workday), followed by standing (78.2 [32.1] mins/8-hr workday) and stepping (37.7 [15.6] mins/8-hr workday). The transition to the 'activity-permissive' workplace resulted in a significant increase in standing time (+18.5, 95% CI: 1.8, 35.2 mins/8-hr workday), likely driven by reduced sitting time (-19.7, 95% CI: -42.1, 2.8 mins/8-hr workday) rather than increased stepping time (+1.2, 95% CI: -6.2, 8.5 mins/8-hr workday). There were no statistically significant differences observed in health- or work-related outcomes. This novel, opportunistic study demonstrated that the broader workplace physical environment can beneficially impact on standing time in office workers. The long-term health and work-related benefits, and the influence of individual, organizational, and social factors on this change, requires further evaluation.

  10. Phase I trial of cetuximab in combination with capecitabine, weekly irinotecan, and radiotherapy as neoadjuvant therapy for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofheinz, Ralf-Dieter; Horisberger, Karoline; Woernle, Christoph; Wenz, Frederik; Kraus-Tiefenbacher, Uta; Kaehler, Georg; Dinter, Dietmar; Grobholz, Rainer; Heeger, Steffen; Post, Stefan; Hochhaus, Andreas; Willeke, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To establish the feasibility and efficacy of chemotherapy with capecitabine, weekly irinotecan, cetuximab, and pelvic radiotherapy for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and materials: Twenty patients with rectal cancer (clinical Stage uT3-T4 or N+) received a standard dosing regimen of cetuximab (400 mg/m 2 on Day 1 and 250 mg/m 2 on Days 8, 15, 22, and 29) and escalating doses of irinotecan and capecitabine according to phase I methods: dose level I, irinotecan 40 mg/m 2 on Days 1, 8, 15, 22, and 29 and capecitabine 800 mg/m 2 on Days 1-38; dose level II, irinotecan 40 mg/m 2 and capecitabine 1000 mg/m 2 ; and dose level III, irinotecan 50 mg/m 2 and capecitabine 1000 mg/m 2 . Radiotherapy was given to a dose of 50.4 Gy (45 Gy plus 5.4 Gy). Resection was scheduled 4-5 weeks after termination of chemoradiotherapy. Results: On dose level I, no dose-limiting toxicities occurred; however, Grade 3 diarrhea affected 1 of 6 patients on dose level II. Of 5 patients treated at dose level III, 2 exhibited dose-limiting toxicity (diarrhea in 2 and nausea/vomiting in 1). Therefore, dose level II was determined as the recommended dose for future studies. A total of 10 patients were treated on dose level II and received a mean relative dose intensity of 100% of cetuximab, 94% of irinotecan, and 95% of capecitabine. All patients underwent surgery. Five patients had a pathologically complete remission and six had microfoci of residual tumor only. Conclusion: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy with cetuximab, capecitabine, and weekly irinotecan is feasible and well tolerated. The preliminary efficacy is very promising. Larger phase II trials are ongoing

  11. Inhalation toxicity of methanol/gasoline in rats: effects of 13-week exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, R; Park, G; Viau, C; Chu, I; Potvin, M; Vincent, R; Valli, V

    1998-01-01

    The subchronic inhalation toxicity of a methanol/gasoline blend (85% methanol, 15% gasoline, v/v) was studied in rats. Sprague Dawley rats (10 animals per group) of both sexes were exposed to vapours of methanol/gasoline at 50/3, 500/30 and 5000/300ppm for 6 hours per day, 5 days per week, for 13 weeks. Control animals inhaled filtered room air only. Control recovery and high dose recovery groups were also included which inhaled room air for an extra 4 weeks following the treatment period. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed in the treatment group and their growth curves were not significantly different from the control. Except for decreased forelimb grip strength in high dose females, no treatment-related neurobehavioural effects (4-6 hours post inhalation) were observed using screening tests which included cage-side observations, righting reflex, open field activities, and forelimb and hindlimb grip strength. At necropsy, the organ to body weight ratios for the liver, spleen, testes, thymus and lungs were not significantly different from the control group. There were no treatment-related effects in the hematological endpoints and no elevation in serum formate levels. Minimal serum biochemical changes were observed with the only treatment-related change being the decreased creatinine in the females. A dose-related increase in urinary ascorbic acid was detected in males after 2, 4 and 8 weeks of exposure, but not after the 12th week, and in females only at week-2. Increased urinary albumin was observed in treated males starting at the lowest dose and at all exposure periods, but not in females. A treatment-related increase in urinary beta 2-microglobulin was detected in males at week-2 only. Except for mild to moderate mucous cell metaplasia in nasal septum B, which occurred more often and with a slightly higher degree of severity in the low dose groups of both sexes, and presence of a minimal degree of interstitial lymphocyte infiltration in the prostate

  12. Open-label, randomized study of individualized, pharmacokinetically (PK)-guided dosing of paclitaxel combined with carboplatin or cisplatin in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joerger, M; von Pawel, J; Kraff, S; Fischer, J R; Eberhardt, W; Gauler, T C; Mueller, L; Reinmuth, N; Reck, M; Kimmich, M; Mayer, F; Kopp, H-G; Behringer, D M; Ko, Y-D; Hilger, R A; Roessler, M; Kloft, C; Henrich, A; Moritz, B; Miller, M C; Salamone, S J; Jaehde, U

    2016-10-01

    Variable chemotherapy exposure may cause toxicity or lack of efficacy. This study was initiated to validate pharmacokinetically (PK)-guided paclitaxel dosing in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to avoid supra- or subtherapeutic exposure. Patients with newly diagnosed, advanced NSCLC were randomly assigned to receive up to 6 cycles of 3-weekly carboplatin AUC 6 or cisplatin 80 mg/m(2) either with standard paclitaxel at 200 mg/m(2) (arm A) or PK-guided dosing of paclitaxel (arm B). In arm B, initial paclitaxel dose was adjusted to body surface area, age, sex, and subsequent doses were guided by neutropenia and previous-cycle paclitaxel exposure [time above a plasma concentration of 0.05 µM (Tc>0.05)] determined from a single blood sample on day 2. The primary end point was grade 4 neutropenia; secondary end points included neuropathy, radiological response, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Among 365 patients randomly assigned, grade 4 neutropenia was similar in both arms (19% versus 16%; P = 0.10). Neuropathy grade ≥2 (38% versus 23%, P PK-guided dosing of paclitaxel does not improve severe neutropenia, but reduces paclitaxel-associated neuropathy and thereby improves the benefit-risk profile in patients with advanced NSCLC. NCT01326767 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01326767). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Maximum permissible concentration of radon {sup 222}Rn in air; La concentration maximale admissible du radon 222 dans l'air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamard, J; Beau, P G; Ergas, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, departement de la protection sanitaire, service d' hygiene atomique

    1968-09-01

    In order to verify the validity of the values proposed for the maximum permissible concentration of {sup 222}Rn in air, one can either approach the problem: - by epidemiological studies tending to determine the relation dose-effect both quantitatively and qualitatively; - or by choosing a lung model and clearance constants allowing a more accurate determination of the delivered dose and the localisation of the more severely irradiated portions of the bronchial tree. The radon MPC have been calculated using the model and the respiration constants set up by the I.C.R.P. Task Group on Lung dynamics. Two cases have been considered, i.e. when the radon daughter products behave as soluble materials and as insoluble ones. The values which have been found have been compared with those given up to now by several national and international bodies. (authors) [French] Deux voies d'approche peuvent etre empruntees pour verifier la validite des valeurs proposees pour la concentration maximale admissible du radon 222 dans l'air: - etudes epidemiologiques tendant a preciser qualitativement et quantitativement la relation dose-effet; - choix d'un modele pulmonaire et de constantes d'epuration permettant une determination plus precise de la dose delivree et la localisation des segments de l'arbre pulmonaire les plus irradies. Les auteurs ont utilise pour le calcul de la CMA du radon le modele et les constantes respiratoires proposees par le Task Group on Lungs dynamics de la C.I.P.R. On a pris en consideration le cas ou les descendants du radon se comportent comme des substances solubles et celui ou ils se comportent comme des substances insolubles. Les valeurs trouvees sont comparees a celles proposees jusqu'alors par divers organismes nationaux et internationaux. (auteurs)

  14. Fetal dose evaluation during breast cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antypas, Christos; Sandilos, Panagiotis; Kouvaris, John; Balafouta, Ersi; Karinou, Eleftheria; Kollaros, Nikos; Vlahos, Lambros

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the work was to estimate the radiation dose delivered to the fetus in a pregnant patient irradiated for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A 45-year woman was treated for left breast cancer using a 6 MV photon beam with two isocentric opposing tangential unwedged fields. Daily dose was 2.3 Gy at 95% isodose line given by two fields/day, 5 days/week. A total dose of 46 Gy was given in 20 fractions over a 4-week period. Pregnancy confirmed during the second therapeutic week. Treatment lasted between the second and sixth gestation week. Radiation dose to fetus was estimated from in vivo and phantom measurements using thermoluminescence dosimeters and an ionization chamber. In vivo measurements were performed by inserting either a catheter with TL dosimeters or ionization chamber into the patient's rectum. Phantom measurements were performed by simulating the treatment conditions on an anthropomorphic phantom. Results: TLD measurements (in vivo and phantom) revealed fetal dose to be 0.085% of the tumor dose, corresponding to a cumulative fetal dose of 3.9 cGy for the entire treatment of 46 Gy. Chamber measurements (in vivo and phantom) revealed a fetal dose less than the TLD result: 0.079 and 0.083% of the tumor dose corresponding to cumulative fetal dose of 3.6 cGy and 3.8 cGy for in vivo and phantom measurement, respectively. Conclusions: It was concluded that the cumulative dose delivered to the unshielded fetus was 3.9 cGy for a 46 Gy total tumor dose. The estimated fetal dose is low compared to the total tumor dose given due to the early stage of pregnancy, the large distance between fundus-radiation field, and the fact that no wedges and/or lead blocks were used. No deterministic biological effects of radiation on the live-born embryo are expected. The lifetime risk for radiation-induced fatal cancer is higher than the normal incidence, but is considered as inconsequential

  15. Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the combination of topotecan and ifosfamide administered intravenously every 3 weeks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerbusch, T.; Groenewegen, G.; Mathôt, R. A. A.; Herben, V. M. M.; ten Bokkel Huinink, W. W.; Swart, M.; Ambaum, B.; Rosing, H.; Jansen, S.; Voest, E. E.; Beijnen, J. H.; Schellens, J. H. M.

    2004-01-01

    To determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities, and pharmacokinetics of topotecan administered as a 30-min intravenous (i.v.) infusion over 5 days in combination with a 1-h i.v. infusion of ifosfamide (IF) for 3 consecutive days every 3 weeks. Patients with advanced

  16. Permissive Attitude Towards Drug Use, Life Satisfaction, and Continuous Drug Use Among Psychoactive Drug Users in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, N Wt; Cheung, Y W; Chen, X

    2016-06-01

    To examine the effects of a permissive attitude towards regular and occasional drug use, life satisfaction, self-esteem, depression, and other psychosocial variables in the drug use of psychoactive drug users. Psychosocial factors that might affect a permissive attitude towards regular / occasional drug use and life satisfaction were further explored. We analysed data of a sample of psychoactive drug users from a longitudinal survey of psychoactive drug abusers in Hong Kong who were interviewed at 6 time points at 6-month intervals between January 2009 and December 2011. Data of the second to the sixth time points were stacked into an individual time point structure. Random-effects probit regression analysis was performed to estimate the relative contribution of the independent variables to the binary dependent variable of drug use in the last 30 days. A permissive attitude towards drug use, life satisfaction, and depression at the concurrent time point, and self-esteem at the previous time point had direct effects on drug use in the last 30 days. Interestingly, permissiveness to occasional drug use was a stronger predictor of drug use than permissiveness to regular drug use. These 2 permissive attitude variables were affected by the belief that doing extreme things shows the vitality of young people (at concurrent time point), life satisfaction (at concurrent time point), and self-esteem (at concurrent and previous time points). Life satisfaction was affected by sense of uncertainty about the future (at concurrent time point), self-esteem (at concurrent time point), depression (at both concurrent and previous time points), and being stricken by stressful events (at previous time point). A number of psychosocial factors could affect the continuation or discontinuation of drug use, as well as the permissive attitude towards regular and occasional drug use, and life satisfaction. Implications of the findings for prevention and intervention work targeted at

  17. Sexual and Gender Minority Adolescents' Views On HIV Research Participation and Parental Permission: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Coventry, Ryan; Macapagal, Kathryn; Arbeit, Miriam R; Fisher, Celia B

    2017-06-01

    Sexual and gender minority adolescents are underrepresented in HIV research, partly because institutional review boards (IRBs) are reluctant to waive parental permission requirements for these studies. Understanding teenagers' perspectives on parental permission and the risks and benefits of participating in HIV research is critical to informing evidence-based IRB decisions. Data from 74 sexual and gender minority adolescents aged 14-17 who participated in an online focus group in 2015 were used to examine perspectives on the risks and benefits of participation in a hypothetical HIV surveillance study and the need for parental permission and adequate protections. Data were analyzed thematically; mixed methods analyses examined whether concerns about parental permission differed by whether teenagers were out to their parents. Most adolescents, especially those who were not out to their parents, would be unwilling to participate in an HIV study if parental permission were required. Perceived benefits of participation included overcoming barriers to HIV testing and contributing to the health of sexual and gender minority youth. Few risks of participation were identified. Adolescents suggested steps that researchers could take to facilitate informed decision making about research participation and ensure minors' safety in the absence of parental permission; these included incorporating multimedia presentations into the consent process and explaining researchers' motivations for conducting the study. Respondents believed that the benefits of HIV surveillance research outweighed the risks. Requiring parental permission may exclude many sexual and gender minority teenagers from taking part in HIV research, especially if they are not out. Copyright © 2017 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  18. Intracorneal blood removal six weeks after canaloplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rossetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a 71-year-old patient with bilateral open-angle glaucoma, intracorneal blood was found after a canaloplasty procedure in the right eye. Six weeks after surgery on ultrasound biomicroscopy examination, liquified blood and blood clots could be observed nasally in the deep corneal stroma close to the Descemet′s membrane. The intracorneal blood was washed out with balanced saline solution following deep corneal incision and lamellar dissection. Descemet′s membrane was reattached with air injection into the anterior chamber. Two months later, visual acuity improved to 20/50, intraocular pressure was 16 mm Hg without medication and confocal microscopy showed deep stromal folds and limited endothelial cell loss. Viscoelastic entering the cornea at Schwalbe′s line and reflux of blood from the collector channels to Schlemm′s canal can account for corneal hematoma. Even six weeks after canaloplasty, successful blood removal could be fulfilled without rupturing the Descemet′s membrane.

  19. Citizen weeks or the psychologizing of citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredo-Narciandi, José Carlos; Castro-Tejerina, Jorge

    2013-02-01

    Arland Deyett Weeks (1871-1936) was an American educator and social reformer who published The Psychology of Citizenship in 1917 with the intention of compiling the psychological, psychobiological, and psychosocial knowledge needed for governing modern democratic Western industrialized societies, as well as offering suggestions for intervention and social reform in the educational, legal, and occupational domains. His point of view can be placed within the progressive social and intellectual movement that characterized the policies of the United States in the first decade of the 20th century. His sociopolitical ideas were fed by transcendental and pragmatic sources, especially with respect to the way of dealing with tension between the individual and the collective. Modern psychological techniques (occupational, educational, legal psychology, etc.) nourished his reform program. In this article, we contextualize Weeks's book within these ideas and show its historical significance in the sociocultural and intellectual context that gave it meaning.

  20. Vehicle Technologies’ Fact of the Week 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Diegel, Susan W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week’s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2013. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  1. First week nutrition for broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Lamot, David

    2017-01-01

    During the first week of life, broiler chickens undergo various developmental changes that are already initiated during incubation. Ongoing development of organs such as the gastro- intestinal tract and the immune system may affect the nutritional requirements during this age period. Despite the residual yolk that is available at hatch and that may provide nutritional support during the first days after hatch, the growth performance may be affected by the time in between hatch and first feed ...

  2. Cutaneous reaction associated with weekly docetaxel administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Lita; Chuen, Vivianne Shih Lee

    2009-03-01

    Docetaxel-based chemotherapy will remain clinically relevant and many of our patients will continue to receive the drug. In a recent phase 2 study of docetaxel 35 mg/m2 (weekly) in patients with metastatic breast cancer, the incidence of grade 3 cutaneous toxicity is 19%. The skin toxicity observed consists of limb/palmar-plantar erythematous reactions, or fixed-plaque erythrodysesthesia. Case series or reports have reported varied manifestations of skin reactions and include erythema multiforme, nail changes (onycholysis, pigmentation, paronychia), scleroderma, supravenous discoloration, radiation recall dermatitis, and flagellate erythema. We would like to report four patients with cutaneous reactions resulting from weekly administration of docetaxel. All cases are heavily pre-treated patients, receiving docetaxel as second or third line therapy. The cutaneous reactions occur at cycle 5. The time between chemotherapy to development of skin lesions is from 1 to 7 days. Lesions usually resolve with desquamation leaving behind areas with hyper-pigmentation or hypo-pigmentation over a period of 2 to 3 weeks. The management strategies include hand elevation, warm or cold compresses, topical and/or systemic antibiotics, topical and/or systemic corticosteroids, and cessation of drug. There is a need for a systematic approach to manage these cutaneous reactions. Oncology trained pharmacists play vital roles in assessing, managing, documenting and patient education.

