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Sample records for permissible body burden

  1. Maximum permissible body burdens and maximum permissible concentrations of radionuclides in air and in water for occupational exposure. Recommendations of the National Committee on Radiation Protection. Handbook 69

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-06-05

    The present Handbook and its predecessors stem from the Second International Congress of Radiology, held in Stockholm in 1928. At that time, under the auspices of the Congress, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) was organized to deal initially with problems of X-ray protection and later with radioactivity protection. At that time 'permissible' doses of X-rays were estimated primarily in terms of exposures which produced erythema, the amount of exposure which would produce a defined reddening of the skin. Obviously a critical problem in establishing criteria for radiation protection was one of developing useful standards and techniques of physical measurement. For this reason two of the organizations in this country with a major concern for X-ray protection, the American Roentgen Ray Society and the Radiology Society of North America, suggested that the National Bureau of Standards assume responsibility for organizing representative experts to deal with the problem. Accordingly, early in 1929, an Advisory Committee on X-ray and Radium Protection was organized to develop recommendations on the protection problem within the United States and to formulate United States points of view for presentation to the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The organization of the U.S. Advisory Committee included experts from both the medical and physical science fields. The recommendations of this Handbook take into consideration the NCRP statement entitled 'Maximum Permissible Radiation Exposures to Man', published as an addendum to Handbook 59 on April 15, 1958. As noted above this study was carried out jointly by the ICRP and the NCRP, and the complete report is more extensive than the material contained in this Handbook.

  2. Maximum permissible body burdens and maximum permissible concentrations of radionuclides in air and in water for occupational exposure. Recommendations of the National Committee on Radiation Protection. Handbook 69

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The present Handbook and its predecessors stem from the Second International Congress of Radiology, held in Stockholm in 1928. At that time, under the auspices of the Congress, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) was organized to deal initially with problems of X-ray protection and later with radioactivity protection. At that time 'permissible' doses of X-rays were estimated primarily in terms of exposures which produced erythema, the amount of exposure which would produce a defined reddening of the skin. Obviously a critical problem in establishing criteria for radiation protection was one of developing useful standards and techniques of physical measurement. For this reason two of the organizations in this country with a major concern for X-ray protection, the American Roentgen Ray Society and the Radiology Society of North America, suggested that the National Bureau of Standards assume responsibility for organizing representative experts to deal with the problem. Accordingly, early in 1929, an Advisory Committee on X-ray and Radium Protection was organized to develop recommendations on the protection problem within the United States and to formulate United States points of view for presentation to the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The organization of the U.S. Advisory Committee included experts from both the medical and physical science fields. The recommendations of this Handbook take into consideration the NCRP statement entitled 'Maximum Permissible Radiation Exposures to Man', published as an addendum to Handbook 59 on April 15, 1958. As noted above this study was carried out jointly by the ICRP and the NCRP, and the complete report is more extensive than the material contained in this Handbook

  3. Is the maximum permissible radiation burden for the population indeed permissible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renesse, R.L. van.

    1975-01-01

    It is argued that legislation based on the ICRP doses will, under economical influences, lead to a situation where the population is exposed to radiation doses near the maximum permissible dose. Due to cumulative radiation effects, this will introduce unacceptable health risks. Therefore, it will be necessary to lower the legal dose limit of 170 millrem per year per person by a factor 10 to 20

  4. Maximum permissible dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This chapter presents a historic overview of the establishment of radiation guidelines by various national and international agencies. The use of maximum permissible dose and maximum permissible body burden limits to derive working standards is discussed

  5. FRAMES User Defined Body Burden Concentration File Module Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelton, Mitchell A.; Rutz, Frederick C.; Eslinger, Melany A.; Gelston, Gariann M.

    2001-01-01

    The Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) Body Burden Concentration File (BBF) contains time-varying, instantaneous, constituent concentrations for body burden by contaminant. This report contains the requirements for this file and will be used by software engineers and testers to ensure that the file inputs properly.

  6. Interaction of ethanol and mercury body burden in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The interaction of ethanol with mercury in the body resulting in increased exhalation of the metal was studied in the mouse. A persistent elimination of the metal in the breath was demonstrated after single, sublethal (<1 mgHg/Kg body weight) exposures to mercury vapor (Hg/sup 0/) or mercury II chloride (HgCl/sub 2/). The amount of mercury exhaled per unit time was enhanced by oral or parenteral administration of ethanol solutions. These modifications were investigated in dose-response studies in which the drug was administered in doses ranging from 0.2g to 5.5g/Kg to mice pretreated with mercury. The EC/sub 50/ for blood ethanol with respect to mercury exhalation was determined to be approximately 200 mg/dl corresponding to an output rate of approximately 0.1% of the simultaneous body burden in 30 min several days after mercury. A hypothesis that mercury expired by these animals was proportional to the body burden after mercury administration was addressed in experiments whereby mice given one of several doses of mercuric chloride (0.16 to 500 ..mu..g/Kg) were monitored for pulmonary mercury elimination for a fifteen day period. The high correlation obtained between the amount of mercury exhaled in a standard time period and the body burden by group indicated that breath sampling could be applied as an indicator of the mercury body burden which may not be limited to the mouse.

  7. Estimation of 137Cs body burden in Japanese, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Masashi

    1978-01-01

    The biological half-life of 137 Cs in the total body of human subjects was determined in 23 individuals of Japanese male adult in their normal works by measuring amount of 137 Cs in both their total body and daily urine in the same period. For the group, the value was determined by averaging the half-lives for individuals, by comparing the mean body burden and the mean daily urinary excretion, or by applying a curve fitting method to the body burden estimate. The biological half-life averaged 86 days, ranging from 50 to 161 days. The averages of the biological half-lives for the group were 83, 87 and 82 days in the different periods of observation. By the curve fitting method, 85 days was found for the group. The biological half-life for the individuals depended on both body weight and age, to a lesser extent, of the subjects. (author)

  8. Monitoring body iron burden using X-ray fluorescence (XRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farquharson, M.J.; Bagshaw, A.P.

    2001-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence, using Cu K alpha and K beta radiation, has been used to measure the Fe content of skin of two groups of rats, one Fe overloaded and one control group. These skin Fe levels were compared to the liver and heart Fe levels measured using colorimetry. Correlation coefficients of 0.86 and 0.88 respectively were found indicating that skin Fe levels may be a potential marker for body iron burden.

  9. History of PUQFUA: plutonium body burden (Q) from urine assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.N.P.

    1978-10-01

    PUQFUA is a FORTRAN computer program that calculates plutonium body burdens (Q) from urine assay data. This report describes the historical development of the program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) since 1959. After a review of the basic techniques used in the original PUQFUA, its deficiencies are listed. The procedures used to improve the program and correct the deficiencies are described. Appendixes provide a detailed discussion of the evaluation made of the analytical errors in the plutonium urine assay program at LASL from 1944 to 1978

  10. Cesium-137 body burden in Japanese from 1967 to 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzai, I; Ueda, K; Togo, M [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1976-11-01

    Cesium-137 concentrations in Japanese male adults were measured monthly during 1967 to 1975 by whole body counting. The /sup 137/Cs content decreased rapidly until 1968, then the reduction rate was considerably decelerated, being probably affected by the French and Chinese nuclear testing. A small rise was observed at the end of 1970, and its causes have been multilaterally studied from the radioecological viewpoints, which has not resulted in a clearcut conclusion. Daily intake estimated from body burden varies in a wide range but, on the average, agrees well with the reported values based on the radiochemical analyses of foods. The integrated absorbed dose from January 1967 to April 1975 is calculated to be 2.5 mrads. The authors re-emphasize the importance of the periodic measurement of human population.

  11. Evaluation of modelling body burden of Cs-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, U; Nordlinder, S

    1996-05-01

    Within the IAEA/CEC VAMP-program one working group studied the precision in dose assessment models when calculating body burden of {sup 137}Cs as a result of exposure through multiple exposure pathways. One scenario used data from southern Finland regarding contamination of various media due to the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. In this study, a time dependent multiple exposure pathway model was constructed based on compartment theory. Uncertainties in model responses due to uncertainties in input parameter values were studied. The initial predictions for body burden were good, within a factor of 2 of the observed, while the time dynamics of levels in milk and meat did not agree satisfactorily. Some results, nevertheless, showed good agreement with observations due to compensatory effects. After disclosure of additional observational data, major reasons for mispredictions were identified as lack of consideration of time dependence of fixation of {sup 137}Cs in soils, and the selection of parameter values. When correction of this was made, a close agreement between predictions and observations was obtained. This study shows that the dose contribution due to {sup 137}Cs in food products from the seminatural environment is important for long-term exposure to man. The evaluation provided a basis for improvements of crucial parts in the model. 14 refs, 18 figs, 8 tabs.

  12. Evaluation of modelling body burden of Cs-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, U.; Nordlinder, S.

    1996-05-01

    Within the IAEA/CEC VAMP-program one working group studied the precision in dose assessment models when calculating body burden of 137 Cs as a result of exposure through multiple exposure pathways. One scenario used data from southern Finland regarding contamination of various media due to the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. In this study, a time dependent multiple exposure pathway model was constructed based on compartment theory. Uncertainties in model responses due to uncertainties in input parameter values were studied. The initial predictions for body burden were good, within a factor of 2 of the observed, while the time dynamics of levels in milk and meat did not agree satisfactorily. Some results, nevertheless, showed good agreement with observations due to compensatory effects. After disclosure of additional observational data, major reasons for mispredictions were identified as lack of consideration of time dependence of fixation of 137 Cs in soils, and the selection of parameter values. When correction of this was made, a close agreement between predictions and observations was obtained. This study shows that the dose contribution due to 137 Cs in food products from the seminatural environment is important for long-term exposure to man. The evaluation provided a basis for improvements of crucial parts in the model. 14 refs, 18 figs, 8 tabs

  13. Model for Calculating the Maximum Permissible Tax Burden in Amur Region in the Context of the Implementation of Largest Investment Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Vladimirovich Ivanov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Government of the Amur region, tax collection from the implementation of investment projects was tightly controlled from 2016, because of the region’s high debt load. This situation requires assessing the acceptability of the level of regional tax burden for business entities. The purpose of this paper is to develop a model for assessing the level of regional tax burden, taking into account the implementation of the largest investment projects in the territory. The main hypothesis of this paper consists, firstly, in the existence of tax burden, which is acceptable for regional economic entities. Secondly, this level of tax burden ensures the growth of fiscal revenues for the budget. We proposed to assess the level of tax burden on the basis of a three-factor linear heterogeneous production function, taking into account certain economic indicators of the largest investment project — “Construction of the Vostochny Сosmodrome”. The concept of the Laffer curve serves as a research methodology. According to our calculations, since 2011, the tax burden in the Amur region has a clear tendency to increase. At the same time, from 2007 to the present time, the tax burden exceeds its maximum permissible value and constrains economic growth in the region. If this trend continues, by 2018 tax revenues from the territory of the region will be on the verge of reduction. The obtained results show that the tax burden in the Amur region in 2017 is 16.81 %. To stimulate the activities of economic entities in the region, and as a consequence, to increase the GRP of the region, it is necessary to reduce the level of taxation by 4.77 percentage points (to 12.04 %, Thus, the current economic situation requires to change the course of regional taxation policy to a more liberal attitude towards taxpayers. Otherwise, soon the budget of the Amur region may fail to receive a part of revenues, as the region’s economic entities will not be able to

  14. Assessment of the body burden of chelatable lead: a model and its application to lead workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, S.; Ushio, K.

    1982-05-01

    A hypothetical model was introduced to estimate the body burden of chelatable lead from the mobilisation yield of lead by calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetate. It was estimated that, on average, 14 and 19% of the body burden was mobilized into the urine during the 24 hours after an injection of 53.4 mumol and 107 mumol CaEDTA per kg bodyweight, respectively. The body burden of chelatable lead ranged from 4 mumol to 120 mumol in lead workers with blood lead concentrations of 0.3-2.9 mumol/kg. There were linear relationships between blood lead concentrations and body burden of chelatable lead on a log scale.

  15. Sampling and Analysis for Assessment of Body Burdens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.H.

    1964-01-01

    A review of sampling criteria and techniques and of sample processing methods for indirect assessment of body burdens is presented. The text is limited to the more recent developments in the field of bioassay and to the nuclides which cannot be readily determined in the body directly. A selected bibliography is included. The planning of a bioassay programme should emphasize the detection of high or unusual exposures and the concentrated study of these cases when detected. This procedure gives the maximum amount of data for the dosimetry of individuals at risk and also adds to our scientific background for an understanding of internal emitters. Only a minimum of effort should be spent on sampling individuals having had negligible exposure. The chemical separation procedures required for bioassay also fall into two categories. The first is the rapid method, possibly of low accuracy, used for detection. The second is the more accurate method required for study of the individual after detection of the exposure. Excretion, whether exponential or a power function, drops off rapidly. It is necessary to locate the exposure in time before any evaluation can be made, even before deciding if the exposure is significant. One approach is frequent sampling and analysis by a quick screening technique. More commonly, samples are collected at longer intervals and an arbitrary level of re-sampling is set to assist in the detection of real exposures. It is probable that too much bioassay effort has gone into measurements on individuals at low risk and not enough on those at higher risk. The development of bioassay procedures for overcoming this problem has begun, and this paper emphasizes this facet of sampling and sample processing. (author) [fr

  16. Body burdens of heavy metals in Lake Michigan wetland turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dayna L; Cooper, Matthew J; Kosiara, Jessica M; Lamberti, Gary A

    2016-02-01

    Tissue heavy metal concentrations in painted (Chrysemys picta) and snapping (Chelydra serpentina) turtles from Lake Michigan coastal wetlands were analyzed to determine (1) whether turtles accumulated heavy metals, (2) if tissue metal concentrations were related to environmental metal concentrations, and (3) the potential for non-lethal sampling techniques to be used for monitoring heavy metal body burdens in freshwater turtles. Muscle, liver, shell, and claw samples were collected from painted and snapping turtles and analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, and zinc. Turtle tissues had measurable quantities of all eight metals analyzed. Statistically significant correlations between tissue metal concentrations and sediment metal concentrations were found for a subset of metals. Metals were generally found in higher concentrations in the larger snapping turtles than in painted turtles. In addition, non-lethal samples of shell and claw were found to be possible alternatives to lethal liver and muscle samples for some metals. Human consumption of snapping turtles presents potential health risks if turtles are harvested from contaminated areas. Overall, our results suggest that turtles could be a valuable component of contaminant monitoring programs for wetland ecosystems.

  17. Classifying the body in Marlene Dumas' The Image as Burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Anthea

    2018-03-01

    Medical photography, and in particular dermatological imagery, is often assumed to provide an objective, and functional, representation of disease and that it can act as a diagnostic aid. By contrast, artistic conceptions of the images of the body tend to focus on interpretative heterogeneity and ambiguity, aiming to create or explore meaning rather than enact a particular function. In her 2015 retrospective exhibition at the Tate Modern, South African artist Marlene Dumas questions these disciplinary divides by using medical imagery (among other photographic sources) as the basis for her portraits. Her portrait 'The White Disease' draws on an unidentified photograph taken from a medical journal, but obscures the original image to such a degree that any representation of a particular disease is highly questionable. The title creates a new classification, which reflects on disease and on the racial politics of South Africa during apartheid. Though, on the one hand, these techniques are seemingly disparate from the methods of medical understanding, features such as reliance on classification, and attempts at dispelling ambiguity, bring Dumas' work closer to the history of dermatological portraits than would usually be perceived to be the case. In considering the continuities and disparities between conceptualisations of skin in dermatology and Dumas' art, this paper questions assumptions of photographic objectivity to suggest that there is greater complexity and interpretative scope in medical dermatological images than might initially be assumed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Giving Permission to Be Fat? Examining the Impact of Body-Based Belief Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lorayne; Thomson, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Body image might be explained as "how we picture ourselves" and, while the image may or may not be accurate, it can affect decisions about physical, social, and emotional health. Schools are seen as potential sites for universal intervention programs to promote health, self-esteem, and size acceptance, and also to discourage unhealthy…

  19. Maternal body burden of cadmium and offspring size at birth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Megan E., E-mail: megan_romano@brown.edu [Department of Epidemiology, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, RI (United States); Enquobahrie, Daniel A. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Center for Perinatal Studies, Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Simpson, Christopher [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Checkoway, Harvey [Department of Family Medicine & Public Health, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Williams, Michelle A. [Center for Perinatal Studies, Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Increasing evidence suggests an inverse association between cadmium (Cd) and size at birth, potentially greatest among female neonates. We evaluated whether greater maternal body burden of Cd is associated with reduced neonatal anthropometry (birthweight, birth length, head circumference, and ponderal index) and assessed whether these associations differ by infant sex. The analytic sample for the present study (n=396) was derived from a subcohort of 750 women randomly drawn from among all participants (N=4344) in the Omega Study, a prospective pregnancy cohort. Creatinine-corrected Cd in maternal clean-catch spot urine samples (U-Cd) was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Continuous log{sub 2}-transformed Cd (log{sub 2}-Cd) and U-Cd tertiles (low<0.29 μg/g creatinine, middle 0.29–0.42 μg/g creatinine, high≥0.43 μg/g creatinine) were used in multivariable linear regression models. Females had reduced birth length with greater U-Cd tertile, whereas males birth length marginally increased [β(95% CI) females: low=reference, middle=−0.59 cm (−1.37, 0.19), high=−0.83 cm (−1.69, 0.02), p-trend=0.08; males: low=reference, middle=0.18 cm (−0.59, 0.95), high=0.78 cm (–0.04, 1.60), p-trend=0.07; p for interaction=0.03]. The log{sub 2}-Cd by infant sex interaction was statistically significant for ponderal index [p=0.003; β(95% CI): female=0.25 kg/m{sup 3} (−0.20, 0.70); male=−0.63 kg/m{sup 3} (−1.01, −0.24)] and birth length [p<0.001; β(95% CI): female=−0.47 cm (−0.74, −0.20), male=0.32 cm (0.00, 0.65)]. Our findings suggest potential sex-specific reversal of Cd’s associations on birth length and contribute to the evidence suggesting Cd impairs fetal growth. - Highlights: • Cadmium levels in the general population potentially adversely affect size at birth. • Maternal urinary cadmium was inversely related to birth length among female infants. • For male infants, maternal cadmium was positively associated

  20. Maternal body burden of cadmium and offspring size at birth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Megan E.; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Simpson, Christopher; Checkoway, Harvey; Williams, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests an inverse association between cadmium (Cd) and size at birth, potentially greatest among female neonates. We evaluated whether greater maternal body burden of Cd is associated with reduced neonatal anthropometry (birthweight, birth length, head circumference, and ponderal index) and assessed whether these associations differ by infant sex. The analytic sample for the present study (n=396) was derived from a subcohort of 750 women randomly drawn from among all participants (N=4344) in the Omega Study, a prospective pregnancy cohort. Creatinine-corrected Cd in maternal clean-catch spot urine samples (U-Cd) was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Continuous log 2 -transformed Cd (log 2 -Cd) and U-Cd tertiles (low<0.29 μg/g creatinine, middle 0.29–0.42 μg/g creatinine, high≥0.43 μg/g creatinine) were used in multivariable linear regression models. Females had reduced birth length with greater U-Cd tertile, whereas males birth length marginally increased [β(95% CI) females: low=reference, middle=−0.59 cm (−1.37, 0.19), high=−0.83 cm (−1.69, 0.02), p-trend=0.08; males: low=reference, middle=0.18 cm (−0.59, 0.95), high=0.78 cm (–0.04, 1.60), p-trend=0.07; p for interaction=0.03]. The log 2 -Cd by infant sex interaction was statistically significant for ponderal index [p=0.003; β(95% CI): female=0.25 kg/m 3 (−0.20, 0.70); male=−0.63 kg/m 3 (−1.01, −0.24)] and birth length [p<0.001; β(95% CI): female=−0.47 cm (−0.74, −0.20), male=0.32 cm (0.00, 0.65)]. Our findings suggest potential sex-specific reversal of Cd’s associations on birth length and contribute to the evidence suggesting Cd impairs fetal growth. - Highlights: • Cadmium levels in the general population potentially adversely affect size at birth. • Maternal urinary cadmium was inversely related to birth length among female infants. • For male infants, maternal cadmium was positively associated with birth length.

  1. Adjustment of a direct method for the determination of man body burden in Pu-239 on by X-ray detection of U-235

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulay, P.

    1968-04-01

    The use of Pu-239 on a larger scale sets a problem about the contamination measurement by aerosol at lung level. A method of direct measurement of Pu-239 lung burden is possible, thanks to the use of a large area window proportional counter. A counter of such pattern, has been especially carried out for this purpose. The adjustment of the apparatus allows an adequate sensibility to detect a contamination at the maximum permissible body burden level. Besides, a method for individual 'internal calibration', with a plutonium mock: the protactinium-233, is reported. (author) [fr

  2. Assessment of the body burden of chelatable lead: a model and its application to lead workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Araki, S; Ushio, K

    1982-01-01

    A hypothetical model was introduced to estimate the body burden of chelatable lead from the mobilisation yield of lead by calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetate (CaEDTA). It was estimated that, on average, 14 and 19% of the body burden was mobilised into the urine during the 24 hours after an injection of 53.4 mumol (20 mg) and 107 mumol (40 mg) CaEDTA per kg bodyweight, respectively. The body burden of chelatable lead ranged from 4 mumol (0.8 mg) to 120 mumol (24.9 mg) (mean 37 mumol...

  3. National Status and Trends: Contaminant body burdens and histopathology of fish and shellfish from Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In response to the growing concerns among Chugach communities, contaminant body burden and histopathological condition of chum and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus keta...

  4. Assessment of the body burden of chelatable lead: a model and its application to lead workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, S; Ushio, K

    1982-01-01

    A hypothetical model was introduced to estimate the body burden of chelatable lead from the mobilisation yield of lead by calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetate (CaEDTA). It was estimated that, on average, 14 and 19% of the body burden was mobilised into the urine during the 24 hours after an injection of 53.4 mumol (20 mg) and 107 mumol (40 mg) CaEDTA per kg bodyweight, respectively. The body burden of chelatable lead ranged from 4 mumol (0.8 mg) to 120 mumol (24.9 mg) (mean 37 mumol (7.7 mg) in lead workers with blood lead concentrations of 0.3-2.9 mumol/kg (6-60 microgram/100 g) (mean 1.4 mumol/kg (29 microgram/100 g)). There were linear relationships between blood lead concentrations and body burden of chelatable lead on a log scale. PMID:6802167

  5. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to excess body weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monte Carlo simulation-modelling techniques were used for the uncertainty analysis. ... Deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from ischaemic heart disease, ... lasting change in the determinants and impact of excess body weight.

  6. Body Burden of Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethene (DDE and Childhood Pulmonary Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi P. Balte

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal studies have shown that early life exposure to dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE can lead to growth reduction during childhood and adolescence. In addition, DDE exposure has been linked to respiratory tract infections and an increased risk of asthma in children. Our aim was to understand the relationships between DDE exposure and pulmonary function in children, and, particularly, whether associations are mediated by the height of the children. We used data from an environmental epidemiologic study conducted in central Germany in children aged 8-10 years. The pulmonary function (forced vital capacity, FVC, and forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV1 were measured in three consecutive years. Blood DDE levels were measured at 8 and 10 years. We used linear mixed models for repeated measurements and path analyses to assess the association between blood levels of DDE and pulmonary function measurements. All models were adjusted for confounders. Linear mixed approaches and modelling concurrent effects showed no significant associations. The path analytical models demonstrated that DDE measured at eight years had significant, inverse, indirect, and total effects on FVC at ten years (n = 328; −0.18 L per μg/L of DDE and FEV1 (n = 328; −0.17 L per μg/L of DDE, mediated through effects of DDE on height and weight. The DDE burden reduces pulmonary function through its diminishing effects on height and weight in children. Further studies are required to test these associations in other samples, preferably from a region with ongoing, high DDT application.

  7. Distribution of radium-226 body burden among workers in an underground uranium mine in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patnaik, R.L.; Srivastava, V.S.; Kumar, Rajesh; Shukla, A.K.; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.

    2007-01-01

    Workers are exposed to ore dust containing uranium and its daughter products during mining and processing of uranium ore. These radio nuclides may be an inhalation hazard to the workers during the course of their occupation. The most significant among these radio nuclides is 226 Ra. Measurement of radium body burden of uranium mine and mill workers are important to control the exposure of workers within the prescribed limit. Radon-in-breath measurement technique is used for measurement of radium body burden. Workers associated with different category of underground mining operations were monitored. The measurement results indicate that workers associated with different category of underground mining operations are having 226 Ra body burden ranging from 0.15 - 2.85 kBq. It was also observed that workers involved in timbering operation are having maximum average 226 Ra body burden of 0.97 ± 0.54 kBq. Overall average radium body burden observed for 683 workers is 0.80 kBq. (author)

  8. Cesium-137 body burdens in Norwegian Lapps, 1965-1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerlund, E.A.; Berthelsen, T.; Berteig, L.

    1987-01-01

    Results of measurements of the whole-body contents of 137 Cs during the period 1965-1983 in Lapps from the Kautokeino area in Norway are reported with measurements of 137 Cs in reindeer meat during the period 1966-1983. By using available data on 137 Cs in precipitation for the period 1950-1980, transfer coefficients from 137 Cs in precipitation to reindeer meat have been assessed. A correlation between the 137 Cs content in reindeer meat and the 137 Cs content in Lapp reindeer breeders has been established. The average whole-body committed dose equivalent, H50, to the reindeer breeders from internally deposited 137 Cs from intakes up to year 2000 was assessed to 13 mSv with a peak value of 30 mSv. In comparison, the corresponding committed dose equivalent to the Norwegian population from internally deposited 137 Cs has been estimated to be about 1 mSv. The higher intake of 137 Cs by reindeer breeders is due to the lichen-reindeer-man exposure pathway

  9. Programs and subroutines for calculating cadmium body burdens based on a one-compartment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, C.V.; Novak, K.M.

    1980-08-01

    A pair of FORTRAN programs for calculating the body burden of cadmium as a function of age is presented, together with a discussion of the assumptions which serve to specify the underlying, one-compartment model. Account is taken of the contributions to the body burden from food, from ambient air, from smoking, and from occupational inhalation. The output is a set of values for ages from birth to 90 years which is either longitudinal (for a given year of birth) or cross-sectional (for a given calendar year), depending on the choice of input parameters

  10. Model for Calculating the Maximum Permissible Tax Burden in Amur Region in the Context of the Implementation of Largest Investment Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor Vladimirovich Ivanov; Maria Olegovna Kakaulina; Oleg Anatolievich Tsepelev

    2018-01-01

    According to the Government of the Amur region, tax collection from the implementation of investment projects was tightly controlled from 2016, because of the region’s high debt load. This situation requires assessing the acceptability of the level of regional tax burden for business entities. The purpose of this paper is to develop a model for assessing the level of regional tax burden, taking into account the implementation of the largest investment projects in the territory. The m...

  11. Distribution of {sup 226}Ra body burden of workers in an underground uranium mine in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patnaik, R.L.; Jha, V.N.; Kumar, R.; Srivastava, V.S.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Health Physics Unit, Jaduguda, Jharkhand (India)

    2014-11-15

    Uranium mine workers are exposed to ore dust containing uranium and its daughter products during different mining operations. These radionuclides may pose inhalation hazards to workers during the course of their occupation. The most significant among these radionuclides is {sup 226}Ra. The measurement of radium body burden of uranium mine workers is important to assess their internal exposure. For this purpose, the radon-in-breath measurement technique has been used in the present paper. Workers at the Jaduguda mine, India, associated with different categories of mining operations were monitored between 2001 and 2007. The measurement results indicate that workers - depending on mining operation category - show {sup 226}Ra body burdens ranging from 0.15 to 2.85 kBq. The maximum body burden was found for workers associated with timbering operations, with an average {sup 226}Ra body burden of 0.85 ± 0.54 kBq. Overall, the average value observed for 800 workers was 0.76 ± 0.51 kBq, which gives rise to an average effective dose of 1.67 mSv per year for inhalation and 0.21 mSv per year for ingestion. (orig.)

  12. Distribution of 226Ra body burden of workers in an underground uranium mine in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, R L; Jha, V N; Kumar, R; Srivastava, V S; Ravi, P M; Tripathi, R M

    2014-11-01

    Uranium mine workers are exposed to ore dust containing uranium and its daughter products during different mining operations. These radionuclides may pose inhalation hazards to workers during the course of their occupation. The most significant among these radionuclides is (226)Ra. The measurement of radium body burden of uranium mine workers is important to assess their internal exposure. For this purpose, the radon-in-breath measurement technique has been used in the present paper. Workers at the Jaduguda mine, India, associated with different categories of mining operations were monitored between 2001 and 2007. The measurement results indicate that workers--depending on mining operation category--show (226)Ra body burdens ranging from 0.15 to 2.85 kBq. The maximum body burden was found for workers associated with timbering operations, with an average (226)Ra body burden of 0.85 ± 0.54 kBq. Overall, the average value observed for 800 workers was 0.76 ± 0.51 kBq, which gives rise to an average effective dose of 1.67 mSv per year for inhalation and 0.21 mSv per year for ingestion.

  13. An investigation into the potassium body burden in humans with the help of a whole-body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selzer, A.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the available information concerning the potassium body burden of a large number of adults and to find a correlation with other easily measurable body parameters such as mass, height and age so that a normal expected body potassium may be predicted for patients with potassium abnormalities who are also referred to the whole-body counter. The calibration of the whole-body counter to make provision for the differences in geometry and absorption in various body sizes was carried out by injecting a number of people with a small dose of potassium-42 and calculating a correction factor for the potassium standard which is in use daily. All measurements of body potassium were corrected with the calculated correction factor. Fatty tissue in the body contains very little potassium in comparison with muscle tissue and a better correction should therefore be obtained between body potassium and lean body mass. Although it is not possible to predict the smaller potassium abnormalities even when lean body mass is used, the derived regression equation in which lean body mass and age are used, may be viewed as a good first approach in the advance estimation of body potassium

  14. Chromosome breakage in lymphocytes from humans with body burdens of 226Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegerman, S.F.; Cummins, H.T.; Bronec, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    Peripheral lymphocytes from 10 controls and 40 patients with body burdens of 226 Ra ranging from below the limit of detection to 8.6 μCi were scored for unstable chromosome aberrations. The patient population was divided into four groups: a group with body burdens below the limit of detection (less than 0.003 μCi, 12 patients); a low-burden group (0.003 to 0.099 μCi, 13 patients); a moderate-burden group (0.1 to 0.99 μCi, 11 patients); and a high-burden group (greater than 1.0 μCi, 4 patients). In none of these groups was the frequency of cells with unstable aberrations significantly elevated above that in the controls. The rate of occurrence of dicentric and ring chromosomes was above the control frequency in only the two patients with the highest burdens (3.55 and 8.6 μCi). Our results are consistent with the expectation derived from a recent calculation of alpha dose delivered to blood by bone-deposited radium and its decay products. Marshall and Hoegerman have estimated that the blood dose for an individual with a radium burden of 1.0 μCi is 0.09 +- 0.03 rad/year. The value is compared with the dose estimate used by Boyd et al. in their study of British radium-dial painters, and the relevance of the blood dose to the lymphocyte dose is discussed

  15. Personal factors affecting thoron exhalation from occupationally acquired thorium body burdens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Thorium workers with thorium body burdens (primarily thoracic) above 0.7 nCi 224 Ra equivalent are shown to exhale about 15% of thoron produced in vivo, compared to 5% exhaled by subjects with body burdens in the range of 0.4 to 0.7 nCi 224 Ra. There was a false negative correlation between average adult daily cigarettes smoked and thoron exhalation. White blood cell counts that were about 85% of expected were observed in seven subjects exhaling greater than or equal to 100 pCi of thoron above predicted; no other variable examined showed a clear pattern of association. These differences in fractional thoron exhalation, and their consequences, are discussed. 3 references, 4 figures, 8 tables

  16. Radium-226 body burden in U miners by measurement of Rn in exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, G K; Raghavayya, M; Kotrappa, P; Somasundaram, S

    1986-02-01

    Uranium miners were made to inhale Rn-free medical O2 and exhale through a 5.2-1 A1 chamber before reporting to work. The chamber was sealed and isolated from the sampling circuit. An electrostatic plate collected the freshly formed Rn-decay products. The subsequent programmed alpha counting of the plate yielded a Rn concentration in the exhaled breath. Assuming that the exhaled breath represents a certain fraction of the Rn produced inside the body, the body burden of 226Ra was calculated. Standardisation of this procedure and the data collected on 310 miners are discussed. The procedure is simple and applicable for routine measurements. The miner needs to be in the laboratory for only 10 min. The system is also portable for field application. For routine use, the minimum detectable concentration is 3.87 Bq X m-3 which corresponds to a body burden of 0.26 kBq in a typical miner, if one assumes the Rn release fraction from the body as 84%. The system offers a more convenient and sensitive alternative to whole-body counting of workers for 226Ra.

  17. A systematic review of the human body burden of e-waste exposure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingbin; Li, Jinhui

    2014-07-01

    As China is one of the countries facing the most serious pollution and human exposure effects of e-waste in the world, much of the population there is exposed to potentially hazardous substances due to informal e-waste recycling processes. This report reviews recent studies on human exposure to e-waste in China, with particular focus on exposure routes (e.g. dietary intake, inhalation, and soil/dust ingestion) and human body burden markers (e.g. placenta, umbilical cord blood, breast milk, blood, hair, and urine) and assesses the evidence for the association between such e-waste exposure and the human body burden in China. The results suggest that residents in the e-waste exposure areas, located mainly in the three traditional e-waste recycling sites (Taizhou, Guiyu, and Qingyuan), are faced with a potential higher daily intake of these pollutants than residents in the control areas, especially via food ingestion. Moreover, pollutants (PBBs, PBDEs, PCBs, PCDD/Fs, and heavy metals) from the e-waste recycling processes were all detectable in the tissue samples at high levels, showing that they had entered residents' bodies through the environment and dietary exposure. Children and neonates are the groups most sensitive to the human body effects of e-waste exposure. We also recorded plausible outcomes associated with exposure to e-waste, including 7 types of human body burden. Although the data suggest that exposure to e-waste is harmful to health, better designed epidemiological investigations in vulnerable populations, especially neonates and children, are needed to confirm these associations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. In-vivo assessment of whole-body radioisotope burdens at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilik, D.G.; Aikin, I.C.

    1983-08-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory program for in-vivo measurements includes the capability for the whole-body assessment of body burdens for x-ray or gamma-ray emitting radioisotopes. This capability is an important part of the health and safety program at Los Alamos where a wide variety of radioisotopes are utilized. This report addresses the whole body portion of our in-vivo measurement capabilities. Whole-body measurements at Los Alamos make use of a hyperpure germanium (HpGe) detector and a lithium-drifted germanium [Ge(Li)] detector for identification and quantification of radioisotopes. Analysis results are interpreted in terms of two basic statistical measures of detection limits. One measure is called the minimum significant measured activity (MSMA), which is interpreted as meaning that there is some activity in the body. The second measure is called the minimum detectable true activity (MDTA), which is defined as the smallest amount of activity required to be in the body in order that a measurement of an individual can be expected to imply correctly the presence of activity with a predetermined degree of confidence. 7 references, 8 figures

  19. Clinical responses after total body irradiation by over permissible dose of γ-rays in one time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Benrong; Wang Guilin; Liu Huilan; Tang Xingsheng; Ai Huisheng

    1990-01-01

    The clinical responses of patients after total body over permissilbe dose γ-ray irradiation were observed and analysed. The results showed: when the dose was above 5 cGy, there was some immunological depression, but no significant change in hematopoietic functions. 5 cases showed some transient changes of ECG, perhaps due to vagotonia caused by psychological imbalance, One case vomitted 3-4 times after 28 cGy irradiation, this suggested that a few times of vomitting had no significance in the estimation of the irradiated dose and the whole clinical manifestations must be concretely analysed

  20. "Permission to Speak": A Postcolonial View on Racialized Bodies and PE in the Current Context of Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarito, Laura

    2016-06-01

    The current neoliberal context of schools presents difficult challenges in addressing persistent issues of social inequalities. In this article, first, I argue that because of today's market-driven education, the rise of fitness testing in school physical education (PE) can be seriously detrimental to young people in general and to ethnic-minority young people's embodied identity in particular. Second, I explain how the racialization process circulated by the body-at-risk discourse, sustained by the media, and reproduced by high-stakes testing in PE forces ethnic-minority young people to construct their identities through White eyes, which alienates them from a consciousness of their own identity. Third, I explore the possible uses and pitfalls of Spivak's theoretical notion of "strategic essentialism" to put forward strategies to build a positive image of the "other" while attempting to avoid the erasure of difference. Fourth, I conclude the article by suggesting how Spivak's notion of strategic essentialism can be useful in rethinking current PE fitness practices.

  1. Body Burden of Hg in Different Bio-Samples of Mothers in Shenyang City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Du, Juan; Yan, Chong-huai

    2014-01-01

    Hg is an accumulative and neuro-toxic heavy metal which has a wide range of adverse effects in human health. However, few studies are available on body burden of Hg level in different bio-samples of pregnant women in Chinese population. Therefore, this study evaluated Hg levels in different maternal bio-samples in Shenyang city, China and investigated the correlation of Hg levels in different bio-samples. From October to December 2008, 200 pregnant women about to deliver their babies at ShengJing Hospital (Shenyang city, northeast of China) participated in this study. The geometric mean (GM) of Hg levels in cord blood, maternal venous blood, breast milk, and maternal urine were 2.18 µg/L, 1.17 µg/L, 1.14 µg/L, and 0.73 µg/L, respectively, and the GM of maternal hair Hg level was 404.45 µg/kg. There was a strong correlation between cord blood and maternal blood total Hg level (r = 0.713, PHg exposure (unadjusted OR 3.5, adjusted OR 2.94, PHg burden of mothers and the risk factors of prenatal Hg exposure in Shenyang city, China. PMID:24858815

  2. Body burden of Hg in different bio-samples of mothers in Shenyang city, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ming Li

    Full Text Available Hg is an accumulative and neuro-toxic heavy metal which has a wide range of adverse effects in human health. However, few studies are available on body burden of Hg level in different bio-samples of pregnant women in Chinese population. Therefore, this study evaluated Hg levels in different maternal bio-samples in Shenyang city, China and investigated the correlation of Hg levels in different bio-samples. From October to December 2008, 200 pregnant women about to deliver their babies at ShengJing Hospital (Shenyang city, northeast of China participated in this study. The geometric mean (GM of Hg levels in cord blood, maternal venous blood, breast milk, and maternal urine were 2.18 µg/L, 1.17 µg/L, 1.14 µg/L, and 0.73 µg/L, respectively, and the GM of maternal hair Hg level was 404.45 µg/kg. There was a strong correlation between cord blood and maternal blood total Hg level (r = 0.713, P<0.001. Frequency of fish consumption more than or equal to 3 times per week during pregnancy was suggested as a significant risk factor of prenatal Hg exposure (unadjusted OR 3.5, adjusted OR 2.94, P<0.05. This study provides evidence about Hg burden of mothers and the risk factors of prenatal Hg exposure in Shenyang city, China.

  3. The economic consequences of elevated body-lead burdens in urban children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agree, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    The following analysis develops the theory and implementation of the observed behavior technique in an altruistic setting, to assess the health benefits of reducing environmental lead exposure in urban children. Three models are presented which allow for endogenous body lead burden, risk of irreversible neurological damages, and Bayesian information. Conditions are derived under which the observed behavior technique can be modified to value the health consequences of exposure to a general class of persistent micropollutants (PMP's): the heavy metals. Benefit expressions reflect the tradeoff between parental wealth and child health when children are exposed to low level doses of lead. The purpose is to derive exact measures of marginal welfare change associated with variations in child body lead burden, and to determine the conditions under which these measures will be functions of observable parameters. The analysis presents an entirely ex ante approach to the recovery of benefit estimates when PMP exposure involves risk of irreversible health damages. In doing so, an empirical estimate is also obtained for the parental value of child health information that is used in the revision of prior risk beliefs. Risk of chronic irreversible health effects in younger generations from environmental lead exposure may be experienced by a large share of metropolitan population in the US. Given the large numbers of possible victims, the aggregate social value of avoiding this risk is an important policy issues. Moreover, the value of health risk information is potentially important to the use of an information program as a policy instrument in reducing health risk because it would enable the comparison of societal benefits from an information program to the cost of it's implementation

  4. The Severity of Autism Is Associated with Toxic Metal Body Burden and Red Blood Cell Glutathione Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J B; Mitchell, I J [Division of Basic Medical Sciences, Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine, Tempe, AZ 85282 (United States); Baral, M; Bradstreet, J [Department of Pediatric Medicine, Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine, Tempe, AZ 85282 (United States); Geis, E; Ingram, J; Hensley, A; Zappia, I; Gehn, E; Mitchell, K [Autism Research Institute, San Diego, CA 92116-2599 (United States); Newmark, S [Center for Integrative Pediatric Medicine, Tucson, AZ 85711 (United States); Rubin, R A [Department of Mathematics, Whittier College, Whittier, CA 90601-4413 (United States); Bradstreet, J [International Child Development Resource Center, Phoenix, AZ (United States); El-Dahrn, J M [Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated the relationship of children's autism symptoms with their toxic metal body burden and red blood cell (RBC) glutathione levels. In children ages 38 years, the severity of autism was assessed using four tools: ADOS, PDD-BI, ATEC, and SAS. Toxic metal body burden was assessed by measuring urinary excretion of toxic metals, both before and after oral dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Multiple positive correlations were found between the severity of autism and the urinary excretion of toxic metals. Variations in the severity of autism measurements could be explained, in part, by regression analyses of urinary excretion of toxic metals before and after DMSA and the level of RBC glutathione (adjusted R2 of 0.220.45, P<.005 in all cases). This study demonstrates a significant positive association between the severity of autism and the relative body burden of toxic metals.

  5. The Severity of Autism Is Associated with Toxic Metal Body Burden and Red Blood Cell Glutathione Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.B.; Mitchell, I.J.; Baral, M.; Bradstreet, J.; Geis, E.; Ingram, J.; Hensley, A.; Zappia, I.; Gehn, E.; Mitchell, K.; Newmark, S.; Rubin, R.A.; Bradstreet, J.; El-Dahrn, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of children's autism symptoms with their toxic metal body burden and red blood cell (RBC) glutathione levels. In children ages 38 years, the severity of autism was assessed using four tools: ADOS, PDD-BI, ATEC, and SAS. Toxic metal body burden was assessed by measuring urinary excretion of toxic metals, both before and after oral dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Multiple positive correlations were found between the severity of autism and the urinary excretion of toxic metals. Variations in the severity of autism measurements could be explained, in part, by regression analyses of urinary excretion of toxic metals before and after DMSA and the level of RBC glutathione (adjusted R2 of 0.220.45, P<.005 in all cases). This study demonstrates a significant positive association between the severity of autism and the relative body burden of toxic metals.

  6. An approach to calculating childhood body burdens of dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans which accounts for age-dependent biological half lives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paustenbach, D. [ChemRisk, San Francisco, CA (United States); Leung, H.W. [Leung, H.W. Private Consultant, Danbury, CT (United States); Scott, P. [ChemRisk, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kerger, B. [HSRI, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to apply an age-dependent half life model to examine the range of child (ages 0-7) body burdens that correspond to selected exposure scenarios involving background dietary and environmental doses of dioxins. The scenarios examined include breast-fed and nonbreast- fed infants feeding for 6 months, other dioxin uptake from foods through age 7, and exposures to urban residential soils at 1 ppb TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ). These body burden estimates in children are then compared to the adult body burden estimates corresponding to the range of tolerable daily intakes (1 to 4 pg TEQ/kg-day) proposed by some U.S. and international regulatory/advisory groups.

  7. Intercomparison of Finnish and Russian whole-body counters used for the determination of 137Cs body burden in reindeer-herding populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahola, T.; Tillander, M.

    1995-01-01

    Intercalibration is a very important quality control in whole-body counting, as the human body is a very difficult ''sample'' to calibrate for. In 1994 the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), the Laboratory of Radiochemistry of the University of Helsinki and the Institute of Radiation Hygiene (IRH) of St. Petersburg agreed to undertake the first Finnish-Russian intercalibration project for whole-body counters. The monitoring of body burdens of indigenous inhabitants in the far north of Russia, from the Kola Peninsula to Chuhodka, has been the responsibility of the ISH since 1960; the above-.mentioned Finnish institutes have monitored reindeer breeders in Finnish Lapland since 1961. The intercalibration was done in the field by measuring the same persons with both systems in Finnish Lapland and in the Kola Peninsula. Mean body burdens in the reindeer-herding population in the areas of current interest are presented in the present paper. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  8. Body burden of cadmium and its related factors: A large-scale survey in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Shen; Cheng, Xi-Yu; Li, Hao; Jia, Wen-Jing; Zhang, Jie-Ying; Luo, Hui-Fang; Wang, Zi-Ling; Chen, Zhi-Nan, E-mail: chen_zhinan56@163.com

    2015-04-01

    A survey of more than 6000 participants from four distinct non-polluted and polluted regions in China was conducted to evaluate the body burden of cadmium (Cd) on the Chinese populations using urinary Cd (UCd) as a biomarker. The findings revealed that the UCd level was 1.24 μg/g creatinine (μg/g cr) for the sample population from non-polluted Shanghai, and the UCd levels exceeded 5 μg/g cr, which is the health-based exposure limit set by the World Health Organization (WHO), in 1.1% of people. The mean UCd levels in moderately polluted (Hubei and Liaoning) and highly polluted areas (Guizhou) were 4.69 μg/g cr, 3.62 μg/g cr and 6.08 μg/g cr, respectively, and these levels were 2.9 to 4.9 times the levels observed in Shanghai. Notably, the UCd levels exceeded the recently updated human biomonitoring II values (i.e., intervention or “action level”) in 44.8%–87.9% of people from these areas compared to only 5.1%–21.4% of people in Shanghai. The corresponding prevalence of elevated UCd levels (> WHO threshold, 5 μg/g cr) was also significantly higher (30.7% to 63.8% vs. 1.1%), which indicates that elevated Cd-induced health risks to residents in these areas. Age and region were significant determinants for UCd levels in a population, whereas gender did not significantly influence UCd. - Highlights: • We performed a Cd exposure survey that involved more than 6000 Chinese subjects. • The body burden of Cd in most of subjects of non-polluted Shanghai is relatively safe. • The UCd levels were much higher in the subjects from polluted areas than from Shanghai. • The UCd levels in the population from Guizhou substantially exceeded the safety limit. • Age and region were significant determinants of UCd.

  9. Survival, reproduction, and arsenic body burdens in Chironomus riparius exposed to arsenate and phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogren, Christina L., E-mail: christina.mogren@email.ucr.edu [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Ave, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Kiparski, Guntram R. von; Parker, David R. [Department of Environmental Science, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Ave, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Trumble, John T. [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Ave, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Despite the increasing awareness of arsenic (As) contamination in surface waters worldwide, little is known about how As alone and in the presence of other chemicals affects aquatic insects. Larvae of Chironomus riparius were exposed in a laboratory investigation to factorial combinations of 0, 0.13, 2.0, 5.3, and 13 {mu}mol As l{sup -1} and 0, 0.15, and 15 {mu}mol PO{sub 4} l{sup -1} throughout development from first instar to pupal emergence. The time between male and female emergence increased from 1.8 {+-} 0.17 days to 2.9 {+-} 0.34 days with exposure at higher As levels. The highest As exposure also decreased the number of eggs per egg mass, which may affect population maintenance. For these parameters, there was no effect from PO{sub 4}, and no interaction between As and PO{sub 4}. Total As determination of larval and adult tissues was conducted using Hydride Generated Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (HGAAS) and revealed concentrations ranging from 2.48 {+-} 0.363 to 30.5 {+-} 0.473 {mu}g/g and 1.03 {+-} 0.286 to 8.97 {+-} 0.662 {mu}g/g, respectively, indicating elimination of approximately 72% of total As body burdens between the fourth instar and adult stages. There was no effect of PO{sub 4}, indicating PO{sub 4} does not alter uptake of As in C. riparius. The potential for movement of As to terrestrial systems exists, though trophic transfer may be more likely during the aquatic larval stage. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluate how sublethal concentrations of As and P affect C. riparius. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High As exposure significantly increased the time between male and female emergence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High As exposure significantly decreased the number of eggs per egg mass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fourth instar larvae eliminate 72% of As body burdens before the adult stage.

  10. Distribution of "2"2"6Ra body burden of workers in an underground uranium mine in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patnaik, R.L.; Jha, V.N.; Kumar, R.; Srivastava, V.S.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Uranium mine workers are exposed to ore dust containing uranium and its daughter products during different mining operations. These radionuclides may pose inhalation hazards to workers during the course of their occupation. The most significant among these radionuclides is "2"2"6Ra. The measurement of radium body burden of uranium mine workers is important to assess their internal exposure. For this purpose, the radon-in-breath measurement technique has been used in the present paper. Workers at the Jaduguda mine, India, associated with different categories of mining operations were monitored between 2001 and 2007. The measurement results indicate that workers - depending on mining operation category - show "2"2"6Ra body burdens ranging from 0.15 to 2.85 kBq. The maximum body burden was found for workers associated with timbering operations, with an average "2"2"6Ra body burden of 0.85 ± 0.54 kBq. Overall, the average value observed for 800 workers was 0.76 ± 0.51 kBq, which gives rise to an average effective dose of 1.67 mSv per year for inhalation and 0.21 mSv per year for ingestion. (orig.)

  11. The use of comparative 137Cs body burden estimates from environmental data/models and whole body counting to evaluate diet models for the ingestion pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Sun, C.

    1997-01-01

    Rongelap and Utirik Atolls were contaminated on 1 March 1954, by a U.S. nuclear test at Bikini Atoll code named BRAVO. The people at both atolls were removed from their atolls in the first few days after the detonation and were returned to their atolls at different times. Detailed studies have been carried out over the years by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to determine the radiological conditions at the atolls and estimate the doses to the populations. The contribution of each exposure pathway and radionuclide have been evaluated. All dose assessments show that the major potential contribution to the estimated dose is 137 Cs uptake via the terrestrial food chain. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has carried out an extensive whole body counting program at both atolls over several years to directly measure the 137 Cs body burden. Here we compare the estimates of the body burdens from the LLNL environmental method with body burdens measured by the BNL whole body counting method. The combination of the results from both methods is used to evaluate proposed diet models to establish more realistic dose assessments. Very good agreement is achieved between the two methods with a diet model that includes both local and imported foods. Other diet models greatly overestimate the body burdens (i.e., dose) observed by whole body counting. The upper 95% confidence limit of interindividual variability around the population mean value based on the environmental method is similar to that calculated from direct measurement by whole body counting. Moreover, the uncertainty in the population mean value based on the environmental method is in very good agreement with the whole body counting data. This provides additional confidence in extrapolating the estimated doses calculated by the environmental method to other islands and atolls. 46 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Role of Airborne Lead in Increased Body Burden of Lead in Hartford Children*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepow, Martha L.; Bruckman, Leonard; Rubino, Robert A.; Markowitz, Steven; Gillette, Marybeth; Kapish, Janet

    1974-01-01

    The ingestion of airborne lead fallout is the mechanism responsible for increased lead body burdens found in 10 urban Connecticut children. The mean indoor lead levels found in housedust was 11,000 μg/g; highest concentrations occurred on windowsills and in floor dust. The mean lead content of Hartford street dirt was 1,200 μg/g; levels were highest near the street and next to the buildings. The mean lead concentration of hand samples taken from the subject children was 2,400 μg/g; the mean weight of hand samples was 11 mg. The concentration of lead in dirt and househould dust was high enough to theoretically result in excessive lead accumulation in young children who are putting their dusty, dirty hands in their mouths during play. While we believe that lead emitted from automobiles contributes significantly to air, dirt and dust lead levels the environmental impact of reducing or eliminating lead from gasoline is not yet completely understood. PMID:4133903

  13. The double burden of undernutrition and excess body weight in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Wilma B; Silva-Jaramillo, Katherine M; Ramírez-Luzuriaga, María J; Belmont, Philippe; Waters, William F

    2014-12-01

    Ecuador's current nutrition policies have not taken adequate notice of the double burden of malnutrition and continue to focus on stunting and to a lesser extent on overweight, without addressing the simultaneous presence of undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, and overweight or obesity (OW/OB). The aim of this article was to describe the prevalence and distribution of undernutrition (stunting, anemia, and zinc deficiency), overweight, and obesity in Ecuador to explore the evolving double burden of malnutrition at the national, household, and individual levels and to discuss whether current public health policies are addressing the double burden. Data from the 2012 Ecuadorian National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-ECU) was used to estimate the dual burden of malnutrition at the national, household, and individual levels in children Ecuador. Although integrated approaches to address the emerging double burden are required, public health policies to date have not responded adequately. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Tumor segmentation of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in neurofibromatosis type 1 patients: tumor burden correlates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffler, Michael A.; Xi, Yin; Chhabra, Avneesh [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Le, Lu Q. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Dermatology, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Segmentation of whole-body MRI (WBMRI) to assess the feasibility, quantitate the total tumor volume (tumor burden) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and examine associations with demographic, disease-related and anthropomorphic features. A consecutive series of patients with NF1 underwent WBMRI and were reviewed for tumors. Tumors were segmented using a semiautomated software-based tool. Tumors were classified as superficial or deep and discrete or plexiform. Segmentation times were recorded. Segmentation yielded the quantity and tumor burden of superficial, internal and plexiform tumors. Correlations between segmentation data and demographic, disease-related and anthropomorphic features were examined. Fifteen patients were evaluated (42.3 ± 13.6 years, 10 female, 5 male). Segmentation times were a median of 30 min and yielded 2,328 tumors (1,582 superficial, 746 internal and 23 plexiform). One tumor was malignant. Tumor counts ranged from 14 to 397. Tumor burden ranged from 6.95 cm3 to 571 cm3. Individual tumor volume ranged from 0.0120 cm3 to 298 cm3. Significant correlation was found between the total volume of superficial tumors and height (ρ = 0.5966, p < 0.02). Male patients had higher overall tumor burdens (p < 0.05) and higher superficial tumor burden (p < 0.03). Patients with negative family history had more tumors (p < 0.05). Segmentation of WBMRI in patients with NF1 is feasible and elucidates meaningful relationships among disease phenotype, anthropomorphic and demographic features. (orig.)

  15. Tumor segmentation of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in neurofibromatosis type 1 patients: tumor burden correlates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffler, Michael A.; Xi, Yin; Chhabra, Avneesh; Le, Lu Q.

    2017-01-01

    Segmentation of whole-body MRI (WBMRI) to assess the feasibility, quantitate the total tumor volume (tumor burden) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and examine associations with demographic, disease-related and anthropomorphic features. A consecutive series of patients with NF1 underwent WBMRI and were reviewed for tumors. Tumors were segmented using a semiautomated software-based tool. Tumors were classified as superficial or deep and discrete or plexiform. Segmentation times were recorded. Segmentation yielded the quantity and tumor burden of superficial, internal and plexiform tumors. Correlations between segmentation data and demographic, disease-related and anthropomorphic features were examined. Fifteen patients were evaluated (42.3 ± 13.6 years, 10 female, 5 male). Segmentation times were a median of 30 min and yielded 2,328 tumors (1,582 superficial, 746 internal and 23 plexiform). One tumor was malignant. Tumor counts ranged from 14 to 397. Tumor burden ranged from 6.95 cm3 to 571 cm3. Individual tumor volume ranged from 0.0120 cm3 to 298 cm3. Significant correlation was found between the total volume of superficial tumors and height (ρ = 0.5966, p < 0.02). Male patients had higher overall tumor burdens (p < 0.05) and higher superficial tumor burden (p < 0.03). Patients with negative family history had more tumors (p < 0.05). Segmentation of WBMRI in patients with NF1 is feasible and elucidates meaningful relationships among disease phenotype, anthropomorphic and demographic features. (orig.)

  16. Identification of threshold body burdens of metals for the protection of the aquatic ecological status using two benthic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bervoets, Lieven; De Jonge, Maarten; Blust, Ronny

    2016-01-01

    In this study accumulated concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in two benthic invertebrate taxa, Chironomus sp. and Tubificidae are related to ecological responses expressed as changes in macro invertebrate communities. In addition critical body burdens were estimated above which ecological quality was always lower than a certain threshold. Data from existing studies on bioaccumulation of the metals in both taxa were combined with different biological water quality indices. For all metal-endpoint combinations threshold values could be calculated above which ecological quality was always low. Safe threshold body burdens could be estimated for both species for all metals although the data set was more extended for Chrionomus sp. with estimated threshold values being 65, 3.2, 10, 57, 6.5, 73 and 490 μg/g dw for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. This study demonstrated that metal accumulation in resistant species such as chironomids and tubificid worms have the potential to be used as predictors of ecological effects in aquatic ecosystems. However, the estimated threshold values have to be validated and supported by more lines of evidence before they can be used by regulators. - Highlights: • Chironomid larvae and Tubificid worms can be used to relate accumulated metals to ecological endpoints. • Ecological water quality, calculated with biotic indices, is always low at high accumulated metal concentrations. • Critical body burdens in chironomids and tubificds could be estimated for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. - Maximal body burdens of metals in two invertebrate species could be estimated above which ecological quality was always low.

