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Sample records for permissible concentration mpc

  1. Maximum permissible concentration (MPC) values for spontaneously fissioning radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, M.R.; Snyder, W.S.; Dillman, L.T.; Watson, S.B.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation hazards involved in handling certain of the transuranic nuclides that exhibit spontaneous fission as a mode of decay were reaccessed using recent advances in dosimetry and metabolic modeling. Maximum permissible concentration (MPC) values in air and water for occupational exposure (168 hr/week) were calculated for 244 Pu, 246 Cm, 248 Cm, 250 Cf, 252 Cf, 254 Cf, /sup 254m/Es, 255 Es, 254 Fm, and 256 Fm. The half-lives, branching ratios, and principal modes of decay of the parent-daughter members down to a member that makes a negligible contribution to the dose are given, and all daughters that make a significant contribution to the dose to body organs following inhalation or ingestion are included in the calculations. Dose commitments for body organs are also given

  2. Influence of the composition of radionuclide mixtures on the maximum permissible concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillinger, K.; Schuricht, V.

    1975-08-01

    By dividing radionuclides according to their formation mechanisms it is possible to assess the influence of separate partial mixtures on the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of the total mixture without knowing exactly their contribution to the total activity. Calculations showed that the MPC of a total mixture of unsoluble radionuclides, which may occur in all fields of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, depends on the gastrointestinal tract as the critical organ and on the composition of the fission product mixture. The influence of fractionation on the MPC can be reglected in such a case, whereas in case of soluble radionuclides this is not possible

  3. Maximum Permissible Concentrations and Negligible Concentrations for pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crommentuijn T; Kalf DF; Polder MD; Posthumus R; Plassche EJ van de; CSR

    1997-01-01

    Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPCs) and Negligible Concentrations (NCs) derived for a series of pesticides are presented in this report. These MPCs and NCs are used by the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) to set Environmental Quality Objectives. For some of the

  4. Maximum permissible concentrations of uranium in air

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, N

    1973-01-01

    The retention of uranium by bone and kidney has been re-evaluated taking account of recently published data for a man who had been occupationally exposed to natural uranium aerosols and for adults who had ingested uranium at the normal dietary levels. For life-time occupational exposure to uranium aerosols the new retention functions yield a greater retention in bone and a smaller retention in kidney than the earlier ones, which were based on acute intakes of uranium by terminal patients. Hence bone replaces kidney as the critical organ. The (MPC) sub a for uranium 238 on radiological considerations using the current (1959) ICRP lung model for the new retention functions is slightly smaller than for earlier functions but the (MPC) sub a determined by chemical toxicity remains the most restrictive.

  5. The ecological determination of the permissible concentrations for radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononovich, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    It is supposed that all inhabitants of the ecosystem are enjoying equal rights. The report describes the approximate method of ecology normalizing of the permissible radionuclide concentrations. Definition of the permissible concentration is made by an indirect way, since the defining criterion is unknown

  6. Permissible annual depositions and radionuclide concentrations in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.A.; Golovko, M.Yu.

    1993-01-01

    It is established that it necessary to take into account the other ways of radionuclide intake apart from the inhalation one when determining the standards for radionuclide contamination of the atmospheric air. Whereby it is proposed to standardize annual depositions rather than permissible concentration in the atmospheric air for the ways related to radionuclide releases on the ground surface, which is explained by ambiguity of their dry deposition rate from the air. Formulae and results of calculation of standard characteristics are presented. The permissible radionuclide depositions, related to the intake through food chains are calculated with account for diet diversity, agroclimatic and phenological parameters in different regions of the country

  7. Study on the determination of permissible concentration in sea food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.M.; Lee, K.J.; Lee, W.K.

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive permissible concentration limit using the data which is suitable for Koreans is not established. In this paper, concentration limit is determined by using Korean food intake. Ministry of science of technology will adopt the new recommendation soon, so at this paper, dose limit of new value in ICRP 60 is used. Experts who have studied on this area worry about over-exposure by estimation of the case that intake contaminated a food by one radionuclide, therefore, complex intake limit is determined about all kinds of fishery products to solve this problem. Derived Food Concentration in single food divided by S(number of samples) and N(number of radionuclides) gives Complex intake limit (Derived Food Concentration in plural food). The value of N and S in this study is 3 and 12 respectively

  8. Maximum permissible concentrations and negligible concentrations for antifouling substances. Irgarol 1051, dichlofluanid, ziram, chlorothalonil and TCMTB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel AP van; Vlaardingen P van; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This report presents maximum permissible concentrations and negligible concentrations that have been derived for various antifouling substances used as substitutes for TBT. Included here are Irgarol 1051, dichlofluanide, ziram, chlorothalonil and TCMTB.

  9. Determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and mutant prevention concentration (MPC of selected antimicrobials in bovine and swine Pasteurella multocida, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Nedbalcová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared the values of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and mutant prevention concentration (MPC values ​​of three antimicrobial agents for 72 bovine isolates of Pasteurella multocida, 80 swine isolates of P. multocida, 80 bovine isolates of Escherichia coli, 80 swine isolates of E. coli, and 80 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitis. The ratio of MIC90​​/MPC90 which limited mutant selection window (MSW was ≤ 0.12/4 mg/l for enrofloxacin, 0.5/≥ 64 mg/l for florfenicol and 4/≥ 128 mg/l for tulathromycin in bovine P. multocida isolates, ≤ 0.12/2 mg/l for enrofloxacin, 0.5/≥ 64 mg/l for florfenicol and 4/≥ 128 mg/l for tulathromycin in swine P. multocida isolates, 1/16 mg/l for enrofloxacin, 8/≥ 64 mg/l for florfenicol and 8/≥ 128 mg/l for tulathromycin in bovine E. coli isolates, 0.5/16 mg/l for enrofloxacin, ≥ 64/≥ 64 mg/l for florfenicol and 8/≥ 128 mg/l for tulathromycin in swine E. coli isolates, and 0.25/16 mg/l for enrofloxacin, 4/≥ 64 mg/l for florfenicol and 4/≥ 128 mg/l for tulathromycin in S. aureus isolates. These findings indicate that the dosage of antimicrobial agents to achieve serum concentration equal to or higher than MPC could reduce selection of resistant bacterial subpopulation.

  10. Effect of pH adjustment, homogenization and diafiltration on physicochemical, reconstitution, functional and rheological properties of medium protein milk protein concentrates (MPC70).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Ganga Sahay; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Gupta, Vijay Kumar; Borad, Sanket; Arora, Sumit; Tomar, Sudhir Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Poor solubility is the major limiting factor in commercial applications of milk protein concentrates (MPC) powders. Retentate treatments such as pH adjustment using disodium phosphate (Na 2 HPO 4 ), also responsible for calcium chelation with homogenization and; its diafiltration with 150 mM NaCl solution were hypothesized to improve the functional properties of treated MPC70 powders. These treatments significantly improved the solubility, heat stability, water binding, dispersibility, bulk density, flowability, buffer index, foaming and emulsifying capacity of treated powders over control. Rheological behaviour of reconstituted MPC solutions was best explained by Herschel Bulkley model. Compared to rough, large globular structures with dents in control; majorly intact, separate, smaller particles of smooth surface, without any aggregation were observed in SEM micrograph of treated powders. Applied treatments are easy, cost-effective and capable to improve functional properties of treated powders that could replace control MPC70 powder in various food applications where protein functionality is of prime importance.

  11. MPC and ALI: their basis and their comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Watson, E.C.

    1981-03-01

    Radiation protection regulations in the United States have evolved from the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). In 1959, the ICRP issued Publication 2 which contained specific recommendations on dose rate limits, permissible body burdens, metabolic data for radionuclides, and maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) in air or water. Over the next 20 years, new information became available concerning the effects of radiation, the uptake and retention of radionuclides, and the radioactive decay schemes of parent radionuclides. To include this newer information, the ICRP issued Publication 30 in 1978 to supersede Publication 2. One of the secondary limits defined in Publication 30 is the annual limit of intake (ALI). Radionuclide specific ALI values are intended to replace MPC values in determining whether or not ambient air and water concentrations are sufficiently low to maintain the dose to workers within accepted dose rate limits. In this paper, we discuss the derivation of MPC and ALI values, compare inhalation committed dose equivalent factors derived from ICRP Publications 2 and 30, and discuss the practical implications of using either MPC or ALI in determining compliance with occupational exposure limits. 6 references

  12. Experimental study, in rat wistar, of cadmium distribution and elimination as a function of administration route. Cadmium 109 maximum permissible concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, Marc.

    1979-01-01

    The absorption and the elimination of cadmium have been investigated in rats wistar after oral administration or after inhalation. Before studying gastro-intestinal absorption, it appeared necessary to precise acute toxicity of orally administred cadmium. The distribution of cadmium within organes was determined following a single or multiple oral doses, and we specially studied retention of a Cd dose ingested after several weeks of treatment with Cd-Acetate. Pulmonary and gastro-intestinal absorption of cadmium after ihalation of Cd-microparticles were studied. Data obtained from these studies on rats and extrapolated to man were used to calculate mximum permissible concentration (M.P.C.) of Cd-109 in water and in air [fr

  13. Maximum permissible concentration of radon {sup 222}Rn in air; La concentration maximale admissible du radon 222 dans l'air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamard, J; Beau, P G; Ergas, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, departement de la protection sanitaire, service d' hygiene atomique

    1968-09-01

    In order to verify the validity of the values proposed for the maximum permissible concentration of {sup 222}Rn in air, one can either approach the problem: - by epidemiological studies tending to determine the relation dose-effect both quantitatively and qualitatively; - or by choosing a lung model and clearance constants allowing a more accurate determination of the delivered dose and the localisation of the more severely irradiated portions of the bronchial tree. The radon MPC have been calculated using the model and the respiration constants set up by the I.C.R.P. Task Group on Lung dynamics. Two cases have been considered, i.e. when the radon daughter products behave as soluble materials and as insoluble ones. The values which have been found have been compared with those given up to now by several national and international bodies. (authors) [French] Deux voies d'approche peuvent etre empruntees pour verifier la validite des valeurs proposees pour la concentration maximale admissible du radon 222 dans l'air: - etudes epidemiologiques tendant a preciser qualitativement et quantitativement la relation dose-effet; - choix d'un modele pulmonaire et de constantes d'epuration permettant une determination plus precise de la dose delivree et la localisation des segments de l'arbre pulmonaire les plus irradies. Les auteurs ont utilise pour le calcul de la CMA du radon le modele et les constantes respiratoires proposees par le Task Group on Lungs dynamics de la C.I.P.R. On a pris en consideration le cas ou les descendants du radon se comportent comme des substances solubles et celui ou ils se comportent comme des substances insolubles. Les valeurs trouvees sont comparees a celles proposees jusqu'alors par divers organismes nationaux et internationaux. (auteurs)

  14. Maximum permissible concentrations and negligible concentrations for phthalates (dibutylphthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthlate), with emphasis on endocrine disruptive properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel AP van; Posthumus R; Vlaardingen P van; Crommentuijn T; Plassche EJ van de; CSR

    This report presents maximal permissible concentrations (MPCs) and negligible concentrations (NCs) are derived for di-n-butylphthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). Phthalates are often mentioned as suspected endocrine disrupters. Data with endpoints related to the endocrine or

  15. Secondary poisoning of cadmium, copper and mercury: implications for the Maximum Permissible Concentrations and Negligible Concentrations in water, sediment and soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit CE; Wezel AP van; Jager T; Traas TP; CSR

    2000-01-01

    The impact of secondary poisoning on the Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPCs) and Negligible Concentrations (NCs) of cadmium, copper and mercury in water, sediment and soil have been evaluated. Field data on accumulation of these elements by fish, mussels and earthworms were used to derive

  16. Evaluation of the external radiation exposure dosimetry and calculation of maximum permissible concentration values for airborne materials containing 18F, 15O, 13N, 11C and 133Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piltingsrud, H.V.; Gels, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    To better understand the dose equivalent (D.E.) rates produced by airborne releases of gaseous positron-emitting radionuclides under various conditions of cloud size, a study of the external radiation exposure dosimetry of these radionuclides, as well as negatron, gamma and x-ray emitting 133Xe, was undertaken. This included a calculation of the contributions to D.E. as a function of cloud radii, at tissue depths of 0.07 mm (skin), 3 mm (lens of eye) and 10 mm (whole body) from both the particulate and photon radiations emitted by these radionuclides. Estimates of maximum permissible concentration (MPC) values were also calculated based on the calculated D.E. rates and current regulations for personnel radiation protection (CFR84). Three continuous air monitors, designed for use with 133Xe, were evaluated for applications in monitoring air concentrations of the selected positron emitters. The results indicate that for a given radionuclide and for a cloud greater than a certain radius, personnel radiation dosimeters must respond acceptably to only the photon radiations emitted by the radionuclide to provide acceptable personnel dosimetry. For clouds under that radius, personnel radiation dosimeters must also respond acceptably to the positron or negatron radiations to provide acceptable personnel dosimetry. It was found that two out of the three air concentration monitors may be useful for monitoring air concentrations of the selected positron emitters

  17. Maximum permissible body burdens and maximum permissible concentrations of radionuclides in air and in water for occupational exposure. Recommendations of the National Committee on Radiation Protection. Handbook 69

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-06-05

    The present Handbook and its predecessors stem from the Second International Congress of Radiology, held in Stockholm in 1928. At that time, under the auspices of the Congress, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) was organized to deal initially with problems of X-ray protection and later with radioactivity protection. At that time 'permissible' doses of X-rays were estimated primarily in terms of exposures which produced erythema, the amount of exposure which would produce a defined reddening of the skin. Obviously a critical problem in establishing criteria for radiation protection was one of developing useful standards and techniques of physical measurement. For this reason two of the organizations in this country with a major concern for X-ray protection, the American Roentgen Ray Society and the Radiology Society of North America, suggested that the National Bureau of Standards assume responsibility for organizing representative experts to deal with the problem. Accordingly, early in 1929, an Advisory Committee on X-ray and Radium Protection was organized to develop recommendations on the protection problem within the United States and to formulate United States points of view for presentation to the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The organization of the U.S. Advisory Committee included experts from both the medical and physical science fields. The recommendations of this Handbook take into consideration the NCRP statement entitled 'Maximum Permissible Radiation Exposures to Man', published as an addendum to Handbook 59 on April 15, 1958. As noted above this study was carried out jointly by the ICRP and the NCRP, and the complete report is more extensive than the material contained in this Handbook.

  18. Maximum permissible body burdens and maximum permissible concentrations of radionuclides in air and in water for occupational exposure. Recommendations of the National Committee on Radiation Protection. Handbook 69

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The present Handbook and its predecessors stem from the Second International Congress of Radiology, held in Stockholm in 1928. At that time, under the auspices of the Congress, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) was organized to deal initially with problems of X-ray protection and later with radioactivity protection. At that time 'permissible' doses of X-rays were estimated primarily in terms of exposures which produced erythema, the amount of exposure which would produce a defined reddening of the skin. Obviously a critical problem in establishing criteria for radiation protection was one of developing useful standards and techniques of physical measurement. For this reason two of the organizations in this country with a major concern for X-ray protection, the American Roentgen Ray Society and the Radiology Society of North America, suggested that the National Bureau of Standards assume responsibility for organizing representative experts to deal with the problem. Accordingly, early in 1929, an Advisory Committee on X-ray and Radium Protection was organized to develop recommendations on the protection problem within the United States and to formulate United States points of view for presentation to the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The organization of the U.S. Advisory Committee included experts from both the medical and physical science fields. The recommendations of this Handbook take into consideration the NCRP statement entitled 'Maximum Permissible Radiation Exposures to Man', published as an addendum to Handbook 59 on April 15, 1958. As noted above this study was carried out jointly by the ICRP and the NCRP, and the complete report is more extensive than the material contained in this Handbook

  19. The MPC and A Questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, Danny H.; Elwood, Robert H. Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The questionnaire is the instrument used for recording performance data on the nuclear material protection, control, and accountability (MPC and A) system at a nuclear facility. The performance information provides a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the MPC and A system. The goal for the questionnaire is to provide an accurate representation of the performance of the MPC and A system as it currently exists in the facility. Performance grades for all basic MPC and A functions should realistically reflect the actual level of performance at the time the survey is conducted. The questionnaire was developed after testing and benchmarking the material control and accountability (MC and A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) in the United States. The benchmarking exercise at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) proved extremely valuable for improving the content and quality of the early versions of the questionnaire. Members of the INL benchmark team identified many areas of the questionnaire where questions should be clarified and areas where additional questions should be incorporated. The questionnaire addresses all elements of the MC and A system. Specific parts pertain to the foundation for the facility's overall MPC and A system, and other parts pertain to the specific functions of the operational MPC and A system. The questionnaire includes performance metrics for each of the basic functions or tasks performed in the operational MPC and A system. All of those basic functions or tasks are represented as basic events in the MPC and A fault tree. Performance metrics are to be used during completion of the questionnaire to report what is actually being done in relation to what should be done in the performance of MPC and A functions.

  20. MAK and BAT values list 2014. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The book on the MAK (maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work) and BAT (biological tolerance values for working materials) value list 2014 includes the following chapters: (a) Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work: definition, application and determination of MAT values, list of materials; carcinogenic working materials, sensibilizing working materials, aerosols, limiting the exposition peaks, skin resorption, MAK values during pregnancy, germ cell mutagens, specific working materials; (b) Biological tolerance values for working materials: definition and application of BAT values, list of materials, carcinogenic working materials, biological guide values, biological working material reference values.

  1. MAK and BAT values list 2015. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The book on the MAK (maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work) and BAT (biological tolerance values for working materials) value list 2015 includes the following chapters: (a) Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work: definition, application and determination of MAT values, list of materials; carcinogenic working materials, sensibilizing working materials, aerosols, limiting the exposition peaks, skin resorption, MAK values during pregnancy, germ cell mutagens, specific working materials; (b) Biological tolerance values for working materials: definition and application of BAT values, list of materials, carcinogenic working materials, biological guide values, biological working material reference values.

  2. Ciphers for MPC and FHE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    R. Albrecht, Martin; Rechberger, Christian; Schneider, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    that when encrypting larger amounts of data the new design strategy translates into improvements in computation and communication complexity by up to a factor of 5 compared to AES-128, which incidentally is one of the most competitive classical designs. Furthermore, we identify cases where “free XORs” can...... of symmetric-key primitives that minimize the multiplicative size and depth of their descriptions. This is motivated by recent progress in practical instantiations of secure multi-party computation (MPC), fully homomorphic encryption (FHE), and zero-knowledge proofs (ZK) where linear computations are, compared...

  3. On the substantion of permissible concentrations of plutonium isotopes in the water of fresh water and sea water NPP cooling reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grachev, M.I.; Gusev, D.I.; Stepanova, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    Substantiation of maximum permissible concentration (PC) of plutonium isotopes ( 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu) in fresh and sea water cooling reservoirs of NPP with fast neutron reactors is given. The main criterion when calculating permissible plutonium content in water of surface reservoirs is the requirement not to exceed the established limits for radiation doses to persons resulted from water use. Data on coefficients of plutonium concentration in sea and fresh water hydrobionts are presented as well as on plutonium PC in water of fresh and sea water cooling reservoirs and bottom sediments of sea water cooling reservoirs. It is shown that doses to critical groups of population doesn't exceed potentially hazardous levels due to plutonium intake through food chains. But the calculation being carried out further should be corrected

  4. MAK and BAT values list 2016. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The MAK and BAT values list 2016 includes the maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials. The following working materials are covered: carcinogenic working materials, sensitizing materials and aerosols. The report discusses the restriction of exposure peaks, skin resorption, MAK (maximum working place concentration) values during pregnancy, germ cell mutagens and specific working materials. Importance and application of BAT (biological working material tolerance) values, list of materials, carcinogens, biological guide values and reference values are also included.

  5. MAK and BAT values list 2017. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The MAK and BAT values list 2017 includes the maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials. The following working materials are covered: carcinogenic working materials, sensitizing materials and aerosols. The report discusses the restriction of exposure peaks, skin resorption, MAK (maximum working place concentration) values during pregnancy, germ cell mutagens and specific working materials. Importance and application of BAT (biological working material tolerance) values, list of materials, carcinogens, biological guide values and reference values are also included.

  6. Harmonization of standards for permissible radionuclide activity concentrations in foodstuffs in the long term after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balonov, Mikhail I; Kashparov, Valery; Nikolaenko, Elena; Berkovsky, Volodymyr; Fesenko, Sergey

    2018-04-16

    The article critically examines the practice of post-Chernobyl standardization of radionuclide concentrations (mainly 137Cs and 90Sr) in food products in the USSR and the successor countries of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Recommendations are given on potential harmonization of these standards of radionuclide concentrations in food products among three countries, taking into account substantial international experience. We propose to reduce the number of product groups for standardization purpose from the current several dozens to three to five groups to optimize radiation control and increase the transparency of the process. We recommend five product groups for the standardization of 137Cs and three groups for 90Sr in food in radiocontaminated areas. The values of standards for individual product groups are recommended to be set proportionally to the measured specific activity in each of these groups, which will reduce unreasonable food rejection. The standards might be set for the entire country, and could be also used to control imports from other countries as well as exports to other countries. The developed recommendations were transferred in 2015-2016 to the regulatory authorities of the three countries. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. Status of the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The multipurpose canister (MPC) project represents a cornerstone of the current U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) program for handling spent nuclear fuel. The MPC and associated support equipment is being designed to accommodate the requirements for not only storage and transport but also for the specified disposal requirements of the mined geologic repository system. The phase 1 design effort for the MPC system, being performed by the Westinghouse team on behalf of TRW Environmental Safety Systems (TESS), the OCRWM management ampersand operating (M ampersand O) contractor, is on schedule for delivery of completed safety analysis reports (SARs) in April 1996

  8. Verification of average daily maximum permissible concentration of styrene in the atmospheric air of settlements under the results of epidemiological studies of the children’s population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.А. Zemlyanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We presented the materials on the verification of the average daily maximum permissible concentration of styrene in the atmospheric air of settlements performed under the results of own in-depth epidemiological studies of children’s population according to the principles of the international risk assessment practice. It was established that children in the age of 4–7 years when exposed to styrene at the level above 1.2 of threshold level value for continuous exposure develop the negative exposure effects in the form of disorders of hormonal regulation, pigmentary exchange, antioxidative activity, cytolysis, immune reactivity and cytogenetic disbalance which contribute to the increased morbidity of diseases of the central nervous system, endocrine system, respiratory organs, digestion and skin. Based on the proved cause-and-effect relationships between the biomarkers of negative effects and styrene concentration in blood it was demonstrated that the benchmark styrene concentration in blood is 0.002 mg/dm3. The justified value complies with and confirms the average daily styrene concentration in the air of settlements at the level of 0.002 mg/m3 accepted in Russia which provides the safety for the health of population (1 threshold level value for continuous exposure.

  9. MPC control of water supply networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baunsgaard, Kenneth Marx Hoe; Ravn, Ole; Kallesoe, Carsten Skovmose

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the modelling and predictive control of a drinking water supply network with the aim of minimising the energy and economic cost. A model predictive controller, MPC, is applied to a nonlinear model of a drinking water network that follows certain constraints to maintain......, controlling the drinking water supply network with the MPC showed reduction of the energy and the economic cost of running the system. This has been achieved by minimising actuator control effort and by shifting the actuator use towards the night time, where energy prices are lower. Along with energy cost...... consumer pressure desire. A model predictive controller, MPC, is based on a simple model that models the main characteristics of a water distribution network, optimizes a desired cost minimisation, and keeps the system inside specified constraints. In comparison to a logic (on/off) control design...

  10. A frequency domain approach for MPC tuning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özkan, L.; Meijs, J.B.; Backx, A.C.P.M.; Karimi, I.A.; Srinivasan, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a frequency domain based approach to tune the penalty weights in the model predictive control (MPC) formulation. The two-step tuning method involves the design of a favourite controller taking into account the model-plant mismatch followed by the controller matching. We implement

  11. MAK and BAT values list 2014. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials; MAK- und BAT-Werte-Liste 2014. Maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentrationen und Biologische Arbeitsstofftoleranzwerte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-11-01

    The book on the MAK (maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work) and BAT (biological tolerance values for working materials) value list 2014 includes the following chapters: (a) Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work: definition, application and determination of MAT values, list of materials; carcinogenic working materials, sensibilizing working materials, aerosols, limiting the exposition peaks, skin resorption, MAK values during pregnancy, germ cell mutagens, specific working materials; (b) Biological tolerance values for working materials: definition and application of BAT values, list of materials, carcinogenic working materials, biological guide values, biological working material reference values.

  12. MAK and BAT values list 2013. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials; MAK- und BAT-Werte-Liste 2013. Maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentrationen und Biologische Arbeitsstofftoleranzwerte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    The book on the MAK (maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work) and BAT (biological tolerance values for working materials) value list 2013 includes the following chapters: (a) Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work: definition, application and determination of MAT values, list of materials; carcinogenic working materials, sensibilizing working materials, aerosols, limiting the exposition peaks, skin resorption, MAK values during pregnancy, germ cell mutagens, specific working materials; (b) Biological tolerance values for working materials: definition and application of BAT values, list of materials, carcinogenic working materials, biological guide values, biological working material reference values.

  13. MAK and BAT values list 2015. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials; MAK- und BAT-Werte-Liste 2015. Maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentrationen und Biologische Arbeitsstofftoleranzwerte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-11-01

    The book on the MAK (maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work) and BAT (biological tolerance values for working materials) value list 2015 includes the following chapters: (a) Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work: definition, application and determination of MAT values, list of materials; carcinogenic working materials, sensibilizing working materials, aerosols, limiting the exposition peaks, skin resorption, MAK values during pregnancy, germ cell mutagens, specific working materials; (b) Biological tolerance values for working materials: definition and application of BAT values, list of materials, carcinogenic working materials, biological guide values, biological working material reference values.

  14. Multi-model MPC with output feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Perez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a new formulation is presented for the model predictive control (MPC of a process system that is represented by a finite set of models, each one corresponding to a different operating point. The general case is considered of systems with stable and integrating outputs in closed-loop with output feedback. For this purpose, the controller is based on a non-minimal order model where the state is built with the measured outputs and the manipulated inputs of the control system. Therefore, the state can be considered as perfectly known and, consequently, there is no need to include a state observer in the control loop. This property of the proposed modeling approach is convenient to extend previous stability results of the closed loop system with robust MPC controllers based on state feedback. The controller proposed here is based on the solution of two optimization problems that are solved sequentially at the same time step. The method is illustrated with a simulated example of the process industry. The rigorous simulation of the control of an adiabatic flash of a multi-component hydrocarbon mixture illustrates the application of the robust controller. The dynamic simulation of this process is performed using EMSO - Environment Model Simulation and Optimization. Finally, a comparison with a linear MPC using a single model is presented.

  15. Maximum permissible dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This chapter presents a historic overview of the establishment of radiation guidelines by various national and international agencies. The use of maximum permissible dose and maximum permissible body burden limits to derive working standards is discussed

  16. The independent review group's comments on the MPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    This article presents comments from the Group (IRG) who independently reviewed the multipurpose canister system (MCS) Conceptual Design Report. The IRG determined that its efforts would be best directed toward providing the DOE with recommendations concerning the MPC system design and development. Comments also focused on applying lessons learned during the CSDP review to the MPC design and procurement. Topics highlighted are the programmatic review and the MPC design review

  17. On the theoretical gap between synchronous and asynchronous MPC protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beerliová-Trubíniová, Zuzana; Hirt, Martin; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2010-01-01

    that in the cryptographic setting (with setup), the sole reason for it is the distribution of inputs: given an oracle for input distribution, cryptographically-secure asynchronous MPC is possible with the very same condition as synchronous MPC, namely t ..., we show that such an input-distribution oracle can be reduced to an oracle that allows each party to synchronously broadcast one single message. This means that when one single round of synchronous broadcast is available, then asynchronous MPC is possible at the same condition as synchronous MPC...

  18. ARX MPC for people with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Finan, Daniel Aaron; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by a lack of production of pancreatic insulin, consequently leading to high blood glucose concentrations (hyperglycemia). Hyperglycemia has negative health effects in the long term such as eye, nerve, and kidney disease. Exogenous insulin must......, or even death. Currently, insulin administration is performed by the subject with type 1 diabetes based on infrequent glucose measurements (in the form of finger-sticks), often resulting in an unsatisfactory blood glucose control. An artificial pancreas is a medical device that injects exogenous insulin...... and insulin injection information to compute the optimal insulin administration for the current conditions. We use model predictive control (MPC) to compute the optimal insulin administration for 20 virtual type 1 diabetes subjects. The system (i.e., subject) has one manipulated input (insulin infusion rate...

  19. MAK and BAT values list 2017. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials; MAK- und BAT-Werte-Liste 2017. Maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentrationen und Biologische Arbeitsstofftoleranzwerte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-08-01

    The MAK and BAT values list 2017 includes the maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials. The following working materials are covered: carcinogenic working materials, sensitizing materials and aerosols. The report discusses the restriction of exposure peaks, skin resorption, MAK (maximum working place concentration) values during pregnancy, germ cell mutagens and specific working materials. Importance and application of BAT (biological working material tolerance) values, list of materials, carcinogens, biological guide values and reference values are also included.

  20. Control of boiler temperature with explicit MPC; Panntemperaturreglering med explicit MPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaetteke, Ola; Velut, Stefan; Raaberg, Martin

    2012-02-15

    MPC is the multivariable controller that has been most successful in the process industry and particularly the petrochemical industry. It has been described as one of the most significant developments in process control and the main reasons for this are: 1. It handles multivariable control problems in a natural manner. 2. It is relative easy to understand the structure of the controller, which is the same whether it is a simple loop or a multivariable system. 3. It handles limitations of both the process and other practical constraints in a systematic way. Examples of this is that a valve can only work between 0 and 100 %, but also that the CO-level in the flue gas must not exceed a certain level. 4. It allows for operating conditions near critical process boundaries, which in many cases is synonymous with increased production rates, reduced raw material consumption, better energy utilization, and faster process transitions. The aim of the project is to evaluate the potential of multivariable control in the form of explicit MPC in a boiler at Stora Enso Hylte Bruk. This research task can be divided into two sub-tasks: 1. General evaluation of explicit MPC. 2. Evaluation of multivariable control of boiler temperature The purpose of subtask one is to evaluate what is required of a facility owner to implement explicit MPC in a control system. This includes everything from available calculation tools, what is important to consider during the design phase of the controller, different pitfalls that exist, management of different operating modes, to how the controller should be implemented and commissioned. Subtask two is intended to evaluate the multivariable control of a boiler of CFB type (circulating fluidized bed). MPC controller will regulate the temperature in the boiler. In order to maintain the waste incineration directive, the temperature in the upper part of the boiler is controlled. This is done by means of changes in the flow of natural gas injection and

  1. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police Codes (MPC). (a) MPCs identify individual Provos...

  2. Economic MPC for a linear stochastic system of energy units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Sokoler, Leo Emil; Standardi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes comprehensively the work in four recent PhD theses from the Technical University of Denmark related to Economic MPC of future power systems. Future power systems will consist of a large number of decentralized power producers and a large number of controllable power consumers...... in addition to stochastic power producers such as wind turbines and solar power plants. Control of such large scale systems requires new control algorithms. In this paper, we formulate the control of such a system as an Economic Model Predictive Control (MPC) problem. When the power producers and controllable...... power consumers have linear dynamics, the Economic MPC may be expressed as a linear program. We provide linear models for a number of energy units in an energy system, formulate an Economic MPC for coordination of such a system. We indicate how advances in computational MPC makes the solutions...

  3. ROBUST MPC FOR STABLE LINEAR SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rodrigues

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new model predictive controller (MPC, which is robust for a class of model uncertainties, is developed. Systems with stable dynamics and time-invariant model uncertainty are treated. The development herein proposed is focused on real industrial systems where the controller is part of an on-line optimization scheme and works in the output-tracking mode. In addition, the system has a time-varying number of degrees of freedom since some of the manipulated inputs may become constrained. Moreover, the number of controlled outputs may also vary during system operation. Consequently, the actual system may show operating conditions with a number of controlled outputs larger than the number of available manipulated inputs. The proposed controller uses a state-space model, which is aimed at the representation of the output-predicted trajectory. Based on this model, a cost function is proposed whereby the output error is integrated along an infinite prediction horizon. It is considered the case of multiple operating points, where the controller stabilizes a set of models corresponding to different operating conditions for the system. It is shown that closed-loop stability is guaranteed by the feasibility of a linear matrix optimization problem.

  4. Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Fu Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper wants to investigate the optimal retailer's lot-sizing policy with two warehouses under partially permissible delay in payments within the economic order quantity (EOQ framework. In this paper, we want to extend that fully permissible delay in payments to the supplier would offer the retailer partially permissible delay in payments. That is, the retailer must make a partial payment to the supplier when the order is received. Then the retailer must pay off the remaining balance at the end of the permissible delay period. In addition, we want to add the assumption that the retailer's storage space is limited. That is, the retailer will rent the warehouse to store these exceeding items when the order quantity is larger than retailer's storage space. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer's optimal cycle time and optimal order quantity. Three theorems are developed to efficiently determine the optimal replenishment policy for the retailer. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate these theorems and obtained a lot of managerial insights.

  5. Android Permission Model

    OpenAIRE

    Birendra, Chalise

    2016-01-01

    The recent evolution on the smart phone technology has made its application market huge and less secure. Every single day large number of apps introduced in the android market (mostly on google play store) without any particular inspections which creates a lot of security issues and they remain unresolved. There are a lot of recent and increasing security issues which are mostly caused by the android apps. Mainly, the access of user data through the apps relied on the users given permission t...

  6. Rethinking Permissioned Blockchains

    OpenAIRE

    Vukolic, Marko

    2017-01-01

    Current blockchain platforms, especially the recent permissioned systems, have architectural limitations: smart contracts run sequentially, all node executes all smart contracts, consensus protocols are hard-coded, the trust model is static and not exible, and non-determinism in smart-contract execution poses serious problems. Overcoming these limitations is critical for improving both functional properties of blockchains, such as con dentiality and consistency, as well as their non-functiona...

  7. Exploring forward physics with the PHENIX MPC-EX upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitzky, Norbert; Phenix Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The MPC-EX detector is a Si-W preshower extension to the existing Muon Piston Calorimeter (MPC) at PHENIX. Located at forward rapidity, 3 . 1 double showers. The single versus double shower separation was tested with an electron beam at the SLAC test beam facility. Results from the test beam data will be presented in this talk. The MPC-EX detector is a Si-W preshower extension to the existing Muon Piston Calorimeter (MPC) at PHENIX. Located at forward rapidity, 3 . 1 double showers. The single versus double shower separation was tested with an electron beam at the SLAC test beam facility. Results from the test beam data will be presented in this talk. Norbert Novitzky for PHENIX collaboration.

  8. MPC Related Computational Capabilities of ARMv7A Processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frison, Gianluca; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the mass market of mobile devices has pushed the demand for increasingly fast but cheap processors. ARM, the world leader in this sector, has developed the Cortex-A series of processors with focus on computationally intensive applications. If properly programmed, these processors...... are powerful enough to solve the complex optimization problems arising in MPC in real-time, while keeping the traditional low-cost and low-power consumption. This makes these processors ideal candidates for use in embedded MPC. In this paper, we investigate the floating-point capabilities of Cortex A7, A9...... and A15 and show how to exploit the unique features of each processor to obtain the best performance, in the context of a novel implementation method for the linear-algebra routines used in MPC solvers. This method adapts high-performance computing techniques to the needs of embedded MPC. In particular...

  9. Optimization based tuning approach for offset free MPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Daniel Haugård; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2012-01-01

    We present an optimization based tuning procedure with certain robustness properties for an offset free Model Predictive Controller (MPC). The MPC is designed for multivariate processes that can be represented by an ARX model. The advantage of ARX model representations is that standard system...... identifiation techniques using convex optimization can be used for identification of such models from input-output data. The stochastic model of the ARX model identified from input-output data is modified with an ARMA model designed as part of the MPC-design procedure to ensure offset-free control. The ARMAX...... model description resulting from the extension can be realized as a state space model in innovation form. The MPC is designed and implemented based on this state space model in innovation form. Expressions for the closed-loop dynamics of the unconstrained system is used to derive the sensitivity...

  10. Russian Navy fresh fuel MPC and A training and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forehand, H.M.; Rexroth, P.; Dove, A.; Shmelev, V.; Sukhoruchkin, V.; Roumiantsev, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Regulations and Training Projects are part of the US-Russian Federation Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC ampersand A) cooperative program to protect Russian Navy Fuels. This paper describes the general status of the projects, progress achieved to date, and long-term plans for further work in producing regulatory documents and training to support this effort. The regulatory development will result in a document set that will include general requirements and rules for the Russian Navy MPC ampersand A as well as specific instructions for operation and maintenance of each facility. The goals of the training program are to instill in managers a culture of sustainable commitment to MPC ampersand A through the understanding of its principles and philosophies. In addition, the training program will help ensure that upgrades are effectively utilized and maintained by training operators and maintenance personnel in MPC ampersand A principles as well in as the detailed operations of the systems

  11. Material Protection, Control, and Accountancy (MPC and A) Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, Mark; Farmer, James; Haase, Michael; Mann, Greg; Soo Hoo, Mark; Toth, William

    1999-01-01

    To date, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Material Protection, Control, and Accountancy (MPC and A) program has assisted in the implementation of operational site-wide MPC and A systems at several nuclear facilities in Russia. Eleven sites from the civilian sector have completed the site-wide installations and two have completed sub-site installations. By the end of 1999, several additional sites will have completed site-wide and sub-site system installations through DOE assistance. the effort at the completed sites has focused primarily on the design, integration, and installation of upgraded MPC and A systems. In most cases, little work has been performed to ensure that the installed systems will be sustained. Because of concerns that the installed systems would not be operated in the future, DOE established a sustainability pilot program involving the 11 sites. The purpose of DOE's MPC and A Sustainability Program is to ensure that MPC and A upgrades installed at sites in Russia are effective and will continue to operate over the long term. The program mission is to work with sites where rapid upgrades have been completed to cultivate enduring and consistent MPC and A practices. The program attempts to assist the Russian sites to develop MPC and A organizations that will operate, maintain, and continue to improve the systems and procedures. Future assistance will strive to understand and incorporate culturally sensitive approaches so that the sites take ownership for all MPC and A matters. This paper describes the efforts of the sustainability program to date

  12. New Directions for MPC and A at Chelyabinsk-70

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsygankov, G.; Churikov, Y.; Bukin, D.; Karpov, A.; Zuev, V.; Blasy, J.; Labiak, B.; Hernandez, J.; Apt, K.; Schultz, F.; Neymotin, L.; Ystesund, K.; Griggs, J.; Cahalane, P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the new directions for the Nuclear Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) program at the All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Technical Physics (VNIITF), also called Chelyabinsk-70. Chelyabinsk-70 is located in the Ural Mountains, approximately 2000 km east of Moscow and 100 km south of Ekaterinburg. US sponsored MPC and A work has been underway at VNIITF since mid 1995. During the first three years of the VNIITF project, emphasis was on the Pulse Research Reactor Facility (PRR), which contains one metal and two liquid pulse reactors and associated nuclear material storage rooms and a control center. A commissioning of the PRR was held in May of 1998. With the completion of the MPC and A work in the PRR, new physical protection work has focused on building 726, which contains a pulse reactor and a criticality facility. Physical protection work is now complete at building 726. Several changes in the direction of MPC and A work at VNIITF have taken place and others are underway as a result of new DOE Guidelines for MPC and A at Russian Facilities, the National Research Council report issued in late 1999 and other recommendations. A major change is to do MPC and A work only at facilities for which the US can assure the proper categorization of nuclear materials, that upgrades are appropriate, properly installed and operational and that the equipment and funds used to implement and support those upgrades are being utilized in the manner intended. Other changes in direction which will be described include, an increased emphasis on completing inventories, the use of ''inherently sustainable'' upgrades wherever possible, and completing improved accounting systems and other MPC and A upgrades on a prioritized facility by facility basis rather than attempting to implement them site wide

  13. Prompt photon measurements with PHENIX's MPC-EX detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sarah; PHENIX Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The MPC-EX detector is a Si-W preshower extension to the existing Muon Piston Calorimeter (MPC). The MPC-EX consists of eight layers of alternating W absorber and Si mini-pad sensors. Located at forward rapidity, 3.1 80 GeV, a factor of four improvement over current capabilities. Not only will the MPC-EX strengthen PHENIX's existing forward π0 and jet measurements, it will provide sufficient prompt photon and π0 separation to make a prompt photon measurement possible. Prompt photon yields at high pT, pT > 3 GeV/c, can be statistically extracted using the double ratio method. In transversely polarized p+p collisions, the measurement of the prompt photon single spin asymmetry, AN, will resolve the sign discrepancy between the Sivers and twist-3 extractions of AN. In p+Au collisions, the prompt photon RpAu will quantify the level of gluon saturation in the Au nucleus at low-x, x ~ 10-3, with a projected systematic error band a factor of four smaller than EPS09's current allowable range. The MPC-EX detector will expand our understanding of the gluon nuclear parton distribution functions, providing important information about the initial state of heavy ion collisions, and clarify how the valence parton's transverse momentum and spin correlates to the proton spin.

  14. Progress in MPC and A upgrades at Luch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizin, P.; Chukov, V.; Rogatchev, V.; Curtiss, J.; Erkkila, B.; Goodey, K.; Hembree, D. Jr.; Lowe, D.; Turner, C.

    1997-01-01

    Luch, a MINATOM facility, has been engaged in both scientific research and uranium processing for fifty years. Since the spring of 1996, Luch has participated in a program of US/Russia Cooperation in Nuclear MPC and A Upgrades. The program began with planning for immediate upgrades in MPC and A, with en emphasis on physical protection. In addition, US and Luch experts exchanged technical data during a number of workshops, to establish a common understanding of available MPC and A tools and equipment. Site characterizations and vulnerability assessments were then prepared by Luch, to form the basis for the current program of methodical upgrades in all areas of MPC and A. Access control, alarms and alarm communications are being improved as part of this program. Control of nuclear material is being enhanced through improvements in material monitoring and in transportation security when nuclear material is moved between buildings on the Luch site. A comprehensive, site-wide computer network for Luch was designed during a recent workshop. Acquiring and installing this computer system, complete with COREMAS software, is currently in progress. Nuclear material analysis will be improved through NDA techniques using Canberra InSpector systems. The planned upgrades in nuclear MPC and A will reinforce safeguards over large quantities of HEU at Luch

  15. Biocontrol of Late Blight (Phytophthora capsici Disease and Growth Promotion of Pepper by Burkholderia cepacia MPC-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Sopheareth

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A chitinolytic bacterial strain having strong antifungal activity was isolated and identified as Burkholderia cepacia MPC-7 based on 16S rRNA gene analysis. MPC-7 solubilized insoluble phosphorous in hydroxyapatite agar media. It produced gluconic acid and 2-ketogluconic acid related to the decrease in pH of broth culture. The antagonist produced benzoic acid (BA and phenylacetic acid (PA. The authentic compounds, BA and PA, showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against yeast, several bacterial and fungal pathogens in vitro. To demonstrate the biocontrol efficiency of MPC-7 on late blight disease caused by Phytophthora capsici, pepper plants in pot trials were treated with modified medium only (M, M plus zoospore inoculation (MP, MPC-7 cultured broth (B and B plus zoospore inoculation (BP. With the sudden increase in root mortality, plants in MP wilted as early as five days after pathogen inoculation. However, plant in BP did not show any symptom of wilting until five days. Root mortality in BP was markedly reduced for as much as 50%. Plants in B had higher dry weight, P concentration in root, and larger leaf area compared to those in M and MP. These results suggested that B. cepacia MPC-7 should be considered as a candidate for the biological fertilizer as well as antimicrobial agent for pepper plants.

  16. Economic MPC based on LPV model for thermostatically controlled loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zemtsov, Nikita; Hlava, Jaroslav; Frantsuzova, Galina

    2017-01-01

    Rapid increase of the renewable energy share in electricity production requires optimization and flexibility of the power consumption side. Thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) have a large potential for regulation service provision. Economic model predictive control (MPC) is an advanced...... control method which can be used to syncronize the power consumption with undispatchable renewable electricity production. Thermal behavior of TCLs can be described by linear models based on energy balance of the system. In some cases, parameters of the model may be time-varying. In this work, we present...... a modified economic MPC based on linear parameter-varying model. In particular, we provide an exact transformation from a standard economic MPC formulation to a linear program. We assume that the variables influencing the model parameters are known (predictable) for the prediction horizon of the controller...

  17. Application of Constrained Linear MPC to a Spray Dryer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we develop a linear model predictive control (MPC) algorithm for control of a two stage spray dryer. The states are estimated by a stationary Kalman filter. A non-linear first-principle engineering model is developed to simulate the spray drying process. The model is validated against...... experimental data and able to precisely predict the temperatures, the air humidity and the residual moisture in the dryer. The MPC controls these variables to the target and reject disturbances. Spray drying is a cost-effective method to evaporate water from liquid foods and produces a free flowing powder...

  18. Early Termination of Dantzig-Wolfe Algorithm for Economic MPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Standardi, Laura; Sokoler, Leo Emil; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we apply the Economic Model Predictive Control (MPC) for balancing the power supply and demand in the future power systems in the most economic way. The control problem is formulated as a linear program, having a block-angular structure solved by the implementation of the Dantzig...

  19. Testing a Constrained MPC Controller in a Process Control Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardez-Sandoval, Luis A.; Blankespoor, Wesley; Budman, Hector M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment performed by the fourth year chemical engineering students in the process control laboratory at the University of Waterloo. The objective of this experiment is to test the capabilities of a constrained Model Predictive Controller (MPC) to control the operation of a Double Pipe Heat Exchanger (DPHE) in real time.…

  20. Further results on "Robust MPC using Linear Matrix Inequalities"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazar, M.; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Munoz de la Pena, D.; Alamo, T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for designing the terminal cost and the auxiliary control law (ACL) for robust MPC of uncertain linear systems, such that ISS is a priori guaranteed for the closed-loop system. The method is based on the solution of a set of LMIs. An explicit relation is

  1. Nonlinear observer output-feedback MPC treatment scheduling for HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zurakowski Ryan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mathematical models of the immune response to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus demonstrate the potential for dynamic schedules of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy to enhance Cytotoxic Lymphocyte-mediated control of HIV infection. Methods In previous work we have developed a model predictive control (MPC based method for determining optimal treatment interruption schedules for this purpose. In this paper, we introduce a nonlinear observer for the HIV-immune response system and an integrated output-feedback MPC approach for implementing the treatment interruption scheduling algorithm using the easily available viral load measurements. We use Monte-Carlo approaches to test robustness of the algorithm. Results The nonlinear observer shows robust state tracking while preserving state positivity both for continuous and discrete measurements. The integrated output-feedback MPC algorithm stabilizes the desired steady-state. Monte-Carlo testing shows significant robustness to modeling error, with 90% success rates in stabilizing the desired steady-state with 15% variance from nominal on all model parameters. Conclusions The possibility of enhancing immune responsiveness to HIV through dynamic scheduling of treatment is exciting. Output-feedback Model Predictive Control is uniquely well-suited to solutions of these types of problems. The unique constraints of state positivity and very slow sampling are addressable by using a special-purpose nonlinear state estimator, as described in this paper. This shows the possibility of using output-feedback MPC-based algorithms for this purpose.

  2. Finite Horizon MPC for Systems in Innovation Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Rawlings, James B.

    2011-01-01

    System identification and model predictive control have largely developed as two separate disciplines. Nevertheless, the major part of industrial MPC commissioning is generation of data and identification of models. In this contribution we attempt to bridge this gap by contributing some of the mi...

  3. Computational Efficiency of Economic MPC for Power Systems Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Standardi, Laura; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we propose an Economic Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategy to operate power systems that consist of independent power units. The controller balances the power supply and demand, minimizing production costs. The control problem is formulated as a linear program that is solved...

  4. MPC1-like Is a Placental Mammal-specific Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier Subunit Expressed in Postmeiotic Male Germ Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderperre, Benoît; Cermakova, Kristina; Escoffier Breancon, Jessica; Kaba, Mayis; Bender, Tom; Nef, Serge; Martinou, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Selective transport of pyruvate across the inner mitochondrial membrane by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) is a fundamental step that couples cytosolic and mitochondrial metabolism. The recent molecular identification of the MPC complex has revealed two interacting subunits, MPC1 and MPC2. Although in yeast, an additional subunit, MPC3, can functionally replace MPC2, no alternative MPC subunits have been described in higher eukaryotes. Here, we report for the first time the existence...

  5. Robust Economic MPC for a Power Management Scenario with Uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Larsen, Lars F.S.; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel incorporation of probabilistic constraints and Second Order Cone Programming (SOCP) with Economic Model Predictive Control (MPC). Hereby the performance of the controller is robustyfied in the presence of both model and forecast uncertainties. Economic MPC is a receding...... horizon controller that minimizes an economic objective function and we have previously demonstrated its usage to include a refrigeration system as a controllable power consumer with a portfolio of power generators such that total cost is minimized. The main focus for our work is the power management...... an optimal solution to an infeasible or very expensive solution. The main contribution of this paper is the Finite Impulse Response (FIR) formulation of the system models allowing us to describe and handle model uncertainties in the framework of probabilistic constraints. Our new solution using this setup...

  6. Forestry application of the AHP by use of MPC software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Rodriguez, F.; Rojo-Alboreca, A.

    2012-07-01

    We present an example of the application of the AHP decision-making approach to forest management, by use of MPC 2.0 software. The example considered is that of a forest services company interested in buying a timber harvester. The company had preselected four different machines as possible alternatives, and established 11 different criteria involved in the decision, grouped into four categories (economic, environmental, social and technical). The decision-making process was undertaken using MPC 2.0 software tools, which enable establishment of criteria on two levels, independent pairwise comparison of criteria (first phase) and of alternatives under each criterion (second phase), repetition of the decision-making process by the same or different users, graphical display of the results on the computer screen, and sensitivity analysis. (Author) 28 refs.

  7. Prompt photon measurements with the PHENIX MPC-EX detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    The MPC-EX detector is a preshower extension to PHENIX's Muon Piston Calorimeter (MPC). It consists of eight layers of alternating W absorber and Si mini-pad sensors. Located at forward rapidity, 3.180 GeV, allowing the measurement of prompt photons using the double ratio method. At forward rapidities, prompt photons are dominated by direct photons produced by quark-gluon Compton scattering. In transversely polarized p+p collisions, the prompt photon single spin asymmetry measurement, AN, will resolve the sign discrepancy between the Sivers and twist-3 extractions of AN. In p+Au collisions, the prompt photon RpAu will quantify the level of gluon saturation in the Au nucleus at low-x, 10-3, with a projected systematic error band a factor of four smaller than EPS09's current allowable range. The MPC-EX detector will expand our understanding of gluon nuclear parton distribution functions, providing information about the initial state of heavy ion collisions, and clarify how valence parton's pT and spin correlate to the proton spin.

  8. RF Regional Technical Centers for MPC and A Sustainability Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, L D; Toth, W J; Hendrickson, S

    2004-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) programmatic vision to be a catalyst in Russia's assumption of responsibility for long-term system operation is exemplified in the sustainability cooperation with the RF Ministry of Defense (MOD). An identified goal for the MPC and A Program is to encourage the development of Russian Federation (RF) capabilities and commitments to operate and maintain safeguard improvements. The RF MOD Technical Support Center development fulfills the NNSA mission and MPC and A Program goal. The regional technical center concept involves a systematic approach to aid in the determination of the level of sustainability assistance required to transition operators, maintenance, training, and testing of MPC and A systems to the RF MOD. This paper describes the process used to create the RF MOD Technical support center. First are described the needs analyses conducted to determine the key system sustainability factors requiring support. These sustainability functions are then compiled to influence the form and ultimate physical design of the technical support center. Operational interfaces are described, in detail that show the benefit of the center to the individual sites. Finally, benefits relating to information accessibility and other economies of scale are described that highlight the central center concept's strengths

  9. Russian Navy Fresh Fuel MPC and A Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forehand, Harry M.; O'Shell, Parker; Opanassiouk, Yuri R.; Rexroth, Paul E.; Shmelev, Vladimir; Sukhoruchkin, Vladimir K.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of the Russian Navy Fuels Program is to incorporate nuclear fuel that is in the custody of the Russian Navy into a materials protection, control and accounting program. In addition to applying MPC and A upgrades to existing facilities, a program is underway to train site personnel in MPC and A activities. The goal is to assure that the upgraded facilities are managed, operated and maintained in an effective, sustainable manner. Training includes both the conceptual and necessary operational aspects of the systems and equipment. The project began with a Needs Assessment to identify priorities and objectives of required training. This led to the creation of a series of classes developed by Kurchatov Institute. One course was developed to allow attendees to get a general understanding of goals and objectives of nuclear MPC and A systems in the context of the Russian Navy. A follow-on course provided the detailed skills necessary for the performance of specialized duties. Parallel sessions with hands-on exercises provided the specific training needed for different personnel requirements. The courses were presented at KI facilities in Moscow. This paper reviews the work to date and future plans for this program

  10. 75 FR 42339 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: NAC-MPC System, Revision 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ...-2010-0183] RIN 3150--AI88 List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: NAC-MPC System, Revision 6 AGENCY.... (NAC), NAC-MPC System listing within the ``List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks'' to include... changes to the configuration of the NAC-MPC storage system as noted in Appendix B of the Technical...

  11. 75 FR 42292 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: NAC-MPC System, Revision 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Fuel Storage Casks: NAC-MPC System, Revision 6 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Direct...-MPC storage system as noted in Appendix B of the Technical Specifications (TS): Incorporation of a... include the following changes to the configuration of the NAC-MPC storage system as noted in Appendix B of...

  12. Integrated waste management system costs in a MPC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supko, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    The impact on system costs of including a centralized interim storage facility as part of an integrated waste management system based on multi-purpose canister (MPC) technology was assessed in analyses by Energy Resources International, Inc. A system cost savings of $1 to $2 billion occurs if the Department of Energy begins spent fuel acceptance in 1998 at a centralized interim storage facility. That is, the savings associated with decreased utility spent fuel management costs will be greater than the cost of constructing and operating a centralized interim storage facility

  13. Einstein SSS+MPC observations of Seyfert type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, S. S.; Turner, T. J.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Weaver, K.

    1989-01-01

    The X-ray spectra of 27 Seyfert galaxies measured with the Solid State Spectrometer (SSS) onboard the Einstein Observatory is investigated. This new investigation features the utilization of simultaneous data from the Monitor Proportional Counter (MPC) and automatic correction for systematic effects in the SSS. The new results are that the best-fit single power law indices agree with those previously reported, but that soft excesses are inferred for at least 20 percent of the measured spectra. The soft excesses are consistent with either an approximately 0.25 keV black body or Fe-L line emission.