  3. A busy week for Arts@CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    Last week, Semiconductor – the winners of the Collide@CERN Ars Electronica award for 2015 – and artists Francesco Mariotti and José­-Carlos Mariátegui visited CERN and met the scientists.   Ruth Jarman (left) and Joe Gerhardt (right) of Semiconductor with Peter Jenni, one of the scientists they met during their visit to ATLAS.   Just a few weeks ago, Ruth Jarman and Joe Gerhardt, two English artists collaborating under the name Semiconductor, were awarded the Collide@CERN Ars Electronica prize for 2015. Last week, they came on their first visit to CERN to meet the scientists and select their scientific partner in preparation for their residency. They will soon begin a two-month residency at CERN before going to Linz (Austria), where they will spend a month at the Ars Electronica Futurelab. During their residency, the artists aim to create a digital artwork elaborating on the n...

  4. High dose radiotherapy for pituitary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, K.W.

    1981-01-01

    The results of treatment of 120 pituitary tumours are presented. Based on this experience operable chromophobe adenomas are now treated with 5,000 rads in 4 weeks and inoperable ones receive an additional central dose to 7,500 rads. Pituitary Cushing's tumours are given 10,000 rads in 5 weeks using small fields and acromegalics 5,000 rads to the whole sella and 7,500 to its lower half. The absence of complications at these dose levels is attributed to the use of small fields and the precise application of treatment

  5. High dose radiotherapy for pituitary tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mead, K.W. (Queensland Radium Inst., Herston (Australia))

    1981-11-01

    The results of treatment of 120 pituitary tumours are presented. Based on this experience operable chromophobe adenomas are now treated with 5,000 rads in 4 weeks and inoperable ones receive an additional central dose to 7,500 rads. Pituitary Cushing's tumours are given 10,000 rads in 5 weeks using small fields and acromegalics 5,000 rads to the whole sella and 7,500 to its lower half. The absence of complications at these dose levels is attributed to the use of small fields and the precise application of treatment.

  6. Method of simulating dose reduction for digital radiographic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baath, M.; Haakansson, M.; Tingberg, A.; Maansson, L. G.

    2005-01-01

    The optimisation of image quality vs. radiation dose is an important task in medical imaging. To obtain maximum validity of the optimisation, it must be based on clinical images. Images at different dose levels can then either be obtained by collecting patient images at the different dose levels sought to investigate - including additional exposures and permission from an ethical committee - or by manipulating images to simulate different dose levels. The aim of the present work was to develop a method of simulating dose reduction for digital radiographic systems. The method uses information about the detective quantum efficiency and noise power spectrum at the original and simulated dose levels to create an image containing filtered noise. When added to the original image this results in an image with noise which, in terms of frequency content, agrees with the noise present in an image collected at the simulated dose level. To increase the validity, the method takes local dose variations in the original image into account. The method was tested on a computed radiography system and was shown to produce images with noise behaviour similar to that of images actually collected at the simulated dose levels. The method can, therefore, be used to modify an image collected at one dose level so that it simulates an image of the same object collected at any lower dose level. (authors)

  7. Individual radiation doses. Annual report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, L.

    1995-05-01

    During the year we measured whole body doses on 10226 bearers, distributed as follows: 0-0,5 mSv on 8816 persons, 0,6-1,0 mSv on 693 persons, 1,1-5,0 on 678 persons, >5 mSv on 39 persons. At higher dose than 4 mSv/4 weeks, the reason to the irradiation will be investigated. 2 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Thirteen week toxicity study of dietary l-tryptophan in rats with a recovery period of 5 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibui, Yusuke; Matsumoto, Hideki; Masuzawa, Yoko; Ohishi, Takumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi; Sakai, Ryosei

    2018-04-01

    Although l-tryptophan is nutritionally important and widely used in medical applications, toxicity data for its oral administration are limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of an experimental diet containing added l-tryptophan at doses of 0 (basal diet), 1.25%, 2.5% and 5.0% when administered to Sprague-Dawley rats for 13 weeks. There were no toxicological changes in clinical signs, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, necropsy, organ weight and histopathology between control rats and those fed additional l-tryptophan. Body weight gain and food consumption significantly decreased throughout the administration period in males in the 2.5% group and in both sexes in the 5.0% group. At the end of the dosing period, decreases in water intake in males in the 5.0% group and in serum glucose in females in the 5.0% group were observed. The changes described above were considered toxicologically significant; however, they were not observed after a 5 week recovery period, suggesting reversibility. Consequently, the no-observed-adverse-effect level of l-tryptophan in the present study was 1.25% for males and 2.5% for females (mean intake of l-tryptophan: 779 mg kg -1 body weight day -1 [males] and 1765 mg kg -1 body weight day -1 [females]). As the basal diet used in this study contained 0.27% of proteinaceous l-tryptophan, the no-observed-adverse-effect level of overall l-tryptophan was 1.52% for males and 2.77% for females (mean intake of overall l-tryptophan: 948 mg kg -1 body weight day -1 (males) and 1956 mg kg -1 body weight day -1 (females)). We conclude that l-tryptophan has a low toxicity profile in terms of human use. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Gender Differences in Adolescent Premarital Sexual Permissiveness in Three Asian Cities: Effects of Gender-Role Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiayun, Zuo; Chaohua, Lou; Ersheng, Gao; Yan, Cheng; Hongfeng, Niu; Zabin, Laurie S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Gender is an important factor in understanding premarital sexual attitudes and behaviors. Many studies indicate that males are more likely to initiate sexual intercourse and have more permissive perceptions about sex than females. Yet few studies have explored possible reasons for these gender differences. With samples of unmarried adolescents in three Asian cities influenced by Confucian cultures, this paper investigates the relationship between underlying gender norms and these differences in adolescents’ premarital sexual permissiveness. Methods 16,554 unmarried participants aged 15–24 were recruited in the Three-City Asian Study of Adolescents and Youth, a collaborative survey conducted in 2006–2007 in urban and rural areas of Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei, with 6204, 6023 and 4327 from each city respectively. All of the adolescents were administered face-to-face interviews, coupled with Computer Assisted Self Interview (CASI) for sensitive questions. Scales on gender-role attitudes and on premarital sexual permissiveness for both male and female respondents were developed and applied to our analysis of the data. Multi-linear regression was used to analyze the relationship between gender-role attitudes and sexual permissiveness. Results Male respondents in each city held more permissive attitudes towards premarital sex than did females with both boys and girls expressing greater permissiveness to male premarital sexual behaviors. Boys also expressed more traditional attitudes to gender roles (condoning greater inequality) than did girls in each city. Adolescents’ gender-role attitudes and permissiveness to premarital sex varied considerably across the three cities, with the Vietnamese the most traditional, the Taiwanese the least traditional, and the adolescents in Shanghai in the middle. A negative association between traditional gender roles and premarital sexual permissiveness was only found among girls in Shanghai and Taipei. In Shanghai

  10. Summary of personnel doses and discharge of radioactivity at Swedish nuclear power plants 1971-1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmqvist, L.; Persson, Aa.

    1977-01-01

    The report is a summary of personnel doses and activity discharges from Swedish nuclear power plants during the first five years of electric power production by nuclear plants. The personnel doses for the Sweedish plants are lower than the corresponding values for American plants. The highest Swedish value is o,13 manrem per MWE and year. The discharge of radioactivity to the atmosphere from the Swedish plants has been for below the maximum permissible limits. The discharge of radioactivity to the water recipients was less than 1 % of what is permissible

  11. NEUTRON GENERATOR FACILITY AT SFU: GEANT4 DOSE RATE PREDICTION AND VERIFICATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J; Chester, A; Domingo, T; Rizwan, U; Starosta, K; Voss, P

    2016-11-01

    Detailed dose rate maps for a neutron generator facility at Simon Fraser University were produced via the GEANT4 Monte Carlo framework. Predicted neutron dose rates throughout the facility were compared with radiation survey measurements made during the facility commissioning process. When accounting for thermal neutrons, the prediction and measurement agree within a factor of 2 or better in most survey locations, and within 10 % inside the vault housing the neutron generator. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Characterization of potential mineralization in Afghanistan: four permissive areas identified using imaging spectroscopy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Berger, Byron R.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations natural resources revitalization activities in Afghanistan, four permissive areas for mineralization, Bamyan 1, Farah 1, Ghazni 1, and Ghazni 2, have been identified using imaging spectroscopy data. To support economic development, the areas of potential mineralization were selected on the occurrence of selected mineral assemblages mapped using the HyMap™ data (kaolinite, jarosite, hydrated silica, chlorite, epidote, iron-bearing carbonate, buddingtonite, dickite, and alunite) that may be indicative of past mineralization processes in areas with limited or no previous mineral resource studies. Approximately 30 sites were initially determined to be candidates for areas of potential mineralization. Additional criteria and material used to refine the selection and prioritization process included existing geologic maps, Landsat Thematic Mapper data, and published literature. The HyMapTM data were interpreted in the context of the regional geologic and tectonic setting and used the presence of alteration mineral assemblages to identify areas with the potential for undiscovered mineral resources. Further field-sampling, mapping, and supporting geochemical analyses are necessary to fully substantiate and verify the specific deposit types in the four areas of potential mineralization.

  13. Permissive hypotension in extremely low birth weight infants (≤1000 gm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, So Yoon; Kim, Eun Sun; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, Jeong Hee; Sung, Se In; Jung, Ji Mi; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon

    2012-07-01

    We performed this study to evaluate the safety of permissive hypotension management in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWIs). Medical records of all inborn ELBWIs admitted to Samsung Medical Center from January 2004 to December 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. Of a total of 261 ELBWIs, 47 (18%) required treatment for hypotension (group T), 110 (42%) remained normotensive (group N), and 104 (40%) experienced more than one episode of hypotension without treatment (group P) during the first 72 hours of life. Treatment of hypotension included inotropic support and/or fluid loading. Birth weight and Apgar scores were significantly lower in the T group than the other two groups. In the N group, the rate of pathologically confirmed maternal chorioamnionitis was significantly higher than other two groups, and the rate was higher in the P group than the T group. After adjusting for covariate factors, no significant differences in mortality and major morbidities were found between the N and P groups. However, the mortality rate and the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage (≥stage 3) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (≥moderate) were significantly higher in the T group than the other two groups. Long term neurodevelopmental outcomes were not significantly different between the N and P groups. Close observation of hypotensive ELBWIs who showed good clinical perfusion signs without intervention allowed to avoid unnecessary medications and resulted in good neurological outcomes.

  14. Is it morally permissible for hospital nurses to access prisoner-patients' criminal histories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, information about a person's criminal history is accessible with a name and date of birth. Ruth Crampton has studied nurses' care for prisoner-patients in hospital settings and found care to be perfunctory and reactive. This article examines whether it is morally permissible for nurses in hospital settings to access information about prisoner-patients' criminal histories. Nurses may argue for a right to such information based on the right to personal safety at work or the obligation to provide prisoner-patients with the care that they deserve. These two arguments are considered and rejected. It is further argued that accessing information about a prisoner-patient's criminal history violates nurses' duty to care. Care, understood through Sarah Ruddick's account as work and relationship, requires nurses to be open and unbiased in order to do their part in forming a caring relationship with patients. Knowledge of a prisoner-patient's criminal history inhibits the formation of this relationship and thus violates nurses' duty to care.

  15. Truncation of a P1 leader proteinase facilitates potyvirus replication in a non-permissive host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hongying; Pasin, Fabio; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E; Simón-Mateo, Carmen; García, Juan Antonio; Rodamilans, Bernardo

    2017-11-08

    The Potyviridae family is a major group of plant viruses that includes c. 200 species, most of which have narrow host ranges. The potyvirid P1 leader proteinase self-cleaves from the remainder of the viral polyprotein and shows large sequence variability linked to host adaptation. P1 proteins can be classified as Type A or Type B on the basis, amongst other things, of their dependence or not on a host factor to develop their protease activity. In this work, we studied Type A proteases from the Potyviridae family, characterizing their host factor requirements. Our in vitro cleavage analyses of potyvirid P1 proteases showed that the N-terminal domain is relevant for host factor interaction and suggested that the C-terminal domain is also involved. In the absence of plant factors, the N-terminal end of Plum pox virus P1 antagonizes protease self-processing. We performed extended deletion mutagenesis analysis to define the N-terminal antagonistic domain of P1. In viral infections, removal of the P1 protease antagonistic domain led to a gain-of-function phenotype, strongly increasing local infection in a non-permissive host. Altogether, our results shed new insights into the adaptation and evolution of potyvirids. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  16. Novel approach to parental permission and child assent for research: improving comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Lonergan, Theresa A; Forster-Harwood, Jeri E

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this research was to test a multimedia permission/assent (P/A) process. The overall hypothesis was that children and their parents exposed to a multimedia P/A process would have better comprehension compared with those exposed to a text-based process. Traditional and multimedia P/A processes were created by using an innovative learning-objective approach. A total of 194 parent-child dyads (children aged 11-14 years) were enrolled: 24 dyads in a prestudy testing P/A components for preference and effect on comprehension and 170 dyads in a randomized trial of a multimedia or paper P/A process for a hypothetical study. Participants were predominantly white and were from a metropolitan area served by a tertiary care pediatric hospital and outpatient facility. Comprehension of 8 essential elements of the P/A process was assessed. The majority of prestudy subjects preferred the video version of the dual-energy radiograph absorptiometry description over the animated and paper versions combined (41 of 48 [85%]; P better overall comprehension compared with the paper P/A process (P = .0009), and there were highly significant differences in understanding of study procedures (P = .0002) and risks (P multimedia group had significantly better overall comprehension (P = .03). Multimedia approaches to the research P/A process may improve overall understanding of research participation for children and parents. Improved understanding of study-specific research components (rather than research rights) may improve overall comprehension.

  17. Experimental verification of the imposing principle for maximum permissible levels of multicolor laser radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivashin V.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The study presents the results of experimental research to verify the principle overlay for maximum permissible levels (MPL of multicolor laser radiation single exposure on eyes. This principle of the independence of the effects of radiation with each wavelength (the imposing principle, was founded and generalized to a wide range of exposure conditions. Experimental verification of this approach in relation to the impact of laser radiation on tissue fundus of an eye, as shows the analysis of the literature was not carried out. Material and methods. Was used in the experimental laser generating radiation with wavelengths: Л1 =0,532 microns, A2=0,556to 0,562 microns and A3=0,619to 0,621 urn. Experiments were carried out on eyes of rabbits with evenly pigmented eye bottom. Results. At comparison of results of processing of the experimental data with the calculated data it is shown that these levels are close by their parameters. Conclusions. For the first time in the Russian Federation had been performed experimental studies on the validity of multi-colored laser radiation on the organ of vision. In view of the objective coincidence of the experimental data with the calculated data, we can conclude that the mathematical formulas work.

  18. Inventory model with two rates of production for deteriorating items with permissible delay in payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ajanta; Samanta, G. P.

    2011-08-01

    Goyal (1985) ['Economic Order Quantity Under Conditions of Permissible Delay in Payments', Journal of Operational research Society, 36, 35-38] assumed that unit selling price and unit purchasing price are equal. But in real-life the scenario is different. The purpose of this article is to reflect the real life problem by allowing unit selling price and purchasing price to be unequal. Our model is a continuous production control inventory model for deteriorating items in which two different rates of production are available. The results are illustrated with the help of a numerical example. We discuss the sensitivity of the solution together with the changes of the values of the parameters associated with the model. Our model may be applicable in many manufacturing planning situations where management practices for deterioration are stringent; e.g. the two-production rate will be more profitable than the one-production rate in the manufacture of cold, asthma and allergy medicine. Our proposed model might be applicable to develop a prototype advance planning system for those manufacturers to integrate the management science techniques into commercial planning.

  19. Permission-based Leadership and Change Management in Hong Kong's Nongovernment Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Michael

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the management of transformational change by chief executives in nongovernment organisations (NGOs in Hong Kong. The study takes an exploratory approach with interviews of 18 chief executives from a cross section of Hong Kong's NGOs. The findings indicate that organisational transformation is driven by increasing competition within the NGO sector and from commercial firms, by a demand for greater transparency and by internal forces. These factors are countered by structural inertia. Leadership of the organisational transformation of an NGO is permission-based; agreement from the various stakeholders must be gained to execute a successful transformation. The chief executive should have a humanistic style and be visionary, ethical and participative. Constant communication and involvement facilitate this process. Through this approach, followers will have a greater commitment to the organisational transformation. Organisational change is a combination of planned and emergent processes. The chief executive should relax control and foster a nurturing environment for transformation. This research suggests a leadership style, behavioural approach and model for managing change that will provide chief executives and senior leaders with useful considerations and insights.

  20. Human cytomegalovirus renders cells non-permissive for replication of herpes simplex viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockley, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus (HSV) genome during production infection in vitro may be subject to negative regulation which results in modification of the cascade of expression of herpes virus macromolecular synthesis leading to establishment of HSV latency. In the present study, human embryonic lung (HEL) cells infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) restricted the replication of HSV type-1 (HSV-1). A delay in HSV replication of 15 hr as well as a consistent, almost 1000-fold inhibition of HSV replication in HCMV-infected cell cultures harvested 24 to 72 hr after superinfection were observed compared with controls infected with HSV alone. HSV type-2 (HSV-2) replication was similarly inhibited in HCMV-infected HEL cells. Prior ultraviolet-irradiation (UV) of HCMV removed the block to HSV replication, demonstrating the requirement for an active HCMV genome. HCMV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) negative temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants inhibited HSV replications as efficiently as wild-type (wt) HCMV at the non-permissive temperature. Evidence for penetration and replication of superinfecting HSV into HCMV-infected cells was provided by blot hybridization of HSV DNA synthesized in HSV-superinfected cell cultures and by cesium chloride density gradient analysis of [ 3 H]-labeled HSV-1-superinfected cells

  1. Biological bases of the maximum permissible exposure levels of the UK laser standard BS 4803: 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinlay, A.F.; Harlen, F.

