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Sample records for permian c1 coal

  1. Nanoquartz in Late Permian C1 coal and the high incidence of female lung cancer in the Pearl River Origin area: a retrospective cohort study

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    Zhou Yiping

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pearl River Origin area, Qujing District of Yunnan Province, has one of the highest female lung cancer mortality rates in China. Smoking was excluded as a cause of the lung cancer excess because almost all women were non-smokers. Crystalline silica embedded in the soot emissions from coal combustion was found to be associated with the lung cancer risk in a geographical correlation study. Lung cancer rates tend to be higher in places where the Late Permian C1 coal is produced. Therefore, we have hypothesized the two processes: C1 coal combustion --> nanoquartz in ambient air --> lung cancer excess in non-smoking women. Methods/Design We propose to conduct a retrospective cohort study to test the hypothesis above. We will search historical records and compile an inventory of the coal mines in operation during 1930–2009. To estimate the study subjects' retrospective exposure, we will reconstruct the historical exposure scenario by burning the coal samples, collected from operating or deserted coal mines by coal geologists, in a traditional firepit of an old house. Indoor air particulate samples will be collected for nanoquartz and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs analyses. Bulk quartz content will be quantified by X-ray diffraction analysis. Size distribution of quartz will be examined by electron microscopes and by centrifugation techniques. Lifetime cumulative exposure to nanoquartz will be estimated for each subject. Using the epidemiology data, we will examine whether the use of C1 coal and the cumulative exposure to nanoquartz are associated with an elevated risk of lung cancer. Discussion The high incidence rate of lung cancer in Xuan Wei, one of the counties in the current study area, was once attributed to high indoor air concentrations of PAHs. The research results have been cited for qualitative and quantitative cancer risk assessment of PAHs by the World Health Organization and other agencies. If

  2. Mineralogical characterization of ambient fine/ultrafine particles emitted from Xuanwei C1 coal combustion

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    Lu, Senlin; Hao, Xiaojie; Liu, Dingyu; Wang, Qiangxiang; Zhang, Wenchao; Liu, Pinwei; Zhang, Rongci; Yu, Shang; Pan, Ruiqi; Wu, Minghong; Yonemochi, Shinich; Wang, Qingyue

    2016-03-01

    Nano-quartz in Xuanwei coal, the uppermost Permian (C1) coal deposited in the northwest of Yuanan, China, has been regarded as one of factors which caused high lung cancer incidence in the local residents. However, mineralogical characterization of the fine/ultrafine particles emitted from Xuanwei coal combustion has not previously been studied. In this study, PM1 and ultrafine particles emitted from Xuanwei coal combustion were sampled. Chemical elements in the ambient particles were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and mineralogical characterization of these ambient particles was investigated using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM/EDX) and transmission electronic microscopy, coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (TEM/EDX). Our results showed that the size distribution of mineral particles from the coal combustion emissions ranged from 20 to 200 nm. Si-containing particles and Fe-containing particles accounted for 50.7% of the 150 individual particles measured, suggesting that these two types of particles were major minerals in the ambient particles generally. The nano-mineral particles were identified as quartz (SiO2) and gypsum (CaSO4) based on their crystal parameters and chemical elements. Additionally, there also existed unidentified nano-minerals. Armed with these data, toxicity assessments of the nano-minerals will be carried out in a future study.

  3. Study on REEs as tracers for late permian coal measures in Bijie City, Guizhou Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiang; YANG Ruidong

    2008-01-01

    Analyses of Rare Earth Elements (REEs) in 13 coal samples collected from Late Permian coal measures of Bijie City in western Guizhon Province were conducted using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass-Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results indicated that REEs patterns were not controlled by materials from the sea, whereas the contribution of land plants was about 1%. The major sources of REEs were from terrigenous material as indicated by negative Eu anomaly. There were similar distribution curves of REEs between Bijie's coal and Emeishan basalt. M12 coal seam, which had the highest ∑REE, appeared near the boundary between Longtan Formation and Changxing Formation, which was closely correlated to the eruption of Emeishan basalt. The Emeishan basalt contributed to REEs enrichment of M12. So the sources of REEs were controlled by terrigenous material, and the Emeishan basalt was the predominant source of terrigenous material, which dominated the enrichment and pattern of REEs in Late Permian coal measure from Bijie.

  4. Geochemistry of environmentally sensitive trace elements in Permian coals from the Huainan coalfield, Anhui, China

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    Chen, J.; Liu, Gaisheng; Jiang, M.; Chou, C.-L.; Li, H.; Wu, B.; Zheng, Lingyun; Jiang, D.

    2011-01-01

    To study the geochemical characteristics of 11 environmentally sensitive trace elements in the coals of the Permian Period from the Huainan coalfield, Anhui province, China, borehole samples of 336 coals, two partings, and four roof and floor mudstones were collected from mineable coal seams. Major elements and selected trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HAAS). The depositional environment, abundances, distribution, and modes of occurrence of trace elements were investigated. Results show that clay and carbonate minerals are the principal inorganic constituents in the coals. A lower deltaic plain, where fluvial channel systems developed successively, was the likely depositional environment of the Permian coals in the Huainan coalfield. All major elements have wider variation ranges than those of Chinese coals except for Mg and Fe. The contents of Cr, Co, Ni, and Se are higher than their averages for Chinese coals and world coals. Vertical variations of trace elements in different formations are not significant except for B and Ba. Certain roof and partings are distinctly higher in trace elements than underlying coal bench samples. The modes of occurrence of trace elements vary in different coal seams as a result of different coal-forming environments. Vanadium, Cr, and Th are associated with aluminosilicate minerals, Ba with carbonate minerals, and Cu, Zn, As, Se, and Pb mainly with sulfide minerals. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Rare earth elements stratigraphic significance in late Permian coal measure from Bijie City, Guizhou Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiang; YANG Ruidong; BAO Miao

    2008-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are good geological indicators. In order to understand REEs stratigraphic significance, REEs m Late Permian coal measure from Bijie City, western Guizhou Province, China were studied. The results showed that the contents of both light rare earth element (LREE) and ∑ REE were sharply increased in the boundary between Longtan Formation and Changxing Formation, which resulted from the gyration and discontinuity eruption of Emeishan basalt (REEs source) and frequent transgression-regression during forming coal. The coal measure and strata could be subdivided and correlate, and the sea-level change could be under stood by studying REEs content variation in coal measure.

  6. STUDY ON REGULATIONS OF.SULFUR OCCURRENCE AND PYRITE MAGNETISM OF LATE PERMIAN COALS IN SOUTHWEST CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任德贻; 唐跃刚; 雷加锦

    1994-01-01

    The Permian coal In southwest China contains highest sulfur among the Chinese coal. Compositional variations of sulfur in coal are mainly controlled by paiaogeographicai environments during peat accumulation. High organic sulfur coal is formed in peat swamp developing in tidal flat of limited carbonate platform, and it is provided with especial petrological and geochemical characteristics, and its organosuLfur-containing compounds are mainly thiophene series. The macroscopical and microscopical shapes or types of pyrites in Late Permian coal are diversified. Bituminous coal and anthracite are diamagnetic, but the pyrites are paramagnetic. The magnetic susceptibility of the pyrites is depended on the content of paramagnatic elements associated with pyrites.

  7. Generation and expulsion of oils from Permian coals of the Sydney Basin, Australia

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    Ahmed, M.; Volk, H.; George, S.C.; Faiz, M.; Stalker, L. [CSIRO Petrology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2009-07-15

    Organic geochemical and petrological assessment of coals/coaly shales and fine grained sediments, coupled with organic geochemical analyses of oil samples, all from Permo-Triassic sections of the Southern Sydney Basin (Australia), have enabled identification of the source for the widely distributed oil shows and oil seeps in this region. The Permian coals have higher hydrogen indices, higher liptinite contents, and much higher total organic matter extract yields than the fine grained sediments. A variety of source specific parameters obtained from n-alkanes, regular isoprenoids, terpanes, steranes and diasteranes indicate that the oil shows and seeps were generated and expelled predominantly from higher plant derived organic matter deposited in oxic environments. The source and maturity related biomarkers and aromatic hydrocarbon distributions of the oils are similar to those of the coals. The oil-coal relationship also is demonstrated by similarities in the carbon isotopic composition of the total oils, coal extracts, and their individual n-alkanes. Extracts from the Permo-Triassic fine grained sediments, on the other hand, have organic geochemical signatures indicative of mixed terrestrial and prokaryotic organic matter deposited in suboxic environments, which are significantly different from both the oils and coal extracts. The molecular signatures indicating the presence of prokaryotic organic matter in some of the coal extracts and oils may be due to thin sections of possibly calcareous lithologies interbedded within the coal measures. The genetic relationship between the oils and coals provides new evidence for the generation and expulsion of oils from the Permian coals and raises the possibility for commercial oil accumulations in the Permian and Early Triassic sandstones, potentially in the deeper offshore part of the Sydney Basin.

  8. Inorganic chemistry, petrography and palaeobotany of Permian coals in the Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica

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    Holdgate, G.R.; McLoughlin, S.; Drinnan, A.N.; Finkelman, R.B.; Willett, J.C.; Chiehowsky, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Sampled outcrops of Permian coal seams of the Bainmedart Coal Measures in the Lambert Graben, eastern Antarctica, have been analysed for their proximates, ultimates, ash constituents and trace elements. A similar series of samples has been analysed for their principle maceral and microlithotype components and vitrinite reflectance. The coals are sub-bituminous to high volatile bituminous in rank; maturity increases markedly in southern exposures around Radok Lake where the oldest part of the succession is exposed and some strata have been intruded by mafic dykes and ultramafic sills. The coal ash is mostly silica and aluminium oxides, indicating that the mineral ash component is mostly quartz and various clay minerals. The ratio of silica to aluminium oxides appears to increase in an upward stratigraphic direction. The coal macerals include a relatively high liptinite content (mainly sporinite) that is significantly higher than for typical Gondwana coals. Greater degrees of weathering within the floodbasin/peat mire environments associated with climatic drying towards the end of the Permian might account for both preferential sporopollenin preservation and increased silica:aluminium oxide ratios up-section. Correlation of the coal maceral components to adjacent peninsula India coals indicates the closest comparative coals of similar age and rank occur within the Godavari Basin, rather then the Mahanadi Basin, which is traditionally interpreted to have been contiguous with the Lambert Graben before Gondwanan breakup. The petrological characteristics suggest that either previous interpretations of Palaeozoic basin alignments between Antarctica and India are incorrect, or that environmental settings and post-Permian burial histories of these basins were strongly independent of their tectonic juxtaposition. A permineralized peat bed within the succession reveals that the coals predominantly comprise wood- and leaf-rich debris derived from low-diversity forest

  9. Geochemical characteristics of Guizhou Permian coal measure strata and analysis of the control factors

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    YANG Rui-dong; LIU Ling; WEI Huai-rui; CUI Yu-chao; CHENG Wei

    2011-01-01

    Based on element geochemical studies of the main Permian exploitable coal measure strata in Western Guizhou, the element geochemical distribution characteristics of the main exploitable coal measures were revealed in the regions of Dafang,Qianxi, Weining, Hezhang, Zhijin, etc., of Guizhou Province, and the results show that their element contents are mainly affected by terrestrial material supply. Coal measures formed in the delta plain environment where sufficient terrestrial materials are supplied contain relatively abundant trace elements and rare-earth elements, whereas those formed in the tidal-flat environment influenced greatly by seawater have relatively low contents of trace elements and rare-earth elements, mainly controlled by the geological fact that basalts the parent rocks from source regions contain high trace elements and rare-earth elements. In addition, coal measures affected by later hydrothermal activities and fault tectonics contain a large amount of harmful elements. According to the rules of distribution of elements in coal measures, a new idea was put forward to classify coal-forming environments by using the geochemical composition characteristics, which is of great significance in dissolving the problem of whether coal measures were formed either in delta environments or in tidal-flat environments in Western Guizhou. At the same time, the rules of distribution of elements in the main exploitable coal measures in Western Guizhou were fully understood, which is of direct significance in utilizing coal resources on the basis of classification of coals, as well as in developing the coal chemical industry.

  10. Geochemistry of Permian Coal and Its Combustion Residues in Huainan Coalfield, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    INAA (instrumental neutron activation analysis) was used to determine the contents of trace elements in coal samples from 11 workable Permian coal seams in Huainan coalfield. With XRFS (X-ray fluorescence spectrometry), the geochemical composition of its combustion residues from Tianjiaan Power Plant and Luohe Power Plant was analyzed. In addition, the electron microprobe was employed to study the chemical composition of some fly ashes and bottom ashes. Compared with those of the coals around the world, most trace elements of the Huainan coal are characterized by a normal abundance.Like most coals worldwide, the elements Se, S, As, Sb, Br, U and Cl are enriched in Huainan coal according to Clarks value, while the other elements tend to be diluted. The large fluctuation in the contents of trace elements in this kind of coal demonstrates great differences in coal seams. On the other hand, the contents of these elements are very similar in different bottom and fly ash samples. The elements with low organic affinity tend to concentrate in fly and bottom ash than in coal, especially those elements associated with Fe. However, the elements with strong organic affinity tend to be volatile during the combustion. Moreover, the abundance of the elements in fly ash and bottom ash changes with different densities and with different particle sizes. The bottom and fly ashes consist of glass, lime,mullite, coal residues and ferrite minerals. Some residual chars contain higher contents of volatile elements, such as S, P, Cl and As, indicating that the ash containing more residual chars has a strong adsorption of some hazardous elements, suggesting a possible utilization of power plant ash in the field of water cleaning.

  11. Mineralogical and Geochemical Characteristics of the Early Permian Upper No. 3 Coal from Southwestern Shandong, China

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    Xibo Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Upper No. 3 coal of the Early Permian age is a major workable seam in the southwestern Shandong coalfield, which is located in the eastern part of North China. From Early Jurassic to Neogene, the coalfield was subjected to intensive tectonic processes, leading to a significant rearrangement in depth of coal seams. In this paper, three Upper No. 3 coals occurring at −228, −670 and −938 m in the Luxi, Liangbaosi, and Tangkou mines, respectively, were collected to investigate their mineralogical and geochemical characteristics, with emphasis on modes of occurrence and origin of epigenetic minerals. The three coal seams are similar in vitrinite reflectance, volatile matter yield, and maceral components, suggesting insignificant influence from the tectonic activities on coal rank. Terrigenous minerals (e.g., kaolinite and quartz are comparable in both types and distribution patterns in the three coals. The presence of siderite and pyrite of syngenetic or penecontemporaneous origin indicate they were emplaced during peat accumulation. The distribution of epigenetic minerals (e.g., calcite, ankerite, and dolomite are associated with the underground water activities, which were Ca (Mg, Fe-bearing.

  12. Explosive eruption of coal and basalt and the end-Permian mass extinction.

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    Ogden, Darcy E; Sleep, Norman H

    2012-01-01

    The end-Permian extinction decimated up to 95% of carbonate shell-bearing marine species and 80% of land animals. Isotopic excursions, dissolution of shallow marine carbonates, and the demise of carbonate shell-bearing organisms suggest global warming and ocean acidification. The temporal association of the extinction with the Siberia flood basalts at approximately 250 Ma is well known, and recent evidence suggests these flood basalts may have mobilized carbon in thick deposits of organic-rich sediments. Large isotopic excursions recorded in this period are potentially explained by rapid venting of coal-derived methane, which has primarily been attributed to metamorphism of coal by basaltic intrusion. However, recently discovered contemporaneous deposits of fly ash in northern Canada suggest large-scale combustion of coal as an additional mechanism for rapid release of carbon. This massive coal combustion may have resulted from explosive interaction with basalt sills of the Siberian Traps. Here we present physical analysis of explosive eruption of coal and basalt, demonstrating that it is a viable mechanism for global extinction. We describe and constrain the physics of this process including necessary magnitudes of basaltic intrusion, mixing and mobilization of coal and basalt, ascent to the surface, explosive combustion, and the atmospheric rise necessary for global distribution.

  13. The flora of Early Permian coal measures from the Parana Basin in Brazil: A review

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    Iannuzzi, Roberto [Centro de Investigacoes do Gondwana, Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, Porto Alegre, RS, 91.509-900 (Brazil)

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents an updated overview integrating both previous and newly published data on the most important floras found associated with Early Permian coal seams in the Parana Basin, Brazil. These floras occur within the Rio Bonito Formation and correspond to the Gondwana ''Glossopteris Flora.'' For this review, five floras are selected, in ascending stratigraphic order: the ''Sao Joao do Triunfo,'' ''Figueira,'' ''Quiteria,'' ''Morro do Papaleo'' and ''Irapua Bed'' floras. They are the best-known floras of the basin in terms of taxonomic composition, paleoecology and environments of deposition. An early-mid Sakmarian to earliest Artinskian age is indicated for the Rio Bonito Formation based on absolute radiometric and relative biostratigraphic ages. Integration of available information about the selected floras allows evaluation of taphonomic and paleoecological factors to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the Early Permian floral record in the Parana Basin. The variation observed in both the taxonomic composition of individual floras and in the frequency of occurrence of different plant groups is due to the broad range of environmental/edaphic conditions that prevailed in the many different depositional settings represented in the Rio Bonito Formation. A more precise age determination obtained for the plant-bearing deposits permits the establishment of a more confident correlation between the Early Permian floral succession in the Parana Basin and other Early Permian floral successions in other basins. The Sakmarian global warming favored the appearance of pecopterid and sphenopterid ferns amongst the spore-producing plants, and the glossopterids amongst the pollen-producing plants. (author)

  14. Origin and distribution of tonsteins in late permian coal seams of Southwestern China

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    Zhou, Yinzhu; Ren, Y.-L.; Bohor, B.F.

    1982-01-01

    We have surveyed the areal and stratigraphic distribution of tonsteins in Late Permian coalfields of southwestern China over an area of several hundred thousand square kilometers. We studied the relationship between tonstein distribution and sedimentary environment. Based on mineralogical and petrographic data, we have concluded that these tonsteins originated as air-fall volcanic ashes. Following accumulation in the peat swamps, in situ alteration of the vitric and lithic components took place under acidic conditions, leading to the formation of kaolinite. Based on petrologic, mineralogic, and chemical analytical data, we have determined that the application of mineralogic and geochemical criteria for tonsteins may be useful in correlating coal beds, predicting coal qualities and reconstructing related sedimentary paleoenvironmental conditions. ?? 1982.

  15. Mineralogical and Geochemical Characteristics of Late Permian Coals from the Mahe Mine, Zhaotong Coalfield, Northeastern Yunnan, China

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    Xibo Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the mineralogical and geochemical compositions of the Late Permian C2, C5a, C5b, C6a, and C6b semianthracite coals from the Mahe mine, northeastern Yunnan, China. Minerals in the coals are mainly made up of quartz, chamosite, kaolinite, mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S, pyrite, and calcite; followed by anatase, dolomite, siderite, illite and marcasite. Similar to the Late Permian coals from eastern Yunnan, the authigenic quartz and chamosite were precipitated from the weathering solution of Emeishan basalt, while kaolinite and mixed-layer I/S occurring as lenses or thin beds were related to the weathering residual detrital of Emeishan basalt. However, the euhedral quartz and apatite particles in the Mahe coals were attributed to silicic-rock detrital input. It further indicates that there has been silicic igneous eruption in the northeastern Yunnan. Due to the silicic rock detrital input, the Eu/Eu* value of the Mahe coals is lower than that of the Late Permian coals from eastern Yunnan, where the detrital particles were mainly derived from the basalt. The high contents of Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Ga, and Sn in the Mahe coals were mainly derived from the Kangdian Upland.

  16. Geochemistry and mineralogy of the Late Permian coals from the Songzao Coalfield, Chongqing,southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Mineralogy and geochemistry of the four main workable coal seams (No.6, No.7, No.8, and No.11) of Late Permian age from the Songzao Coalfield, Chongqing, Southwest China, were examined using in- ductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), cold-vapor absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS), ion-selective electrode (ISE), scanning electron mi- croscopy equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The results showed that the main workable No.8 Coal that accounts for about 60% of the total coal reserves in the Songzao Coalfield was not enriched in hazardous trace elements. The No.11 Coal has high concentrations of alkaline elements, Be (9.14 μg/g), Sc (12.9 μg/g), Ti (9508 μg/g), Mn (397 μg/g), Co (23.7 μg/g), Cu (108 μg/g), Zn (123 μg/g), Ga (32 μg/g), Zr (1304 μg/g), Nb (169 μg/g), Hf (32.7 μg/g), Ta (11.4 μg/g), W (24.8 μg/g), Hg (0.28 μg/g), Pb (28.1 μg/g), Th (24.1 μg/g), and rare earth elements (509.62 μg/g). The concentration of Nb and Ta in the No. 11 Coal is higher than the industrial grade, and their potential utilization should be further studied. Besides pyrite, quartz, calcite, and clay minerals, trace minerals including chalcopyrite, marcasite, siderite, albite, mixed-layer clay minerals of illite and smectite, monazite, apatite, anatase, chlorite, and gypsum were found in the No.11 Coal. It should be noted that alabandite of hydrothermal origin and anatase occurring as cement were identi- fied in coal. In addition, the clayey microbands derived from alkaline volcanic ashes were identified in the coal. The dominant compositions of these clayey microbands were mixed-layer clay minerals of illite and smectite, which were interlayered with organic bands. The modes of occurrence of alkaline volcanic ash bands indicate that the volcanic activities were characterized by the multiple eruptions, short time interval and small scale for each eruption

  17. Geochemistry and mineralogy of the Late Permian coals from the Songzao Coalfield, Chongqing,southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI ShiFeng; ZHOU YiPing; REN DeYi; WANG XiBo; LI Dan; ZHAO Lei

    2007-01-01

    Mineralogy and geochemistry of the four main workable coal seams (No.6, No.7, No.8, and No.11) of Late Permian age from the Songzao Coalfield, Chongqing, Southwest China, were examined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF),cold-vapor absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS), ion-selective electrode (ISE), scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The results showed that the main workable No.8 Coal that accounts for about 60% of the total coal reserves in the Songzao Coalfield was not enriched in hazardous trace elements. The No.11 Coal has high concentrations of alkaline elements, Be (9.14 μg/g), SC (12.9 μg/g), Ti (9508 μg/g),Mn (397 μg/g), Co (23.7 μg/g), Cu (108 μg/g), Zn (123 μg/g), Ga (32 μg/g), Zr (1304 μg/g), Nb (169 μg/g), Hf (32.7 μg/g), Ta (11.4 μg/g), W (24.8 μg/g), Hg (0.28 μg/g), Pb (28.1 μg/g), Th (24.1 μg/g), and rare earth elements (509.62 μg/g). The concentration of Nb and Ta in the No. 11 Coal is higher than the industrial grade, and their potential utilization should be further studied. Besides pyrite, quartz, calcite, and clay minerals, trace minerals including chalcopyrite, marcasite, siderite, albite, mixed-layer clay minerals of illite and smectite, monazite, apatite, anatase, chlorite, and gypsum were found in the No.11 Coal. It should be noted that alabandite of hydrothermal origin and anatase occurring as cement were identified in coal. In addition, the clayey microbands derived from alkaline volcanic ashes were identified in the coal. The dominant compositions of these clayey microbands were mixed-layer clay minerals of illite and smectite, which were interlayered with organic bands. The modes of occurrence of alkaline volcanic ash bands indicate that the volcanic activities were characterized by the multiple eruptions,short time interval and small scale for each eruption during

  18. Early Permian coal-forming floras preserved as compressions from the Wuda District (Inner Mongolia, China)

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    Pfefferkorn, Hermann W. [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6316 (United States); Wang, Jun [Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2007-01-02

    Four different compression/impression floras are preserved in only 4.32 m of the geologic section in the Early Permian Shanxi Formation of the Wuda District of Inner Mongolia, northwestern China. These floras represent four different plant communities and landscapes that followed each other in time. The oldest flora was rooted in sandy clay and initiated peat accumulation that lead to the formation of the lower coal seam. This seam is 230-cm thick and overlain by a 66-cm thick volcanic tuff that preserves a second different flora that grew on the peat at the time of the ash-fall. Standing stems and large plant parts are present. The upper part of the tuff is rooted by a single species of lycopsid (the third flora) again initiating peat accumulation. On top of this second seam of 120 cm thickness rests a roof-shale, deposited as mud in a shallow lake, the formation of which was responsible for the cessation of peat deposition. This fourth flora represents the plants growing around the lake on clastic substrate. Four different environments followed each other in this locality over a geologically short time span and each time conditions prevailed to preserve plant macrofossils. Three of these floras represent peat-forming plant communities of essentially the same time interval. This demonstrates the great variability of vegetation and landscapes in the tropical Cathaysian realm of the Late Paleozoic. (author)

  19. Depositional setting, petrology and chemistry of Permian coals from the Paraná Basin: 2. South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Brazil

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    Kalkreuth, W.; Holz, M.; Mexias, A.; Balbinot, M.; Levandowski, J.; Willett, J.; Finkelman, R.; Burger, H.

    2010-01-01

    In Brazil economically important coal deposits occur in the southern part of the Paran?? Basin, where coal seams occur in the Permian Rio Bonito Formation, with major coal development in the states of Rio Grande de Sul and Santa Catarina. The current paper presents results on sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the coal-bearing strata, and petrological and geochemical coal seam characterization from the South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Paran?? Basin.In terms of sequence stratigraphic interpretation the precursor mires of the Santa Catarina coal seams formed in an estuarine-barrier shoreface depositional environment, with major peat accumulation in a high stand systems tract (Pre-Bonito and Bonito seams), a lowstand systems tract (Ponta Alta seam, seam A, seam B) and a transgressive systems tract (Irapu??, Barro Branco and Treviso seams).Seam thicknesses range from 1.70 to 2.39. m, but high proportions of impure coal (coaly shale and shaley coal), carbonaceous shale and partings reduce the net coal thickness significantly. Coal lithoypes are variable, with banded coal predominant in the Barro Branco seam, and banded dull and dull coal predominantly in Bonito and Irapu?? seams, respectively. Results from petrographic analyses indicate a vitrinite reflectance range from 0.76 to 1.63 %Rrandom (HVB A to LVB coal). Maceral group distribution varies significantly, with the Barro Branco seam having the highest vitrinite content (mean 67.5 vol%), whereas the Irapu?? seam has the highest inertinite content (33.8. vol%). Liptinite mean values range from 7.8. vol% (Barro Branco seam) to 22.5. vol% (Irapu?? seam).Results from proximate analyses indicate for the three seams high ash yields (50.2 - 64.2wt.%). Considering the International Classification of in-Seam Coals, all samples are in fact classified as carbonaceous rocks (>50wt.% ash). Sulfur contents range from 3.4 to 7.7 wt.%, of which the major part occurs as pyritic sulfur. Results of X-ray diffraction indicate the

  20. Depositional setting, petrology and chemistry of Permian coals from the Parana Basin: 2. South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkreuth, W.; Mexias, A.; Balbinot, M.; Levandowski, J. [Instituto de Geociencias, UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Holz, M. [Inst. de Geociencias, UFBA, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Willett, J.; Finkelman, R. [U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Burger, H. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Geoinformatik, (Germany)

    2010-12-01

    In Brazil economically important coal deposits occur in the southern part of the Parana Basin, where coal seams occur in the Permian Rio Bonito Formation, with major coal development in the states of Rio Grande de Sul and Santa Catarina. The current paper presents results on sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the coal-bearing strata, and petrological and geochemical coal seam characterization from the South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Parana Basin. In terms of sequence stratigraphic interpretation the precursor mires of the Santa Catarina coal seams formed in an estuarine-barrier shoreface depositional environment, with major peat accumulation in a high stand systems tract (Pre-Bonito and Bonito seams), a lowstand systems tract (Ponta Alta seam, seam A, seam B) and a transgressive systems tract (Irapua, Barro Branco and Treviso seams). Seam thicknesses range from 1.70 to 2.39 m, but high proportions of impure coal (coaly shale and shaley coal), carbonaceous shale and partings reduce the net coal thickness significantly. Coal lithoypes are variable, with banded coal predominant in the Barro Branco seam, and banded dull and dull coal predominantly in Bonito and Irapua seams, respectively. Results from petrographic analyses indicate a vitrinite reflectance range from 0.76 to 1.63 %Rrandom (HVB A to LVB coal). Maceral group distribution varies significantly, with the Barro Branco seam having the highest vitrinite content (mean 67.5 vol%), whereas the Irapua seam has the highest inertinite content (33.8 vol%). Liptinite mean values range from 7.8 vol% (Barro Branco seam) to 22.5 vol% (Irapua seam). Results from proximate analyses indicate for the three seams high ash yields (50.2 - 64.2 wt.%). Considering the International Classification of in-Seam Coals, all samples are in fact classified as carbonaceous rocks (> 50 wt.% ash). Sulfur contents range from 3.4 to 7.7 wt.%, of which the major part occurs as pyritic sulfur. Results of X-ray diffraction indicate the

  1. Peronosporomycetes (Oomycota from a Middle Permian permineralised peat within the Bainmedart Coal Measures, Prince Charles Mountains, Antarctica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben J Slater

    Full Text Available The fossil record of Peronosporomycetes (water moulds is rather sparse, though their distinctive ornamentation means they are probably better reported than some true fungal groups. Here we describe a rare Palaeozoic occurrence of this group from a Guadalupian (Middle Permian silicified peat deposit in the Bainmedart Coal Measures, Prince Charles Mountains, Antarctica. Specimens are numerous and comprise two morphologically distinct kinds of ornamented oogonia, of which some are attached to hyphae by a septum. Combresomyces caespitosus sp. nov. consists of spherical oogonia bearing densely spaced, long, hollow, slender, conical papillae with multiple sharply pointed, strongly divergent, apical branches that commonly form a pseudoreticulate pattern under optical microscopy. The oogonia are attached to a parental hypha by a short truncated stalk with a single septum. Combresomyces rarus sp. nov. consists of spherical oogonia bearing widely spaced, hollow, broad, conical papillae that terminate in a single bifurcation producing a pair of acutely divergent sharply pointed branches. The oogonium bears a short truncate extension where it attaches to the parental hypha. We propose that similarities in oogonium shape, size, spine morphology and hyphal attachment between the Permian forms from the Prince Charles Mountains and other reported Peronosporomycetes from Devonian to Triassic strata at widely separated localities elsewhere in the world delimit an extinct but once cosmopolitan Palaeozoic to early Mesozoic branch of the peronosporomycete clade. We name this order Combresomycetales and note that it played an important role in late Palaeozoic and early Mesozoic peatland ecosystems worldwide.

  2. Composition and mode of occurrence of minerals in Late Permian coals from Zhenxiong County, northeastern Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Li; Shi-Feng Dai; Jian-Hua Zou; Sen Zhang; He-Hing Tian; Li-Xin Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Minerals in the Late Permian coals from the Niuchang-Yigu mining area, Zhenxiong County, northeastern Yunnan, China, were investigated using optical microscopy and low temperature ashing plus X-ray diffraction (LTA ? XRD). The results showed that minerals in the coal LTAs are mainly quartz, kaolinite, chamosite, mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S), pyrite, and calcite, with trace amounts of marcasite, dolomite, and bassanite. The authigenic quartz generally occurs in collodetrinite or as a filling in cleats or cell cavities. This silica was mainly derived from aqueous solutions produced by the weathering of basaltic rocks in the Kangdian Upland and from hydrothermal fluids. The presence of b-quartz paramorph grains in collodetrinite probably indicates that these grains were detrital and came from a volcanic ash. Clay minerals are generally embedded in collodetrinite and occur as cell-fillings. Pyrite occurs as framboidal, anhedral, and euhedral grains and a cell-filling. The coals are high in pyrite and the high pyrite content probably results from seawater invading during the stage of peat accumulation. Calcite generally occurs as vein-fillings, indicating an epigenetic origin.

  3. Geochemistry of the late Permian No. 30 coal seam, Zhijin Coalfield of Southwest China: influence of a siliceous low-temperature hydrothermal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the influence of siliceous low-temperature hydrothermal fluid on the elemental concentrations and mineralogical characteristics of the late Permian anthracitic (Ro,max=3.58%) coal seam (No. 30) from the Zhijin Coalfield in western Guizhou Province, SW China. Coal samples were examined using instrumental neutron activation analysis, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray, and isotope analysis. The modes of occurrence of elements were determined using a sequential chemical extraction procedure. The studies indicate that the No. 30 coal seam has a very high content of veined quartz (vol. 9.4%), whose isotope values of δ30Si and δ18O are 0.6 per mille and 15.4 per mille, respectively, indicating that the quartz originated from siliceous low-temperature hydrothermal fluid (formation temperature 160-220 deg. C) rather than detrital material of terrigenous origin or magmatic hydrothermal inputs. Results of scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray and sequential chemical extraction procedure show that the veined quartz is the dominant source of Fe, Cu, U, Pd, Pt and Ir, which are as high as 2.31%, 356, 8, 2.1, 2.43, and 0.006 μg/g in this coal seam, respectively. The studies have also found that elements, such as Fe and Cu are mainly in the veined quartz and they do not occur as sulfides in this coal seam, in sharp contrast to many other coal seams in China. The geochemical and mineralogical anomalies of the coal are attributed to the siliceous low-temperature hydrothermal fluid

  4. Structural characterization of vitrinite-rich and inertinite-rich Permian-aged South African bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Niekerk, Daniel; Mathews, Jonathan P. [Energy and Mineral Engineering and the EMS Energy Institute, Pennsylvania State University, Hosler Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Pugmire, Ronald J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Solum, Mark S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Painter, Paul C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, 320 Steidle Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Two South African coals of the same rank and age, but different in maceral composition were subjected to extensive structural analyses. Inertinite-rich Highveld coal (dominated by semifusinite) and vitrinite-rich Waterberg coal were studied to determine structural differences and similarities. The two coals had similar carbon content ({proportional_to} 84%, dmmf) and vitrinite reflectance (mean-maximum 0.71% for vitrinite-rich vs. 0.75% for inertinite-rich), but differed in hydrogen content (6.23% for vitrinite-rich and 4.53% for inertinite-rich). The inertinite-rich coal was more aromatic (86% for inertinite-rich and 76% for vitrinite-rich) and more polycondensed (indicated by a higher bridgehead carbon content). The inertinite-rich coal was structurally more ordered, with a higher degree of crystalline stacking. Both coals had similar average aromatic cluster sizes (16 carbons for vitrinite-rich and 18 carbons for inertinite-rich) and number of cluster attachments (6 attachments for vitrinite-rich and 5 attachments for inertinite-rich). Mass spectrometry showed that both coals consist of similar molecular weight distributions; ranging to approximately 1700 m/z with a maximum abundance of {proportional_to} 450 m/z for the vitrinite-rich coal and {proportional_to} 550 m/z for the inertinite-rich coal. Compared to the Argonne Premium coals the South African vitrinite-rich Waterberg coal was comparable to the coals in the high-volatile bituminous range and inertinite-rich Highveld was closer to the medium- to low-volatile bituminous range. Both coals were surprisingly similar in bulk characterization, although inertinite-rich Highveld coal was structurally more ordered, hydrogen deficient, and more aromatic. (author)

  5. Origin of Minerals and Elements in the Late Permian Coal Seams of the Shiping Mine, Sichuan, Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangbing Luo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic layers in coal seams in southwestern China coalfields have received much attention given their significance in coal geology studies and their potential economic value. In this study, the mineralogical and geochemical compositions of C19 and C25 coal seams were examined, and the following findings were obtained. (1 Clay minerals in sample C19-r are argillized, and sedimentary layering is not observed. The acicular idiomorphic crystals of apatite and the phenocrysts of Ti-augite coexisting with magnetite in roof sample C19-r are common minerals in basaltic rock. The rare earth elements (REE distribution pattern of C19-r, which is characterized by positive Eu anomalies and M-REE enrichment, is the same as that of high-Ti basalt. The concentrations of Ti, V, Co, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Nb, Ta, Zr, and Hf in C19-r are closer to those of high-Ti basalt. In conclusion, roof sample C19-r consists of tuffaceous clay, probably with a high-Ti mafic magma source. (2 The geochemical characteristics of the C25 coals are same as those reported for coal affected by alkali volcanic ash, enrichment in Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, and REE, causing the C25 minable coal seams to have higher potential value. Such a vertical study of coals and host rocks could provide more information for coal-forming depositional environment analysis, for identification of volcanic eruption time and magma intrusion, and for facilitating stratigraphic subdivision and correlation.

  6. Sill-induced evaporite- and coal-metamorphism in the Tunguska Basin, Siberia, and the implications for end-Permian environmental crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensen, Henrik; Polozov, Alexander G.; Planke, Sverre

    2014-05-01

    The emplacement of the Siberian Traps Large igneous province is regarded as the main processes behind the end-Permian environmental crisis. The details of this link are however still under investigation. Among the suggestions are lava degassing of mantle- and crustal-derived gases, explosive lava and phreatomagmatic eruptions, and gas release from contact metamorphism related to the sub-volcanic sill complex. Whereas the lava pile is relatively well studied and investigated, the sub-volcanic sills, dikes, and contact aureoles are poorly studied and documented. We present borehole and field data of sills and contact aureoles from across the Siberian Traps, from Norilsk in the north to Bratsk in the south. The data have been compiled during three field campaigns in 2004, 2006, and 2010. The sill geometries and thicknesses vary considerably from kilometer-scale intrusive complexes to individual thin sills of a few tens of meters. In contrast to several other LIPs, sills are also emplaced within the extrusive pile. Thick sills (up to 900 meters in thickness) occur in high abundance in the upper part of the sedimentary succession, affecting the coal-rich Tungusska Series sediments. Moreover, very thick sills (100-300 meters) are also emplaced within the vast Cambrian salt formations. Petrographic investigations of the metamorphic sediments demonstrate that widespread high temperature devolatilization took place. We show that depending on the specific location within the province and the emplacement depth, the potential for degassing of both greenhouse gases (CH4, CO2), aerosols (SO2), and ozone destructive gases (CH3Cl, CH3Br) was substantial and can explain the crisis.

  7. 广东省二叠纪含煤岩系层序地层特征%Permian Coal-bearing Strata Sequence Stratigraphic Features in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董大啸; 刘特辉; 吴雷; 邵龙义

    2012-01-01

    Based on field measured sections, indoor rock and mineral identification and comprehensive mapping, have analyzed Permian coal-bearing strata sequence stratigraphic features. 5 types of regional surface of unconformity, incised valley scour surface, fossil soil bed, event interface and sedimentary facies transformation base have been identified, totally 6 third -order sequence boundaries and divided into 5 third-order sequences. Representative interfaces of S1~S5 bottom have K1 and K2 sandstone bottoms in the Guanghua area, limestone unconformity surface and white limestone member bottom in the Lianyang area, as well as the Shengtang Formation Datao sandstone bottom in Guanghua area; top interface of S5 is the structural event interface between Permian and Triassic systems. The contrast of different areas has found that the sequence development features in Guanghua and Lianyang two areas are rather similar. The variation of 5 sequences in Lianyang area presents cyclic process of marine transgression (S1, S2)-fast regression-transgression (S3)-slow regression (S4, S5), while 5 sequences features in the Quren area are similar but little varying. The contrast between 1990s' sequence stratigraphic division scheme and this study, 2 sequence interfaces are identical.%根据野外剖面实测、室内岩矿鉴定及综合作图等,对广东省二叠纪含煤岩系层序地层特征进行分析,识别出区域不整合面、下切谷冲刷面、古土壤层、事件界面、沉积相转换面5个类型、共6个三级层序界面,划分为5个三级层序.S1~S5各层序底界面的代表界面分别为广花地区K1砂岩底面、广花地区K2砂岩底面、连阳地区灰岩不整合面、连阳地区白灰岩段底面和广花地区圣堂组大套砂岩底面;S5的顶界面为二叠系与三叠系之间的构造事件面.对比不同地区后发现,广花和兴梅两个地区的层序发育特征较为类似,连阳地区5个层序的变化呈现了海侵(S1、S2)-

  8. Anomaly and geochemistry of rare earth elements and yttrium in the late Permian coal from the Moxinpo mine, Chongqing, southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhua Zou; Dong Liu; Heming Tian; Tian Li; Feng Liu; Lin Tan

    2014-01-01

    The rare earth elements and yttrium (REY) of the K2 coal from the Moxinpo mine, Chongqing, were deter-mined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show that REY are enriched in the K2 coal, with the average content up to 462 lg/g, much higher than average values of most coals in the world. The REY distribution patterns indicate that the light REY is enriched and show a well-pronounced Eu minimum. The fractionation of individual light-REY is higher than that of the heavy-REY. The REY distribution through the K2 coal seam shows that the top and bottom portion of the coal seam have a lower content of REY than the middle portion. Goyazite and rhabdophane were identified with a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersed X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX). The REY distributions through the coal seam, SEM-EDX data and the correlation analysis between ash yields and the concentrations have revealed that the REY mainly occurs in the organic matter. The K2 coal is a potential rare-metal resource due to its high REY contents, and the coal ash could be regarded as a new and promising raw material for recovery of REY as a by-product.