  14. ANALYSIS OF MPC ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR ADDITION OF FILLER MATERIALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W. Wallin

    1996-01-01

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) in response to a request received via a QAP-3-12 Design Input Data Request (Ref. 5.1) from WAST Design (formerly MRSMPC Design). The request is to provide: Specific MPC access requirements for the addition of filler materials at the MGDS (i.e., location and size of access required). The objective of this analysis is to provide a response to the foregoing request. The purpose of this analysis is to provide a documented record of the basis for the response. The response is stated in Section 8 herein. The response is based upon requirements from an MGDS perspective

  15. New robust stable MPC using linear matrix inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rodrigues

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the stability of Model Predictive Control (MPC with output feedback. The proposed controller uses a new state-space formulation of the system, and the control problem is presented as an LMI optimization problem. The stability condition for the closed loop is included as a Lyapunov inequality. The resulting optimization problem becomes nonlinear with the inclusion of the stabilizing condition. A suboptimal solution is developed and the problem reduces to a pair of coupled LMI problems. An iterative solution that converges to a stable output feedback gain is proposed. A polytopic set of process models can be considered. A simulation example is included in the paper and shows that the proposed strategy eliminates the usual practice of enforcing robustness by detuning the MP controller.

  16. Take control of permissions in Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Permissions problems got you down? Turn to Unix expert Brian Tanaka's unique guide to the permissions in Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard that control access to your files, folders, and disks. You'll learn how to keep files private, when to set Ignore Permissions, what happens when you repair permissions, how to delete stuck files, and the best ways to solve permissions-related problems. Advanced concepts include the sticky bit, Leopard's more-important access control lists, bit masks, and symbolic versus absolute ways to set permissions. The book covers how to take control of permissions via the Finder

  17. A Reduced Dantzig-Wolfe Decomposition for a Suboptimal Linear MPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Standardi, Laura; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2014-01-01

    Linear Model Predictive Control (MPC) is an efficient control technique that repeatedly solves online constrained linear programs. In this work we propose an economic linear MPC strategy for operation of energy systems consisting of multiple and independent power units. These systems cooperate...

  18. U.S./Russian cooperative efforts to enhance nuclear MPC ampersand A at VNIITF, (Chelyabinsk-70)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramson, B; Apt, K; Blasy, J; Bukin, D; Churikov, Y; Curtis, D; Eras, A; Magda, E; Neymotin, L; Shultz, F; Slankas, T; Tittemore, G; Tsygankov, G; Zuev, V.

    1999-01-01

    The work described here is part of an effort called the Nuclear Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC ampersand A) Program, a cooperative program between the US Department of Eenrgy (DOE) and Russia's Ministry of Atomic Energy (MinAtom). The objective of the program is to reduce the risk of nuclear proliferation by strengthening MPC ampersand A systems at Russian nuclear Facilities. This paper describes that portion of the MPC ampersand A program that is directed specifically to the needs of the All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Technical Physics (VNIITF), also called Chelyabinsk-70. A major MPC ampersand A milestone was met at VNIITF when the MPC ampersand A improvements were commissioned at the Pulse Research Reactor Facility in May of this year

  19. Robust MPC with Output Feedback of Integrating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Perez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, it is presented a new contribution to the design of a robust MPC with output feedback, input constraints, and uncertain model. Multivariable predictive controllers have been used in industry to reduce the variability of the process output and to allow the operation of the system near to the constraints, where it is usually located the optimum operating point. For this reason, new controllers have been developed with the objective of achieving better performance, simpler control structure, and robustness with respect to model uncertainty. In this work, it is proposed a model predictive controller based on a nonminimal state space model where the state is perfectly known. It is an infinite prediction horizon controller, and it is assumed that there is uncertainty in the stable part of the model, which may also include integrating modes that are frequently present in the process plants. The method is illustrated with a simulation example of the process industry using linear models based on a real process.

  20. Establishment of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 1 (MPC1) gene knockout mice with preliminary gene function analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoli; Li, Yaqing; Han, Gaoyang; Li, Xiaoran; Ji, Yasai; Fan, Zhirui; Zhong, Yali; Cao, Jing; Zhao, Jing; Mariusz, Goscinski; Zhang, Mingzhi; Wen, Jianguo; Nesland, Jahn M.; Suo, Zhenhe

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate plays a critical role in the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and it is the center product for the synthesis of amino acids, carbohydrates and fatty acids. Pyruvate transported across the inner mitochondrial membrane appears to be essential in anabolic and catabolic intermediary metabolism. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) mounted in the inner membrane of mitochondria serves as the channel to facilitate pyruvate permeating. In mammals, the MPC is formed by two paralogous subunits, MPC1 and MPC2. It is known that complete ablation of MPC2 in mice causes death on the 11th or 12th day of the embryonic period. However, MPC1 deletion and the knowledge of gene function in vivo are lacking. Using the new technology of gene manipulation known as Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) systems, we gained stable MPC1 gene heterozygous mutation mice models, and the heterozygous mutations could be stably maintained in their offsprings. Only one line with homozygous 27 bases deletion in the first exon was established, but no offsprings could be obtained after four months of mating experiments, indicating infertility of the mice with such homozygous deletion. The other line of MPC1 knockout (KO) mice was only heterozygous, which mutated in the first exon with a terminator shortly afterwards. These two lines of MPC1 KO mice showed lower fertility and significantly higher bodyweight in the females. We concluded that heterozygous MPC1 KO weakens fertility and influences the metabolism of glucose and fatty acid and bodyweight in mice. PMID:27835892

  1. 75 FR 57841 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: NAC-MPC System, Revision 6, Confirmation of Effective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Spent Fuel Storage Casks: NAC-MPC System, Revision 6, Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY: Nuclear... amended the NRC's spent fuel storage regulations at 10 CFR 72.214 to revise the NAC-MPC System listing to... configuration of the NAC-MPC storage system by the incorporation of a single closure lid with a welded closure...

  2. Studying Cold Nuclear Matter with the MPC-EX of PHENIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Nathan; Phenix Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Highly asymmetric collision systems, such as d+Au, provide a unique environment to study cold nuclear matter. Potential measurements range from pinning down the modification of the nuclear wave function, i.e. saturation, to studying final state interactions, i.e. energy loss. The PHENIX experiment has enhanced the muon piston calorimeter (MPC) with a silicon-tungsten preshower, the MPC-EX. With its fine segmentation the MPC-EX extends the photon detection capability at 3 < | η | < 3.8. In this talk we review the current status of the detector, its calibration, and its identification capabilities using the 2016 d+Au dataset. We also discuss the specific physics observables the MPC-EX can measure.

  3. Off-Line Robust Constrained MPC for Linear Time-Varying Systems with Persistent Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bumroongsri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An off-line robust constrained model predictive control (MPC algorithm for linear time-varying (LTV systems is developed. A novel feature is the fact that both model uncertainty and bounded additive disturbance are explicitly taken into account in the off-line formulation of MPC. In order to reduce the on-line computational burdens, a sequence of explicit control laws corresponding to a sequence of positively invariant sets is computed off-line. At each sampling time, the smallest positively invariant set containing the measured state is determined and the corresponding control law is implemented in the process. The proposed MPC algorithm can guarantee robust stability while ensuring the satisfaction of input and output constraints. The effectiveness of the proposed MPC algorithm is illustrated by two examples.

  4. A Tuning Procedure for ARX-based MPC of Multivariate Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Daniel; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2013-01-01

    We present an optimization based tuning procedure with certain robustness properties for an offset free Model Predictive Controller (MPC). The MPC is designed for multivariate processes that can be represented by an ARX model. The stochastic model of the ARX model identified from input-output data...... is modified with an ARMA model designed as part of the MPC-design procedure to ensure offset-free control. The MPC is designed and implemented based on a state space model in innovation form. Expressions for the closed-loop dynamics of the unconstrained system is used to derive the sensitivity function...... to a constraint on the maximum of the sensitivity function. The latter constraint provides a robustness measure that is essential for the procedure. The method is demonstrated for two simulated examples: A Wood-Berry distillation column example and a cement mill example....

  5. Diagnostic system for EUV radiation measurements from dense xenon plasma generated by MPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, Yu.V.; Garkusha, I.E.; Solyakov, D.G.; Marchenko, A.K.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Ladygina, M.S.; Staltsov, V.V.; Yelisyeyev, D.V.; Hassanein, A.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetoplasma compressor (MPC) of compact geometry has been designed and tested as a source of EUV radiation. In present paper diagnostic system for registration of EUV radiation is described. It was applied for radiation measurements in different operation modes of MPC. The registration system was designed on the base of combination of different types of AXUV photodiodes. Possibility to minimize the influence of electrons and ions flows from dense plasma stream on AXUV detector performance and results of the measurements has been discussed.

  6. A Realistic Process Example for MIMO MPC based on Autoregressive Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2014-01-01

    for advanced control design develo pment which may be used by non experts in control theory. This paper presents and illustra tes the use of a simple methodology to design an offset-free MPC based on ARX models. Hence a mecha nistic process model is not required. The forced circulation evaporator by Newell...... and Lee is used to illustrate the offset-free MPC based on ARX models for a nonlinear multivariate process ....

  7. MAK- and BAT values list 2003. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials; MAK- und BAT-Werte-Liste 2003. Maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentrationen und Biologische Arbeitsstofftoleranzwerte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The importance, application and derivation of the maximum concentrations at the workplace is explained. A material's list contains the presently valid maximum concentration values supplemented by a list of materials for which no such values were determined as yet. Furthermore there is a list of working materials clearly identified as carcinogenic, and of working materials with a sensitizing effect, aerosols and some specific working materials are discussed. Finally, the importance and the application of biological tolerance values is explained, supplemented by a materials list. (orig.) [German] In der vorliegenden neuesten Ausgabe werden erneut Bedeutung, Benutzung und Ableitung der MAK-Werte (maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentrationen) erlaeutert. Eine Stoffliste enthaelt die derzeit gueltigen MAK-Werte, ergaenzt durch eine Aufzaehlung von Stoffen, fuer die noch keine MAK-Werte aufgestellt werden koennen. Es folgt eine Auflistung der Arbeitsstoffe, die bereits eindeutig als krebserregend ausgewiesen wurden, sowie der sensibilisierenden Arbeitsstoffe, Aerosole und einige besondere Arbeitsstoffe. Abschliessend wird die Bedeutung und Benutzung der BAT-Werte erlaeutert, ergaenzt durch eine Stoffliste. (orig.)

  8. Contrasting amino acid profiles among permissive and non-permissive hosts of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, putative causal agent of Huanglongbing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoudou Sétamou

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing is a devastating disease of citrus. In this study, a comprehensive profile of phloem sap amino acids (AA in four permissive host plants of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas and three non-permissive Rutaceae plants was conducted to gain a better understanding of host factors that may promote or suppress the bacterium. The AA profiles of Diaphorina citri nymphs and adults were similarly analyzed. A total of 38 unique AAs were detected in phloem sap of the various plants and D. citri samples, with phloem sap of young shoots containing more AAs and at higher concentrations than their mature counterparts. All AAs detected in phloem sap of non-permissive plants were also present in CLas -permissive hosts plus additional AAs in the latter class of plants. However, the relative composition of 18 commonly shared AAs varied between CLas -permissive hosts and non-permissive plants. Multivariate analysis with a partial least square discriminant methodology revealed a total of 12 AAs as major factors affecting CLas host status, of which seven were positively related to CLas tolerance/resistance and five positively associated with CLas susceptibility. Most of the AAs positively associated with CLas susceptibility were predominantly of the glutamate family, notably stressed-induced AAs such as arginine, GABA and proline. In contrast, AAs positively correlated with CLas tolerance/resistance were mainly of the serine family. Further analysis revealed that whereas the relative proportions of AAs positively associated with CLas susceptibility did not vary with host developmental stages, those associated with CLas tolerance/resistance increased with flush shoot maturity. Significantly, the proline-to-glycine ratio was determined to be an important discriminating factor for CLas permissivity with higher values characteristic of CLas -permissive hosts. This ratio could be exploited as a biomarker in HLB-resistance breeding programs.

  9. Robust Mpc for Actuator–Fault Tolerance Using Set–Based Passive Fault Detection and Active Fault Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Feng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a fault-tolerant control (FTC scheme is proposed for actuator faults, which is built upon tube-based model predictive control (MPC as well as set-based fault detection and isolation (FDI. In the class of MPC techniques, tubebased MPC can effectively deal with system constraints and uncertainties with relatively low computational complexity compared with other robust MPC techniques such as min-max MPC. Set-based FDI, generally considering the worst case of uncertainties, can robustly detect and isolate actuator faults. In the proposed FTC scheme, fault detection (FD is passive by using invariant sets, while fault isolation (FI is active by means of MPC and tubes. The active FI method proposed in this paper is implemented by making use of the constraint-handling ability of MPC to manipulate the bounds of inputs.

  10. An Idea on the Maximum Permissible Concentrations of Radioactive Materials in Sea Water; Concentrations Maxima Admissibles des Substances Radioactives dans l'Eau de Mer; 041e 041c 0414 ; Concentracion Maxima Admisible de Materiales Radiactivos en las Aguas del Mar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiyama, Yoshio [University of Tokyo (Japan)

    1960-07-01

    The author of the present paper has tried to find a relationship between the level of sea-water contamination by several radionuclides and the level of the radiation dose-rate inside the human body caused by these radionuclides of marine origin, using the ICRP recommendation and the few data on the chemical analysis of sea water and of the human body at present available to the author. However, even if the idea of this calculation were to be recognized by scientists in the fields of oceanography, public health, nutrition, radiation biology, and others, it would still be necessary to get further data on the amounts of trace elements in sea-water, in marine products, and in the human body in order to complete a table of the maximum permissible concentrations in sea-water of various radionuclides. Here the idea is merely advanced and a few examples are described. (author) [French] L'auteur a cherche a etablir un rapport entre le degre de contamination de l'eau de mer par plusieurs radionuclides et le degre d'irradiation de l'interieur du corps humain due a ces radionuclides d'origine marine; a cet effet, il s'est fonde sur les recommandations de la CIPR et sur les quelques donnees relatives a l'analyse chimique de l'eau de mer et du corps humain qu'il avait a sa disposition. Cependant, meme si le principe de ce calcul etait reconnu par les oceanographes, les hygienistes, les bromatologistes, les radiobiologistes et d'autres specialistes, il n'en serait pas moins necessaire d'obtenir des renseignements supplementaires sur les quantites d'oligoelements existant dans l'eau de mer, les produits de la mer et le corps humain, en vue de dresser un tableau complet des concentrations maxima admissibles de divers radionuclides dans l'eau de mer. L'auteur se borne a formuler le concept et a donner quelques exemples. (author) [Spanish] El autor, teniendo en cuenta la recomendacion de la Comision Internacional de Proteccion Radiologica y los pocos datos de que actualmente dispone

  11. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  12. 12 CFR 703.14 - Permissible investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissible investments. 703.14 Section 703.14 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.14 Permissible investments. (a) Variable rate investment. A Federal...

  13. An MPC approach to individual pitch control of wind turbines using uncertain LIDAR measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Soltani, Mohsen; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2013-01-01

    wind turbine in the full load region is considered. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to solve the problem. A new approach is proposed to simplify the optimization problem of MPC. We linearize the obtained nonlinear model for different operating points which are determined by the effective wind...... speed on the rotor disc and take the wind speed as a scheduling variable. The wind speed is measurable ahead of the turbine using LIDARs, therefore the scheduling variable is known for the entire prediction horizon. We consider uncertainty in the wind propagation, which is the traveling time of wind...... from the LIDAR measurement point to the rotor. An algorithm based on wind speed estimation and measurements from the LIDAR is devised to find an estimate of the delay and compensate for it before it is used in the controller. Comparisons between the MPC with error compensation, without error...

  14. Piecewise quadratic Lyapunov functions for stability verification of approximate explicit MPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Hovd

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Explicit MPC of constrained linear systems is known to result in a piecewise affine controller and therefore also piecewise affine closed loop dynamics. The complexity of such analytic formulations of the control law can grow exponentially with the prediction horizon. The suboptimal solutions offer a trade-off in terms of complexity and several approaches can be found in the literature for the construction of approximate MPC laws. In the present paper a piecewise quadratic (PWQ Lyapunov function is used for the stability verification of an of approximate explicit Model Predictive Control (MPC. A novel relaxation method is proposed for the LMI criteria on the Lyapunov function design. This relaxation is applicable to the design of PWQ Lyapunov functions for discrete-time piecewise affine systems in general.

  15. An Offline Formulation of MPC for LPV Systems Using Linear Matrix Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bumroongsri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An offline model predictive control (MPC algorithm for linear parameter varying (LPV systems is presented. The main contribution is to develop an offline MPC algorithm for LPV systems that can deal with both time-varying scheduling parameter and persistent disturbance. The norm-bounding technique is used to derive an offline MPC algorithm based on the parameter-dependent state feedback control law and the parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions. The online computational time is reduced by solving offline the linear matrix inequality (LMI optimization problems to find the sequences of explicit state feedback control laws. At each sampling instant, a parameter-dependent state feedback control law is computed by linear interpolation between the precomputed state feedback control laws. The algorithm is illustrated with two examples. The results show that robust stability can be ensured in the presence of both time-varying scheduling parameter and persistent disturbance.

  16. TU-FG-201-05: Varian MPC as a Statistical Process Control Tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, A; Rowbottom, C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Quality assurance in radiotherapy requires the measurement of various machine parameters to ensure they remain within permitted values over time. In Truebeam release 2.0 the Machine Performance Check (MPC) was released allowing beam output and machine axis movements to be assessed in a single test. We aim to evaluate the Varian Machine Performance Check (MPC) as a tool for Statistical Process Control (SPC). Methods: Varian’s MPC tool was used on three Truebeam and one EDGE linac for a period of approximately one year. MPC was commissioned against independent systems. After this period the data were reviewed to determine whether or not the MPC was useful as a process control tool. Analyses on individual tests were analysed using Shewhart control plots, using Matlab for analysis. Principal component analysis was used to determine if a multivariate model was of any benefit in analysing the data. Results: Control charts were found to be useful to detect beam output changes, worn T-nuts and jaw calibration issues. Upper and lower control limits were defined at the 95% level. Multivariate SPC was performed using Principal Component Analysis. We found little evidence of clustering beyond that which might be naively expected such as beam uniformity and beam output. Whilst this makes multivariate analysis of little use it suggests that each test is giving independent information. Conclusion: The variety of independent parameters tested in MPC makes it a sensitive tool for routine machine QA. We have determined that using control charts in our QA programme would rapidly detect changes in machine performance. The use of control charts allows large quantities of tests to be performed on all linacs without visual inspection of all results. The use of control limits alerts users when data are inconsistent with previous measurements before they become out of specification. A. Carver has received a speaker’s honorarium from Varian

  17. A Dantzig-Wolfe Decomposition Algorithm for Linear Economic MPC of a Power Plant Portfolio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Standardi, Laura; Edlund, Kristian; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2012-01-01

    Future power systems will consist of a large number of decentralized power producers and a large number of controllable power consumers in addition to stochastic power producers such as wind turbines and solar power plants. Control of such large scale systems requires new control algorithms....... In this paper, we formulate the control of such a system as an Economic Model Predictive Control (MPC) problem. When the power producers and controllable power consumers have linear dynamics, the Economic MPC may be expressed as a linear program and we apply Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition for solution...

  18. MPC-SVM method for Vienna rectifier with PMSG used in Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, June-Seok; Bak, Yeongsu; Lee, Kyo-Beum

    2016-01-01

    Using a Vienna rectifier as the machine-side rectifier of back-to-back converter is advantageous in terms of size and cost compared to three-level topologies and for this reason, the Vienna rectifier has been used in Wind Turbine Systems (WTS). This paper proposes a Model Predictive Control (MPC......) method for the Vienna rectifier used in WTS with a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG). The proposed MPC method considers the feasible eight-voltage vectors of the Vienna rectifier. In addition, the voltage vectors, which are the center voltage vectors of two feasible adjacent voltage vectors...

  19. Phase I trial of verubulin (MPC-6827) plus carboplatin in patients with relapsed glioblastoma multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Kenneth F; Colman, Howard; Akerley, Wallace A; Glantz, Michael; Matsuoko, Yuko; Beelen, Andrew P; Yu, Margaret; De Groot, John F; Aiken, Robert D; Olson, Jeffrey J; Olsen, Jeffery J; Evans, Brent A; Jensen, Randy L

    2012-11-01

    Verubulin (MPC-6827) is a microtubule-destabilizing agent that achieves high concentrations in the brain. Verubulin disrupts newly formed blood vessels in xenografts. We determined the safety and tolerability of verubulin administered in combination with carboplatin in patients with relapsed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Three pre-selected doses of verubulin were tested: 2.1, 2.7, and 3.3 mg/m(2) in a standard "3+3" design. Verubulin was given every second week of a 6-week cycle in the 2.1 mg/m(2) cohort or weekly for 3 weeks of a 4-week cycle in subsequent cohorts. Carboplatin was administered intravenously at an area under the curve (AUC) dosage 4 every 2 weeks for the 2.1 mg/m(2) cohort or on day 1 of each 4-week cycle in subsequent cohorts. Nineteen patients with GBM in first or second relapse were enrolled. Four patients (21 %) experienced a grade 3 or greater verubulin- or carboplatin-related adverse event, including hypesthesia, cerebral ischemia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. The mean plasma half life of verubulin was 3.2 h (SD = 0.82). Two patients achieved at least a partial response by Macdonald criteria. One of these patients remains progression free and off treatment more than 24 months beyond his initiation of verubulin. Five patients had stable disease. Median progression-free survival (PFS) across all patients was 8 weeks, and the 6-month PFS rate was 21 %. The combination of verubulin at the previously determined single-agent maximum tolerated dose of 3.3 mg/m(2) with carboplatin in patients with recurrent/refractory GBM is safe and well tolerated. In this patient population with a highly vascularized tumor, no cerebral hemorrhage was observed.

  20. Input-to-State Stabilizing MPC for Neutrally Stable Linear Systems subject to Input Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Jung-Su; Yoon, Tae-Woong; Jadbabaie, Ali; Persis, Claudio De

    2004-01-01

    MPC(Model Predictive Control) is representative of control methods which are able to handle physical constraints. Closed-loop stability can therefore be ensured only locally in the presence of constraints of this type. However, if the system is neutrally stable, and if the constraints are imposed

  1. Explicit MPC design and performance-based tuning of an Adaptive Cruise Control Stop-&-Go

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, G.J.L.; Ploeg, J.; Molengraft, M.J.G. van de; Steinbuch, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the synthesis, the implementation and the performance-based tuning of an Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) Stop-&-Go (S&G) design. A Model Predictive Control (MPC) framework is adopted to design the controller. Performance of the controller is evaluated, distinguishing between

  2. Robust event-triggered MPC with guaranteed asymptotic bound and average sampling rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunner, F.D.; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Allgower, F.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a robust event-triggered model predictive control (MPC) scheme for linear time-invariant discrete-time systems subject to bounded additive stochastic disturbances and hard constraints on the input and state. For given probability distributions of the disturbances acting on the system, we

  3. White Paper: Multi-purpose canister (MPC) for DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, D.A.

    1994-04-01

    The paper examines the issue, What are the advantages, disadvantages, and other considerations for using the MPC concept as part of the strategy for interim storage and disposal of DOE-owned SNF? The paper is based in part on the results of an evaluation made for the DOE National Spent Fuel Program by the Waste Form Barrier/Canister Team, which is composed of knowledgeable DOE and DOE-contractor personnel. The paper reviews the MPC and DOE SNF status, provides criteria and other considerations applicable to the issue, and presents an evaluation, conclusions, and recommendations. The primary conclusion is that while most of DOE SNF is not currently sufficiently characterized to be sealed into an MPC, the advantages of standardized packages in handling, reduced radiation exposure, and improved human factors should be considered in DOE SNF program planning. While the design of MPCs for DOE SNF are likely premature at this time, the use of canisters should be considered which are consistent with interim storage options and the MPC design envelope

  4. OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE: UPGRADED MPC AND A SYSTEMS FOR THE RADIOCHEMICAL PLANT OF THE SIBERIAN CHEMICAL COMBINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RODRIGUEZ, C.; GOLOSKOKOV, I.; FISHBONE, L.; GOODEY, K.; LOOMIS, M.; CRAIN, B. JR.; LARSEN, R.

    2003-01-01

    The success of reducing the risk of nuclear proliferation through physical protection and material control/accounting systems depends upon the development of an effective design that includes consideration of the objectives of the systems and the resources available to implement the design. Included among the objectives of the design are facility characterization, definition of threat, and identification of targets. When considering resources, the designer must consider funds available, rapid low-cost elements, technology elements, human resources, and the availability of resources to sustain operation of the end system. The Siberian Chemical Combine (SCC) is a multi-function nuclear facility located in the Tomsk region of Siberia, Russia. Beginning in 1996, SCC joined with the United States Department of Energy (US/DOE) Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) Program to develop and implement MPC and A upgrades for the Radiochemical, Chemical Metallurgical, Conversion, Uranium Enrichment, and Reactor Plants of the SCC. At the Radiochemical Plant the MPC and A design and implementation process has been largely completed for the Plutonium Storage Facility and related areas of the Radiochemical Plant. Design and implementation of upgrades for the Radiochemical Plant include rapid physical protection upgrades such as bricking up of doors and windows, and installation of security-hardened doors. Rapid material control and accounting upgrades include installation of modern balances and bar code equipment. Comprehensive MPC and A upgrades include the installation of access controls to sensitive areas of the Plant, alarm communication and display (AC and D) systems to detect and annunciate alarm conditions, closed circuit (CCTV) systems to assess alarm conditions, central and secondary alarm station upgrades that enable security forces to assess and respond to alarm conditions, material control and accounting upgrades that include upgraded physical

  5. Randomized Crossover Comparison of Personalized MPC and PID Control Algorithms for the Artificial Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsker, Jordan E; Lee, Joon Bok; Dassau, Eyal; Seborg, Dale E; Bradley, Paige K; Gondhalekar, Ravi; Bevier, Wendy C; Huyett, Lauren; Zisser, Howard C; Doyle, Francis J

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate two widely used control algorithms for an artificial pancreas (AP) under nonideal but comparable clinical conditions. After a pilot safety and feasibility study (n = 10), closed-loop control (CLC) was evaluated in a randomized, crossover trial of 20 additional adults with type 1 diabetes. Personalized model predictive control (MPC) and proportional integral derivative (PID) algorithms were compared in supervised 27.5-h CLC sessions. Challenges included overnight control after a 65-g dinner, response to a 50-g breakfast, and response to an unannounced 65-g lunch. Boluses of announced dinner and breakfast meals were given at mealtime. The primary outcome was time in glucose range 70-180 mg/dL. Mean time in range 70-180 mg/dL was greater for MPC than for PID (74.4 vs. 63.7%, P = 0.020). Mean glucose was also lower for MPC than PID during the entire trial duration (138 vs. 160 mg/dL, P = 0.012) and 5 h after the unannounced 65-g meal (181 vs. 220 mg/dL, P = 0.019). There was no significant difference in time with glucose PID control for the AP indicates that MPC performed particularly well, achieving nearly 75% time in the target range, including the unannounced meal. Although both forms of CLC provided safe and effective glucose management, MPC performed as well or better than PID in all metrics. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  6. Permission Marketing and Privacy Concerns - Why Do Customers (Not) Grant Permissions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krafft, Manfred; Arden, Christine M.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    Little is known about the influence of motivators that drive consumers to grant permission to be contacted via personalized communication. In this study, a framework is developed to investigate the effect of select drivers of consumers granting permission to receive personalized messages. The

  7. Permissive Subsorted Partial Logic in CASL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerioli, Maura; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Krieg-Brückner, Bernd

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a permissive subsorted partial logic used in the CoFI Algebraic Specification Language. In contrast to other order-sorted logics, subsorting is not modeled by set inclusions, but by injective embeddings allowing for more general models in which subtypes can have different data...

  8. User-centric android flexible permissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scoccia, Gian Luca; Malavolta, Ivano; Autili, Marco; Di Salle, Amleto; Inverardi, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Privacy in mobile apps is a fundamental aspect to be considered, particularly with regard to meeting end user expectations. Due to the rigidities of the Android permission model, desirable trade-offs are not allowed. End users are confined into a secondary role, having the only option of choosing

  9. Gender Differences In Premarital Sexual Permissiveness Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the concept of premariatal sexual permissiveness among selected University undergraduates in a state owned university in Nigeria, believing that the policy of non-residential status of the University will facilitate premarital sexual activity among the students. Using a total of 400 purposively selected ...

  10. Quantifying Compressibility and Slip in Multiparticle Collision (MPC Flow Through a Local Constriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmina Akhter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow of a compressible fluid with slip through a cylinder with an asymmetric local constriction has been considered both numerically, as well as analytically. For the numerical work, a particle-based method whose dynamics is governed by the multiparticle collision (MPC rule has been used together with a generalized boundary condition that allows for slip at the wall. Since it is well known that an MPC system corresponds to an ideal gas and behaves like a compressible, viscous flow on average, an approximate analytical solution has been derived from the compressible Navier–Stokes equations of motion coupled to an ideal gas equation of state using the Karman–Pohlhausen method. The constriction is assumed to have a polynomial form, and the location of maximum constriction is varied throughout the constricted portion of the cylinder. Results for centerline densities and centerline velocities have been compared for various Reynolds numbers, Mach numbers, wall slip values and flow geometries.

  11. Integration of RTO and MPC in the Hydrogen Network of a Petrol Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar de Prada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the problems associated with the implementation of Real Time Optimization/Model Predictive Control (RTO/MPC systems, taking as reference the hydrogen distribution network of an oil refinery involving eighteen plants. This paper addresses the main problems related to the operation of the network, combining data reconciliation and a RTO system, designed for the optimal generation and redistribution of hydrogen, with a predictive controller for the on-line implementation of the optimal policies. This paper describes the architecture of the implementation, showing how RTO and MPC can be integrated, as well as the benefits obtained in terms of improved information about the process, increased hydrocarbon load to the treatment plants and reduction of the hydrogen required for performing the operations.

  12. Optimal control of inverted pendulum system using PID controller, LQR and MPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Elisa Sara; Vincent, Anju K.; Bagyaveereswaran, V.

    2017-11-01

    Inverted pendulum is a highly nonlinear system. Here we propose an optimal control technique for the control of an inverted Pendulum - cart system. The system is modeled, linearized and controlled. Here, the control objective is to control the system such that when the cart reaches a desired position the inverted pendulum stabilizes in the upright position. Initially PID controller is used to control the system. Later, Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) a well-known optimal control technique which makes use of the states of the dynamical system and control input to frame the optimal control decision is used. Various combinations of both PID and LQR controllers are implemented. To validate the robustness of the controller, the system is simulated with and without disturbance. Finally the system is also controlled using Model Predictive controller (MPC). MPC has well predictive ability to calculate future events and implement necessary control actions. The performance of the system is compared and analyzed.

  13. Analysis of an ACC System for Sliding Mode and MPC under Transitional Manoeuvers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Ali Memon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Two different control algorithms, sliding mode and MPC (Model Predictive Control are employed to analyse the performance of a linear vehicle model equipped with an ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control system. Both controllers are analysed under critical TM (Transitional Maneuvers to investigate their suitability for the ACC system. The simulation results, for the same scenario, from both controllers\\' approach have been compared. The results show that the MPC is more robust than the SMC (Sliding Model Controller. The results show that the SMC algorithm is not suitable for the proposed vehicle model. The shortcomings of the SMC have been highlighted and the comparisons are made with the previous studies. The proposed approach can be useful for the selection of the appropriate controller for the given application.

  14. Tuning of methods for offset free MPC based on ARX model representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate model predictive control (MPC) based on ARX models. ARX models can be identified from data using convex optimization technologies and is linear in the system parameters. Compared to other model parameterizations this feature is an advantage in embedded applications...... for robust and automatic system identification. Standard MPC is not able to reject a sustained, unmeasured, non zero mean disturbance and will therefore not provide offset free tracking. Offset free tracking can be guaranteed for this type of disturbances if Δ variables are used or if the state space...... is extended with a disturbance model state. The relation between the base case and the two extended methods are illustrated which provides good understanding and a platform for discussing tuning for good closed loop performance....

  15. Discovery of an L-alanine ester prodrug of the Hsp90 inhibitor, MPC-3100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Ho; Tangallapally, Rajendra; Kim, In Chul; Trovato, Richard; Parker, Daniel; Patton, J Scott; Reeves, Leslie; Bradford, Chad; Wettstein, Daniel; Baichwal, Vijay; Papac, Damon; Bajji, Ashok; Carlson, Robert; Yager, Kraig M

    2015-11-15

    Various types of Hsp90 inhibitors have been and continue to undergo clinical investigation. One development candidate is the purine-based, synthetic Hsp90 inhibitor 1 (MPC-3100), which successfully completed a phase I clinical study. However, further clinical development of 1 was hindered by poor solubility and consequent formulation issues and promoted development of a more water soluble prodrug. Towards this end, numerous pro-moieties were explored in vitro and in vivo. These studies resulted in identification of L-alanine ester mesylate, 2i (MPC-0767), which exhibited improved aqueous solubility, adequate chemical stability, and rapid bioconversion without the need for solubilizing excipients. Based on improved physical characteristics and favorable PK and PD profiles, 2i mesylate was selected for further development. A convergent, scalable, chromatography-free synthesis for 2i mesylate was developed to support further clinical evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) and Marine Personnel Carrier (MPC): Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-09

    providing critical capabilities to execute the nation’s military strategy . On January 6, 2011, after spending approximately $3 billion in...the Landing Craft , Air Cushioned (LCAC). The LAV-25 has been in service since 1983. According to the Marine Program Executive Office (PEO) Land...the Marines’ new MPC/ACV acquisition strategy and its associated challenges and risks. Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) and Marine

  17. Use of wiener nonlinear MPC to control a CSTR with multiple steady state

    OpenAIRE

    Lusson Cervantes, A.; Agamennoni, O.E.; Figueroa, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a Nonlinear Model Predictive Control based on a Wiener Model with a Piecewise Linear gain is presented. The major advantages of this algorithm is that it retains all the interesting properties of the classical linear MPC and the computations are easy to solve due to the canonical structure of the nonlinear gain. The proposed control scheme is applied to a nonlinear CSTR that presents multiple steady states.

  18. Finite-Control-Set Model Predictive Control (FCS-MPC) for Islanded Hybrid Microgrids

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Zhehan; Babqi, Abdulrahman J.; Wang, Yishen; Shi, Di; Etemadi, Amir H.; Wang, Zhiwei; Huang, Bibin

    2018-01-01

    Microgrids consisting of multiple distributed energy resources (DERs) provide a promising solution to integrate renewable energies, e.g., solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Hybrid AC/DC microgrids leverage the merits of both AC and DC power systems. In this paper, a control strategy for islanded multi-bus hybrid microgrids is proposed based on the Finite-Control-Set Model Predictive Control (FCS-MPC) technologies. The control loops are expedited by predicting the future states and determining t...

  19. Novel Formulation of Adaptive MPC as EKF Using ANN Model: Multiproduct Semibatch Polymerization Reactor Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamesh, Reddi; Rani, Kalipatnapu Yamuna

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a novel formulation for nonlinear model predictive control (MPC) has been proposed incorporating the extended Kalman filter (EKF) control concept using a purely data-driven artificial neural network (ANN) model based on measurements for supervisory control. The proposed scheme consists of two modules focusing on online parameter estimation based on past measurements and control estimation over control horizon based on minimizing the deviation of model output predictions from set points along the prediction horizon. An industrial case study for temperature control of a multiproduct semibatch polymerization reactor posed as a challenge problem has been considered as a test bed to apply the proposed ANN-EKFMPC strategy at supervisory level as a cascade control configuration along with proportional integral controller [ANN-EKFMPC with PI (ANN-EKFMPC-PI)]. The proposed approach is formulated incorporating all aspects of MPC including move suppression factor for control effort minimization and constraint-handling capability including terminal constraints. The nominal stability analysis and offset-free tracking capabilities of the proposed controller are proved. Its performance is evaluated by comparison with a standard MPC-based cascade control approach using the same adaptive ANN model. The ANN-EKFMPC-PI control configuration has shown better controller performance in terms of temperature tracking, smoother input profiles, as well as constraint-handling ability compared with the ANN-MPC with PI approach for two products in summer and winter. The proposed scheme is found to be versatile although it is based on a purely data-driven model with online parameter estimation.

  20. Layer-by-layer assembled magnetic prednisolone microcapsules (MPC) for controlled and targeted drug release at rheumatoid arthritic joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabu, Chakkarapani [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology & Centre for Excellence in Nanobio Translational Research, Anna University, Bharathidasan Institute of Technology Campus, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu (India); Latha, Subbiah, E-mail: lathasuba2010@gmail.com [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology & Centre for Excellence in Nanobio Translational Research, Anna University, Bharathidasan Institute of Technology Campus, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu (India); Selvamani, Palanisamy [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology & Centre for Excellence in Nanobio Translational Research, Anna University, Bharathidasan Institute of Technology Campus, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu (India); Ahrentorp, Fredrik; Johansson, Christer [Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Arvid Hedvalls Backe 4, Göteborg (Sweden); Takeda, Ryoji; Takemura, Yasushi [Electrical & Computer Engineering & Faculty of Engineering Division of Intelligent Systems Engineering, Yokohama National University (Japan); Ota, Satoshi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Shizuoka University (Japan)

    2017-04-01

    We report here in about the formulation and evaluation of Magnetic Prednisolone Microcapsules (MPC) developed in order to improve the therapeutic efficacy relatively at a low dose than the conventional dosage formulations by means of magnetic drug targeting and thus enhancing bioavailability at the arthritic joints. Prednisolone was loaded to poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) doped calcium carbonate microspheres confirmed by the decrease in surface area from 97.48 m{sup 2}/g to 12.05 of m{sup 2}/g by BET analysis. Adsorption with oppositely charged polyelectrolytes incorporated with iron oxide nanoparticles was confirmed through zeta analysis. Removal of calcium carbonate core yielded MPC with particle size of ~3.48 µm, zeta potential of +29.7 mV was evaluated for its magnetic properties. Functional integrity of MPC was confirmed through FT-IR spectrum. Stability studies were performed at 25 °C±65% relative humidity for 60 days showed no considerable changes. Further the encapsulation efficiency of 63%, loading capacity of 18.2% and drug release of 88.3% for 36 h and its kinetics were also reported. The observed results justify the suitability of MPC for possible applications in the magnetic drug targeting for efficient therapy of rheumatoid arthritis. - Highlights: • Development of magnetic prednisolone microcapsules (MPC). • Physicochemical, pharmaceutical and magnetic properties of MPC were characterized. • Multiple layers of alternative polyelectrolytes prolonged prednisolone release time. • MPC is capable for targeted and sustained release rheumatoid arthritis therapy.

  1. MPC and A upgrades at the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, M.; Smarto, C.; Baumann, M.

    1998-01-01

    Materials Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) equipment upgrades are complete at the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), a site that has significant quantities of weapons-potential nuclear materials. Cooperative work was initiated at this Moscow facility as a part of the US-Russian program to upgrade MPC and A systems. An initial site visit and assessment were conducted in September 1996 to establish communication between ITEP, the US Department of Energy (DOE), and participating US National Laboratories. Subsequently, an agreement was reached to develop two master plans for MPC and A upgrades. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) assisted in developing a plan for Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) upgrades, and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) assisted in developing a plan for Physical Protection System (PPS) upgrades. The MC and A plan included MC and A training, a mass measurement program, nondestructive assay instrumentation, item identification (bar coding), physical inventory taking, portal and hand-held nuclear material monitors, and a nuclear materials accounting system. The PPS plan included basic PPS design training, Central Alarm Station (CAS) relocation and equipment upgrades, a site and critical-building access control system, intrusion detection, alarm assessment, and guard force communications

  2. MPC-based auto-tuned PID controller for the steam generator water level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Man Gyun

    2001-01-01

    In this work, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control gains are automatically tuned by using a model predictive control (MPC) method. The MPC has received much attention as a powerful tool for the control of industrial process systems. An MPC-based PID controller can be derived from the second order linear model of a process. The steam generator is usually described by the well-known 4 th order linear model which consists of the mass capacity, reverse dynamics and mechanical oscillations terms. But the important terms in this linear model are the mass capacity and reverse dynamics terms, both of which can be described by a 2 nd order linear system. The proposed auto-tuned PID controller was applied to a linear model of steam generators. The parameters of a linear model for steam generators are very different according to the power levels. The proposed controller showed good performance for the water level deviation and sudden steam flow disturbances that are typical in the existing power plants by changing only the input-weighting factor according to the power level

  3. Dynamic modeling and explicit/multi-parametric MPC control of pressure swing adsorption systems

    KAUST Repository

    Khajuria, Harish

    2011-01-01

    Pressure swing adsorption (PSA) is a flexible, albeit complex gas separation system. Due to its inherent nonlinear nature and discontinuous operation, the design of a model based PSA controller, especially with varying operating conditions, is a challenging task. This work focuses on the design of an explicit/multi-parametric model predictive controller for a PSA system. Based on a system involving four adsorbent beds separating 70% H2, 30% CH4 mixture into high purity hydrogen, the key controller objective is to fast track H2 purity to a set point value of 99.99%. To perform this task, a rigorous and systematic framework is employed. First, a high fidelity detailed dynamic model is built to represent the system\\'s real operation, and understand its dynamic behavior. The model is then used to derive appropriate linear models by applying suitable system identification techniques. For the reduced models, a model predictive control (MPC) step is formulated, where latest developments in multi-parametric programming and control are applied to derive a novel explicit MPC controller. To test the performance of the designed controller, closed loop simulations are performed where the dynamic model is used as the virtual plant. Comparison studies of the derived explicit MPC controller are also performed with conventional PID controllers. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Surface grafting density analysis of high anti-clotting PU-Si-g-P(MPC) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Chunyan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Function Materials, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); Zhou Ninglin, E-mail: ninglinzhou@yahoo.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Function Materials, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); Jiangsu Technological Research Center for Interfacial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xiao Yinghong; Tang Yida; Jin Suxing; Wu Yue [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Function Materials, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); Zhang Jun; Shen Jian [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Function Materials, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); Jiangsu Technological Research Center for Interfacial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2012-02-01

    Well-defined zwitterionic polymer brushes with good blood compatibility were studied, grafted from polyurethane (PU) substrate (PU-Si-g-P(MPC)) by surface-initiated reverse atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-RATRP). We found that the structure of polymer brushes and hence their properties greatly depend on the grafting density. To solve the problems of the normal method for grafting density measurement, i.e., more requirements for qualified and proficient instrument operator, we established an effective and feasible way instead of the conventional method of spectroscopic ellipsometer combined with gel permeation chromatograph (ELM/GPC) to calculate the grafting density of PU-Si-g-P(MPC) films by using a software named ImageJ 1.44e in combination with scanning electronic microscope (SEM) or atomic microscope (AFM). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), SEM and AFM were employed to analyze the surface topography and changes of elements before and after graft modification of the synthetic PU-Si-g-P(MPC) biofilms.

  5. Confirmation of MRS/MPC transfer facility sizing using simulation modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, E.S.; Hadley, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982, as amended, requires the Department of Energy to begin receiving spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from utilities in January 1998. A repository will not be completed in time for the scheduled receipt of SNF. A Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility is therefore a feasible solution to bridge the gap between the 1998 date for fuel acceptance and the startup of the repository. SNF will be stored temporarily at the MRS and later retrieved from storage and shipped to the repository. To simplify fuel handling and to standardize components, the multi-purpose canister (MPC) concept was investigated. The MPC would be a sealed, metallic canister containing multiple SNF assemblies in a dry inert environment. MPCs would be placed into different overpacks for transportation, storage, and disposal at the repository. The MRS transfer facility MPC and SNF throughput requirements, assumptions, and operating concepts were used to initially determine the size of the facility and the major equipment contained within the facility. This initial estimate was based on simplified calculation techniques. The adequacy of the design configurations were then confirmed using SLAM simulation modeling software. Modeling incorporates uncertainties in task durations, the effects of equipment reliability, availability of personnel and equipment, and system breakdowns. This paper describes how the model was developed and how it is used to verify the transfer facility size. It also illustrates how problems with the facility design, operational concepts, and staffing are identified with the results of the model

  6. Rationalizing the Permissibility of Mosque Decoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spahic Omer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the subject of mosque decoration and some of the criteria which determine its permissibility or otherwise. Some aspects of the matter are somewhat sensitive and double-edged. Thus, the paper presents an objective, balanced and scientific account of the theme, steering clear of the sentimental aspects of the evidences often put forth by both the proponents and opponents of mosque decoration. The main thrusts of the paper are the issues pertaining to the legitimacy of decoration in general, the subject of the function of mosques vis-à-vis their decoration, as well as the broad guidelines that regulate mosque decoration emphasizing the decoration of the mihrab (praying niche area and the qiblah wall. The paper concludes that in principle mosque decoration is permissible so long as it conforms to the requirements of the Islamic spirituality and the quintessence of genuine Islamic art and architecture.

  7. Physical, thermal and mechanical study of MPC formulated with LG-MgO incorporating Phase Change Materials as admixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Alameda, A.; Lacasta, A. M.; Giro-Paloma, J.; Chimenos, J. M.; Formosa, J.

    2017-10-01

    The high environmental impact generated by using of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) has lead to the search for alternative materials in the field of civil and building engineering. In addition, there is a tendency to develop cements from industrial by-products, thus reducing pollution and emissions generated by their production. One of the best positioned cements to compete with OPC is Magnesium Phosphate Cement (MPC). The present work studies different dosages of MPC mortars formulated with low-grade MgO by-product (sustainable MPC) incorporating Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials (MPCM) and air entraining additive (AEA) as admixtures (Thermal Sustainable MPC) to improve the thermal behaviour of the material. The aim is developed a new eco-friendly material that leads to reducing energy consumption in buildings. The study is focused on the physical, thermal, and mechanical characterization of TS-MPC mortars to assess their potential use as a thermal prefabricated panel. The results allow to relate the amount of the MPCM and the additive percentage with the thermal and mechanical properties of the TS- MPC. Furthermore, is important to highlight the influence of MPCM not only in the thermal behaviour but also on the increase of the porosity. The experimental results show that the addition of both additives contributes substantially to the improvement of the thermal behaviour of the mortars and converts them on a suitable material to reduce thermal oscillations in buildings.

  8. A permissive graphical patcher for supercollider synths

    OpenAIRE

    Dufeu, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the first version of a permissive graphical patcher (referred to in the text as SCPGP) dedicated to fluid interconnection and control of SuperCollider Synths. With SCPGP, the user programs her/his SynthDefs normally as code in the SuperCollider environment, along with a minimal amount of additional information on these SynthDefs, and programs Patterns according to a simple SuperCollider-compliant syntax.\\ud From the execution of this SuperCollider session, the SCPGP inte...

  9. Optical absorption and electrical properties of MPc (M =Fe, Cu, Zn)-TCNQ interfaces for optoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Vergara, M. E.; Medrano Gallardo, D.; Vera Estrada, I. L.; Jiménez Sandoval, O.

    2018-04-01

    This research is related to the growth and characterization of doped molecular semiconductor metallophthalocyanine-tetracyanoquinodimethane (MPc-TCNQ) films, with M = Fe, Zn, Cu. FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies were employed to study the chemical interactions taking place in the MPc-TCNQ films. XRD was carried out to determine the crystalline structure present in the samples, due to the facility of the MPcs to be in alpha and/or beta phases. The thin films were analized by SEM and UV-vis spectroscopy in order to study their morphological and optical properties. The absorption spectra recorded in the UV-Vis region for the deposited samples showed two bands, namely the Q and Soret bands. The absorption coefficient (α) and photon energy (hν) were calculated from the UV-vis spectra, to in turn determine the optic activation energy in each film and its semiconductor behavior. The values obtained for direct transitions due to the crystallinity of the films were: 1.2, 1.4 and 2 eV for FePc-TCNQ (MMFe), ZnPc-TCNQ (MMZn) and CuPc-TCNQ (MMCu), respectively. Additionally, I-V characteristics have been obtained from fabricated glass/ITO/MM/Ag devices using ohmic contacts both after annealing. The electrical properties of the devices, e.g. carrier mobility and concentration of thermally generated holes, were extracted from the J-V characteristics. The results show that the conduction process is ohmic for the MMZn and MMCu devices, at low voltages, while at high voltages, a space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC) is present. The effect of temperature on conductivity was also measured in these samples and the lower thermal activation energy calculated was 0.37 eV for MMZn. Moreover, it was found that the temperature-dependent electric current is always higher for the MMZn device and suggests a semiconductor-like behavior with an important conductivity of the order of 103 S cm-1. Anyhow, in terms not only of electric properties, but also of optic behavior, the results suggest that

  10. Analytical Performance Verification of FCS-MPC Applied to Power Electronic Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Mateja; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Since the introduction of finite control set model predictive control (FCS-MPC) in power electronics the algorithm has been missing an important aspect that would speed up its implementation in industry: a simple method to verify the algorithm performance. This paper proposes to use a statistical...... model checking (SMC) method for performance evaluation of the algorithm applied to power electronics converters. SMC is simple to implement, intuitive and it requires only an operational model of the system that can be simulated and checked against properties. Device under test for control algorithm...

  11. Model-based MPC enables curvilinear ILT using either VSB or multi-beam mask writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Linyong; Takatsukasa, Yutetsu; Hara, Daisuke; Pomerantsev, Michael; Su, Bo; Fujimura, Aki

    2017-07-01

    Inverse Lithography Technology (ILT) is becoming the choice for Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) of advanced technology nodes in IC design and production. Multi-beam mask writers promise significant mask writing time reduction for complex ILT style masks. Before multi-beam mask writers become the main stream working tools in mask production, VSB writers will continue to be the tool of choice to write both curvilinear ILT and Manhattanized ILT masks. To enable VSB mask writers for complex ILT style masks, model-based mask process correction (MB-MPC) is required to do the following: 1). Make reasonable corrections for complex edges for those features that exhibit relatively large deviations from both curvilinear ILT and Manhattanized ILT designs. 2). Control and manage both Edge Placement Errors (EPE) and shot count. 3. Assist in easing the migration to future multi-beam mask writer and serve as an effective backup solution during the transition. In this paper, a solution meeting all those requirements, MB-MPC with GPU acceleration, will be presented. One model calibration per process allows accurate correction regardless of the target mask writer.

  12. U.S.-Russia MPC and A upgrades at the Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraev, O.; Haase, M.; Smarto, C.; Mikkelsen, K.; Heinberg, C.; Showalter, R.; Soo Hoo, M.; Hatcher, C.; Forehand, M.

    1998-01-01

    During the January 1996 meeting of the Gore-Chernomyrdin Commission, the Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) was identified as one of the additional sites for cooperative projects on upgrading Materials Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A). Since June 1996, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL), and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have worked with BNPP to upgrade MPC and A at the facility. Some unique challenges were encountered because BNPP has an operating BN-600 600-Megawatt breeder reactor. SNL has been responsible for working with BNPP to implement physical protection upgrades to the Central Alarm Station, Fresh Fuel Storage building, Spent Fuel Storage Area, and Vehicle/Personnel Portal. In addition, improved communication equipment for the Ministry of the Interior (MVD) guards and training of personnel were provided. PNNL has been responsible for coordinating Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) upgrades at BNPP. PNNL, in conjunction with LANL, has implemented such MC and A upgrades as a computerized nuclear materials accounting system, training in MC and A elements, nondestructive assay instrumentation for fresh fuel, installation of a fork detector for measuring spent fuel, and installation of an underwater video camera for verification of spent fuel serial numbers

  13. Perancangan dan Implementasi Pengaturan Kecepatan Motor Brushless DC Menggunakan Metode Model Predictive Control (MPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fachrul Arifin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Saat ini, penelitian dan pengembangan mobil listrik (electric vehicle sudah menjadi pusat perhatian bagi kalangan industri dan civitas academica. Sudah banyak kendaraan listrik yang sudah diproduksi secara massal di seluruh dunia. Beberapa dari kendaraan listrik tersebut menggunakan motor BLDC sebagai penggerak utamanya. Pada Tugas Akhir kali ini, salah satu kemampuan yang akan diteliti dan dianalisa adalah respon kecepatan motor BLDC pada mobil listrik saat mobil diberi suatu beban. Ketika mendapat pembebanan, respon kecepatan dari motor BLDC akan turun sehingga performa dari motor BLDC tidak sesuai dengan setpoint yang diharapkan. Oleh karena itu, dibutuhkan suatu kontroler yang dapat mengatasi permasalahan diatas dan melakukan pengaturan kerja pada motor BLDC agar bekerja sesuai dengan kebutuhan. Kontroler ini diharapkan mampu untuk mengembalikan respon kecepatan pada motor BLDC kembali kepada setpoint ketika motor BLDC diberi pembebanan. Penulis menggunakan metode kontroler Model Predictive Control (MPC yang dapat memprediksi perilaku sistem pada masa depan yang bergantung pada informasi sistem saat ini dan model state-space dari sistem. Berdasarkan hasil implementasi, kontroler MPC dapat memberikan respon yang sesuai dengan tracking setpoint yang diberikan dengan rata-rata nilai steady-state error sebesar 9,8% untuk semua parameter pembebanan.

  14. An APF and MPC combined collaborative driving controller using vehicular communication technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zichao; Wu, Qing; Ma, Jie; Fan, Shiqi

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative driving is a growing domain of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) which aim to navigate traffic both efficiently and safely. Cooperation between vehicles heavily rely on the comprehensive information collected. With the development of vehicular communication technologies, information can be shared between vehicles or infrastructures through Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V)/Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) data exchange. By taking advantage of data sharing between vehicles, this paper proposes an Artificial Potential Field (APF) and Model Predictive Control (MPC) combined controller to implement collaborative driving in complex environments. Firstly, an APF model ​containing three components is developed to describe the mutual effect and collaboration properties between vehicles and surrounding environments. Afterwards, a MPC cost function for optimized control, considering both kinematic characteristics and environmental effect conveyed by APF, is presented to address the problem of collaborative driving. Such controller is designed from the perspective of multi-objective and multi-constraint optimization which takes the vehicle motion constraints, safety and comfort requirements into consideration. The prominent advantage of the proposed approach is that it can deal with the problems of route planning and manipulating simultaneously. To validate the proposed approach, a variety of scenario simulations are conducted in MATLAB, and the performance of the proposed method are verified.

  15. THE MEGAMASER COSMOLOGY PROJECT. V. AN ANGULAR-DIAMETER DISTANCE TO NGC 6264 AT 140 Mpc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, C. Y.; Braatz, J. A.; Lo, K. Y.; Condon, J. J.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Reid, M. J.; Henkel, C.

    2013-01-01

    We present the direct measurement of the Hubble constant, yielding the direct measurement of the angular-diameter distance to NGC 6264 using the H 2 O megamaser technique. Our measurement is based on sensitive observations of the circumnuclear megamaser disk from four observations with the Very Long Baseline Array, the Green Bank Telescope (GBT), and the Effelsberg telescope. We also monitored the maser spectral profile for 2.3 years using the GBT to measure accelerations of maser lines by tracking their line-of-sight velocities as they change with time. The measured accelerations suggest that the systemic maser spots have a significantly wider radial distribution than in the archetypal megamaser in NGC 4258. We model the maser emission as arising from a circumnuclear disk with orbits dominated by the central black hole. The best fit of the data gives a Hubble constant of H 0 = 68 ± 9 km s –1 Mpc –1 , which corresponds to an angular-diameter distance of 144 ± 19 Mpc. In addition, the fit also gives a mass of the central black hole of (3.09 ± 0.42) × 10 7 M ☉ . The result demonstrates the feasibility of measuring distances to galaxies located well into the Hubble flow by using circumnuclear megamaser disks.