    1983-10-01

    The use of lasers has increased greatly over the past 15 years or so, to the extent that they are now used routinely in many occupational and public situations. There has been an increasing awareness of the potential hazards presented by lasers and substantial efforts have been made to formulate safety standards. In the UK the relevant Safety Standard is the British Standards Institution Standard BS 4803. This Standard was originally published in 1972 and a revision has recently been published (BS 4803: 1983). The revised standard has been developed using the American National Standards Institute Standard, ANSI Z136.1 (1973 onwards), as a model. In other countries, national standards have been similarly formulated, resulting in a large measure of international agreement through participation in the work of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The bases of laser safety standards are biophysical data on threshold injury effects, particularly on the retina, and the development of theoretical models of damage mechanisms. This report deals in some detail with the mechanisms of injury from over exposure to optical radiations, in particular with the dependency of the type and degree of damage on wavelength, image size and pulse duration. The maximum permissible exposure levels recommended in BS 4803: 1983 are compared with published data for damage thresholds and the adequacy of the standard is discussed. (author)

  2. From personnel dose to personal dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefert, M.; Raffnsoe, R.C.; Tuyn, J.W.N.; Wittekind, D.

    1985-01-01

    From following the development of personnel doses at CERN over the past six years it has become evident that work in areas of induced radioactivity is the principal cause of exposure. The results of photon dose measurements free-in-air and around a phantom are presented and discussed in the light of new quantities in individual monitoring. The importance of these results, with respect to the practical situation, is discussed and the problem of phantom size is mentioned. Finally, the results of dose measurements in the phantom are presented, since such information is important in cases where it becomes necessary to transform personnel doses into personal doses. (author)

  3. Future Circular Collider study week 2017

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The annual meetings of the worldwide Future Circular Collider study (FCC) are major international events that review the progress in every domain which is relevant to develop feasible concepts for a next generation frontier particle accelerate based high-energy physics research infrastructure. This 3rd meeting is jointly organised by CERN and DESY. It is also the annual meeting of the EuroCirCol EC Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Action project. Previous events took place in Washington and Rome. In 2017 the FCC Week will take place in Berlin, Germany between May 29 and June 2.

  4. On the calibration of photon dosemeters in the equivalent dose units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregadze, Yu.I.; Isaev, B.M.; Maslyaev, P.F.

    1980-01-01

    General aspects of transition from exposure dose of photo radiation to equivalent one are considered. By determination the equivalent dose is a function of point location in an irradiated object, that is why it is necessary to know equivalent dose distribution in the human body for uniform description of the risk degree. The international electrotechnical comission recommends to measure equivalent doses at 7 and 800 mg/cm 2 depths in a tissue-equivalent ball with 30 cm diameter, calling them skin equivalent dose and depth equivalent dose, respectively, and to compare them with the permissible 500 mZ and 50 mZ a year, respectively. Practical transition to using equivalent dose for evaluation of radiation danger of being in photon radiation field of low energy should include measures on regraduating already produced dose meters, graduating the dose meters under production and developing the system of their metrologic supply [ru

  5. Recommendation concerning maximum permissible radioactivity in animal feeds in case of a nuclear accident or other type of radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The SSK in its advice to the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety recommends to abstain from determining maximum permissible values to be applied in such cases of emergency. If, however, official limits are to be given, the following should be considered: (1) Distinction has to be made between animal feeds not subject to restrictive application with regard to time, animal species, or food chain (meat, milk, eggs), and those animal feeds whose application is subject to restrictions defined. (2) Maximum permissible activity data for animal feeds for restricted use should be ten times the value determined for non-restricted feeds. As to consultations within the EC on supplemtary tables to EC Directive No. 3954/87, the SSK presented its proposals in tables, using transfer factors from the literature concerning assessment of maximum permissible chronic intake of Cs-137, I-131, Sr-90, Pu-239, Am-241 by productive livestock (bovine, goats, sheep, swine, poultry). (HP) [de

  6. Left-turn phase: permissive, protected, or both? A quasi-experimental design in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Chen, Cynthia; Ewing, Reid

    2015-03-01

    The practice of left-turn phasing selection (permissive, protected-only, or both) varies from one locality to another. The literature evidence on this issue is equally mixed and insufficient. In this study, we evaluate the safety impacts of changing left-turn signal phasing from permissive to protected/permissive or protected-only at 68 intersections in New York City using a rigorous quasi-experimental design accompanied with regression modeling. Changes in police reported crashes including total crashes, multiple-vehicle crashes, left-turn crashes, pedestrian crashes and bicyclist crashes were compared between before period and after period for the treatment group and comparison group by means of negative binomial regression using a Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) technique. Confounding factors such as the built environment characteristics that were not controlled in comparison group selection are accounted for by this approach. The results show that the change of permissive left-turn signal phasing to protected/permissive or protected-only signal phasing does not result in a significant reduction in intersection crashes. Though the protected-only signal phasing does reduce the left-turn crashes and pedestrian crashes, this reduction was offset by a possible increase in over-taking crashes. These results suggest that left-turn phasing should not be treated as a universal solution that is always better than the permissive control for left-turn vehicles. The selection and implementation of left-turn signal phasing needs to be done carefully, considering potential trade-offs between safety and delay, and many other factors such as geometry, traffic flows and operations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Does Shortening the School Week Impact Student Performance? Evidence from the Four-Day School Week

    OpenAIRE

    D. Mark Anderson; Mary Beth Walker

    2015-01-01

    School districts use a variety of policies to close budget gaps and stave off teacher layoffs and furloughs. More schools are implementing four-day school weeks to reduce overhead and transportation costs. The four-day week requires substantial schedule changes as schools must increase the length of their school day to meet minimum instructional hour requirements. Although some schools have indicated this policy eases financial pressures, it is unknown whether there is an impact on student ou...

  8. Leishmania attachment in permissive vectors and the role of sand fly midgut proteins in parasite-vector interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Dostálová, Anna

    2012-01-01

    of PhD. thesis named "Leishmania attachment in permissive vectors and the role of sand fly midgut proteins in parasite-vector interaction", Anna Dostálová, 2011 This thesis focuses on the development of protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania in their insect vectors, sand flies. It sums up results of three projects I was involved in during my PhD studies. Main emphasis was put on permissive sand fly species that support development of various species of Leishmania. Using a novel method of...

  9. Single Dose Versus 3 Doses of Intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin for Early Syphilis in HIV: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Roberto; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Yasukawa, Kosuke; Villarreal, Erick; Ross, Michael; Serpa, Jose A

    2017-03-15

    Patients coinfected with syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may have a slower decrease in rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titers. Currently a single dose of 2.4 million units of intramuscular benzathine penicillin G (BPG) is recommended for the treatment of early syphilis. Some observational studies have suggested that this regimen may lead to high failure rates in coinfected patients. We conducted an open-label randomized clinical trial to compare the efficacy of single-dose and 3-dose regimens of BPG for the treatment of early syphilis in HIV-infected individuals. RPR titers were monitored every 3 months. Treatment success was defined as a decrease in RPR titers of ≥2 dilutions (4-fold) during a 12-month follow-up period. Sixty-four patients were included. In the intention-to-treat analysis, treatment success rates were 80% (28 of 35 subjects) and 93% (27 of 29 subjects) in the single-dose and 3-dose regimens, respectively (absolute difference, 13% [95% confidence interval {CI}, -5% to 30%; P = .17). In the per-protocol analysis, success rates were 93% (27 of 29) and 100% in the single-dose and 3-dose regimens, respectively (absolute difference, 7% [95% CI, -7% to 22%]; P = .49). CD4 T-cell count, RPR titer and syphilis stage did not affect treatment results. When compared with a single dose of BPG, a 3-dose regimen did not improve syphilis serological outcomes. Our results support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendation of a single dose of BPG in HIV-infected patients with early syphilis. NCT02611765. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Dose sculpting with generalized equivalent uniform dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qiuwen; Djajaputra, David; Liu, Helen H.; Dong Lei; Mohan, Radhe; Wu, Yan

    2005-01-01

    With intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), a variety of user-defined dose distribution can be produced using inverse planning. The generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) has been used in IMRT optimization as an alternative objective function to the conventional dose-volume-based criteria. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of gEUD optimization to fine tune the dose distributions of IMRT plans. We analyzed the effect of gEUD-based optimization parameters on plan quality. The objective was to determine whether dose distribution to selected structures could be improved using gEUD optimization without adversely altering the doses delivered to other structures, as in sculpting. We hypothesized that by carefully defining gEUD parameters (EUD 0 and n) based on the current dose distributions, the optimization system could be instructed to search for alternative solutions in the neighborhood, and we could maintain the dose distributions for structures already satisfactory and improve dose for structures that need enhancement. We started with an already acceptable IMRT plan optimized with any objective function. The dose distribution was analyzed first. For structures that dose should not be changed, a higher value of n was used and EUD 0 was set slightly higher/lower than the EUD value at the current dose distribution for critical structures/targets. For structures that needed improvement in dose, a higher to medium value of n was used, and EUD 0 was set to the EUD value or slightly lower/higher for the critical structure/target at the current dose distribution. We evaluated this method in one clinical case each of head and neck, lung and prostate cancer. Dose volume histograms, isodose distributions, and relevant tolerance doses for critical structures were used for the assessment. We found that by adjusting gEUD optimization parameters, the dose distribution could be improved with only a few iterations. A larger value of n could lead to

  11. In vitro permissiveness of bovine neutrophils and monocyte derived macrophages to Leishmania donovani of Ethiopian isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasew, Geremew; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Abera, Adugna; Zewude, Aboma; Chanyalew, Menberework; Aseffa, Abraham; Abebe, Markos; Ritter, Uwe; van Zandbergen, Ger; Laskay, Tamás; Tafess, Ketema

    2016-04-18

    Epidemiological studies in Ethiopia have documented that the risk of visceral leishmaniasis (VL, Kala-azar) is higher among people living with domestic animals. The recent report on isolation of Leishmania donovani complex DNA and the detected high prevalence of anti-leishmanial antibodies in the blood of domestic animals further strengthen the potential role of domestic animals in the epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia. In mammalian hosts polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) and macrophages are the key immune cells influencing susceptibility or control of Leishmania infection. Thus to substantiate the possible role of cattle in VL transmission we investigate the permissiveness of bovine PMN and monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) for Leishmania (L.) donovani infection. Whole blood was collected from pure Zebu (Boss indicus) and their cross with Holstein Friesian cattle. L. donovani (MHOM/ET/67/HU3) wild and episomal green fluorescent protein (eGFP) labelled stationary stage promastigotes were co-incubated with whole blood and MDM to determine infection of these cells. Engulfment of promastigotes by the cells and their transformation to amastigote forms in MDM was studied with direct microscopy. Microscopy and flow cytometry were used to measure the infection rate while PCR-RLFP was used to confirm the infecting parasite. L. donovani infected bovine whole blood PMN in the presence of plasma factors and all cellular elements. Morphological examinations of stained cytospin smears revealed that PMN engulfed promastigotes. Similarly, we were able to show that bovine MDM can be infected by L. donovani, which transformed to amastigote forms in the cells. The in vitro infection of bovine PMN and MDM by L. donovani further strengthens the possibility that cattle might serve as source of L. donovani infection for humans.

  12. Permissive flexibility in successful lifelong weight management: A qualitative study among Finnish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joki, Anu; Mäkelä, Johanna; Fogelholm, Mikael

    2017-09-01

    Maintaining normal weight in the current obesogenic environment is a challenge. However, some people can do it. More insight is needed to understand how and why some people succeed in long-term weight maintenance. This study uses a rare, qualitative approach by describing the thoughts of successful weight management and self-perceived requirements for success in weight maintenance. We interviewed 39 individuals who have maintained normal weight for their entire lives (men and women). The content analysis revealed a main theme: flexible, permissive and conscious self-regulation, which was divided into two subthemes (eating-related behavior and weight-related behavior). The informants reported certain routines that supported their weight management: regular eating, sufficient meal sizes, eating in response to hunger, healthy and vegetable-rich diet along with moderate feasting and flexible eating restriction. Flexibility in routines allowed freedom in their eating behavior. In addition, informants regarded themselves as physically active, and they enjoyed regular exercise. Regular weighing was generally considered unnecessary. Normal weight was regarded as a valuable and worthwhile issue, and most of the informants worked to keep their weight stable. Although the perceived workload varied among informants, the weight management strategies were similar. It was crucial to be conscious of the balance between eating and energy consumption. Further, flexibility characterized their behavior and was the basis of successful weight management. Women were more aware of weight control practices and knowledge than men, but otherwise, women and men reported similar weight management methods and attitudes. In conclusion, the interviewees who have maintained the normal weight had created a personal weight-management support environment where weight management was a lifestyle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Wild Anopheles funestus mosquito genotypes are permissive for infection with the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiannong Xu

    Full Text Available Malaria parasites undergo complex developmental transitions within the mosquito vector. A commonly used laboratory model for studies of mosquito-malaria interaction is the rodent parasite, P. berghei. Anopheles funestus is a major malaria vector in sub-Saharan Africa but has received less attention than the sympatric species, Anopheles gambiae. The imminent completion of the A. funestus genome sequence will provide currently lacking molecular tools to describe malaria parasite interactions in this mosquito, but previous reports suggested that A. funestus is not permissive for P. berghei development.An A. funestus population was generated in the laboratory by capturing female wild mosquitoes in Mali, allowing them to oviposit, and rearing the eggs to adults. These F1 progeny of wild mosquitoes were allowed to feed on mice infected with a fluorescent P. berghei strain. Fluorescence microscopy was used to track parasite development inside the mosquito, salivary gland sporozoites were tested for infectivity to mice, and parasite development in A. funestus was compared to A. gambiae.P. berghei oocysts were detectable on A. funestus midguts by 7 days post-infection. By 18-20 days post-infection, sporozoites had invaded the median and distal lateral lobes of the salivary glands, and hemocoel sporozoites were observed in the hemolymph. Mosquitoes were capable of infecting mice via bite, demonstrating that A. funestus supports the complete life cycle of P. berghei. In a random sample of wild mosquito genotypes, A. funestus prevalence of infection and the characteristics of parasite development were similar to that observed in A. gambiae-P. berghei infections.The data presented in this study establish an experimental laboratory model for Plasmodium infection of A. funestus, an important vector of human malaria. Studying A. funestus-Plasmodium interactions is now feasible in a laboratory setting. This information lays the groundwork for exploitation of the

  14. Proteasome-independent degradation of HIV-1 in naturally non-permissive human placental trophoblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barré-Sinoussi Françoise

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human placenta-derived cell line BeWo has been demonstrated to be restrictive to cell-free HIV-1 infection. BeWo cells are however permissive to infection by VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1, which enters cells by a receptor-independent mechanism, and to infection by HIV-1 via a cell-to-cell route. Results Here we analysed viral entry in wild type BeWo (CCR5+, CXCR4+ and BeWo-CD4+ (CD4+, CCR5+, CXCR4+ cells. We report that HIV-1 internalisation is not restricted in either cell line. Levels of internalised p24 antigen between VSV-G HIV-1 pseudotypes and R5 or X4 virions were comparable. We next analysed the fate of internalised virions; X4 and R5 HIV-1 virions were less stable over time in BeWo cells than VSV-G HIV-1 pseudotypes. We then investigated the role of the proteasome in restricting cell-free HIV-1 infection in BeWo cells using proteasome inhibitors. We observed an increase in the levels of VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1 infection in proteasome-inhibitor treated cells, but the infection by R5-Env or X4-Env pseudotyped virions remains restricted. Conclusion Collectively these results suggest that cell-free HIV-1 infection encounters a surface block leading to a non-productive entry route, which either actively targets incoming virions for non-proteasomal degradation, and impedes their release into the cytoplasm, or causes the inactivation of mechanisms essential for viral replication.

  15. Medical image of the week: bronchogenic cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sears SP

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bronchogenic cysts are congenital foregut malformations forming from abnormal budding of the bronchial tree between the 4th and 6th weeks of embryonic development. While identified primarily in children, the cysts are often asymptomatic and may not be identified until adulthood. Most (70% are within the middle mediastinum and contain fluid or proteinaceous material. When involving the parenchyma, they generally do not communicate with the tracheobronchial tree. Communication with the airways may develop following infection, procedures, or trauma and may result in lesions with an air-fluid level (Figures 1 and 2. Bronchogenic cysts may be complicated by infection, bleeding, fistula formation, or most concerning, by malignant transformation. Unless the cyst contains air, it may manifest as a solitary pulmonary nodule on plain radiographs. Computed tomography or T2-weighted MRI images are used to confirm the diagnosis.

  16. Chernobyl: Chronicle of difficult weeks [videorecording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volodymyr, S

    1987-07-01

    1. Chernobyl : chronicle of difficult weeks. Shevchenko's film crew was the first in the disaster zone following the meltdown of the core of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. They shot continuously for more than three months. Portions of the film are exposed with white blotches - a radiation leakage. The film demonstrates how authorities and volunteers dealt with the accident, shows the efforts to get the fire under control, to take care of patients with radiation injuries, and to evacuate about 100,000 inhabitants of the area. 2. The BAM zone : permanent residents. The Baikal-Amur Mainline (BAM) railroad in Siberia is called the longest monument to the stagnation of the Brezhnev years. The film shows the lives and fates of the people in contrast to the marches and songs praising the project.