  9. Relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica in C1 bituminous coal in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China%云南省宣威地区非吸烟女性肺癌与C1烟煤中二氧化硅的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光剑; 黄云超; 田林玮; 刘拥军; 郭律; 肖义泽; 侯文俊; 杨堃; 陈颖

    2013-01-01

    二氧化硅颗粒物进入室内空气中随悬浮颗粒物吸入肺部”的迁移富集路线.%Objective To measure the content of silica in C1 bituminous coal and its combustion products in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei,Yunnan Province,China and to investigate the relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica produced naturally in C1 bituminous coal in Xuan Wei.Methods The C1 bituminous coal widely used in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei was selected as experiment group,while the C2+1,K7,and M30 bituminous coal that was mined and used in the low-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei for more than 10 years were selected as control group.Fourteen paraffin-embedded cancer tissue samples from the non-smoking women with non-small cell lung cancer who were born in Xuanwei and were at least the 3rd generation of the family living there were collected from the department of pathology,the ahird affiliated hospital of kunming medical university (tumor hospital of yunnan province).Titrimetric potassium silicofluoride method was used to measure the content of silica in raw coal and its bottom ashes in 20 samples from the experimental group and control group.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in C1 bituminous coal and its bottom ashes,and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (SEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in the bottom ashes and coal soot of C1 bituminous coal as well as the lung cancer tissue from the non-smoking women in Xuanwei,and transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (TEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.The silica particles were separated from the coal soot and bottom ashes and characterized by physical method

  10. A study on the genetic relations between Permian Longtan Formation coal series strata and Carlin-type gold deposits, southwestern Guizhou Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Aiguo; MEI Shiquan; GUAN Daiyun; WU Pan; ZHANG Zhuru

    2008-01-01

    A large number of the Carlin-type gold deposits occur in the Longtan Formation in southwestern Guizhou Province. The Longtan Formation contains abundant basalt, tuff and siliceous rocks. All rocks of the Longtan Formation are enriched in gold, which were deposited in a limited platform environment in the transition zone from marine to continental. The process of sedimentation was accompanied by the eruption of Emeishan basalt and hydrothermal deposition controlled by co-sedimentary submarine deep faults in the west, which led to the formation of a peculiar gold-bearing formation with coal series strata. This formation controlled the occurrence of the Carlin-type gold deposits in southwestern Guizhou Province. In response to the remobilization of the Emei mantle plume during the Yanshanian period, As, Au and other ore-forming materials were continuously extracted by deeply circulating waters from the Emeishan basalt and coal seams, thereafter forming ore-forming hydrothermal solutions.When these elements were transported in the coal seams, large amounts of As, Au and other elements were enriched in pyrite within the coal seams, thus forming high-As coal and Carlin-type gold deposits in the Longtan Formation coal series strata.

  11. Relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica in C1 bituminous coal in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China%云南省宣威地区非吸烟女性肺癌与C1烟煤中二氧化硅的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光剑; 黄云超; 田林玮; 刘拥军; 郭律; 肖义泽; 侯文俊; 杨堃; 陈颖

    2013-01-01

    二氧化硅颗粒物进入室内空气中随悬浮颗粒物吸入肺部”的迁移富集路线.%Objective To measure the content of silica in C1 bituminous coal and its combustion products in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei,Yunnan Province,China and to investigate the relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica produced naturally in C1 bituminous coal in Xuan Wei.Methods The C1 bituminous coal widely used in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei was selected as experiment group,while the C2+1,K7,and M30 bituminous coal that was mined and used in the low-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei for more than 10 years were selected as control group.Fourteen paraffin-embedded cancer tissue samples from the non-smoking women with non-small cell lung cancer who were born in Xuanwei and were at least the 3rd generation of the family living there were collected from the department of pathology,the ahird affiliated hospital of kunming medical university (tumor hospital of yunnan province).Titrimetric potassium silicofluoride method was used to measure the content of silica in raw coal and its bottom ashes in 20 samples from the experimental group and control group.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in C1 bituminous coal and its bottom ashes,and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (SEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in the bottom ashes and coal soot of C1 bituminous coal as well as the lung cancer tissue from the non-smoking women in Xuanwei,and transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (TEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.The silica particles were separated from the coal soot and bottom ashes and characterized by physical method

  12. Mineralogical and compositional characteristics of Late Permian coals from an area of high lung cancer rate in Xuan Wei, Yunnan, China: Occurrence and origin of quartz and chamosite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Tian, L.; Chou, C.-L.; Zhou, Y.; Zhang, M.; Zhao, L.; Wang, Jingyuan; Yang, Z.; Cao, H.; Ren, D.

    2008-01-01

    Some townships in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, have one of the highest lung cancer mortality rates in China and the epidemic disease in the area has generally been attributed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) released from domestic coal burning. However, the cancer-causing culprit is not settled as Tian [Tian, L., 2005. Coal Combustion Emissions and Lung Cancer in Xuan Wei, China. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley.] found nanometer quartz in these coals, soot emissions, and lung cancer tissues. We have conducted mineralogical and geochemical studies of the coals from Xuan Wei for the purpose of shedding light on the minerals which may be related to the epidemic lung cancer. In this paper, abundances, modes of occurrence, and origins of minerals and elements in the coals from two mines in Xuan Wei have been studied using optical microscope, low-temperature ashing, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The minerals in the coals are mainly composed of quartz, chamosite, kaolinite, and calcite. The particle size of quartz is rather small, mostly less than 20????m and it is of authigenic origin. Chamosite occurs mainly as cell-fillings. The occurrence of quartz and chamosite indicates that they were derived from the hydrothermal fluids. Epigenetic calcite is derived from calcic fluids. Kaolinite is derived mainly from sediment source region of Kangdian Oldland to the west of coal basin. The composition of Xuan Wei coal is high in SiO2, Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO, MnO, V, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. The high SiO2 content is attributed to quartz, and the Fe2O3 content to chamosite. The high Mn and low Mg contents in the coal indicate the inputs of hydrothermal fluids. CaO occurs mainly in epigenetic calcite. Elements Ti, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and rare earth elements were derived from the basaltic rocks at sediment source region. ?? 2008

  13. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132555 Bao Yuan(School of Resources and Geosciences,China University of Mining and Technology,Xuzhou 221008,China);Wei Chongtao Simulation of Geological Evolution History of the Upper Permian Coal Seam No.8in Shuigonghe Syncline,Zhina Coalfield,Guizhou Province(Coal Geology&Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,40(6),2012,p.13-16,23,1illus.,1table,17refs.)

  14. The Permian system in Kansas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Rocks of Permian age in Kansas were first recognized in 1895, and by the early 21st century the internationally accepted boundary between the Permian and the...

  15. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  16. Extinguishing a Permian World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneebeli-Hermann, E.

    2012-01-01

    At the end of the Permian, ca. 252 Ma ago, marine and terrestrial fauna were facing the most extensive mass extinction in Earth history (Raup and Sepkoski, 1982). 80%–95% of all species on Earth, on land and in the oceans, became extinct (Benton et al., 2004) within an estimated time interval of les

  17. Permian potentiometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devary, J.L.

    1983-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was requested to analyze potentiometric data from the Wolfcamp Formation of the Permian System to evaluate the recommendations by the University of Texas/Bureau of Economic Geology (UT/BEG) that additional geohydrologic boreholes be drilled into the Wolfcamp. The UT/BEG recommended that two stratigraphic and two geohydrologic borings be drilled into the Permian System during FY83 and that several shallow hydrologic tests be made in the Dockum Formation. A geostatistical technique known as kriging was applied to objectively evaluate these geohydrologic borehole recommendations. The Deaf Smith County location appears to be an excellent choice for a borehole. No high quality potentiometric data are available from Deaf Smith County and a borehole location immediately upgradient from the candidate repository site is needed. Adding this borehole location to the potentiometric data base will significantly reduce field data uncertainty near the location being studied. The Swisher County location does not appear to be the best choice. High quality data values H2206 and H2360 are located immediately upgradient from the proposed repository site. The best placement of additional geohydrological boreholes in the Wolfcamp Formation depends strongly upon the proposed repository location. The variability of the potentiometric data causes estimation errors to rapidly increase away from locations of field measurements. Suggested locations for additional boreholes for the Deaf Smith investigations are in northwest Randall or central Potter Counties. Ideal borehole locations for the Swisher county studies appear to be in southeast Randall and Armstrong Counties.

  18. Permian potentiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was requested to analyze potentiometric data from the Wolfcamp Formation of the Permian System to evaluate the recommendations by the University of Texas/Bureau of Economic Geology (UT/BEG) that additional geohydrologic boreholes be drilled into the Wolfcamp. The UT/BEG recommended that two stratigraphic and two geohydrologic borings be drilled into the Permian System during FY83 and that several shallow hydrologic tests be made in the Dockum Formation. A geostatistical technique known as kriging was applied to objectively evaluate these geohydrologic borehole recommendations. The Deaf Smith County location appears to be an excellent choice for a borehole. No high quality potentiometric data are available from Deaf Smith County and a borehole location immediately upgradient from the candidate repository site is needed. Adding this borehole location to the potentiometric data base will significantly reduce field data uncertainty near the location being studied. The Swisher County location does not appear to be the best choice. High quality data values H2206 and H2360 are located immediately upgradient from the proposed repository site. The best placement of additional geohydrological boreholes in the Wolfcamp Formation depends strongly upon the proposed repository location. The variability of the potentiometric data causes estimation errors to rapidly increase away from locations of field measurements. Suggested locations for additional boreholes for the Deaf Smith investigations are in northwest Randall or central Potter Counties. Ideal borehole locations for the Swisher county studies appear to be in southeast Randall and Armstrong Counties

  19. Palinspastic reconstruction and geological evolution of Permian residual marine basins bordering China and Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gen-Yao Wu

    2014-01-01

    One main feature of the tectono-paleogeographic evolution of the southern branch of the Paleo-Asian Ocean was that there developed residual marine basins in former backarc/forearc regions after the disappearance of oceanic crust. The paper illustrates the viewpoint taking the evolution of Dalandzadgad and Solonker oceanic basins as examples. The Dalandzadgad ocean subducted southwards during the Silurian-Devonian, created an intra-oceanic arc and a backarc basin in southern Mongolia. In addition, a continent marginal arc formed along the national boundary between China and Mongolia, the south of which was a backarc basin. The oceanic basin closed and arc-arc (continent) collision occurred dur-ing the early Early Permian, followed by two residual marine basins developing in the former backarc regions, named the South Gobi Basin in southern Mongolia and the Guaizihu Basin in western Inner Mongolia. The Solonker ocean subducted southwards and ifnally disappeared during the early Middle Permian. Afterwards, two residual marine basins occurred in northern China, the Zhesi Basin being situated in the former backarc region and the Wujiatun Basin in the former forearc region. The late Middle Permian was the most optimum period for the de-veloping residual marine basins, when they covered a vast area. The basin evolution differenti-ated during the early Late Permian, with a general trend of uplift in the east and of subsidence in the west. The Upper Permian in the South Gobi Basin was characterized by coal-bearing strata hosting economically valuable coal ifelds. A transgression invaded westwards and the Chandmani-Bayanleg Basin was created in southwest Mongolia during the middle-late stage of the Late Permian. Correspondingly, the coal formation entered a lfourishing time, with thick coal beds and sedimentary interbeds. All of these basins, namely, both the marine and non-marine residual basins, reversed and closed by the end of Permian.

  20. Palinspastic reconstruction and geological evolution of Permian residual marine basins bordering China and Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gen-Yao; Wu

    2014-01-01

    One main feature of the tectono-paleogeographic evolution of the southern branch of the Paleo-Asian Ocean was that there developed residual marine basins in former backarc/forearc regions after the disappearance of oceanic crust.The paper illustrates the viewpoint taking the evolution of Dalandzadgad and Solonker oceanic basins as examples.The Dalandzadgad ocean subducted southwards during the Silurian-Devonian,created an intra-oceanic arc and a backarc basin in southern Mongolia.In addition,a continent marginal arc formed along the national boundary between China and Mongolia,the south of which was a backarc basin.The oceanic basin closed and arc-arc(continent) collision occurred during the early Early Permian,followed by two residual marine basins developing in the former backarc regions,named the South Gobi Basin in southern Mongolia and the Guaizihu Basin in western Inner Mongolia.The Solonker ocean subducted southwards and finally disappeared during the early Middle Permian.Afterwards,two residual marine basins occurred in northern China,the Zhesi Basin being situated in the former backarc region and the Wujiatun Basin in the former forearc region.The late Middle Permian was the most optimum period for the developing residual marine basins,when they covered a vast area.The basin evolution differentiated during the early Late Permian,with a general trend of uplift in the east and of subsidence in the west.The Upper Permian in the South Gobi Basin was characterized by coal-bearing strata hosting economically valuable coal fields.A transgression invaded westwards and the Chandmani-Bayanleg Basin was created in southwest Mongolia during the middle-late stage of the Late Permian.Correspondingly,the coal formation entered a flourishing time,with thick coal beds and sedimentary interbeds.All of these basins,namely,both the marine and nonmarine residual basins,reversed and closed by the end of Permian.

  1. Early Permian Pangea `B' to Late Permian Pangea `A'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttoni, Giovanni; Kent, Dennis V.; Garzanti, Eduardo; Brack, Peter; Abrahamsen, Niels; Gaetani, Maurizio

    2003-10-01

    The pre-drift Wegenerian model of Pangea is almost universally accepted, but debate exists on its pre-Jurassic configuration since Ted Irving introduced Pangea 'B' by placing Gondwana farther to the east by ˜3000 km with respect to Laurasia on the basis of paleomagnetic data. New paleomagnetic data from radiometrically dated Early Permian volcanic rocks from parts of Adria that are tectonically coherent with Africa (Gondwana), integrated with published coeval data from Gondwana and Laurasia, again only from igneous rocks, fully support a Pangea 'B' configuration in the Early Permian. The use of paleomagnetic data strictly from igneous rocks excludes artifacts from sedimentary inclination error as a contributing explanation for Pangea 'B'. The ultimate option to reject Pangea 'B' is to abandon the geocentric axial dipole hypothesis by introducing a significant non-dipole (zonal octupole) component in the Late Paleozoic time-averaged geomagnetic field. We demonstrate, however, by using a dataset consisting entirely of paleomagnetic directions with low inclinations from sampling sites confined to one hemisphere from Gondwana as well as Laurasia that the effects of a zonal octupole field contribution would not explain away the paleomagnetic evidence for Pangea 'B' in the Early Permian. We therefore regard the paleomagnetic evidence for an Early Permian Pangea 'B' as robust. The transformation from Pangea 'B' to Pangea 'A' took place during the Permian because Late Permian paleomagnetic data allow a Pangea 'A' configuration. We therefore review geological evidence from the literature in support of an intra-Pangea dextral megashear system. The transformation occurred after the cooling of the Variscan mega-suture and lasted ˜20 Myr. In this interval, the Neotethys Ocean opened between India/Arabia and the Cimmerian microcontinents in the east, while widespread lithospheric wrenching and magmatism took place in the west around the Adriatic promontory. The general

  2. Coal potential of Antartica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, G.; McElroy, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    This report attempts to bring together available information on the coal deposits of Antarctica and discuss factors that would be involved if these deposits were to be explored and mined. Most of the reported principal coal deposits in Antarctica lie generally within the Transantarctic Mountains: the majority are of Permian age and are present in the Victoria Group of the Beacon Supergroup. Several other deposits have been recorded in East Antarctica and in the Antarctic Peninsula, including minor occurrences of Mesozoic and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale.

  3. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0 ± 8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary > Early Jurassic > Late Triassic > Late Jurassic > Middle Jurassic > Late Permian > Early Carboniferous > Middle Carboniferous > Late Carboniferous > Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous > Anthracite > Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal

  4. Petrographic compositions of Paleozoic coals of Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargal, Luvsanchultem; Erdenetsogt, Bat-Orshikh

    2016-04-01

    In Mongolia, the deposition of coal bearing strata commenced in Pennsylvanian, and continued in Upper Permian, in Lower-Middle Jurassic and finally in Lower Cretaceous time. Pennsylvanian coal seams were deposited in Western Mongolia, where peat formation was initially developed in the southernmost part and later gradually shifted to northward. By the Late Permian, the locus of coal formation had changed and main peat accumulation took place in southern Mongolia. Lower-Middle Jurassic coal was accumulated in western, northern and eastern Mongolia. During this time, peat forming condition was comparatively stable in entire Mongolia. In the Early Cretaceous, thick and extensive coal was formed in the Eastern Mongolia. Due to this general trend of peat accumulation, coal rank decreases from west (bituminous) to east (lignite). The significant portion of Pennsylvanian and Upper Permian coal reserves, existed in western and southern Mongolia, are coking coal. Thus, petrographical studies of the coals are notably important. However, previous studies of Paleozoic coals have been sparse, and only few deposits have been conducted. The maceral compositions of Western Mongolian Pennsylvanian coals such as Khushuut, Maanit, Khurengol, Zeegt, Tsagaangol, Nuurstkhotgor, Khartarvagatai and Olonbulag were studied. The results show that the coals are dominated by vitrinite (45 vol.% to 71 vol.%) and inertinite (28 vol.% to 53vol.%) macerals. Liptinite contents are low, less than 4 vol.%. In addition, vitrinite reflectance values (Rmax in oil) of Khushuut (1.85%), Maanit (0.92%), Khurengol (1.4%), Zeegt (0.86%), Tsagaangol (3.6%), Nuurstkhotgor (0.9%), Khartarvagatai (1.1%) and Olonbulag (1.7%) were determined. Upper Permian coals in southern Mongolia (Tavantolgoi, Nariinsukhait, Jargalant, Tsagaantolgoi, Buduuniikhyar) are dominated by vitrinite (55 vol.% to 78 vol.%) and inertinite macerals (19 vol.% to 44 vol.%). Liptinite contents range from 1 vol.% to 7 vol.%. The vitrinite

  5. Permian reptilian fauna from the Kundaram Formation, Pranhita-Godavari Valley, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sanghamitra

    1999-07-01

    The Kundaram Formation of the Pranhita-Godavari Valley yields the only Permian reptilian fauna in India. It is composed essentially of a dicynodont assemblage and includes Endothiodon, Cistecephalus, Pristerodon, Oudenodon and Emydops-like forms. The only non-dicynodont member is a captorhinid reptile. These taxa allow the correlation of the Kundaram Formation with the Tropidostoma and/or Cistecephalus Assemblage Zones of the Beaufort Group of South Africa, the basal beds of Madumabisa Mudstones of Zambia, the Ruhuhu and lower part of the Kawinga Formation of Tanzania and the Morro Pelado member of the Rio do Rasto Formation of Brazil, indicating a Late Permian (Tatarian) age. The Kundaram fauna helps in fixing the upper age of the coal-bearing Damuda Group more precisely at Tatarian. The distribution of the Late Permian dicynodonts in the now widely separated geographic areas suggests the close proximity of the continents and a lack of endemism or provinciality.

  6. Strontium isotope evolution of Late Permian and Triassic seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Christoph; Kozur, Heinz W.; Bruckschen, Peter; Veizer, Ján

    2003-01-01

    The 87Sr/ 86Sr values based on brachiopods and conodonts define a nearly continuous record for the Late Permian and Triassic intervals. Minor gaps in measurements exist only for the uppermost Brahmanian, lower part of the Upper Olenekian, and Middle Norian, and only sparse data are available for the Late Permian. These 219 measurements include 67 brachiopods and 114 conodont samples from the Tethyan realm as well as 37 brachiopods and one conodont sample from the mid-European Middle Triassic Muschelkalk Sea. The Late Permian/Lower Triassic interval is characterized by a steep 1.3 × 10 -3 rise, from 0.7070 at the base of the Dzhulfian to 0.7082 in the late Olenekian, a rate of change comparable to that in the Cenozoic. In the mid-Triassic (Anisian and Ladinian), the isotope values fall to 0.7075, followed again by a rise to 0.7081 in the Middle/Late Norian. The 87Sr/ 86Sr values decline again in the Late Norian (Sevatian) and Rhaetian to 0.7076. The sharp rise in the 87Sr/ 86Sr values during the Late Permian/Early Triassic was coincident with widespread clastic sedimentation. Because of the paucity of tectonic uplifts, the enhanced erosion may have been due to intermittent humid phases, during mainly an arid interval, coupled with the absence of a dense protective land plant cover following the mass extinction during the latest Permian. The apex of the 87Sr/ 86Sr curve at the Olenekian/Anisian boundary coincides with cessation of the large-scale clastic sedimentation and also marks the final recovery of land vegetation, as indicated by the renewed onset of coal formation in the Middle Triassic. The rising 87Sr/ 86Sr values from the Middle Carnian to the Late Norian coincide with the uplift and erosion of the Cimmeride-Indosinian orogens marking the closure of the Palaeotethys. The subsequent Rhaetian decline that continues into Jurassic (Pliensbachian/Toarcian boundary), on the other hand, coincides with the opening of the Vardar Ocean and its eastern continuation

  7. Permian geology of Gondwana countries: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickins, J.M. (Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources, Canberra (Australia))

    1992-10-01

    Earliest Permian sequences of Antarctica, southern and east-central Africa, the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula, Pakistan, peninsular and Himalayan India, Tibet, western and eastern Australia, New Zealand, and South America are all characterized by glacial deposits and cold-water marine faunas. In the course of the Permian, considerable faunal (and floral) and climatic divergence occurred. Although folding is not necessarily present, the effects of the strong compressive tectonic phase (Hunter-Bowen Orogenic Folding Phase of Dickins) beginning in the mid-Permian (traditional two-fold subdivision) and of acidic and intermediate volcano-magmatic activity are apparent in all these regions as in other parts of the world. The progressive continentality of the Upper Permian (worldwide regression) culminates at the Permian-Triassic (Changxingian-Griesbachian) boundary.

  8. Cooperative Research in C1 Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2000-10-27

    C1 chemistry refers to the conversion of simple carbon-containing materials that contain one carbon atom per molecule into valuable products. The feedstocks for C1 chemistry include natural gas, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methanol and synthesis gas (a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Synthesis gas, or syngas, is produced primarily by the reaction of natural gas, which is principally methane, with steam. It can also be produced by gasification of coal, petroleum coke, or biomass. The availability of syngas from coal gasification is expected to increase significantly in the future because of increasing development of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation. Because of the abundance of remote natural gas, the advent of IGCC, and environmental advantages, C1 chemistry is expected to become a major area of interest for the transportation fuel and chemical industries in the relatively near future. The CFFLS will therefore perform a valuable national service by providing science and engineering graduates that are trained in this important area. Syngas is the source of most hydrogen. Approximately 10 trillion standard cubic feet (SCF) of hydrogen are manufactured annually in the world. Most of this hydrogen is currently used for the production of ammonia and in a variety of refining and chemical operations. However, utilization of hydrogen in fuel cells is expected to grow significantly in the next century. Syngas is also the feedstock for all methanol and Fischer-Tropsch plants. Currently, world consumption of methanol is over 25 million tons per year. There are many methanol plants in the U.S. and throughout the world. Methanol and oxygenated transportation fuel products play a significant role in the CFFLS C1 program. Currently, the only commercial Fischer-Tropsch plants are overseas, principally in South Africa (SASOL). However, new plants are being built or planned for a number of locations. One possible location for future F

  9. Structure of the Anayet Permian basin (Axial Zone, Central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Anayet Permian basin was generated by strike-slip tectonics that opened subsident basins with pull-apart geometries in the western Spanish Axial Zone (between the Aragon and Tena valleys). A continental succession of Permian age, that represents the first post-variscan deposits in the area, fills the basin and covers discordantly Devonian to Carboniferous limestones, sandstones and slates. Permian deposits have been classically divided in four main detrital groups, with three basic volcanic episodes interbedded (Gisbert, 1984, Bixel, 1987): the Grey Unit (50-120 m, Estefanian to Kungurian) with slates, conglomerates, tobaceous slates, coal and pyroclastic deposits, the Transition Unit (50 m maximum) showing grey and red sandstones and lutites with oolitic limestones intercalated, the Lower Red Unit (250 m) composed of cross-bedded red sandstones and andesitic volcanic rocks at the top, and finally the Upper Red Unit (400 m minimum, top eroded) formed by three fining up megasequences of carbonates, red sandstones and lutites with lacustrine carbonates intercalated and alkali basalts at the top. Increasingly older rocks are found towards the western part of the basin, where its depocenter is located. South-vergent angular folds deform the Permian sedimentary succession. Fold axes are N115 °E-trending, almost horizontal and are characterized by a remarkably constant orientation. Folds exhibit a long limb dipping slightly to the north and a short vertical limb, occasionally reversed. In the Anayet basin four main folds, with a wavelength of 400 m, can be distinguished, two anticlines and two synclines, with minor folds associated. Related to the angular folds an axial plane foliation, E-trending and dipping 40 to 60° to the north, is developed in the lutites. The more competent rocks, conglomerates and breccias, only locally show a spaced fracture cleavage. No main thrusts have been detected in Permian rocks. However, minor scale decollements, usually low angle

  10. Coking coals of Mongolia: Distribution and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdenetsogt, Bat-Orshikh; Jargal, Luvsanchultem

    2016-04-01

    The coal deposits of Mongolia tend to become younger from west to east and can be subdivided into two provinces, twelve basins, and three areas. Main controlling factor of coal rank is the age of coal bearing sequences. Western Mongolian coal-bearing province contains mostly high rank bituminous coal in strata from Late Carboniferous. The basins in southern Mongolia and the western part of central Mongolia have low rank bituminous coal in strata from the Permian. The northern and central Mongolian basins contain mainly Jurassic subbituminous coal, whereas the Eastern Mongolian province has Lower Cretaceous lignite. Mongolian known coking coal reserves are located in western, southern and northern Mongolia and related to Carboniferous, Permian and Jurassic sequences, respectively. Pennsylvanian Nuurstkhotgor coal deposit is located in northwestern Mongolia (in Western Mongolian coal-bearing province). The coals have 1-7.5 crucible swelling number (CSN) and 0-86 G-index. Vitrinite reflectance value (Rmax in oil) varies from 0.7% to 1.2% and sulfur content is low, ranging from 0.3% to 0.6% with an average of 0.4%. Coal reserve is estimated to be 1.0 billion ton, of which half is coking coal. Upper Permian Khurengol deposit is situated in western Mongolia (in Western Mongolian coal-bearing province). CSN and G-index of coal are 8-9 and 54-99, respectively. The coals have Rmax of 1.1 to 1.7% (average 1.4%) and sulfur content of 0.2 to 0.6% (average 0.4%). Coking coal reserve of the deposit is estimated to be 340 million ton. Upper Permian Tavantolgoi, the largest coking coal deposit, lies in southern Mongolia (in South Gobi coal-bearing basin). The coals have CSN of 1 to 7.5 and Rmax of 0.7% to 1.2%. Sulfur content is low, ranging from 0.5% to 0.9%. Coal reserve is estimated to be 6.0 billion ton, of which 2.0 billion ton is accounted as coking coal. Lower-Middle Jurassic Ovoot coal is located in northern Mongolia (in Orkhon-Selenge coal-bearing area). This is one of

  11. Study on the Late Permian Claraia in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    There are different opinions on whether Claraia appeared in the Late Permian or not. Itis convinced that Claraia had turned up in the Late Permian through the study on the Upper Per-mian in South China. Pseudoclaraia, Claraioides and Claraia are compared and they are found tobear basically the same features. According to the rule of nomenclatural priority, Pseudoclaraiaand Claraioides should be attributed to the genus Claraia. Late Permian Claraia lived in the mid-dle-lower part of the bathyal continental slope as epifauna, which could swim occasionally. Thestudy on Claraia of the Permian-Triassic transition shows that Triassic Claraia was evolved fromPermian Claraia

  12. Carboniferous-Permian coal-bearing depositional system and its controlling role of coalbed methane in Hancheng area in Ordos Basin%鄂尔多斯韩城地区石炭-二叠系含煤沉积体系及其控气作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小洪; 刘大锰; 姚艳斌; 谢忱

    2013-01-01

    The geological conditions for coalbed methane are complicated in Hancheng area of the Ordos Basin. The characteristics of coal-bearing depositional system work as the main controlling factor for the enrichment of coalbed methane. According to the features of coal-bearing sediments in Carboniferous and Permian in Hancheng area, the Taiyuan Formation constitutes of lagoon-tidal-barrier island sedimentation and carbonate flat sedimen-tation while the Shanxi Formation constitutes of fluvial-dominated delta sedimentation. The changes of sedimenta-tion, the thickness of coalbed, the petrophysical property and the lithology of roof and floor of coalbed are direct-ly concerned to analyze the influence of sedimentary environment on CBM enrichment. The coalbed no.3 is thin and even pinches out locally. The coalbed no.5, which is thick and stable, is widespread in the study area. The roof and floor of coalbed are mainly mudstone, sandstone and siltstone. The coalbed with stable structure and thick mudstone as roof and floor is favorable for the enrichment and accumulation of coalbed methane. The area to the east of Baimatan town is the exploration target for 2 sets of coalbed.%鄂尔多斯韩城地区煤层气地质条件复杂,含煤沉积体系特征是影响煤层气富集的重要因素之一。通过对韩城地区石炭-二叠系含煤沉积特征的研究,发现太原组主要为潟湖-潮坪-障壁岛沉积和陆表海碳酸盐岩台地沉积,山西组主要为河控三角洲沉积。从主要可采煤层的沉积相变、煤层厚度变化、煤岩物性变化及煤层顶底板封盖特征方面分析了沉积作用对煤层气富集的影响。研究表明:3号煤厚度较小,甚至出现变薄尖灭的现象;5号煤在全区发育且厚度较大,横向连续性好。煤层顶底板主要以泥岩、砂岩、粉砂岩为主,其中以厚层泥岩为顶底板的结构稳定的煤层更有利于煤层气的富集成藏。白马滩镇以东地区为2套煤层的有利开发区块。

  13. Distribution Characteristics of Sulfur and the Main Harmful Trace Elements in China's Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Shuheng; SUN Shenglin; QIN Yong; JIANG Yaofa; WANG Wenfeng

    2008-01-01

    To promote the rational development and use of clean coal resources in China, data on the regional and age distribution of sulfur, arsenic and other harmful elements in Chinese coal was broadly collected, tested for content, and analyzed. Coal in northwestern China is characterized by low to extremely low levels of sulfur; the coal of the Taiyuan Formation in northern China mainly has high-sulfur content; that of the Shanxi Formation is mainly characterized by low sulfur coal; and the Late Permian coal in southern China has overall higher sulfur content; other regions have low sulfur coal. The average content of harmful trace elements in the bulk of China's coal is similar to the corresponding content in the coal of the North America and the rest of the world, whereas the content of various elements (Hg, Sb and Se) is different in magnitude to the corresponding percentage in the crust. The average content of the elements Cr, Se, Co, Be, U, Br in Late Permian coal in S China ranks first in the country whereas the average content of Hg and Ci in the coals of Late Carboniferous to Early Permian age in N China are the highest. The average content of Mn in Early and Middle Jurassic coal is higher in NW China. The high content of harmful elements in some coal should cause particular concern both in the development and utilization of coal.

  14. Faunal migration into the Late Permian Zechstein Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Mehlin; Håkansson, Eckart; Stemmerik, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Late Permian bryozoans from the Wegener Halvø, Ravnefjeld and Schuchert Formations in East Greenland have been investigated. 14 genera are recognised.      Integration of the new bryozoan data from the Upper Permian of East Greenland with data on the distribution of Permian bryozoans along...

  15. c=1 from c<1: Bulk and boundary correlators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrov, Sergei [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: s.alexandrov@phys.uu.nl; Imeroni, Emiliano [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: e.imeroni@phys.uu.nl

    2005-12-26

    We study the c{sub L}=25 limit, which corresponds to c=1 string theory, of bulk and boundary correlation functions of Liouville theory with FZZT boundary conditions. This limit is singular and requires a renormalization of vertex operators. We formulate a regularization procedure which allows to extract finite physical results. A particular attention is paid to c=1 string theory compactified at the self-dual radius R=1. In this case, the boundary correlation functions diverge even after the multiplicative renormalization. We show that all infinite contributions can be interpreted as contact terms arising from degenerate world sheet configurations. After their subtraction, one gets a well defined set of correlation functions. We also obtain several new results for correlation functions in Liouville theory at generic central charge.

  16. The Saint Martin de Belleville syncline and its uraniferous permian sandstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation (these de specialite) is a study of the geology of the St.Martin d.B. syncline and the uranium prospect 'le Cochet' in the Carboniferous Brianconnais Zone of Savoy. Stratigraphy and sedimentology: This syncline presents continental detrital sediments ranging from U.Carboniferous to L.Triassic. In the U.Carboniferous, magmatic activity begins with the Moriaz Layers acid volcanics that are considered as a lateral equivalent of the Stephanian Courchevel Conglomerates. In Permian times, parts of an alluvial fan seem to occupy the north of the study area (gray and green conglomeratic sandstone). Southwards these inter-finger with flood plain sediments (red slate) including a locally oolitic limestone. Volcanic detritus is important in the Permian. Tourmalinite pebbles are frequent and seem to be related to the regional Permian magmatism. Albitization of feldspars is general in the Carboniferous and the Permian. The Permo-triassic typically shows microcline bearing dolomitic sandstones. In the Scythian quartzites orthoclase is the dominant feldspar. The quartzites are overlain by L.Triassic evaporites identified by the sulfur isotope ratio of their gypsum. The morphology of the zircons in the sandstones has been investigated using the typological method of J.P. Pupin. Regional Permian magmatism apparently produces volcanics of the calc-alkalic and tholeiitic series as well as a high level granitic intrusion of anatectic origin. The uranium occurrences are strata-bound on a kilometric and hecto-metric scale. They are developed almost exclusively in the gray variety of the Permian sandstones whose gray and red varieties are always barren. Within this unit, the mineralization impregnates irregularly distributed lenses and pods of coal material. Uranium is accompanied by vanadium occurring as roscoelite. The association U-V, of bio-philic character, reflects the concentration in the sedimentary environment and argues for a quite indirect relation with the

  17. Mechanism on bipolar distribution of Permian brachiopods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengwen WANG; Songmei ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    By reasearch on geographic distribution, nine genera in bipolar distribution are selected from Permian brachiopods. These taxa originated from middle-high latitude areas in the boreal realm, of which five genera were derived from Late Carboniferous, and other four genera originated from Permian. They were all in bipolar distribution during some different stages in Permian. Specific diversity for each genus was high in the boreal realm, whereas in the Gondwana realm was very low. Perdurability was long in the boreal realm, and short in the Gondwana realm. It was the time when these nine genera came to their maximum diversity that these genera appeared in the Gondwana and formed bipolar distribution; while they also migrated to the low latitude from high latitude. This shows very close relationship between several main cooling events in Permian and the migration of genera from the boreal realm to the Gondwana realm through the Tethys. Therefore, the cooling events might be the main drive which caused these cold-water-type brachiopods migrated to the Gondwana realm and being bipolar distribution. In this process, the planula tolerance to warm water would be another important factor.

  18. A paleoclimatic simulation of the Late Permian greenhouse world and its consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, G.T.; Jacobson, S.R.; Hayashida, D.N. (Chevron Oil Field Research Co., La Habra, CA (United States))

    1991-03-01

    Sea-floor spreading assembled all the major cratonic blocks into a single supercontinent once in the Phanerozoic Eon. This unique Late Permian crustal tectonic event produced Pangaea and an enormous oceanic basin volume that dropped sea level to a global lowstand unrivaled in the Phanerozoic. Two paleoclimatic simulations using a numerical three-dimensional general circulation model tested changes in the greenhouse effect. The authors conclude that for a simulation to fit the Late Permian geologic record, the paleoatmosphere must contain an enhanced greenhouse gas effect. A third simulation tested changes of paleogeography in southern Pangaea (Gondwana) that did not appreciably alter the harsh continental paleoclimate. The simulated paleoclimatic changes provide extraordinarily warm ocean and atmosphere, and a significant reduction in continental rainfall and runoff. These conditions inevitably lead to more aridity and less vegetation on land, gradually reduce the delivery of vital nutrients from continental sources to marine margins, systematically liberate CO{sub 2} dissolved in ocean water, and incrementally increase stress on marine and terrestrial biotas. These consequences severely disrupted rates of oxygen and carbon cycling. Their quantitative paleoclimatic simulation is consistent with distributions of red beds, evaporites, coals, marine shelf areas, seawater isotope trends, and paleontologic originations and extinctions. Thus, the Pangaean plate assembly probably triggered an inexorable sequence of geophysical, geochemical, and biological events that forced an elevated greenhouse effect in the Late Permian, nearly annihilating the Phanerozoic biota.

  19. The terminal Permian in European Russia: Vyaznikovian Horizon, Nedubrovo Member, and Permian-Triassic boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozovsky, V. R.; Balabanov, Yu. P.; Karasev, E. V.; Novikov, I. V.; Ponomarenko, A. G.; Yaroshenko, O. P.

    2016-07-01

    The comprehensive analysis of the data obtained on terrestrial vertebrata, ostracods, entomologic fauna, megaflora, and microflora in deposits of the Vyaznikovian Horizon and Nedubrovo Member, as well as the paleomagnetic data measured in enclosing rocks, confirms heterogeneity of these deposits. Accordingly, it is necessary to distinguish these two stratons in the terminal Permian of the East European Platform. The combined sequence of Triassic-Permian boundary deposits in the Moscow Syneclise, which is considered to be the most complete sequence in the East European Platform, is as follows (from bottom upward): Vyatkian deposits; Vyaznikovian Horizon, including Sokovka and Zhukovo members; Nedubrovo Member (Upper Permian); Astashikha and Ryabi members of the Vokhmian Horizon (Lower Triassic). None of the sequences of Permian-Triassic boundary deposits known in the area of study characterizes this sequence in full volume. In the north, the Triassic deposits are underlain by the Nedubrovo Member; in the south (the Klyazma River basin), the sections are underlain by the Vyaznikovian Horizon. The Permian-Triassic boundary adopted in the General Stratigraphic Scale of Russia for continental deposits of the East European platform (the lower boundary of the Astashikha Member) is more ancient than the one adopted in the International Stratigraphic Chart. The same geological situation is observed in the German Basin and other localities where Triassic continental deposits are developed. The ways of solving this problem are discussed in this article.

  20. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Permian Basin, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility in the Permian Basin, Texas. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers are included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description, and Construction Cost Estimate. 30 references, 13 tables

  1. Trace fossils in coal-bearing sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, J.E.

    1988-03-01

    In the past decade trace fossils have been recorded extensively from coal-bearing sediments, differing widely in facies, age and location. Westphalian or Stephanian 'coal-measures' in Britain, Europe and Eastern Canada contain an ichnofauna produced by invertebrates and/or vertebrates in upper delta plain sediments. This contrasts with the marine-related lower delta plain ichnofaunas known from Pennsylvanian rocks of the United States and Permian Gondwana 'coal-measures' of South Africa. Deltaic complexes of Middle Jurassic age in the North Sea basin and Upper Cretaceous age in North America contain marine trace fossils and dinosaur footprints in coastal coal- bearing facies. These case histories illustrate the importance of trace fossils both in facies analysis of coal-bearing sequences and in recording the presence of animals rarely known as body fossils in such clastic sediments. 80 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs

  3. PERMIAN FUSULINID ASSEMBLAGES AND STRATIGRAPHY OF THE TRANSCAUCASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERNST JA LEVEN

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The Permian sequence of the Transcaucasia, which comprises the Davaly, Asni, Gnishik, Arpa, Khachik, and Akhura Formations, is described. A precise dating of the formations based on the analysis of fusulinid assemblages is also provided. The Davaly Formation corresponds to the Bolorian Stage of the Lower Permian (Cisuralian; the Asni Formation corresponds to the Kubergandian Stage, and to the lower half of the Murgabian Stage of the Middle Permian (Guadalupian; the Gnishik Formation corresponds approximately to the upper half of the Murgabian Stage; and the Arpa and Khachik Formations represent the entire Midian Stage of the Middle Permian. Only the uppermost Chanakhchy Beds of the Khachik Formation are referred to the upper series of the Permian (Lopingian, based on the latest proposal of the International Subcommission on Permian Stratigraphy concerning series boundaries. The Akhura Formation encompasses the Dzhulfian and Dorashamian Stages of the Upper Permian. Refined correlations between the Permian sequence of the Transcaucasia and the most complete Permian sequences of the Tethyan region (Central Iran, southestern Pamirs, South China, Japan are presented. The transgressive overlapping of the Permian deposits is recorded in these areas, similar to the Transcaucasia. Although the transgression began during the Bolorian, it reached the widest extent in the Kubergandian and therefore, in most sections the transgressive series begins with deposits of Kubergandian age. The Middle and Upper Permian deposits of the Transcaucasia, Iran, and southern Turkey belonged to a single carbonate platform. Similar extensive carbonate platforms are recorded in the southern parts of Afghanistan and China. A change in the sedimentary regime was recorded in all these platforms at the boundary between the Guadalupian and Lopingian epochs. The Guadalupian time was marked by the intensive accumulation of biolitithic and detrital limestones produced by benthic

  4. C1q and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walport, M J; Davies, K A; Botto, M

    1998-08-01

    In this chapter we review the association between SLE and C1q. In the first part of the chapter we discuss the clinical associations of C1q deficiency, and tabulate the available information in the literature relating to C1q deficiency and autoimmune disease. Other clinical associations of C1q deficiency are then considered, and we mention briefly the association between other genetically determined complement deficiencies and lupus. In the review we explore the relationship between C1q consumption and lupus and we discuss the occurrence of low molecular weight (7S) C1q in lupus, which raises the possibility that increased C1q turnover in the disease may result in unbalanced chain synthesis of the molecule. Anti-C1q antibodies are also strongly associated with severe SLE affecting the kidney, and with hypocomplementaemic urticarial vasculitis, and these associations are also examined. We address the question of how C1q deficiency may cause SLE, discussing the possibility that this may be due to abnormalities of immune complex processing, which have been well characterised in a umber of different human models. There is clear evidence that immune complex processing is abnormal in patients with hypocomplementaemia, and this is compatible with the hypothesis that ineffective immune complex clearance could cause tissue injury, and this may in turn stimulate an autoantibody response. We have also considered the possibility that C1q-C1q receptor interactions are critical in the regulation of apoptosis, and we explore the hypothesis that dysregulation of apoptosis could explain important features in the development of autoimmune disease associated with C1q deficiency. An abnormally high rate of apoptosis, or defective clearance of apoptotic cells, could promote the accumulation of abnormal cellular products that might drive an autoimmune response. Anti-C1q antibodies have been described in a number of murine models of lupus, and these are also briefly discussed. We focus

  5. Permian magmatism, Permian detachment faulting, and Alpine thrusting in the Orobic Anticline, southern Alps, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Florian; Froitzheim, Niko; Geisler-Wierwille, Thorsten; Schlöder, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    The Grassi Detachment Fault is located in the Orobic Alps east of Lake Como and was described by Froitzheim et al. (2008) as an Early Permian extensional structure. Many issues still remained unclear, like the exact timing of faulting and the extension from the well-exposed part of the detachment towards west. The Grassi Detachment Fault separates the Variscan Basement in its footwall from the volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Early Permian Collio Formation within its hanging wall, marked by a mylonitic and cataclastic layer whose textures indicate top-to-the-southeast displacement. The footwall basement is formed by the Variscan Morbegno Gneiss and two granitic intrusions, the Val Biandino Quarz Diorite (VBQD) and the Valle Biagio Granite (VBG). The former is syntectonic with respect to the detachment, whereas for the latter, the relation to the detachment is unknown. The age of the VBQD is poorly defined as 312 Ma ± 48 Ma (Thöni et al. 1992); the VBG has not been dated. Volcanic rocks of the Collio Formation in the hanging wall may represent the extrusive part of the magmatic system. In our study area west of Val Biandino, several faults and shear zones are exposed: (1) The Grassi Detachment Fault is represented by mylonites and cataclasites with top-SE shear sense, between basement rocks and the Collio Volcanics. Towards NW, it is truncated by the unconformably overlying Late Permian Verrucano Lombardo. This may reflect the eroded culmination of a Permian metamorphic core complex. (2) A steeply NW-dipping, brittle normal fault is found further west in the footwall between VBQD and VBG. It is sealed by the basal unconformity of the Verrucano Lombardo and therefore should also be of Early Permian age (Sciunnach, 2001). It may represent an antithetic fault with respect to the detachment, accommodating the uplift of the magmatically inflated core complex. (3) The Biandino Fault is a steeply SE-dipping reverse fault, affecting also the Late Permian Verrucano

  6. Autoantibodies against complement C1q specifically target C1q bound on early apoptotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Cornelia; Schaller, Monica; Perahud, Iryna; Osthoff, Michael; Trendelenburg, Marten

    2009-09-01

    Autoantibodies against complement C1q (anti-C1q) are frequently found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). They strongly correlate with the occurrence of severe lupus nephritis, suggesting a pathogenic role in SLE. Because anti-C1q are known to recognize a neoepitope on bound C1q, but not on fluid-phase C1q, the aim of this study was to clarify the origin of anti-C1q by determining the mechanism that renders C1q antigenic. We investigated anti-C1q from serum and purified total IgG of patients with SLE and hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis as well as two monoclonal human anti-C1q Fab from a SLE patient generated by phage display. Binding characteristics, such as their ability to recognize C1q bound on different classes of Igs, on immune complexes, and on cells undergoing apoptosis, were analyzed. Interestingly, anti-C1q did not bind to C1q bound on Igs or immune complexes. Neither did we observe specific binding of anti-C1q to C1q bound on late apoptotic/necrotic cells when compared with binding in the absence of C1q. However, as shown by FACS analysis and confocal microscopy, anti-C1q specifically targeted C1q bound on early apoptotic cells. Anti-C1q were found to specifically target C1q bound on cells undergoing apoptosis. Our observations suggest that early apoptotic cells are a major target of the autoimmune response in SLE and provide a direct link between human SLE, apoptosis, and C1q. PMID:19648280

  7. Effects of Igneous Intrusion on Microporosity and Gas Adsorption Capacity of Coals in the Haizi Mine, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jingyu Jiang; Yuanping Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of igneous intrusions on pore structure and adsorption capacity of the Permian coals in the Huaibei Coalfield, China. Twelve coal samples were obtained at different distances from a ~120 m extremely thick sill. Comparisons were made between unaltered and heat-affected coals using geochemical data, pore-fracture characteristics, and adsorption properties. Thermal alteration occurs down to ~1.3 × sill thickness. Approaching the sill, the vitrinite reflectance (R...