  16. Designing Structure-Dependent MPC-Based AGC Schemes Considering Network Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sik Jang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the important features of structure-dependent model predictive control (MPC-based approaches for automatic generation control (AGC considering network topology. Since power systems have various generators under different topologies, it is necessary to reflect the characteristics of generators in power networks and the control system structures in order to improve the dynamic performance of AGC. Specifically, considering control system structures is very important because not only can the topological problems be reduced, but also a computing system for AGC in a bulk-power system can be realized. Based on these considerations, we propose new schemes in the proposed controller for minimizing inadvertent line flows and computational burden, which strengthen the advantages of MPC-based approach for AGC. Analysis and simulation results in the IEEE 39-bus model system show different dynamic behaviors among structure-dependent control schemes and possible improvements in computational burden via the proposed control scheme while system operators in each balancing area consider physical load reference ramp constraints among generators.

  17. Control over Permissible Short Emergency Overloads in Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Anischenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a method for determination a permissible duration of short intermittent overloads of power transformers that permits to avoid non-permissible over-heating of winding insulation and fully utilize overloading transformer ability.

  18. Android Multi-Level System Permission Management Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Yang; Zhang, Qixun; Shen, Qingni; Liu, Hongzhi; Wu, Zhonghai

    2017-01-01

    With the expansion of the market share occupied by the Android platform, security issues (especially application security) have become attention focus of researchers. In fact, the existing methods lack the capabilities to manage application permissions without root privilege. This study proposes a dynamic management mechanism of Android application permissions based on security policies. The paper first describes the permissions by security policies, then implementes permission checking code ...

  19. 30 CFR 62.130 - Permissible exposure level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permissible exposure level. 62.130 Section 62... REGULATIONS OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE § 62.130 Permissible exposure level. (a) The mine operator must assure that no miner is exposed during any work shift to noise that exceeds the permissible exposure level. If...

  20. A Symbolic Approach to Permission Accounting for Concurrent Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Marieke; Mostowski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Permission accounting is fundamental to modular, thread-local reasoning about concurrent programs. This paper presents a new, symbolic system for permission accounting. In existing systems, permissions are numeric value-based and refer to the current thread only. Our system is based on symbolic

  1. Determination of permissible exposure doses under the provisions of the regulations on installation and operation of marine reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The Ministry of Transportation defines on radioactive doses in the controlled area that exterior radioactive dose shall be 30 mili-rem for a week; concentrations of radioactive materials in the air or under the water shall be permissible concentrations otherwise specified for the employees multiplied by 0.75 in average for a week and that densities of radioactive materials on the surface of the things contaminated by such materials shall be 1/10 of permissible surface densities provided in a table attached. Permissible exposure dose outside the inspected surrounding area is 0.5 rem for a year. Permissible surface densities are included in a list attached. Permissible accumulative dose for the employees is the figure (unit rem) calculated by the formula D = 5(N-18), when D means permissible accumulative dose and N number of the age. Permissible exposure dose is 3 rem for 3 months for the employees, 1.5 rem for a year for persons other than the employees and 12 rem for the urgent work. Permissible densities for the employees, calculation of doses by interior exposure and permissible densities outside the inspected surrounding area are stipulated in detail with attached lists. (Okada, K.)

  2. Performance comparison of next generation controller and MPC in real time for a SISO process with low cost DAQ unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bagyaveereswaran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a brief overview of real time implementation of next generation Robust, Tracking, Disturbance rejecting, Aggressive (RTDA controller and Model Predictive Control (MPC is provided. The control algorithm is implemented through MATLAB. The plant model used in controller design is obtained using system identification tool and integral response method. The controller model is developed in Simulink using jMPC tool, which will be executed in real time. The outputs obtained are tested for various constraint values to obtain the desirable results. The implementation of Hardware in Loop is done by interfacing it with MATLAB using Arduino as data acquisition unit. The performance of RTDA is compared with those of MPC and Proportional Integral controller.

  3. Legal Permissibility of Unilateral Humanitarian Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Perisic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the status of unilateral humanitarian interventions in international law. The United Nations Charter prohibits the use of force, except in case of self-defense and the collective action authorized by the Security Council. The question is whether the non-existence of unilateral humanitarian intervention among these exceptions means that they are not in conformity with the Charter and if so, whether the right to such interventions exists as the part of customary law. The issue has become even more controversial after the adoption of the “responsibility to protect” principle. Findings of legal scholars on this issue differ significantly. This paper analyzes and interprets the Charter provisions in order to answer the question of compatibility of humanitarian interventions with the Charter and examines the state practice in order to conclude whether the customary law rule allowing the humanitarian intervention exists. The conclusion of the paper is that there is no evidence to support the contentions that interventions without the Security Council authorization are permissible, although there are elements which point to the possibility of the creation of customary law allowing them.

  4. Catalyst study for the decontamination of glove-box atmospheres containing tritium at MPC levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chobot, J.; Montel, J.; Sannier, J.

    1988-01-01

    The BEATRICE loop was designed for studying the conversion of tritium at very low activity levels using catalytic oxidation followed by water trapping. The purpose is to study kinetic parameters required for the design of the NET tritium cleanup system with the two main objectives to operate without isotopic swamping and to determine the ability of efficient conversion at room temperature. From experiments carried out between 20 and 250 0 C it is concluded that two palladium/alumina and platinum/alumina catalysts are very efficient in removing tritium from contaminated gas mixtures down to a few MPC levels without isotopic swamping and even at room temperature. However at room temperature, in relation to tritium species trapped on the catalyst surface a progressive deactivation with time occurs. This phenomenon may be a concern for process efficiency and tritium inventory and regeneration conditions have to be determined in order to demonstrate industrial feasibility of operating at room temperature

  5. Model Predictive Vibration Control Efficient Constrained MPC Vibration Control for Lightly Damped Mechanical Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Takács, Gergely

    2012-01-01

    Real-time model predictive controller (MPC) implementation in active vibration control (AVC) is often rendered difficult by fast sampling speeds and extensive actuator-deformation asymmetry. If the control of lightly damped mechanical structures is assumed, the region of attraction containing the set of allowable initial conditions requires a large prediction horizon, making the already computationally demanding on-line process even more complex. Model Predictive Vibration Control provides insight into the predictive control of lightly damped vibrating structures by exploring computationally efficient algorithms which are capable of low frequency vibration control with guaranteed stability and constraint feasibility. In addition to a theoretical primer on active vibration damping and model predictive control, Model Predictive Vibration Control provides a guide through the necessary steps in understanding the founding ideas of predictive control applied in AVC such as: ·         the implementation of ...

  6. Sistem Komunikasi Modul Sensor Jamak Berbasiskan Mikrokontroler Menggunakan Serial Rs-485 Mode Multi Processor Communication (Mpc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suar wibawa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Multi-sensor communication system uses RS-485 standard communication connecting each microcontroller-based data processing unit to form BUS topology network. The advantages of this  communication system  are:  connectivity  (easy  to  connecting  devices  on  a  network, scalability (flexibility to expand the network, more resistant to noise, and easier maintenance. The System is built using Master-Slave communication approach model. This system need to filter every data packet on communication channel because every device that connect in this network can hear every data packet across this network. Multi Processor Communication (MPC model is applied to reduce processor’s burden in inspecting every data packet, so the processor that work in slave side only need to inspect the message for itself without inspecting every data packet across the communication chanel.

  7. MPC&A training needs of the NIS/Baltics States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, David Franklin; Stoy-McLeod, Carol L.

    2006-07-01

    This report serves to document contract deliverables considered to be of continuing interest associated with two workshops conducted as part of an initial assessment of Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) training needs of the Newly Independent and Baltic States (NIS/Baltics). These workshops were held in Kiev, Ukraine, ca. 2003-2004, with the assistance of personnel from the George Kuzmycz Training Center (GKTC) of the Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR). Because of the dominant role Ukraine plays in the region in terms of the nuclear industry, one workshop focused exclusively on Ukrainian training needs, with participants attending from twelve Ukrainian organizations (plus U.S. DOE/NNSA representatives). The second workshop included participation by a further ten countries from the NIS/Baltics region. In addition, the training needs data developed during the workshop were supplemented by the outcomes of surveys and studies conducted by the GKTC.

  8. MPC-Based Path Following Control of an Omnidirectional Mobile Robot with Consideration of Robot Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiattisin Kanjanawanishkul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the path following problem of an omnidirectional mobile robot (OMR has been studied. Unlike nonholonomic mobile robots, translational and rotational movements of OMRs can be controlled simultaneously and independently. However the constraints of translational and rotational velocities are coupled through the OMR's orientation angle. Therefore, a combination of a virtual-vehicle concept and a model predictive control (MPC strategy is proposed in this work to handle both robot constraints and the path following problem. Our proposed control scheme allows the OMR to follow the reference path successfully and safely, as illustrated in simulation experiments. The forward velocity is close to the desired one and the desired orientation angle is achieved at a given point on the path, while the robot's wheel velocities are maintained within boundaries.

  9. Catalyst study for the decontamination of glove-boxe atmospheres containing tritium at MPC levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, J.; Montel, J.; Sannier, J.

    1988-01-01

    The BEATRICE loop was designed for studying the conversion of tritium at very low activity levels using catalytic oxidation followed by water trapping. The purpose is to study kinetic parameters required for the design of the NET tritium clean-up system with the two main objectives to operate without isotopic swamping and to determine the ability of efficient conversion at room temperature. From experiments carried out between 20 and 250 0 C it is concluded that two palladium/alumina and platinum/alumina catalysts are very efficient in removing tritium from contaminated gas mixtures down to a few MPC levels without isotopic swamping and even at room temperature. However at room temperature, in relation to tritium species trapped on the catalyst surface a progressive deactivation with time occurs. This phenomenon may be a concern for process efficiency and tritium inventory and best regeneration conditions have to be determined in order to demonstrate industrial feasibility of operating at room temperature

  10. Overview of MPC applications in supply chains: Potential use and benefits in the management of forest-based supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana M. Pinho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This work aims to provide an overview of Model Predictive Controllers (MPC applications in supply chains, to describe the forest-based supply chain and to analyse the potential use and benefits of MPC in a case study concerning a biomass supply chain.Area of study: The proposed methods are being applied to a company located in Finland.Material and methods: Supply chains are complex systems where actions and partners’ coordination influence the whole system performance. The increase of competitiveness and need of quick responses to the costumers implies the use of efficient management techniques. The control theory, particularly MPC, has been successfully used as a supply chain management tool. MPC is able to deal with dynamic interactions between the partners and to globally optimize the supply chain performance in the presence of disturbances. However, as far as is authors’ knowledge, there are no applications of this methodology in the forest-based supply chains. This work proposes a control architecture to improve the performance of the forest supply chain. The controller is based on prediction models which are able to simulate the system and deal with disturbances.Main results: The preliminary results enable to evaluate the impacts of disturbances in the supply chain. Thus, it is possible to react beforehand, controlling the schedules and tasks’ allocation, or alert the planning level in order to generate a new plan.Research highlights:   Overview of MPC applications in supply chains; forest-based supply chain description; case study presentation: wood biomass supply chain for energy production; MPC architecture proposal to decrease the operation times.Keywords: biomass; forest; Model Predictive Control; planning; supply chain.

  11. Maximum permissible concentrations and negligible concentrations for antifouling substances. Irgarol 1051, dichlofluanid, ziram, chlorothalonil and TCMTB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel AP van; Vlaardingen P van; CSR

    2001-01-01

    In dit rapport zijn maximaal toelaatbare concentratie's en verwaarloosbare concentratie's afgeleid voor diverse aangroeiwerende middelen, welke worden gebruikt als vervanger voor TBT zoals Irgarol 1051, dichlofluanide, ziram, chloorthalonil en TCMTB.

  12. Determination of permissible doses under the provisions of the regulations on installation and operation of reactors for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The determination is defined under the regulations on installation and operation of reactors for power generation. In the controlled area exterior radiation dose shall be 30 mili-rem for a week by the Minister of International Trade and Industry. The concentrations of radioactive materials in the air or under the water shall be permissible concentrations specified for the employees multiplied by 0.75 in average for a week. The densities of radioactive materials on the surface of the things contaminated by such materials shall be 1/10 of permissible surface densities stipulated in the table attached. Permissible exposure dose outside the inspected surrounding area is 0.5 rem for a year. Permissible surface densities are included in the table attached. Permissible accumulative dose for the employees is the figure (unit rem) calculated by the formula D = 5(N-18), when D means permissible accumulative dose and N number of the age. Permissible exposure dose is 3 rem for 3 months for the employees, 1.5 rem for a year for persons other than the employees and 12 rem for the urgent work. Permissible concentrations are defined in detail for the employees and outside the inspected surrounding area. Calculation of exposure dose in the case of interior exposure is particularly provided for. (Okada, K.)

  13. GHOSTS I: A new faint very isolated dwarf galaxy at D = 12 ± 2 Mpc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monachesi, Antonela; Bell, Eric F.; Radburn-Smith, David J.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; De Jong, Roelof S.; Streich, David; Vlajić, Marija; Bailin, Jeremy; Holwerda, Benne W.; Alyson Ford, H.; Zucker, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new faint dwarf galaxy, GHOSTS I, using HST/ACS data from one of our GHOSTS (Galaxy Halos, Outer disks, Substructure, Thick disk, and Star clusters) fields. Its detected individual stars populate an approximately 1 mag range of its luminosity function (LF). Using synthetic color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) to compare with the galaxy's CMD, we find that the colors and magnitudes of GHOSTS I's individual stars are most consistent with being young helium-burning and asymptotic giant branch stars at a distance of ∼12 ± 2 Mpc. Morphologically, GHOSTS I appears to be actively forming stars, so we tentatively classify it as a dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxy, although future Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations deep enough to resolve a larger magnitude range in its LF are required to make a more secure classification. GHOSTS I's absolute magnitude is M V ∼−9.85 −0.33 +0.40 , making it one of the least luminous dIrr galaxies known, and its metallicity is lower than [Fe/H] = –1.5 dex. The half-light radius of GHOSTS I is 226 ± 38 pc and its ellipticity is 0.47 ± 0.07, similar to Milky Way and M31 dwarf satellites at comparable luminosity. There are no luminous massive galaxies or galaxy clusters within ∼4 Mpc from GHOSTS I that could be considered as its host, making it a very isolated dwarf galaxy in the local universe.

  14. Is the maximum permissible radiation burden for the population indeed permissible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renesse, R.L. van.

    1975-01-01

    It is argued that legislation based on the ICRP doses will, under economical influences, lead to a situation where the population is exposed to radiation doses near the maximum permissible dose. Due to cumulative radiation effects, this will introduce unacceptable health risks. Therefore, it will be necessary to lower the legal dose limit of 170 millrem per year per person by a factor 10 to 20

  15. Two-dimensional Value Stream Mapping: Integrating the design of the MPC system in the value stream map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Powell, Daryl; Olesen, Peter Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    Companies use value stream mapping to identify waste, often in the early stages of a lean implementation. Though the tool helps users to visualize material and information flows and to identify improvement opportunities, a limitation of this approach is the lack of an integrated method...... for analysing and re-designing the MPC system in order to support lean improvement. We reflect on the current literature regarding value stream mapping, and use practical insights in order to develop and propose a two-dimensional value stream mapping tool that integrates the design of the MPC system within...... the material and information flow map....

  16. A Comparative study between MPC and PI controller to control vacuum distillation unit for producing LVGO, MVGO, and HVGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, A.; Prasetyo, A. P.

    2018-03-01

    This study describes the selection of controllers in the vacuum distillation unit (VDU) between a model predictive control (MPC) and a proportional-integral (PI) controller by comparing the integral square error (ISE) values. Design of VDU in this simulation is based on modified Metso Automation Inc. scheme. Controlled variables in this study are feed flow rate, feed temperature, top stage pressure, condenser level, bottom stage temperature, LVGO (light vacuum gas oil), MVGO (medium vacuum gas oil), and HVGO (heavy vacuum gas oil) flow rate. As a result, control performance improvements occurred as using MPC compared to PI controllers, when testing a set-point change, of feed flow rate control, feed temperature, top-stage pressure, bottom-stage temperature and flow rate of LVGO, MVGO, and HVGO, respectively, 36%, 6%, 92%, 53%, 90%, 96% and 88%. Only on condenser level control PI performs much better than the MPC. So PI controller is used for level condenser control. While for the test of disturbance rejection, by changing feed flow rate by 10%, there is improvement of control performance using MPC compared to PI controller on feed temperature control, top-stage pressure, bottom-stage temperature and flow rate LVGO, MVGO and HVGO 0.3%, 0.7%, 14%, 2.7%, 10.6% and 4.3%, respectively.

  17. Rewiring yeast acetate metabolism through MPC1 loss of function leads to mitochondrial damage and decreases chronological lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Orlandi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During growth on fermentable substrates, such as glucose, pyruvate, which is the end-product of glycolysis, can be used to generate acetyl-CoA in the cytosol via acetaldehyde and acetate, or in mitochondria by direct oxidative decarboxylation. In the latter case, the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC is responsible for pyruvate transport into mitochondrial matrix space. During chronological aging, yeast cells which lack the major structural subunit Mpc1 display a reduced lifespan accompanied by an age-dependent loss of autophagy. Here, we show that the impairment of pyruvate import into mitochondria linked to Mpc1 loss is compensated by a flux redirection of TCA cycle intermediates through the malic enzyme-dependent alternative route. In such a way, the TCA cycle operates in a “branched” fashion to generate pyruvate and is depleted of intermediates. Mutant cells cope with this depletion by increasing the activity of glyoxylate cycle and of the pathway which provides the nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA. Moreover, cellular respiration decreases and ROS accumulate in the mitochondria which, in turn, undergo severe damage. These acquired traits in concert with the reduced autophagy restrict cell survival of the mpc1∆ mutant during chronological aging. Conversely, the activation of the carnitine shuttle by supplying acetyl-CoA to the mitochondria is sufficient to abrogate the short-lived phenotype of the mutant.

  18. Quantitative Security Risk Assessment of Android Permissions and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wang , Yang; Zheng , Jun; Sun , Chen; Mukkamala , Srinivas

    2013-01-01

    Part 6: Mobile Computing; International audience; The booming of the Android platform in recent years has attracted the attention of malware developers. However, the permissions-based model used in Android system to prevent the spread of malware, has shown to be ineffective. In this paper, we propose DroidRisk, a framework for quantitative security risk assessment of both Android permissions and applications (apps) based on permission request patterns from benign apps and malware, which aims ...

  19. The statistical background to proposed ASME/MPC fracture toughness reference curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldfield, W.

    1981-01-01

    The ASME Pressure Vessel Codes define, in Sec. 11, lower bound fracture toughness curves. These curves are used to predict the lower bound fracture toughness on the basis of the RT test procedure. This test is used to remove heat to heat differences, by permitting the lower bound (reference) curve to be moved along the temperature scale according to the measured RT. Numerous objections have been raised to the procedure, and a Subcommittee (the ASME/MPC Working Group on Reference Toughness) is currently revising the codified procedures for fracture toughness prediction. The task has required a substantial amount of statistical work, since the new procedure are to have a statistical basis. Using initiation fracture toughness (J-Integral R curve procedures in the ductile domain) it was shown that when CVN energy data is properly transformed it is highly correlated with valid fracture toughness measurements. A single functional relationship can be used to predict the mean fracture toughness for a sample of steel from a set of CVN energy measurements, and the coefficients of the function tabulated. More importantly, the approximate lower statistical bounds to the initiation fracture toughness behaviour can be similarly predicted, and coefficients for selected bounds have also been tabulated. (orig.)

  20. Control of the tokamak safety factor profile with time-varying constraints using MPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maljaars, E.; Felici, F.; De Baar, M.R.; Geelen, P.J.M.; Steinbuch, M.; Van Dongen, J.; Hogeweij, G.M.D.

    2015-01-01

    A controller is designed for the tokamak safety factor profile that takes real-time-varying operational and physics limits into account. This so-called model predictive controller (MPC) employs a prediction model in order to compute optimal control inputs that satisfy the given limits. The use of linearized models around a reference trajectory results in a quadratic programming problem that can easily be solved online. The performance of the controller is analysed in a set of ITER L-mode scenarios simulated with the non-linear plasma transport code RAPTOR. It is shown that the controller can reduce the tracking error due to an overestimation or underestimation of the modelled transport, while making a trade-off between residual error and amount of controller action. It is also shown that the controller can account for a sudden decrease in the available actuator power, while providing warnings ahead of time about expected violations of operational and physics limits. This controller can be extended and implemented in existing tokamaks in the near future. (paper)

  1. Einstein SSS and MPC observations of Aql X-1 and 4U1820-30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, R. L.; Christian, D. J.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Swank, J. H.

    1989-01-01

    The results of timing and spectral analyses of the X-ray sources Aql X-1 (X1908+005) and 4U1820-30 (NGC6624) are reported using data obtained with the Einstein SSS (Solid State Spectrometer) and MPC (Monitor Proportional Counter) instruments. A classic type I burst was observed from Aql X-1 in both detectors and a coherent modulation with a period of 131.66 + or - 0.02 ms and a pulsed fraction of 10 percent was detected in the SSS data. There is no evidence for a loss of coherance during the approximately 80 sec when the burst is observable. The 2 sigma upper limit on the rate of change of the pulse period is 0.00005s/s. It is argued that an asymmetrical burst occurring on a neutron star rotating at 7.6 Hz offers a plausible explanation for the oscillation. The data from 4U1820-30 show that the amplitude of the 685 sec modulation, identified as the orbital period, is independent of energy down to 0.6 keV. The SSS data show that the light curve in the 0.6 to 4.5 keV band is smoother than at higher energies.

  2. 46 CFR 115.700 - Permission for repairs and alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... replacement in kind, of electrical wiring, fuel lines, tanks, boilers and other pressure vessels, and steering... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permission for repairs and alterations. 115.700 Section... AND CERTIFICATION Repairs and Alterations § 115.700 Permission for repairs and alterations. (a...

  3. 46 CFR 176.700 - Permission for repairs and alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... repair or replacement, other than replacement in kind, of electrical wiring, fuel lines, tanks, boilers... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permission for repairs and alterations. 176.700 Section... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Repairs and Alterations § 176.700 Permission for...

  4. 14 CFR 399.35 - Special tariff permission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.35 Special tariff permission. (a) Definition. As used in this section, to grant STP means to approve a... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special tariff permission. 399.35 Section...

  5. 42 CFR 433.66 - Permissible provider-related donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible provider-related donations. 433.66... Requirements State Financial Participation § 433.66 Permissible provider-related donations. (a) General rule... provider-related donations without a reduction in FFP, only in accordance with the requirements of this...

  6. 45 CFR 1639.4 - Permissible representation of eligible clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible representation of eligible clients... CORPORATION WELFARE REFORM § 1639.4 Permissible representation of eligible clients. Recipients may represent an individual eligible client who is seeking specific relief from a welfare agency. [62 FR 30766...

  7. May I sleep in your bed? Getting permission to book

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson, L.; Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Dolnicar, S.

    2017-01-01

    Demand for tourist accommodation offered on peer-to-peer networks is skyrocketing. In such networks tourists can only book if the accommodation provider (host) gives their permission. Needing permission to book accommodation is radically new in tourism. No hotel, motel or B&B assesses a tourist

  8. Hazards and maximum permissible doses of radiation for man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walinder, G.

    1977-11-01

    Maximum permissible dose levels are primarely based on risks for genetic damage and cancer. The reason for this is the observation that such late effects of radiation seem to arise even after doses that are to low to give rise to acute effects. In contrast to the tumour incidence found in irradiated human populations no genetic effects of radiation have been observed in man. This does not mean that genetic effects have not been induced but that it has been impossible to find an increase or to discern them among all the congenital defects, that can not be ascribed to the irradiation. As a consequence, the radiological risk estimation has been concentrated on the hazard of malignant diseases. Tumour risks are generally expressed as excess rates of incidence and mortality per million persons per rem. These figures are, however, not obtained from direct epidemiological observations but have been calculated from such data under the assumption of a linear relationship between effect and radiation dose. This formal extrapolation of observed data involves an uncertainty which, of course, is proportionately greater for the calculated effects in the millirem range. However, although the calculated tumour risks can not be said to be founded on direct scientific evidence, there are scientific reasons to believe that the figures derived from the formal extrapolations constitute an upper limit of possible ri02050

  9. MPC for LPV Systems Based on Parameter-Dependent Lyapunov Function with Perturbation on Control Input Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornchai Bumroongsri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the model predictive control (MPC algorithm for linear parameter varying (LPV systems is proposed. The proposed algorithm consists of two steps. The first step is derived by using parameter-dependent Lyapunov function and the second step is derived by using the perturbation on control input strategy. In order to achieve good control performance, the bounds on the rate of variation of the parameters are taken into account in the controller synthesis. An overall algorithm is proved to guarantee robust stability. The controller design is illustrated with two case studies of continuous stirred-tank reactors. Comparisons with other MPC algorithms for LPV systems have been undertaken. The results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve better control performance.

  10. A concept of dynamic permission mechanism on android

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Lukas; Hanacek, Petr

    2016-02-01

    This paper discuss the main security topic in mobile security area and this topic is protect user against the leakage of data. This work primarily contains the proposal of concept of dynamic permission mechanism for Android operating system. This mechanism deals with assignment or enforcement permissions to the application according to files that the application works with. Application has set of permissions that can use, but if the user opens confident files the application permissions should change its permission set and there should not be possible leakage of this secret data. The permissions set should be stricter according to opened confidential file or more open (without restriction) if the file is not secret file. The concept proposes the solution for protecting this data leakage. Idea covers rule that user should be avoided of change this permissions himself, but this behavior should be dynamic, automatic and independent. This proposal is mainly aimed to Android operating system, but the concept can be applied to other mobile platforms with some implementation changes.

  11. System-wide hybrid MPC-PID control of a continuous pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing process via direct compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravendra; Ierapetritou, Marianthi; Ramachandran, Rohit

    2013-11-01

    The next generation of QbD based pharmaceutical products will be manufactured through continuous processing. This will allow the integration of online/inline monitoring tools, coupled with an efficient advanced model-based feedback control systems, to achieve precise control of process variables, so that the predefined product quality can be achieved consistently. The direct compaction process considered in this study is highly interactive and involves time delays for a number of process variables due to sensor placements, process equipment dimensions, and the flow characteristics of the solid material. A simple feedback regulatory control system (e.g., PI(D)) by itself may not be sufficient to achieve the tight process control that is mandated by regulatory authorities. The process presented herein comprises of coupled dynamics involving slow and fast responses, indicating the requirement of a hybrid control scheme such as a combined MPC-PID control scheme. In this manuscript, an efficient system-wide hybrid control strategy for an integrated continuous pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing process via direct compaction has been designed. The designed control system is a hybrid scheme of MPC-PID control. An effective controller parameter tuning strategy involving an ITAE method coupled with an optimization strategy has been used for tuning of both MPC and PID parameters. The designed hybrid control system has been implemented in a first-principles model-based flowsheet that was simulated in gPROMS (Process System Enterprise). Results demonstrate enhanced performance of critical quality attributes (CQAs) under the hybrid control scheme compared to only PID or MPC control schemes, illustrating the potential of a hybrid control scheme in improving pharmaceutical manufacturing operations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative study of the mutant prevention concentrations of moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, and gemifloxacin against pneumococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credito, Kim; Kosowska-Shick, Klaudia; McGhee, Pamela; Pankuch, Glenn A; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2010-02-01

    We tested the propensity of three quinolones to select for resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae mutants by determining the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) against 100 clinical strains, some of which harbored mutations in type II topoisomerases. Compared with levofloxacin and gemifloxacin, moxifloxacin had the lowest number of strains with MPCs above the susceptibility breakpoint (P<0.001), thus representing a lower selective pressure for proliferation of resistant mutants. Only moxifloxacin gave a 50% MPC (MPC50) value (1 microg/ml) within the susceptible range.

  13. Mutant prevention concentrations of four carbapenems against gram-negative rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credito, Kim; Kosowska-Shick, Klaudia; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2010-06-01

    We tested the propensities of four carbapenems to select for resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii mutants by determining the mutant prevention concentrations (MPCs) for 100 clinical strains with various ss-lactam phenotypes. Among the members of the Enterobacteriaceae family and A. baumannii strains, the MPC/MIC ratios were mostly 2 to 4. In contrast, for P. aeruginosa the MPC/MIC ratios were 4 to > or =16. The MPC/MIC ratios for beta-lactamase-positive K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolates were much higher (range, 4 to >16 microg/ml) than those for ss-lactamase-negative strains.

  14. Comparative Study of the Mutant Prevention Concentrations of Moxifloxacin, Levofloxacin, and Gemifloxacin against Pneumococci▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credito, Kim; Kosowska-Shick, Klaudia; McGhee, Pamela; Pankuch, Glenn A.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    We tested the propensity of three quinolones to select for resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae mutants by determining the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) against 100 clinical strains, some of which harbored mutations in type II topoisomerases. Compared with levofloxacin and gemifloxacin, moxifloxacin had the lowest number of strains with MPCs above the susceptibility breakpoint (P < 0.001), thus representing a lower selective pressure for proliferation of resistant mutants. Only moxifloxacin gave a 50% MPC (MPC50) value (1 μg/ml) within the susceptible range. PMID:20008781

  15. Mutant Prevention Concentrations of Four Carbapenems against Gram-Negative Rods▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credito, Kim; Kosowska-Shick, Klaudia; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    We tested the propensities of four carbapenems to select for resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii mutants by determining the mutant prevention concentrations (MPCs) for 100 clinical strains with various ß-lactam phenotypes. Among the members of the Enterobacteriaceae family and A. baumannii strains, the MPC/MIC ratios were mostly 2 to 4. In contrast, for P. aeruginosa the MPC/MIC ratios were 4 to ≥16. The MPC/MIC ratios for β-lactamase-positive K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolates were much higher (range, 4 to >16 μg/ml) than those for ß-lactamase-negative strains. PMID:20308376

  16. A Hybrid MPC-PID Control System Design for the Continuous Purification and Processing of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitraye Sen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a hybrid MPC (model predictive control-PID (proportional-integral-derivative control system has been designed for the continuous purification and processing framework of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs. The specific unit operations associated with the purification and processing of API have been developed from first-principles and connected in a continuous framework in the form of a flowsheet model. These integrated unit operations are highly interactive along with the presence of process delays. Therefore, a hybrid MPC-PID is a promising alternative to achieve the desired control loop performance as mandated by the regulatory authorities. The integrated flowsheet model has been simulated in gPROMSTM (Process System Enterprise, London, UK. This flowsheet model has been linearized in order to design the control scheme. The ability to track the set point and reject disturbances has been evaluated. A comparative study between the performance of the hybrid MPC-PID and a PID-only control scheme has been presented. The results show that an enhanced control loop performance can be obtained under the hybrid control scheme and demonstrate that such a scheme has high potential in improving the efficiency of pharmaceutical manufacturing operations.

  17. Is the publication of exit poll results morally permissible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderholm, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    This article is about exit polls. It addresses the question of whether or not it is morally permissible to publish exit poll results. The conclusion of the article is that an affirmative answer should be given to this question. In section 2, the master argument in favor of the moral permissibility...... of the publication of exit poll results is introduced. This is a strong argument. It is, however, argued that it might be the case that the conclusion of this argument should be rejected if there are other, and weightier, arguments against the idea that the publication of exit poll results is morally permissible....... In section 3, the strongest arguments against the moral permissibility of the publication of exit poll results are outlined and discussed. The conclusion of this section is that all these arguments fail in their intended purpose. The conclusion of the article is therefore justified....

  18. Treatments for Metastatic Prostate Cancer (mPC): A Review of Costing Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norum, Jan; Nieder, Carsten

    2017-12-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common cancer in Western countries. More than one third of PC patients develop metastatic disease, and the 5-year expected survival in distant disease is about 35%. During the last few years, new treatments have been launched for metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We aimed to review the current literature on health economic analysis on the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer (mPC), compare the studies, summarize the findings and make the results available to administrators and decision makers. A systematic literature search was done for economic evaluations (cost-minimization, cost-effectiveness, cost-utility, cost-of-illness, cost-of-drug, and cost-benefit analyses). We employed the PubMed ® search engine and searched for publications published between 2012 and 2016. The terms used were "prostate cancer", "metastatic" and "cost". An initial screening of all headlines was performed, selected abstracts were analysed, and finally the full papers investigated. Study characteristics, treatment and comparator, country, type of evaluation, perspective, year of value, time horizon, efficacy data, discount rate, total costs and sensitivity analysis were analysed. The quality was assessed using the Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) instrument. A total of 227 publications were detected and screened, 58 selected for full-text assessment and 31 included in the final analyses. Despite the significant international literature on the treatment of mCRPC, there were only 15 studies focusing on cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA). Medical treatment constituted two thirds of the selected studies. Significant costs in the treatment of mCRPC were disclosed. In the pre-docetaxel setting, both abiraterone acetate (AA) and enzalutamide were concluded beyond accepted cost/quality-adjusted life year limits. In the docetaxel refractory setting, most studies concluded that enzalutamide was cost-effective and superior to AA. In

  19. Explicit/multi-parametric model predictive control (MPC) of linear discrete-time systems by dynamic and multi-parametric programming

    KAUST Repository

    Kouramas, K.I.; Faí sca, N.P.; Panos, C.; Pistikopoulos, E.N.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a new algorithm for solving the explicit/multi- parametric model predictive control (or mp-MPC) problem for linear, time-invariant discrete-time systems, based on dynamic programming and multi-parametric programming techniques

  20. Plutonium concentrations in airborne soil at Rocky Flats and Hanford determined during resuspension experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Plutonium resuspension results are summarized for experiments conducted by the author at Rocky Flats, onsite on the Hanford reservation, and for winds blowing from offsite onto the Hanford reservation near the Prosser barricade boundary. In each case, plutonium resuspension was shown by increased airborne plutonium concentrations as a function of either wind speed or as compared to fallout levels. All measured airborne concentrations were far below maximum permissible concentrations (MPC). Both plutonium and cesium concentrations on airborne soil were normalized by the quantity of airborne soil sampled. Airborne radionuclide concentrations in μCi/g were related to published values for radionuclide concentrations on surface soils. For this ratio of radionuclide concentration per gram on airborne soil divided by that for ground surface soil, there are eight orders of magnitude uncertainty from 10 -4 to 10 4 . This uncertainty in the equality between plutonium concentrations per gram on airborne and surface soils is caused by only a fraction of the collected airborne soil being transported from offsite rather than all being resuspended from each study site and also by the great variabilities in surface contamination. Horizontal plutonium fluxes on airborne nonrespirable soils at all three sites were bracketed within the same four orders of magnitude from 10 -7 to 10 -3 μCi/(m 2 day) for 239 Pu and 10 -8 to 10 -5 μCi/(m 2 day) for 238 Pu. Airborne respirable 239 Pu concentrations increased with wind speed for a southwest wind direction coming from offsite near the Hanford reservation Prosser barricade. Airborne plutonium fluxes on nonrespirable particles had isotopic ratios, 240 Pu/ 239 240 Pu, similar to weapons grade plutonium rather than fallout plutonium

  1. Plutonium concentrations in airborne soil at Rocky Flats and Hanford determined during resuspension experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Plutonium resuspension results are summarized for experiments conducted by the author at Rocky Flats, onsite on the Hanford reservation, and for winds blowing from offsite onto the Hanford reservation near the Prosser barricade boundary. In each case, plutonium resuspension was shown by increased airborne plutonium concentrations as a function of either wind speed or as compared to fallout levels. All measured airborne concentrations were far below maximum permissible concentrations (MPC). Both plutonium and cesium concentrations on airborne soil were normalized by the quantity of airborne soil sampled. Airborne radionuclide concentrations in ..mu..Ci/g were related to published values for radionuclide concentrations on surface soils. For this ratio of radionuclide concentration per gram on airborne soil divided by that for ground surface soil, there are eight orders of magnitude uncertainty from 10/sup -4/ to 10/sup 4/. This uncertainty in the equality between plutonium concentrations per gram on airborne and surface soils is caused by only a fraction of the collected airborne soil being transported from offsite rather than all being resuspended from each study site and also by the great variabilities in surface contamination. Horizontal plutonium fluxes on airborne nonrespirable soils at all three sites were bracketed within the same four orders of magnitude from 10/sup -7/ to 10/sup -3/ ..mu..Ci/(m/sup 2/ day) for /sup 239/Pu and 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -5/ ..mu..Ci/(m/sup 2/ day) for /sup 238/Pu. Airborne respirable /sup 239/Pu concentrations increased with wind speed for a southwest wind direction coming from offsite near the Hanford reservation Prosser barricade. Airborne plutonium fluxes on nonrespirable particles had isotopic ratios, /sup 240/Pu//sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, similar to weapons grade plutonium rather than fallout plutonium.

  2. Immobilization of poly(MPC) brushes onto titanium surface by combining dopamine self-polymerization and ATRP: Preparation, characterization and evaluation of hemocompatibility in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Wenyong; Yang, Ping; Li, Jingan; Li, Shiqi; Li, Peichuang; Zhao, Yuancong, E-mail: Zhaoyc7320@163.com; Huang, Nan

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: The functional surface containing rich amino and hydroxyl groups was obtained by simple and easily dopamine self-polymerization. Poly (MPC) brushes were successfully immobilized on titanium surface by combining acylation reaction and ATRP. This chemical and biomimetic modified titanium surface effectively inhibits platelet adhesion and activation. - Highlights: • Polydopamine coating provides amino and hydroxyl groups for second reactivity. • Poly(MPC) brushes covalently immobilized on coating by surface initiated ATRP. • In vitro hemocompatibility of biomimetic modified Ti was better than unmodified. - Abstract: Poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine(MPC)) has been studied in many biomedical fields because of good biocompatibility, such as hemocompatibility, inhibiting protein adhesion, antifouling, and so on. To achieve good hemocompatibility of titanium (Ti) surface, bio-inspired poly(MPC) brushes were grafted from Ti substrate covalently. In this work, the surface of Ti was first coated with polydopamine, and got a surface bearing −NH{sub 2} and −OH groups which could be bridged with poly(MPC) via atom transfer radical polymerization. Water contact angle decreased to 51.3° when titanium grafted with poly(MPC) brushes. The data of Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated that poly(MPC) was successfully grafted onto the surface of titanium. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) adhesion test and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay showed that the number of platelets adhered on the surface of modified-titanium was much less than that of unmodified titanium and platelets did not aggregate and distort. Thus, the simple and chemical method of immobilization of poly(MPC) brushes has potential application for improving hemocompatibility for cardiovascular stent and some other biomaterials.

  3. Model Predictive Control Based on System Re-Identification (MPC-SRI) to Control Bio-H2 Production from Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, A.; Taqwallah, H. M. H.

    2018-03-01

    Compressors and a steam reformer are the important units in biohydrogen from biomass plant. The compressors are useful for achieving high-pressure operating conditions while the steam reformer is the main process to produce H2 gas. To control them, in this research used a model predictive control (MPC) expected to have better controller performance than conventional controllers. Because of the explicit model empowerment in MPC, obtaining a better model is the main objective before employing MPC. The common way to get the empirical model is through the identification system, so that obtained a first-order plus dead-time (FOPDT) model. This study has already improved that way since used the system re-identification (SRI) based on closed loop mode. Based on this method the results of the compressor pressure control and temperature control of steam reformer were that MPC based on system re-identification (MPC-SRI) has better performance than MPC without system re-identification (MPCWSRI) and the proportional-integral (PI) controller, by % improvement of 73% against MPCWSRI and 75% against the PI controller.

  4. Extending the modeling of the anisotropic galaxy power spectrum to k = 0.4 h Mpc{sup −1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, Nick; Seljak, Uroš [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Beutler, Florian [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Vlah, Zvonimir, E-mail: nhand@berkeley.edu, E-mail: useljak@berkeley.edu, E-mail: florian.beutler@port.ac.uk, E-mail: zvlah@stanford.edu [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94306 (United States)

    2017-10-01

    We present a model for the redshift-space power spectrum of galaxies and demonstrate its accuracy in describing the monopole, quadrupole, and hexadecapole of the galaxy density field down to scales of k = 0.4 h Mpc{sup −1}. The model describes the clustering of galaxies in the context of a halo model and the clustering of the underlying halos in redshift space using a combination of Eulerian perturbation theory and N -body simulations. The modeling of redshift-space distortions is done using the so-called distribution function approach. The final model has 13 free parameters, and each parameter is physically motivated rather than a nuisance parameter, which allows the use of well-motivated priors. We account for the Finger-of-God effect from centrals and both isolated and non-isolated satellites rather than using a single velocity dispersion to describe the combined effect. We test and validate the accuracy of the model on several sets of high-fidelity N -body simulations, as well as realistic mock catalogs designed to simulate the BOSS DR12 CMASS data set. The suite of simulations covers a range of cosmologies and galaxy bias models, providing a rigorous test of the level of theoretical systematics present in the model. The level of bias in the recovered values of f σ{sub 8} is found to be small. When including scales to k = 0.4 h Mpc{sup −1}, we find 15-30% gains in the statistical precision of f σ{sub 8} relative to k = 0.2 h Mpc{sup −1} and a roughly 10–15% improvement for the perpendicular Alcock-Paczynski parameter α{sub ⊥}. Using the BOSS DR12 CMASS mocks as a benchmark for comparison, we estimate an uncertainty on f σ{sub 8} that is ∼10–20% larger than other similar Fourier-space RSD models in the literature that use k ≤ 0.2 h Mpc{sup −1}, suggesting that these models likely have a too-limited parametrization.

  5. Extending the modeling of the anisotropic galaxy power spectrum to k = 0.4 hMpc-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Nick; Seljak, Uroš; Beutler, Florian; Vlah, Zvonimir

    2017-10-01

    We present a model for the redshift-space power spectrum of galaxies and demonstrate its accuracy in describing the monopole, quadrupole, and hexadecapole of the galaxy density field down to scales of k = 0.4 hMpc-1. The model describes the clustering of galaxies in the context of a halo model and the clustering of the underlying halos in redshift space using a combination of Eulerian perturbation theory and N-body simulations. The modeling of redshift-space distortions is done using the so-called distribution function approach. The final model has 13 free parameters, and each parameter is physically motivated rather than a nuisance parameter, which allows the use of well-motivated priors. We account for the Finger-of-God effect from centrals and both isolated and non-isolated satellites rather than using a single velocity dispersion to describe the combined effect. We test and validate the accuracy of the model on several sets of high-fidelity N-body simulations, as well as realistic mock catalogs designed to simulate the BOSS DR12 CMASS data set. The suite of simulations covers a range of cosmologies and galaxy bias models, providing a rigorous test of the level of theoretical systematics present in the model. The level of bias in the recovered values of f σ8 is found to be small. When including scales to k = 0.4 hMpc-1, we find 15-30% gains in the statistical precision of f σ8 relative to k = 0.2 hMpc-1 and a roughly 10-15% improvement for the perpendicular Alcock-Paczynski parameter α⊥. Using the BOSS DR12 CMASS mocks as a benchmark for comparison, we estimate an uncertainty on f σ8 that is ~10-20% larger than other similar Fourier-space RSD models in the literature that use k <= 0.2 hMpc-1, suggesting that these models likely have a too-limited parametrization.

  6. Permissive hypercapnia and risk for brain injury and developmental impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Erika W; Sadek-Badawi, Mona; Carlton, David P; Palta, Mari

    2008-09-01

    Permissive hypercapnia is a respiratory-care strategy that is used to reduce the risk for lung injury. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether permissive hypercapnia is associated with higher risk for intraventricular hemorrhage and early childhood behavioral and functional problems than normocapnia among very low birth weight infants. Very low birth weight infants from a statewide cohort were eligible for this study when they were born at <32 weeks' gestational age and survived at least 24 hours. Infants were classified as receiving a permissive hypercapnia, normocapnia, or unclassifiable respiratory strategy during the first 24 hours after birth according to an algorithm based on Pco(2) values and respiratory-treatment decisions that were abstracted from medical charts. Intraventricular hemorrhage diagnosis was also abstracted from the medical chart. Behavioral and functional outcomes were assessed by parent interview at 2 to 3 years. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between intraventricular hemorrhage and respiratory strategy; ordinary linear regression was used to evaluate differences in behavior and function scores between children by respiratory strategy. Infants who received a permissive hypercapnia strategy were not more likely to have intraventricular hemorrhage than those with normocapnia. There were no differences in any of the behavioral or functional scores among children according to respiratory strategy. There was a significant interaction between care strategy and 1-minute Apgar score, indicating that infants with lower Apgar scores may be at higher risk for intraventricular hemorrhage with permissive hypercapnia. This study suggests that permissive hypercapnia does not increase risk for brain injury and impairment among very low birth weight children. The interaction between respiratory strategy and Apgar score is a potential worrisome exception to this conclusion. Future research should further evaluate the effect

  7. Developing indigenous safeguards capabilities within the MPC ampersand A program: A transition from near-term upgrades to long-term sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.W.; Leutters, F.O.; Horton, R.D.; Soo Hoo, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    Approximately five years ago, the United States and countries of ampersand Former Soviet Union (FSU) started the Cooperative Threat Reduction program. The program's purpose was to accelerate reduction of the risk of nuclear proliferation, including such threats as theft, diversion, and unauthorized possession of nuclear materials. This goal would be accomplished through near-term upgrades to strengthen the nuclear material protection, control, and accounting systems within the FSU countries. In addition to this near-term goal, a long-term goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC ampersand A) program is to promote a new safeguards culture and to support the establishment of a sustaining MPC ampersand A infrastructure in the FSU. This long-term goal is vital to assuring that the near-term upgrades remain effective for safeguarding nuclear material as these countries experience political and social changes. The MPC ampersand A program is managed by DOE's Russia/Newly Independent States (NIS) Nuclear Materials Security Task Force. A coordinated effort is underway to promote and to help establish a new safeguards culture and a sustaining infrastructure. Elements being implemented at both the national and site levels include system operational performance evaluations, development of MPC ampersand A training, operational procedures, national MPC ampersand A regulations, and adaptation of modern MPC ampersand A methodologies to suit the conditions in the FSU countries. This paper identifies current efforts in several countries that are undergoing transition from near-term upgrades to sustainable MPC ampersand A systems

  8. A neural network based implementation of an MPC algorithm applied in the control systems of electromechanical plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusak, Piotr M.; Kuntanapreeda, Suwat

    2018-01-01

    The paper considers application of a neural network based implementation of a model predictive control (MPC) control algorithm to electromechanical plants. Properties of such control plants implicate that a relatively short sampling time should be used. However, in such a case, finding the control value numerically may be too time-consuming. Therefore, the current paper tests the solution based on transforming the MPC optimization problem into a set of differential equations whose solution is the same as that of the original optimization problem. This set of differential equations can be interpreted as a dynamic neural network. In such an approach, the constraints can be introduced into the optimization problem with relative ease. Moreover, the solution of the optimization problem can be obtained faster than when the standard numerical quadratic programming routine is used. However, a very careful tuning of the algorithm is needed to achieve this. A DC motor and an electrohydraulic actuator are taken as illustrative examples. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach are demonstrated through numerical simulations.

  9. Development of Regulatory Documents for Creation (Upgrade) of Physical Protection Systems under the Russian/American MPC and A Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izmaylov, Alexandr V.; Babkin, Vladimir; Kurov, Valeriy; Piskarev, Alexander; O'Brien, Patricia E.; Wright, Troy L.; Schlegel, Stephen C.; Hazel, Michael J.; Miller, Daniel R.; Tuttle, John D.; Kovchegin, Dmitry

    2009-01-01

    The development of new or the upgrade of existing physical protection systems (PPS) for nuclear facilities involves a multi-step and multidimensional process. The process consists of conceptual design, design, and commissioning stages. The activities associated with each of these stages are governed by Russian government and agency regulations. To ensure a uniform approach to development or upgrading of PPS at Russian nuclear facilities, the development of a range of regulatory and methodological documents is necessary. Some issues of PPS development are covered by the regulatory documents developed by Rosatom, as well as other Russian agencies with nuclear facilities under their control. This regulatory development has been accomplished as part of the U.S.-Russian MPC and A cooperation or independently by the Russian Federation. While regulatory coverage is extensive, there are a number of issues such as vulnerability analysis, effectiveness assessment, upgrading PPS, and protection of information systems for PPS that require additional regulations be developed. This paper reports on the status of regulatory coverage for PPS development or upgrade, and outlines a new approach to regulatory document development. It describes the evolutionary process of regulatory development through experience gained in the design, development and implementation of PPS as well as experience gained through the cooperative efforts of Russian and U.S. experts involved the development of MPC and A regulations.

  10. Verification of Snapshotable Trees using Access Permissions and Typestate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehnert, Hannes; Aldrich, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    We use access permissions and typestate to specify and ver- ify a Java library that implements snapshotable search trees, as well as some client code. We formalize our approach in the Plural tool, a sound modular typestate checking tool. We describe the challenges to verify- ing snapshotable tree...

  11. 50 CFR 216.252 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapon Missions in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.252 Permissible methods of taking. (a) Under Letters of Authorization issued pursuant to...

  12. 50 CFR 216.213 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Explosive Severance Activities Conducted During Offshore Structure Removal Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico § 216.213 Permissible...

  13. Substantiation of the permissible radioactive contamination of working clothes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, V.L.; Korostin, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    A permissible level of working clothes contamination was determined on the base of the main migration routes of radioactive contaminants: permeation directly through the clothes into subclothes space on skin surface, emission into the air with amount of contaminants subsequently got by the organism of a working person through inhalation as well as transfer in the process of contacting of contaminated working clothes and surfaces of premises equipment, working person hands with amount of contaminants posteriorly got by the organism by alimentary or inhalation ways. Using the experimental and literature data available the permissible levels of working clothes contamination for the mentioned migration routes of radioactive materials have been calculated. According to the data obtained the permissible levels of working clothes contamination must not exceed 4 alpha-part/(cm 2 xmin) for contamination with high-tonic isotopes, 20 alpha-part./(cm 2 xmin) with other alpha-detine isotopes, 1000 beta-part./(cm 2 xmin) with beta-active ones. The permissible level of contamination of additional materials of the individual protection in the case of their contamination with high-tonic alpha-actine isotopes must not exceed 50 alpha-part./(cm 2 xmin), 200 alpha-part./(cm 2 xmin) for contamination th other alpha-active isotopes and 400 beta-part./(cm 2 xmin) with beta-active isotopes

  14. 26 CFR 1.422-5 - Permissible provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of the incentive stock option are subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture and not transferable...) INCOME TAXES Certain Stock Options § 1.422-5 Permissible provisions. (a) General rule. An option that otherwise qualifies as an incentive stock option does not fail to be an incentive stock option merely...

  15. Microparticle content of platelet concentrates is predicted by donor microparticles and is altered by production methods and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer-Spurej, Elisabeth; Larsen, Rune; Labrie, Audrey; Heaton, Andrew; Chipperfield, Kate

    2016-08-01

    In circulation, shedding of microparticles from a variety of viable cells can be triggered by pathological activation of inflammatory processes, by activation of coagulation or complement systems, or by physical stress. Elevated microparticle content (MPC) in donor blood might therefore indicate a clinical condition of the donor which, upon transfusion, might affect the recipient. In blood products, elevated MPC might also represent product stress. Surprisingly, the MPC in blood collected from normal blood donors is highly variable, which raises the question whether donor microparticles are present in-vivo and transfer into the final blood component, and how production methods and post-production processing might affect the MPC. We measured MPC using ThromboLUX in (a) platelet-rich plasma (PRP) of 54 apheresis donors and the corresponding apheresis products, (b) 651 apheresis and 646 pooled platelet concentrates (PCs) with plasma and 414 apheresis PCs in platelet additive solution (PAS), and (c) apheresis PCs before and after transportation, gamma irradiation, and pathogen inactivation (N = 8, 7, and 12 respectively). ThromboLUX-measured MPC in donor PRP and their corresponding apheresis PC samples were highly correlated (r = 0.82, P = .001). The average MPC in pooled PC was slightly lower than that in apheresis PC and substantially lower in apheresis PC stored with PAS rather than plasma. Mirasol Pathogen Reduction treatment significantly increased MPC with age. Thus, MPC measured in donor samples might be a useful predictor of product stability, especially if post-production processes are necessary. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Larval diet affects mosquito development and permissiveness to Plasmodium infection

    OpenAIRE

    Gendrin, MEM; Christophides; Linenberg, Inbar

    2016-01-01

    The larval stages of malaria vector mosquitoes develop in water pools, feeding mostly on microorganisms and environmental detritus. Richness in the nutrient supply to larvae influences the development and metabolism of larvae and adults. Here, we investigated the effects of larval diet on the development, microbiota content and permissiveness to Plasmodium of Anopheles coluzzii . We tested three fish diets often used to rear mosquitoes in the laboratory, including two pelleted diets, Dr. Clar...

  17. Account of low temperature hardening in calculation of permissible stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, N.V.; Ul'yanenko, A.P.; Gorodyskij, N.I.

    1980-01-01

    Suggested is a calculation scheme of permissible stresses with the account of temperature hardening for steels and alloys, the dependences of strength, plasticity and rupture work of which on cooling temperature do not have threshold changes in a wide range of low temperatures (from 300 to 4.2 K). Application of the suggested scheme is considered on the example of 12Kh18N10T austenitic chromium-nickel steel

  18. The calculation of maximum permissible exposure levels for laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozer, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    The maximum permissible exposure data of the revised standard BS 4803 are presented as a set of decision charts which ensure that the user automatically takes into account such details as pulse length and pulse pattern, limiting angular subtense, combinations of multiple wavelength and/or multiple pulse lengths, etc. The two decision charts given are for the calculation of radiation hazards to skin and eye respectively. (author)

  19. Permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship undermines tobacco control support in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Olutola, Bukola G; Agaku, Israel T

    2016-06-01

    School personnel, who are respected members of the community, may exert significant influence on policy adoption. This study assessed the impact of school personnel's permissiveness toward tobacco industry sponsorship activities on their support for complete bans on tobacco advertisements, comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased tobacco prices. Representative data were obtained from the Global School Personnel Survey for 29 African countries (n = 17 929). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated using multi-variable Poisson regression models to assess the impact of permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship activities on support for tobacco control policies (p industry should be allowed to sponsor school events were significantly less likely to support complete bans on tobacco advertisements [aPR = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.95] and comprehensive smoke-free laws (aPR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.98). In contrast, support for complete tobacco advertisement bans was more likely among those who believed that the tobacco industry encourages youths to smoke (aPR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.17-1.37), and among those who taught about health sometimes (aPR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.11) or a lot (aPR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.10) compared with those who did not teach about health at all. These findings underscore the need to educate school personnel on tobacco industry's strategies to undermine tobacco control policies. This may help to build school personnel support for laws intended to reduce youth susceptibility, experimentation and established use of tobacco products. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Legitimate Permissions And Specifity Of Their Enforceability In Modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Subochev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Northern Caucasus Institute of Advanced Training (branch of Krasnodar University of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, 123, Malbahova Street, Nalshik, 360016, Russia. Abstract: The article investigates the basic legal permissions in Russian law - legal rights, freedoms and legitimate interests. Potential of these means of legal regulation is examined as well as their common features and essential differences. Authors argue that the effectiveness of the mechanism of legal regulation largely depends on the proper use of legal permissions. Particular attention is paid to such kind of legal mean as a legitimate interest. The article draws attention to the fact that if a legal right or freedom are such kind of permissions which are guaranteed by the law in order to sustain certain demands of subjects of law, the legitimate interest is qualitatively different mean of regulation. The authors suggest considering a legitimate interest as reflected in the objective law legal possibility of subjects of law to enjoy certain social benefits and to seek protection from the state authorities in order to meet their interests which are not contradictory to provisions of law. Qualitative difference between legitimate interest and legal right and freedom is that the legitimate interest is an opportunity, guaranteed to a lesser extent than the permitted behavior within a legal right or freedom. Legitimate interest is a mere permission, admitted by the state and to some extent supported by it. But legal right and freedom - are those means of regulation, which are directly approved and sanctioned by the state which presuppose duty of a person to a particular behavior. The author's vision of the specifity of legal enforcement of legitimate admissions is presented.