  17. Body burden of aluminum in relation to central nervous system function among metal inert-gas welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihimäki, V; Hänninen, H; Akila, R; Kovala, T; Kuosma, E; Paakkulainen, H; Valkonen, S; Engström, B

    2000-04-01

    The relationship between elevated internal aluminum loads and central nervous system function was studied among aluminum welders, and the threshold level for adverse effect was defined. For 65 aluminum welders and 25 current mild steel welders body burden was estimated, and the aluminum concentrations in serum (S-Al) and urine (U-Al) were analyzed with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman background correction. Referents and low-exposure and high-exposure groups were defined according to an aggregated measure of aluminum body burden, the group median S-Al levels being 0.08, 0.14, and 0.46 micromol/l, respectively, and the corresponding values for U-Al being 0.4, 1.8, and 7.1 micromol/l. Central nervous system functions were assessed with a neuropsychological test battery, symptom and mood questionnaires, a visual and quantitative analysis of electroencephalography (EEG), and P3 event-related potentials with pitch and duration paradigms. Subjective symptoms showed exposure-related increases in fatigue, mild depression, and memory and concentration problems. Neuropsychological testing revealed a circumscribed effect of aluminum, mainly in tasks demanding complex attention and the processing of information in the working memory system and in the analysis and recall of abstract visual patterns. The visual EEG analysis revealed pathological findings only for aluminum welders. Mild, diffuse abnormalities were found in 17% of the low-exposure group and 27% of the high-exposure group, and mild to moderate epileptiform abnormalities at a frequency of 7% and 17%, respectively. Both objective neurophysiological and neuropsychological measures and subjective symptomatology indicated mild but unequivocal findings dose-dependently associated with increased aluminum body burden. The study indicates that the body burden threshold for adverse effect approximates an U-Al value of 4-6 micromol/l and an S-Al value of 0.25-0.35 micromol/l among aluminum welders.

  18. Understanding differences in the body burden-age relationships of bioaccumulating contaminants based on population cross sections versus individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Cristina L; Wania, Frank

    2012-04-01

    Body burdens of persistent bioaccumulative contaminants estimated from the cross-sectional biomonitoring of human populations are often plotted against age. Such relationships have previously been assumed to reflect the role of age in bioaccumulation. We used a mechanistic modeling approach to reproduce concentration-versus-age relationships and investigate factors that influence them. CoZMoMAN is an environmental fate and human food chain bioaccumulation model that estimates time trends in human body burdens in response to time-variant environmental emissions. Trends of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 153 concentrations versus age for population cross sections were estimated using simulated longitudinal data for individual women born at different times. The model was also used to probe the influence of partitioning and degradation properties, length of emissions, and model assumptions regarding lipid content and liver metabolism on concentration-age trends of bioaccumulative and persistent contaminants. Body burden-age relationships for population cross sections and individuals over time are not equivalent. The time lapse between the peak in emissions and sample collection for biomonitoring is the most influential factor controlling the shape of concentration-age trends for chemicals with human metabolic half-lives longer than 1 year. Differences in observed concentration-age trends for PCBs and polybrominated diphenyl ethers are consistent with differences in emission time trends and human metabolic half-lives. Bioaccumulation does not monotonically increase with age. Our model suggests that the main predictors of cross-sectional body burden trends with age are the amount of time elapsed after peak emissions and the human metabolic and environmental degradation rates.

  19. Screening for 137Cs body burden due to the Chernobyl accident in Korosten city, Zhitomir, Ukraine. 1996-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashida, Naomi; Sekitani, Yui; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru; Kozlovsky, A.; Rafalsky, R.; Gutevich, A; Daniliuk, V.

    2011-01-01

    During the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident on 26 April 1986, large amounts of radionuclides were released and spread to vast areas. Inhabitants residing around CNPP have been exposed to external and internal irradiation due to the long half-life of 137 Cs (30 years). In this study, we screened for internal whole-body 137 Cs concentration using a whole-body counter in the Zhitomir state of Ukraine. The total number of participants was 144,972 (96,149 females and 48,823 males). The median body burden of 137 Cs per body weight decreased from 1996 to 2008. In particular, after 2003, more than half of subjects had internal exposure doses below the detectable level. A weak seasonal effect was found in measurement data from 1997 to 1999, but no such effects were observed in later years. We also calculated annual dose for each year and confirmed that doses have been decreasing gradually. In particular, after 2003, the annual effective dose decreased to 0.1 mSv y -1 for 95% of the participants. Only two persons were found to have received more than 5 mSv y -1 since 2007. Although the health effects of 137 Cs body burden due to the Chernobyl accident remain uncertain, further screening is needed to monitor the health status and to allay the anxiety of inhabitants in the contaminated areas around CNPP. (author)

  20. Chromosome aberrations in the peripheral lymphocytes of thorium workers with low body burdens of 212Bi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegerman, S.F.

    1976-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of 8 thorium workers and 3 controls has not shown a significant elevation in the level of chromosome breakage in the workers' peripheral lymphocytes. This finding is consistent with an estimate of the amount of damage to be expected in these cases, based on the level of chromosome breakage observed in Thorotrast cases with measured 212 Bi burdens

  1. School governing bodies - the principal's burden or the light of his ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article I focus on the relationship between principals and school governing bodies in South Africa. Although the school governing body represents many role players, this article will focus mainly on the role and function of parent representatives in the school governing body. Parents constitute the majority in the ...

  2. Cadmium body burden and increased blood pressure in middle-aged American Indians: the Strong Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, N; Fry, R C; Balakrishnan, P; Navas-Acien, A; Oliver-Williams, C; Howard, A G; Cole, S A; Haack, K; Lange, E M; Howard, B V; Best, L G; Francesconi, K A; Goessler, W; Umans, J G; Tellez-Plaza, M

    2017-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant that has been associated with cardiovascular disease in populations, but the relationship of Cd with hypertension has been inconsistent. We studied the association between urinary Cd concentrations, a measure of total body burden, and blood pressure in American Indians, a US population with above national average Cd burden. Urinary Cd was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and adjusted for urinary creatinine concentration. Among 3714 middle-aged American Indian participants of the Strong Heart Study (mean age 56 years, 41% male, 67% ever-smokers, 23% taking antihypertensive medications), urinary Cd ranged from 0.01 to 78.48 μg g -1 creatinine (geometric mean=0.94 μg g -1 ) and it was correlated with smoking pack-year among ever-smokers (r 2 =0.16, Pyears), and urinary Cd was similarly elevated in light- and never-smokers (geometric means of 0.88 μg g -1 creatinine for both categories). Log-transformed urinary Cd was significantly associated with higher systolic blood pressure in models adjusted for age, sex, geographic area, body mass index, smoking (ever vs never, and cumulative pack-years) and kidney function (mean blood pressure difference by lnCd concentration (β)=1.64, P=0.002). These associations were present among light- and never-smokers (β=2.03, P=0.002, n=2627), although not significant among never-smokers (β=1.22, P=0.18, n=1260). Cd was also associated with diastolic blood pressure among light- and never-smokers (β=0.94, P=0.004). These findings suggest that there is a relationship between Cd body burden and increased blood pressure in American Indians, a population with increased cardiovascular disease risk.

  3. The double burden of undernutrition and excess body weight in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroker-Lobos, Maria F; Pedroza-Tobías, Andrea; Pedraza, Lilia S; Rivera, Juan A

    2014-12-01

    In Mexico, stunting and anemia have declined but are still high in some regions and subpopulations, whereas overweight and obesity have increased at alarming rates in all age and socioeconomic groups. The objective was to describe the coexistence of stunting, anemia, and overweight and obesity at the national, household, and individual levels. We estimated national prevalences of and trends for stunting, anemia, and overweight and obesity in children aged obesity in women aged 20-49 y by using the National Health and Nutrition Surveys conducted in 1988, 1999, 2006, and 2012. With the use of the most recent data (2012), the double burden of malnutrition at the household level was estimated and defined as the coexistence of stunting in children aged obesity in the mother. At the individual level, double burden was defined as concurrent stunting and overweight and obesity in children aged 5-11 y and concurrent anemia and overweight or obesity in children aged 5-11 y and in women. We also tested if the coexistence of the conditions corresponded to expected values, under the assumption of independent distributions of each condition. At the household level, the prevalence of concurrent stunting in children aged obesity in mothers was 8.4%; at the individual level, prevalences were 1% for stunting and overweight or obesity and 2.9% for anemia and overweight or obesity in children aged 5-11 y and 7.6% for anemia and overweight or obesity in women. At the household and individual levels in children aged 5-11 y, prevalences of double burden were significantly lower than expected, whereas anemia and the prevalence of overweight or obesity in women were not different from that expected. Although some prevalences of double burden were lower than expected, assuming independent distributions of the 2 conditions, the coexistence of stunting, overweight or obesity, and anemia at the national, household, and intraindividual levels in Mexico calls for policies and programs to prevent

  4. Assessment of Radioactivity in Man. Vol. II. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Assessment of Radioactive Body Burdens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    This Symposium on the Assessment of Radioactive Body Burdens in Man was organized jointly by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the International Labour Organisation and the World Health Organization and was held in Heidelberg from 11-15 May 1964. It was attended by 181 participants from 28 countries and 6 international organizations. It was the objective of the Symposium to bring together experts from the various scientific disciplines of physics, chemistry, biology, medicine and mathematics, and to survey their experience in the assessment of radioactive body burdens in man and the resultant radiation doses. In most investigations of internal contamination the errors in the physical measurements are smaller than the errors associated with the interpretation of measurements. For this reason special emphasis was laid in this meeting on the interpretation of measured data. The 67 papers and the discussions which they stimulated are published in these Proceedings produced in two volumes. Volume I includes all papers which deal with problems generally common to many isotopes: in- vivo counting, bioassay techniques, sample counting and analysis of data. Volume II includes those papers concerned with radioisotopes of specific elements: caesium, radium, radon, strontium, tritium, thorium, uranium, plutonium and rare earth elements. These Proceedings should prove invaluable to all radiation protection services entrusted with the physical surveillance of internal radiation exposure of man. They should complement the studies of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and assist the work of the Organizations that jointly organized the meeting

  5. Studies on the current 137Cs body burden of children in Belarus - Can the dose be further reduced?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Schlaeger, M.; Vogel, V.; Hille, R.; Nesterenko, A. V.; Nesterenko, V. B.

    2007-01-01

    After the Chernobyl reactor accident wide areas of Belarus were contaminated with radioactive fallout. The verification and documentation of the long-term development of radiation doses is still going on. A population group of special concern are the children living in contaminated regions. The annual dose limit of 1 mSv is still exceeded in some cases, essentially due to high body burdens of 137 Cs as indicated by screening measurements with portable incorporation monitors. In this situation the evaluation of possible dose reduction measures in addition to the control of food contamination is being investigated. Special attention is given to the therapeutic application of a pectin preparation (Vitapect), for which a dose-lowering effect is presumed by Belarusian scientists. In a placebo-controlled double-blind study, several groups of contaminated children received a pectin compound named Vitapect for a two-week period during their stay in a sanatorium. For comparison the same number of control groups were given a placebo preparation. The 137 Cs body burden of the children was measured at the beginning and the end. The mean relative reduction of the specific activity within the Vitapect groups was found to be ∼33%, whereas the specific activity of the children who received a placebo decreased only by ∼14%, due to clean food supply. It is known that pectins chemically bind cations like caesium in the gastrointestinal tract and thereby increase faecal excretion. Theoretical calculations based on this assumption and considering metabolism processes are qualitatively consistent with the experimentally found retention of radiocaesium in the human body after pectin treatment. (authors)

  6. Studies on the current Cs-137 body burden of children in Belarus - can the dose be further reduced?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Schlaeger, M.; Vogel, V.; Hille, R.; Nesterenko, A.V.; Nesterenko, V.B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: After the Chernobyl reactor accident wide areas of Belarus have been contaminated with radioactive fallout. The verification and documentation of the long-term development of radiation doses is still going on. A population group of special concern are the children living in contaminated regions. The annual dose limit of 1 mSv/a is still exceeded in some cases, essentially due to high body burdens of Cs-137 as indicated by screening measurements with portable incorporation monitors. In this situation the evaluation of possible dose reduction measures in addition to the control of food contamination is being investigated. Special attention is given to the cure-like application of a pectin-preparation (Vitapekt), for which a dose-lowering effect is presumed by Belarusian scientists. In a placebo-controlled double-blind study, several groups of contaminated children were treated with Vitapekt for a two-week period during their stay in a sanatorium. For comparison the same number of control groups were given a placebo preparation. The Cs-137 body burden of the children was measured at the beginning and the end. First results indicate a mean relative reduction of the specific activity within the Vitapekt groups of about 35 %, whereas the specific activity of the children who received a placebo decreased only by about 15 %. It is proposed that pectins chemically bind cesium in the gastrointestinal tract and thereby increase fecal excretion. Theoretical calculations based on this assumption are qualitatively consistent with the experimentally found retention of radiocesium in the human body after a pectin treatment. (author)

  7. Stress and Burden among Caregivers of Patients with Lewy Body Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Amanda N.; Zarit, Steven; Taylor, Angela; Galvin, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with Lewy body dementia (LBD) may present a unique set of symptoms and challenges to family caregivers compared with other types of dementia. Prominent difficulties include motor impairment, activities of daily living (ADLs) disability, recurrent behavioral and emotional problems (BEPs), and diagnostic difficulties. These…

  8. The cesium -137 body burden of a control group in Stockholm, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, R.; Eklund, G.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of the 136 Cs content in a control group consisting of 20 - 30 persons have been carried out since 1959. Until 1966 the measurements were made in an 'open-both' type whole-body counter and after that in a three-crystal counter. Individual weighting factors for each member of the group is used to compensate for changes in the control group during the years. The calculation of the weighted mean of the cesium-137 level includes a correction for RaC contamination. During 1976 measurements were made on 24 members of the group, 14 men and 10 women. Measured content of potassium was 1.9+-0.3 g/kg body weight for the men and 1.6+-0.2 g/kg body weight for the women of the group. Tables show these results together with earlier results from the 'open-both' counter. The weighted mean and the highest and the lowest values within the group are indicated. The total error of the weighted mean and the highest value 1976 are about 15 percent and 12 percent respectively. For the last few years the cesium content has been below the detection limit, 10-15 pCi/gK, for some members of the group. (author)

  9. Bioassay of hair for estimation of body burden by tritium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Iwakura, Tetsuo

    1989-01-01

    For accurate estimation of radiation dose to human body from tritium exposure, it is needed to assess the concentration of tritium organically bound to the tissue constituents(OBT) as well as body water tritium. Since hair is an easily accessible tissue, it seems to be interesting to study the possibility of using hair for this purpose. In the present study, the pattern of tritium incorporation into hair and the quantitative relationship between OBT content in hair and in other internal tissues were investigated in rats exposed singly or continously to tritiated water, tritiated leucine and tritiated glycine. The rate of tritium incorporation into hair was slower than that into other tissues and the maximum concentrations were found on the 15-30th day after a single ingestion. The alterations in the concentration of OBT in internal tissues due to the difference of chemical form of ingested tritium were reflected on the OBT concentration in hair. Especially, the OBT content in hair under the condition of continuous exposure was almost the same as that in other tissues. These findings indicate the validity of hair analysis as a means for assessing OBT deposition in the body or tissues. (author)

  10. The cesium-137 body burden of a control group in Stockholm, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagberg, N.; Eklund, G.

    1976-03-01

    Measurements of the 137 Cs content in a control group consisting of 20-30 persons have been carried out since 1959 (1,4,6,7,9,10). Unitl 1966 the measurements were made in an open-booth type whole-body counter (Fig. 1) (2). From observation series 30 the measurements were made in the three-crystal counter (Fig. 1) in the new low-activity laboratory described in refs. (3) and (5). The use of individual weighting factors for each member of the group makes it possible to calculate a weighted mean of the 137 Cs level (1,5), to compensate for the changes in the control group during the years. The calculation includes a correction for RaC contamination. During 1975 measurements were made on 25 members of the group, 14 men and 11 women. The mean age and weight were 44 years and 71 kg respectively for men and 51 years and 61 kg respectively for women. For all the measured persons the mean age was 47 years and the mean weight was 67 kg. Measured content of potassium was 1,95+-0,20 g/kg body weight (1 sigma) for the men and 1,60+-0,15 g/kg body weight for the women of the group. Table 1 shows the results of the 137 Cs measurements obtained with the three-crystal counter. Fig. 2 shows these results together with earlier results from the open-booth counter. The weighted mean and the highest and the lowest values within the group are indicated. The total error of the weighted mean and the highest value 1975 are about 10 percent and 16 percent respectively. For the last few years the cesium content has been below the detection limit, 10-15 pCi/gK, for some members of the group. (author)

  11. Dietary treatment for decreasing 141Ce body burden in immature rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kargacin, B.; Kostial, K.; Landeka, M.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of prolonged (immediate or delayed) administration of dietary additives to suckling rats on the absorption and retention of radioactive cerium in the body. The experiment was performed on 6-day-old suckling rats. According to dietary treatment the animals were divided into three groups. Each group was artificially fed over 8 h for 6 or 12 days on one of the diets: the first group of animals was fed milk, the second group was given ingredients of rat diet and the third received milk during the first 2 days of the experiment and the ingredients of rat diet afterwards. At the end of the artificial feeding period the pups returned to their mothers and suckled overnight. On the 1st day of the experiment the food was labelled with 141 Ce. Whole body radioactivity was determined in a double crystal scintillation counter every 48 h over a 12-day period. Half of the animals from each group were killed 6 days after 141 Ce administration and the other half after 12 days. At these intervals retention was determined in the gut, liver, kidneys and femur. The early and delayed administration of rat diet ingredients - fish meal, sunflower meal, alfalfa, cane molasses and premix - greatly reduced whole body retention. The early treatment was more efficacious than the delayed one. The reduction was mostly due to decreased gut retention but organ retentions were also lower. The results obtained indicate that by prolonged (immediate or delayed) administration of some dietary means the retention of radioactive cerium in sucklings can be significantly decreased. (orig.)

  12. Dietary treatment for decreasing /sup 141/Ce body burden in immature rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kargacin, B; Kostial, K; Landeka, M

    1987-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of prolonged (immediate or delayed) administration of dietary additives to suckling rats on the absorption and retention of radioactive cerium in the body. The experiment was performed on 6-day-old suckling rats. According to dietary treatment the animals were divided into three groups. Each group was artificially fed over 8 h for 6 or 12 days on one of the diets: the first group of animals was fed milk, the second group was given ingredients of rat diet and the third received milk during the first 2 days of the experiment and the ingredients of rat diet afterwards. At the end of the artificial feeding period the pups returned to their mothers and suckled overnight. On the 1st day of the experiment the food was labelled with /sup 141/Ce. Whole body radioactivity was determined in a double crystal scintillation counter every 48 h over a 12-day period. Half of the animals from each group were killed 6 days after /sup 141/Ce administration and the other half after 12 days. At these intervals retention was determined in the gut, liver, kidneys and femur. The early and delayed administration of rat diet ingredients - fish meal, sunflower meal, alfalfa, cane molasses and premix - greatly reduced whole body retention. The early treatment was more efficacious than the delayed one. The reduction was mostly due to decreased gut retention but organ retentions were also lower. The results obtained indicate that by prolonged (immediate or delayed) administration of some dietary means the retention of radioactive cerium in sucklings can be significantly decreased.

  13. Mobilized plasma lead as an index of lead body burden and its relation to the heme-related indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, T; Ushio, K; Ikeya, Y

    1998-07-01

    Plasma lead (Pb-P) from workers were distributed in two main fractions: a protein bound fraction and low molecular weight fractions. Lead mobilized into plasma by CaEDTA was mainly observed in the low molecular weight fraction corresponding to lead disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (PbEDTA). The peak levels of Pb-P was attained around 1.5 and 2.5 hours after the start of CaEDTA injection. Pb-P and blood lead levels (Pb-B) at 2 h after the injection were 4.26 (+/- 2.84) and 0.96 (+/- 0.27) fold of the initial levels just before the injection. Pb-P concentrations at 2 hours after the start of CaEDTA injection (MPb-P) were well correlated (r = 0.740) with amounts of lead excreted in urine for 24 h thereafter (MPb-U). log MPb-P as well as log MPb-U were correlated with Pb-B (r = 0.765 and 0.817, respectively). Correlation coefficients of lead body burden (MPb-P or MPb-U) vs the logarithms of the effect indices (delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) dehydratase, ALA in urine, coproporphyrin in urine, and erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin) were higher than the correlation coefficients of exposure indices (Pb-B or Pb-U) vs the logarithms of the effect indices. Thus the biological effect monitoring is significant and reliable for evaluating the functional components of lead body burden (MPb-P or MPb-U).

  14. Hair as an indicator of the body burden of metals in relation to age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostial, K.

    1993-01-01

    Many factors influencing metal deposition in hair are still unknown. Animal experiments were performed to obtain data on the mechanism of transfer of elements into hair and to estimate whether hair retention is influenced by age, sex and chelating agent treatment. Experiments were performed on albino rats (Wistar strain) of different age and sex. Whole body hair (skin included) and organ retention of various elements was determined at different periods of time after intraperitoneal administration of the radioactive isotopes 115m Cd, 203 Hg, 54 Mn, 59 Fe, 65 Zn, 141 Ce, 137 Cs, 203 Pb and 85 Sr. In some experiments DTPA was used for reducing body retention of 155m Cd and 141 Ce and DMPS for reducing 203 Hg retention. Results show that hair and organ retention of elements in rats varies with age, sex and chelation treatment and such changes are specific for each element and can not be generalized. Age as a factor influencing hair retention of metals is likely to be more important for some elements than for others. In kinetic studies we found that due to differences in element distribution and kinetics, the relationship between hair and organ retention at various time intervals varies both with age and the element concerned. Sex influences not only hair but also metal retention and distribution in other organs. (author). 4 refs

  15. Examination of some chelating agents to decorporate fixed body-burdens of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.W.; Lloyd, R.D.; Mays, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Male and female C57BL/Do mice, five to six months old, were injected intraperitoneally with 2.0 mg/kg cadmium citrate labeled with about 2.0 μCi 109 Cd per mouse. Three days after cadmium injection, male mice were injected subcutaneously with 2,3 dimercaptopropanesulfonate (DMPS), and female mice were injected subcutaneously with calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetra-acetate (CaEDTA), salicylic acid (SA), or 2,3 dimercaptopropanesulfonate, alone, or in combination. A total of four treatment injections were administered to each group of mice. Cadmium total-body retention was measured by in vivo counting using NaI(T1) spectrometry. Male mice given DMPS, and groups of females given EDTA, SA, EDTA + DMPS, EDTA + SA, or EDTA + DMPS + SA had total-body retentions of cadmium no different from saline controls (P > 0.05). Measurement of cadmium content in kidneys, livers, gonads, and femora excised from test animals also showed no difference from corresponding organs in control animals

  16. Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Fu Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper wants to investigate the optimal retailer's lot-sizing policy with two warehouses under partially permissible delay in payments within the economic order quantity (EOQ framework. In this paper, we want to extend that fully permissible delay in payments to the supplier would offer the retailer partially permissible delay in payments. That is, the retailer must make a partial payment to the supplier when the order is received. Then the retailer must pay off the remaining balance at the end of the permissible delay period. In addition, we want to add the assumption that the retailer's storage space is limited. That is, the retailer will rent the warehouse to store these exceeding items when the order quantity is larger than retailer's storage space. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer's optimal cycle time and optimal order quantity. Three theorems are developed to efficiently determine the optimal replenishment policy for the retailer. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate these theorems and obtained a lot of managerial insights.

  17. Body burdens of metals in spiders from the Lidice coal dump near Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, G.; Babczynska, A.; Majkus, Z. [Silesian University, Katowice (Poland)

    2005-09-01

    Spiders' feeding behaviour and external digestion expose them to man-made pollutants, especially those easily transferred along the food chain. The problem for this study was whether the levels of heavy metals in selected species of spiders from the Lidice coal dump reflect adaptation to environmental pollutants. We used flameless and flame AAS to measure the whole-body concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe, Ni and Mg in male and female spiders differing in their hunting strategies, type of web construction, prey, and taxonomic position (Araneidae, Agelenidae, Linyphiidae, Theridiidae, Tetragnathidae, Lycosidae, Salticidae, Pisauridae, Clubionidae, Philodromidae). The levels of metals found in the spiders were species-dependent, indicating differences related to the hunting strategy and type of prey. Accumulation of Pb, Cu and Zn was always higher in ground spiders than in web-constructing species. Sheet-web spiders Linyphia triangularis and wandering spiders Clubiona lutescens had the lowest Cd, Mg and Cu content of all the studied species. Web-building spiders of the Tetragnathidae family showed the highest Cd, Cu and Pb content, even in species with feeding behaviour similar to spiders of other families. There were no interspecific differences in accumulation only for Fe and Mg. The concentrations of Cd, Ni and Pb were lower in females than in males, irrespective of their taxonomic position and the intensity of their hunting activity. This may suggest that females have better metal-excretion ability than males.

  18. The significance of hair mineral analysis as a means for assessing internal body burdens of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In recent years there has been a considerable growth of interest in problems of environmental pollution from industrial and agricultural substances and the harmful impact of such pollution on human health. There has been an increasing interest in using hair mineral analysis for biological monitoring of human population exposure to environmental mineral pollutants. This is because hair has some ideal attributes for such purposes. It can be collected by simple, non-invasive methods, and is easily sampled and stored. Concentrations of most of the toxic trace elements, i.e. mercury and lead, in scalp hair are at least an order of magnitude higher than those in body fluids or other easily accessible tissues. In addition, mineral elements in hair can easily be determined with good precision and sensitivity by nuclear as well as conventional methods of chemical analysis. Despite these apparent advantages of using hair as a biomonitor, serious uncertainty existed, and to some extent still exist, as to the meaningful interpretation of human hair mineral data in environmental health studies. The Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP), which is the subject of this report, has attempted to tackle this problem by promoting a variety of studies (as distinct from routine monitoring) to investigate the quantitative relationships between internal body burdens of a number of elements of environmental health significance and their respective concentrations in hair. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. An effective and better strategy for reducing body burden of radiostrontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagtap, V S; Sonawane, V R; Pahuja, D N; Rajan, M G R; Rajashekharrao, B; Samuel, A M

    2003-01-01

    In this study we have examined the effect of different calcium salts, Ca gluconate (CaG), Ca lactate (CaL), Ca carbonate (CaC) and Ca phosphate (CaP), on the clearance of radiostrontium (*Sr) administered either intraperitoneally (ip) (*Sr-ip group) or orally (*Sr-oral group) in rats. The influence of these Ca salts was examined in a group of animals administered *Sr ip, while the effect of three Ca salts (CaG, CaL and CaP) was studied in another group of rats given *Sr orally and compared with that of Ca alginate (CaA), normally advised for *Sr decorporation. Rats from both groups were subdivided into control and four experimental subgroups and were housed individually. The experimental subgroups were given the respective Ca salts (elemental Ca = 9 mg/rat/day) 2 h post 85 Sr, and thereafter once daily. In the *Sr-ip group, CaG was administered ip while the other Ca salts were given orally. In the *Sr-oral group all Ca salts were administered orally. In addition, the diet of all the experimental subgroups was supplemented with the respective Ca salts to 2% elemental Ca. The whole-body retention (WBR) of *Sr in animals treated with Ca salts was found to be significantly reduced from 50-60% at 24 h to 20-30% at the end of 15 days compared with 70-80% at 24 h to 50-60% at the end of 15 days in the untreated control animals. The results strongly suggest that CaA could be replaced by any of the commonly used Ca salts for curtailing the WBR of *Sr. CaG which was administered ip, in the *Sr-ip group, was found to be more effective in reducing the WBR of *Sr

  20. Android Permission Model

    OpenAIRE

    Birendra, Chalise

    2016-01-01

    The recent evolution on the smart phone technology has made its application market huge and less secure. Every single day large number of apps introduced in the android market (mostly on google play store) without any particular inspections which creates a lot of security issues and they remain unresolved. There are a lot of recent and increasing security issues which are mostly caused by the android apps. Mainly, the access of user data through the apps relied on the users given permission t...

  1. Rethinking Permissioned Blockchains

    OpenAIRE

    Vukolic, Marko

    2017-01-01

    Current blockchain platforms, especially the recent permissioned systems, have architectural limitations: smart contracts run sequentially, all node executes all smart contracts, consensus protocols are hard-coded, the trust model is static and not exible, and non-determinism in smart-contract execution poses serious problems. Overcoming these limitations is critical for improving both functional properties of blockchains, such as con dentiality and consistency, as well as their non-functiona...

  2. Body burden of pesticides and wastewater-derived pollutants on freshwater invertebrates: Method development and application in the Danube River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inostroza, Pedro A.; Wicht, Anna-Jorina; Huber, Thomas; Nagy, Claudia; Brack, Werner; Krauss, Martin

    2016-01-01

    While environmental risk assessment is typically based on toxicant concentrations in water and/or sediment, awareness is increasing that internal concentrations or body burdens are the key to understand adverse effects in organisms. In order to link environmental micropollutants as causes of observed effects, there is an increasing demand for methods to analyse these chemicals in organisms. Here, a multi-target screening method based on pulverised liquid extraction (PuLE) and a modified QuEChERS approach with an additional hexane phase was developed. It is capable to extract and quantify organic micropollutants of diverse chemical classes in freshwater invertebrates. The method was tested on gammarids from the Danube River (within the Joint Danube Survey 3) and target compounds were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Furthermore, a non-target screening using high resolution-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS/MS) was conducted. A total of 17 pollutants were detected and/or quantified in gammarids at low concentrations. Pesticide concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 6.52 ng g −1 (wet weight), those of wastewater-derived pollutants from 0.1 to 2.83 ng g −1 (wet weight). The presence of wastewater-derived pollutants was prominent at all spots sampled. Using non-target screening, we could successfully identify several chlorinated compounds. These results demonstrate for the first time the presence of pesticides and wastewater-derived pollutants in invertebrates of the Danube River. - Highlights: • A method based on pulverised liquid extraction/QuEChERS for organic micropollutants in invertebrates was developed. • The method is applicable in assessing target environmental pollutants in invertebrates by LC-MS/MS. • The method allows for a nontarget screening of extracts by LC-HRMS. • First body burden analysis of pesticides and wastewater-derived pollutants in invertebrates in the Danube River is reported. - Capsule: A multi

  3. Comparison of organochlorine chemical body burdens of female breast cancer cases with cancer free women in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil--Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, C.A.; Petreas, M.X.; Caleffi, M.; Barbosa, F.S.; Goth-Goldstein, R.

    1999-12-01

    This pilot study collected preliminary data to examine known and suspected breast cancer risk factors among women living in rural and urban areas in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil by questionnaire. In addition, the body burden levels of a panel of organochlorines was measured in a small clinic-based prospective sample.

  4. Whole body cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to stratify symptomatic and asymptomatic atherosclerotic burden in patients with isolated cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir-McCall, Jonathan R.; Duce, Suzanne L.; Gandy, Stephen J.; Matthew, Shona Z.; Martin, Patricia; Cassidy, Deirdre B.; McCormick, Lynne; Belch, Jill J. F.; Struthers, Allan D.; Colhoun, Helen M.; Houston, J. Graeme

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use whole body cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (WB CVMR) to assess the heart and arterial network in a single examination, so as to describe the burden of atherosclerosis and subclinical disease in participants with symptomatic single site vascular disease. 64 patients with a history of symptomatic single site vascular disease (38 coronary artery disease (CAD), 9 cerebrovascular disease, 17 peripheral arterial disease (PAD)) underwent whole body angiogram and cardiac MR in a 3 T scanner. The arterial tree was subdivided into 31 segments and each scored according to the degree of stenosis. From this a standardised atheroma score (SAS) was calculated. Cine and late gadolinium enhancement images of the left ventricle were obtained. Asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease with greater than 50 % stenosis in arteries other than that responsible for their presenting complain was detected in 37 % of CAD, 33 % of cerebrovascular and 47 % of PAD patients. Unrecognised myocardial infarcts were observed in 29 % of PAD patients. SAS was significantly higher in PAD patients 24 (17.5-30.5) compared to CAD 4 (2–11.25) or cerebrovascular disease patients 6 (2-10) (ANCOVA p < 0.001). Standardised atheroma score positively correlated with age (β 0.36 p = 0.002), smoking status (β 0.34 p = 0.002), and LV mass (β -0.61 p = 0.001) on multiple linear regression. WB CVMR is an effective method for the stratification of cardiovascular disease. The high prevalence of asymptomatic arterial disease, and silent myocardial infarctions, particularly in the peripheral arterial disease group, demonstrates the importance of a systematic approach to the assessment of cardiovascular disease

  5. Imposex and butyltin body burden in Nassarius nitidus (Jeffreys, 1867), in coastal waters within the Basque Country (northern Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J. German, E-mail: grodriguez@pas.azti.es [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain); Borja, Angel; Franco, Javier [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain); Garcia Alonso, J. Ignacio [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Garmendia, Joxe Mikel; Muxika, Inigo [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain); Sariego, Cristina [Servicio de Espectrometria de Masas, SCT' s, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria s/n, 33006, Oviedo (Spain); Valencia, Victoriano [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Levels of imposex (superimposition of male characters, upon females) and the presence of sterile females are assessed in the gastropod Nassarius nitidus (Jeffreys, 1867), at 22 locations in the Basque Country (northern Spain). At 18 of these localities, butyltin bioaccumulation (tributyltin (TBT); dibutyltin; monobutyltin) was analysed using isotope dilution and GC-ICP-MS. Higher imposex levels and TBT body burden were found in confined harbours, with a large vessel traffic or the presence of a fishing fleet or a shipyard. For the first time, four apparently sequential types of aborted capsules are described in this species. Another novelty is the interspecific comparison between imposex intensities in sympatrically living populations of N. nitidus and N. reticulatus. This showed that sensitivity to TBT pollution of both species is relatively similar (in terms of Relative Penis Length Index). Since N. nitidus has a restricted habitat distribution due to its low presence in wave-exposed habitats, its complementary use with other species is recommended for its use in TBT monitoring programmes.

  6. Imposex and butyltin body burden in Nassarius nitidus (Jeffreys, 1867), in coastal waters within the Basque Country (northern Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J. German; Borja, Angel; Franco, Javier; Garcia Alonso, J. Ignacio; Garmendia, Joxe Mikel; Muxika, Inigo; Sariego, Cristina; Valencia, Victoriano

    2009-01-01

    Levels of imposex (superimposition of male characters, upon females) and the presence of sterile females are assessed in the gastropod Nassarius nitidus (Jeffreys, 1867), at 22 locations in the Basque Country (northern Spain). At 18 of these localities, butyltin bioaccumulation (tributyltin (TBT); dibutyltin; monobutyltin) was analysed using isotope dilution and GC-ICP-MS. Higher imposex levels and TBT body burden were found in confined harbours, with a large vessel traffic or the presence of a fishing fleet or a shipyard. For the first time, four apparently sequential types of aborted capsules are described in this species. Another novelty is the interspecific comparison between imposex intensities in sympatrically living populations of N. nitidus and N. reticulatus. This showed that sensitivity to TBT pollution of both species is relatively similar (in terms of Relative Penis Length Index). Since N. nitidus has a restricted habitat distribution due to its low presence in wave-exposed habitats, its complementary use with other species is recommended for its use in TBT monitoring programmes.

  7. The significance of mineral pollutants in hair for the assessment of the body burden and the concentration in the critical organs in laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollmer, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    If the content of an element in hair of an individual is used for the assessment of health risk of that person it is of special importance to know if the hair analytical data reflect the body burden or the content of the organ or tissues at risk. Ideally the content in hair should rise and fall in parallel to an increase or decrease of the body burden or the content in the critical organs. It was the aim of this project to study the transfer of Hg, methyl-mercury and Zn to hair and to compare it with the levels simultaneously observed in the total body and the relevant organs under controlled experimental conditions in an animal model. In addition, a similar study on As and the analyses of two experiments of a long term study on Cd exposure were also included. 11 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  8. Body burden of pesticides and wastewater-derived pollutants on freshwater invertebrates: Method development and application in the Danube River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza, Pedro A; Wicht, Anna-Jorina; Huber, Thomas; Nagy, Claudia; Brack, Werner; Krauss, Martin

    2016-07-01

    While environmental risk assessment is typically based on toxicant concentrations in water and/or sediment, awareness is increasing that internal concentrations or body burdens are the key to understand adverse effects in organisms. In order to link environmental micropollutants as causes of observed effects, there is an increasing demand for methods to analyse these chemicals in organisms. Here, a multi-target screening method based on pulverised liquid extraction (PuLE) and a modified QuEChERS approach with an additional hexane phase was developed. It is capable to extract and quantify organic micropollutants of diverse chemical classes in freshwater invertebrates. The method was tested on gammarids from the Danube River (within the Joint Danube Survey 3) and target compounds were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Furthermore, a non-target screening using high resolution-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS/MS) was conducted. A total of 17 pollutants were detected and/or quantified in gammarids at low concentrations. Pesticide concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 6.52 ng g(-1) (wet weight), those of wastewater-derived pollutants from 0.1 to 2.83 ng g(-1) (wet weight). The presence of wastewater-derived pollutants was prominent at all spots sampled. Using non-target screening, we could successfully identify several chlorinated compounds. These results demonstrate for the first time the presence of pesticides and wastewater-derived pollutants in invertebrates of the Danube River. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Body burdens of brominated flame retardants and other persistent organo-halogenated compounds and their descriptors in US girls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windham, Gayle C., E-mail: gayle.windham@cdph.ca.gov [CA Department of Public Health, DEODC, 850 Marina Bay Pkwy, Bldg. P, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Pinney, Susan M. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Sjodin, Andreas [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Lum, Raymond [Impact Assessment Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Jones, Richard S.; Needham, Larry L. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Biro, Frank M. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Hiatt, Robert A. [University of California Medical School, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kushi, Lawrence H. [Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Background: Levels of brominated flame retardants are increasing in US populations, yet little data are available on body burdens of these and other persistent hormonally active agents (HAAs) in school-aged children. Exposures to such chemicals may affect a number of health outcomes related to development and reproductive function. Objective: Determine the distribution of biomarkers of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organo-chlorinated pesticides (OCPs), such as DDT/DDE, in children, and their variation by key descriptor variables. Methods: Ethnically diverse cohorts of girls 6-8 y old at baseline are being followed for growth and pubertal development in a multi-site, longitudinal study. Nearly 600 serum samples from the California and Ohio sites were analyzed for lipids, 35 PCB congeners, 11 PBDE congeners, and 9 OCPs. The biomarker distributions were examined and geometric means compared for selected analytes across categories of age, race, site, body mass index (BMI), parental education, maternal age at delivery, and breast feeding in adjusted models. Results: Six PBDE congeners were detected among greater than 70% of samples, with BDE-47 having the highest concentration (median 42.2, range 4.9-855 ng/g lipid). Girls in California had adjusted geometric mean (GM) PBDE levels significantly higher than girls in Ohio. Furthermore, Blacks had significantly higher adjusted GMs of all six PBDE congeners than Whites, and Hispanics had intermediate values. GMs tended to be lower among more obese girls, while other variables were not strongly associated. In contrast, GMs of the six PCB congeners most frequently detected were significantly lower among Blacks and Hispanics than Whites. PCBs and the three pesticides most frequently detected were also consistently lower among girls with high BMI, who were not breast-fed, whose mothers were younger, or whose care-givers (usually parents) were less educated. Girls in California had

  10. Body burdens of brominated flame retardants and other persistent organo-halogenated compounds and their descriptors in US girls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windham, Gayle C.; Pinney, Susan M.; Sjodin, Andreas; Lum, Raymond; Jones, Richard S.; Needham, Larry L.; Biro, Frank M.; Hiatt, Robert A.; Kushi, Lawrence H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Levels of brominated flame retardants are increasing in US populations, yet little data are available on body burdens of these and other persistent hormonally active agents (HAAs) in school-aged children. Exposures to such chemicals may affect a number of health outcomes related to development and reproductive function. Objective: Determine the distribution of biomarkers of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organo-chlorinated pesticides (OCPs), such as DDT/DDE, in children, and their variation by key descriptor variables. Methods: Ethnically diverse cohorts of girls 6-8 y old at baseline are being followed for growth and pubertal development in a multi-site, longitudinal study. Nearly 600 serum samples from the California and Ohio sites were analyzed for lipids, 35 PCB congeners, 11 PBDE congeners, and 9 OCPs. The biomarker distributions were examined and geometric means compared for selected analytes across categories of age, race, site, body mass index (BMI), parental education, maternal age at delivery, and breast feeding in adjusted models. Results: Six PBDE congeners were detected among greater than 70% of samples, with BDE-47 having the highest concentration (median 42.2, range 4.9-855 ng/g lipid). Girls in California had adjusted geometric mean (GM) PBDE levels significantly higher than girls in Ohio. Furthermore, Blacks had significantly higher adjusted GMs of all six PBDE congeners than Whites, and Hispanics had intermediate values. GMs tended to be lower among more obese girls, while other variables were not strongly associated. In contrast, GMs of the six PCB congeners most frequently detected were significantly lower among Blacks and Hispanics than Whites. PCBs and the three pesticides most frequently detected were also consistently lower among girls with high BMI, who were not breast-fed, whose mothers were younger, or whose care-givers (usually parents) were less educated. Girls in California had

  11. [Secondhand smoke in hospitality venues. Exposure, body burden, economic and health aspects in conjunction with smoking bans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, H; Kuhn, J; Bolte, G

    2009-04-01

    Secondhand smoke was classified by national and international organisations as a known cause of cancer in humans and has many adverse health effects, especially cardiovascular diseases and lung tumours. Global studies have clearly shown that hospitality venues have the highest levels of indoor air pollution containing different substances that are clearly carcinogenic--such as tobacco-related chemicals--compared with other, smoke-free indoor spaces. Data from the human biomonitoring of non-smoking employees in the food service industry confirm this high exposure level. Non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke in these environments are at increased risk for adverse health effects. The consistent protection of non-smokers in public places such as restaurants and bars through a smoking ban results in a significant reduction of the pollutants in the air (mostly > 90%) and clearly reduces the internal body burden for users and employees. Furthermore, health complaints by non-smoking employees are reduced and the higher risk for lung tumours of employees in the food service industry compared with the general population can be effectively reduced as well. According to current standards of knowledge, other measures such as spatial separation of smoking areas or the use of mechanical venting systems do not achieve a comparably high and effective pollutant reduction under field conditions. Studies concerning the economic effects of prohibiting smoking in public places conducted in various countries have shown that beverage-focused gastronomic enterprises experience a short-term down trend but that food-focused gastronomic enterprises do not experience any negative or even positive effects. The positive effects of a ban on smoking in public places on the general population are a decline in cigarette consumption and the reduction of secondhand smoke exposure by non-smokers. Smoking bans in hospitality venues are not necessarily linked with a shift of the tobacco consumption to

  12. Effects of variations in cadmium and lead levels in river sediments on local foods and body burden of local residents in non-polluted areas in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masayuki; Watanabe, Takao; Ohashi, Fumiko; Shimbo, Shinichiro

    2010-03-01

    This study was initiated to examine if variations in the concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in water environment may affect metal levels in local foods and body burden of local residents in non-polluted areas in Japan. Two nationwide databases have been made available on concentrations of Cd in locally harvested brown rice and of Cd and Pb in sediments in local river beds. These data were combined with published data on metal concentrations in polished rice, food duplicates, and blood and urine from the residents. Cd in river sediments correlated significantly with those in brown rice, food duplicates, blood, and urine. Cd in food duplicates correlated with Cd in rice. In contrast, Pb concentrations in the river sediments either did not correlate or correlated only weakly with Pb in biological materials or food duplicates. Possible implication of the different behavior between Cd and Pb regarding the intensity of correlation was discussed with reference to the different routes of exposure to the elements. In conclusions, the Cd body burden on local residents in Japan is significantly influenced by Cd levels in water in the general environment, whereas water-borne Pb did not show clear correlation with the Pb body burden.

  13. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Wong, Ming H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1–4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60–99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12–30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed. - Highlights: ► PCDD/F levels at e-waste recycling sites in China were reviewed. ► Data on environment and body burden and health risk assessment results were reviewed

  14. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan, E-mail: chanjky@hku.hk [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Wong, Ming H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1–4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60–99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12–30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed. - Highlights: ► PCDD/F levels at e-waste recycling sites in China were reviewed. ► Data on environment and body burden and health risk assessment results were reviewed

  15. Modeling response of species to microcontaminants: comparative ecotoxicology by (sub)lethal body burdens as a function of species size and partition ratio of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, A J

    1995-11-01

    A model was designed and calibrated with accumulation data to calculate the internal concentrations of microcontaminants in organisms as a function of a few constants and variables. The main factors are the exposure time, the external exposure concentration, the partition ratio of the compound, and the size of the taxon concerned. The model was applied to calculate the lethal and sublethal body burdens of several priority compounds and some major taxa. Estimations were generally confirmed at the order of magnitude level by measured residues and applied doses if available. According to the estimations, most priority compounds chosen were critical for most taxa above internal concentrations of 0.1 mmol.kg-1 wet wt. Trichloromethane, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene were lethal above this level only, whereas other organic microcontaminants affected at least some taxa at lower body burdens. The log(Kow) of the organic compounds ranged from 2.0 to 7.0. Keeping in mind that bioconcentration and -magnification ratios for metals may be quite variable, the lowest critical residues estimated were just below the value of 0.1 mmol.kg-1 wet wt. Here, external concentrations encountered in natural habitats seem to be a promising tool for predictive comparative ecotoxicology. The critical body burdens for plants and invertebrates may have been overestimated due to uncertainty about the parameters. Among the different taxa, however, the fish families chosen (Salmonidae and Cyprinidae) seem to be most sensitive to most compounds. Internal response concentrations of the herbicide atrazine were the lowest in micro- and macrophytes, whereas parathion affected invertebrates at low levels. The database that provided the external response concentrations was also consulted to estimate so-called extrapolation or safety factors. On average, long-term no effect concentrations in water are estimated to be about 10-30 times below short-term median lethal levels. In general, short

  16. Association of PCB, PBDE and PCDD/F body burdens with hormone levels for children in an e-waste dismantling area of Zhejiang Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Peiwei, E-mail: pwxu@cdc.zj.cn; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Han, Guangen; Wang, Xiaofeng, E-mail: zjcdcwxf@gmail.com

    2014-11-15

    Increased electronic waste (e-waste) has raised public concerns regarding exposure to numerous toxic contaminants, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In China, the body burdens of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs are associated with thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites; however, it is unclear whether this association occurs in children. In this study, we determined the serum levels of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs and the endocrine hormones including free triiodothyronine (FT3), total triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and growth hormone (GH) in 21 children from an e-waste dismantling area and 24 children from a control area. The results showed that the mean levels of ∑ PCBs and ∑ PBDEs in the exposure group were significantly higher than in the control group (40.56 and 32.09 ng g{sup −1} lipid vs. 20.69 and 8.43 ng g{sup −1} lipid, respectively, p < 0.01 for each), and the mean level of ∑ PCDD/Fs in the exposure group was higher than in the control group, but the difference was not significant (206.17 vs. 160.27 pg g{sup −1} lipid, p > 0.05). For the endocrine hormones, we did not find significant differences between the exposed and control groups, although the mean levels of FT3, TT3, TT4, ACTH, cortisol and GH were higher, whereas the mean levels of FT4 and TSH were lower in the exposed group. The mean level of ∑ PBDEs was positively correlated with the mean levels of ∑ PCBs (r = 0.60, p < 0.05) and ∑ PCDD/Fs (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). Furthermore, the mean level of ∑ PBDEs was positively correlated with ACTH (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggested that exposure to e-waste dismantling environment increased the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs in local children and that these contaminants

  17. Association of PCB, PBDE and PCDD/F body burdens with hormone levels for children in an e-waste dismantling area of Zhejiang Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Peiwei; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Han, Guangen; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Increased electronic waste (e-waste) has raised public concerns regarding exposure to numerous toxic contaminants, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In China, the body burdens of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs are associated with thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites; however, it is unclear whether this association occurs in children. In this study, we determined the serum levels of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs and the endocrine hormones including free triiodothyronine (FT3), total triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and growth hormone (GH) in 21 children from an e-waste dismantling area and 24 children from a control area. The results showed that the mean levels of ∑ PCBs and ∑ PBDEs in the exposure group were significantly higher than in the control group (40.56 and 32.09 ng g −1 lipid vs. 20.69 and 8.43 ng g −1 lipid, respectively, p < 0.01 for each), and the mean level of ∑ PCDD/Fs in the exposure group was higher than in the control group, but the difference was not significant (206.17 vs. 160.27 pg g −1 lipid, p > 0.05). For the endocrine hormones, we did not find significant differences between the exposed and control groups, although the mean levels of FT3, TT3, TT4, ACTH, cortisol and GH were higher, whereas the mean levels of FT4 and TSH were lower in the exposed group. The mean level of ∑ PBDEs was positively correlated with the mean levels of ∑ PCBs (r = 0.60, p < 0.05) and ∑ PCDD/Fs (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). Furthermore, the mean level of ∑ PBDEs was positively correlated with ACTH (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggested that exposure to e-waste dismantling environment increased the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs in local children and that these contaminants released from the e

  18. A genetic variant of NLRP1 gene is associated with asbestos body burden in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovella, S; Moura, R R; Cappellani, S; Celsi, F; Trevisan, E; Schneider, M; Brollo, A; Nicastro, E M; Vita, F; Finotto, L; Zabucchi, G; Borelli, V

    2018-01-01

    The presence of asbestos bodies (ABs) in lung parenchyma is considered a histopathologic hallmark of past exposure to asbestos fibers, of which there was a population of longer fibers. The mechanisms underlying AB formation are complex, involving inflammatory responses and iron (Fe) metabolism. Thus, the responsiveness to AB formation is variable, with some individuals appearing to be poor AB formers. The aim of this study was to disclose the possible role of genetic variants of genes encoding inflammasome and iron metabolism proteins in the ability to form ABs in a population of 81 individuals from North East Italy, who died after having developed malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). This study included 86 genetic variants distributed in 10 genes involved in Fe metabolism and 7 genetic variants in two genes encoding for inflammasome molecules. Genotypes/haplotypes were compared according to the number of lung ABs. Data showed that the NLRP1 rs12150220 missense variant (H155L) was significantly correlated with numbers of ABs in MPM patients. Specifically, a low number of ABs was detected in individuals carrying the NLRP1 rs12150220 A/T genotype. Our findings suggest that the NLRP1 inflammasome might contribute in the development of lung ABs. It is postulated that the NLRP1 missense variant may be considered as one of the possible host genetic factors contributing to individual variability in coating efficiency, which needs to be taken when assessing occupational exposure to asbestos.

  19. Take control of permissions in Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Permissions problems got you down? Turn to Unix expert Brian Tanaka's unique guide to the permissions in Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard that control access to your files, folders, and disks. You'll learn how to keep files private, when to set Ignore Permissions, what happens when you repair permissions, how to delete stuck files, and the best ways to solve permissions-related problems. Advanced concepts include the sticky bit, Leopard's more-important access control lists, bit masks, and symbolic versus absolute ways to set permissions. The book covers how to take control of permissions via the Finder

  20. Increased body mass index in ankylosing spondylitis is associated with greater burden of symptoms and poor perceptions of the benefits of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durcan, Laura; Wilson, Fiona; Conway, Richard; Cunnane, Gaye; O'Shea, Finbar D

    2012-12-01

    Increased body mass index (BMI) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is associated with a greater burden of symptoms and poor perceptions of the benefits of exercise. In AS, the effect of obesity on disease characteristics and exercise perceptions is unknown. We evaluated the prevalence of obesity in AS, to assess the attitudes of patients toward exercise and to evaluate the effect of obesity on symptoms and disease activity. Demographic data and disease characteristics were collected from 46 patients with AS. Disease activity, symptomatology, and functional disability were examined using standard AS questionnaires. BMI was calculated. Comorbidity was analyzed using the Charlson Comorbidity Index. Patients' attitudes toward exercise were assessed using the Exercise Benefits and Barriers Scale (EBBS). We compared the disease characteristics, perceptions regarding exercise, and functional limitations in those who were overweight to those who had a normal BMI. The mean BMI in the group was 27.4; 67.5% of subjects were overweight or obese. There was a statistically significant difference between those who were overweight and those with a normal BMI regarding their perceptions of exercise (EBBS 124.7 vs 136.6, respectively), functional limitation (Bath AS Functional Index 4.7 vs 2.5, Health Assessment Questionnaire 0.88 vs 0.26), and disease activity (Bath AS Disease Activity Index 4.8 vs 2.9). There was no difference between the groups in terms of their comorbid conditions or other demographic variables. The majority of patients in this AS cohort were overweight. They had a greater burden of symptoms, worse perceptions regarding the benefits of exercise, and enhanced awareness of their barriers to exercising. This is of particular concern in a disease where exercise plays a crucial role.

  1. 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT-derived metabolic parameters for determination of whole-body tumor burden and treatment response in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidkonz, Christian; Cordes, Michael; Schmidt, Daniela; Bäuerle, Tobias; Goetz, Theresa Ida; Beck, Michael; Prante, Olaf; Cavallaro, Alexander; Uder, Michael; Wullich, Bernd; Goebell, Peter; Kuwert, Torsten; Ritt, Philipp

    2018-05-03

    We aimed at evaluating the role of 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT-derived metabolic parameters for assessment of whole-body tumor burden and its capability to determine therapeutic response in patients with prostate cancer. A total of 142 patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer underwent PET/CT with [ 68 Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC ( 68 Ga-PSMA-11). Quantitative assessment of all 641 68 Ga-PSMA-11-positive lesions in the field of view was performed to calculate PSMA-derived parameters, including whole-body PSMA tumor volume (PSMA-TV) and whole-body total lesion PSMA (TL-PSMA), as well as the established SUVmax and SUVmean values. All PET-derived parameters were tested for correlation with serum PSA levels and for association with Gleason scores. In 23 patients who underwent 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT before and after therapy with either external beam radiation, androgen deprivation, or docetaxel chemotherapy, SUVmax and TL-PSMA were compared to radiographic response assessment of CT images based on RECIST 1.1 criteria and to biochemical response determined by changes of serum PSA levels. PSMA-TV and TL-PSMA demonstrated a significant correlation with serum PSA levels (P PET and biochemical response was 87% (95% confidence interval, 0.66-0.97; Cohen's κ = 0.78; P PET and CT were most likely due to limitations of CT and RECIST in rating small lymph nodes as metastases, as well as bone involvement, which was sometimes not detectable in CT. 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT-derived metabolic tumor parameters showed promising results for evaluation of treatment response. Especially, TL-PSMA demonstrated higher agreement rates with biochemical response compared to SUVmax. Larger, ideally prospective trials are needed to help to reveal the full potential of metabolic parameters derived from PET imaging with 68 Ga-PSMA-11.

  2. Adjustment of a direct method for the determination of man body burden in Pu-239 on by X-ray detection of U-235; Mise au point d'une methode directe de determination de la charge corporelle en plutonium 239 chez l'homme par detection X de l'uranium 235

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulay, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-04-01

    The use of Pu-239 on a larger scale sets a problem about the contamination measurement by aerosol at lung level. A method of direct measurement of Pu-239 lung burden is possible, thanks to the use of a large area window proportional counter. A counter of such pattern, has been especially carried out for this purpose. The adjustment of the apparatus allows an adequate sensibility to detect a contamination at the maximum permissible body burden level. Besides, a method for individual 'internal calibration', with a plutonium mock: the protactinium-233, is reported. (author) [French] L'utilisation a une echelle de plus en plus large du plutonium-239 pose un probleme de la mesure de la contamination par aerosol au niveau du poumon. Une methode de mesure directe de la charge pulmonaire en plutonium-239 est possible grace a l'utilisation d'un compteur proportionnel a fenetre de grande surface. Un compteur de ce type a specialement ete realise dans ce but. La mise au point de l'appareillage permet une sensibilite suffisante pour deceler une contamination au niveau de la Q.M.A (quantite maximale admissible). D'autre part, une methode 'd'etalonnage interne' de l'individu a l'aide d'un simulateur de plutonium, le protactinium-233, est decrite. (auteur)

  3. Evaluation of 137Cs body burden in inhabitants of Bryansk Oblast, Russian Federation, where a high incidence of thyroid cancer was observed after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekitani, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Karevskaya, I. V.; Vasilitsova, O. A.; Kozlovsky, A.; Omiya, M.; Yamashita, S.; Takamura, N.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the current risk of internal radiation exposure after the Chernobyl accident, the 137 Cs body burden of the inhabitants of Bryansk Oblast (Russian Federation) was evaluated, from 1998 to 2008. The study population is composed of 84 666 people who visited Bryansk No. 2 Hospital. A whole-body counter was used for measurement of 137 Cs body burden. 137 Cs concentration was significantly higher in the late period during the study and showed seasonal variation, suggesting that inhabitants may have consumed contaminated forest products. However, people with high annual exposure doses were quite rare during all years of the study. In conclusion, although internal radiation exposure from 137 Cs continues to this day in Bryansk Oblast, the annual exposure dose is low in almost all inhabitants. Because of the long half-life of 137 Cs, the long term follow-up is necessary to monitor the health status and relieve the anxiety of the inhabitants around Chernobyl. (authors)

  4. Relationship between trace element content in human organs and hair - significance of hair mineral analysis as a means for assessing internal body burdens of environmental mineral pollutants. Final report for the period October 1984 - September 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinova, L [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy

    1988-12-31

    The purpose of the project was to establish a possibility to use hair as a monitor for internal body burden with toxic metals. For this purpose samples of human organs (heart, spleen, liver, kidney) and hair were analysed by neutron activation analysis and radiochemical techniques for the determination of As, Cd, Hg, Cu, Zn, Se, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, Na, S. 6 refs, 4 tabs.

  5. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  6. 12 CFR 703.14 - Permissible investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissible investments. 703.14 Section 703.14 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.14 Permissible investments. (a) Variable rate investment. A Federal...