  8. Carboniferous-Permian rugose coral Cyathaxonia faunas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Cyathaxonia faunas are widely distributed in the Carboniferous and Permian strata in China.The fauna in China contains 12 families and 40 genera,and can be recognized as three episodes from Early Carboniferous to the end-Permian in terms of their occurrence and composition:1) Mississippian;2) Pennsylvanian-Early Permian;3) Middle Permian-Late Permian.They were relatively abundant in episodes 1 and 2.A decrease of family Antiphyllidae and an increase of family Hapsiphyllidae can be observed from Early Carboniferous to the end-Permian.Two case studies are given to illustrate the bio-facies of the Cyathaxonia faunas,which are from the Mississippian of Baoshan,West Yunnan and the Mississippian of Chaohu,South Anhui.In both areas,Cyathaxonia faunas occur just below the large dissepimented solitary and compound coral assemblages in a continuous sequence in a single section,which implies that the occurrence of these small,non-dissepimented solitary corals is not strictly related with Gondwanan or Peri-gondwanan cold water environment,but might be controlled by such benthic conditions as deeper,mud-rich,quieter,and darker sedimentary environments.

  9. Abundance of $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangencies

    OpenAIRE

    Bonatti, C.; Diaz, L. J.

    2009-01-01

    A diffeomorphism $f$ has a $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangency if there is a $C^1$-neighbourhood $\\cU$ of $f$ such that every diffeomorphism in $g\\in \\cU$ has a hyperbolic set $\\La_g$, depending continuously on $g$, such that the stable and unstable manifolds of $\\La_g$ have some non-transverse intersection. For every manifold of dimension greater than or equal to three, we exhibit a local mechanism (blender-horseshoes) generating diffeomorphisms with $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangencies. Using bl...

  10. New data on the formation of Carboniferous coal balls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, A.C.; Mattey, D.P.; Howard, R. [University of London, Egham (United Kingdom). Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, Dept. of Geology

    1996-10-01

    Coal balls are formed from the precipitation of carbonate minerals, predominantly calcite, from water during or immediately post-peat formation. Previous petrological studies suggest permineralization occurred at various stages during the peatificiation process by precipitation from a mixture of marine and meteoric freshwater. The geochemical studies reported here aimed to test previous theories of coal ball formation. The coal balls studied are from Upper Carboniferous and Carboniferous/Permian coal seams in Britain, United States of America, Belgium and China. Stable carbon isotopic values of calcites range from {delta}{sup 13}C of -5 to -35 parts per thousand indicating highly variable contribution of decayed organic matter to the carbonate cement. Oxygen isotopic values of delta({sup 18}) range from -3 to -15 parts per thousand suggest both marine and meteoric freshwater sources. The range, in the British coal balls in particular, with {delta}{sup 13}C ranging from -7 to -25 parts per thousand indicates the complexity of carbonate generation. Isotopic data support at least four theories of carbonate coal ball formation. This makes their absence from post-Permian coals the more puzzling and it is suggested that the overall structure of the peat may play a role.

  11. Anti-C1q autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenberg, Cees G M

    2008-09-01

    Autoantibodies to complement components are associated with various diseases. Anti-C1q antibodies are present in all patients with hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis, but also, with varying prevalence, in other conditions. In SLE, these antibodies are neither sensitive nor specific for this condition. They occur, however, more frequently in (proliferative) lupus nephritis, particularly during active disease. Furthermore, levels of anti-C1q rise, in many cases, prior to a relapse of lupus nephritis, suggesting a pathogenic role for the autoantibodies. Indeed, experimental studies strongly support a pathogenic role for anti-C1q in immune complex-mediated renal disease. In addition, anti-C1q may interfere with the clearance of apoptotic cells, so influencing induction and expression of autoimmunity. PMID:18606253

  12. Platinum and Palladium in Coal Rock and Geochemical Anomaly in Eastern Yunnan Province,Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Qinglin; Zhao Pengda; Cheng Qiuming; Chen Yongqing; Zhang Shengyuan

    2008-01-01

    A series of geochemical anomalies of Pt and Pd were found in 1 358 recombined samples from a geochemical stream sediment survey in eastern Yunnan (云南) Province, China. Chemical optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence analysis, and inductively coupled plasmas atomic emission spectrometry analyses of 22 elements and chemical compositions of 21 samples from coal-bearing strata from the Late Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic show Pt and Pd concentrated to some extent in coal rocks, with Pd/Ptcoal-bearing strata of the Wanshoushan (万寿山) Formation; B, Mo, As, Pt, U, W, Pb, Pd, and V are enriched in the Lower Permian coal-bearing strata of the Liangshan (梁山) Formation; Pt, Cu, Mo, Pd, As, V, and Ag are enriched in the Upper Permian coal-bearing strata of the Xuanwei (宣威) Formation; As, B, Pb, Pt, Pd, U, W, Sb, Mo, Zn, and Ag are enriched in the Upper Triassic coal-bearing strata of the Xujiahe (须家河) Formation; and Pt, As, and Pb are enriched in the lignite of the Pliocene Ciying (茨营) Formation. Combining analyses of the sedimentary environment and local volcanic activity reveal that the coal-bearing strata in the Xuanwei Formation are possibly related to the permian Emeishan(峨眉山)basalt.

  13. A Selection of Recent Advances in C1 Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesters, Carl

    2016-06-01

    This review presents a selection of recent publications related to the chemistry and catalysis of C1 molecules, including methane, methanol, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. These molecules play an important role in the current supply of energy and chemicals and will likely become even more relevant because of the need to decarbonize fuels (shift from coal to natural gas) in line with CO2 capture and use to mitigate global warming, as well as a gradual shift on the supply side from crude oil to natural gas. This review includes both recent industrial developments, such as the huge increase in methanol-to-olefins-capacity build in China and the demonstration of oxidative coupling of methane, and scientific developments in these chemistries facilitated by improved capabilities in, for example, analytical tools and computational modeling. PMID:27276549

  14. Maceral Characteristics and Vitrinite Reflectance Variation of The High Rank Coals, South Walker Creek, Bowen Basin, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Asep K. Permana; Ward, C. R.; L. W. Gurba

    2014-01-01

    DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i2.156The Permian coals of the South Walker Creek area, with a vitrinite reflectance (Rvmax) of 1.7 to 1.95% (low-volatile bituminous to semi-anthracite), are one of the highest rank coals currently mined in the Bowen Basin for the pulverized coal injection (PCI) market. Studies of petrology of this coal seam have identified that the maceral composition of the coals are dominated by inertinite with lesser vitrinite, and only minor amounts of liptinite. Clay minerals, quar...

  15. The late Paleozoic oxygen pulse and accumulations of petroleum source rocks and coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVLE I. PREMOVIC

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent geophysical and geochemical data and theoretical modeling indicate high levels of atmospheric O2 (up to 35% during the Carboniferous-Permian. I suggest that this O2 pulse had a substantial impact on global accumulations of petroleum source rocks and coal during this geological period.

  16. Permian paleoclimate data from fluid inclusions in halite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benison, K.C.; Goldstein, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This study has yielded surface water paleotemperatures from primary fluid inclusions in mid Permian Nippewalla Group halite from western Kansas. A 'cooling nucleation' method is used to generate vapor bubbles in originally all-liquid primary inclusions. Then, surface water paleotemperatures are obtained by measuring temperatures of homogenization to liquid. Homogenization temperatures ranged from 21??C to 50??C and are consistent along individual fluid inclusion assemblages, indicating that the fluid inclusions have not been altered by thermal reequilibration. Homogenization temperatures show a range of up to 26??C from base to top of individual cloudy chevron growth bands. Petrographic and fluid inclusion evidence indicate that no significant pressure correction is needed for the homogenization temperature data. We interpret these homogenization temperatures to represent shallow surface water paleotemperatures. The range in temperatures from base to top of single chevron bands may reflect daily temperatures variations. These Permian surface water temperatures fall within the same range as some modern evaporative surface waters, suggesting that this Permian environment may have been relatively similar to its modern counterparts. Shallow surface water temperatures in evaporative settings correspond closely to local air temperatures. Therefore, the Permian surface water temperatures determined in this study may be considered proxies for local Permian air temperatures.

  17. On Orientifolds of c=1 Orbifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkstra, T P T; Riccioni, F; Schellekens, Adrian Norbert

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study orientifolds of c=1 conformal field theories. A systematic analysis of the allowed orientifold projections for c=1 orbifold conformal field theories is given. We compare the Klein bottle amplitudes obtained at rational points with the orientifold projections that we claim to be consistent for any value of the orbifold radius. We show that the recently obtained Klein bottle amplitudes corresponding to exceptional modular invariants, describing bosonic string theories at fractional square radius, are also in agreement with those orientifold projections.

  18. On orientifolds of c=1 orbifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkstra, T.P.T. [NIKHEF, PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF, PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Riccioni, F. [NIKHEF, PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: f.riccioni@damtp.cam.ac.uk; Schellekens, A.N. [NIKHEF, PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-10-25

    The aim of this paper is to study orientifolds of c=1 conformal field theories. A systematic analysis of the allowed orientifold projections for c=1 orbifold conformal field theories is given. We compare the Klein bottle amplitudes obtained at rational points with the orientifold projections that we claim to be consistent for any value of the orbifold radius. We show that the recently obtained Klein bottle amplitudes corresponding to exceptional modular invariants, describing bosonic string theories at fractional square radius, are also in agreement with those orientifold projections.

  19. c=1 String as a Topological Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, H

    1994-01-01

    The discrete states in the $c=1$ string are shown to be the physical states of a certain topological sigma model. We define a set of new fields directly from $c=1$ variables, in terms of which the BRST charge and energy-momentum tensor are rewritten as those of the topological sigma model. Remarkably, ground ring generator $x$ turns out to be a coordinate of the sigma model. All of the discrete states realize a graded ring which contains ground ring as a subset.

  20. Anti-C1q autoantibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2008-01-01

    Autoantibodies to complement components are associated with various diseases. Anti-C1q antibodies are present in all patients with hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis, but also, with varying prevalence, in other conditions. In SLE, these antibodies are neither sensitive nor specific for this co

  1. Protein engineering studies on C1r and C1s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Závodszky, P; Gál, P; Cseh, S; Schumaker, V N

    1993-12-01

    1. C1r and C1s cDNAs were placed downstream the strong polyhedrin promoter in the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus and the recombinant proteins were expressed in insect cells, in biologically active form. The yield of expression is high enough to get recombinant components for chemical and functional studies (5 micrograms/ml cell culture supernatant). 2. The biological activity and the post-translational modifications of the recombinant subcomponents were checked. The rC1r and rC1s proved to be biologically active in the hemolytic assay, although their glycosylations were different compared to that of the serum proteins. The insect cells are able to beta-hydroxylate the Asn residue of the EGF domain in the C1r but with a low efficiency. It is clear now, that this post-translational modification does not play a role in the Ca2+ dependent C1r-C1s interaction. 3. Two deletion mutants of C1r cDNA were constructed in order to clarify the role of domain I and II. The results show that both, domain I, and II are absolutely necessary for the tetramer formation and both have a regulatory role in the autoactivation. The autoactivation of the mutants is accelerated significantly. 4. Hybrid cDNA constructions were also made, and one of them was expressed. In the C1s alpha R hybrid the C1s alpha part cannot dimerize in presence of Ca2+, but it can form a tetramer with C1r2, that can bind to C1q. This observation indicates that the function of the C1s alpha part in the hybrid is modulated by the C1r part (gamma B) of the molecule. 5. In order to control the autoactivation process point mutant cDNAs were constructed through altering the Arg-Ile bond in the catalytic domain of the C1r. The Gln-Ile construction is a stable zymogen while the Arg-Phe mutant has a lower rate of autoactivation. These results do justify our approach of using domain-domain interchange, domain deletion and point mutations in combination, to reveal the structural background of C1 function

  2. Interpretation of "fungal spikes" in Permian-Triassic boundary sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochuli, Peter A.

    2016-09-01

    Abundant occurrences of the palynomorph Reduviasporonites have been described as "fungal spike" from several Permian/Triassic boundary sections and related to the supposed destruction of woody vegetation by fungal pathogens during the Permian/Triassic extinction event. The biological affinity of this taxa considered by some authors of fungal origin is still controversially discussed since there is geochemical evidence that it is most probably related to algae. The abundance peak of this species is used by some authors as a stratigraphic marker, notably in terrestrial Permian/Triassic boundary sections from South China. Illustrations of the reported fungal remains however show potentially erroneous taxonomic identification of Reduviasporonites, and, based on differences in thermal maturation, they may represent recent contamination. Here Reduviasporonites chalastus of Early Triassic age is illustrated together with recent fungal remains originating from a strongly weathered and otherwise barren sample from a Middle Triassic section.

  3. Catalysis Action of Mineral/Metal Elements during Coalderived Hydrocarbons Process: An Example of the Late Permian Coal from Dahebian Coal Mine in Eastern Yunnan and Western Guizhou%矿物/金属元素在煤成烃过程中的作用——以黔西滇东上二叠统大河边煤矿煤样为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴艳艳; 秦勇; 刘金钟; 王爱宽

    2012-01-01

    通过对原煤及添加过渡金属元素Mo(钼)和黄铁矿的原煤进行不同升温速率条件下煤层气生成热模拟实验,论述黄铁矿和Mo对于原煤热解生烃过程的影响。结果表明:矿物/过渡金属元素使原煤有机质具有更大的生烃潜力。黄铁矿对CH。具有显著的正催化作用;同时加入黄铁矿和Mo时,生成的气体中会含有更多数量的重烃气,并有利于烯烃的产出;Mo对C_7-C_14。具有显著的催化作用,但当同时有黄铁矿的参与时则会使C_7C_14。产率降低;黄铁矿/Mo的加入,则会影响到芳烃的产率高峰;较高的过渡金属单质含量对煤中本身含有的硫元素转化为H。S气体有抑制作用。在中-高温度范围内,催化剂对有机质生烃具有催化作用,升温条件能明显影响黄铁矿对芳烃、饱和烃和沥青质的催化作用,反映古地温场条件是催化生烃的一个重要影响因素。%The pyrolysis of coal with presence and absence of pyrite or Mo were carried out with different hearing ratios to study the coal bed gas formation process. The influence of pyrite and Mo on coal pyrolysis hydrocarbongenerating process was discussed. The results show that the mineral/transition metal elements make the coal have greater potential of hydrocarbon generation. Pyrite makes a positive and significant catalytic role to the methane generation. The presence of pyrite and Mo at the same time made the coal generate a few amount of heavier hydrocarbon gases,and the presence of pyrite and Mo is helpful to olefins output. Transition metal Mo has the remarkable catalytic effect on the C_7-C_14 generation, but the yield of C_7-C_14 components reduce if the presence of pyrite and Mo coexists. Pyrite and Mo influence the peak aromatics hydrocarbon and asphalt generation. High content of transition metal elements inhibit the H2 S formation from the sulfur in the coal. Catalysts have catalytic action for

  4. Water mass denitrification during the latest Permian extinction in the Panthalassic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knies, J.; Grasby, S.; Beauchamp, B.; Schubert, C.

    2012-04-01

    The latest Permian extinction (LPE) event, about 252 Myr ago, resulted in the disappearance of >90 % of marine and terrestrial species. Possible explanations invoke, Siberian Trap volcanism, anoxia, H2S poisoning draw down of bioessential elements or a combination of these. Recent observation of coal ash dispersion into global oceans prior to LPE suggest global ash fall could have created toxic marine (terrestrial) conditions. Recent work also suggests volcanic mercury emissions may have added to toxic marine conditions. While development of marine euxinic conditions in the Tethyan region across the LPE is widely accepted, inferences on the redox and environmental conditions of the Panthalassic Ocean more equivocal. Indications of (photic zone) euxinia occur in marginal areas of Panthalassa. In central pelagic areas, however, expansion of low oxygen conditions across the LPE may be restricted to the oxygen minimum zone rather than towards the photic zone or the seafloor. Here, we report the ?15N isotopic signature in Late Permian - Early Triassic sediments from the Buchanan Lake section in the Sverdrup Basin, Canadian Arctic. Deep water marine sedimentation in the Sverdrup Basin, connected to Panthalassa via a western seaway, allows inferences on the nitrogen cycling across the LPE. We confirm that expansion of low oxygen conditions in the Panthalassic Ocean began prior to the paleo-Tethys Ocean. Further, the detailed correspondence of changes in denitrification, nitrate utilization/fixation across the LPE in both oceans indicate rapid reorganization of the marine ecosystem in response to changes in nutrient inventories, probably mediated through the eruption of the Siberian Traps.

  5. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

  6. Terrestrial acidification during the end-Permian biosphere crisis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sephton, Mark A.; Jiao, Dan; Engel, Michael H.; Looy, Cindy V.; Visscher, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Excessive acid rainfall associated with emplacement of the Siberian Traps magmatic province is increasingly accepted as a major contributing factor to the end-Permian biosphere crisis. However, direct proxy evidence of terrestrial acidification is so far not available. In this paper, we seek to dete

  7. Extinction pattern of reef ecosystems in latest Permian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU YaSheng; FAN JiaSong; JIANG HongXia; YANG Wan

    2007-01-01

    Studies of two Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) sections on top of a Changhsingian reef in Ziyun, Guizhou Province, southwestern China indicate that the end-Permian mass extinction of reef ecosystems occurred in two steps. The first step is the extinction of all stenotropic organisms such as calcisponges and fusulinids in the latest Permian (in the Clarkina yini conodont zone). The biota after the first extinction is simple, comprising eurytropic organisms including microgastropods, ostracods, and some small burrowing organisms, or only algal mats. At the beginning of the Early Triassic (I.e. the beginning of the Hindeodus parvus zone), the environments became anoxic, and the microgastropod dominated biota or algal mats disappeared, which constituted the second episode of the mass extinction. The biota after the second extinction comprises small spherical microproblematica, some kinds of specialized organisms tolerant of anoxic or oxygen-poor conditions. As the environments became oxygenated, the specialized biota was replaced by a microgastropod-dominated simple biota. When the environmental conditions improved further, the simple biota was replaced by a diverse biota with normal-sized ammonoids, bivalves, and gastropods, representing restoration of normal oceanic conditions. Comparison with PTB sections in Dolomites, Italy and Meishan, Zhejiang Province shows that non-reef ecosystems had a similar first episode of mass extinction in the latest Permian. In the case that oceanic anoxia happened, non-reef ecosystems had a second extinction episode similar to that of reef ecosystems.

  8. Terrestrial Permian - Triassic boundary sections in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, Antoine; Vajda, Vivi

    2016-08-01

    The Permian-Triassic boundary interval in China comprises a significant record of faunal and floral changes during this important extinction event. Here we discuss the details of palynomorph preservation at the classical Western Guizhou and Eastern Yunnan sections in an effort to expand the stratigraphy and paleontology from these earlier studies.

  9. Permian karst topography in the Wichita uplift, southwestern Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, R.N. Busbey, A.B. (Texas Christian Univ., Ft. Worth, TX (United States). Geology Dept.)

    1993-02-01

    The Wichita uplift in southwestern Oklahoma is one part of a record of Pennsylvania and early Permian deformation that affected the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen. As a result of a partial inversion, the Lower Paleozoic section of this aulacogen was sequentially stripped off an uplift between the Wichita uplift and the Anadarko basin, resulting in the exposure of ultrabasic rocks deep in the Cambrian igneous fill of the aulacogen. Following the late Paleozoic tectonism, the topography of the uplift was entombed beneath Permian sediments and remained essentially undisturbed until exhumation during the present erosional cycle. Modern erosion is gradually exposing this topography, permitting morphometric analysis of the Permian hill forms. Because of the variation of lithology in the uplift, it is possible to isolate the effects of weathering processes such as intense hydrolysis of the igneous rocks (producing, among other features, or topography) and limestone dissolution, in the form of a surface and subsurface karst imprint. The latter process resulted in a network of small caves that are essentially fissures eroded along tectonic fractures. These small caves can be found in all the exposed areas of limestone. They are particularly noteworthy for three reasons: in at least five examples they contain a complex fauna of Permian vertebrates (mostly fragmentary), speleothems in some examples contain hydrocarbon inclusions, derived from the underlying Anadarko basin, some of the caves yield evidence of post burial evolution in the form of clay infiltration from the surface and brine flushing from the underlying Anadarko basin.

  10. Early Triassic alternative ecological states driven by anoxia, hyperthermals, and erosional pulses following the end-Permian mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, C.; Petsios, E.; Bottjer, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The end-Permian mass extinction, 252 million years ago, was the most devastating loss of biodiversity in Earth's history. Massive volcanic eruptions of the Siberian Traps and the concurrent burning of coal, carbonate, and evaporite deposits emplaced greenhouse and toxic gasses. Hyperthermal events of the surface ocean, up to 40°C, led to reduced gradient-driven ocean circulation which yielded extensive equatorial oxygen minimum zones. Today, anthropogenic greenhouse gas production is outpacing carbon input modeled for the end-Permian mass extinction, which suggests that modern ecosystems may yet experience a severe biotic crisis. The Early Triassic records the 5 million year aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction and is often perceived as an interval of delayed recovery. We combined a new, high resolution carbon isotope record, sedimentological analysis, and paleoecological collections from the Italian Werfen Formation to fully integrate paleoenvironmental change with the benthic ecological response. We find that the marine ecosystem experienced additional community restructuring events due to subsequent hyperthermal events and pulses of erosion. The benthic microfauna and macrofauna both contributed to disaster communities that initially rebounded in the earliest Triassic. 'Disaster fauna' including microbialites, microconchids, foraminifera, and "flat clams" took advantage of anoxic conditions in the first ~500,000 years, dominating the benthic fauna. Later, in the re-oxygenated water column, opportunistic disaster groups were supplanted by a more diverse, mollusc-dominated benthic fauna and a complex ichnofauna. An extreme temperature run-up beginning in the Late Dienerian led to an additional hyperthermal event in the Late-Smithian which co-occurred with increased humidity and terrestrial run-off. Massive siliciclastic deposits replaced carbonate deposition which corresponds to the infaunalization of the benthic fauna. The disaster taxa dominated

  11. The Permian Dongfanghong island-arc gabbro of the Wandashan Orogen, NE China: Implications for Paleo-Pacific subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming-Dao; Xu, Yi-Gang; Wilde, Simon A.; Chen, Han-Lin; Yang, Shu-Feng

    2015-09-01

    The Dongfanghong hornblende gabbro is located in the western part of the Wandashan Orogen and to the east of the Jiamusi Block in NE China. It was emplaced into Early Paleozoic oceanic crust (i.e. Dongfanghong ophiolite) at ~ 275 Ma and both later collided with the eastern margin of the Jiamusi Block. The Dongfanghong gabbro is sub-alkaline with high Na2O contents and is characterized by enrichment in light rare earth elements (LREE), large ion lithosphile elements (LILE), Sr, Eu, and Ba, and depletion in high field strength elements (HFSE). The enriched isotopic signatures (87Sr/86Sri = ~ 0.7065, εNd(t) = ~- 0.5, 208Pb/204Pbi = ~ 38.05, 207Pb/204Pbi = ~ 15.56, 206Pb/204Pbi = ~ 18.20 and zircon εHf(t) = ~+ 5.8) indicate an enriched mantle (EM2) source, with some addition of continental material. It has arc geochemical affinities similar to Permian arc igneous rocks in the eastern margin of the Jiamusi Block, the Yakuno Ophiolite in SW Japan, arc rocks along the western margin of the North America Craton, and also the Gympie Group in eastern Australia. All these features, together with information from tectonic discrimination diagrams, suggest that the Dongfanghong gabbro formed in an immature island arc. The spatial configuration of ~ 290 Ma immature continental arc rocks in the eastern part of the Jiamusi Block and the ~ 275 Ma immature island arc Dongfanghong gabbro in the Wandashan Orogen to the east is best explained by eastward arc retreat and slab roll-back of the Paleo-Pacific Plate. This model is also supported by the Carboniferous-Permian stratigraphic transition in the Jiamusi Block from oceanic carbonate rocks to coal-bearing terrestrial clastic rocks and andesites. We thus suggest that both Paleo-Pacific subduction and roll-back occurred in the Early Permian along the eastern margin of Asia.

  12. Study on the Late Permian Claraia in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Fengqing

    2001-01-01

    [1]Nakazawa, K., On Claraia of Kashmir and Iran, J. Paleont. Soc. Idia., 1977, 20: 194-204.[2]Kulikov, M. V., Tkachuk, G. A., On finding of Claraia (Bivalvia) in Upper Permian deposits of Northern Caucasus,Doklady Akad. Nauk. USSR, 1979, 245(4): 905-908.[3]Yin. H. F.. Uppermost Permian (Changxingian) Pectinacea from South China, Riv. Ital. Paleont., 1982, 88(3): 337-386.[4]Yin. H. F.. Bivalves near the Permian-Triassic boundary in South China, J. Paleo.,1985, 59(3): 572-600.[5]Yang. Z. Y.. Yin H. F., Wu, S. B. et al., Permian-Triassic Boundary Stratigraphy and Fauna of South China (in Chinese).Geological Memoirs, Ser. 2, No. 6, Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1987, 56-57, 236-237.[6]Guo. F. X.. Bivalves Fossil of Yunnan (in Chinese), Kunming: Yunnan Technology Press, 1985.[7]Fang. Z. J., Discussion on Late Permian “Claraia”, Act. Palaeo. Sini. (in Chinese),1993, 2(6):653-661.[8]Zhang. Z. M.. Discussion on the ligament structure of Claraia and its evolution, Act. Palaeo. Sini. (in Chinese), 1980,19(6): 433-443.[9]Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology, Academia Sinica, The Bivalves of China (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1976.[10]Zhou. Z. R.. Two ecological types of Permian Ammonoids, Science in China (in Chinese), Ser. B, 1985, (7): 648-657.[11] Stanley. S. M., Relation of shell form to life habitats of the Bivalvia (Mollusca), Geol. Soc. Amer., 1970, 125: 1-496.[12]Stanley, S. M.. tunctional morphology and evolution of byssally attached bivalve mollusks, J. Paleont, 1972, 46(2): 165-207.[13]Yin, H. F.. Ding, M. H., Zhang, K. X. et al., Late Permian-Middle Triassic Ecostratigraphy of the Yangtze Platform and Its Margins, Beijing: Science Press, 1995, 69-76.[14]Leonardi, E. Trias inferiore delle Venezie, Mem. Inst. Geol. Univ. Padova., 1935, II, 1-136.[15]Ichikawa. K. Zur Taxonomie und Phylogenie der Triadischen Pteriidae (Lamellibranch), Palaeotog., 1958, III, A, 132-212.

  13. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH IN C1 CHEMISTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2001-04-30

    Faculty and students from five universities (Kentucky, West Virginia, Utah, Pittsburgh and Auburn) are collaborating on a basic research program to develop novel C1 chemistry processes for the production of clean, high quality transportation fuel. An Industrial Advisory Board (IAB) with members from Chevron, Eastman Chemical, Energy International, Teir Associates, and the Department of Defense has been formed to provide practical guidance to the program. The program has two principal objectives. (1) Develop technology for conversion of C1 source materials (natural gas, synthesis gas, carbon dioxide and monoxide, and methanol) into clean, high efficiency transportation fuel. (2) Develop novel processes for producing hydrogen from natural gas and other hydrocarbons. Some of the principal accomplishments of the program in its first two years are: (1) The addition of acetylenic compounds in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is found to produce significant amounts of oxygenated products in FT diesel fuels. Such oxygenated products should decrease particulate matter (PM) emissions. (2) Nanoscale, binary, Fe-based catalysts supported on alumina have been shown to have significant activity for the decomposition of methane into pure hydrogen and potentially valuable multi-walled carbon nanotubes. (3) Catalytic synthesis processes have been developed for synthesis of diethyl carbonate, higher ethers, and higher alcohols from C1 source materials. Testing of the effect of adding these oxygenates to diesel fuel on PM emissions has begun using a well-equipped small diesel engine test facility. (4) Supercritical fluid (SCF) FT synthesis has been conducted under SCF hexane using both Fe and Co catalysts. There is a marked effect on the hydrocarbon product distribution, with a shift to higher carbon number products. These and other results are summarized.

  14. C1q protein binds to the apoptotic nucleolus and causes C1 protease degradation of nucleolar proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yitian; Teo, Boon Heng Dennis; Yeo, Joo Guan; Lu, Jinhua

    2015-09-11

    In infection, complement C1q recognizes pathogen-congregated antibodies and elicits complement activation. Among endogenous ligands, C1q binds to DNA and apoptotic cells, but whether C1q binds to nuclear DNA in apoptotic cells remains to be investigated. With UV irradiation-induced apoptosis, C1q initially bound to peripheral cellular regions in early apoptotic cells. By 6 h, binding concentrated in the nuclei to the nucleolus but not the chromatins. When nucleoli were isolated from non-apoptotic cells, C1q also bound to these structures. In vivo, C1q exists as the C1 complex (C1qC1r2C1s2), and C1q binding to ligands activates the C1r/C1s proteases. Incubation of nucleoli with C1 caused degradation of the nucleolar proteins nucleolin and nucleophosmin 1. This was inhibited by the C1 inhibitor. The nucleoli are abundant with autoantigens. C1q binding and C1r/C1s degradation of nucleolar antigens during cell apoptosis potentially reduces autoimmunity. These findings help us to understand why genetic C1q and C1r/C1s deficiencies cause systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:26231209

  15. C1q protein binds to the apoptotic nucleolus and causes C1 protease degradation of nucleolar proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yitian; Teo, Boon Heng Dennis; Yeo, Joo Guan; Lu, Jinhua

    2015-09-11

    In infection, complement C1q recognizes pathogen-congregated antibodies and elicits complement activation. Among endogenous ligands, C1q binds to DNA and apoptotic cells, but whether C1q binds to nuclear DNA in apoptotic cells remains to be investigated. With UV irradiation-induced apoptosis, C1q initially bound to peripheral cellular regions in early apoptotic cells. By 6 h, binding concentrated in the nuclei to the nucleolus but not the chromatins. When nucleoli were isolated from non-apoptotic cells, C1q also bound to these structures. In vivo, C1q exists as the C1 complex (C1qC1r2C1s2), and C1q binding to ligands activates the C1r/C1s proteases. Incubation of nucleoli with C1 caused degradation of the nucleolar proteins nucleolin and nucleophosmin 1. This was inhibited by the C1 inhibitor. The nucleoli are abundant with autoantigens. C1q binding and C1r/C1s degradation of nucleolar antigens during cell apoptosis potentially reduces autoimmunity. These findings help us to understand why genetic C1q and C1r/C1s deficiencies cause systemic lupus erythematosus.

  16. Descriptive Study on the Epidemiology of Lung Cancer in Coal-producing Area in Eastern Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jihua; Yunsheng ZHANG; Li, Yun; Guoqing YIN; Li, Yuebing; Bofu NING; Jiamin GUO

    2011-01-01

    Background and objective Xuanwei county is located at Late Permian coal-accumulating area in eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou, China. The lung cancer mortality rate in Xuanwei county is among the highest in China and has been attributed to exposure to indoor smoky coal emissions that contain very high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Recent years, the pollution and the higher mortality rate of lung cancer has been watched in the area around Xuanwei, and there is no report ...

  17. Geology and coal bed methane resource potential of the Gondwana Barapukuria Coal Basin, Dinajpur, Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Md. Rafiqul; Hayashi, Daigoro [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, 903-0213 (Japan)

    2008-08-05

    With an area of 5.16 km{sup 2}, the Barapukuria coal deposit is one of the five largest Gondwana coal basins in Bangladesh, and is located in the north west of the country close to the towns of Dinajpur and Saidpur. The existence of the basin was initially indicated by a negative gravity anomaly in oil and gas exploration. Exploration for the deposit was commenced by the Geological Survey of Bangladesh (GSB), with seven surface boreholes that confirmed the existence of a significant coal deposit. The deposit occurs as an asymmetrical synclinal structure with an axis striking approximately N-S. The deposit is limited to the east by a large normal fault which has displaced Archaean metamorphics against the Gondwana sediments. The coal-bearing sediments are comprised of Gondwana Permian-age sandstones, siltstones, subordinate carbonaceous shales, and six correlated coal seams. The Gondwana sediments are unconformably overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary deposits, against which the coal seams are successively subcropped to the west. Within the structural limits of the basin, approximately 377 Mt coal in-situ has been quantified in the six coal seams that range in depth from 118 to 518 m below surface. Due to the synclinal nature of the deposit, the upper coal seams, designated I to V, occur over diminishing areal extent with decreasing depth. The principal seam of interest is the lowermost Seam VI, with a variable thickness across the deposit from 22 m in the northern part of the deposit to more than 42 m in the southern and eastern areas. Development of the Barapukuria Mine, the country's first coal mine, commenced in 1996 with the construction of two vertical shafts. Coal production from Seam VI began in 2005 and continues at the present time. Seam VI coal is high volatile B bituminous rank. About 34 Mt of coal has been estimated as recoverable resources, utilising descensional multi-slice longwall mining. The mine design and development have been severely

  18. Sequence-Stratigraphic Framework from the Carboniferous to the Permian Chuanshanian Epoch in Dianqiangui Basin and Its Adjacent Areas, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Mingxiang; Ma Yongsheng; Deng Jun; Meng Qingfen; Li Donghai

    2005-01-01

    The Carboniferous can be divided into four series in the Dianqiangui basin and its adjacent areas, Southwest China: the Yanguanian series, the Datangian series, the Weiningian series and the Mapingian series. The Maping Formation, traditionally used as the lithostratigraphic unit of the Upper Carboniferous, became an inter-system unit from the Carboniferous to the Permian. Thus, the top part of the Carboniferous and the bottom part of the Permian (Chuanshanian series) constitute a third-order sequence in the Dianqiangui basin and its adjacent areas. In the study area, the Carboniferous system and the Chuanshanian series of the Permian constitute a second-order sequence that can be subdivided into 6 third-order sequences. The bottom boundary of this second-order sequence is an unconformity formed in the principal episode of the Ziyun movement (the second episode), and the top boundary is also an unconformity formed in the principal episode of the Qiangui movement (the second episode). In different paleogeographical backgrounds, the strata from the Carboniferous to the Permian Chuanshanian epoch are marked by different sedimentary features. For example, coal measures and more dolomitic strata are developed in the attached platform; carbonate rocks mainly constitute the isolated platform strata; the inter-platform ditch strata are mainly composed of dark and fine sediments. Therefore, third-order sequences with different architectures of sedimentary-facies succession are formed in different paleogeographical backgrounds. Although the third-order sequences are different in the architecture of sedimentary-succession in space, the processes of their depositional environmental changes due to the third-order relative sea-level changes are simultaneous. Biostratigraphically, the surfaces of the third-order sequences can be correlated and traced in space; the framework of sequence stratigraphy from the Carboniferous to the Chuanshanian epoch of the Permian can be established

  19. A Review on Permian to Triassic Active or Convergent Margin in Southeasternmost Gondwanaland: Possibility of Exploration Target for Tin and Hydrocarbon Deposits in the Eastern Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiruddin Amiruddin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol4no1.20094An active convergence of continental margin is probably generated in Gondwanaland during Permian to Triassic period which is characterized by the presence of magmatic and volcanic belts and back-arc ba- sins occupied respectively by Permian to Triassic rocks. The magmatic belt is occupied by peraluminous granitic plutons showing characteristics of S- type granite and is considered as tin-bearing granites. The back-arc basins are occupied by the Southern Papua and Galille-Bowen-Gunnedah-Sydney Basins. Those large basins are respectivelly filled by fluvial, fluvio- deltaic to marine Permian-Triassic sediments, which are unconformably overlain by the Jurrassic-Cretaceous marine succession. The paleomagnetic data, confirmed by flora content found in Australia and Papua, indicate that those areas initially belong to the Gondwanaland before part of them were drifted and rotated into the present day position. Tectonically, the presence of those Permian-Triassic magmatic-volcanic belts and back-arc basins in behind, indicates that at the time there were huge compressive activities: convergence of paleo-oceanic Pasific Plate moving westward, collided and subducted into the Southeastern Gondwana Continental Plate, moved relatively eastwards. This phenomenon resembles to the formation of Sumatera Tertiary tectonic zones producing back-arc basins, i.e. South Sumatera, Central, and North Sumatera Basins including the Tertiary Magmatic Arc. Concerning the similarity of Permian-Triassic geological condition of the magmatic arc and back-arc basins in Eastern Indonesia and Eastern Australia including paleoposition, paleotectonic setting, strati- graphic succession, and lithologic composition, it is suggested to carry out an increase in a more intens- ive tin exploration in the Eastern Indonesia, e.g. Bird Head area and Banggai Sula Island, and also for hydrocarbon target (coal, coalbed methane, oil and gas, and oil

  20. Palaeotopography-governed sediment distribution—a new predictive model for the Permian Upper Rotliegend in the Dutch sector of the Southern Permian Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mijnlieff, H.F.; Geluk, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Southern Permian Basin (SPB) formed a large, elongated saucer-shaped inland depression extending from the UK to Poland and from Belgium to Denmark. During the Middle to early Late Permian the SPB was filled progressively by playa sediments from its centre in northwestern Germany before it was fl

  1. Palynostratigraphy of Permian succession in the Mand–Raigarh Coalfield, Chhattisgarh, India and phytogeographical provincialism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srikanta Murthy; Ram-Awatar; Saurabh Gautam

    2014-12-01

    Palynofloras have been recorded from the Barakar Formation in the Borehole MBKW-3, Barpali–Karmitikra Block, Mand–Raigarh Coalfield, Chhattisgarh. Three distinct palynoassemblages have been identified and referred to the following palynoassemblage zones – Gondisporites raniganjensis (Latest Permian); Faunipollenites varius (latest Early Permian), and Scheuringipollenites barakarensis (late Early Permian). It is inferred that these deposits contain the representative palynoassamblages of Early to Late Permian in age. The First Appearance Datum (FAD)s of Arcuatipollenites pellucidus, A. ovatus, Guttulapollenites hannonicus, Lundbladispora microconata, Alisporites opii, Klausipollenites sp., and Goubinispora indica (at 41.95, 45.90, 98.35 m depths), indicate the closing phase of Permian, as these elements are the key species that mark a transition from Permian to the Lower Triassic. An attempt has been made here to reconstruct the phytogeographical provincialism on the basis of Guttulapollenites recorded in this basin.