  1. LEGITIMATE PERMISSIONS AND SPECIFITY OF THEIR ENFORCEABILITY IN MODERN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Subochev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Northern Caucasus Institute of Advanced Training (branch of Krasnodar University of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, 123, Malbahova Street, Nalshik, 360016, Russia. Abstract: The article investigates the basic legal permissions in Russian law - legal rights, freedoms and legitimate interests. Potential of these means of legal regulation is examined as well as their common features and essential differences. Authors argue that the effectiveness of the mechanism of legal regulation largely depends on the proper use of legal permissions. Particular attention is paid to such kind of legal mean as a legitimate interest. The article draws attention to the fact that if a legal right or freedom are such kind of permissions which are guaranteed by the law in order to sustain certain demands of subjects of law, the legitimate interest is qualitatively different mean of regulation. The authors suggest considering a legitimate interest as reflected in the objective law legal possibility of subjects of law to enjoy certain social benefits and to seek protection from the state authorities in order to meet their interests which are not contradictory to provisions of law. Qualitative difference between legitimate interest and legal right and freedom is that the legitimate interest is an opportunity, guaranteed to a lesser extent than the permitted behavior within a legal right or freedom. Legitimate interest is a mere permission, admitted by the state and to some extent supported by it. But legal right and freedom - are those means of regulation, which are directly approved and sanctioned by the state which presuppose duty of a person to a particular behavior. The author's vision of the specifity of legal enforcement of legitimate admissions is presented.

  2. Android Apps and Permissions: Security and Privacy Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Boksasp, Trond; Utnes, Eivind

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates the permissions requested by Android applications, and the possibility of identifying suspicious applications based only on information presented to the user before an application is downloaded. During the course of this project, a large data set consisting of applications published on Google Play and three different third-party Android application markets was collected over a two-month period. These applications are analysed using manual pattern recognition and k-mea...

  3. Parental permissiveness, control, and affect and drug use among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becoña, Elisardo; Martínez, Úrsula; Calafat, Amador; Fernández-Hermida, José Ramón; Juan, Montse; Sumnall, Harry; Mendes, Fernando; Gabrhelík, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Parents play an important role in determining the risk of children's drug use. The aim of this study was to analyse how certain family-related variables (permissiveness toward drug use, and parental control and affect) were linked to the use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis, based on young people's self-report of such variables. The sample was composed of 1,428 school children (51.8% males) aged between 11 and 19 from Mallorca (Spain). We found that the young people who perceived their parents as permissive and those who perceived less maternal control and higher levels of both paternal and maternal affect were more likely to use alcohol, tobacco and cannabis. Sex differences were found within this pattern. Variables of maternal affect and control were not influential among males, whereas the general pattern was maintained among females. This study highlights the importance of perceived permissiveness and the need of considering parent's and children's gender when providing control and affect, as fathers will influence male children whereas mothers will influence female children.

  4. Influence of Permissive Parenting on Youth Farm Risk Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinnah, Hamida A; Stoneman, Zolinda

    2016-01-01

    Farm youth continue to experience high rates of injuries and premature deaths as a result of agricultural activities. Increased parental permissiveness is positively associated with many different types of high-risk behaviors in youth. This study explored whether permissive parenting (fathering and mothering) predicts youth unsafe behaviors on the farm. Data were analyzed for 67 youth and their parents. Families were recruited from a statewide farm publication, through youth organizations (i.e., FFA [Future Farmers of America]), local newspapers, farmer referrals, and through the Cooperative Extension Network. Hierarchical multiple regression was completed. Results revealed that fathers and mothers who practiced lax-inconsistent disciplining were more likely to have youth who indulged in unsafe farm behaviors. Key hypotheses confirmed that permissive parenting (lax-inconsistent disciplining) by parents continued to predict youth unsafe farm behaviors, even after youth age, youth gender, youth personality factor of risk-taking, and father's unsafe behaviors (a measure associated with modeling) were all taken into account. A key implication is that parents may play an important role in influencing youth farm safety behaviors. Parents (especially fathers) need to devote time to discuss farm safety with their youth. Farm safety interventions need to involve parents as well as address and respect the culture and values of families. Interventions need to focus not only on safe farm practices, but also promote positive parenting practices, including increased parent-youth communication about safety, consistent disciplining strategies, and increased monitoring and modeling of safe farm behaviors by parents.

  5. [Behavior of Orf virus in permissive and nonpermissive systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, M; Czerny, C P; Schumm, M

    1995-04-01

    Dogs were immunized i.m. with attenuated poxvirus vaccines (vaccinia virus, Orf-virus) and a bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) vaccine. After intradermal (i.d.) application of the vaccine viruses a specific delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction of the skin occurred only with vaccinia virus. The i.d. application of Orf-virus caused a short-term, non-specific inflammatory reaction of the skin, even in dogs not immunized with Orf-virus. Out of 30 sera from Orf-virus immunized beagles (n = 4) only eight were found reactive to Orf-virus in a competition ELISA. Three sera from dogs not Orf-virus immunized but skin-tested with the virus contained low antibody titers. Using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) in flow cytometry, the existence of Orf-virus antigens was examined on the surface and in the cytoplasm of permissive (BFK and Vero)- and questionable permissive MDCK cells. The canine kidney MDCK cell line was found to be non-permissive for Orf-virus replication; the occurrence of an Orf-(ecthyma contagiosum) like disease in dogs is unlikely.

  6. [Mutant prevention concentrations of antibacterial agents to ocular pathogenic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qing-Feng; Wang, Zhi-Qun; Li, Ran; Luo, Shi-Yun; Deng, Shi-Jing; Sun, Xu-Guang

    2009-01-01

    To establish a method to measure mutant prevention concentration (MPC) in vitro, and to measure MPC of antibacterial agents for ocular bacteria caused keratitis. It was an experimental study. Forty strains of ocular bacteria were separated from cornea in Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, which included 8 strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the levofloxacin (LVF), ofloxacin (OFL), ciprofloxacin (CIP), norfloxacin (NFL), tobramycin (TOB) and chloromycetin (CHL) were determined by agar dilution method from National Committee of Clinical Laboratory Standard (NCCLS). The MPC were measured by accumulate-bacterial methods with bacterial population inoculated more than 1.2 x 10(10) colony forming units per milliliter with Mueller-Hinton broth and tryptic soy agar plate. With the software of SPSS 11.0, the datum such as the range of MIC, MPC, MIC90 and MPC90 were calculated, and the selection index (MPC90/ MI90) and mutant selection window (MSW) were obtained. The MI90 of LVF and TOB (4 mg/L) to Staphylococcus aureus strains were the lowest. CIP showed the lowest MIC90 (0.25 mg/L) to Pseudomonas aeruginosa among six kinds of antibacterial agents. The MIC90 of LVF to Staphylococcus epidermidis (256 mg/L), Streptococcus pneumoniae (1 mg/L) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (0.25 mg/L) were lower than other antibacterial agents. The MPC90, MSW and the MPC90/MIC90 of levofloxacin showed lower values compared with other antibacterial medicines. From all the datum, the MIC90 of CHL was the highest and the activity was the weakest. Although the activity of LVF was higher to every kind of bacteria, CIP had the highest activity antibacterial to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The capacity of CHL and TOB was weaker than Quinolones for restricting resistant mutants on ocular bacteria. LVF had the strongest capacity for restricting resistant

  7. ESTABLISHMENT OF THE PERMISSIBLE TRAIN SPEED ON THE CURVED TURNOUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Patlasov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Turnouts play a key role in the railway transportation process. One-sided and many-sided curved turnouts were railed over the last 20 years in difficult conditions (curved sections, yard necks. They have a number of geometric features, unlike the conventional one-sided turnouts. Today the normative documents prohibit laying such turnouts in curved track sections and only partially regulate the assessment procedure of their real condition. The question of establishment the permissible train speed within the curved turnouts is still open. In this regard, authors propose to set the train speed according to the driving comfort criterion using the results of field measurements of ordinates from the baseline for the particular curved turnout. Methodology. The article considers the criteria using which one can set the permissible speed on the turnouts. It defines the complexity of their application, advantages and disadvantages. Findings. The work analyzes the speed distribution along the length of the real curved turnout for the forward and lateral directions. It establishes the change rate values of unbalanced accelerations for the existing norms of the curved track sections maintenance according to the difference in the adjacent bend versine at speeds up to 160 km/h. Originality. A method for establishing the trains’ speed limit within the curved turnouts was developed. It takes into account the actual geometric position in the plan of forward and lateral turnout directions. This approach makes it possible to establish a barrier places in plan on the turnouts limiting the train speed. Practical value. The proposed method makes it possible to objectively assess and set the trains’ permissible speed on the basis of the ordinate measurement of the forward and lateral directions of the curved turnouts from the baseline using the driving comfort criteria. The method was tested using real turnouts, which are located within the Pridneprovsk

  8. Swedish or American heterosexual college youth: who is more permissive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, M S; Lottes, I L; Shaver, F M

    1995-08-01

    Theories of human sexuality have proposed that two factors reduce the double standard of sexuality and lead to a convergence of male and female sexual behavior: the degree of social benefits and amount of power women have in basic societal institutions and the extent to which a society accepts permissive sexual norms. As these factors increase, the strength of the double standard will decrease and the convergence between male and female behaviors will increase. Compared to the United States, Sweden has instituted more policies to promote gender equality and has been thought to accept more permissive premarital sexual attitudes. The focus of the research reported here is to examine country and gender differences in sexual attitudes and sexual behavior for a sample of university students in the United States (N = 407) and Sweden (N = 570). Results indicate that Swedish students endorsed more similar sexual standards for women and men and reported more accepting attitudes than did American students. For sexual behavior, American men reported the most sexual experience, Swedish men the least, with the women of both countries generally in the middle category. Notwithstanding this more permissive behavior on the part of American men, gender convergence with respect to sexual behavior is stronger in Sweden on several of the dimensions examined: age of first engaging in partner-related sexual activities for those who were sexually experienced, relationship with first partner, number of partners both in the last year and in their lifetime, and affective reactions to first coitus. Gender convergence, however, is weaker in Sweden than in the United States with respect to the incidence and frequency of various sexual activities and the degree of satisfaction with current sex life. Findings are discussed with respect to the questions they raise about the current theories that framed this research and the differential amount of sex education provided in the two countries.

  9. Parental feeding practices predict authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Kennedy, Tay Seacord; Page, Melanie C; Topham, Glade L; Harrist, Amanda W

    2008-07-01

    Our goal was to identify how parental feeding practices from the nutrition literature link to general parenting styles from the child development literature to understand how to target parenting practices to increase effectiveness of interventions. Stand-alone parental feeding practices could be targeted independently. However, parental feeding practices linked to parenting styles require interventions treating underlying family dynamics as a whole. To predict parenting styles from feeding practices and to test three hypotheses: restriction and pressure to eat are positively related whereas responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are negatively related to an authoritarian parenting style; responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are positively related whereas restriction and pressure to eat are negatively related to an authoritative parenting style; a permissive parenting style is negatively linked with all six feeding practices. Baseline data of a randomized-controlled intervention study. Two hundred thirty-nine parents (93.5% mothers) of first-grade children (134 boys, 105 girls) enrolled in rural public schools. Parental responses to encouraging and modeling questionnaires and the Child Feeding Questionnaire, as well as parenting styles measured by the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses. Feeding practices explained 21%, 15%, and 8% of the variance in authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting, respectively. Restriction, pressure to eat, and monitoring (negative) significantly predicted an authoritarian style (Hypothesis 1); responsibility, restriction (negative), monitoring, and modeling predicted an authoritative style (Hypothesis 2); and modeling (negative) and restriction significantly predicted a permissive style (Hypothesis 3). Parental feeding practices with young children predict general parenting styles. Interventions that fail to address underlying parenting styles

  10. Application of measuring 99mTc-MAG3 plasma clearance based on one-compartment model (MPC method) to pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Higashida, Kousuke; Arbab, A.S.; Toyama, Keiji; Arai, Takao; Yoshitomi, Tatsuya.

    1997-01-01

    Measurement of 99m Tc-MAG3 plasma clearance based on 1-compartment model (MPC method) were applied to 12 pediatric patients and evaluated for the factors which might affect the calculated results. Depth correction is a critical factor for the measurement of renal uptake. Three different equations for estimating renal depth were compared with the real depth measured by ultrasonography. The equation proposed by K. Itoh was suitable though the equations by T. Ito and Raynaud were insufficient. Estimation of distribution volume, which is regarded as circulating plasma volume (CPV), is also critical for the calculation of MAG3 clearance by MPC method. Precisely, hematocrit measured by venous sampling and circulating blood volume (CBV) calculated as 7.5% of body weight are used for estimation of CPV. However, assumed CPV as 5% of body weight was acceptable if the hematocrit was not severely deviated from the normal value. Simplified MPC method utilizing two factors mentioned above gave a positive correlation with Russell's one point sampling method. In conclusion, MPC method is applicable for pediatric patients. (author)

  11. Larval diet affects mosquito development and permissiveness to Plasmodium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linenberg, Inbar; Christophides, George K; Gendrin, Mathilde

    2016-12-02

    The larval stages of malaria vector mosquitoes develop in water pools, feeding mostly on microorganisms and environmental detritus. Richness in the nutrient supply to larvae influences the development and metabolism of larvae and adults. Here, we investigated the effects of larval diet on the development, microbiota content and permissiveness to Plasmodium of Anopheles coluzzii. We tested three fish diets often used to rear mosquitoes in the laboratory, including two pelleted diets, Dr. Clarke's Pool Pellets and Nishikoi Fish Pellets, and one flaked diet, Tetramin Fish-Flakes. Larvae grow and develop faster and produce bigger adults when feeding on both types of pellets compared with flakes. This correlates with a higher microbiota load in pellet-fed larvae, in agreement with the known positive effect of the microbiota on mosquito development. Larval diet also significantly influences the prevalence and intensity of Plasmodium berghei infection in adults, whereby Nishikoi Fish Pellets-fed larvae develop into adults that are highly permissive to parasites and survive longer after infection. This correlates with a lower amount of Enterobacteriaceae in the midgut microbiota. Together, our results shed light on the influence of larval feeding on mosquito development, microbiota and vector competence; they also provide useful data for mosquito rearing.

  12. Procedures for permission of installation of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Yoriaki

    1980-01-01

    The locations of atomic power stations are first selected by electric power enterprises in consultation with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry or under the guidance of authorities concerned. The surveys of the climate, topography, water and plants in the planned sites and the influences of nuclear power generation to the surrounding areas are made by the enterprisers under the administrative guidance of the MITI. Secondly, the basic project shall be submitted to and decided by the Power Resource Development Council headed by the Prime Minister (Article 10, the Power Resource Development Law). The Council shall, if necessary, call for the attendance of the governors of prefectures concerned and hear their opinions (Article 11, the Law). As the third and most complicated phase, various procedures include; (a) permission of the changes of electrical facilities under the Electricity Enterprises Act; (b) authorization of the installation of reactors under the Nuclear Reactor Regulation Law; (c) permission or authorization under other regulations including the Agricultural Land Act, etc.; (d) additional procedures related to the indemnification to fishery and so forth. Finally the reactors are to be operated after receiving the certificates of the Minister of ITI on the inspections of construction works, nuclear fuel materials used for the reactors and welding processes of reactor containment vessels, boilers, turbines, etc. (Okada, K.)

  13. US/Russian laboratory-to-laboratory MPC ampersand A Program at the VNIITF Institute, Chelyabinsk-70 May 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsygankov, G.; Churikov, Y.; Teryokhin, V.

    1996-01-01

    The AR Russian Institute of Technical Physics (VNIITF), also called Chelyabinsk-70, is one of two Russian federal nuclear centers established to design, test and support nuclear weapons throughout their life cycle. The site contains research facilities which use nuclear materials, two experimental plants which manufacture prototype samples for nuclear weapons, and a site for various ground tests. Chelyabinsk-70 also has cooperative relationships with the major nuclear materials production facilities in the Urals region of Russia. Chelyabinsk-70 has been participating in the US/Russian Laboratory-to-laboratory cooperative program for approximately one year. Six US Department of Energy Laboratories are carrying out a program of cooperation with VNIITF to improve the capabilities and facilities for nuclear materials protection, control, and accounting (MPC ampersand A) at VNIITF. A Safeguards Effectiveness Evaluation Workshop was conducted at VNIITF in July, 1995. Enhanced safeguards systems are being implemented, initially at a reactor test area that contains three pulse reactors. Significant improvements to physical security and access control systems are under way. C-70 is developing an extensive computerized system that integrates the physical security alarm station with elements of the nuclear material control system. The existing systems will be augmented with Russian and US technologies. This paper will describe the on-going activities and describe the cooperative effort between the Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, Sandia, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Brookhaven US Department of Energy National Laboratories and VNIITF

  14. U.S./Russian Laboratory-to-Laboratory MPC ampersand A Program at the VNIITF Institute, Chelyabinsk-70

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teryohin, V.; Tzygankov, G.; Blasy, J.

    1995-07-01

    The All Russian Institute of Technical Physics (VNIITF) is one of the major sites in the nuclear weapons complex in Russia. The site contains a number of research facilities which use nuclear material as well as facilities active in disassembly and disposition of nuclear weapons. Chelyabinsk-70 (C-70) also has ties to the major nuclear materials production facilities in the Urals region of Russia. Under the U.S./Russian Laboratory -to- Laboratory cooperative program, enhanced safeguards systems are being implemented, initially at a reactor test area that contains two pulse reactors and a nuclear material storage facility. C-70 is developing an extensive computerized system that integrates the physical security alarm station with elements of the nuclear material control system. Under the Lab-to-Lab program, the existing systems will bi augmented with Russian and US technologies. The integrated MPC ampersand A system for the test facilities will be demonstrated to US and Russian audiences when completed and follow-on work at additional C-70 facilities will be identified. This paper will describe the on-going activities and describe the cooperative effort between the Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, Sandia, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Brookhaven US Department of Energy National Laboratories in support of VNIITF

  15. MPC-based energy management with adaptive Markov-chain prediction for a dual-mode hybrid electric vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG; ChangLe; DING; Feng; WANG; WeiDa; HE; Wei; QI; YunLong

    2017-01-01

    The and energy to management strategy battery is state an important part of a hybrid electrical vehicle design.It is used to improve various fuel economy sustain a proper of charge an by controlling control the power components is while satisfying to constraints and driving demands.However,achieving optimal and performance challenging due the nonlinearities of the hybrid powertrain,conflicting vehicle the time varying constraints,the dilemma capable in which controller control complexity and real-time capability are generally objectives.In this paper,a of real-time cascaded complies strategy is proposed for a dual-mode hybrid electric that considers controller based nonlinearities based the system model and with all time-varying with constraints.sampling The strategy consists of a supervisory controller on a non-linear predictive control short(MPC)sampling a long time with future strategy interval and a coordinating on linear model predictive based control with a time interval to deal different load dynamics of the system.The Additionally,a novel data methodology using adaptive Markov chains to predict demand is introduced.predictive future information is used to improve controller cycles performance.conducted.The The proposed is implemented validity on a real test-bed approach and experimental trials using economy unknown is driving are results other demonstrate the of the proposed and show that fuel significantly improved compared with methods.

  16. MPC-based energy management with adaptive Markov-chain prediction for a dual-mode hybrid electric vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG ChangLe; DING Feng; WANG WeiDa; HE Wei; QI YunLong

    2017-01-01

    The energy management strategy is an important part of a hybrid electrical vehicle design.It is used to improve fuel economy and to sustain a proper battery state of charge by controlling the power components while satisfying various constraints and driving demands.However,achieving an optimal control performance is challenging due to the nonlinearities of the hybrid powertrain,the time varying constraints,and the dilemma in which controller complexity and real-time capability are generally conflicting objectives.In this paper,a real-time capable cascaded control strategy is proposed for a dual-mode hybrid electric vehicle that considers nonlinearities of the system and complies with all time-varying constraints.The strategy consists of a supervisory controller based on a non-linear model predictive control (MPC) with a long sampling time interval and a coordinating controller based on linear model predictive control with a short sampling time interval to deal with different dynamics of the system.Additionally,a novel data based methodology using adaptive Markov chains to predict future load demand is introduced.The predictive future information is used to improve controller performance.The proposed strategy is implemented on a real test-bed and experimental trials using unknown driving cycles are conducted.The results demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach and show that fuel economy is significantly improved compared with other methods.

  17. U.S./Russian laboratory-to-laboratory MPC and A program at the VNIITF Institute, Chelyabinsk-70

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teryohin, V.; Tzygankov, G.; Blasy, J.

    1996-01-01

    The All Russian Institute of Technical Physics (VNIITF) is one of the major sites in the nuclear weapons complex in Russia. The site contains a number of research facilities which use nuclear material as well as facilities active in disassembly and disposition of nuclear weapons. Chelyabinsk-70 (C-70) also has ties to the major nuclear materials production facilities in the Urals region of Russia. Under the US/Russian Laboratory-to-Laboratory cooperative program, enhanced safeguards systems are being implemented, initially at a reactor test area that contains two pulse reactors and a nuclear material storage facility. C-70 is developing an extensive computerized system that integrates the physical security alarm station with elements of the nuclear material control system. Under the Lab-to-Lab program, the existing systems will be augmented with Russian and US technologies. The integrated MPC and A system for the test facilities will be demonstrated to US and Russian audiences when completed and follow-on work at additional C-70 facilities will be identified. This paper will describe the on-going activities and describe the cooperative effort between the Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, Sandia, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Brookhaven US Department of Energy National Laboratories in support of VNIITF

  18. Estimating permissible /sup 129/I-emission rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebschmann, W G

    1976-06-01

    A mathematical method of iodine release limitation is presented which, in assessing the radiological effectiveness of /sup 129/I, takes advantage of the fact that the chemical behaviour of /sup 129/I resembles that of /sup 131/I and relies on the already extensive knowledge of the chemical and biological behaviour of /sup 131/I. If this method is used for calculating permissible /sup 129/I emission rates it is stated that no unnecessary restrictions need be imposed on a fuel reprocessing plant and that the grazing season for the pasture-cow-milk pathway can be taken into account. The concept is currently in use at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center and seems to be appropriate for licensing of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants.

  19. Statistic method of research reactors maximum permissible power calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosheva, N.A.; Kirsanov, G.A.; Konoplev, K.A.; Chmshkyan, D.V.

    1998-01-01

    The technique for calculating maximum permissible power of a research reactor at which the probability of the thermal-process accident does not exceed the specified value, is presented. The statistical method is used for the calculations. It is regarded that the determining function related to the reactor safety is the known function of the reactor power and many statistically independent values which list includes the reactor process parameters, geometrical characteristics of the reactor core and fuel elements, as well as random factors connected with the reactor specific features. Heat flux density or temperature is taken as a limiting factor. The program realization of the method discussed is briefly described. The results of calculating the PIK reactor margin coefficients for different probabilities of the thermal-process accident are considered as an example. It is shown that the probability of an accident with fuel element melting in hot zone is lower than 10 -8 1 per year for the reactor rated power [ru

  20. Robot Lies in Health Care: When Is Deception Morally Permissible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Autonomous robots are increasingly interacting with users who have limited knowledge of robotics and are likely to have an erroneous mental model of the robot's workings, capabilities, and internal structure. The robot's real capabilities may diverge from this mental model to the extent that one might accuse the robot's manufacturer of deceiving the user, especially in cases where the user naturally tends to ascribe exaggerated capabilities to the machine (e.g. conversational systems in elder-care contexts, or toy robots in child care). This poses the question, whether misleading or even actively deceiving the user of an autonomous artifact about the capabilities of the machine is morally bad and why. By analyzing trust, autonomy, and the erosion of trust in communicative acts as consequences of deceptive robot behavior, we formulate four criteria that must be fulfilled in order for robot deception to be morally permissible, and in some cases even morally indicated.

  1. Can ‘Mobile Platform’ and ‘Permission Marketing’ dance a tango to the consumers' tune? Modeling adoption of ‘SMS based Permission Advertising’

    OpenAIRE

    Prerna Bamoriya

    2015-01-01

    Many a times situation of advertising clutter is further aggrieved by the markers’ intrusive practices i.e. not asking for consumer’s explicit permission. It results in consumers’ alienation and reduced advertising effectiveness. Solution could be integration of Permission Marketing with an innovative advertising platform like Mobile. This study aimed to develop and validate a comprehensive model for understanding consumers’ adoption behavior towards SMS Based Permission Advertising (SBPA). F...

  2. Religiosity and Premarital Sexual Permissiveness: A Response to the Reiss-Heltsley and Broderick Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Howard J., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    When religiosity among college students was measured by Faulkner and DeJong's 5-D Scale of Religiosity" and the Reiss scale was used to measure permissiveness, the expected stronger relationship between religiosity and permissiveness in groups with traditions of low sexual permissiveness than in groups with traditions of high sexual…

  3. Human T Lymphocytes Are Permissive for Dengue Virus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Guilherme F; Wowk, Pryscilla F; Cataneo, Allan H D; Dos Santos, Paula F; Delgobo, Murilo; Stimamiglio, Marco A; Lo Sarzi, Maria; Thomazelli, Ana Paula F S; Conchon-Costa, Ivete; Pavanelli, Wander R; Antonelli, Lis R V; Báfica, André; Mansur, Daniel S; Dos Santos, Claudia N Duarte; Bordignon, Juliano

    2018-05-15

    Dengue virus (DV) infection can cause either a self-limiting flu-like disease or a threatening hemorrhage that may evolve to shock and death. A variety of cell types, such as dendritic cells, monocytes, and B cells, can be infected by DV. However, despite the role of T lymphocytes in the control of DV replication, there remains a paucity of information on possible DV-T cell interactions during the disease course. In the present study, we have demonstrated that primary human naive CD4 + and CD8 + T cells are permissive for DV infection. Importantly, both T cell subtypes support viral replication and secrete viable virus particles. DV infection triggers the activation of both CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocytes, but preactivation of T cells reduces the susceptibility of T cells to DV infection. Interestingly, the cytotoxicity-inducing protein granzyme A is highly secreted by human CD4 + but not CD8 + T cells after exposure to DV in vitro Additionally, using annexin V and polycaspase assays, we have demonstrated that T lymphocytes, in contrast to monocytes, are resistant to DV-induced apoptosis. Strikingly, both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells were found to be infected with DV in acutely infected dengue patients. Together, these results show that T cells are permissive for DV infection in vitro and in vivo , suggesting that this cell population may be a viral reservoir during the acute phase of the disease. IMPORTANCE Infection by dengue virus (DV) causes a flu-like disease that can evolve to severe hemorrhaging and death. T lymphocytes are important cells that regulate antibody secretion by B cells and trigger the death of infected cells. However, little is known about the direct interaction between DV and T lymphocytes. Here, we show that T lymphocytes from healthy donors are susceptible to infection by DV, leading to cell activation. Additionally, T cells seem to be resistant to DV-induced apoptosis, suggesting a potential role as a viral reservoir in humans. Finally, we show

  4. Local dark matter and dark energy as estimated on a scale of ~1 Mpc in a self-consistent way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M. J.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Byrd, G. G.

    2009-12-01

    Context: Dark energy was first detected from large distances on gigaparsec scales. If it is vacuum energy (or Einstein's Λ), it should also exist in very local space. Here we discuss its measurement on megaparsec scales of the Local Group. Aims: We combine the modified Kahn-Woltjer method for the Milky Way-M 31 binary and the HST observations of the expansion flow around the Local Group in order to study in a self-consistent way and simultaneously the local density of dark energy and the dark matter mass contained within the Local Group. Methods: A theoretical model is used that accounts for the dynamical effects of dark energy on a scale of ~1 Mpc. Results: The local dark energy density is put into the range 0.8-3.7ρv (ρv is the globally measured density), and the Local Group mass lies within 3.1-5.8×1012 M⊙. The lower limit of the local dark energy density, about 4/5× the global value, is determined by the natural binding condition for the group binary and the maximal zero-gravity radius. The near coincidence of two values measured with independent methods on scales differing by ~1000 times is remarkable. The mass ~4×1012 M⊙ and the local dark energy density ~ρv are also consistent with the expansion flow close to the Local Group, within the standard cosmological model. Conclusions: One should take into account the dark energy in dynamical mass estimation methods for galaxy groups, including the virial theorem. Our analysis gives new strong evidence in favor of Einstein's idea of the universal antigravity described by the cosmological constant.

  5. DISCOVERY OF A LARGE NUMBER OF CANDIDATE PROTOCLUSTERS TRACED BY ∼15 Mpc-SCALE GALAXY OVERDENSITIES IN COSMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Yi-Kuan; Gebhardt, Karl; Overzier, Roderik

    2014-01-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of studying the epoch of massive galaxy cluster formation in a more systematic manner using current and future galaxy surveys, we report the discovery of a large sample of protocluster candidates in the 1.62 deg 2 COSMOS/UltraVISTA field traced by optical/infrared selected galaxies using photometric redshifts. By comparing properly smoothed three-dimensional galaxy density maps of the observations and a set of matched simulations incorporating the dominant observational effects (galaxy selection and photometric redshift uncertainties), we first confirm that the observed ∼15 comoving Mpc-scale galaxy clustering is consistent with ΛCDM models. Using further the relation between high-z overdensity and the present day cluster mass calibrated in these matched simulations, we found 36 candidate structures at 1.6 < z < 3.1, showing overdensities consistent with the progenitors of M z = 0 ∼ 10 15 M ☉ clusters. Taking into account the significant upward scattering of lower mass structures, the probabilities for the candidates to have at least M z= 0 ∼ 10 14 M ☉ are ∼70%. For each structure, about 15%-40% of photometric galaxy candidates are expected to be true protocluster members that will merge into a cluster-scale halo by z = 0. With solely photometric redshifts, we successfully rediscover two spectroscopically confirmed structures in this field, suggesting that our algorithm is robust. This work generates a large sample of uniformly selected protocluster candidates, providing rich targets for spectroscopic follow-up and subsequent studies of cluster formation. Meanwhile, it demonstrates the potential for probing early cluster formation with upcoming redshift surveys such as the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment and the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph survey

  6. Estudio del comportamiento de un Control MPC [Control Predictivo Basado en el Modelo] comparado con un Control PID en una Planta de Temperatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Hernández-Arroyo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Presenta un estudio comparativo entre el Control Predictivo basado en el Modelo [MPC] y el control PID, en una planta piloto de temperatura. Se encontró que el control MPC presenta mejor comportamiento, con un tiempo de asentamiento de 1000 segundos y una sobre-elongación de 5 °C, y que el PID presenta un tiempo de asentamiento de 2000 segundos y una sobre-elongación de 40 °C. Simultáneamente, se presenta una forma alternativa para controlar y monitorear en tiempo real la variable temperatura; para ello se dispone de un computador de escritorio que utiliza el software MATLAB 7.1 y la herramienta Real-Time Windows Target.

  7. DOE Lab-to-Lab MPC ampersand A workshop for cooperative tasks with Russian institutes: Focus on critical assemblies and item facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieber, A.M. Jr.; Fishbone, L.G.; Kato, W.Y.; Lazareth, O.W.; Suda, S.C.; Garcia, D.; Haga, R.

    1995-01-01

    Seventeen Russian scientists and engineers representing five different institutes participated in a Workshop on material control and accounting as part of the US-Russian Lab-to-Lab Cooperative Program in Nuclear Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC ampersand A). In addition to presentations and discussions, the Workshop included an exercise at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and demonstrations at the Zero Power Physics Reactor (critical-assembly facility) of Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W). The Workshop particularly emphasized procedures for physical inventory-taking at critical assemblies and item facilities, with associated supporting techniques and methods. By learning these topics and applying the methods and experience at their own institutes, the Russian scientists and engineers will be able to determine and verify nuclear material inventories based on sound procedures, including measurements. This will constitute a significant enhancement to MPC ampersand A at the Russian institutes

  8. Optimal Load-Tracking Operation of Grid-Connected Solid Oxide Fuel Cells through Set Point Scheduling and Combined L1-MPC Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwei Han

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An optimal load-tracking operation strategy for a grid-connected tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC is studied based on the steady-state analysis of the system thermodynamics and electrochemistry. Control of the SOFC is achieved by a two-level hierarchical control system. In the upper level, optimal setpoints of output voltage and the current corresponding to unit load demand is obtained through a nonlinear optimization by minimizing the SOFC’s internal power waste. In the lower level, a combined L1-MPC control strategy is designed to achieve fast set point tracking under system nonlinearities, while maintaining a constant fuel utilization factor. To prevent fuel starvation during the transient state resulting from the output power surging, a fuel flow constraint is imposed on the MPC with direct electron balance calculation. The proposed control schemes are testified on the grid-connected SOFC model.

  9. Explicit/multi-parametric model predictive control (MPC) of linear discrete-time systems by dynamic and multi-parametric programming

    KAUST Repository

    Kouramas, K.I.

    2011-08-01

    This work presents a new algorithm for solving the explicit/multi- parametric model predictive control (or mp-MPC) problem for linear, time-invariant discrete-time systems, based on dynamic programming and multi-parametric programming techniques. The algorithm features two key steps: (i) a dynamic programming step, in which the mp-MPC problem is decomposed into a set of smaller subproblems in which only the current control, state variables, and constraints are considered, and (ii) a multi-parametric programming step, in which each subproblem is solved as a convex multi-parametric programming problem, to derive the control variables as an explicit function of the states. The key feature of the proposed method is that it overcomes potential limitations of previous methods for solving multi-parametric programming problems with dynamic programming, such as the need for global optimization for each subproblem of the dynamic programming step. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The hybrid MPC-MINLP algorithm for optimal operation of coal-fired power plants with solvent based post-combustion CO2 capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhuda Abdul Manaf

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an algorithm that combines model predictive control (MPC with MINLP optimization and demonstrates its application for coal-fired power plants retrofitted with solvent based post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC plant. The objective function of the optimization algorithm works at a primary level to maximize plant economic revenue while considering an optimal carbon capture profile. At a secondary level, the MPC algorithm is used to control the performance of the PCC plant. Two techno-economic scenarios based on fixed (capture rate is constant and flexible (capture rate is variable operation modes are developed using actual electricity prices (2011 with fixed carbon prices ($AUD 5, 25, 50/tonne-CO2 for 24 h periods. Results show that fixed operation mode can bring about a ratio of net operating revenue deficit at an average of 6% against the superior flexible operation mode.

  11. The design and realization of general high-speed RAIN100B DAQ module based on powerPC MPC5200B processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Tao; Gong Guanghua; Shao Beibei

    2010-01-01

    In order to deal with the DAQ function of nuclear electronics, department of engineering physics of Tsinghua University design and realize a general, high-speed RAIN100B DAQ module based on Freescale's PowerPC MPC5200B processor.And the RAIN100B was used on GEM detector DAQ, it can reach up to 90Mbps data speed. The result is also presented and discussed. (authors)

  12. Behavior of water gel permissibles in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribovich, J.; Watson, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the successful use of water gel permissibles, since their introduction in 1970, with an emphasis on some problems of behavior in their field application. One is the metal clip or ties used to seal the water gel package. Miners are occasionally hit by the 2.4 mm metal wire expelled from boreholes in normal shooting operations. Manufacturers have consequently reduced the mass of the metal ties by 25-50%, providing a partial solution. Another problem concerned two reported instances of misfired water gel burning after coal shooting operations. Extensive tests have offered no satisfactory solution as yet, except to point up a principal shortcoming of water gels: that of pressure desensitization. Two other factors affecting sensitivity, and possibly resulting in misfires, are low temperature and aging. There is a decline in air-gap sensitivity with prolonged storage but all approved water gels seem capable of meeting requirements for long periods under normal storage conditions. Low temperature tests indicate the majority of water gels become insensitive to a No. 6 EBC at temperatures easily attained in cold weather storage. An attempt was made to determine the minimum temperature at which a nitroglycerin-sensitized permisslbe could be initiated with a No. 8 cap; a particularly granular one was initiated as low as minus 196 C. (5 refs.) (In English)

  13. Implementation of an advanced hybrid MPC-PID control system using PAT tools into a direct compaction continuous pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravendra; Sahay, Abhishek; Karry, Krizia M; Muzzio, Fernando; Ierapetritou, Marianthi; Ramachandran, Rohit

    2014-10-01

    It is desirable for a pharmaceutical final dosage form to be manufactured through a quality by design (QbD)-based approach rather than a quality by testing (QbT) approach. An automatic feedback control system coupled with PAT tools that is part of the QbD paradigm shift, has the potential to ensure that the pre-defined end product quality attributes are met in a time and cost efficient manner. In this work, an advanced hybrid MPC-PID control architecture coupled with real time inline/online monitoring tools and principal components analysis (PCA) based additional supervisory control layer has been proposed for a continuous direct compaction tablet manufacturing process. The advantages of both MPC and PID have been utilized in a hybrid scheme. The control hardware and software integration and implementation of the control system has been demonstrated using feeders and blending unit operation of a continuous tablet manufacturing pilot plant and an NIR based PAT tool. The advanced hybrid MPC-PID control scheme leads to enhanced control loop performance of the critical quality attributes in comparison to a regulatory (e.g. PID) control scheme indicating its potential to improve pharmaceutical product quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Comparative Study of Applying Active-Set and Interior Point Methods in MPC for Controlling Nonlinear pH Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syam Syafiie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of Model Predictive Control (MPC using active-set method and interior point methods is proposed as a control technique for highly non-linear pH process. The process is a strong acid-strong base system. A strong acid of hydrochloric acid (HCl and a strong base of sodium hydroxide (NaOH with the presence of buffer solution sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 are used in a neutralization process flowing into reactor. The non-linear pH neutralization model governed in this process is presented by multi-linear models. Performance of both controllers is studied by evaluating its ability of set-point tracking and disturbance-rejection. Besides, the optimization time is compared between these two methods; both MPC shows the similar performance with no overshoot, offset, and oscillation. However, the conventional active-set method gives a shorter control action time for small scale optimization problem compared to MPC using IPM method for pH control.

  15. Exploring Permission-Induced Risk in Android Applications for Malicious Application Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wei

    2014-10-07

    Android has been a major target of malicious applications (malapps). How to detect and keep the malapps out of the app markets is an ongoing challenge. One of the central design points of Android security mechanism is permission control that restricts the access of apps to core facilities of devices. However, it imparts a significant responsibility to the app developers with regard to accurately specifying the requested permissions and to the users with regard to fully understanding the risk of granting certain combinations of permissions. Android permissions requested by an app depict the app\\'s behavioral patterns. In order to help understanding Android permissions, in this paper, we explore the permission-induced risk in Android apps on three levels in a systematic manner. First, we thoroughly analyze the risk of an individual permission and the risk of a group of collaborative permissions. We employ three feature ranking methods, namely, mutual information, correlation coefficient, and T-test to rank Android individual permissions with respect to their risk. We then use sequential forward selection as well as principal component analysis to identify risky permission subsets. Second, we evaluate the usefulness of risky permissions for malapp detection with support vector machine, decision trees, as well as random forest. Third, we in depth analyze the detection results and discuss the feasibility as well as the limitations of malapp detection based on permission requests. We evaluate our methods on a very large official app set consisting of 310 926 benign apps and 4868 real-world malapps and on a third-party app sets. The empirical results show that our malapp detectors built on risky permissions give satisfied performance (a detection rate as 94.62% with a false positive rate as 0.6%), catch the malapps\\' essential patterns on violating permission access regulations, and are universally applicable to unknown malapps (detection rate as 74.03%).

  16. Recombinant pestivirus E2 glycoproteins prevent viral attachment to permissive and non permissive cells with different efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfor, A S; Wakeley, P R; Drew, T W; Paton, D J

    2014-08-30

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important animal pathogen, which like other pestiviruses has similar molecular biological features to hepaciviruses, including human Hepatitis C virus. The pestivirus E2 glycoproteins are the major target for virus-neutralising antibodies, as well as playing a role in receptor binding and host range restriction. In this study, recombinant E2 glycoproteins (rE2) derived from three different pestivirus species were examined for their inhibitory effects on pestivirus infectivity in cell culture. Histidine-tagged rE2 glycoproteins of BVDV type 2 strain 178003, BVDV type 1 strain Oregon C24V and CSFV strain Alfort 187 were produced in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells and purified under native conditions. The ability of rE2 glycoprotein to inhibit the infection of permissive cells by both homologous and heterologous virus was compared, revealing that the inhibitory effects of rE2 glycoproteins correlated with the predicted similarity of the E2 structures in the recombinant protein and the test virus. This result suggests that the sequence and structure of E2 are likely to be involved in the host specificity of pestiviruses at their point of uptake into cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Lutzomyia migonei is a permissive vector competent for Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Vanessa Cristina Fitipaldi Veloso; Pruzinova, Katerina; Sadlova, Jovana; Volfova, Vera; Myskova, Jitka; Filho, Sinval Pinto Brandão; Volf, Petr

    2016-03-17

    Leishmania infantum is the most widespread etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the world, with significant mortality rates in human cases. In Latin America, this parasite is primarily transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis, but the role of Lutzomyia migonei as a potential vector for this protozoan has been discussed. Laboratory and field investigations have contributed to this hypothesis; however, proof of the vector competence of L. migonei has not yet been provided. In this study, we evaluate for the first time the susceptibility of L. migonei to L. infantum. Females of laboratory-reared L. migonei were fed through a chick-skin membrane on rabbit blood containing L. infantum promastigotes, dissected at 1, 5 and 8 days post-infection (PI) and checked microscopically for the presence, intensity and localisation of Leishmania infections. In addition, morphometric analysis of L. infantum promastigotes was performed. High infection rates of both L. infantum strains tested were observed in L. migonei, with colonisation of the stomodeal valve already on day 5 PI. At the late-stage infection, most L. migonei females had their cardia and stomodeal valve colonised by high numbers of parasites, and no significant differences were found compared to the development in L. longipalpis. Metacyclic forms were found in all parasite-vector combinations since day 5 PI. We propose that Lutzomyia migonei belongs to sand fly species permissive to various Leishmania spp. Here we demonstrate that L. migonei is highly susceptible to the development of L. infantum. This, together with its known anthropophily, abundance in VL foci and natural infection by L. infantum, constitute important evidence that L. migonei is another vector of this parasite in Latin America.

  18. SN 2008jb: A 'LOST' CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA IN A STAR-FORMING DWARF GALAXY AT ∼10 Mpc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, J. L.; Lee, J. C.; Drake, A. J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; McNaught, R.; Garradd, G.; Beacom, J. F.; Beshore, E.; Catelan, M.; Pojmanski, G.; Stanek, K. Z.; Szczygieł, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    We present the discovery and follow-up observations of SN 2008jb, a core-collapse supernova in the southern dwarf irregular galaxy ESO 302–14 (M B = –15.3 mag) at 9.6 Mpc. This nearby transient was missed by galaxy-targeted surveys and was only found in archival optical images obtained by the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey and the All-Sky Automated Survey. The well-sampled archival photometry shows that SN 2008jb was detected shortly after explosion and reached a bright optical maximum, V max ≅ 13.6 mag (M V,max ≅ –16.5). The shape of the light curve shows a plateau of ∼100 days, followed by a drop of ∼1.4 mag in the V band to a slow decline with an approximate 56 Co decay slope. The late-time light curve is consistent with 0.04 ± 0.01 M ☉ of 56 Ni synthesized in the explosion. A spectrum of the supernova obtained two years after explosion shows a broad, boxy Hα emission line, which is unusual for normal Type II-Plateau supernovae at late times. We detect the supernova in archival Spitzer and WISE images obtained 8-14 months after explosion, which show clear signs of warm (600-700 K) dust emission. The dwarf irregular host galaxy, ESO 302–14, has a low gas-phase oxygen abundance, 12 + log(O/H) = 8.2 (∼1/5 Z ☉ ), similar to those of the Small Magellanic Cloud and the hosts of long gamma-ray bursts and luminous core-collapse supernovae. This metallicity is one of the lowest among local (∼ 5 M ☉ for the star formation complex, assuming a single-age starburst. These properties are consistent with the expanding Hα supershells observed in many well-studied nearby dwarf galaxies, which are tell-tale signs of feedback from the cumulative effect of massive star winds and supernovae. The age estimated for the star-forming region where SN 2008jb exploded suggests a relatively high-mass progenitor star with an initial mass M ∼ 20 M ☉ and warrants further study. We discuss the implications of these findings in the study of core

  19. Permissivity of the NCI-60 cancer cell lines to oncolytic Vaccinia Virus GLV-1h68

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascierto, Maria Libera; Bedognetti, Davide; Uccellini, Lorenzo; Rossano, Fabio; Ascierto, Paolo A; Stroncek, David F; Restifo, Nicholas P; Wang, Ena; Szalay, Aladar A; Marincola, Francesco M; Worschech, Andrea; Yu, Zhiya; Adams, Sharon; Reinboth, Jennifer; Chen, Nanhai G; Pos, Zoltan; Roychoudhuri, Rahul; Di Pasquale, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Oncolytic viral therapy represents an alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer. We previously described GLV-1h68, a modified Vaccinia Virus with exclusive tropism for tumor cells, and we observed a cell line-specific relationship between the ability of GLV-1h68 to replicate in vitro and its ability to colonize and eliminate tumor in vivo. In the current study we surveyed the in vitro permissivity to GLV-1h68 replication of the NCI-60 panel of cell lines. Selected cell lines were also tested for permissivity to another Vaccinia Virus and a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) strain. In order to identify correlates of permissity to viral infection, we measured transcriptional profiles of the cell lines prior infection. We observed highly heterogeneous permissivity to VACV infection amongst the cell lines. The heterogeneity of permissivity was independent of tissue with the exception of B cell derivation. Cell lines were also tested for permissivity to another Vaccinia Virus and a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) strain and a significant correlation was found suggesting a common permissive phenotype. While no clear transcriptional pattern could be identified as predictor of permissivity to infection, some associations were observed suggesting multifactorial basis permissivity to viral infection. Our findings have implications for the design of oncolytic therapies for cancer and offer insights into the nature of permissivity of tumor cells to viral infection

  20. In Vitro Resistance Studies with Bacteria That Exhibit Low Mutation Frequencies: Prediction of “Antimutant” Linezolid Concentrations Using a Mixed Inoculum Containing both Susceptible and Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golikova, Maria V.; Strukova, Elena N.; Portnoy, Yury A.; Romanov, Andrey V.; Edelstein, Mikhail V.; Zinner, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial resistance studies using in vitro dynamic models are highly dependent on the starting inoculum that might or might not contain spontaneously resistant mutants (RMs). To delineate concentration-resistance relationships with linezolid-exposed Staphylococcus aureus, a mixed inoculum containing both susceptible cells and RMs was used. An RM selected after the 9th passage of the parent strain (MIC, 2 μg/ml) on antibiotic-containing media (RM9; MIC, 8 μg/ml) was chosen for the pharmacodynamic studies, because the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) of linezolid against the parent strain in the presence of RM9 at 102 (but not at 104) CFU/ml did not differ from the MPC value determined in the absence of the RMs. Five-day treatments with twice-daily linezolid doses were simulated at concentrations either between the MIC and MPC or above the MPC. S. aureus RMs (resistant to 2× and 4× MIC but not 8× and 16× MIC) were enriched at ratios of the 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC24) to the MIC that provide linezolid concentrations between the MIC and MPC for 100% (AUC24/MIC, 60 h) and 86% (AUC24/MIC, 120 h) of the dosing interval. No such enrichment occurred when linezolid concentrations were above the MIC and below the MPC for a shorter time (37% of the dosing interval; AUC24/MIC, 240 h) or when concentrations were consistently above the MPC (AUC24/MIC, 480 h). These findings obtained using linezolid-susceptible staphylococci supplemented with RMs support the mutant selection window hypothesis. This method provides an option to delineate antibiotic concentration-resistance relationships with bacteria that exhibit low mutation frequencies. PMID:25451050

  1. Comment on 'Calculated MPC values for Pu02 by comparing the added risk of cancer with the accepted occupational risks', by De Bont, A.H.; Beentjes, L.B., and reply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    The article (Health Phys. 36, 53-58, 1979) adopts 10 -4 /yr as the 'accepted occupational risks'. Dr. Cohen criticises that value and its application to determination of MPC values for radioactivity for several reasons. The authors' reply states that their intention is not to exaggerate dangers, but that they believe that they have good reasons to suggest a reduction in the MPC for Pu0 2 . (author)

  2. An Ethics of Permission: A Response to the California End of Life Option Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Craig

    2016-01-01

    An ethics of permission can be helpful in framing a response to the ethical differences surrounding the California End of Life Option Act. Law does not define morality, and reaching a moral understanding demands thorough reflection. An ethics of permission examines the ethical demands of a permissive law for both clinician and patient. Serving the good of the patient, respecting professional conscience, and following the law are three ethical elements. Although developing an ethics of permission includes these three elements, these elements do not exhaust all the moral implications involved. An ethics of permission also includes the importance of exercising professional tolerance in the honoring of clinicians who choose to participate or refuse to participate. In addition, an ethics of permission also provides insight in implementing just and fair behavior among medical professionals.

  3. MPC and A operational monitoring system pilot project at MEPhI as example of successful application in the international/national control and guaranties programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzhukhin, D.V.; Bondarev, P.V.; Pogozhin, N.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: At present an active development of digital communication technologies has resulted in reduction of their cost and increase of their possibilities. As a result the remote monitoring systems gain new development. The increase of the requirements to a safety level on potentially dangerous and very important objects makes such systems extremely attractive for using in a system of national departmental or international control and inspections. Purpose of using such systems is to provide control for correctness of subject to the control-regulated procedures performance, performance of management or inspection bodies' instructions and operating of existing protection systems, at integration with them. This control is independent from object staff. The remote monitoring systems usage by supervising bodies at an object gives following advantages: timely reception of information; increase of information volume at the expense of constant non physically presence of an onsite inspector; increase of received information objectivity at the expense of the fact of 'undeclared inspections' realization; an opportunity of application modern information technologies for analysis and storage of digital information; reduction of impact on object's work; reduction of volume of physical inspections and expenses for their realization. All above was reflected in the material protect, control and accounting (MPC and A) operational monitoring (MOM) program, begun under Russian-American cooperation in the field of MPC and A in 2001. MOM program purpose is to control double application materials and radioactive divided materials, activity of the people under MPC and A program and procedures ensuring performance of guarantees on special nuclear material (SNM) protection and non-proliferation. The Moscow engineering-physics institute (state university) (MEPhl) was chosen as an object of realization of MOM system pilot project. The reasons are that MEPhl is installed under framework of

  4. 17 CFR 230.433 - Conditions to permissible post-filing free writing prospectuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... writing prospectus used at the same time as a communication in a business combination transaction subject... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conditions to permissible post... Prospectuses § 230.433 Conditions to permissible post-filing free writing prospectuses. (a) Scope of section...

  5. 29 CFR 3.6 - Payroll deductions permissible with the approval of the Secretary of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Payroll deductions permissible with the approval of the Secretary of Labor. 3.6 Section 3.6 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS ON....6 Payroll deductions permissible with the approval of the Secretary of Labor. Any contractor or...

  6. 47 CFR 74.790 - Permissible service of digital TV translator and LPTV stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible service of digital TV translator... DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.790 Permissible service of digital TV translator and LPTV stations. (a) Digital TV translator stations provide a means whereby the...

  7. Follow My Recommendations: A Personalized Privacy Assistant for Mobile App Permissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Schaarup; Liu, Bin; Schaub, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Modern smartphone platforms have millions of apps, many of which request permissions to access private data and resources, like user accounts or location. While these smartphone platforms provide varying degrees of control over these permissions, the sheer number of decisions that users are expec...

  8. Axiomatizations of Banzhaf Permisson Values for Games with a Hierarchical Permission Structure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    In games with a permission structure it is assumed that players in a cooperative transferable utility game are hierarchically ordered in the sense that there are players that need permission from other players before they are allowed to cooperate. We provide axiomatic characterizations of Banzhaf

  9. Permissive Parenting and Mental Health in College Students: Mediating Effects of Academic Entitlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Alison L.; Hirsch, Jameson K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Student mental health may suffer due to unreasonable expectations associated with academic entitlement; permissive parenting may be one source of these expectations. The authors examined the role of academic entitlement as a mediator of the relationship between permissive parenting and psychological functioning. Participants:…

  10. 36 CFR 223.12 - Permission to cut, damage, or destroy trees without advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... destroy trees without advertisement. 223.12 Section 223.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... § 223.12 Permission to cut, damage, or destroy trees without advertisement. Permission may be granted to cut, damage, or destroy trees, portions of trees, or other forest products on National Forest System...

  11. 20 CFR 416.1321 - Suspension for not giving us permission to contact financial institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contact financial institutions. 416.1321 Section 416.1321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY....1321 Suspension for not giving us permission to contact financial institutions. (a) If you don't give us permission to contact any financial institution and request any financial records about you when...

  12. KrasMAS: Implementation of a nuclear material computerized accounting system at the Mining and Chemical Combine through the Russian/US cooperative MPC and A program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorofeev, K.V.; Zhidkov, V.V.; Martinez, B.J.; Perry, R.T.; Scott, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    The Russian/US Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Kimichesky Kombinat, GKhK, also referred to as Krasnoyarsk-26) Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) project was initiated in June 1996. A critical component of the ongoing cooperative MPC and A enhancements at the GKhK is the implementation of a computerized nuclear material control and accountability (MC and A) system. This system must meet the MC and A requirements of the GKhK by integrating the information generated by numerous existing and new MC and A components in place at the GKhK (e.g., scales, bar-code equipment, NDA measurement systems). During the first phase of this effort, the GKhK adapted CoreMAS (developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory) for use in the PuO 2 storage facility. This included formulation of Web-based user interfaces for plant personnel, Russification of the existing user interface, and at the functional level, modification of the CoreMAS stored procedures. The modified system is referred to as KrasMAS and builds upon completed work on CoreMAS. Ongoing efforts include adding GKhK specific report forms and expanding the functionality of the system for implementation at the radiochemical processing and reactor plants of the GKhK. Collaborations with other Russian facilities for appropriate parts of these efforts will be pursued

  13. Can ‘Mobile Platform’ and ‘Permission Marketing’ dance a tango to the consumers' tune? Modeling adoption of ‘SMS based Permission Advertising’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna Bamoriya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many a times situation of advertising clutter is further aggrieved by the markers’ intrusive practices i.e. not asking for consumer’s explicit permission. It results in consumers’ alienation and reduced advertising effectiveness. Solution could be integration of Permission Marketing with an innovative advertising platform like Mobile. This study aimed to develop and validate a comprehensive model for understanding consumers’ adoption behavior towards SMS Based Permission Advertising (SBPA. For this, data was collected using systematic random sampling from 524 respondents and was analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling. Study revealed some critical variables along with complex relationships among such variables, in form of an empirically validated model. At last, study made some important implications for practitioners and researchers.