  17. Administration of cetuximab every 2 weeks in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabernero, Josep; Pfeiffer, Per; Cervantes, Andrés

    2008-01-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to present the available evidence for the administration of cetuximab on an every-2-weeks basis in combination with irinotecan in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Cetuximab is an epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted IgG(1) monoclonal antibody...... that is approved for use in combination with irinotecan or as monotherapy in the treatment of mCRC. The currently approved dosing regimen for cetuximab is a 400-mg/m(2) initial dose followed by 250 mg/m(2) weekly. Many commonly used chemotherapy agents for mCRC (including irinotecan alone or in combination with 5......-fluorouracil [5-FU]/folinic acid [FA] and oxaliplatin plus 5-FU/FA) are administered on an every-2-weeks basis. The ability to synchronize the administration of cetuximab and concomitant chemotherapy is desirable for both patients and health care workers. A cetuximab dose of 500 mg/m(2) every 2 weeks exhibited...

  18. Pocket total dose meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1984-10-01

    Laboratory measurements have demonstrated that it is possible to simultaneously measure absorbed dose and dose equivalent using a single tissue equivalent proportional counter. Small, pocket sized instruments are being developed to determine dose equivalent as the worker is exposed to mixed field radiation. This paper describes the electronic circuitry and computer algorithms used to determine dose equivalent in these devices

  19. On dose distribution comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Steve B; Sharp, Greg C; Neicu, Toni; Berbeco, Ross I; Flampouri, Stella; Bortfeld, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    In radiotherapy practice, one often needs to compare two dose distributions. Especially with the wide clinical implementation of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, software tools for quantitative dose (or fluence) distribution comparison are required for patient-specific quality assurance. Dose distribution comparison is not a trivial task since it has to be performed in both dose and spatial domains in order to be clinically relevant. Each of the existing comparison methods has its own strengths and weaknesses and there is room for improvement. In this work, we developed a general framework for comparing dose distributions. Using a new concept called maximum allowed dose difference (MADD), the comparison in both dose and spatial domains can be performed entirely in the dose domain. Formulae for calculating MADD values for various comparison methods, such as composite analysis and gamma index, have been derived. For convenience in clinical practice, a new measure called normalized dose difference (NDD) has also been proposed, which is the dose difference at a point scaled by the ratio of MADD to the predetermined dose acceptance tolerance. Unlike the simple dose difference test, NDD works in both low and high dose gradient regions because it considers both dose and spatial acceptance tolerances through MADD. The new method has been applied to a test case and a clinical example. It was found that the new method combines the merits of the existing methods (accurate, simple, clinically intuitive and insensitive to dose grid size) and can easily be implemented into any dose/intensity comparison tool

  20. 76 FR 46808 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in Permissible Nonbanking Activities or To Acquire Companies That...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... that the Board has determined by Order to be closely related to banking and permissible for bank...: 1. Westpac Banking Corporation, Sydney, Australia; to indirectly acquire 100 percent of the voting... advisory and private placement services, pursuant to sections 225.28(b)(6) and (b)(7)(iii) of Regulation Y...

  1. 34 CFR 97.408 - Requirements for permission by parents or guardians and for assent by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... permission is not a reasonable requirement to protect the subjects (for example, neglected or abused children... for assent by children. 97.408 Section 97.408 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research...

  2. 76 FR 6136 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in Permissible Nonbanking Activities or To Acquire Companies That...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ...: 1. Hana Financial Group Inc., Seoul, Korea; to acquire a controlling interest in Korea Exchange Bank, Seoul, Korea, and thereby indirectly acquire voting shares of KEB Financial Corp., New York, New York... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Notice of Proposals To Engage in Permissible Nonbanking Activities or To...

  3. Permissive Parenting, Deviant Peer Affiliations, and Delinquent Behavior in Adolescence: the Moderating Role of Sympathetic Nervous System Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, J Benjamin; Erath, Stephen A; Tu, Kelly M; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined two measures of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity as moderators of the indirect path from permissive parenting to deviant peer affiliations to delinquency among a community sample of adolescents. Participants included 252 adolescents (M = 15.79 years; 53 % boys; 66 % European American, 34 % African American). A multi-method design was employed to address the research questions. Two indicators of SNS reactivity, skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) and cardiac pre-ejection period reactivity (PEPR) were examined. SNS activity was measured during a baseline period and a problem-solving task (star-tracing); reactivity was computed as the difference between the task and baseline periods. Adolescents reported on permissive parenting, deviant peer affiliations, externalizing behaviors, and substance use (alcohol, marijuana). Analyses revealed indirect effects between permissive parenting and delinquency via affiliation with deviant peers. Additionally, links between permissive parenting to affiliation with deviant peers and affiliation with deviant peers to delinquency was moderated by SNS reactivity. Less SNS reactivity (less PEPR and/or less SCLR) were risk factors for externalizing problems and alcohol use. Findings highlight the moderating role of SNS reactivity in parenting and peer pathways that may contribute to adolescent delinquency and point to possibilities of targeted interventions for vulnerable youth.

  4. 5 CFR 890.1016 - Aggravating and mitigating factors used to determine the length of permissive debarments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the debarment, or similar acts, had an adverse impact on the physical or mental health or well-being... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Administrative Sanctions Imposed Against Health Care Providers Permissive Debarments § 890...

  5. Subcellular localization of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus proteins and DNA during permissive infection of Crandell feline kidney cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Costello, F.; Huhtanen, M.

    1996-01-01

    Confocal microscopy allowed us to localize viral nonstructural (NS) and capsid (VP) proteins and DNA simultaneously in cells permissively infected with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV). Early after infection, NS proteins colocalized with viral DNA to form intranuclear inclusions, whereas VP...

  6. Psychometric Support for a New Measure of Authoritative, Authoritarian, and Permissive Parenting Practices: Cross-Cultural Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Clyde C.; And Others

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics of a 62-item parenting questionnaire completed by parents from the United States, Australia, China, and Russia. Factor analyses yielded three global parenting dimensions for each culture which were consistent with D. Baumrind's (1971) authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive typologies. The…

  7. 12 CFR 584.2-2 - Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... savings and loan holding companies. 584.2-2 Section 584.2-2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 584.2-2 Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies. (a) General. For purposes of § 584.2(b)(6)(i) of this part...

  8. 12 CFR 347.115 - Permissible activities for a foreign branch of an insured state nonmember bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... political subdivisions, to the extent permissible under the law of the issuing foreign country; and (ii) An... under the law of the issuing foreign country, if supported by the taxing authority, guarantee, or full... securities eligible to meet local reserve or similar requirements; and (iii) Shares of automated electronic...

  9. 75 FR 71130 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in Permissible Nonbanking Activities or To Acquire Companies That...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Notice of Proposals To Engage in Permissible Nonbanking Activities or To..., Virginia 23261-4528: 1. Royal Bank of Canada, Montreal, Canada; to acquire BlueBay Asset Management plc..., and thereby engage in financial and investment advisory activities, pursuant to section 225.28(b)(6...

  10. 26 CFR 301.7216-2T - Permissible disclosures or uses without consent of the taxpayer (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... return preparer has prepared or processed. The Internal Revenue Service may issue guidance, by... auditing services. A quality or peer review may be conducted only by attorneys, certified public... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permissible disclosures or uses without consent...

  11. Criteria for permission of radiosterilized products to application in medicine; Zasady dopuszczania wyrobow sterylizowanych radiacyjnie do stosowania w medycynie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achmatowicz, T [Instytut Lekow, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    The criteria being used in Poland for permission of radiosterilized medical materials to commercial application result from regulations being in force. The international regulations are also taken into account. The all criteria and procedure needed for any product become accepted for radiosterilization and commercial medical use have been presented and discussed. 1 tab.

  12. Trends and countertrends in sexual permissiveness: Three decades of attitude change in the Netherlands 1965-1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from 8 surveys on attitude change in the Netherlands, I tried to clarify trends in sexual permissiveness since the 1960s. In explaining these changes, time-period effects proved most important, whereas cohort replacement appeared to be of minor significance. Hence, changing

  13. Randomized clinical trial to comparing efficacy of daily, weekly and monthly administration of vitamin D3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, István; Tóth, Béla E; Szekeres, László; Szabó, Boglárka; Bakos, Bence; Lakatos, Péter

    2017-01-01

    The comparative efficacy and safety profiles of selected daily 1000 IU, weekly 7000 IU and monthly 30,000 IU vitamin D 3 -not previously investigated-will be evaluated. Here, a prospective, randomized clinical trial, comparing efficacy and safety of a daily single dose of 1000 IU (group A) to a once-weekly 7000 IU dose (group B), or monthly 30,000 IU dose (group C) of vitamin D 3 . The present study is a controlled, randomized, open-label, multicenter clinical trial, 3  months in duration. Sixty-four adult subjects with vitamin D deficiency (25OHD<20 ng/ml), were included according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Dose-responses for increases in serum vitamin 25OHD were statistically equivalent for each of the three groups: A, B and C. Outcomes were 13.0 ± 1.5; 12.6 ± 1.1 and 12.9 ± 0.9 ng/ml increases in serum 25OHD per 1000 IU, daily, weekly and monthly, respectively. The treatment of subjects with selected doses restored 25OHD values to levels above 20 ng/ml in all groups. Treatment with distinct administration frequency of vitamin D 3 did not exhibit any differences in safety parameters. The daily, weekly and monthly administrations of daily equivalent of 1000 IU of vitamin D 3 provide equal efficacy and safety profiles.

  14. Endogenous peripheral hydrogen sulfide is propyretic: its permissive role in brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Renato N; Braga, Sara P; Breder, Jéssica S C; Batalhao, Marcelo E; Oliveira-Pelegrin, Gabriela R; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando R; Rocha, Maria José A; Carnio, Evelin C; Branco, Luiz G S

    2018-03-01

    What is the central question of this study? In fever, the most striking response in the acute phase reaction of systemic inflammation, plasma H 2 S concentration increases. However, the role of endogenous peripheral H 2 S in fever is unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? Endogenous peripheral H 2 S is permissive for increased brown adipose tissue thermogenesis to maintain thermal homeostasis in cold environments as well as to mount fever. This finding expands the physiological role of the gaseous modulator as a key regulator of thermal control in health (thermal homeostasis) and disease (fever in systemic inflammation). In recent years, hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) has been reported as a gaseous modulator acting in several tissues in health and disease. In animal models of systemic inflammation, the plasma H 2 S concentration increases in response to endotoxin (bacterial lipopolysaccharide, LPS). The most striking response in the acute phase reaction of systemic inflammation is fever, but we found no reports of the peripheral action of H 2 S on this thermoregulatory response. We aimed at investigating whether endogenous systemic H 2 S modulates LPS-induced fever. A temperature datalogger capsule was inserted in the abdominal cavity of male Wistar rats (220-270 g) to record body core temperature. These animals received an i.p. injection of a systemic H 2 S inhibitor (propargylglycine; 50 or 75 mg kg -1 ), immediately followed by an i.p. injection of LPS (50 or 2500 μg kg -1 ), and were exposed to different ambient temperatures (16, 22 or 27°C). At 22°C, but not at 27°C, propargylglycine at 75 mg kg -1 significantly attenuated (P endogenous peripheral H 2 S on brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. Evidence on the modulatory role of peripheral H 2 S in BAT thermogenesis was strengthened when we discarded (i) the possible influence of the gas on febrigenic signalling (when measuring plasma cytokines), and (ii) its interaction with the nitric

  15. Radiation dose distributions due to sudden ejection of cobalt device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhady, Amr

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of the radiation dose during accident in a nuclear reactor is of great concern from the viewpoint of safety. One of important accident must be analyzed and may be occurred in open pool type reactor is the rejection of cobalt device. The study is evaluating the dose rate levels resulting from upset withdrawal of co device especially the radiation dose received by the operator in the control room. Study of indirect radiation exposure to the environment due to skyshine effect is also taken into consideration in order to evaluate the radiation dose levels around the reactor during the ejection trip. Microshield, SHLDUTIL, and MCSky codes were used in this study to calculate the radiation dose profiles during cobalt device ejection trip inside and outside the reactor building. - Highlights: • This study aims to calculate the dose rate profiles after cobalt device ejection from open-pool-type reactor core. • MicroShield code was used to evaluate the dose rates inside the reactor control room. • McSKY code was used to evaluate the dose rates outside the reactor building. • The calculated dose rates for workers are higher than the permissible limits after 18 s from device ejection.

  16. The 5x1 DAFNE study protocol: a cluster randomised trial comparing a standard 5 day DAFNE course delivered over 1 week against DAFNE training delivered over 1 day a week for 5 consecutive weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Jackie

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structured education programmes are now established as an essential component to assist effective self-management of diabetes. In the case of Type 1 diabetes, the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE programme improves both glycaemic control and quality of life. Traditionally delivered over five consecutive days, this format has been cited as a barrier to participation by some patients, such as those who work full-time. Some centres in the UK have organised structured education programmes to be delivered one day a week over several consecutive weeks. This type of format may add benefit by allowing more time in which to practice skills between sessions, but may suffer as a result of weaker peer support being generated compared to that formed over five consecutive days. Methods/design We aim to compare DAFNE delivered over five consecutive days (1 week course with DAFNE delivered one day a week over five weeks (5 week course in a randomised controlled trial. A total of 213 patients were randomised to attend either a 1 week or a 5 week course delivered in seven participating centres. Study outcomes (measured at baseline, 6 and 12 months post-course include HbA1c, weight, self-reported rates of severe hypoglycaemia, psychosocial measures of quality of life, and cost-effectiveness. Generalisability was optimised by recruiting patients from DAFNE waiting lists at each centre, and by mailing eligible patients from hospital clinic lists. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were identical to those used to recruit to a standard DAFNE course (e.g., HbA1c Discussion This trial has been designed to test the hypothesis that the benefits of delivering a structured education programme over 5 weeks are comparable to those observed after a 1 week course. The results of the trial and the qualitative sub-study will both inform the design and delivery of future DAFNE courses, and the development of structured education programmes in other

  17. A multicentre cohort study assessing day of week effect and outcome from emergency appendicectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Henry J M; Hall, Nigel J; Bhangu, Aneel

    2014-09-01

    There is evidence to suggest that patients undergoing treatment at weekends may be subject to different care processes and outcomes compared with weekdays. This study aimed to determine whether clinical outcomes from weekend appendicectomy are different from those performed on weekdays. Multicentre cohort study during May-June 2012 from 95 centres (89 within the UK). The primary outcome was the 30-day adverse event rate. Multilevel modelling was used to account for clustering within hospitals while adjusting for case mix to produce adjusted ORs and 95% CIs. When compared with Monday, there were no significant differences for other days of the week considering 30-day adverse events in adjusted models. On Sunday, rates of simple appendicitis were highest, and rates of normal (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.90) and complex appendicitis (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.93) lowest. This was accompanied by a 43% lower likelihood in use of laparoscopy on Sunday (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.69), accompanied by the lowest level of consultant presence for the week. When pooling weekends and weekdays, laparoscopy use remained less likely at the weekend (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.83), with no significant difference for 30-day adverse event rate (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.29). This study found that weekend appendicectomy was not associated with increased 30-day adverse events. It cannot rule out smaller increases that may be shown by larger studies. It further illustrated that patients operated on at weekends were subject to different care processes, which may expose them to risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Ministerial Decree of 6 June 1968 determining the maximum permissible doses and concentrations for purposes of the health protection of workers in the field of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    This Decree made in implementation of DPR No. 185 of 13 February 1964 forms an important part of regulations on occupational health protection. It adopts the criteria and values laid down by Euratom Directives on radiation protection. (NEA) [fr

  19. When is a dose not a dose?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    There is confusion over radiation dose limits between the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the National Radiological Protection Board and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF), reports a Friends of the Earth's radiation campaigner. MAFF is suggesting the inadequate ICRP public dose limit does not apply to public exposures which arise from environmental contamination from past radioactive discharges. (author)

  20. Medical image of the week: aspergilloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu W

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 69-year-old woman, a current smoker, with very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and prior atypical mycobacterium, was found unresponsive by her family and intubated in the field by emergency medical services for respiratory distress. Her CT thorax showed severe emphysematous disease, apical bullous disease, and a large left upper lobe cavitation with debris (Figure 1. She was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics and anti-fungal medications. Hemoptysis was never seen. Sputum cultures over a span of two weeks repeatedly showed Aspergillus fumigatus and outside medical records confirmed the patient had a known history of stable aspergilloma not requiring therapy. Aspergillomas usually arises in cavitary areas of the lung damaged by previous infections. The fungus ball is a combination of colonization by Aspergillus hyphae and cellular debris. Individuals with aspergillomas are usually asymptomatic or have mild symptoms (chronic cough and do not require treatment unless it begins to invade into the cavity ...

  1. The new Bulletin arrives in two weeks

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    In May, you will discover a redesigned CERN Bulletin. Starting with the first May issue (No. 19-20/2006), the format of the CERN Bulletin will change completely. The page layout will be more attractive, reminiscent of a proper newspaper, with pictograms to identify the different sections. The information provided will also be more visible. The Bulletin was much in need of a makeover as its current layout dates back to 1976! The introduction of the new format will coincide with the introduction of a new means of distribution. You will still receive the elctronic version of the Bulletin every week directly on your computer. However, in order to avoid the waste from the dozens of copies that linger unread in people's mailboxes, the paper version will be available at a series of distribution points around the Laboratory. You will find the Bulletin along with the Staff Association newsletter at the cafeteria closest to your office. The Bulletin will be available from the following distribution points: On the M...