  2. Palynostratigraphy of Permian succession in the Mand-Raigarh Coalfield, Chhattisgarh, India and phytogeographical provincialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Srikanta; Ram-Awatar; Gautam, Saurabh

    2014-12-01

    Palynofloras have been recorded from the Barakar Formation in the Borehole MBKW-3, Barpali-Karmitikra Block, Mand-Raigarh Coalfield, Chhattisgarh. Three distinct palynoassemblages have been identified and referred to the following palynoassemblage zones - Gondisporites raniganjensis (Latest Permian); Faunipollenites varius (latest Early Permian), and Scheuringipollenites barakarensis (late Early Permian). It is inferred that these deposits contain the representative palynoassamblages of Early to Late Permian in age. The First Appearance Datum (FAD)s of Arcuatipollenites pellucidus, A. ovatus, Guttulapollenites hannonicus, Lundbladispora microconata, Alisporites opii, Klausipollenites sp., and Goubinispora indica (at 41.95, 45.90, 98.35 m depth), indicate the closing phase of Permian, as these elements are the key species that mark a transition from Permian to the Lower Triassic. An attempt has been made here to reconstruct the phytogeographical provincialism on the basis of Guttulapollenites recorded in this basin.

  3. Complete cDNA sequence of human complement C1s and close physical linkage of the homologous genes C1s and C1r

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overlapping molecular clones encoding the complement subcomponent C1s were isolated from a human liver cDNA library. The nucleotide sequence reconstructed from these clones spans about 85% of the length of the liver C1s messenger RNAs, which occur in three distinct size classes around 3 kilobases in length. Comparisons with the sequence of C1r, the other enzymatic subcomponent of C1, reveal 40% amino acid identity and conservation of all the cysteine residues. Beside the serine protease domain, the following sequence motifs, previously described in C1r, were also found in C1s: (a) two repeats of the type found in the Ba fragment of complement factor B and in several other complement but also noncomplement proteins, (b) a cysteine-rich segment homologous to the repeats of epidermal growth factor precursor, and (c) a duplicated segment found only in C1r and C1s. Differences in each of these structural motifs provide significant clues for the interpretation of the functional divergence of these interacting serine protease zymogens. Hybridizations of C1r and C1s probes to restriction endonuclease fragments of genomic DNA demonstrate close physical linkage of the corresponding genes. The implications of this finding are discussed with respect to the evolution of C1r and C1s after their origin by tandem gene duplication and to the previously observed combined hereditary deficiencies of Clr and Cls

  4. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141574 Chen Hao(Exploration and Development Research Institute,Daqing Oilfield Company,Daqing 163712,China)High-Resolution Sequences and Coal Accumulating Laws in Nantun Formation of Huhe Lake Sag(Petroleum Geology&Oilfield Development in Daqing,ISSN1000-3754,CN23-1286/TQ,32(4),2013,p.15-19,5 illus.,15 refs.)Key words:coal accumulation regularity,coal

  5. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091159 Gao Yan(No.3 Prospecting Team of Anhui Bureau of Coal Geology,Suzhou 234000,China) Effect of Depositional Environment of Coal-Bearing Stratum on Major Coal Seams in Suntan Coalmine,Anhui Province(Geology of Anhui,ISSN 1005- 6157,CN34-1111/P,18(2),2008,p.114 -117,5 illus.,1 ref.,with English abstract)

  6. The Permian-Triassic boundary & mass extinction in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ian Metcalfe; Lance Black; Qu Xun; Mao Xiaodong; Robert S. Nicoll; Roland Mundil; Clinton Foster; Jonathan Glen; John Lyons; Wang Xiaofeng; Wang Cheng-yuan; Paul R. Renne

    2001-01-01

    @@ The first appearance of Hindeodus parvus (Kozur & Pjatakova) at the Permian-Triassic (P-T) GSSP level (base of Bed 27c) at Meishan is here confirmed. Hindeodus changxingensis Wang occurs from Beds 26 to 29 at Meishan and appears to be restricted to the narrow boundary interval immediately above the main mass extinction level in Bed 25. It is suggested that this species is therefore a valuable P-T boundary interval index taxon.

  7. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110359 Feng Lijuan(Graduate School,Southwest Petroleum University,Chengdu 610500,China);Guo Dali Experimental Study on the Stress Sensitivity of Coal and Its Impact on the Filtration of the Fracturing Fluid(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,38(2),2010,p.14-17,4 illus.,5 tables,9 refs.)Key words:coal seam,stressIn the paper,the relationship between the stress and permeability in the coal r

  8. Hooked: Habits of the Chinese Permian gigantopterid Gigantonoclea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfullah, Leyla J.; Glasspool, Ian J.; Hilton, Jason

    2014-04-01

    Based upon anatomical evidence, Permian aged gigantopterid fossils are in general reconstructed as climbing or scrambling plants. Gigantonoclea, a genus of adpressed gigantopterid foliage from the Permian of northern China, has been reported to co-occur with hook-like organs that were interpreted as indicating a scrambling/climbing habit. We reinvestigated these hook-like structures and re-evaluated the nature of the co-occurrences in context with the flora preserved in each plant-bearing fossil 'bed' in the North China sedimentary succession. New findings show that the species Gigantonoclea hallei probably climbed using specially adapted clusters of compound grappling hook-like shoots borne on the stems. This structural arrangement comprising shoots of hooks is new to the scrambling/climbing concept in gigantopterids. However, a key figured specimen previously reported as showing intermediate hook-tipped leaf morphology on a sole pinnule tip is discounted as such and is reinterpreted as a 'normal' pinnule partially hidden under sediment that results in an unusual appearance to this pinnule tip. Adaptations for climbing or scrambling based upon 'hooked leaves' observed in Gigantonoclea lagrelii are no longer supported and are reinterpreted as incompletely expanded leaves where the vernation process was interrupted. These data weaken prior interpretations of G. lagrelii as a climber/scrambler and raise doubts about the ubiquity of hooks amongst the gigantopterids as structures enabling them to climb or scramble their way through the Permian world.

  9. Spiral-shaped graphoglyptids from an Early Permian intertidal flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, Nicholas J.; Buatois, Luis A.; Lucas, Spencer G.; Braddy, Simon J.; Smith, Joshua A.

    2006-12-01

    Spiral-shaped foraging trace fossils, assigned to the grapho glyptid cf. Spirorhaphe azteca, are reported from an Early Permian intertidal flat in the Robledo Mountains of southern New Mexico, USA. Remarkably similar spiral-shaped structures are produced in modern intertidal flats by the paraonid polychaete Paraonis fulgens, and function as traps to capture mobile microorganisms migrating in the sediment in response to tides. We envisage a similar function for the Early Permian trace fossils. Previous studies have suggested that the lack of P. fulgens type traces from ancient intertidal deposits indicates that such behavior only evolved geologically recently in such settings. However, this report demonstrates that such specialized foraging behavior was present in intertidal settings by at least the Early Permian. Graphoglyptids are typical of deep-marine settings, and characteristic of the Nereites ichnofacies. This represents their first undoubted occurrence in intertidal facies in the geological record. We postulate that the occurrence of graphoglyptids in deep-marine and intertidal settings is related to the predictability of resources. The scarcity of intertidal graphoglyptids in the geological record is most likely a preservational effect.

  10. Lower Permian Dry Mountain trough, eastern Nevada: preliminary basin analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, D.L.; Snyder, W.S.; Spinosa, C.

    1987-08-01

    The Lower Permian Dry Mountain trough (DMT) is one of several basins that developed during the Late Pennsylvanian to Permian along the western edge of the North American continent. A tectonic mechanism has been suggested for the subsidence of the DMT, possibly due to reactivation of the Antler orogenic belt during the waning stages of Ancestral Rocky Mountain deformation. The DMT records marked subsidence with the appearance during the Artinskian (latest Wolfcampian) of a deeper water facies that consists of thin-bedded silty micrites and micritic mudstones rich in radiolarians and sponge spicules, characterized by a relative abundance of ammonoids, and rarer conodonts and Nereites ichnofacies trace fossils. Taxa recovered from a distinctive concretionary horizon at various locations provide an Artinskian datum on which to palinspastically reconstruct the DMT paleogeography. These taxa include ammonoids: Uraloceras, Medlicottia, Marathonites, Crimites, Metalegoceras, properrinitids; and conodonts: Neogondolella bisselli, Sweetognathus whitei, S. behnkeni, and Diplognathodus stevensi. The western margin facies of the DMT consists of Permian Carbon Ridge/Garden Valley Formations. Here, lowermost black Artinskianage euxinic micrites, considered a potential source rock for petroleum generation, are overlain by base-of-slope carbonate apron deposits, which, in turn, are overlain by base-of-slope carbonate apron deposits, which, in turn, are overlain by a thick, eastwardly prograding conglomerate wedge. Seismic profiles across Diamond Valley indicate a 3.0-4.6-km thick Tertiary sequence above the Paleozoic strata.

  11. Thecamoebians from Late Permian Gondwana sediments of peninsular India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Anjum; Aggarwal, Neha; Jha, Neerja

    2014-02-01

    The evolutionary history of thecamoebians (testate amoebae) extends back to the Neoproterozoic Era. However, until now, these have had a restricted, discontinuous and modest record across the world. The studied sediment of Raniganj Formation (Godavari Graben), Andhra Pradesh, India has been assigned as Late Permian on the basis of co-occurring age-diagnostic Late Permian palynomorphs. About sixteen thecamoebian species and one taxon incertae sedis have been recorded here in the palynological slides on the basis of shell morphology and morphometry. Out of these, five belong to the family Arcellidae, seven to Centropyxidae, two to Trigonopyxidae, one to Difflugiidae, one to Plagiopyxidae, and one is regarded incertae sedis. The morphometric characteristics of fossil forms resemble their corresponding extant species studied from ecologically diverse fresh water wetlands in India. In general, the ratio of shell diameter and aperture diameter of Late Permian fossil and extant specimens show significant correlation in all the studied species. Except that, the ratio of shell length and breadth is the distinguishing feature between Centropyxis aerophila and C. aerophila 'sylvatica', rather than the ratio of shell length and longest diameter of the shell aperture in both fossil and extant forms. The study elucidates the minimal morphological evolution in thecamoebians and their survival during mass extinction periods and stressful environmental conditions over the geological timescale. PMID:23876495

  12. A statistical test on diversity changes of Early and Middle Permian fusulinacean fauna in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI; Yukun; YANG; Xiangning

    2005-01-01

    The rarefaction analysis has been conducted to test the species diversity changes of the Early and Middle Permian fusulinacean fauna in South China. The results reveal that the number of species dramatically increased since the earliest Permian and quickly reached the maximum value in the early Zisongian representing the highest species diversity for the whole Early and Middle Permian. The species diversity stabilized in the plateau through the Zisongian;however, it started to decline in the following Longlinian and sustained a longstanding low level during the mid-Early Permian. With the appearance of new fusulinacean taxa with septulum structures, the number of species raised again in the late-Early Permian, followed by a decline in the Middle Permian Neoschwagerina simplex zone. Although the species diversity increased apparently in the Kuhfengian, it never rebounded back to the same level as in the Early Permian.In the mid-Middle Permian, species diversity began to decrease continuously and led to the disappearance of most fusulinacean species by the end of the Middle Permian.

  13. Explanation for peat-forming environments of coal seam 2 and 9-2 based on the maceral composition and aromatic compounds in the Xingtai coalfield, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yu-zhuang; QIN Shen-jun; LI Yan-heng; LIN Ming-yue; DING Shu-li

    2009-01-01

    Maceral composition and aromatic compounds were determined on column samples to study the peat-forming environments of Permian coal seam 2 and Carbonifer-ous coal seam 9-2 from the Xingtai coalfield,China.The macerals were dominated by iner-tinite in seam 2 and by vitrinite in seam 9-2.Three maceral groups were selected as indi-cators of peat-forming environments.Two triangle diagrams were drawn based on the in-dicators to explicate the peat-forming environments of permian seam 2 and Carboniferous seam 9-2.The results indicate that the peat of carboniferous seam 9-2 formed dominantly in wet swamps,whereas the peat of Permian seam 2 formed dominantly in dry swamps and open moor environments.

  14. Permian U-Pb (CA-TIMS) zircon ages from Australia and China: Constraining the time scale of environmental and biotic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denyszyn, S. W.; Mundil, R.; Metcalfe, I.; He, B.

    2010-12-01

    In eastern Australia, the interconnected Bowen and Sydney Basins are filled with terrestrial sediments of late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic age. These sedimentary units record significant evolutionary events of eastern Gondwana during the time interval between two major mass extinctions (end Middle Permian and Permian-Triassic), and also provide lithological evidence for the Carboniferous-Permian Late Paleozoic Ice Age of southern Pangea, considered to be divisible into up to seven discrete glaciation events in Australia [e.g., 1]. These glaciations are currently assigned ages that indicate that the last of the glaciations predate the end Middle Permian mass extinction at ca. 260 Ma. However, the estimates for the time and durations are largely based on biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy that, in the absence of robust and precise radioisotopic ages, are unacceptably fragile for providing an accurate high-resolution framework. Interbedded with the sediments are numerous tuff layers that contain zircon, many of which are associated with extensive coal measures in the Sydney and Bowen Basins. Published SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages [2, 3] have been shown to be less precise and inaccurate when compared to ages applying the CA-TIMS method to the same horizons. Also within the late Middle Permian, the eruption of the Emeishan flood basalts in SW China has been proposed to have caused the end Middle Permian mass extinction [e.g., 4], though a causal link between these events demands a rigorous test that can only be provided by high-resolution geochronology. We present new U-Pb (CA-TIMS) zircon ages on tuff layers from the Sydney and Bowen Basins, with the purpose of generating a timescale for the Upper Permian of Australia to allow correlation with different parts of the world. Initial results, with permil precision, date a tuff layer within the uppermost Bandanna Fm. to ca. 252 Ma, a tuff within the Moranbah Coal Measures to ca. 256 Ma, and a tuff within the Ingelara Fm. to

  15. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  16. Coal Rank and Stratigraphy of Pennsylvanian Coal and Coaly Shale Samples, Young County, North-Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Edgar H.; Breton, Caroline; Hackley, Paul C.

    2007-01-01

    Vitrinite reflectance measurements were made to determine the rank of selected subsurface coal and coaly shale samples from Young County, north-central Texas, for the National Coal Resources Database System State Cooperative Program conducted by the Bureau of Economic Geology at The University of Texas at Austin. This research is the continuation of a pilot study that began in adjacent Archer County, and forms part of a larger investigation of the coalbed methane resource potential of Pennsylvanian coals in north-central Texas. A total of 57 samples of coal and coaly shale fragments were hand-picked from drill cuttings from depths of about 2,000 ft in five wells, and Ro determinations were made on an initial 10-sample subset. Electric-log correlation of the sampled wells indicates that the collected samples represent coal and coaly shale layers in the Strawn (Pennsylvanian), Canyon (Pennsylvanian), and Cisco (Pennsylvanian-Permian) Groups. Coal rank in the initial sample subset ranges from lignite (Ro=0.39), in a sample from the Cisco Group at a depth of 310 to 320 ft, to high volatile bituminous A coal (Ro=0.91) in a sample from the lower part of the Canyon Group at a depth of 2,030 to 2,040 ft.

  17. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111830 Cai Hou’an(State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safety Mining,China University of Mining and Technology,Beijing 100083,China);Xu Debin The Discovery of Thrust Nappe Structure in Zhangwu-Heishan Area,Liaoning Province and Its Significance for Coal-Searching(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,38(5),2010,p.1-6,5 illus.,31 refs.)Key words:coalfield prediction,nappe structure,Liaoning Province Zhangwu-Heishan area in west Liaoning Province is an important perspective area for alternative resources in the periphery of Fuxin Basin.Based on r

  18. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122522 Guo Dongxin ( School of Energy Resource,China University of Geosciences,Bei-jing 100083,China );Tang Shuheng Sequence Strata and the Coal Accumulation of Wunite Coafield,Inner Mongolia ( Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155 / P,39 ( 6 ), 2011,p.1-5,5illus.,16refs. ) Key words:sequence stratigraphy,coal accumulation regularity,Inner Mongolia Based on the study of the stratigraphy sequence of the Bayanhua Formation of Lower Cretaceous in Wunite coafield ,

  19. Shadowing and Inverse Shadowing for C1 Endomorphisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jun ZHU; Jin Lian ZHANG; Lian Fa HE

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the shadowing and the inverse shadowing properties for C1 endomorphisms. We show that near a hyperbolic set a C1 endomorphism has the shadowing property, and a hyperbolic endomorphism has the inverse shadowing property with respect to a class of continuous methods. Moreover, each of these shadowing properties is also "uniform" with respect to C1 perturbation.

  20. The paleoclimate of the Kazanian (early Late Permian) world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, G.T. (Chevron Oil Field Research Co., La Habra, CA (USA)); Peoples, C.J. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The Kazanian (early Late Permian, 258-253 m.y.) marked the onset of a unique interval in the Phanerozoic, distinguished by a classic end-member case of continental assembly, the megacontinent Pangaea. Compilation of biostratigraphic and lithofacies data indicate a warm, extensively arid world, largely ice free, and characterized by the onset of atmospheric conditions that were exceedingly stressful to the biosphere, the worst of the eon. Using Chevron's version of the Community Climate model, the authors report here on two Kazanian paleoclimate seasonal simulations, one using 200 ppm CO{sub 2} and the other with 2,000 ppm CO{sub 2}. The authors consider the knowledge of plate assembly back to the Permian accurate enough to allow employment of a seasonal model. Simulation of a warmer Earth with an elevated greenhouse effect (modeled as CO{sub 2}) fits the observed geology and isotope signals. The increased CO{sub 2} experiment warmed the entire planet with the greatest increases north of 50{degree} latitude and least changes in the tropics. The warming caused the poleward retreat of sea ice in both hemispheres. Precipitation and evaporation increased, but runoff was confined to areas of very intense rainfall. Monsoons are limited to the southern hemisphere, associated with the western Tethys sea and the eastern equatorial Panthalassa ocean. Extreme southeastern Pangaea (northern Australia) was a focus of precipitation throughout the year. Precipitation occurred in the higher latitudes (50-55{degree}) on the western coast, of Pangaea where storm tracks make landfall. High evaporation rates characterized the restricted Permian (US), Zechstein, and Perm (Soviet Union) basins, a time of evaporite, deposition. Interior Pangaea at middle to high latitudes endured frigid winters ({minus}40{degree}C) and torrid summers (60{degree}C).

  1. Permian and Triassic Sequence Stratigraphy and Sea Level Changes of Eastern Yangtze Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The Permian and marine Triassic of eastern Yangtze platform, situated in eastern China, involve 19 orthosequences lasting about 2.7 Ma on average, which can be combined into five orthosequence sets ranging from 8 Ma to 12 Ma. Affected by the regional Dongwu and Indosinian movements, the sequence stratigraphic pattern and sea level changes in the Permian and Triassic of this region are distinctive and obviously different from most other regions in the world, but typical in the broad eastern Tethys and its neighboring areas. In this region not only did the continuous marine Permian and Triassic boundary sequences cause the orthosequence crossing the boundary belonging to type-Ⅱ sequence but also the mesosequence including these stratigraphic intervals had its basal boundary in the upper Longlinian (Artinskian) (ca. 278 Ma), that is, the traditional Carboniferous and Permian boundary, and its top boundary moved from the Permian and Triassic boundary upward into the Anisian of Middle Triassic.

  2. Studies on Parataxospermum taiyuanensis gen. et sp. nov. from coal balls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.M. (Academia Sinica, Beijing (China). Institute of Botany)

    1993-05-03

    This paper reports on a new genus and a new species of the Order Cardiocarpales, Parataxospermum taiyuanensis gen. et sp. nov., which is described from coal balls of the Upper Carboniferous (or lower Permian) in the Shanxi Province, China. The taxon is described and its taxonomic position and affinities are discussed in detail. In addition, a three-dimensional reconstruction technique using computer graphics is utilized to reconstruct external images of the seeds.

  3. Late Carboniferous to Late Permian carbon isotope stratigraphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggisch, Werner; Krainer, Karl; Schaffhauser, Maria;

    2015-01-01

    . Negative δ13C excursions are related to low-stand deposits and caused by diagenetic processes during subaerial exposure. The comparison with δ13C records from other parts of the world demonstrate that δ13C values are high in most unaltered samples, an overall negative trend during the Permian, as recently...... published, is not obvious and negative excursions related to changes in the carbon isotope composition of the global oceanic carbon pool cannot be confirmed, except for the Permian–Triassic boundary interval....

  4. Sequence-stratigraphic frameworks and their palaeogeographic patterns for the Permian Lopingian of the Dianqiangui Basin and its adjacent areas of Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Permian Lopingian in the Dianqiangui Basin and its adjacent areas is marked by the coal measures of the Wuchiapingian and the carbonate strata of the Changhsingian stages. For the Lopingian of the Dianqiangui Basin and its adjacent areas,the diversity of sedimentary facies and the obviousness of facies change provide an advantaged condition on a study of sequence stratigraphy. Approximately,the Wuchiapingian stage constitutes a third-order sequence and the Changhsingian stage forms an-other. For the Wuchiapingian stage in the study area,coal-measures were developed on the attached platform and,in addition,a special coal-measure that is composed of both limestone beds and coal beds was also developed in the central part of some isolated platforms. Grain-bank grainstones and packstones were formed on the margin of the attached platform as well as in the windward part of iso-lated platforms. For the Changhsingian stage in the study area,open-platform limestones were formed on the attached platform,while sponge-reef limestones were developed both on the margin of the at-tached platform and on the isolated platforms. The Lopingian Series is a set of basin-facies muddy shales with interbeds of silicalites in the inter-platform basin,which appears a set of the large-thick coarse clastic strata of molasses covering direct the deep-water strata from the Devonian to the Per-mian Yangsingian in the Qinzhou-Fangcheng region in the southern part of the study area. All of these features indicate the complexity of temporal-spatial facies-changes. Sequence-stratigraphic frame-works could be established,which would illustrate two types of facies-changing surfaces and dia-chronisms in the stratigraphic records,based on the combination of both biostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic materials and the regularity reflected by temporal evolutionary succession of sediments as well as spatial distributional patterns of sedimentary facies. Ultimately,features of sedi

  5. Application of Markov chain and entropy analysis to lithologic succession – an example from the early Permian Barakar Formation, Bellampalli coalfield, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ram Chandra Tewari; D P Singh; Z A Khan

    2009-10-01

    A statistical approach by a modified Markov process model and entropy function is used to prove that the early Permian Barakar Formation of the Bellampalli coal field developed distinct cyclicities during deposition.From results,the transition path of lithological states typical for the Bellampalli basin is as:coarse to medium-grained sandstone → interbedded fine-grained sandstone/shale → shale → coal and again shale.The majority of cycles are symmetrical but asymmetrical cycles are present as well.The chi-square stationarity test implies that these cycles are stationary in space and time.The cycles are interpreted in terms of in-channel,point bar and overbank facies association in a fluvial system.The randomness in the occurrence of facies within a cycle is evaluated in terms of entropy,which can be calculated from the Markov matrices.Two types of entropies are calculated for every facies state;entropy after deposition (post)and entropy before deposition (pre),which together form entropy set;the entropy for the whole system is also calculated.These values are plotted and compared with Hattori ’s idealized plots,which indicate that the sequence is essentially a symmetrical cycle (type-B of Hattroi). The symmetrical cyclical deposition of early Permian Barakar Formation is explained by the lateral migration of stream channels in response to varying discharge and rate of deposition across the alluvial plain.In addition,the fining upward cycles in the upper part enclosing thick beds of fine clastics,as well as coal may represent differential subsidence of depositional basin.

  6. Coal 99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1998. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1998 was 680 000 tons and somewhat lower than in 1997. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of waterpower. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. During 1998 these figures are 1 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. Steel-works, however, increase their use of steam coal in order to replace the more expensive coke. The import of metallurgical coal in 1998 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.1 mill tons of coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.4 mill tons from which 0.3 mill tons were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has ordered a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has put a fluid bed boiler for various fuels into operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm Energi, Haesselbyverket, has invested

  7. Climate, decay, and the death of the coal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbett, David; Blanchette, Robert; Kenrick, Paul; Mills, Benjamin

    2016-07-11

    After death, most of the biological carbon in organisms (Corg) is returned to the atmosphere as CO2 through the respiration of decomposers and detritivores or by combustion. However, the balance between these processes is not perfect, and when productivity exceeds decomposition, carbon sequestration results. An unparalleled interval of carbon sequestration in Earth's history occurred during the Late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) and Permian Periods (ca. 323-252 Ma), when arborescent vascular plants related to living club mosses (Lycophytes), ferns (Monilophytes), horsetails (Equisetophytes) and seed plants (Spermatophytes) formed extensive forests in coastal wetlands. On their death, these plants became buried in sediments, where they transformed into peat, lignite, and, finally, coal.

  8. Climate, decay, and the death of the coal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbett, David; Blanchette, Robert; Kenrick, Paul; Mills, Benjamin

    2016-07-11

    After death, most of the biological carbon in organisms (Corg) is returned to the atmosphere as CO2 through the respiration of decomposers and detritivores or by combustion. However, the balance between these processes is not perfect, and when productivity exceeds decomposition, carbon sequestration results. An unparalleled interval of carbon sequestration in Earth's history occurred during the Late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) and Permian Periods (ca. 323-252 Ma), when arborescent vascular plants related to living club mosses (Lycophytes), ferns (Monilophytes), horsetails (Equisetophytes) and seed plants (Spermatophytes) formed extensive forests in coastal wetlands. On their death, these plants became buried in sediments, where they transformed into peat, lignite, and, finally, coal. PMID:27404250

  9. Panjal Paleomagnetism: Implications for Early Permian Gondwana break-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, D.; Aitchison, J.; Ali, J. R.; Ahmad, T.; Ahmad Dar, R.; Agarwal, A.; Roeder, T.

    2013-12-01

    The mid-Early Permian represents an important phase in Pangaea's development marking the time when the >13,000 km-long string of terranes that are collectively known as 'Cimmeria' separated from Gondwana's Tethyan margin (northern Africa-NE Arabia-northern India-NW and northern Australia). The ~289 Ma Panjal Traps of NW India (Kashmir) are one of a number of mafic suites (Abor, Sikkim etc.) that were erupted onto the Indian block possibly during the separation of the Lhasa/SE Qiangtang block. Herein, we report data from the first modern paleomagnetic study of the unit. Results from four quarry sections (15 individual cooling units) from a locality close to Srinagar together form a tectonically coherent sequence spanning 2-3 km of stratigraphy. The derived direction and paleopole yield key new information concerning (1) the Early Permian location of India, and by inference that of central Gondwana, and (2) inform debates related to Cimmeria's breakup from eastern Gondwana. Moreover, they provide a new independent control for assessing NW Greater India's extent prior to its collision with Asia and the amount of vertical-axis rotation this sector of the Himalayan range experienced in the mid to late Cenozoic.

  10. Flourishing ocean drives the end-Permian marine mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schobben, Martin; Stebbins, Alan; Ghaderi, Abbas; Strauss, Harald; Korn, Dieter; Korte, Christoph

    2015-08-18

    The end-Permian mass extinction, the most severe biotic crisis in the Phanerozoic, was accompanied by climate change and expansion of oceanic anoxic zones. The partitioning of sulfur among different exogenic reservoirs by biological and physical processes was of importance for this biodiversity crisis, but the exact role of bioessential sulfur in the mass extinction is still unclear. Here we show that globally increased production of organic matter affected the seawater sulfate sulfur and oxygen isotope signature that has been recorded in carbonate rock spanning the Permian-Triassic boundary. A bifurcating temporal trend is observed for the strata spanning the marine mass extinction with carbonate-associated sulfate sulfur and oxygen isotope excursions toward decreased and increased values, respectively. By coupling these results to a box model, we show that increased marine productivity and successive enhanced microbial sulfate reduction is the most likely scenario to explain these temporal trends. The new data demonstrate that worldwide expansion of euxinic and anoxic zones are symptoms of increased biological carbon recycling in the marine realm initiated by global warming. The spatial distribution of sulfidic water column conditions in shallow seafloor environments is dictated by the severity and geographic patterns of nutrient fluxes and serves as an adequate model to explain the scale of the marine biodiversity crisis. Our results provide evidence that the major biodiversity crises in Earth's history do not necessarily implicate an ocean stripped of (most) life but rather the demise of certain eukaryotic organisms, leading to a decline in species richness. PMID:26240323

  11. Paleomagnetism of Permian and Triassic rock, central Chilean Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Randall D.; Kent, Dennis V.; Mpodozis, Constantino; Davidson, John

    The first paleomagnetic data from Permian and Triassic formations west of the Andean divide are presented. Four formations of Permian or Triassic age in the central Chilean Andes have been investigated: two are located in the coastal ranges, and two are in the main cordillera. Of the formations in the main cordillera (Pastos Blancos and Matahuaico formations), only the Pastos Blancos Formation has yielded characteristic directions. While a fold test is absent, magnetizations are most likely secondary and yield pre-tilt corrected concordant inclinations, but yield declinations discordant 30° clockwise in comparison to the South American apparent polar wander path. Both formations from the coastal ranges (Cifuncho and Pichidangui formations) yielded stable directions. Postfolding magnetizations in the Cifuncho Formation also show declinations discordant 30° clockwise and concordant inclinations. The Pichidangui Formation has two stable components: one of postfolding age is concordant to apparent polar wander path data, and one of probable prefolding (Late Triassic) age is concordant in declination, but discordant in inclination. Further work is needed to better define the prefolding magnetizations in the Pichidangui Formation, but at present these preliminary results are the first paleomagnetic signs of displaced terranes along the Pacific margin of Chile. If correct, the results suggest that the Pichidangui Formation was some 15° of latitude farther south during the Late Triassic and had likely moved northward to its present latitudinal position with respect to cratonic South America by Middle to Late Jurassic.

  12. Depositional Environment of Permian Tak Fa Formation, Nakhonsawan, Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketwetsuriya, Chatchalerm; Nützel, Alexander; Kanjanapayont, Pitsanupong

    2016-04-01

    The carbonate rocks of the study area at Amphoe Tak Fa and Amphoe Takhli, Changwat Nakhon Sawan belong to the Tak Fa Formation, Saraburi Group. This formation crops out in the Khao Khwang Platform and consists of late Palaeozoic carbonate platform deposits. It reaches a thickness of 900 meters and crops out in a vast area. The exposures have been measured and samples were collected for petrographic study. The rock consists of limestones, argillaceous limestones, mudstones and dolomites with nodular and banded cherts, which comprise many invertebrate fossils such as fusulinids, ammonoid, pelecypod, gastropod, coral and bryozoa. Many of the fossils are silicified. The gastropod assemblage is currently under study and represents one of the most diverse faunas reported from SE Asia. The age of the rock is Yakhtashian or Artinskian (late Early Permian) to Midian or Capitanian (late Middle Permian). The study of carbonate facies and fauna indicates that the depositional environment was on shelf lagoon within the carbonate platform varying from shallow marine to barrier bar.

  13. The Universal Askey-Wilson Algebra and DAHA of Type (C_1^∨,C_1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Terwilliger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Around 1992 A. Zhedanov introduced the Askey-Wilson algebra AW(3. Recently we introduced a central extension $Delta_q$ of AW(3 called the universal Askey-Wilson algebra. In this paper we discuss how $Delta_q$ is related to the universal DAHA $hat H_q$ of type$(C^vee_1, C_1$. Our main result is an algebra injection $psi: Delta_q o hat H_q$. We compute the image under $psi$ of various central elements in $Delta_q$. We describe how the Artin braid group $B_3$ acts on $Delta_q$ and $hat H_q$. We show that $psi$ commutes with these $B_3$ actions.

  14. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2005-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  15. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  16. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the first six months of the subject contract (DE-FC26-02NT-4159), from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003.

  17. High influx of carbon in walls of agglutinated foraminifers during the Permian-Triassic transition in global oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestell, Galina P.; Nestell, Merlynd K.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Basu, Asish R.; Ghosh, Nilotpal; Phuong Lan, Luu Thi; Rowe, Harry D.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Tomkin, Jonathan H.; Ratcliffe, Kenneth T.

    2015-01-01

    The Permian–Triassic mass extinction is postulated to be related to the rapid volcanism that produced the Siberian flood basalt (Traps). Unrelated volcanic eruptions producing several episodes of ash falls synchronous with the Siberian Traps are found in South China and Australia. Such regional eruptions could have caused wildfires, burning of coal deposits, and the dispersion of coal fly ash. These eruptions introduced a major influx of carbon into the atmosphere and oceans that can be recognized in the wallstructure of foraminiferal tests present in survival populations in the boundary interval strata. Analysis of free specimens of foraminifers recovered from residues of conodont samples taken at aPermian–Triassic boundary section at Lung Cam in northern Vietnam has revealed the presence of a significant amount of elemental carbon, along with oxygen and silica, in their test wall structure, but an absence of calcium carbonate. These foraminifers, identified as Rectocornuspira kalhori, Cornuspira mahajeri, and Earlandia spp. and whose tests previously were considered to be calcareous, are confirmed to be agglutinated, and are now referred to as Ammodiscus kalhori and Hyperammina deformis. Measurement of the 207Pb/204Pb ratios in pyrite clusters attached to the foraminiferal tests confirmed that these tests inherited the Pb in their outer layer from carbon-contaminated seawater. We conclude that the source of the carbon could have been either global coal fly ash or forest fire-dispersed carbon, or a combination of both, that was dispersed into the Palaeo-Tethys Ocean immediately after the end-Permian extinction event.

  18. Formation of phreatomagmatic pipes in the Tunguska Basin (Siberia, Russia) during the end-Permian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polozov, Alexander; Svensen, Henrik; Planke, Sverre

    2010-05-01

    We recently proposed that numerous pipes piercing sedimentary rocks of Tunguska Basin triggered the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (Svensen et al., 2009). Large amounts of greenhouse and poisonous gases were released through the pipes and into P-Tr atmosphere, partly formed by heating of petroleum-bearing evaporites. The sub-volcanic part of the Siberian Traps was emplaced in the Tunguska Basin sedimentary sequences, which includes Pre-Cambrian source rocks, Early Cambrian evaporites, and Paleozoic terrigenous and coal-bearing rocks. Spectacular breccia pipes are numerous in the evaporate-parts of the basin, and are filled with volcaniclastic rocks and commercial magnetite mineralization. Although these pipes have been intensively studied in order to understand the iron ore formation, the origin and formation of the pipes is poorly understood. Many researchers emphasize that magma-sediments interaction as a key reason of pipe formation, whereas phreatomagmatic hypothesis are also proposed. In order to improve the understanding of pipe formation and ore-deposition, we have studied a basalt-rich breccia pipe piercing Cambrian evaporates at the Nepa locality in East Siberia. Textural features of the volcanic fragments in the breccias include lapilli, Pele's hear, glassy basalt and dolerite clasts, blocks of tuffs in addition to sedimentary rocks. Calcite and halite are the most common types of cement. We have studied minerals from the breccia cement and from reaction rims around clasts in order to understand the hydrothermal system that developed after the pipe formed. Calcite and dolomite are the dominating carbonates, and two types of anhydrite is present. Biotite, Cl-Fe-bearing amphibole (hastingsite), and Cl-F-apatite are amongst early hydrothermal minerals covering magmatic clast and lapillies. Our new data confirm (i) the phreatomagmatic nature of breccia filling in the Tunguska Basin pipes and (ii) the key role of sedimentary brine and petroleum involved in

  19. Anti-C1q antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orbai, A-M; Truedsson, L; Sturfelt, G;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Anti-C1q has been associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis in previous studies. We studied anti-C1q specificity for SLE (vs rheumatic disease controls) and the association with SLE manifestations in an international multicenter study. METHODS: Information...... in combination with anti-dsDNA and low complement was the strongest serological association with renal involvement. These data support the usefulness of anti-C1q in SLE, especially in lupus nephritis....

  20. Direct interaction between CD91 and C1q

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Karen; Hansen, Erik W; Tacnet, Pascale;

    2010-01-01

    . C1q binding to monocytes was shown to be correlated with CD91 expression and could be inhibited by the CD91 chaperone, receptor-associated protein. We also report data showing a direct interaction between CD91 and C1q. The interaction was investigated using various protein interaction assays....... A direct interaction between purified C1q and CD91 was observed both by ELISA and a surface plasmon resonance assay, with either C1q or CD91 immobilized. The interaction showed characteristics of specificity because it was time-dependent, saturable and could be inhibited by known ligands of both CD91 and C...

  1. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091749 Cai Hou’an(College of Energy Geology,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Xu Debin SHRIMP U-Pb Isotope Age of Volcanic Rocks Distributed in the Badaohao Area,Liaoning Province and Its Significance(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,36(4),2008,p.17-20,2 illus.,1 table,16 refs.)Key words:coal measures,volcanic rocks,U-Pb dating,LiaoningA set of andesite volcanic rocks distributes in the Badaohao area in Heishan County,Liaoning Province.It’s geological age and stratigraphy sequence relationship between the Lower Cretaceous Badaohao Formation and the volcanic rocks can not make sure till now and is influencing the further prospect for coals.Zircon

  2. The Cathaysia Flora and the Mixed Late Permian Cathaysian-Angaran Floras in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The Cathaysia flora, one of the most prominent floras of the Carboniferous and Permian, was mainly distributed in East Asia and was characterized by numerous endemic elements. China is one of the most important localities of the Cathaysia flora and it is also the center of origin of this flora. This paper reviews and discusses the characteristics of the Cathaysia flora and the biogeographically mixed Permian Cathaysian-Angaran floras of East Asia. In addition, the formative mechanism of the mixed Permian floras is also discussed.

  3. New Species of the Isolated Psaroniaceous Rachis from the Early Permian in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new kind of marattlalean raches are reported from the coal balls in Coal Seam No.7 in the upper part of the Taiyuan Formation (early Early Permian) from Taiyuan, Shanxi, China and are assigned to the genus Stipitopteris Grand'Eury(Psaroniaceae). The present specimens are different from all six reported species of the genus, and are therefore proposed as a new species: Stipitopteris shanxiensis. The raches of the new species are generally dorsi-ventrally flattened. The main raches usually exhibit scales of different forms on their surface. Beneath the epidermis is a zone of parenchymatous cells, some of which contain tannin-like contents. Inside this is a zone of small sclerenchymatous cells. Inward are the ground tissue and vascular bundles. The vascular bundles are continuous and are in two circles: the outer circle assumes a transversely elliptical shape with the gap and pinna trace, and the inner circle assumes a shallow C-shape with inrolled ends. The ground tissue located at the inner side of the vascular bundle is composed of thicker-walled parenchymatous cells. The cells of the ground tissue are vertically elongated in longitudinal sections. Subordered raches are smaller and have simpler structures than the main raches. The parenchyma zone beneath the epidermis is thinner, usually one to two cells wide and the sclerenchyma zone is usually absent. The scales are poorly developed and there is only one C-shaped vascular bundle. The new species is comparable to the crosiers of Psaronlaceae of the EurameHcan Flora in some aspects,for example, it has a dorsi-ventrally flattened rachis and scales on the surface of the rachis. However, the other features and the preservative conditions of the present specimens indicate that they are not crosiers, but fully developed or mature raches. The new species is the first well-studied anatomically-preserved rachis of Psaroniaceae from the Cathaysian Flora and bears significance not only in understanding the anatomy and

  4. Ocean redox change at the Permian-Triassic mass extinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhl, Micha; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Canfield, Donald Eugene;

    2013-01-01

    and marine (mass) ex¬tinction. The geographic and temporal extend and the intensity (ferruginous vs. euxinic) of anoxic con¬ditions is, however, strongly debated and not well constraint. This complicates understanding of close coupling between Earth’s physical, chemical and bi¬ological processes. We studied...... ocean redox change over the largest mass extinction event in Earth history, at the Permian-Tri¬assic boundary (at ~252 Ma). This event is marked by a major perturbation in the global exogenic carbon cycle (and associated major negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE)), likely initiated by carbon...... (anoxic but not euxinic) coinciding with the main extinction event. Molybdenum enrichments, often indicative for freely available sulfide in the water-column, only occur dur¬ing the second phase of euxinia. This pattern of ocean redox-change in Svalbard direct¬ly reflects similar trends in Greenland...

  5. Calculating eustatic amplitude of Middle Permian from reefs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亚生; 范嘉松

    2002-01-01

    Methods for calculating ancient eustatic change amplitudes according to reef fabric- facies are proposed, with a new method for determining sediment-loading subsidence. Compared with methods based on non-reefal deposits, these methods are more accurate in restoration of original sediment thickness, determination of sediment-loading subsidence, as well as restoration of ancient water depth. According to the reef in Guangxi, China, the amplitude of sea-level rise during Middle Permian (Neoschwagerina-Yabeina zone) is 249.5 m. According to the coeval reef of the Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico and Texas, the coeval sea-level rise is 247 m. With these effective methods available, it is feasible to establish more accurate eustatic curve of Phanerozoic.

  6. Content of arsenic, selenium, mercury in the coal, food, clay and drinking water on the Zhaotong fluorosis area, eastern Yunnan Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Kun-li; Li Hui-jie; Chen Tong-bin (and others) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research

    2008-03-15

    About 160 samples of coal, corn, capsicum and drinking water were collected from the endemic fluorosis area of Zhenxiong and Weixin County, Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province, to determine the arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) content by AAF-800. The study found that the As content in the main coal seam from the Late Permian coal mines in Zhaotong City is 8.84 mg/kg and some civil coal can reach 89.09 mg/kg. The Se and Hg in the coal samples of Late Permian is lower, but Se and Hg are more concentrated in the pyritic coal balls and the pyritic gangue of the coal seam. The As content in corn and capsicum dried by coal-burning is more than 0.7 mg/kg, the natural standard amount of arsenic content permitted in food by China. The Se and Hg content in corn dried by coal-burning is lower than the natural standard of Se and Hg content in food in China but the Se and Hg content of capsicum dried by coal-burning exceeds the amount permitted by the natural standard for food in China. Clay, used as an additive for the coal-burning process and as a binder in making briquettes, contains a high content of As, generally more than 16 mg/kg. However, the Se and Hg content of clay itself are low. The As, Se and Hg content of drinking water are lower than the natural standard of As, Se and Hg content in the drinking water. So, there is high-As content coal and high-As content dried corn and capsicum in the endemic fluorosis area of Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province. The high As content of the dried corn and capsicum might have originated from the high arsenic content of burnt coal and clay. 30 refs., 4 tabs.