  14. A new model for deteriorating items with inflation under permissible delay in payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Tripathi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Inflation is an important factor influencing traditional economic order quality models. Marketing strategy depends on inflation due to public demand and availability of the materials. This paper presents an optimal inventory policy for deteriorating items using exponential demand rate under permissible delay in payments. Mathematical model has been derived under two cases: case I: cycle time is greater than or equal to permissible delay period, case II: cycle time is less than permissible delay period by considering holding cost as a function of time. Numerical examples and sensitivity analysis are given to reflect the numerical results. Mathematica software is used for finding optimal solutions.

  15. Permissive parenting and mental health in college students: Mediating effects of academic entitlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Alison L; Hirsch, Jameson K

    2016-01-01

    Student mental health may suffer due to unreasonable expectations associated with academic entitlement; permissive parenting may be one source of these expectations. The authors examined the role of academic entitlement as a mediator of the relationship between permissive parenting and psychological functioning. Participants were 524 undergraduate students at a single institution (52% female; age range = 18-22). Data collection was completed in May 2011. Cross-sectional design. Participants completed online self-report measures of parenting styles, academic entitlement, stress, depressive symptoms, and well-being. Permissive parenting was associated with greater academic entitlement and, in turn, to more perceived stress and poorer mental health. Mother/father differences were found in some cases. Academic entitlement may partially explain why permissive parenting is detrimentally related to mental health for college students. Implications for academic affairs and counseling include helping students develop an appreciation of the role of self-regulation in college success.

  16. Exploring Permission-Induced Risk in Android Applications for Malicious Application Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Xing; Feng, Dawei; Liu, Jiqiang; Han, Zhen; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2014-01-01

    Android has been a major target of malicious applications (malapps). How to detect and keep the malapps out of the app markets is an ongoing challenge. One of the central design points of Android security mechanism is permission control

  17. State-of-the-art literature review on permissive/protected left-turn control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    In spring 2010, the Illinois Department of Transportation initiated an areawide implementation to integrate the : flashing yellow arrow as the display for the left-turn permissive interval at more than 100 intersections operating : with protected/per...

  18. Assessment of permissible low-level releases of radionuclides into the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.; Sazykina, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    The subject of this paper is radio-ecological assessment of permissible low-level releases of radionuclides in sea waters ensuring the radiological protection of the human population, as well as marine biota. (author)

  19. Development of an Out-Year Planning Document for MPC and A Work at the RMTC as a Base for Future Center Activity and Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryazanov, Boris; Goryunov, Victor; Shapsha, V.; Crawford, Cary E.

    2007-01-01

    The Material Protection Control and Accounting (MPC and A) Program has been working for several years with the Russian Methodological and Training Center (RMTC) to implement training and methodological support programs related to Material Control and Accounting (MC and A). This cooperation will continue throughout the next few years, as courses are updated/maintained, methodological support provided, and an MC and A equipment-testing center established. As this work continues, it is important that not only are the near-term, easily identifiable activities conducted, but also the long-range vision is considered and appropriate plans are prepared to ensure that the work is being addressed in the proper priority. In addition, it is also important that the RMTC understands and identifies the necessary resources to complete the work.

  20. A Five-Level H-Bridge STATCOM for an Off-Grid PV Solar Farm under Two Controllers PI and PIλ-MPC Hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Ozdal Mengi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were presented in order to eliminate the reactive power on microgrid loads fed by an off-grid and mid-power photovoltaic solar energy system (PVSES with a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM device. The electric network is specifically characterized by P-Q loads, ambient temperature, and widely variable solar radiation levels. Two main innovations are developed. Firstly, the STATCOM apparatus is a 5-level H-bridge inverter with capacitances as load and must totally compensates the reactive power in the network load. Secondly, this compensation is controlled by a set of fractional PI (PIλ and model predictive control (MPC hybrid. The efficiencies of these controllers were compared with classical PI controllers. Large simulations, without and with reactive power compensation, in steady and transient states, are carried out to underline the merits of the presented works, by performing in the MATLAB-Simulink environment.

  1. Drug evaluation and the permissive principle: continuities and contradictions between standards and practices in antidepressant regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, John; Davis, Courtney

    2009-08-01

    Pharmaceuticals are not permitted on to the market unless they are granted regulatory approval. The regulatory process is, therefore, crucial in whether or not a drug is widely prescribed. Regulatory agencies have developed standards of performance that pharmaceuticals are supposed to meet before entering the market. Regulation of technologies is often discussed by reference to the precautionary principle. In contrast, this paper develops the concept of the 'permissive principle' as a way of understanding the departure of regulators' practices from standards of drug efficacy to which regulatory agencies themselves subscribe. By taking a case study of antidepressant regulation in the UK and the USA, the mechanisms of permissive regulatory practices are examined. An STS methodology of both spatial (international) and temporal comparisons of regulatory practices with regulatory standards is employed to identify the nature and extent of the permissive regulation. It is found that the permissive principle was adopted by drug regulators in the UK and the USA, but more so by the former than the latter. Evidently, permissive regulation, which favours the commercial interests of the drug manufacturer, but is contrary to the interests of patients, may penetrate to the heart of regulatory science. On the other hand, permissive regulation of specific drugs should not be regarded as an inevitable result of marketing strategies and concomitant networks deployed by powerful pharmaceutical companies, because the extent of permissive regulation may vary according to the intra-institutional normative commitments of regulators to uphold their technical standards against the commercial interests of the manufacturer. Likely sociological factors that can account for such permissive regulatory practices are 'corporate bias', secrecy and excessive regulatory trust in the pharmaceutical industry in the UK, political expediency and ideological capture in the USA, combined in both countries

  2. Procedures for permission under atomic energy laws in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnt, D.

    1980-01-01

    The selection of proper locations by the enterprisers responsible for projects is usually accompanied in recent years by the active location policy of the state. The application for the permission of locations and projects shall be filed to one or more ministries of the province where the facilities are to be installed. The papers describing the projects, especially safety reports and summaries shall be attached to the applications. The applications shall be published on a bulletin of the government office or daily newspapers, and every person has access to the applications, the safety reports and the summaries for two months. When objections are lodged within the period, closed hearings are held to examine the protests with attendance of the objector, the enterpriser of the project and the government office which has joined the decision. Following the phase of public participation and after the confirmation of facts highly important to the decision, fact examination is carried out with cooperation of specialists by the government office authorized for permission. As a special feature of the procedures under Atomgesetz, the government office is not necessarily obliged to give permission considering the safety policy, even when the pre-requisites of permission are all fulfilled. In other respects, permission may be offered for each partial installation of the facilities and various stages of operation by particular administrative measures (partial permission). The experiences of past 20 years indicate the virtual defects of the laws applied, and the amendment is urgently required. (Okada, K.)

  3. Perceived realism moderates the relation between sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes in Dutch adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Doornwaard, Suzan M; Rommes, Els; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined whether the development of sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes would be more strongly interrelated when adolescents perceived sexualized media images as highly realistic. We used data from a three-wave longitudinal sample of 444 Dutch adolescents aged 13-16 years at baseline. Results from parallel process latent growth modeling multigroup analyses showed that higher initial levels of sexualized media consumption were associated with higher initial level of permissive sexual attitudes. Moreover, increases of sexualized media consumption over time were associated with increases of permissive sexual attitudes over time. Considering the moderation by perceived realism, we found these effects only for those who perceived sexualized media as more realistic. Findings for male and female adolescents were similar except for the relations between initial levels and subsequent development. Among male adolescents who perceived sexualized media images to be realistic, higher initial levels of permissive sexual attitudes were related to subsequent less rapid development of sexualized media consumption. For male adolescents who perceived sexualized media to be less realistic, higher initial levels of sexualized media consumption were related to a subsequent less rapid development of permissive sexual attitudes. These relations were not found for female adolescents. Overall, our results suggest that, in male and female adolescents, those with a high level of perceived realism showed a correlated development of sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes. These findings point to a need for extended information on how to guide adolescents in interpreting and handling sexualized media in everyday life.

  4. Breakout Session: Fight for Your Right to Copy: How One Library Acquired the Copyright Permissions Service and Reduced Students’ Costs. Presented by Emily Riha, Copyright Permissions Coordinator, University of Minnesota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Strittmatter

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Emily Riha, Copyright Permissions Coordinator at the University of Minnesota, presented at the 2017 Kraemer Copyright Conference her experience when the process of securing copyright permissions moved from Printing Services to the University Libraries.

  5. On permission of waste-burying business in Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Answer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    As to this case written in the title which was inquired on July 19, 1994, from the prime minister, and changed partly on November 21, 1994, the Nuclear Safety Commission answered to the prime minister as follows after the prudent deliberation. As for the application of the criteria for permission, the technical capability is adequate, and the results of the examination of safety by the expert committee for examining nuclear fuel safety is adequate. It was judged that the safety after the permission of this waste-burying business can be secured. The expert committee reported on the policy of the investigation and deliberation, and the contents of the investigation and deliberation, such as the basic location conditions, namely, site, weather, ground, hydraulics, earthquakes and social environment, the radioactive wastes to be buried, the method of determining radioactivity concentration, the expected time of changing the measures to be taken for security, the safety design for the waste-burying facility related to radiation control, environment safety, earthquakes, fires and explosion, the loss of electric power and the standards and criteria to be conformed, and the assessment of dose equivalent in normal state, after finishing the period of control and safety evaluation, and the course of the investigation and deliberation. (K.I.)

  6. Maximum permissible continuous release rates of phosphorus-32 and sulphur-35 to atmosphere in a milk producing area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, P M

    1963-01-01

    A method is given for calculating, for design purposes, the maximum permissible continuous release rates of phosphorus-32 and sulphur-35 to atmosphere with respect to milk contamination. In the absence of authoritative advice from the Medical Research Council, provisional working levels for the concentration of phosphorus-32 and sulphur-35 in milk are derived, and details are given of the agricultural assumptions involved in the calculation of the relationship between the amount of the nuclide deposited on grassland and that to be found in milk. The agricultural and meteorological conditions assumed are applicable as an annual average to England and Wales. The results (in mc/day) for phosphorus-32 and sulphur-35 for a number of stack heights and distances are shown graphically; typical values, quoted in a table, include 20 mc/day of phosphorus-32 and 30 mc/day of sulfur-35 as the maximum permissible continuous release rates with respect to ground level releases at a distance of 200 metres from pastureland.

  7. The link between maternal sleep and permissive parenting during late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Kelly M; Elmore-Staton, Lori; Buckhalt, Joseph A; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2018-03-05

    Utilizing a multi-method design, the present study examined the association between maternal sleep, assessed via actigraphy and self-reports, and permissive parenting (e.g. lax, inconsistent discipline) during adolescence, as well as the extent to which this association differed by mothers' race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The sample was comprised of 234 mothers (M age = 41.76 years, SD = 6.25; 67% European-American, 31% African-American, 2% other race/ethnicities) and 237 adolescents (113 boys, 124 girls; M age = 15.80 years, SD = 0.80; 66% European-American, 34% African-American). Mothers' sleep duration (actual sleep minutes) and quality (sleep efficiency, latency, long wake episodes) were assessed using actigraphy. Mothers also reported on their sleep problems and adolescents reported on mothers' permissive parenting behaviours. Results revealed that actigraphy-based longer sleep duration and shorter sleep latency were associated with lower levels of permissive parenting. Further, mothers' race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status moderated the association between actigraphy-based sleep quality (i.e. sleep efficiency, long wake episodes) and permissive parenting. Specifically, a negative association between sleep efficiency and permissive parenting was evident only for African-American mothers. In addition, a positive association between more frequent night wakings and permissive parenting was evident only for mothers from lower socioeconomic status households. The findings highlight the benefits of longer and higher-quality sleep for reducing the risk of permissive parenting, especially among ethnic minority mothers and mothers from lower socioeconomic status households. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. A Dynamic Operation Permission Technique Based on an MFM Model and Numerical Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akio, Gofuku; Masahiro, Yonemura

    2011-01-01

    It is important to support operator activities to an abnormal plant situation where many counter actions are taken in relatively short time. The authors proposed a technique called dynamic operation permission to decrease human errors without eliminating creative idea of operators to cope with an abnormal plant situation by checking if the counter action taken is consistent with emergency operation procedure. If the counter action is inconsistent, a dynamic operation permission system warns it to operators. It also explains how and why the counter action is inconsistent and what influence will appear on the future plant behavior by a qualitative influence inference technique based on a model by the Mf (Multilevel Flow Modeling). However, the previous dynamic operation permission is not able to explain quantitative effects on plant future behavior. Moreover, many possible influence paths are derived because a qualitative reasoning does not give a solution when positive and negative influences are propagated to the same node. This study extends the dynamic operation permission by combining the qualitative reasoning and the numerical simulation technique. The qualitative reasoning based on an Mf model of plant derives all possible influence propagation paths. Then, a numerical simulation gives a prediction of plant future behavior in the case of taking a counter action. The influence propagation that does not coincide with the simulation results is excluded from possible influence paths. The extended technique is implemented in a dynamic operation permission system for an oil refinery plant. An MFM model and a static numerical simulator are developed. The results of dynamic operation permission for some abnormal plant situations show the improvement of the accuracy of dynamic operation permission and the quality of explanation for the effects of the counter action taken

  9. Endogenous peripheral hydrogen sulfide is propyretic: its permissive role in brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Renato N; Braga, Sara P; Breder, Jéssica S C; Batalhao, Marcelo E; Oliveira-Pelegrin, Gabriela R; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando R; Rocha, Maria José A; Carnio, Evelin C; Branco, Luiz G S

    2018-03-01

    What is the central question of this study? In fever, the most striking response in the acute phase reaction of systemic inflammation, plasma H 2 S concentration increases. However, the role of endogenous peripheral H 2 S in fever is unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? Endogenous peripheral H 2 S is permissive for increased brown adipose tissue thermogenesis to maintain thermal homeostasis in cold environments as well as to mount fever. This finding expands the physiological role of the gaseous modulator as a key regulator of thermal control in health (thermal homeostasis) and disease (fever in systemic inflammation). In recent years, hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) has been reported as a gaseous modulator acting in several tissues in health and disease. In animal models of systemic inflammation, the plasma H 2 S concentration increases in response to endotoxin (bacterial lipopolysaccharide, LPS). The most striking response in the acute phase reaction of systemic inflammation is fever, but we found no reports of the peripheral action of H 2 S on this thermoregulatory response. We aimed at investigating whether endogenous systemic H 2 S modulates LPS-induced fever. A temperature datalogger capsule was inserted in the abdominal cavity of male Wistar rats (220-270 g) to record body core temperature. These animals received an i.p. injection of a systemic H 2 S inhibitor (propargylglycine; 50 or 75 mg kg -1 ), immediately followed by an i.p. injection of LPS (50 or 2500 μg kg -1 ), and were exposed to different ambient temperatures (16, 22 or 27°C). At 22°C, but not at 27°C, propargylglycine at 75 mg kg -1 significantly attenuated (P endogenous peripheral H 2 S on brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. Evidence on the modulatory role of peripheral H 2 S in BAT thermogenesis was strengthened when we discarded (i) the possible influence of the gas on febrigenic signalling (when measuring plasma cytokines), and (ii) its interaction with the nitric

  10. A single-blinded randomised clinical trial of permissive underfeeding in patients requiring parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owais, Anwar Elias; Kabir, Syed Irfan; Mcnaught, Clare; Gatt, Marcel; MacFie, John

    2014-12-01

    The importance of adequate nutritional support is well established, but characterising what 'adequate nutrition' represents remains contentious. In recent years there has been increasing interest in the concept of 'permissive underfeeding' where patients are intentionally prescribed less nutrition than their calculated requirements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of permissive underfeeding on septic and nutrition related morbidity in patients requiring short term parenteral nutrition (PN). This was a single-blinded randomised clinical trial of 50 consecutive patients requiring parenteral nutritional support. Patients were randomized to receive either normocaloric or hypocaloric feeding (respectively 100% vs. 60% of estimated requirements). The primary end point was septic complications. Secondary end points included the metabolic, physiological and clinical outcomes to the two feeding protocols. Permissive underfeeding was associated with fewer septic complications (3 vs. 12 patients; p = 0.003), and a lower incidence of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (9 vs. 16 patients; p = 0.017). Permissively underfed patients had fewer feed related complications (2 vs. 9 patients; p = 0.016). Permissive underfeeding in patients requiring short term PN appears to be safe and may results in reduced septic and feed-related complications. NCT01154179 TRIAL REGISTRY: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01154179. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternal risk factors in fetal alcohol syndrome: provocative and permissive influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, E L; Hannigan, J H

    1995-01-01

    We present an hypothesis integrating epidemiological, clinical case, and basic biomedical research to explain why only relatively few women who drink alcohol during pregnancy give birth to children with alcohol-related birth defects (ARBDs), in particular, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). We argue that specific sociobehavioral risk factors, e.g., low socioeconomic status, are permissive for FAS in that they provide the context for increased vulnerability. We illustrate how these permissive factors are related to biological factors, e.g., decreased antioxidant status, which in conjunction with alcohol, provoke FAS/ARBDs in vulnerable fetuses. We propose an integrative heuristic model hypothesizing that these permissive and provocative factors increase the likelihood of FAS/ARBDs because they potentiate two related mechanisms of alcohol-induced teratogenesis, specifically, maternal/fetal hypoxia and free radical formation.

  12. WifiLeaks: Underestimated Privacy Implications of the ACCESS_WIFI_STATE Android Permission

    OpenAIRE

    Achara , Jagdish Prasad; Cunche , Mathieu; Roca , Vincent; Francillon , Aurélien

    2014-01-01

    A short version has been accepted for publication in: 7th ACM Conference on Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks (WISEC'14) Oxford, United Kingdom, July 23rd -- 25th 2014; On Android, users can choose to install an application, or not, based on the permissions it requests. These permissions are later enforced on the application by the system, e.g., when accessing sensitive user data. In this work, we focus on the access to Wi-Fi related information, which is protected by the A...

  13. A Mixed Logical Dynamical-Model Predictive Control (MLD-MPC Energy Management Control Strategy for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs can be considered as a hybrid system (HS which includes the continuous state variable, discrete event, and operation constraint. Thus, a model predictive control (MPC strategy for PHEVs based on the mixed logical dynamical (MLD model and short-term vehicle speed prediction is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the mathematical model of the controlled PHEV is set-up to evaluate the energy consumption using the linearized models of core power components. Then, based on the recognition of driving intention and the past vehicle speed data, a nonlinear auto-regressive (NAR neural network structure is designed to predict the vehicle speed for known driving profiles of city buses and the predicted vehicle speed is used to calculate the total required torque. Next, a MLD model is established with appropriate constraints for six possible driving modes. By solving the objective function with the Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP algorithm, the optimal motor torque and the corresponding driving mode sequence within the speed prediction horizon can be obtained. Finally, the proposed energy control strategy shows substantial improvement in fuel economy in the simulation results.

  14. Permissiveness toward divorce : The influence of divorce experiences in three social contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we assess whether divorce experiences in three social contexts shape individual’s permissiveness toward divorce. Using European Values Study data from 44 countries, we find that—net of personal divorce experience—parental divorce before the age of 18 (socialization context); parental

  15. Permissiveness toward divorce: The influence of divorce experiences in three social contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we assess whether divorce experiences in three social contexts shape individual’s permissiveness toward divorce. Using European Values Study data from 44 countries, we find that—net of personal divorce experience—parental divorce before the age of 18 (socialization context); parental

  16. The study on the adaptation for regulation - the permission of a radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung Il; Choi, Won Seok; Jung, Yong Moon [Gallup Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-08-15

    The restriction -the permission of a radioisotope keeps satisfaction with almost parts for example, awareness, observance and so on. Moreover two concepts are considered fully -too strict about certain specific control rules and needed more discriminated application standards to each organization related to KINS, it's preserved and controlled properly even if the penalties are downsized.

  17. A colorimetric sensor array for identification of toxic gases below permissible exposure limits†

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Liang; Musto, Christopher J.; Kemling, Jonathan W.; Lim, Sung H.; Suslick, Kenneth S.

    2010-01-01

    A colorimetric sensor array has been developed for the rapid and sensitive detection of 20 toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) at their PELs (permissible exposure limits). The color changes in an array of chemically responsive nanoporous pigments provide facile identification of the TICs with an error rate below 0.7%.

  18. Student Learning with Permissive and Restrictive Cell Phone Policies: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Alexander L.

    2018-01-01

    Based on Finn and Ledbetter's (2013; 2014) work regarding classroom technology policies, this experimental study examined the implementation of a permissive and a restrictive cellular phone policy and the effect of these policies on students' cognitive and affective learning in two sections of a public speaking course. College students (N = 31)…

  19. 34 CFR 222.194 - Are “in-kind” contributions permissible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (b) Third party in-kind contributions mean property or services that benefit this grant program and... indirect costs, the provisions of 34 CFR 80.24 govern the allowability and valuation of in-kind contributions, except that it is permissible for a third party to contribute real property to a grantee for a...

  20. Corruption and the Other(s): Scope of Superordinate Identity Matters for Corruption Permissibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisor, Anne C; Gurven, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The decision to engage in corruption-public and private corruption, nepotism, and embezzlement-is often attributed to rational actors maximizing benefits to themselves. However, the importance of reciprocal relationships in humans suggests that an actor may weigh the costs of harms of her corrupt behavior to individuals who may generate future benefits for her. We hypothesize that actors who have a larger circle of actual and potential social partners will have more individuals to consider when generating harms and will thus be less likely to find corrupt acts permissible than actors with smaller circles of valued others. Using data from the World Values Survey and European Values Study (WVS), we explore whether participants with a larger geographic identity or a greater number of group memberships (i.e. a larger scope of actual and potential social partners) are less likely to find accepting bribes permissible. We find mixed support for our hypotheses, but consistently find that WVS participants with local, country, continent, or world geographic identities are less likely to find accepting a bribe permissible than those with regional identities-that is, actors whose primary identities that encompass more than their region find corruption less permissible. We discuss the importance of considering an actor's valuation of others when modeling corruption persistence, noting that establishing scopes of positive valuation is a precursor to predicting where actors will target benefits and shunt costs.

  1. 17 CFR 240.12f-1 - Applications for permission to reinstate unlisted trading privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reinstate unlisted trading privileges. 240.12f-1 Section 240.12f-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Rules and Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Unlisted Trading § 240.12f-1 Applications for permission to reinstate unlisted trading privileges. (a) An application to reinstate unlisted...

  2. 12 CFR 714.2 - What are the permissible leasing arrangements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the permissible leasing arrangements? 714.2 Section 714.2 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING... leasing. In direct leasing, you purchase personal property from a vendor, becoming the owner of the...

  3. 30 CFR 75.504 - Permissibility of new, replacement, used, reconditioned, additional, and rebuilt electric face...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.504 Permissibility of new, replacement... new, replacement, used, reconditioned, and additional electric face equipment used in any mine..., unless in the opinion of the Secretary, such equipment or necessary replacement parts are not available...

  4. 49 CFR 350.319 - What are permissible uses of High Priority Activity Funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Activity Funds? 350.319 Section 350.319 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... permissible uses of High Priority Activity Funds? (a) The FMCSA may generally use these funds to support, enrich, or evaluate State CMV safety programs and to accomplish the five objectives listed below: (1...

  5. Guidance document on the derivation of maximum permissible risk levels for human intake of soil contaminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen PJCM; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1997-01-01

    This report contains a basic step-to-step description of the procedure followed in the derivation of the human-toxicological Maximum Permissible Risk (MPR ; in Dutch: Maximum Toelaatbaar Risico, MTR) for soil contaminants. In recent years this method has been applied for a large number of compounds

  6. Android Application Install-time Permission Validation and Run-time Malicious Pattern Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    The open source structure of Android applications introduces security vulnerabilities that can be readily exploited by third-party applications. We address certain vulnerabilities at both installation and runtime using machine learning. Effective classification techniques with neural networks can be used to verify the application categories on installation. We devise a novel application category verification methodology that involves machine learning the application permissions...

  7. AN OPTIMAL REPLENISHMENT POLICY FOR DETERIORATING ITEMS WITH RAMP TYPE DEMAND UNDER PERMISSIBLE DELAY IN PAYMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sanjay Jain

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop an optimal replenishment policy for inventory models of deteriorating items with ramp type demand under permissible delay in payments. Deterioration of items begins on their arrival in stock.  An example is also presented to illustrate the application of developed model.

  8. Early alcohol use with parental permission: Psychosocial characteristics and drinking in late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colder, Craig R; Shyhalla, Kathleen; Frndak, Seth E

    2018-01-01

    The earliest experiences with alcohol for many children occur in the family context with parental supervision. The current study examined individual and sociocultural characteristics associated with early (prior to age 13years) sipping and tasting alcohol with parental permission in two longitudinal community samples. Early sipping/tasting was also tested as a predictor of frequency and quantity of alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems seven years later in late adolescence. Early sipping/tasting with parental permission was associated with a sociocultural context supportive of alcohol use (e.g., parental alcohol use, permissive rules about alcohol use in the home, parental attitudes about underage drinking, perceived peer norms), adolescent sensation seeking and disinhibition (e.g., surgency, externalizing behavior) and appraisals of alcohol (negative outcome expectancies and negative implicit alcohol associations). Early sipping/tasting predicted increased frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption, and increased alcohol-related problems in late adolescence, even after controlling sociocultural and individual difference variables. Findings suggest that early sipping/tasting with parental permission is not benign and is a viable target for preventive interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 42 CFR 433.67 - Limitations on level of FFP for permissible provider-related donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provider-related donations. 433.67 Section 433.67 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... permissible provider-related donations. (a)(1) Limitations on bona fide donations. There are no limitations on the amount of bona fide provider-related donations that a State may receive without a reduction in FFP...

  10. A cash flow oriented EOQ model under permissible delay in payments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cash flow oriented EOQ model under permissible delay in payments. RP Tripathi, SS Misra, HS Shukla. Abstract. This study presents an inventory model to determine an optimal ordering policy for non-deteriorating items and timedependent demand rate with delay in payments permitted by the supplier under inflation and ...

  11. 77 FR 17367 - Permissible Sharing of Client Records by Customs Brokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ...-0038] RIN 1651-AA80 Permissible Sharing of Client Records by Customs Brokers AGENCY: U.S. Customs and... would allow brokers, upon the client's consent in a written authorization, to share client information... services to the broker's clients. Although the proposed rule was prepared in response to a request from a...

  12. 75 FR 66050 - Permissible Sharing of Client Records by Customs Brokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    .... USCBP-2010-0038] RIN 1651-AA80 Permissible Sharing of Client Records by Customs Brokers AGENCIES... the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) pertaining to the obligations of customs brokers to keep clients' information confidential. The proposed amendment would allow brokers, upon the client's consent in a written...

  13. 36 CFR 223.7 - Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER General Provisions § 223.7 Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas. Similar material may be cut outside of a free-use area without permit in cases of emergency, but the person taking such material shall promptly notify...

  14. 26 CFR 1.414(w)-1 - Permissible withdrawals from eligible automatic contribution arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contribution arrangements. 1.414(w)-1 Section 1.414(w)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Plans, Etc. § 1.414(w)-1 Permissible withdrawals from eligible automatic contribution arrangements. (a) Overview. Section 414(w) provides rules under which certain employees are permitted to elect to make a...

  15. Maximum Permissible Risk Levels for Human Intake of Soil Contaminants: Fourth Series of Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen PJCM; Apeldoorn ME van; Engelen JGM van; Schielen PCJI; Wouters MFA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the human-toxicological risk assessment work done in 1996 and 1997 at RIVM's Centre for Substances and Risk Assessment within the scope of the RIVM project on soil intervention values for soil clean-up. The method used for derivation of the Maximum Permissible Risk, as

  16. Corruption and the Other(s: Scope of Superordinate Identity Matters for Corruption Permissibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne C Pisor

    Full Text Available The decision to engage in corruption-public and private corruption, nepotism, and embezzlement-is often attributed to rational actors maximizing benefits to themselves. However, the importance of reciprocal relationships in humans suggests that an actor may weigh the costs of harms of her corrupt behavior to individuals who may generate future benefits for her. We hypothesize that actors who have a larger circle of actual and potential social partners will have more individuals to consider when generating harms and will thus be less likely to find corrupt acts permissible than actors with smaller circles of valued others. Using data from the World Values Survey and European Values Study (WVS, we explore whether participants with a larger geographic identity or a greater number of group memberships (i.e. a larger scope of actual and potential social partners are less likely to find accepting bribes permissible. We find mixed support for our hypotheses, but consistently find that WVS participants with local, country, continent, or world geographic identities are less likely to find accepting a bribe permissible than those with regional identities-that is, actors whose primary identities that encompass more than their region find corruption less permissible. We discuss the importance of considering an actor's valuation of others when modeling corruption persistence, noting that establishing scopes of positive valuation is a precursor to predicting where actors will target benefits and shunt costs.

  17. Concentrated Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar

    2014-01-01

    This entry summarizes the main theoretical contributions and empirical findings in relation to concentrated ownership from a law and economics perspective. The various forms of concentrated ownership are described as well as analyzed from the perspective of the legal protection of investors......, especially minority shareholders. Concentrated ownership is associated with benefits and costs. Concentrated ownership may reduce agency costs by increased monitoring of top management. However, concentrated ownership may also provide dominating owners with private benefits of control....

  18. Secondary poisoning of cadmium, copper and mercury: implications for the Maximum Permissible Concentrations and Negligible Concentrations in water, sediment and soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit CE; van Wezel AP; Jager T; Traas TP; CSR

    2000-01-01

    De betekenis van doorvergiftiging voor de Maximum Toelaatbaar Risiconiveau's (MTRs) en Verwaarloosbaar Risiconiveau's (VRs) van cadmium, koper en kwik in water, sediment en bodem is geevalueerd. Veldgegevens met betrekking tot de accumulatie van deze elementen door vissen, mosselen en

  19. Elliptical concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel; Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2006-10-10

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used to produce optical devices, including the use of reflective and refractive components or inverse engineering techniques. However, many of these optical components are based on translational symmetries, rotational symmetries, or free-form surfaces. We study a new family of nonimaging concentrators called elliptical concentrators. This new family of concentrators provides new capabilities and can have different configurations, either homofocal or nonhomofocal. Translational and rotational concentrators can be considered as particular cases of elliptical concentrators.

  20. Connection of automatic integral multichannel monitor of aerosol concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejci, M.; Stulik, P.

    1985-01-01

    The instrument consists of the actual aerosol concentration monitor with two equivalent inputs, of an electropneumatic sampling selector, an aerosol pump, an electropneumatic valve, and of an exhaust device. For integral operating mode the instrument allows rapid checking and indication of exceedance of the permissible aerosol concentration limit at any sampling point. Upon exceedance of the permissible concentration limit, the device automatically switches into the multichannel cyclic measurement mode while the sampling point is identified where the aerosol concentration was increased. An emergency is displayed if the permissible limit has been exceeded. Following removal of the source of dangerous aerosol concentration, the control unit automatically switches the device into the integral measurement mode. (J.B.)

  1. Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs: determination of permissible levels; Contamination radioactive des denrees alimentaires: determination des niveaux admissibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledermann, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay- aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    In a latent air-soil contamination situation, the population would receive 80 per cent of its contamination through foodstuffs. The supervision of this food poses many problems: sampling, radionuclide dosages, etc. It is also necessary to estimate the maximum permissible concentration of radionuclides in foodstuffs, once the maximum exposure limit for the human body has been fixed. The passage of this level to the maximum concentrations is not simple since a) each radionuclide has its own particular effect on the body; b) their concentrations vary from one foodstuff to another, and c) the average amounts of foodstuffs vary from one population to another. Two methods are given here for estimating the maximum permissible concentrations in foodstuffs, together with the first diets likely to become critical when several of them are to be considered simultaneously. The results depend on the way in which the present situation can change to become critical. This evolutionary path can only be estimated approximately. Two methods are therefore given for studying the sensitivity of the results. As an example, a numerical application of these methods using data actually available is given. The data used is naturally incomplete and this will always be true. This application test indicates however two fields in which an improvement is absolutely necessary. 1 - The obtention of multiple observations (simultaneous dosage of at least 2 radionuclides in the same foodstuff, and simultaneous dosage of at least two foodstuffs for the same radionuclide); this assumes a combined effort by the various organisms; 2 - The reaching of an agreement on the dosage methods used by the various organisms since the results actually available are not comparable. (authors) [French] Dans une situation de contamination air-sol latente, la contamination des populations se ferait a 80 pour cent par l'alimentation. Surveiller cette alimentation pose des problemes complexes: echantillonnage, dosage des

  2. Concentration risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matić Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration risk has been gaining a special dimension in the contemporary financial and economic environment. Financial institutions are exposed to this risk mainly in the field of lending, mostly through their credit activities and concentration of credit portfolios. This refers to the concentration of different exposures within a single risk category (credit risk, market risk, operational risk, liquidity risk.

  3. Permissive effect of dexamethasone on the increase of proenkephalin mRNA induced by depolarization of chromaffin cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naranjo, J.R.; Mocchetti, I.; Schwartz, J.P.; Costa, E.

    1986-01-01

    In cultured bovine chromaffin cells, changes in the dynamic state of enkephalin stores elicited experimentally were studied by measuring cellular proenkephalin mRNA, as well as enkephalin precursors and authentic enkephalin content of cells and culture media. In parallel, tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and catecholamine cell content were also determined. Low concentrations (0.5-100 pM) of dexamethasone increased the cell contents of proenkephalin mRNA and enkephalin-containing peptides. High concentrations of the hormone(1 μM) were required to increase the cell contents of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and catecholamines. Depolarization of the cells with 10 μM veratridine resulted in a depletion of enkephalin and catecholamine stores after 24 hr. The enkephalin, but not the catecholamine, content was restored by 48 hr. An increase in proenkephalin mRNA content might account for the recovery; this increase was curtailed by tetrodotoxin and enhanced by 10 pM dexamethasone. Tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA content was not significantly modified by depolarization, even in the presence of 1 μM dexamethasone. Aldosterone, progesterone, testosterone, or estradiol (1 μM) failed to change proenkephalin mRNA. Hence, dexamethasone appears to exert a specific permissive action on the stimulation of the proenkephalin gene elicited by depolarization. Though the catecholamines and enkephalins are localized in the same chromaffin granules and are coreleased by depolarization, the genes coding for the processes that are rate limiting in the production of these neuromodulators can be differentially regulated

  4. Effect of ultrasound treatments on functional properties and structure of millet protein concentrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazari, Bahman; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the effect of high power ultrasound (US) probe in varying intensities and times (18.4, 29.58, and 73.95 W/cm2 for 5, 12.5 and 20 min respectively) on functional properties of millet protein concentrate (MPC) was investigated, and also the structural properties of best modified.......37 ± 5.51 ml), but increased upon US treatments at high intensities (749.7 ± 2 ml). In addition, EAI and ES increased after US treatments. One of the best US treatments that can improve the functional properties of MPC was 73.95 W/cm2 for 12.5 min that resulted in reduction of molecular weight and increase...

  5. The MASSIVE survey. I. A volume-limited integral-field spectroscopic study of the most massive early-type galaxies within 108 Mpc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Chung-Pei [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Greene, Jenny E.; Murphy, Jeremy D. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); McConnell, Nicholas [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Janish, Ryan [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Blakeslee, John P. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Thomas, Jens, E-mail: cpma@berkeley.edu [Max Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany)

    2014-11-10

    Massive early-type galaxies represent the modern day remnants of the earliest major star formation episodes in the history of the universe. These galaxies are central to our understanding of the evolution of cosmic structure, stellar populations, and supermassive black holes, but the details of their complex formation histories remain uncertain. To address this situation, we have initiated the MASSIVE Survey, a volume-limited, multi-wavelength, integral-field spectroscopic (IFS) and photometric survey of the structure and dynamics of the ∼100 most massive early-type galaxies within a distance of 108 Mpc. This survey probes a stellar mass range M* ≳ 10{sup 11.5} M {sub ☉} and diverse galaxy environments that have not been systematically studied to date. Our wide-field IFS data cover about two effective radii of individual galaxies, and for a subset of them, we are acquiring additional IFS observations on sub-arcsecond scales with adaptive optics. We are also acquiring deep K-band imaging to trace the extended halos of the galaxies and measure accurate total magnitudes. Dynamical orbit modeling of the combined data will allow us to simultaneously determine the stellar, black hole, and dark matter halo masses. The primary goals of the project are to constrain the black hole scaling relations at high masses, investigate systematically the stellar initial mass function and dark matter distribution in massive galaxies, and probe the late-time assembly of ellipticals through stellar population and kinematical gradients. In this paper, we describe the MASSIVE sample selection, discuss the distinct demographics and structural and environmental properties of the selected galaxies, and provide an overview of our basic observational program, science goals and early survey results.

  6. Permissive and instructive anterior patterning rely on mRNA localization in the wasp embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Ava E; Yucel, Gozde; Small, Stephen; Desplan, Claude

    2007-03-30

    The long-germ mode of embryogenesis, in which segments arise simultaneously along the anteriorposterior axis, has evolved several times in different lineages of the holometabolous, or fully metamorphosing, insects. Drosophila's long-germ fate map is established largely by the activity of the dipteran-specific Bicoid (Bcd) morphogen gradient, which operates both instructively and permissively to accomplish anterior patterning. By contrast, all nondipteran long-germ insects must achieve anterior patterning independently of bcd. We show that bcd's permissive function is mimicked in the wasp by a maternal repression system in which anterior localization of the wasp ortholog of giant represses anterior expression of the trunk gap genes so that head and thorax can properly form.

  7. Mycobacteria exploit nitric oxide-induced transformation of macrophages into permissive giant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharun, Kourosh; Senges, Julia; Seidl, Maximilian; Lösslein, Anne; Kolter, Julia; Lohrmann, Florens; Fliegauf, Manfred; Elgizouli, Magdeldin; Vavra, Martina; Schachtrup, Kristina; Illert, Anna L; Gilleron, Martine; Kirschning, Carsten J; Triantafyllopoulou, Antigoni; Henneke, Philipp

    2017-12-01

    Immunity to mycobacteria involves the formation of granulomas, characterized by a unique macrophage (MΦ) species, so-called multinucleated giant cells (MGC). It remains unresolved whether MGC are beneficial to the host, that is, by prevention of bacterial spread, or whether they promote mycobacterial persistence. Here, we show that the prototypical antimycobacterial molecule nitric oxide (NO), which is produced by MGC in excessive amounts, is a double-edged sword. Next to its antibacterial capacity, NO propagates the transformation of MΦ into MGC, which are relatively permissive for mycobacterial persistence. The mechanism underlying MGC formation involves NO-induced DNA damage and impairment of p53 function. Moreover, MGC have an unsurpassed potential to engulf mycobacteria-infected apoptotic cells, which adds a further burden to their antimycobacterial capacity. Accordingly, mycobacteria take paradoxical advantage of antimicrobial cellular efforts by driving effector MΦ into a permissive MGC state. © 2017 The Authors.

  8. A Rational Threshold Signature Model and Protocol Based on Different Permissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a novel model and protocol used in some specific scenarios, in which the participants of multiple groups with different permissions can finish the signature together. We apply the secret sharing scheme based on difference equation to the private key distribution phase and secret reconstruction phrase of our threshold signature scheme. In addition, our scheme can achieve the signature success because of the punishment strategy of the repeated rational secret sharing. Besides, the bit commitment and verification method used to detect players’ cheating behavior acts as a contributing factor to prevent the internal fraud. Using bit commitments, verifiable parameters, and time sequences, this paper constructs a dynamic game model, which has the features of threshold signature management with different permissions, cheat proof, and forward security.

  9. Comparative Evaluation of Permissiveness to Dengue Virus Serotype 2 Infection in Primary Rodent Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Prada-Arismendy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with dengue virus presents a broad clinical spectrum, which can range from asymptomatic cases to severe cases that are characterised by haemorrhagic syndrome and/or shock. The reason for such variability remains unknown. This work evaluated the in vitro permissiveness of mouse, rat, hamster and guinea pig macrophages to infection by dengue virus 2 (DENV2. The results established that macrophages derived from the BALB/c mouse strain showed higher permissiveness to DENV2 infection than macrophages from other rodent species, although all rodent species studied had the C820T mutation in the oligoadenylate synthetase 1b gene, indicating no relationship to the different in vitro susceptibilities of mouse cells at this locus. Other molecular mechanisms related to flavivirus susceptibility remain to be explored.

  10. Concentrator Photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Luque, Antonio L

    2007-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar-energy conversion is one of the most promising technologies for generating renewable energy, and conversion of concentrated sunlight can lead to reduced cost for solar electricity. In fact, photovoltaic conversion of concentrated sunlight insures an efficient and cost-effective sustainable power resource. This book gives an overview of all components, e.g. cells, concentrators, modules and systems, for systems of concentrator photovoltaics. The authors report on significant results related to design, technology, and applications, and also cover the fundamental physics and market considerations. Specific contributions include: theory and practice of sunlight concentrators; an overview of concentrator PV activities; a description of concentrator solar cells; design and technology of modules and systems; manufacturing aspects; and a market study.

  11. Human Lysozyme Synergistically Enhances Bactericidal Dynamics and Lowers the Resistant Mutant Prevention Concentration for Metronidazole to Helicobacter pylori by Increasing Cell Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Metronidazole (MNZ is an effective agent that has been employed to eradicate Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori. The emergence of broad MNZ resistance in H. pylori has affected the efficacy of this therapeutic agent. The concentration of MNZ, especially the mutant prevention concentration (MPC, plays an important role in selecting or enriching resistant mutants and regulating therapeutic effects. A strategy to reduce the MPC that can not only effectively treat H. pylori but also prevent resistance mutations is needed. H. pylori is highly resistant to lysozyme. Lysozyme possesses a hydrolytic bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan and a cationic dependent mode. These effects can increase the permeability of bacterial cells and promote antibiotic absorption into bacterial cells. In this study, human lysozyme (hLYS was used to probe its effects on the integrity of the H. pylori outer and inner membranes using as fluorescent probe hydrophobic 1-N-phenyl-naphthylamine (NPN and the release of aspartate aminotransferase. Further studies using a propidium iodide staining method assessed whether hLYS could increase cell permeability and promote cell absorption. Finally, we determined the effects of hLYS on the bactericidal dynamics and MPC of MNZ in H. pylori. Our findings indicate that hLYS could dramatically increase cell permeability, reduce the MPC of MNZ for H. pylori, and enhance its bactericidal dynamic activity, demonstrating that hLYS could reduce the probability of MNZ inducing resistance mutations.

  12. A Static Android Malware Detection Based on Actual Used Permissions Combination and API Calls

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoqing Wang; Junfeng Wang; Xiaolan Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Android operating system has been recognized by most application developers because of its good open-source and compatibility, which enriches the categories of applications greatly. However, it has become the target of malware attackers due to the lack of strict security supervision mechanisms, which leads to the rapid growth of malware, thus bringing serious safety hazards to users. Therefore, it is critical to detect Android malware effectively. Generally, the permissions declared in the An...

  13. Determination of Permissible Short-Time Emergency Overloading of Turbo-Generators and Synchronous Compensators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Anischenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that failure to take into account variable ratio of short-time emergency overloading of turbo-generators (synchronous compensators that can lead to underestimation of overloading capacity or impermissible insulation over-heating.A method has been developed for determination of permissible duration of short-time emergency over-loading that takes into account changes of over-loading ratio in case of a failure.

  14. Permissive cytomegalovirus infection of primary villous term and first trimester trophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, D G; Kilani, R; Nykiforuk, C; Preiksaitis, J; Guilbert, L J

    1998-06-01

    Forty percent of women with primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections during pregnancy infect their fetuses with complications for the baby varying from mild to severe. How CMV crosses the syncytiotrophoblast, the barrier between maternal blood and fetal tissue in the villous placenta, is unknown. Virus may cross by infection of maternal cells that pass through physical breaches in the syncytiotrophoblast or by direct infection of the syncytiotrophoblast, with subsequent transmission to underlying fetal placental cells. In this study, we show that pure (>99.99%), long-term and healthy (>3 weeks) cultures of syncytiotrophoblasts are permissively infected with CMV. Greater than 99% of infectious progeny virus remained cell associated throughout culture periods up to 3 weeks. Infection of term trophoblasts required a higher virus inoculum, was less efficient, and progressed more slowly than parallel infections of placental and human embryonic lung fibroblasts. Three laboratory strains (AD169, Towne, and Davis) and a clinical isolate from a congenitally infected infant all permissively infected trophoblasts, although infection efficiencies varied. The infection of first trimester syncytiotrophoblasts with strain AD169 occurred at higher frequency and progressed more rapidly than infection of term cells but less efficiently and rapidly than infection of fibroblasts. These results show that villous syncytiotrophoblasts can be permissively infected by CMV but that the infection requires high virus titers and proceeds slowly and that progeny virus remains predominantly cell associated.

  15. PROBABILISTIC APPROACH FOR THE DETERMINATION OF CUTS PERMISSIBLE BRAKING MODES ON THE GRAVITY HUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr BOBROVSKYI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research results of cuts braking modes on the gravity humps. The objective of this paper is developing the methods for assessment of braking modes of cuts under conditions of fuzziness of their rolling properties, as well as selecting the permissible starting speed range of cuts from retardant positions. As a criterion for assessing the modes of target control of cut rolling speed, it was proposed to use an average gap size on a classification track at the established norms of probable exceeding of permissible speed of cars collision and their stop in retarders. As a criterion for evaluating the modes of interval control of cuts rolling speed, using the risk of their non-separation on the switches was proposed. Using the simulation modeling and mathematical statistics, the configuration of the range of permissible speed of cuts coming out from retardant positions has been set. The conducted researches allow simplifying the choice of cut braking modes in systems of automatic control of cut rolling speed.

  16. The levels of heavy metals in water and all aquatic in Ismailia canal, (Egypt) compared with the international permissible limits and accumulative studies for these metals in biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, H.M.; Moloukhia, H.; Belacy, N.; Abd El-Rahman, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zu, Ni, Fe and Mn were determined in water, and in different organs of fishes, bivalves, snails and plants in Ismailia canal, Egypt. Moreover, accumulation of the investigated heavy metals by aquatic biota in Ismailia canal and the concentration factor values for this accumulation were calculated to qualify the degree of pollution and compare these levels with the international permissible limits. Results showed that Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn were exceeded the permissible limits especially in the industrial area of Abu- Zaabal, Kalubia governorate. The relative order of heavy metal levels in the canal water was: Fe>Mn>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd>Cu.Accumulation of heavy metals by the aquatic biota was determined. The accumulation of heavy metals by common snails, namely physa acuta and biomphalaria alexandrina and the bivalve oyster Caelatura (caelatura) companyoi was found mainly in the edible parts (soft parts), whereas, the accumulation by their shells, which are mainly formed of calcium carbonate was via adsorption and surface complexation, since all the accumulated heavy metals were released by adding 0.1 M HCl for few minutes . Moreover, accumulation of heavy metals by common plants namely water hyacinth plant (Eichhornia crassipes) and freshwater weeds were determined. It was found that the accumulation of heavy metals was higher in roots than in leaves. On the other hand, the accumulation of heavy metals by common fish namely, Oreochromis niloticus (Nile Tilapia) was measured in its organs : muscles, liver, gills and gonads. It was found that there is variation of distribution of heavy metals among fish organs. Since the high accumulation of heavy metals among the investigated biota, they can be used as biological indicator for pollution of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystem . The average values and standard deviation for all measurements were determined. Data obtained were compared with the permissible concentrations of the environmental protection

  17. The Impact of Different Permissible Exposure Limits on Hearing Threshold Levels Beyond 25 dBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayapathi, Balachandar S; Su, Anselm Ting; Koh, David

    2014-10-01

    Development of noise-induced hearing loss is reliant on a few factors such as frequency, intensity, and duration of noise exposure. The occurrence of this occupational malady has doubled from 120 million to 250 million in a decade. Countries such as Malaysia, India, and the US have adopted 90 dBA as the permissible exposure limit. According to the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the exposure limit for noise is 90 dBA, while that of the US National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is 85 dBA for 8 hours of noise exposure. This study aimed to assess the development of hearing threshold levels beyond 25 dBA on adoption of 85 dBA as the permissible exposure limit compared to 90 dBA. This is an intervention study done on two automobile factories. There were 203 employees exposed to noise levels beyond the action level. Hearing protection devices were distributed to reduce noise levels to a level between the permissible exposure limit and action level. The permissible exposure limits were 90 and 85 dBA in factories 1 and 2, respectively, while the action levels were 85 and 80 dBA, respectively. The hearing threshold levels of participants were measured at baseline and at first month of postshift exposure of noise. The outcome was measured by a manual audiometer. McNemar and chi-square tests were used in the statistical analysis. We found that hearing threshold levels of more than 25 dBA has changed significantly from pre-intervention to post-intervention among participants from both factories (3000 Hz for the right ear and 2000 Hz for the left ear). There was a statistically significant association between participants at 3000 Hz on the right ear at 'deteriorated' level ( χ² (1) = 4.08, φ = - 0.142, P = 0.043), whereas there was worsening of hearing threshold beyond 25 dBA among those embraced 90 dBA. The adoption of 85 dBA as the permissible exposure limit has preserved hearing threshold level among participants at 3000 Hz

  18. Permissive hypercapnia for the prevention of morbidity and mortality in mechanically ventilated newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, P G; Davies, M W

    2001-01-01

    Experimental animal data and uncontrolled, observational studies in human infants have suggested that hyperventilation and hypocapnia may be associated with increased pulmonary and neurodevelopmental morbidity. Protective ventilatory strategies allowing higher levels of arterial CO2 (permissive hypercapnia) are now widely used in adult critical care. The aggressive pursuit of normocapnia in ventilated newborn infants may contribute to the already present burden of lung disease. However, the safe or ideal range for PCO2 in this vulnerable population has not been established. To assess whether, in mechanically ventilated neonates, a strategy of permissive hypercapnia improves short and long term outcomes (esp. mortality, duration of respiratory support, incidence of chronic lung disease and neurodevelopmental outcome). Standard strategies of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group were used. Searches were made of the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Current Contents. Searches were also made of previous reviews including cross-referencing, abstracts, and conference and symposia proceedings published in Pediatric Research. All randomised controlled trials in which a strategy of permissive hypercapnia was compared with conventional strategies aimed at achieving normocapnia (or lower levels of hypercapnia) in newborn infants who are mechanically ventilated were eligible. Standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group were used. Trials identified by the search strategy were independently reviewed by each author and assessed for eligibility and trial quality. Data were extracted separately. Differences were compared and resolved. Additional information was requested from trial authors. Only published data were available for review. Results are expressed as relative risk and risk difference for dichotomous outcomes, and weighted mean difference for continuous variables. Two trials involving 269 newborn infants were included. Meta-analysis of

  19. 29 CFR 3.5 - Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor. 3.5 Section 3.5 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND... STATES § 3.5 Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor...

  20. 11 CFR 114.15 - Permissible use of corporate and labor organization funds for certain electioneering communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissible use of corporate and labor organization funds for certain electioneering communications. 114.15 Section 114.15 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL CORPORATE AND LABOR ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY § 114.15 Permissible use of corporate...

  1. Challenges to obtaining parental permission for child participation in a school-based waterpipe tobacco smoking prevention intervention in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkash, Rima T; Al Mulla, Ahmad; Torossian, Lena; Karhily, Roubina; Shuayb, Lama; Mahfoud, Ziyad R; Janahi, Ibrahim; Al Ansari, Al Anoud; Afifi, Rema A

    2014-09-30

    Involving children in research studies requires obtaining parental permission. A school-based intervention to delay/prevent waterpipe use for 7th and 8th graders in Qatar was developed, and parental permission requested. Fifty three percent (2308/4314) of the parents returned permission forms; of those 19.5% of the total (840/4314) granted permission. This paper describes the challenges to obtaining parental permission. No research to date has described such challenges in the Arab world. A random sample of 40 schools in Doha, Qatar was selected for inclusion in the original intervention. Permission forms were distributed to parents for approval of their child's participation. The permission forms requested that parents indicate their reasons for non-permission if they declined. These were categorized into themes. In order to understand reasons for non-permission, interviews with parents were conducted. Phone numbers of parents were requested from the school administration; 12 of the 40 schools (30%) agreed to provide the contact information. A random sample of 28 parents from 12 schools was interviewed to reach data saturation. Thematic analysis was used to analyze their responses. Reasons for non-permission documented in both the forms and interviews included: poor timing; lack of interest; the child not wanting to participate; and the child living in a smoke-free environment. Interviews provided information on important topics to include in the consent forms, parents' decision-making processes regarding their child's participation, and considerations for communicating with parents. Many parents also indicated that this was the first time they had been asked to give an informed consent for their child's participation in a study. Results indicate that more attention needs to be given to the informed parental consent process. Researchers should consider enhancing both the methods of communicating information as well the specific information provided. Before

  2. Permissive hypotension in the extremely low birthweight infant with signs of good perfusion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dempsey, E M

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Many practitioners routinely treat infants whose mean arterial blood pressure in mm Hg is less than their gestational age in weeks (GA). OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of utilising a combined approach of clinical signs, metabolic acidosis and absolute blood pressure (BP) values when deciding to treat hypotension in the extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infant. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of all live born ELBW infants admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit over a 4-year period. Patients were grouped as either normotensive (BP never less than GA), hypotensive and not treated (BPpermissive hypotension) and hypotensive treated (BPpermissive hypotension had similar outcomes. Mean blood pressure in the permissive group increased from 26 mm Hg at 6 h to 31 mm Hg at 24 h. In a logistic regression model, treated hypotension is independently associated with mortality, odds ratio 8.0 (95% CI 2.3 to 28, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Blood pressure spontaneously improves in ELBW infants during the first 24 h. Infants hypotensive on GA criteria but with clinical evidence of good perfusion had as good an outcome as normotensive patients. Treated low blood pressure was associated with adverse outcome.

  3. Imperfect Reworking Process Consideration in Integrated Inventory Model under Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Cheng Lo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops an improved inventory model to help the enterprises to advance their profit increasing and cost reduction in a single vendor single-buyer environment with general demand curve, adjustable production rate, and imperfect reworking process under permissible delay in payments. For advancing practical use in a real world, we are concerned with the following strategy determining, which includes the buyer's optimal selling price, order quantity, and the number of shipments per production run from the vendor to the buyer. An algorithm and numerical analysis are used to illustrate the solution procedure.

  4. Free Radical Oxidation in Rat Myocardium after Maximum Permissible Hepatic Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolaev, P A; Khramykh, T P; Barskaya, L O

    2016-03-01

    Free radical oxidation in rat myocardial homogenate was studied by chemiluminescent assay during the early terms after maximum permissible liver resection. During this period, activation of free radical oxidation was biphasic. The critical terms characterized by dramatic intensification of free radical oxidation in the myocardium are the first hour and the first day after surgery. The period from 3 to 12 h after surgery, in which the indices of chemiluminescence decrease, can be tentatively termed as the period of "putative wellbeing". Normalization of the free radical oxidation processes in the myocardium occurred by day 7 after surgery.

  5. Determination of the longest permissible distance between expansion compensators in gas transmission pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huening, R [Fachhochschule Muenster, Burgsteinfurt (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich Versorgungstechnik

    1977-01-01

    In order to effectively protect long-distance gas pipelines against mountain damage in the areas in which underground mining is done, expansion compensators must be built in at certain distances. The tests to determine the slippage resistance and the highest permissible distance of expanders Lsub(max) in a transmission line NW 600 having a plastic insulation are described in this work. In addition, a way of calculating the Lsub(max) value from the existing data for pipes of varying diameter and different insulating material is shown.