  2. Medical image of the week: headcheese sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adial A

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 95-year-old woman with a past medical history of breast cancer and mastectomy presented with fevers, cough productive of sputum and progressive dyspnea for 2 weeks. She denies any recent travel or sick contacts but has bird at home since last 10 years. She was afebrile but tachypneic with respiratory rate of 25 and sPO2 of 86% on room air. Her initial chest examination reveals coarse rhonchi in both lungs. Labs were significant for a sodium of 118 mEq/L, leukocytosis to 18,000 cells/mcL without peripheral eosinophilia. Arterial blood gas showed pO2 of 55 mm Hg, pCO2 of 48 mm Hg and pH of 7.44. An initial chest X-ray was positive for extensive bilateral pulmonary infiltrates predominantly in the mid and lower lungs with areas of airspace consolidation. Her urine Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen was negative as well as rapid influenza and a respiratory syncytial virus panel. The high resolution thoracic CT …

  3. The reconstruction of thyroid dose following Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanenko, V.; Kondrashov, A.; Yaskova, E.; Petin, D.; Skvortsov, V.; Parshkov, E.; Gavrilin, Yu.; Khrousch, V.; Shinkarev, S.; Makarenkova, I.; Volkov, V.; Zvonova, I.; Bratilova, A.; Kaidanovsky, J.; Minenko, V.; Drozdovich, V.; Ulanovsky, A.; Korneev, S.; Heinemann, K.; Pomplun, E.; Hille, R.; Bailiff, A.

    1996-01-01

    The report presents the overview of several approaches in working out the methods of thyroid internal dose reconstruction following Chernobyl. One of these approaches was developed (IBPh, Moscow; MRRC, Obninsk; IRM, Minsk) using the correlations between the mean dose calculation based on I 131 thyroid content measurements and Cs 137 contamination of territories. The available data on I 131 soil contamination were taken into account. The lack of data on I 131 soil contamination was supposed to be compensated by I 129 measurements in soil samples from contaminated territories. The semiempiric model was developed for dose reconstruction. The comparison of the results obtained by semiempiric model and empirical values are presented. The estimated values of average dose according semiempiric model were used for individual dose reconstruction. The IRH (St.-Petersburg) has developed the following method for individual dose reconstruction: correlation between the total I 131 radioiodine incorporation in thyroid and whole body Cs 137 content during first months after accident. The individual dose reconstruction is also mentioned to be performed using the data on individual milk consumption during first weeks after accident. For evaluation of average doses it is suggested to use the linear correlation: thyroid dose values based on radioiodine thyroid measurements vs Cs 137 contamination, air kerma rate, mean I 131 concentration in the milk. The method for retrospective reconstruction of thyroid dose caused by short-living iodine nuclides released after the Chernobyl accident has been developed by Research Centre, Juelich, Germany. It is based on the constant ratio that these nuclides have with the long-living I 129 . The contamination of soil samples by this nuclide can be used to assess thyroid doses. First results of I 129 contamination values and derived thyroid doses are to be presented

  4. Medical image of the week: fungus ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosen S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 69 year-old Asian woman living in Arizona with a past medical history of nephrotic syndrome on high-dose steroids had worsening pulmonary symptoms. A computed tomography (CT of the chest (Figure 1 showed a 4.7 cm thin walled cavitary lesion in the right middle lobe compatible with mycetoma. She underwent thoracotomy for mycetoma resection. Surgical pathology confirmed an epithelial-lined cavity containing dense mycelia (Figure 2. Given the patient lived in an endemic area; the cavity was thought to be likely due to coccidioidomycosis. However, the mycetoma was of unclear etiology. No spherules were noted on GMS stain and tissue culture was negative. While of unclear clinical significance which fungus colonizes a pre-existing cavity, a Coccidioides PCR was performed and no Coccidioides genes were amplified making a Coccidioides mycetoma very unlikely. Pulmonary mycetoma or “fungus ball” consists of dense fungal elements and amorphous cellular material within a pre-existing pulmonary cavity. Classically ...

  5. Phase I study of Carzelesin (U-80,244) given (4-weekly) by intravenous bolus schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awada, A; Punt, C J A; Piccart, M J; Tellingen, O Van; Manen, L Van; Kerger, J; Groot, Y; Wanders, J; Verweij, J; Wagener, D J Th

    1999-01-01

    Carzelesin is a cyclopropylpyrroloindole analogue which acts as a DNA-sequence-specific alkylating agent. In this phase I study, Carzelesin was given as a 4-weekly 10 min IV infusion to 51 patients with advanced solid tumours. Patients received a median of two courses (range 1–5) at one of nine dose levels: 24, 48, 96, 130, 150, 170, 210, 250 and 300 μg m−2. According to NCI-CTC criteria, non-haematological toxicities (grade 1/2) included fever, nausea and vomiting, mucositis and anorexia, none of which was clearly dose related. The dose-limiting toxicity was haematological and consisted mainly of neutropenia and to a lesser extent thrombocytopenia. From the dose level 150 μg m−2, the haematological toxicity (particularly thrombocytopenia) was delayed in onset, prolonged and cumulative in some patients. In several courses, double WBC nadirs occurred. The maximum tolerated dose for a single course was 300 μg m−2. From the dose level 170 μg m−2, the intended dose intensity could not be delivered to most patients receiving > 2 courses owing to cumulative haematological toxicity. The dose level with the best dose intensity for multiple courses was 150 μg m−2. The pharmacokinetics of Carzelesin and its metabolites (U-76,073; U-76,074) have been established in 31 patients during the first course of treatment using a HPLC method. Carzelesin exhibited linear pharmacokinetics. The concentration of U-76,074 (active metabolite) extended above the lower limit of quantitation (1 ng ml−1) for short periods of time and only at the higher dose levels. There was no relationship between neutropenia and the AUC of the prodrug Carzelesin, but the presence of detectable plasma levels of the active metabolite U-76,074 was usually associated with a substantial decrease in ANC values. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10188890

  6. Determination of the maximum individual dose exposure resulting from a hypothetical LEU plate-melt accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhady, Amr

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Studying the radioactive release results from hypothetical plate-melt accident. ► Hotspot code was used to study the dose distributions around the reactor. ► A 90% decrease in the received dose in proper operation of filtration. ► The received dose is lower than the annual permissible dose after filtration. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to provide an estimate of the potential impact of accidental radioactive release from the testing cell of the Egyptian second research reactor ETRR-2 on the dose level of public around the reactor. The assessment was performed for two cases: an evaluation of the impact that accidental release has on the dose that would be received by public around the reactor in case of proper operation of testing cell filtration system; and an assessment of the potential dose in case of loss of testing cell filtration system. The results show that the filtration system has a great role in decreasing the dose received by an individual located outside the reactor to a dose level lower than the annual permissible dose

  7. Four Weeks of Mobility After 8 Weeks of Immobility Fails to Restore Normal Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudel, Guy; Zhou, Jian; Uhthoff, Hans K.

    2008-01-01

    Prolonged immobilization reduces passive range of motion of joints creating joint contractures. Whether and to what extent these iatrogenic contractures can be reduced is unknown. We raised three questions using an animal model: What degree of contracture remains at the end of a defined remobilization period? Do contractures in sham-operated and immobilized joints differ? What is the contribution of the posterior knee capsule in limiting knee extension? We immobilized one knee of 11 adult male rats in flexion to induce a joint contracture; 10 control animals underwent a sham operation. After 8 weeks, the internal fixation device was removed, and the animals were allowed to resume unrestricted activity for 4 weeks at the end of which the knee range of motion was measured with standardized torques. The mean flexion contracture was higher in the immobilized group (51.9° ± 2.8°) than in the sham-operated group (18.9° ± 2.1°). Eighty-eight percent of the contractures remained in the immobilized group after dividing skin and muscle, suggesting an important contribution of the posterior knee capsule in limiting knee mobility. Based on our preliminary study the range of motion of rat knees immobilized for 8 weeks remained substantially reduced after a 4-week period of unassisted remobilization. PMID:18299947

  8. Optimizing Radiation Doses for Computed Tomography Across Institutions: Dose Auditing and Best Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demb, Joshua; Chu, Philip; Nelson, Thomas; Hall, David; Seibert, Anthony; Lamba, Ramit; Boone, John; Krishnam, Mayil; Cagnon, Christopher; Bostani, Maryam; Gould, Robert; Miglioretti, Diana; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca

    2017-06-01

    Radiation doses for computed tomography (CT) vary substantially across institutions. To assess the impact of institutional-level audit and collaborative efforts to share best practices on CT radiation doses across 5 University of California (UC) medical centers. In this before/after interventional study, we prospectively collected radiation dose metrics on all diagnostic CT examinations performed between October 1, 2013, and December 31, 2014, at 5 medical centers. Using data from January to March (baseline), we created audit reports detailing the distribution of radiation dose metrics for chest, abdomen, and head CT scans. In April, we shared reports with the medical centers and invited radiology professionals from the centers to a 1.5-day in-person meeting to review reports and share best practices. We calculated changes in mean effective dose 12 weeks before and after the audits and meeting, excluding a 12-week implementation period when medical centers could make changes. We compared proportions of examinations exceeding previously published benchmarks at baseline and following the audit and meeting, and calculated changes in proportion of examinations exceeding benchmarks. Of 158 274 diagnostic CT scans performed in the study period, 29 594 CT scans were performed in the 3 months before and 32 839 CT scans were performed 12 to 24 weeks after the audit and meeting. Reductions in mean effective dose were considerable for chest and abdomen. Mean effective dose for chest CT decreased from 13.2 to 10.7 mSv (18.9% reduction; 95% CI, 18.0%-19.8%). Reductions at individual medical centers ranged from 3.8% to 23.5%. The mean effective dose for abdominal CT decreased from 20.0 to 15.0 mSv (25.0% reduction; 95% CI, 24.3%-25.8%). Reductions at individual medical centers ranged from 10.8% to 34.7%. The number of CT scans that had an effective dose measurement that exceeded benchmarks was reduced considerably by 48% and 54% for chest and abdomen, respectively. After

  9. Permission for the disposal of substances. Recommendation of the Radiation Protection Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldauf, D.

    2007-01-01

    Since the Nineteen Eighties the German Radiation Protection Commission (SSK) has issued a number of recommendations for the release of weakly radioactive substances from the requirement of official approval for use. These have been summarised in a general guide [SSK 98]. The recommendations are based on the de minimis concept of the IAEA [IAEA 88] which allows an upper total dose limit for the general population of several 10 μSv per year from all substances exempt from official approval. As a means of modelling the disposal of exempt substances the general guide uses a model based on a study by Poschner and Schaller [POS 95]. The exemption values given in the general guide also take account of age groups and the dose coefficients given in the basic radiation protection standards of the EU [EU 96]. In the meantime the framework conditions have changed, due in part to new waste management regulations and in part to improvements in disposal technology. The changes in waste management law have resulted in particular from the Ordinance on the Environmentally Friendly Landfilling of Household Wastes (AbfAblV) of 20 February 2001, BGBl 2001, 305 and from the Ordinance on Landfills and Long-Term Storage Facilities (DepV) of 24 July 2002, BGBl 2002, 2807, in which the regulations of the Technical Code on Household Waste (TASi) [TASi 93] have been detailed and made binding. This has led to certain requirements being placed on existing as well as new landfills and storage facilities and related work processes, which in turn has impacted on dose calculation formulas (in particular soil sealing, covering, pretreatment of wastes). The consequences of the new requirements were investigated in a research project conducted by the Federal Radiation Protection Office (BfS) [THI 04]. For these reasons the Radiation Protection Commission has been commissioned by the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU) to work out a recommendation for

  10. The importance of triggering dose and conditions of split dose incubation to the development of thermotolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, P.Y.; Blakely, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    We have observed a lack of development of thermotolerance in CHO-TSH1, a protein synthetic mutant hamster cell line, under continuous heat stress treatments of 41.5 0 C, 42 0 C, and 42.5 0 C. The parental CHO-SC1 line develops thermotolerance under similar conditions. During the past year we have further examined this phenomenon in the mutant by studying the role of the level of the triggering heat dose and the time of administration to the ultimate development of thermotolerance. By increasing the temperature of the triggering dose for a brief interval, followed by the time at the permissive temperature, we were able to induce the development of thermotolerance in the protein-synthetic mutant cell. 4 refs., 2 figs

  11. Weekly patterns, diet quality and energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Sinéad

    2014-07-01

    Human behaviour is made up of many repeated patterns and habitual behaviours. Our day to day lives are punctuated by work, education, domestic chores, sleep and food. Changes in daily patterns such as not working in paid employment or attending school on the weekend contribute significantly to changes in dietary patterns of food consumption, patterns of physical activity and ultimately energy balance. The aim of this paper is to adopt a life-course perspective and explore the changes in dietary quality and physical activity patterns across the week from young children to elderly adults with a focus on Western cultures. Research literature indicates that the dietary quality is somewhat poorer on the weekends, characterised by higher fat intakes, higher alcohol intakes and consequently higher energy intakes. This increase in energy intake is not necessarily offset by an increase in activity, rather an increase in sedentary behaviours. Some research has observed an increase of more than 100 cal per day over the weekend in American adults. Over the course of one year, this can result in a significant increase in body mass. Some of the interventions in tackling obesity and diet related behaviours must focus on the changes in the weekend behaviour of consumers in terms of both food and activity. These efforts should also focus on increasing consumer awareness of the long term consequences of the short lived weekend excess as well as putting in place practical measures and interventions that are evidence based and targeted to consumer needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gender differences in adolescent premarital sexual permissiveness in three Asian cities: effects of gender-role attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xiayun; Lou, Chaohua; Gao, Ersheng; Cheng, Yan; Niu, Hongfeng; Zabin, Laurie S

    2012-03-01

    Gender is an important factor in understanding premarital sexual attitudes and behaviors. Many studies indicate that males are more likely to initiate sexual intercourse and have more permissive perceptions about sex than females. Yet few studies have explored possible reasons for these gender differences. With samples of unmarried adolescents in three Asian cities influenced by Confucian cultures, this article investigates the relationship between underlying gender norms and these differences in adolescents' premarital sexual permissiveness (PSP). In a collaborative survey conducted in 2006-2007 in urban and rural areas of Hanoi, Shanghai, and Taipei, 16,554 unmarried participants aged 15-24 years were recruited in the three-City Asian Study of Adolescents and Youth, with 6,204, 6,023, and 4,327 respondents from each city, respectively. All the adolescents were administered face-to-face interviews, coupled with computer-assisted self-interview for sensitive questions. Scales on gender-role attitudes and on PSP for both male and female respondents were developed and applied to our analysis of the data. Multilinear regression was used to analyze the relationship between gender-role attitudes and sexual permissiveness. Male respondents in each city held more permissive attitudes toward premarital sex than did females, with both boys and girls expressing greater permissiveness to male premarital sexual behaviors. Boys also expressed more traditional attitudes to gender roles (condoning greater inequality) than did girls in each city. Adolescents' gender-role attitudes and permissiveness to premarital sex varied considerably across the three cities, with the Vietnamese the most traditional, the Taiwanese the least traditional, and the adolescents in Shanghai in the middle. A negative association between traditional gender roles and PSP was only found among girls in Shanghai and Taipei. In Shanghai, female respondents who held more traditional gender-role attitudes were

  13. Development of the radiation control system for personal permission, status and record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, A.; Yamazaki, H.; Yuki, H.; Nanao, M.; Sugawara, Y.; Ohtsuki, T.

    2003-01-01

    The radiation control system for automated locks, personal status, and recordings in the database was developed at Laboratory of Nuclear Science (LNS), Tohoku University. It consists of the Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) for the entrance system and Windows PC. The PLC is controlled with Fins Gateway and Compolet on the Windows PC through an ethernet. The SQL Server 2000 was also installed on the Windows PC for database management. In the system, personal data such as destination, purpose, working hours and radiation dose are stored in the database. Furthermore, monthly report of personal data can easily be printed out by using the system. Personal status can be checked by a status monitor of the accelerator in the operation room and the entrance of the radiation controlled area, etc. (author)

  14. Warfarin maintenance dose in older patients: higher average dose and wider dose frequency distribution in patients of African ancestry than those of European ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, Candice L; Clemente, Jennifer L; Ibe, George N; Kandula, Vijay A; Curtis, Kristy D; Whittaker, Peter

    2010-06-15

    Studies report that warfarin doses required to maintain therapeutic anticoagulation decrease with age; however, these studies almost exclusively enrolled patients of European ancestry. Consequently, universal application of dosing paradigms based on such evidence may be confounded because ethnicity also influences dose. Therefore, we determined if warfarin dose decreased with age in Americans of African ancestry, if older African and European ancestry patients required different doses, and if their daily dose frequency distributions differed. Our chart review examined 170 patients of African ancestry and 49 patients of European ancestry cared for in our anticoagulation clinic. We calculated the average weekly dose required for each stable, anticoagulated patient to maintain an international normalized ratio of 2.0 to 3.0, determined dose averages for groups 80 years of age and plotted dose as a function of age. The maintenance dose in patients of African ancestry decreased with age (PAfrican ancestry required higher average weekly doses than patients of European ancestry: 33% higher in the 70- to 79-year-old group (38.2+/-1.9 vs. 28.8+/-1.7 mg; P=0.006) and 52% in the >80-year-old group (33.2+/-1.7 vs. 21.8+/-3.8 mg; P=0.011). Therefore, 43% of older patients of African ancestry required daily doses >5mg and hence would have been under-dosed using current starting-dose guidelines. The dose frequency distribution was wider for older patients of African ancestry compared to those of European ancestry (PAfrican ancestry indicate that strategies for initiating warfarin therapy based on studies of patients of European ancestry could result in insufficient anticoagulation and thereby potentially increase their thromboembolism risk. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Absorbed dose to mice in prolonged irradiation by low-dose rate ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiragai, Akihiro [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Saitou, Mikio; Kudo, Iwao [and others

    2000-07-01

    In this paper, the dose absorbed by mice was evaluated as a preliminary study of the late effects of prolonged continuous irradiation of mice with low-dose rate ionizing radiation. Eight-week-old male and female SPF C3H/HeN mice in three irradiation rooms were exposed to irradiation at 8000, 400, and 20 mGy, respectively, using a {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-source. Nine racks were arranged in a circle approximately 2.5 m from the source in each room, and 10 cages were arranged on the 4 shelves of each rack. Dose distributions, such as in air at the source level, in the three rooms were estimated by using ionization chambers, and the absorbed dose distributions in the room and relative dose distributions in the cages in relation to the distance of the cage center were examined. The mean abdomen doses of the mice measured by TLD were compared with the absorbed doses in the cages. The absorbed dose distributions showed not only inverse-inverse-square-law behavior with distance from the source, but geometric symmetry in every room. The inherent scattering and absorption in each room are responsible for such behavior and asymmetry. Comparison of relative dose distributions revealed cage positions that are not suitable for experiments with high precision doses, but all positions can be used for prolonged continuous irradiation experiments if the position of the cages is rotated regularly. The mean abdomen doses of the mice were similar in each cage. The mean abdomen doses of the mice and the absorbed doses in a cage were almost the same in all cages. Except for errors concerning the positions of the racks and cages, the uncertainties in the exposure doses were estimated to be about {+-}12% for 8000 mGy group, 17% for 400 mGy group, and 35% for 20 mGy group. (K.H.)