  7. A comparison of mercury burdens between St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge and St. Andrew Bay, Florida: Evaluation of fish body burdens and physiological responses in largemouth bass, spotted seatrout, striped mullet, and sunfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huge, D.H.; Rauschenberger, R.H.; Wieser, F.M.; Hemming, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Musculature from the dorsal region of 130 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), 140 sunfish (Lepomis sp.), 41 spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) and 67 striped mullet (Mugil cephalus) were collected from five estuarine and five freshwater sites within the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge and two estuarine and two freshwater sites from St. Andrew Bay, Florida, United States of America. Musculature was analyzed for total mercury content, sagittal otoliths were removed for age determination and physiological responses were measured. Largemouth bass and sunfish from the refuge had higher mercury concentrations in musculature than those from the bay. Male spotted seatrout, male striped mullet, male and female sunfish and female largemouth bass had mercury burdens positively correlated with length. The majority of all four species of fish from both study areas contained mercury levels below 1.5 part per million, the limit for safe consumption recommended the Florida Department of Health. In comparison, a significant percentage of largemouth bass and sunfish from several sampled sites, most notably Otter Lake and Lake Renfroe within St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, had mercury levels consistent with the health department's guidelines of 'limited consumption' or 'no consumption guidelines.'

  8. Permission Marketing and Privacy Concerns - Why Do Customers (Not) Grant Permissions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krafft, Manfred; Arden, Christine M.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    Little is known about the influence of motivators that drive consumers to grant permission to be contacted via personalized communication. In this study, a framework is developed to investigate the effect of select drivers of consumers granting permission to receive personalized messages. The

  9. Permissive Subsorted Partial Logic in CASL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerioli, Maura; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Krieg-Brückner, Bernd

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a permissive subsorted partial logic used in the CoFI Algebraic Specification Language. In contrast to other order-sorted logics, subsorting is not modeled by set inclusions, but by injective embeddings allowing for more general models in which subtypes can have different data...

  10. User-centric android flexible permissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scoccia, Gian Luca; Malavolta, Ivano; Autili, Marco; Di Salle, Amleto; Inverardi, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Privacy in mobile apps is a fundamental aspect to be considered, particularly with regard to meeting end user expectations. Due to the rigidities of the Android permission model, desirable trade-offs are not allowed. End users are confined into a secondary role, having the only option of choosing

  11. Gender Differences In Premarital Sexual Permissiveness Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the concept of premariatal sexual permissiveness among selected University undergraduates in a state owned university in Nigeria, believing that the policy of non-residential status of the University will facilitate premarital sexual activity among the students. Using a total of 400 purposively selected ...

  12. Relationship between selenium body burdens and tissue concentrations in fish exposed to coal ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston spill site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Jett, Robert T [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Carriker, Neil [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); Morris, Jesse G [ORNL; Gable, Jennifer [Environmental Standards, Inc.

    2014-01-01

    In December 2008, 4.1 million m3 of coal ash were released into the Emory and Clinch Rivers by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant. Coal ash contains several contaminants, including the bioaccumulative metalloid selenium (Se). Because Se is predominantly accumulated in aquatic organisms through dietary, rather than aqueous exposure, tissue-based toxicity thresholds for Se are currently being considered. The proposed threshold concentrations range between 4-9 g/g Se (dry wt.) in whole body fish, with a proposed fillet threshold of 11.8 g/g. In the present study we examined the spatial and temporal trends in Se bioaccumulation and examined the relationship between the Se content in fillets and in whole bodies of fish collected around the Kingston spill site to determine whether Se bioaccumulation was a significant concern at the ash spill site. While Se concentrations in fish (whole bodies and fillets) were elevated at sampling locations affected by the Kingston ash spill relative to reference locations, concentrations do not appear to be above risk thresholds and have not been increasing over the five year period since the spill. Our results are not only relevant to guiding the human health and ecological risk assessments at the Kingston ash spill site, but because of current national discussions on appropriate guidelines for Se in fish as well for the disposal of coal combustion wastes, our results are also relevant to the general understanding of Se bioaccumulation in contaminated water bodies.

  13. Excess of Radiation Burden for Young Testicular Cancer Patients using Automatic Exposure Control and Contrast Agent on Whole-body Computed Tomography Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiniviita, Hannele; Kulmala, Jarmo; Pölönen, Tuukka; Määttänen, Heli; Järvinen, Hannu; Salminen, Eeva

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess patient dose from whole-body computed tomography (CT) in association with patient size, automatic exposure control (AEC) and intravenous (IV) contrast agent. Sixty-five testicular cancer patients (mean age 28 years) underwent altogether 279 whole-body CT scans from April 2000 to April 2011. The mean number of repeated examinations was 4.3. The GE LightSpeed 16 equipped with AEC and the Siemens Plus 4 CT scanners were used for imaging. Whole-body scans were performed with (216) and without (63) IV contrast. The ImPACT software was used to determine the effective and organ doses. Patient doses were independent (p < 0.41) of patient size when the Plus 4 device (mean 7.4 mSv, SD 1.7 mSv) was used, but with the LightSpeed 16 AEC device, the dose (mean 14 mSv, SD 4.6 mSv) increased significantly (p < 0.001) with waist cirfumference. Imaging with the IV contrast agent caused significantly higher (13% Plus 4, 35% LightSpeed 16) exposure than non-contrast imaging (p < 0.001). Great caution on the use of IV contrast agent and careful set-up of the AEC modulation parameters is recommended to avoid excessive radiation exposure on the whole-body CT imaging of young patients.

  14. Diet, Lifestyle and Chronic disease burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijk, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diet, Body Mass Index (BMI), physical activity and smoking are among the most important lifestyle factors that influence global disease burden. In this thesis we investigate the relations of these factors with total disease burden in a large Dutch population, the EPIC-NL cohort. In this

  15. Human bones obtained from routine joint replacement surgery as a tool for studies of plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr body-burden in general public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W., E-mail: jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.pl [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Edward B. [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Department of Physical Therapy Basics, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Administration College, Bielsko-Biala (Poland); Tomankiewicz, Ewa [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Joanna [Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Nowak, Sebastian [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Szczygiel, Elzbieta [Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Brudecki, Kamil [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    The paper presents a new sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination by bone-seeking radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 241}Am and selected gamma-emitters, in human bones. The presented results were obtained for samples retrieved from routine surgeries, namely knee or hip joints replacements with implants, performed on individuals from Southern Poland. This allowed to collect representative sets of general public samples. The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. Due to low concentrations of {sup 238}Pu the ratio of Pu isotopes which might be used for Pu source identification is obtained only as upper limits other then global fallout (for example Chernobyl) origin of Pu. Calculated concentrations of radioisotopes are comparable to the existing data from post-mortem studies on human bones retrieved from autopsy or exhumations. Human bones removed during knee or hip joint surgery provide a simple and ethical way for obtaining samples for plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr in-body contamination studies in general public. - Highlights: > Surgery for joint replacement as novel sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination. > Proposed way of sampling is not causing ethic doubts. > It is a convenient way of collecting human bone samples from global population. > The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. > The opposite patient age correlations trends were found for 90Sr (negative) and Pu, Am (positive).

  16. Rationalizing the Permissibility of Mosque Decoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spahic Omer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the subject of mosque decoration and some of the criteria which determine its permissibility or otherwise. Some aspects of the matter are somewhat sensitive and double-edged. Thus, the paper presents an objective, balanced and scientific account of the theme, steering clear of the sentimental aspects of the evidences often put forth by both the proponents and opponents of mosque decoration. The main thrusts of the paper are the issues pertaining to the legitimacy of decoration in general, the subject of the function of mosques vis-à-vis their decoration, as well as the broad guidelines that regulate mosque decoration emphasizing the decoration of the mihrab (praying niche area and the qiblah wall. The paper concludes that in principle mosque decoration is permissible so long as it conforms to the requirements of the Islamic spirituality and the quintessence of genuine Islamic art and architecture.

  17. Maximum permissible concentration (MPC) values for spontaneously fissioning radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, M.R.; Snyder, W.S.; Dillman, L.T.; Watson, S.B.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation hazards involved in handling certain of the transuranic nuclides that exhibit spontaneous fission as a mode of decay were reaccessed using recent advances in dosimetry and metabolic modeling. Maximum permissible concentration (MPC) values in air and water for occupational exposure (168 hr/week) were calculated for 244 Pu, 246 Cm, 248 Cm, 250 Cf, 252 Cf, 254 Cf, /sup 254m/Es, 255 Es, 254 Fm, and 256 Fm. The half-lives, branching ratios, and principal modes of decay of the parent-daughter members down to a member that makes a negligible contribution to the dose are given, and all daughters that make a significant contribution to the dose to body organs following inhalation or ingestion are included in the calculations. Dose commitments for body organs are also given

  18. Nerve Sheath Tumors in Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Assessment of Whole-Body Metabolic Tumor Burden Using F-18-FDG PET/CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Salamon

    Full Text Available To determine the metabolically active whole-body tumor volume (WB-MTV on F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18-FDG PET/CT in individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 using a three-dimensional (3D segmentation and computerized volumetry technique, and to compare PET WB-MTV between patients with benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs.Thirty-six NF1 patients (18 patients with malignant PNSTs and 18 age- and sex-matched controls with benign PNSTs were examined by F-18-FDG PET/CT. WB-MTV, whole-body total lesion glycolysis (WB-TLG and a set of semi-quantitative imaging-based parameters were analyzed both on a per-patient and a per-lesion basis.On a per-lesion basis, malignant PNSTs demonstrated both a significantly higher MTV and TLG than benign PNSTs (p < 0.0001. On a per-patient basis, WB-MTV and WB-TLG were significantly higher in patients with malignant PNSTs compared to patients with benign PNSTs (p < 0.001. ROC analysis showed that MTV and TLG could be used to differentiate between benign and malignant tumors.WB-MTV and WB-TLG may identify malignant change and may have the potential to provide a basis for investigating molecular biomarkers that correlate with metabolically active disease manifestations. Further evaluation will determine the potential clinical impact of these PET-based parameters in NF1.

  19. A permissive graphical patcher for supercollider synths

    OpenAIRE

    Dufeu, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the first version of a permissive graphical patcher (referred to in the text as SCPGP) dedicated to fluid interconnection and control of SuperCollider Synths. With SCPGP, the user programs her/his SynthDefs normally as code in the SuperCollider environment, along with a minimal amount of additional information on these SynthDefs, and programs Patterns according to a simple SuperCollider-compliant syntax.\\ud From the execution of this SuperCollider session, the SCPGP inte...

  20. Burden of Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balon, Richard

    2017-01-02

    Similar to the burden of other diseases, the burden of sexual dysfunction has not been systematically studied. However, there is growing evidence of various burdens (e.g., economic, symptomatic, humanistic) among patients suffering from sexual dysfunctions. The burden of sexual dysfunction has been studied a bit more often in men, namely the burden of erectile dysfunction (ED), premature ejaculation (PE) and testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS). Erectile dysfunction is frequently associated with chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and depression. These conditions could go undiagnosed, and ED could be a marker of those diseases. The only available report from the United Kingdom estimated the total economic burden of ED at £53 million annually in terms of direct costs and lost productivity. The burden of PE includes significant psychological distress: anxiety, depression, lack of sexual confidence, poor self-esteem, impaired quality of life, and interpersonal difficulties. Some suggest that increase in female sexual dysfunction is associated with partner's PE, in addition to significant interpersonal difficulties. The burden of TDS includes depression, sexual dysfunction, mild cognitive impairment, and osteoporosis. One UK estimate of the economic burden of female sexual dysfunctions demonstrated that the average cost per patient was higher than the per annum cost of ED. There are no data on burden of paraphilic disorders. The burden of sexual dysfunctions is underappreciated and not well studied, yet it is significant for both the patients and the society.

  1. Control over Permissible Short Emergency Overloads in Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Anischenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a method for determination a permissible duration of short intermittent overloads of power transformers that permits to avoid non-permissible over-heating of winding insulation and fully utilize overloading transformer ability.

  2. Android Multi-Level System Permission Management Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Yang; Zhang, Qixun; Shen, Qingni; Liu, Hongzhi; Wu, Zhonghai

    2017-01-01

    With the expansion of the market share occupied by the Android platform, security issues (especially application security) have become attention focus of researchers. In fact, the existing methods lack the capabilities to manage application permissions without root privilege. This study proposes a dynamic management mechanism of Android application permissions based on security policies. The paper first describes the permissions by security policies, then implementes permission checking code ...

  3. Dioxin body burden of persons living near incinerators and sintering plants: results from Belgium; Evaluation de la charge corporelle en dioxines des riverains d'incinerateurs et de la siderurgie: resultats d'une etude realisee en Belgique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierens, S.; Bernard, A. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Unite de Toxicologie Industrielle et de Medecine du Travail, Faculte de Medecine, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Focant, J.F.; Eppe, G.; Pauw, E. de [Liege Univ., Lab. de Spectrometrie de Masse (CART) (Belgium)

    2005-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact on local residents' exposure to dioxines and coplanar PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) of two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI), one in an industrial area and the other in a rural zone, and two sintering plants, all located in Wallonia (Belgium). In all, 142 volunteers subjects living around these facilities and 63 volunteer referents from an unpolluted rural area were recruited and compared. They completed a self-administered questionnaire that furnished information about dietary habits, smoking habits, anthropometric characteristics, residential history and health status. They also provided blood samples under fasting conditions so that the body burden of dioxines (17 PCDD/Fs congeners) and coplanar PCBs could be assessed. After adjustment for co-variates determined by multiple linear regression analysis, serum concentrations of dioxines and coplanar PCBs in subjects living in the vicinity of the MSWI in the industrial area and of the sintering plants were similar to those of referents. In contrast, subjects living in the vicinity of the rural MSWI had significantly higher serum levels of dioxines (geometric mean, 38 vs 24 pg TEQ/g fat, p{<=}0.0001) and coplanar PCBs (geometric mean, 10.8 vs 7.0 pg TEQ/g fat, p{<=}0.05). Age-adjusted dioxin levels in referents did not vary with local animal fat consumption, but dioxin concentrations in subjects living around the MSWIs correlated positively with their intake of local animal fat, with levels almost doubled in subjects with the highest intake. These results show that the dioxines and coplanar PCBs emitted by MSWIs can indeed accumulate in the body of residents who consume animal products of local origin. (authors)

  4. Analytical quality assessment and interpretation of the trace element data obtained in the frame of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the significance of hair mineral analysis as a means for assessing internal body burdens of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeij, J.J.M. de; Blaauw, M.; Zegers, C.

    1993-01-01

    At the request of the IAEA, the authors have performed an assessment of the analytical quality and the interpretation of the trace element data obtained within the framework of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on The Significance of Hair Mineral Analysis as a Means of Assessing Internal Body Burdens of Environmental Pollutants. In this CRP research groups from various countries participated, using different analytical procedures, based on NAA, XRF and AAS. Data have been collected for Zn, CU, Pb, Cd, As, Hg, and Se in male human hair, liver, kidney, lung, brain, and bone. The samples analyzed originated from China, Hungary, Bulgaria, Japan, the former GDR, Sweden and Norway. The analytical quality of the data has been assessed on basis of the calculated limits of quantitation per trace element determined, per tissue analyzed and per participant, as well as from the trace element values found for reference materials and ''blind'' materials. The analytical quality of the data differs widely, from generally good to reasonable (Zn, Cu, and Se) to generally inadequate to strongly inadequate (Pb, Cd, As, and Hg). 15 refs, 29 tabs

  5. 30 CFR 62.130 - Permissible exposure level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permissible exposure level. 62.130 Section 62... REGULATIONS OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE § 62.130 Permissible exposure level. (a) The mine operator must assure that no miner is exposed during any work shift to noise that exceeds the permissible exposure level. If...

  6. A Symbolic Approach to Permission Accounting for Concurrent Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Marieke; Mostowski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Permission accounting is fundamental to modular, thread-local reasoning about concurrent programs. This paper presents a new, symbolic system for permission accounting. In existing systems, permissions are numeric value-based and refer to the current thread only. Our system is based on symbolic

  7. Legal Permissibility of Unilateral Humanitarian Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Perisic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the status of unilateral humanitarian interventions in international law. The United Nations Charter prohibits the use of force, except in case of self-defense and the collective action authorized by the Security Council. The question is whether the non-existence of unilateral humanitarian intervention among these exceptions means that they are not in conformity with the Charter and if so, whether the right to such interventions exists as the part of customary law. The issue has become even more controversial after the adoption of the “responsibility to protect” principle. Findings of legal scholars on this issue differ significantly. This paper analyzes and interprets the Charter provisions in order to answer the question of compatibility of humanitarian interventions with the Charter and examines the state practice in order to conclude whether the customary law rule allowing the humanitarian intervention exists. The conclusion of the paper is that there is no evidence to support the contentions that interventions without the Security Council authorization are permissible, although there are elements which point to the possibility of the creation of customary law allowing them.

  8. Mycobacteria exploit nitric oxide-induced transformation of macrophages into permissive giant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharun, Kourosh; Senges, Julia; Seidl, Maximilian; Lösslein, Anne; Kolter, Julia; Lohrmann, Florens; Fliegauf, Manfred; Elgizouli, Magdeldin; Vavra, Martina; Schachtrup, Kristina; Illert, Anna L; Gilleron, Martine; Kirschning, Carsten J; Triantafyllopoulou, Antigoni; Henneke, Philipp

    2017-12-01

    Immunity to mycobacteria involves the formation of granulomas, characterized by a unique macrophage (MΦ) species, so-called multinucleated giant cells (MGC). It remains unresolved whether MGC are beneficial to the host, that is, by prevention of bacterial spread, or whether they promote mycobacterial persistence. Here, we show that the prototypical antimycobacterial molecule nitric oxide (NO), which is produced by MGC in excessive amounts, is a double-edged sword. Next to its antibacterial capacity, NO propagates the transformation of MΦ into MGC, which are relatively permissive for mycobacterial persistence. The mechanism underlying MGC formation involves NO-induced DNA damage and impairment of p53 function. Moreover, MGC have an unsurpassed potential to engulf mycobacteria-infected apoptotic cells, which adds a further burden to their antimycobacterial capacity. Accordingly, mycobacteria take paradoxical advantage of antimicrobial cellular efforts by driving effector MΦ into a permissive MGC state. © 2017 The Authors.

  9. The Global Cancer Burden

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-02

    This podcast describes the global burden of cancer and efforts by CDC and others to reduce that burden.  Created: 2/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/2/2012.

  10. Quantitative Security Risk Assessment of Android Permissions and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wang , Yang; Zheng , Jun; Sun , Chen; Mukkamala , Srinivas

    2013-01-01

    Part 6: Mobile Computing; International audience; The booming of the Android platform in recent years has attracted the attention of malware developers. However, the permissions-based model used in Android system to prevent the spread of malware, has shown to be ineffective. In this paper, we propose DroidRisk, a framework for quantitative security risk assessment of both Android permissions and applications (apps) based on permission request patterns from benign apps and malware, which aims ...

  11. Burden of Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails The Burden of Rabies Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Learn how ... bitten by an animal that has the disease. Rabies in the U.S. Rabies continues to be a ...

  12. Examination of body burden and taint for Iceland scallop (Chlamys islandica) and American plaice (Hippoglossoides platessoides) near the Terra Nova offshore oil development over ten years of drilling on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Kiceniuk, Joe W.; Paine, Michael D.; Kilgour, Bruce W.; Tracy, Ellen; Crowley, Roger D.; Williams, Urban P.; Gregory Janes, G.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents results of analyses of body burdens of metals and hydrocarbons, and taste tests for taint, in Iceland scallop and American plaice performed as part of the Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) program for the Terra Nova offshore oil development (Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Canada). Scallop and plaice were collected in a Study Area located within approximately 1 km of drill centres at Terra Nova and in a Reference Area located approximately 20 km from the development. Samples were collected in 1997 to establish a baseline, and from 2000 to 2010, during drilling periods. Scallop adductor muscle tissue was contaminated with >C10-C21 aliphatic hydrocarbons resembling the drilling fluid in the synthetic drilling mud (SBM) used at Terra Nova in 2000, 2002 and 2004, but contamination of adductor muscle was not noted in 2006, 2008 and 2010. The maximum concentration in muscle was 28 mg/kg wet weight, noted in 2002. Scallop viscera was contaminated with hydrocarbons resembling drilling fluid in SBMs near drill centres in all EEM years except 2010. Viscera contamination with >C10-C21 hydrocarbons gradually decreased from a maximum of 150 mg/kg in 2000, to a maximum of 27 mg/kg in 2008; all values were below the laboratory reporting detection limit of 15 mg/kg in 2010. Therefore, evidence from both muscle and viscera indicates a decrease in tissue hydrocarbon contamination in recent years. Barium, another major constituent in drilling muds, has not been noted in scallop adductor muscles at concentrations above the reporting detection limit, but barium was detected in viscera in baseline and EEM years. The maximum concentration of barium in viscera during baseline sampling was 8 mg/kg. The maximum concentration in EEM years (29 mg/kg) was noted in 2000. The maximum concentration in 2010 was 25 mg/kg. The concentration of metals other than barium in scallop tissues was similar between the Terra Nova Study Area and the Reference Area. Hydrocarbons

  13. 46 CFR 115.700 - Permission for repairs and alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... replacement in kind, of electrical wiring, fuel lines, tanks, boilers and other pressure vessels, and steering... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permission for repairs and alterations. 115.700 Section... AND CERTIFICATION Repairs and Alterations § 115.700 Permission for repairs and alterations. (a...

  14. 46 CFR 176.700 - Permission for repairs and alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... repair or replacement, other than replacement in kind, of electrical wiring, fuel lines, tanks, boilers... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permission for repairs and alterations. 176.700 Section... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Repairs and Alterations § 176.700 Permission for...

  15. 14 CFR 399.35 - Special tariff permission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.35 Special tariff permission. (a) Definition. As used in this section, to grant STP means to approve a... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special tariff permission. 399.35 Section...

  16. 42 CFR 433.66 - Permissible provider-related donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible provider-related donations. 433.66... Requirements State Financial Participation § 433.66 Permissible provider-related donations. (a) General rule... provider-related donations without a reduction in FFP, only in accordance with the requirements of this...

  17. 45 CFR 1639.4 - Permissible representation of eligible clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible representation of eligible clients... CORPORATION WELFARE REFORM § 1639.4 Permissible representation of eligible clients. Recipients may represent an individual eligible client who is seeking specific relief from a welfare agency. [62 FR 30766...

  18. The ecological determination of the permissible concentrations for radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononovich, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    It is supposed that all inhabitants of the ecosystem are enjoying equal rights. The report describes the approximate method of ecology normalizing of the permissible radionuclide concentrations. Definition of the permissible concentration is made by an indirect way, since the defining criterion is unknown

  19. May I sleep in your bed? Getting permission to book

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson, L.; Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Dolnicar, S.

    2017-01-01

    Demand for tourist accommodation offered on peer-to-peer networks is skyrocketing. In such networks tourists can only book if the accommodation provider (host) gives their permission. Needing permission to book accommodation is radically new in tourism. No hotel, motel or B&B assesses a tourist

  20. A concept of dynamic permission mechanism on android

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Lukas; Hanacek, Petr

    2016-02-01

    This paper discuss the main security topic in mobile security area and this topic is protect user against the leakage of data. This work primarily contains the proposal of concept of dynamic permission mechanism for Android operating system. This mechanism deals with assignment or enforcement permissions to the application according to files that the application works with. Application has set of permissions that can use, but if the user opens confident files the application permissions should change its permission set and there should not be possible leakage of this secret data. The permissions set should be stricter according to opened confidential file or more open (without restriction) if the file is not secret file. The concept proposes the solution for protecting this data leakage. Idea covers rule that user should be avoided of change this permissions himself, but this behavior should be dynamic, automatic and independent. This proposal is mainly aimed to Android operating system, but the concept can be applied to other mobile platforms with some implementation changes.

  1. Is the publication of exit poll results morally permissible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderholm, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    This article is about exit polls. It addresses the question of whether or not it is morally permissible to publish exit poll results. The conclusion of the article is that an affirmative answer should be given to this question. In section 2, the master argument in favor of the moral permissibility...... of the publication of exit poll results is introduced. This is a strong argument. It is, however, argued that it might be the case that the conclusion of this argument should be rejected if there are other, and weightier, arguments against the idea that the publication of exit poll results is morally permissible....... In section 3, the strongest arguments against the moral permissibility of the publication of exit poll results are outlined and discussed. The conclusion of this section is that all these arguments fail in their intended purpose. The conclusion of the article is therefore justified....

  2. Burden control by artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxen, H.; Nikus, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Heat Engineering Lab.

    1998-07-01

    The burden distribution plays an important role for the fuel economy of the blast furnace. By an appropriate burden distribution, the operation of the furnace is smooth and the gas is utilized well, the burden descends steadily and the wear of the lining is minimal. Since it is very difficult to obtain reliable information about the burden distribution in operating blast furnaces, this research project developed methods for interpretation of burden and gas distribution in the shaft mainly based on temperature measurements from above-burden probes.

  3. Contrasting amino acid profiles among permissive and non-permissive hosts of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, putative causal agent of Huanglongbing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoudou Sétamou

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing is a devastating disease of citrus. In this study, a comprehensive profile of phloem sap amino acids (AA in four permissive host plants of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas and three non-permissive Rutaceae plants was conducted to gain a better understanding of host factors that may promote or suppress the bacterium. The AA profiles of Diaphorina citri nymphs and adults were similarly analyzed. A total of 38 unique AAs were detected in phloem sap of the various plants and D. citri samples, with phloem sap of young shoots containing more AAs and at higher concentrations than their mature counterparts. All AAs detected in phloem sap of non-permissive plants were also present in CLas -permissive hosts plus additional AAs in the latter class of plants. However, the relative composition of 18 commonly shared AAs varied between CLas -permissive hosts and non-permissive plants. Multivariate analysis with a partial least square discriminant methodology revealed a total of 12 AAs as major factors affecting CLas host status, of which seven were positively related to CLas tolerance/resistance and five positively associated with CLas susceptibility. Most of the AAs positively associated with CLas susceptibility were predominantly of the glutamate family, notably stressed-induced AAs such as arginine, GABA and proline. In contrast, AAs positively correlated with CLas tolerance/resistance were mainly of the serine family. Further analysis revealed that whereas the relative proportions of AAs positively associated with CLas susceptibility did not vary with host developmental stages, those associated with CLas tolerance/resistance increased with flush shoot maturity. Significantly, the proline-to-glycine ratio was determined to be an important discriminating factor for CLas permissivity with higher values characteristic of CLas -permissive hosts. This ratio could be exploited as a biomarker in HLB-resistance breeding programs.

  4. EAMJ Jan. Burden.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-01-01

    Jan 1, 2009 ... developed world where the burden of disease is accurately determined. ... Projections indicate an expected yearly incidence of 15 to 20 million new .... of global mortality and burden of diseases from 2002 to 2030. Plos. Med.

  5. Permissive hypercapnia and risk for brain injury and developmental impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Erika W; Sadek-Badawi, Mona; Carlton, David P; Palta, Mari

    2008-09-01

    Permissive hypercapnia is a respiratory-care strategy that is used to reduce the risk for lung injury. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether permissive hypercapnia is associated with higher risk for intraventricular hemorrhage and early childhood behavioral and functional problems than normocapnia among very low birth weight infants. Very low birth weight infants from a statewide cohort were eligible for this study when they were born at <32 weeks' gestational age and survived at least 24 hours. Infants were classified as receiving a permissive hypercapnia, normocapnia, or unclassifiable respiratory strategy during the first 24 hours after birth according to an algorithm based on Pco(2) values and respiratory-treatment decisions that were abstracted from medical charts. Intraventricular hemorrhage diagnosis was also abstracted from the medical chart. Behavioral and functional outcomes were assessed by parent interview at 2 to 3 years. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between intraventricular hemorrhage and respiratory strategy; ordinary linear regression was used to evaluate differences in behavior and function scores between children by respiratory strategy. Infants who received a permissive hypercapnia strategy were not more likely to have intraventricular hemorrhage than those with normocapnia. There were no differences in any of the behavioral or functional scores among children according to respiratory strategy. There was a significant interaction between care strategy and 1-minute Apgar score, indicating that infants with lower Apgar scores may be at higher risk for intraventricular hemorrhage with permissive hypercapnia. This study suggests that permissive hypercapnia does not increase risk for brain injury and impairment among very low birth weight children. The interaction between respiratory strategy and Apgar score is a potential worrisome exception to this conclusion. Future research should further evaluate the effect

  6. Permissible annual depositions and radionuclide concentrations in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.A.; Golovko, M.Yu.

    1993-01-01

    It is established that it necessary to take into account the other ways of radionuclide intake apart from the inhalation one when determining the standards for radionuclide contamination of the atmospheric air. Whereby it is proposed to standardize annual depositions rather than permissible concentration in the atmospheric air for the ways related to radionuclide releases on the ground surface, which is explained by ambiguity of their dry deposition rate from the air. Formulae and results of calculation of standard characteristics are presented. The permissible radionuclide depositions, related to the intake through food chains are calculated with account for diet diversity, agroclimatic and phenological parameters in different regions of the country

  7. The psychosocial burden of psoriatic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husni, M Elaine; Merola, Joseph F; Davin, Sara

    2017-12-01

    To assess the psychosocial impact of psoriatic arthritis (PsA), describe how health-related quality of life (QoL) is affected in patients with PsA, discuss measures used to evaluate the psychosocial impact of PsA, and review studies examining the effect of therapy on QoL. A targeted review on the impact of PsA on QoL and the role of tailored psychosocial management in reducing the psychosocial burden of the disease was performed. PubMed literature searches were conducted using the terms PsA, psychosocial burden, QoL, and mood/behavioral changes. Articles were deemed relevant if they presented information regarding the psychosocial impact of PsA, methods used to evaluate these impacts, or ways to manage/improve management of PsA and its resulting comorbidities. The findings of this literature search are descriptively reviewed and the authors׳ expert opinion on their interpretation is provided. The psychosocial burden of PsA negatively affects QoL. Patients suffer from sleep disorders, fatigue, low-level stress, depression and mood/behavioral changes, poor body image, and reduced work productivity. Additionally, each patient responds to pain differently, depending on a variety of psychological factors including personality structure, cognition, and attention to pain. Strategies for evaluating the burdens associated with PsA and the results of properly managing patients with PsA are described. PsA is associated with a considerable psychosocial burden and new assessment tools, specific to PsA, have been developed to help quantify this burden in patients. Future management algorithms of PsA should incorporate appropriate assessment and management of psychological and physical concerns of patients. Furthermore, patients with PsA should be managed by a multidisciplinary team that works in coordination with the patient and their family or caregivers. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effective dose and time-integrated effective dose to humans from internal contamination of 134Cs and 137Cs: Results from a compilation of a Swedish national database of internal body burden of radiocaesium in various populations between 1964 and 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeaef, L.C.; Zakaria, M.; Hubbard, L.; Falk, R.; Aagren, G.; Vesanen, R.

    2003-01-01

    A compilation of data on the whole-body burden of 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 40 K in various Swedish populations between 1964 and 2002 has been made. The compilation was carried out in co-operation with the Department of Radiation Physics in Malmoe, the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI), the Swedish Defence Research Agency Department (FOI) and the Department of Radiation Physics, Goeteborg University. Individual body burden values have been inserted into a calculation spread sheet, with data on body weight, gender, age, occupation (if available) and place of residence. The database enables a study of the time-pattern and geographical dependence of radiocaesium transfer from ground deposition to man, and the associated absorbed dose. The Swedish government has assigned SSI the responsibility for obtaining and assuring one of Sweden's national environmental quality objectives, A Safe Radiation Environment. A natural consequence of this responsibility is that a means for quantifying progress towards the objective is necessary. The data compilation discussed here is one important component in the national environmental monitoring programme that is currently (2002) being developed at SSI. The new program for monitoring environmental radiation has the goal of following geographical and ecological differences in the radiological effects to both mankind and the environment, and assessing relevant doses and risks. During the period between 1964 and 2002, fallout of radiocaesium from nuclear weapons tests (only 137 Cs) and from the Chernobyl accident in 1986 (both 134 Cs and 137 Cs) have occurred in Sweden. The ground deposition of the radiocaesium has gradually been transferred through different ecological pathways to man. From the database it can be deduced that large regional variations in the body burden of radiocaesium in man have occurred through this period. Three populations exhibit considerably higher body content levels than others; (i) reindeer herders in

  9. Salmonella burden in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaeb, M; Bizri, A R; Ghosn, N; Berry, A; Musharrafieh, U

    2016-06-01

    Salmonellosis is a disease that represents a major public health concern in both developing and developed countries. The aim of this article is to evaluate the public health burden of Salmonella illness in Lebanon. The current scope of the Salmonella infection problem was assessed in relation to disease incidence and distribution with respect to age, gender and district. Factors that provide a better understanding of the magnitude of the problem were explored and highlighted. Data reported to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Department at the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health between 2001 and 2013 was reviewed. Information obtained was compared to information reported regionally and globally. The estimated true incidence was derived using multipliers from the CDC and Jordan. A literature review of all published data from Lebanon about Salmonella susceptibility/resistance patterns and its serious clinical complications was conducted. The estimated incidence was 13·34 cases/100 000 individuals, most cases occurred in the 20-39 years age group with no significant gender variation. Poor and less developed districts of Lebanon had the highest number of cases and the peak incidence was in summer. Reflecting on the projected incidence derived from the use of multipliers indicates a major discrepancy between what is reported and what is estimated. We conclude that data about Salmonella infection in Lebanon and many Middle Eastern and developing countries lack crucial information and are not necessarily representative of the true incidence, prevalence and burden of illness.

  10. Verification of Snapshotable Trees using Access Permissions and Typestate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehnert, Hannes; Aldrich, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    We use access permissions and typestate to specify and ver- ify a Java library that implements snapshotable search trees, as well as some client code. We formalize our approach in the Plural tool, a sound modular typestate checking tool. We describe the challenges to verify- ing snapshotable tree...

  11. 50 CFR 216.252 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapon Missions in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.252 Permissible methods of taking. (a) Under Letters of Authorization issued pursuant to...

  12. 50 CFR 216.213 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Explosive Severance Activities Conducted During Offshore Structure Removal Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico § 216.213 Permissible...

  13. Substantiation of the permissible radioactive contamination of working clothes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, V.L.; Korostin, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    A permissible level of working clothes contamination was determined on the base of the main migration routes of radioactive contaminants: permeation directly through the clothes into subclothes space on skin surface, emission into the air with amount of contaminants subsequently got by the organism of a working person through inhalation as well as transfer in the process of contacting of contaminated working clothes and surfaces of premises equipment, working person hands with amount of contaminants posteriorly got by the organism by alimentary or inhalation ways. Using the experimental and literature data available the permissible levels of working clothes contamination for the mentioned migration routes of radioactive materials have been calculated. According to the data obtained the permissible levels of working clothes contamination must not exceed 4 alpha-part/(cm 2 xmin) for contamination with high-tonic isotopes, 20 alpha-part./(cm 2 xmin) with other alpha-detine isotopes, 1000 beta-part./(cm 2 xmin) with beta-active ones. The permissible level of contamination of additional materials of the individual protection in the case of their contamination with high-tonic alpha-actine isotopes must not exceed 50 alpha-part./(cm 2 xmin), 200 alpha-part./(cm 2 xmin) for contamination th other alpha-active isotopes and 400 beta-part./(cm 2 xmin) with beta-active isotopes

  14. Maximum Permissible Concentrations and Negligible Concentrations for pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crommentuijn T; Kalf DF; Polder MD; Posthumus R; Plassche EJ van de; CSR

    1997-01-01

    Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPCs) and Negligible Concentrations (NCs) derived for a series of pesticides are presented in this report. These MPCs and NCs are used by the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) to set Environmental Quality Objectives. For some of the

  15. 26 CFR 1.422-5 - Permissible provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of the incentive stock option are subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture and not transferable...) INCOME TAXES Certain Stock Options § 1.422-5 Permissible provisions. (a) General rule. An option that otherwise qualifies as an incentive stock option does not fail to be an incentive stock option merely...

  16. Permissive hypercapnia for the prevention of morbidity and mortality in mechanically ventilated newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, P G; Davies, M W

    2001-01-01

    Experimental animal data and uncontrolled, observational studies in human infants have suggested that hyperventilation and hypocapnia may be associated with increased pulmonary and neurodevelopmental morbidity. Protective ventilatory strategies allowing higher levels of arterial CO2 (permissive hypercapnia) are now widely used in adult critical care. The aggressive pursuit of normocapnia in ventilated newborn infants may contribute to the already present burden of lung disease. However, the safe or ideal range for PCO2 in this vulnerable population has not been established. To assess whether, in mechanically ventilated neonates, a strategy of permissive hypercapnia improves short and long term outcomes (esp. mortality, duration of respiratory support, incidence of chronic lung disease and neurodevelopmental outcome). Standard strategies of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group were used. Searches were made of the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Current Contents. Searches were also made of previous reviews including cross-referencing, abstracts, and conference and symposia proceedings published in Pediatric Research. All randomised controlled trials in which a strategy of permissive hypercapnia was compared with conventional strategies aimed at achieving normocapnia (or lower levels of hypercapnia) in newborn infants who are mechanically ventilated were eligible. Standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group were used. Trials identified by the search strategy were independently reviewed by each author and assessed for eligibility and trial quality. Data were extracted separately. Differences were compared and resolved. Additional information was requested from trial authors. Only published data were available for review. Results are expressed as relative risk and risk difference for dichotomous outcomes, and weighted mean difference for continuous variables. Two trials involving 269 newborn infants were included. Meta-analysis of

  17. Studies on the establishment of maximum permissible exposure dose for reference Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.J.; Lee, K.S.; Chun, K.C.; Kim, C.B.; Chung, K.H.; Kim, S.L.; Kim, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In order to establish the Reference Korean and maximum permissible exposure dose of Reference Korean, for the first year a total of 9,758 males and 7,019 females were surveyed for the height, weight, a body surface area, and a total of 879 individuals of 180 households located in different 30 localities were analyzed for food consumption and a total of radioactive substances (β-ray) contained in food per capita per day. In this report the external and internal exposure dose were also estimated on the basis of data mostly published in other country as well as in Korea in part

  18. Larval diet affects mosquito development and permissiveness to Plasmodium infection

    OpenAIRE

    Gendrin, MEM; Christophides; Linenberg, Inbar

    2016-01-01

    The larval stages of malaria vector mosquitoes develop in water pools, feeding mostly on microorganisms and environmental detritus. Richness in the nutrient supply to larvae influences the development and metabolism of larvae and adults. Here, we investigated the effects of larval diet on the development, microbiota content and permissiveness to Plasmodium of Anopheles coluzzii . We tested three fish diets often used to rear mosquitoes in the laboratory, including two pelleted diets, Dr. Clar...

  19. Account of low temperature hardening in calculation of permissible stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, N.V.; Ul'yanenko, A.P.; Gorodyskij, N.I.

    1980-01-01

    Suggested is a calculation scheme of permissible stresses with the account of temperature hardening for steels and alloys, the dependences of strength, plasticity and rupture work of which on cooling temperature do not have threshold changes in a wide range of low temperatures (from 300 to 4.2 K). Application of the suggested scheme is considered on the example of 12Kh18N10T austenitic chromium-nickel steel

  20. The calculation of maximum permissible exposure levels for laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozer, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    The maximum permissible exposure data of the revised standard BS 4803 are presented as a set of decision charts which ensure that the user automatically takes into account such details as pulse length and pulse pattern, limiting angular subtense, combinations of multiple wavelength and/or multiple pulse lengths, etc. The two decision charts given are for the calculation of radiation hazards to skin and eye respectively. (author)

  1. Permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship undermines tobacco control support in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Olutola, Bukola G; Agaku, Israel T

    2016-06-01

    School personnel, who are respected members of the community, may exert significant influence on policy adoption. This study assessed the impact of school personnel's permissiveness toward tobacco industry sponsorship activities on their support for complete bans on tobacco advertisements, comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased tobacco prices. Representative data were obtained from the Global School Personnel Survey for 29 African countries (n = 17 929). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated using multi-variable Poisson regression models to assess the impact of permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship activities on support for tobacco control policies (p industry should be allowed to sponsor school events were significantly less likely to support complete bans on tobacco advertisements [aPR = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.95] and comprehensive smoke-free laws (aPR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.98). In contrast, support for complete tobacco advertisement bans was more likely among those who believed that the tobacco industry encourages youths to smoke (aPR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.17-1.37), and among those who taught about health sometimes (aPR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.11) or a lot (aPR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.10) compared with those who did not teach about health at all. These findings underscore the need to educate school personnel on tobacco industry's strategies to undermine tobacco control policies. This may help to build school personnel support for laws intended to reduce youth susceptibility, experimentation and established use of tobacco products. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Legitimate Permissions And Specifity Of Their Enforceability In Modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Subochev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Northern Caucasus Institute of Advanced Training (branch of Krasnodar University of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, 123, Malbahova Street, Nalshik, 360016, Russia. Abstract: The article investigates the basic legal permissions in Russian law - legal rights, freedoms and legitimate interests. Potential of these means of legal regulation is examined as well as their common features and essential differences. Authors argue that the effectiveness of the mechanism of legal regulation largely depends on the proper use of legal permissions. Particular attention is paid to such kind of legal mean as a legitimate interest. The article draws attention to the fact that if a legal right or freedom are such kind of permissions which are guaranteed by the law in order to sustain certain demands of subjects of law, the legitimate interest is qualitatively different mean of regulation. The authors suggest considering a legitimate interest as reflected in the objective law legal possibility of subjects of law to enjoy certain social benefits and to seek protection from the state authorities in order to meet their interests which are not contradictory to provisions of law. Qualitative difference between legitimate interest and legal right and freedom is that the legitimate interest is an opportunity, guaranteed to a lesser extent than the permitted behavior within a legal right or freedom. Legitimate interest is a mere permission, admitted by the state and to some extent supported by it. But legal right and freedom - are those means of regulation, which are directly approved and sanctioned by the state which presuppose duty of a person to a particular behavior. The author's vision of the specifity of legal enforcement of legitimate admissions is presented.

  3. LEGITIMATE PERMISSIONS AND SPECIFITY OF THEIR ENFORCEABILITY IN MODERN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Subochev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Northern Caucasus Institute of Advanced Training (branch of Krasnodar University of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, 123, Malbahova Street, Nalshik, 360016, Russia. Abstract: The article investigates the basic legal permissions in Russian law - legal rights, freedoms and legitimate interests. Potential of these means of legal regulation is examined as well as their common features and essential differences. Authors argue that the effectiveness of the mechanism of legal regulation largely depends on the proper use of legal permissions. Particular attention is paid to such kind of legal mean as a legitimate interest. The article draws attention to the fact that if a legal right or freedom are such kind of permissions which are guaranteed by the law in order to sustain certain demands of subjects of law, the legitimate interest is qualitatively different mean of regulation. The authors suggest considering a legitimate interest as reflected in the objective law legal possibility of subjects of law to enjoy certain social benefits and to seek protection from the state authorities in order to meet their interests which are not contradictory to provisions of law. Qualitative difference between legitimate interest and legal right and freedom is that the legitimate interest is an opportunity, guaranteed to a lesser extent than the permitted behavior within a legal right or freedom. Legitimate interest is a mere permission, admitted by the state and to some extent supported by it. But legal right and freedom - are those means of regulation, which are directly approved and sanctioned by the state which presuppose duty of a person to a particular behavior. The author's vision of the specifity of legal enforcement of legitimate admissions is presented.

  4. Android Apps and Permissions: Security and Privacy Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Boksasp, Trond; Utnes, Eivind

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates the permissions requested by Android applications, and the possibility of identifying suspicious applications based only on information presented to the user before an application is downloaded. During the course of this project, a large data set consisting of applications published on Google Play and three different third-party Android application markets was collected over a two-month period. These applications are analysed using manual pattern recognition and k-mea...

  5. Parental permissiveness, control, and affect and drug use among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becoña, Elisardo; Martínez, Úrsula; Calafat, Amador; Fernández-Hermida, José Ramón; Juan, Montse; Sumnall, Harry; Mendes, Fernando; Gabrhelík, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Parents play an important role in determining the risk of children's drug use. The aim of this study was to analyse how certain family-related variables (permissiveness toward drug use, and parental control and affect) were linked to the use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis, based on young people's self-report of such variables. The sample was composed of 1,428 school children (51.8% males) aged between 11 and 19 from Mallorca (Spain). We found that the young people who perceived their parents as permissive and those who perceived less maternal control and higher levels of both paternal and maternal affect were more likely to use alcohol, tobacco and cannabis. Sex differences were found within this pattern. Variables of maternal affect and control were not influential among males, whereas the general pattern was maintained among females. This study highlights the importance of perceived permissiveness and the need of considering parent's and children's gender when providing control and affect, as fathers will influence male children whereas mothers will influence female children.

  6. Influence of Permissive Parenting on Youth Farm Risk Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinnah, Hamida A; Stoneman, Zolinda

    2016-01-01

    Farm youth continue to experience high rates of injuries and premature deaths as a result of agricultural activities. Increased parental permissiveness is positively associated with many different types of high-risk behaviors in youth. This study explored whether permissive parenting (fathering and mothering) predicts youth unsafe behaviors on the farm. Data were analyzed for 67 youth and their parents. Families were recruited from a statewide farm publication, through youth organizations (i.e., FFA [Future Farmers of America]), local newspapers, farmer referrals, and through the Cooperative Extension Network. Hierarchical multiple regression was completed. Results revealed that fathers and mothers who practiced lax-inconsistent disciplining were more likely to have youth who indulged in unsafe farm behaviors. Key hypotheses confirmed that permissive parenting (lax-inconsistent disciplining) by parents continued to predict youth unsafe farm behaviors, even after youth age, youth gender, youth personality factor of risk-taking, and father's unsafe behaviors (a measure associated with modeling) were all taken into account. A key implication is that parents may play an important role in influencing youth farm safety behaviors. Parents (especially fathers) need to devote time to discuss farm safety with their youth. Farm safety interventions need to involve parents as well as address and respect the culture and values of families. Interventions need to focus not only on safe farm practices, but also promote positive parenting practices, including increased parent-youth communication about safety, consistent disciplining strategies, and increased monitoring and modeling of safe farm behaviors by parents.

  7. [Behavior of Orf virus in permissive and nonpermissive systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, M; Czerny, C P; Schumm, M

    1995-04-01

    Dogs were immunized i.m. with attenuated poxvirus vaccines (vaccinia virus, Orf-virus) and a bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) vaccine. After intradermal (i.d.) application of the vaccine viruses a specific delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction of the skin occurred only with vaccinia virus. The i.d. application of Orf-virus caused a short-term, non-specific inflammatory reaction of the skin, even in dogs not immunized with Orf-virus. Out of 30 sera from Orf-virus immunized beagles (n = 4) only eight were found reactive to Orf-virus in a competition ELISA. Three sera from dogs not Orf-virus immunized but skin-tested with the virus contained low antibody titers. Using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) in flow cytometry, the existence of Orf-virus antigens was examined on the surface and in the cytoplasm of permissive (BFK and Vero)- and questionable permissive MDCK cells. The canine kidney MDCK cell line was found to be non-permissive for Orf-virus replication; the occurrence of an Orf-(ecthyma contagiosum) like disease in dogs is unlikely.

  8. Maximum permissible dietary contamination after the accidental release of radioactive materials from a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochin, E E; Rock Carling, Ernest; Court Brown, W M [Medical Research Council, Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations, London (United Kingdom); and others

    1960-12-01

    After the accident to No. 1 pile at Windscale on October 10, 1957 (Atomic Energy Office, 1957), the Atomic Energy Authority asked the Medical Research Council for advice on the maximum intake of certain radioactive isotopes that should be regarded as permissible, under emergency conditions, for members of the general population living in, or deriving food from, an area contaminated owing to an accident to a reactor. The Council's Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations, together with its Subcommittees on Internal and External Radiations, has considered this problem, and concludes that the intake of radioactive materials by ingestion of contaminated food would generally be the limiting source of hazard after any such accident. Intake by inhalation, or radiation from the exterior, would become of importance only in rather special circumstances. In the following report, therefore, the Committee proposes maximum permissible levels of dietary contamination for the relevant isotopes in the emergency conditions envisaged. In proposing these levels, the Protection Committee has used the fullest information available on the radiation doses that would be delivered to different body tissues and at different ages by the isotopes concerned, and on the ways in which these materials would enter the body.

  9. Maximum permissible dietary contamination after the accidental release of radioactive materials from a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.; Rock Carling, Ernest; Court Brown, W.M.

    1960-01-01

    After the accident to No. 1 pile at Windscale on October 10, 1957 (Atomic Energy Office, 1957), the Atomic Energy Authority asked the Medical Research Council for advice on the maximum intake of certain radioactive isotopes that should be regarded as permissible, under emergency conditions, for members of the general population living in, or deriving food from, an area contaminated owing to an accident to a reactor. The Council's Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations, together with its Subcommittees on Internal and External Radiations, has considered this problem, and concludes that the intake of radioactive materials by ingestion of contaminated food would generally be the limiting source of hazard after any such accident. Intake by inhalation, or radiation from the exterior, would become of importance only in rather special circumstances. In the following report, therefore, the Committee proposes maximum permissible levels of dietary contamination for the relevant isotopes in the emergency conditions envisaged. In proposing these levels, the Protection Committee has used the fullest information available on the radiation doses that would be delivered to different body tissues and at different ages by the isotopes concerned, and on the ways in which these materials would enter the body

  10. ESTABLISHMENT OF THE PERMISSIBLE TRAIN SPEED ON THE CURVED TURNOUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Patlasov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Turnouts play a key role in the railway transportation process. One-sided and many-sided curved turnouts were railed over the last 20 years in difficult conditions (curved sections, yard necks. They have a number of geometric features, unlike the conventional one-sided turnouts. Today the normative documents prohibit laying such turnouts in curved track sections and only partially regulate the assessment procedure of their real condition. The question of establishment the permissible train speed within the curved turnouts is still open. In this regard, authors propose to set the train speed according to the driving comfort criterion using the results of field measurements of ordinates from the baseline for the particular curved turnout. Methodology. The article considers the criteria using which one can set the permissible speed on the turnouts. It defines the complexity of their application, advantages and disadvantages. Findings. The work analyzes the speed distribution along the length of the real curved turnout for the forward and lateral directions. It establishes the change rate values of unbalanced accelerations for the existing norms of the curved track sections maintenance according to the difference in the adjacent bend versine at speeds up to 160 km/h. Originality. A method for establishing the trains’ speed limit within the curved turnouts was developed. It takes into account the actual geometric position in the plan of forward and lateral turnout directions. This approach makes it possible to establish a barrier places in plan on the turnouts limiting the train speed. Practical value. The proposed method makes it possible to objectively assess and set the trains’ permissible speed on the basis of the ordinate measurement of the forward and lateral directions of the curved turnouts from the baseline using the driving comfort criteria. The method was tested using real turnouts, which are located within the Pridneprovsk

  11. Swedish or American heterosexual college youth: who is more permissive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, M S; Lottes, I L; Shaver, F M

    1995-08-01

    Theories of human sexuality have proposed that two factors reduce the double standard of sexuality and lead to a convergence of male and female sexual behavior: the degree of social benefits and amount of power women have in basic societal institutions and the extent to which a society accepts permissive sexual norms. As these factors increase, the strength of the double standard will decrease and the convergence between male and female behaviors will increase. Compared to the United States, Sweden has instituted more policies to promote gender equality and has been thought to accept more permissive premarital sexual attitudes. The focus of the research reported here is to examine country and gender differences in sexual attitudes and sexual behavior for a sample of university students in the United States (N = 407) and Sweden (N = 570). Results indicate that Swedish students endorsed more similar sexual standards for women and men and reported more accepting attitudes than did American students. For sexual behavior, American men reported the most sexual experience, Swedish men the least, with the women of both countries generally in the middle category. Notwithstanding this more permissive behavior on the part of American men, gender convergence with respect to sexual behavior is stronger in Sweden on several of the dimensions examined: age of first engaging in partner-related sexual activities for those who were sexually experienced, relationship with first partner, number of partners both in the last year and in their lifetime, and affective reactions to first coitus. Gender convergence, however, is weaker in Sweden than in the United States with respect to the incidence and frequency of various sexual activities and the degree of satisfaction with current sex life. Findings are discussed with respect to the questions they raise about the current theories that framed this research and the differential amount of sex education provided in the two countries.

  12. Parental feeding practices predict authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Kennedy, Tay Seacord; Page, Melanie C; Topham, Glade L; Harrist, Amanda W

    2008-07-01

    Our goal was to identify how parental feeding practices from the nutrition literature link to general parenting styles from the child development literature to understand how to target parenting practices to increase effectiveness of interventions. Stand-alone parental feeding practices could be targeted independently. However, parental feeding practices linked to parenting styles require interventions treating underlying family dynamics as a whole. To predict parenting styles from feeding practices and to test three hypotheses: restriction and pressure to eat are positively related whereas responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are negatively related to an authoritarian parenting style; responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are positively related whereas restriction and pressure to eat are negatively related to an authoritative parenting style; a permissive parenting style is negatively linked with all six feeding practices. Baseline data of a randomized-controlled intervention study. Two hundred thirty-nine parents (93.5% mothers) of first-grade children (134 boys, 105 girls) enrolled in rural public schools. Parental responses to encouraging and modeling questionnaires and the Child Feeding Questionnaire, as well as parenting styles measured by the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses. Feeding practices explained 21%, 15%, and 8% of the variance in authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting, respectively. Restriction, pressure to eat, and monitoring (negative) significantly predicted an authoritarian style (Hypothesis 1); responsibility, restriction (negative), monitoring, and modeling predicted an authoritative style (Hypothesis 2); and modeling (negative) and restriction significantly predicted a permissive style (Hypothesis 3). Parental feeding practices with young children predict general parenting styles. Interventions that fail to address underlying parenting styles

  13. Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis: a review of the epidemiology and estimation of the global burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Lauren R; Estívariz, Concepción F; Sutter, Roland W

    2014-11-01

    Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) is a rare adverse event associated with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). This review summarizes the epidemiology and provides a global burden estimate. A literature review was conducted to abstract the epidemiology and calculate the risk of VAPP. A bootstrap method was applied to calculate global VAPP burden estimates. Trends in VAPP epidemiology varied by country income level. In the low-income country, the majority of cases occurred in individuals who had received >3 doses of OPV (63%), whereas in middle and high-income countries, most cases occurred in recipients after their first OPV dose or unvaccinated contacts (81%). Using all risk estimates, VAPP risk was 4.7 cases per million births (range, 2.4-9.7), leading to a global annual burden estimate of 498 cases (range, 255-1018). If the analysis is limited to estimates from countries that currently use OPV, the VAPP risk is 3.8 cases per million births (range, 2.9-4.7) and a burden of 399 cases (range, 306-490). Because many high-income countries have replaced OPV with inactivated poliovirus vaccine, the VAPP burden is concentrated in lower-income countries. The planned universal introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine is likely to substantially decrease the global VAPP burden by 80%-90%. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Larval diet affects mosquito development and permissiveness to Plasmodium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linenberg, Inbar; Christophides, George K; Gendrin, Mathilde

    2016-12-02

    The larval stages of malaria vector mosquitoes develop in water pools, feeding mostly on microorganisms and environmental detritus. Richness in the nutrient supply to larvae influences the development and metabolism of larvae and adults. Here, we investigated the effects of larval diet on the development, microbiota content and permissiveness to Plasmodium of Anopheles coluzzii. We tested three fish diets often used to rear mosquitoes in the laboratory, including two pelleted diets, Dr. Clarke's Pool Pellets and Nishikoi Fish Pellets, and one flaked diet, Tetramin Fish-Flakes. Larvae grow and develop faster and produce bigger adults when feeding on both types of pellets compared with flakes. This correlates with a higher microbiota load in pellet-fed larvae, in agreement with the known positive effect of the microbiota on mosquito development. Larval diet also significantly influences the prevalence and intensity of Plasmodium berghei infection in adults, whereby Nishikoi Fish Pellets-fed larvae develop into adults that are highly permissive to parasites and survive longer after infection. This correlates with a lower amount of Enterobacteriaceae in the midgut microbiota. Together, our results shed light on the influence of larval feeding on mosquito development, microbiota and vector competence; they also provide useful data for mosquito rearing.

  15. Procedures for permission of installation of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Yoriaki

    1980-01-01

    The locations of atomic power stations are first selected by electric power enterprises in consultation with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry or under the guidance of authorities concerned. The surveys of the climate, topography, water and plants in the planned sites and the influences of nuclear power generation to the surrounding areas are made by the enterprisers under the administrative guidance of the MITI. Secondly, the basic project shall be submitted to and decided by the Power Resource Development Council headed by the Prime Minister (Article 10, the Power Resource Development Law). The Council shall, if necessary, call for the attendance of the governors of prefectures concerned and hear their opinions (Article 11, the Law). As the third and most complicated phase, various procedures include; (a) permission of the changes of electrical facilities under the Electricity Enterprises Act; (b) authorization of the installation of reactors under the Nuclear Reactor Regulation Law; (c) permission or authorization under other regulations including the Agricultural Land Act, etc.; (d) additional procedures related to the indemnification to fishery and so forth. Finally the reactors are to be operated after receiving the certificates of the Minister of ITI on the inspections of construction works, nuclear fuel materials used for the reactors and welding processes of reactor containment vessels, boilers, turbines, etc. (Okada, K.)

  16. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... high-risk category, emphasizes Dr. Cargill. Photo: iStock HIV and Pregnancy Are there ways to help HIV- ...