  7. Mg Isotopes of the Late Permian Evaporites, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, C.; Gao, C. H.; Chang, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Mg isotope holds promise to decipher the evaporative environment of evaporites. High-precision Mg isotope compositions of the late Permian langbeinites have been measured by using MC-ICPMS. The equilibrium Mg isotope fractionation factor between langbeinite and aqueous Mg2+ solutions has been determined using quantum chemistry calculations. All computations are employed at B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p) level and solvation effects are treated by solvent model ("water-droplet" approach), mineral structures are constructed using volume variable cluster models (VVCM). The Mg isotope compositions of the langbeinite samples, whose total formation thickness ranges up to 100 meters, are extremely isotopically lighter than that of modern seawater and relatively homogeneous (δ26MgDSM3 is from -4.12±0.03‰ to -3.81±0.07‰ v.s. -0.83‰ of modern seawater). The computed equilibrium Mg isotope fractionation factors between langbeinite and aqueous Mg2+ solutions are -2.73‰, -2.66‰ and -2.53‰ at 25, 30 and 40 ℃, respectively. These significant equilibrium fractionation factors indicate that a huge equilibrium Mg isotope fractionation between langbeinite and its parent brine can happen during langbeinite depositions, and langbeinites are enriched in isotopically light 24Mg comparing to the brine. Using the computed fractionation factors to simulate a Rayleigh fractionation process of langbeinite Mg precipitation, we find that a significant Mg isotope difference between langbeinite and its growing brine (seawater) is indeed present but the Mg isotope composition of langbeinite merely increase monotonically in a closed system. Because of that, the homogenous Mg isotope compositions of such a thick evaporite sequence suggest a disequlibrium effect rather than an equilibrium Mg isotope fractionation behavior during its formation. Combined with its prevailing Mg-bearing character, the homogenous Mg isotope compositions reveal that this the late Permian langbeinite sequence has

  8. Coal Mines Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Milind E. Rane

    2012-01-01

    Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, auto...

  9. Preliminary Study on the PGE Geochemistry of the Permian Basalts in the Jinping Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nian Hong; Shen Wei; Zhang Xueshu

    2006-01-01

    To disclose and study the magma genesis of the Permian basalts in the Jinping (金平)area, the PGE and Au contents of the Permian basalts in the Jinping area were assayed by use of the ICP-MS method. The PGE data show relatively strong differentiation of basaltic magma in comparison with the primitive mantle. The primitive mantle-normalized pattern is a left-dipping curve of the Pd-Pt enriched type. The Pd/Ir ratios of the PGE of the Permian basalts in the Jinping area are higher than those of the primitive mantle and the upper primitive mantle and the chondrite meteorite. The Pd/Ir ramaterial source. It is concluded that they are derived from the basaltic magma of the upper mantle source with a lower melting degree, which shares the similar magma material source with the Emeishan Permian basalts as a whole.

  10. New evidence for 250 Ma age of halotolerant bacterium from a Permian salt crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, Cindy L.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Vreeland, Russell H.; Rosenzweig, William D.; Powers, Dennis W.

    2005-04-01

    The purported oldest living organism, the spore-forming bacterium Virgibacillus sp. Permian strain 2 9-3, was recently cultured from a brine inclusion in halite of the 250 Ma Permian Salado Formation. However, the antiquity of Virgibacillus sp. 2 9-3 has been challenged; it has been argued that the halite crystal and the fluid inclusion from which the bacterial spores were extracted may be younger than the Permian Salado salts. Here we report that brine inclusions from the same layer of salt that housed Virgibacillus sp. 2 9-3 are composed of evaporated Late Permian seawater that was trapped in halite cement crystals precipitated syndepositionally from shallow groundwater brines at temperatures of 17 37 °C. These results support the 250 Ma age of the fluid inclusions, and by inference, the long-term survivability of microorganisms such as Virgibacillus sp. 2 9-3.

  11. Origin of banded structure and coal lithotype cycles in Kargali coal seam of East Bokaro sub-basin, Jharkhand, India: Environmental implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ram Chandra Tewari; Zahid A Khan

    2015-04-01

    The Kargali seam of Early Permian Barakar cyclothems of East Bokaro sub-basin of Jharkhand, India is 12–30 m thick, splits into two parts, and extends throughout the length of the basin. It is made up of interbedded sequences and variable proportions of Vitrain, Clarain, Durain and Fusain. Application of embedded Markov chain model rejects the phenomenon of randomness in the repetition of coal lithotypes. The preferential upward transition path for coal lithotypes that can be derived for the Kargali top coal seam is: Vitrain → Clarain → Durain ↔ Fusain → Vitrain, and for the Kargali bottom coal seam is: Clarain ↔ Vitrain → Fusain → Durain → Clarain. By and large, the cyclic repetition of coal lithotypes is similar in the Kargali bottom and top seams. Among the noteworthy features are two-way transitions between Durain and Fusian in Kargali top and between Clarain and Vitrain in the case of Kargali bottom coal seam. Entropy analysis corroborates Markov chain and indicates the presence of type A-4 asymmetrical cycles of coal lithotypes. It is suggested that the banded structure of a coal seam is not a random feature and follows a definite cyclic pattern in the occurrence of coal lithotypes in vertical order and is similar to that described in Australian and European coal seams. Asymmetrical cyclic sequences are a normal, rather than an unusual condition, within coal seams. It is visualized that a gradual decline of toxic environment and ground water level resulted in the coal lithotype cycles in the Kargali seam of East Bokaro sub-basin. The close interbedding of Vitrain and Clarain is suggestive of seasonal fluctuation in anaerobic and aerobic conditions during peat formation.

  12. The Lopingian Series of China and End-Permian Mass Extinction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yugan; SHEN Shuzhong; WANG Xiangdong; WANG Yue; CAO Changqun

    2011-01-01

    The end-Permian mass extinction is the greatest bioevent in the geological history, which wiped out nearly 95% of the marine species and 75% of the terrestrial species,followed by a biological winter for more than five million years.The cause and the process of the end-Permian mass extinction remain an unsolved mystery in earth science and one of the most difficult and interesting scientific problems.

  13. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  14. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  15. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  16. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  17. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

    1993-05-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10'' to 20'' API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area.

  18. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

    1993-05-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10`` to 20`` API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area.

  19. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10'' to 20'' API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area

  20. Vertical seismic profiling in coal. [Sydndy Basin coalfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, S.A.; Suprajitno, M.

    1985-08-01

    The intellection (understanding) of seismic wave propagation in coal measures demands direct observation of the wavefield progression. Two vertical seismic profiles with high spatial and temporal sampling, were recently recorded in the Sydney Basin coalfields as part of an experimental coal seismic program. Static corrections and interval velocities were obtained by an automated system to determine first kicks and pulse rise times. Upgoing and downgoing waves were separated in the f - k-plane using a novel technique of contour slice filtering. The isolated upgoing waves clearly display reflections from the major coal seams within the stratigraphic sequence. The downgoing wave spectra were subjected to attenuation analysis. The deduced specific quality factor Q for Permian coal measure rocks lies in the range 20-70. Similar estimates were obtained in the time domain from measurements of pulse broadening. Synthetic VSP seismograms, computed using an exact recursive formulation, are an indispensable aid to interpretation. They illustrate the filtering effects of coal seams and sequences, and the effects of the contribution of internal and free-surface multiple reflections in the recorded wavetrains.

  1. Permian-Triassic boundary interval as a model for forcing marine ecosystem collapse by long-term atmospheric oxygen drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidlich, O.; Kiessling, W.; Flügel, E.

    2003-11-01

    Ecological traits of reefs across the Permian-Triassic boundary interval coincide with a modeled decline of atmospheric oxygen throughout the Permian Period. Selective extinction and recovery patterns within the reef system are observed both at the end of the middle Permian (end-Guadalupian) and at the Permian-Triassic boundary. The end-Guadalupian event selectively affected corals and broke down the cool-water carbonate factory. Sponges, however, were largely unaffected and bloomed in reefs toward the end of the Permian. The end-Permian total destruction of the metazoan reef system only left behind poorly diverse microbial communities. The temporal reef patterns are thus similar to spatial patterns of modern benthic communities approaching oxygen minimum zones. This observation suggests that a decline in oxygen concentrations was at least partly involved in the destruction of reefs, even where there is no direct evidence of oceanic anoxia.

  2. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140318Chen Xinwei(Reserves Evaluation Center of Xinjiang,Urumqi 830000,China);Li Shaohu Analysis on Sequence Stratigraphy Based on Jurassic Outcrop in Kuqa-Bai Coalfield(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,32(1),2013,p.77-82,2illus.,12refs.,with English abstract)Key words:sequence stratigraphy,coal accumulation regularity,Xinjiang

  3. Characterization of an Upper Permian tight aas reservoir : a multidisciplinary, multiscale analysis from the Rotliegend, Northern Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Antrett, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes a multidisciplinary, multiscale approach to the analysis of tight gas reservoirs. It focused initially on the facies architecture of a Permian tight gas field in the Southern Permian Basin (SPB), East Frisia, Northern Germany. To improve field development, 3D seismic data, wireline and core data were compared to a reservoir analogue in the Panamint Valley, California, United States. Depositional environments of the Permian Upper Rotliegend II included perennial saline la...

  4. An Exact Bosonization Rule for c=1 Noncritical String Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ishibashi, N.; A. Yamaguchi

    2007-01-01

    We construct a string field theory for c=1 noncritical strings using the loop variables as the string field. We show how one can express the nonrelativistic free fermions which describes the theory, in terms of these string fields.

  5. Unilateral extended suboccipital approach for a C1 dumbbell schwanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgan R.M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Craniovertebral junction tumors represent a complex pathology carrying a high risk of injuring the vertebral artery and the lower cranial nerves. Dumbbell C1- C2 schannomas are very rare tumors in this location. We present a case of a 66 years old male accepted for left laterocervical localized pain, headache and vertigo, with a large C1 dumbbell schwannoma extending in lateral over the C1 arch and displacing the C3 segment of the vertebral artery superiorly and anteriorly. Complete removal of the tumor was achieved using a far lateral approach. The approach is discussed with focus on the vertebral artery anatomy as the approach should give enough space to gain control of the artery without creating instability. Safe removal of C1 nerve root schwanomas can be achieved even if they compress and displace the vertebral artery by entering a fibrous tissue plane between the tumor and the vertebral artery.

  6. Potential Roles for C1 Inhibitor in Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Mel; Baldwin, William M; Jordan, Stanley C

    2016-07-01

    Complement is a major contributor to inflammation and graft injury. This system is especially important in ischemia-reperfusion injury/delayed graft function as well as in acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). The latter is increasingly recognized as a major cause of late graft loss, for which we have few effective therapies. C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) regulates several pathways which contribute to both acute and chronic graft injuries. However, C1-INH spares the alternative pathway and the membrane attack complex (C5-9) so innate antibacterial defenses remain intact. Plasma-derived C1-INH has been used to treat hereditary angioedema for more than 30 years with excellent safety. Studies with C1-INH in transplant recipients are limited, but have not revealed any unique toxicity or serious adverse events attributed to the protein. Extensive data from animal and ex vivo models suggest that C1-INH ameliorates ischemia-reperfusion injury. Initial clinical studies suggest this effect may allow transplantation of donor organs which are now discarded because the risk of primary graft dysfunction is considered too great. Although the incidence of severe early AMR is declining, accumulating evidence strongly suggests that complement is an important mediator of chronic AMR, a major cause of late graft loss. Thus, C1-INH may also be helpful in preserving function of established grafts. Early clinical studies in transplantation suggest significant beneficial effects of C1-INH with minimal toxicity. Recent results encourage continued investigation of this already-available therapeutic agent.

  7. Raining lead around 250mya a smoking gun for an Australian impact origin of the Permian Extinction

    CERN Document Server

    Standard, J C

    2003-01-01

    Recent documentation of extreme atmospheric sulfur and methane contents at the time of the vast Permo-Triassic (P-T) extinction makes it possible to interpret an observation that has lain unnoticed in the geological literature for 40 years. This is the finding of microscopic metallic lead tear drops in the fluvial strata of the early Triassic sandstones that overlie Permian coal beds and other sedimentary deposits in the Sydney basin of Australia. Elemental lead is almost unknown in nature, so its occurrence in these graphite-loaded sandstones is a provocative finding. While climate change and vulcanism could explain the carbon and sulfur anomalies, the only way to account for metallic lead aerodynamic droplets is by massive impact and vaporization of lead mineral-containing formations. Since lead occurs geologically as the sulfide and since lead is an easily reduced element, its occurrence in conjunction with sulfur and carbon count anomalies suggests a bolide impact on carbon-loaded strata in a sulfide mine...

  8. Coal - proximate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-14

    This Standard establishes a practice for the proximate analysis of coal, that is, the coal is analysed for the content of moisture, ash and volatile matter; fixed carbon is calculated. The standard provides a basis for the comparison of coals.

  9. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  10. A high-pyrite semianthracite of Late Permian age in the Songzao Coalfield, southwestern China: Mineralogical and geochemical relations with underlying mafic tuffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Wang, X.; Chen, W.; Li, D.; Chou, C.-L.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, Chen; Li, H.; Zhu, Xudong; Xing, Y.; Zhang, W.; Zou, J.

    2010-01-01

    The No. 12 Coal (Late Permian) in the Songzao Coalfield, Chongqing, southwestern China, is characteristically high in pyrite and some trace elements. It is uniquely deposited directly above mafic tuff beds. Samples of coal and tuffs have been studied for their mineralogy and geochemistry using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence, plasma low-temperature ashing plus powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis.The results show that the minerals of the No. 12 Coal are mainly composed of pyrite, clay minerals (kaolinite, chamosite, and illite), ankerite, calcite, and trace amounts of quartz and boehmite. Kaolinite and boehmite were mainly derived from sediment source region of mafic tuffs. Chamosite was formed by the reaction of kaolinite with Fe-Mg-rich fluids during early diagenesis. The high pyrite (Sp,d=8.83%) in the coal was related to marine transgression over peat deposits and abundant Fe derived from the underlying mafic tuff bed. Ankerite and calcite were precipitated from epigenetic fluids.Chemical compositions of incompatible elements indicate that the tuffs were derived from enriched mantle and the source magmas had an alkali-basalt character. Compared to other coals from the Songzao Coalfield and common Chinese coals, the No. 12 Coal has a lower SiO2/Al2O3 (1.13) but a higher Al2O3/Na2O (80.1) value and is significantly enriched in trace elements including Sc (13.5??g/g), V (121??g/g), Cr (33.6??g/g), Co (27.2??g/g), Ni (83.5??g/g), Cu (48.5??g/g), Ga (17.3??g/g), Y (68.3??g/g), Zr (444??g/g), Nb (23.8??g/g), and REE (392??g/g on average). Above mineralogical compositions, as well as similar ratios of selected elements (e.g., SiO2/Al2O3 and Al2O3/Na2O) and similar distribution patterns of incompatible elements (e.g., the mantle-normalized diagram for incompatible elements and chondrite-normalized diagram for rare earth elements) of coal and tuff, indicated that

  11. The Pattern and Evolution of the Permian Palaeobiogeography and Tectonic Palaeogeography in Jilin and Heilongjiang Orogenic Belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Xiangdong; Li Xiaomin; Liu Pengju

    2000-01-01

    The orogenic belt locates between the North China plate and Siberia plate. The Permian palaeobiogeography and tectonic palaeogeography changed quickly and clearly. The line from Changchun to Yanji is an important palaeobiogeographic provincing line, which may be the collission suture belt of the North China plate and north middle massifs. The orogenic belt has been divided into 2 regions: the North middle massif region and the North Margin of North China plate, the pattern and evolution of Permian palaeobiogeography in the present area were discussed and the Permian biota mixture and its significants were analysed. Then, Based on the above, the Permian tectonic palaeogeography of the orogenic belt is reconstructed.

  12. Petrographic and geochemical contrasts and environmentally significant trace elements in marine-influenced coal seams, Yanzhou mining area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gaisheng; Yang, P.; Peng, Z.; Chou, C.-L.

    2004-01-01

    The Yanzhou mining area in west Shandong Province, China contains coals of Permian and Carboniferous age. The 31 and 32 seams of the Permian Shanxi Formation and seams 6, 15-17 of the Carboniferous Taiyuan Formation were analyzed for coal petrology, mineralogy and geochemical parameters. The parameters indicate that the coal is high volatile bituminous in rank. The coal is characterized by high vitrinite and low to medium inertinite and liptinite contents. These properties may be related to evolution of the coal forming environment from more reducing conditions in a marine influenced lower delta plain environment for the early Taiyuan coals to more oxidizing paleoenvironments in an upper delta plain for the upper Shanxi coal seams. The major mineral phases present in the coal are quartz, kaolinite, pyrite and calcite. Sulfur is one of the hazardous elements in coal. The major forms of sulfur in coal are pyritic, organic and sulfate sulfur. Pyritic and organic sulfur generally account for the bulk of the sulfur in coal. Elemental sulfur also occurs in coal, but only in trace to minor amounts. In this paper, the distribution and concentration of sulfur in the Yanzhou mining district are analyzed, and the forms of sulfur are studied. The sulfur content of the Taiyuan coal seams is considerably higher than that of the Shanxi coals. Organic sulfur content is positively correlated to total and pyritic sulfur. The vertical variation of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Th, U and sulfur contents in coal seam 3 of the Shanxi Formation in the Xinglongzhuang mine show that all these trace elements, with the exception of Th, are enriched in the top and bottom plies of the seam, and that their concentrations are also relatively high in the dirt bands within the seam. The pyritic sulfur is positively correlated with total sulfur, and both are enriched in the top, bottom and parting plies of the seam. The concentrations of the trace elements are closely related to sulfur and ash contents. Most of

  13. Grain-rimming kaolinite in Permian Rotliegend reservoir rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Svenja; Gaupp, Reinhard

    2016-04-01

    Upper Rotliegend sediments of Permian age from the northeast Netherlands show moderate to good reservoir qualities. The predominant control is by the presence of authigenic grain-rimming kaolinite, which has a negative, but in some parts also a positive, effect on reservoir quality. To better understand the formation and distribution of grain-rimming kaolinite, reservoir rocks were studied in terms of composition and diagenetic processes. Petrographic evidence, summarized as a paragenetic sequence, is integrated with geochemical modeling results to identify early mesodiagenetic water-rock interactions under the participation of gases, i.e., CO2 and H2S, released from underlying Carboniferous source rocks. The sediments investigated were deposited at varying distance from the southern flank of the Southern Permian Basin. Sediments near the basin margin are mainly attributed to a fluvial environment and comprise medium to coarse-grained sandstones and conglomerates. There, vermicular kaolinite occurs with a lath-like structure. Distal to the basin margin, mainly in sandstones intercalated with fine-grained playa sediments, comparatively high amounts of grain-rimming kaolinite occur. There, the presence of this mineral has a significant influence on the rock properties and the reservoir quality. Geochemical modeling suggests that the formation of such kaolinites cannot be explained exclusively by in situ feldspar dissolution. The modeling results support evidence that kaolinite can be formed from precursor clay minerals under the presence of CO2-rich formation waters. Such clay minerals could be corrensite, smectite-chlorite mixed-layer minerals, or chlorite that is potentially present in Rotliegend sediments during early diagenesis. Furthermore, the geochemical modeling can reflect several mineral reactions that were identified from petrographic analysis such as the formation of illite and kaolinite at the expense of feldspar dissolution and consequent silica

  14. C1q 肾病的诊断及治疗%Diagnosis and treatment of C1 q nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪兆慧; 金海姣; 徐维佳

    2015-01-01

    C1 q nephropathy is a glomerular disorder with prominent mesangial proliferation.It is characterized by mesangial dense deposits under electron microscopy and C1 q deposits under immunofluorescence microscopy.The histologic pattern of C1 q nephropathy can be divided into three kinds:minimal change disease (MCD),focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS ),and immune-mediated proliferative glomerulonephritis.Its clinical presentation is heterogenous,ranging from nephritic to nephrotic proteinuria,with or without hematuria and renal insufficiency.Glucocorticoids remain the mainstay of treatment.Most studies indicated poor response of C1 q nephropathy to glucocorticoids.The treatment of integrated Chinese and western medicine for C1 q nephropathy is promising.%C1 q 肾病是一种以系膜增生为主的肾小球疾病,其特点为免疫荧光染色可见系膜区高强度 C1 q 沉积,电镜下可见系膜区电子致密物沉积,根据组织病理学特点主要分为3类,包括微小病变(MCD)、局灶节段性肾小球硬化(FSGS)和免疫介导的增生性肾小球肾炎。C1 q 肾病的临床表现具有多样性,可表现为肾炎或肾病范围内蛋白尿,伴有或不伴有血尿和肾功能损伤。虽然目前糖皮质激素是治疗 C1 q 肾病的主要方法,但多数研究认为 C1 q 肾病对糖皮质激素治疗反应较差。中西医结合治疗有望提高 C1 q 肾病的疗效。

  15. An Early Permian fusuline fauna from southernmost Peninsular Thailand: Discovery of Early Permian warming spikes in the peri-Gondwanan Sibumasu Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Katsumi; Arita, Michiko; Meno, Satomi; Sardsud, Apsorn; Saesaengseerung, Doungrutai

    2015-05-01

    An Early Permian fusuline fauna is reported from the Tarn To Formation of the Yala area in southernmost Peninsular Thailand, which geotectonically belongs to the peri-Gondwanan Sibumasu Block. The fauna consists of Pseudofusulina and Praeskinnerella? species, including forms closely resembling Tethyan and Panthalassan Pseudofusulina fusiformis and Pseudofusulina ex gr. kraffti. A Yakhtashian-Bolorian age is estimated for this fauna. In Sibumasu, shallow-marine biotas showing similar Tethyan affinities, such as the fusulines Misellina and alatoconchid bivalves, also occur in the Early Permian succession of the Kinta Valley area in western Peninsular Malaysia. These unusual Tethyan faunas within Early Permian peri-Gondwanan fossil records suggest episodic influences from paleo-tropical Tethyan biotas. They are here interpreted as showing short-term warming spikes during the late Yakhtashian-Bolorian transgression, which would facilitate sporadic migration and temporal inhabitation of warm-water dwellers into the eastern Cimmerian areas. The Yala and Kinta Valley fusuline and other invertebrate faunas would give us a new insight for the Permian geohistory and environmental change of the peri-Gondwanan Sibumasu Block.

  16. Fullerenes and interplanetary dust at the Permian-Triassic boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreda, Robert J; Becker, Luann

    2003-01-01

    We recently presented new evidence that an impact occurred approximately 250 million years ago at the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB), triggering the most severe mass extinction in the history of life on Earth. We used a new extraterrestrial tracer, fullerene, a third carbon carrier of noble gases besides diamond and graphite. By exploiting the unique properties of this molecule to trap noble gases inside of its caged structure (helium, neon, argon), the origin of the fullerenes can be determined. Here, we present new evidence for fullerenes with extraterrestrial noble gases in the PTB at Graphite Peak, Antarctica, similar to PTB fullerenes from Meishan, China and Sasayama, Japan. In addition, we isolated a (3)He-rich magnetic carrier phase in three fractions from the Graphite Peak section. The noble gases in this magnetic fraction were similar to zero-age deep-sea interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and some magnetic grains isolated from the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. The helium and neon isotopic compositions for both the bulk Graphite Peak sediments and an isolated magnetic fraction from the bulk material are consistent with solar-type gases measured in zero-age deep-sea sediments and point to a common source, namely, the flux of IDPs to the Earth's surface. In this instance, the IDP noble gas signature for the bulk sediment can be uniquely decoupled from fullerene, demonstrating that two separate tracers are present (direct flux of IDPs for (3)He vs. giant impact for fullerene).

  17. Simulated warm polar currents during the middle Permian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winguth, A.M.E.; Kutzbach, J.E. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Center for Climatic Research; Heinze, C.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Mikolajewicz, U. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Rowley, D.; Rees, A.; Ziegler, A.M. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Geophysical Sciences

    2001-05-01

    During Permian Stage 6 (Wordian, Kazanian) the Pangaean supercontinent was surrounded by a superocean - Panthalassa. An ocean general circulation model has been coupled to an atmospheric energy balance model to simulate the sensitivity of the Wordian climate ({proportional_to}265 million years ago) to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations, high latitude geography, and Earth orbital configurations. The model shows a high sensitivity of the ocean circulation to changes in the greenhouse gas forcing, ranging from a forceful southern circulation at low CO{sub 2} concentration (present level) to a more symmetric circulation cell with deep water formation in both hemispheres at high CO{sub 2} concentration (8 x present level). The simulated climate with 4 x present level CO{sub 2} concentration agrees generally well with climate-sensitive sediments and phytogeographic patterns. In this experiment, the model simulates strong subtropical gyres with similarities to the modern South Pacific circulation and moderate surface temperatures on the southern continent Gondwana, resulting from a strong poleward heat transport in the ocean. An even more moderate climate can be generated if high latitude land is removed so that ocean currents can penetrate into the polar regions or if orbital configurations favor high summer insolation over Gondwana. (orig.)

  18. Electrokinetic transport behavior of phenol in upper Permian soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haus, R.; Zorn, R.; Czurda, K.; Ruthe, H. [Dept. of Applied Geology, Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Electrokinetic experiments with upper Permian, phenol contaminated soils ('Solaris'-area Chemnitz) were performed. Bench scale results show the successful removal of phenol. The developing soil-pH during electroremediation tests is found to affect the transport behavior of phenol strongly. If buffer solutions are used at the electrode compartments, phenol could be removed from the soils. By neutralizing the generating hydrogen ions at the anode reservoir the hydroxyl ions developing at the cathode by the electrolysis of water enter the soil and propagate to the anode by increasing the soil pH. The pH dependent dehydroxylation of phenol promotes the electromigration of negative charged phenolate ions from the cathode to the anode. At the anode the coupling of phenoxyl-radicals supports the formation of non toxic, water insoluble polyoxyphenylene by electro-polymerization. In the case of buffering the pH at the cathode uncharged phenol is transported by electroosmosis from the anode to the cathode because of the nonexisting base front and the unhindered production of hydrogen ions at the anode. (orig.)

  19. Diagenetic and detrital origin of moretane anomalies through the Permian-Triassic boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Katherine L.; Tosca, Nicholas J.; Cao, Changqun; Summons, Roger E.

    2012-05-01

    Many biogeochemical anomalies coincide with the Late Permian Extinction (LPE; 252.28 Ma). Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the moretane/hopane anomaly that has been identified in samples from Meishan GSSP section in southeastern China. Here, we report homohopane, 2α- and 3β-methylhomohopane and lithological data for a drill core from the Meishan section in southeastern China. Three intervals of elevated C30 moretane/hopane ratios are recorded in the Lungtan, Yinkeng and Helongshan Formations. Moretane/hopane ratios of C31-34 homohopanes and the 2α- and 3β-methylhomohopanes display the same stratigraphic patterns as the C30 moretane/hopane record. In light of the multiple and parallel moretane anomalies for the homohopane and 2α- and 3β-methylhomohopane series, enhanced input from higher plant organic matter, such as coal and peat, does not adequately explain the observed isomer patterns. Correlation of high moretane/hopane ratios with low C35 Homohopane Index (HHI) and high hopane/sterane values suggest increased input of hopanoids from oxic soils. Additionally, moretane/hopane ratios show excellent correlations with total clay percentages and specific clay types, particularly chlorite, illite, and mixed layer illite/smectite. We conclude that a combination of episodic hopanoid input from soil bacteria and diagenetic effects related to redox and detrital clays generated the unique moretane/hopane patterns at Meishan. Similar relationships of Ts/(Ts + Tm) with redox, source indicators, and lithology indicate that Ts/(Ts + Tm) is affected by the same factors controlling the moretane/hopane ratios. Berthierine, a clay that requires reducing conditions for formation, was detected in samples from the Lungtan Formation. We are unable to determine from our results whether the berthierine is authigenic or detrital, but future determination of the origin of berthierine at Meishan may offer additional environmental insight. No link between diasteranes

  20. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2006-03-30

    Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe

  1. Bioessential element-depleted ocean following the euxinic maximum of the end-Permian mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Yamasaki, Shin-ichi; Ogawa, Yasumasa; Kimura, Kazuhiko; Kaiho, Kunio; Yoshida, Takeyoshi; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2014-05-01

    We describe variations in trace element compositions that occurred on the deep seafloor of palaeo-superocean Panthalassa during the end-Permian mass extinction based on samples of sedimentary rock from one of the most continuous Permian-Triassic boundary sections of the pelagic deep sea exposed in north-eastern Japan. Our measurements revealed low manganese (Mn) enrichment factor (normalised by the composition of the average upper continental crust) and high cerium anomaly values throughout the section, suggesting that a reducing condition already existed in the depositional environment in the Changhsingian (Late Permian). Other redox-sensitive trace-element (vanadium [V], chromium [Cr], molybdenum [Mo], and uranium [U]) enrichment factors provide a detailed redox history ranging from the upper Permian to the end of the Permian. A single V increase (representing the first reduction state of a two-step V reduction process) detected in uppermost Changhsingian chert beds suggests development into a mildly reducing deep-sea condition less than 1 million years before the end-Permian mass extinction. Subsequently, a more reducing condition, inferred from increases in Cr, V, and Mo, developed in overlying Changhsingian grey siliceous claystone beds. The most reducing sulphidic condition is recognised by the highest peaks of Mo and V (second reduction state) in the uppermost siliceous claystone and overlying lowermost black claystone beds, in accordance with the end-Permian mass extinction event. This significant increase in Mo in the upper Changhsingian led to a high Mo/U ratio, much larger than that of modern sulphidic ocean regions. This trend suggests that sulphidic water conditions developed both at the sediment-water interface and in the water column. Above the end-Permian mass extinction horizon, Mo, V and Cr decrease significantly. On this trend, we provide an interpretation of drawdown of these elements in seawater after the massive element precipitation event

  2. String beta function equations from c=1 matrix model

    CERN Document Server

    Dhar, A; Wadia, S R; Dhar, Avinash; Mandal, Gautam; Wadia, Spenta R

    1995-01-01

    We derive the \\sigma-model tachyon \\beta-function equation of 2-dimensional string theory, in the background of flat space and linear dilaton, working entirely within the c=1 matrix model. The tachyon \\beta-function equation is satisfied by a \\underbar{nonlocal} and \\underbar{nonlinear} combination of the (massless) scalar field of the matrix model. We discuss the possibility of describing the `discrete states' as well as other possible gravitational and higher tensor backgrounds of 2-dimensional string theory within the c=1 matrix model. We also comment on the realization of the W-infinity symmetry of the matrix model in the string theory. The present work reinforces the viewpoint that a nonlocal (and nonlinear) transform is required to extract the space-time physics of 2-dimensional string theory from the c=1 matrix model.

  3. Safety and Usage of C1-Inhibitor in Hereditary Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedl, Marc A; Bygum, Anette; Lumry, William;

    2016-01-01

    of this study was to describe safety and usage patterns of pnfC1-INH. METHODS: A multicenter, observational, registry was conducted between 2010 and 2014 at 30 United States and 7 European sites to obtain both prospective (occurring after enrollment) and retrospective (occurring before enrollment) safety...... and usage data on subjects receiving pnfC1-INH for any reason. RESULTS: Of 343 enrolled patients, 318 received 1 or more doses of pnfC1-INH for HAE attacks (11,848 infusions) or for prophylaxis (3142 infusions), comprising the safety population. Median dosages per infusion were 10.8 IU/kg (attack treatment......) and 16.6 IU/kg (prophylaxis). Approximately 95% of infusions were administered outside of a health care setting. No adverse events (AEs) were reported in retrospective data. Among prospective data (n = 296 subjects; 9148 infusions), 252 AEs were reported in 85 (28.7%) subjects (rate of 0.03 events...

  4. Tectonic implications of post-folding Permian magnetizations in the Carapacha Basin, La Pampa province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomezzoli, Renata N.; Melchor, Ricardo N.; MacDonald, William D.

    2006-10-01

    Paleomagnetic results from Permian clastic and igneous rocks of the Carapacha Basin of the Gondwáides orogenic zone of central Argentina are mainly consistent with results reported previously from the same zone further east, e.g., in the Sierra de la Ventana. Three lithologic entities were analysed: the lower member and upper member of the Carapacha Formation, and an andesite intrusive into the upper member. The directions of their characteristic remanences are similar, differ significantly from the present field direction, and are post-folding. The in situ magnetization directions are moreover consistent with directions expected for late Permian poles of the APWP for South America. The in situ pole for the lower Carapacha Formation is 70°S, 049°E, A95=11° (San Roberto pole); the pole for the upper Carapacha, combined with similar directions from the intrusive, is 64°S, 005°E, A95=5° (Río Curacó pole). These magnetizations imply that the Carapacha Formation, with a minimum age of early Late Permian (about 260 Ma.), was deformed before the end of the Permian. Structural evidence, as well as paleomagnetic, IRM, and AMS experimental results, support the interpretations. The paleogeographic implications of these results are interpreted as a significant counterclockwise movement of Gondwana between the early and the late Permian.

  5. Calcimicrobialite after end-Permian mass extinction in South China and its palaeoenvironmental significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yongbiao; TONG Jinnan; WANG Jiasheng; ZHOU Xiugao

    2005-01-01

    Calcimicrobialites, which could be correlated to the layer 27 in Meishan section according to the Hindeodus parvus, occur abruptly on the end-Permian mass extinction boundary in South China. Microbialites mainly distribute on the top of reef facies or shallow carbonate platforms, thinning into deep facies. All the microbialites discovered are composed of micrite and coarse crystal digitate carbonate or patch carbonate. Microfossils usually dominate in the microbialites, and small gastropods, bivalves and ostracodes can also be found. This fossil assemblage represents a simple but particular remanent biota after the end-Permian mass extinction on the top of reefs or shallow carbonate platforms.Abrupt occurrence of microbialites above the mass extinction boundary is the ecological response to the end-Permian global event in reef or shallow carbonate facies. Many studies have been done on the Permian-Triassic boundary and event in deep water facies sections or middle to lower shelf facies sections. However, the calcimicrobialites in South China are mainly located above reef facies or shallow carbonate platform facies. It will surely be helpful for people to know more about the different responses in different depths of ancient marine environment during the transition between Permian and Triassic by the study of petrology,palaeontology and palaeoecology of the calcimicrobialites.

  6. Two pulses of oceanic environmental disturbance during the Permian-Triassic boundary crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jun; Feng, Qinglai; Algeo, Thomas J.; Li, Chao; Planavsky, Noah J.; Zhou, Lian; Zhang, Mingliang

    2016-06-01

    Pyrite morphology, iron speciation, and pyrite sulfur isotope data from the Xiakou section (Hubei Province, South China) were integrated to explore oceanic environmental variations through the Permian-Triassic transition and their possible relations to the largest mass extinction in Earth history. High ratios of highly-reactive iron to total iron (FeHR/FeT > 0.6) and pyrite iron to highly-reactive iron (FePy/FeHR > 0.7) together with a high abundance of small (mean diameter 0.6) along with lower values of FePy/FeHR (<0.7) and more variable framboid content among samples indicate anoxic but dominantly ferruginous conditions punctuated by episodic euxinic events in the latest Permian to earliest Triassic (post-extinction interval). The largest fluctuations of these redox proxies are observed in the ∼1.0 m of strata directly overlying the first (latest Permian) extinction horizon, indicating unsettled marine environmental conditions marked by frequent perturbations during the ∼60-kyr interval immediately following the mass extinction. The two largest redox events at Xiakou coincided with deposition of volcanic ash layers that have been correlated with Beds 25 and 28 of the Meishan D section, each of which was associated with an extinction pulse (the first and second extinction horizons of latest Permian and earliest Triassic age, respectively). Thus, our observations document two pulses of oceanic environmental change during the Permian-Triassic transition, each associated with a faunal crisis and possibly triggered by contemporaneous volcanic activity.

  7. Novel C-1 Substituted Cocaine Analogs Unlike Cocaine or Benztropine

    OpenAIRE

    Reith, Maarten E.A.; Ali, Solav; Hashim, Audrey; Sheikh, Imran S.; Theddu, Naresh; Gaddiraju, Narendra V.; Mehrotra, Suneet; Schmitt, Kyle C.; Murray, Thomas F.; Sershen, Henry; Unterwald, Ellen M.; Davis, Franklin A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite a wealth of information on cocaine-like compounds, there is no information on cocaine analogs with substitutions at C-1. Here, we report on (R)-(−)-cocaine analogs with various C-1 substituents: methyl (2), ethyl (3), n-propyl (4), n-pentyl (5), and phenyl (6). Analog 2 was equipotent to cocaine as an inhibitor of the dopamine transporter (DAT), whereas 3 and 6 were 3- and 10-fold more potent, respectively. None of the analogs, however, stimulated mouse locomotor activity, in contrast...

  8. Mineralogical and Geochemical Compositions of the No. 5 Coal in Chuancaogedan Mine, Junger Coalfield, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the mineralogy and geochemistry of the Early Permian No. 5 coal from the Chuancaogedan Mine, Junger Coalfield, China, using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Low-temperature ashing X-ray diffraction (LTA-XRD in combination with Siroquant software, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The minerals in the No. 5 coal from the Chuancaogedan Mine dominantly consist of kaolinite, with minor amounts of quartz, pyrite, magnetite, gypsum, calcite, jarosite and mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S. The most abundant species within high-temperature plasma-derived coals were SiO2 (averaging 16.90%, Al2O3 (13.87%, TiO2 (0.55% and P2O5 (0.05%. Notable minor and trace elements of the coal include Zr (245.89 mg/kg, Li (78.54 mg/kg, Hg (65.42 mg/kg, Pb (38.95 mg/kg, U (7.85 mg/kg and Se (6.69 mg/kg. The coal has an ultra-low sulfur content (0.40%. Lithium, Ga, Se, Zr and Hf present strongly positive correlation with ash yield, Si and Al, suggesting they are associated with aluminosilicate minerals in the No. 5 coal. Arsenic is only weakly associated with mineral matter and Ge in the No. 5 coals might be of organic and/or sulfide affinity.

  9. Pediatric hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkas Henriette

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary angioedema (HAE resulting from the deficiency of the C1 inhibitor (C1-INH is a rare, life-threatening disorder. It is characterized by attacks of angioedema involving the skin and/or the mucosa of the upper airways, as well as the intestinal mucosa. In approximately 50 per cent of cases, clinical manifestations may appear during childhood. The complex management of HAE in pediatric patients is in many respects different from the management of adults. Establishing the diagnosis early, preferably before the onset of clinical symptoms, is essential in cases with a positive family history. Complement studies usually afford accurate diagnosis, whereas molecular genetics tests may prove helpful in uncertain cases. Appropriate therapy, supported by counselling, suitable modification of lifestyle, and avoidance of triggering factors (which primarily include mechanical trauma, mental stress and airway infections in children may spare the patient unnecessary surgery and may prevent mortality. Prompt control of edematous attacks, short-term prophylaxis and intermittent therapy are recommended as the primary means for the management of pediatric cases. Medicinal products currently used for the treatment of children with hereditary angioedema include antifibrinolytics, attenuated androgens, and C1-INH replacement therapy. Current guidelines favour antifibrinolytics for long-term prophylaxis because of their favorable safety profile but efficacy may be lacking. Attenuated androgens administered in the lowest effective dose are another option. C1-INH replacement therapy is also an effective and safe agent for children. Regular monitoring and follow-up of patients are necessary.

  10. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-1 - Trade or business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...)-7, inclusive, the term “trade or business”, for the purpose of the tax on self-employment income... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(c)-1 Trade or business. In order for an individual to have net earnings from self-employment, he must carry on a trade or business, either as...

  11. 26 CFR 1.678(c)-1 - Trusts for support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.678(c)-1 Trusts for support... cotrustee, to apply the income of the trust to the support or maintenance of a person whom the holder is obligated to support, except to the extent the income is so applied. See paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) of §...

  12. Ocean anoxia did not cause the Latest Permian Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proemse, Bernadette C.; Grasby, Stephen E.; Wieser, Michael E.; Mayer, Bernhard; Beauchamp, Benoit

    2014-05-01

    The Latest Permian Extinction (LPE, ~252 million years ago) was a turning point in the history of life on Earth with a loss of ~96% of all marine species and ~70% of all terrestrial species. While, the event undoubtedly shaped the evolution of life its cause remains enigmatic. A leading hypothesis is that the global oceans became depleted in oxygen (anoxia). In order to test this hypothesis we investigated a proxy for marine oxygen levels (molybdenum isotopic composition) in shale across the LPE horizon located on the subtropical northwest margin of Pangea at that time. We studied two sedimentary records in the Sverdrup basin, Canadian High Arctic: Buchanan Lake (eastern Axel Heiberg Island; 79° 26.1'N, 87° 12.6'W), representing a distal deep-water slope environment, and West Blind Fiord (southwest Ellesmere Island; 78° 23.9'N, 85° 57.2'W), representing a deep outer shelf environment (below storm wave base). The molybdenum isotopic composition (δ98/95Mo) of sediments has recently become a powerful tool as a paleo-oceanographic proxy of marine oxygen levels. Sample preparation was carried out in a metal-free clean room facility in the isotope laboratory of the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Canada, that is supplied by HEPA-filtered air. Molybdenum isotope ratios were determined on a Thermo Scientific multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) with an uncertainty better than ±0.10o for δ98/95Mo values. Results from the Buchanan Lake section show a large shift in δ98/95Mo values from 2.02o to +2.23o at the extinction horizon, consistent with onset of euxinic conditions. In contrast, West Blind Fiord shales, representing the sub-storm wave base shelf environment, show little change in the molybdenum isotopic composition (1.34o to +0.05), indicating ongoing oxic conditions across the LPE (Proemse et al., 2013). Our results suggest that areas of the Pangea continental shelf (North West Pangea) experienced

  13. Distribution of the Permian Monodiexodina in Karakorum and Kunlun and its Geological Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Jianxin; WANG Naiwen; XIAO Xuchang; JI Zhansheng; WU Guichun; WU Zhenjie; LI Boqin; WANG Jun; WANG Yong; ZHAI Qingguo

    2009-01-01

    The Permian fusulinoidean genus Monodiexodina is widely distributed in east Tethys. The genus might be an important indicator for the northern margin of Gondwana in northwestern China, but this is disputed. Monodiexodina.bearing areas can be restored as in either northern or southern middle latitudes with a symmetrical distribution between a high latitudinal, cool/cold water climatic realm and a paleotropical, warm water realm. Permian strata bearing Monodiexodina in Karakornm, Muztag Pear, and Buka Daban Pear of the east Kunlun Mountains can be correlated with each other. Faunal analyses and the stratigraphical position of Monodiexodina.bearing strata indicate that both Karakorum, east Kunlun, and the Pamirs were formed in a cool temperate sea area of the northern hemisphere in middle latitudes during the Permian, rather than at the Gondwana margin.