  16. Weekly paclitaxel with concurrent radiotherapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Wei; Ding Weijun; Yang Haihua; Shao Minghai; Wang Biyun; Wang Jianhua; Wu Sufang; Wu Shixiu; Jin Lihui; Ma, Charlie C.-M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of weekly paclitaxel with concurrent radiotherapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and materials: Between 2004 and 2007, 54 patients with locally advanced NPC were included in this protocol. Patient characteristics: median age 48; 69% male; 52% World Health Organization (WHO) III; 50% stage III, 50% stage IV. The patients underwent a course of definitive conventional radiotherapy (70 Gy in 7 weeks with 2 Gy/fraction), with concurrent weekly paclitaxel 35 mg/m 2 from the first to the sixth week of radiation. AC was started 4 weeks after the end of the radiotherapy (RT), paclitaxel 135 mg/m 2 on day 1 and cisplatin 30 mg/m 2 on days 1-3 were administered every 4 weeks for two cycles. Results: Median follow-up was 32 months. Eighty-five percentage of complete response and 15% partial response were achieved at the time of one month after AC. The 3-year actuarial rate of local regional control was 86%; distant metastases-free survival, progression-free survival and overall survival at 3 years were 81%, 69% and 76%, respectively. Forty-nine (91%) patients completed six courses of concurrent chemotherapy with weekly paclitaxel, and 4 (7%) patients delayed at the second cycle of AC. No patient developed severe acute toxicities. Conclusions: Weekly paclitaxel with concurrent RT followed by AC is a potentially effective and toxicity tolerable method for locally advanced NPC. Further studies are needed to identify the optimal dose of weekly paclitaxel in this strategy.

  17. Intracranial Hemorrhage Following a 3-week Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 35-year-old female presented to the ED with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS of 11. Per her boyfriend, the patient was having headaches for the past 3 weeks. She was initially taken to an outside hospital where her GCS was reported as 13. A non-contrast head computed tomography (CT revealed a large lobar intraparenchymal hemorrhage within the left frontal parietal lobe with midline shift. Upon examination, vitals were notable for blood pressure of 209/88mmHg, and her left pupil was fixed and dilated. The patient had extension of her right arm to noxious stimuli, paralysis of her right leg, and purposeful movement of the left arm and left leg. The patient was started on a nicardipine drip in the ED and subsequently taken to the operating room for a decompressive craniectomy. Significant findings: The patient’s head CT showed a significant area of hyperdensity consistent with an intracranial hemorrhage located within the left frontal parietal lobe (red arrow. Additionally, there is rightward midline shift up to 1.1cm (green arrow and entrapment of the right lateral ventricle (blue arrow. Discussion: Intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although the mortality for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH has declined steadily over the past several decades, the mortality for IPH mortality has not significantly.1 One of the most serious considerations when treating a patient with IPH is the management of intracranial pressure (ICP.2 Once an IPH is identified, immediate steps should be taken to bring ICP within acceptable levels including elevating the head of the bed to 30 degrees, sedation, and controlling hypertension with medications.2-3 Even with early and aggressive care, the prognosis for IPH remains poor; the 30-day mortality rate for IPH is estimated to be less than 50%, and a 2010 systematic review estimated only 12-39% of IPH patients achieve independent function.4-5 Predictors of

  18. The mothering of conduct problem and normal children in Spain and the USA: authoritarian and permissive asynchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahler, Robert G; Cerezo, M Angeles

    2005-11-01

    Ninety-two clinic-referred and nonclinical mother-child dyads in Spain and the USA were observed in their home settings under naturalistic conditions for a total of 477 hours. Children in the clinic-referred dyads were considered troubled because of conduct problems. The observations were aimed at assessing two forms of mother-child asynchrony, either of which was expected to differentiate clinic referred from nonclinical dyads. Authoritarian asynchrony was defined as a mother's indiscriminate use of aversive reactions to her child, whereas the permissive form entailed indiscriminate positive reactions. Results showed the American mothers to generate more permissive asynchrony, whereas the Spanish mothers were inclined in the authoritarian direction. Only authoritarian asynchrony differentiated the clinical versus nonclinical dyads in each country. Discussion was centered on the greater salience of aversive as opposed to positive maternal attention, and cultural differences between countries that might have accounted for the different parenting styles.

  19. Inventory model with cash flow oriented and time-dependent holding cost under permissible delay in payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops an inventory model for determining an optimal ordering policy for non-deteriorating items and time-dependent holding cost with delayed payments permitted by the supplier under inflation and time-discounting. The discounted cash flows approach is applied to study the problem analysis. Mathematical models have been derived under two different situations i.e. case I: The permissible delay period is less than cycle time for settling the account and case II: The permissible delay period is greater than or equal to cycle time for settling the account. An algorithm is used to obtain minimum total present value of the costs over the time horizon H. Finally, numerical example and sensitivity analysis demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the optimal cycle time and optimal payment time for an item so that annual total relevant cost is minimized.

  20. Concerning permission of commercial processing of nuclear fuel substances at Rokkasho plant of Japan Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Commission on Dec. 19, 1987 directed the Nuclear Fuel Safety Expert Group to carry out a study on it, made deliberations after receiving a report from the Group on July 13, 1988, and submitted the findings to the Prime Minister on July 21. The study and deliberations were intended to determine the conformity of the permission to the applicable criteria specified in laws relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor. The investigation on the location covered the site conditions, meteorology, ground conditions, hydrology, seismic environments, and social environment. The investigations on the safety design addressed the anti-earthquake performance, fire/explosion prevention, criticality control, thermal stability, containment performance, safety against natural phenomena other than earthquake, radioactive waste management, and radiation control. Other investigations included exposure evaluation and accident analysis. It was concluded that the permission would not have adverse effects on the safety of the processing business. (Nogami, K.)

  1. Concerning permission of commercial processing of nuclear fuel substances at Rokkasho plant of Japan Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    The Nuclear Safety Commission on Dec. 19, 1987 directed the Nuclear Fuel Safety Expert Group to carry out a study on it, made deliberations after receiving a report from the Group on July 13, 1988, and submitted the findings to the Prime Minister on July 21. The study and deliberations were intended to determine the conformity of the permission to the applicable criteria specified in laws relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor. The investigation on the location covered the site conditions, meteorology, ground conditions, hydrology, seismic environments, and social environment. The investigations on the safety design addressed the anti-earthquake performance, fire/explosion prevention, criticality control, thermal stability, containment performance, safety against natural phenomena other than earthquake, radioactive waste management, and radiation control. Other investigations included exposure evaluation and accident analysis. It was concluded that the permission would not have adverse effects on the safety of the processing business. (Nogami, K.).

  2. Studies on the chronic effect of lower dose level irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, T.G.; Yun, E.S.; Chung, I.Y.; Yun, M.S.; Chae, H.S.; Lee, J.Y.

    1982-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the chronic hazard of Co-60 low dose radiation on ICR mice. There is now considerable evidence from human studies that age, both at exposure to radiation and at observation for risk, can be major determinant of radiation induced cancer risk. For this reason, ICR mice at different ages such as below were exposed to 60m rads/week, 500m rads/week and 60 rads/biweek whole body Co-60 radiation at a dose rate of 3.6 rads/min. ICR mice were irradiated during pregnant period, from 1st week to 3rd week, from 3rd week to 52nd week, from 6th week to 52nd week, and from 22nd week to 52nd week after the birth. All experimental mice were autopsied immediately after being sacrificed at 52nd week. All major organs were examined grossly and weighed. After fixation histo-pathological preparations were made for microscopical study. Blood cells W.B.C., R.B.C., Hb-from eye's vein were counted by hemocytometer and hemometer. (Author)

  3. Effects of ATX-MS-1467 immunotherapy over 16 weeks in relapsing multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chataway, Jeremy; Martin, Keith; Barrell, Kevin; Sharrack, Basil; Stolt, Pelle; Wraith, David C

    2018-03-13

    To assess safety, tolerability, and efficacy of the antigen-specific immunotherapy ATX-MS-1467 in participants with relapsing multiple sclerosis using different treatment protocols to induce tolerance. Two open-label trials in adult participants with relapsing multiple sclerosis were conducted. Study 1 was a multicenter, phase 1b safety evaluation comparing intradermal (i.d.) (cohort 1) with subcutaneous (cohort 2) administration in 43 participants. Both cohorts received ATX-MS-1467 dosed at 25, 50, 100, 400, and 800 μg at 14-day intervals over 8 weeks, followed by 8 weeks with 4 additional 800-μg doses at 14-day intervals and 32 weeks off study medication. Study 2 was a phase 2a, multicenter, single-arm trial enrolling 37 participants. ATX-MS-1467 was titrated from 50 μg i.d. on day 1 to 200 μg on day 15 and 800 μg on day 29 followed by biweekly administration of 800 μg for 16 weeks and 16 weeks off study medication. Efficacy was evaluated on MRI parameters and clinical variables. Safety endpoints included treatment-emergent adverse events and injection-site reactions. In study 1, there was a significant decrease in new/persisting T1 gadolinium-enhanced (GdE) lesions in cohort 1 from baseline to week 16, returning to baseline values at week 48. In study 2, the number of T1 GdE lesions were significantly reduced on treatment and remained reduced at study completion. Safety results were unremarkable in both studies. Relatively slow ATX-MS-1467 titration and a longer full-dose i.d. treatment period is associated with reduction in GdE lesions and a sustained effect post treatment. Further trials of ATX-MS-1467 are warranted. This work provides Class IV evidence that for patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis, slow ATX-MS-1467 titration and a longer full-dose i.d. treatment period is associated with reduction in GdE lesions. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  4. Studies on chronic effects of lower dose level irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, T.G.; Yun, Y.S.; Yun, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    This experiment is being carried out to elucidate the chronic effects of Co 60 (γ-ray) - low doses irradiation on JCR mice at 3rd week, 6th week, and 5th month after their birth. Experimental mice at 3rd week of age have been irradiated with Co 60 - 60mR weekly, Co 60 - 500mR weekly and Co 60 - 61R biweekly at the dose rate of 60mR per second for 23 weeks until now. Co 60 - 61R irradiated mice were subdivided into Co 60 - alone group and Co 60 combined with red ginseng extracts group. In their survivor's rate and their body weight etc., no significant differences between control groups and test groups in these experimental mice. Experimented mice at 6 weeks and 5 months of age are also being irradiated with Co 60 in the same doses as the above for 14 weeks and 8 weeks until present. In these experimental groups, there are also no significant differences between control groups and experimental groups in their survivor's rate and their body weight

  5. An Internal Dose Assessment Associated with Personal Food Intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joeun; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Wontae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection), Therefore, had recommended the concept of 'Critical Group'. Recently the ICRP has recommended the use of 'Representative Person' on the new basic recommendation 103. On the other hand the U.S. NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) has adopted more conservative concept, 'Maximum Exposed Individuals (MEI)' of critical Group. The dose assessment in Korea is based on MEI. Although dose assessment based on MEI is easy to receive the permission of the regulatory authority, it is not efficient. Meanwhile, the internal dose by food consumption takes an important part. Therefore, in this study, the internal dose assessment was performed in accordance with ICRP's new recommendations. The internal dose assessment was performed in accordance with ICRP's new recommendations. It showed 13.2% decreased of the annual internal dose due to gaseous effluents by replacing MEI to the concept of representative person. Also, this calculation based on new ICRP's recommendation has to be extended to all areas of individual dose assessment. Then, more accurate and efficient values might be obtained for dose assessment.

  6. Insignificant levels of dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; McLean, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    The procedures recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for making decisions concerning controllable sources of radiation exposure of the public include 'justification' and 'optimisation'. The tool recommended by the ICRP for reaching these decisions is collective dose or dose commitment supplemented by consideration of doses to individuals. In both these considerations the practical problem arises of whether very small doses to large numbers of people should contribute to the final decision-making process. It may be that at levels of dose which are small increments on natural background, the relationship between dose and effect is linear even though the slope may be close to zero. If so, collective dose is a meaningful concept and the calculation of total detriment for the purpose of justification could legitimately include all doses. In the calculation of collective doses for the purpose of optimisation, which involves decisions on how much money or resource should be allocated to dose reduction, it is necessary to appraise radiation detriment realistically. At low levels of dose to the individual such as those small by comparison with variations in natural background within the UK, the risk to the individual is such that his well-being will not be significantly changed by the presence or absence of the radiation dose. These small doses, which are well below the point at which an individual attaches significance, should not carry a societal significance. Societal acceptance of risk is analysed with a view to assessing a level of possible risk, and hence dose, below which resources should not in general be diverted to secure further reduction. A formulation for collective dose commitment is proposed incorporating a cut-off to exclude insignificant doses. The implications of this formulation in practical situations are discussed

  7. Radiation doses from residual radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shunzo; Fujita, Shoichiro; Harley, John H.

    1987-01-01

    requires knowing the location of the person to within about 200 m from the time of the explosion to a few weeks afterwards. This is an effort that might be comparable to the present shielding study for survivors. The sizes of the four exposed groups are relatively small; however, the number has been estimated only for those exposed to fallout in the Nishiyama district of Nagasaki. Okajima listed the population of Nishiyama as about 600 at the time of the bomb. No figures are available for the other three groups. The individual exposures from residual radiation may not be significant compared with the direct radiation at the time of the bomb. On the other hand, individuals with potential exposure from these sources are dubious candidates for inclusion in a cohort that was presumably not exposed. For comparison with organ doses estimated in other parts of this program, the exposure estimates are converted to absorbed dose in tissue. The first conversion of exposure to absorbed dose in air uses the factor rad in air 0.87 x exposure in R. UNSCEAR uses an average combined factor of 0.7 to convert absorbed dose in air to absorbed dose in tissue for the whole body. This factor accounts for the change in material (air to tissue) and for backscatter and the shielding afforded by other tissues of the body. No allowance for shielding by buildings has been included here. The cumulative fallout exposures given above become absorbed doses in tissue of 12 to 24 rad for Nagasaki and 0.6 to 2 rad for Hiroshima. The cumulative exposures from induced radioactivity become absorbed doses in tissue of 18 to 24 rad for Nagasaki and about 50 rad for Hiroshima. (author)

  8. Leishmania major glycosylation mutants require phosphoglycans (lpg2- but not lipophosphoglycan (lpg1- for survival in permissive sand fly vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Svárovská

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sand fly species able to support the survival of the protozoan parasite Leishmania have been classified as permissive or specific, based upon their ability to support a wide or limited range of strains and/or species. Studies of a limited number of fly/parasite species combinations have implicated parasite surface molecules in this process and here we provide further evidence in support of this proposal. We investigated the role of lipophosphoglycan (LPG and other phosphoglycans (PGs in sand fly survival, using Leishmania major mutants deficient in LPG (lpg1(-, and the phosphoglycan (PG-deficient mutant lpg2(-. The sand fly species used were the permissive species Phlebotomus perniciosus and P. argentipes, and the specific vector P. duboscqi, a species resistant to L. infantum development.The lpg2(- mutants did not survive well in any of the three sand fly species, suggesting that phosphoglycans and/or other LPG2-dependent molecules are required for parasite development. In vitro, all three L. major lines were equally resistant to proteolytic activity of bovine trypsin, suggesting that sand fly-specific hydrolytic proteases or other factors are the reason for the early lpg2(- parasite killing. The lpg1(- mutants developed late-stage infections in two permissive species, P. perniciosus and P. argentipes, where their infection rates and intensities of infections were comparable to the wild type (WT parasites. In contrast, in P. duboscqi the lpg1(- mutants developed significantly worse than the WT parasites.In combination with previous studies, the data establish clearly that LPG is not required for Leishmania survival in permissive species P. perniciosus and P. argentipes but plays an important role in the specific vector P. duboscqi. With regard to PGs other than LPG, the data prove the importance of LPG2-related molecules for survival of L. major in the three sand fly species tested.