  17. Socioeconomic burden of hereditary angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aygören-Pürsün, Emel; Bygum, Anette; Beusterien, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    who were working or in school (n = 120), 72 provided work/school absenteeism data, resulting in an estimated 20 days missing from work/school on average per year; 51% (n = 84) indicated that HAE has hindered their career/educational advancement. CONCLUSION: HAE poses a considerable burden on patients...... and their families in terms of direct medical costs and indirect costs related to lost productivity. This burden is substantial at the time of attacks and in between attacks....

  18. Subclinical Disease Burden as Assessed by Whole-Body MRI in Subjects With Prediabetes, Subjects With Diabetes, and Normal Control Subjects From the General Population: The KORA-MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberg, Fabian; Hetterich, Holger; Rospleszcz, Susanne; Lorbeer, Roberto; Auweter, Sigrid D; Schlett, Christopher L; Schafnitzel, Anina; Bayerl, Christian; Schindler, Andreas; Saam, Tobias; Müller-Peltzer, Katharina; Sommer, Wieland; Zitzelsberger, Tanja; Machann, Jürgen; Ingrisch, Michael; Selder, Sonja; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Heier, Margit; Linkohr, Birgit; Meisinger, Christa; Weber, Christian; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Massberg, Steffen; Reiser, Maximilian F; Peters, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Detailed pathophysiological manifestations of early disease in the context of prediabetes are poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the extent of early signs of metabolic and cardio-cerebrovascular complications affecting multiple organs in individuals with prediabetes. Subjects without a history of stroke, coronary artery disease, or peripheral artery disease were enrolled in a case-control study nested within the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) FF4 cohort and underwent comprehensive MRI assessment to characterize cerebral parameters (white matter lesions, microbleeds), cardiovascular parameters (carotid plaque, left ventricular function, and myocardial late gadolinium enhancement [LGE]), and metabolic parameters (hepatic proton-density fat fraction [PDFF] and subcutaneous and visceral abdominal fat). Among 400 subjects who underwent MRI, 103 subjects had prediabetes and 54 had established diabetes. Subjects with prediabetes had an increased risk for carotid plaque and adverse functional cardiac parameters, including reduced early diastolic filling rates as well as a higher prevalence of LGE compared with healthy control subjects. In addition, people with prediabetes had significantly elevated levels of PDFF and total and visceral fat. Thus, subjects with prediabetes show early signs of subclinical disease that include vascular, cardiac, and metabolic changes, as measured by whole-body MRI after adjusting for cardiometabolic risk factors. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  19. Investigation levels of radioisotopes in the body and in urine consequences of the recent recommendations on the annual limits of intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamai, Y.; Tirkel, M.; Schlesinger, T.

    1980-01-01

    The recently presented recommendations of Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) concerning annual limits of intake (ALI) for workers differ in many cases from the maximum permissible annual intake (MPAI) previously recommended. The new recommendations directly influence the derived health physics parameters, such as the acceptable body burden and concentration of radioisotopes in the urine. The investigation level at any time after intake was defined as the concentration of activity in the urine arising from an intake of 1/20 of an ALI. An analogous definition is used for the total body investigation level. A computer code was written which calculates the investigation levels in the body and urine. Results are given for some commonly used radioisotopes, as a function of time after ingestion. From these investigation levels it is possible to calculate the levels in urine and the body arising from an intake that corresponds to a particular committed dose. (H.K.)

  20. Estimating permissible /sup 129/I-emission rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebschmann, W G

    1976-06-01

    A mathematical method of iodine release limitation is presented which, in assessing the radiological effectiveness of /sup 129/I, takes advantage of the fact that the chemical behaviour of /sup 129/I resembles that of /sup 131/I and relies on the already extensive knowledge of the chemical and biological behaviour of /sup 131/I. If this method is used for calculating permissible /sup 129/I emission rates it is stated that no unnecessary restrictions need be imposed on a fuel reprocessing plant and that the grazing season for the pasture-cow-milk pathway can be taken into account. The concept is currently in use at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center and seems to be appropriate for licensing of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants.

  1. Statistic method of research reactors maximum permissible power calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosheva, N.A.; Kirsanov, G.A.; Konoplev, K.A.; Chmshkyan, D.V.

    1998-01-01

    The technique for calculating maximum permissible power of a research reactor at which the probability of the thermal-process accident does not exceed the specified value, is presented. The statistical method is used for the calculations. It is regarded that the determining function related to the reactor safety is the known function of the reactor power and many statistically independent values which list includes the reactor process parameters, geometrical characteristics of the reactor core and fuel elements, as well as random factors connected with the reactor specific features. Heat flux density or temperature is taken as a limiting factor. The program realization of the method discussed is briefly described. The results of calculating the PIK reactor margin coefficients for different probabilities of the thermal-process accident are considered as an example. It is shown that the probability of an accident with fuel element melting in hot zone is lower than 10 -8 1 per year for the reactor rated power [ru

  2. Study on the determination of permissible concentration in sea food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.M.; Lee, K.J.; Lee, W.K.

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive permissible concentration limit using the data which is suitable for Koreans is not established. In this paper, concentration limit is determined by using Korean food intake. Ministry of science of technology will adopt the new recommendation soon, so at this paper, dose limit of new value in ICRP 60 is used. Experts who have studied on this area worry about over-exposure by estimation of the case that intake contaminated a food by one radionuclide, therefore, complex intake limit is determined about all kinds of fishery products to solve this problem. Derived Food Concentration in single food divided by S(number of samples) and N(number of radionuclides) gives Complex intake limit (Derived Food Concentration in plural food). The value of N and S in this study is 3 and 12 respectively

  3. Robot Lies in Health Care: When Is Deception Morally Permissible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Autonomous robots are increasingly interacting with users who have limited knowledge of robotics and are likely to have an erroneous mental model of the robot's workings, capabilities, and internal structure. The robot's real capabilities may diverge from this mental model to the extent that one might accuse the robot's manufacturer of deceiving the user, especially in cases where the user naturally tends to ascribe exaggerated capabilities to the machine (e.g. conversational systems in elder-care contexts, or toy robots in child care). This poses the question, whether misleading or even actively deceiving the user of an autonomous artifact about the capabilities of the machine is morally bad and why. By analyzing trust, autonomy, and the erosion of trust in communicative acts as consequences of deceptive robot behavior, we formulate four criteria that must be fulfilled in order for robot deception to be morally permissible, and in some cases even morally indicated.

  4. Can ‘Mobile Platform’ and ‘Permission Marketing’ dance a tango to the consumers' tune? Modeling adoption of ‘SMS based Permission Advertising’

    OpenAIRE

    Prerna Bamoriya

    2015-01-01

    Many a times situation of advertising clutter is further aggrieved by the markers’ intrusive practices i.e. not asking for consumer’s explicit permission. It results in consumers’ alienation and reduced advertising effectiveness. Solution could be integration of Permission Marketing with an innovative advertising platform like Mobile. This study aimed to develop and validate a comprehensive model for understanding consumers’ adoption behavior towards SMS Based Permission Advertising (SBPA). F...

  5. Financial burden of medical care: a family perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robin A; Kirzinger, Whitney K

    2014-01-01

    Data from the National Health Interview Survey, 2012. In 2012, more than one in four families experienced financial burdens of medical care. Families with incomes at or below 250% of the federal poverty level (FPL) were more likely to experience financial burdens of medical care than families with incomes above 250% of the FPL. Families with children aged 0-17 years were more likely than families without children to experience financial burdens of medical care. The presence of a family member who was uninsured increased the likelihood that a family would experience a financial burden of medical care. Recently published data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) found that 1 in 5 persons was in a family having problems paying medical bills, and 1 in 10 persons was in a family with medical bills that they were unable to pay at all (1-3). NHIS defines "family" as an individual or a group of two or more related persons living together in the same housing unit. The family perspective is important to consider when examining financial risk because significant expenses for one family member may adversely affect the whole family. Health insurance coverage is one way for a family to mitigate financial risk associated with health care costs, although health insurance status may differ among family members. This report explores selected family demographic characteristics and their association with financial burdens of medical care (problems paying medical bills, paying medical bills over time, and having medical bills that cannot be paid) based on data from the 2012 NHIS. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  6. Burden of Proof in Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplin, Julian J; Selgelid, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    A common strategy in bioethics is to posit a prima facie case in favour of one policy, and to then claim that the burden of proof (that this policy should be rejected) falls on those with opposing views. If the burden of proof is not met, it is claimed, then the policy in question should be accepted. This article illustrates, and critically evaluates, examples of this strategy in debates about the sale of organs by living donors, human enhancement, and the precautionary principle. We highlight general problems with this style of argument, and particular problems with its use in specific cases. We conclude that the burden ultimately falls on decision-makers (i.e. policy-makers) to choose the policy supported by the best reasons. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Religiosity and Premarital Sexual Permissiveness: A Response to the Reiss-Heltsley and Broderick Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Howard J., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    When religiosity among college students was measured by Faulkner and DeJong's 5-D Scale of Religiosity" and the Reiss scale was used to measure permissiveness, the expected stronger relationship between religiosity and permissiveness in groups with traditions of low sexual permissiveness than in groups with traditions of high sexual…

  8. Human T Lymphocytes Are Permissive for Dengue Virus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Guilherme F; Wowk, Pryscilla F; Cataneo, Allan H D; Dos Santos, Paula F; Delgobo, Murilo; Stimamiglio, Marco A; Lo Sarzi, Maria; Thomazelli, Ana Paula F S; Conchon-Costa, Ivete; Pavanelli, Wander R; Antonelli, Lis R V; Báfica, André; Mansur, Daniel S; Dos Santos, Claudia N Duarte; Bordignon, Juliano

    2018-05-15

    Dengue virus (DV) infection can cause either a self-limiting flu-like disease or a threatening hemorrhage that may evolve to shock and death. A variety of cell types, such as dendritic cells, monocytes, and B cells, can be infected by DV. However, despite the role of T lymphocytes in the control of DV replication, there remains a paucity of information on possible DV-T cell interactions during the disease course. In the present study, we have demonstrated that primary human naive CD4 + and CD8 + T cells are permissive for DV infection. Importantly, both T cell subtypes support viral replication and secrete viable virus particles. DV infection triggers the activation of both CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocytes, but preactivation of T cells reduces the susceptibility of T cells to DV infection. Interestingly, the cytotoxicity-inducing protein granzyme A is highly secreted by human CD4 + but not CD8 + T cells after exposure to DV in vitro Additionally, using annexin V and polycaspase assays, we have demonstrated that T lymphocytes, in contrast to monocytes, are resistant to DV-induced apoptosis. Strikingly, both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells were found to be infected with DV in acutely infected dengue patients. Together, these results show that T cells are permissive for DV infection in vitro and in vivo , suggesting that this cell population may be a viral reservoir during the acute phase of the disease. IMPORTANCE Infection by dengue virus (DV) causes a flu-like disease that can evolve to severe hemorrhaging and death. T lymphocytes are important cells that regulate antibody secretion by B cells and trigger the death of infected cells. However, little is known about the direct interaction between DV and T lymphocytes. Here, we show that T lymphocytes from healthy donors are susceptible to infection by DV, leading to cell activation. Additionally, T cells seem to be resistant to DV-induced apoptosis, suggesting a potential role as a viral reservoir in humans. Finally, we show

  9. Case report: heavy metal burden presenting as Bartter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinnion, Walter J; Tran, Jessica Q

    2010-12-01

    Maternal transfer of heavy metals during fetal development or lactation possibly contributed to the clinical manifestations of Bartter syndrome and developmental delay in the offspring. An 11-month-old child diagnosed with Bartter syndrome and failure to thrive was treated concurrently for elevated metal burden while he was undergoing standard medical interventions. Treatment with body-weight doses of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) reduced the body burden of lead, beryllium, copper, mercury, and cadmium at the three- and sixth-month follow-up tests. During the course of the six-month treatment, the patient gained 2.4 kg (5.2 lb) and grew approximately 9.5 cm (3.75 in). His weight shifted from significantly below the 5th percentile in weight to within the 5th percentile, and from below the 5th to within the 10th percentile for length. The child's acquisition of lead, beryllium, and copper correspond to his mother's history of stained glass assembly and occurred during fetal development or lactation, since there were no other identifiable sources that could have contributed to the heavy metal burden. Tests for known genetic mutations leading to Bartter syndrome were all negative. This case report highlights the potential benefit of DMSA for treatment of heavy metal body burden in infants who present with Bartter syndrome.

  10. Hazards and maximum permissible doses of radiation for man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walinder, G.

    1977-11-01

    Maximum permissible dose levels are primarely based on risks for genetic damage and cancer. The reason for this is the observation that such late effects of radiation seem to arise even after doses that are to low to give rise to acute effects. In contrast to the tumour incidence found in irradiated human populations no genetic effects of radiation have been observed in man. This does not mean that genetic effects have not been induced but that it has been impossible to find an increase or to discern them among all the congenital defects, that can not be ascribed to the irradiation. As a consequence, the radiological risk estimation has been concentrated on the hazard of malignant diseases. Tumour risks are generally expressed as excess rates of incidence and mortality per million persons per rem. These figures are, however, not obtained from direct epidemiological observations but have been calculated from such data under the assumption of a linear relationship between effect and radiation dose. This formal extrapolation of observed data involves an uncertainty which, of course, is proportionately greater for the calculated effects in the millirem range. However, although the calculated tumour risks can not be said to be founded on direct scientific evidence, there are scientific reasons to believe that the figures derived from the formal extrapolations constitute an upper limit of possible ri02050

  11. Behavior of water gel permissibles in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribovich, J.; Watson, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the successful use of water gel permissibles, since their introduction in 1970, with an emphasis on some problems of behavior in their field application. One is the metal clip or ties used to seal the water gel package. Miners are occasionally hit by the 2.4 mm metal wire expelled from boreholes in normal shooting operations. Manufacturers have consequently reduced the mass of the metal ties by 25-50%, providing a partial solution. Another problem concerned two reported instances of misfired water gel burning after coal shooting operations. Extensive tests have offered no satisfactory solution as yet, except to point up a principal shortcoming of water gels: that of pressure desensitization. Two other factors affecting sensitivity, and possibly resulting in misfires, are low temperature and aging. There is a decline in air-gap sensitivity with prolonged storage but all approved water gels seem capable of meeting requirements for long periods under normal storage conditions. Low temperature tests indicate the majority of water gels become insensitive to a No. 6 EBC at temperatures easily attained in cold weather storage. An attempt was made to determine the minimum temperature at which a nitroglycerin-sensitized permisslbe could be initiated with a No. 8 cap; a particularly granular one was initiated as low as minus 196 C. (5 refs.) (In English)

  12. School Trouble: A Mother's Burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley-Marling, Curt

    2001-01-01

    Used interviews with a diverse group of parents of children who struggled academically in school to examine the effects of school troubles on mothers. Overall, the material and emotional burden for children's schoolwork fell to the mothers, many of whom felt overwhelmed and believed that the demands of schooling had diminished their quality of…

  13. Indigenous identity: burden or liberation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steur, Luisa Johanna

    2010-01-01

    With the rise of ‘adivasi’ (‘indigenous’ or ‘tribal’) movements in different parts of South Asia in the past two decades, the question of how to understand ‘adivasi identity’ has become hotly debated: is it a burden, inviting distorted stereotypical depictions of subaltern people...

  14. The Physical Burdens of Secrecy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepian, Michael L.; Masicampo, E. J.; Toosi, Negin R.; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    The present work examined whether secrets are experienced as physical burdens, thereby influencing perception and action. Four studies examined the behavior of people who harbored important secrets, such as secrets concerning infidelity and sexual orientation. People who recalled, were preoccupied with, or suppressed an important secret estimated…

  15. Diplomatic assurances - a permissible tool in the struggle against terrorism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouyal, Lone Wandahl

    2011-01-01

    such reliance on diplomatic assurances by scrutinizing the practice and the case-law of the UN treaty bodies, the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) and the offi cial statements and reports of UN institutions such as the Human Rights Council, Th e Offi cer of the High Commissioner for Human Rights as well...

  16. Exploring Permission-Induced Risk in Android Applications for Malicious Application Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wei

    2014-10-07

    Android has been a major target of malicious applications (malapps). How to detect and keep the malapps out of the app markets is an ongoing challenge. One of the central design points of Android security mechanism is permission control that restricts the access of apps to core facilities of devices. However, it imparts a significant responsibility to the app developers with regard to accurately specifying the requested permissions and to the users with regard to fully understanding the risk of granting certain combinations of permissions. Android permissions requested by an app depict the app\\'s behavioral patterns. In order to help understanding Android permissions, in this paper, we explore the permission-induced risk in Android apps on three levels in a systematic manner. First, we thoroughly analyze the risk of an individual permission and the risk of a group of collaborative permissions. We employ three feature ranking methods, namely, mutual information, correlation coefficient, and T-test to rank Android individual permissions with respect to their risk. We then use sequential forward selection as well as principal component analysis to identify risky permission subsets. Second, we evaluate the usefulness of risky permissions for malapp detection with support vector machine, decision trees, as well as random forest. Third, we in depth analyze the detection results and discuss the feasibility as well as the limitations of malapp detection based on permission requests. We evaluate our methods on a very large official app set consisting of 310 926 benign apps and 4868 real-world malapps and on a third-party app sets. The empirical results show that our malapp detectors built on risky permissions give satisfied performance (a detection rate as 94.62% with a false positive rate as 0.6%), catch the malapps\\' essential patterns on violating permission access regulations, and are universally applicable to unknown malapps (detection rate as 74.03%).

  17. Body burdens of polybrominated diphenyl ethers among urban anglers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morland, Kimberly B; Landrigan, Philip J; Sjödin, Andreas; Gobeille, Alayne K; Jones, Richard S; McGahee, Ernest E; Needham, Larry L; Patterson, Donald G

    2005-12-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely used in the United States and worldwide as flame retardants. Recent PBDE production figures show that worldwide use has increased. To determine whether fish consumption is a source of PBDE exposure for humans, a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of New York and New Jersey urban anglers was conducted during the summers of 2001-2003. Frequency of local fish consumption was assessed by questionnaire, and blood samples for PBDE analysis were collected from 94 anglers fishing from piers on the lower Hudson River and Newark Bay. We analyzed PBDEs by gas chromatography-isotope dilution-high-resolution mass spectrometry. The congeners found in anglers' serum at the highest concentrations were, by International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry numbers, BDE-47, BDE-153, and BDE-99. Anglers reporting consumption of local fish had higher, but nonstatistically significantly different, concentrations of PBDEs than did anglers who did not eat local fish. For some congeners (BDE-100 and BDE-153), we observed moderate dose-response relationships between serum PBDE levels and frequency of reported fish intake. These findings suggest that consumption of locally caught fish is not a major route of human exposure for this study population.

  18. Phenobarbital treatments lower DDT body burden in rhesus monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, P.W.; Clark, C.R.; Gee, S.J.; Krieger, R.I.

    1981-01-01

    Decreased DDT, DDD, DDE in blood and DDA in urine followed phenobarbital treatments (10 mg/kg/day, 11 days, intramuscular (im)) in three male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Animals were fed DDT diets containing up to 500 ppm DDT during a 3-year period. Induction of liver monooxygenases was confirmed by reduced in vivo antipyrine plasma half-life and increased in vitro oxidation rates of dihydroisodrin, p-nitroanisole and benz(alpha)pyrene by homogenates of liver obtained from closed needle biopsy. Chlorohydrocarbon blood levels significantly decreased during the induction period (days 1-11). Concentrations on day 28 were at or below pre-DDT exposure levels. Urine DDA gradually decreased in all monkeys from days 16 to 28.

  19. Do fish growth rates correlate with PCB body burdens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew L. Rypel; David R.. Bayne

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated whether growth rates of six fish species correlated with PCB concentrations in a moderately-to-heavily polluted freshwater ecosystem. Using a large dataset (n ¼ 984 individuals), and after accounting for growth effects related to fish age, habitat, sex, and lipids, growth correlated significantly, but positively with lipid-corrected PCB concentrations for...

  20. Does an 'activity-permissive' workplace change office workers' sitting and activity time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Gorman

    Full Text Available To describe changes in workplace physical activity, and health-, and work-related outcomes, in workers who transitioned from a conventional to an 'activity-permissive' workplace.A natural pre-post experiment conducted in Vancouver, Canada in 2011. A convenience sample of office-based workers (n=24, 75% women, mean [SD] age = 34.5 [8.1] years were examined four months following relocation from a conventional workplace (pre to a newly-constructed, purpose-built, movement-oriented physical environment (post. Workplace activity- (activPAL3-derived stepping, standing, and sitting time, health- (body composition and fasting cardio-metabolic blood profile, and work- (performance; job satisfaction related outcomes were measured pre- and post-move and compared using paired t-tests.Pre-move, on average (mean [SD] the majority of the day was spent sitting (364 [43.0] mins/8-hr workday, followed by standing (78.2 [32.1] mins/8-hr workday and stepping (37.7 [15.6] mins/8-hr workday. The transition to the 'activity-permissive' workplace resulted in a significant increase in standing time (+18.5, 95% CI: 1.8, 35.2 mins/8-hr workday, likely driven by reduced sitting time (-19.7, 95% CI: -42.1, 2.8 mins/8-hr workday rather than increased stepping time (+1.2, 95% CI: -6.2, 8.5 mins/8-hr workday. There were no statistically significant differences observed in health- or work-related outcomes.This novel, opportunistic study demonstrated that the broader workplace physical environment can beneficially impact on standing time in office workers. The long-term health and work-related benefits, and the influence of individual, organizational, and social factors on this change, requires further evaluation.

  1. Does an 'activity-permissive' workplace change office workers' sitting and activity time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Erin; Ashe, Maureen C; Dunstan, David W; Hanson, Heather M; Madden, Ken; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; McKay, Heather A; Healy, Genevieve N

    2013-01-01

    To describe changes in workplace physical activity, and health-, and work-related outcomes, in workers who transitioned from a conventional to an 'activity-permissive' workplace. A natural pre-post experiment conducted in Vancouver, Canada in 2011. A convenience sample of office-based workers (n=24, 75% women, mean [SD] age = 34.5 [8.1] years) were examined four months following relocation from a conventional workplace (pre) to a newly-constructed, purpose-built, movement-oriented physical environment (post). Workplace activity- (activPAL3-derived stepping, standing, and sitting time), health- (body composition and fasting cardio-metabolic blood profile), and work- (performance; job satisfaction) related outcomes were measured pre- and post-move and compared using paired t-tests. Pre-move, on average (mean [SD]) the majority of the day was spent sitting (364 [43.0] mins/8-hr workday), followed by standing (78.2 [32.1] mins/8-hr workday) and stepping (37.7 [15.6] mins/8-hr workday). The transition to the 'activity-permissive' workplace resulted in a significant increase in standing time (+18.5, 95% CI: 1.8, 35.2 mins/8-hr workday), likely driven by reduced sitting time (-19.7, 95% CI: -42.1, 2.8 mins/8-hr workday) rather than increased stepping time (+1.2, 95% CI: -6.2, 8.5 mins/8-hr workday). There were no statistically significant differences observed in health- or work-related outcomes. This novel, opportunistic study demonstrated that the broader workplace physical environment can beneficially impact on standing time in office workers. The long-term health and work-related benefits, and the influence of individual, organizational, and social factors on this change, requires further evaluation.

  2. Recombinant pestivirus E2 glycoproteins prevent viral attachment to permissive and non permissive cells with different efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfor, A S; Wakeley, P R; Drew, T W; Paton, D J

    2014-08-30

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important animal pathogen, which like other pestiviruses has similar molecular biological features to hepaciviruses, including human Hepatitis C virus. The pestivirus E2 glycoproteins are the major target for virus-neutralising antibodies, as well as playing a role in receptor binding and host range restriction. In this study, recombinant E2 glycoproteins (rE2) derived from three different pestivirus species were examined for their inhibitory effects on pestivirus infectivity in cell culture. Histidine-tagged rE2 glycoproteins of BVDV type 2 strain 178003, BVDV type 1 strain Oregon C24V and CSFV strain Alfort 187 were produced in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells and purified under native conditions. The ability of rE2 glycoprotein to inhibit the infection of permissive cells by both homologous and heterologous virus was compared, revealing that the inhibitory effects of rE2 glycoproteins correlated with the predicted similarity of the E2 structures in the recombinant protein and the test virus. This result suggests that the sequence and structure of E2 are likely to be involved in the host specificity of pestiviruses at their point of uptake into cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lutzomyia migonei is a permissive vector competent for Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Vanessa Cristina Fitipaldi Veloso; Pruzinova, Katerina; Sadlova, Jovana; Volfova, Vera; Myskova, Jitka; Filho, Sinval Pinto Brandão; Volf, Petr

    2016-03-17

    Leishmania infantum is the most widespread etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the world, with significant mortality rates in human cases. In Latin America, this parasite is primarily transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis, but the role of Lutzomyia migonei as a potential vector for this protozoan has been discussed. Laboratory and field investigations have contributed to this hypothesis; however, proof of the vector competence of L. migonei has not yet been provided. In this study, we evaluate for the first time the susceptibility of L. migonei to L. infantum. Females of laboratory-reared L. migonei were fed through a chick-skin membrane on rabbit blood containing L. infantum promastigotes, dissected at 1, 5 and 8 days post-infection (PI) and checked microscopically for the presence, intensity and localisation of Leishmania infections. In addition, morphometric analysis of L. infantum promastigotes was performed. High infection rates of both L. infantum strains tested were observed in L. migonei, with colonisation of the stomodeal valve already on day 5 PI. At the late-stage infection, most L. migonei females had their cardia and stomodeal valve colonised by high numbers of parasites, and no significant differences were found compared to the development in L. longipalpis. Metacyclic forms were found in all parasite-vector combinations since day 5 PI. We propose that Lutzomyia migonei belongs to sand fly species permissive to various Leishmania spp. Here we demonstrate that L. migonei is highly susceptible to the development of L. infantum. This, together with its known anthropophily, abundance in VL foci and natural infection by L. infantum, constitute important evidence that L. migonei is another vector of this parasite in Latin America.

  4. The burden of cesium 137 in forest clerks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piechotowski, I.; Jaroni, J.; Link, B.; Groezinger, O.

    2000-01-01

    In 47 forest clerks from the regions Ortenau and Oberschwaben in south-west Germany the incorporation of cesium 137 and potassium 40 was measured in autumn 1994. Soil burden as well as burden of nutrition with cesium 137 are different in these regions for geological reasons and as a result of the nuclear accident of Chernobyl. Caused by low content of clay in Oberschwaben, the transfer of cesium to plants is assisted. Heavy rainfall after the nuclear accident led to an additional increase of burden. The median of the concentration of cesium 137 was 1.4 Bq/kg body weight. The median for potassium 40 was 58 Bq/kg body weight. For cesium 137 regional differences were observed. For persons from Oberschwaben the median for cesium 137 was with 2.8 Bq/kg body weight clearly higher than for persons from Ortenau with 0,6 Bq/kg body weight. Concerning nutrition habits, the clearest difference was found comparing persons who had ate a minimum of four portions of deer from the surroundings within the last four weeks with persons who had ate less than four portions of deer from the surroundings within the last four weeks. The difference was greater in Oberschwaben than in Ortenau. The effective dose of cesium 137 calculated on the basis of the incorporation is very low compared to natural radiation. This is also valid for persons from Oberschwaben. (orig.) [de

  5. Permissivity of the NCI-60 cancer cell lines to oncolytic Vaccinia Virus GLV-1h68

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascierto, Maria Libera; Bedognetti, Davide; Uccellini, Lorenzo; Rossano, Fabio; Ascierto, Paolo A; Stroncek, David F; Restifo, Nicholas P; Wang, Ena; Szalay, Aladar A; Marincola, Francesco M; Worschech, Andrea; Yu, Zhiya; Adams, Sharon; Reinboth, Jennifer; Chen, Nanhai G; Pos, Zoltan; Roychoudhuri, Rahul; Di Pasquale, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Oncolytic viral therapy represents an alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer. We previously described GLV-1h68, a modified Vaccinia Virus with exclusive tropism for tumor cells, and we observed a cell line-specific relationship between the ability of GLV-1h68 to replicate in vitro and its ability to colonize and eliminate tumor in vivo. In the current study we surveyed the in vitro permissivity to GLV-1h68 replication of the NCI-60 panel of cell lines. Selected cell lines were also tested for permissivity to another Vaccinia Virus and a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) strain. In order to identify correlates of permissity to viral infection, we measured transcriptional profiles of the cell lines prior infection. We observed highly heterogeneous permissivity to VACV infection amongst the cell lines. The heterogeneity of permissivity was independent of tissue with the exception of B cell derivation. Cell lines were also tested for permissivity to another Vaccinia Virus and a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) strain and a significant correlation was found suggesting a common permissive phenotype. While no clear transcriptional pattern could be identified as predictor of permissivity to infection, some associations were observed suggesting multifactorial basis permissivity to viral infection. Our findings have implications for the design of oncolytic therapies for cancer and offer insights into the nature of permissivity of tumor cells to viral infection

  6. The Relationship between Sleep Quality and Brain Amyloid Burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Belinda M; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Villemagne, Victor L; Weinborn, Michael; Bucks, Romola S; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Laws, Simon M; Taddei, Kevin; Macaulay, S Lance; Ames, David; Fowler, Christopher; Maruff, Paul; Masters, Colin L; Rowe, Christopher C; Martins, Ralph N

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the association between self-reported sleep quality and levels of brain β-amyloid (Aβ) burden, and to determine the effect of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele on any associations found. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of 184 cognitively healthy men and women aged over 60 y. We measured sleep quality factors: specifically, sleep duration, latency (time taken to fall asleep), disturbances, efficiency, daytime dysfunction, and overall sleep quality, using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. All participants underwent Aβ positron emission tomography imaging for the quantification of brain Aβ burden and were APOE genotyped. Linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between sleep quality factors and brain Aβ burden, adjusting for age, body mass index, cardiovascular disease, and symptoms of depression, with APOE ε4 carriage entered as a moderator. Of the sleep factors, longer sleep latency was associated with higher levels of brain Aβ (B = 0.003 [standard error = 0.001], P = 0.02). APOE ε4 allele (carrier/noncarrier) did not moderate the relationship between sleep latency and brain Aβ burden. Our findings suggest a relationship between brain Aβ burden and sleep latency, independent of APOE ε4 genotype. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. An Ethics of Permission: A Response to the California End of Life Option Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Craig

    2016-01-01

    An ethics of permission can be helpful in framing a response to the ethical differences surrounding the California End of Life Option Act. Law does not define morality, and reaching a moral understanding demands thorough reflection. An ethics of permission examines the ethical demands of a permissive law for both clinician and patient. Serving the good of the patient, respecting professional conscience, and following the law are three ethical elements. Although developing an ethics of permission includes these three elements, these elements do not exhaust all the moral implications involved. An ethics of permission also includes the importance of exercising professional tolerance in the honoring of clinicians who choose to participate or refuse to participate. In addition, an ethics of permission also provides insight in implementing just and fair behavior among medical professionals.

  8. The increasing burden of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lépine J-P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Pierre Lépine1, Mike Briley21Hôpital Lariboisière Fernand Widal, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris Unité INSERM 705 CNRS UMR 8206, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France; 2NeuroBiz Consulting and Communication, Castres, FranceAbstract: Recent epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the lifetime prevalence of depression is in the range of 10% to 15%. Mood disorders, as defined by the World Mental Health and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, have a 12-month prevalence which varies from 3% in Japan to over 9% in the US. A recent American survey found the prevalence of current depression to be 9% and the rate of current major depression to be 3.4%. All studies of depressive disorders have stressed the importance of the mortality and morbidity associated with depression. The mortality risk for suicide in depressed patients is more than 20-fold greater than in the general population. Recent studies have also shown the importance of depression as a risk factor for cardiovascular death. The risk of cardiac mortality after an initial myocardial infarction is greater in patients with depression and related to the severity of the depressive episode. Greater severity of depressive symptoms has been found to be associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality including cardiovascular death and stroke. In addition to mortality, functional impairment and disability associated with depression have been consistently reported. Depression increases the risk of decreased workplace productivity and absenteeism resulting in lowered income or unemployment. Absenteeism and presenteeism (being physically present at work but functioning suboptimally have been estimated to result in a loss of $36.6 billion per year in the US. Worldwide projections by the World Health Organization for the year 2030 identify unipolar major depression as the leading cause of disease burden

  9. Schizophrenia: management and family burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebit, M B

    2007-01-01

    To explore schizophrenia with respect to its management, causes, risk factors as well as the impact it has in families regarding the burden and social networks support. Desk literature reviews. The findings are that patients with schizophrenia typically have great difficulty following a medication regimen, but they also have the greatest potential for benefiting from adherence. As with other chronic diseases that lack a definitive cure, the individual's service/recovery plan must include treatment interventions directed towards decreasing manifestations of the illness, rehabilitative services, enhancing adaptive skills, and social support mobilization aimed at optimizing function and quality of life. Finally, this paper is not exhaustive, but a pointer for further readings.

  10. Burden of pediatric hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shabrawi, Mortada Hassan; Kamal, Naglaa Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health burden infecting 170-210 million people worldwide. Additional 3-4 millions are newly-infected annually. Prevalence of pediatric infection varies from 0.05%-0.36% in the United States and Europe; up to 1.8%-5.8% in some developing countries. The highest prevalence occurs in Egypt, sub-Saharan Africa, Amazon basin and Mongolia. HCV has been present in some populations for several centuries, notably genotypes 1 and 2 in West Africa. Parenteral anti-schis...

  11. Burden of pediatric hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shabrawi, Mortada Hassan; Kamal, Naglaa Mohamed

    2013-11-28

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health burden infecting 170-210 million people worldwide. Additional 3-4 millions are newly-infected annually. Prevalence of pediatric infection varies from 0.05%-0.36% in the United States and Europe; up to 1.8%-5.8% in some developing countries. The highest prevalence occurs in Egypt, sub-Saharan Africa, Amazon basin and Mongolia. HCV has been present in some populations for several centuries, notably genotypes 1 and 2 in West Africa. Parenteral anti-schistosomal therapy practiced in the 1960s until the early 1980s had spread HCV infection throughout Egypt. Parenteral acquisition of HCV remains a major route for infection among Egyptian children. Insufficient screening of transfusions, unsterilized injection equipment and re-used needles and syringes continue to be major routes of HCV transmission in developing countries, whereas vertical transmission and adolescent high-risk behaviors (e.g., injection drug abuse) are the major routes in developed countries. The risk of vertical transmission from an infected mother to her unborn/newborn infant is approximately 5%. Early stages of HCV infection in children do not lead to marked impairment in the quality of life nor to cognitive, behavioral or emotional dysfunction; however, caregiver stress and family system strain may occur. HCV slowly progresses to serious complications as cirrhosis (1%-2%) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) especially in the presence of risk factors as hemolytic anemias, obesity, treated malignancy, and concomitant human immune deficiency and/or hepatitis B virus co-infection. HCV vaccine remains elusive to date. Understanding the immune mechanisms in patients who successfully cleared the infection is essential for vaccine development. The pediatric standard of care treatment consists of pegylated interferon-α 2a or b plus ribavirin for 24-48 wk. The new oral direct acting antivirals, approved for adults, need further evaluation in children. Sustained

  12. 45 CFR 672.17 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. 672.17 Section 672.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING PROCEDURES § 672.17 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. The...

  13. 40 CFR 305.33 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... persuasion. 305.33 Section 305.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Hearing Procedure § 305.33 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. The Requestor has the burden of... justified. Accordingly, the Requestor bears the burdens of presentation and persuasion. Following the...

  14. Caregiving burden and its determinants in Polish caregivers of stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaracz, Krystyna; Grabowska-Fudala, Barbara; Górna, Krystyna; Kozubski, Wojciech

    2014-10-27

    Despite the growing body of literature on the consequences of providing non-professional care to stroke survivors, the determinants of caregiving burden are still not fully recognized. Identification of significant determinants can facilitate caregiver intervention programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of burden borne by caregivers of stroke patients and to identify the most important determinants of burden at 6 months after hospitalization. Data were collected from 150 pairs of stroke patients/caregivers. Caregiver burden was assessed on the Caregiver Burden scale (CB). Several characteristics were measured as potential predictors of the burden. Special attention was paid to the caregiver's sense of coherence (SOC) and anxiety. Regression analysis was employed to test the hypothesized relationships between these variables and the burden. Forty-seven percentage of the caregivers reported a substantial burden (severe or moderate). Caregiver SOC (p emotional state and the level of patients' dependency, as these are the vital and modifiable factors affecting caregiver burden following stroke.

  15. The burden of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Although formerly regarded as a nuisance disease, allergic rhinitis (AR) has a considerable effect on quality of life and can have significant consequences if left untreated. The total burden of this disease lies not only in impaired physical and social functioning but also in a financial burden made greater when considering evidence that AR is a possible causal factor in comorbid diseases such as asthma or sinusitis. Compared with matched controls, patients with AR have an approximate twofold increase in medication costs and 1.8-fold the number of visits to health practitioners. Hidden direct costs include the treatment of comorbid asthma, chronic sinusitis, otitis media, upper respiratory infection, and nasal polyposis. Nasal congestion, the most prominent symptom in AR, is associated with sleep-disordered breathing, a condition that can have a profound effect on mental health, including increased psychiatric disorders, depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse. Furthermore, sleep-disordered breathing in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased disorders of learning performance, behavior, and attention. In the United States, AR results in 3.5 million lost workdays and 2 million lost schooldays annually. Patients struggle to alleviate their misery, frequently self-adjusting their treatment regimen of over-the-counter and prescription medications because of lack of efficacy, deterioration of efficacy, lack of 24-hour relief, and bothersome side effects. Ironically, health care providers overestimate patient satisfaction with therapy. Therefore, improvement in patient-practitioner communication may enhance patient adherence with prescribed regimens.

  16. 17 CFR 230.433 - Conditions to permissible post-filing free writing prospectuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... writing prospectus used at the same time as a communication in a business combination transaction subject... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conditions to permissible post... Prospectuses § 230.433 Conditions to permissible post-filing free writing prospectuses. (a) Scope of section...

  17. 29 CFR 3.6 - Payroll deductions permissible with the approval of the Secretary of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Payroll deductions permissible with the approval of the Secretary of Labor. 3.6 Section 3.6 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS ON....6 Payroll deductions permissible with the approval of the Secretary of Labor. Any contractor or...

  18. 47 CFR 74.790 - Permissible service of digital TV translator and LPTV stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible service of digital TV translator... DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.790 Permissible service of digital TV translator and LPTV stations. (a) Digital TV translator stations provide a means whereby the...

  19. Follow My Recommendations: A Personalized Privacy Assistant for Mobile App Permissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Schaarup; Liu, Bin; Schaub, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Modern smartphone platforms have millions of apps, many of which request permissions to access private data and resources, like user accounts or location. While these smartphone platforms provide varying degrees of control over these permissions, the sheer number of decisions that users are expec...

  20. Axiomatizations of Banzhaf Permisson Values for Games with a Hierarchical Permission Structure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    In games with a permission structure it is assumed that players in a cooperative transferable utility game are hierarchically ordered in the sense that there are players that need permission from other players before they are allowed to cooperate. We provide axiomatic characterizations of Banzhaf

  1. Permissive Parenting and Mental Health in College Students: Mediating Effects of Academic Entitlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Alison L.; Hirsch, Jameson K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Student mental health may suffer due to unreasonable expectations associated with academic entitlement; permissive parenting may be one source of these expectations. The authors examined the role of academic entitlement as a mediator of the relationship between permissive parenting and psychological functioning. Participants:…

  2. 36 CFR 223.12 - Permission to cut, damage, or destroy trees without advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... destroy trees without advertisement. 223.12 Section 223.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... § 223.12 Permission to cut, damage, or destroy trees without advertisement. Permission may be granted to cut, damage, or destroy trees, portions of trees, or other forest products on National Forest System...

  3. 20 CFR 416.1321 - Suspension for not giving us permission to contact financial institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contact financial institutions. 416.1321 Section 416.1321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY....1321 Suspension for not giving us permission to contact financial institutions. (a) If you don't give us permission to contact any financial institution and request any financial records about you when...

  4. Can ‘Mobile Platform’ and ‘Permission Marketing’ dance a tango to the consumers' tune? Modeling adoption of ‘SMS based Permission Advertising’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna Bamoriya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many a times situation of advertising clutter is further aggrieved by the markers’ intrusive practices i.e. not asking for consumer’s explicit permission. It results in consumers’ alienation and reduced advertising effectiveness. Solution could be integration of Permission Marketing with an innovative advertising platform like Mobile. This study aimed to develop and validate a comprehensive model for understanding consumers’ adoption behavior towards SMS Based Permission Advertising (SBPA. For this, data was collected using systematic random sampling from 524 respondents and was analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling. Study revealed some critical variables along with complex relationships among such variables, in form of an empirically validated model. At last, study made some important implications for practitioners and researchers.

  5. The global burden of cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Anna Lena; You, Young Ae; Kim, Young Eun; Sah, Binod; Maskery, Brian; Clemens, John

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the global burden of cholera using population-based incidence data and reports. Methods Countries with a recent history of cholera were classified as endemic or non-endemic, depending on whether they had reported cholera cases in at least three of the five most recent years. The percentages of the population in each country that lacked access to improved sanitation were used to compute the populations at risk for cholera, and incidence rates from published studies were applied to groups of countries to estimate the annual number of cholera cases in endemic countries. The estimates of cholera cases in non-endemic countries were based on the average numbers of cases reported from 2000 to 2008. Literature-based estimates of cholera case-fatality rates (CFRs) were used to compute the variance-weighted average cholera CFRs for estimating the number of cholera deaths. Findings About 1.4 billion people are at risk for cholera in endemic countries. An estimated 2.8 million cholera cases occur annually in such countries (uncertainty range: 1.4–4.3) and an estimated 87 000 cholera cases occur in non-endemic countries. The incidence is estimated to be greatest in children less than 5 years of age. Every year about 91 000 people (uncertainty range: 28 000 to 142 000) die of cholera in endemic countries and 2500 people die of the disease in non-endemic countries. Conclusion The global burden of cholera, as determined through a systematic review with clearly stated assumptions, is high. The findings of this study provide a contemporary basis for planning public health interventions to control cholera. PMID:22461716

  6. Burden of Stroke in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Faisal; Deleu, Dirk; Akhtar, Naveed; Al-Yazeedi, Wafa; Mesraoua, Boulenouar; Kamran, Sadaat; Shuaib, Ashfaq

    2015-12-01

    Qatar is located on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. The total population is over 2.1 million with around 15% being Qatari citizens. Hamad General Hospital (HGH) is the only tertiary referral governmental hospital in Qatar which admits acute (thrombolysis-eligible) stroke patients. To provide an overview of the burden of stroke in Qatar. Data from literature databases, online sources and our stroke registry were collated to identify information on the burden of stroke in Qatar. Overall, over 80% of all stroke patients in Qatar are admitted in HGH. In 2010, the age-standardized incidence for first-ever ischemic stroke was 51.88/100,000 person-years. To date our stroke registry reveals that 79% of all stroke patients are male and almost 50% of stroke patients are 50 years or less. Hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia are the main predisposing factors for stroke, with ischemic stroke being more common (87%) than hemorrhagic stroke (13%). Despite the lack of a stroke unit, 9% of ischemic stroke patients are being thrombolyzed. However the presence of a stroke ward allows swift turnover of patients with a length of stay of less than 5 days before discharge or, if required, transfer to the fully-equipped hospital-based rehabilitation service. Several community awareness programs are ongoing, in addition to several research programs funded by the Qatar National Research Fund and Hamad Medical Corporation. In a country where over 15% of the population suffers from diabetes there is continuous need for national community-based awareness campaigns, prevention and educational programs particularly targeting patients and health care workers. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Possible use of wild-living rats (Rattus norvegicus) as bioindicators for heavy metal pollution. Part 2. Body burden calculations for identification of depot compartments; Untersuchungen zur Eignung wildlebender Wanderratten (Rattus norvegicus) als Indikatoren der Schwermetallbelastung. Teil 2. Die Berechnung der Koerperlast zur Identifikation von Depotkompartimenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuenschmann, S. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau, Lehrstuhl Umweltverfahrenstechnik, Zittau (Germany); Hochschule Zittau/Goerlitz, Fachbereich Mathematik/Naturwissenschaften, Zittau (Germany); Oehlmann, J. [J.W. Goethe-Univ. Frankfurt, Zoologisches Inst., Frankfurt/M. (Germany); Delakowitz, B. [Hochschule Zittau/Goerlitz, Fachbereich Mathematik/Naturwissenschaften, Zittau (Germany); Markert, B. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau, Lehrstuhl Umweltverfahrenstechnik, Zittau (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Background concentrations of eleven elements in tissues and organs of wild-living rats (Rattus norvegicus) obtained from a region (Euroregion Neisse, around the trilateral border region of Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic) distinguished by low to intermediate levels of environmental contaminations are given in part I of this work. In order to identify the most important depot compartments for certain elements, a body burden method was applied. Differences of affinity due to sex and age of analyzed rats are discussed, as are the suitability of specific organs and tissues with regard to bioaccumulation measurements concerning metals. The principal depot compartments for the heavy metals Cu, Mn, Cd, (in adult rats) and Tl are the liver and kidneys, whereas the elements Ni, Sr, Pb (for adult animals) and Ti are more affinitively to bones. Co and Zn displayed a more pronounced affinity towards tissues of the bones and liver. The analysis revealed large differences in Cd and Pb distributions both among young and adult rats, and with respect to sexes. It can be concluded that the distribution of the elements investigated in this study in free-living rats agrees with that in man, except for that of Ni. The above agreement gives proof of the possibility to use depot organs of rats for bioindication which was already mentioned in part I of this work. (Sex and age-related quantification of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, Tl and Zn in liver, heart, lung, kidney, muscle, brain and bones and establishment of distribution patterns'). (orig.) [German] Die in Teil I quantifizierten Hintergrundkonzentrationen von 11 Elementen in Geweben und Organen wildlebender Ratten (Rattus norvegicus) aus einem gering bis maessig belasteten Untersuchungsgebiet (Euroregion Neisse) werden im 2. Teil fuer die Berechnung ihres relativen Beitrags zur Gesamtkoerperbelastung (Koerperlast oder Bodyburden) verwendet, um bevorzugte Depotkompartimente fuer die untersuchten Elemente

  8. The Humanistic and Economic Burden of Narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Natalia M; Villa, Kathleen F; Black, Jed; Chervin, Ronald D; Witt, Edward A

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the burden of narcolepsy--with respect to psychiatric comorbidities, Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), direct costs for healthcare resource utilization, and indirect costs for reported work loss-through comparison of patients to matched controls. This analysis was conducted on data from the 2011, 2012, and 2013 US National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS; 2011 NHWS n = 75,000, 2012 NHWS n = 71,157, and 2013 NHWS n = 75,000). Patients who reported a narcolepsy diagnosis (n = 437) were matched 1:2 with controls (n = 874) on age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, household income, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol use, exercise, and physical comorbidity. Chi-square tests and one-way analyses of variance were used to assess whether the narcolepsy and control groups differed on psychiatric comorbidities, HRQoL, labor force participation, work productivity, and healthcare resource utilization. Patients with narcolepsy, in comparison to matched controls, reported substantially (two to four times) greater psychiatric comorbidity, HRQoL impairment, prevalence of long-term disability, absenteeism, and presenteeism, and greater resource use in the past 6 mo as indicated by higher mean number of hospitalizations, emergency department visits, traditional healthcare professional visits, neurologist visits, and psychiatrist visits (each p productivity through effective assessment and treatment of narcolepsy. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  9. The Burden of Schizophrenia on Caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Filiz Adana; Hulya Arslantas

    2011-01-01

    Caregivers’ burden in schizophrenia is a complex concept often with negative connotations. The concept refers to the impact of having a schizophrenia patient in the family including emotional, psychological, physical, economic distress and feelings of shame, embarrassment, guilt, and self-blame expe-rienced by the caregivers. There are objective and subjective aspects of care-givers’ burden. The objective burden refers to observed and verifiable impact of the diseased person in the family suc...

  10. A new model for deteriorating items with inflation under permissible delay in payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Tripathi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Inflation is an important factor influencing traditional economic order quality models. Marketing strategy depends on inflation due to public demand and availability of the materials. This paper presents an optimal inventory policy for deteriorating items using exponential demand rate under permissible delay in payments. Mathematical model has been derived under two cases: case I: cycle time is greater than or equal to permissible delay period, case II: cycle time is less than permissible delay period by considering holding cost as a function of time. Numerical examples and sensitivity analysis are given to reflect the numerical results. Mathematica software is used for finding optimal solutions.

  11. Caregiver Burden in Alcohol Dependence Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanujam Vaishnavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alcoholism is a major threat to the individual as well as the society and the maximum burden of the illness is borne by the family. Aim. The study is aimed at assessing the pattern of burden on the caregivers of alcohol dependent patients and at assessing the relationship between the severity of dependence and the burden on caregivers. Settings and Design. Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in the Department of Psychiatry, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional assessment was done in 200 patients with alcohol dependence and their caregivers. The severity of dependence and the pattern of burden on caregivers were assessed. Statistical Analysis. The data thus collected was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. The study demonstrates that caregivers of alcohol dependent patients reported significant objective burden and subjective burden. Furthermore, the severity of alcohol dependence and the domains of burden such as financial burden, disruption of family interaction, and disruption of family routine activities were positively correlated with high level of significance. Conclusion. The current study has illustrated that all the caregivers experienced significant amount of burden which has to be addressed for better treatment outcome of the patients.

  12. The burden of illness in patients with hereditary angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, Aleena

    2013-11-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare genetic disease characterized by long-term recurrent attacks of subcutaneous or submucosal edema in different parts of the body. A comprehensive review of the literature on burden of illness for patients with HAE is presented. A Boolean search was performed using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and the Internet. Articles discussing aspects of the burden of illness in HAE were selected. Topics focused on the course of the disease, nature of attacks, treatment, quality of life, and costs. Hereditary angioedema is associated with a significant and multifaceted disease burden. Diagnosis is often delayed for years, with patients receiving ineffective treatment and unnecessary medical procedures before diagnosis. HAE attacks are painful, unpredictable, and debilitating and often require emergency medical attention. Attacks can affect a patient's daily activities, including work or schooling. Depression and anxiety are prevalent in patients with HAE. Recent advances in treatment provide patients with effective and well-tolerated prophylactic and on-demand therapeutic options. However, end points specific to HAE that better measure the impact of treatment on disease burden are lacking. Furthermore, there is a notable paucity of literature directed toward physicians who are instrumental in diagnosing and treating patients with HAE (eg, emergency department). More publications are broadening the understanding of HAE. However, important gaps remain. Effective management of HAE requires a more comprehensive understanding of the disease burden so that disease management can be individualized to meet specific patient needs. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Permissive parenting and mental health in college students: Mediating effects of academic entitlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Alison L; Hirsch, Jameson K

    2016-01-01

    Student mental health may suffer due to unreasonable expectations associated with academic entitlement; permissive parenting may be one source of these expectations. The authors examined the role of academic entitlement as a mediator of the relationship between permissive parenting and psychological functioning. Participants were 524 undergraduate students at a single institution (52% female; age range = 18-22). Data collection was completed in May 2011. Cross-sectional design. Participants completed online self-report measures of parenting styles, academic entitlement, stress, depressive symptoms, and well-being. Permissive parenting was associated with greater academic entitlement and, in turn, to more perceived stress and poorer mental health. Mother/father differences were found in some cases. Academic entitlement may partially explain why permissive parenting is detrimentally related to mental health for college students. Implications for academic affairs and counseling include helping students develop an appreciation of the role of self-regulation in college success.

  14. Exploring Permission-Induced Risk in Android Applications for Malicious Application Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Xing; Feng, Dawei; Liu, Jiqiang; Han, Zhen; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2014-01-01

    Android has been a major target of malicious applications (malapps). How to detect and keep the malapps out of the app markets is an ongoing challenge. One of the central design points of Android security mechanism is permission control

  15. Maximum permissible concentrations and negligible concentrations for antifouling substances. Irgarol 1051, dichlofluanid, ziram, chlorothalonil and TCMTB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel AP van; Vlaardingen P van; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This report presents maximum permissible concentrations and negligible concentrations that have been derived for various antifouling substances used as substitutes for TBT. Included here are Irgarol 1051, dichlofluanide, ziram, chlorothalonil and TCMTB.

  16. State-of-the-art literature review on permissive/protected left-turn control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    In spring 2010, the Illinois Department of Transportation initiated an areawide implementation to integrate the : flashing yellow arrow as the display for the left-turn permissive interval at more than 100 intersections operating : with protected/per...

  17. Assessment of permissible low-level releases of radionuclides into the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.; Sazykina, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    The subject of this paper is radio-ecological assessment of permissible low-level releases of radionuclides in sea waters ensuring the radiological protection of the human population, as well as marine biota. (author)

  18. The Body Burden of Caesium-137 in People of Southern Finland 1961-1963; Charge Corporelle de Cesium 137 chez les Habitants de la Finlande Meridionale en 1961-1963; 0421 041e 0414 ; Carga Corporal de Cesio-137 en Ciertos Grupos Demograficos del Sur de Finlandia en 1961-1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haesaenen, E.; Miettinen, J. K. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    1964-11-15

    In connection with the investigations of the caesium-137, body burden of Finnish Lapps several measurements of smaller groups of people living in Southern Finland were carried out. In November 1961 eleven Helsinki inhabitants, five men and six women, 15 to 54 yr. old, were counted for caesium-137 and potassium in Stockholm. None of these persons were laboratory workers, two were schoolboys. They were apparently healthy. Their diet was studied by the interview method. Ten of these people were counted again in the mobile whole-body counter of the Radiochemical Department of the University of Helsinki one year later. The average body burden of caesium-137 in men (5, average age 29) had increased from 8.4 nc in November 1961 to 18.4 nc in November 1962, in women (5, average age 34) from 2.9 nc to 8.7 nc. Potassium contents were the same within 2% (men 140 g, women, 100 g) For more detailed studies larger control groups were selected at the beginning of 1963 and counted four times, in February, May, August and October. For the group of men 25 privates of an infantry battalion (age 19, average weight 65 kg), for women 24 girl students of a household school (age 22, average weight 60 kg), were selected. In both cases the diet could be checked in detail and could be considered to be an average Finnish diet. In addition, the individual food consumption of each subject was studied by interview with the aid of weighed samples. Caesium-137 contents of both diets were determined for the time periods between the measurements. In both groups the caesium-137 content remained about constant (men, 17,5 nc; women, 11 nc) until the end of June, when the caesium-137 content of milk and meat was approximately doubled within about one week. At the end of August the body burden of caesium-137 had increased in, both groups to about 40% above the spring level in the middle of October the men's values had increased by 22%, the women's values by 14% of the August level. The determination of

  19. Drug evaluation and the permissive principle: continuities and contradictions between standards and practices in antidepressant regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, John; Davis, Courtney

    2009-08-01

    Pharmaceuticals are not permitted on to the market unless they are granted regulatory approval. The regulatory process is, therefore, crucial in whether or not a drug is widely prescribed. Regulatory agencies have developed standards of performance that pharmaceuticals are supposed to meet before entering the market. Regulation of technologies is often discussed by reference to the precautionary principle. In contrast, this paper develops the concept of the 'permissive principle' as a way of understanding the departure of regulators' practices from standards of drug efficacy to which regulatory agencies themselves subscribe. By taking a case study of antidepressant regulation in the UK and the USA, the mechanisms of permissive regulatory practices are examined. An STS methodology of both spatial (international) and temporal comparisons of regulatory practices with regulatory standards is employed to identify the nature and extent of the permissive regulation. It is found that the permissive principle was adopted by drug regulators in the UK and the USA, but more so by the former than the latter. Evidently, permissive regulation, which favours the commercial interests of the drug manufacturer, but is contrary to the interests of patients, may penetrate to the heart of regulatory science. On the other hand, permissive regulation of specific drugs should not be regarded as an inevitable result of marketing strategies and concomitant networks deployed by powerful pharmaceutical companies, because the extent of permissive regulation may vary according to the intra-institutional normative commitments of regulators to uphold their technical standards against the commercial interests of the manufacturer. Likely sociological factors that can account for such permissive regulatory practices are 'corporate bias', secrecy and excessive regulatory trust in the pharmaceutical industry in the UK, political expediency and ideological capture in the USA, combined in both countries

  20. Incidental Findings in Imaging Research: Evaluating Incidence, Benefit and Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Nicholas M.; Fletcher, Joel G.; Siddiki, Hassan A.; Harmsen, W. Scott; O’Byrne, Megan M.; Port, John D.; Tremaine, William J.; Pitot, Henry C.; McFarland, Beth; Robinson, Marguerite E.; Koenig, Barabara A.; King, Bernard F.; Wolf, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Context Little information exists concerning the frequency of clinically significant incidental findings (IFs) identified in the course of imaging research across a broad spectrum of imaging modalities and body regions. Objective To estimate the frequency with which research imaging IFs generate further clinical action, and the medical benefit/burden of identifying these IFs. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective review of subjects undergoing a research imaging exam that was interpreted by a radiologist for IFs in the first quarter of 2004, with 3-year clinical follow-up. An expert panel reviewed IFs generating clinical action to determine medical benefit/burden based on predefined criteria. Main Outcome Measures Frequency of (1) IFs that generated further clinical action by modality, body part, age, gender, and (2) IFs resulting in clear medical benefit or burden. Results 1376 patients underwent 1426 research imaging studies. 40% (567/1426) of exams had at least one IF (1055 total). Risk of an IF increased significantly by age (OR=1.5; [1.4–1.7=95% C.I.] per decade increase). Abdominopelvic CT generated more IFs than other exams (OR=18.9 compared with ultrasound; 9.2% with subsequent clinical action), with CT Thorax and MR brain next (OR=11.9 and 5.9; 2.8% and 2.2% with action, respectively). Overall 6.2% of exams (35/567) with an IF generated clinical action, resulting in clear medical benefit in 1.1% (6/567) and clear medical burden in 0.5% (3/567). In most instances, medical benefit/burden was unclear (4.6%; 26/567). Conclusions The frequency of IFs in imaging research exams varies significantly by imaging modality, body region and age. Research imaging studies at high risk for generating IFs can be identified. Routine evaluation of research images by radiologists may result in identification of IFs in a substantial number of cases and subsequent clinical action to address them in much smaller number. Such clinical action can result in medical

  1. BODY COMPOSITION OF A MILITARY POPULATION FT. CARSON 1963. I. BODY DENSITY, FAT, AND POTASSIUM 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body volumes were measured on 97 soldiers between the ages of 17 - 52 years by water displacement volumetry and corrected for respiratory gas by a...Effective ranking of body fat burden of populations was demonstrated by body volumetry and age differences were noted from potassium 40 counting. A

  2. Procedures for permission under atomic energy laws in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnt, D.

    1980-01-01

    The selection of proper locations by the enterprisers responsible for projects is usually accompanied in recent years by the active location policy of the state. The application for the permission of locations and projects shall be filed to one or more ministries of the province where the facilities are to be installed. The papers describing the projects, especially safety reports and summaries shall be attached to the applications. The applications shall be published on a bulletin of the government office or daily newspapers, and every person has access to the applications, the safety reports and the summaries for two months. When objections are lodged within the period, closed hearings are held to examine the protests with attendance of the objector, the enterpriser of the project and the government office which has joined the decision. Following the phase of public participation and after the confirmation of facts highly important to the decision, fact examination is carried out with cooperation of specialists by the government office authorized for permission. As a special feature of the procedures under Atomgesetz, the government office is not necessarily obliged to give permission considering the safety policy, even when the pre-requisites of permission are all fulfilled. In other respects, permission may be offered for each partial installation of the facilities and various stages of operation by particular administrative measures (partial permission). The experiences of past 20 years indicate the virtual defects of the laws applied, and the amendment is urgently required. (Okada, K.)