  6. Studies on the establishment of maximum permissible exposure dose for reference Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.J.; Lee, K.S.; Chun, K.C.; Kim, C.B.; Chung, K.H.; Kim, S.L.; Kim, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In order to establish the Reference Korean and maximum permissible exposure dose of Reference Korean, for the first year a total of 9,758 males and 7,019 females were surveyed for the height, weight, a body surface area, and a total of 879 individuals of 180 households located in different 30 localities were analyzed for food consumption and a total of radioactive substances (β-ray) contained in food per capita per day. In this report the external and internal exposure dose were also estimated on the basis of data mostly published in other country as well as in Korea in part

  7. Two warehouse inventory model for deteriorating item with exponential demand rate and permissible delay in payment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliraman Naresh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A two warehouse inventory model for deteriorating items is considered with exponential demand rate and permissible delay in payment. Shortage is not allowed and deterioration rate is constant. In the model, one warehouse is rented and the other is owned. The rented warehouse is provided with better facility for the stock than the owned warehouse, but is charged more. The objective of this model is to find the best replenishment policies for minimizing the total appropriate inventory cost. A numerical illustration and sensitivity analysis is provided.

  8. The Impact of Different Permissible Exposure Limits on Hearing Threshold Levels Beyond 25 dBA

    OpenAIRE

    Sayapathi, Balachandar S; Su, Anselm Ting; Koh, David

    2014-01-01

    Background: Development of noise-induced hearing loss is reliant on a few factors such as frequency, intensity, and duration of noise exposure. The occurrence of this occupational malady has doubled from 120 million to 250 million in a decade. Countries such as Malaysia, India, and the US have adopted 90 dBA as the permissible exposure limit. According to the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the exposure limit for noise is 90 dBA, while that of the US National Institut...

  9. Prototype Centralized Managing Permissions System Based on the Election Multibiometric Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Nikolaevich Ruchay

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to develop a prototype system of centralized managing permissions based on the election multibiometric authentication. The novelty of this work is to develop the principles of distinction and multi-factor authentication, because at the moment there is no such development. Depending on various conditions and factors, including the availability of electronic means and convenience, resistance to attacks and exploits, disease or injury of users the biometric authentication can be selected on the basis of any such biometrics as rhythm password, voice, dynamic signatures and graphics recognition.

  10. Concentrating Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  11. Primary Human Placental Trophoblasts are Permissive for Zika Virus (ZIKV) Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Kjersti M; Lahon, Anismrita; Suter, Melissa A; Arya, Ravi P; Seferovic, Maxim D; Vogt, Megan B; Hu, Min; Stossi, Fabio; Mancini, Michael A; Harris, R Alan; Kahr, Maike; Eppes, Catherine; Rac, Martha; Belfort, Michael A; Park, Chun Shik; Lacorazza, Daniel; Rico-Hesse, Rebecca

    2017-01-27

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne (Aedes genus) arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family. Although ZIKV has been predominately associated with a mild or asymptomatic dengue-like disease, its appearance in the Americas has been accompanied by a multi-fold increase in reported incidence of fetal microcephaly and brain malformations. The source and mode of vertical transmission from mother to fetus is presumptively transplacental, although a causal link explaining the interval delay between maternal symptoms and observed fetal malformations following infection has been missing. In this study, we show that primary human placental trophoblasts from non-exposed donors (n = 20) can be infected by primary passage ZIKV-FLR isolate, and uniquely allowed for ZIKV viral RNA replication when compared to dengue virus (DENV). Consistent with their being permissive for ZIKV infection, primary trophoblasts expressed multiple putative ZIKV cell entry receptors, and cellular function and differentiation were preserved. These findings suggest that ZIKV-FLR strain can replicate in human placental trophoblasts without host cell destruction, thereby serving as a likely permissive reservoir and portal of fetal transmission with risk of latent microcephaly and malformations.

  12. Access to a Loaded Gun Without Adult Permission and School-Based Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simckes, Maayan S; Simonetti, Joseph A; Moreno, Megan A; Rivara, Frederick P; Oudekerk, Barbara A; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali

    2017-09-01

    Gun access and bullying are risk factors for sustaining or perpetrating violence among adolescents. Our knowledge of gun access among bullied students is limited. We used data on students, aged 12-18 years, from the 2011 and 2013 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey to assess the association between self-reported bullying victimization (traditional and cyber) and access to a loaded gun without adult permission. Prevalence ratios (PRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained from multivariable Poisson regression using the Taylor series after controlling for student age, sex, family income, public/private school, and race. Of 10,704 participants, 4.2% (95% CI: 3.8%-4.6%) reported gun access. Compared with nonbullied students, those who reported traditional bullying (PR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.7-2.4), cyberbullying (PR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.6-4.9), and both (PR = 5.9; 95% CI: 4.6-7.7) were more likely to also report gun access. Adolescents who experience bullying, particularly those who report both traditional bullying and cyberbullying, are more likely to report access to a loaded gun without adult permission. These findings highlight the importance of developing interventions focused on these modifiable risk factors for preventing self-directed or interpersonal violence among youth. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Immortalized sheep microglial cells are permissive to a diverse range of ruminant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, James B; Swanson, Beryl; Orozco, Edith; Muñoz-Gutiérrez, Juan F; Evermann, James F; Ridpath, Julia F

    2017-12-01

    Ruminants, including sheep and goats (small ruminants), are key agricultural animals in many parts of the world. Infectious diseases, including many viral diseases, are significant problems to efficient production of ruminants. Unfortunately, reagents tailored to viruses of ruminants, and especially small ruminants, are lacking compared to other animals more typically used for biomedical research. The purpose of this study was to determine the permissibility of a stably immortalized, sheep microglial cell line to viruses that are reported to infect ruminants: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Sublines A and H of previously isolated, immortalized, and characterized (CD14-positive) ovine microglial cells were used. Bovine turbinate cells and goat synovial membrane cells were used for comparison. Cytopathic changes were used to confirm infection of individual wells, which were then counted and used to calculate the 50% tissue culture infectious dose. Uninoculated cells served as negative controls and confirmed that the cells were not previously infected with these viruses using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Inoculation of the two microglial cell sublines with laboratory and field isolates of BVDV, BoHV-1, and BRSV resulted in viral infection in a manner similar to bovine turbinate cells. Immortalized microglia cells are also permissive to SRLV, similar to goat synovial membrane cells. These immortalized sheep microglial cells provide a new tool for the study of ruminant viruses in ruminant microglial cell line.

  14. Maximum permissible dietary contamination after the accidental release of radioactive materials from a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochin, E E; Rock Carling, Ernest; Court Brown, W M [Medical Research Council, Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations, London (United Kingdom); and others

    1960-12-01

    After the accident to No. 1 pile at Windscale on October 10, 1957 (Atomic Energy Office, 1957), the Atomic Energy Authority asked the Medical Research Council for advice on the maximum intake of certain radioactive isotopes that should be regarded as permissible, under emergency conditions, for members of the general population living in, or deriving food from, an area contaminated owing to an accident to a reactor. The Council's Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations, together with its Subcommittees on Internal and External Radiations, has considered this problem, and concludes that the intake of radioactive materials by ingestion of contaminated food would generally be the limiting source of hazard after any such accident. Intake by inhalation, or radiation from the exterior, would become of importance only in rather special circumstances. In the following report, therefore, the Committee proposes maximum permissible levels of dietary contamination for the relevant isotopes in the emergency conditions envisaged. In proposing these levels, the Protection Committee has used the fullest information available on the radiation doses that would be delivered to different body tissues and at different ages by the isotopes concerned, and on the ways in which these materials would enter the body.

  15. Maximum permissible dietary contamination after the accidental release of radioactive materials from a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.; Rock Carling, Ernest; Court Brown, W.M.

    1960-01-01

    After the accident to No. 1 pile at Windscale on October 10, 1957 (Atomic Energy Office, 1957), the Atomic Energy Authority asked the Medical Research Council for advice on the maximum intake of certain radioactive isotopes that should be regarded as permissible, under emergency conditions, for members of the general population living in, or deriving food from, an area contaminated owing to an accident to a reactor. The Council's Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations, together with its Subcommittees on Internal and External Radiations, has considered this problem, and concludes that the intake of radioactive materials by ingestion of contaminated food would generally be the limiting source of hazard after any such accident. Intake by inhalation, or radiation from the exterior, would become of importance only in rather special circumstances. In the following report, therefore, the Committee proposes maximum permissible levels of dietary contamination for the relevant isotopes in the emergency conditions envisaged. In proposing these levels, the Protection Committee has used the fullest information available on the radiation doses that would be delivered to different body tissues and at different ages by the isotopes concerned, and on the ways in which these materials would enter the body

  16. NASA Space Radiation Protection Strategies: Risk Assessment and Permissible Exposure Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, J. L.; Patel, Z. S.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2017-01-01

    Permissible exposure limits (PELs) for short-term and career astronaut exposures to space radiation have been set and approved by NASA with the goal of protecting astronauts against health risks associated with ionizing radiation exposure. Short term PELs are intended to prevent clinically significant deterministic health effects, including performance decrements, which could threaten astronaut health and jeopardize mission success. Career PELs are implemented to control late occurring health effects, including a 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) from cancer, and dose limits are used to prevent cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases. For radiation protection, meeting the cancer PEL is currently the design driver for galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event shielding, mission duration, and crew certification (e.g., 1-year ISS missions). The risk of cancer development is the largest known long-term health consequence following radiation exposure, and current estimates for long-term health risks due to cardiovascular diseases are approximately 30% to 40% of the cancer risk for exposures above an estimated threshold (Deep Space one-year and Mars missions). Large uncertainties currently exist in estimating the health risks of space radiation exposure. Improved understanding through radiobiology and physics research allows increased accuracy in risk estimation and is essential for ensuring astronaut health as well as for controlling mission costs, optimization of mission operations, vehicle design, and countermeasure assessment. We will review the Space Radiation Program Element's research strategies to increase accuracy in risk models and to inform development and validation of the permissible exposure limits.

  17. A guide for the calculation of the maximum permissible costs for shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzlose, H.

    1981-01-01

    Among other things, this paper has the aim to define the scope which is reasonable for shelter costs as well as to inform about their real amount. Various assumptions have been made and examples have been given which seldom coincide with the specific facts. Thus, the possibility of how to find solutions which are precisely appropriate for persons is shown in a formula. The less the income, life expectancy and the number of persons to be considered the less are the maximum permissible costs for shelters. Under certain conditions the permissible costs are lower than the real costs. Thus, taking those assumptions into account, the shelter is not profitable any more. This case, for example, really applies to a couple, 57 years old, without children, with an income of 40,000 DM/year who intend to build an interior shelter. For a family with children who are under age, however, it is always profitable to build an interior basic shelter. (orig.) [de

  18. 78 FR 52915 - Notice of Proposals to Engage In or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... to be closely related to banking and permissible for bank holding companies. Unless otherwise noted..., Vice President) 2200 North Pearl Street, Dallas, Texas 75201-2272: 1. Rio Financial Services, Inc...

  19. Mutant prevention concentration and PK-PD relationships of enrofloxacin for Pasteurella multocida in buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaje, R M; Sidhu, P K; Kaur, G; Rampal, S

    2013-12-01

    This study validated the use of mutant prevention concentration (MPC) and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling approach for optimization of dose regimen of enrofloxacin to contain the emergence of Pasteurella multocida resistance. The PK and PD characteristics of enrofloxacin were investigated in buffalo calves after intramuscular administration at a dose rate of 12 mg/kg. The concentration of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in serum were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The serum peak concentration (Cmax), terminal half-life (t1/2K10), volume of distribution (Vd(area)/F) and mean residence time (MRT) of enrofloxacin were 1.89 ± 0.35 μg/ml, 5.14 ± 0.66 h, 5.59 ± 0.99 l/kg/h and 8.52 ± 1.29 h, respectively. The percent metabolite conversion ratio of ciprofloxacin to enrofloxacin was 79. The binding of enrofloxacin to plasma proteins was 11%. The MIC, MBC and MPC for enrofloxacin against P. multocida were 0.05, 0.06 μg/ml and 1.50 μg/ml.In vitro and ex-vivo bactericidal activity of enrofloxacin was concentration dependent. Modeling of ex-vivo growth inhibition data to the sigmoid Emax equation provided AUC24h/MIC values to produce bacteriostatic (19 h), bactericidal (43 h) and bacterial eradication (64 h). PK-PD data in conjunction with MPC and MIC90 data predicted dosage schedules for enrofloxacin that may achieve optimum efficacy in respect of bacteriological and clinical cure and minimize the risk of emergence of resistance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pulmonary infection by Yersinia pestis rapidly establishes a permissive environment for microbial proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Paul A; Jin, Jianping; Goldman, William E

    2012-02-21

    Disease progression of primary pneumonic plague is biphasic, consisting of a preinflammatory and a proinflammatory phase. During the long preinflammatory phase, bacteria replicate to high levels, seemingly uninhibited by normal pulmonary defenses. In a coinfection model of pneumonic plague, it appears that Yersinia pestis quickly creates a localized, dominant anti-inflammatory state that allows for the survival and rapid growth of both itself and normally avirulent organisms. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the relatively recent progenitor of Y. pestis, shows no similar trans-complementation effect, which is unprecedented among other respiratory pathogens. We demonstrate that the effectors secreted by the Ysc type III secretion system are necessary but not sufficient to mediate this apparent immunosuppression. Even an unbiased negative selection screen using a vast pool of Y. pestis mutants revealed no selection against any known virulence genes, demonstrating the transformation of the lung from a highly restrictive to a generally permissive environment during the preinflammatory phase of pneumonic plague.

  1. An EPQ model under cash discount and permissible delay in payments derived without derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yung-Fu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the case where the retailer’s unit selling price and the purchasing price per unit are not necessarily equal within the economic production quantity (EPQ framework under cash discount and permissible delay in payments. We establish the retailer’s inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer’s optimal inventory cycle time, optimal order quantity and optimal payment time. This paper provides an algebraic approach to determine the optimal cycle time, optimal order quantity and optimal payment time. This approach provides one theorem to efficiently determine the optimal solution. Some previously published results of other researchers are deduced as special cases. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the result and the managerial insights are also obtained.

  2. Analysis of Customary Institutions’ Position and Roles in Business Permission Bureaucracy: Case of Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddi Wibowo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Uneven investment activities distribution in Bali result in economic disparity which causes not only social tension but also endanger cultural heritage. Preservation of Balinese culture could be threatened if economic and business activities are not managed properly and in line with efforts to preserve the culture of Bali in the long term. This study aims to assess the empirical and normative sociological legal jurisdiction over existing regulations related to economic and business activities in the Province of Bali which can be considered a potential threat to the preservation of Balinese culture and tradition. Based on the problem mapping that is the result of the empirical and normative juridical study, we are able to do the analysis of regulatory and institutional rearrangement of business and investment permission bureaucracy in the Bali province by considering the preservation of cultural and traditional law enforcement in Bali.

  3. Oral keratinocytes support non-replicative infection and transfer of harbored HIV-1 to permissive cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacharaksa, Anjalee; Asrani, Anil C; Gebhard, Kristin H; Fasching, Claudine E; Giacaman, Rodrigo A; Janoff, Edward N; Ross, Karen F; Herzberg, Mark C

    2008-07-17

    Oral keratinocytes on the mucosal surface are frequently exposed to HIV-1 through contact with infected sexual partners or nursing mothers. To determine the plausibility that oral keratinocytes are primary targets of HIV-1, we tested the hypothesis that HIV-1 infects oral keratinocytes in a restricted manner. To study the fate of HIV-1, immortalized oral keratinocytes (OKF6/TERT-2; TERT-2 cells) were characterized for the fate of HIV-specific RNA and DNA. At 6 h post inoculation with X4 or R5-tropic HIV-1, HIV-1gag RNA was detected maximally within TERT-2 cells. Reverse transcriptase activity in TERT-2 cells was confirmed by VSV-G-mediated infection with HIV-NL4-3Deltaenv-EGFP. AZT inhibited EGFP expression in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that viral replication can be supported if receptors are bypassed. Within 3 h post inoculation, integrated HIV-1 DNA was detected in TERT-2 cell nuclei and persisted after subculture. Multiply spliced and unspliced HIV-1 mRNAs were not detectable up to 72 h post inoculation, suggesting that HIV replication may abort and that infection is non-productive. Within 48 h post inoculation, however, virus harbored by CD4 negative TERT-2 cells trans infected co-cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or MOLT4 cells (CD4+ CCR5+) by direct cell-to-cell transfer or by releasing low levels of infectious virions. Primary tonsil epithelial cells also trans infected HIV-1 to permissive cells in a donor-specific manner. Oral keratinocytes appear, therefore, to support stable non-replicative integration, while harboring and transmitting infectious X4- or R5-tropic HIV-1 to permissive cells for up to 48 h.

  4. Oral keratinocytes support non-replicative infection and transfer of harbored HIV-1 to permissive cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacaman Rodrigo A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral keratinocytes on the mucosal surface are frequently exposed to HIV-1 through contact with infected sexual partners or nursing mothers. To determine the plausibility that oral keratinocytes are primary targets of HIV-1, we tested the hypothesis that HIV-1 infects oral keratinocytes in a restricted manner. Results To study the fate of HIV-1, immortalized oral keratinocytes (OKF6/TERT-2; TERT-2 cells were characterized for the fate of HIV-specific RNA and DNA. At 6 h post inoculation with X4 or R5-tropic HIV-1, HIV-1gag RNA was detected maximally within TERT-2 cells. Reverse transcriptase activity in TERT-2 cells was confirmed by VSV-G-mediated infection with HIV-NL4-3Δenv-EGFP. AZT inhibited EGFP expression in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that viral replication can be supported if receptors are bypassed. Within 3 h post inoculation, integrated HIV-1 DNA was detected in TERT-2 cell nuclei and persisted after subculture. Multiply spliced and unspliced HIV-1 mRNAs were not detectable up to 72 h post inoculation, suggesting that HIV replication may abort and that infection is non-productive. Within 48 h post inoculation, however, virus harbored by CD4 negative TERT-2 cells trans infected co-cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs or MOLT4 cells (CD4+ CCR5+ by direct cell-to-cell transfer or by releasing low levels of infectious virions. Primary tonsil epithelial cells also trans infected HIV-1 to permissive cells in a donor-specific manner. Conclusion Oral keratinocytes appear, therefore, to support stable non-replicative integration, while harboring and transmitting infectious X4- or R5-tropic HIV-1 to permissive cells for up to 48 h.

  5. Does an 'activity-permissive' workplace change office workers' sitting and activity time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Gorman

    Full Text Available To describe changes in workplace physical activity, and health-, and work-related outcomes, in workers who transitioned from a conventional to an 'activity-permissive' workplace.A natural pre-post experiment conducted in Vancouver, Canada in 2011. A convenience sample of office-based workers (n=24, 75% women, mean [SD] age = 34.5 [8.1] years were examined four months following relocation from a conventional workplace (pre to a newly-constructed, purpose-built, movement-oriented physical environment (post. Workplace activity- (activPAL3-derived stepping, standing, and sitting time, health- (body composition and fasting cardio-metabolic blood profile, and work- (performance; job satisfaction related outcomes were measured pre- and post-move and compared using paired t-tests.Pre-move, on average (mean [SD] the majority of the day was spent sitting (364 [43.0] mins/8-hr workday, followed by standing (78.2 [32.1] mins/8-hr workday and stepping (37.7 [15.6] mins/8-hr workday. The transition to the 'activity-permissive' workplace resulted in a significant increase in standing time (+18.5, 95% CI: 1.8, 35.2 mins/8-hr workday, likely driven by reduced sitting time (-19.7, 95% CI: -42.1, 2.8 mins/8-hr workday rather than increased stepping time (+1.2, 95% CI: -6.2, 8.5 mins/8-hr workday. There were no statistically significant differences observed in health- or work-related outcomes.This novel, opportunistic study demonstrated that the broader workplace physical environment can beneficially impact on standing time in office workers. The long-term health and work-related benefits, and the influence of individual, organizational, and social factors on this change, requires further evaluation.

  6. Retailer’s replenishment policies under conditions of permissible delay in payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yung-Fu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Goyal (1985 is frequently cited when the inventory systems under conditions of permissible delay in payments are discussed. Goyal implicitly assumed that: 1. The unit selling price and the unit purchasing price are equal; 2. At the end of the credit period, the account is settled. The retailer starts paying for higher interest charges on the items in stock and returns money of the remaining balance immediately when the items are sold. But these assumptions are debatable in real-life situations. The main purpose of this paper is to modify Goyal’s model to allow the unit selling price and the unit purchasing price not necessarily be equal to reflect the real-life situations. Furthermore, this paper will adopt different payment rule. We assume that the retailer uses sales revenue during the permissible credit period to make payment to the supplier at the end of the credit period. If it is not enough to pay off the purchasing cost of all items, the retailer will pay off the remaining balance by taking loan from the bank. So, the retailer starts paying for the interest charges on the amount of loan from the bank after the account is settled. Then the retailer will return money to the bank at the end of the inventory cycle. Under these conditions, we model the retailer’s inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer’s optimal cycle time and optimal order quantity. Four cases are developed to efficiently determine the optimal cycle time and the optimal order quantity. Numerical examples are given to illustrate these cases. Comparing with Goyal’s model, we also find that the optimal cycle times in this paper are not longer than those of Goyal’s model.

  7. Between reason and coercion: ethically permissible influence in health care and health policy contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal-Barby, J S

    2012-12-01

    In bioethics, the predominant categorization of various types of influence has been a tripartite classification of rational persuasion (meaning influence by reason and argument), coercion (meaning influence by irresistible threats-or on a few accounts, offers), and manipulation (meaning everything in between). The standard ethical analysis in bioethics has been that rational persuasion is always permissible, and coercion is almost always impermissible save a few cases such as imminent threat to self or others. However, many forms of influence fall into the broad middle terrain-and this terrain is in desperate need of conceptual refining and ethical analysis in light of recent interest in using principles from behavioral science to influence health decisions and behaviors. This paper aims to address the neglected space between rational persuasion and coercion in bioethics. First, I argue for conceptual revisions that include removing the "manipulation" label and relabeling this space "nonargumentative influence," with two subtypes: "reason-bypassing" and "reason-countering." Second, I argue that bioethicists have made the mistake of relying heavily on the conceptual categories themselves for normative work and instead should assess the ethical permissibility of a particular instance of influence by asking several key ethical questions, which I elucidate, that relate to (1) the impact of the form of influence on autonomy and (2) the relationship between the influencer and the influenced. Finally, I apply my analysis to two examples of nonargumentative influence in health care and health policy: (1) governmental agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) trying to influence the public to be healthier using nonargumentative measures such as vivid images on cigarette packages to make more salient the negative effects of smoking, and (2) a physician framing a surgery in terms of survival rates instead of mortality rates to influence her patient to consent to

  8. Does an 'activity-permissive' workplace change office workers' sitting and activity time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Erin; Ashe, Maureen C; Dunstan, David W; Hanson, Heather M; Madden, Ken; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; McKay, Heather A; Healy, Genevieve N

    2013-01-01

    To describe changes in workplace physical activity, and health-, and work-related outcomes, in workers who transitioned from a conventional to an 'activity-permissive' workplace. A natural pre-post experiment conducted in Vancouver, Canada in 2011. A convenience sample of office-based workers (n=24, 75% women, mean [SD] age = 34.5 [8.1] years) were examined four months following relocation from a conventional workplace (pre) to a newly-constructed, purpose-built, movement-oriented physical environment (post). Workplace activity- (activPAL3-derived stepping, standing, and sitting time), health- (body composition and fasting cardio-metabolic blood profile), and work- (performance; job satisfaction) related outcomes were measured pre- and post-move and compared using paired t-tests. Pre-move, on average (mean [SD]) the majority of the day was spent sitting (364 [43.0] mins/8-hr workday), followed by standing (78.2 [32.1] mins/8-hr workday) and stepping (37.7 [15.6] mins/8-hr workday). The transition to the 'activity-permissive' workplace resulted in a significant increase in standing time (+18.5, 95% CI: 1.8, 35.2 mins/8-hr workday), likely driven by reduced sitting time (-19.7, 95% CI: -42.1, 2.8 mins/8-hr workday) rather than increased stepping time (+1.2, 95% CI: -6.2, 8.5 mins/8-hr workday). There were no statistically significant differences observed in health- or work-related outcomes. This novel, opportunistic study demonstrated that the broader workplace physical environment can beneficially impact on standing time in office workers. The long-term health and work-related benefits, and the influence of individual, organizational, and social factors on this change, requires further evaluation.

  9. Permissive Attitude Towards Drug Use, Life Satisfaction, and Continuous Drug Use Among Psychoactive Drug Users in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, N Wt; Cheung, Y W; Chen, X

    2016-06-01

    To examine the effects of a permissive attitude towards regular and occasional drug use, life satisfaction, self-esteem, depression, and other psychosocial variables in the drug use of psychoactive drug users. Psychosocial factors that might affect a permissive attitude towards regular / occasional drug use and life satisfaction were further explored. We analysed data of a sample of psychoactive drug users from a longitudinal survey of psychoactive drug abusers in Hong Kong who were interviewed at 6 time points at 6-month intervals between January 2009 and December 2011. Data of the second to the sixth time points were stacked into an individual time point structure. Random-effects probit regression analysis was performed to estimate the relative contribution of the independent variables to the binary dependent variable of drug use in the last 30 days. A permissive attitude towards drug use, life satisfaction, and depression at the concurrent time point, and self-esteem at the previous time point had direct effects on drug use in the last 30 days. Interestingly, permissiveness to occasional drug use was a stronger predictor of drug use than permissiveness to regular drug use. These 2 permissive attitude variables were affected by the belief that doing extreme things shows the vitality of young people (at concurrent time point), life satisfaction (at concurrent time point), and self-esteem (at concurrent and previous time points). Life satisfaction was affected by sense of uncertainty about the future (at concurrent time point), self-esteem (at concurrent time point), depression (at both concurrent and previous time points), and being stricken by stressful events (at previous time point). A number of psychosocial factors could affect the continuation or discontinuation of drug use, as well as the permissive attitude towards regular and occasional drug use, and life satisfaction. Implications of the findings for prevention and intervention work targeted at

  10. Sexual and Gender Minority Adolescents' Views On HIV Research Participation and Parental Permission: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Coventry, Ryan; Macapagal, Kathryn; Arbeit, Miriam R; Fisher, Celia B

    2017-06-01

    Sexual and gender minority adolescents are underrepresented in HIV research, partly because institutional review boards (IRBs) are reluctant to waive parental permission requirements for these studies. Understanding teenagers' perspectives on parental permission and the risks and benefits of participating in HIV research is critical to informing evidence-based IRB decisions. Data from 74 sexual and gender minority adolescents aged 14-17 who participated in an online focus group in 2015 were used to examine perspectives on the risks and benefits of participation in a hypothetical HIV surveillance study and the need for parental permission and adequate protections. Data were analyzed thematically; mixed methods analyses examined whether concerns about parental permission differed by whether teenagers were out to their parents. Most adolescents, especially those who were not out to their parents, would be unwilling to participate in an HIV study if parental permission were required. Perceived benefits of participation included overcoming barriers to HIV testing and contributing to the health of sexual and gender minority youth. Few risks of participation were identified. Adolescents suggested steps that researchers could take to facilitate informed decision making about research participation and ensure minors' safety in the absence of parental permission; these included incorporating multimedia presentations into the consent process and explaining researchers' motivations for conducting the study. Respondents believed that the benefits of HIV surveillance research outweighed the risks. Requiring parental permission may exclude many sexual and gender minority teenagers from taking part in HIV research, especially if they are not out. Copyright © 2017 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  11. Gender Differences in Adolescent Premarital Sexual Permissiveness in Three Asian Cities: Effects of Gender-Role Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiayun, Zuo; Chaohua, Lou; Ersheng, Gao; Yan, Cheng; Hongfeng, Niu; Zabin, Laurie S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Gender is an important factor in understanding premarital sexual attitudes and behaviors. Many studies indicate that males are more likely to initiate sexual intercourse and have more permissive perceptions about sex than females. Yet few studies have explored possible reasons for these gender differences. With samples of unmarried adolescents in three Asian cities influenced by Confucian cultures, this paper investigates the relationship between underlying gender norms and these differences in adolescents’ premarital sexual permissiveness. Methods 16,554 unmarried participants aged 15–24 were recruited in the Three-City Asian Study of Adolescents and Youth, a collaborative survey conducted in 2006–2007 in urban and rural areas of Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei, with 6204, 6023 and 4327 from each city respectively. All of the adolescents were administered face-to-face interviews, coupled with Computer Assisted Self Interview (CASI) for sensitive questions. Scales on gender-role attitudes and on premarital sexual permissiveness for both male and female respondents were developed and applied to our analysis of the data. Multi-linear regression was used to analyze the relationship between gender-role attitudes and sexual permissiveness. Results Male respondents in each city held more permissive attitudes towards premarital sex than did females with both boys and girls expressing greater permissiveness to male premarital sexual behaviors. Boys also expressed more traditional attitudes to gender roles (condoning greater inequality) than did girls in each city. Adolescents’ gender-role attitudes and permissiveness to premarital sex varied considerably across the three cities, with the Vietnamese the most traditional, the Taiwanese the least traditional, and the adolescents in Shanghai in the middle. A negative association between traditional gender roles and premarital sexual permissiveness was only found among girls in Shanghai and Taipei. In Shanghai

  12. Small Animal Models for Human Metapneumovirus: Cotton Rat is More Permissive than Hamster and Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Niewiesk, Stefan; Li, Jianrong

    2014-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is the second most prevalent causative agent of pediatric respiratory infections worldwide. Currently, there are no vaccines or antiviral drugs against this virus. One of the major hurdles in hMPV research is the difficulty to identify a robust small animal model to accurately evaluate the efficacy and safety of vaccines and therapeutics. In this study, we compared the replication and pathogenesis of hMPV in BALB/c mice, Syrian golden hamsters, and cotton rats. It was found that BALB/c mice are not permissive for hMPV infection despite the use of a high dose (6.5 log10 PFU) of virus for intranasal inoculation. In hamsters, hMPV replicated efficiently in nasal turbinates but demonstrated only limited replication in lungs. In cotton rats, hMPV replicated efficiently in both nasal turbinate and lung when intranasally administered with three different doses (4, 5, and 6 log10 PFU) of hMPV. Lungs of cotton rats infected by hMPV developed interstitial pneumonia with mononuclear cells infiltrates and increased lumen exudation. By immunohistochemistry, viral antigens were detected at the luminal surfaces of the bronchial epithelial cells in lungs. Vaccination of cotton rats with hMPV completely protected upper and lower respiratory tract from wildtype challenge. The immunization also elicited elevated serum neutralizing antibody. Collectively, these results demonstrated that cotton rat is a robust small animal model for hMPV infection. PMID:25438015

  13. Characterization of potential mineralization in Afghanistan: four permissive areas identified using imaging spectroscopy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Berger, Byron R.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations natural resources revitalization activities in Afghanistan, four permissive areas for mineralization, Bamyan 1, Farah 1, Ghazni 1, and Ghazni 2, have been identified using imaging spectroscopy data. To support economic development, the areas of potential mineralization were selected on the occurrence of selected mineral assemblages mapped using the HyMap™ data (kaolinite, jarosite, hydrated silica, chlorite, epidote, iron-bearing carbonate, buddingtonite, dickite, and alunite) that may be indicative of past mineralization processes in areas with limited or no previous mineral resource studies. Approximately 30 sites were initially determined to be candidates for areas of potential mineralization. Additional criteria and material used to refine the selection and prioritization process included existing geologic maps, Landsat Thematic Mapper data, and published literature. The HyMapTM data were interpreted in the context of the regional geologic and tectonic setting and used the presence of alteration mineral assemblages to identify areas with the potential for undiscovered mineral resources. Further field-sampling, mapping, and supporting geochemical analyses are necessary to fully substantiate and verify the specific deposit types in the four areas of potential mineralization.

  14. Permissive hypotension in extremely low birth weight infants (≤1000 gm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, So Yoon; Kim, Eun Sun; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, Jeong Hee; Sung, Se In; Jung, Ji Mi; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon

    2012-07-01

    We performed this study to evaluate the safety of permissive hypotension management in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWIs). Medical records of all inborn ELBWIs admitted to Samsung Medical Center from January 2004 to December 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. Of a total of 261 ELBWIs, 47 (18%) required treatment for hypotension (group T), 110 (42%) remained normotensive (group N), and 104 (40%) experienced more than one episode of hypotension without treatment (group P) during the first 72 hours of life. Treatment of hypotension included inotropic support and/or fluid loading. Birth weight and Apgar scores were significantly lower in the T group than the other two groups. In the N group, the rate of pathologically confirmed maternal chorioamnionitis was significantly higher than other two groups, and the rate was higher in the P group than the T group. After adjusting for covariate factors, no significant differences in mortality and major morbidities were found between the N and P groups. However, the mortality rate and the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage (≥stage 3) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (≥moderate) were significantly higher in the T group than the other two groups. Long term neurodevelopmental outcomes were not significantly different between the N and P groups. Close observation of hypotensive ELBWIs who showed good clinical perfusion signs without intervention allowed to avoid unnecessary medications and resulted in good neurological outcomes.

  15. Is it morally permissible for hospital nurses to access prisoner-patients' criminal histories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, information about a person's criminal history is accessible with a name and date of birth. Ruth Crampton has studied nurses' care for prisoner-patients in hospital settings and found care to be perfunctory and reactive. This article examines whether it is morally permissible for nurses in hospital settings to access information about prisoner-patients' criminal histories. Nurses may argue for a right to such information based on the right to personal safety at work or the obligation to provide prisoner-patients with the care that they deserve. These two arguments are considered and rejected. It is further argued that accessing information about a prisoner-patient's criminal history violates nurses' duty to care. Care, understood through Sarah Ruddick's account as work and relationship, requires nurses to be open and unbiased in order to do their part in forming a caring relationship with patients. Knowledge of a prisoner-patient's criminal history inhibits the formation of this relationship and thus violates nurses' duty to care.

  16. Truncation of a P1 leader proteinase facilitates potyvirus replication in a non-permissive host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hongying; Pasin, Fabio; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E; Simón-Mateo, Carmen; García, Juan Antonio; Rodamilans, Bernardo

    2017-11-08

    The Potyviridae family is a major group of plant viruses that includes c. 200 species, most of which have narrow host ranges. The potyvirid P1 leader proteinase self-cleaves from the remainder of the viral polyprotein and shows large sequence variability linked to host adaptation. P1 proteins can be classified as Type A or Type B on the basis, amongst other things, of their dependence or not on a host factor to develop their protease activity. In this work, we studied Type A proteases from the Potyviridae family, characterizing their host factor requirements. Our in vitro cleavage analyses of potyvirid P1 proteases showed that the N-terminal domain is relevant for host factor interaction and suggested that the C-terminal domain is also involved. In the absence of plant factors, the N-terminal end of Plum pox virus P1 antagonizes protease self-processing. We performed extended deletion mutagenesis analysis to define the N-terminal antagonistic domain of P1. In viral infections, removal of the P1 protease antagonistic domain led to a gain-of-function phenotype, strongly increasing local infection in a non-permissive host. Altogether, our results shed new insights into the adaptation and evolution of potyvirids. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  17. Resident alveolar macrophages are susceptible to and permissive of Coxiella burnetii infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Calverley

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is a zoonotic disease with potentially life-threatening complications in humans. Inhalation of low doses of Coxiella bacteria can result in infection of the host alveolar macrophage (AM. However, it is not known whether a subset of AMs within the heterogeneous population of macrophages in the infected lung is particularly susceptible to infection. We have found that lower doses of both phase I and phase II Nine Mile C. burnetii multiply and are less readily cleared from the lungs of mice compared to higher infectious doses. We have additionally identified AM resident within the lung prior to and shortly following infection, opposed to newly recruited monocytes entering the lung during infection, as being most susceptible to infection. These resident cells remain infected up to twelve days after the onset of infection, serving as a permissive niche for the maintenance of bacterial infection. A subset of infected resident AMs undergo a distinguishing phenotypic change during the progression of infection exhibiting an increase in surface integrin CD11b expression and continued expression of the surface integrin CD11c. The low rate of phase I and II Nine Mile C. burnetii growth in murine lungs may be a direct result of the limited size of the susceptible resident AM cell population.

  18. Novel approach to parental permission and child assent for research: improving comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Lonergan, Theresa A; Forster-Harwood, Jeri E

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this research was to test a multimedia permission/assent (P/A) process. The overall hypothesis was that children and their parents exposed to a multimedia P/A process would have better comprehension compared with those exposed to a text-based process. Traditional and multimedia P/A processes were created by using an innovative learning-objective approach. A total of 194 parent-child dyads (children aged 11-14 years) were enrolled: 24 dyads in a prestudy testing P/A components for preference and effect on comprehension and 170 dyads in a randomized trial of a multimedia or paper P/A process for a hypothetical study. Participants were predominantly white and were from a metropolitan area served by a tertiary care pediatric hospital and outpatient facility. Comprehension of 8 essential elements of the P/A process was assessed. The majority of prestudy subjects preferred the video version of the dual-energy radiograph absorptiometry description over the animated and paper versions combined (41 of 48 [85%]; P better overall comprehension compared with the paper P/A process (P = .0009), and there were highly significant differences in understanding of study procedures (P = .0002) and risks (P multimedia group had significantly better overall comprehension (P = .03). Multimedia approaches to the research P/A process may improve overall understanding of research participation for children and parents. Improved understanding of study-specific research components (rather than research rights) may improve overall comprehension.

  19. Experimental verification of the imposing principle for maximum permissible levels of multicolor laser radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivashin V.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The study presents the results of experimental research to verify the principle overlay for maximum permissible levels (MPL of multicolor laser radiation single exposure on eyes. This principle of the independence of the effects of radiation with each wavelength (the imposing principle, was founded and generalized to a wide range of exposure conditions. Experimental verification of this approach in relation to the impact of laser radiation on tissue fundus of an eye, as shows the analysis of the literature was not carried out. Material and methods. Was used in the experimental laser generating radiation with wavelengths: Л1 =0,532 microns, A2=0,556to 0,562 microns and A3=0,619to 0,621 urn. Experiments were carried out on eyes of rabbits with evenly pigmented eye bottom. Results. At comparison of results of processing of the experimental data with the calculated data it is shown that these levels are close by their parameters. Conclusions. For the first time in the Russian Federation had been performed experimental studies on the validity of multi-colored laser radiation on the organ of vision. In view of the objective coincidence of the experimental data with the calculated data, we can conclude that the mathematical formulas work.

  20. Inventory model with two rates of production for deteriorating items with permissible delay in payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ajanta; Samanta, G. P.

    2011-08-01

    Goyal (1985) ['Economic Order Quantity Under Conditions of Permissible Delay in Payments', Journal of Operational research Society, 36, 35-38] assumed that unit selling price and unit purchasing price are equal. But in real-life the scenario is different. The purpose of this article is to reflect the real life problem by allowing unit selling price and purchasing price to be unequal. Our model is a continuous production control inventory model for deteriorating items in which two different rates of production are available. The results are illustrated with the help of a numerical example. We discuss the sensitivity of the solution together with the changes of the values of the parameters associated with the model. Our model may be applicable in many manufacturing planning situations where management practices for deterioration are stringent; e.g. the two-production rate will be more profitable than the one-production rate in the manufacture of cold, asthma and allergy medicine. Our proposed model might be applicable to develop a prototype advance planning system for those manufacturers to integrate the management science techniques into commercial planning.

  1. Permission-based Leadership and Change Management in Hong Kong's Nongovernment Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Michael

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the management of transformational change by chief executives in nongovernment organisations (NGOs in Hong Kong. The study takes an exploratory approach with interviews of 18 chief executives from a cross section of Hong Kong's NGOs. The findings indicate that organisational transformation is driven by increasing competition within the NGO sector and from commercial firms, by a demand for greater transparency and by internal forces. These factors are countered by structural inertia. Leadership of the organisational transformation of an NGO is permission-based; agreement from the various stakeholders must be gained to execute a successful transformation. The chief executive should have a humanistic style and be visionary, ethical and participative. Constant communication and involvement facilitate this process. Through this approach, followers will have a greater commitment to the organisational transformation. Organisational change is a combination of planned and emergent processes. The chief executive should relax control and foster a nurturing environment for transformation. This research suggests a leadership style, behavioural approach and model for managing change that will provide chief executives and senior leaders with useful considerations and insights.

  2. Concerning permission of change in nuclear fuel processing business of Japan Nuclear Fuel Co. , Ltd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    In response to an inquiry on the title issue received on Jun. 17, 1988, the Nuclear Safety Commission made a study and submitted the findings to the Prime Minister on Jul. 21, 1988. The study was intended to determine the conformity of the permission to the applicable criteria specified in laws relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor. The proposed modification plan included changes in the facilities in the No.1 processing building and changes in processing methods which were required to perform processing of blanket fuel assemblies for fast breeder reactor. It also included changes in the facilities in the No.2 building which were required to improve the processes. The safety study covered the anti-earthquake performance, fire/explosion prevention, criticality control, containment performance, radioactive waste disposal, and other major safety issues. Other investigations included exposure dose evaluation and accident analysis. Study results were examined on the basis of the Basic Guidelines for Nuclear Fuel Facilities Safety Review and the Uranium Processing Safety Review Guidelines. It was concluded that the modifications would not have adverse effect on the safety of the facilities. (Nogami, K.).

  3. Concerning permission of change in nuclear fuel processing business of Japan Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In response to an inquiry on the title issue received on Jun. 17, 1988, the Nuclear Safety Commission made a study and submitted the findings to the Prime Minister on Jul. 21, 1988. The study was intended to determine the conformity of the permission to the applicable criteria specified in laws relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor. The proposed modification plan included changes in the facilities in the No.1 processing building and changes in processing methods which were required to perform processing of blanket fuel assemblies for fast breeder reactor. It also included changes in the facilities in the No.2 building which were required to improve the processes. The safety study covered the anti-earthquake performance, fire/explosion prevention, criticality control, containment performance, radioactive waste disposal, and other major safety issues. Other investigations included exposure dose evaluation and accident analysis. Study results were examined on the basis of the Basic Guidelines for Nuclear Fuel Facilities Safety Review and the Uranium Processing Safety Review Guidelines. It was concluded that the modifications would not have adverse effect on the safety of the facilities. (Nogami, K.)

  4. Human cytomegalovirus renders cells non-permissive for replication of herpes simplex viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockley, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus (HSV) genome during production infection in vitro may be subject to negative regulation which results in modification of the cascade of expression of herpes virus macromolecular synthesis leading to establishment of HSV latency. In the present study, human embryonic lung (HEL) cells infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) restricted the replication of HSV type-1 (HSV-1). A delay in HSV replication of 15 hr as well as a consistent, almost 1000-fold inhibition of HSV replication in HCMV-infected cell cultures harvested 24 to 72 hr after superinfection were observed compared with controls infected with HSV alone. HSV type-2 (HSV-2) replication was similarly inhibited in HCMV-infected HEL cells. Prior ultraviolet-irradiation (UV) of HCMV removed the block to HSV replication, demonstrating the requirement for an active HCMV genome. HCMV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) negative temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants inhibited HSV replications as efficiently as wild-type (wt) HCMV at the non-permissive temperature. Evidence for penetration and replication of superinfecting HSV into HCMV-infected cells was provided by blot hybridization of HSV DNA synthesized in HSV-superinfected cell cultures and by cesium chloride density gradient analysis of [ 3 H]-labeled HSV-1-superinfected cells

  5. Biological bases of the maximum permissible exposure levels of the UK laser standard BS 4803: 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinlay, A.F.; Harlen, F.

    1983-10-01

    The use of lasers has increased greatly over the past 15 years or so, to the extent that they are now used routinely in many occupational and public situations. There has been an increasing awareness of the potential hazards presented by lasers and substantial efforts have been made to formulate safety standards. In the UK the relevant Safety Standard is the British Standards Institution Standard BS 4803. This Standard was originally published in 1972 and a revision has recently been published (BS 4803: 1983). The revised standard has been developed using the American National Standards Institute Standard, ANSI Z136.1 (1973 onwards), as a model. In other countries, national standards have been similarly formulated, resulting in a large measure of international agreement through participation in the work of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The bases of laser safety standards are biophysical data on threshold injury effects, particularly on the retina, and the development of theoretical models of damage mechanisms. This report deals in some detail with the mechanisms of injury from over exposure to optical radiations, in particular with the dependency of the type and degree of damage on wavelength, image size and pulse duration. The maximum permissible exposure levels recommended in BS 4803: 1983 are compared with published data for damage thresholds and the adequacy of the standard is discussed. (author)

  6. Indoor radon concentration in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamont-Ciesla, K.; Jagielak, J.; Rosinski, S.W.; Sosinka, A.; Bysiek, M.; Henschke, J.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary survey of Rn concentration indoors by means of track detectors and y-ray dose rate with the use of TLD in almost 500 homes in selected areas of Poland was performed in the late 1980s. It was concluded that radon contributes 1.16 mSv i.e. about 46 per cent of the total natural environment ionizing radiation dose to the Polish population. Comparison of the average radon concentrations in 4 seasons of a year and in 3 groups of buildings: masonry, concrete and wood, revealed that the ground beneath the building structure is likely the dominant source of radon indoors. Since the National Atomic Energy Agency in its regulations of 1988-03-31 set up the permissible limit of the equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon in new buildings (equal 100 Bq/m3), the nation-scale survey project for radon in buildings has been undertaken. These regulations were supposed to take effect in 1995-01-01. The project has 3 objectives: to estimate the radiation exposure due to radon daughters received by Polish population to identify radon-prone areas in Poland to investigate dependence of the indoor radon concentrations on such parameters as: type of construction material, presence (or absence) of cellar under the building, number of floor

  7. Recommendation concerning maximum permissible radioactivity in animal feeds in case of a nuclear accident or other type of radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The SSK in its advice to the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety recommends to abstain from determining maximum permissible values to be applied in such cases of emergency. If, however, official limits are to be given, the following should be considered: (1) Distinction has to be made between animal feeds not subject to restrictive application with regard to time, animal species, or food chain (meat, milk, eggs), and those animal feeds whose application is subject to restrictions defined. (2) Maximum permissible activity data for animal feeds for restricted use should be ten times the value determined for non-restricted feeds. As to consultations within the EC on supplemtary tables to EC Directive No. 3954/87, the SSK presented its proposals in tables, using transfer factors from the literature concerning assessment of maximum permissible chronic intake of Cs-137, I-131, Sr-90, Pu-239, Am-241 by productive livestock (bovine, goats, sheep, swine, poultry). (HP) [de

  8. Heavy metals concentration in various tissues of two freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metals like cadmium, zinc, copper, chromium, lead and mercury were measured in the various tissues of Labeo rohita and Channa striatus and in the water samples collected from ... The values of heavy metals concentration in the present study are within the maximum permissible levels for drinking water and fish.

  9. Left-turn phase: permissive, protected, or both? A quasi-experimental design in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Chen, Cynthia; Ewing, Reid

    2015-03-01

    The practice of left-turn phasing selection (permissive, protected-only, or both) varies from one locality to another. The literature evidence on this issue is equally mixed and insufficient. In this study, we evaluate the safety impacts of changing left-turn signal phasing from permissive to protected/permissive or protected-only at 68 intersections in New York City using a rigorous quasi-experimental design accompanied with regression modeling. Changes in police reported crashes including total crashes, multiple-vehicle crashes, left-turn crashes, pedestrian crashes and bicyclist crashes were compared between before period and after period for the treatment group and comparison group by means of negative binomial regression using a Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) technique. Confounding factors such as the built environment characteristics that were not controlled in comparison group selection are accounted for by this approach. The results show that the change of permissive left-turn signal phasing to protected/permissive or protected-only signal phasing does not result in a significant reduction in intersection crashes. Though the protected-only signal phasing does reduce the left-turn crashes and pedestrian crashes, this reduction was offset by a possible increase in over-taking crashes. These results suggest that left-turn phasing should not be treated as a universal solution that is always better than the permissive control for left-turn vehicles. The selection and implementation of left-turn signal phasing needs to be done carefully, considering potential trade-offs between safety and delay, and many other factors such as geometry, traffic flows and operations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An Overview of the Cooperative Effort between the United States Department of Energy and the China Atomic Energy Authority to Enhance MPC and A Inspections for Civil Nuclear Facilities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahern, Keith; Daming, Liu; Hanley, Tim; Livingston, Linwood; McAninch, Connie; McGinnis, Brent R.; Ning, Shen; Qun, Yang; Roback, Jason William; Tuttle, Glenn; Xuemei, Gao; Galer, Regina; Peterson, Nancy; Jia, Jinlie

    2011-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) and the China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA) are cooperating to enhance the domestic regulatory inspections capacity for special nuclear material protection, control and accounting (MPC and A) requirements for civil nuclear facilities in China. This cooperation is conducted under the auspices of the Agreement between the Department of Energy of the United States of America and the State Development and Planning Commission of the People s Republic of China on Cooperation Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Technology. This initial successful effort was conducted in three phases. Phase I focused on introducing CAEA personnel to DOE and U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspection methods for U. S. facilities. This phase was completed in January 2008 during meetings in Beijing. Phase II focused on developing physical protection and material control and accounting inspection exercises that enforced U. S. inspection methods identified during Phase 1. Hands on inspection activities were conducted in the United States over a two week period in July 2009. Simulated deficiencies were integrated into the inspection exercises. The U. S. and Chinese participants actively identified and discussed deficiencies noted during the two week training course. The material control and accounting inspection exercises were conducted at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, KY. The physical protection inspection exercises were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, TN. Phase III leveraged information provided under Phase I and experience gained under Phase II to develop a formal inspection guide that incorporates a systematic approach to training for Chinese MPC and A field inspectors. Additional hands on exercises that are applicable to Chinese regulations were incorporated into the Phase III training material. Phase III was completed in May 2010 at

  11. Leishmania attachment in permissive vectors and the role of sand fly midgut proteins in parasite-vector interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Dostálová, Anna

    2012-01-01

    of PhD. thesis named "Leishmania attachment in permissive vectors and the role of sand fly midgut proteins in parasite-vector interaction", Anna Dostálová, 2011 This thesis focuses on the development of protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania in their insect vectors, sand flies. It sums up results of three projects I was involved in during my PhD studies. Main emphasis was put on permissive sand fly species that support development of various species of Leishmania. Using a novel method of...

  12. In vitro permissiveness of bovine neutrophils and monocyte derived macrophages to Leishmania donovani of Ethiopian isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasew, Geremew; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Abera, Adugna; Zewude, Aboma; Chanyalew, Menberework; Aseffa, Abraham; Abebe, Markos; Ritter, Uwe; van Zandbergen, Ger; Laskay, Tamás; Tafess, Ketema

    2016-04-18

    Epidemiological studies in Ethiopia have documented that the risk of visceral leishmaniasis (VL, Kala-azar) is higher among people living with domestic animals. The recent report on isolation of Leishmania donovani complex DNA and the detected high prevalence of anti-leishmanial antibodies in the blood of domestic animals further strengthen the potential role of domestic animals in the epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia. In mammalian hosts polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) and macrophages are the key immune cells influencing susceptibility or control of Leishmania infection. Thus to substantiate the possible role of cattle in VL transmission we investigate the permissiveness of bovine PMN and monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) for Leishmania (L.) donovani infection. Whole blood was collected from pure Zebu (Boss indicus) and their cross with Holstein Friesian cattle. L. donovani (MHOM/ET/67/HU3) wild and episomal green fluorescent protein (eGFP) labelled stationary stage promastigotes were co-incubated with whole blood and MDM to determine infection of these cells. Engulfment of promastigotes by the cells and their transformation to amastigote forms in MDM was studied with direct microscopy. Microscopy and flow cytometry were used to measure the infection rate while PCR-RLFP was used to confirm the infecting parasite. L. donovani infected bovine whole blood PMN in the presence of plasma factors and all cellular elements. Morphological examinations of stained cytospin smears revealed that PMN engulfed promastigotes. Similarly, we were able to show that bovine MDM can be infected by L. donovani, which transformed to amastigote forms in the cells. The in vitro infection of bovine PMN and MDM by L. donovani further strengthens the possibility that cattle might serve as source of L. donovani infection for humans.

  13. Permissive flexibility in successful lifelong weight management: A qualitative study among Finnish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joki, Anu; Mäkelä, Johanna; Fogelholm, Mikael

    2017-09-01

    Maintaining normal weight in the current obesogenic environment is a challenge. However, some people can do it. More insight is needed to understand how and why some people succeed in long-term weight maintenance. This study uses a rare, qualitative approach by describing the thoughts of successful weight management and self-perceived requirements for success in weight maintenance. We interviewed 39 individuals who have maintained normal weight for their entire lives (men and women). The content analysis revealed a main theme: flexible, permissive and conscious self-regulation, which was divided into two subthemes (eating-related behavior and weight-related behavior). The informants reported certain routines that supported their weight management: regular eating, sufficient meal sizes, eating in response to hunger, healthy and vegetable-rich diet along with moderate feasting and flexible eating restriction. Flexibility in routines allowed freedom in their eating behavior. In addition, informants regarded themselves as physically active, and they enjoyed regular exercise. Regular weighing was generally considered unnecessary. Normal weight was regarded as a valuable and worthwhile issue, and most of the informants worked to keep their weight stable. Although the perceived workload varied among informants, the weight management strategies were similar. It was crucial to be conscious of the balance between eating and energy consumption. Further, flexibility characterized their behavior and was the basis of successful weight management. Women were more aware of weight control practices and knowledge than men, but otherwise, women and men reported similar weight management methods and attitudes. In conclusion, the interviewees who have maintained the normal weight had created a personal weight-management support environment where weight management was a lifestyle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Wild Anopheles funestus mosquito genotypes are permissive for infection with the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiannong Xu

    Full Text Available Malaria parasites undergo complex developmental transitions within the mosquito vector. A commonly used laboratory model for studies of mosquito-malaria interaction is the rodent parasite, P. berghei. Anopheles funestus is a major malaria vector in sub-Saharan Africa but has received less attention than the sympatric species, Anopheles gambiae. The imminent completion of the A. funestus genome sequence will provide currently lacking molecular tools to describe malaria parasite interactions in this mosquito, but previous reports suggested that A. funestus is not permissive for P. berghei development.An A. funestus population was generated in the laboratory by capturing female wild mosquitoes in Mali, allowing them to oviposit, and rearing the eggs to adults. These F1 progeny of wild mosquitoes were allowed to feed on mice infected with a fluorescent P. berghei strain. Fluorescence microscopy was used to track parasite development inside the mosquito, salivary gland sporozoites were tested for infectivity to mice, and parasite development in A. funestus was compared to A. gambiae.P. berghei oocysts were detectable on A. funestus midguts by 7 days post-infection. By 18-20 days post-infection, sporozoites had invaded the median and distal lateral lobes of the salivary glands, and hemocoel sporozoites were observed in the hemolymph. Mosquitoes were capable of infecting mice via bite, demonstrating that A. funestus supports the complete life cycle of P. berghei. In a random sample of wild mosquito genotypes, A. funestus prevalence of infection and the characteristics of parasite development were similar to that observed in A. gambiae-P. berghei infections.The data presented in this study establish an experimental laboratory model for Plasmodium infection of A. funestus, an important vector of human malaria. Studying A. funestus-Plasmodium interactions is now feasible in a laboratory setting. This information lays the groundwork for exploitation of the

  15. Proteasome-independent degradation of HIV-1 in naturally non-permissive human placental trophoblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barré-Sinoussi Françoise

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human placenta-derived cell line BeWo has been demonstrated to be restrictive to cell-free HIV-1 infection. BeWo cells are however permissive to infection by VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1, which enters cells by a receptor-independent mechanism, and to infection by HIV-1 via a cell-to-cell route. Results Here we analysed viral entry in wild type BeWo (CCR5+, CXCR4+ and BeWo-CD4+ (CD4+, CCR5+, CXCR4+ cells. We report that HIV-1 internalisation is not restricted in either cell line. Levels of internalised p24 antigen between VSV-G HIV-1 pseudotypes and R5 or X4 virions were comparable. We next analysed the fate of internalised virions; X4 and R5 HIV-1 virions were less stable over time in BeWo cells than VSV-G HIV-1 pseudotypes. We then investigated the role of the proteasome in restricting cell-free HIV-1 infection in BeWo cells using proteasome inhibitors. We observed an increase in the levels of VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1 infection in proteasome-inhibitor treated cells, but the infection by R5-Env or X4-Env pseudotyped virions remains restricted. Conclusion Collectively these results suggest that cell-free HIV-1 infection encounters a surface block leading to a non-productive entry route, which either actively targets incoming virions for non-proteasomal degradation, and impedes their release into the cytoplasm, or causes the inactivation of mechanisms essential for viral replication.