  9. Designing the eatwell week: the application of eatwell plate advice to weekly food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Wilma S; Comrie, Fiona; Lean, Michael E J; Hankey, Catherine R

    2013-05-01

    To develop a menu and resource to illustrate to consumers and health professionals what a healthy balanced diet looks like over the course of a week. Development and analysis of an illustrative 7 d 'eatwell week' menu to meet current UK recommendations for nutrients with a Dietary Reference Value, with a daily energy base of 8368 kJ (2000 kcal). Foods were selected using market research data on meals and snacks commonly consumed by UK adults. Analysis used the food composition data set from year 1 (2008) of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme. The eatwell week menu was developed using an iterative process of nutritional analysis with adjustments made to portion sizes and the inclusion/exclusion of foods in order to achieve the target macronutrient composition. Three main meals and two snacks were presented as interchangeable within the weekdays and two weekend days to achieve adult food and nutrient recommendations. Main meals were based on potatoes, rice or pasta with fish (two meals; one oily), red meat (two meals), poultry or vegetarian accompaniments. The 5-a-day target for fruit and vegetables (range 5-6·7 portions) was achieved daily. Mean salt content was below recommended maximum levels (<6 g/d). All key macro- and micronutrient values were achieved. Affordable foods, and those widely consumed by British adults, can be incorporated within a 7 d healthy balanced menu. Future research should investigate the effect of using the eatwell week on adults' dietary habits and health-related outcomes.

  10. Radiation exposure doses of employees in reactor facilities for test and research and under research and development stages, and in facilities for nuclear fuel refining, fabrication, reprocessing and usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    (1) Radiation exposure doses in reactor facilities. The owners of reactor facilities are obliged by law to control the radiation exposure doses of the employees below the permissible levels. The data based on the reports made in this connection are given in tables for the fiscal year 1978 (from April 1978 to March 1979). It was revealed that the radiation exposure doses of the employees were far below the permissible levels. The distributions of exposure doses in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation and so on are presented for the whole year and the respective quarters. (2) Radiation exposure doses in facilities for nuclear fuel. The owners are similarly obliged to control radiation exposure. The data in this connection are given, and the doses were far below the permissible levels. The distributions in the private enterprises and so on are presented for the whole year. (J.P.N.)

  11. Permissive attitude toward suicide and future intent in individuals with and without depression: results from a nationwide survey in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Park, Jae-Hyun; Shim, Eun-Jung

    2013-04-01

    Many previous studies have revealed that individuals with depression have higher thought of suicide, although not always exhibiting intent. We investigated the associated factors with respect to intent for suicide in the future. A total of 1584 adults were selected through a nationwide multistage probability sampling, randomly one person per household, and through face-to-face interviews (response rate was 63.4%) using the suicidality module of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. The group with depression (n = 152) revealed a significantly higher level of future suicide intent (t = 4.65, p attitude (t = 4.32, p attitude (adjusted odds ratio, 3.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.97-6.89) was the only factor significantly associated with future suicide intent, whereas age; sex; education years; monthly income; financial, job, and family stress; physical illness; lifetime suicide attempt; and depression showed no statistical significance. The group with depression showed significantly higher levels of future suicide intent than did the group without depression in those who had a higher permissive attitude (t = 4.18, p attitudes (t = 1.98, p = 0.067). Permissive attitude toward suicide was associated with intent for suicide in the future in individuals with depression. Permissive attitude could be evaluated and corrected to prevent suicide.

  12. Resuscitation of neonates at 23 weeks' gestational age: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, J Colin; Robertson, Kathryn R; Rogers, Elizabeth E; Landman, Geri Ottaviano; Allen, Allison J; Caughey, Aaron B

    2015-01-01

    Resuscitation of infants at 23 weeks' gestation remains controversial; clinical practices vary. We sought to investigate the cost effectiveness of resuscitation of infants born 23 0/7-23 6/7 weeks' gestation. Decision-analytic modeling comparing universal and selective resuscitation to non-resuscitation for 5176 live births at 23 weeks in a theoretic U.S. cohort. Estimates of death (77%) and disability (64-86%) were taken from the literature. Maternal and combined maternal-neonatal utilities were applied to discounted life expectancy to generate QALYs. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated, discounting costs and QALYs. Main outcomes included number of survivors, their outcome status and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for the three strategies. A cost-effectiveness threshold of $100 000/QALY was utilized. Universal resuscitation would save 1059 infants: 138 severely disabled, 413 moderately impaired and 508 without significant sequelae. Selective resuscitation would save 717 infants: 93 severely disabled, 279 moderately impaired and 343 without significant sequelae. For mothers, non-resuscitation is less expensive ($19.9 million) and more effective (127 844 mQALYs) than universal resuscitation ($1.2 billion; 126 574 mQALYs) or selective resuscitation ($845 million; 125 966 mQALYs). For neonates, both universal and selective resuscitation were cost-effective, resulting in 22 256 and 15 134 nQALYS, respectively, versus 247 nQALYs for non-resuscitation. In sensitivity analyses, universal resuscitation was cost-effective from a maternal perspective only at utilities for neonatal death permissive response to parental requests for aggressive intervention at 23 weeks' gestation.

  13. [Hygienic substantiation of the permissible levels for tetracycline-group antibiotics in food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G; Sheveleva, S A; Khotimchenko, S A

    2012-01-01

    For the purpose of justification of the hygienic standard for tetracycline-group antibiotics in the food production established in the Russian Federation at more rigid level, than maximum and admissible levels (MAL) of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the analysis of data of literature on negative nature of impact of low concentration of these antibiotics on an organism and the environmental conditions and risk for health has been performed. Inadequacy of the accepted admissible daily dose (ADD) accepted by The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) on action on selection of resistant E. coli in intestines, for the wide contingent of consumers in connection with ignoring of obvious factors of uncertainty (gastrointestinal dysbiosis, age and individual variations in the microbiota of people synergy with other antibiotics residues in food and indirect impact on an organism through microflora from the natural habitat (resistance genes, modified causative organisms with altered properties).. By the analysis of information received with the use of modern molecular and genetic methods, the role of Subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of tetracyclines as biologically active substances, signaling molecules which, without causing obvious negative consequences in a macroorganism, serve as a major factor of regulation of a transcription in microorganisms and activation of a horizontal gene transfer coding resistance, transferred on conjugative transposons of Tn916-Tn1545 family. Reasonable scientific data on a dominating contribution of minor levels of tetracyclines in globalization in the nature of the most adverse transmissive type of the antibiotic resistance interfaced to formation new bacterial pathotypes, as consequences of irrationally high scales of application in agriculture and strengthened impact on microbic ecosystems of live organisms and objects of habitat are presented. For minimization of this mediated risk for health the need of

  14. COMPARISON OF THE PERIPHERAL DOSES FROM DIFFERENT IMRT TECHNIQUES FOR PEDIATRIC HEAD AND NECK RADIATION THERAPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Masahiko; Saigo, Yasumasa; Higuchi, Kenta; Fujimura, Takuya; Koriyama, Chihaya; Yoshiura, Takashi; Akiba, Suminori

    2017-11-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can deliver high and homogeneous doses to the target area while limiting doses to organs at risk. We used a pediatric phantom to simulate the treatment of a head and neck tumor in a child. The peripheral doses were examined for three different IMRT techniques [dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC), segmental multileaf collimator (SMLC) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)]. Peripheral doses were evaluated taking thyroid, breast, ovary and testis as the points of interest. Doses were determined using a radio-photoluminescence glass dosemeter, and the COMPASS system was used for three-dimensional dose evaluation. VMAT achieved the lowest peripheral doses because it had the highest monitor unit efficiency. However, doses in the vicinity of the irradiated field, i.e. the thyroid, could be relatively high, depending on the VMAT collimator angle. DMLC and SMLC had a large area of relatively high peripheral doses in the breast region. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. On possible risks of low-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hug, O.; Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung m.b.H., Neuherberg/Muenchen

    1974-01-01

    The survey on more recent experimental and epidemiological data and newer concepts for a realistic estimation of the radiation risk leads to the conclusion that for radiation late damages and possibly also for genetic damages with a chronical radiation exposure in the order of magnitude of the natural radiation exposure and probably also in the order of magnitude of the maximum permissible radiation dose, the risk is very probably lower than is to be expected based on the findings after relatively high doses and dose rates. A few less direct comparative studies have detected a time factor of 3 to 5. Considering the analysis of the RBW demely ionizing radiation which at high doses is not greater than 3, increases with decreasing dose and according to biophysical considerations, can possibly reach a value of 30, an effectiveness reduced by a factor of 10 of small doses and dose rates of loosely ionizing radiation would be even to be expected. All radiobiological knowledge on the effect of ionizing radiation allows one to expect that even smallest radiation doses can cause cellular damages due to the linear irreversable components of the radiation effect and probably that these damages can even be the starting point of a malignant tumour. Regarding this cancer-initiating effect however, the effectiveness of loosely ionizing radiation per rad in the region of natural radiation exposure lie considerably below that existing at high doses and dose rates. Whether however this initial carcinogenic effect of very small doses is at all noticeable during the average life duration in an increase of the spontaneous age-specific tumour rate is questionable if the assumption is confirmed that with decreasing dose, the time manifestation of the radiation induced tumours is delayed. (orig./LH) [de

  16. Radiation dose to technologists per nuclear medicine examination and estimation of annual dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Tuncay; Yilmaz, A Hakan; Demir, Mustafa; Sonmez, Bircan

    2011-03-01

    Conventional diagnostic nuclear medicine applications have been continuously increasing in most nuclear medicine departments in Turkey, but to our knowledge no one has studied the doses to technologists who perform nuclear medicine procedures. Most nuclear medicine laboratories do not have separate control rooms for technologists, who are quite close to the patient during data acquisition. Technologists must therefore stay behind lead shields while performing their task if they are to reduce the radiation dose received. The aim of this study was to determine external radiation doses to technologists during nuclear medicine procedures with and without a lead shield. Another aim was to investigate the occupational annual external radiation doses to Turkish technologists. This study used a Geiger-Müller detector to measure dose rates to technologists at various distances from patients (0.25, 0.50, 1, and 2 m and behind a lead shield) and determined the average time spent by technologists at these distances. Deep-dose equivalents to technologists were obtained. The following conventional nuclear medicine procedures were considered: thyroid scintigraphy performed using (99m)Tc pertechnetate, whole-body bone scanning performed using (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate, myocardial perfusion scanning performed using (99m)Tc-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile, and (201)Tl (thallous chloride) and renal scanning performed using (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid. The measured deep-dose equivalent to technologists per procedure was within the range of 0.13 ± 0.05 to 0.43 ± 0.17 μSv using a lead shield and 0.21 ± 0.07 to 1.01 ± 0.46 μSv without a lead shield. Also, the annual individual dose to a technologist performing only a particular scintigraphic procedure throughout a year was estimated. For a total of 95 clinical cases (71 patients), effective external radiation doses to technologists were found to be within the permissible levels. This study showed that a 2-mm lead shield

  17. [Neonatal meningitis due to Listeria monocytogenes after 3 weeks of maternal treatment during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, L; Beizig, S; Le Monnier, A; Lacroze, V; Simeoni, U

    2009-04-01

    We report the case of a pregnant woman with listeriosis at 26 gestational weeks followed by premature labor at 30 gestational weeks. Bacterial meningitis was suspected in the neonate with ventriculitis on sonography, a high level of protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and an identified specific bacterial genome of Listeria monocytogenes (PCR 16S rDNA and sequencing and specific amplification of L. monocytogenes hly gene) in CSF. Neonatal meningitis was complicated with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and ventriculomegaly. Listeriosis during pregnancy can lead to severe complications in the neonate. Thus, listeriosis should be a diagnostic concern in febrile pregnant women at any stage of pregnancy. First-line treatment is based on high-dose amoxicillin (> or =6g/day) and must be used for at least 3 weeks for treatment of listeriosis during pregnancy. If the fetus survives, longer therapy until delivery can be discussed.

  18. A reversible albumin-binding growth hormone derivative is well tolerated and possesses a potential once-weekly treatment profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby; Olsen, Minna W Brændholt; Alifrangis, Lene; Klim, Søren; Suntum, Mette

    2014-10-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH) replacement therapy currently requires daily sc injections for years/lifetime, which may be both inconvenient and distressing for patients. NNC0195-0092 is a novel hGH derivative intended for once-weekly treatment of GH deficiency. A noncovalent albumin binding moiety is attached to the hGH backbone. Clearance is reduced as a consequence of a reversible binding to circulating serum albumin, which prolongs the pharmacodynamic (PD) effect. To evaluate safety, local tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of a single dose (SD) and multiple doses (MD) of NNC0195-0092. Randomized, single-center, placebo-controlled, double-blind, SD/MD, dose-escalation trial of 105 healthy male subjects. NNC0195-0092 sc administration: Five cohorts of eight subjects received one dose of NNC0195-0092 (0.01-0.32 mg/kg) (n = 6) or placebo (n = 2). Sixteen subjects (equal numbers of Japanese and non-Asian) received once-weekly doses of NNC0195-0092 (0.02-0.24 mg/kg; n=12) or placebo (n=4) for 4 weeks. Blood samples were drawn for assessment of safety, PK, IGF-1, and IGF binding protein 3 profiles and anti-drug antibodies. SD and MD of NNC0195-0092 were well tolerated at all dose levels. No safety concerns or local tolerability issues were identified. A dose-dependent IGF-1 response was observed. IGF-1 profiles suggest that NNC0195-0092 may be suitable for once-weekly dosing, with a clinically relevant dose ≤0.08 mg/kg/week. No differences in PK and PD were observed between Japanese and non-Asian subjects. SD and MD of NNC0195-0092 administered to healthy Japanese and non-Asian male subjects were well tolerated at all doses. The present trial suggests that NNC0195-0092 has the potential for an efficacious, well-tolerated, once-weekly GH treatment.

  19. Total dose meter development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackenbush, L.W.

    1986-09-01

    This report describes an alarming ''pocket'' monitor/dosimeter, based on a tissue-equivalent proportional counter, that measure both neutron and gamma dose and determines dose equivalent for the mixed radiation field. This report details the operation of the device and provides information on: the necessity for a device to measure dose equivalent in mixed radiation fields; the mathematical theory required to determine dose equivalent from tissue equivalent proportional; the detailed electronic circuits required; the algorithms required in the microprocessor used to calculate dose equivalent; the features of the instrument; program accomplishments and future plans

  20. Dose reader CD-02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakowiuk, A.; Kaluska, I.; Machaj, B.

    2005-01-01

    Dose Reader CD-02 is designed for measurement of dose from a long narrow band of dosimetric foil used for check up and control of electron beam dose during sterilization of materials and products on conveyor belt. Irradiated foil after processing (heating) is inserted into foil driving (moving) system and when the foil is moved across focused light beam the absorbed dose is measured and displayed at the same time at computer monitor (in form of a diagram). The absorbed dose is measured on the principle of light attenuation at selected light wavelength (foil absorbance is measured). (author)

  1. Dose conversion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1992-01-01

    The following is discussed in this report: concepts and quantities used in calculating radiation dose from internal and external exposure. Tabulations of dose conversion factor for internal and external exposure to radionuclides. Dose conversion factors give dose per unit intake (internal) or dose per unit concentration in environment (external). Intakes of radionuclides for internal exposure and concentrations of radionuclides in environment for external exposure are assumed to be known. Intakes and concentrations are obtained, e.g., from analyses of environmental transport and exposure pathways. differences between dosimetry methods for radionuclides and hazardous chemicals are highlighted

  2. Comparison of Dosage Requirement of Erythropoietin Stimulating Agent (ESA in Maintenance of Hemoglobin Concentration in patients undergoing twice weekly versus thrice weekly Hemodialysis in Pakistani Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Kunwer Naveed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is one of the major complications of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD undergoing hemodialysis (HD and is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and also increases morbidity and mortality. Anemia in patients with CKD can be due to two major reasons; iron deficiency or erythropoietin insufficiency. Erythropoietin Stimulating Agent (ESAs administration is the mainstay in treating anemia if the patient is iron sufficient. However, higher doses of ESAs have been associated with increased cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events. We conducted this study to see how much erythropoietin is required in our setting in iron sufficient patients to maintain hemoglobin(Hb  level and the effect of dialysis frequency on ESA doses.  Methods and Findings: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Nephrology at Ziauddin University Hospital. Patients’ charts were reviewed for Hb levels and doses of ESA to maintain Hb between 10-12 mg/dl. Patients were excluded if they had iron deficiency, malignancy, were on immunosuppressive agents, had renal transplant, and with Hb >12 mg/dl or <10 mg/dl and their ferritin levels, transferrin saturation, hemoglobin concentration, frequency of hemodialysis and ESA dosage were monitored. We also compared these variables between patients undergoing hemodialysis thrice weekly with those undergoing hemodialysis twice a week. A total of 105 patients were analyzed. 24 were excluded as they did not match the inclusion criteria. 81 patients were included in the study. 36 (44.4% were males and 45 (55.6% were females. Mean age of the patient was 56.47 ± 11.72 years. The average dose of ESA was 106.91 ± 61.47 for patients undergoing hemodialysis thrice weekly and 183.94 ± 116.71 for patients undergoing hemodialysis twice a week. Significant difference was found to exist between dosage of patients undergoing thrice weekly dialysis versus twice weekly dialysis(p=<0.001.  Our study has limitations

  3. Methotrexate osteopathy in long-term, low-dose methotrexate treatment for psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonneveld, I. M.; Bakker, W. K.; Dijkstra, P. F.; Bos, J. D.; van Soesbergen, R. M.; Dinant, H. J.