  3. Perceived realism moderates the relation between sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes in Dutch adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Doornwaard, Suzan M; Rommes, Els; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined whether the development of sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes would be more strongly interrelated when adolescents perceived sexualized media images as highly realistic. We used data from a three-wave longitudinal sample of 444 Dutch adolescents aged 13-16 years at baseline. Results from parallel process latent growth modeling multigroup analyses showed that higher initial levels of sexualized media consumption were associated with higher initial level of permissive sexual attitudes. Moreover, increases of sexualized media consumption over time were associated with increases of permissive sexual attitudes over time. Considering the moderation by perceived realism, we found these effects only for those who perceived sexualized media as more realistic. Findings for male and female adolescents were similar except for the relations between initial levels and subsequent development. Among male adolescents who perceived sexualized media images to be realistic, higher initial levels of permissive sexual attitudes were related to subsequent less rapid development of sexualized media consumption. For male adolescents who perceived sexualized media to be less realistic, higher initial levels of sexualized media consumption were related to a subsequent less rapid development of permissive sexual attitudes. These relations were not found for female adolescents. Overall, our results suggest that, in male and female adolescents, those with a high level of perceived realism showed a correlated development of sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes. These findings point to a need for extended information on how to guide adolescents in interpreting and handling sexualized media in everyday life.

  4. Formalising arguments about the burden of persuasion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, H.; Sartor, G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an argument-based logic for reasoning about allocations of the burden of persuasion. The logic extends the system of Prakken (2001), which in turn modified the system of Prakken & Sartor (1996) with the possibility to distribute the burden of proof over both sides in an argument

  5. Breakout Session: Fight for Your Right to Copy: How One Library Acquired the Copyright Permissions Service and Reduced Students’ Costs. Presented by Emily Riha, Copyright Permissions Coordinator, University of Minnesota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Strittmatter

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Emily Riha, Copyright Permissions Coordinator at the University of Minnesota, presented at the 2017 Kraemer Copyright Conference her experience when the process of securing copyright permissions moved from Printing Services to the University Libraries.

  6. 40 CFR 22.24 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. 22.24 Section 22.24 Protection of Environment... Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. (a) The complainant has the burdens of presentation and persuasion that the violation occurred as set forth in the...

  7. 40 CFR 179.91 - Burden of going forward; burden of persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... persuasion. 179.91 Section 179.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...; burden of persuasion. (a) The party whose request for an evidentiary hearing was granted has the burden... FFDCA has the burden of persuasion in the hearing on that issue, whether the proceeding concerns the...

  8. The global burden of dengue: an analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Stanaway (Jeffrey D.); D.S. Shepard (Donald); E.A. Undurraga (Eduardo); Halasa, Y.A. (Yara A); L.E. Coffeng (Luc); Brady, O.J. (Oliver J); Hay, S.I. (Simon I); Bedi, N. (Neeraj); I.M. Bensenor (Isabela M.); C.A. Castañeda-Orjuela (Carlos A); T.-W. Chuang (Ting-Wu); K.B. Gibney (Katherine B); Z.A. Memish (Ziad); A. Rafay (Anwar); K.N. Ukwaja (Kingsley N); N. Yonemoto (Naohiro); C.J.L. Murray (Christopher)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Dengue is the most common arbovirus infection globally, but its burden is poorly quantified. We estimated dengue mortality, incidence, and burden for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Methods We modelled mortality from vital registration, verbal autopsy, and

  9. Body Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  10. The humanistic burden of hereditary angioedema: results from the Burden of Illness Study in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Teresa; Aygören-Pürsün, Emel; Bygum, Anette; Beusterien, Kathleen; Hautamaki, Emily; Sisic, Zlatko; Wait, Suzanne; Boysen, Henrik B

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare but potentially life-threatening disease marked by spontaneous, recurrent attacks of swelling. The broad range of consequences of HAE on patients' lives is not well understood. The study objective was to comprehensively characterize the burden of illness and impact of HAE types I and II from the patient perspective. The HAE Burden of Illness Study in Europe was conducted in Spain, Germany, and Denmark to assess the real-world experience of HAE from the patient perspective via a one-time survey, which included items on clinical characteristics and physical and emotional impacts. One hundred eighty-six patients participated; 59% reported having an attack at least once a month, 67% reported moderate-to-severe pain during their last attack, and 74% reported moderate-to-severe swelling. The most common sites of the last attack were the abdomen and extremities; 24% experienced an attack in more than one site. The impact of HAE on daily activities was high during attacks and did not vary significantly by body site affected; patients also reported that HAE impacted their daily activities between attacks. Patients reported substantial anxiety about future attacks, traveling, and passing HAE to their children. Based on Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores, 38 and 14% had clinically meaningful anxiety and depression, respectively. Despite standard of care, HAE patients still have frequent and painful attacks. Patients experience substantial impairment physically and emotionally both during and between attacks. A better understanding of these effects may help in the clinical management of HAE patients.

  11. 137Cs radiation burden on children from a highly contaminated area of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortmann, B.; Wendhausen, H.; Wassermann, O.; Fischer, R.; Nielsen, P.; Shaverda, V.F.

    1996-01-01

    The radiation burden from 137 Cs sources on 22 children from a small Byelorussian village was studied from 1992 to 1994. Foodstuff, whole body burden and urinary excretion of 137 Cs were measured, intake rates, biological half-lives and doses were calculated. The median value for the 137 Cs whole body incorporation level was found to be 124 Bq, the biological half life was calculated as 68 d for girls and 50 d for boys. The internal dose caused by 137 Cs was found to be negligible in comparison to that from external sources. No deviation from normal values could be shown in simultaneously studied clinico-chemical parameters

  12. Distribution of major health risks: findings from the Global Burden of Disease study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Rodgers

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Most analyses of risks to health focus on the total burden of their aggregate effects. The distribution of risk-factor-attributable disease burden, for example by age or exposure level, can inform the selection and targeting of specific interventions and programs, and increase cost-effectiveness.For 26 selected risk factors, expert working groups conducted comprehensive reviews of data on risk-factor exposure and hazard for 14 epidemiological subregions of the world, by age and sex. Age-sex-subregion-population attributable fractions were estimated and applied to the mortality and burden of disease estimates from the World Health Organization Global Burden of Disease database. Where possible, exposure levels were assessed as continuous measures, or as multiple categories. The proportion of risk-factor-attributable burden in different population subgroups, defined by age, sex, and exposure level, was estimated. For major cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, cholesterol, tobacco use, fruit and vegetable intake, body mass index, and physical inactivity 43%-61% of attributable disease burden occurred between the ages of 15 and 59 y, and 87% of alcohol-attributable burden occurred in this age group. Most of the disease burden for continuous risks occurred in those with only moderately raised levels, not among those with levels above commonly used cut-points, such as those with hypertension or obesity. Of all disease burden attributable to being underweight during childhood, 55% occurred among children 1-3 standard deviations below the reference population median, and the remainder occurred among severely malnourished children, who were three or more standard deviations below median.Many major global risks are widely spread in a population, rather than restricted to a minority. Population-based strategies that seek to shift the whole distribution of risk factors often have the potential to produce substantial reductions in disease burden.

  13. The link between maternal sleep and permissive parenting during late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Kelly M; Elmore-Staton, Lori; Buckhalt, Joseph A; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2018-03-05

    Utilizing a multi-method design, the present study examined the association between maternal sleep, assessed via actigraphy and self-reports, and permissive parenting (e.g. lax, inconsistent discipline) during adolescence, as well as the extent to which this association differed by mothers' race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The sample was comprised of 234 mothers (M age = 41.76 years, SD = 6.25; 67% European-American, 31% African-American, 2% other race/ethnicities) and 237 adolescents (113 boys, 124 girls; M age = 15.80 years, SD = 0.80; 66% European-American, 34% African-American). Mothers' sleep duration (actual sleep minutes) and quality (sleep efficiency, latency, long wake episodes) were assessed using actigraphy. Mothers also reported on their sleep problems and adolescents reported on mothers' permissive parenting behaviours. Results revealed that actigraphy-based longer sleep duration and shorter sleep latency were associated with lower levels of permissive parenting. Further, mothers' race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status moderated the association between actigraphy-based sleep quality (i.e. sleep efficiency, long wake episodes) and permissive parenting. Specifically, a negative association between sleep efficiency and permissive parenting was evident only for African-American mothers. In addition, a positive association between more frequent night wakings and permissive parenting was evident only for mothers from lower socioeconomic status households. The findings highlight the benefits of longer and higher-quality sleep for reducing the risk of permissive parenting, especially among ethnic minority mothers and mothers from lower socioeconomic status households. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.

  14. A Dynamic Operation Permission Technique Based on an MFM Model and Numerical Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akio, Gofuku; Masahiro, Yonemura

    2011-01-01

    It is important to support operator activities to an abnormal plant situation where many counter actions are taken in relatively short time. The authors proposed a technique called dynamic operation permission to decrease human errors without eliminating creative idea of operators to cope with an abnormal plant situation by checking if the counter action taken is consistent with emergency operation procedure. If the counter action is inconsistent, a dynamic operation permission system warns it to operators. It also explains how and why the counter action is inconsistent and what influence will appear on the future plant behavior by a qualitative influence inference technique based on a model by the Mf (Multilevel Flow Modeling). However, the previous dynamic operation permission is not able to explain quantitative effects on plant future behavior. Moreover, many possible influence paths are derived because a qualitative reasoning does not give a solution when positive and negative influences are propagated to the same node. This study extends the dynamic operation permission by combining the qualitative reasoning and the numerical simulation technique. The qualitative reasoning based on an Mf model of plant derives all possible influence propagation paths. Then, a numerical simulation gives a prediction of plant future behavior in the case of taking a counter action. The influence propagation that does not coincide with the simulation results is excluded from possible influence paths. The extended technique is implemented in a dynamic operation permission system for an oil refinery plant. An MFM model and a static numerical simulator are developed. The results of dynamic operation permission for some abnormal plant situations show the improvement of the accuracy of dynamic operation permission and the quality of explanation for the effects of the counter action taken

  15. The Burden of Schizophrenia on Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Adana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Caregivers’ burden in schizophrenia is a complex concept often with negative connotations. The concept refers to the impact of having a schizophrenia patient in the family including emotional, psychological, physical, economic distress and feelings of shame, embarrassment, guilt, and self-blame expe-rienced by the caregivers. There are objective and subjective aspects of care-givers’ burden. The objective burden refers to observed and verifiable impact of the diseased person in the family such as the patients disturbing behaviors, economic difficulties, and loss of income, restricted social activities, distressed household atmosphere, and undesirable influences on physical and mental health of the family members. The subjective burden refers to the extent of emotional distress caused by the objective burden. The data in the pertinent literature suggest an association between caregivers’ burden and sex, ethnicity, culture, caregivers’ health and quality of life, social support, and the symptomatology as presented by the patient. In order to promote mental health of schizophrenia patients along with their caregivers, the mental health workers should strive to find the means of supporting, informing, and cooperating with the family members. Psychosocial interventions designed for families and psychosocial rehabilitations programs designed for schizophrenia patients are effective means of easing caregivers’ burden.

  16. Organ burdens and excretion rates of inhaled uranium - computations using ICRP model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abani, M.C.; Murthy, K.B.S.; Sunta, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    Uranium being a highly toxic material, proper estimation of the body burden is very important. During manufacture of uranium fuel, it is likely to enter the body by inhalation. By the body burden and excretion measurements, one should be able to assess whether the intake is within the safe limits or not. This is possible if one performs theoretical calculations and estimates the amount of uranium which builds up in the body as a function of time. Similarly theoretical estimates in case of excretion have to be made. For this purpose, a computer programme has been developed to find out organ burdens and excretion rates resulting from exposure to a radioactive nuclide. ICRP-30 lung model has been used and cases of single instantaneous inhalation of 1 ALI as well as inhalation at a steady rate of ALI/365 per day have been considered. Using this programme, results for uranium aerosols of classes D, W and Y and sizes 0.2, 1 and 5 microns are generated by ND computers in tabular as well as graphical forms. These will be useful in conjunction with body burden measurements by direct counting or excretion analysis. (author). 7 tabs., 56 figs

  17. A single-blinded randomised clinical trial of permissive underfeeding in patients requiring parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owais, Anwar Elias; Kabir, Syed Irfan; Mcnaught, Clare; Gatt, Marcel; MacFie, John

    2014-12-01

    The importance of adequate nutritional support is well established, but characterising what 'adequate nutrition' represents remains contentious. In recent years there has been increasing interest in the concept of 'permissive underfeeding' where patients are intentionally prescribed less nutrition than their calculated requirements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of permissive underfeeding on septic and nutrition related morbidity in patients requiring short term parenteral nutrition (PN). This was a single-blinded randomised clinical trial of 50 consecutive patients requiring parenteral nutritional support. Patients were randomized to receive either normocaloric or hypocaloric feeding (respectively 100% vs. 60% of estimated requirements). The primary end point was septic complications. Secondary end points included the metabolic, physiological and clinical outcomes to the two feeding protocols. Permissive underfeeding was associated with fewer septic complications (3 vs. 12 patients; p = 0.003), and a lower incidence of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (9 vs. 16 patients; p = 0.017). Permissively underfed patients had fewer feed related complications (2 vs. 9 patients; p = 0.016). Permissive underfeeding in patients requiring short term PN appears to be safe and may results in reduced septic and feed-related complications. NCT01154179 TRIAL REGISTRY: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01154179. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Is behind armour blunt trauma a real threat to users of body armour? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Debra J; Horsfall, I; Malbon, C

    2016-02-01

    Behind armour blunt trauma (BABT) has been defined as a non-penetrating injury caused by the rapid deformation of body armour. There has been an increasing awareness of BABT as an injury mechanism in both the military and civilian worlds; whether BABT results in serious injuries is debatable. A systematic review of the openly accessible literature was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses method to investigate those injuries classified as BABT and their severity. 50 sources were identified that included pertinent information relevant to this systematic review on BABT injuries. Typical injuries reported included skin contusion, laceration and penetration, rib fracture and contusions to lungs, kidneys, spleen and (rarely) the heart. No evidence of fatal injuries due to BABT was identified. Whether BABT can lead to life-threatening injuries when small-arms ammunition impacts body armour components designed to stop that ammunition is debatable. It should be emphasised that other data may be available in government reports that are not openly available. Further research should be considered that investigates developments in body armour, including initiatives that involve reducing burden, and how they affect BABT. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Health and economic burden of obesity in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketevan Rtveladze

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Higher and lower-middle income countries are increasingly affected by obesity. Obesity-related diseases are placing a substantial health and economic burden on Brazil. Our aim is to measure the future consequences of these trends on the associated disease burden and health care costs. METHOD: A previously developed micro-simulation model is used to project the extent of obesity, obesity-related diseases and associated healthcare costs to 2050. In total, thirteen diseases were considered: coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, diabetes, osteoarthritis, and eight cancers. We simulated three hypothetical intervention scenarios: no intervention, 1% and 5% reduction in body mass index (BMI. RESULTS: In 2010, nearly 57% of the Brazilian male population was overweight or obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m(2, but the model projects rates as high as 95% by 2050. A slightly less pessimistic picture is predicted for females, increasing from 43% in 2010 to 52% in 2050. Coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, cancers, osteoarthritis and diabetes prevalence cases are projected to at least double by 2050, reaching nearly 34,000 cases of hypertension by 2050 (per 100,000. 1% and 5% reduction in mean BMI will save over 800 prevalence cases and nearly 3,000 cases of hypertension by 2050 respectively (per 100,000. The health care costs will double from 2010 ($5.8 billion in 2050 alone ($10.1 billion. Over 40 years costs will reach $330 billion. However, with effective interventions the costs can be reduced to $302 billion by 1% and to $273 billion by 5% reduction in mean BMI across the population. CONCLUSION: Obesity rates are rapidly increasing creating a high burden of disease and associated costs. However, an effective intervention to decrease obesity by just 1% will substantially reduce obesity burden and will have a significant effect on health care expenditure.

  20. "Permission to Speak": A Postcolonial View on Racialized Bodies and PE in the Current Context of Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarito, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The current neoliberal context of schools presents difficult challenges in addressing persistent issues of social inequalities. In this article, first, I argue that because of today's market-driven education, the rise of fitness testing in school physical education (PE) can be seriously detrimental to young people in general and to ethnic-minority…

  1. Endogenous peripheral hydrogen sulfide is propyretic: its permissive role in brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Renato N; Braga, Sara P; Breder, Jéssica S C; Batalhao, Marcelo E; Oliveira-Pelegrin, Gabriela R; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando R; Rocha, Maria José A; Carnio, Evelin C; Branco, Luiz G S

    2018-03-01

    What is the central question of this study? In fever, the most striking response in the acute phase reaction of systemic inflammation, plasma H 2 S concentration increases. However, the role of endogenous peripheral H 2 S in fever is unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? Endogenous peripheral H 2 S is permissive for increased brown adipose tissue thermogenesis to maintain thermal homeostasis in cold environments as well as to mount fever. This finding expands the physiological role of the gaseous modulator as a key regulator of thermal control in health (thermal homeostasis) and disease (fever in systemic inflammation). In recent years, hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) has been reported as a gaseous modulator acting in several tissues in health and disease. In animal models of systemic inflammation, the plasma H 2 S concentration increases in response to endotoxin (bacterial lipopolysaccharide, LPS). The most striking response in the acute phase reaction of systemic inflammation is fever, but we found no reports of the peripheral action of H 2 S on this thermoregulatory response. We aimed at investigating whether endogenous systemic H 2 S modulates LPS-induced fever. A temperature datalogger capsule was inserted in the abdominal cavity of male Wistar rats (220-270 g) to record body core temperature. These animals received an i.p. injection of a systemic H 2 S inhibitor (propargylglycine; 50 or 75 mg kg -1 ), immediately followed by an i.p. injection of LPS (50 or 2500 μg kg -1 ), and were exposed to different ambient temperatures (16, 22 or 27°C). At 22°C, but not at 27°C, propargylglycine at 75 mg kg -1 significantly attenuated (P endogenous peripheral H 2 S on brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. Evidence on the modulatory role of peripheral H 2 S in BAT thermogenesis was strengthened when we discarded (i) the possible influence of the gas on febrigenic signalling (when measuring plasma cytokines), and (ii) its interaction with the nitric

  2. Burden of disease, research funding and innovation in the UK: Do new health technologies reflect research inputs and need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Derek; Martino, Orsolina; Packer, Claire; Simpson, Sue; Stevens, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    New and emerging health technologies (innovation outputs) do not always reflect conditions representing the greatest disease burden. We examine the role of research and development (R&D) funding in this relationship, considering whether areas with fewer innovative outputs receive an appropriate share of funding relative to their disease burden. We report a retrospective observational study, comparing burden of disease with R&D funding and innovation output. UK disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and deaths came from the World Health Organization (WHO) 2004 Global Burden of Disease estimates; funding estimates from the UK Clinical Research Collaboration's 2006 Health Research Analysis; and innovation output was estimated by the number of new and emerging technologies reported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Horizon Scanning Centre between 2000 and 2009. Disease areas representing the biggest burden were generally associated with the most funding and innovation output; cancer, neuropsychiatric conditions and cardiovascular disease together comprised approximately two-thirds of DALYs, funding and reported technologies. Compared with DALYs, funding and technologies were disproportionately high for cancer, and technologies alone were disproportionately high for musculoskeletal conditions and endocrine/metabolic diseases. Neuropsychiatric conditions had comparatively few technologies compared to both DALYs and funding. The relationship between DALYs and innovation output appeared to be mediated by R&D funding. The relationship between burden of disease and new and emerging health technologies for different disease areas is partly dependent on the associated level of R&D funding (input). Discrepancies among key groups may reflect differential focus of research funding across disease areas. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Maternal risk factors in fetal alcohol syndrome: provocative and permissive influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, E L; Hannigan, J H

    1995-01-01

    We present an hypothesis integrating epidemiological, clinical case, and basic biomedical research to explain why only relatively few women who drink alcohol during pregnancy give birth to children with alcohol-related birth defects (ARBDs), in particular, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). We argue that specific sociobehavioral risk factors, e.g., low socioeconomic status, are permissive for FAS in that they provide the context for increased vulnerability. We illustrate how these permissive factors are related to biological factors, e.g., decreased antioxidant status, which in conjunction with alcohol, provoke FAS/ARBDs in vulnerable fetuses. We propose an integrative heuristic model hypothesizing that these permissive and provocative factors increase the likelihood of FAS/ARBDs because they potentiate two related mechanisms of alcohol-induced teratogenesis, specifically, maternal/fetal hypoxia and free radical formation.

  4. Economic Study of Global Tobacco Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an interview on Cancer Currents, Dr. Mark Parascandola discusses findings from an economics study showing that, globally, tobacco use burdens economies with more than US $1 trillion annually in health care costs and lost productivity.

  5. Economic and psychological burden of scheduled surgery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cancellation of scheduled surgery creates a financial burden for hospitals, caregivers and ..... costs and disregard some of the aspects mentioned in the ..... cancellation of elective surgical procedures in a Spanish general.

  6. The Global Burden of Cancer 2013

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Importance Cancer is among the leading causes of death worldwide. Current estimates of cancer burden in individual countries and regions are necessary to inform local cancer control strategies. Objective To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 28 cancers in 188 countries by sex from 1990 to 2013. Evidence Review The general methodology of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 study was us...

  7. WifiLeaks: Underestimated Privacy Implications of the ACCESS_WIFI_STATE Android Permission

    OpenAIRE

    Achara , Jagdish Prasad; Cunche , Mathieu; Roca , Vincent; Francillon , Aurélien

    2014-01-01

    A short version has been accepted for publication in: 7th ACM Conference on Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks (WISEC'14) Oxford, United Kingdom, July 23rd -- 25th 2014; On Android, users can choose to install an application, or not, based on the permissions it requests. These permissions are later enforced on the application by the system, e.g., when accessing sensitive user data. In this work, we focus on the access to Wi-Fi related information, which is protected by the A...

  8. Dementia Caregiver Burden: a Research Update and Critical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheung-Tak

    2017-08-10

    This article provides an updated review of the determinants of caregiver burden and depression, with a focus on care demands and especially the differential effects of various neuropsychiatric symptoms or symptom clusters. Moreover, studies on caregivers for frontotemporal and Lewy body dementias were referred to in order to identify differences and similarities with the mainstream literature based largely on Alzheimer caregivers. As a group, neuropsychiatric symptoms are most predictive of caregiver burden and depression regardless of dementia diagnosis, but the effects appear to be driven primarily by disruptive behaviors (e.g., agitation, aggression, disinhibition), followed by delusions and mood disturbance. Disruptive behaviors are more disturbing partly because of the adverse impact on the emotional connection between the caregiver and the care-recipient and partly because they exacerbate difficulties in other domains (e.g., caring for activities of daily living). In behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, not only are these disruptive behaviors more prominent but they are also more disturbing due to the care-recipient's insensitivity to others' feelings. In Lewy body dementia, visual hallucinations also appear to be distressing. The disturbing nature of disruptive behaviors cuts across dementia conditions, but the roles played by symptoms that are unique or particularly serious in a certain condition need to be explored further.

  9. Burdens of Proof, Presumptions and Standards of Proof in Criminal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worku_Y

    evidential and persuasive burdens of proof as between the state and the ..... scholars have observed that the evidential burden is a function of the burden of ..... required to convince judges by creating such an intensity of belief in their minds.

  10. Gastroesophageal reflux disease burden in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavari, Alireza; Moradi, Ghobad; Elahi, Elham; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar

    2015-02-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is one of the most common disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. The prevalence of this disease ranges from 5% to 20% in Asia, Europe, and North America. The aim of this study was to estimate the burden of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Iran. Burden of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Iran was estimated for one year from 21 March 2006 to 20 March 2007. The definition was adjusted with ICD-code of K21. Incident-based disability-adjusted life year (DALY) was used as the unit of analysis to quantify disease burden. A simplified disease model and DisMod II software were used for modeling. The annual incidence for total population of males and females in Iran was estimated 17.72 and 28.06 per 1000, respectively. The average duration of gastroesophageal reflux disease as a chronic condition was estimated around 10 years in both sexes. Total DALYs for an average of 59 symptomatic days per year was estimated 153,554.3 (60,330.8 for males and 93,223.5 for females).   The results of this study showed that reflux imposes high burden and high financial costs on the Iranian population. The burden of this disease in Iran is more similar to that of European countries rather than Asian countries. It is recommended to consider the disease as a public health problem and make decisions and public health plans to reduce the burden and financial costs of the disease in Iran.

  11. Foreign Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SearchingPediatrics.com Pediatrics Common Questions, Quick Answers Foreign Body Donna D'Alessandro, M.D. Lindsay Huth, B. ... I call the doctor? What is a foreign body? A foreign body is when an object is ...

  12. The economic burden of schizophrenia in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Siew Li; Chong, Huey Yi; Abdul Aziz, Salina; Chemi, Norliza; Othman, Abdul Razak; Md Zaki, Nurzuriana; Vanichkulpitak, Possatorn; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a highly debilitating disease despite its low prevalence. The economic burden associated with SCZ is substantial and mainly attributed to productivity loss. To improve the understanding of economic burden of SCZ in the low- and middle-income country regions, we aimed to determine the economic burden of SCZ in Malaysia. A retrospective study was conducted using a prevalence-based approach from a societal perspective in Malaysia with a 1 year period from 2013. We used micro-costing technique with bottom-up method and included direct medical cost, direct non-medical cost, and indirect cost. The main data source was medical chart review which was conducted in Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL). The medical charts were identified electronically by matching the unique patient's identification number registered under the National Mental Health Schizophrenia Registry and the list of patients in HKL in 2013. Other data sources were government documents, literatures, and local websites. To ensure robustness of result, probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted. The total estimated number of treated SCZ cases in Malaysia in 2015 was 15,104 with the total economic burden of USD 100 million (M) which was equivalent to 0.04% of the national gross domestic product. On average, the mean cost per patient was USD 6,594. Of the total economic burden of SCZ, 72% was attributed to indirect cost, costing at USD 72M, followed by direct medical cost (26%), costing at USD 26M, and direct non-medical cost (2%), costing at USD 1.7M. This study highlights the magnitude of economic burden of SCZ and informs the policy-makers that there is an inadequate support for SCZ patients. More resources should be allocated to improve the condition of SCZ patients and to reduce the economic burden.

  13. Permissiveness toward divorce : The influence of divorce experiences in three social contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we assess whether divorce experiences in three social contexts shape individual’s permissiveness toward divorce. Using European Values Study data from 44 countries, we find that—net of personal divorce experience—parental divorce before the age of 18 (socialization context); parental

  14. Permissiveness toward divorce: The influence of divorce experiences in three social contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we assess whether divorce experiences in three social contexts shape individual’s permissiveness toward divorce. Using European Values Study data from 44 countries, we find that—net of personal divorce experience—parental divorce before the age of 18 (socialization context); parental

  15. The study on the adaptation for regulation - the permission of a radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung Il; Choi, Won Seok; Jung, Yong Moon [Gallup Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-08-15

    The restriction -the permission of a radioisotope keeps satisfaction with almost parts for example, awareness, observance and so on. Moreover two concepts are considered fully -too strict about certain specific control rules and needed more discriminated application standards to each organization related to KINS, it's preserved and controlled properly even if the penalties are downsized.

  16. A colorimetric sensor array for identification of toxic gases below permissible exposure limits†

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Liang; Musto, Christopher J.; Kemling, Jonathan W.; Lim, Sung H.; Suslick, Kenneth S.

    2010-01-01

    A colorimetric sensor array has been developed for the rapid and sensitive detection of 20 toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) at their PELs (permissible exposure limits). The color changes in an array of chemically responsive nanoporous pigments provide facile identification of the TICs with an error rate below 0.7%.

  17. Student Learning with Permissive and Restrictive Cell Phone Policies: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Alexander L.

    2018-01-01

    Based on Finn and Ledbetter's (2013; 2014) work regarding classroom technology policies, this experimental study examined the implementation of a permissive and a restrictive cellular phone policy and the effect of these policies on students' cognitive and affective learning in two sections of a public speaking course. College students (N = 31)…

  18. 34 CFR 222.194 - Are “in-kind” contributions permissible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (b) Third party in-kind contributions mean property or services that benefit this grant program and... indirect costs, the provisions of 34 CFR 80.24 govern the allowability and valuation of in-kind contributions, except that it is permissible for a third party to contribute real property to a grantee for a...

  19. Corruption and the Other(s): Scope of Superordinate Identity Matters for Corruption Permissibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisor, Anne C; Gurven, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The decision to engage in corruption-public and private corruption, nepotism, and embezzlement-is often attributed to rational actors maximizing benefits to themselves. However, the importance of reciprocal relationships in humans suggests that an actor may weigh the costs of harms of her corrupt behavior to individuals who may generate future benefits for her. We hypothesize that actors who have a larger circle of actual and potential social partners will have more individuals to consider when generating harms and will thus be less likely to find corrupt acts permissible than actors with smaller circles of valued others. Using data from the World Values Survey and European Values Study (WVS), we explore whether participants with a larger geographic identity or a greater number of group memberships (i.e. a larger scope of actual and potential social partners) are less likely to find accepting bribes permissible. We find mixed support for our hypotheses, but consistently find that WVS participants with local, country, continent, or world geographic identities are less likely to find accepting a bribe permissible than those with regional identities-that is, actors whose primary identities that encompass more than their region find corruption less permissible. We discuss the importance of considering an actor's valuation of others when modeling corruption persistence, noting that establishing scopes of positive valuation is a precursor to predicting where actors will target benefits and shunt costs.

  20. 17 CFR 240.12f-1 - Applications for permission to reinstate unlisted trading privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reinstate unlisted trading privileges. 240.12f-1 Section 240.12f-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Rules and Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Unlisted Trading § 240.12f-1 Applications for permission to reinstate unlisted trading privileges. (a) An application to reinstate unlisted...

  1. 12 CFR 714.2 - What are the permissible leasing arrangements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the permissible leasing arrangements? 714.2 Section 714.2 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING... leasing. In direct leasing, you purchase personal property from a vendor, becoming the owner of the...

  2. 30 CFR 75.504 - Permissibility of new, replacement, used, reconditioned, additional, and rebuilt electric face...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.504 Permissibility of new, replacement... new, replacement, used, reconditioned, and additional electric face equipment used in any mine..., unless in the opinion of the Secretary, such equipment or necessary replacement parts are not available...

  3. 49 CFR 350.319 - What are permissible uses of High Priority Activity Funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Activity Funds? 350.319 Section 350.319 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... permissible uses of High Priority Activity Funds? (a) The FMCSA may generally use these funds to support, enrich, or evaluate State CMV safety programs and to accomplish the five objectives listed below: (1...

  4. Guidance document on the derivation of maximum permissible risk levels for human intake of soil contaminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen PJCM; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1997-01-01

    This report contains a basic step-to-step description of the procedure followed in the derivation of the human-toxicological Maximum Permissible Risk (MPR ; in Dutch: Maximum Toelaatbaar Risico, MTR) for soil contaminants. In recent years this method has been applied for a large number of compounds

  5. Android Application Install-time Permission Validation and Run-time Malicious Pattern Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    The open source structure of Android applications introduces security vulnerabilities that can be readily exploited by third-party applications. We address certain vulnerabilities at both installation and runtime using machine learning. Effective classification techniques with neural networks can be used to verify the application categories on installation. We devise a novel application category verification methodology that involves machine learning the application permissions...

  6. AN OPTIMAL REPLENISHMENT POLICY FOR DETERIORATING ITEMS WITH RAMP TYPE DEMAND UNDER PERMISSIBLE DELAY IN PAYMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sanjay Jain

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop an optimal replenishment policy for inventory models of deteriorating items with ramp type demand under permissible delay in payments. Deterioration of items begins on their arrival in stock.  An example is also presented to illustrate the application of developed model.

  7. Early alcohol use with parental permission: Psychosocial characteristics and drinking in late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colder, Craig R; Shyhalla, Kathleen; Frndak, Seth E

    2018-01-01

    The earliest experiences with alcohol for many children occur in the family context with parental supervision. The current study examined individual and sociocultural characteristics associated with early (prior to age 13years) sipping and tasting alcohol with parental permission in two longitudinal community samples. Early sipping/tasting was also tested as a predictor of frequency and quantity of alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems seven years later in late adolescence. Early sipping/tasting with parental permission was associated with a sociocultural context supportive of alcohol use (e.g., parental alcohol use, permissive rules about alcohol use in the home, parental attitudes about underage drinking, perceived peer norms), adolescent sensation seeking and disinhibition (e.g., surgency, externalizing behavior) and appraisals of alcohol (negative outcome expectancies and negative implicit alcohol associations). Early sipping/tasting predicted increased frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption, and increased alcohol-related problems in late adolescence, even after controlling sociocultural and individual difference variables. Findings suggest that early sipping/tasting with parental permission is not benign and is a viable target for preventive interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 42 CFR 433.67 - Limitations on level of FFP for permissible provider-related donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provider-related donations. 433.67 Section 433.67 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... permissible provider-related donations. (a)(1) Limitations on bona fide donations. There are no limitations on the amount of bona fide provider-related donations that a State may receive without a reduction in FFP...

  9. A cash flow oriented EOQ model under permissible delay in payments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cash flow oriented EOQ model under permissible delay in payments. RP Tripathi, SS Misra, HS Shukla. Abstract. This study presents an inventory model to determine an optimal ordering policy for non-deteriorating items and timedependent demand rate with delay in payments permitted by the supplier under inflation and ...

  10. 77 FR 17367 - Permissible Sharing of Client Records by Customs Brokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ...-0038] RIN 1651-AA80 Permissible Sharing of Client Records by Customs Brokers AGENCY: U.S. Customs and... would allow brokers, upon the client's consent in a written authorization, to share client information... services to the broker's clients. Although the proposed rule was prepared in response to a request from a...

  11. 75 FR 66050 - Permissible Sharing of Client Records by Customs Brokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    .... USCBP-2010-0038] RIN 1651-AA80 Permissible Sharing of Client Records by Customs Brokers AGENCIES... the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) pertaining to the obligations of customs brokers to keep clients' information confidential. The proposed amendment would allow brokers, upon the client's consent in a written...

  12. 36 CFR 223.7 - Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER General Provisions § 223.7 Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas. Similar material may be cut outside of a free-use area without permit in cases of emergency, but the person taking such material shall promptly notify...

  13. 26 CFR 1.414(w)-1 - Permissible withdrawals from eligible automatic contribution arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contribution arrangements. 1.414(w)-1 Section 1.414(w)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Plans, Etc. § 1.414(w)-1 Permissible withdrawals from eligible automatic contribution arrangements. (a) Overview. Section 414(w) provides rules under which certain employees are permitted to elect to make a...

  14. Maximum Permissible Risk Levels for Human Intake of Soil Contaminants: Fourth Series of Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen PJCM; Apeldoorn ME van; Engelen JGM van; Schielen PCJI; Wouters MFA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the human-toxicological risk assessment work done in 1996 and 1997 at RIVM's Centre for Substances and Risk Assessment within the scope of the RIVM project on soil intervention values for soil clean-up. The method used for derivation of the Maximum Permissible Risk, as

  15. Corruption and the Other(s: Scope of Superordinate Identity Matters for Corruption Permissibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne C Pisor

    Full Text Available The decision to engage in corruption-public and private corruption, nepotism, and embezzlement-is often attributed to rational actors maximizing benefits to themselves. However, the importance of reciprocal relationships in humans suggests that an actor may weigh the costs of harms of her corrupt behavior to individuals who may generate future benefits for her. We hypothesize that actors who have a larger circle of actual and potential social partners will have more individuals to consider when generating harms and will thus be less likely to find corrupt acts permissible than actors with smaller circles of valued others. Using data from the World Values Survey and European Values Study (WVS, we explore whether participants with a larger geographic identity or a greater number of group memberships (i.e. a larger scope of actual and potential social partners are less likely to find accepting bribes permissible. We find mixed support for our hypotheses, but consistently find that WVS participants with local, country, continent, or world geographic identities are less likely to find accepting a bribe permissible than those with regional identities-that is, actors whose primary identities that encompass more than their region find corruption less permissible. We discuss the importance of considering an actor's valuation of others when modeling corruption persistence, noting that establishing scopes of positive valuation is a precursor to predicting where actors will target benefits and shunt costs.

  16. Assessment of the Total Body Burden of Caesium-137 in Humans by the Analysis of Blood; Determination de la Charge Corporelle de Cesium 137 chez l'Homme, par Analyse Du Sang; 041e 041f 0420 0415 0414 ; Evaluacion de la Carga Corporal Total de Cesio-137 en el Hombre por Analisis de Sangre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagata, N. [Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1964-11-15

    Analysis of post-mortem samples for caesium-137 has been carried on in Japan because whole-body counters are limited in number and not mobile, making the assessment of the population mean levels inconvenient. However, the collection of muscles from autopsies throughout the country is complicated and inconvenient in that a sample should be taken immediately after death. Considering that only such data as are useful for the assessment of the mean levels of caesium-137 in people are required and it is unnecessary to know individual values, the composite samples of as many individuals as possible would be enough for the analysis. For this purpose, whole blood samples were considered as the best substitute for muscles, as the blood collection system covers the whole country, including 47 licensed blood banks and about 100 hospitals. Sampling inspection is made continuously of citrated whole blood at the National Institute of Health, Tokyo, where about 500 ampoules are checked, representing more than three million donors throughout the country per year. Less than half the blood in an ampoule was consumed for inspection and the remaining half was stocked to make a composite for the determination of caesium-137 level. Blood ashes were analysed for the stable caesium content by a neutron activation method. The results afforded the relation between the concentration in the whole blood and the total body amount (1.4 mg for 70 kg man) and this relation would be identical to that for caesium-137 in an equilibrium condition. The results of blood analysis for caesium-137 obtained since June 1963 were compared with those of muscle analyses made during the same period. Good agreement was observed and the blood analysis was found to be the best means for assessing the total body burden of caesium-137 in a population. (author) [French] Au Japon, on a dose le cesium 137 d'echantillons de tissus musculaires preleves au cours d'autopsies, car il n'y a qu'un petit nombre d

  17. The economic burden of tuberculosis in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, D; Hafidz, F; Mustikawati, D

    2017-09-01

    Indonesia has a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) and is one of the 22 countries with the highest TB burdens in the world. To understand the economic burden of TB in Indonesia. TB data for 2015 were combined with cost data using a simple type of cost-benefit analysis in a decision tree model to show the economic burden under different scenarios. In Indonesia, there were an estimated 1 017 378 new active TB cases in 2015, including multidrug-resistant TB. It is estimated that 417 976 of these cases would be treated and cured, 160 830 would be unsuccessfully treated and would die, 131 571 would be untreated and would achieve cure spontaneously, and 307 000 would be untreated and would die. The total economic burden related to treated and untreated cases would be approximately US$6.9 billion. Loss of productivity due to premature death would be by far the largest element, comprising US$6.0 billion (discounted), which represents 86.6% of the total cost. Loss of productivity due to illness would be US$700 million (10.1%), provider medical costs US$156 million (2.2%), and direct non-medical costs incurred by patients and their households US$74 million (1.1%). The economic burden of TB in Indonesia is extremely high. Detecting and treating more cases would result not only in major reductions in suffering but also in economic savings to society.

  18. Uncertainties in Organ Burdens Estimated from PAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Bone, T.R.

    2004-01-01

    To calculate committed effective dose equivalent, one needs to know the quantity of the radionuclide in all significantly irradiated organs (the organ burden) as a function of time following the intake. There are two major sources of uncertainty in an organ burden estimated from personal air sampling (PAS) data: (1) The uncertainty in going from the exposure measured with the PAS to the quantity of aerosol inhaled by the individual, and (2) The uncertainty in going from the intake to the organ burdens at any given time, taking into consideration the biological variability of the biokinetic models from person to person (interperson variability) and in one person over time (intra-person variability). We have been using biokinetic modeling methods developed by researchers at the University of Florida to explore the impact of inter-person variability on the uncertainty of organ burdens estimated from PAS data. These initial studies suggest that the uncertainties are so large that PAS might be considered to be a qualitative (rather than quantitative) technique. These results indicate that more studies should be performed to properly classify the reliability and usefulness of using PAS monitoring data to estimate organ burdens, organ dose, and ultimately CEDE

  19. Subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kumari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is limited information from India on subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. The aim of the present study was to assess and compare patterns of subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted at the OPD level, and follow-up was done at the Ranchi Institute of Neuropsychiatry and Sciences (RINPAS during the period May 2008 to November 2008. Tools utilized were sociodemographic data sheet, Family Burden Interview Schedule developed by Pai and R. L. Kapur (1981. The sample comprised of 50 samples of spouses (25 male and 25 female spouses of schizophrenia patients. Results: The findings suggest that both the groups, viz., male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients, showed moderate level of subjective burden, i.e., 13 (52% and 15 (60% male and female spouses, respectively, which was statistically found to be insignificant. Conclusion : No significant difference was found between male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients with regard to the level of subjective burden.

  20. Burden of childhood-onset arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassett Afton L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Juvenile arthritis comprises a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases causing erosive arthritis in children, often progressing to disability. These children experience functional impairment due to joint and back pain, heel pain, swelling of joints and morning stiffness, contractures, pain, and anterior uveitis leading to blindness. As children who have juvenile arthritis reach adulthood, they face possible continuing disease activity, medication-associated morbidity, and life-long disability and risk for emotional and social dysfunction. In this article we will review the burden of juvenile arthritis for the patient and society and focus on the following areas: patient disability; visual outcome; other medical complications; physical activity; impact on HRQOL; emotional impact; pain and coping; ambulatory visits, hospitalizations and mortality; economic impact; burden on caregivers; transition issues; educational occupational outcomes, and sexuality. The extent of impact on the various aspects of the patients', families' and society's functioning is clear from the existing literature. Juvenile arthritis imposes a significant burden on different spheres of the patients', caregivers' and family's life. In addition, it imposes a societal burden of significant health care costs and utilization. Juvenile arthritis affects health-related quality of life, physical function and visual outcome of children and impacts functioning in school and home. Effective, well-designed and appropriately tailored interventions are required to improve transitioning to adult care, encourage future vocation/occupation, enhance school function and minimize burden on costs.

  1. Whole body monitoring - Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.A.N. de; Lourenco, M.C.; Bertelli Neto, L.; Lucena, E.A. de; Becker, P.H.B.

    1988-01-01

    Due to the radiological Cs accident in Goiania, Goias in September 1987, it became necessary to evaluate internal contamination levels of: - Individual from the general public that for any reason had direct or indirect involvement with the radioactive source (group 1). - Occupationally involved persons (group 2). For each of these groups, procedures of whole body monitoring were developped. In order to attend group 1 individuals, the IRD/CNEN installed a whole body unit in the INAMPS General Hospital of Goiania in 11.08.87, which was later transferred to 121,57 street, Central Sector in Goiania in 2.06.88. In this unit 547 people were monitored, 356 from group 1 and 241 from group 2, until 04.13.88. In the IRD whole body counter installation, 194 individuals were counted, 185 from group 2 and 9 from group 1. The frequency of monitoring of each individual was established according to the Cs activity present in the body or to the job to be assigned. In this paper we will present some burden activity curves for Cs 137 as a function of the time elapsed from the first measurement. There people from group 1 were measured in both counters, the IRD and the Goiania ones. The values obtained in both installations are compatible with the body activity x time curve. (author) [pt

  2. Allostatic load but not medical burden predicts memory performance in late-life bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccarino, Sophie R; Rajji, Tarek K; Gildengers, Ariel G; Waters, Sarah E S; Butters, Meryl A; Menon, Mahesh; Blumberger, Daniel M; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Miranda, Dielle; Mulsant, Benoit H

    2018-03-01

    Older patients with bipolar disorder (BD) present with variable degrees of cognitive impairment. Over time, stress, mood episodes, and comorbidities increase the body's allostatic load. We assessed the extent to which allostatic load vs more traditional measures of medical burden account for the heterogeneity in cognition in this population. Thirty-five older euthymic patients with BD and 30 age-equated, gender-equated, and education-equated comparison participants were administered a comprehensive assessment including a neuropsychological battery, and 9 physiological measures to determine allostatic load. The relationship among allostatic load, medical burden, and cognition was assessed. Compared with the mentally healthy comparators, patients were impaired globally, and in 4 cognitive domains-information-processing speed / executive functioning, delayed memory, language, and visuomotor ability, and presented with greater medical burden but not a different allostatic load. Allostatic load, but not medical burden, was associated with delayed memory performance both in a correlational analysis and in a multivariate regression analysis. Euthymic older patients with BD are impaired on several cognitive domains and have high medical burden. Their memory performance is more strongly associated with allostatic load than with traditional measures of medical burden. These findings need to be replicated and extended longitudinally. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The unrecognized burden of typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaro, Stephen K; Iroh Tam, Pui-Ying; Mintz, Eric Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Typhoid fever (TF), caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, is the most common cause of enteric fever, responsible for an estimated 129,000 deaths and more than 11 million cases annually. Although several reviews have provided global and regional TF disease burden estimates, major gaps in our understanding of TF epidemiology remain. Areas covered: We provide an overview of the gaps in current estimates of TF disease burden and offer suggestions for addressing them, so that affected communities can receive the full potential of disease prevention offered by vaccination and water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions. Expert commentary: Current disease burden estimates for TF do not capture cases from certain host populations, nor those with atypical presentations of TF, which may lead to substantial underestimation of TF cases and deaths. These knowledge gaps pose major obstacles to the informed use of current and new generation typhoid vaccines.

  4. The global burden of periodontal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul E; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Chronic diseases are accelerating globally, advancing across all regions and pervading all socioeconomic classes. Unhealthy diet and poor nutrition, physical inactivity, tobacco use, excessive use of alcohol and psychosocial stress are the most important risk factors. Periodontal disease...... is a component of the global burden of chronic disease, and chronic disease and periodontal disease have the same essential risk factors. In addition, severe periodontal disease is related to poor oral hygiene and to poor general health (e.g. the presence of diabetes mellitus and other systemic diseases......). The present report highlights the global burden of periodontal disease: the ultimate burden of periodontal disease (tooth loss), as well as signs of periodontal disease, are described from World Health Organization (WHO) epidemiological data. High prevalence rates of complete tooth loss are found in upper...

  5. The Global Burden of Occupational Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Lesley

    2017-09-01

    Burden of occupational disease estimation contributes to understanding of both magnitude and relative importance of different occupational hazards and provides essential information for targeting risk reduction. This review summarises recent key findings and discusses their impact on occupational regulation and practice. New methods have been developed to estimate burden of occupational disease that take account of the latency of many chronic diseases and allow for exposure trends and workforce turnover. Results from these studies have shown in several countries and globally that, in spite of improvements in workplace technology, practices and exposures over the last decades, occupational hazards remain an important cause of ill health and mortality worldwide. Major data gaps have been identified particularly regarding exposure information. Reliable data on employment and disease are also lacking especially in developing countries. Burden of occupational disease estimates form an important part of decision-making processes.

  6. Burden attributable to child maltreatment in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Ferrari, Alize J; Mills, Ryan; Dunne, Michael P; Erskine, Holly E; Devries, Karen M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; McCarthy, Molly; Norman, Rosana E

    2015-10-01

    Child maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, with four main types (childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect) highly interrelated. All types of maltreatment have been linked to adverse health consequences and exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment increases risk. In Australia to date, only burden attributable to childhood sexual abuse has been estimated. This study synthesized the national evidence and quantified the burden attributable to the four main types of child maltreatment. Meta-analyses, based on quality-effects models, generated pooled prevalence estimates for each maltreatment type. Exposure to child maltreatment was examined as a risk factor for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made for co-occurrence of multiple forms of child maltreatment. Overall, an estimated 23.5% of self-harm, 20.9% of anxiety disorders and 15.7% of depressive disorders burden in males; and 33.0% of self-harm, 30.6% of anxiety disorders and 22.8% of depressive disorders burden in females was attributable to child maltreatment. Child maltreatment was estimated to cause 1.4% (95% uncertainty interval 0.4-2.3%) of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in males, and 2.4% (0.7-4.1%) of all DALYs in females in Australia in 2010. Child maltreatment contributes to a substantial proportion of burden from depressive and anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm in Australia. This study demonstrates the importance of including all forms of child maltreatment as risk factors in future burden of disease studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The economic burden of schizophrenia in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teoh SL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Siew Li Teoh,1 Huey Yi Chong,1 Salina Abdul Aziz,2 Norliza Chemi,2 Abdul Razak Othman,2 Nurzuriana Md Zaki,2 Possatorn Vanichkulpitak,3 Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk1,4–6 1School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, 2Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom, 4Center of Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research (CPOR, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand; 5School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA; 6Health and Well-being Cluster, Global Asia in the 21st Century (GA21 Platform, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaIntroduction: Schizophrenia (SCZ is a highly debilitating disease despite its low prevalence. The economic burden associated with SCZ is substantial and mainly attributed to productivity loss. To improve the understanding of economic burden of SCZ in the low- and middle-income country regions, we aimed to determine the economic burden of SCZ in Malaysia.Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using a prevalence-based approach from a societal perspective in Malaysia with a 1 year period from 2013. We used micro-costing technique with bottom-up method and included direct medical cost, direct non-medical cost, and indirect cost. The main data source was medical chart review which was conducted in Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL. The medical charts were identified electronically by matching the unique patient’s identification number registered under the National Mental Health Schizophrenia Registry and the list of patients in HKL in 2013. Other data sources were government documents, literatures, and local websites. To ensure robustness of result, probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted.Results: The total estimated number of treated SCZ cases in Malaysia in 2015 was 15,104 with the total economic burden of USD 100 million

  8. Work productivity in systemic sclerosis, its economic burden and association with health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrisroe, Kathleen; Sudararajan, Vijaya; Stevens, Wendy; Sahhar, Joanne; Zochling, Jane; Roddy, Janet; Proudman, Susanna; Nikpour, Mandana

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate work productivity and its economic burden in SSc patients. Consecutive SSc patients enrolled in the Australian Scleroderma Cohort Study were mailed questionnaires assessing employment (Workers' Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire and a custom-made questionnaire) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) (36-item Short Form Health Survey and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System 29). Linear regression methods were used to determine factors associated with work productivity. Among 476 patients submitting responses, 55.2% productivity while at work (presenteeism) accounted for 22% of their working week. Annual costs per patient as a consequence of unemployment and reduced productivity equated to a total of AUD$67 595.40. Factors independently associated with reduced work productivity were presence of synovitis and sicca symptoms, while tertiary education protected against work impairment. Patients with low HRQoL scores also had low work productivity. SSc is associated with considerable unemployment and reduced productivity, which in turn is associated with a substantial economic burden and poor HRQoL. Raising awareness and identifying modifiable factors are possible ways of reducing this burden. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. Determination of permissible exposure doses under the provisions of the regulations on installation and operation of marine reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The Ministry of Transportation defines on radioactive doses in the controlled area that exterior radioactive dose shall be 30 mili-rem for a week; concentrations of radioactive materials in the air or under the water shall be permissible concentrations otherwise specified for the employees multiplied by 0.75 in average for a week and that densities of radioactive materials on the surface of the things contaminated by such materials shall be 1/10 of permissible surface densities provided in a table attached. Permissible exposure dose outside the inspected surrounding area is 0.5 rem for a year. Permissible surface densities are included in a list attached. Permissible accumulative dose for the employees is the figure (unit rem) calculated by the formula D = 5(N-18), when D means permissible accumulative dose and N number of the age. Permissible exposure dose is 3 rem for 3 months for the employees, 1.5 rem for a year for persons other than the employees and 12 rem for the urgent work. Permissible densities for the employees, calculation of doses by interior exposure and permissible densities outside the inspected surrounding area are stipulated in detail with attached lists. (Okada, K.)

  10. Metallic Burden of Deciduous Teeth and Childhood Behavioral Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony J.H. Chan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD affects 5%–8% of children in the U.S. (10% of males and 4% of females. The contributions of multiple metal exposures to the childhood behavioral deficits are unclear, although particular metals have been implicated through their neurotoxicity. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the body burden of Mn is positively correlated with ADHD symptoms. We also investigated the putative roles of Ca, Fe, Pb, and Hg. We collected shed molars from 266 children (138 boys and 128 girls who lost a tooth between 11 and 13 years of age. The molars were analyzed for metals using ICP-OES. The third grade teacher of each child completed the Teacher’s Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD to produce a score for “Total Disruptive Behavior” and subscale scores for “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder”, Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, Inattention, and Oppositional/Defiant. The mean Mn, Fe, Pb and Ca concentrations found in teeth was 6.1 ± 5.7 µg/g, 22.7 ± 24.1 µg/g, 0.9 ± 1.4 µg/g, and 6.0 × 105 ± 1.6 × 105 µg/g, respectively. Hg was not detected. No significant association was found between Mn and behavioral deficits. Ca was significantly negatively associated, and Pb showed a significant positive association with Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, Inattention, and Oppositional/Defiant Disorders. These findings call into question the putative independent association of manganese exposure and behavioral deficits in children, when the balance of other metallic burden, particularly Ca and Pb burdens play significant roles.

  11. The Need for an Information Communication and Advocacy Strategy to Guide a Research Agenda to Address Burden of Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran Khan, M; Freeman, Alexander J; Gessner, Bradford D; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant

    2015-11-01

    Invasive nontyphoidal salmonellosis (iNTS) is often not recognized clinically, and prevention of iNTS is largely ignored by policy planners and decision makers. During 2010, an estimated 3.4 million cases and 681,316 deaths occurred worldwide due to iNTS, with the largest estimated disease burden in resource-limited areas of sub-Saharan Africa. These figures likely underestimate global burden for several reasons, further complicating efforts to raise awareness of iNTS. To increase disease recognition and facilitate development of interventions, a communication and advocacy plan should be developed and implemented by actors in different sectors of global health, including researchers and scientists, funders, vaccine manufacturers, civil society organizations, and government officials from highly affected countries. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Permissive and instructive anterior patterning rely on mRNA localization in the wasp embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Ava E; Yucel, Gozde; Small, Stephen; Desplan, Claude

    2007-03-30

    The long-germ mode of embryogenesis, in which segments arise simultaneously along the anteriorposterior axis, has evolved several times in different lineages of the holometabolous, or fully metamorphosing, insects. Drosophila's long-germ fate map is established largely by the activity of the dipteran-specific Bicoid (Bcd) morphogen gradient, which operates both instructively and permissively to accomplish anterior patterning. By contrast, all nondipteran long-germ insects must achieve anterior patterning independently of bcd. We show that bcd's permissive function is mimicked in the wasp by a maternal repression system in which anterior localization of the wasp ortholog of giant represses anterior expression of the trunk gap genes so that head and thorax can properly form.

  13. A Rational Threshold Signature Model and Protocol Based on Different Permissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a novel model and protocol used in some specific scenarios, in which the participants of multiple groups with different permissions can finish the signature together. We apply the secret sharing scheme based on difference equation to the private key distribution phase and secret reconstruction phrase of our threshold signature scheme. In addition, our scheme can achieve the signature success because of the punishment strategy of the repeated rational secret sharing. Besides, the bit commitment and verification method used to detect players’ cheating behavior acts as a contributing factor to prevent the internal fraud. Using bit commitments, verifiable parameters, and time sequences, this paper constructs a dynamic game model, which has the features of threshold signature management with different permissions, cheat proof, and forward security.