  14. Analyses of Sequence Stratigraphy and Environments across Permian-Triassic Boundary in Liaotian, Northwestern Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the study of lithology, sedimentology and paleontology at the Permian-Triassic boundary in Liaotian, Northwestern Jiangxi Province, the sequence stratigraphy and depositional environments across the boundary are reconstructed. The top part of the Upper Permian Changxing Formation is composed of very thick-bedded light-colored dolomitic limestone formed in high deposition rate on carbonate ramp, which indacates a transgression systems tract (TST). The Lower Triassic Qinglong Formation shows continuous deposition with the underlying Upper Permian. The lower member of Qinglong Formation consists of calcareous shale, shelly limestome and dolomitic limestone with abundant bivalves (Claraia sp. )and trace fossils (Chondrites). The calcareous shale at the bottom of Lower Triassic indicates a calm deep water environment to form the condensed section (CS). The shelly limestome and dolomitic limestone with shell fossils, intraclast, algal ooide show clean but turbulent environment of carbonate ramp, which produce the deposition of highstand systems tract (TST).

  15. Evolutionary patterns of Productida (Brachiopoda) morphology during the Permian in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The evolutionary patterns of Productida (brachiopod) morphology throughout the Permian show that while the percentage proportion of Productida (brachiopod) with strongly concentric and radial ornamentation declined from the Cisuralian to the Guadalupian, and then increased towards the Changhsingian via Wuchiapingian, the percentage proportion of Productida (brachiopod) with fine concentric and radial ornamentation distinctly increased from the Cisuralian to the Guadalupian, slightly declined towards the Wuchiapingian, and then increased towards the Changhsingian. From the Cisuralian to the Changhsingian, the percentage proportion of brachiopods with spinose ornamentation shows a persistent declining trend. The shell size generally indicates a miniaturization trend at species level during the Wuchiapingian to Changhsingian (including the transitional bed). These evolutionary patterns of brachiopod ornamentation and size are possibly related to the anoxia, food shortage, sea-level fluctuation, and change of substrate in the Permian (including the Permian-Triassic transitional interval) in South China.

  16. Assessing coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, A. [Pacific Power, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-11-01

    Recent research has allowed a quantitative description of the basic process of burnout for pulverized coals to be made. The Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization has built on this work to develop a coal combustion model which will allow plant engineers and coal company representatives to assess their coals for combustion performance. The paper describes the model and its validation and outlines how it is run. 2 figs.

  17. Colombian coal focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warden-Fernandez, J.; Rodriguez, L.E. [University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    2003-03-01

    The paper reviews the development of Colombia's coal industry over recent years. Colombia has recently modernised its mining code, Law 685 of 2001 concerning mineral rights and including the concept of sustainable development. The article discusses the legislation, analyses trends in Columbia's income from the coal and mineral industries (nickel, gold, emerald), and briefly discusses coal reserves, mining projects, coal exports and markets for Colombian coal. 7 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    OpenAIRE

    Rađenović A.

    2006-01-01

    Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates),minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fract...

  19. A comparison of the biological,geological events and environmental backgrounds between the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian and Permian-Triassic transitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    extinction of many different taxa at class and order levels.Although it caused the extinction of 95% of marine species and 75% of terrestrial species as well as complete cessation of coal and reef deposits after the mass extinction,this high-level biological re-organization still occurred within an established ecosystem,however drastic it may seem.Survived or Lazarus taxa re-occupied the existing ecospace in a relatively short duration after the end-Permian mass extinction.C-isotope excursions display large perturbations during both transitions,yet also in different magnitudes and frequencies,which suggest different atmospheric and oceanic conditions.The recurrent geological and geochemical events as well as the coupled major biological turnovers during the two transitions provide new clues to understanding the interplays among the earth-life system.Thus,it is essential to carry out multidisciplinary studies from the deep internal system to the surface of the Earth as a whole in order to unravel the interactions of different spheres of the earth.

  20. Sedimentary features and exploration targets of Middle Permian reservoirs in the SW Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoming Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploration direction and targets for the large-scale Middle Permian gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin are hot spots and challenges in current exploration researches. The exploration successes of large gas field of Cambrian Longwangmiao Formation in Gaoshiti-Moxi region, Central Sichuan Basin, indicated that prospective sedimentary facies belt was the basis for the formation of large gas fields. In this paper, based on seismic data, outcrop data and drilling data, the tectonic framework and sedimentary features of the Middle Permian in the SW Sichuan Basin were comprehensively studied. The following conclusions were reached from the perspective of sedimentary facies control: (1 during the Middle Permian, this region was in shallow water gentle slope belts with high energy, where thick reef flat facies were deposited; (2 the basement was uplifted during Middle Permian, resulting in the unconformity weathering crust at the top of Maokou Formation due to erosion; the SW Sichuan Basin was located in the karst slope belt, where epigenic karstification was intense; and (3 reef flat deposits superimposed by karst weathering crust was favorable for the formation of large-scale reef flat karst reservoirs. Based on the combination of the resources conditions and hydrocarbon accumulation conditions in this region, it was pointed out that the Middle Permian has great potential of large-scale reef flat karst gas reservoir due to its advantageous geological conditions; the Middle Permian traps with good hydrocarbon accumulation conditions were developed in the Longmen Mountain front closed structural belt in the SW Sichuan Basin and Western Sichuan Basin depression slope belt, which are favorable targets for large-scale reef flat karst reservoirs.

  1. Coal data: A reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  2. Events during Early Triassic recovery from the end-Permian extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jinnan; Zhang, Suxin; Zuo, Jingxun; Xiong, Xinqi

    2007-01-01

    The Palaeozoic-Mesozoic transition is characterized not only by the biggest Phanerozoic mass extinction, at the end of Permian, but also a prolonged period of recovery of the biota during the succeeding Early Triassic. The delayed recovery is generally attributed to the effects of extreme environmental conditions on the Early Triassic ecosystem. However, there has been very little study of the cause and mechanism of the environmental conditions that prevailed during the period of extinction and subsequent recovery. Research on the Permian-Triassic boundary and Lower Triassic, especially that on environmental events at the beginning of the Triassic in South China, indicates that the slowness of the recovery may be the result of three factors: (1) extreme environmental conditions that persisted through the transitional period and which were maintained by, for example, intermittent contemporary volcanism; (2) a passive evolutionary and ecologic strategy of the biota, in which r-selection taxa were dominant and K-selection forms insignificant; (3) an immature, poorly functioning ecosystem, which had difficulty in responding to and withstanding extreme environmental changes. According to data from South China, environmental changes were frequent during the Late Permian, and especially serious at the Permian-Triassic boundary. The Late Permian ecosystem was well structured and fully functioning as a result of a long period of steady development during the late Palaeozoic, and was capable of resisting general environmental changes. However, increasingly frequent and probably more extreme environmental events in the latest Permian may have led to a general collapse of this ecosystem and to the mass extinction at the end of the Permian. The Early Triassic ecosystem was immature, functioned poorly, and was unable to respond effectively to environmental changes, so that persisting extreme environmental conditions slowed ecosystem reconstruction considerably, and the recovery

  3. Assessment of undiscovered copper resources associated with the Permian Kupferschiefer, Southern Permian Basin, Europe: Chapter U in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Oszczepalski, Sławomir; Parks, Heather L.; Bliss, James D.; Borg, Gregor; Box, Stephen E.; Denning, Paul D.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Spieth, Volker; Taylor, Cliff D.

    2015-01-01

    This study synthesizes available information and estimates the location and quantity of undiscovered copper associated with a late Permian bituminous shale, the Kupferschiefer, of the Southern Permian Basin in Europe. The purpose of this study is to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) where undiscovered reduced-facies sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits could occur within 2.5 kilometers of the surface, (2) provide a database of known reduced-facies-type sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits and significant prospects, and (3) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of undiscovered copper that could be present within each tract. This assessment is a contribution to a global assessment conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

  4. Basin-scale distribution of sill intrusions in the Tunguska Basin, East Siberia, and the implications for the end-Permian environmental crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensen, Henrik H.; Frolov, Sergei; Akhmanov, Grigorii G.; Polozov, Alexander G.; Planke, Sverre

    2015-04-01

    The emplacement of the Siberian Traps Large igneous province through the Tunguska Basin is regarded as the main processes behind the end-Permian environmental crisis. Still, the lack of data from the Tunguska Basin represents one of the main uncertainties in understanding this link. Degassing from contact metamorphic aureoles in evaporites is suggested as key to the continental mass extinction, but very little is known about the actual distribution of sills within these lithologies. We present results from a unique borehole database with more than 700 boreholes, where 293 boreholes are studied in detail and presented here. The boreholes cover large parts of the basin, from Norilsk in the north (N69) to Bratsk in the south (N55), with a bias towards petroleum-bearing regions. In total, 93.5% of the selected boreholes contain sill intrusions. The sill thicknesses vary considerably from kilometer-scale intrusive complexes to individual thin sills of a few tens of meters. Locally, thick sills (up to 900 meters in thickness) occur in the upper part of the sedimentary succession, affecting the coal-rich Tunguska Series sediments. However, on average, the thickest sills in the basin are emplaced within the vast Cambrian salt formations, with average thicknesses in the 115-130 meter range. Accompanying petrographic investigations of metamorphic sediments demonstrate that widespread high temperature devolatilization took place. Degassing to the atmosphere took place via explosive pipe degassing and seepage. We show that depending on the specific location within the province and the emplacement depth, the potential for degassing of both greenhouse gases (CH4, CO2), aerosols (SO2), and ozone destructive gases (CH3Cl, CH3Br) was substantial and can explain the end-Permian mass extinction.

  5. Constructing C1 Continuous Surface on Irregular Quad Meshes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jun; GUO Qiang

    2013-01-01

    A new method is proposed for surface construction on irregular quad meshes as extensions to uniform B-spline surfaces. Given a number of control points, which form a regular or irregular quad mesh, a weight function is constructed for each control point. The weight function is defined on a local domain and is C1 continuous. Then the whole surface is constructed by the weighted combination of all the control points. The property of the new method is that the surface is defined by piecewise C1 bi-cubic rational parametric polynomial with each quad face. It is an extension to uniform B-spline surfaces in the sense that its definition is an analogy of the B-spline surface, and it produces a uniform bi-cubic B-spline surface if the control mesh is a regular quad mesh. Examples produced by the new method are also included.

  6. On consistent boundary conditions for c = 1 string theory

    CERN Document Server

    O'Loughlin, M H

    1995-01-01

    We introduce a new parametrisation for the Fermi sea of the c = 1 matrix model. This leads to a simple derivation of the scattering matrix, and a calculation of boundary corrections in the corresponding 1+1--dimensional string theory. The new parametrisation involves relativistic chiral fields, rather than the non-relativistic fields of the usual formulations. The calculation of the boundary corrections, following recent work of Polchinski, allows us to place restrictions on the boundary conditions in the matrix model. We provide a consistent set of boundary conditions, but believe that they need to be supplemented by some more subtle relationship between the space-time and matrix model. Inspired by these boundary conditions, some thoughts on the black hole in c=1 string theory are presented.

  7. Inversion tectonics in the Anayet Permian basin (Axial Zone, Central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    During Permian times the Pyrenees were characterized by extensional tectonics that opened subsident basins with pull-apart geometries. The Anayet Permian basin crops out in the western Spanish Axial Zone between the Aragon and Tena valleys. It is WNW-trending and it is filled by a continental Permian succession that represents the first post-variscan deposits in the area. Permian deposits rest discordantly over Devonian to Carboniferous limestones, sandstones and slates. In the Anayet basin, Permian deposits have been classically divided in four main detrital groups, mainly composed of sandstones and conglomerates, with three basic volcanic episodes interbedded (Gisbert, 1984, Bixel, 1987). Due to the lithological characteristics of the Permian rocks in this region, there are almost no accurate age constraints for these units. A detailed structural study of the area, including mapping and balanced cross-sections, shows increasingly older rocks to the west of the Anayet basin. Moreover, it can be deduced a mean slope of around 11 % to the west for the basin. These data confirm that the basin depocenter was located to the west and that the Anayet basin was partitioned by N10 °E-trending normal faults. Although the contacts between the Permian and the Devono-Carboniferous rocks are covered by quaternary deposits in most of its extent, a fault contact can also be recognized. The fault contact is a 3 m thick shear zone oriented N120 ° E and dipping 60° to the North. It develops breccias, fault gouges and sigmoidal S-C tectonites indicating a reverse motion. The contact places Permian slates and sandstones over Carboniferous limestones and is almost parallel to the alpine cleavage deforming Permian rocks. The slope of the contact together with the presence of younger rocks in the hangingwall of the reverse fault points out that the original contact was a normal fault reactivated as a high-angle reverse fault during the positive inversion tectonics induced by the

  8. Gravitational scattering in the c = 1 matrix model

    CERN Document Server

    Natsuume, M; Makoto Natsuume; Joseph Polchinski

    1994-01-01

    The $c=1$ matrix model is equivalent to $1+1$ dimensional string theory. However, the tachyon self-interaction in the former is local, while in the latter it is nonlocal due to the gravitational, dilaton and higher string fields. By studying scattering of classical pulses we show that the appropriate nonlocal field redefinition converts the local matrix model interaction into the expected string form. In particular, we see how the asymptotic behavior of the gravitational field appears in the scattering.

  9. Intestinal and Hepatic Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1

    OpenAIRE

    Sung-Woo Park

    2013-01-01

    Polytopic transmembrane protein, Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) is localized at the apical membrane of enterocytes and the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. It mediates intestinal cholesterol absorption and prevents extensive loss of cholesterol by transporting biliary cholesterol into hepatocytes. NPC1L1 is a molecular target of ezetimibe, an agent for hypercholesterolemia. Recently, NPC1L1 inhibition has been shown to prevent metabolic disorders such as fatty liver disease, obesity, dia...

  10. On Consistent Boundary Conditions for c=1 String Theory

    OpenAIRE

    O'Loughlin, Martin

    1995-01-01

    We introduce a new parametrisation for the Fermi sea of the $c = 1$ matrix model. This leads to a simple derivation of the scattering matrix, and a calculation of boundary corrections in the corresponding $1+1$--dimensional string theory. The new parametrisation involves relativistic chiral fields, rather than the non-relativistic fields of the usual formulations. The calculation of the boundary corrections, following recent work of Polchinski, allows us to place restrictions on the boundary ...

  11. Calibration of the C1XS instrument on Chandrayaan-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narendranath, S., E-mail: kcshyama@isac.gov.i [Space Astronomy Group, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore 560017 (India); University of Calicut (India); Sreekumar, P. [Space Astronomy Group, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore 560017 (India); Maddison, B.J.; Howe, C.J.; Kellett, B.J.; Wallner, M. [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton (United Kingdom); Erd, C. [Advanced Studies and Technology Preparation Division, ESA, ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Weider, S.Z. [School of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Birbeck College (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-21

    The Chandrayaan-1 X-ray spectrometer (C1XS) experiment on the Chandrayaan-1 mission was designed to carry out spectroscopic observations in the 1-10 keV range for deriving lunar chemistry. We present results from the ground calibration of the Swept Charge Devices (SCDs) on C1XS at the RESIK X-ray beam facility at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, UK. The spectral redistribution function of the SCDs are determined in the energy range from 2.3-8 keV using discrete line energies from a monochromatic X-ray beam. The detection efficiency of the SCDs are determined relative to a reference Si-PIN detector. The Si-PIN detector itself has been calibrated at the beamlines of the synchrotron facility at PTB/BESSY II. A non-Gaussian response matrix which includes probability for partial absorption events in the SCD is constructed using instrument parameters obtained from ground calibration. The calibration spectra from the {sup 55}Fe radioactive isotopes obtained from C1XS while in the lunar orbit, are used to validate the response matrix derived on ground.

  12. Coal extraction - environmental prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Blaine Cecil; Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-08-01

    To predict and help minimize the impact of coal extraction in the Appalachian region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is addressing selected mine-drainage issues through the following four interrelated studies: spatial variability of deleterious materials in coal and coal-bearing strata; kinetics of pyrite oxidation; improved spatial geologic models of the potential for drainage from abandoned coal mines; and methodologies for the remediation of waters discharged from coal mines. As these goals are achieved, the recovery of coal resources will be enhanced. 2 figs.

  13. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    While the black coal markets are expanding worldwide in 2011, the consumption of black coal in Germany stagnated in spite of positive economic impacts. A strong long-term decline may be expected by the structural change in the energy sector and the energy policy turnaround in Germany. Also, the accelerated phasing out nuclear power in 2011 brought any increases for the black coal. Now the discharge of domestic black coal until 2018 has become definitive. The imported coal now covers almost 80 % of the German black coal market.

  14. Conditions for the formation and atmospheric dispersion of a toxic, heavy gas layer during thermal metamorphism of coal and evaporite deposits by sill intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Michael; Hankin, Robin K. S.

    2010-05-01

    There is compelling evidence for massive discharge of volatiles, including toxic species, into the atmosphere at the end of the Permian. It has been argued that most of the gases were produced during thermal metamorphism of coal and evaporite deposits in the East Siberia Tunguska basin following sill intrusion (Retallack and Jahren, 2008; Svensen et al., 2009). The release of the volatiles has been proposed as a major cause of environmental and extinction events at the end of the Permian, with venting of carbon gases and halocarbons to the atmosphere leading to global warming and atmospheric ozone depletion (Svensen et al., 2009) Here we consider the conditions required for the formation and dispersion of toxic, heavier than air, gas plumes, made up of a mixture of CO2, CH4, H2S and SO2 and formed during the thermal metamorphism of C- and S- rich sediments. Dispersion models and density considerations within a range of CO2/CH4 ratios and volatile fluxes and temperatures, for gas discharge by both seepage and from vents, allow the possibility that following sill emplacement much of the vast East Siberia Tunguska basin was - at least intermittently - covered by a heavy, toxic gas layer that was unfavorable for life. Dispersion scenarios for a heavy gas layer beyond the Siberian region during end-Permian times will be presented. REFERENCES G. J. Retallack and A. H. Jahren, Methane release from igneous intrusion of coal during Late Permian extinction events, Journal of Geology, volume 116, 1-20, 2008 H. Svensen et al., Siberian gas venting and the end-Permian environmental crisis, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, volume 277, 490-500, 2009

  15. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure

  16. Amplitude analyses of the decays chi_c1 -> eta pi+ pi- and chi_c1 -> eta' pi+ pi-

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, G S; Ecklund, K M; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Pearson, L J; Thorndike, E H; Ricciardi, S; Thomas, C; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Mountain, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Lincoln, A; Smith, M J; Zhou, P; Zhu, J; Naik, P; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Randrianarivony, K; Tatishvili, G; Briere, R A; Vogel, H; Onyisi, P U E; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Das, S; Ehrlich, R; Gibbons, L; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Sun, W M; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Lowrey, N; Mehrabyan, S; Selen, M; Wiss, J; Libby, J; Kornicer, M; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Szczepaniak, A; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Hietala, J; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Xiao, T; Martin, L; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B

    2011-01-01

    Using a data sample of 2.59 x 10^7 psi(2S) decays obtained with the CLEO-c detector, we perform amplitude analyses of the complementary decay chains chi_c1 -> eta pi+ pi- and chi_c1 -> eta' pi+ pi-. We find evidence for a P-wave eta' pi scattering amplitude, which, if interpreted as a resonance, would have exotic J^PC = 1^-+ and parameters consistent with the pi_1(1600) state reported in other production mechanisms. We also make the first observation of the decay a_0(980) -> eta' pi and measure the ratio of branching fractions B(a_0(980) -> eta' pi)/B(a_0(980) -> eta pi) = 0.064 +- 0.014 +- 0.014. The pi pi spectrum produced with a recoiling eta is compared to that with eta' recoil.

  17. 3-D Imaging of Cleat and Micro-cleat Characteristics, South Walker Creek Coals, Bowen Basin, Australia: Microfocus X-ray Computed Tomography Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Asep Kurnia Permana

    2014-01-01

    DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v7i1.131The Permian coals of the South Walker Creek area have a moderately to highly developed cleat system. The cleat fractures are well developed in both bright and dull bands, and generally parallel, inclined or perpendicular to the bedding planes of the seam, with the spaces open or filled by mineral matter, such as clay and carbonate minerals. Microfocus X-ray computed tomography (CT) technique was performed to identify cleat characteristics in the coal seams. This tec...

  18. Significance of Caucasian Sections for Working out Carbon-Isotope Standard for Upper Permian and Lower Triassic (Induan) and Their Correlation with the Permian of North-Eastern Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuri D Zakharov; Alexander S Biakov; Aymon Baud; Heinz Kozur

    2005-01-01

    Data obtained on conodont distribution in the Permian-Triassic Sovetashen Section of Transcaucasia provide further limitations on the age of the carbon-isotopic anomalies discovered by Baud et al. (1989). The significance of Caucasian sections for working out the carbon-isotope standard for the Upper Permian and Lower Triassic (Induan) is shown. Original data on carbon-isotope composition of bivalve and brachiopod shells from Permian sediments of North-Eastern Russia (Omolon and Okhotsk areas) have been obtained, which may be used for their correlation.

  19. Coal Combustion Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  20. A tale of two extinctions : converging end-Permian and end-Triassic scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Schootbrugge, Bas; Wignall, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    The end-Permian (c. 252 Ma) and end-Triassic (c. 201 Ma) mass-extinction events are commonly linked to the emplacement of the large igneous provinces of the Siberia Traps and Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, respectively. Accordingly, scenarios for both extinctions are increasingly convergent and

  1. Marine anoxia and delayed Earth system recovery after the end-Permian extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kimberly V; Maher, Kate; Altiner, Demir; Kelley, Brian M; Kump, Lee R; Lehrmann, Daniel J; Silva-Tamayo, Juan Carlos; Weaver, Karrie L; Yu, Meiyi; Payne, Jonathan L

    2016-03-01

    Delayed Earth system recovery following the end-Permian mass extinction is often attributed to severe ocean anoxia. However, the extent and duration of Early Triassic anoxia remains poorly constrained. Here we use paired records of uranium concentrations ([U]) and (238)U/(235)U isotopic compositions (δ(238)U) of Upper Permian-Upper Triassic marine limestones from China and Turkey to quantify variations in global seafloor redox conditions. We observe abrupt decreases in [U] and δ(238)U across the end-Permian extinction horizon, from ∼3 ppm and -0.15‰ to ∼0.3 ppm and -0.77‰, followed by a gradual return to preextinction values over the subsequent 5 million years. These trends imply a factor of 100 increase in the extent of seafloor anoxia and suggest the presence of a shallow oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) that inhibited the recovery of benthic animal diversity and marine ecosystem function. We hypothesize that in the Early Triassic oceans-characterized by prolonged shallow anoxia that may have impinged onto continental shelves-global biogeochemical cycles and marine ecosystem structure became more sensitive to variation in the position of the OMZ. Under this hypothesis, the Middle Triassic decline in bottom water anoxia, stabilization of biogeochemical cycles, and diversification of marine animals together reflect the development of a deeper and less extensive OMZ, which regulated Earth system recovery following the end-Permian catastrophe. PMID:26884155

  2. Phosphatic Permian rocks of the Adobe Range, Nevada, and their environment of deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketner, Keith Brindley

    1979-01-01

    Permian sedimentary rocks in the Adobe range, northern Nevada, are phosphatic, and although the particles of phosphate are relatively more disseminated, they closely resemble the rocks of the Phosphoria Formation. In the northern Adobe Range, where the entire Permian sequence is approximately correlative with the Phosphoria Formation, it is 200 m thick and averages 1.7 percent P2O5 . In the southern Adobe Range, the Permian sequence is more than 1,700 m thick, and the upper half which is roughly correlative with the Phosphoria Formation averages more than 2 percent P2O5. Some thin beds in rocks of Permian age contain more than 20 percent P2O5. Phosphatic rocks of the Adobe Range were deposited in shallow water among islands in the western part of the epicontinental Phosphoria sea. The continental margin and the open ocean lay far to the west. At the same time, the Phosphoria Formation was being deposited in the eastern and central parts of the Phosphoria sea. Theories based on the work of Kasakov done in 1937 relating phosphate deposition directly to sites of upwelling oceanic waters are questioned. Nondeposition of diluent materials such as detritus and carbonate is probably of more importance in producing phosphate in economic concentrations than is geographic position with respect to upwelling waters.

  3. Taeniopterid lamina on Phasmatocycas megasporophylls (Cycadales) from the Lower Permian of Kansas, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, W.H.; Pfefferkorn, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    New specimens of Phasmatocycas and Taeniopteris from the original Lower Permian locality in Kansas demonstrate organic attachment of the two and corroborate Mamay's hypothesis that Phasmatocycas and Taeniopteris were parts of the same plant. These forms also suggest that cycads evolved from taxa with entire leaves; i.e. Taeniopteris, rather than from pteridosperms with compound leaves. ?? 1986.

  4. Carnivorous dinocephalian from the Middle Permian of Brazil and tetrapod dispersal in Pangaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Juan Carlos; Abdala, Fernando; Atayman-Güven, Saniye; Rubidge, Bruce S.; Celâl Şengör, A. M.; Schultz, Cesar L.

    2012-01-01

    The medial Permian (∼270-260 Ma: Guadalupian) was a time of important tetrapod faunal changes, in particular reflecting a turnover from pelycosaurian- to therapsid-grade synapsids. Until now, most knowledge on tetrapod distribution during the medial Permian has come from fossils found in the South African Karoo and the Russian Platform, whereas other areas of Pangaea are still poorly known. We present evidence for the presence of a terrestrial carnivorous vertebrate from the Middle Permian of South America based on a complete skull. Pampaphoneus biccai gen. et sp. nov. was a dinocephalian "mammal-like reptile" member of the Anteosauridae, an early therapsid predator clade known only from the Middle Permian of Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and South Africa. The genus is characterized, among other features, by postorbital bosses, short, bulbous postcanines, and strongly recurved canines. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the Brazilian dinocephalian occupies a middle position within the Anteosauridae, reinforcing the model of a global distribution for therapsids as early as the Guadalupian. The close phylogenetic relationship of the Brazilian species to dinocephalians from South Africa and the Russian Platform suggests a closer faunistic relationship between South America and eastern Europe than previously thought, lending support to a Pangaea B-type continental reconstruction.

  5. The continental Permian-Triassic boundary in the Netherlands: Implications for the geomagnetic polarity time scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szurlies, M.; Geluk, M.C.; Krijgsman, W.; Kürschner, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    In Central and NW Europe, the transition from the Permian to the Triassic (i.e., the Zechstein–Buntsandstein boundary interval) is developed mainly in red bed facies. This continental sedimentary succession is marked by relatively high sedimentation rates providing a high temporal resolution favorab

  6. Anatomy of a Permian Erg sequence: the De La Cuesta Formation (northwestern Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the Permian red beds of the La Cuesta Formation (Sierra de Narvaez, northwestern Argentina) which is composed of sandstones associated with mud stones and subordinate conglomerates. The sediments obtained from the interaction between aeolian and ephemeral fluvial systems, are represented by aeolian dune, dry aeolian inter dune and aeolian sand sheet, mud flat, wet aeolian inter dune, and fluvial deposits

  7. Permian continental paleoenvironments in Southeastern Asia: New insights from the Luang Prabang Basin (Laos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, Antoine; Bourquin, Sylvie; Broutin, Jean; Steyer, Jean-Sébastien; Battail, Bernard; Véran, Monette; Vacant, Renaud; Khenthavong, Bounxou; Vongphamany, Sotsy

    2012-10-01

    In Laos (Southeastern Asia), Late Paleozoic sediments were identified by early French explorations across Indochina during the late 19th century (Pavie missions), but little work was undertaken to characterize the sedimentological and stratigraphical context until now. From detailed sedimentological and paleontological studies, we propose an interpretation of the depositional environment and of the stratigraphic context of series located on the right bank of the Mekong River in the Luang Prabang Basin where three main formations were described. The silicoclastic Red Claystone Formation, attributed to alluvial plain environment, contains large fragments of unidentified dicynodonts. The Limestones and Sandstones Formation preserves a new macrofloral assemblage displaying affinities with Middle to Late Permian Cathaysian floras of South China. This assemblage occurs as an intercalation within marine calcareous sandstones that have yielded a marine fauna, including the ammonoid Pseudotirolites sp. which indicates a Late Permian (Changhsingian) age. The well-developed Purple Claystones Formation yielded an abundant and well preserved Late Permian fauna composed of a carnivorous amphibian and numerous Dicynodon cranial and postcranial elements. This formation shows a vertical evolution from braided river to alluvial plain with sheet-flood sand bed and bed-load rivers, with a constant supply of volcanic clasts. Results from the analysis of the paleontological associations in the Luang Prabang Basin suggest that a continental communication between Laurussia and the Indochina Block existed during the Permian, allowing for migration of the terrestrial Dicynodon fauna.

  8. A new Permagrionidae from the Middle Permian of the South of France (Odonatoptera: Protozygoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fate, Caitlin; Lapeyrie, Jean; Nel, Andre

    2013-01-01

    The new permagrionid protozygopteran genus and species Salagoulestes wesleyi is described from the Middle Permian of Lodève Basin, Salagou Formation. It seems to be more closely related to the two genera Scytolestes and Permagrion than to any other Permagrionidae. It increases the diversity of the odonatopteran fauna in the Salagou Formation to 14 different species.

  9. The Permian Rotliegend reservoir architecture of the Dutch Koekoekspolder geothermal doublet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mijnlieff, H.F.; Bloemsma, M.R.; Donselaar, M.E.; Henares, S.; Redjosentono, A.E.; Veldkamp, J.G.; Weltje, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    The Dutch Koekoekspolder geothermal doublet was drilled in 2011 targeting the Permian Rotliegendreservoir. The encountered reservoir properties were less favorable than expected pre-drill. Post-drill integrated evaluation of vintage data and the new data from the geothermal wells resulted in a refin

  10. The structure and processes of the Siberian Traps sub-volcanic complex and consequences for end-Permian environmental crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensen, H.; Polozov, A. G.; Planke, S.

    2013-12-01

    The emplacement of the Siberian Traps Large igneous province is regarded as the key processes that initiated the end-Permian environmental crisis. The details of this link are however still under investigation. Among the suggestions are lava degassing of mantle- and crustal-derived gases, explosive lava and phreatomagmatic eruptions, and gas release from contact metamorphism related to the sub-volcanic sill complex. Whereas the lava pile is relatively well studied and investigated, the sub-volcanic sills, dikes, and contact aureoles are poorly studied and documented. We present borehole and field data of sills and contact aureoles from across the Siberian Traps, from Norilsk in the north to Bratsk in the south. The data have been compiled during three field campaigns in 2004, 2006, and 2010. The sill geometries and thicknesses varies considerably from kilometer-scale intrusive complexes to individual thin sills of a few tens of meters. In contrast to several other LIPs, sills are also emplaced within the extrusive pile. Thick sills (30-80 meters) occur in high abundance in the upper part of the sedimentary succession, affecting the coal-rich Tungusska Series sediments. Moreover, very thick sills (100-300 meters) are also emplaced within the vast Cambrian salt formations. We show that depending on the specific location within the province and the emplacement depth, the potential for degassing of both greenhouse gases (CH4, CO2), aerosols (SO2), and ozone destructive gases (CH3Cl, CH3Br) was in the 103 to 104 Gt range.

  11. International perspectives on coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  12. Pangean Reconstruction of the Yucatan Block and its Permian, Triassic, and Jurassic Geologic and Tectonic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, M.

    2004-12-01

    Paleomagnetic studies of Paleozoic sedimentary and plutonic rocks demonstrate that the Yucatan Block lay inverted off the NW coast of South America (SA) in Pangea, and rotated in a series of clockwise motions as SA and NA separated. Mid-Permian Yucatan was a fragment of the western margin of Pangea, just south of the equator. By 230 Ma, Yucatan rotated ˜20° clockwise and moved to the equator. Clockwise rotation continued through the Jurassic: ˜54° between 230 Ma and about Oxfordian, and another ˜32° between ˜Oxfordian and Tithonian, when the approximate present orientation was achieved. Passage of the Yucatan Block into the gap created by the separation of North and South America requires left-lateral motion relative to North America, perhaps by translation along the Mojave Sonora megashear. One remanence, carried by magnetite in red bed strata from the margins of the marine Santa Rosa basin (Maya Mtns), decays exceedingly linearly to the origin of orthogonal-axes plots. Biostratigraphy indicates a Late Pennsylvanian to Middle Permian age, and the presence of dual polarities in a 110 m, four polarity, magnetostratigraphic sequence demonstrates a post-Late Paleozoic Reversed Superchron (i.e., Middle Permian) age. Plutonic rocks exhibit a second, also dual-polarity, remanence, which corresponds to a paleopole 60° clockwise of the mid-Permian pole. The spatial relationship between the Permian and pluton paleopoles is very similar to that of the North American Permian and Late Triassic poles. Moreover, exceedingly uniform K/Ar ages of 231±7 Ma characterize all Maya Mtns plutons and the southern volcanic complex, indicating a 230 Ma resetting of the K/Ar radiometric systems of plutons dated by U/Pb as Late Silurian (Steiner and Walker, 1996). Metamorphic aureoles developed in the Pennsylvanian-Permian Santa Rosa strata bordering the Silurian plutonic complexes suggest the occurrence of a post-intrusion hydrothermal event. The 230 Ma reset K/Ar systems

  13. Upper Permian vertebrates and their sedimentological context in the South Urals, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tverdokhlebov, Valentin P.; Tverdokhlebova, Galina I.; Minikh, Alla V.; Surkov, Mikhail V.; Benton, Michael J.

    2005-02-01

    Fossil fishes and tetrapods (amphibians and reptiles) have been discovered at 81 localities in the Upper Permian of the Southern Urals area of European Russia. The first sites were found in the 1940s, and subsequent surveys have revealed many more. Broad-scale stratigraphic schemes have been published, but full documentation of the rich tetrapod faunas has not been presented before. The area of richest deposits covers some 900,000 km 2 of territory between Samara on the River Volga in the NW, and Orenburg and Sakmara in the SW. A continental succession, some 3 km thick, of mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones, deposited on mudflats and in small rivers flowing off the Ural Mountain chain, span the last two stages of the Permian (Kazanian, Tatarian). The succession is divided into seven successive units of Kazanian (Kalinovskaya, Osinovskaya, and Belebey svitas, in succession) and Tatarian age, which is further subdivided into the early Tatatian Urzhumian Gorizont (Bolshekinelskaya and Amanakskaya svitas, in succession), and the late Tatarian Severodvinian (Vyazovskaya and Malokinelskaya svitas, of equivalent age) and Vyatkian gorizonts (Kulchumovskaya and Kutulukskaya svitas, of equivalent age). This succession documents major climatic changes, with increasing aridity through the Late Permian. The climate changes are manifested in changing sedimentation and the spread of dryland plants, and peak aridity was achieved right at the Permo-Triassic (PTr) boundary, coincident with global warming. Uplift of the Urals and extinction of land plants led to stripping of soils and massive run-off from the mountains; these phenomena have been identified at the PTr boundary elsewhere (South Africa, Australia) and this may be a key part of the end-Permian mass extinction. The succession of Late Permian fish and tetrapod faunas in Russia documents their richness and diversity before the mass extinction. The terminal Permian Kulchomovskaya and Kutulukskaya svitas have yielded

  14. Long-term atmospheric oxygen decrease an underestimated factor forcing the Permian-Triassic mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidlich, O.; Kiessling, W.; Flügel, E.

    2003-04-01

    The Permian mass extinction encompasses the end-Guadalupian (Middle Permian) and the end-Lopingian (Late Permian) events, which sum up to the most severe Phanerozoic crisis. Berner (2002) evaluated popular hypotheses explaining the Permian mass extinction and suggested a synergistic combination of causes, notably various short-term perturbations of the carbon cycle and its far-reaching reorganization with a shift of the depo-center from the land to the sea. While massive volcanic eruptions, oceanic CO2-poisoning or anoxia, a bolide impact, and methane release have been considered as abrupt killing mechanisms, there has been little interest in how atmospheric oxygen variations affected the metazoan diversities. Differing from contemporary values of 21%, atmospheric oxygen reached maximum concentrations of about 35% during the late Carboniferous, gradually dropped to minimum concentrations possibly as low as 15% by the end of Permian, and increased during the Triassic to modelled values of about 18% (Berner &Canfield 1989). The possible links of these secular fluctuations to macroevolutionary processes are underexplored, but the stratigraphic coincidence of reconstructed atmospheric oxygen concentrations and biospheric perturbations suggest that this relation may be stronger than admitted. Although feedback mechanisms between decreasing atmospheric oxygen content and metazoan evolution have been ruled out, modern oxygen minimum zone inhabitants, directly respond to oxygen deficiency with opportunistic faunas. We analysed 30 million years Middle Permian to Middle Triassic reef distribution, reef carbonate production as well as reef builder extinction/recovery patterns and compared the results with the modeled atmospheric oxygen concentrations and the extinction data from terrestrial and deep-marine ecosystems. We propose that (i) the Permian double reef crisis resulted from long-term atmospheric O2 depletion in conjunction with abrupt killing mechanisms and that (ii

  15. Hydrotreating of coal-derived liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stohl, F.V.; Lott, S.E.; Diegert, K.V.; Goodnow, D.C.; Oelfke, J.B.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of Sandia`s refining of coal-derived liquids project is to determine the relationship between hydrotreating conditions and Product characteristics. The coal-derived liquids used in this work were produced In HTI`s first proof-of-concept run using Illinois No. 8 coal. Samples of the whole coal liquid product, distillate fractions of this liquid, and Criterion HDN-60 catalyst were obtained from Southwest Research Inc. Hydrotreating experiments were performed using a continuous operation, unattended, microflow reactor system. A factorial experimental design with three variables (temperature, (310{degrees}C to 388{degrees}C), liquid hourly space velocity (1 to 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat)), pressure (500 to 1000 psig H{sub 2}) is being used in this project. Sulfur and nitrogen contents of the hydrotreated products were monitored during the hydrotreating experiments to ensure that activity was lined out at each set of reaction conditions. Results of hydrotreating the whole coal liquid showed that nitrogen values in the products ranged from 549 ppM at 320{degrees}C, 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat), 500 psig H{sub 2} to <15 ppM at 400{degrees}C, 1 g/h/ cm{sup 3}(cat), 1000 psig H{sub 2}.

  16. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  17. Coal Production 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  18. Coal fires in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Yao(车遥); HUANG Wen-hui(黄文辉); ZHANG Ai-yun(张爱云)

    2004-01-01

    Coal fires have a very long history in China; the oldest coal fires have being burning for many million years. Up to now more than 56 coal fires spots were distinguished. They mainly locate in West-North of China, North of China and East-North of China. About millions of tons of coal have been burned in fires every year. Xinjiang Autonomy is the most serious region in coal fires as it has 38 coal fires spots and about 6.85 million tons of coal was burned every year. Coal fires in China ignited by wildfires, spontaneous combustion and human being during mining activities. These fires have released about 0.9 million tons of gasses (including CO, CO2, SO2, NO2 CH4, CO2, H2S etc.) into the atmosphere every year, most of which are brought to the east by wind and resulting more heavier air pollution in northern China.

  19. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis is a lung disease that results ...

  20. Chemicals from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

    2004-12-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

  1. Fluorine in Chinese coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, D.S.; Zheng, B.S.; Tang, X.Y.; Li, S.H.; Wang, B.B.; Wang, M.S. [Chinese Academy of Science, Guiyang (China). Inst. of Geochemistry

    2004-05-01

    Three hundred and five coal samples were taken from the main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities of China. The method of pyrohydrolysis was applied to measure the fluorine content in the samples, which exhibit logarithmic normal frequency distributions. The range of fluorine content in dry coal varies from 26 to 1230 mg/kg with a geometric mean of 136 mg/kg. The fluorine content decreases gradually from sub-bituminous through bituminous coal to anthracite. However, such varying tendency of fluorine content is not due to the presence of organic fluorine in coal. The geological age also apparently has no effect on the fluorine content. Even though the fluorine content of most coals in China is not high, much more attention should be given to the fluoride pollution caused by improper (unvented) coal-burning and the widespread household use of high-fluoride coal-clay.

  2. Linearization of class C1 for contractions on Banach spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Hildebrando M.; Solà-Morales, J.

    In this work we prove a C1-linearization result for contraction diffeomorphisms, near a fixed point, valid in infinite-dimensional Banach spaces. As an intermediate step, we prove a specific result of existence of invariant manifolds, which can be interesting by itself and that was needed on the proof of our main theorem. Our results essentially generalize some classical results by P. Hartman in finite dimensions, and a result of Mora-Sola-Morales in the infinite-dimensional case. It is shown that the result can be applied to some abstract systems of semilinear damped wave equations.