  16. Urine Creatinine Concentrations in Drug Monitoring Participants and Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Sara A; Seegmiller, Jesse C; Kloss, Julie; Apple, Fred S

    2016-10-01

    Urine drug testing is commonly performed in both clinical and forensic arenas for screening, monitoring and compliance purposes. We sought to determine if urine creatinine concentrations in monitoring program participants were significantly different from hospital in-patients and out-patients undergoing urine drug testing. We retrospectively reviewed urine creatinine submitted in June through December 2015 for all specimens undergoing urine drug testing. The 20,479 creatinine results were categorized as hospitalized patients (H) and monitoring/compliance groups for pain management (P), legal (L) or recovery (R). Median creatinine concentrations (interquartile range, mg/dL) were significantly different (P creatinine concentrations were significantly lower in the R vs. L group (Pcreatinine concentration and may indicate participants' attempts to tamper with their drug test results through dilution means. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. 76 FR 46808 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in Permissible Nonbanking Activities or To Acquire Companies That...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... that the Board has determined by Order to be closely related to banking and permissible for bank...: 1. Westpac Banking Corporation, Sydney, Australia; to indirectly acquire 100 percent of the voting... advisory and private placement services, pursuant to sections 225.28(b)(6) and (b)(7)(iii) of Regulation Y...

  18. 34 CFR 97.408 - Requirements for permission by parents or guardians and for assent by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... permission is not a reasonable requirement to protect the subjects (for example, neglected or abused children... for assent by children. 97.408 Section 97.408 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research...

  19. 76 FR 6136 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in Permissible Nonbanking Activities or To Acquire Companies That...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ...: 1. Hana Financial Group Inc., Seoul, Korea; to acquire a controlling interest in Korea Exchange Bank, Seoul, Korea, and thereby indirectly acquire voting shares of KEB Financial Corp., New York, New York... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Notice of Proposals To Engage in Permissible Nonbanking Activities or To...

  20. Permissive Parenting, Deviant Peer Affiliations, and Delinquent Behavior in Adolescence: the Moderating Role of Sympathetic Nervous System Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, J Benjamin; Erath, Stephen A; Tu, Kelly M; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined two measures of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity as moderators of the indirect path from permissive parenting to deviant peer affiliations to delinquency among a community sample of adolescents. Participants included 252 adolescents (M = 15.79 years; 53 % boys; 66 % European American, 34 % African American). A multi-method design was employed to address the research questions. Two indicators of SNS reactivity, skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) and cardiac pre-ejection period reactivity (PEPR) were examined. SNS activity was measured during a baseline period and a problem-solving task (star-tracing); reactivity was computed as the difference between the task and baseline periods. Adolescents reported on permissive parenting, deviant peer affiliations, externalizing behaviors, and substance use (alcohol, marijuana). Analyses revealed indirect effects between permissive parenting and delinquency via affiliation with deviant peers. Additionally, links between permissive parenting to affiliation with deviant peers and affiliation with deviant peers to delinquency was moderated by SNS reactivity. Less SNS reactivity (less PEPR and/or less SCLR) were risk factors for externalizing problems and alcohol use. Findings highlight the moderating role of SNS reactivity in parenting and peer pathways that may contribute to adolescent delinquency and point to possibilities of targeted interventions for vulnerable youth.

  1. 5 CFR 890.1016 - Aggravating and mitigating factors used to determine the length of permissive debarments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the debarment, or similar acts, had an adverse impact on the physical or mental health or well-being... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Administrative Sanctions Imposed Against Health Care Providers Permissive Debarments § 890...

  2. Subcellular localization of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus proteins and DNA during permissive infection of Crandell feline kidney cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Costello, F.; Huhtanen, M.

    1996-01-01

    Confocal microscopy allowed us to localize viral nonstructural (NS) and capsid (VP) proteins and DNA simultaneously in cells permissively infected with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV). Early after infection, NS proteins colocalized with viral DNA to form intranuclear inclusions, whereas VP...

  3. Psychometric Support for a New Measure of Authoritative, Authoritarian, and Permissive Parenting Practices: Cross-Cultural Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Clyde C.; And Others

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics of a 62-item parenting questionnaire completed by parents from the United States, Australia, China, and Russia. Factor analyses yielded three global parenting dimensions for each culture which were consistent with D. Baumrind's (1971) authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive typologies. The…

  4. 12 CFR 584.2-2 - Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... savings and loan holding companies. 584.2-2 Section 584.2-2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 584.2-2 Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies. (a) General. For purposes of § 584.2(b)(6)(i) of this part...

  5. 12 CFR 347.115 - Permissible activities for a foreign branch of an insured state nonmember bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... political subdivisions, to the extent permissible under the law of the issuing foreign country; and (ii) An... under the law of the issuing foreign country, if supported by the taxing authority, guarantee, or full... securities eligible to meet local reserve or similar requirements; and (iii) Shares of automated electronic...

  6. 75 FR 71130 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in Permissible Nonbanking Activities or To Acquire Companies That...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Notice of Proposals To Engage in Permissible Nonbanking Activities or To..., Virginia 23261-4528: 1. Royal Bank of Canada, Montreal, Canada; to acquire BlueBay Asset Management plc..., and thereby engage in financial and investment advisory activities, pursuant to section 225.28(b)(6...

  7. 26 CFR 301.7216-2T - Permissible disclosures or uses without consent of the taxpayer (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... return preparer has prepared or processed. The Internal Revenue Service may issue guidance, by... auditing services. A quality or peer review may be conducted only by attorneys, certified public... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permissible disclosures or uses without consent...

  8. Criteria for permission of radiosterilized products to application in medicine; Zasady dopuszczania wyrobow sterylizowanych radiacyjnie do stosowania w medycynie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achmatowicz, T [Instytut Lekow, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    The criteria being used in Poland for permission of radiosterilized medical materials to commercial application result from regulations being in force. The international regulations are also taken into account. The all criteria and procedure needed for any product become accepted for radiosterilization and commercial medical use have been presented and discussed. 1 tab.

  9. Trends and countertrends in sexual permissiveness: Three decades of attitude change in the Netherlands 1965-1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from 8 surveys on attitude change in the Netherlands, I tried to clarify trends in sexual permissiveness since the 1960s. In explaining these changes, time-period effects proved most important, whereas cohort replacement appeared to be of minor significance. Hence, changing

  10. Permissive weight bearing in trauma patients with fracture of the lower extremities: prospective multicenter comparative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmet, Pishtiwan H S; Meys, Guido; V Horn, Yvette Y; Evers, Silvia M A A; Seelen, Henk A M; Hustinx, Paul; Janzing, Heinrich; Vd Veen, Alexander; Jaspars, Coen; Sintenie, Jan Bernard; Blokhuis, Taco J; Poeze, Martijn; Brink, Peter R G

    2018-02-02

    The standard aftercare treatment in surgically treated trauma patients with fractures around or in a joint, known as (peri)- or intra-articular fractures of the lower extremities, is either non-weight bearing or partial weight bearing. We have developed an early permissive weight bearing post-surgery rehabilitation protocol in surgically treated patients with fractures of the lower extremities. In this proposal we want to compare our early permissive weight bearing protocol to the existing current non-weight bearing guidelines in a prospective comparative cohort study. The study is a prospective multicenter comparative cohort study in which two rehabilitation aftercare treatments will be contrasted, i.e. permissive weight bearing and non-weight bearing according to the AO-guideline. The study population consists of patients with a surgically treated fracture of the pelvis/acetabulum or a surgically treated (peri)- or intra-articular fracture of the lower extremities. The inclusion period is 12 months. The duration of follow up is 6 months, with measurements taken at baseline, 2,6,12 and 26 weeks post-surgery. ADL with Lower Extremity Functional Scale. Outcome variables for compliance, as measured with an insole pressure measurement system, encompass peak load and step duration. This study will investigate the (cost-) effectiveness of a permissive weight bearing aftercare protocol. The results will provide evidence whether a permissive weight bearing protocol is more effective than the current non-weight bearing protocol. The study is registered in the Dutch Trial Register ( NTR6077 ). Date of registration: 01-09-2016.

  11. Permissive tolerance of the patent ductus arteriosus may increase the risk of Chronic Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaempf JW

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Joseph W Kaempf,1 Robert Huston,2 YingXing Wu,1 Andrew J Kaempf,1 Lian Wang,1 Gary Grunkemeier,1 Rebecca Mischel,2 Howard Cohen,3 Bret Freitag41Providence St Vincent Medical Center, Portland, OR, 2Randall Children’s Hospital at Legacy Emanuel, Portland, OR, 3Salem Hospital, Salem, OR, 4Legacy Salmon Creek Hospital, Vancouver, WA, USAPurpose: Because early closure therapies of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA have not been shown to confer benefit to premature infants, the authors’ four neonatal intensive care units adopted a less aggressive PDA management protocol.Study design: A before–after investigation in infants with PDAs born 501–1500 g. Era 1 (January 2005 to December 2007 featured traditional management with indomethacin and/or surgical ligation used early to close PDAs; Era 2 (January 2008 to June 2009 featured fluid restriction and watchful waiting for PDA closure, limiting indomethacin or surgical ligation to only those infants with large PDAs needing significant respiratory support.Results: Era 2 infants (n = 129, mean ± standard deviation 27 ± 2 weeks received less and later indomethacin and less Day 1–28 total fluids as compared to Era 1 infants (n = 240, mean ± standard deviation 27 ± 2 weeks. The Chronic Lung Disease (CLD rate was higher in Era 2 (48% versus 34%, P < 0.01 as was the combined outcome of Death after Day 7 or CLD (57% versus 42%, P < 0.01. Multiple regression analysis showed Era 2 birth was a predictor of CLD. However, Poisson regression analysis determined the predictors of all seven major Vermont Oxford Network morbidities were earlier gestational age, lower birth weight, and male gender, not the era of birth. Significantly more infants were discharged home with PDAs in Era 2.Conclusion: Permissive tolerance of PDAs may increase the risk of CLD and Death after Day 7 or CLD but is not associated with significant changes in other Vermont Oxford Network morbidities.Keywords: premature infant

  12. Ministerial Decree of 6 June 1968 determining the maximum permissible doses and concentrations for purposes of the health protection of workers in the field of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    This Decree made in implementation of DPR No. 185 of 13 February 1964 forms an important part of regulations on occupational health protection. It adopts the criteria and values laid down by Euratom Directives on radiation protection. (NEA) [fr

  13. MAK- and BAT values list 2000. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The definitions and use of MAK and BAT values for hazardous materials are presented, and tables are presented for various hazardous materials, e.g. carcinogenic and allergogenic materials, aerosols and organic substances such as peroxides, benzenes, turpentine oil, and cooling lubricants. (SR) [de

  14. Gender differences in adolescent premarital sexual permissiveness in three Asian cities: effects of gender-role attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xiayun; Lou, Chaohua; Gao, Ersheng; Cheng, Yan; Niu, Hongfeng; Zabin, Laurie S

    2012-03-01

    Gender is an important factor in understanding premarital sexual attitudes and behaviors. Many studies indicate that males are more likely to initiate sexual intercourse and have more permissive perceptions about sex than females. Yet few studies have explored possible reasons for these gender differences. With samples of unmarried adolescents in three Asian cities influenced by Confucian cultures, this article investigates the relationship between underlying gender norms and these differences in adolescents' premarital sexual permissiveness (PSP). In a collaborative survey conducted in 2006-2007 in urban and rural areas of Hanoi, Shanghai, and Taipei, 16,554 unmarried participants aged 15-24 years were recruited in the three-City Asian Study of Adolescents and Youth, with 6,204, 6,023, and 4,327 respondents from each city, respectively. All the adolescents were administered face-to-face interviews, coupled with computer-assisted self-interview for sensitive questions. Scales on gender-role attitudes and on PSP for both male and female respondents were developed and applied to our analysis of the data. Multilinear regression was used to analyze the relationship between gender-role attitudes and sexual permissiveness. Male respondents in each city held more permissive attitudes toward premarital sex than did females, with both boys and girls expressing greater permissiveness to male premarital sexual behaviors. Boys also expressed more traditional attitudes to gender roles (condoning greater inequality) than did girls in each city. Adolescents' gender-role attitudes and permissiveness to premarital sex varied considerably across the three cities, with the Vietnamese the most traditional, the Taiwanese the least traditional, and the adolescents in Shanghai in the middle. A negative association between traditional gender roles and PSP was only found among girls in Shanghai and Taipei. In Shanghai, female respondents who held more traditional gender-role attitudes were

  15. [Substantiation of maximum permissible water level of the flotation reagent EFK-1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbinskiĭ, V V

    1991-12-01

    Threshold concentrations of the flotation reagent EFK-1 in the water of reservoirs at 0.8 mg/l and 10.0 mg/l for organoleptic and total sanitary indices, respectively, were reported. Dl50 was 7469 mg/kg. The MAC of 0.8 mg/l for EFK-1 in the water of reservoirs (the limiting sign is organoleptic) was proposed.

  16. Correlation Between Occurrence and Deterioration of Respiratory Diseases and Air Pollution Within the Legally Permissible Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnjar, Kristina; Pintarić, Sanja; Mornar Jelavić, Marko; Nesek, Višnja; Ostojić, Jelena; Pleština, Sanja; Šikić, Aljoša; Pintarić, Hrvoje

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the unknown effect of air pollutants on the occurrence or deterioration of respiratory diseases in the area with a humid continental climate. This retrospective study included 5868 patients with respiratory symptomatology (upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), pneumonia, acute bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and asthma) admitted to emergency department (ED). The number of patients, values of meteorological parameters (mean daily values of air temperature pressure and relative humidity) and concentrations of air pollution particles (≤10 μm (PM10), ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) were collected during a two-year ( July 2008 - June 2010) period. There were 1839 (31.3%), 1712 (29.2%), 1313 (22.4%), 614 (10.5%) and 390 (6.6%) patients with pneumonia, COPD, URTI, acute bronchitis and asthma, respectively. The mean daily concentrations of NO2 (25.9 (1.7-89.7) μg/m3), O3 (47.1 (4.7-135.4) μg/m3) and PM10 particles (25.7 (4.6-146.6) μg/m3) were below the legally defined thresholds. Among other results, the occurrence of respiratory diseases showed positive Spearman's correlation with the values of air humidity (days 0-3, r=0.15 to 0.19), PM10(days 0-3, r=0.10 to 0.13) and NO2 concentrations (day 0, r=0.11), and negative correlation with the values of air temperature (days 0-3, r=-0.36 to -0.34), pressure (day 0, r=-0.10) and O3 concentrations (days 0-3, r=-0.21 to -0.22) (prespiratory diseases showed correlation with weather conditions and air pollutants despite the legally permitted values in the region with a humid continental climate.

  17. Concentration of Nitrate in Bottled Drinking Water in Qom, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saberi Bidgoli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: The global consumption of bottled water is growing with substantial growth in sales volumes on every continent. The highest growth rates are occurring in Asia and South America. Biological and chemical monitoring of these waters is necessary. The aim of current study was determination of nitrate concentration in bottled drinking water in Qom, Iran in 2012. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out in Qom, Iran. First of all, 18 most frequent brands of bottled drinking waters were purchased in June 2012 randomly. Then concentration of nitrate was measured according to the spectrophotometric method. In next step, experiment data were analyzed by Excel Software and P value was obtained by statistical calculations. Finally data were comprised with written nitrate concentration on labels and recommended permissible values . Results: The median nitrate concentration was 2.1 mg/L with the minimum 0.8 mg/L and maximum 8.1 mg/L. In 66.7 % of the samples, the measured nitrate concentrations were less than the written nitrate concentrations and in 33.3% of samples, the nitrate concentration was higher. The statistical calculation proved the significant difference between the median of written nitrate concentration on the label and investigated nitrate concentration (P value > 0.05. Conclusions: It be concluded that the measured nitrate concentration in all of the water samples is below the recommended permissible level.

  18. Measurement of gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations in human tooth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeguet, Omer; Aydin, Mehmet Fatih; Kuecuekoender, Erdal; Zorer, Ozlem Selcuk; Dogru, Mahmut

    2010-01-01

    The gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were measured in human tooth taken from 3 to 6 age-groups to 40 and over ones. Accumulated teeth samples are investigated in two groups as under and above 18 years. The gross alpha and beta radioactivity of human tooth samples was measured by using a gas-flow proportional counter (PIC-MPC 9604-α/β counter). In tooth samples, for female age-groups, the obtained results show that the mean gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations varied between 0.534-0.203 and 0.010-0.453 Bq g -1 and the same concentrations for male age-groups varied between 0.009-1.168 and 0.071-0.204 Bq g -1 , respectively.

  19. The mothering of conduct problem and normal children in Spain and the USA: authoritarian and permissive asynchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahler, Robert G; Cerezo, M Angeles

    2005-11-01

    Ninety-two clinic-referred and nonclinical mother-child dyads in Spain and the USA were observed in their home settings under naturalistic conditions for a total of 477 hours. Children in the clinic-referred dyads were considered troubled because of conduct problems. The observations were aimed at assessing two forms of mother-child asynchrony, either of which was expected to differentiate clinic referred from nonclinical dyads. Authoritarian asynchrony was defined as a mother's indiscriminate use of aversive reactions to her child, whereas the permissive form entailed indiscriminate positive reactions. Results showed the American mothers to generate more permissive asynchrony, whereas the Spanish mothers were inclined in the authoritarian direction. Only authoritarian asynchrony differentiated the clinical versus nonclinical dyads in each country. Discussion was centered on the greater salience of aversive as opposed to positive maternal attention, and cultural differences between countries that might have accounted for the different parenting styles.

  20. Inventory model with cash flow oriented and time-dependent holding cost under permissible delay in payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops an inventory model for determining an optimal ordering policy for non-deteriorating items and time-dependent holding cost with delayed payments permitted by the supplier under inflation and time-discounting. The discounted cash flows approach is applied to study the problem analysis. Mathematical models have been derived under two different situations i.e. case I: The permissible delay period is less than cycle time for settling the account and case II: The permissible delay period is greater than or equal to cycle time for settling the account. An algorithm is used to obtain minimum total present value of the costs over the time horizon H. Finally, numerical example and sensitivity analysis demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the optimal cycle time and optimal payment time for an item so that annual total relevant cost is minimized.

  1. Concerning permission of commercial processing of nuclear fuel substances at Rokkasho plant of Japan Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Commission on Dec. 19, 1987 directed the Nuclear Fuel Safety Expert Group to carry out a study on it, made deliberations after receiving a report from the Group on July 13, 1988, and submitted the findings to the Prime Minister on July 21. The study and deliberations were intended to determine the conformity of the permission to the applicable criteria specified in laws relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor. The investigation on the location covered the site conditions, meteorology, ground conditions, hydrology, seismic environments, and social environment. The investigations on the safety design addressed the anti-earthquake performance, fire/explosion prevention, criticality control, thermal stability, containment performance, safety against natural phenomena other than earthquake, radioactive waste management, and radiation control. Other investigations included exposure evaluation and accident analysis. It was concluded that the permission would not have adverse effects on the safety of the processing business. (Nogami, K.)

  2. Concerning permission of commercial processing of nuclear fuel substances at Rokkasho plant of Japan Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    The Nuclear Safety Commission on Dec. 19, 1987 directed the Nuclear Fuel Safety Expert Group to carry out a study on it, made deliberations after receiving a report from the Group on July 13, 1988, and submitted the findings to the Prime Minister on July 21. The study and deliberations were intended to determine the conformity of the permission to the applicable criteria specified in laws relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor. The investigation on the location covered the site conditions, meteorology, ground conditions, hydrology, seismic environments, and social environment. The investigations on the safety design addressed the anti-earthquake performance, fire/explosion prevention, criticality control, thermal stability, containment performance, safety against natural phenomena other than earthquake, radioactive waste management, and radiation control. Other investigations included exposure evaluation and accident analysis. It was concluded that the permission would not have adverse effects on the safety of the processing business. (Nogami, K.).

  3. Leishmania major glycosylation mutants require phosphoglycans (lpg2- but not lipophosphoglycan (lpg1- for survival in permissive sand fly vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Svárovská

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sand fly species able to support the survival of the protozoan parasite Leishmania have been classified as permissive or specific, based upon their ability to support a wide or limited range of strains and/or species. Studies of a limited number of fly/parasite species combinations have implicated parasite surface molecules in this process and here we provide further evidence in support of this proposal. We investigated the role of lipophosphoglycan (LPG and other phosphoglycans (PGs in sand fly survival, using Leishmania major mutants deficient in LPG (lpg1(-, and the phosphoglycan (PG-deficient mutant lpg2(-. The sand fly species used were the permissive species Phlebotomus perniciosus and P. argentipes, and the specific vector P. duboscqi, a species resistant to L. infantum development.The lpg2(- mutants did not survive well in any of the three sand fly species, suggesting that phosphoglycans and/or other LPG2-dependent molecules are required for parasite development. In vitro, all three L. major lines were equally resistant to proteolytic activity of bovine trypsin, suggesting that sand fly-specific hydrolytic proteases or other factors are the reason for the early lpg2(- parasite killing. The lpg1(- mutants developed late-stage infections in two permissive species, P. perniciosus and P. argentipes, where their infection rates and intensities of infections were comparable to the wild type (WT parasites. In contrast, in P. duboscqi the lpg1(- mutants developed significantly worse than the WT parasites.In combination with previous studies, the data establish clearly that LPG is not required for Leishmania survival in permissive species P. perniciosus and P. argentipes but plays an important role in the specific vector P. duboscqi. With regard to PGs other than LPG, the data prove the importance of LPG2-related molecules for survival of L. major in the three sand fly species tested.

  4. Health impact of supplying safe drinking water containing fluoride below permissible level on flourosis patients in a fluoride-endemic rural area of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Kunal Kanti

    2011-01-01

    The problem of high fluoride concentration in groundwater resources has become one of the most important toxicological and geo-environmental issues in India. Excessive fluoride in drinking water causes dental and skeletal fluorosis, which is encountered in endemic proportions in several parts of the world. World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value and the permissible limit of fluoride as per Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) is 1.5 mg/L. About 20 states of India, including 43 blocks of seven districts of West Bengal, were identified as endemic for fluorosis and about 66 million people in these regions are at risk of fluoride contamination. Studies showed that withdrawal of sources identified for fluoride often leads reduction of fluoride in the body fluids (re-testing urine and serum after a week or 10 days) and results in the disappearance of non-skeletal fluorosis within a short duration of 10-15 days. To determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of suspected dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among participants taking water with fluoride concentration above the permissible limit, and to assess the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water. A longitudinal intervention study was conducted in three villages in Rampurhat Block I of Birbhum district of West Bengal to assess the occurrence of various dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal manifestations of fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among the study population and the impact of taking safe water from the supplied domestic and community filters on these clinical manifestations. The impact was studied by follow-up examination of the participants for 5 months to determine the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water from supplied

  5. Permissive attitude toward suicide and future intent in individuals with and without depression: results from a nationwide survey in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Park, Jae-Hyun; Shim, Eun-Jung

    2013-04-01

    Many previous studies have revealed that individuals with depression have higher thought of suicide, although not always exhibiting intent. We investigated the associated factors with respect to intent for suicide in the future. A total of 1584 adults were selected through a nationwide multistage probability sampling, randomly one person per household, and through face-to-face interviews (response rate was 63.4%) using the suicidality module of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. The group with depression (n = 152) revealed a significantly higher level of future suicide intent (t = 4.65, p attitude (t = 4.32, p attitude (adjusted odds ratio, 3.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.97-6.89) was the only factor significantly associated with future suicide intent, whereas age; sex; education years; monthly income; financial, job, and family stress; physical illness; lifetime suicide attempt; and depression showed no statistical significance. The group with depression showed significantly higher levels of future suicide intent than did the group without depression in those who had a higher permissive attitude (t = 4.18, p attitudes (t = 1.98, p = 0.067). Permissive attitude toward suicide was associated with intent for suicide in the future in individuals with depression. Permissive attitude could be evaluated and corrected to prevent suicide.

  6. Ozone in the Upper Silesia region -- concentration and effects on plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan Godzik

    1998-01-01

    In the Beskidy Mountains at Brenna, Poland, and several other locations in the Katowice administrative district, plants were used as bioindicators to determine ozone concentration measurements in 1994 and 1995. Results showed that ozone is the only gaseous air pollutant significantly exceeding the permissible concentrations and causing foliar injury to both test and...

  7. [Hygienic substantiation of the permissible levels for tetracycline-group antibiotics in food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G; Sheveleva, S A; Khotimchenko, S A

    2012-01-01

    For the purpose of justification of the hygienic standard for tetracycline-group antibiotics in the food production established in the Russian Federation at more rigid level, than maximum and admissible levels (MAL) of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the analysis of data of literature on negative nature of impact of low concentration of these antibiotics on an organism and the environmental conditions and risk for health has been performed. Inadequacy of the accepted admissible daily dose (ADD) accepted by The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) on action on selection of resistant E. coli in intestines, for the wide contingent of consumers in connection with ignoring of obvious factors of uncertainty (gastrointestinal dysbiosis, age and individual variations in the microbiota of people synergy with other antibiotics residues in food and indirect impact on an organism through microflora from the natural habitat (resistance genes, modified causative organisms with altered properties).. By the analysis of information received with the use of modern molecular and genetic methods, the role of Subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of tetracyclines as biologically active substances, signaling molecules which, without causing obvious negative consequences in a macroorganism, serve as a major factor of regulation of a transcription in microorganisms and activation of a horizontal gene transfer coding resistance, transferred on conjugative transposons of Tn916-Tn1545 family. Reasonable scientific data on a dominating contribution of minor levels of tetracyclines in globalization in the nature of the most adverse transmissive type of the antibiotic resistance interfaced to formation new bacterial pathotypes, as consequences of irrationally high scales of application in agriculture and strengthened impact on microbic ecosystems of live organisms and objects of habitat are presented. For minimization of this mediated risk for health the need of

  8. A silencing suppressor protein (NSs) of a tospovirus enhances baculovirus replication in permissive and semipermissive insect cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Virgínia Carla; Bartasson, Lorrainy; de Castro, Maria Elita Batista; Corrêa, José Raimundo; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais; Resende, Renato Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    The nonstructural protein (NSs) of the Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has been identified as an RNAi suppressor in plant cells. A recombinant Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) designated vAcNSs, containing the NSs gene under the control of the viral polyhedrin (polh) gene promoter, was constructed and the effects of NSs in permissive, semipermissive and nonpermissive insect cells to vAcNSs infection were evaluated. vAcNSs produced more budded virus when compared to wild type in semipermissive cells. Co-infection of vAcNSs with wild type baculoviruses clearly enhanced polyhedra production in all host cells. Confocal microscopy analysis showed that NSs accumulated in abundance in the cytoplasm of permissive and semipermissive cells. In contrast, high amounts of NSs were detected in the nuclei of nonpermissive cells. Co-infection of vAcNSs with a recombinant AcMNPV containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) gene, significantly increased EGFP expression in semipermissive cells and in Anticarsia gemmatalis-hemocytes. Absence of small RNA molecules of egfp transcripts in this cell line and in a permissive cell line indicates the suppression of gene silencing activity. On the other hand, vAcNSs was not able to suppress RNAi in a nonpermissive cell line. Our data showed that NSs protein of TSWV facilitates baculovirus replication in different lepidopteran cell lines, and these results indicate that NSs could play a similar role during TSWV-infection in its thrips vector. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Blood-pressure-independent wall thickening of intramyocardial arterioles in experimental uraemia: evidence for a permissive action of PTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, K; Törnig, J; Flechtenmacher, C; Nabokov, A; Mall, G; Ritz, E

    1995-11-01

    Abnormalities in cardiovascular structures, e.g. LV hypertrophy and thickening of vessels (arteries, arterioles, veins) are hallmarks of renal failure. They are in part independent of elevated blood pressure. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been shown to affect cardiac function and has also been identified as a permissive factor in the genesis of cardiac fibrosis. The present study in rats with experimental renal failure was designed to examine whether PTH was permissive for wall thickening of intramyocardial arterioles as well. Male SD rats were sham operated or subtotally nephrectomized and maintained for 2 weeks. Subgroups of subtotally nephrectomized (SNX) rats were parathyroidectomized (PTX). Saline or rat 1, 34 PTH was administered by osmotic minipump. Eucalcaemia was maintained in PTX animals by a high-calcium diet (3%). Serum calcium was not statistically different between the groups. After perfusion fixation, intramyocardial arterioles were assessed using stereological techniques (wall thickness; wall/lumen ratio; minimal lumen diameter; length density). In random samples of the left ventricle, wall thickness of arterioles was 2.2 +/- 0.25 microns in sham-op controls and 2.76 +/- 0.41 in SNX (n = at least 8 animals per group). SNX-PTX animals+solvent did not differ significantly from sham-op controls (2.08 +/- 0.42 microns), while SNX-PTX animals+PTH had values not significantly different from SNX (2.59 +/- 0.54 microns). Differences in wall thickness were not paralleled by differences in systolic blood pressure (sham-op 110 +/- 13.3 mmHg; SNX 138 +/- 8.4 mmHg, SNX-PTX+solvent 142 +/- 5.2 mmHg; SNX-PTX+PTH 148 +/- 5.7 mmHg). PTH treated animals showed signs of marked vascular smooth-muscle cell and endothelial-cell activation. The data suggest that wall thickening of intramyocardial arterioles in short-term experimental uraemia is dependent upon the presence of PTH (permissive effect).

  10. Development of a dynamic operation permission system to support operations in an anomalous situation of PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gofuku, Akio; Nishio, Takuya; Ohi, Tadashi; Ito, Koji

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a proto-type dynamic operation permission system to avoid commission errors of operators. The system lies between CRT-based operation panels and plant control systems and checks an operation by operators if it follows typical operation procedure described in operation manuals and it has suitable effects on plant condition. The applicability of the proto-type system is demonstrated through the application to the recovery operations of a steam generator tube rupture accident of a three-loop pressurized water reactor plant

  11. Further European initiatives and regulations concerning radiation protection: drinking water guideline, maximum permissible contamination in food products and feeding stuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundigl, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The radiation protection community has observed intensively the development of basic safety standards concerning protection against hazards of ionizing radiation. The new core part of the European radiation protection legislation is complemented by several specialized regulations relevant for radiation protection. Besides the existing regulations in the field of emergency protection the European Commission initiated a drinking water guideline that will be published in the near future. Furthermore the European commission approved a revised regulation concerning the maximum permissible contamination limits for food products and feeding stuff in case of a future nuclear accident. Together with the new radiation protection basic standards a new complete, coherent and modernized European regulation package will be accomplished.

  12. UGT74AN1, a Permissive Glycosyltransferase from Asclepias curassavica for the Regiospecific Steroid 3-O-Glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chao; Huang, Wei; Zhu, Xue-Lin; Li, Xiao-San; Zhang, Fan; Jiang, Ren-Wang

    2018-02-02

    A permissive steroid glycosyltransferase (UGT74AN1) from Asclepias curassavica exhibited robust capabilities for the regiospecific C3 glycosylation of cardiotonic steroids and C 21 steroid precursors, and unprecedented promiscuity toward 53 structurally diverse natural and unnatural compounds to form O-, N-, and S-glycosides, along with the catalytic reversibility for a one-pot transglycosylation reaction. These findings highlight UGT74AN1 as the first regiospecific catalyst for cardiotonic steroid C3 glycosylation and exhibit significant potential for glycosylation of diverse bioactive molecules in drug discovery.

  13. Permissive Attitude toward LGBT in Jakarta: Study of Differences in the Level of Permissiveness among individuals born in 1950-1970’s and 1980-2000’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiowati Endang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT movement is strongly resisted in Indonesia. This is not only that Indonesian people are still religious, but also the traditional norms and values are still very strong in daily life. Based on the Pew Research Centre in 2014, the homosexuality level of acceptance in Indonesia is only about 3%, while the rejection is 93%. LGBT has been started since the 1960s, but it became strength since the private television in early 1990s promoted the effeminate characters to be the top celebrities paid hundreds of millions of rupiah. People who born in the 1950s to 1970s that consume only one TV station will have different respond to LGBT with people who born in the 1980s to 2000s with some TV stations. Purpose: to look for the differences in the level of permissiveness toward homosexuality between those two groups of people. Method: using a mix method of qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative methods interviewed 6 informants. The quantitative will be a survey of 100 respondents. Result: The level of permissiveness on LGBT of the younger group is higher than the older group. According to acceptance factor both group mostly reject LGBT. But according to properness, the older group tend to say disturbing and disgusting, while for the younger group assume not disturbing.

  14. Initial stage of transformation of permissive cells by simian virus 40: development of resistance to productive infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, E C; Sauer, G

    1971-07-01

    A quantitative assay has been used to determine the conditions leading to acquisition of resistance of permissive cells to lytic infection. The number of cell colonies surviving infection depends on the occurrence of several cell divisions after infection. High yields of resistant colonies were obtained when infected, confluent cultures were released from contact inhibition 10 to 14 hr after infection. Infection of actively growing cells produced similar results, but halting further division by seeding these growing cells on confluent monolayers prevented the development of colonies. Colony formation was a direct function of multiplicities lower than 5. An inverse killing response was observed with higher multiplicities, yet colonies were produced at a multiplicity of infection as high as 50. Brief exposure of input simian virus 40 to ultraviolet light stimulated colony formation. Irradiation of the virus for longer periods of time led to reduction of colony formation at a rate slower than the rate of inactivation of viral infectivity. It was concluded that resistance is induced by simian virus 40 and that this alteration represents one of the earliest detectable characteristics of the transformation of permissive cells.

  15. Permissible Home Range Estimation (PHRE in Restricted Habitats: A New Algorithm and an Evaluation for Sea Otters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Max Tarjan

    Full Text Available Parametric and nonparametric kernel methods dominate studies of animal home ranges and space use. Most existing methods are unable to incorporate information about the underlying physical environment, leading to poor performance in excluding areas that are not used. Using radio-telemetry data from sea otters, we developed and evaluated a new algorithm for estimating home ranges (hereafter Permissible Home Range Estimation, or "PHRE" that reflects habitat suitability. We began by transforming sighting locations into relevant landscape features (for sea otters, coastal position and distance from shore. Then, we generated a bivariate kernel probability density function in landscape space and back-transformed this to geographic space in order to define a permissible home range. Compared to two commonly used home range estimation methods, kernel densities and local convex hulls, PHRE better excluded unused areas and required a smaller sample size. Our PHRE method is applicable to species whose ranges are restricted by complex physical boundaries or environmental gradients and will improve understanding of habitat-use requirements and, ultimately, aid in conservation efforts.

  16. Development of Hydrogel with Anti-Inflammatory Properties Permissive for the Growth of Human Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sánchez-Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin wound repair requires the development of different kinds of biomaterials that must be capable of restoring the damaged tissue. Type I collagen and chitosan have been widely used to develop scaffolds for skin engineering because of their cell-related signaling properties such as proliferation, migration, and survival. Collagen is the major component of the skin extracellular matrix (ECM, while chitosan mimics the structure of the native polysaccharides and glycosaminoglycans in the ECM. Chitosan and its derivatives are also widely used as drug delivery vehicles since they are biodegradable and noncytotoxic. Regulation of the inflammatory response is crucial for wound healing and tissue regeneration processes; and, consequently, the development of biomaterials such as hydrogels with anti-inflammatory properties is very important and permissive for the growth of cells. In the last years, it has been shown that mesenchymal stem cells have clinical importance in the treatment of different pathologies, for example, skin injuries. In this paper, we describe the anti-inflammatory activity of collagen type 1/chitosan/dexamethasone hydrogel, which is permissive for the culture of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSC. Our results show that hADMSC cultured in the hydrogel are viable, proliferate, and secrete the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10 but not the inflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α.

  17. MPC Toolbox with GPU Accelerated Optimization Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade-Nielsen, Nicolai Fog; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Dammann, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) in scientific computing has shown great promise in many different fields. While GPUs are capable of very high floating point performance and memory bandwidth, its massively parallel architecture requires algorithms to be reimplemented to suit...

  18. Final Report: Efficient Databases for MPC Microdata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael A. Bender; Martin Farach-Colton; Bradley C. Kuszmaul

    2011-08-31

    The purpose of this grant was to develop the theory and practice of high-performance databases for massive streamed datasets. Over the last three years, we have developed fast indexing technology, that is, technology for rapidly ingesting data and storing that data so that it can be efficiently queried and analyzed. During this project we developed the technology so that high-bandwidth data streams can be indexed and queried efficiently. Our technology has been proven to work data sets composed of tens of billions of rows when the data streams arrives at over 40,000 rows per second. We achieved these numbers even on a single disk driven by two cores. Our work comprised (1) new write-optimized data structures with better asymptotic complexity than traditional structures, (2) implementation, and (3) benchmarking. We furthermore developed a prototype of TokuFS, a middleware layer that can handle microdata I/O packaged up in an MPI-IO abstraction.

  19. Mechanisms responsible for imipenem resistance among Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates exposed to imipenem concentrations within the mutant selection window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilara, Foula; Galani, Irene; Souli, Maria; Papanikolaou, Konstantinos; Giamarellou, Helen; Papadopoulos, Antonios

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the propensities of imipenem to select for resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants by determining the mutant prevention concentrations (MPCs) for 9 unrelated clinical isolates and the accession of any relationship with mechanisms of resistance development. The MPC/MIC ratios ranged from 4 to 16. Detection of resistance mechanisms in the mutant derivatives of the nine isolates mainly revealed inactivating mutations in the gene coding for outer membrane protein OprD. Point mutations leading to premature stop codons or amino acid substitution S278P, ≥1bp deletion leading to frameshift mutations and interruption of the oprD by an insertion sequence, were observed. MPC and mutant selection window (MSW) are unique parameters that may guide the implementation of antimicrobial treatment, providing useful information about the necessary imipenem concentration needed in the infection area, in order to avoid the emergence of resistance, especially in clinical situations with high bacterial load. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimation and justification of permissible levels of Sr 90 in firewood and timber produced on the territories contaminated after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabrodskij, V.N.; Bondar', Yu.I.; Sadchikov, V.I.; Kalinin, V.N.

    2014-01-01

    The permissible levels of Sr 90 in firewood and timber produced on the radioactively contaminated territory are calculated and justified. They are proposed to be used on the territories contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. (authors)

  1. Carbon-concentrating mechanisms in seagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkum, Anthony William D; Davey, Peter A; Kuo, John; Ralph, Peter J; Raven, John A

    2017-06-01

    Seagrasses are unique angiosperms that carry out growth and reproduction submerged in seawater. They occur in at least three families of the Alismatales. All have chloroplasts mainly in the cells of the epidermis. Living in seawater, the supply of inorganic carbon (Ci) to the chloroplasts is diffusion limited, especially under unstirred conditions. Therefore, the supply of CO2 and bicarbonate across the diffusive boundary layer on the outer side of the epidermis is often a limiting factor. Here we discuss the evidence for mechanisms that enhance the uptake of Ci into the epidermal cells. Since bicarbonate is plentiful in seawater, a bicarbonate pump might be expected; however, the evidence for such a pump is not strongly supported. There is evidence for a carbonic anhydrase outside the outer plasmalemma. This, together with evidence for an outward proton pump, suggests the possibility that local acidification leads to enhanced concentrations of CO2 adjacent to the outer tangential epidermal walls, which enhances the uptake of CO2, and this could be followed by a carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) in the cytoplasm and/or chloroplasts. The lines of evidence for such an epidermal CCM are discussed, including evidence for special 'transfer cells' in some but not all seagrass leaves in the tangential inner walls of the epidermal cells. It is concluded that seagrasses have a CCM but that the case for concentration of CO2 at the site of Rubisco carboxylation is not proven. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Supply chain model with price- and trade credit-sensitive demand under two-level permissible delay in payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, B. C.; Maiti, T.

    2013-05-01

    This article develops a single-manufacturer and single-retailer supply chain model under two-level permissible delay in payments when the manufacturer follows a lot-for-lot policy in response to the retailer's demand. The manufacturer offers a trade credit period to the retailer with the contract that the retailer must share a fraction of the profit earned during the trade credit period. On the other hand, the retailer provides his customer a partial trade credit which is less than that of the manufacturer. The demand at the retailer is assumed to be dependent on the selling price and the trade credit period offered to the customers. The average net profit of the supply chain is derived and an algorithm for finding the optimal solution is developed. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the coordination policy of the supply chain and examine the sensitivity of key model-parameters.

  3. Positional cloning identifies zebrafish one-eyed pinhead as a permissive EGF-related ligand required during gastrulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Talbot, W S; Schier, A F

    1998-01-23

    The zebrafish one-eyed pinhead (oep) mutation disrupts embryonic development, resulting in cyclopia and defects in endoderm, prechordal plate, and ventral neuroectoderm formation. We report the molecular isolation of oep using a positional cloning approach. The oep gene encodes a novel EGF-related protein with similarity to the EGF-CFC proteins cripto, cryptic, and FRL-1. Wild-type oep protein contains a functional signal sequence and is membrane-associated. Following ubiquitous maternal and zygotic expression, highest levels of oep mRNA are found in the gastrula margin and in axial structures and forebrain. Widespread misexpression of both membrane-attached and secreted forms of oep rescues prechordal plate and forebrain development in mutant embryos but does not lead to the ectopic induction of these cell types in wild-type fish. These results establish an essential but permissive role for an EGF-related ligand during vertebrate gastrulation.

  4. Determining permissible PT parameters in normal operating conditions for reactor pressure vessel of units 1-4 of NPP Kozloduy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batischev, M.; Yurukov, V.; Simovski, Ts.

    2000-01-01

    The main objective of the analysis is to verify the determined from the Main Designer P-T curves and to provide that permissible T values can be decreased even in case a lot of very conservative assumptions are taken into account. Detailed temperature and stress distributions are obtained using different 3D Finite Element Models. Then, assuming linear elastic behaviour and using these distributions onto models including cracks K I values are determined. From the K I values taking into account material characteristics and actual and prognostic neutron fluence of the most sensitive areas of the RPV, P-T curves are determined. Residual stresses in welds are also taken into account. Analysis has been performed independently following two different methodologies - one prescribed by Russian norms (PNAEh-G-7-002-86) and another, developed by the IAEA - 'Guidelines on PTS analysis for WWER NPP'. The obtained results using two methodologies are compared and the more severe are determined

  5. Permission of the alteration in nuclear fuel material processing business in the Kumatori Works of Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd. (report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    A report by the Nuclear Safety Commission to the Prime Minister concerning the permission of the alteration in nuclear fuel material processing business in the Kumatori Works, Nuclear Fuel Industries Ltd., was presented. The technical capability of NFI and the safety of the business alteration were confirmed. The items of the safety examination concerning the alteration, made by the Committee on Examination of Nuclear Fuel Safety of NSC, are as follows: the aseismic design and fire prevention measures of the No.2 processing building and the No.3 waste storage building to be newly installed; criticality control concerning the No.2 processing building; the release control of gaseous and liquid wastes; the management of solid wastes; radiation control; the exposure dose of general public. (J.P.N.)

  6. Releasable activity and maximum permissible leakage rate within a transport cask of Tehran Research Reactor fuel samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaeian Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Containment of a transport cask during both normal and accident conditions is important to the health and safety of the public and of the operators. Based on IAEA regulations, releasable activity and maximum permissible volumetric leakage rate within the cask containing fuel samples of Tehran Research Reactor enclosed in an irradiated capsule are calculated. The contributions to the total activity from the four sources of gas, volatile, fines, and corrosion products are treated separately. These calculations are necessary to identify an appropriate leak test that must be performed on the cask and the results can be utilized as the source term for dose evaluation in the safety assessment of the cask.

  7. On permission of reprocessing project change at the Reprocessing Works of the Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd. (Reply)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Commission replied as follows to the Prime Minister on July 14, 1997 on permission of reprocessing project change at the Reprocessing Works of the Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd. inquired on Dec. 26, 1996. Contents of the inquiry consisted of change of refinery facility and its related instruments, integration of low level wasted liquid treating instrument and change of low level solid waste treating instrument, integration of high level wasted liquid storing building and high level wasted liquid glassification building, installation of used fuel transporting container maintenance instrument and its relating instruments, and so forth. As a result of careful discussion at the Commission for these items, they were admitted to be valid on her technical ability and her safety. (G.K.)

  8. Concentration of some radionuclides in some popular sudanese medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagiroun, M. I. A.

    2012-10-01

    In this study was measured concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 2 38U , 2 32T h and 4 0K in samples of sudanese medicinal plants. The radionuclide activity concentrations in samples analyzed ranged from 4.09 to 41.07 Bq kg -1 for 2 38T h and from 353.14 to 2270.21 Bq kg -1 for 4 0k . No trace of artificial radionuclide was determined in all the samples. The effective dose due to the presence of these radionuclides was estimated and found to be 0.524 mSv/year which is well below the permissible levels. (Author)

  9. test of permissions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    strydom, craig

    2013-05-27

    Full Text Available 4.2.4 Apache Ant 1.8 or later (Java build tool) __________________________________________ 38 4.2.5 Relational Database: (PostgreSQL or Oracle). _____________________________________ 38 4.2.6 Servlet Engine: (Apache Tomcat 5.5 or 6, Jetty, Caucho... ________________________________________________________ 47 4.4.3 DSpace over HTTPS _________________________________________________________ 47 4.4.4 The Handle Server ___________________________________________________________ 51 4.4.5 Google and HTML sitemaps...

  10. Comparison of egg and high yielding MDCK cell-derived live attenuated influenza virus for commercial production of trivalent influenza vaccine: in vitro cell susceptibility and influenza virus replication kinetics in permissive and semi-permissive cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Althaf I; Cordeiro, Melissa; Sevilla, Elizabeth; Liu, Jonathan

    2010-05-14

    Currently MedImmune manufactures cold-adapted (ca) live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) from specific-pathogen free (SPF) chicken eggs. Difficulties in production scale-up and potential exposure of chicken flocks to avian influenza viruses especially in the event of a pandemic influenza outbreak have prompted evaluation and development of alternative non-egg based influenza vaccine manufacturing technologies. As part of MedImmune's effort to develop the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) using cell culture production technologies we have investigated the use of high yielding, cloned MDCK cells as a substrate for vaccine production by assessing host range and virus replication of influenza virus produced from both SPF egg and MDCK cell production technologies. In addition to cloned MDCK cells the indicator cell lines used to evaluate the impact of producing LAIV in cells on host range and replication included two human cell lines: human lung carcinoma (A549) cells and human muco-epidermoid bronchiolar carcinoma (NCI H292) cells. The influenza viruses used to infect the indicators cell lines represented both the egg and cell culture manufacturing processes and included virus strains that composed the 2006-2007 influenza seasonal trivalent vaccine (A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Wisconsin/67/05 (H3N2) and B/Malaysia/2506/04). Results from this study demonstrate remarkable similarity between influenza viruses representing the current commercial egg produced and developmental MDCK cell produced vaccine production platforms. MedImmune's high yielding cloned MDCK cells used for the cell culture based vaccine production were highly permissive to both egg and cell produced ca attenuated influenza viruses. Both the A549 and NCI H292 cells regardless of production system were less permissive to influenza A and B viruses than the MDCK cells. Irrespective of the indicator cell line used the replication properties were similar between egg and the cell produced

  11. Evaluation of a radioactive aerosol surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scripsick, R.C.; Stafford, R.G.; Beckman, R.J.; Tillery, M.I.; Romero, P.O.

    Measurements of the dilution of air contaminants between worker breathing zone and area air samplers were made by releasing a test aerosol in a workroom equipped with an aerosol surveillance system. The data were used to evaluate performance, and suggest improvements in design of the workroom's alarming air monitor system. It was found that a breathing zone concentration of 960 times the maximum permissible concentration in air (MPC/sub a/) for a half-hour was required to trigger alarms of the existing monitoring system under some release conditions. Alternative air monitor placement, suggested from dilution measurements, would reduce this average triggering concentration to 354 MPC/sub a/. Deployment of additional air monitors could further reduce the average triggering concentration to 241 MPC/sub a/. The relation between number of monitors and triggering concentration was studied. No significant decrease in average triggering concentration was noted for arrays containing greater than five monitors

  12. Enterovirus D-68 Infection, Prophylaxis, and Vaccination in a Novel Permissive Animal Model, the Cotton Rat (Sigmodon hispidus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira C Patel

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a significant increase in detection of Enterovirus D-68 (EV-D68 among patients with severe respiratory infections worldwide. EV-D68 is now recognized as a re-emerging pathogen; however, due to lack of a permissive animal model for EV-D68, a comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis and immune response against EV-D68 has been hampered. Recently, it was shown that EV-D68 has a strong affinity for α2,6-linked sialic acids (SAs and we have shown previously that α2,6-linked SAs are abundantly present in the respiratory tract of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus. Thus, we hypothesized that cotton rats could be a potential model for EV-D68 infection. Here, we evaluated the ability of two recently isolated EV-D68 strains (VANBT/1 and MO/14/49, along with the historical prototype Fermon strain (ATCC, to infect cotton rats. We found that cotton rats are permissive to EV-D68 infection without virus adaptation. The different strains of EV-D68 showed variable infection profiles and the ability to produce neutralizing antibody (NA upon intranasal infection or intramuscular immunization. Infection with the VANBT/1 resulted in significant induction of pulmonary cytokine gene expression and lung pathology. Intramuscular immunization with live VANBT/1 or MO/14/49 induced strong homologous antibody responses, but a moderate heterologous NA response. We showed that passive prophylactic administration of serum with high content of NA against VANBT/1 resulted in an efficient antiviral therapy. VANBT/1-immunized animals showed complete protection from VANBT/1 challenge, but induced strong pulmonary Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses and enhanced lung pathology, indicating the generation of exacerbated immune response by immunization. In conclusion, our data illustrate that the cotton rat is a powerful animal model that provides an experimental platform to investigate pathogenesis, immune response, anti-viral therapies and vaccines

  13. Ultra flat ideal concentrators of high concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Julio [IST, Physics Dept., Lisboa (Portugal); INETI-DER, Lisboa (Portugal); Collares-Pereira, Manuel [INETI-DER, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2000-07-01

    A new method for the design of nonimaging devices is presented. Its application to the design of ultra flat compact concentrators is analysed. These new concentrators are based on a combination of two stages: the first one is composed of a large number of small structures placed side by side and the second one is a very compact single device concentrating the radiation to the limit. These devices are ideal for 2D. These compact designs are much more compact than the traditional ones like lens-mirror combinations or parabolic primaries with nonimaging secondaries. Besides, they can be designed for any acceptance angle, while the traditional ones are limited to small acceptance angles. (Author)

  14. Highly concentrating Fresnel lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritchman, E.M.; Friesem, A.A.; Yekutieli, G.

    1979-01-01

    A new type of concave Fresnel lens capable of concentrating solar radiation very near the ultimate concentration limit is considered. The differential equations that describe the lens are solved to provide computed solutions which are then checked by ray tracing techniques. The performance (efficiency and concentration) of the lens is investigated and compared to that of a flat Fresnel lens, showing that the new lens is preferable for concentrating solar radiation. (author)

  15. A joint inventory policy under permissible delay in payment and stochastic demand (Case study: Pharmacy Department of Pariaman Hospital)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonrinaldi, Primadi, M. Yugo; Hadiguna, Rika Ampuh

    2017-11-01

    Inventory cannot be avoided by organizations. One of them is a hospital which has a functional unit to manage the drugs and other medical supplies such as disposable and laboratory material. The unit is called Pharmacy Department which is responsible to do all of pharmacy services in the hospital. The current problem in Pharmacy Department is that the level of drugs and medical supplies inventory is too high. Inventory is needed to keep the service level to customers but at the same time it increases the cost of holding the items, so there should be a policy to keep the inventory on an optimal condition. To solve such problem, this paper proposes an inventory policy in Pharmacy Department of Pariaman Hospital. The inventory policy is determined by using Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) model under condition of permissible delay in payment for multiple products considering safety stock to anticipate stochastic demand. This policy is developed based on the actual condition of the system studied where suppliers provided a certain period to Pharmacy Department to complete the payment of the order. Based on implementation using software Lingo 13.0, total inventory cost of proposed policy of IDR 137,334,815.34 is 37.4% lower than the total inventory cost of current policy of IDR 219,511,519.45. Therefore, the proposed inventory policy is applicable to the system to minimize the total inventory cost.