  14. Comparative Evaluation of Permissiveness to Dengue Virus Serotype 2 Infection in Primary Rodent Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Prada-Arismendy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with dengue virus presents a broad clinical spectrum, which can range from asymptomatic cases to severe cases that are characterised by haemorrhagic syndrome and/or shock. The reason for such variability remains unknown. This work evaluated the in vitro permissiveness of mouse, rat, hamster and guinea pig macrophages to infection by dengue virus 2 (DENV2. The results established that macrophages derived from the BALB/c mouse strain showed higher permissiveness to DENV2 infection than macrophages from other rodent species, although all rodent species studied had the C820T mutation in the oligoadenylate synthetase 1b gene, indicating no relationship to the different in vitro susceptibilities of mouse cells at this locus. Other molecular mechanisms related to flavivirus susceptibility remain to be explored.

  15. A Static Android Malware Detection Based on Actual Used Permissions Combination and API Calls

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoqing Wang; Junfeng Wang; Xiaolan Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Android operating system has been recognized by most application developers because of its good open-source and compatibility, which enriches the categories of applications greatly. However, it has become the target of malware attackers due to the lack of strict security supervision mechanisms, which leads to the rapid growth of malware, thus bringing serious safety hazards to users. Therefore, it is critical to detect Android malware effectively. Generally, the permissions declared in the An...

  16. Determination of Permissible Short-Time Emergency Overloading of Turbo-Generators and Synchronous Compensators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Anischenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that failure to take into account variable ratio of short-time emergency overloading of turbo-generators (synchronous compensators that can lead to underestimation of overloading capacity or impermissible insulation over-heating.A method has been developed for determination of permissible duration of short-time emergency over-loading that takes into account changes of over-loading ratio in case of a failure.

  17. EDITORIAL Neglected Diseases: Burden and attention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Neglected diseases are largely infectious diseases that have burdened humanity for centuries, but currently receiving little attention. Infectious diseases in their long histories have resulted in considerable morbidities, disabilities and deformities, often subjecting to stigma. The magnitude of their impact on health and labor.

  18. Schizophrenia: management and family burden | Sebit | Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schizophrenia: management and family burden. MB Sebit. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/cajm.v53i9-12.62618 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  19. Tackling the high burden of blindness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... care delivery, and tackling the five major eye conditions that contribute to most blindness could reduce the current burden of blindness. This would open the window for addressing glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and macula degeneration which are the new emerging global consequences of non-communicable diseases.

  20. The Global Burden of Cancer 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitzmaurice, C.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Naghavi, M.R.; et al.,

    2015-01-01

    Importance Cancer is among the leading causes of death worldwide. Current estimates of cancer burden in individual countries and regions are necessary to inform local cancer control strategies. Objective To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs),

  1. The dual burden of malnutrition in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Olga L; Parra, Diana C; González, Silvia A; González-Casanova, Inés; Forero, Ana Y; Garcia, Johnattan

    2014-12-01

    Almost all nutrition policies in Colombia currently focus on either undernutrition or obesity, with the predominant emphasis on undernutrition. It is crucial to assess the prevalence of the dual burden of malnutrition in Colombia to better target programs and policies. The aim was to estimate the national prevalence of the dual burden of malnutrition in Colombia at the individual and household levels in children aged malnutrition was defined as the coexistence of overweight and stunting or anemia in the same person or household. In Colombia, low to high prevalences of overweight and obesity (3.4-51.2%) coexist with moderate to high prevalences of anemia (8.1-27.5%) and stunting (13.2%). The observed prevalence of the dual burden was lower than expected. Approximately 5% of households had at least one stunted child aged malnutrition in Colombia are lower than expected. Despite the independence of the occurrence of these conditions, the fact that the dual burden coexists at the national, household, and intraindividual levels suggests that public policies should address both conditions through multiple strategies. It is imperative to evaluate the current nutrition policies to inform malnutrition prevention efforts in Colombia and to share lessons with other countries at a similar stage of nutritional transition. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. THE MALARIA BURDEN AND AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iya beji

    on the physical, mental and social well being of the people as well as on the ... direct health burden of malaria by which its victims suffer physical and ..... Audibert, M. (1986), “Agricultural Non-wage Production and Health-Status – A Case.

  3. The Burden of Psychological Symptoms in Gynaecological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Burden of Psychological Symptoms in Gynaecological Conditions among Women in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Psychiatry ... Background: There is an increasing evidence of significant psychological symptoms (anxiety and depression) among a large percentage of women with gynaecological ...

  4. Economic impacts assessment of pleuropneumonia burden and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a trans-boundary infectious and contagious respiratory disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides. It is a disease of high economic importance because of its ability to compromise food security. Information on its economic burden in pastoral cattle ...

  5. Permissive cytomegalovirus infection of primary villous term and first trimester trophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, D G; Kilani, R; Nykiforuk, C; Preiksaitis, J; Guilbert, L J

    1998-06-01

    Forty percent of women with primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections during pregnancy infect their fetuses with complications for the baby varying from mild to severe. How CMV crosses the syncytiotrophoblast, the barrier between maternal blood and fetal tissue in the villous placenta, is unknown. Virus may cross by infection of maternal cells that pass through physical breaches in the syncytiotrophoblast or by direct infection of the syncytiotrophoblast, with subsequent transmission to underlying fetal placental cells. In this study, we show that pure (>99.99%), long-term and healthy (>3 weeks) cultures of syncytiotrophoblasts are permissively infected with CMV. Greater than 99% of infectious progeny virus remained cell associated throughout culture periods up to 3 weeks. Infection of term trophoblasts required a higher virus inoculum, was less efficient, and progressed more slowly than parallel infections of placental and human embryonic lung fibroblasts. Three laboratory strains (AD169, Towne, and Davis) and a clinical isolate from a congenitally infected infant all permissively infected trophoblasts, although infection efficiencies varied. The infection of first trimester syncytiotrophoblasts with strain AD169 occurred at higher frequency and progressed more rapidly than infection of term cells but less efficiently and rapidly than infection of fibroblasts. These results show that villous syncytiotrophoblasts can be permissively infected by CMV but that the infection requires high virus titers and proceeds slowly and that progeny virus remains predominantly cell associated.

  6. PROBABILISTIC APPROACH FOR THE DETERMINATION OF CUTS PERMISSIBLE BRAKING MODES ON THE GRAVITY HUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr BOBROVSKYI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research results of cuts braking modes on the gravity humps. The objective of this paper is developing the methods for assessment of braking modes of cuts under conditions of fuzziness of their rolling properties, as well as selecting the permissible starting speed range of cuts from retardant positions. As a criterion for assessing the modes of target control of cut rolling speed, it was proposed to use an average gap size on a classification track at the established norms of probable exceeding of permissible speed of cars collision and their stop in retarders. As a criterion for evaluating the modes of interval control of cuts rolling speed, using the risk of their non-separation on the switches was proposed. Using the simulation modeling and mathematical statistics, the configuration of the range of permissible speed of cuts coming out from retardant positions has been set. The conducted researches allow simplifying the choice of cut braking modes in systems of automatic control of cut rolling speed.

  7. Body Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    What are body lice? Body lice (also called clothes lice) are tiny insects which live and lay nits (lice eggs) on clothing. They are parasites, ... usually only move to the skin to feed. Body lice are one of the three types of ...

  8. The Impact of Different Permissible Exposure Limits on Hearing Threshold Levels Beyond 25 dBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayapathi, Balachandar S; Su, Anselm Ting; Koh, David

    2014-10-01

    Development of noise-induced hearing loss is reliant on a few factors such as frequency, intensity, and duration of noise exposure. The occurrence of this occupational malady has doubled from 120 million to 250 million in a decade. Countries such as Malaysia, India, and the US have adopted 90 dBA as the permissible exposure limit. According to the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the exposure limit for noise is 90 dBA, while that of the US National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is 85 dBA for 8 hours of noise exposure. This study aimed to assess the development of hearing threshold levels beyond 25 dBA on adoption of 85 dBA as the permissible exposure limit compared to 90 dBA. This is an intervention study done on two automobile factories. There were 203 employees exposed to noise levels beyond the action level. Hearing protection devices were distributed to reduce noise levels to a level between the permissible exposure limit and action level. The permissible exposure limits were 90 and 85 dBA in factories 1 and 2, respectively, while the action levels were 85 and 80 dBA, respectively. The hearing threshold levels of participants were measured at baseline and at first month of postshift exposure of noise. The outcome was measured by a manual audiometer. McNemar and chi-square tests were used in the statistical analysis. We found that hearing threshold levels of more than 25 dBA has changed significantly from pre-intervention to post-intervention among participants from both factories (3000 Hz for the right ear and 2000 Hz for the left ear). There was a statistically significant association between participants at 3000 Hz on the right ear at 'deteriorated' level ( χ² (1) = 4.08, φ = - 0.142, P = 0.043), whereas there was worsening of hearing threshold beyond 25 dBA among those embraced 90 dBA. The adoption of 85 dBA as the permissible exposure limit has preserved hearing threshold level among participants at 3000 Hz

  9. Breast Hypertrophy, Reduction Mammaplasty, and Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Cristiane Costa; Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Garcia, Edgard da Silva; Cabral, Isaías Vieira; de Carvalho, Monique Maçais; de Brito, Maria José Azevedo; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2018-02-07

    Body image dissatisfaction is one of the major factors that motivate patients to undergo plastic surgery. However, few studies have associated body satisfaction with reduction mammaplasty. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of breast hypertrophy and reduction mammaplasty on body image. Breast hypertrophy patients, with reduction mammaplasty already scheduled between June 2013 and December 2015 (mammaplasty group, MG), were prospectively evaluated through the body dysmorphic disorder examination (BDDE), body investment scale (BIS), and breast evaluation questionnaire (BEQ55) tools. Women with normal-sized breasts were also evaluated as study controls (normal-sized breast group, NSBG). All the participants were interviewed at the initial assessment and after six months. Data were analyzed before and after six months. Each group consisted of 103 women. The MG group had a significant improvement in BDDE, BIS, and BEQ55 scores six months postoperatively (P ≤ 0.001 for the three instruments), whereas the NSBG group showed no alteration in results over time (P = 0.876; P = 0.442; and P = 0.184, respectively). In the intergroup comparison it was observed that the MG group began to invest more in the body, similarly to the NSBG group, and surpassed the level of satisfaction and body image that the women of the NSBG group had after the surgery. Reduction mammaplasty promoted improvement in body image of women with breast hypertrophy. © 2018 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Determination of permissible doses under the provisions of the regulations on installation and operation of reactors for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The determination is defined under the regulations on installation and operation of reactors for power generation. In the controlled area exterior radiation dose shall be 30 mili-rem for a week by the Minister of International Trade and Industry. The concentrations of radioactive materials in the air or under the water shall be permissible concentrations specified for the employees multiplied by 0.75 in average for a week. The densities of radioactive materials on the surface of the things contaminated by such materials shall be 1/10 of permissible surface densities stipulated in the table attached. Permissible exposure dose outside the inspected surrounding area is 0.5 rem for a year. Permissible surface densities are included in the table attached. Permissible accumulative dose for the employees is the figure (unit rem) calculated by the formula D = 5(N-18), when D means permissible accumulative dose and N number of the age. Permissible exposure dose is 3 rem for 3 months for the employees, 1.5 rem for a year for persons other than the employees and 12 rem for the urgent work. Permissible concentrations are defined in detail for the employees and outside the inspected surrounding area. Calculation of exposure dose in the case of interior exposure is particularly provided for. (Okada, K.)

  11. 29 CFR 3.5 - Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor. 3.5 Section 3.5 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND... STATES § 3.5 Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor...

  12. 11 CFR 114.15 - Permissible use of corporate and labor organization funds for certain electioneering communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissible use of corporate and labor organization funds for certain electioneering communications. 114.15 Section 114.15 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL CORPORATE AND LABOR ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY § 114.15 Permissible use of corporate...

  13. Body integrity identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Rianne M; Hennekam, Raoul C; Denys, Damiaan

    2012-01-01

    Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) is a rare, infrequently studied and highly secretive condition in which there is a mismatch between the mental body image and the physical body. Subjects suffering from BIID have an intense desire to amputate a major limb or severe the spinal cord in order to become paralyzed. Aim of the study is to broaden the knowledge of BIID amongst medical professionals, by describing all who deal with BIID. Somatic, psychiatric and BIID characteristic data were collected from 54 BIID individuals using a detailed questionnaire. Subsequently, data of different subtypes of BIID (i.e. wish for amputation or paralyzation) were evaluated. Finally, disruption in work, social and family life due to BIID in subjects with and without amputation were compared. Based on the subjects' reports we found that BIID has an onset in early childhood. The main rationale given for their desire for body modification is to feel complete or to feel satisfied inside. Somatic and severe psychiatric co-morbidity is unusual, but depressive symptoms and mood disorders can be present, possibly secondary to the enormous distress BIID puts upon a person. Amputation and paralyzation variant do not differ in any clinical variable. Surgery is found helpful in all subjects who underwent amputation and those subjects score significantly lower on a disability scale than BIID subjects without body modification. The amputation variant and paralyzation variant of BIID are to be considered as one of the same condition. Amputation of the healthy body part appears to result in remission of BIID and an impressive improvement of quality of life. Knowledge of and respect for the desires of BIID individuals are the first steps in providing care and may decrease the huge burden they experience.

  14. Body integrity identity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne M Blom

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID is a rare, infrequently studied and highly secretive condition in which there is a mismatch between the mental body image and the physical body. Subjects suffering from BIID have an intense desire to amputate a major limb or severe the spinal cord in order to become paralyzed. Aim of the study is to broaden the knowledge of BIID amongst medical professionals, by describing all who deal with BIID. METHODS: Somatic, psychiatric and BIID characteristic data were collected from 54 BIID individuals using a detailed questionnaire. Subsequently, data of different subtypes of BIID (i.e. wish for amputation or paralyzation were evaluated. Finally, disruption in work, social and family life due to BIID in subjects with and without amputation were compared. RESULTS: Based on the subjects' reports we found that BIID has an onset in early childhood. The main rationale given for their desire for body modification is to feel complete or to feel satisfied inside. Somatic and severe psychiatric co-morbidity is unusual, but depressive symptoms and mood disorders can be present, possibly secondary to the enormous distress BIID puts upon a person. Amputation and paralyzation variant do not differ in any clinical variable. Surgery is found helpful in all subjects who underwent amputation and those subjects score significantly lower on a disability scale than BIID subjects without body modification. CONCLUSIONS: The amputation variant and paralyzation variant of BIID are to be considered as one of the same condition. Amputation of the healthy body part appears to result in remission of BIID and an impressive improvement of quality of life. Knowledge of and respect for the desires of BIID individuals are the first steps in providing care and may decrease the huge burden they experience.

  15. Study of vitamin B/sub 12/ absorption by a whole-body counter (plastic). I. The fundamental considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, R; Furumatsu, C [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-08-01

    An absorption test of vitamin B/sub 12/ was studied by using the whole body spectrometer (plastic) in a low background room. Four plastic scintillation probes were set under the bed. Each plastic scintillation probe contains a 50x50x15 cm/sup 3/ scintillator and four photomultiplier tubes. Each subject was measured in supine and prone positions and the mean was used. Measurement was made before (body background), 35 minutes after (100%), and again 7 days after the oral administration of 0.17 to 0.2 ..mu..g(below 0.16 ..mu..Ci) /sup 60/Co-B/sub 12/ or of 0.2 ..mu..g(below 0.4 ..mu..Ci) /sup 58/Co-B/sub 12/. No meal or medicine was given at least 2 hours after the oral uptake of radioactive B/sub 12/. To correct for the radioactive decay and any counter instability, all measurements were corrected using a standard source. The results of B/sub 12/ absorption were expressed as the retention percentage of the labeled B/sub 12/ within the body on the seventh day. Present methods of measuring intestinal absorption of radioactive B/sub 12/ include measurements of the radioactivity (1) in the feces, (2) in the urine, (3) in the serum, or over the liver projection. While all these methods give clinically valuable results, B/sub 12/ absorption is determined most accurately by direct measurement of the amount remaining in the body with a whole-body counter after the unabsorbed radio-B/sub 12/ is excreted in the feces. It is more quantitative and simpler than the Schilling test and permits the measurement ofradioactive B/sub 12/ at a considerably lower level than the maximum permissible body burdens.

  16. Challenges to obtaining parental permission for child participation in a school-based waterpipe tobacco smoking prevention intervention in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkash, Rima T; Al Mulla, Ahmad; Torossian, Lena; Karhily, Roubina; Shuayb, Lama; Mahfoud, Ziyad R; Janahi, Ibrahim; Al Ansari, Al Anoud; Afifi, Rema A

    2014-09-30

    Involving children in research studies requires obtaining parental permission. A school-based intervention to delay/prevent waterpipe use for 7th and 8th graders in Qatar was developed, and parental permission requested. Fifty three percent (2308/4314) of the parents returned permission forms; of those 19.5% of the total (840/4314) granted permission. This paper describes the challenges to obtaining parental permission. No research to date has described such challenges in the Arab world. A random sample of 40 schools in Doha, Qatar was selected for inclusion in the original intervention. Permission forms were distributed to parents for approval of their child's participation. The permission forms requested that parents indicate their reasons for non-permission if they declined. These were categorized into themes. In order to understand reasons for non-permission, interviews with parents were conducted. Phone numbers of parents were requested from the school administration; 12 of the 40 schools (30%) agreed to provide the contact information. A random sample of 28 parents from 12 schools was interviewed to reach data saturation. Thematic analysis was used to analyze their responses. Reasons for non-permission documented in both the forms and interviews included: poor timing; lack of interest; the child not wanting to participate; and the child living in a smoke-free environment. Interviews provided information on important topics to include in the consent forms, parents' decision-making processes regarding their child's participation, and considerations for communicating with parents. Many parents also indicated that this was the first time they had been asked to give an informed consent for their child's participation in a study. Results indicate that more attention needs to be given to the informed parental consent process. Researchers should consider enhancing both the methods of communicating information as well the specific information provided. Before

  17. Methodological Challenges in Estimating Trends and Burden of Cardiovascular Disease in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob K. Kariuki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although 80% of the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD is in developing countries, the 2010 global burden of disease (GBD estimates have been cited to support a premise that sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is exempt from the CVD epidemic sweeping across developing countries. The widely publicized perspective influences research priorities and resource allocation at a time when secular trends indicate a rapid increase in prevalence of CVD in SSA by 2030. Purpose. To explore methodological challenges in estimating trends and burden of CVD in SSA via appraisal of the current CVD statistics and literature. Methods. This review was guided by the Critical review methodology described by Grant and Booth. The review traces the origins and evolution of GBD metrics and then explores the methodological limitations inherent in the current GBD statistics. Articles were included based on their conceptual contribution to the existing body of knowledge on the burden of CVD in SSA. Results/Conclusion. Cognizant of the methodological challenges discussed, we caution against extrapolation of the global burden of CVD statistics in a way that underrates the actual but uncertain impact of CVD in SSA. We conclude by making a case for optimal but cost-effective surveillance and prevention of CVD in SSA.

  18. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors of Urban Chinese Children: Grade Level Prevalence and Academic Burden Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihe Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were (a to report grade level prevalence in physical activity and sedentary behaviors and (b to examine academic burden associations with these behaviors. School-aged children (n = 48,118 reported their physical activity, perception of physical activity sufficiency, factors for activity insufficiency, homework hours, and screen time in a typical week. Data were analyzed using general linear models and logistic regression models of Complex Samples. Prevalence results showed that children had lower physical activity and lower screen viewing time, but higher homework time during transition grades (6th, 9th, and 12th and high school years. Academic burden was cited as the primary reason for not having sufficient physical activity (76.6%. Compared to those citing academic burden, students who did not report academic burden were significantly more likely to meet physical activity guidelines (Odds Ratio (OR = 5.38, 95% CI = 4.74–6.11, but less likely to meet screen time guidelines (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.72–0.84, controlling for body mass index, gender, and grade level. Additionally, children who reported academic burdens had significantly longer average daily homework time than those who did not (p<0.01. Policy makers should promote physical activity and help children find a balance between homework and physical activity time particularly among the educational transition grades.

  19. Global Epidemiology and Burden of Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlson, Fiona J; Ferrari, Alize J; Santomauro, Damian F

    2018-01-01

    countries. Method: We conducted a systematic review to identify studies reporting the prevalence, incidence, remission, and/or excess mortality associated with schizophrenia. Reported estimates which met our inclusion criteria were entered into a Bayesian meta-regression tool used in GBD 2016 to derive...... prevalence for 20 age groups, 7 super-regions, 21 regions, and 195 countries and territories. Burden of disease estimates were derived for acute and residual states of schizophrenia by multiplying the age-, sex-, year-, and location-specific prevalence by 2 disability weights representative of the disability......-standardized point prevalence rates did not vary widely across countries or regions. Globally, prevalent cases rose from 13.1 (95% UI: 11.6-14.8) million in 1990 to 20.9 (95% UI: 18.5-23.4) million cases in 2016. Schizophrenia contributes 13.4 (95% UI: 9.9-16.7) million years of life lived with disability to burden...

  20. The global burden of alveolar echinococcosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R Torgerson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE is known to be common in certain rural communities in China whilst it is generally rare and sporadic elsewhere. The objective of this study was to provide a first estimate of the global incidence of this disease by country. The second objective was to estimate the global disease burden using age and gender stratified incidences and estimated life expectancy with the disease from previous results of survival analysis. Disability weights were suggested from previous burden studies on echinococcosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We undertook a detailed review of published literature and data from other sources. We were unable to make a standardised systematic review as the quality of the data was highly variable from different countries and hence if we had used uniform inclusion criteria many endemic areas lacking data would not have been included. Therefore we used evidence based stochastic techniques to model uncertainty and other modelling and estimating techniques, particularly in regions where data quality was poor. We were able to make an estimate of the annual global incidence of disease and annual disease burden using standard techniques for calculation of DALYs. Our studies suggest that there are approximately 18,235 (CIs 11,900-28,200 new cases of AE per annum globally with 16,629 (91% occurring in China and 1,606 outside China. Most of these cases are in regions where there is little treatment available and therefore will be fatal cases. Based on using disability weights for hepatic carcinoma and estimated age and gender specific incidence we were able to calculate that AE results in a median of 666,434 DALYs per annum (CIs 331,000-1.3 million. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The global burden of AE is comparable to several diseases in the neglected tropical disease cluster and is likely to be one of the most important diseases in certain communities in rural China on the Tibetan plateau.

  1. Economic Burden of Diabetes in Urban Indians

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Pablo; Gogate, Bageshri; Gogate, Parikshit; Thite, Nilesh; Mutha, Abhay; Walimbe, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Purpose : To find out the average economic burden of medical care on a patient with diabetes in Pune, India Methods : A semi-open ended questionnaire followed by interview was conducted with patients attending diabetes and ophthalmic out-patient departments. They were asked regarding the duration of diabetes, methods undertaken for blood sugar control and the amount they spend on consultations, laboratory tests, medicines and procedures if any within past year. Expenditure was classified as d...

  2. Burden of arrhythmia in recreational marijuana users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rupak; Patel, Upenkumar; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Sachdeva, Rajesh; Kumar, Gautam

    2018-03-27

    Marijuana or Cannabis is extensively used as a recreational substance globally. Case reports have reported cardiac arrhythmias immediately following recreational marijuana use. However, the burden of arrhythmias in hospitalized marijuana users have not been evaluated through prospective or cross-sectional studies. Therefore, we planned to measure temporal trends of the frequency of arrhythmias in hospitalized marijuana users using National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database in the United States. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Permissive hypotension in the extremely low birthweight infant with signs of good perfusion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dempsey, E M

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Many practitioners routinely treat infants whose mean arterial blood pressure in mm Hg is less than their gestational age in weeks (GA). OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of utilising a combined approach of clinical signs, metabolic acidosis and absolute blood pressure (BP) values when deciding to treat hypotension in the extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infant. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of all live born ELBW infants admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit over a 4-year period. Patients were grouped as either normotensive (BP never less than GA), hypotensive and not treated (BPpermissive hypotension) and hypotensive treated (BPpermissive hypotension had similar outcomes. Mean blood pressure in the permissive group increased from 26 mm Hg at 6 h to 31 mm Hg at 24 h. In a logistic regression model, treated hypotension is independently associated with mortality, odds ratio 8.0 (95% CI 2.3 to 28, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Blood pressure spontaneously improves in ELBW infants during the first 24 h. Infants hypotensive on GA criteria but with clinical evidence of good perfusion had as good an outcome as normotensive patients. Treated low blood pressure was associated with adverse outcome.

  4. Curbing the burden of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urman, Alexandra; Hosgood, H Dean

    2016-06-01

    Lung cancer contributes substantially to the global burden of disease and healthcare costs. New screening modalities using low-dose computerized tomography are promising tools for early detection leading to curative surgery. However, the screening and follow-up diagnostic procedures of these techniques may be costly. Focusing on prevention is an important factor to reduce the burden of screening, treatment, and lung cancer deaths. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has identified several lung carcinogens, which we believe can be considered actionable when developing prevention strategies. To curb the societal burden of lung cancer, healthcare resources need to be focused on early detection and screening and on mitigating exposure(s) of a person to known lung carcinogens, such as active tobacco smoking, household air pollution (HAP), and outdoor air pollution. Evidence has also suggested that these known lung carcinogens may be associated with genetic predispositions, supporting the hypothesis that lung cancers attributed to differing exposures may have developed from unique underlying genetic mechanisms attributed to the exposure of interest. For instance, smokingattributed lung cancer involves novel genetic markers of risk compared with HAP-attributed lung cancer. Therefore, genetic risk markers may be used in risk stratification to identify subpopulations that are at a higher risk for developing lung cancer attributed to a given exposure. Such targeted prevention strategies suggest that precision prevention strategies may be possible in the future; however, much work is needed to determine whether these strategies will be viable.

  5. Imperfect Reworking Process Consideration in Integrated Inventory Model under Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Cheng Lo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops an improved inventory model to help the enterprises to advance their profit increasing and cost reduction in a single vendor single-buyer environment with general demand curve, adjustable production rate, and imperfect reworking process under permissible delay in payments. For advancing practical use in a real world, we are concerned with the following strategy determining, which includes the buyer's optimal selling price, order quantity, and the number of shipments per production run from the vendor to the buyer. An algorithm and numerical analysis are used to illustrate the solution procedure.

  6. Free Radical Oxidation in Rat Myocardium after Maximum Permissible Hepatic Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolaev, P A; Khramykh, T P; Barskaya, L O

    2016-03-01

    Free radical oxidation in rat myocardial homogenate was studied by chemiluminescent assay during the early terms after maximum permissible liver resection. During this period, activation of free radical oxidation was biphasic. The critical terms characterized by dramatic intensification of free radical oxidation in the myocardium are the first hour and the first day after surgery. The period from 3 to 12 h after surgery, in which the indices of chemiluminescence decrease, can be tentatively termed as the period of "putative wellbeing". Normalization of the free radical oxidation processes in the myocardium occurred by day 7 after surgery.

  7. Determination of the longest permissible distance between expansion compensators in gas transmission pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huening, R [Fachhochschule Muenster, Burgsteinfurt (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich Versorgungstechnik

    1977-01-01

    In order to effectively protect long-distance gas pipelines against mountain damage in the areas in which underground mining is done, expansion compensators must be built in at certain distances. The tests to determine the slippage resistance and the highest permissible distance of expanders Lsub(max) in a transmission line NW 600 having a plastic insulation are described in this work. In addition, a way of calculating the Lsub(max) value from the existing data for pipes of varying diameter and different insulating material is shown.

  8. Influence of the composition of radionuclide mixtures on the maximum permissible concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillinger, K.; Schuricht, V.

    1975-08-01

    By dividing radionuclides according to their formation mechanisms it is possible to assess the influence of separate partial mixtures on the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of the total mixture without knowing exactly their contribution to the total activity. Calculations showed that the MPC of a total mixture of unsoluble radionuclides, which may occur in all fields of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, depends on the gastrointestinal tract as the critical organ and on the composition of the fission product mixture. The influence of fractionation on the MPC can be reglected in such a case, whereas in case of soluble radionuclides this is not possible

  9. Two warehouse inventory model for deteriorating item with exponential demand rate and permissible delay in payment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliraman Naresh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A two warehouse inventory model for deteriorating items is considered with exponential demand rate and permissible delay in payment. Shortage is not allowed and deterioration rate is constant. In the model, one warehouse is rented and the other is owned. The rented warehouse is provided with better facility for the stock than the owned warehouse, but is charged more. The objective of this model is to find the best replenishment policies for minimizing the total appropriate inventory cost. A numerical illustration and sensitivity analysis is provided.

  10. The Impact of Different Permissible Exposure Limits on Hearing Threshold Levels Beyond 25 dBA

    OpenAIRE

    Sayapathi, Balachandar S; Su, Anselm Ting; Koh, David

    2014-01-01

    Background: Development of noise-induced hearing loss is reliant on a few factors such as frequency, intensity, and duration of noise exposure. The occurrence of this occupational malady has doubled from 120 million to 250 million in a decade. Countries such as Malaysia, India, and the US have adopted 90 dBA as the permissible exposure limit. According to the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the exposure limit for noise is 90 dBA, while that of the US National Institut...

  11. Prototype Centralized Managing Permissions System Based on the Election Multibiometric Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Nikolaevich Ruchay

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to develop a prototype system of centralized managing permissions based on the election multibiometric authentication. The novelty of this work is to develop the principles of distinction and multi-factor authentication, because at the moment there is no such development. Depending on various conditions and factors, including the availability of electronic means and convenience, resistance to attacks and exploits, disease or injury of users the biometric authentication can be selected on the basis of any such biometrics as rhythm password, voice, dynamic signatures and graphics recognition.

  12. More accurate picture of human body organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, J.

    1985-01-01

    Computerized tomography and nucler magnetic resonance tomography (NMRT) are revolutionary contributions to radiodiagnosis because they allow to obtain a more accurate image of human body organs. The principles are described of both methods. Attention is mainly devoted to NMRT which has clinically only been used for three years. It does not burden the organism with ionizing radiation. (Ha)

  13. The Tax Burden on Tobacco Volume 51, 1970-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1970-2016. Orzechowski and Walker. Tax Burden on Tobacco. Tax burden data was obtained from the annual compendium on tobacco revenue and industry statistics, The Tax...

  14. Prevalence and burden of Sickle Cell Disease among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    femi oloka

    the variables pain severity, monthly income, the psychological and ... 44% had significant psychological burden while 37.3% have socio-cultural burden. The ..... 6. Otis-Green S. Psychosocial Pain. Assessment Form. In Dow (Ed.), Nursing.

  15. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to indoor air pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimating the burden of disease attributable to indoor air pollution from household ... To estimate the burden of respiratory ill health in South African children and adults in ... Mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from acute lower ...

  16. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle

    2008-01-01

    and the boundaries between self and world. In western societies, the modern premises for contact are in some ways developing from close contact to virtual communication. With this breadth of perspective in mind, the ques­tion is whether conscious and experimental work with body contact and body language in move......­ment psychology and education provide potential for intense personal develop­ment as well as for social and cultural learning processes. This performative research project originates from the research project entitled, Movement Psy­chol­ogy: The Language of the Body and the Psy­chol­ogy of Movement based......Body contact and body language are unique and existential and, although culturally dependent and socially embodied, they are also universal communication forms. For small children all over the world, warm, close and nourishing body contact is fundamental to their embodied experi­ence of themselves...

  17. Primary Human Placental Trophoblasts are Permissive for Zika Virus (ZIKV) Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Kjersti M; Lahon, Anismrita; Suter, Melissa A; Arya, Ravi P; Seferovic, Maxim D; Vogt, Megan B; Hu, Min; Stossi, Fabio; Mancini, Michael A; Harris, R Alan; Kahr, Maike; Eppes, Catherine; Rac, Martha; Belfort, Michael A; Park, Chun Shik; Lacorazza, Daniel; Rico-Hesse, Rebecca

    2017-01-27

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne (Aedes genus) arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family. Although ZIKV has been predominately associated with a mild or asymptomatic dengue-like disease, its appearance in the Americas has been accompanied by a multi-fold increase in reported incidence of fetal microcephaly and brain malformations. The source and mode of vertical transmission from mother to fetus is presumptively transplacental, although a causal link explaining the interval delay between maternal symptoms and observed fetal malformations following infection has been missing. In this study, we show that primary human placental trophoblasts from non-exposed donors (n = 20) can be infected by primary passage ZIKV-FLR isolate, and uniquely allowed for ZIKV viral RNA replication when compared to dengue virus (DENV). Consistent with their being permissive for ZIKV infection, primary trophoblasts expressed multiple putative ZIKV cell entry receptors, and cellular function and differentiation were preserved. These findings suggest that ZIKV-FLR strain can replicate in human placental trophoblasts without host cell destruction, thereby serving as a likely permissive reservoir and portal of fetal transmission with risk of latent microcephaly and malformations.

  18. Access to a Loaded Gun Without Adult Permission and School-Based Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simckes, Maayan S; Simonetti, Joseph A; Moreno, Megan A; Rivara, Frederick P; Oudekerk, Barbara A; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali

    2017-09-01

    Gun access and bullying are risk factors for sustaining or perpetrating violence among adolescents. Our knowledge of gun access among bullied students is limited. We used data on students, aged 12-18 years, from the 2011 and 2013 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey to assess the association between self-reported bullying victimization (traditional and cyber) and access to a loaded gun without adult permission. Prevalence ratios (PRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained from multivariable Poisson regression using the Taylor series after controlling for student age, sex, family income, public/private school, and race. Of 10,704 participants, 4.2% (95% CI: 3.8%-4.6%) reported gun access. Compared with nonbullied students, those who reported traditional bullying (PR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.7-2.4), cyberbullying (PR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.6-4.9), and both (PR = 5.9; 95% CI: 4.6-7.7) were more likely to also report gun access. Adolescents who experience bullying, particularly those who report both traditional bullying and cyberbullying, are more likely to report access to a loaded gun without adult permission. These findings highlight the importance of developing interventions focused on these modifiable risk factors for preventing self-directed or interpersonal violence among youth. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Immortalized sheep microglial cells are permissive to a diverse range of ruminant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, James B; Swanson, Beryl; Orozco, Edith; Muñoz-Gutiérrez, Juan F; Evermann, James F; Ridpath, Julia F

    2017-12-01

    Ruminants, including sheep and goats (small ruminants), are key agricultural animals in many parts of the world. Infectious diseases, including many viral diseases, are significant problems to efficient production of ruminants. Unfortunately, reagents tailored to viruses of ruminants, and especially small ruminants, are lacking compared to other animals more typically used for biomedical research. The purpose of this study was to determine the permissibility of a stably immortalized, sheep microglial cell line to viruses that are reported to infect ruminants: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Sublines A and H of previously isolated, immortalized, and characterized (CD14-positive) ovine microglial cells were used. Bovine turbinate cells and goat synovial membrane cells were used for comparison. Cytopathic changes were used to confirm infection of individual wells, which were then counted and used to calculate the 50% tissue culture infectious dose. Uninoculated cells served as negative controls and confirmed that the cells were not previously infected with these viruses using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Inoculation of the two microglial cell sublines with laboratory and field isolates of BVDV, BoHV-1, and BRSV resulted in viral infection in a manner similar to bovine turbinate cells. Immortalized microglia cells are also permissive to SRLV, similar to goat synovial membrane cells. These immortalized sheep microglial cells provide a new tool for the study of ruminant viruses in ruminant microglial cell line.

  20. NASA Space Radiation Protection Strategies: Risk Assessment and Permissible Exposure Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, J. L.; Patel, Z. S.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2017-01-01

    Permissible exposure limits (PELs) for short-term and career astronaut exposures to space radiation have been set and approved by NASA with the goal of protecting astronauts against health risks associated with ionizing radiation exposure. Short term PELs are intended to prevent clinically significant deterministic health effects, including performance decrements, which could threaten astronaut health and jeopardize mission success. Career PELs are implemented to control late occurring health effects, including a 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) from cancer, and dose limits are used to prevent cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases. For radiation protection, meeting the cancer PEL is currently the design driver for galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event shielding, mission duration, and crew certification (e.g., 1-year ISS missions). The risk of cancer development is the largest known long-term health consequence following radiation exposure, and current estimates for long-term health risks due to cardiovascular diseases are approximately 30% to 40% of the cancer risk for exposures above an estimated threshold (Deep Space one-year and Mars missions). Large uncertainties currently exist in estimating the health risks of space radiation exposure. Improved understanding through radiobiology and physics research allows increased accuracy in risk estimation and is essential for ensuring astronaut health as well as for controlling mission costs, optimization of mission operations, vehicle design, and countermeasure assessment. We will review the Space Radiation Program Element's research strategies to increase accuracy in risk models and to inform development and validation of the permissible exposure limits.

  1. A guide for the calculation of the maximum permissible costs for shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzlose, H.

    1981-01-01

    Among other things, this paper has the aim to define the scope which is reasonable for shelter costs as well as to inform about their real amount. Various assumptions have been made and examples have been given which seldom coincide with the specific facts. Thus, the possibility of how to find solutions which are precisely appropriate for persons is shown in a formula. The less the income, life expectancy and the number of persons to be considered the less are the maximum permissible costs for shelters. Under certain conditions the permissible costs are lower than the real costs. Thus, taking those assumptions into account, the shelter is not profitable any more. This case, for example, really applies to a couple, 57 years old, without children, with an income of 40,000 DM/year who intend to build an interior shelter. For a family with children who are under age, however, it is always profitable to build an interior basic shelter. (orig.) [de

  2. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along...

  3. Estimation of thorium lung burden in mineral separation plant workers by thoron-in-breath measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishnan, Sujata; Sreekumar, K.; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.; Selvan, Esai

    2010-01-01

    The Minerals Separation Plant (MSP) of M/s Indian Rare Earths Ltd. (IREL) at Manavalakurichi in Tamil Nadu is engaged in the processing of beach sands to separate ilmenite, monazite, rutile, sillimanite, garnet, and zircon. The present study has been carried out on nearly 200 workers of the mineral separation plant who are chronically exposed to the radiation hazards. Measurement of thoron in the exhaled breath of the worker is an indirect method of estimating the body burden with regard to Th

  4. 12 CFR 508.10 - Burden of persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burden of persuasion. 508.10 Section 508.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.10 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden of...

  5. Double burden of disease in the slums of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oti, S.O.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to provide evidence of a double burden of disease in the slums of Nairobi and to make a case for an integrated health systems approach to tackling this situation. A double burden of disease refers to the coexistence of a high burden of communicable and non-communicable

  6. The burden experienced by family caregivers of patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Caring for patients with chronic medical and psychiatric disorders is associated with significant burden. However little is known about the burden experience by caregivers of patients with epilepsy in Nigeria. The objective of this study, therefore, was to assess the level and correlates of burden among ...

  7. The Burden of Child Maltreatment Leading to Hospitalization in a Provincial Setting in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rero, Allanie; Aipit, Jimmy; Yarong-Kote, Tina; Watch, Villa; Bolnga, John W; Vei, Robert; Morris, Marilyn; Lufele, Elvin; Laman, Moses

    2016-08-01

    Child maltreatment is prevalent globally. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), child maltreatment remains an under-reported problem. As part of a 10 month prospective observational study conducted at Modilon Hospital in PNG, we investigated the burden of child maltreatment in the form of sexual abuse, physical abuse and neglect, leading to hospitalization in children ≤14 years. Of 1061 screened admissions, 107 (10%) fulfilled the definition of child maltreatment. The in-hospital admission prevalence of sexual abuse was 5.7% [60 of 1061; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.4-7.3]. Neglect accounted for 3.4% (36 of 1061; 95% CI: 2.4-4.7) of admissions, while physical abuse accounted for 1.0% (11 of 1061; 95% CI: 0.6-1.9). Mortality was highest in the neglected group, with severe acute malnutrition accounting for 89% of deaths. Improved awareness, establishment of appropriate channels for addressing child maltreatment and enforcement of child protection laws in PNG and other epidemiologically similar settings are urgently needed. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs: determination of permissible levels; Contamination radioactive des denrees alimentaires: determination des niveaux admissibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledermann, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay- aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    In a latent air-soil contamination situation, the population would receive 80 per cent of its contamination through foodstuffs. The supervision of this food poses many problems: sampling, radionuclide dosages, etc. It is also necessary to estimate the maximum permissible concentration of radionuclides in foodstuffs, once the maximum exposure limit for the human body has been fixed. The passage of this level to the maximum concentrations is not simple since a) each radionuclide has its own particular effect on the body; b) their concentrations vary from one foodstuff to another, and c) the average amounts of foodstuffs vary from one population to another. Two methods are given here for estimating the maximum permissible concentrations in foodstuffs, together with the first diets likely to become critical when several of them are to be considered simultaneously. The results depend on the way in which the present situation can change to become critical. This evolutionary path can only be estimated approximately. Two methods are therefore given for studying the sensitivity of the results. As an example, a numerical application of these methods using data actually available is given. The data used is naturally incomplete and this will always be true. This application test indicates however two fields in which an improvement is absolutely necessary. 1 - The obtention of multiple observations (simultaneous dosage of at least 2 radionuclides in the same foodstuff, and simultaneous dosage of at least two foodstuffs for the same radionuclide); this assumes a combined effort by the various organisms; 2 - The reaching of an agreement on the dosage methods used by the various organisms since the results actually available are not comparable. (authors) [French] Dans une situation de contamination air-sol latente, la contamination des populations se ferait a 80 pour cent par l'alimentation. Surveiller cette alimentation pose des problemes complexes: echantillonnage, dosage des

  9. Immunologic burden links periodontitis to acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljestrand, John M; Paju, Susanna; Pietiäinen, Milla; Buhlin, Kåre; Persson, G Rutger; Nieminen, Markku S; Sinisalo, Juha; Mäntylä, Päivi; Pussinen, Pirkko J

    2018-01-01

    Periodontitis, a common polymicrobial inflammatory disease in the tooth supporting tissues, is a risk factor for coronary artery disease. One of the proposed underlying mechanisms is the systemic immune response to periodontal infection. We studied how serum antibodies against seven periodontal pathogens and their subgingival levels associate with each other, periodontitis, and coronary artery disease. The Parogene cohort included 505 Finnish patients (mean age 63 y) who underwent coronary angiography, and clinical and radiographic oral examinations. Coronary diagnosis was defined as no significant coronary artery disease (disease (≥50% stenosis, n = 184) and acute coronary syndrome (n = 169). Levels of subgingival Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia, Campylobacter rectus, and Fusobacterium nucleatum were determined by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Serum antibody (IgA/IgG) levels were analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Aggregate IgA/IgG burdens were calculated by summing and standardizing the serum antibody levels. Patients with active periodontitis were characterized by higher levels of subgingival bacteria and corresponding IgA/IgG response. Quartiles 2-4 of serum IgA/IgG burden indicated higher risk for acute coronary syndrome (OR 1.84, 95%CI 1.01-3.35 for IgA; OR 1.87, 95%CI 1.01-3.46 for IgG) independently of established cardiovascular risk factors, body mass index, number of teeth, subgingival bacterial levels and periodontal diagnosis. Our findings support the hypothesis that the association between periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases is partly mediated by the immunologic response for periodontal pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Burden of serious fungal infections in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, N; Samayoa, B; Lau-Bonilla, D; Denning, D W; Herrera, R; Mercado, D; Guzmán, B; Pérez, J C; Arathoon, E

    2017-06-01

    Guatemala is a developing country in Central America with a high burden of HIV and endemic fungal infections; we attempted to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections for the country. A full literature search was done to identify epidemiology papers reporting fungal infections from Guatemala. We used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in the population to estimate national rates. The population of Guatemala in 2013 was 15.4 million; 40% were younger than 15 and 6.2% older than 60. There are an estimated 53,000 adults with HIV infection, in 2015, most presenting late. The estimated cases of opportunistic fungal infections were: 705 cases of disseminated histoplasmosis, 408 cases of cryptococcal meningitis, 816 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia, 16,695 cases of oral candidiasis, and 4,505 cases of esophageal candidiasis. In the general population, an estimated 5,568 adult asthmatics have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) based on a 2.42% prevalence of asthma and a 2.5% ABPA proportion. Amongst 2,452 pulmonary tuberculosis patients, we estimated a prevalence of 495 for chronic pulmonary aspergillosis in this group, and 1,484 for all conditions. An estimated 232,357 cases of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis is likely. Overall, 1.7% of the population are affected by these conditions. The true fungal infection burden in Guatemala is unknown. Tools and training for improved diagnosis are needed. Additional research on prevalence is needed to employ public health measures towards treatment and improving the reported data of fungal diseases.

  11. The economic burden of prematurity in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Karissa M; Gooch, Katherine; Korol, Ellen; Vo, Pamela; Eyawo, Oghenowede; Bradt, Pamela; Levy, Adrian

    2014-04-05

    Preterm birth is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality among infants worldwide, and imposes considerable burden on health, education and social services, as well as on families and caregivers. Morbidity and mortality resulting from preterm birth is highest among early (prematurity due to the larger number of late preterm infants relative to early and moderate preterm infants. The aim in this study was to characterize the burden of premature birth in Canada for early, moderate, and late premature infants, including resource utilization, direct medical costs, parental out-of-pocket costs, education costs, and mortality, using a validated and published decision model from the UK, and adapting it to a Canadian setting based on analysis of administrative, population-based data from Québec. Two-year survival was estimated at 56.0% for early preterm infants, 92.8% for moderate preterm infants, and 98.4% for late preterm infants. Per infant resource utilization consistently decreased with age. For moderately preterm infants, hospital days ranged from 1.6 at age two to 0.09 at age ten. Cost per infant over the first ten years of life was estimated to be $67,467 for early preterm infants, $52,796 for moderate preterm infants, and $10,010 for late preterm infants. Based on population sizes this corresponds to total national costs of $123.3 million for early preterm infants, $255.6 million for moderate preterm infants, $208.2 million for late preterm infants, and $587.1 million for all infants. Premature birth results in significant infant morbidity, mortality, healthcare utilization and costs in Canada. A comprehensive decision-model based on analysis of a Canadian population-based administrative data source suggested that the greatest national-level burden is associated with moderate preterm infants due to both a large cost per infant and population size while the highest individual-level burden is in early preterm infants and the largest total population size is

  12. The humanistic burden of hereditary angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Teresa; Aygören-Pürsün, Emel; Bygum, Anette

    2014-01-01

    and impact of HAE types I and II from the patient perspective. The HAE Burden of Illness Study in Europe was conducted in Spain, Germany, and Denmark to assess the real-world experience of HAE from the patient perspective via a one-time survey, which included items on clinical characteristics and physical......, traveling, and passing HAE to their children. Based on Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores, 38 and 14% had clinically meaningful anxiety and depression, respectively. Despite standard of care, HAE patients still have frequent and painful attacks. Patients experience substantial impairment...

  13. 78 FR 52915 - Notice of Proposals to Engage In or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... to be closely related to banking and permissible for bank holding companies. Unless otherwise noted..., Vice President) 2200 North Pearl Street, Dallas, Texas 75201-2272: 1. Rio Financial Services, Inc...

  14. Signifying Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of biosemiosis connect signifying bodies with their natural surroundings, cultural activities and subjective experiences. Health stretches all the way from the ecosocial surroundings, through the skin and into the self-organizing processes of every living cell. Signifying Bodies lays out a new approach to health...... and health care. Eschewing all forms of dualism, the authors emphasise the interdependency of how we act, think, feel and function. They advocate a relational turn in health care, in which bodies live and learn from suffering and care. In this view, health is inseparable from both living beings...

  15. Bog bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    In northern Europe during the Iron Age, many corpses were deposited in bogs. The cold, wet and anaerobic environment leads in many cases to the preservation of soft tissues, so that the bodies, when found and excavated several thousand years later, are remarkably intact. Since the 19th century...... the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma....... Conversely, the preservation of bones is less good, as the mineral component has been leached out by the acidic bog. Together with water-logging of collagenous tissue, this means that if the bog body is simply left to dry out when found, as was the case pre-19th century, the bones may literally warp...

  16. BODY CONDITION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrew Taylor

    African antelope have both advantages and disadvantages in terms of meat production when compared with domestic .... Because juveniles can be differentiated from adults using BW, age differences in body ..... Meat and carcass by-products.

  17. Pulmonary infection by Yersinia pestis rapidly establishes a permissive environment for microbial proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Paul A; Jin, Jianping; Goldman, William E

    2012-02-21

    Disease progression of primary pneumonic plague is biphasic, consisting of a preinflammatory and a proinflammatory phase. During the long preinflammatory phase, bacteria replicate to high levels, seemingly uninhibited by normal pulmonary defenses. In a coinfection model of pneumonic plague, it appears that Yersinia pestis quickly creates a localized, dominant anti-inflammatory state that allows for the survival and rapid growth of both itself and normally avirulent organisms. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the relatively recent progenitor of Y. pestis, shows no similar trans-complementation effect, which is unprecedented among other respiratory pathogens. We demonstrate that the effectors secreted by the Ysc type III secretion system are necessary but not sufficient to mediate this apparent immunosuppression. Even an unbiased negative selection screen using a vast pool of Y. pestis mutants revealed no selection against any known virulence genes, demonstrating the transformation of the lung from a highly restrictive to a generally permissive environment during the preinflammatory phase of pneumonic plague.

  18. An EPQ model under cash discount and permissible delay in payments derived without derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yung-Fu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the case where the retailer’s unit selling price and the purchasing price per unit are not necessarily equal within the economic production quantity (EPQ framework under cash discount and permissible delay in payments. We establish the retailer’s inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer’s optimal inventory cycle time, optimal order quantity and optimal payment time. This paper provides an algebraic approach to determine the optimal cycle time, optimal order quantity and optimal payment time. This approach provides one theorem to efficiently determine the optimal solution. Some previously published results of other researchers are deduced as special cases. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the result and the managerial insights are also obtained.

  19. Analysis of Customary Institutions’ Position and Roles in Business Permission Bureaucracy: Case of Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddi Wibowo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Uneven investment activities distribution in Bali result in economic disparity which causes not only social tension but also endanger cultural heritage. Preservation of Balinese culture could be threatened if economic and business activities are not managed properly and in line with efforts to preserve the culture of Bali in the long term. This study aims to assess the empirical and normative sociological legal jurisdiction over existing regulations related to economic and business activities in the Province of Bali which can be considered a potential threat to the preservation of Balinese culture and tradition. Based on the problem mapping that is the result of the empirical and normative juridical study, we are able to do the analysis of regulatory and institutional rearrangement of business and investment permission bureaucracy in the Bali province by considering the preservation of cultural and traditional law enforcement in Bali.

  20. The economic burden of Clostridium difficile

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, S. M.; Bailey, R. R.; Zimmer, S. M.; Popovich, M. J.; Tian, Y.; Ufberg, P.; Muder, R. R.; Lee, B. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Although Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is the leading cause of infectious diarrhoea in hospitalized patients, the economic burden of this major nosocomial pathogen for hospitals, third-party payers and society remains unclear. We developed an economic computer simulation model to determine the costs attributable to healthcare-acquired C. difficile infection (CDI) from the hospital, third-party payer and societal perspectives. Sensitivity analyses explored the effects of varying the cost of hospitalization, C. difficile-attributable length of stay, and the probability of initial and secondary recurrences. The median cost of a case ranged from $9179 to $11 456 from the hospital perspective, $8932 to $11 679 from the third-party payor perspective, and $13 310 to $16 464 from the societal perspective. Most of the costs incurred were accrued during a patient’s primary CDI episode. Hospitals with an incidence of 4.1 CDI cases per 100 000 discharges would incur costs ≥$3.2 million (hospital perspective); an incidence of 10.5 would lead to costs ≥$30.6 million. Our model suggests that the annual US economic burden of CDI would be ≥$496 million (hospital perspective), ≥$547 million (third-party payer perspective) and ≥$796 million (societal perspective). Our results show that C. difficile infection is indeed costly, not only to third-party payers and the hospital, but to society as well. These results are consistent with current literature citing C. difficile as a costly disease. PMID:21668576

  1. Oral keratinocytes support non-replicative infection and transfer of harbored HIV-1 to permissive cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacharaksa, Anjalee; Asrani, Anil C; Gebhard, Kristin H; Fasching, Claudine E; Giacaman, Rodrigo A; Janoff, Edward N; Ross, Karen F; Herzberg, Mark C

    2008-07-17

    Oral keratinocytes on the mucosal surface are frequently exposed to HIV-1 through contact with infected sexual partners or nursing mothers. To determine the plausibility that oral keratinocytes are primary targets of HIV-1, we tested the hypothesis that HIV-1 infects oral keratinocytes in a restricted manner. To study the fate of HIV-1, immortalized oral keratinocytes (OKF6/TERT-2; TERT-2 cells) were characterized for the fate of HIV-specific RNA and DNA. At 6 h post inoculation with X4 or R5-tropic HIV-1, HIV-1gag RNA was detected maximally within TERT-2 cells. Reverse transcriptase activity in TERT-2 cells was confirmed by VSV-G-mediated infection with HIV-NL4-3Deltaenv-EGFP. AZT inhibited EGFP expression in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that viral replication can be supported if receptors are bypassed. Within 3 h post inoculation, integrated HIV-1 DNA was detected in TERT-2 cell nuclei and persisted after subculture. Multiply spliced and unspliced HIV-1 mRNAs were not detectable up to 72 h post inoculation, suggesting that HIV replication may abort and that infection is non-productive. Within 48 h post inoculation, however, virus harbored by CD4 negative TERT-2 cells trans infected co-cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or MOLT4 cells (CD4+ CCR5+) by direct cell-to-cell transfer or by releasing low levels of infectious virions. Primary tonsil epithelial cells also trans infected HIV-1 to permissive cells in a donor-specific manner. Oral keratinocytes appear, therefore, to support stable non-replicative integration, while harboring and transmitting infectious X4- or R5-tropic HIV-1 to permissive cells for up to 48 h.

  2. Oral keratinocytes support non-replicative infection and transfer of harbored HIV-1 to permissive cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacaman Rodrigo A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral keratinocytes on the mucosal surface are frequently exposed to HIV-1 through contact with infected sexual partners or nursing mothers. To determine the plausibility that oral keratinocytes are primary targets of HIV-1, we tested the hypothesis that HIV-1 infects oral keratinocytes in a restricted manner. Results To study the fate of HIV-1, immortalized oral keratinocytes (OKF6/TERT-2; TERT-2 cells were characterized for the fate of HIV-specific RNA and DNA. At 6 h post inoculation with X4 or R5-tropic HIV-1, HIV-1gag RNA was detected maximally within TERT-2 cells. Reverse transcriptase activity in TERT-2 cells was confirmed by VSV-G-mediated infection with HIV-NL4-3Δenv-EGFP. AZT inhibited EGFP expression in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that viral replication can be supported if receptors are bypassed. Within 3 h post inoculation, integrated HIV-1 DNA was detected in TERT-2 cell nuclei and persisted after subculture. Multiply spliced and unspliced HIV-1 mRNAs were not detectable up to 72 h post inoculation, suggesting that HIV replication may abort and that infection is non-productive. Within 48 h post inoculation, however, virus harbored by CD4 negative TERT-2 cells trans infected co-cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs or MOLT4 cells (CD4+ CCR5+ by direct cell-to-cell transfer or by releasing low levels of infectious virions. Primary tonsil epithelial cells also trans infected HIV-1 to permissive cells in a donor-specific manner. Conclusion Oral keratinocytes appear, therefore, to support stable non-replicative integration, while harboring and transmitting infectious X4- or R5-tropic HIV-1 to permissive cells for up to 48 h.

  3. Retailer’s replenishment policies under conditions of permissible delay in payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yung-Fu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Goyal (1985 is frequently cited when the inventory systems under conditions of permissible delay in payments are discussed. Goyal implicitly assumed that: 1. The unit selling price and the unit purchasing price are equal; 2. At the end of the credit period, the account is settled. The retailer starts paying for higher interest charges on the items in stock and returns money of the remaining balance immediately when the items are sold. But these assumptions are debatable in real-life situations. The main purpose of this paper is to modify Goyal’s model to allow the unit selling price and the unit purchasing price not necessarily be equal to reflect the real-life situations. Furthermore, this paper will adopt different payment rule. We assume that the retailer uses sales revenue during the permissible credit period to make payment to the supplier at the end of the credit period. If it is not enough to pay off the purchasing cost of all items, the retailer will pay off the remaining balance by taking loan from the bank. So, the retailer starts paying for the interest charges on the amount of loan from the bank after the account is settled. Then the retailer will return money to the bank at the end of the inventory cycle. Under these conditions, we model the retailer’s inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer’s optimal cycle time and optimal order quantity. Four cases are developed to efficiently determine the optimal cycle time and the optimal order quantity. Numerical examples are given to illustrate these cases. Comparing with Goyal’s model, we also find that the optimal cycle times in this paper are not longer than those of Goyal’s model.

  4. Between reason and coercion: ethically permissible influence in health care and health policy contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal-Barby, J S

    2012-12-01

    In bioethics, the predominant categorization of various types of influence has been a tripartite classification of rational persuasion (meaning influence by reason and argument), coercion (meaning influence by irresistible threats-or on a few accounts, offers), and manipulation (meaning everything in between). The standard ethical analysis in bioethics has been that rational persuasion is always permissible, and coercion is almost always impermissible save a few cases such as imminent threat to self or others. However, many forms of influence fall into the broad middle terrain-and this terrain is in desperate need of conceptual refining and ethical analysis in light of recent interest in using principles from behavioral science to influence health decisions and behaviors. This paper aims to address the neglected space between rational persuasion and coercion in bioethics. First, I argue for conceptual revisions that include removing the "manipulation" label and relabeling this space "nonargumentative influence," with two subtypes: "reason-bypassing" and "reason-countering." Second, I argue that bioethicists have made the mistake of relying heavily on the conceptual categories themselves for normative work and instead should assess the ethical permissibility of a particular instance of influence by asking several key ethical questions, which I elucidate, that relate to (1) the impact of the form of influence on autonomy and (2) the relationship between the influencer and the influenced. Finally, I apply my analysis to two examples of nonargumentative influence in health care and health policy: (1) governmental agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) trying to influence the public to be healthier using nonargumentative measures such as vivid images on cigarette packages to make more salient the negative effects of smoking, and (2) a physician framing a surgery in terms of survival rates instead of mortality rates to influence her patient to consent to

  5. In vivo monitoring of skeletal aluminium burden in patients with renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, K.J.; Kelleher, S.; Raciti, A.; Savory, J.; Wills, M.