  3. Topological B-model and ${\\hat c}=1$ String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hyun, S; Park, J D; Yi, S H; Hyun, Seungjoon; Oh, Kyungho; Park, Jong-Dae; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2005-01-01

    We study the topological B-model on a deformed $\\Z_2$ orbifolded conifold by investigating variation of complex structures via quantum Kodaira-Spencer theories. The fermionic/brane formulation together with systematic utilization of symmetries of the geometry gives rise to a free fermion realization of the amplitudes. We derive Ward identities which solve the perturbed free energy exactly. We also obtain the corresponding Kontsevich-like matrix model. All these confirm the recent conjecture on the connection of the theory with ${\\hat c}=1$ type 0A string theory compactified at the radius $R=\\sqrt{\\alpha'/2}$.

  4. Reduction of CO2 to C1 products and fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill, T.; Ross, D.

    2002-01-01

    Photochemical semiconductor processes readily reduced CO2 to a broad range of C1 products. However the intrinsic and solar efficiencies for the processes were low. Improved quantum efficiencies could be realized utilizing quantum-sized particles, but at the expense of using less of the visible solar spectrum. Conversely, semiconductors with small bandgaps used more of the visible solar spectrum at the expense of quantum efficiency. Thermal reduction of CO2 with Fe(II) was thermodynamically favored for forming many kinds of organic compounds and occurred readily with olivine and other Fe(II) minerals above 200??C to form higher alkanes and alkenes. No added hydrogen was required.

  5. Ostracods (Crustacea associated with microbialites across the Permian-Triassic boundary in Dajiang (Guizhou Province, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Beatrice FOREL

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available 26 samples were processed for a taxonomic study of ostracods from the Upper Permian (Changhsingian - Lower Triassic (Griesbachian interval of the Dajiang section, Guizhou Province, South China. 112 species belonging to 27 genera are recognized. Five new species are described: Acratia candyae sp. nov, Bairdia adelineae sp. nov., Bairdia? huberti sp. nov., Bairdia jeromei sp. nov., Orthobairdia jeanlouisi sp. nov. The unexpected survival faunas associated with microbial formations in the aftermath of the end-Permian extinction are documented for the first time. Ostracod biodiversity variations and palaeo-environmental modifications associated with microbial growth through the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB are discussed.

  6. Stratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental framework of the Early Permian sequence in the Salt Range, Pakistan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shahid Ghazi; Nigel P Mountney; Aftab Ahmad Butt; Sadaf Sharif

    2012-10-01

    The Early Permian Gondwana regime succession of the Nilawahan Group is exposed only in the Salt Range of Pakistan. After a prolonged episode of non-deposition that spanned much of the Palaeozoic, the 350 m thick predominantly clastic sequence of the Nilawahan Group records a late glacial and post-glacial episode in which a range of glacio-fluvial, marine and fluvial environments evolved and accumulated. The Early Permian succession of the Salt Range has been classified into four formations, which together indicates a changing climatic regime during the Early Permian in the Salt Range region. The lower-most, Tobra Formation unconformably overlies a Cambrian sequence and is composed of tillite, diamictite and fresh water facies, which contain a floral assemblage (Gangamopteris and Glossopteris) that confirms an Asselian age. The Tobra Formation is overlain by marginal marine deposits of the Dandot Formation (Sakmarian), which contain an abundant brachiopods assemblage (Eurydesma and Conularia). Accumulation of the Dandot Formation was terminated by a regional sea-level fall and a change to the deposition of the fluvial deposits of the Warchha Sandstone (Artinskian). The Warchha Sandstone was deposited by high sinuosity meandering, avulsion prone river with well developed floodplains. This episode of fluvial sedimentation was terminated by a widespread marine transgression, as represented by the abrupt upward transition to the overlying shallow marine Sardhai Formation (Kungurian). The Early Permian Gondwana sequence represented by the Nilawahan Group is capped by predominantly shallow shelf carbonate deposits of the Tethyan realm. The sedimentologic and stratigraphic relationship of these four lithostratigraphic units in the Salt Range reveals a complex stratigraphic history for the Early Permian, which is mainly controlled by eustatic sea-level change due to climatic variation associated with climatic amelioration at the end of the major Gondwana glacial episode

  7. Coring and High-Resolution Imaging of the Permian-Triassic Boundary in Deltadalen, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planke, Sverre

    2016-04-01

    The Permian-Triassic extinction was likely triggered by the voluminous igneous activity of the Siberian Traps. There are, however, limited information available about the effects of the Siberian Traps volcanism in Permian to Triassic sedimentary successions outside Siberia. We drilled two boreholes across the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) in Deltadalen, Svalbard, in August 2014, to better document the extinction event and environmental changes in the sedimentary succession in this region. Even though the PTB event is studied in several outcrops to varying degree if scrutiny on Svalbard, a scientific core is important for understanding the details of the PTB event, as outcrops may not permit studies at the appropriate levels of resolution, exposure or confidence. The Deltadalen site was chosen as an optimal drilling location after field work in the Isfjorden area in 2013 and early 2014. The almost 100 m deep holes were fully cored and penetrated the Triassic Vikinghøgda Formation (about 85 m recovered) and the Permian Kapp Starostin Formation (about 15 m). The main lithologies include Permian chert-rich green glauconitic sandstones and Triassic mudstones. A 10 m thick sedimentary reference outcrop section across the PTB was further logged and sampled in a nearby river valley. A comprehensive core analysis program is now underway. High-resolution XRF, MST and hyperspectral core scanning has been completed along the entire core surface, while high-resolution CT scanning has been carried out for whole core sections. The DD-1 core has subsequently been split, photographed, described, and sampled for geochemical, micropaleontological, petrological and magnetic analyses. Almost 10 bentonite layers have furthermore been sampled for volcanological and geochronological studies. Our goal is that the cores will become an important future reference section of the PTB in Svalbard and the high-Arctic, and help constrain the extent of the regional effects of explosive volcanism

  8. Geological event sequences of the Permian-Triassic transition recorded in the microfacies in Meishan section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO ChangQun; ZHENG QuanFeng

    2009-01-01

    The microfacies sequence in the key interval of Beds 24-29 of the Meishan section comprehensively recorded the geological events during the Permian-Triassic transition, including the anoxia, storm disturbance, hard-ground/firm-ground form, volcanic eruption, weathering input, and microbialite de-velopment. This investigation of event sequences on the microfacies provided synthetically some clues to clarifying the previously proposed mechanisms of the end-Permian extinction. The deposit succession in Bed 24 of the Changxing Formation was developed dominantly with organic-rich lamina, but interrupted intermittently by storm disturbances. It indicates characteristically a stagnated, strati-fled and anoxic ocean during the latest Permian. The latest Permian transgression occurred rapidly at the top of Bed 24d and was characterized by the hard-ground interface. Abundant clay mineral of illite indicates the occurrence of persistent weathering of continental volcanics and then buried in ocean throughout this key Permo-Triassic transitional interval. However, the "boundary ash clay" of Bed 25 yielding normal grading of hyaloclastite was the result of precipitation of volcanic dusts. The firm-ground substrate in Unit 27-2 was lithe and excavated intensively by trace fossil Glossifungites; it means also the occurrence of the earliest Triassic rapid transgression and coincides with the first ap-pearance of conodont Hindeodus parvus. Dune-shaped microbialite in Unit 27-5 defines biostrati-graphically that its development, especially in the carbonate platform of South China, should corre-spond to the earliest Triassic; and it also indicates the final episode of the end-Permian extinction event.

  9. Geological event sequences of the Permian-Triassic transition recorded in the microfacies in Meishan section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The microfacies sequence in the key interval of Beds 24―29 of the Meishan section comprehensively recorded the geological events during the Permian-Triassic transition, including the anoxia, storm disturbance, hard-ground/firm-ground form, volcanic eruption, weathering input, and microbialite development. This investigation of event sequences on the microfacies provided synthetically some clues to clarifying the previously proposed mechanisms of the end-Permian extinction. The deposit succession in Bed 24 of the Changxing Formation was developed dominantly with organic-rich lamina, but interrupted intermittently by storm disturbances. It indicates characteristically a stagnated, stratified and anoxic ocean during the latest Permian. The latest Permian transgression occurred rapidly at the top of Bed 24d and was characterized by the hard-ground interface. Abundant clay mineral of illite indicates the occurrence of persistent weathering of continental volcanics and then buried in ocean throughout this key Permo-Triassic transitional interval. However, the "boundary ash clay" of Bed 25 yielding normal grading of hyaloclastite was the result of precipitation of volcanic dusts. The firm-ground substrate in Unit 27-2 was lithe and excavated intensively by trace fossil Glossifungites; it means also the occurrence of the earliest Triassic rapid transgression and coincides with the first appearance of conodont Hindeodus parvus. Dune-shaped microbialite in Unit 27-5 defines biostrati-graphically that its development, especially in the carbonate platform of South China, should corre-spond to the earliest Triassic; and it also indicates the final episode of the end-Permian extinction event.

  10. Tectonic Evolution of the Junggar Foreland Basin in the Late Carboniferous-Permian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A comprehensive study has been carried out to subdivide andcorrelate the Upper Carboniferous and Permian sedimentary successions in the Junggar basin based on outcrops and drilling and geophysical data. The study results, combined with geological analyses of the basin's periphery and the basement, as well as studies of the sedimentary rocks within the basin, the unconformities, tectonic geometry, kinematics and geodynamics, lead to the conclusion that the Junggar basin was characterized by the development of foreland basin systems during the Late Carboniferous and Per mian, During that period, three foreland basin systems were developed: (1) the northwest foreland basin system, which trended nearly north-south from Mahu to the Chepaizi Palaeo-mountain during its early stage of development and thus it was also referred to as the west foreland basin system; (2) the Karamaili foreland basin system in the east and (3) the Northern Tianshan foreland basin system in the south. These systems are different in size, development stage and time of formation. The first two are developed earlier than the third, but they are smaller in size. All the structures in the Junggar basin have resulted from the integration and superposition of structural elements in the above three systems. In general, the development of the Junggar basin can be divided into four stages. Stage I was marked by the creation and evolution of the marginal western foreland and the peripheral Karamaili foreland basin systems during the Late Carboniferous-early Early Permian (C3-Pja). Stage Ⅱ was characterized by the development of complicated foreland basin systems during the mid dle-late Early Permian (Pjb-Pf) when the three foreland basin systems took their shapes. Stage Ⅲ was the integration stage of peripheral foreland basin systems during the Middle Permian (P2) in which steady and slow tectonic subsidence prevailed. Stage Ⅳ coincided with the shrinking of foreland basin development during the Late

  11. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  12. Fluorine in Canadian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godbeer, W.G.; Swaine, D.J.; Goodarzi, F. (CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Division of Coal and Energy Technology)

    1994-08-01

    Fluorine was determined in 57 samples of coals from western Canada and the Yukon (47 bituminous, 4 subbituminous, 6 lignite) by a pyrohydrolysis method. The range of values is 31-930 ppmw F in dry coal, the lowest values being mainly for the low-rank coals. For bituminous coals most values are in the range 31-580 (mean 174) ppmw F. 23 refs., 4 tabs.

  13. Coal in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper comprises a report on the coal industry in the Republic of South Africa. Stresses the importance of coal in the South African economy (meets 75% of the country's energy requirements and is in second place in the South African exports table). Covers deposits, production and prices, exports policy; winning methods, productivity and the various grades of coal. Also includes data on investments and refers to synthetic fuels from coal (Sasol I, II, III processes).

  14. Evidence of lacustrine sedimentation in the Upper Permian Bijori Formation, Satpura Gondwana basin: Palaeogeographic and tectonic implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tapan Chakraborty; Soumen Sarkar

    2005-06-01

    The Upper Permian Bijori Formation of the Satpura Gondwana basin comprising fine- to coarsegrained sandstone, carbonaceous shale/mudstone and thin coal bands was previously interpreted as the deposits of meandering rivers. The present study documents abundance of wave ripples, hummocky and swaley cross-stratification and combined flow bedforms in the Bijori Formation, suggesting that a significant part of the formation was deposited in a wave-agitated environment. Evidence of near-emergent depositional conditions provided by repeated occurrence of rootlet beds and hydromorphic paleosols, local flooding surfaces denoting rapid fluctuation of water level, occurrences of temnospondyl vertebrate fossils, and absence of tidal signatures and marine fossils suggest a lacustrine rather than marine depositional regime. Five facies associations recognised within the Bijori Formation are inferred to represent fluvial channels and associated floodplains (FA1), lake shorelines (FA2), subaqueous distributary channels and associated levees (FA3), wave- and storm-affected delta front (FA4), and open lacustrine/lower shoreface (FA5) deposits. The planoconcave fluvial channel-fill sandbodies with unidirectional cross-beds are clearly distinguishable from the delta front bars that show a convexo-plan or bi-convex sandbody geometry and dominance of wave and combined flow bedforms. Some of the distributary channels record interaction of fluvial and wave-dominated basinal processes. Major distributary sandbodies show a north to northwest flow direction while wave-affected delta front sandbodies show very complex flow patterns reflecting interaction between fluvial discharge and wave processes. Wave ripple crest trends show that the lake shoreline had an overall east–northeast to west–southwest orientation. The lack of documented contemporaneous lacustrine or marine sediments in the Satpura Gondwana basin posed a major problem of basin-scale palaeogeographic reconstruction. The

  15. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The year 2012 benefited from a growth of the consumption of hard coal at the national level as well as at the international level. Worldwide, the hard coal still is the number one energy source for power generation. This leads to an increasing demand for power plant coal. In this year, the conversion of hard coal into electricity also increases in this year. In contrast to this, the demand for coking coal as well as for coke of the steel industry is still declining depending on the market conditions. The enhanced utilization of coal for the domestic power generation is due to the reduction of the nuclear power from a relatively bad year for wind power as well as reduced import prices and low CO{sub 2} prices. Both justify a significant price advantage for coal in comparison to the utilisation of natural gas in power plants. This was mainly due to the price erosion of the inexpensive US coal which partly was replaced by the expansion of shale gas on the domestic market. As a result of this, the inexpensive US coal looked for an outlet for sales in Europe. The domestic hard coal has continued the process of adaptation and phase-out as scheduled. Two further hard coal mines were decommissioned in the year 2012. RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) running the hard coal mining in this country begins with the preparations for the activities after the time of mining.

  16. Turning Coal Into Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's coal liquefaction industry is developing rapidly, but still needs improvement In its effort to become more self-sufficient in energy, China is turning to other countries, notably South Africa, to establish joint ventures in turning coal into oil. To China's Shenhua Group Corp. Ltd., one of the world's largest coal-producing companies, the government's 11th Five-Year

  17. Coal production 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  18. Permo-Carboniferous coal measures in the Qinshui basin: Lithofacies paleogeography and its control on coal accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Longyi; XIAO Zhenghui; LU Jing; HE Zhiping; WANG Hao; ZHANG Pengfei

    2007-01-01

    The Qinshui basin in southeastern Shanxi Province is an important base for coalbed methane explora-tion and production in China. The methane reservoirs in this basin are the Carboniferous and Permian coals. Their thick-ness is strongly controlled by the depositional environments and the paleogeography. In this paper, sedimentological research was undertaken on the outcrop and borehole sections of the Taiyuan and Shanxi formations in the Qinshui basin and the basin-wide lithofacies paleogeography maps for these two formations have been reconstructed. The Taiyuan Forma-tion is composed of limestones, alttrninous mudstones, silt-stones, silty mudstones, sandstones, and mineable coal seams,with a total thickness varying from 44.9 m to 193.48 m. The coal seams have a thickness ranging between 0.10 and 16.89 m, averaging 7.19 m. During the deposition of the Taiyuan Formation, the northern part of the basin was domi-nated by a lower deltaic depositional system, the central and southern parts were dominated by a lagoon environment, and the southeastern comer was occupied by a carbonate platform setting. Coal is relatively thick in the northern part and the southeastern corner. The Shanxi Formation consists of sand-stones, siltstones, mudstones, and coals, with the limestones being locally developed. The thickness of the Shanxi Forma-tion is from 18.6 m to 213.25 m, with the thickness of coal seams from 0.10 to 10 m and averaging 4.2 m. During the deposition of the Shanxi Formation, the northern part of the Qinshui basin was mainly dominated by a lower deltaic plain distributary channel environment, the central and southern parts were mainly an interdistributary bay environment, and the southeastern part was occupied by a delta front mouth bar environment. The thick coals are distributed in the central and southern parts where an interdistributary bay dominates. It is evident that the thick coal zones of the Taiyuan Formation are consistent with the sandstone-rich belts

  19. Rocky Mountain Tertiary coal-basin models and their applicability to some world basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Tertiary intermontane basins in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States contain large amounts of coal resources. The first major type of Tertiary coal basin is closed and lake-dominated, either mud-rich (e.g., North Park Basin, Colorado) or mud plus carbonate (e.g., Medicine Lodge Basin, Montana), which are both infilled by deltas. The second major type of Tertiary coal basin is open and characterized by a preponderance of sediments that were deposited by flow-through fluvial systems (e.g., Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, and Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana). The setting for the formation of these coals varies with the type of basin sedimentation, paleotectonism, and paleoclimate. The mud-rich lake-dominated closed basin (transpressional paleotectonism and warm, humid paleoclimate), where infilled by sandy "Gilbert-type" deltas, contains thick coals (low ash and low sulfur) formed in swamps of the prograding fluvial systems. The mud- and carbonate-rich lake-dominated closed basin is infilled by carbonate precipitates plus coarse-grained fan deltas and fine-grained deltas. Here, thin coals (high ash and high sulfur) formed in swamps of the fine-grained deltas. The coarse-clastic, open basins (compressional paleotectonism and warm, paratropical paleoclimate) associated with flow-through fluvial systems contain moderately to anomalously thick coals (high to low ash and low sulfur) formed in swamps developed in intermittently abandoned portions of the fluvial systems. These coal development patterns from the Tertiary Rocky Mountain basins, although occurring in completely different paleotectonic settings, are similar to that found in the Tertiary, Cretaceous, and Permian intermontane coal basins in China, New Zealand, and India. ?? 1989.

  20. Land validation for GCOM-C1/SGLI using UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yhosiaki; Kajiwara, Koji; Sharma, Ram; Ono, Akiko; Imaoka, Keiji; Murakami, Hiroshi; Hori, Masahiro; Ono, Yusaku; Rostand, Dim

    2012-09-01

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is going to launch new Earth observation satellite GCOM-C1 in near future. The core sensor of GCOM-C1, Second Generation Global Imager (SGLI) has a set of along track slant viewing Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer (VNR). These multi-angular views aim to detect the structural information from vegetation canopy, especially forest canopy, for estimating productivity of the vegetation. SGLI Land science team has been developing the algorithm for above ground biomass, canopy roughness index, shadow index, etc. In this paper, we introduce the ground observation method developed by using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in order to contribute the algorithm development and its validation. Mainly, multi-angular spectral observation method and simple BRF model have been developed for estimating slant view response of forest canopy. The BRF model developed by using multi-angular measurement has been able to obtain structural information from vegetation canopy. In addition, we have conducted some observation campaigns on typical forest in Japan in collaboration with other science team experienced with vegetation phenology and carbon flux measurement. Primary results of these observations are also be demonstrated.

  1. Australian Coal Company Risk Factors: Coal and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zahid Hasan; Ratti, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of panel data on listed coal companies on the Australian exchange over January 1999 to February 2010 suggests that market return, interest rate premium, foreign exchange rate risk, and coal price returns are statistically significant in determining the excess return on coal companies’ stock. Coal price return and oil price return increases have statistically significant positive effects on coal company stock returns. A one per cent rise in coal price raises coal company returns ...

  2. Interaction of HmC1q with leech microglial cells: involvement of C1qBP-related molecule in the induction of cell chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahtouh Muriel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In invertebrates, the medicinal leech is considered to be an interesting and appropriate model to study neuroimmune mechanisms. Indeed, this non-vertebrate animal can restore normal function of its central nervous system (CNS after injury. Microglia accumulation at the damage site has been shown to be required for axon sprouting and for efficient regeneration. We characterized HmC1q as a novel chemotactic factor for leech microglial cell recruitment. In mammals, a C1q-binding protein (C1qBP alias gC1qR, which interacts with the globular head of C1q, has been reported to participate in C1q-mediated chemotaxis of blood immune cells. In this study, we evaluated the chemotactic activities of a recombinant form of HmC1q and its interaction with a newly characterized leech C1qBP that acts as its potential ligand. Methods Recombinant HmC1q (rHmC1q was produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Chemotaxis assays were performed to investigate rHmC1q-dependent microglia migration. The involvement of a C1qBP-related molecule in this chemotaxis mechanism was assessed by flow cytometry and with affinity purification experiments. The cellular localization of C1qBP mRNA and protein in leech was investigated using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques. Results rHmC1q-stimulated microglia migrate in a dose-dependent manner. This rHmC1q-induced chemotaxis was reduced when cells were preincubated with either anti-HmC1q or anti-human C1qBP antibodies. A C1qBP-related molecule was characterized in leech microglia. Conclusions A previous study showed that recruitment of microglia is observed after HmC1q release at the cut end of axons. Here, we demonstrate that rHmC1q-dependent chemotaxis might be driven via a HmC1q-binding protein located on the microglial cell surface. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of the interaction between C1q and C1qBP in microglial activation leading to nerve repair in the medicinal

  3. The investigation of chemical structure of coal macerals via transmitted-light FT-IR microscopy by X. Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hower, J.C.; Suarez-Ruiz, I.; Mastalerz, Maria; Cook, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    A recent paper by Sun [X. Sun, Spectrochim. Acta A 62 (1-3) (2005) 557] attempts to characterize a variety of liptinite, termed "barkinite", from Chinese Permian coals. The component identified does not appear to fundamentally differ from previously-described liptinite macerals included in the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology's system of maceral nomenclature. Further, chemical comparisons made with macerals from coals of different rank and age are flawed because the author did not account for changes in chemistry with rank or for the chemical changes associated with botanical changes through geologic time. The author has not satisfactorily proved his hypothesis that the component differs morphologically or chemically from known liptinite-group macerals. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Radionuclides in US coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  5. The economics of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Global aspects of the production, consumption and trade in coal are described. World reserves and resources, production (both by region and country), international trade (exporters and importers), coal consumption (by region and sector), and the demand for primary energy (1960-1979). Each of the producing and consuming countries are discussed individually. The electricity sector and its future demand for coal, and the future demand for coking coal are covered. Prices for metallurgical and steam coal are also given. Statistics are presented in tables.

  6. Coal Data: A reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ''Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  7. Maceral Characteristics and Vitrinite Reflectance Variation of The High Rank Coals, South Walker Creek, Bowen Basin, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep K. Permana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i2.156The Permian coals of the South Walker Creek area, with a vitrinite reflectance (Rvmax of 1.7 to 1.95% (low-volatile bituminous to semi-anthracite, are one of the highest rank coals currently mined in the Bowen Basin for the pulverized coal injection (PCI market. Studies of petrology of this coal seam have identified that the maceral composition of the coals are dominated by inertinite with lesser vitrinite, and only minor amounts of liptinite. Clay minerals, quartz, and carbonates can be seen under the optical microscope. The mineral matter occurs in association with vitrinite and inertinite macerals as syngenetic and epigenetic mineral phases. The irregular pattern of the vitrinite reflectance profile from the top to the bottom of the seam may represent a response in the organic matter to an uneven heat distribution from such hydrothermal influence. Examination of the maceral and vitrinite reflectance characteristics suggest that the mineralogical variation within the coal seam at South Walker Creek may have been controlled by various geological processes, including sediment input into the peat swamp during deposition, mineralogical changes associated with the rank advance process or metamorphism, and/or hydrothermal effects due to post depositional fluid migration through the coal seam.

  8. Coal and public perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) clean coal outreach efforts are described. The reason why clean coal technology outreach must be an integral part of coal's future is discussed. It is important that we understand the significance of these advances in coal utilization not just in terms of of hardware but in terms of public perception. Four basic premises in the use of coal are presented. These are: (1) that coal is fundamentally important to this nation's future; (2) that, despite premise number 1, coal's future is by no means assured and that for the last 10 years, coal has been losing ground; (3) that coal's future hinges on the public understanding of the benefits of the public's acceptance of advanced clean coal technology; and (4) hat public acceptance of clean coal technology is not going to be achieved through a nationwide advertising program run by the Federal government or even by the private sector. It is going to be gained at the grassroots level one community at a time, one plant at a time, and one referendum at a time. The Federal government has neither the resources, the staff, nor the mandate to lead the charge in those debates. What is important is that the private sector step up to the plate as individual companies and an individual citizens working one-one-one at the community level, one customer, one civic club, and one town meeting at a time

  9. Intestinal and Hepatic Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Woo Park

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Polytopic transmembrane protein, Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1 is localized at the apical membrane of enterocytes and the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. It mediates intestinal cholesterol absorption and prevents extensive loss of cholesterol by transporting biliary cholesterol into hepatocytes. NPC1L1 is a molecular target of ezetimibe, an agent for hypercholesterolemia. Recently, NPC1L1 inhibition has been shown to prevent metabolic disorders such as fatty liver disease, obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. In this review, the identification and characterization of NPC1L1, NPC1L1-dependent cholesterol transport, the relationship with pathogenesis of metabolic disease and its newly introduced function for virus entry are discussed.

  10. Plasma enhanced C1 chemistry for green technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro

    2013-09-01

    Plasma catalysis is one of the innovative next generation green technologies that meet the needs for energy and materials conservation as well as environmental protection. Non-thermal plasma uniquely generates reactive species independently of reaction temperature, and these species are used to initiate chemical reactions at unexpectedly lower temperatures than normal thermochemical reactions. Non-thermal plasma thus broadens the operation window of existing chemical conversion processes, and ultimately allows modification of the process parameters to minimize energy and material consumption. We have been specifically focusing on dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) as one of the viable non-thermal plasma sources for practical fuel reforming. In the presentation, room temperature one-step conversion of methane to methanol and hydrogen using a miniaturized DBD reactor (microplasma reactor) is highlighted. The practical impact of plasma technology on existing C1-chemistry is introduced, and then unique characteristics of plasma fuel reforming such as non-equilibrium product distribution is discussed.

  11. Coal; Le charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2001-12-15

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  12. Coal to gas substitution using coal?!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempka, Thomas; Schlüter, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    Substitution of carbon-intensive coal with less carbon-intensive natural gas for energy production is discussed as one main pillar targeting reduction of antrophogenic greenhouse gas emissions by means of climate change mitigation. Other pillars are energy efficiency, renewable energies, carbon capture and storage as well as further development of nuclear energy. Taking into account innovative clean coal technologies such as UCG-CCS (underground coal gasification with carbon capture and storage), in which coal deposits are developed using directional drilling technologies and subsequently converted into a synthesis gas of high calorific value, the coupled conceptual approach can provide a synergetic technology for coal utilization and mitigation of carbon emissions. This study aims at the evaluation of UCǴ s carbon mitigation potentials and the review of the economical boundary conditions. The analytical models applied within this study are based on data available from world-wide UCG projects and extensive laboratory studies. In summary, scenarios considering costs and carbon storage potentials are economically feasible and thus competitive with less carbon-intensive energy generation technologies such as natural gas. Thus, coal to gas substitution can be one of the coal based options.

  13. Euxinia prior to end-Permian main extinction at Xiaojiaba section, Sichuan Province, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H.; Algeo, T. J.; Chen, D.; Yu, H.

    2013-12-01

    Redox conditions in the global ocean prior to, during, and following the end-Permian mass extinction at 252.28 Ma remain contentious. Previous studies in western Australia, South China, and East Greenland have shown that photic-zone euxinia was present at least intermittently from the early Changhsingian through the Dienerian1-3. Here we report a study of organic carbon isotopes, pyrite sulfur isotopes, TOC, pyritic sulfur content, REE, and major and trace elements from the Upper Permian Xiaojiaba section in the Chaotian district of Guangyuan City, Sichuan Province, China. During the Permian-Triassic transition, this section was located on the northwestern margin of the South China Block, facing the Paleo-Tethys Ocean. Our results indicate that suboxic conditions prevailed during the Wuchiapingian and suboxic to anoxic conditions with several pulses of euxinia during the Changhsingian. δ13Corg values are mostly -28‰ to -26‰ but show three positive excursions (to -22‰) prior to the end-Permian mass extinction horizon. These positive excursions are associated with higher Spy concentrations (to ~1%). δ34Spy values are variable (from -41‰ to +5‰) but show a sharp negative excursion in the late Changhsingian (to -43.4‰) that coincided with the most positive δ13Corg values. This horizon is also associated with increases in Eu/Eu*, Baxs, ∑REE, Si, and redox-sensitive metals such as V. These patterns reflect linkage of the C and S cycles during the latest Permian, possibly in response to redox controls. The observed positive excursions in δ13Corg may be due to organic inputs from green sulfur bacteria, which exhibit a smaller photosynthetic fractionation (-12.5‰4) than eukaryotic algae. The pronounced negative excursion of δ34Spy corresponds to a sulfate-sulfide S isotope fractionation of about -60‰, suggesting a large flux of syngenetic framboidal pyrite, which would be indicative of euxinic water-column conditions. We infer that the euxinia prior

  14. Chemo- and palyno-stratigraphy of the Permian-Triassic transition in the Boreal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soelen, Els; Planke, Sverre; Svensen, Henrik; Twitchett, Richard; Polozov, Alexander; Kürschner, Wolfram

    2016-04-01

    Late Permian and early Triassic sediments from Boreal regions are studied using palynological and organic geochemical tools. We present preliminary results from two sites: a Norwegian site which is represented by a 100-m long borehole core and outcrops from Deltadalen on Spitsbergen, and a Russian site which is represented by outcrops and short cores collected near Norilsk in northern Siberia. The main goals of the project are to improve the stratigraphy and to study the environmental changes at high resolution. There is a growing scientific consensus that end Permian biotic crisis was linked to the Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province (LIP) event. However, direct evidence for a stratigraphic correlation of the marine and terrestrial extinction events, with the volcanic successions in the Siberian basin, is rather limited. The Permian-Triassic boundary successions in the Arctic are crucial for direct correlation eastwards to the Siberian Traps. The magnitude and timing of a carbon isotope excursion near the Permian-Triassic boundary is an important stratigraphical tool that may help to unravel the sequence of the events happening during this important period. Preliminary results from the Deltadalen core near the base of the Vikinghøgda Formation show shifts in δ13C from -24.5 to -32.7‰ in the interval expected to span the Permian/Triassic boundary. New Rock-Eval pyrolysis data will shed further light on the origin of the organic matter (e.g. marine versus terrestrial) and may help to understand how much of the δ13C signal can be explained by changes in organic matter source and how much may be attributed to a global change in the carbon isotope signature. Furthermore, compound specific isotope analysis will be done on terrestrial derived lipids (long chain n-alkanes) to reconstruct changes in atmospheric carbon isotopes. In addition to chemostratigraphy, the palynological record will be used for biostratigraphical studies at both Deltadalen and Norilsk

  15. Shallow marine ecosystem feedback to the Permian/Triassic mass extinction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongbiao WANG; Zheng MENG; Wei LIAO; Zeting WENG; Hao YANG

    2011-01-01

    Late Permian reefs developed widely on shallow marine carbonate platforms in South China but disappeared far below the main mass extinction level of the latest Permian. The collapse of reef ecosystem may be related to the enhanced volcanism at the end of Late Permian. Notably, some colony corals and reef-building sponges were found to occur near the mass extinction boundary, inferring the eclipse of reef ecosystem is ahead of the disappearance of reef-building organisms, and the triggers would be present long before the main mass extinction. As the primary producers, the calcareous algae are rich in platform limestones of Late Permian and played a very important role in maintaining the shallow benthic ecosystems. The calcareous algae were found to disappear synchronously with the great reduction of foraminifers,which were ecologically associated with these algae. The extinction of Late Permian calcareous algae greatly reduced the biodiversity of primary producers in the shallow marine environment and destroyed in part the structure and the base of the shallow marine ecosystems,which in turn cause the extinction of ecologically associated metazoan. Microbialites developed on carbonate platforms immediately after the end-Permian mass extinction, representing a simple and unique microbial ecosystem. Widespread occurrence of microbialites symbolized the deterioration of marine environmental conditions and the dramatic revolution of marine ecosystems. As the new primary producers instead of the extinguished calcareous algae, cyanobacteria in the microbialites were an important base of this peculiar ecosystem and contributed greatly to the survival of the remnant faunas after the mass extinction. Widespread occurrence of microbialites in shallow marine environment is suggested to be related to the elevated level of volcanism-induced greenhouse gases and enhanced evaporation and hypersaline condition in addition to the decrease of metazoan grazing pressure. The change

  16. Molecular carbon isotope variations in core samples taken at the Permian-Triassic boundary layers in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruiliang; Zhang, Shuichang; Brassell, Simon; Wang, Jiaxue; Lu, Zhengyuan; Ming, Qingzhong; Wang, Xiaomei; Bian, Lizeng

    2012-07-01

    Stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of carbonate sediments and the molecular (biomarker) characteristics of a continuous Permian-Triassic (PT) layer in southern China were studied to obtain geochemical signals of global change at the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB). Carbonate carbon isotope values shifted toward positive before the end of the Permian period and then shifted negative above the PTB into the Triassic period. Molecular carbon isotope values of biomarkers followed the same trend at and below the PTB and remained negative in the Triassic layer. These biomarkers were acyclic isoprenoids, ranging from C15 to C40, steranes (C27 dominates) and terpenoids that were all significantly more abundant in samples from the Permian layer than those from the Triassic layer. The Triassic layer was distinguished by the dominance of higher molecular weight (waxy) n-alkanes. Stable carbon isotope values of individual components, including n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids such as phytane, isop-C25, and squalane, are depleted in δ13C by up to 8-10‰ in the Triassic samples as compared to the Permian. Measured molecular and isotopic variations of organic matter in the PT layers support the generally accepted view of Permian oceanic stagnation followed by a massive upwelling of toxic deep waters at the PTB. A series of large-scale (global) outgassing events may be associated with the carbon isotope shift we measured. This is also consistent with the lithological evidence we observed of white thin-clay layers in this region. Our findings, in context with a generally accepted stagnant Permian ocean, followed by massive upwelling of toxic deep waters might be the major causes of the largest global mass extinction event that occurred at the Permian-Triassic boundary.

  17. First evidence for Permian-Triassic boundary volcanism in the Northern Gemericum: geochemistry and U-Pb zircon geochronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vozárová Anna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Several magmatic events based on U-Pb zircon geochronology were recognized in the Permian sedimentary succession of the Northern Gemeric Unit (NGU. The Kungurian magmatic event is dominant. The later magmatism stage was documented at the Permian-Triassic boundary. The detrital zircon assemblages from surrounding sediments documented the Sakmarian magmatic age. The post-orogenic extensional/transtensional faulting controlled the magma ascent and its emplacement. The magmatic products are represented by the calc-alkaline volcanic rocks, ranging from basaltic metaandesite to metarhyolite, associated with subordinate metabasalt. The whole group of the studied NGU Permian metavolcanics has values for the Nb/La ratio at (0.44–0.27 and for the Nb/U ratio at (9.55–4.18, which suggests that they represent mainly crustal melts. Magma derivation from continental crust or underplated crust is also indicated by high values of Y/Nb ratios, ranging from 1.63 to 4.01. The new 206U–238Pb zircon ages (concordia age at 269 ± 7 Ma confirm the dominant Kungurian volcanic event in the NGU Permian sedimentary basin. Simultaneously, the Permian-Triassic boundary volcanism at 251 ± 4 Ma has been found for the first time. The NGU Permian volcanic activity was related to a polyphase extensional tectonic regime. Based on the new and previous U-Pb zircon ages, the bulk of the NGU Permian magmatic activity occurred during the Sakmarian and Kungurian. It was linked to the post-orogenic transpression/transtension tectonic movements that reflected the consolidation of the Variscan orogenic belt. The Permian-Triassic boundary magmatism was accompanied by extension, connected with the beginning of the Alpine Wilson cycle.

  18. First evidence for Permian-Triassic boundary volcanism in the Northern Gemericum: geochemistry and U-Pb zircon geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozárová, Anna; Presnyakov, Sergey; Šarinová, Katarína; Šmelko, Miloš

    2015-10-01

    Several magmatic events based on U-Pb zircon geochronology were recognized in the Permian sedimentary succession of the Northern Gemeric Unit (NGU). The Kungurian magmatic event is dominant. The later magmatism stage was documented at the Permian-Triassic boundary. The detrital zircon assemblages from surrounding sediments documented the Sakmarian magmatic age. The post-orogenic extensional/transtensional faulting controlled the magma ascent and its emplacement. The magmatic products are represented by the calc-alkaline volcanic rocks, ranging from basaltic metaandesite to metarhyolite, associated with subordinate metabasalt. The whole group of the studied NGU Permian metavolcanics has values for the Nb/La ratio at (0.44-0.27) and for the Nb/U ratio at (9.55-4.18), which suggests that they represent mainly crustal melts. Magma derivation from continental crust or underplated crust is also indicated by high values of Y/Nb ratios, ranging from 1.63 to 4.01. The new 206U-238Pb zircon ages (concordia age at 269 ± 7 Ma) confirm the dominant Kungurian volcanic event in the NGU Permian sedimentary basin. Simultaneously, the Permian-Triassic boundary volcanism at 251 ± 4 Ma has been found for the first time. The NGU Permian volcanic activity was related to a polyphase extensional tectonic regime. Based on the new and previous U-Pb zircon ages, the bulk of the NGU Permian magmatic activity occurred during the Sakmarian and Kungurian. It was linked to the post-orogenic transpression/transtension tectonic movements that reflected the consolidation of the Variscan orogenic belt. The Permian-Triassic boundary magmatism was accompanied by extension, connected with the beginning of the Alpine Wilson cycle.

  19. Characterization of coal-derived hydrocarbons and source-rock potential of coal beds, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, D.D.; Clayton, J.L.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Coal beds are considered to be a major source of nonassociated gas in the Rocky Mountain basins of the United States. In the San Juan basin of northwestern New Mexico and southwestern Colorado, significant quantities of natural gas are being produced from coal beds of the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation and from adjacent sandstone reservoirs. Analysis of gas samples from the various gas-producing intervals provided a means of determining their origin and of evaluating coal beds as source rocks. The rank of coal beds in the Fruitland Formation in the central part of the San Juan basin, where major gas production occurs, increases to the northeast and ranges from high-volatile B bituminous coal to medium-volatile bituminous coal (Rm values range from 0.70 to 1.45%). On the basis of chemical, isotopic and coal-rank data, the gases are interpreted to be thermogenic. Gases from the coal beds show little isotopic variation (??13C1 values range -43.6 to -40.5 ppt), are chemically dry (C1/C1-5 values are > 0.99), and contain significant amounts of CO2 (as much as 6%). These gases are interpreted to have resulted from devolatilization of the humic-type bituminous coal that is composed mainly of vitrinite. The primary products of this process are CH4, CO2 and H2O. The coal-generated, methane-rich gas is usually contained in the coal beds of the Fruitland Formation, and has not been expelled and has not migrated into the adjacent sandstone reservoirs. In addition, the coal-bed reservoirs produce a distinctive bicarbonate-type connate water and have higher reservoir pressures than adjacent sandstones. The combination of these factors indicates that coal beds are a closed reservoir system created by the gases, waters, and associated pressures in the micropore coal structure. In contrast, gases produced from overlying sandstones in the Fruitland Formation and underlying Pictured Cliffs Sandstone have a wider range of isotopic values (??13C1 values range from -43.5 to -38

  20. Benthic aquatic ecosystems across the Permian-Triassic transition: record from biogenic structures in fluvial sandstones, central Transantarctic Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. F.

    2000-07-01

    The effect of the Permian extinction in communities inhabiting sandy stream bottoms can be evaluated using trace fossils as proxies for body fossils. Permian and Triassic sandstones exposed in the Beardmore and Shackleton Glacier areas (central Transantarctic Mountains) were deposited in sandy braided streams and contain four types of trace fossils (vertical shafts and horizontal, bilobed and chevron traces). These traces were produced by a single type of animal that moved in the top 30 cm of sediment and dominated the benthic community. Evidence for a single producer includes similar size (diameter) of all traces and change within single specimens from one trace type to another. The animal was not affected by the Permian extinction event, as evidenced by its equal abundance within the Permian (Buckley Formation) and Triassic (Fremouw Formation) fluvial sandstones in the Beardmore Glacier area. Based on trace morphology and on domination of modern sandy river ecosystems by insects, the producer most likely was an insect, although its more precise identity is problematic. Although families of insects with modern aquatic burrowers are not known before the Jurassic, these trace fossils may show that these burrowers were present earlier than the insect body-fossil record suggests. Alternatively, archaic insect groups, many of which became extinct at the end-Permian and are known to have been aquatic but not infaunal, may have included some active burrowers that were unscathed by the Permian extinction.

  1. Distribution, Mineralogy, Petrography, Provenance and Significance of Permian Ash-Carrying Deposits in the Paraná Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moacyr Vianna Coutinho

    Full Text Available The study of thin sections taken from drill core samples and outcrops in southern Brazil has demonstrated the occurrenceof repeated ash fall episodes during the Permian period between 280 and 245 Ma. Scattered or concentrated altered volcanicglass shards were detected in strata of Permian sedimentary rocks of the Rio Bonito and Tatui Formations. The shardcarryingsediment is usually a silty or cherty mudstone with variable amounts of calcrete calcite. Burial and alteration ofunstable glass debris led to the development of analcite and less commonly, calcite, silica minerals, zeolites or montmorillonite.Sources of explosive Permian volcanism, responsible for ample ash falls have been sought in South Africa, in the AndeanCordillera and along the Paraná Basin margin. A swarm of rhyolitic centers described in the Cordillera Frontal and in theCentral Argentinian Provincia de La Pampa (Patagonia is here proposed as the most adequate Permian source. In that area,volcanoes must have expelled ashes that traveled thousands of kilometers before settling in deltaic or shallow marineenvironments. Twenty-three occurrences of Permian shard-carrying sediments have been plotted in a Paraná Basin map. Thenumber of ash-carrying sediments decreases northeastward. The authors envisage dense clouds originated in Patagoniatraveling NE, depositing progressively smaller quantities of ashes but reaching Australia in pre-drift Gondwana. Shardcarrying sediments must be distinguished from “tonstein”, ash fall or ash flow tuffs, also recorded in the Permian Gondwana,which would indicate closer ash source area.