  16. TFH cells accumulate in mucosal tissues of humanized-DRAG mice and are highly permissive to HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Atef; Majji, Sai; Peachman, Kristina; Jagodzinski, Linda; Kim, Jiae; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Wijayalath, Wathsala; Merbah, Melanie; Kim, Jerome H.; Michael, Nelson L.; Alving, Carl R.; Casares, Sofia; Rao, Mangala

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ T follicular helper cells (TFH) in germinal centers are required for maturation of B-cells. While the role of TFH-cells has been studied in blood and lymph nodes of HIV-1 infected individuals, its role in the mucosal tissues has not been investigated. We show that the gut and female reproductive tract (FRT) of humanized DRAG mice have a high level of human lymphocytes and a high frequency of TFH (CXCR5+PD-1++) and precursor-TFH (CXCR5+PD-1+) cells. The majority of TFH-cells expressed CCR5 and CXCR3 and are the most permissive to HIV-1 infection. A single low-dose intravaginal HIV-1 challenge of humanized DRAG mice results in 100% infectivity with accumulation of TFH-cells mainly in the Peyer’s patches and FRT. The novel finding of TFH-cells in the FRT may contribute to the high susceptibility of DRAG mice to HIV-1 infection. This mouse model thus provides new opportunities to study TFH-cells and to evaluate HIV-1 vaccines. PMID:26034905

  17. Transcriptional Reprogramming during Effector-to-Memory Transition Renders CD4+ T Cells Permissive for Latent HIV-1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Liang; Deng, Kai; Gao, Hongbo; Xing, Sifei; Capoferri, Adam A; Durand, Christine M; Rabi, S Alireza; Laird, Gregory M; Kim, Michelle; Hosmane, Nina N; Yang, Hung-Chih; Zhang, Hao; Margolick, Joseph B; Li, Linghua; Cai, Weiping; Ke, Ruian; Flavell, Richard A; Siliciano, Janet D; Siliciano, Robert F

    2017-10-17

    The latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting memory CD4 + T cells is the major barrier to curing HIV-1 infection. Studies of HIV-1 latency have focused on regulation of viral gene expression in cells in which latent infection is established. However, it remains unclear how infection initially becomes latent. Here we described a unique set of properties of CD4 + T cells undergoing effector-to-memory transition including temporary upregulation of CCR5 expression and rapid downregulation of cellular gene transcription. These cells allowed completion of steps in the HIV-1 life cycle through integration but suppressed HIV-1 gene transcription, thus allowing the establishment of latency. CD4 + T cells in this stage were substantially more permissive for HIV-1 latent infection than other CD4 + T cells. Establishment of latent HIV-1 infection in CD4 + T could be inhibited by viral-specific CD8 + T cells, a result with implications for elimination of latent HIV-1 infection by T cell-based vaccines. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Molecular detection of Leishmania infection in sand flies in border line of Iran-Turkmenistan: restricted and permissive vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, H; Oshaghi, M A; Abai, M R; Rassi, Y; Akhavan, A A; Sheikh, Z; Mohtarami, F; Saidi, Z; Mirzajani, H; Anjomruz, M

    2013-10-01

    A molecular study was carried out to incriminate sand fly vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in rural areas of Sarakhs district, Khorassane-Razavi Province, northeastern Iran, in 2011. Sand flies of Sergentomyia with three species and Phlebotomus with six species respectively comprised 73.3% and 26.7% of the specimens. Phlebotomus papatasi was the most common Phlebotomine species in outdoor and indoor resting places. Leishmania infection was found at least in 17 (22%) specimens including Ph. papatasi (n=9 pool samples), Phlebotomus caucasicus (n=6), Phlebotomus alexandri (n=1), and Sergentomyia sintoni (n=1). The parasites were found comprised Leishmania major (n=5), Leishmania turanica (n=10), and Leishmania gerbilli (n=4). Infection of Ph. papatasi with both L. major and L. turanica supporting the new suggestion indicating that it is not restricted only with L. major. Circulation of L. major by Ph. alexandri, and both L. gerbilli and L. turanica by Ph. caucasicus, in addition to previous data indicating the ability of Ph. alexandri to circulate Leishmania infantum and Leishmania donovani, and Ph. caucasicus to circulate L. major, suggests that these two species can be permissive vectors. The results suggest that Ph. papatasi and Ph. alexandri are the primary and secondary vectors of CL where circulating L. major between human and reservoirs, whereas Ph. caucasicus is circulating L. turanica and L. gerbilli between the rodents in the region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Solar cell concentrating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, H.P.; Sharma, V.K.; Agarwal, R.K.

    1986-11-01

    This study reviews fabrication techniques and testing facilities for different solar cells under concentration which have been developed and tested. It is also aimed to examine solar energy concentrators which are prospective candidates for photovoltaic concentrator systems. This may provide an impetus to the scientists working in the area of solar cell technology

  20. Rheology of concentrated biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Samaniuk; J. Wang; T.W. Root; C.T. Scott; D.J. Klingenberg

    2011-01-01

    Economic processing of lignocellulosic biomass requires handling the biomass at high solids concentration. This creates challenges because concentrated biomass behaves as a Bingham-like material with large yield stresses. Here we employ torque rheometry to measure the rheological properties of concentrated lignocellulosic biomass (corn stover). Yield stresses obtained...

  1. Variable Potassium Concentrations: Which Is Right and Which Is Wrong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theparee, Talent; Benirschke, Robert C; Lee, Hong-Kee

    2017-05-01

    Reverse pseudohyperkalemia is a term used to describe in vitro, falsely elevated potassium concentrations in plasma specimens that occur in association with extreme leukocytosis and are commonly associated with hematologic malignant neoplasms. Tumor lysis syndrome is an in vivo lysis of tumor cells that leads to elevated levels of potassium, uric acid, phosphate, and lactate dehydrogenase, as well as decreased calcium concentrations. Herein, we report a case of a 66-year-old Caucasian man with stage IV mantle-cell lymphoma who has elevated levels of potassium, uric acid, and phosphorus, as well as a white blood cell (WBC) count greater than 100,000 cells per mm3. The patient initially was diagnosed as having tumor lysis syndrome. His subsequent potassium concentrations in whole blood remained elevated even after hemodialysis; however, his serum potassium concentrations were decreased. The patient then was diagnosed accurately as having reverse pseudohyperkalemia, and accurate potassium measurements were obtained via serum specimens. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Mutant prevention concentration, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic integration, and modeling of enrofloxacin data established in diseased buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, B; Sidhu, P K; Kaur, G; Venkatachalam, D; Rampal, S

    2015-12-01

    The pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling of enrofloxacin data using mutant prevention concentration (MPC) of enrofloxacin was conducted in febrile buffalo calves to optimize dosage regimen and to prevent the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The serum peak concentration (Cmax ), terminal half-life (t1/2 K10) , apparent volume of distribution (Vd(area) /F), and mean residence time (MRT) of enrofloxacin were 1.40 ± 0.27 μg/mL, 7.96 ± 0.86 h, 7.74 ± 1.26 L/kg, and 11.57 ± 1.01 h, respectively, following drug administration at dosage 12 mg/kg by intramuscular route. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration, and MPC of enrofloxacin against Pasteurella multocida were 0.055, 0.060, and 1.45 μg/mL, respectively. Modeling of ex vivo growth inhibition data to the sigmoid Emax equation provided AUC24 h /MIC values to produce effects of bacteriostatic (33 h), bactericidal (39 h), and bacterial eradication (41 h). The estimated daily dosage of enrofloxacin in febrile buffalo calves was 3.5 and 8.4 mg/kg against P. multocida/pathogens having MIC90 ≤0.125 and 0.30 μg/mL, respectively, based on the determined AUC24 h /MIC values by modeling PK/PD data. The lipopolysaccharide-induced fever had no direct effect on the antibacterial activity of the enrofloxacin and alterations in PK of the drug, and its metabolite will be beneficial for its use to treat infectious diseases caused by sensitive pathogens in buffalo species. In addition, in vitro MPC data in conjunction with in vivo PK data indicated that clinically it would be easier to eradicate less susceptible strains of P. multocida in diseased calves. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Adaptive Landscapes of Resistance Genes Change as Antibiotic Concentrations Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, Portia M; Meza, Juan C; Nandipati, Anna; Barlow, Miriam

    2015-10-01

    Most studies on the evolution of antibiotic resistance are focused on selection for resistance at lethal antibiotic concentrations, which has allowed the detection of mutant strains that show strong phenotypic traits. However, solely focusing on lethal concentrations of antibiotics narrowly limits our perspective of antibiotic resistance evolution. New high-resolution competition assays have shown that resistant bacteria are selected at relatively low concentrations of antibiotics. This finding is important because sublethal concentrations of antibiotics are found widely in patients undergoing antibiotic therapies, and in nonmedical conditions such as wastewater treatment plants, and food and water used in agriculture and farming. To understand the impacts of sublethal concentrations on selection, we measured 30 adaptive landscapes for a set of TEM β-lactamases containing all combinations of the four amino acid substitutions that exist in TEM-50 for 15 β-lactam antibiotics at multiple concentrations. We found that there are many evolutionary pathways within this collection of landscapes that lead to nearly every TEM-genotype that we studied. While it is known that the pathways change depending on the type of β-lactam, this study demonstrates that the landscapes including fitness optima also change dramatically as the concentrations of antibiotics change. Based on these results we conclude that the presence of multiple concentrations of β-lactams in an environment result in many different adaptive landscapes through which pathways to nearly every genotype are available. Ultimately this may increase the diversity of genotypes in microbial populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Síntesis de ZnO con morfología acicular por el método de precipitación controlada (MPC y su uso como refuerzo de elastómeros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Campo, E. J.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The zinc oxide, ZnO, is a compound of high technological interest. It is used as a catalyst in the vulcanizing process, as a pigment and due to its electrical properties as a suppressor of electrical overload and piezoelectric material. These applications require that the ZnO present high chemical purity and determinate morphology and size of particles. In this work we studied the ZnO synthesis using the controlled precipitation method to obtain needles shape particles. The potentiometer and conductimetic titration indicated the different stages that take place during the NH4OH addition to Zinc solution. Besides, these curves allow to conform the reproducilety of this method. The obtained ceramic powder was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X ray diffraction (XRD, thermal analysis (TG/DTA and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The synthesized ZnO was used the mixture and the mechanical properties of elastomeric ribbon were determinated.

    El óxido de cinc, ZnO, es un compuesto de gran interés industrial. Se utiliza como activador en el proceso de vulcanización de los cauchos, en la industria de los pigmentos y dadas sus propiedades eléctricas, como supresor de sobre tensiones y material piezoeléctrico. Estas aplicaciones requieren que las partículas de ZnO presenten determinadas características: pureza química, tamaño, distribución de tamaño y morfología de las partículas. En este trabajo se realizó el estudio de la síntesis de ZnO por el método de precipitación controlada (MPC para obtener partículas con morfología acicular. Los ensayos de valoración potenciométrica y conductimétrica permitieron determinar las diferentes etapas que ocurren durante la adición del agente precipitante (NH4OH a las disoluciones acuosas de cinc y por lo tanto, permiten garantizar la reproducibilidad del método. Los compuestos obtenidos se caracterizaron utilizando espectroscopia infrarroja (FTIR, difracción de rayos X (DRX, an

  5. Differential local tissue permissiveness influences the final fate of GPR17-expressing oligodendrocyte precursors in two distinct models of demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppolino, Giusy T; Marangon, Davide; Negri, Camilla; Menichetti, Gianluca; Fumagalli, Marta; Gelosa, Paolo; Dimou, Leda; Furlan, Roberto; Lecca, Davide; Abbracchio, Maria P

    2018-05-01

    Promoting remyelination is recognized as a novel strategy to foster repair in neurodegenerative demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. In this respect, the receptor GPR17, recently emerged as a new target for remyelination, is expressed by early oligodendrocyte precursors (OPCs) and after a certain differentiation stage it has to be downregulated to allow progression to mature myelinating oligodendrocytes. Here, we took advantage of the first inducible GPR17 reporter mouse line (GPR17-iCreER T2 xCAG-eGFP mice) allowing to follow the final fate of GPR17 + cells by tamoxifen-induced GFP-labeling to unveil the destiny of these cells in two demyelination models: experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), characterized by marked immune cell activation and inflammation, and cuprizone induced demyelination, where myelin dysfunction is achieved by a toxic insult. In both models, demyelination induced a strong increase of fluorescent GFP + cells at damaged areas. However, only in the cuprizone model reacting GFP + cells terminally differentiated to mature oligodendrocytes, thus contributing to remyelination. In EAE, GFP + cells were blocked at immature stages and never became myelinating oligodendrocytes. We suggest these strikingly distinct fates be due to different permissiveness of the local CNS environment. Based on previously reported GPR17 activation by emergency signals (e.g., Stromal Derived Factor-1), we propose that a marked inflammatory milieu, such as that reproduced in EAE, induces GPR17 overactivation resulting in impaired downregulation, untimely and prolonged permanence in OPCs, leading, in turn, to differentiation blockade. Combined treatments with remyelinating agents and anti-inflammatory drugs may represent new potential adequate strategies to halt neurodegeneration and foster recovery. © 2018 The Authors GLIA Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Integration of three echelon supply chain (supplier-manufacturer-distributor-drop shipper) with permissible delay in payment and penalty contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M. F.; Suparno

    2018-04-01

    Supply Chain Management (SCM) has to be considered in the company in order to improve the sustainability and competitiveness. SCM executed to integrating any companies on the supply chain in a way of coordinating the flow of goods, information, and financial. Permissible delay in payment is one of the coordination ways with allowing the costumers delay the payments to a vendor in some certain periods without any interest charges. In the supply chain system, drop-shipping player already familiar in this era. In drop-shipping internet retailing, the supplier will hold supplies and also carry out physical distribution service on behalf of drop-shipper. Drop-shipper will just focus on selling, on the other hand, their supplier will be responsible for the physical process. Generally, drop-shipper have information of the customer demands better than the distributor. But, it is also unrare when the drop-shipper send the estimation of demands which bigger than their own estimation in order to maximize their own interest, so they hope supplies of the distributor will always enough to accommodate their demands. Contributions in this research will be focused on integration of three echelons supply chain, which are the supplier, manufacturer, distributor, and drop-shipper. With considering delay in payment on first and second echelons, and also the contract penalty on third echelon. The problem on this research will be modeled in some kind of cases which can represent the problem of real supply chain system. Sensitivity analysis will be done on certain significant variables toward the changes of total supply chain cost. Coordination with delay in payment success to integrate supply chain. Contract penalty plan success to maintain the profit of distributor and drop-shipper.

  7. Profiling of glycan receptors for minute virus of mice in permissive cell lines towards understanding the mechanism of cell recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Halder

    Full Text Available The recognition of sialic acids by two strains of minute virus of mice (MVM, MVMp (prototype and MVMi (immunosuppressive, is an essential requirement for successful infection. To understand the potential for recognition of different modifications of sialic acid by MVM, three types of capsids, virus-like particles, wild type empty (no DNA capsids, and DNA packaged virions, were screened on a sialylated glycan microarray (SGM. Both viruses demonstrated a preference for binding to 9-O-methylated sialic acid derivatives, while MVMp showed additional binding to 9-O-acetylated and 9-O-lactoylated sialic acid derivatives, indicating recognition differences. The glycans recognized contained a type-2 Galβ1-4GlcNAc motif (Neu5Acα2-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc or 3'SIA-LN and were biantennary complex-type N-glycans with the exception of one. To correlate the recognition of the 3'SIA-LN glycan motif as well as the biantennary structures to their natural expression in cell lines permissive for MVMp, MVMi, or both strains, the N- and O-glycans, and polar glycolipids present in three cell lines used for in vitro studies, A9 fibroblasts, EL4 T lymphocytes, and the SV40 transformed NB324K cells, were analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. The cells showed an abundance of the sialylated glycan motifs recognized by the viruses in the SGM and previous glycan microarrays supporting their role in cellular recognition by MVM. Significantly, the NB324K showed fucosylation at the non-reducing end of their biantennary glycans, suggesting that recognition of these cells is possibly mediated by the Lewis X motif as in 3'SIA-Le(X identified in a previous glycan microarray screen.

  8. Vegetation concentration and inventory of metals and radionuclides in the old F-area seepage basin, 904-49G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Measured concentrations of radionuclides and toxic metals are used to calculate the total inventory of in the vegetation growing on the Old F-Area Seepage Basin. Air concentrations and inhalation doses from exposure to smoke from burning the vegetation are calculated to evaluate the effect of open air burning. Radionuclide inventory is one order of magnitude (10 x) less than those necessary to produce a 1 mrem dose. Air concentrations of toxic metals are less than one third the permissible occupational dose

  9. 36 CFR 212.8 - Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest Service. 212.8 Section 212.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Administration of...

  10. Threshold limit values, permissible exposure limits, and feasibility: The bases for exposure limits in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappaport, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    The development of exposure limits in the United States has always relied heavily upon the threshold limit values (TLVs) developed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). In fact, the TLVs were adopted as official exposure limits by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in 1972 and 1989. Given the continuing importance of the ACGIH limits, this paper compares the basis of the TLVs with that employed by OSHA de novo in its 12 new permissible exposure limits (PELs). Using benzene as an example, it is shown that OSHA's new PELs have been established following a rigorous assessment of the inherent risks and the feasibility of instituting the limit. The TLVs, on the other hand, have been developed by ad hoc procedures and appear to have traditionally reflected levels thought to be achievable at the time. However, this might be changing. Analysis of the historical reductions of TLVs, for 27 substances on the 1991-1992 list of intended changes, indicates smaller reductions in the past (median reduction of 2.0-2.5-fold between 1946 and 1988) compared to those currently being observed (median reduction of 7.5-fold between 1989 and 1991). Further analysis suggests a more aggressive policy of the ACGIH regarding TLVs for carcinogens but not for substances that produce effects other than cancer. Regardless of whether the basis of the TLVs has changed recently, it would take a relatively long time for the impact of any change to be felt, since the median age of the 1991-1992 TLVs is 16.5 years, and 75% of these limits are more than 10 years old. The implications of OSHA's continued reliance on the TLVs as a means of updating its PELs are discussed, and four alternatives are presented to the ACGIH regarding the future of its activities related to exposure limits. It is concluded that new mechanisms are needed for OSHA to update its PELs in a timely fashion so that the TLVs will not be adopted by default in the future

  11. Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neurons Are Highly Permissive for Varicella-Zoster Virus Lytic Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaoka, Tomohiko; Schwartz, Cindi L; Rajbhandari, Labchan; Venkatesan, Arun; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2018-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is highly cell associated when grown in culture and has a much higher (4,000- to 20,000-fold increased) particle-to-PFU ratio in vitro than herpes simplex virus (HSV). In contrast, VZV is highly infectious in vivo by airborne transmission. Neurons are major targets for VZV in vivo ; in neurons, the virus can establish latency and reactivate to produce infectious virus. Using neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and cell-free wild-type (WT) VZV, we demonstrated that neurons are nearly 100 times more permissive for WT VZV infection than very-early-passage human embryonic lung cells or MRC-5 diploid human fibroblasts, the cells used for vaccine production or virus isolation. The peak titers achieved after infection were ∼10-fold higher in human neurons than in MRC-5 cells, and the viral genome copy number-to-PFU ratio for VZV in human neurons was 500, compared with 50,000 for MRC-5 cells. Thus, VZV may not necessarily have a higher particle-to-PFU ratio than other herpesviruses; instead, the cells previously used to propagate virus in vitro may have been suboptimal. Furthermore, based on electron microscopy, neurons infected with VZV produced fewer defective or incomplete viral particles than MRC-5 cells. Our data suggest that neurons derived from hESC may have advantages compared to other cells for studies of VZV pathogenesis, for obtaining stocks of virus with high titers, and for isolating VZV from clinical specimens. IMPORTANCE Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox and shingles. Cell-free VZV has been difficult to obtain, both for in vitro studies and for vaccine production. While numerous cells lines have been tested for their ability to produce high titers of VZV, the number of total virus particles relative to the number of viral particles that can form plaques in culture has been reported to be extremely high relative to that in other viruses. We show that VZV grows to much higher titers in human

  12. Underscreening in concentrated electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alpha A; Perez-Martinez, Carla S; Smith, Alexander M; Perkin, Susan

    2017-07-01

    Screening of a surface charge by an electrolyte and the resulting interaction energy between charged objects is of fundamental importance in scenarios from bio-molecular interactions to energy storage. The conventional wisdom is that the interaction energy decays exponentially with object separation and the decay length is a decreasing function of ion concentration; the interaction is thus negligible in a concentrated electrolyte. Contrary to this conventional wisdom, we have shown by surface force measurements that the decay length is an increasing function of ion concentration and Bjerrum length for concentrated electrolytes. In this paper we report surface force measurements to test directly the scaling of the screening length with Bjerrum length. Furthermore, we identify a relationship between the concentration dependence of this screening length and empirical measurements of activity coefficient and differential capacitance. The dependence of the screening length on the ion concentration and the Bjerrum length can be explained by a simple scaling conjecture based on the physical intuition that solvent molecules, rather than ions, are charge carriers in a concentrated electrolyte.

  13. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  14. In Vitro Measles Virus Infection of Human Lymphocyte Subsets Demonstrates High Susceptibility and Permissiveness of both Naive and Memory B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksono, Brigitta M; Grosserichter-Wagener, Christina; de Vries, Rory D; Langeveld, Simone A G; Brem, Maarten D; van Dongen, Jacques J M; Katsikis, Peter D; Koopmans, Marion P G; van Zelm, Menno C; de Swart, Rik L

    2018-04-15

    Measles is characterized by a transient immune suppression, leading to an increased risk of opportunistic infections. Measles virus (MV) infection of immune cells is mediated by the cellular receptor CD150, expressed by subsets of lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages, and thymocytes. Previous studies showed that human and nonhuman primate memory T cells express higher levels of CD150 than naive cells and are more susceptible to MV infection. However, limited information is available about the CD150 expression and relative susceptibility to MV infection of B-cell subsets. In this study, we assessed the susceptibility and permissiveness of naive and memory T- and B-cell subsets from human peripheral blood or tonsils to in vitro MV infection. Our study demonstrates that naive and memory B cells express CD150, but at lower frequencies than memory T cells. Nevertheless, both naive and memory B cells proved to be highly permissive to MV infection. Furthermore, we assessed the susceptibility and permissiveness of various functionally distinct T and B cells, such as helper T (T H ) cell subsets and IgG- and IgA-positive memory B cells, in peripheral blood and tonsils. We demonstrated that T H 1T H 17 cells and plasma and germinal center B cells were the subsets most susceptible and permissive to MV infection. Our study suggests that both naive and memory B cells, along with several other antigen-experienced lymphocytes, are important target cells of MV infection. Depletion of these cells potentially contributes to the pathogenesis of measles immune suppression. IMPORTANCE Measles is associated with immune suppression and is often complicated by bacterial pneumonia, otitis media, or gastroenteritis. Measles virus infects antigen-presenting cells and T and B cells, and depletion of these cells may contribute to lymphopenia and immune suppression. Measles has been associated with follicular exhaustion in lymphoid tissues in humans and nonhuman primates, emphasizing the

  15. Photovoltaic static concentrator analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonacid, G.; Luque, A.; Molledo, A. G.

    1984-12-01

    Ray tracing is the basis of the present analysis of truncated bifacial compound parabolic concentrators filled with a dielectric substance, which are of interest in photovoltaic applications where the bifacial cells allow higher static concentrations to be achieved. Among the figures of merit for this type of concentrator, the directional intercept factor plays a major role and is defined as the ratio of the power of the collector to that at the entry aperture, in a lossless concentrator illuminated by light arriving from a given direction. A procedure for measuring outdoor, full size panels has been developed, and a correction method for avoiding the effect of unwanted diffuse radiation during the measurements is presented.

  16. CMAQ predicted concentration files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — model predicted concentrations. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Muñiz-Unamunzaga, M., R. Borge, G. Sarwar, B. Gantt, D. de la Paz, C....

  17. Vaginal oxytetracycline concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin, R N; Al Rawi, Z H; Simmons, P D; Treharne, J; Tabaqchali, S

    1979-01-01

    Although tetracycline preparations are widely used in departments of genitourinary medicine, or sexually transmitted diseases clinics, little is known of the concentrations of these preparations in genital secretions. For this reason a microbiological method was used for estimating oxytetracycline concentrations in vaginal secretions. These concentrations varied from 0.6 to 6.5 microgram/ml in 19 women who had had sexual contact with a man with non-specific urethritis and who were taking oxytetracycline dihydrate 250 mg four times daily. They were well in excess of the minimum inhibitory concentration of oxytetracycline (0.2 microgram/ml) for the strains of Chlamydia trachomatis isolated from the patients with positive culture results. Thus, oxytetracycline 250 mg four times daily appears to be a satisfactory regimen for the treatment of chlamydial genital infection in women. PMID:509190

  18. Concentrations of Indicator Organisms

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — It is a compilation of organism concentrations of 16 sampling events conducted between July 2015 and February 2016. It also includes statistical analysis such as...

  19. Concentrated Differential Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Dwork, Cynthia; Rothblum, Guy N.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Concentrated Differential Privacy, a relaxation of Differential Privacy enjoying better accuracy than both pure differential privacy and its popular "(epsilon,delta)" relaxation without compromising on cumulative privacy loss over multiple computations.

  20. Industrialisation et concentration urbaine

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal , Abdelhak

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze the determinants of the urban concentration and their effect at different levels of development. The empirical analysis focuses on the developing countries over the period 1950-2000 grouped by level of per capita income. The results confirm the existence of specific trajectories of urbanization rate and urban primacy which differs meaningfully according to the stage of development considered. Certain factors encourage urbanization and its concentration in ...

  1. Solar concentrators. Concentradores solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almanza, R.; Valdes, A.; Lopez, S.

    1981-06-01

    This paper presents different types of geometries used in concentrators. Some comments are made on the theoretical and experimental analysis necessary to evaluate the geometries and on the type of laboratory equipment needed to obtain experimental data. At the end of the report a description of how to build parabolic trough mirrors is made. The experience gained by the authors, who have been working in this subject for the past five years, is summarized, showing some of the problems related with such concentrators.

  2. Concentration factors for fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldt, W.; Lauer, R.; Melzer, M.; Siebert, W.

    1978-01-01

    Concentration factors are defined as operators allowing to calculate the specific activity of fish meat from a given concentration of an element in the water. This parameter depends among others from the content of stable isotopes and homologues in the different waters. If this parameter is reasonably to be used for model calculations it must be referred to water with all of its content substances, these calculations also being based on this type of 'water'. (orig.) [de

  3. FK concentrator outdoor measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Sanz, Maikel; Vilaplana, J., J.; Benitez Gimenez, Pablo; Mohedano,, Rubén; Zamora Herranz, Pablo; Miñano Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Mendes Lopes, Joao

    2013-01-01

    The FK is a two-stage optical concentrator for CPV, composed by a Fresnel lens working as POE and a refractive element working as SOE. Both elements perform Köhler integration, for uniform irradiance purposes. The FK has demonstrated that compares very well with other Fresnel-based concentrator optics. Recent on-sun measurements carried out on an FK mono-module prototype have already shown outstanding results, achieving electrical efficiencies over 34%. Further optimization of optical design ...

  4. Simplified method of checking the observance of maximum permissible activity of waste forms to be placed in the Konrad shaft for final waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.; Piefke, F.

    1986-10-01

    The requirements to be met by waste forms destined for final storage in the Konrad shaft among others define maximum permissible activity levels which have been determined from the various parts of the safety analyses. For waste forms with very low activity levels, it is suitable to compile all the very specific requirements in one checking list, and to perform the checking as simply as adequate. On the basis of the compilation of requirements defined for normal operation of the storage facility, hypothetical accidents, thermal loads affecting the host rock, and criticality safety, the maximum permissible activities are derived that are to be checked by the simplified control measures explained. The report explains the computer programs for the ANKONA code. (orig.) [de

  5. Natural penetrating radiation inside silicate dwellings in Chengdu and recommendation on permissible limits for radioactivity of building material made of silicate cinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangzao

    1984-01-01

    This paper reports the results of external exposure rate of penetrating radiation inside silicate dwellings in Chengdu. The average exposure rate was 24.3+-3.5 R/h. It was evidently higher than of red brick dwellings. The average effective equivalent of the population in silicate dwellings was 123.4+-10.4 mrem/y and the average additional dose was 29.5+-12.5 mrem/y. The permissible limits recommended for silicate building material would be 6 pCi/g, 7 pCi/g and 102 pCi/g for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively. The total activity must fulfill the formula of Csub(Ra)/6 + Csub(Th)/7 + Csub(k)/102 1. Under ordinary condition the exposure rate (10+background) R/h of penetrating radiation from the surface of dry building material might be taken as the permissible limit for dwellings and other public buildings

  6. Determination of toxic and essential element concentrations in foodstuffs from local market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surtipanti; Suwirma; Yumiarti; June, M.; Syaifudin, S.

    1989-01-01

    Determination of toxic and essential elements concentrations in foodstuffs from local market in Jakarta. Concentration of toxic essential elements, such as, As, Hg, Cr, Pb, Cu, and Zn, in rice, corn bean, small green peas, wheat, vegetables, fruits, tea and coffee, have been determined. As, Hg, Sb, Cr, Se, and Zn, were determined using neutron activation analysis, after being irradiated at TRIGA-MARK II reactor, while Pb and Cu were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results obtained were lower than the maximum permissible concentration allowed. (author). 8 refs

  7. Ecological imperatives for aquatic CO2-concentrating mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maberly, Stephen C; Gontero, Brigitte

    2017-06-01

    In aquatic environments, the concentration of inorganic carbon is spatially and temporally variable and CO2 can be substantially oversaturated or depleted. Depletion of CO2 plus low rates of diffusion cause inorganic carbon to be more limiting in aquatic than terrestrial environments, and the frequency of species with a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), and their contribution to productivity, is correspondingly greater. Aquatic photoautotrophs may have biochemical or biophysical CCMs and exploit CO2 from the sediment or the atmosphere. Though partly constrained by phylogeny, CCM activity is related to environmental conditions. CCMs are absent or down-regulated when their increased energy costs, lower CO2 affinity, or altered mineral requirements outweigh their benefits. Aquatic CCMs are most widespread in environments with low CO2, high HCO3-, high pH, and high light. Freshwater species are generally less effective at inorganic carbon removal than marine species, but have a greater range of ability to remove carbon, matching the environmental variability in carbon availability. The diversity of CCMs in seagrasses and marine phytoplankton, and detailed mechanistic studies on larger aquatic photoautotrophs are understudied. Strengthening the links between ecology and CCMs will increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying ecological success and will place mechanistic studies in a clearer ecological context. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Brain intra- and extracellular sodium concentration in multiple sclerosis: a 7 T MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracca, Maria; Vancea, Roxana O; Fleysher, Lazar; Jonkman, Laura E; Oesingmann, Niels; Inglese, Matilde

    2016-03-01

    Intra-axonal accumulation of sodium ions is one of the key mechanisms of delayed neuro-axonal degeneration that contributes to disability accrual in multiple sclerosis. In vivo sodium magnetic resonance imaging studies have demonstrated an increase of brain total sodium concentration in patients with multiple sclerosis, especially in patients with greater disability. However, total sodium concentration is a weighted average of intra- and extra-cellular sodium concentration whose changes reflect different tissue pathophysiological processes. The in vivo, non-invasive measurement of intracellular sodium concentration is quite challenging and the few applications in patients with neurological diseases are limited to case reports and qualitative assessments. In the present study we provide first evidence of the feasibility of triple quantum filtered (23)Na magnetic resonance imaging at 7 T, and provide in vivo quantification of global and regional brain intra- and extra-cellular sodium concentration in 19 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients and 17 heathy controls. Global grey matter and white matter total sodium concentration (respectively P brain regional level, clusters of increased total sodium concentration and intracellular sodium concentration and decreased intracellular sodium volume fraction were found in several cortical, subcortical and white matter regions when patients were compared with healthy controls (P Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Permissive underfeeding versus target enteral feeding in adult critically ill patients (PermiT Trial: a study protocol of a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arabi Yaseen M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutritional support is an essential part of the management of critically ill patients. However, optimal caloric intake has not been systematically evaluated. We aim to compare two strategies of enteral feeding: permissive underfeeding versus target feeding. Method/Design This is an international multi-center randomized controlled trial in critically ill medical- surgical adult patients. Using a centralized allocation, 862 patients will be randomized to permissive underfeeding or target feeding. Patients in the permissive group receive 50% (acceptable range is 40% to 60% of the calculated caloric requirement, while those in the targeted group receive 100% (acceptable range 70% to 100% of the calculated caloric requirement. The primary outcome is 90-day all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes include ICU and hospital mortality, 28-day, and 180-day mortality as well as health care-associated infections, organ failure, and length of stay in the ICU and hospital. The trial has 80% power to detect an 8% absolute reduction in 90-day mortality assuming a baseline risk of death of 25% at an alpha level of 0.05. Discussion Patient recruitment started in November 2009 and is currently active in five centers. The Data Monitoring Committee advised continuation of the trial after the first interim analysis. The study is expected to finish by November 2013. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN68144998

  10. Pushing down the low-mass halo concentration frontier with the Lomonosov cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipenko, Sergey V.; Sánchez-Conde, Miguel A.; Prada, Francisco; Yepes, Gustavo

    2017-12-01

    We introduce the Lomonosov suite of high-resolution N-body cosmological simulations covering a full box of size 32 h-1 Mpc with low-mass resolution particles (2 × 107 h-1 M⊙) and three zoom-in simulations of overdense, underdense and mean density regions at much higher particle resolution (4 × 104 h-1 M⊙). The main purpose of this simulation suite is to extend the concentration-mass relation of dark matter haloes down to masses below those typically available in large cosmological simulations. The three different density regions available at higher resolution provide a better understanding of the effect of the local environment on halo concentration, known to be potentially important for small simulation boxes and small halo masses. Yet, we find the correction to be small in comparison with the scatter of halo concentrations. We conclude that zoom simulations, despite their limited representativity of the volume of the Universe, can be effectively used for the measurement of halo concentrations at least at the halo masses probed by our simulations. In any case, after a precise characterization of this effect, we develop a robust technique to extrapolate the concentration values found in zoom simulations to larger volumes with greater accuracy. Altogether, Lomonosov provides a measure of the concentration-mass relation in the halo mass range 107-1010 h-1 M⊙ with superb halo statistics. This work represents a first important step to measure halo concentrations at intermediate, yet vastly unexplored halo mass scales, down to the smallest ones. All Lomonosov data and files are public for community's use.

  11. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2016-03-15

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  12. Concentrations of thiocyanate and goitrin in human plasma, their precursor concentrations in brassica vegetables, and associated potential risk for hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker, Peter; Bunch, Ronald; Leung, Angela M

    2016-04-01

    Brassica vegetables are common components of the diet and have beneficial as well as potentially adverse health effects. Following enzymatic breakdown, some glucosinolates in brassica vegetables produce sulforaphane, phenethyl, and indolylic isothiocyanates that possess anticarcinogenic activity. In contrast, progoitrin and indolylic glucosinolates degrade to goitrin and thiocyanate, respectively, and may decrease thyroid hormone production. Radioiodine uptake to the thyroid is inhibited by 194 μmol of goitrin, but not by 77 μmol of goitrin. Collards, Brussels sprouts, and some Russian kale (Brassica napus) contain sufficient goitrin to potentially decrease iodine uptake by the thyroid. However, turnip tops, commercial broccoli, broccoli rabe, and kale belonging to Brassica oleracae contain less than 10 μmol of goitrin per 100-g serving and can be considered of minimal risk. Using sulforaphane plasma levels following glucoraphanin ingestion as a surrogate for thiocyanate plasma concentrations after indole glucosinolate ingestion, the maximum thiocyanate contribution from indole glucosinolate degradation is estimated to be 10 μM, which is significantly lower than background plasma thiocyanate concentrations (40-69 μM). Thiocyanate generated from consumption of indole glucosinolate can be assumed to have minimal adverse risks for thyroid health. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Low air exchange rate causes high indoor radon concentration in energy-efficient buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, A V; Yarmoshenko, I V; Zhukovsky, M V

    2015-06-01

    Since 1995, requirements on energy-efficient building construction were established in Russian Building Codes. In the course of time, utilisation of such technologies became prevailing, especially in multi-storey building construction. According to the results of radon survey in buildings constructed meeting new requirements on energy efficiency, radon concentration exceeds the average level in early-constructed buildings. Preponderance of the diffusion mechanism of radon entry in modern multi-storey buildings has been experimentally established. The experimental technique of the assessment of ventilation rate in dwellings under real conditions was developed. Based on estimates of average ventilation rate, it was approved that measures to increase energy efficiency lead to reduction in ventilation rate and accumulation of higher radon concentrations indoors. Obtained ventilation rate values have to be considered as extremely low. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Concentrated loads on concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Karen Grøndahl; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas are devel......This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas...

  15. RX: a nonimaging concentrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñano, J C; Benítez, P; González, J C

    1995-05-01

    A detailed description of the design procedure for a new concentrator, RX, and some examples of it's use are given. The method of design is basically the same as that used in the design of two other concentrators: the RR and the XR [Appl. Opt. 31, 3051 (1992)]. The RX is ideal in two-dimensional geometry. The performance of the rotational RX is good when the average angular spread of the input bundle is small: up to 95% of the power of the input bundle can be transferred to the output bundle (with the assumption of a constant radiance for the rays of the input bundle).

  16. Parabolic solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecpoyotl-Torres, M.; Campos-Alvarez, J.; Tellez-Alanis, F.; Sánchez-Mondragón, J.

    2006-08-01

    In this work we present the basis of the solar concentrator design, which has is located at Temixco, Morelos, Mexico. For this purpose, this place is ideal due to its geographic and climatic conditions, and in addition, because it accounts with the greatest constant illumination in Mexico. For the construction of the concentrator we use a recycled parabolic plate of a telecommunications satellite dish (NEC). This plate was totally covered with Aluminum. The opening diameter is of 332 cm, the focal length is of 83 cm and the opening angle is of 90°. The geometry of the plate guaranties that the incident beams, will be collected at the focus. The mechanical treatment of the plate produces an average reflectance of 75% in the visible region of the solar spectrum, and of 92% for wavelengths up to 3μm in the infrared region. We obtain up to 2000°C of temperature concentration with this setup. The reflectance can be greatly improved, but did not consider it as typical practical use. The energy obtained can be applied to conditions that require of those high calorific energies. In order to optimize the operation of the concentrator we use a control circuit designed to track the apparent sun position.

  17. A Microfluidic Cell Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jay; Casavant, Ben; Frisk, Megan; Beebe, David

    2010-01-01

    Cell concentration via centrifugation is a ubiquitous step in many cell culture procedures. At the macroscale, centrifugation suffers from a number of limitations particularly when dealing with small numbers of cells (e.g., less than 50,000). On the other hand, typical microscale methods for cell concentration can affect cell physiology and bias readouts of cell behavior and function. In this paper, we present a microfluidic concentrator device that utilizes the effects of gravity to allow cells to gently settle out of a suspension into a collection region without the use of specific adhesion ligands. Dimensional analysis was performed to compare different device designs and was verified with flow modeling to optimize operational parameters. We are able to concentrate low-density cell suspensions in a microfluidic chamber, achieving a cell loss of only 1.1 ± 0.6% (SD, n=7) with no observed loss during a subsequent cell staining protocol which incorporates ~36 complete device volume replacements. This method provides a much needed interface between rare cell samples and microfluidic culture assays. PMID:20843010

  18. Aluminum concentration in hydrangeas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagawa, M.; Haruyama, Y.; Saito, M.

    2008-01-01

    We have been trying to measure concentration of aluminum in Ajisai, Hydrangea macrophylla for these days. But due to bad luck, we have encountered detector trouble for two years in a low. Thus, we have few data to analyze and obtained quite limited results. (author)

  19. Theory of Concentrated Vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alekseenko, Sergey; Kuibin, Pavel; Okulov, Valery

    This book presents comprehensive and authoritative coverage of the wide field of concentrated vortices observed in nature and technique. The methods for research of their kinematics and dynamics are considered. Special attention is paid to the flows with helical symmetry. The authors have describ...

  20. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebink, Noel C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the

  1. Application of ICRP recommendations relevant to internal dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowser, K.E.; Snyder, W.S.; Struxness, E.G.

    1969-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to review several of the basic concepts of radiation protection (with emphasis on internal dose) currently recommended by the International Commission on radiological Protection (ICRP), to summarize the assumptions and methods used in the calculation of internal dose, and to illustrate by example the practical application of the pertinent guidelines. Two broad subject areas are considered: (1) standards of radiation protection and (2) bases of internal dose estimation. Topics discussed within the framework of radiation protection standards include maximum permissible dose, categories of radiation exposure, maximum permissible dose commitment, simultaneous internal and external exposure, multiple organ exposure, and size of the exposed group. Discussion of internal dose estimation is limited to selected items that include the body burden of radionuclides and the calculation of absorbed dose, the dose equivalent, the derivation of maximum permissible concentration (MPC), the relationship of stable element intake to the MPC, and short term and chronic exposure situations. (author)

  2. Application of ICRP recommendations relevant to internal dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowser, K E; Snyder, W S; Struxness, E G [Health Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The intent of this paper is to review several of the basic concepts of radiation protection (with emphasis on internal dose) currently recommended by the International Commission on radiological Protection (ICRP), to summarize the assumptions and methods used in the calculation of internal dose, and to illustrate by example the practical application of the pertinent guidelines. Two broad subject areas are considered: (1) standards of radiation protection and (2) bases of internal dose estimation. Topics discussed within the framework of radiation protection standards include maximum permissible dose, categories of radiation exposure, maximum permissible dose commitment, simultaneous internal and external exposure, multiple organ exposure, and size of the exposed group. Discussion of internal dose estimation is limited to selected items that include the body burden of radionuclides and the calculation of absorbed dose, the dose equivalent, the derivation of maximum permissible concentration (MPC), the relationship of stable element intake to the MPC, and short term and chronic exposure situations. (author)

  3. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  4. Tritium concentration monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shono, Kosuke.

    1991-01-01

    A device for measuring the concentration of tritium in gaseous wastes in a power plant and a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant is reduced in the size and improved in performance. The device of the present invention pressurizes a sampling gas and cools it to a dew point. Water content in the sampling gas cooled to the dew point is condensated and recovered to a fine tube-like water content recovering container. The concentration of the recovered condensates is measured by a tritium density analyzer. With such procedures, since the specimen is pressurized, the dew point can be elevated. Accordingly, the size of the cooling device can be decreased, enabling to contribute to the reduction of the size of the entire device. Further, since the water content recovering device is formed as a fine tube, the area of contact between the specimen gas and the liquid condensated water can be reduced. Accordingly, evaporation of the liquid condensates can be prevented. (I.S.)

  5. Zirconia concentrate chlorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, N.G.; Albuquerque Brocchi, E. de

    1990-01-01

    Chlorination experiments were conducted in order to study the kinetics of gasification of the zirconium oxide present in the zirconia concentrate. The variables studied are temperature (1173 to 1373 K), percentage of reducing agent (12 to 36%) and porosity (22 to 30%). The results indicated a greater influence of temperature and percentage of reducing agent as well as allowed the conclusion that a balance between the levels of these variables is an important factor in the appropriate chlorination conditions. (author)

  6. Thermodynamically efficient solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland

    2012-10-01

    Non-imaging Optics is the theory of thermodynamically efficient optics and as such depends more on thermodynamics than on optics. Hence in this paper a condition for the "best" design is proposed based on purely thermodynamic arguments, which we believe has profound consequences for design of thermal and even photovoltaic systems. This new way of looking at the problem of efficient concentration depends on probabilities, the ingredients of entropy and information theory while "optics" in the conventional sense recedes into the background.

  7. Electrolyte Concentrates Treat Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Wellness Brands Inc. of Boulder, Colorado, exclusively licensed a unique electrolyte concentrate formula developed by Ames Research Center to treat and prevent dehydration in astronauts returning to Earth. Marketed as The Right Stuff, the company's NASA-derived formula is an ideal measure for athletes looking to combat dehydration and boost performance. Wellness Brands also plans to expand with products that make use of the formula's effective hydration properties to help treat conditions including heat stroke, altitude sickness, jet lag, and disease.

  8. Chlorination of zirconyte concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, N.G.

    1988-01-01

    Chlorination experiments with zirconyte concentrate were carried out in order to study the effects of temperature, percentage of reducing agent and porosity on the gasification of ZrO 2 for 10 and 20 minutes of reaction. Factorial analysis was applied and the results indicated that temperature and percentage of reducing agent were the two only variables effecting the ZrO 2 gasification. (author) [pt

  9. Pediatric and Adult High-Grade Glioma Stem Cell Culture Models Are Permissive to Lytic Infection with Parvovirus H-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josupeit, Rafael; Bender, Sebastian; Kern, Sonja; Leuchs, Barbara; Hielscher, Thomas; Herold-Mende, Christel; Schlehofer, Jörg R; Dinsart, Christiane; Witt, Olaf; Rommelaere, Jean; Lacroix, Jeannine

    2016-05-19

    Combining virus-induced cytotoxic and immunotherapeutic effects, oncolytic virotherapy represents a promising therapeutic approach for high-grade glioma (HGG). A clinical trial has recently provided evidence for the clinical safety of the oncolytic parvovirus H-1 (H-1PV) in adult glioblastoma relapse patients. The present study assesses the efficacy of H-1PV in eliminating HGG initiating cells. H-1PV was able to enter and to transduce all HGG neurosphere culture models (n = 6), including cultures derived from adult glioblastoma, pediatric glioblastoma, and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. Cytotoxic effects induced by the virus have been observed in all HGG neurospheres at half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) doses of input virus between 1 and 10 plaque forming units per cell. H-1PV infection at this dose range was able to prevent tumorigenicity of NCH421k glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) "stem-like" cells in NOD/SCID mice. Interestingly NCH421R, an isogenic subclone with equal capacity of xenograft formation, but resistant to H-1PV infection could be isolated from the parental NCH421k culture. To reveal changes in gene expression associated with H-1PV resistance we performed a comparative gene expression analysis in these subclones. Several dysregulated genes encoding receptor proteins, endocytosis factors or regulators innate antiviral responses were identified and represent intriguing candidates for to further study molecular mechanisms of H-1PV resistance.

  10. Identification of a new cell line permissive to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection and replication which is phenotypically distinct from MARC-145 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Provost Chantale

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airborne transmitted pathogens, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV, need to interact with host cells of the respiratory tract in order to be able to enter and disseminate in the host organism. Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM and MA104 derived monkey kidney MARC-145 cells are known to be permissive to PRRSV infection and replication and are the most studied cells in the literature. More recently, new cell lines developed to study PRRSV have been genetically modified to make them permissive to the virus. The SJPL cell line origin was initially reported to be epithelial cells of the respiratory tract of swine. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine if SJPL cells could support PRRSV infection and replication in vitro. Results The SJPL cell growth was significantly slower than MARC-145 cell growth. The SJPL cells were found to express the CD151 protein but not the CD163 and neither the sialoadhesin PRRSV receptors. During the course of the present study, the SJPL cells have been reported to be of monkey origin. Nevertheless, SJPL cells were found to be permissive to PRRSV infection and replication even if the development of the cytopathic effect was delayed compared to PRRSV-infected MARC-145 cells. Following PRRSV replication, the amount of infectious viral particles produced in SJPL and MARC-145 infected cells was similar. The SJPL cells allowed the replication of several PRRSV North American strains and were almost efficient as MARC-145 cells for virus isolation. Interestingly, PRRSV is 8 to 16 times more sensitive to IFNα antiviral effect in SJPL cell in comparison to that in MARC-145 cells. PRRSV induced an increase in IFNβ mRNA and no up regulation of IFNα mRNA in both infected cell types. In addition, PRRSV induced an up regulation of IFNγ and TNF-α mRNAs only in infected MARC-145 cells. Conclusions In conclusion, the SJPL cells are permissive to PRRSV. In addition, they are

  11. Peripheral Blood CCR4+CCR6+ and CXCR3+CCR6+ CD4+ T Cells Are Highly Permissive to HIV-1 Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Gosselin, Annie; Monteiro, Patricia; Chomont, Nicolas; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Said, Elias A.; Fonseca, Simone; Wacleche, Vanessa; El-Far, Mohamed; Boulassel, Mohamed-Rachid; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Ancuta, Petronela

    2009-01-01

    There is limited knowledge on the identity of primary CD4+ T cell subsets selectively targeted by HIV-1 in vivo. In this study, we established a link between HIV permissiveness, phenotype/homing potential, and lineage commitment in primary CD4+ T cells. CCR4+CCR6+, CCR4+CCR6−, CXCR3+CCR6+, and CXCR3+CCR6− T cells expressed cytokines and transcription factors specific for Th17, Th2, Th1Th17, and Th1 lineages, respectively. CCR4+CCR6+ and CXCR3+CCR6+ T cells expressed the HIV coreceptors CCR5 a...

  12. Rexinoid Bexarotene Modulates Triglyceride but not Cholesterol Metabolism via Gene-Specific Permissivity of the RXR/LXR Heterodimer in the Liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lalloyer, Fanny; Pedersen, Thomas Åskov; Gross, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Bexarotene (Targretin) is a clinically used antitumoral agent which exerts its action through binding to and activation of the retinoid-X-receptor (RXR). The most frequent side-effect of bexarotene administration is an increase in plasma triglycerides, an independent risk factor...... controlling cholesterol homeostasis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that the hypertriglyceridemic action of bexarotene occurs via the RXR/LXR heterodimer and show that RXR heterodimers can act with a selective permissivity on target genes of specific metabolic pathways in the liver....

  13. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang [MIT; Ren, Zhifeng [University of Houston

    2015-07-09

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate in the lab that solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) can exceed 10% solar-to-electricity efficiency, and STEGs can be integrated with phase-change materials (PCM) for thermal storage, providing operation beyond daylight hours. This project achieved significant progress in many tasks necessary to achieving the overall project goals. An accurate Themoelectric Generator (TEG) model was developed, which included realistic treatment of contact materials, contact resistances and radiative losses. In terms of fabricating physical TEGs, high performance contact materials for skutterudite TE segments were developed, along with brazing and soldering methods to assemble segmented TEGs. Accurate measurement systems for determining device performance (in addition to just TE material performance) were built for this project and used to characterize our TEGs. From the optical components’ side, a spectrally selective cermet surface was developed with high solar absorptance and low thermal emittance, with thermal stability at high temperature. A measurement technique was also developed to determine absorptance and total hemispherical emittance at high temperature, and was used to characterize the fabricated spectrally selective surfaces. In addition, a novel reflective cavity was designed to reduce radiative absorber losses and achieve high receiver efficiency at low concentration ratios. A prototype cavity demonstrated that large reductions in radiative losses were possible through this technique. For the overall concentrating STEG system, a number of devices were fabricated and tested in a custom built test platform to characterize their efficiency performance. Additionally, testing was performed with integration of PCM thermal storage, and the storage time of the lab scale system was evaluated. Our latest testing results showed a STEG efficiency of 9.6%, indicating promising potential for high performance concentrated STEGs.

  14. Censored correlated cytokine concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Andreas; Benn, Christine Stabell; Jørgensen, Mathias J

    2013-01-01

    ) can be used to describe the relative concentration between two cytokines, and the GMR ratio (GMRR) can be used to compare two groups. The problem is how to estimate GMRRs from censored distributions.We evaluated methods, including simple deletion and substitution, in simulated and real data. One...... stacking method that uses clustered variance-covariance estimation allowing homogeneous (Stackc) or inhomogeneous (Stackh) variances. We compare it with direct estimation of the bivariate Tobit likelihood function (Bitobit) and multiple imputation. We assess sensitivity to inhomogeneity and non...

  15. Concentrating Solar Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitz-Paal, R.

    2017-07-01

    Development of Concentrating Solar Power Systems has started about 40 years ago. A first commercial implementation was performed between 1985 and 1991 in California. However, a drop in gas prices caused a longer period without further deployment. It was overcome in 2007 when new incentive schemes for renewables in Spain and the US enabled a commercial restart. In 2016, almost 100 commercial CSP plants with more than 5GW are installed worldwide. This paper describes the physical background of CSP technology, its technical characteristics and concepts. Furthermore, it discusses system performances, cost structures and the expected advancement.

  16. Uranium concentration in fossils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, J.; Uyeda, C.

    1988-01-01

    Recently it is known that fossil bones tend to accumulate uranium. The uranium concentration, C u in fossils has been measured so far by γ ray spectroscopy or by fission track method. The authors applied secondary ion mass spectrometry, SIMS, to detect the uranium in fossil samples. The purpose of this work is to investigate the possibility of semi-quantitative analyses of uranium in fossils, and to study the correlation between C u and the age of fossil bones. The further purpose of this work is to apply SIMS to measure the distribution of C u in fossil teeth

  17. Theory of Concentrated Vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alekseenko, Sergey; Kuibin, Pavel; Okulov, Valery

    This book presents comprehensive and authoritative coverage of the wide field of concentrated vortices observed in nature and technique. The methods for research of their kinematics and dynamics are considered. Special attention is paid to the flows with helical symmetry. The authors have describ...... models of vortex structures used for interpretation of experimental data which serve as a ground for development of theoretical and numerical approaches to vortex investigation. Achievements in the fields of stability analysis, waves on vortices and vortex breakdown are also presented....

  18. Design Characteristics and Tobacco Metal Concentrations in Filtered Cigars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Rosalie V; O'Connor, Richard J; Travers, Mark J; Delnevo, Cristine D; Stephens, W Edryd

    2015-11-01

    While U.S. cigarette consumption has declined, cigar use has steadily increased, for reasons including price compared to cigarettes and the availability of filtered varieties resembling cigarettes, and flavors that have been banned in cigarettes (excluding menthol). Little published data exists on the design characteristics of such cigars. A variety of filtered cigar brands were tested for design characteristics such as whole cigar weight, ventilation, and per-cigar tobacco weight. Cigar sticks were then sent to the University of St. Andrews for metal concentration testing of As, Pb, Cr, Ni, and Cd. Large and small cigars were statistically different between cigar weight (p ≤ .001), per-cigar tobacco weight (p = .001), rod diameter (p = .006), and filter diameter (p = .012). The differences in mean ventilation (overall mean = 19.6%, min. = 0.84%, max. = 57.6%) across filtered cigar brands were found to be statistically significant (p = .031), and can be compared to the ventilation of the average of 2013 U.S. Marlboro Red, Gold, and Silver packs at 29% ventilation. There were no significant differences for metal concentrations between cigar types (p = .650), with Pb and As levels being similar to U.S. 2009 cigarette concentrations, Cd cigar levels being slightly higher, and Cr and Ni levels much lower than cigarette levels. With cigar use rising, and filtered cigars displaying substantial similarities to filtered cigarettes, more research on product characteristics is warranted. Future plans include testing tobacco alkaloid and more observation of cigar weight for tax bracket purposes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Microparticle content of platelet concentrates is predicted by donor microparticles and is altered by production methods and stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maurer-Spurej, Elisabeth; Larsen, Rune; Labrie, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    In circulation, shedding of microparticles from a variety of viable cells can be triggered by pathological activation of inflammatory processes, by activation of coagulation or complement systems, or by physical stress. Elevated microparticle content (MPC) in donor blood might therefore indicate...... a clinical condition of the donor which, upon transfusion, might affect the recipient. In blood products, elevated MPC might also represent product stress. Surprisingly, the MPC in blood collected from normal blood donors is highly variable, which raises the question whether donor microparticles are present...... in-vivo and transfer into the final blood component, and how production methods and post-production processing might affect the MPC. We measured MPC using ThromboLUX in (a) platelet-rich plasma (PRP) of 54 apheresis donors and the corresponding apheresis products, (b) 651 apheresis and 646 pooled...

  20. The possible evolution and future of CO2-concentrating mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, John A; Beardall, John; Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia

    2017-06-01

    CO2-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs), based either on active transport of inorganic carbon (biophysical CCMs) or on biochemistry involving supplementary carbon fixation into C4 acids (C4 and CAM), play a major role in global primary productivity. However, the ubiquitous CO2-fixing enzyme in autotrophs, Rubisco, evolved at a time when atmospheric CO2 levels were very much higher than today and O2 was very low and, as CO2 and O2 approached (by no means monotonically), today's levels, at some time subsequently many organisms evolved a CCM that increased the supply of CO2 and decreased Rubisco oxygenase activity. Given that CO2 levels and other environmental factors have altered considerably between when autotrophs evolved and the present day, and are predicted to continue to change into the future, we here examine the drivers for, and possible timing of, evolution of CCMs. CCMs probably evolved when CO2 fell to 2-16 times the present atmospheric level, depending on Rubisco kinetics. We also assess the effects of other key environmental factors such as temperature and nutrient levels on CCM activity and examine the evidence for evolutionary changes in CCM activity and related cellular processes as well as limitations on continuity of CCMs through environmental variations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.