    1988-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis was used to examine the total body and partial body (hand) aluminium levels in patients with end-stage renal failure. Patients maintained on chronic hemodialysis had higher mean body burdens of aluminium than did those clinically managed without dialysis. Approximately 70% of the patients examined indicated elevated levels of body or skeletal aluminium. A significant correlation was observed between the in vivo aluminium/calcium ratio obtained for the hand measurement and the increase in serum aluminium levels following a disferroxamine infusion test. The direct in vivo monitoring of hand Al/Ca values in patients may provide an alternate choice to bone biopsy for the detection of aluminium intoxication. (author) 15 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  6. Permissive Attitude Towards Drug Use, Life Satisfaction, and Continuous Drug Use Among Psychoactive Drug Users in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, N Wt; Cheung, Y W; Chen, X

    2016-06-01

    To examine the effects of a permissive attitude towards regular and occasional drug use, life satisfaction, self-esteem, depression, and other psychosocial variables in the drug use of psychoactive drug users. Psychosocial factors that might affect a permissive attitude towards regular / occasional drug use and life satisfaction were further explored. We analysed data of a sample of psychoactive drug users from a longitudinal survey of psychoactive drug abusers in Hong Kong who were interviewed at 6 time points at 6-month intervals between January 2009 and December 2011. Data of the second to the sixth time points were stacked into an individual time point structure. Random-effects probit regression analysis was performed to estimate the relative contribution of the independent variables to the binary dependent variable of drug use in the last 30 days. A permissive attitude towards drug use, life satisfaction, and depression at the concurrent time point, and self-esteem at the previous time point had direct effects on drug use in the last 30 days. Interestingly, permissiveness to occasional drug use was a stronger predictor of drug use than permissiveness to regular drug use. These 2 permissive attitude variables were affected by the belief that doing extreme things shows the vitality of young people (at concurrent time point), life satisfaction (at concurrent time point), and self-esteem (at concurrent and previous time points). Life satisfaction was affected by sense of uncertainty about the future (at concurrent time point), self-esteem (at concurrent time point), depression (at both concurrent and previous time points), and being stricken by stressful events (at previous time point). A number of psychosocial factors could affect the continuation or discontinuation of drug use, as well as the permissive attitude towards regular and occasional drug use, and life satisfaction. Implications of the findings for prevention and intervention work targeted at

  7. Sexual and Gender Minority Adolescents' Views On HIV Research Participation and Parental Permission: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Coventry, Ryan; Macapagal, Kathryn; Arbeit, Miriam R; Fisher, Celia B

    2017-06-01

    Sexual and gender minority adolescents are underrepresented in HIV research, partly because institutional review boards (IRBs) are reluctant to waive parental permission requirements for these studies. Understanding teenagers' perspectives on parental permission and the risks and benefits of participating in HIV research is critical to informing evidence-based IRB decisions. Data from 74 sexual and gender minority adolescents aged 14-17 who participated in an online focus group in 2015 were used to examine perspectives on the risks and benefits of participation in a hypothetical HIV surveillance study and the need for parental permission and adequate protections. Data were analyzed thematically; mixed methods analyses examined whether concerns about parental permission differed by whether teenagers were out to their parents. Most adolescents, especially those who were not out to their parents, would be unwilling to participate in an HIV study if parental permission were required. Perceived benefits of participation included overcoming barriers to HIV testing and contributing to the health of sexual and gender minority youth. Few risks of participation were identified. Adolescents suggested steps that researchers could take to facilitate informed decision making about research participation and ensure minors' safety in the absence of parental permission; these included incorporating multimedia presentations into the consent process and explaining researchers' motivations for conducting the study. Respondents believed that the benefits of HIV surveillance research outweighed the risks. Requiring parental permission may exclude many sexual and gender minority teenagers from taking part in HIV research, especially if they are not out. Copyright © 2017 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  8. Disability and functional burden of disease because of mental in comparison to somatic disorders in general practice patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, M; Linden, U; Schwantes, U

    2015-09-01

    Severity of illness is not only depending on the symptom load, but also on the burden in life. Mental disorders are among those illnesses, which in particular cause suffering to the individual and society. To study burden of disease for mental in comparison to somatic disorders, 2099 patients from 40 general practitioners filled in (a) the Burvill scale which measures acute and chronic illnesses in ten different body systems and (b) the IMET scale which measures impairment in ten different areas of life. Patients were suffering on average from acute and/or chronic illness in 3.5 (SD: 2.0) body systems and 56.6% of patients complained about acute and/or chronic mental disorders. The most significant negative impact on the IMET total score have acute and chronic mental disorders, followed by chronic neurological and musculoskeletal and acute respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders, while cardiovascular, metabolic, urogenital, haematological and ear/eye disorders have no greater impact. Acute as well as chronic mental disorders cause impairment across all areas of life and most burden of disease (functional burden of disease 1.69), followed by musculoskeletal disorders (1.62). Mental disorders are among the most frequent health problems with high negative impact across all areas of life. When combining frequency and impairment mental disorders cause most burden of disease in comparison to other illnesses. This should be reflected in the organization of medical care including family medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Grandparent Caregiving and Psychological Well-Being Among Chinese American Older Adults-The Roles of Caregiving Burden and Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling; Tang, Fengyan; Li, Lydia W; Dong, Xin Qi

    2017-07-01

    Though ample research on grandparent caregiving and psychological well-being outcomes exist in Western literature, little attention has been focused on Chinese American grandparents. Based on role enhancement and role strain theories, this study examined grandparent caregiving and psychological well-being among Chinese American older adults and tested whether caregiving burden or pressure from adult children moderated such association. We used the data from the Population Study of ChINese Elderly in Chicago (PINE), a population-based survey of community-dwelling Chinese older adults in the Greater Chicago area. Grandparents with grandchildren younger than 16 years old were selected for present study (N = 2,775). Negative binominal regression and logistic regression models were used to test the relationships of grandparent caregiving time and psychological well-being measured by depressive symptoms and quality of life. Grandparents reported an average of 11.96 hours a week for caring for grandchildren. Caregiving time had a significantly negative association with depressive symptoms, but not with quality of life. The association between grandparent caregiving and depressive symptoms was moderated by the perception of caregiving burden. No moderating effect of caregiving pressure from adult children was found. More time spending on grandparent caregiving is generally beneficial to Chinese American grandparents' psychological well-being, thus supporting role enhancement theory. However, this association depends on whether this experience is a burden to the grandparents, therefore role strain theory is also supported. Policies and programs are discussed to address the grandparenting experience in the Chinese American older adults. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Neglected Tropical Diseases: Epidemiology and Global Burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal K. Mitra

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available More than a billion people—one-sixth of the world’s population, mostly in developing countries—are infected with one or more of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Several national and international programs (e.g., the World Health Organization’s Global NTD Programs, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Global NTD Program, the United States Global Health Initiative, the United States Agency for International Development’s NTD Program, and others are focusing on NTDs, and fighting to control or eliminate them. This review identifies the risk factors of major NTDs, and describes the global burden of the diseases in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs.

  11. The global burden of paediatric heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musa, Ndidiamaka L; Hjortdal, Vibeke; Zheleva, Bistra

    2017-01-01

    An estimated 15 million children die or are crippled annually by treatable or preventable heart disease in low- and middle-income countries. Global efforts to reduce under-5 mortality have focused on reducing death from communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries with little...... to no attention focusing on paediatric CHD and acquired heart disease. Lack of awareness of CHD and acquired heart disease, access to care, poor healthcare infrastructure, competing health priorities, and a critical shortage of specialists are important reasons why paediatric heart disease has not been addressed...... in low resourced settings. Non-governmental organisations have taken the lead to address these challenges. This review describes the global burden of paediatric heart disease and strategies to improve the quality of care for paediatric heart disease. These strategies would improve outcomes for children...

  12. Sacralising Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2010-01-01

    of sacralisation is realised through co-production within a social setting when the object of sacralisation is recognised as such by others. In contemporary Iran, however, the moment of sacralising bodies by the state is also the moment of its own subversion as the political-theological field of martyrdom......-sacrifice became central to the mass mobilisation against the monarchy. Once the revolutionary government came into existence, this sacred tradition was regulated to create ‘martyrs’ as a fixed category, in order to consolidate the legacy of the revolution. In this political theatre, the dead body is a site...

  13. Burden of serious fungal infections in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanov, Ali; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    Ukraine has high rates of TB, AIDS and cancer. We estimated the burden of fungal disease from epidemiology papers and specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies. HIV/AIDS cases and deaths (2012) and tuberculosis statistics were obtained from the State Service of Ukraine, while chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cases were from M. Miravitlles et al., Thorax 64, 863-868 (2009). Annual estimates are 893,579 Ukrainian women get recurrent vaginal thrush (≥4× per year), 50,847 cases of oral candidiasis and 13,727 cases of oesophageal candidiasis in HIV, and 101 (1%) of 10,085 new AIDS cases develop cryptococcal meningitis, 6152 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia (13.5 cases per 100,000). Of the 29,265 cases of active respiratory TB in 2012, it is estimated that 2881 new cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) occurred and that the 5-year period prevalence is 7724 cases with a total CPA burden of 10,054 cases. Assuming adult asthma prevalence is ~2.9%, 28,447 patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) are likely and 37,491 with severe asthma with fungal sensitisation. We estimate 2278 cases and 376 postsurgical intra-abdominal Candida infections. Invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients is estimated at 303 patients annually; 930 cases in COPD patients. Ninety cases of mucormycosis (2 per 1,000,000) are estimated. In total, ~1,000,000 (2.2%) people in Ukraine develop serious fungal infections annually. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. The Burden of Cholera in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwire, Godfrey; Malimbo, Mugagga; Maskery, Brian; Kim, Young Eun; Mogasale, Vittal; Levin, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In 2010, the World Health Organization released a new cholera vaccine position paper, which recommended the use of cholera vaccines in high-risk endemic areas. However, there is a paucity of data on the burden of cholera in endemic countries. This article reviewed available cholera surveillance data from Uganda and assessed the sufficiency of these data to inform country-specific strategies for cholera vaccination. Methods The Uganda Ministry of Health conducts cholera surveillance to guide cholera outbreak control activities. This includes reporting the number of cases based on a standardized clinical definition plus systematic laboratory testing of stool samples from suspected cases at the outset and conclusion of outbreaks. This retrospective study analyzes available data by district and by age to estimate incidence rates. Since surveillance activities focus on more severe hospitalized cases and deaths, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to estimate the number of non-severe cases and unrecognized deaths that may not have been captured. Results Cholera affected all ages, but the geographic distribution of the disease was very heterogeneous in Uganda. We estimated that an average of about 11,000 cholera cases occurred in Uganda each year, which led to approximately 61–182 deaths. The majority of these cases (81%) occurred in a relatively small number of districts comprising just 24% of Uganda's total population. These districts included rural areas bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo, South Sudan, and Kenya as well as the slums of Kampala city. When outbreaks occurred, the average duration was about 15 weeks with a range of 4–44 weeks. Discussion There is a clear subdivision between high-risk and low-risk districts in Uganda. Vaccination efforts should be focused on the high-risk population. However, enhanced or sentinel surveillance activities should be undertaken to better quantify the endemic disease burden and high-risk populations

  15. Economic burden associated with hospital postadmission dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pash, Elizabeth; Parikh, Niraj; Hashemi, Lobat

    2014-11-01

    Development of dehydration after hospital admission can be a measure of quality care, but evidence describing the incidence, economic burden, and outcomes of dehydration in hospitalized patients is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare costs and resource utilization of U.S. patients experiencing postadmission dehydration (PAD) with those who do not in a hospital setting. All adult inpatient discharges, excluding those with suspected dehydration present on admission (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] codes for dehydration: 276.0, 276.1, 276.5), were identified from the Premier database using ICD-9-CM codes. PAD and no-PAD (NPAD) groups were matched on propensity score adjusting for demographics (age, sex, race, medical, elective patients), patient severity (All Patient Refined Diagnosis-Related Groups severity scores), and hospital characteristics (geographic location, bed size, teaching and urban hospital). Costs, length of stay (LOS), and incidence of mortality and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) were compared between groups using the t test for continuous variables and the χ(2) test for categorical variables. In total, 86,398 (2.1%) of all the selected patients experienced PAD. Postmatching mean total costs were significantly higher for the PAD group compared with the NPAD group ($33,945 vs $22,380; P < .0001). Departmental costs were also significantly higher for the PAD group (all P < .0001). Compared with the NPAD group, the PAD group had a higher mean LOS (12.9 vs 8.2 days), a higher incidence of CAUTI (0.6% vs 0.5%), and higher in-hospital mortality (8.6% vs 7.8%) (all P < .05). The results for subgroup analysis also showed significantly higher total cost and longer LOS days for patients with PAD (all P < .05). The economic burden associated with hospital PAD in medical and surgical patients was substantial. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral

  16. Psoriasis causes significant economic burden to patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, A; Mattila, K; Leino, M; Koulu, L; Tuominen, R

    2014-06-01

    Psoriasis results in expenses to patients from many cost sources. Psoriasis treatments may result in considerable time and traveling costs, yet many studies fail to account for these costs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the multidimensional economic burden of psoriasis to patients. The study was based on 232 Finnish patients with psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis visiting a tertiary level dermatological clinic during a 1-year study period between October 1, 2009 and September 30, 2010. The data were based on a patient questionnaire, clinical data from the medical records and reimbursement data from the Finnish Social Insurance Institution. Item costs were based on true costs charged from the patients and all time cost estimates were based on the Human Capital Approach method. 199 patients with psoriasis and 33 with psoriatic arthritis were included in the study. Total costs were higher for patients receiving traditional systemic medications or phototherapy than those not receiving such treatment. Travel costs and travel time costs accounted for more than 60% of the costs of phototherapy. Skin care at home was time consuming and thus caused significant burden to patients. The majority of the visit costs arose from hospital visits and only a small proportion were attributed to visiting primary health care providers. Visit charges and other patient co-payments were estimated to play a minor role in the total cost of psoriasis incurred by patients, while travel costs and lost time comprised the majority of the costs, which should not be omitted in future studies regarding costs of treatments.

  17. Economic burden of cervical cancer in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifa E.W. Puteh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancers form the second highest number of female cancers in Malaysia, imposing a substantial amount of cost burden on its management. However, an estimation of cost burden of abnormal smears, cervical pre-invasive and invasive diseases needs to be done to show how much spending has been allocated to the problem. An expert panel committee came up with the clinical pathway and management algorithm of  cervical pre invasive and invasive diseases from July-December 2006 Malaysia. An activity based costing for each clinical pathway was done. Results were converted to USD. The cost of managing pre-invasive cervical cancers stage is USD 420,150 (Range: USD 197,158-879,679. Management of invasive cancer (new cases costs USD 51,533,233.44 (Range: USD 32,405,399.69 - USD 129,014,768.40. The cost of managing existing cases is USD 17,005,966.87 (Range: USD 10,693,781.90 - USD  28,901,587.12. The total cost of managing cervical cancers by health care providers in a public setting is around USD 75,888,329.45 (Range: USD 48,083,804.60 - USD 48,083,804.60. The outcome of this study has shown that preventive modalities such as screening have only contributed to 10.3 % of the total management cost of cervical cancer. The major cost contribution (67% came from treatment of invasive cancer especially at more advanced stages of cancer, followed by treatment of existing cases (22% and lastly on pre-invasive disease (0.6%. This study revealed that proportion of preventive modality in this country was still low, and the major cost came from actual treatment cost of cervical cancer. Therefore, heightened public cervical cancer screening in the country is needed. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 272-80Keywords: cervical cancers, pre invasive disease, HPV vaccination

  18. Burden Sharing with Climate Change Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavoni, M.; van Vuuren, D.; De Cian, E.; Marangoni, G.; Hof, A.

    2014-12-01

    Efficiency and equity have been at the center of the climate change policy making since the very first international environmental agreements on climate change, though over time how to implement these principles has taken different forms. Studies based on Integrated Assessment Models have also shown that the economic effort of achieving a 2 degree target in a cost-effective way would differ widely across regions (Tavoni et al. 2013) because of diverse economic and energy structure, baseline emissions, energy and carbon intensity. Policy instruments, such as a fully-fledged, global emission trading schemes can be used to pursuing efficiency and equity at the same time but the literature has analyzed the compensations required to redistribute only mitigation costs. However, most of these studies have neglected the potential impacts of climate change. In this paper we use two integrated assessment models -FAIR and WITCH- to explore the 2°C policy space when accounting for climate change impacts. Impacts are represented via two different reduced forms equations, which despite their simplicity allows us exploring the key sensitivities- Our results show that in a 2 degree stabilization scenarios residual damages remain significant (see Figure 1) and that if you would like to compensate those as part of an equal effort scheme - this would lead to a different allocation than focusing on a mitigation based perspective only. The residual damages and adaptation costs are not equally distributed - and while we do not cover the full uncertainty space - with 2 different models and 2 sets of damage curves we are still able to show quite similar results in terms of vulnerable regions and the relative position of the different scenarios. Therefore, accounting for the residual damages and the associated adaptation costs on top of the mitigation burden increases and redistributes the full burden of total climate change.

  19. Double Burden of Malnutrition in Rural West Java: Household-Level Analysis for Father-Child and Mother-Child Pairs and the Association with Dietary Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Jiang, Hong Wei; Gunawan, Budhi; Dewanti, Linda; Honda, Ryo; Shimizu-Furusawa, Hana; Abdoellah, Oekan S; Watanabe, Chiho

    2015-10-02

    Indonesia is facing household-level double burden malnutrition. This study aimed at examining (1) household-level double burden for the mother-child and father-child pairs; (2) risk of adiposity of double burden households; and (3) associated dietary factors. Subjects were 5th and 6th grade elementary school children (n = 242), their mothers (n = 242), and their fathers (n = 225) in five communities (1 = urban, 4 = rural) in the Bandung District. Questionnaires on socioeconomic factors, blood hemoglobin measurements, and anthropometric measurements were administered. For adults, body fat percentage (BF%) was estimated by bioelectrical impedance (BF%-BI) and by converting skinfold thickness (ST) data using Durnin and Womersley's (1974) formula (BF%-ST). Food frequency questionnaires were also completed. Double burden was defined as coexistence of maternal or paternal overweight (Body mass index (BMI) ≥ 23) and child stunting (height-for-age z-score child double burden occurred in 30.6% of total households, whereas paternal-child double burden was only in 8.4%. Mothers from double burden households showed high adiposity; 87.3% with BF%-BI and 66.2% with BF%-ST had BF% >35%, and 60.6% had waists >80 cm. The major dietary patterns identified were "Modern" and "High-animal products". After controlling for confounding factors, children in the highest quartile of the "High-animal products" dietary pattern had a lower risk of maternal-child double burden (Adjusted OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.21-1.04) than those in the lowest quartile. Given that the "High-animal products" dietary pattern was associated with the decreased risk of maternal-child double burden through a strong negative correlation with child stunting, improving child stunting through adequate intake of animal products is critical to solve the problem of maternal-child double burden in Indonesia.

  20. Gender Differences in Adolescent Premarital Sexual Permissiveness in Three Asian Cities: Effects of Gender-Role Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiayun, Zuo; Chaohua, Lou; Ersheng, Gao; Yan, Cheng; Hongfeng, Niu; Zabin, Laurie S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Gender is an important factor in understanding premarital sexual attitudes and behaviors. Many studies indicate that males are more likely to initiate sexual intercourse and have more permissive perceptions about sex than females. Yet few studies have explored possible reasons for these gender differences. With samples of unmarried adolescents in three Asian cities influenced by Confucian cultures, this paper investigates the relationship between underlying gender norms and these differences in adolescents’ premarital sexual permissiveness. Methods 16,554 unmarried participants aged 15–24 were recruited in the Three-City Asian Study of Adolescents and Youth, a collaborative survey conducted in 2006–2007 in urban and rural areas of Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei, with 6204, 6023 and 4327 from each city respectively. All of the adolescents were administered face-to-face interviews, coupled with Computer Assisted Self Interview (CASI) for sensitive questions. Scales on gender-role attitudes and on premarital sexual permissiveness for both male and female respondents were developed and applied to our analysis of the data. Multi-linear regression was used to analyze the relationship between gender-role attitudes and sexual permissiveness. Results Male respondents in each city held more permissive attitudes towards premarital sex than did females with both boys and girls expressing greater permissiveness to male premarital sexual behaviors. Boys also expressed more traditional attitudes to gender roles (condoning greater inequality) than did girls in each city. Adolescents’ gender-role attitudes and permissiveness to premarital sex varied considerably across the three cities, with the Vietnamese the most traditional, the Taiwanese the least traditional, and the adolescents in Shanghai in the middle. A negative association between traditional gender roles and premarital sexual permissiveness was only found among girls in Shanghai and Taipei. In Shanghai

  1. Ventilator associated pneumonia: perspectives on the burden of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this narrative review is to summarize selected current concepts and clinical evidence regarding the burden of illness of VAP, including its epidemiology, diagnosis, attributable mortality and risk factors. Studies were identified through MEDLINE, EMBASE, bibliographies of primary and review articles and personal files. While cross sectional studies inform us about VAP prevalence, longitudinal studies inform us of the cumulative risk and conditional risk of developing VAP. Reported VAP rates are modulated by factors related to case mix, causative microorganisms, interventions that influence risk over time, and VAP definitions employed. Population-specific and organism-specific VAP rates are needed to avoid misleading benchmarking between different ICUs, and to minimize inappropriate between-study comparisons. Observational studies have shown that invasive sampling techniques versus non-invasive approaches to diagnose VAP facilitates more targeted antibiotic treatment; however, the influence of the diagnostic method on endpoints such as mortality is less clear. VAP is associated with approximately a 4 day increase in length of ICU stay and an attributable mortality of approximately 20-30%. Fixed VAP risk factors include underlying cardiorespiratory disease, neurologic injury and trauma. Modifiable VAP risk factors include supine body position, witnessed aspiration, paralytic agents and antibiotic exposure. If modifiable risk factors tested in randomized trials lower VAP rates, such as semirecumbency versus supine positioning, these represent effective VAP prevention strategies. Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a major morbid outcome among critically ill patients. Studies evaluating more effective prevention and treatment strategies are needed.

  2. Childhood dual burden of under- and overnutrition in low- and middle-income countries: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzioumis, Emma; Adair, Linda S

    2014-06-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, the distribution of childhood nutritional diseases is shifting from a predominance of undernutrition to a dual burden of under- and overnutrition. This novel and complex problem challenges governments and health organizations to tackle opposite ends of the malnutrition spectrum. The dual burden may manifest within a community, household, or individual, but these different levels have not been addressed collectively. To critically review literature on the prevalence, trends, and predictors of the dual burden, with a focus on children from birth to 18 years of age. We reviewed literature since January 1, 1990, published in English, using the PubMed search terms nutrition transition, double burden, dual burden, nutrition status, obesity, overweight, underweight, stunting, body composition, and micronutrient deficiencies. The findings were classified and described according to dual burden level (community, household, or individual). Global trends indicate decreases in diseases of undernutrition, while overnutrition is increasing. On the community level, economic status may influence the extent of the dual burden, with obesity increasingly affecting the already undernourished poor. In a household, shared determinants of poor nutritional status among members can result in disparate nutritional status across generations. Within an individual, obesity may co-occur with stunting or anemia due to shared underlying determinants or physiologic links. The dual burden of malnutrition poses a threat to children's health in low- and middle-income countries. We must remain committed to reducing undernutrition while simultaneously preventing over-nutrition through integrated child health programs that incorporate prevention of infection, diet quality, and physical activity.

  3. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learn more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of ... consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Veer, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com.

  4. Body / Antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence R. Schehr

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Unique object in the exchange-system, the gay body occupies a locus where a phantom identity and an imagined reciprocity define the poles of the subject-object relation. Made of the right stuff, it is an object circulating in a system that tends to reproduce the concept of identity in its search for mirror images of itself. Often rejected by the world, it has recently become a cynosure equated with sickness, pestilence, and death in the age of AIDS. The representations of that object change: no longer perceived as a part of libidinal economy, it has become a mass of symptoms, having changed from being an index of sexuality into being the visible dissipation of the flesh. The gay body in the age of AIDS is the mark of a pariah with the abject nature of the outcast. The body with AIDS takes the form of a text made of many signs and with many ways of reading the checkerboard pattern of the flesh. And the AIDS-narrative turns the body into the limit of the representable.

  5. Body Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David E.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses how the use of body language in Chinese fiction strikes most Westerners as unusual, if not strange. Considers that, although this may be the result of differences in gestures or different conventions in fiction, it is a problem for translators, who handle the differences by various strategies, e.g., omission or expansion. (NKA)

  6. Small Animal Models for Human Metapneumovirus: Cotton Rat is More Permissive than Hamster and Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Niewiesk, Stefan; Li, Jianrong

    2014-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is the second most prevalent causative agent of pediatric respiratory infections worldwide. Currently, there are no vaccines or antiviral drugs against this virus. One of the major hurdles in hMPV research is the difficulty to identify a robust small animal model to accurately evaluate the efficacy and safety of vaccines and therapeutics. In this study, we compared the replication and pathogenesis of hMPV in BALB/c mice, Syrian golden hamsters, and cotton rats. It was found that BALB/c mice are not permissive for hMPV infection despite the use of a high dose (6.5 log10 PFU) of virus for intranasal inoculation. In hamsters, hMPV replicated efficiently in nasal turbinates but demonstrated only limited replication in lungs. In cotton rats, hMPV replicated efficiently in both nasal turbinate and lung when intranasally administered with three different doses (4, 5, and 6 log10 PFU) of hMPV. Lungs of cotton rats infected by hMPV developed interstitial pneumonia with mononuclear cells infiltrates and increased lumen exudation. By immunohistochemistry, viral antigens were detected at the luminal surfaces of the bronchial epithelial cells in lungs. Vaccination of cotton rats with hMPV completely protected upper and lower respiratory tract from wildtype challenge. The immunization also elicited elevated serum neutralizing antibody. Collectively, these results demonstrated that cotton rat is a robust small animal model for hMPV infection. PMID:25438015

  7. Characterization of potential mineralization in Afghanistan: four permissive areas identified using imaging spectroscopy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Berger, Byron R.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations natural resources revitalization activities in Afghanistan, four permissive areas for mineralization, Bamyan 1, Farah 1, Ghazni 1, and Ghazni 2, have been identified using imaging spectroscopy data. To support economic development, the areas of potential mineralization were selected on the occurrence of selected mineral assemblages mapped using the HyMap™ data (kaolinite, jarosite, hydrated silica, chlorite, epidote, iron-bearing carbonate, buddingtonite, dickite, and alunite) that may be indicative of past mineralization processes in areas with limited or no previous mineral resource studies. Approximately 30 sites were initially determined to be candidates for areas of potential mineralization. Additional criteria and material used to refine the selection and prioritization process included existing geologic maps, Landsat Thematic Mapper data, and published literature. The HyMapTM data were interpreted in the context of the regional geologic and tectonic setting and used the presence of alteration mineral assemblages to identify areas with the potential for undiscovered mineral resources. Further field-sampling, mapping, and supporting geochemical analyses are necessary to fully substantiate and verify the specific deposit types in the four areas of potential mineralization.

  8. Permissive hypotension in extremely low birth weight infants (≤1000 gm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, So Yoon; Kim, Eun Sun; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, Jeong Hee; Sung, Se In; Jung, Ji Mi; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon

    2012-07-01

    We performed this study to evaluate the safety of permissive hypotension management in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWIs). Medical records of all inborn ELBWIs admitted to Samsung Medical Center from January 2004 to December 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. Of a total of 261 ELBWIs, 47 (18%) required treatment for hypotension (group T), 110 (42%) remained normotensive (group N), and 104 (40%) experienced more than one episode of hypotension without treatment (group P) during the first 72 hours of life. Treatment of hypotension included inotropic support and/or fluid loading. Birth weight and Apgar scores were significantly lower in the T group than the other two groups. In the N group, the rate of pathologically confirmed maternal chorioamnionitis was significantly higher than other two groups, and the rate was higher in the P group than the T group. After adjusting for covariate factors, no significant differences in mortality and major morbidities were found between the N and P groups. However, the mortality rate and the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage (≥stage 3) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (≥moderate) were significantly higher in the T group than the other two groups. Long term neurodevelopmental outcomes were not significantly different between the N and P groups. Close observation of hypotensive ELBWIs who showed good clinical perfusion signs without intervention allowed to avoid unnecessary medications and resulted in good neurological outcomes.

  9. Is it morally permissible for hospital nurses to access prisoner-patients' criminal histories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, information about a person's criminal history is accessible with a name and date of birth. Ruth Crampton has studied nurses' care for prisoner-patients in hospital settings and found care to be perfunctory and reactive. This article examines whether it is morally permissible for nurses in hospital settings to access information about prisoner-patients' criminal histories. Nurses may argue for a right to such information based on the right to personal safety at work or the obligation to provide prisoner-patients with the care that they deserve. These two arguments are considered and rejected. It is further argued that accessing information about a prisoner-patient's criminal history violates nurses' duty to care. Care, understood through Sarah Ruddick's account as work and relationship, requires nurses to be open and unbiased in order to do their part in forming a caring relationship with patients. Knowledge of a prisoner-patient's criminal history inhibits the formation of this relationship and thus violates nurses' duty to care.

  10. Truncation of a P1 leader proteinase facilitates potyvirus replication in a non-permissive host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hongying; Pasin, Fabio; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E; Simón-Mateo, Carmen; García, Juan Antonio; Rodamilans, Bernardo

    2017-11-08

    The Potyviridae family is a major group of plant viruses that includes c. 200 species, most of which have narrow host ranges. The potyvirid P1 leader proteinase self-cleaves from the remainder of the viral polyprotein and shows large sequence variability linked to host adaptation. P1 proteins can be classified as Type A or Type B on the basis, amongst other things, of their dependence or not on a host factor to develop their protease activity. In this work, we studied Type A proteases from the Potyviridae family, characterizing their host factor requirements. Our in vitro cleavage analyses of potyvirid P1 proteases showed that the N-terminal domain is relevant for host factor interaction and suggested that the C-terminal domain is also involved. In the absence of plant factors, the N-terminal end of Plum pox virus P1 antagonizes protease self-processing. We performed extended deletion mutagenesis analysis to define the N-terminal antagonistic domain of P1. In viral infections, removal of the P1 protease antagonistic domain led to a gain-of-function phenotype, strongly increasing local infection in a non-permissive host. Altogether, our results shed new insights into the adaptation and evolution of potyvirids. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  11. Resident alveolar macrophages are susceptible to and permissive of Coxiella burnetii infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Calverley

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is a zoonotic disease with potentially life-threatening complications in humans. Inhalation of low doses of Coxiella bacteria can result in infection of the host alveolar macrophage (AM. However, it is not known whether a subset of AMs within the heterogeneous population of macrophages in the infected lung is particularly susceptible to infection. We have found that lower doses of both phase I and phase II Nine Mile C. burnetii multiply and are less readily cleared from the lungs of mice compared to higher infectious doses. We have additionally identified AM resident within the lung prior to and shortly following infection, opposed to newly recruited monocytes entering the lung during infection, as being most susceptible to infection. These resident cells remain infected up to twelve days after the onset of infection, serving as a permissive niche for the maintenance of bacterial infection. A subset of infected resident AMs undergo a distinguishing phenotypic change during the progression of infection exhibiting an increase in surface integrin CD11b expression and continued expression of the surface integrin CD11c. The low rate of phase I and II Nine Mile C. burnetii growth in murine lungs may be a direct result of the limited size of the susceptible resident AM cell population.

  12. Novel approach to parental permission and child assent for research: improving comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Lonergan, Theresa A; Forster-Harwood, Jeri E

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this research was to test a multimedia permission/assent (P/A) process. The overall hypothesis was that children and their parents exposed to a multimedia P/A process would have better comprehension compared with those exposed to a text-based process. Traditional and multimedia P/A processes were created by using an innovative learning-objective approach. A total of 194 parent-child dyads (children aged 11-14 years) were enrolled: 24 dyads in a prestudy testing P/A components for preference and effect on comprehension and 170 dyads in a randomized trial of a multimedia or paper P/A process for a hypothetical study. Participants were predominantly white and were from a metropolitan area served by a tertiary care pediatric hospital and outpatient facility. Comprehension of 8 essential elements of the P/A process was assessed. The majority of prestudy subjects preferred the video version of the dual-energy radiograph absorptiometry description over the animated and paper versions combined (41 of 48 [85%]; P better overall comprehension compared with the paper P/A process (P = .0009), and there were highly significant differences in understanding of study procedures (P = .0002) and risks (P multimedia group had significantly better overall comprehension (P = .03). Multimedia approaches to the research P/A process may improve overall understanding of research participation for children and parents. Improved understanding of study-specific research components (rather than research rights) may improve overall comprehension.

  13. Experimental verification of the imposing principle for maximum permissible levels of multicolor laser radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivashin V.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The study presents the results of experimental research to verify the principle overlay for maximum permissible levels (MPL of multicolor laser radiation single exposure on eyes. This principle of the independence of the effects of radiation with each wavelength (the imposing principle, was founded and generalized to a wide range of exposure conditions. Experimental verification of this approach in relation to the impact of laser radiation on tissue fundus of an eye, as shows the analysis of the literature was not carried out. Material and methods. Was used in the experimental laser generating radiation with wavelengths: Л1 =0,532 microns, A2=0,556to 0,562 microns and A3=0,619to 0,621 urn. Experiments were carried out on eyes of rabbits with evenly pigmented eye bottom. Results. At comparison of results of processing of the experimental data with the calculated data it is shown that these levels are close by their parameters. Conclusions. For the first time in the Russian Federation had been performed experimental studies on the validity of multi-colored laser radiation on the organ of vision. In view of the objective coincidence of the experimental data with the calculated data, we can conclude that the mathematical formulas work.

  14. Inventory model with two rates of production for deteriorating items with permissible delay in payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ajanta; Samanta, G. P.

    2011-08-01

    Goyal (1985) ['Economic Order Quantity Under Conditions of Permissible Delay in Payments', Journal of Operational research Society, 36, 35-38] assumed that unit selling price and unit purchasing price are equal. But in real-life the scenario is different. The purpose of this article is to reflect the real life problem by allowing unit selling price and purchasing price to be unequal. Our model is a continuous production control inventory model for deteriorating items in which two different rates of production are available. The results are illustrated with the help of a numerical example. We discuss the sensitivity of the solution together with the changes of the values of the parameters associated with the model. Our model may be applicable in many manufacturing planning situations where management practices for deterioration are stringent; e.g. the two-production rate will be more profitable than the one-production rate in the manufacture of cold, asthma and allergy medicine. Our proposed model might be applicable to develop a prototype advance planning system for those manufacturers to integrate the management science techniques into commercial planning.

  15. Permission-based Leadership and Change Management in Hong Kong's Nongovernment Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Michael

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the management of transformational change by chief executives in nongovernment organisations (NGOs in Hong Kong. The study takes an exploratory approach with interviews of 18 chief executives from a cross section of Hong Kong's NGOs. The findings indicate that organisational transformation is driven by increasing competition within the NGO sector and from commercial firms, by a demand for greater transparency and by internal forces. These factors are countered by structural inertia. Leadership of the organisational transformation of an NGO is permission-based; agreement from the various stakeholders must be gained to execute a successful transformation. The chief executive should have a humanistic style and be visionary, ethical and participative. Constant communication and involvement facilitate this process. Through this approach, followers will have a greater commitment to the organisational transformation. Organisational change is a combination of planned and emergent processes. The chief executive should relax control and foster a nurturing environment for transformation. This research suggests a leadership style, behavioural approach and model for managing change that will provide chief executives and senior leaders with useful considerations and insights.

  16. Concerning permission of change in nuclear fuel processing business of Japan Nuclear Fuel Co. , Ltd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    In response to an inquiry on the title issue received on Jun. 17, 1988, the Nuclear Safety Commission made a study and submitted the findings to the Prime Minister on Jul. 21, 1988. The study was intended to determine the conformity of the permission to the applicable criteria specified in laws relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor. The proposed modification plan included changes in the facilities in the No.1 processing building and changes in processing methods which were required to perform processing of blanket fuel assemblies for fast breeder reactor. It also included changes in the facilities in the No.2 building which were required to improve the processes. The safety study covered the anti-earthquake performance, fire/explosion prevention, criticality control, containment performance, radioactive waste disposal, and other major safety issues. Other investigations included exposure dose evaluation and accident analysis. Study results were examined on the basis of the Basic Guidelines for Nuclear Fuel Facilities Safety Review and the Uranium Processing Safety Review Guidelines. It was concluded that the modifications would not have adverse effect on the safety of the facilities. (Nogami, K.).

  17. Concerning permission of change in nuclear fuel processing business of Japan Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In response to an inquiry on the title issue received on Jun. 17, 1988, the Nuclear Safety Commission made a study and submitted the findings to the Prime Minister on Jul. 21, 1988. The study was intended to determine the conformity of the permission to the applicable criteria specified in laws relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor. The proposed modification plan included changes in the facilities in the No.1 processing building and changes in processing methods which were required to perform processing of blanket fuel assemblies for fast breeder reactor. It also included changes in the facilities in the No.2 building which were required to improve the processes. The safety study covered the anti-earthquake performance, fire/explosion prevention, criticality control, containment performance, radioactive waste disposal, and other major safety issues. Other investigations included exposure dose evaluation and accident analysis. Study results were examined on the basis of the Basic Guidelines for Nuclear Fuel Facilities Safety Review and the Uranium Processing Safety Review Guidelines. It was concluded that the modifications would not have adverse effect on the safety of the facilities. (Nogami, K.)

  18. Human cytomegalovirus renders cells non-permissive for replication of herpes simplex viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockley, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus (HSV) genome during production infection in vitro may be subject to negative regulation which results in modification of the cascade of expression of herpes virus macromolecular synthesis leading to establishment of HSV latency. In the present study, human embryonic lung (HEL) cells infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) restricted the replication of HSV type-1 (HSV-1). A delay in HSV replication of 15 hr as well as a consistent, almost 1000-fold inhibition of HSV replication in HCMV-infected cell cultures harvested 24 to 72 hr after superinfection were observed compared with controls infected with HSV alone. HSV type-2 (HSV-2) replication was similarly inhibited in HCMV-infected HEL cells. Prior ultraviolet-irradiation (UV) of HCMV removed the block to HSV replication, demonstrating the requirement for an active HCMV genome. HCMV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) negative temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants inhibited HSV replications as efficiently as wild-type (wt) HCMV at the non-permissive temperature. Evidence for penetration and replication of superinfecting HSV into HCMV-infected cells was provided by blot hybridization of HSV DNA synthesized in HSV-superinfected cell cultures and by cesium chloride density gradient analysis of [ 3 H]-labeled HSV-1-superinfected cells

  19. Biological bases of the maximum permissible exposure levels of the UK laser standard BS 4803: 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinlay, A.F.; Harlen, F.

    1983-10-01

    The use of lasers has increased greatly over the past 15 years or so, to the extent that they are now used routinely in many occupational and public situations. There has been an increasing awareness of the potential hazards presented by lasers and substantial efforts have been made to formulate safety standards. In the UK the relevant Safety Standard is the British Standards Institution Standard BS 4803. This Standard was originally published in 1972 and a revision has recently been published (BS 4803: 1983). The revised standard has been developed using the American National Standards Institute Standard, ANSI Z136.1 (1973 onwards), as a model. In other countries, national standards have been similarly formulated, resulting in a large measure of international agreement through participation in the work of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The bases of laser safety standards are biophysical data on threshold injury effects, particularly on the retina, and the development of theoretical models of damage mechanisms. This report deals in some detail with the mechanisms of injury from over exposure to optical radiations, in particular with the dependency of the type and degree of damage on wavelength, image size and pulse duration. The maximum permissible exposure levels recommended in BS 4803: 1983 are compared with published data for damage thresholds and the adequacy of the standard is discussed. (author)

  20. Beyond Attributable Burden: Estimating the Avoidable Burden of Disease Associated with Household Air Pollution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall Kuhn

    Full Text Available The Global Burden of Disease (GBD studies have transformed global understanding of health risks by producing comprehensive estimates of attributable disease burden, or the current disease that would be eliminated if a risk factor did not exist. Yet many have noted the greater policy significance of avoidable burden, or the future disease that could actually be eliminated if a risk factor were eliminated today. Avoidable risk may be considerably lower than attributable risk if baseline levels of exposure or disease are declining, or if a risk factor carries lagged effects on disease. As global efforts to deliver clean cookstoves accelerate, a temporal estimation of avoidable risk due to household air pollution (HAP becomes increasingly important, particularly in light of the rapid uptake of modern stoves and ongoing epidemiologic transitions in regions like South and Southeast Asia.We estimate the avoidable burden associated with HAP using International Futures (IFs, an integrated forecasting system that has been used to model future global disease burdens and risk factors. Building on GBD and other estimates, we integrated a detailed HAP exposure estimation and exposure-response model into IFs. We then conducted a counterfactual experiment in which HAP exposure is reduced to theoretical minimum levels in 2015. We evaluated avoidable mortality and DALY reductions for the years 2015 to 2024 relative to a Base Case scenario in which only endogenous changes occurred. We present results by cause and region, looking at impacts on acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI and four noncommunicable diseases (NCDs. We found that just 2.6% of global DALYs would be averted between 2015 and 2024, compared to 4.5% of global DALYs attributed to HAP in the 2010 GBD study, due in large part to the endogenous tendency towards declining traditional stove usage in the IFs base case forecast. The extent of diminished impact was comparable for ALRI and affected NCDs

  1. Moving beyond caregiver burden: identifying helpful interventions for family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2014-03-01

    Family members serving as informal caregivers for loved ones often experience physical, psychological, emotional, social, and financial consequences that can be conceptualized as caregiver burden. As the number of older adults in our society continues to increase, there will be even more demand for family caregivers. It is important to move beyond a focus on the statistics and characteristics of caregiver burden and identify helpful interventions to reduce this burden. Interventions that decrease caregiver burden can enable family caregivers to delay placement of the individual in an institutional setting and improve quality of life for both the caregiver and care recipient. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Burden of illness in functional gastrointestinal disorder--the consequences for the individual and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glise, H; Wiklund, I; Hallerbäck, B

    1998-01-01

    To review the consequences of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGD), i.e. heartburn without esophagitis, dyspepsia and IBS for the individual and society. Current publications indicate that functional gastrointestinal disorders are more prevalent than organic gastrointestinal disorders in the population. Symptoms, not the organic finding per se, are most important to the individual. Functional disorders are furthermore linked to somatic symptoms, from other parts of the body, as well as to mental health. Together they constitute a large medical burden on society in terms of consultations, drug consumption and surgery. Social costs are further increased by problems at work and a considerable increase in absenteeism. Functional gastrointestinal disorders should be taken more seriously by the medical community and society, since the burden of illness seems much larger than earlier anticipated.

  3. Implementation of Department of Defense Survey Burden Action Plan - Reducing Survey Burden, Cost and Duplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-23

    vulnerable populations (e.g., minors); or 3) sensitive topics (e.g., gender relations, discrimination , UCMJ violations) to improve tracking of survey...e.g., gender relations, discrimination , UCMJ violations) to improve tracking of survey burden. The applicable ISSCC-member Survey Office will...their families per year; or 2) vulnerable populations (e.g., minors); or 3) sensitive topics (e.g., gender relations, discrimination , UCMJ violations

  4. Measuring the burden of neglected tropical diseases: the global burden of disease framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D Mathers

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Reliable, comparable information about the main causes of disease and injury in populations, and how these are changing, is a critical input for debates about priorities in the health sector. Traditional sources of information about the descriptive epidemiology of diseases, injuries, and risk factors are generally incomplete, fragmented, and of uncertain reliability and comparability. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD study has provided a conceptual and methodological framework to quantify and compare the health of populations using a summary measure of both mortality and disability, the disability-adjusted life year (DALY.This paper describes key features of the Global Burden of Disease analytic approach, which provides a standardized measurement framework to permit comparisons across diseases and injuries, as well as risk factors, and a systematic approach to the evaluation of data. The paper describes the evolution of the GBD, starting from the first study for the year 1990, summarizes the methodological improvements incorporated into GBD revisions for the years 2000-2004 carried out by the World Health Organization, and examines priorities and issues for the next major GBD study, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and commencing in 2007.The paper presents an overview of summary results from the Global Burden of Disease study 2002, with a particular focus on the neglected tropical diseases, and also an overview of the comparative risk assessment for 26 global risk factors. Taken together, trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, intestinal nematode infections, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, and leprosy accounted for an estimated 177,000 deaths worldwide in 2002, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, and about 20 million DALYs, or 1.3% of the global burden of disease and injuries. Further research is currently underway to revise and update these estimates.

  5. Recommendation concerning maximum permissible radioactivity in animal feeds in case of a nuclear accident or other type of radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The SSK in its advice to the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety recommends to abstain from determining maximum permissible values to be applied in such cases of emergency. If, however, official limits are to be given, the following should be considered: (1) Distinction has to be made between animal feeds not subject to restrictive application with regard to time, animal species, or food chain (meat, milk, eggs), and those animal feeds whose application is subject to restrictions defined. (2) Maximum permissible activity data for animal feeds for restricted use should be ten times the value determined for non-restricted feeds. As to consultations within the EC on supplemtary tables to EC Directive No. 3954/87, the SSK presented its proposals in tables, using transfer factors from the literature concerning assessment of maximum permissible chronic intake of Cs-137, I-131, Sr-90, Pu-239, Am-241 by productive livestock (bovine, goats, sheep, swine, poultry). (HP) [de

  6. The Global Burden of Cancer 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Cancer is among the leading causes of death worldwide. Current estimates of cancer burden in individual countries and regions are necessary to inform local cancer control strategies. OBJECTIVE To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 28 cancers in 188 countries by sex from 1990 to 2013. EVIDENCE REVIEW The general methodology of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 study was used. Cancer registries were the source for cancer incidence data as well as mortality incidence (MI) ratios. Sources for cause of death data include vital registration system data, verbal autopsy studies, and other sources. The MI ratios were used to transform incidence data to mortality estimates and cause of death estimates to incidence estimates. Cancer prevalence was estimated using MI ratios as surrogates for survival data; YLDs were calculated by multiplying prevalence estimates with disability weights, which were derived from population-based surveys; YLLs were computed by multiplying the number of estimated cancer deaths at each age with a reference life expectancy; and DALYs were calculated as the sum of YLDs and YLLs. FINDINGS In 2013 there were 14.9 million incident cancer cases, 8.2 million deaths, and 196.3 million DALYs. Prostate cancer was the leading cause for cancer incidence (1.4 million) for men and breast cancer for women (1.8 million). Tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer was the leading cause for cancer death in men and women, with 1.6 million deaths. For men, TBL cancer was the leading cause of DALYs (24.9 million). For women, breast cancer was the leading cause of DALYs (13.1 million). Age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) per 100 000 and age-standardized death rates (ASDRs) per 100 000 for both sexes in 2013 were higher in developing vs developed countries for stomach cancer (ASIR, 17 vs 14; ASDR, 15 vs 11), liver cancer (ASIR, 15 vs 7; ASDR, 16

  7. Left-turn phase: permissive, protected, or both? A quasi-experimental design in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Chen, Cynthia; Ewing, Reid

    2015-03-01

    The practice of left-turn phasing selection (permissive, protected-only, or both) varies from one locality to another. The literature evidence on this issue is equally mixed and insufficient. In this study, we evaluate the safety impacts of changing left-turn signal phasing from permissive to protected/permissive or protected-only at 68 intersections in New York City using a rigorous quasi-experimental design accompanied with regression modeling. Changes in police reported crashes including total crashes, multiple-vehicle crashes, left-turn crashes, pedestrian crashes and bicyclist crashes were compared between before period and after period for the treatment group and comparison group by means of negative binomial regression using a Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) technique. Confounding factors such as the built environment characteristics that were not controlled in comparison group selection are accounted for by this approach. The results show that the change of permissive left-turn signal phasing to protected/permissive or protected-only signal phasing does not result in a significant reduction in intersection crashes. Though the protected-only signal phasing does reduce the left-turn crashes and pedestrian crashes, this reduction was offset by a possible increase in over-taking crashes. These results suggest that left-turn phasing should not be treated as a universal solution that is always better than the permissive control for left-turn vehicles. The selection and implementation of left-turn signal phasing needs to be done carefully, considering potential trade-offs between safety and delay, and many other factors such as geometry, traffic flows and operations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Wadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the burden of fungal infections in Jordan for the first time. Material and Methods: Population data was from UN 2011 statistics and TB cases from WHO in 2012. Fewer than 100 patients with HIV were recorded in Jordan in 2013. Approximately 100 renal transplants and eight liver transplants are performed annually. There were 12,233 major surgical procedures in Jordan in 2013, of which 5.3% were major abdominal surgeries; candidemia was estimated in 5% of the population based on other countries, with 33% occurring in the ICU. Candida peritonitis/intra-abdominal candidiasis was estimated to affect 50% of the number of ICU candidemia cases. No adult asthma rates have been recorded for Jordan, so the rate from the Holy Land (8.54% clinical asthma from To et al. has been used. There are an estimated 49,607 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients in Jordan, with 64% symptomatic, 25% Gold stage 3% or 4%, and 7% (3472 are assumed to be admitted to hospital each year. No cystic fibrosis cases have been recorded. Literature searches on fungal infections revealed few data and no prevalence data on fungal keratitis or tinea capitis, even though tinea capitis comprised 34% of patients with dermatophytoses in Jordan. Results: Jordan has 6.3 million inhabitants (65% adults, 6% are >60 years old. The current burden of serious fungal infections in Jordan was estimated to affect ~119,000 patients (1.9%, not including any cutaneous fungal infections. Candidemia was estimated at 316 cases and invasive aspergillosis in leukemia, transplant, and COPD patients at 84 cases. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis prevalence was estimated to affect 36 post-TB patients, and 175 in total. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS prevalence in adults with asthma were estimated at 8900 and 11,748 patients. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis was estimated to affect 97,804 patients, using a 6

  9. Leishmania attachment in permissive vectors and the role of sand fly midgut proteins in parasite-vector interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Dostálová, Anna

    2012-01-01

    of PhD. thesis named "Leishmania attachment in permissive vectors and the role of sand fly midgut proteins in parasite-vector interaction", Anna Dostálová, 2011 This thesis focuses on the development of protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania in their insect vectors, sand flies. It sums up results of three projects I was involved in during my PhD studies. Main emphasis was put on permissive sand fly species that support development of various species of Leishmania. Using a novel method of...

  10. Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptoms and Body Weight Concerns in Patients Seeking Abdominoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Maria José Azevedo de; Nahas, Fábio Xerfan; Cordás, Táki Athanássios; Gama, Maria Gabriela; Sucupira, Eduardo Rodrigues; Ramos, Tatiana Dalpasquale; Felix, Gabriel de Almeida Arruda; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2016-03-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is one of the most common psychiatric conditions found in patients seeking cosmetic surgery, and body contouring surgery is most frequently sought by patients with BDD. To estimate the prevalence and severity of BDD symptoms in patients seeking abdominoplasty. Ninety patients of both sexes were preoperatively divided into two groups: patients with BDD symptoms (n = 51) and those without BDD symptoms (n = 39) based both on the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination (BDDE) and clinical assessment. Patients in the BDD group were classified as having mild to moderate or severe symptoms, according to the BDDE. Body weight and shape concerns were assessed using the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). The prevalence of BDD symptoms was 57%. There were significant associations between BDD symptoms and degree of body dissatisfaction, level of preoccupation with physical appearance, and avoidance behaviors. Mild to moderate and severe symptoms of BDD were present in 41% and 59% of patients, respectively, in the BDD group. It was found that the more severe the symptoms of BDD, the higher the level of concern with body weight and shape (P < .001). Patients having distorted self-perception of body shape, or distorted comparative perception of body image were respectively 3.67 or 5.93 times more likely to show more severe symptoms of BDD than those with a more accurate perception. Candidates for abdominoplasty had a high prevalence of BDD symptoms, and body weight and shape concerns were associated with increased symptom severity. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The burden on informal caregivers of people with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Alan D; Morant, Nicola; Goodwin, Guy M

    2005-01-01

    Caregivers of people with bipolar disorder may experience a different quality of burden than is seen with other illnesses. A better understanding of their concerns is necessary to improve the training of professionals working with this population. Conceptualizing caregiver burden in a conventional medical framework may not focus enough on issues important to caregivers, or on cultural and social issues. Perceptions of caregivers about bipolar disorder have important effects on levels of burden experienced. It is important to distinguish between caregivers' experience of this subjective burden and objective burden as externally appraised. Caregivers' previous experiences of health services may influence their beliefs about the illness. Caregiver burden is associated with depression, which affects patient recovery by adding stress to the living environment. The objective burden on caregivers of patients with bipolar disorder is significantly higher than for those with unipolar depression. Caregivers of bipolar patients have high levels of expressed emotion, including critical, hostile, or over-involved attitudes. Several measures have been developed to assess the care burden of patients with depressive disorders, but may be inappropriate for patients with bipolar disorder because of its cyclical nature and the stresses arising from manic and hypomanic episodes. Inter-episode symptoms pose another potential of burden in patients with bipolar disorder. Subsyndromal depressive symptoms are common in this phase of the illness, resulting in severe and widespread impairment of function. Despite the importance of assessing caregiver burden in bipolar disorder, relevant literature is scarce. The specific effects of mania and inter-episode symptoms have not been adequately addressed, and there is a lack of existing measures to assess burden adequately, causing uncertainty regarding how best to structure family interventions to optimally alleviate burden. The relatively few

  12. CAREGIVER BURDEN AMONG PEOPLE CARING FOR PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Bansal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Caregivers of patients suffering from mental illness report burden in different areas including effects on family functioning, psychological problems, financial problems and health. The aim of the study is to determine the sociodemographic profile and caregiver burden among caregivers of persons with schizophrenia and to study the effect of patients’ psychopathology on caregiver burden scale. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted in the Psychiatry Department, Government Medical College, Amritsar. A sample size of 34 was taken who were primary caregivers (preferably parents or spouse of schizophrenia patients diagnosed using ICD10. Measures included caregiver’s demographic variables and caregiver’s burden using the Zarit burden interview and PANSS scale in patients. Statistical Analysis- Data was analysed using SPSS software version 21. RESULTS The mean age of the caregiver was 42 SD (12.16 years. The majority of the caregivers were parents, married and employed. The mean average score of the responses to Zarit burden interview was (SD=59.52 ± 20.92. Majority of the caregivers experienced severe burden (52.9%, 9 (26.4% caregivers had reported moderate burden and 6 (17.6% had reported mild burden. The mean duration of illness was 6.89 (SD=5.03 years. The level of burden experienced was significantly associated with total PANSS score, negative symptoms, positive symptoms, general psychopathology score and duration of schizophrenia illness (p=0.00. CONCLUSION There is need for psychological assistance and social support for the vulnerable caregivers to help them reduce the burden levels and employ positive coping strategies.

  13. Caregivers' burden in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Peña-Longobardo, Luz María; Oliva-Moreno, Juan; Hidalgo-Vega, Álvaro

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a very prevalent and invalidating disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the burden borne by informal caregivers of patients with COPD. We used the Survey on Disabilities, Personal Autonomy, and Dependency Situations (Encuesta sobre Discapacidad, Autonomía personal y Situaciones de Dependencia [EDAD]-2008) to obtain information on the characteristics of disabled individuals with COPD and their caregivers in Spain. Additionally, statistical multivariate analyses were performed to analyze the impact that an increase in dependence would have on the problems for which caregivers provide support, in terms of health, professional, and leisure/social dimensions. A total of 461,884 individuals with one or more disabilities and with COPD were identified, and 220,892 informal caregivers were estimated. Results showed that 35% of informal caregivers had health-related problems due to the caregiving provided; 83% had leisure/social-related problems; and among caregivers of working age, 38% recognized having profession-related problems. The probability of a problem arising was significantly associated with the degree of dependence of the patient receiving care. Caregivers of patients with great dependence showed a 39% higher probability of presenting health-related problems, 27% more professional problems, and 23% more leisure problems compared with those with nondependent patients. The results show the large impact on society in terms of the welfare of informal caregivers of patients with COPD. A higher level of dependence was associated with more severe problems in caregivers, in all dimensions.