    1996-01-01

    In dermatology and rheumatology, methotrexate is frequently prescribed in low dosages per week; in oncology, high dosages per week are prescribed. Methotrexate osteopathy was first reported in children with leukemia treated with high doses of methotrexate. In animal studies, low doses of

  4. Bioavailability of higher dose methotrexate comparing oral and subcutaneous administration in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Monique; Haagsma, C.; Neef, C; Proost, Johannes H; Knuif, A.; van der Laar, M.

    Objective. To determine the bioavailability of higher oral doses of methotrexate (MTX) in adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. A pharmacokinetic analysis was performed in 15 patients with RA taking a stable dose of MTX (greater than or equal to25 mg weekly). Separated by 2 weeks,

  5. Optimizing bevacizumab dosing in glioblastoma: less is more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajlan, Abdulrazag; Thomas, Piia; Albakr, Abdulrahman; Nagpal, Seema; Recht, Lawrence

    2017-10-01

    Compared to traditional chemotherapies, where dose limiting toxicities represent the maximum possible dose, monoclonal antibody therapies are used at doses well below maximum tolerated dose. However, there has been little effort to ascertain whether there is a submaximal dose at which the efficacy/complication ratio is maximized. Thus, despite the general practice of using Bevacizumab (BEV) at dosages of 10 mg/kg every other week for glioma patients, there has not been much prior work examining whether the relatively high complication rates reported with this agent can be decreased by lowering the dose without impairing efficacy. We assessed charts from 80 patients who received BEV for glioblastoma to survey the incidence of complications relative to BEV dose. All patients were treated with standard upfront chemoradiation. The toxicity was graded based on the NCI CTCAE, version 4.03. The rate of BEV serious related adverse events was 12.5% (n = 10/80). There were no serious adverse events (≥grade 3) when the administered dose was (<3 mg/kg/week), compared to a 21% incidence in those who received higher doses (≥3 mg/kg/week) (P < 0.01). Importantly, the three patient deaths attributable to BEV administration occurred in patients receiving higher doses. Patients who received lower doses also had a better survival rate, although this did not reach statistical significance [median OS 39 for low dose group vs. 17.3 for high dose group (P = 0.07)]. Lower rates of serious BEV related toxicities are noted when lower dosages are used without diminishing positive clinical impact. Further work aimed at optimizing BEV dosage is justified.

  6. The influence of dose per fraction on the pathogenesis of radiation nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildiz, F.; Atahan, I.L.; Tuncel, M.; Konan, A. [Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey). Departments of Radiation Oncology and Anatomy

    1998-11-01

    Both kidneys of male Wistar rats were irradiated with either a 1 0-Gy single dose or 26 Gy at a rate of 2 Gy per fraction per day. Serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine and blood haematocrit levels were assessed prior to radiotherapy and at intervals of 8 weeks thereafter. A subset of animals from each dose group were killed at 4, 8,16 and 24 weeks and both kidneys of each animal were examined by electron microscopy. In both dose groups a significant increase in BUN and creatinine levels, together with a decrease in haematocrit level, was observed at 16 weeks, and this was followed by an apparent improvement at 24 weeks. There was no statistical difference in these responses between the two groups. The morphological changes in both dose groups were essentially similar, but differed in severity. At 4 weeks after irradiation glomerular and proximal tubular injury were observed in both groups. A marked increase of glomerular and tubular injury in the 10-Gy dose group, without any apparent progression in the 26-Gy dose group, was detected at 8 weeks. By 16 weeks a noticeable improvement in both tubular and glomerular lesions (especially in the 10-Gy dose group) was observed. No apparent difference from the 16th week of evaluation was found at 24 weeks. These findings indicate that there is some recovery in kidney after irradiation, but the extent of the recovery process is somewhat limited. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 38 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  7. Weekly Carboplatin Reduces Toxicity During Synchronous Chemoradiotherapy for Merkel Cell Carcinoma of Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, Michael; Walpole, Euan; Harvey, Jennifer; Dickie, Graeme; O'Brien, Peter; Keller, Jacqui; Tpcony, Lee; Rischin, Danny

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The toxicity of radiotherapy (RT) combined with weekly carboplatin and adjuvant carboplatin and etoposide was prospectively assessed in a group of patients with high-risk Stage I and II Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin. This regimen was compared with the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96:07 study, which used identical eligibility criteria but carboplatin and etoposide every 3 weeks during RT. Patients and Methods: Patients were eligible if they had disease localized to the primary site and lymph nodes, with high-risk features. RT was delivered to the primary site and lymph nodes to a dose of 50 Gy and weekly carboplatin (area under the curve of 2) was given during RT. This was followed by three cycles of carboplatin and etoposide. A total of 18 patients were entered into the study, and their data were compared with the data from 53 patients entered into the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96:07 study. Results: Involved lymph nodes (Stage II) were present in 14 patients (77%). Treatment was completed as planned in 16 patients. The weekly carboplatin dose was delivered in 17 patients, and 15 were able to complete all three cycles of adjuvant carboplatin and etoposide. Grade 3 and 4 neutrophil toxicity occurred in 7 patients, but no cases of febrile neutropenia developed. Compared with the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96:07 protocol (19 of 53 cases of febrile neutropenia), the reduction in the febrile neutropenia rate (p = 0.003) and decrease in Grade 3 skin toxicity (p = 0.006) were highly statistically significant. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that weekly carboplatin at this dosage is a safe way to deliver synchronous chemotherapy during RT for MCC and results in a marked reduction of febrile neutropenia and Grade 3 skin toxicity compared with the three weekly regimen

  8. Efficacy and Safety of Single and Double Doses of Ivermectin versus 7-Day High Dose Albendazole for Chronic Strongyloidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Premasathian, Nalinee; Bhumimuang, Kid; Waywa, Duangdao; Nilganuwong, Surasak; Karuphong, Ekkapun; Anekthananon, Thanomsak; Wanachiwanawin, Darawan; Silpasakorn, Saowaluk

    2011-01-01

    Background Strongyloidiasis, caused by an intestinal helminth Strongyloides stercoralis, is common throughout the tropics. It remains an important health problem due to autoinfection, which may result in hyperinfection and disseminated infection in immunosuppressed patients, especially patients receiving chemotherapy or corticosteroid treatment. Ivermectin and albendazole are effective against strongyloidiasis. However, the efficacy and the most effective dosing regimen are to be determined. Methods A prospective, randomized, open study was conducted in which a 7-day course of oral albendazole 800 mg daily was compared with a single dose (200 microgram/kilogram body weight), or double doses, given 2 weeks apart, of ivermectin in Thai patients with chronic strongyloidiasis. Patients were followed-up with 2 weeks after initiation of treatment, then 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 1 year after treatment. Combination of direct microscopic examination of fecal smear, formol-ether concentration method, and modified Koga agar plate culture were used to detect strongyloides larvae in two consecutive fecal samples in each follow-up visit. The primary endpoint was clearance of strongyloides larvae from feces after treatment and at one year follow-up. Results Ninety patients were included in the analysis (30, 31 and 29 patients in albendazole, single dose, and double doses ivermectin group, respectively). All except one patient in this study had at least one concomitant disease. Diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythrematosus, nephrotic syndrome, hematologic malignancy, solid tumor and human immunodeficiency virus infection were common concomitant diseases in these patients. The median (range) duration of follow-up were 19 (2–76) weeks in albendazole group, 39 (2–74) weeks in single dose ivermectin group, and 26 (2–74) weeks in double doses ivermectin group. Parasitological cure rate were 63.3%, 96.8% and 93.1% in albendazole, single dose oral ivermectin

  9. Nonclinical safety and pharmacokinetics of Miglyol 812: A medium chain triglyceride in exenatide once weekly suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Nicholas; Ryan, Patricia; Baughman, Todd; Roy, Denis; Patterson, Claire; Gordon, Carolyn; Dixit, Rakesh

    2018-05-28

    Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist was originally developed as either a twice daily or once weekly injectable therapeutic for patients with type 2 diabetes. Exenatide QW suspension was developed for use with an autoinjector device, in which the microspheres are suspended in Miglyol 812, a mixture of medium chain triglycerides (MCTs). MCTs are a class of lipids whose fatty acid chains contain from six to 12 carbon atoms (medium chain fatty acids or MCFAs). While MCTs are edible oils present in many foods, including foodstuffs containing coconut and palm kernel oils, limited information is available regarding the oral and subcutaneous bioavailability of MCTs as well as safety following subcutaneous injection. These studies were designed to investigate the non-clinical pharmacokinetics and safety of MCTs. In a single dose pharmacokinetic study, MCFAs were rapidly detected in the plasma of rats following oral administration of either Miglyol 812 or tricaprylin at doses of 10 or 9.48 g kg -1 , respectively. Following subcutaneous dosing with Miglyol 812, MCFAs were rapidly absorbed with a similar profile to that following oral dosing. Furthermore, the toxicity of Miglyol 812 alone was evaluated in a 3 month repeat dose toxicology studies in cynomolgus monkeys. In this study, weekly subcutaneous doses of 0.15 g kg -1 did not elicit any treatment-related effects in cynomolgus monkeys. In conclusion, these studies alongside the available literature data show that Miglyol 812 is a safe excipient for use in subcutaneously administered therapeutics. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Health impact of supplying safe drinking water containing fluoride below permissible level on flourosis patients in a fluoride-endemic rural area of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Kunal Kanti

    2011-01-01

    The problem of high fluoride concentration in groundwater resources has become one of the most important toxicological and geo-environmental issues in India. Excessive fluoride in drinking water causes dental and skeletal fluorosis, which is encountered in endemic proportions in several parts of the world. World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value and the permissible limit of fluoride as per Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) is 1.5 mg/L. About 20 states of India, including 43 blocks of seven districts of West Bengal, were identified as endemic for fluorosis and about 66 million people in these regions are at risk of fluoride contamination. Studies showed that withdrawal of sources identified for fluoride often leads reduction of fluoride in the body fluids (re-testing urine and serum after a week or 10 days) and results in the disappearance of non-skeletal fluorosis within a short duration of 10-15 days. To determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of suspected dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among participants taking water with fluoride concentration above the permissible limit, and to assess the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water. A longitudinal intervention study was conducted in three villages in Rampurhat Block I of Birbhum district of West Bengal to assess the occurrence of various dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal manifestations of fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among the study population and the impact of taking safe water from the supplied domestic and community filters on these clinical manifestations. The impact was studied by follow-up examination of the participants for 5 months to determine the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water from supplied

  11. Trichophyton rubrum onychomycosis in an 8-week-old infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod K Khurana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-week-old infant presented with 7 weeks history of nail involvement and discoloration. Lesions started over the middle fingernail of right hand at 1 week of age, spreading over to other nails within 2 weeks. Only two nails of the feet were spared. On KOH examination, fungal hyphae were seen and culture showed growth of Trichophyton rubrum. The purpose is to report the earliest case of onychomycosis having multiple nail involvement of fingers and toes (18 nails.

  12. Enjebi Island dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Phillips, W.A.

    1987-07-01

    We have updeated the radiological dose assessment for Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll using data derived from analysis of food crops grown on Enjebi. This is a much more precise assessment of potential doses to people resettling Enjebi Island than the 1980 assessment in which there were no data available from food crops on Enjebi. Details of the methods and data used to evaluate each exposure pathway are presented. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant potential exposure pathway and 137 Cs is the radionuclide responsible for most of the estimated dose over the next 50 y. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1990. The average wholebody maximum annual estimated dose equivalent derived using our diet model is 166 mremy;the effective dose equivalent is 169 mremy. The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral whole-body dose equivalents are 3.5 rem, 5.1 rem, and 6.2 rem, respectively. Bone-marrow dose equivalents are only slightly higher than the whole-body estimates in each case. The bone-surface cells (endosteal cells) receive the highest dose, but they are a less sensitive cell population and are less sensitive to fatal cancer induction than whole body and bone marrow. The effective dose equivalents for 30, 50, and 70 y are 3.6 rem, 5.3 rem, and 6.6 rem, respectively. 79 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs

  13. Markovian Approach for the Analysis and Prediction of Weekly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    reveals that, a week of high rainfall cannot be followed by another week of high rainfall , a week of high rainfall cannot be followed by a ... intensity. Arumugam and Karthik(2016) have investigated the variations of annual rainfall in. Tirunelveli district, India based on stochastic method. Rainfall data for 44 years was used, the.

  14. 75 FR 10993 - Save Your Vision Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... proclaim the first week in March of each year as ``Save Your Vision Week.'' NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA... Your Vision Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation While many... identified risk factors, early detection methods, and new treatments for many eye conditions, but individuals...

  15. Expand Your Child's Vocabulary: A Twelve-Week Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carl B.

    This booklet shows parents how to help their children develop a number of strategies for understanding words by working together on a methodical, 12-week program of word study. Sections of the booklet describe the program week by week. The techniques described are: Read and Use Context; Search for Synonyms, Antonyms, Homonyms; Learn Important…

  16. Weekly scheduling of cisplatin: feasibility, efficacy and perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S.Th. Planting (André)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis studies of weekly administration of cisplatin are presented. Weekly administration of cisplatin is not new: already in the seventies weekly cisplatin regimens were explored but they were abandoned because of hematologic, renal and gastrointestinal toxicity. The

  17. IDACstar: A MCNP Application to Perform Realistic Dose Estimations from Internal or External Contamination of Radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ören, Ünal; Hiller, Mauritius; Andersson, M

    2017-04-28

    A Monte Carlo-based stand-alone program, IDACstar (Internal Dose Assessment by Computer), was developed, dedicated to perform radiation dose calculations using complex voxel simulations. To test the program, two irradiation situations were simulated, one hypothetical contamination case with 600 MBq of 99mTc and one extravasation case involving 370 MBq of 18F-FDG. The effective dose was estimated to be 0.042 mSv for the contamination case and 4.5 mSv for the extravasation case. IDACstar has demonstrated that dosimetry results from contamination or extravasation cases can be acquired with great ease. An effective tool for radiation protection applications is provided with IDACstar allowing physicists at nuclear medicine departments to easily quantify the radiation risk of stochastic effects when a radiation accident has occurred. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. ICRP-recommendations on dose limits for workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beninson, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Dose limits proposed by the ICRP have been incorporated in most national and international standards and their respect has caused a distribution of doses with a average not exceeding 1/10 of the maximum permissible dose. This distribution corresponds to a risk which is well within the risks in 'safe industries'. There are at present some inconsistancies in the current system of recommended limits, for example having the same limit of 5 rem for the whole-body and also for some organs. Hopefully, this incosistancy will be removed in the next recommendation of the ICRP. But the whole-body limit of 5 rem in a year has been safe and there is little ground to reduce this limit on the basis of comparisons with 'safe industries'. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Automated dose estimation for lost or damaged dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.L.; Deininger, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports that some dosimetry vendors will compute doses for their customers' lost/damaged dosimeters based upon an average of recent dosimeter readings. However, the vendors usually require authorization from the customer for each such occurrence. Therefore, the tedious task of keeping track of the overdue status of each missing dosimeter and constantly notifying the vendor is still present. Also, depending on the monthly variability of a given person's doses, it may be more valid to use the employee's average dose, his/her highest dose over a recent period, an average dose of other employees with similar job duties for that period, or the maximum permissible dose. Thus, the task of estimating doses for lost/damaged dosimeters cannot be delegated to dosimetry vendor. Instead, the radiation safety department must sue the data supplied by the vendor as input for performing estimates. The process is performed automatically at the Medical Center Hospital of Vermont using a personal computer and a relational database

  20. Entyvio lengthen dose-interval study: lengthening vedolizumab dose interval and the risk of clinical relapse in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Webber; Lynch, Nicole; Bampton, Peter; Chang, Jeff; Chung, Alvin; Florin, Timothy; Hetzel, David J; Jakobovits, Simon; Moore, Gregory; Pavli, Paul; Radford-Smith, Graham; Thin, Lena; Baraty, Brandon; Haifer, Craig; Yau, Yunki; Leong, Rupert W L

    2018-07-01

    Vedolizumab (VDZ), an α4β7 anti-integrin antibody, is efficacious in the induction and maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). In the GEMINI long-term safety study, enrolled patients received 4-weekly VDZ. Upon completion, patients were switched to 8-weekly VDZ in Australia. The clinical success rate of treatment de-escalation for patients in remission on VDZ has not been described previously. To determine the proportion of patients who relapsed after switching from 4 to 8-weekly VDZ, the mean time to relapse, and the recapture rate when switching back to 8-weekly dosing. This was a retrospective, observational, multicenter study of patients previously recruited into GEMINI long-term safety in Australia. Data on the demographics and biochemical findings were collected. There were 34 patients [23 men, mean age 49.1 (±13.1) years] and their mean disease duration was 17.6 (±8.5) years. The mean 4-weekly VDZ infusion duration was 286.5 (±48.8) weeks. A total of five (15%) patients relapsed on dose-interval increase (4/17 UC, 1/17 CD) at a median duration from dose interval lengthening to flare of 14 weeks (interquartile range=6-25). Eighty percent (4/5) of patients re-entered remission following dose-interval decrease back to 4-weekly. No clinical predictors of relapse could be determined because of the small cohort size. The risk of patients relapsing when switching from 4 to 8-weekly VDZ ∼15% and is similar between CD and UC. Dose-interval decrease recaptures 80% of patients who relapsed. Therapeutic drug monitoring of VDZ may be of clinical relevance.