  14. Burden of serious fungal infections in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo-León, D E; Armstrong-James, D; Denning, D W

    2015-10-01

    Serious fungal infections (SFIs) could be more frequent than are recognised. Estimates of the incidence and prevalence of SFIs are essential in order to identify public health problems. We estimated the rates of SFIs in Mexico, following a methodology similar to that used in prior studies. We obtained information about the general population and populations at risk. A systematic literature search was undertaken to identify epidemiological reports of SFIs in Mexico. When Mexican reports were unavailable, we based our estimates on international literature. The most prevalent SFIs in Mexico are recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (5999 per 100,000) followed by allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (60 per 100,000), chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (15.9 per 100,000), fungal keratitis (10.4 per 100,000), invasive candidiasis (8.6 per 100,000) and SFIs in HIV (8.2 per 100,000); coccidioidomycosis (7.6 per 100,000), IA (4.56 per 100,000). These correspond to 2,749,159 people affected in any year (2.45% of the population), probably >10,000 deaths and 7000 blind eyes. SFIs affect immunocompromised and healthy populations. Most are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Validation of these estimates with epidemiological studies is required. The burdens indicate that an urgent need to improve medical skills, surveillance, diagnosis, and management of SFIs exists. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. In vitro permissiveness of bovine neutrophils and monocyte derived macrophages to Leishmania donovani of Ethiopian isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasew, Geremew; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Abera, Adugna; Zewude, Aboma; Chanyalew, Menberework; Aseffa, Abraham; Abebe, Markos; Ritter, Uwe; van Zandbergen, Ger; Laskay, Tamás; Tafess, Ketema

    2016-04-18

    Epidemiological studies in Ethiopia have documented that the risk of visceral leishmaniasis (VL, Kala-azar) is higher among people living with domestic animals. The recent report on isolation of Leishmania donovani complex DNA and the detected high prevalence of anti-leishmanial antibodies in the blood of domestic animals further strengthen the potential role of domestic animals in the epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia. In mammalian hosts polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) and macrophages are the key immune cells influencing susceptibility or control of Leishmania infection. Thus to substantiate the possible role of cattle in VL transmission we investigate the permissiveness of bovine PMN and monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) for Leishmania (L.) donovani infection. Whole blood was collected from pure Zebu (Boss indicus) and their cross with Holstein Friesian cattle. L. donovani (MHOM/ET/67/HU3) wild and episomal green fluorescent protein (eGFP) labelled stationary stage promastigotes were co-incubated with whole blood and MDM to determine infection of these cells. Engulfment of promastigotes by the cells and their transformation to amastigote forms in MDM was studied with direct microscopy. Microscopy and flow cytometry were used to measure the infection rate while PCR-RLFP was used to confirm the infecting parasite. L. donovani infected bovine whole blood PMN in the presence of plasma factors and all cellular elements. Morphological examinations of stained cytospin smears revealed that PMN engulfed promastigotes. Similarly, we were able to show that bovine MDM can be infected by L. donovani, which transformed to amastigote forms in the cells. The in vitro infection of bovine PMN and MDM by L. donovani further strengthens the possibility that cattle might serve as source of L. donovani infection for humans.

  16. Permissive flexibility in successful lifelong weight management: A qualitative study among Finnish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joki, Anu; Mäkelä, Johanna; Fogelholm, Mikael

    2017-09-01

    Maintaining normal weight in the current obesogenic environment is a challenge. However, some people can do it. More insight is needed to understand how and why some people succeed in long-term weight maintenance. This study uses a rare, qualitative approach by describing the thoughts of successful weight management and self-perceived requirements for success in weight maintenance. We interviewed 39 individuals who have maintained normal weight for their entire lives (men and women). The content analysis revealed a main theme: flexible, permissive and conscious self-regulation, which was divided into two subthemes (eating-related behavior and weight-related behavior). The informants reported certain routines that supported their weight management: regular eating, sufficient meal sizes, eating in response to hunger, healthy and vegetable-rich diet along with moderate feasting and flexible eating restriction. Flexibility in routines allowed freedom in their eating behavior. In addition, informants regarded themselves as physically active, and they enjoyed regular exercise. Regular weighing was generally considered unnecessary. Normal weight was regarded as a valuable and worthwhile issue, and most of the informants worked to keep their weight stable. Although the perceived workload varied among informants, the weight management strategies were similar. It was crucial to be conscious of the balance between eating and energy consumption. Further, flexibility characterized their behavior and was the basis of successful weight management. Women were more aware of weight control practices and knowledge than men, but otherwise, women and men reported similar weight management methods and attitudes. In conclusion, the interviewees who have maintained the normal weight had created a personal weight-management support environment where weight management was a lifestyle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Wild Anopheles funestus mosquito genotypes are permissive for infection with the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiannong Xu

    Full Text Available Malaria parasites undergo complex developmental transitions within the mosquito vector. A commonly used laboratory model for studies of mosquito-malaria interaction is the rodent parasite, P. berghei. Anopheles funestus is a major malaria vector in sub-Saharan Africa but has received less attention than the sympatric species, Anopheles gambiae. The imminent completion of the A. funestus genome sequence will provide currently lacking molecular tools to describe malaria parasite interactions in this mosquito, but previous reports suggested that A. funestus is not permissive for P. berghei development.An A. funestus population was generated in the laboratory by capturing female wild mosquitoes in Mali, allowing them to oviposit, and rearing the eggs to adults. These F1 progeny of wild mosquitoes were allowed to feed on mice infected with a fluorescent P. berghei strain. Fluorescence microscopy was used to track parasite development inside the mosquito, salivary gland sporozoites were tested for infectivity to mice, and parasite development in A. funestus was compared to A. gambiae.P. berghei oocysts were detectable on A. funestus midguts by 7 days post-infection. By 18-20 days post-infection, sporozoites had invaded the median and distal lateral lobes of the salivary glands, and hemocoel sporozoites were observed in the hemolymph. Mosquitoes were capable of infecting mice via bite, demonstrating that A. funestus supports the complete life cycle of P. berghei. In a random sample of wild mosquito genotypes, A. funestus prevalence of infection and the characteristics of parasite development were similar to that observed in A. gambiae-P. berghei infections.The data presented in this study establish an experimental laboratory model for Plasmodium infection of A. funestus, an important vector of human malaria. Studying A. funestus-Plasmodium interactions is now feasible in a laboratory setting. This information lays the groundwork for exploitation of the

  18. Proteasome-independent degradation of HIV-1 in naturally non-permissive human placental trophoblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barré-Sinoussi Françoise

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human placenta-derived cell line BeWo has been demonstrated to be restrictive to cell-free HIV-1 infection. BeWo cells are however permissive to infection by VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1, which enters cells by a receptor-independent mechanism, and to infection by HIV-1 via a cell-to-cell route. Results Here we analysed viral entry in wild type BeWo (CCR5+, CXCR4+ and BeWo-CD4+ (CD4+, CCR5+, CXCR4+ cells. We report that HIV-1 internalisation is not restricted in either cell line. Levels of internalised p24 antigen between VSV-G HIV-1 pseudotypes and R5 or X4 virions were comparable. We next analysed the fate of internalised virions; X4 and R5 HIV-1 virions were less stable over time in BeWo cells than VSV-G HIV-1 pseudotypes. We then investigated the role of the proteasome in restricting cell-free HIV-1 infection in BeWo cells using proteasome inhibitors. We observed an increase in the levels of VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1 infection in proteasome-inhibitor treated cells, but the infection by R5-Env or X4-Env pseudotyped virions remains restricted. Conclusion Collectively these results suggest that cell-free HIV-1 infection encounters a surface block leading to a non-productive entry route, which either actively targets incoming virions for non-proteasomal degradation, and impedes their release into the cytoplasm, or causes the inactivation of mechanisms essential for viral replication.

  19. Caregiver burden among relatives of patients with schizophrenia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    both patients and their caregivers.1,2 Caregiver burden in mental illness can either be ... with chronic mental illness.9 Consequently, there is a need to study the burden of ..... References. 1. Kung W. The illness, stigma, culture or immigration?

  20. Burdens and Standards of Proof in Possession of Unexplained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cases such as Workineh Kenbato & Amelework Dalie demonstrate the confusion regarding who bears what burden, for which facts the burden would apply and the required standard of proof thereof. Despite efforts to use the prosecution of illicit enrichment as a weapon in the combat against corruption, there are concerns ...

  1. 34 CFR 34.14 - Burden of proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burden of proof. 34.14 Section 34.14 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 34.14 Burden of proof. (a... those in § 34.24. (d)(1) If you object on the ground that applicable law bars us from collecting the...

  2. 6 CFR 27.325 - Burden of proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burden of proof. 27.325 Section 27.325 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM... burden of proving the facts necessary to support the challenged administrative action at every proceeding...

  3. The burden of disease attributable to sexually transmitted infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Years of life lost (YLL) and years lived with disability (YLD) were estimated using different approaches for HIV I AIDS, other STis and cervical cancer. Burden in respect of HIV I AIDS was estimated using the ASSA2002 model, and for the other diseases the revised national burden of disease estimates for 2000 based on ...

  4. Tuberculous Pericarditis is Multibacillary and Bacterial Burden Drives High Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jotam G. Pasipanodya

    2015-11-01

    Interpretation: Patients with culture confirmed tuberculous pericarditis have a high bacillary burden, and this bacterial burden drives mortality. Thus proven tuberculosis pericarditis is not a paucibacillary disease. Moreover, the severe immunosuppression suggests limited inflammation. There is a need for the design of a highly bactericidal regimen for this condition.

  5. Thailand's Student Loans Fund: Interest Rate Subsidies and Repayment Burdens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Bruce; Lounkaew, Kiatanantha; Polsiri, Piruna; Sarachitti, Rangsit; Sitthipongpanich, Thitima

    2010-01-01

    Government student loan schemes typically have implicit interest rate subsidies which, while these are a cost to taxpayers, they have the benefit of diminishing repayment burdens for graduates. Our goal is to illustrate the extent of both interest rate subsidies and repayment burdens with respect to Thailand's Student Loans Fund (SLF), using…

  6. Caregiver burden among relatives of patients with schizophrenia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Caring for patients with schizophrenia places an enormous burden on the caregivers. The magnitude of this problem remains largely unknown in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective. The objective of this study was to determine the nature of the burden reported by caregiving relatives of patients with schizophrenia.

  7. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to unsafe water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To estimate the burden of disease attributable to unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene (WSH) by age group for South Africa in 2000. Design. World Health Organization comparative risk assessment methodology was used to estimate the disease burden attributable to an exposure by comparing the observed risk ...

  8. Caregiver burden and correlates among caregivers of children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health ... Data on socio-demographic factors, psychiatric morbidity among caregivers, and level of caregiver burden was collected using a researcher-designed socio-demographic questionnaire, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and Zarit burden interview, respectively.

  9. Household burden of chronic diseases in Ghana | Togoe | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The relatively high direct cost of illness among households with person(s) living with NCDs and the associated high indirect burden of illness places undue stress on households. Research requires better measurement of the indirect burden with focus on the household. These findings suggest the necessity of ...

  10. The disease burden of congenital toxoplasmosis in Denmark, 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Ioanna; Jokelainen, Pikka; Stensvold, Christen Rune

    2017-01-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) causes a substantial disease burden worldwide. The aim of this study was to estimate the disease burden of CT in Denmark, a developed country with free public healthcare and nationwide data available. Using data primarily from two public health surveillance programmes...

  11. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to unsafe water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimating the burden of disease attributable to unsafe water and lack of sanitation and hygiene in South Africa in 2000. ... Disease burden from diarrhoeal diseases, intestinal parasites and schistosomiasis, measured by deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Results. 13 434 deaths were attributable to unsafe ...

  12. Caregiver burden in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Jessica; Bakker, Leonhard A; van Groenestijn, Annerieke C; van den Berg, Leonard H; Schröder, Carin D; Visser-Meily, Johanna Ma; Beelen, Anita

    BACKGROUND: Informal caregivers of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis experience increased levels of caregiver burden as the disease progresses. Insight in the factors related to caregiver burden is needed in order to develop supportive interventions. AIM: To evaluate the evidence on

  13. Burden, genotype and phenotype profiles of adult patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    burden of SCD disease, with in excess of 300 000 new affected births annually ... child births globally.[3] In spite of the high burden of disease in SSA, SCD is often ..... supportive medication such as folic acid and patient clinic attendance.

  14. Burden and Stress among Psychiatry Residents and Psychiatric Healthcare Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Ishara, Sergio; Bandeira, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The authors compared the levels of job burden and stress in psychiatry residents with those of other healthcare professionals at inpatient and outpatient psychiatric hospitals in a medium-sized Brazilian city. Method: In this study, the levels of job burden and stress of 136 healthcare workers and 36 psychiatry residents from six various…

  15. Private prayer among Alzheimer's caregivers: mediating burden and resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Scott E; Vonk, M Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether the coping method of private prayer served as a protective factor of resiliency among a sample (N = 304) of Alzheimer's caregivers. Participants in caregiver support groups completed questionnaires that assessed a number of constructs, including caregiving burden; prayer frequency; use of private prayer as a means of coping; and perceived resiliency. The sample averaged a moderate level of burden and a great extent of prayer usage. Caregiving burden had positively affected the extent of prayer usage and negatively influenced perceived resiliency. Findings from hierarchical regression analysis showed that caregiving burden and private prayer significantly influenced variation in perceived resiliency scores. Results from a regression equation series and path analysis provided support for prayer as a mediator between burden and perceived resiliency. Implications for social work practice and education are discussed.

  16. [Burden, empathy, and resilience in dependent people caregivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Abal, Yolanda; López-López, María José; Climent-Rodríguez, José Antonio; Gómez-Salgado, Juan

    2018-02-10

    To analyse the differences in perceived burden between family caregivers who are users of patient associations and those who are not; to assess the relationship between burden, resilience, and empathy levels. Retrospective ex post facto study of two groups, one of them quasi control. The sample was composed of 155 informal caregivers (28 men and 155 women); 109 of them were users of patient relatives' associations and 46 were not. Both descriptive and bivariate comparative analyses were carried out. Caregivers who were members of patient associations showed lower burden and empathy levels than those who were not. This highlighted that the higher their level of perceived burden, the lower their level of resilience. Belonging to carers' associations results in a lower level of perceived burden and a lower risk of developing compassion fatigue syndrome. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Impossible body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusero, L

    1999-01-01

    SUMMARY This play tells the story of one woman coming to terms with her "poly" identity through a journey into the multiple layers of love, race, sex, appearance and Otherness. The one-woman show Impossible Body was first performed for a reading series sponsored by "Onstage" at the University of Colorado, Boulder, in February 1997. A revised version was developed and staged at the University of Puget Sound in Tacoma, Washington in April 1997. The current script, from which these excerpts are taken, was first presented at the Queer Studies Conference in Boulder, Colorado.

  18. Body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppe, P.

    1975-01-01

    The paper gives a survey on some applications of the whole body counter in clinical practice and a critical study of its application as a routine testing method. Remarks on the necessary precautions are followed by a more detailed discussion of the determination of the natural potassium content, the iron metabolism, the vitamin B12 test, investigations of the metabolism of the bone using 47 Ca and 85 Sr, investigations with iodine and iodine-labelled substances, clearance investigations (in particular the 51 Cr EDTA clearance test), as well as the possibilities of neutron activation in vivo. (ORU/AK) [de

  19. 76 FR 46808 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in Permissible Nonbanking Activities or To Acquire Companies That...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... that the Board has determined by Order to be closely related to banking and permissible for bank...: 1. Westpac Banking Corporation, Sydney, Australia; to indirectly acquire 100 percent of the voting... advisory and private placement services, pursuant to sections 225.28(b)(6) and (b)(7)(iii) of Regulation Y...

  20. 34 CFR 97.408 - Requirements for permission by parents or guardians and for assent by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... permission is not a reasonable requirement to protect the subjects (for example, neglected or abused children... for assent by children. 97.408 Section 97.408 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research...

  1. 76 FR 6136 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in Permissible Nonbanking Activities or To Acquire Companies That...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ...: 1. Hana Financial Group Inc., Seoul, Korea; to acquire a controlling interest in Korea Exchange Bank, Seoul, Korea, and thereby indirectly acquire voting shares of KEB Financial Corp., New York, New York... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Notice of Proposals To Engage in Permissible Nonbanking Activities or To...

  2. Permissive Parenting, Deviant Peer Affiliations, and Delinquent Behavior in Adolescence: the Moderating Role of Sympathetic Nervous System Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, J Benjamin; Erath, Stephen A; Tu, Kelly M; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined two measures of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity as moderators of the indirect path from permissive parenting to deviant peer affiliations to delinquency among a community sample of adolescents. Participants included 252 adolescents (M = 15.79 years; 53 % boys; 66 % European American, 34 % African American). A multi-method design was employed to address the research questions. Two indicators of SNS reactivity, skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) and cardiac pre-ejection period reactivity (PEPR) were examined. SNS activity was measured during a baseline period and a problem-solving task (star-tracing); reactivity was computed as the difference between the task and baseline periods. Adolescents reported on permissive parenting, deviant peer affiliations, externalizing behaviors, and substance use (alcohol, marijuana). Analyses revealed indirect effects between permissive parenting and delinquency via affiliation with deviant peers. Additionally, links between permissive parenting to affiliation with deviant peers and affiliation with deviant peers to delinquency was moderated by SNS reactivity. Less SNS reactivity (less PEPR and/or less SCLR) were risk factors for externalizing problems and alcohol use. Findings highlight the moderating role of SNS reactivity in parenting and peer pathways that may contribute to adolescent delinquency and point to possibilities of targeted interventions for vulnerable youth.

  3. 5 CFR 890.1016 - Aggravating and mitigating factors used to determine the length of permissive debarments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the debarment, or similar acts, had an adverse impact on the physical or mental health or well-being... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Administrative Sanctions Imposed Against Health Care Providers Permissive Debarments § 890...

  4. Subcellular localization of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus proteins and DNA during permissive infection of Crandell feline kidney cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Costello, F.; Huhtanen, M.

    1996-01-01

    Confocal microscopy allowed us to localize viral nonstructural (NS) and capsid (VP) proteins and DNA simultaneously in cells permissively infected with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV). Early after infection, NS proteins colocalized with viral DNA to form intranuclear inclusions, whereas VP...

  5. Psychometric Support for a New Measure of Authoritative, Authoritarian, and Permissive Parenting Practices: Cross-Cultural Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Clyde C.; And Others

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics of a 62-item parenting questionnaire completed by parents from the United States, Australia, China, and Russia. Factor analyses yielded three global parenting dimensions for each culture which were consistent with D. Baumrind's (1971) authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive typologies. The…

  6. 12 CFR 584.2-2 - Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... savings and loan holding companies. 584.2-2 Section 584.2-2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 584.2-2 Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies. (a) General. For purposes of § 584.2(b)(6)(i) of this part...

  7. 12 CFR 347.115 - Permissible activities for a foreign branch of an insured state nonmember bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... political subdivisions, to the extent permissible under the law of the issuing foreign country; and (ii) An... under the law of the issuing foreign country, if supported by the taxing authority, guarantee, or full... securities eligible to meet local reserve or similar requirements; and (iii) Shares of automated electronic...

  8. 75 FR 71130 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in Permissible Nonbanking Activities or To Acquire Companies That...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Notice of Proposals To Engage in Permissible Nonbanking Activities or To..., Virginia 23261-4528: 1. Royal Bank of Canada, Montreal, Canada; to acquire BlueBay Asset Management plc..., and thereby engage in financial and investment advisory activities, pursuant to section 225.28(b)(6...

  9. 26 CFR 301.7216-2T - Permissible disclosures or uses without consent of the taxpayer (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... return preparer has prepared or processed. The Internal Revenue Service may issue guidance, by... auditing services. A quality or peer review may be conducted only by attorneys, certified public... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permissible disclosures or uses without consent...

  10. Criteria for permission of radiosterilized products to application in medicine; Zasady dopuszczania wyrobow sterylizowanych radiacyjnie do stosowania w medycynie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achmatowicz, T [Instytut Lekow, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    The criteria being used in Poland for permission of radiosterilized medical materials to commercial application result from regulations being in force. The international regulations are also taken into account. The all criteria and procedure needed for any product become accepted for radiosterilization and commercial medical use have been presented and discussed. 1 tab.

  11. Trends and countertrends in sexual permissiveness: Three decades of attitude change in the Netherlands 1965-1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from 8 surveys on attitude change in the Netherlands, I tried to clarify trends in sexual permissiveness since the 1960s. In explaining these changes, time-period effects proved most important, whereas cohort replacement appeared to be of minor significance. Hence, changing

  12. Body Odor Trait Disgust Sensitivity Predicts Perception of Sweat Biosamples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzza, Marco Tullio; Olofsson, Jonas K; Sabiniewicz, Agnieszka; Sorokowska, Agnieszka

    2017-07-01

    Body odors are potent triggers of disgust and regulate social behaviors in many species. The role of olfaction in disgust-associated behaviors has received scant attention in the research literature, in part because olfactory disgust assessments have required laboratory testing with odors. We have devised the "Body Odor Disgust Scale" (BODS) to facilitate research on olfactory disgust. In this study, we evaluated whether individual differences in BODS scores would be associated with the perception of disgust for sweat samples in a laboratory setting. Results show that BODS was a strong predictor of disgust ratings of sweat samples even when controlling for general disgust sensitivity. In contrast, odor intensity ratings were unrelated to BODS scores. Our findings suggest that the BODS scores reflect body odor disgust perception. The BODS scale might facilitate research on olfactory disgust responses and associated behaviors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The burden of insomnia in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishima K

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kazuo Mishima,1 Marco daCosta DiBonaventura,2 Hillary Gross2 1Department of Psychophysiology, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan; 2Kantar Health, New York, NY, USA Objectives: Several studies have suggested that patients who experience insomnia report a number of significant impairments. However, despite this literature, fewer studies have focused on the burden of insomnia among patients in Japan. The objective of the current study is to extend this work in Japan to further understand the effect of insomnia on health-related quality of life (hrQOL. Further, another objective is to understand general predictors of hrQOL among patients with insomnia. Methods: Data from the 2012 Japan National Health and Wellness Survey, an annual, cross-sectional study of adults aged 18 years or older, were used (N=30,000. All National Health and Wellness Survey respondents were categorized based on the incidence of self-reported insomnia diagnosis and prescription medication usage (clinical insomniacs under treatment versus [vs] good sleepers without insomnia or insomnia symptoms. Comparisons among different groups were made using multiple regression models controlling for demographics and health history. Results: Clinical insomniacs (n=1,018; 3.4% reported significantly worse hrQOL compared with good sleepers (n=20,542 (mental component summary: 34.2 vs 48.0; physical component summary: 48.0 vs 52.8; health utilities: 0.61 vs 0.76; all P<0.05. Health behaviors (smoking, exercise, alcohol use and comorbidities were the strongest predictors of health utilities for clinical insomniacs. For all three clinical insomniac subgroups of interest, those with a physical comorbidity but not a psychiatric one, those with a psychiatric comorbidity but not a physical one, and those without either a physical or psychiatric comorbidity, large decrements in health utilities were observed for respondents who did

  14. Sacroiliac joint pain: burden of disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cher, Daniel; Polly, David; Berven, Sigurd

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is an important and significant cause of low back pain. We sought to quantify the burden of disease attributable to the SIJ. Methods The authors compared EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D) and Short Form (SF)-36-based health state utility values derived from the preoperative evaluation of patients with chronic SIJ pain participating in two prospective clinical trials of minimally invasive SIJ fusion versus patients participating in a nationally representative USA cross-sectional survey (National Health Measurement Study [NHMS]). Comparative analyses controlled for age, sex, and oversampling in NHMS. A utility percentile for each SIJ subject was calculated using NHMS as a reference cohort. Finally, SIJ health state utilities were compared with utilities for common medical conditions that were published in a national utility registry. Results SIJ patients (number [n]=198) had mean SF-6D and EQ-5D utility scores of 0.51 and 0.44, respectively. Values were significantly depressed (0.28 points for the SF-6D utility score and 0.43 points for EQ-5D; both P<0.0001) compared to NHMS controls. SIJ patients were in the lowest deciles for utility compared to the NHMS controls. The SIJ utility values were worse than those of many common, major medical conditions, and similar to those of other common preoperative orthopedic conditions. Conclusion Patients with SIJ pain presenting for minimally invasive surgical care have marked impairment in quality of life that is worse than in many chronic health conditions, and this is similar to other orthopedic conditions that are commonly treated surgically. SIJ utility values are in the lowest two deciles when compared to control populations. PMID:24748825

  15. Burden of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugnani, H C; Denning, D W; Rahim, R; Sadat, A; Belal, M; Mahbub, M S

    2017-06-01

    In Bangladesh there are several published papers on superficial mycoses. Deep mycoses are also recognized as an important emerging problem. Here, we estimate the annual incidence and prevalence of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh. Demographic data were obtained from world population reports and the data on TB and HIV extracted from the online publications on tuberculosis in Bangladesh and Asia Pacific research statistical data information resources AIDS Data HUB. All the published papers on fungal infections in Bangladesh were identified through extensive search of literature. We estimated the number of affected people from populations at risk and local epidemiological data. Bangladesh has a population of ∼162.6 million, 31% children and only 6% over the age of 60 years. The pulmonary TB caseload reported in 2014 was 119,520, and we estimate a prevalence of 30,178 people with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, 80% attributable to TB. An anticipated 90,262 and 119,146 patients have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or severe asthma with fungal sensitization. Only 8,000 people are estimated to be HIV-infected, of whom 2900 are not on ART with a CD4 count Bangladesh. Candida bloodstream infection was estimated based on a 5 per 100,000 rate (8100 cases) and invasive aspergillosis based primarily on leukemia and COPD rates, at 5166 cases. Histoplasmosis was documented in 16 cases mostly with disseminated disease and presumed in 21 with HIV infection. This study constitutes the first attempt to estimate the burden of several types of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh.

  16. Arsenic burden survey among refuse incinerator workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chung-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incinerator workers are not considered to have arsenic overexposure although they have the risk of overexposure to other heavy metals. Aim: To examine the relationship between arsenic burden and risk of occupational exposure in employees working at a municipal refuse incinerator by determining the concentrations of arsenic in the blood and urine. Settings and Design: The workers were divided into three groups based on their probability of contact with combustion-generated residues, namely Group 1: indirect contact, Group 2: direct contact and Group 3: no contact. Healthy age- and sex-matched residents living in the vicinity were enrolled as the control group. Materials and Methods: Heavy metal concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Downstream rivers and drinking water of the residents were examined for environmental arsenic pollution. A questionnaire survey concerning the contact history of arsenic was simultaneously conducted. Statistical analysis: Non-parametric tests, cross-tabulation and multinomial logistic regression. Results: This study recruited 122 incinerator workers. The urine and blood arsenic concentrations as well as incidences of overexposure were significantly higher in the workers than in control subjects. The workers who had indirect or no contact with combustion-generated residues had significantly higher blood arsenic level. Arsenic contact history could not explain the difference. Airborne and waterborne arsenic pollution were not detected. Conclusion: Incinerator workers run the risk of being exposed to arsenic pollution, especially those who have incomplete protection in the workplace even though they only have indirect or no contact with combustion-generated pollutants.

  17. Economic burden of diabetes in urban indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Pablo; Gogate, Bageshri; Gogate, Parikshit; Thite, Nilesh; Mutha, Abhay; Walimbe, Amit

    2014-01-01

    To find out the average economic burden of medical care on a patient with diabetes in Pune, India. A semi-open ended questionnaire followed by interview was conducted with patients attending diabetes and ophthalmic out-patient departments. They were asked regarding the duration of diabetes, methods undertaken for blood sugar control and the amount they spend on consultations, laboratory tests, medicines and procedures if any within past year. Expenditure was classified as direct cost (cost of medicines, doctor's fees, investigations, lasers and surgery) and indirect cost (travel, diet control, health classes and loss of wages). Data was collected regarding the socioeconomic status according to Kuppaswamy classification. 219 patients participated of whom 129 were males (58.9%). Average annual direct cost of diabetes treatment was Rs 8,822 of which 52.1% was spend on medicines, 3.2% was spend on lasers, 12.6% was spend on surgical procedures, 11.6% spent on investigations and 10.4% was spend on clinician fees. Average annual indirect cost was Rs. 3949 of which 3.4% was spend on travelling purpose, 0.4% was spent on health classes, 4.9% was spent on diet control and 91.3% was loss of wages. Average expenditure done by lower middle class was 23.7% of their income. Average percentage of income for direct and indirect cost was 3.6% and 1.4% respectively. The cost of the treatment formed1.3% of the annual income for those in Socio-economic class I, 1.7% in class II, 3.7% in class III and 23.7% in class IV. The cost of managing diabetes was a significant proportion of the patients' income, especially for those on lower socio-economic scale (class IV).

  18. Musculoskeletal disease burden of hereditary hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahinbegovic, Enijad; Dallos, Tomáš; Aigner, Elmar; Axmann, Roland; Manger, Bernhard; Englbrecht, Matthias; Schöniger-Hekele, Maximilian; Karonitsch, Thomas; Stamm, Tanja; Farkas, Martin; Karger, Thomas; Stölzel, Ulrich; Keysser, Gernot; Datz, Christian; Schett, Georg; Zwerina, Jochen

    2010-12-01

    To determine the prevalence, clinical picture, and disease burden of arthritis in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis. In this cross-sectional observational study of 199 patients with hemochromatosis and iron overload, demographic and disease-specific variables, genotype, and organ involvement were recorded. The prevalence, intensity, and localization of joint pain were assessed, and a complete rheumatologic investigation was performed. Radiographs of the hands, knees, and ankles were scored for joint space narrowing, erosions, osteophytes, and chondrocalcinosis. In addition, the number and type of joint replacement surgeries were recorded. Joint pain was reported by 72.4% of the patients. Their mean ± SD age at the time of the initial joint symptoms was 45.8 ± 13.2 years. If joint pain was present, it preceded the diagnosis of hemochromatosis by a mean ± SD of 9.0 ± 10.7 years. Bony enlargement was observed in 65.8% of the patients, whereas synovitis was less common (13.6%). Joint space narrowing and osteophytes as well as chondrocalcinosis of the wrist and knee joints were frequent radiographic features of hemochromatosis. Joint replacement surgery was common, with 32 patients (16.1%) undergoing total joint replacement surgery due to severe OA. The mean ± SD age of these patients was 58.3 ± 10.4 years at time of joint replacement surgery. Female sex, metacarpophalangeal joint involvement, and the presence of chondrocalcinosis were associated with a higher risk of early joint failure (i.e., the need for joint replacement surgery). Arthritis is a frequent, early, and severe symptom of hemochromatosis. Disease is not confined to involvement of the metacarpophalangeal joints and often leads to severe damage requiring the replacement of joints. Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  19. Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando O. Riera

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of fungal infections at any given time in Argentina is not known. Here we estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Argentina for the first time. Specific population statistics were searched from multiple sources, local literature was identified, and estimates made. Some additional data were sourced from the Ministry of Health, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA program, and national haematology and transplant societies. Argentina has a population of 43.8 million, with 25% of this total being children under 15 years. The predicted candidemia annual incidence is 2193 cases, with 50% occurring in the ICU. At a 6% prevalence rate, an estimated 593,695 women suffer from recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Invasive aspergillosis is relatively common because of high smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD rates, with 268 cases in immunocompromised patients and another 1938 in the 168,000 COPD patients admitted to hospital. Asthma is also common, affecting 14% of adults, and so allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS are major problems. An estimated 432 cases of cryptococcal meningitis (CM—90% of them in AIDS patients—and 1177 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP occur each year. The estimated annual case number of disseminated histoplasmosis is 404 in AIDS patients, almost as frequent as CM. Paracoccidioidomycosis annual incidence is estimated at 219, and coccidioidomycosis at 16 cases. At least 881,023 people (>2.01% in Argentina are affected by a serious fungal disease annually, with considerable morbidity and mortality.

  20. Caregivers’ burden in patients with COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Peña-Longobardo, Luz María; Oliva-Moreno, Juan; Hidalgo-Vega, Álvaro

    2015-01-01

    Objective Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a very prevalent and invalidating disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the burden borne by informal caregivers of patients with COPD. Methods We used the Survey on Disabilities, Personal Autonomy, and Dependency Situations (Encuesta sobre Discapacidad, Autonomía personal y Situaciones de Dependencia [EDAD]-2008) to obtain information on the characteristics of disabled individuals with COPD and their caregivers in Spain. Additionally, statistical multivariate analyses were performed to analyze the impact that an increase in dependence would have on the problems for which caregivers provide support, in terms of health, professional, and leisure/social dimensions. Results A total of 461,884 individuals with one or more disabilities and with COPD were identified, and 220,892 informal caregivers were estimated. Results showed that 35% of informal caregivers had health-related problems due to the caregiving provided; 83% had leisure/social-related problems; and among caregivers of working age, 38% recognized having profession-related problems. The probability of a problem arising was significantly associated with the degree of dependence of the patient receiving care. Caregivers of patients with great dependence showed a 39% higher probability of presenting health-related problems, 27% more professional problems, and 23% more leisure problems compared with those with nondependent patients. Conclusion The results show the large impact on society in terms of the welfare of informal caregivers of patients with COPD. A higher level of dependence was associated with more severe problems in caregivers, in all dimensions. PMID:25709429

  1. [The burden of disability in Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Calogero; Albensi, Caterina; Giordani, Laura; Azeufack Ngueko, Yannick; Sanou Sobze, Martin; Colizzi, Vittorio

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation services for disabled persons are lacking in countries with limited economic resources. Reliable and objective data are needed to plan for their implementation and to determine the burden of disability in these countries. A descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in June 2013 among people living in Dschang Health District, in the West region of Cameroon, to collect information about socio-demographic aspects of physically disabled subjects and health determinants of disabilities. Data was collected using a standard questionnaire in French. In total, 159 physically disabled subjects were enrolled in the study. Mean age was 36 years [± SD 17.26], 55.9% of subjects were female, and 33.8% had a low educational-level. The most frequently reported disabilities were orthopaedic problems (mainly fractures) [45.8%], infectious diseases [29.1%]), and neurological disabilities (mainly hemiplegia [33.3%], hemiparesis [23.8%], and monoplegia [23.8%]). The main causes of disability were trauma due to traffic accidents (17.8%) and inappropriate medical interventions (14.5%). Disability was related to age and 50% of participants experienced social discrimination. Disabled subjects with low-incomes (from 50.000 to 200.000 XAF) were required to pay for rehabilitative care (XAF 10.000 to 100.000), and up to 83% had appealed for improved quality of Rehabilitation Medicine. Although Law n. 83/013 for the protection of persons with disabilities in Cameroon dates back to 1983, the results of this study show that disabled people, and children in particular, are still marginalized, vulnerable and have little chance of recovery. Therefore, there is a clear need to improve the quality and availability of rehabilitative care services , with programmatic interventions that ensure implementation of existing laws, improve access to rehabilitative services, provide disabled persons with the necessary specialty medical products, and eliminate barriers to their social

  2. The personal, societal, and economic burden of schizophrenia in the People's Republic of China: implications for antipsychotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, William; Liu, Li; Stensland, Michael D; Xue, Hai Bo; Treuer, Tamas; Ascher-Svanum, Haya

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the personal, societal, and economic burden attributable to schizophrenia in the People's Republic of China and highlights the potential for effective outpatient treatment to reduce this burden given recent changes in the Chinese health care system. The importance of effective antipsychotic therapy in reducing the burden of schizophrenia is also examined. Published research on the burden, disability, management, and economic costs of schizophrenia in the People's Republic of China was examined in the context of the larger body of global research. Research written in English or Chinese and published before June 2012 was identified using PubMed, CNKI, and Wanfang Med database searches. The contribution of effective antipsychotic therapy in reducing the risk for relapse and hospitalization and improving patients' functioning is described. Schizophrenia imposes a substantial burden on Chinese society, with indirect costs accounting for the majority of the total cost. Functional impairment is high, leading to lost wages and work impairment. In the People's Republic of China, schizophrenia is the most common diagnosis among hospitalized psychiatric patients. Ongoing changes in the Chinese health care system may reduce some barriers to effective relapse prevention in schizophrenia and potentially reduce hospitalizations. The use of antipsychotics for acute episodes and maintenance treatment has been shown to decrease symptom severity and reduce the risk for relapse and hospitalization. However, discontinuing antipsychotic medication appears common and is a strong predictor of relapse. Cost-effectiveness research in the People's Republic of China is needed to examine the potential gains from improved outpatient antipsychotic treatment. Schizophrenia is a very costly mental illness in terms of personal, economic, and societal burden, both in the People's Republic of China and globally. When treated effectively, patients tend to persist longer with

  3. Childhood dual burden of under- and over-nutrition in low- and middle-income countries: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzioumis, Emma; Adair, Linda S.

    2015-01-01

    Background In low- and middle income countries, the distribution of childhood nutritional diseases is shifting from a predominance of undernutrition to a dual burden of under- and overnutrition. This novel and complex problem challenges governments and health organizations to tackle opposite ends of the malnutrition spectrum. The dual burden may manifest within a community, household, or individual, but these different levels have not been addressed collectively. Objective To critically review literature on the prevalence, trends, and predictors of the dual burden, with a focus on children from birth to 18 years. Methods We reviewed literature since January 1, 1990, published in English, using the PubMed search terms: nutrition transition, double burden, dual burden, nutrition status, obesity, overweight, underweight, stunting, body composition, and micronutrient deficiencies. Findings were classified and described according to dual burden level (community, household, individual). Results Global trends indicate decreases in diseases of undernutrition, while overnutrition is increasing. On the community level, economic status may influence the dual burden’s extent, with obesity increasingly affecting the already undernourished poor. In a household, shared determinants of poor nutritional status among members can result in disparate nutritional status across generations. Within an individual, obesity may co-occur with stunting or anemia, due to shared underlying determinants or physiologic links. Conclusions The dual burden of malnutrition poses a threat to children’s health in low- and middle-income countries. We must remain committed to reducing undernutrition while simultaneously preventing overnutrition, through integrated child health programs that incorporate prevention of infection, diet quality, and physical activity. PMID:25076771

  4. Permissive weight bearing in trauma patients with fracture of the lower extremities: prospective multicenter comparative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmet, Pishtiwan H S; Meys, Guido; V Horn, Yvette Y; Evers, Silvia M A A; Seelen, Henk A M; Hustinx, Paul; Janzing, Heinrich; Vd Veen, Alexander; Jaspars, Coen; Sintenie, Jan Bernard; Blokhuis, Taco J; Poeze, Martijn; Brink, Peter R G

    2018-02-02

    The standard aftercare treatment in surgically treated trauma patients with fractures around or in a joint, known as (peri)- or intra-articular fractures of the lower extremities, is either non-weight bearing or partial weight bearing. We have developed an early permissive weight bearing post-surgery rehabilitation protocol in surgically treated patients with fractures of the lower extremities. In this proposal we want to compare our early permissive weight bearing protocol to the existing current non-weight bearing guidelines in a prospective comparative cohort study. The study is a prospective multicenter comparative cohort study in which two rehabilitation aftercare treatments will be contrasted, i.e. permissive weight bearing and non-weight bearing according to the AO-guideline. The study population consists of patients with a surgically treated fracture of the pelvis/acetabulum or a surgically treated (peri)- or intra-articular fracture of the lower extremities. The inclusion period is 12 months. The duration of follow up is 6 months, with measurements taken at baseline, 2,6,12 and 26 weeks post-surgery. ADL with Lower Extremity Functional Scale. Outcome variables for compliance, as measured with an insole pressure measurement system, encompass peak load and step duration. This study will investigate the (cost-) effectiveness of a permissive weight bearing aftercare protocol. The results will provide evidence whether a permissive weight bearing protocol is more effective than the current non-weight bearing protocol. The study is registered in the Dutch Trial Register ( NTR6077 ). Date of registration: 01-09-2016.

  5. Permissive tolerance of the patent ductus arteriosus may increase the risk of Chronic Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaempf JW

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Joseph W Kaempf,1 Robert Huston,2 YingXing Wu,1 Andrew J Kaempf,1 Lian Wang,1 Gary Grunkemeier,1 Rebecca Mischel,2 Howard Cohen,3 Bret Freitag41Providence St Vincent Medical Center, Portland, OR, 2Randall Children’s Hospital at Legacy Emanuel, Portland, OR, 3Salem Hospital, Salem, OR, 4Legacy Salmon Creek Hospital, Vancouver, WA, USAPurpose: Because early closure therapies of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA have not been shown to confer benefit to premature infants, the authors’ four neonatal intensive care units adopted a less aggressive PDA management protocol.Study design: A before–after investigation in infants with PDAs born 501–1500 g. Era 1 (January 2005 to December 2007 featured traditional management with indomethacin and/or surgical ligation used early to close PDAs; Era 2 (January 2008 to June 2009 featured fluid restriction and watchful waiting for PDA closure, limiting indomethacin or surgical ligation to only those infants with large PDAs needing significant respiratory support.Results: Era 2 infants (n = 129, mean ± standard deviation 27 ± 2 weeks received less and later indomethacin and less Day 1–28 total fluids as compared to Era 1 infants (n = 240, mean ± standard deviation 27 ± 2 weeks. The Chronic Lung Disease (CLD rate was higher in Era 2 (48% versus 34%, P < 0.01 as was the combined outcome of Death after Day 7 or CLD (57% versus 42%, P < 0.01. Multiple regression analysis showed Era 2 birth was a predictor of CLD. However, Poisson regression analysis determined the predictors of all seven major Vermont Oxford Network morbidities were earlier gestational age, lower birth weight, and male gender, not the era of birth. Significantly more infants were discharged home with PDAs in Era 2.Conclusion: Permissive tolerance of PDAs may increase the risk of CLD and Death after Day 7 or CLD but is not associated with significant changes in other Vermont Oxford Network morbidities.Keywords: premature infant

  6. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign body retrieval is the removal of ... foreign body detection and removal? What is Foreign Body Retrieval? Foreign body retrieval involves the removal of ...

  7. Dioxin body burden among blood donors before and after the Belgian dioxin/PCB incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debacker, N.; Sasse, A.; Wouwe, N. Van; Windal, I.; Carbonnelle, S.; Overmeire, I. Van; Sartor, F.; Goeyens, L.; Oyen, H. Van [Scientific Inst. of Public Health, Brussels (Belgium); Eppe, G.; Xhrouet, C.; Pauw, E. De [Centre of Analysis of Residues in Traces, Luik (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    In spring 1999, Belgium faced a severe food contamination when about 50 kg of PCBs containing 1 g of dioxins were introduced in the food chain. The possible public health impact of this food chain contamination was subject of a debate between different scientists. According to Vrijens et al. and Bernard et al. there was no significant public health impact, whereas van Larebeke et al. presumed the opposite claiming a significant increase of cancer incidence. These risk assessments were based on measurements of dioxins/PCBs in contaminated foods and nutritional habits observed in a selected group of adolescents (14-18 years old) using simulation techniques or on the estimation of the incremental cancer risk associated with the incremental levels of exposure to dioxins/PCBs during the incident. In the meantime, an epidemiological survey has been carried out in order to measure the dioxin levels in plasma samples collected before and after the incident. The aim of this paper is to report the preliminary results of this epidemiological survey.

  8. America's Children and the Environment: Measures of Contaminants, Body Burdens, and Illnesses. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Tracey J.; Axelrad, Daniel A.; Kyle, Amy D.; Nweke, Onyemaechi; Miller, Gregory G.

    Noting that children may be affected by environmental contaminants in ways quite different from the way adults are affected, this report is the second on trends in measures reflecting environmental factors that may affect the U.S. children's health and well-being. A list of measures and key findings begins the report, followed by five main…

  9. Using in vitro derived enzymatic reaction rates of metabolism to inform pesticide body burdens in amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding how pesticide exposure to non-target species influences toxicity is necessary to accurately assess the ecological risks these compounds pose. To assess the potential metabolic activation of broad use pesticides in amphibians, in vitro and in vivo metabolic rate cons...

  10. Influence of heavy metals body burden on biochemical peculiarities of small mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Zemlianyj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of technogenic pollution on the protein and lipid content in small mammals from different ecosystems is observed in the paper. It was defined that its content increased in organs, which take an active part in the metabolic processes.

  11. Incidence of liver tumors in beagles with body burdens of 239Pu or 241Am

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.N.; Mays, C.W.; Wrenn, M.E.; Shabestari, L.; Lloyd, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    Tetravalent 239 Pu or trivalent 241 Am in a citrate buffer, given via a single intravenous injection to beagles, induced very pronounced liver changes, usually at relatively long postinjection times. The lesions consisted of cell injury or cell necrosis which was followed by nodular hyperplasia and a significant incidence of primary liver tumors. The most frequent neoplasm was the bile duct adenoma, followed by the bile duct carcinoma. A lesser number of sarcomas were also induced, especially fibrosarcomas. The number of hepatic cell tumors was low. An abnormally high incidence of both hyperplastic nodules and primary liver tumors occurred at long postinjection times and at average doses extending down to ∼10 rads. The various nodular lesions and liver tumors frequently occurred as incidental findings in dogs dying from other causes, especially bone cancer. In comparison to bone neoplasia, the liver was a much less important target organ in the high-dose level groups, but in some of the low-dose groups, especially in the 241 Am groups, the risk of radiation-induced liver cancer was approximately equal to or exceeded the risk of skeletal tumors. However, in any projection of the risks observed in this animal model to man, one should be mindful that the beagle skeleton is approximately 25 times more sensitive to radiation-induced bone neoplasia than is the human skeleton (Mays et al., 1976) and that the radiosensitivity difference for the beagle and human liver is unknown. 41 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Organohalogen body burdens in a breast cancer case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petreas, M.; She, J.; Visita, P.; Winkler, J. [Hazardous Materials Lab., California Dept. of Toxic Substances Control, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hurley, S.; Smith, D.; Reynolds, P. [Environmental Health Investigations Branch, California Dept. of Health Services, Oakland, CA (United States); Jeffrey, S.; Mahoney, E. [Dept. of Surgery, Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Due to their lipophilic properties, dioxins (PCDD/PCDFs) and other organohalogen compounds bioaccumulate in the food chain, with diet accounting for over 90% of non-occupational exposures. To date, few epidemiologic studies have examined the relationship between dioxins and breast cancer in human populations. Most have examined risks in occupational cohorts or in populations exposed to dioxins from the Seveso accident6-8. Results from these studies have been conflicting and have largely been limited by a lack of individual-level measures of exposure, small numbers of cases, and inability to account for established breast cancer risk factors. Very little is known about the potential health effects of low-level environmental dioxin contamination. We present data on PCDD/PCDFs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in adipose tissues of women participating in a breast cancer case-control study centered in the San Francisco Bay Area. In addition, we examine distributions of these chemicals in breast and abdominal adipose of women undergoing mastectomies with concurrent breast reconstruction. If concentrations were equivalent, use of abdominal adipose would greatly enhance the pool for controls for future epidemiological studies.

  13. Residual fibre lung burden among patients with pleural mesothelioma who have been occupationally exposed to asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merler, Enzo; Somigliana, Anna; Girardi, Paolo; Barbieri, Pietro Gino

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the lungs asbestos fibres concentration in participants with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) who have been occupationally exposed. The lung samples were obtained from pleuropneumonectomies or autopsies of 271 male MPMs. The lung samples were examined through scanning electron microscopy. Retrospective assessment was used to assess for asbestos exposure. This study includes 248 MPMs with an occupational exposure defined as either 'definite' or 'probable' or 'possible'. The participants had finished working in asbestos exposure conditions more than 20 years ago (on average 26.1±11.0 years). The fibre burden resulted with a geometric mean equal to 2.0 (95% CI 1.6 to 2.4) million fibres per gram of dry lung tissue. The burden was higher among participants employed in asbestos textiles industry and in shipyards with insulation material, if compared with construction workers or non-asbestos textile workers or participants working in chemicals or as auto mechanics. 91.3% of MPMs had a detectable amount of amphibole fibres. A strong lung clearance capability was evident among workers exposed to chrysotile fibres. Owing to that, the 1997 Helsinki Criteria for occupational exposure were reached in industry, in chemical or textile industry and among those performing brake repair activities. The MPM cases are now occurring in Italy in participants who ceased occupational asbestos exposure decades before the analysis. A large majority still shows a residual content of amphibole fibres, but given the lung clearance capability, attribution to occupational exposure cannot rely only on fibres detection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Asymmetries of poverty: why global burden of disease valuations underestimate the burden of neglected tropical diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles H King

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The disability-adjusted life year (DALY initially appeared attractive as a health metric in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD program, as it purports to be a comprehensive health assessment that encompassed premature mortality, morbidity, impairment, and disability. It was originally thought that the DALY would be useful in policy settings, reflecting normative valuations as a standardized unit of ill health. However, the design of the DALY and its use in policy estimates contain inherent flaws that result in systematic undervaluation of the importance of chronic diseases, such as many of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs, in world health. The conceptual design of the DALY comes out of a perspective largely focused on the individual risk rather than the ecology of disease, thus failing to acknowledge the implications of context on the burden of disease for the poor. It is nonrepresentative of the impact of poverty on disability, which results in the significant underestimation of disability weights for chronic diseases such as the NTDs. Finally, the application of the DALY in policy estimates does not account for the nonlinear effects of poverty in the cost-utility analysis of disease control, effectively discounting the utility of comprehensively treating NTDs. The present DALY framework needs to be substantially revised if the GBD is to become a valid and useful system for determining health priorities.

  15. Socioeconomic burden of hereditary angioedema: results from the hereditary angioedema burden of illness study in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygören-Pürsün, Emel; Bygum, Anette; Beusterien, Kathleen; Hautamaki, Emily; Sisic, Zlatko; Wait, Suzanne; Boysen, Henrik B; Caballero, Teresa

    2014-07-04

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to C1 inhibitor deficiency is a rare but serious and potentially life-threatening disease marked by spontaneous, recurrent attacks of swelling. The study objective was to characterize direct and indirect resource utilization associated with HAE from the patient perspective in Europe. The study was conducted in Spain, Germany, and Denmark to assess the real-world experience of HAE via a cross-sectional survey of HAE patients, including direct and indirect resource utilization during and between attacks for patients and their caregivers over the past 6 months. A regression model examined predictors of medical resource utilization. Overall, 164 patients had an attack in the past 6 months and were included in the analysis. The most significant predictor of medical resource utilization was the severity of the last attack (OR 2.6; p career/educational advancement. HAE poses a considerable burden on patients and their families in terms of direct medical costs and indirect costs related to lost productivity. This burden is substantial at the time of attacks and in between attacks.

  16. ANALYSIS OF TAX BURDEN PARAMETERS OF UKRAINE'S ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Moyseyenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The need to solve the problems of macro-economic stabilization of the country's economy on the basis of determining the tax system efficiency led to the actuality and importance of developing methodological issues of macro-economic tax regulation. In terms of macro-financial stability for the purpose of strategic analysis, the macroeconomic category of tax burden and its fiscal efficiency in terms of direct and indirect taxation is considered. Tax burden indicators at a macro-level quantitatively measure the total level of tax payment and pumping up the budget. Based on the analysis of tax burden it is found that in Ukraine the major fiscal function is performed by consumption taxes (indirect taxes. The methodological principles of the diagnostics of tax burden influence on macro-indices of economic stabilization are as follows: selecting parameters of monitoring tax burden state and fiscal burden efficiency; the assessment of an impact on fiscal efficiency on macro-indices. To prognosticate the efficiency of fiscal burden performance in terms of indirect taxes linear and exponential trend equations are calculated. In terms of the analysis of macro-financial stability the usage of tax rates of indirect taxes as indicators of fiscal efficiency provides sufficient reasons for the conclusions regarding long-term trends of pumping the budget.

  17. Sacroiliac joint pain: burden of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cher D

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Cher,1 David Polly,2 Sigurd Berven31SI-BONE, Inc., San Jose, CA, USA; 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USAObjectives: The sacroiliac joint (SIJ is an important and significant cause of low back pain. We sought to quantify the burden of disease attributable to the SIJ.Methods: The authors compared EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D and Short Form (SF-36-based health state utility values derived from the preoperative evaluation of patients with chronic SIJ pain participating in two prospective clinical trials of minimally invasive SIJ fusion versus patients participating in a nationally representative USA cross-sectional survey (National Health Measurement Study [NHMS]. Comparative analyses controlled for age, sex, and oversampling in NHMS. A utility percentile for each SIJ subject was calculated using NHMS as a reference cohort. Finally, SIJ health state utilities were compared with utilities for common medical conditions that were published in a national utility registry.Results: SIJ patients (number [n]=198 had mean SF-6D and EQ-5D utility scores of 0.51 and 0.44, respectively. Values were significantly depressed (0.28 points for the SF-6D utility score and 0.43 points for EQ-5D; both P<0.0001 compared to NHMS controls. SIJ patients were in the lowest deciles for utility compared to the NHMS controls. The SIJ utility values were worse than those of many common, major medical conditions, and similar to those of other common preoperative orthopedic conditions.Conclusion: Patients with SIJ pain presenting for minimally invasive surgical care have marked impairment in quality of life that is worse than in many chronic health conditions, and this is similar to other orthopedic conditions that are commonly treated surgically. SIJ utility values are in the lowest two deciles when compared to control populations

  18. Investments in cancer research awarded to UK institutions and the global burden of cancer 2000-2013: a systematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Head, Michael G; Zhou, Charlie D; Gilbert, Barnabas J; El-Harasis, Majd A; Raine, Rosalind; Fitchett, Joseph R; Atun, Rifat

    2017-04-20

    To systematically categorise cancer research investment awarded to United Kingdom (UK) institutions in the period 2000-2013 and to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). Systematic analysis of all open-access data. Public and philanthropic funding to all UK cancer research institutions, 2000-2013. Number and financial value of cancer research investments reported in 2013 UK pounds (UK£). Mortality, DALYs and YLDs data were acquired from the Global Burden of Disease Study. A compound metric was adapted to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, DALYs and YLDs. We identified 4299 funded studies with a total research investment of £2.4 billion. The highest fundings by anatomical sites were haematological, breast, prostate, colorectal and ovarian cancers. Relative to disease burden as determined by a compound metric combining mortality, DALYs and YLDs, gender-specific cancers were found to be highest funded-the five sites that received the most funding were prostate, ovarian, breast, mesothelioma and testicular cancer; the least well-funded sites were liver, thyroid, lung, upper gastrointestinal (GI) and bladder. Preclinical science accounted for 66.2% of award numbers and 62.2% of all funding. The top five areas of primary research focus by funding were pathogenesis, drug therapy, diagnostic, screening and monitoring, women's health and immunology. The largest individual funder was the Medical Research Council. In combination, the five lowest funded site-specific cancers relative to disease burden account for 47.9%, 44.3% and 20.4% of worldwide cancer mortality, DALYs and YLDs. Research funding for cancer is not allocated according to relative disease burden. These findings are in line with earlier published studies. Funding agencies and industry should openly document their research investments to

  19. Financial Burden Borne by Laparoscopic Living Kidney Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer F; Jacobs, Cheryl L; Larson, Dawn B; Berglund, Danielle M; Garvey, Catherine A; Ibrahim, Hassan N; Matas, Arthur J

    2017-09-01

    Living kidney donors have donation-related out-of-pocket costs (direct costs) and/or ongoing daily expenses while losing income (indirect costs). Yet there is little information about how much of a subjective burden these constitute for the donors. From December 2003 through December 2014, we surveyed donors 6 months postdonation to determine their financial burden related to donation (on a scale of 1 to 10) and what resources were used to cover expenses. Of 1136 surveyed, 796 (70%) responded. Among respondents, mean age at donation was 43.6 ± 10.6 years, 64% were women, 96% were white, and 53% were related by blood to their recipient. Overall, 26% scored their financial burden as 5 or higher; 8% scored it as 8 or higher. Increased expenses were associated with a higher reported burden; however, significant burden was reported by some with no out-of-pocket expenses (presumably due to lost wages and continuing expenses). The burden was scored as 5 or higher by 27% of those employed outside the home (n = 660), 15% homemakers, 13% retirees, 40% students; 28% unemployed; and 26% whose occupation was unknown. Over half (51%) of those receiving a local or (means-tested) national grant still reported moderate to severe burden. Besides grants, donors used a variety of sources to help offset expenses: dipped into savings, borrowed from friends or family, took out a loan, and/or had a fundraiser. Those with the highest burden reported using the most additional sources. Donors should not have to incur costs or a financial burden to donate; the transplant community should strive to make donation financially neutral.

  20. Burden of depressive disorders by country, sex, age, and year: findings from the global burden of disease study 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alize J Ferrari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Depressive disorders were a leading cause of burden in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD 1990 and 2000 studies. Here, we analyze the burden of depressive disorders in GBD 2010 and present severity proportions, burden by country, region, age, sex, and year, as well as burden of depressive disorders as a risk factor for suicide and ischemic heart disease.Burden was calculated for major depressive disorder (MDD and dysthymia. A systematic review of epidemiological data was conducted. The data were pooled using a Bayesian meta-regression. Disability weights from population survey data quantified the severity of health loss from depressive disorders. These weights were used to calculate years lived with disability (YLDs and disability adjusted life years (DALYs. Separate DALYs were estimated for suicide and ischemic heart disease attributable to depressive disorders. Depressive disorders were the second leading cause of YLDs in 2010. MDD accounted for 8.2% (5.9%-10.8% of global YLDs and dysthymia for 1.4% (0.9%-2.0%. Depressive disorders were a leading cause of DALYs even though no mortality was attributed to them as the underlying cause. MDD accounted for 2.5% (1.9%-3.2% of global DALYs and dysthymia for 0.5% (0.3%-0.6%. There was more regional variation in burden for MDD than for dysthymia; with higher estimates in females, and adults of working age. Whilst burden increased by 37.5% between 1990 and 2010, this was due to population growth and ageing. MDD explained 16 million suicide DALYs and almost 4 million ischemic heart disease DALYs. This attributable burden would increase the overall burden of depressive disorders from 3.0% (2.2%-3.8% to 3.8% (3.0%-4.7% of global DALYs.GBD 2010 identified depressive disorders as a leading cause of burden. MDD was also a contributor of burden allocated to suicide and ischemic heart disease. These findings emphasize the importance of including depressive disorders as a public-health priority and implementing