  2. Geological controls on the sulphur content of coal seams in the Northumberland Coalfield, Northeast England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Brian R. [Department of Earth Sciences, Science Laboratories, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Richardson, David [H.J. Banks and Co. Ltd, Bishop Auckland DL13 4HG (United Kingdom)

    2004-12-03

    The sulphur content of coal is an important consideration when developing reserves for exploitation, driven by emission limits from power stations becoming more stringent. Variations in the sulphur content of Westphalian A and B coals from the predominantly freshwater Northumberland Coalfield, Northeast England, were studied according to their regional, stratigraphic and in-seam location. The observed variation in sulphur content spatially increases towards the source area away from more marine influenced areas, with increased sulphur content through time linked to changes in the general depositional environment as conditions became more marine-influenced. A model of basinal surface water and groundwater flow driven by post-depositional source area tectonism is thought to have played only a minor role in contributing secondary sulphur to the coal. However, the isotopic composition of coal pyrite shows a similar range in composition to that of pyrite and other sulphides from the North Pennine Orefield along the southern margin of the coalfield, suggesting an additional potential source of secondary sulphur, as sulphur-rich fluids were expelled northwards through the coal measures during early Permian Variscan transpression from the south. The Westphalian A and B are interpreted as third-order depositional sequences, defined by third-order maximum flooding surfaces. Each sequence is made up of several coal-bearing fourth-order parasequences, which tend to be more brackish to marine in character, on either side of the third-order maximum flooding surfaces when base level was relatively high. The lowest sulphur coals are confined to the lower to middle, relative low stand part of the Westphalian A third-order base level curve and the lowest part of the Westphalian B third-order base level curve. This difference is attributed to a more rapid rise of base level in the Westphalian B. The stratigraphic and spatial distribution of coal sulphur has been used as a guide to

  3. Coal sector profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-05

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  4. Sandrewia, n. gen., a problematical plant from the Lower Permian of Texas and Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamay, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    Sandrewia, n. gen., monotypified by S. texana, n. sp., is a plant from Lower Permian beds of north-central Texas and east-central Kansas. It is characterized by stout axes with spirally disposed, laxly inserted, petiolate leaves; the laminae are broadly flabelliform with coarse, open venation. The leaves are reminiscent of the vojnovskyalean Nephropsis, of the Permian Petchora Basin, U.S.S.R., but biologic relationships are only speculative because of limited material. However, leaf characteristics render Sandrewia easily identifiable. Its presently limited stratigraphic range, along with floristic associations, indicates it may be a useful guide fossil and supports the author's beliefs regarding important times and places in Paleozoic plant evolution. ?? 1975.

  5. Palaeotethys seawater temperature rise and an intensified hydrological cycle following the end-Permian mass extinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schobben, Martin; Joachimski, Michael M.; Korn, Dieter;

    2014-01-01

    The end-Permian mass extinction has been associated with severe global warming. Main stage volcanism of the Siberian Traps occurred at or near the extinction interval and has been proposed as a likely greenhouse catalyst. In this study, a high-resolution δ18O record is established using diageneti......The end-Permian mass extinction has been associated with severe global warming. Main stage volcanism of the Siberian Traps occurred at or near the extinction interval and has been proposed as a likely greenhouse catalyst. In this study, a high-resolution δ18O record is established using...... to over 35°C. The results are consistent with re-calculated SSTs of the South Chinese sections. Warming was associated with an enhanced hydrological cycle involving increased tropical precipitation and monsoonal activity in the Tethys Sea. Global warming, intensification of the hydrological cycle...

  6. Carbon Capture and Storage in the Permian Basin, a Regional Technology Transfer and Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rychel, Dwight

    2013-09-30

    The Permian Basin Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) Training Center was one of seven regional centers formed in 2009 under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and managed by the Department of Energy. Based in the Permian Basin, it is focused on the utilization of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects for the long term storage of CO2 while producing a domestic oil and revenue stream. It delivers training to students, oil and gas professionals, regulators, environmental and academia through a robust web site, newsletter, tech alerts, webinars, self-paced online courses, one day workshops, and two day high level forums. While course material prominently features all aspects of the capture, transportation and EOR utilization of CO2, the audience focus is represented by its high level forums where selected graduate students with an interest in CCUS interact with Industry experts and in-house workshops for the regulatory community.

  7. Episodic perturbations of end-Permian atmosphere recorded in plant spore chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Wesley; Lomax, Barry; Beerling, David; James, David; Pyle, John; Self, Stephen; Sephton, Mark; Wellman, Charles

    2016-04-01

    The largest marine Phanerozoic extinction occurred 251 million years ago at the end of the Permian period with a contemporaneous major reorganisation of terrestrial. Previous work suggests the eruption of the Siberian Traps large igneous province could have generated substantial volumes of ozone depleting substances; the result being a partial collapse of the stratospheric ozone layer, and commensurate increase in ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-315nm) radiation. Increased UV-B flux would contribute additional pressures to an already stressed environment and flora and fauna. Here we present data utilising a new biogeochemical proxy for UV-B radiation to analyse clubmoss (lycophyta) megaspores to track UV-B radiation across the end-Permian interval. Our biogeochemical data when combined with published work on spore and pollen mutations suggests a highly dynamic global atmospheric system, oscillating between episodes of high and low UV-B flux, most likely driven by pulsed eruptive phases of the Siberian Traps.

  8. Correlation between coal characteristics and methane adsorption on China's coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hong-guan; YUAN Jian; SONG Ji-yong; LENG Shu-wei

    2007-01-01

    It is highly important to investigate relationship between coal characteristics and methane adsorption on coal in the fields of coalbed methane recovery. Based on data examination of coal quality indexes collected from the literatures, regression equations for Langmuir adsorption constants, VL or VL/PL, and coal quality indexes for selected coal samples were developed with multiple linear regression of SPSS software according to the degree of coal metamorphosis. The regression equations built were tested with data collected from some literatures, and the influences of coal quality indexes on CH4 adsorption on coals were studied with investigation of regression equations, and the reasons of low accuracy to Langmuir constants calculated with regression equation for a few coal samples were investigated. The results show that the regression equations can be employed to predict Langmuir constants for methane adsorption isotherms on coals obtained using volumetric gas adsorption experiments, which are conducted at 30 ℃ on a wet or dried coal samples with less than 30% ash content in coal. The influence of same coal quality index with various coal rank or influence of various coal quality indexes for same coal rank on CH4 adsorption is not consistent. The regression equations have different accuracy to different coal rank, in which the VL equations supply better prediction accuracy for anthracite and higher prediction error for lower metamorphosis coal, and the PL prediction error with VL and VL/PL equations is lower to bituminous coal and higher to anthracite.

  9. Permian Palaeotemperature and Ice Volumes History: Evidence from Carbon and Oxygen isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution oxygen isotope record based on 356 measurements of conodont apatite from several low latitudinal sections in South China, USA and Iran was composed in order to unravel Permian palaeotemperature and ice volume history. Oxygen isotope analyses of different conodont taxa suggest that Streptognathodus and Hindeodus lived in near-surface seawater and recorded surface waters temperature, whereas the habitat of gondolellid genera was variable depending on sea level, with both near-su...

  10. Prolonged Permian–Triassic ecological crisis recorded by molluscan dominance in Late Permian offshore assemblages

    OpenAIRE

    Clapham, Matthew E.; Bottjer, David J.

    2007-01-01

    The end-Permian mass extinction was the largest biotic crisis in the history of animal life, eliminating as many as 95% of all species and dramatically altering the ecological structure of marine communities. Although the causes of this pronounced ecosystem shift have been widely debated, the broad consensus based on inferences from global taxonomic diversity patterns suggests that the shift from abundant brachiopods to dominant molluscs was abrupt and largely driven by the catastrophic effec...

  11. The problems of Paleozoic beds and reconstruction of the Middle Permian sedimentary basin in western Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Mlakar

    2003-01-01

    In the first part of paper geologic data from smaller outcrops of Val Gardena Formation in west Slovenia are assembled. Together with the already published information from larger outcrops they permit the reconstruction of the Middle Permian sedimentary basin on which the accent of paper is based. Attention is drawn to general problems of Upper Paleozoic beds, and conclusions regarding lithologic, stratigraphic and structural control of uranium and copper deposits in this part of Slovenia are...

  12. The problems of Paleozoic beds and reconstruction of the Middle Permian sedimentary basin in western Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mlakar

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of paper geologic data from smaller outcrops of Val Gardena Formation in west Slovenia are assembled. Together with the already published information from larger outcrops they permit the reconstruction of the Middle Permian sedimentary basin on which the accent of paper is based. Attention is drawn to general problems of Upper Paleozoic beds, and conclusions regarding lithologic, stratigraphic and structural control of uranium and copper deposits in this part of Slovenia are given.

  13. Reverse magnetic anomaly controlled by Permian Igneous rocks in the Iberian Chain (N Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Calvín,P. Universidad de Zaragoza. Departamento. de Ciencias de la Tierra; Casas, A. M. Universidad de Zaragoza. Departamento. de Ciencias de la Tierra; Villalaín, J. J.; Tierz, P. Universidad de Zaragoza. Departamento. de Ciencias de la Tierra

    2014-01-01

    Two important reverse dipolar magnetic anomalies in the Iberian Chain (Spain) are located over Permian igneous rocks. A detailed study of one of them, the Loscos magnetic anomaly, where the geological structure is well constrained, reveals that the source of the anomaly must be a reverse remanent magnetisation carried by igneous rocks, acquired during the period of the Kiaman reverse magnetic superchron. Magnetic and gravimetric detailed survey (with 50 new gravimetric measurements and 8 main...

  14. Inter-taxa differences in extinction process of Maokouan (Middle Permian) fusulinaceans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨湘宁; 施贵军; 刘家润; 陈云棠; 周建平

    2000-01-01

    Analyses of the extinction process of fusulinacean in the Maokouan (Middle Permian) biotic crisis have revealed remarkable differences between taxa with various morphological features. Nankinellinids suffered a heavy loss of species in the early stage of the Maokouan event. Schwagerinids and neoschwagerinids both showed a stepwise decrease in species diversity, but the pulses of species extinction occurred in different stages of the extinction process. The species extinction of verbeekinids happened primarily in the Late Maokouan.

  15. Late Permian to Triassic intraplate orogeny of the southern Tianshan and adjacent regions, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Ju; Guiting Hou

    2014-01-01

    The South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions of Central Asia are located in the southwestern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The formation of South Tianshan Orogen was a diachronous, scissors-like process, which took place during the Palaeozoic, and its western segment was accepted as a site of the final collision between the Tarim Craton and the North Asian continent, which occurred in the late Palaeozoic. However, the post-collisional tectonic evolution of the South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions remains debatable. Based on previous studies and recent geochronogical data, we suggest that the final collision between the Tarim Craton and the North Asian continent occurred during the late Carboniferous. Therefore, the Permian was a period of intracontinental environment in the southern Tianshan and adjacent regions. We propose that an earlier, small-scale intraplate orogenic stage occurred in late Permian to Triassic time, which was the first intraplate process in the South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions. The later large-scale and well-known Neogene to Quaternary intraplate orogeny was induced by the collision between the India subcontinent and the Eurasian plate. The paper presents a new evolutionary model for the South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions, which includes seven stages: (I) late Ordovicianeearly Silurian opening of the South Tianshan Ocean;(II) middle Silurianemiddle Devonian subduction of the South Tianshan Ocean beneath an active margin of the North Asian continent; (III) late Devonianelate Carboniferous closure of the South Tianshan Ocean and collision between the Kazakhstan-Yili and Tarim continental blocks;(IV) early Permian post-collisional magmatism and rifting;(V) late PermianeTriassic the first intraplate orogeny;(VI) JurassicePalaeogene tectonic stagnation and (VII) NeoceneeQuaternary intraplate orogeny.

  16. Abrupt environmental and climatic change during the deposition of the Early Permian Haushi limestone, Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, Michael; Angiolini, Lucia; Leng, Melanie; Brewer, T. S.; Berra, F.; F. Jadoul; G. Gambacorta; Verna, V.; Al Beloushi, B.

    2008-01-01

    During the late Sakmarian (Early Permian), the Haushi limestone was deposited in a shallow embayment of the Neotethys Ocean covering what is now north Oman and parts of southeast Saudi Arabia. The sea persisted through the late Sakmarian, but by the time of the deposition of the ?Artinskian Middle Gharif Member, limestone deposition had ceased and generally arid fluvial and minor lacustrine palaeonvironments in a low accommodation space setting had become established. Analysis of three subsur...

  17. Behavior of lophophorates during the end-Permian mass extinction and recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Catherine M.; Bottjer, David J.

    2009-11-01

    The end-Permian mass extinction devastated most marine communities and the recovery was a protracted event lasting several million years into the Early Triassic. Environmental and biological processes undoubtedly controlled patterns of recovery for marine invertebrates in the aftermath of the extinction, but are often difficult to single-out. The global diversity and distribution of marine lophophorates during the aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction indicates that stenolaemate bryozoans, rhynchonelliform brachiopods, and lingulid brachiopods displayed distinct recovery patterns. Bryozoans were the most susceptible of the lophophorates, experiencing relatively high rates of extinction at the end of the Permian, and becoming restricted to the Boreal region during the Early Triassic. The recovery of bryozoans was also delayed until the Late Triassic and characterized by very low diversity and abundance. Following the final disappearance of Permian rhynchonelliform brachiopod survivors, Early Triassic rhynchonelliform brachiopod abundance remained suppressed despite a successful re-diversification and a global distribution, suggesting a decoupling between global taxonomic and ecological processes likely driven by lingering environmental stress. In contrast with bryozoans and rhynchonelliforms, lingulid brachiopods rebounded rapidly, colonizing shallow marine settings left vacant by the extinction. Lingulid dominance, characterized by low diversity but high numerical abundance, was short-lived and they were once again displaced back into marginal settings as environmental stress changed through the marine recovery. The presence in lingulid brachiopods of the respiratory pigment hemerythrin, known to increase the efficacy of oxygen storage and transport, when coupled with other morphological and physiological adaptations, may have given lingulids a survival advantage in environmentally stressed Early Triassic settings.

  18. Volatile-organic molecular characterization of shale-oil produced water from the Permian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naima A.; Engle, Mark A.; Dungan, Barry; Holguin, F. Omar; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    Growth in unconventional oil and gas has spurred concerns on environmental impact and interest in beneficial uses of produced water (PW), especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin, the largest U.S. tight-oil producer. To evaluate environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of PW. Although hydraulic fracturing has caused a significant increase in shale-oil production, there are no high-resolution organic composition data for the shale-oil PW from the Permian Basin or other shale-oil plays (Eagle Ford, Bakken, etc.). PW was collected from shale-oil wells in the Midland sub-basin of the Permian Basin. Molecular characterization was conducted using high-resolution solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Approximately 1400 compounds were identified, and 327 compounds had a >70% library match. PW contained alkane, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene. PW also contained heteroatomic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. 3D van Krevelen and double bond equivalence versus carbon number analyses were used to evaluate molecular variability. Source composition, as well as solubility, controlled the distribution of volatile compounds found in shale-oil PW. The salinity also increased with depth, ranging from 105 to 162 g/L total dissolved solids. These data fill a gap for shale-oil PW composition, the associated petroleomics plots provide a fingerprinting framework, and the results for the Permian shale-oil PW suggest that partial treatment of suspended solids and organics would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse and bio-energy production.

  19. Volatile-organic molecular characterization of shale-oil produced water from the Permian Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naima A; Engle, Mark; Dungan, Barry; Holguin, F Omar; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C

    2016-04-01

    Growth in unconventional oil and gas has spurred concerns on environmental impact and interest in beneficial uses of produced water (PW), especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin, the largest U.S. tight-oil producer. To evaluate environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of PW. Although hydraulic fracturing has caused a significant increase in shale-oil production, there are no high-resolution organic composition data for the shale-oil PW from the Permian Basin or other shale-oil plays (Eagle Ford, Bakken, etc.). PW was collected from shale-oil wells in the Midland sub-basin of the Permian Basin. Molecular characterization was conducted using high-resolution solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Approximately 1400 compounds were identified, and 327 compounds had a >70% library match. PW contained alkane, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene. PW also contained heteroatomic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. 3D van Krevelen and double bond equivalence versus carbon number analyses were used to evaluate molecular variability. Source composition, as well as solubility, controlled the distribution of volatile compounds found in shale-oil PW. The salinity also increased with depth, ranging from 105 to 162 g/L total dissolved solids. These data fill a gap for shale-oil PW composition, the associated petroleomics plots provide a fingerprinting framework, and the results for the Permian shale-oil PW suggest that partial treatment of suspended solids and organics would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse and bio-energy production. PMID:26802271

  20. Ocean Acidification and the End-Permian Mass Extinction: To What Extent does Evidence Support Hypothesis?

    OpenAIRE

    Marie-Béatrice Forel; Pierre-Yves Collin; Yue Li; Stephen Kershaw; Sylvie Crasquin

    2012-01-01

    Ocean acidification in modern oceans is linked to rapid increase in atmospheric CO2, raising concern about marine diversity, food security and ecosystem services. Proxy evidence for acidification during past crises may help predict future change, but three issues limit confidence of comparisons between modern and ancient ocean acidification, illustrated from the end-Permian extinction, 252 million years ago: (1) problems with evidence for ocean acidification preserved in sedimentary rocks, wh...

  1. Quantitative Evaluation of the Sea-level Drop at the End-Permian: Based on Reefs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The amplitude of pre-Quaternary sea level drop, H, can be calculated by using the formula H = D + To, where To is the original thickness from the top of the tidal deposits on the reef core to the bottom of the tidal deposits on the reef front, or to the bottom of the ancient meteoric vadose zone, or to the edge of the mixed-water dolostone zone. The identity and similarity between the sea-level drop amplitudes calculated from different reefs far away from each other indicates that such sea-level changes are eustatic rather than relative changes. Evidence of an end-Permian sea-level drop has been found on the Changxingian (i.e. the end of the Palaeofusulina zone) reefs at Ziyun in South China, including algal laminated deposits, sabkha-related dolostone, desiccation cracks, dissolution collapse breccia. According to calculation based on the meteoric dissolution zone of the reef-core sequence at Ziyun, Guizhou province, the amplitude of the sea-level drop at the end-Permian is about 89.3 m. Calculation via the dolomitized upper part of the Changxingian reef in Lichuan, Hubei Province, yields an 88.9 m amplitude of the sea-level drop at the end-Permian. Comparison shows that the sea-level drop recorded in the two distantly located reefs may be of eustatic type. So the amplitude of the sea level drop of the Tethys Sea at the end-Permian might be at least 89.3 m.

  2. Recombinant human C1-inhibitor in the treatment of acute angioedema attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, Goda; Soeters, Maarten R.; Farkas, Henriette; Varga, Lilian; Obtulowicz, Krystyna; Bilo, Barbara; Porebski, Greg; Hack, C. Erik; Verdonk, Rene; Nuijens, Jan; Levi, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    Background: Patients with hereditary C1-inhibitor deficiency have recurrent attacks of angioedema, preferably treated with C1-inhibitor concentrate. A recombinant human C1-inhibitor (rHuC1INH) was developed, derived from milk from transgenic rabbits. This study was undertaken to investigate the effe

  3. Structure of human Niemann-Pick C1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaochun; Wang, Jiawei; Coutavas, Elias; Shi, Hang; Hao, Qi; Blobel, Günter

    2016-07-19

    Niemann-Pick C1 protein (NPC1) is a late-endosomal membrane protein involved in trafficking of LDL-derived cholesterol, Niemann-Pick disease type C, and Ebola virus infection. NPC1 contains 13 transmembrane segments (TMs), five of which are thought to represent a "sterol-sensing domain" (SSD). Although present also in other key regulatory proteins of cholesterol biosynthesis, uptake, and signaling, the structure and mechanism of action of the SSD are unknown. Here we report a crystal structure of a large fragment of human NPC1 at 3.6 Å resolution, which reveals internal twofold pseudosymmetry along TM 2-13 and two structurally homologous domains that protrude 60 Å into the endosomal lumen. Strikingly, NPC1's SSD forms a cavity that is accessible from both the luminal bilayer leaflet and the endosomal lumen; computational modeling suggests that this cavity is large enough to accommodate one cholesterol molecule. We propose a model for NPC1 function in cholesterol sensing and transport. PMID:27307437

  4. Digital data in support of studies and assessments of coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: Chapter I.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Kinney, Scott A.; Gunther, Gregory; Ryder, Robert T.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin is a mature basin containing abundant oil, gas, and coal resources. Its fossil-fuel-bearing strata range in age from Cambrian to Permian and extend over the States of New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama. The basin has provided abundant fossil fuels to support the Nation’s economic growth for at least 150 years and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessments suggest that substantial untapped resources remain. A merger of new and old geologic data and ideas is required to locate and extract those remaining resources.

  5. Late Permian carbonate concretions in the marine siliciclastic sediments of the Ravnefjeld Formation, East Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, J.K. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Geological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Hanken, N.M. [Univ. of Tromsoe, Dept. of Geology, Tromsoe (Norway)

    2002-07-01

    The investigation of carbonate concretions from the Late Permian Ravnefjeld Formation in East Greenland forms part of the multi-disciplinary research project Research of the Sedimentary Basins of North and East Greenland (TUPOLAR). The TUPOLAR project focuses on investigations and evaluation of potential hydrocarbon and mineral resources of the Upper Permian - Mesozoic sedimentary basins. In this context, the Upper Permian Ravnefjeld Formation occupies a pivotal position because it contains local mineralization and has source rock potential for hydrocarbons adjacent to potential carbonate reservoir rocks of the partly time-equivalent Wegener Halvoe Formation. A better understanding of the sedimentary facies and diagenesis of the Ravnefjeld Formation is therefore crucial for an evaluation of the economic evaluation of East Greenland. The original fieldwork was carried out in 1998, when sampling was undertaken of representative carbonate concretions and surrounding beds from a limited number of well-exposed sections in the Ravnefjeld Formation. The sampled material was subsequently investigated by a combination of petrography and stable isotope chemistry to decipher the relationships between the diagenetic development of the carbonate concretions and the mineralization in the sequence. The sequential precipitation of the cement generations was analysed in cement-filled primary voids in gastropods because these showed the most complete development of the different cement generations. The geochemistry of stable isotopes was also studied. During the petrographic work, we became aware of a hitherto unrecognised biota dominated by calcispheres. The well-developed cement generations in primary cavities in skeletal material were used to elucidate the diagenesis. (BA)

  6. Schematic designs for penetration seals for a repository in the Permian Basin. [Deaf Smith County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, P.C.; Case, J.B.; Coons, W.E.; Franzone, J.G.; Meyer, D.

    1985-12-01

    The isolation of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories requires that human-made penetrations such as shafts, tunnels, or boreholes are adequately sealed. This report describes schematic seal designs for a repository in bedded salt referenced to the stratigraphy of the Permian Basin. The designs are presented for extensive peer review and will be updated as conceptual designs if the Permian Basin is selected as a candidate repository site. The principal material used in the seal system in the repository-level rooms and tunnels is crushed salt obtained from excavating the repository. It is anticipated that crushed salt will consolidate in response to closure of the repository rooms, to the degree that mechanical and hydrologic properties will eventually match those of undisturbed, intact salt. For Permian Basin Unit 4 salt, analyses indicate that this process will require approximately 700 years for a seal located at the base of one of the repository shafts (where there is little increase in temperature due to waste emplacement) and approximately 200 years for a seal located in a main passageway within the repository. These analyses are based on uncertain laboratory data regarding intact salt creep rates and crushed salt consolidation characteristics, and must be regarded as preliminary. Bulkheads composed of concrete, as well as bentonite-rich earth fill, are also included in the seal system as components which will have low permeability during the period required for salt consolidation.

  7. The Permian seamount stratigraphic sequence in Chiang Mai, North Thailand and its tectogeographic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHONGLAKMANI; Chongpan

    2008-01-01

    The widespread Permian carbonate strata outcropped in northwestern Thailand are considered as the evidence for the Late Paleozoic shallow Tethys. Our investigation, however, shows that basalt can be discovered usually under the Permian carbonate sequence in Chiang Mai-Fang area, northwestern Thailand. The basalt belongs to subalkalic basalt and potassic trachybasalt. They are characterized by high P and Ti in major elements, by high content, enriching LREE, lacking δEu anomaly in rare earth elements, and by enrichment of the large ion lithophile element (LILE) (K, Rb, Ba) and high field strength element (HFSE) (Nb, Ta, Zr) in trace elements, which can be compared with the characters of the oceanic island basalt in Three Rivers (Jinsha River, Lancang River, and Nujiang River) area, southwestern China. Therefore, the Permian carbonate in the studied area was deposited on a sea-mount, rather than on a stable carbonate platform. The oceanic basin is correlated to the Late Paleozoic ocean represented by the Changning-Menglian Belt in southwestern China and they are a major basin of the Paleo-Tethyan Archipelagoes Ocean. The result indicates nonexistence of a Shan-Thai Block in the Late Paleozoic.

  8. Size variation of the end Permian conodont Neogondolella at Meishan Section, Changxing, Zhejiang and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This study is based on both a generic and species level investigation of the individual size of the latest Permian conodont Neogondolella Pa elements collected from Meishan Section A, Changxing, Zhejiang Province. In this study, an obvious size reduction of Neogondolella Pa elements within bed 24e of the upper Changxing Limestone is recognized. The size variation of the Neogondolella occurs simultaneously with some important events including the negative shift of δ13C, change in the ratio of the abundance of cyanobacterial biomarkers versus that of other general bacterial biomarkers and the shallowing of the sea water. Through the investigation of the paleoenvironmental changes and the analysis of the paleoecology of the conodont genus Neogondolella, the authors propose that the major factors for the size reduction of species of the conodont genus Neogondolella are food shortages caused by the mass extinction, the shallowing of the sea water as well as the increase in opacity of the sea water during the end Permian. The same phenomenon of Neogondolella size reduction is also observed in preliminary research from the same horizon at Shangsi Section, Sichuan Province. All the evidence suggests that there was a mass extinction that occurred at the horizon of bed 24e, and the evidence supports the viewpoint of a multi-phase mass extinction during the Permian and Triassic transition in South China.

  9. Earth's biggest 'whodunnit': unravelling the clues in the case of the end-Permian mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rosalind V.

    2002-12-01

    The mass extinction that occurred at the end of the Permian period, 250 million years ago, was the most devastating loss of life that Earth has ever experienced. It is estimated that ca.96% of marine species were wiped out and land plants, reptiles, amphibians and insects also suffered. The causes of this catastrophic event are currently a topic of intense debate. The geological record points to significant environmental disturbances, for example, global warming and stagnation of ocean water. A key issue is whether the Earth's feedback mechanisms can become unstable on their own, or whether some forcing is required to precipitate a catastrophe of this magnitude. A prime suspect for pushing Earth's systems into a critical condition is massive end-Permian Siberian volcanism, which would have pumped large quantities of carbon dioxide and toxic gases into the atmosphere. Recently, it has been postulated that Earth was also the victim of a bolide impact at this time. If further research substantiates this claim, it raises some intriguing questions. The Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction, 65 million years ago, was contemporaneous with both an impact and massive volcanism. Are both types of calamity necessary to drive Earth to the brink of faunal cataclysm? We do not presently have enough pieces of the jigsaw to solve the mystery of the end-Permian extinction, but the forensic work continues.

  10. Permian vegetational Pompeii from Inner Mongolia and its implications for landscape paleoecology and paleobiogeography of Cathaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Pfefferkorn, Hermann W; Zhang, Yi; Feng, Zhuo

    2012-03-27

    Plant communities of the geologic past can be reconstructed with high fidelity only if they were preserved in place in an instant in time. Here we report such a flora from an early Permian (ca. 298 Ma) ash-fall tuff in Inner Mongolia, a time interval and area where such information is filling a large gap of knowledge. About 1,000 m(2) of forest growing on peat could be reconstructed based on the actual location of individual plants. Tree ferns formed a lower canopy and either Cordaites, a coniferophyte, or Sigillaria, a lycopsid, were present as taller trees. Noeggerathiales, an enigmatic and extinct spore-bearing plant group of small trees, is represented by three species that have been found as nearly complete specimens and are presented in reconstructions in their plant community. Landscape heterogenity is apparent, including one site where Noeggerathiales are dominant. This peat-forming flora is also taxonomically distinct from those growing on clastic soils in the same area and during the same time interval. This Permian flora demonstrates both similarities and differences to floras of the same age in Europe and North America and confirms the distinct character of the Cathaysian floral realm. Therefore, this flora will serve as a baseline for the study of other fossil floras in East Asia and the early Permian globally that will be needed for a better understanding of paleoclimate evolution through time.

  11. New Late Permian paleomagnetic data from Argentina: Refinement of the apparent polar wander path of Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeier, Mathew; van der Voo, Rob; Tohver, Eric; Tomezzoli, Renata N.; Vizan, Haroldo; Torsvik, Trond H.; Kirshner, Jordan

    2011-07-01

    The Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic apparent polar wander path of Gondwana is largely constructed from relatively old paleomagnetic results, many of which are considered unreliable by modern standards. Paleomagnetic results derived from sedimentary sequences, which are generally poorly dated and prone to inclination shallowing, are especially common. Here we report the results of a joint paleomagnetic-geochronologic study of a volcanic complex in central Argentina. U-Pb dating of zircons has yielded a robust age estimate of 263.0 +1.6/-2.0 Ma for the complex. Paleomagnetic analysis has revealed a pretilting (primary Permian) magnetization with dual polarities. Rock magnetic experiments have identified pseudo-single domain (titano)magnetite and hematite as the mineralogic carriers of the magnetization. Lightning-induced isothermal remagnetizations are widespread in the low-coercivity magnetic carriers. The resulting paleomagnetic pole is 80.1°S, 349.0°E, A95 = 3.3°, N = 35, and it improves a Late Permian mean pole calculated from a filtered South American paleomagnetic data set. More broadly, this new, high-quality, igneous-based paleomagnetic pole falls between the previously distinct Late Permian segments of the Laurussian and Gondwanan apparent polar wander paths, suggesting that the long-recognized disparity between these large paleomagnetic data sets may be primarily due to the inclusion of low-quality or systemically biased data.

  12. Mid-Permian Phosphoria Sea in Nevada and the Upwelling Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketner, Keith B.

    2009-01-01

    The Phosphoria Sea extended at least 500 km westward and at least 700 km southwestward from its core area centered in southeastern Idaho. Throughout that extent it displayed many characteristic features of the core: the same fauna, the same unique sedimentary assemblage including phosphate in mostly pelletal form, chert composed mainly of sponge spicules, and an association with dolomite. Phosphoria-age sediments in Nevada display ample evidence of deposition in shallow water. The chief difference between the sediments in Nevada and those of the core area is the greater admixture of sandstone and conglomerate in Nevada. Evidence of the western margin of the Phosphoria Sea where the water deepened and began to lose its essential characteristics is located in the uppermost part of the Upper Devonian to Permian Havallah sequence, which has been displaced tectonically eastward an unknown distance. The relatively deep water in which the mid-Permian part of the Havallah was deposited was a sea of probably restricted east-west width and was floored by a very thick sequence of mainly terrigenous sedimentary rocks. The phosphate content of mid-Permian strata in western exposures tends to be relatively low as a percentage, but the thickness of those strata tends to be high. The core area in and near southeastern Idaho where the concentration of phosphate is highest was separated from any possible site of upwelling oceanic waters by a great expanse of shallow sea.

  13. Severest crisis overlooked-Worst disruption of terrestrial environments postdates the Permian-Triassic mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochuli, Peter A; Sanson-Barrera, Anna; Schneebeli-Hermann, Elke; Bucher, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Generally Early Triassic floras are believed to be depauperate, suffering from protracted recovery following the Permian-Triassic extinction event. Here we present palynological data of an expanded East Greenland section documenting recovered floras in the basal Triassic (Griesbachian) and a subsequent fundamental floral turnover, postdating the Permian-Triassic boundary extinction by about 500 kyrs. This event is marked by a swap in dominating floral elements, changing from gymnosperm pollen-dominated associations in the Griesbachian to lycopsid spore-dominated assemblages in the Dienerian. This turnover coincides with an extreme δ(13)Corg negative shift revealing a severe environmental crisis, probably induced by volcanic outbursts of the Siberian Traps, accompanied by a climatic turnover, changing from cool and dry in the Griesbachian to hot and humid in the Dienerian. Estimates of sedimentation rates suggest that this environmental alteration took place within some 1000 years. Similar, coeval changes documented on the North Indian Margin (Pakistan) and the Bowen Basin (Australia) indicate the global extent of this crisis. Our results evidence the first profound disruption of the recovery of terrestrial environments about 500kyrs after the Permian-Triassic extinction event. It was followed by another crisis, about 1myrs later thus, the Early Triassic can be characterised as a time of successive environmental crises. PMID:27340926

  14. Depositional model of Early Permian reef-island ocean inEastern Kunlun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Many fusulinid fossils have been found in thin- to middle-bedded limestones which aredistributed between the Early Permian limestone hills and formerly considered as Early Triassic.The fusulinid fossils, identified as Neoshwagerina sp., Verbeekina sp. and Schwagerina sp., canalso be found in massive limestone hills. At the same time, Early Permian radiolarian chert of deepbasin facies was discovered in Animaqing. All the above show that the massive limestone hills,thin- to middle-bedded limestones and radiolarian chert belong to syndeposits in Early Permianocean. The sediments in the study area can roughly be divided into three types: shallow facies,basin facies and transitional facies. The carbonate buildup can be subdivided into massive bioclas-tic limestone and reef framestone. Basin facies contains thin- or middle-bedded limestone, abyssalred mudstone or ooze, blue-green mudstone and radiolarian chert. Transitional facies includes reeftalus and platformal skirt facies. The Early Permian ocean in Eastern Kunlun is recognized as akind of reef-island ocean environment according to distribution and composition of different facies.The reef-island ocean in Eastern Kunlun is characterized by reef islands (or carbonate buildups)alternating with basins, complicated sea-floor topography, sharp facial change and well-developedreefs

  15. Environmental characterization of bedded salt formations and overlying areas of the Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report constitutes one input to the first stage of site qualification studies. It presents a general environmental characterization of the region that is underlain by the Permian bedded salt formation. The formation covers portions of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. The Permian bedded salt formation is one of a number of deep, stable geologic formations being studied for potential locations for nuclear waste repositories. These studies will not necessarily lead to selection of a site. They are intended only to provide information necessary to evaluate the suitability of locations for repositories. The report is intended as a general characterization of the existing environmental setting of the Permian Region with emphasis on land, water, and air characteristics; resources; plant and animal life; and man's organizations and activities. The report provides background information about the role that this regional study will play in the overall plan for environmental impact assessments and statements deemed necessary as input to the decision-making process. Background information on the present concept of nuclear waste repository design and function is also included. The information presented in this report has been summarized from open literature readily accessible to the public. No field work was conducted nor new data used in developing the descriptions contained herein

  16. Carbon isotope excursions across the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Meishan section, Zhejiang Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Both gradual and sharp decrease in organic and carbonate carbon isotope values were detected across the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Meishan section, Changxing, Zhejiang Province, China. The gradual decrease in organic carbon isotope values started at the bottom of Bed 23, coinciding with the strong oscillations of total organic carbon (TOC) contents, indicates increasing fluxes from carbonate to organic carbon reservoir during this interval. A 2.3‰ sharp drop of inorganic carbon isotope values occurred at the uppermost part of Bed 24e. A 3.7‰ sharp drop of organic carbon isotope values occurred in Bed 26. The dramatic drop of inorganic carbon isotope value of 8‰ reported previously is not confirmed from the unweathered carbonate samples in Bed 27. The large-scale fluctuation of organic carbon isotope values in the Yinkeng Formation reflects different extent of mixing of marine and terrestrial organic matters. The gradual depletion and subsequent sharp drop of carbon isotopes near the Permian-Triassic boundary might indicate complex causes of the end-Permian mass extinction.

  17. Palynostratigraphy of Permian succession from Binja Block, South Karanpura Coalfield, Jharkhand, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srikanta Murthy; Archana Tripathi; B Chakraborti; U P Singh

    2014-12-01

    Palynological investigations are carried out on approximately 538.00-m thick Gondwana strata from borehole SKB-1, Binja Block, South Karanpura Coalfield in Jharkhand. Based on the distribution pattern of age marker palynotaxa, two distinct palynoassemblages are identified. Palynoassemblage-I in the lithologically designated Barren Measures and Barakar formations, between 552.00 and 53.20 m depth show dominance of striate bisaccate (Striatopodocarpites, Crescentipollenites, and Faunipollenites) and abundance of nonstriate bisaccate (Scheuringipollenites). Upward the Palynoassemblage-II (39.50–13.80 m depth) is rich in striate bisaccate (Striatopodocarpites and Crescentipollenites) and significant enveloping monosaccate Densipollenites magnicorpus pollen. These strata have been equated with Raniganj Formation of Latest Permian age. The First Appearance Datum (FAD) of Arcuatipollenites pellucidus, Playfordiaspora cancellosa, Alisporites sp., Falcisporites sp. and Krempipollenites indicus observed at 13.80 and 39.50 m depth, mark the transition of Permian into the Lower Triassic. The FADs of Guttulapollenites spp. at 49.10 and 504.70 m, Goubinispora morondavensis at 415.90 m, Alisporites ovalis and Arcuatipollenites sp. at 526.70 m is observed and suggest that these sediments are equivalent to Raniganj Formation, Late Permian in age.

  18. Coal in a hole?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woof, M.

    1998-05-01

    The editor of World Mining Equipment discusses the tangled position of the European coal industry, affected by concerns over acid rain and carbon dioxide emissions, and by subsidies. He outlines the debate in the UK about gas versus coal and about coal subsidies in Germany (which could affect mines in other European countries). The requirement to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and to minimise the problem of acid rain will have a direct bearing on coal mining firms and equipment manufacturers so it is possible that the only future for the industry lies with clean coal technologies. Even here, there is no easy answer as it is not clear how developing nations will be able to pay for these more expensive clean coal systems. 2 photos.

  19. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  20. Coal tar in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  1. Permian-Triassic Conodonts from Dajiang (Guizhou, South China) and Their Implication for the Age of Microbialite Deposition in the Aftermath of the End-Permian Mass Extinction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haishui Jiang; Xulong Lai; Yadong Sun; Paul B Wignall; Jianbo Liu; Chunbo Yan

    2014-01-01

    The widespread microbialites deposition that followed the End-Permian mass extinction in the Tethyan realm have been intensively studied because of the evidence they provide on the nature of this crisis and its aftermath. However, the age of the microbialite event remains controversial. New conodont collection across the Permian-Triassic (P-T) transition from Dajiang (Guizhou Province, South China) in this study enable us to discriminate four conodont zones, in ascending order, they are:Hindeodus parvus zone, Isarcicella lobata zone, Isarcicella isarcica zone and Hindeodus sosioensis zone. The age of microbialite in the P-T transition at the Dajiang Section is considered to be within the Hindeodus parvus zone and thus to clearly post-date the main extinction crisis. Reviewing the age of onset of microbialites throughout the Tethyan regions reveals two different ages: a Hindeodus changxingensis zone age is dominant in south-western and westernmost Tethys, whilst most other re-gions show microbialite deposition began in the Hindeodus parvus zone. Our investigation also indicates that two conodont changes occur at this time:an increase of hindeodid species immediately following a sequence boundary and the mass extinction, and a phase of extinction losses in the earliest Triassic Isarcicella isarcica zone during highstand development.

  2. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  3. Mercury and trace element distribution in density separates of a South African Highveld (#4) coal: Implications for mercury reduction and preparation of export coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Senior, Connie L.; van Alphen, Chris; Koenig, Alan E.; Geboy, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    Eight density separates of Permian Highveld (#4) coal were investigated for partitioning of Hg and trace elements. The separates include float fractions obtained in heavy media having densities of 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, and 2.0 g/cm3, and the sink fraction for 2.0 g/cm3. Bulk analysis of the separates shows strong (R2 ≥ 0.80) positive correlations between pyritic sulfur and mercury, and between ash yield and both pyritic sulfur and mercury. Laser ablation (LA) ICP-MS analysis of individual pyrite grains in the separates confirms association of Hg and As with pyrite as indicated by bulk analysis. Other elements detected in pyrite by LA-ICP-MS include Mn, Co, Ni, Tl, and Pb. Results for the separates allow prediction of Hg, trace elements, and ash yields expected in specific South African coal products. These range from 0.06 ppm Hg and an ash yield of 11.5% ash for the export fraction to 0.47 ppm Hg and an ash yield of 60.9% for the discard (stone) fraction (dry basis). Results show pronounced differences expected between coal used for domestic power generation and coal which is exported.

  4. Oxidative desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, S.; Lacount, R.B.; Warzinski, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    Both pyritic and organic sulfur in coal can be removed by a variety of oxidation techniques, including treatment with NO/sub x/, peroxygen compounds, air in the presence of specific organic media, or air and water at elevated temperature and pressure. The most promising method involves contacting an aqueous slurry of coal with air at pressures up to 1000 psi and temperatures of 140/sup 0/ to 200/sup 0/C. Coals from different geographic areas of the US have been treated with air and water in this way, resulting in removal of more than 90% of pyritic sulfur and up to 40% of organic sulfur as sulfuric acid, which is separated from the desulfurized coal by filtration. Fuel value losses are usually less than 10%. Costs for processing coal by this procedure will be somewhere between the less efficient, less thorough and less costly physical coal cleaning methods and the more thorough but much more costly coal conversion techniques. Oxidative desulfurization potentially can upgrade up to 40% of the bituminous coal in the US to environmentally acceptable boiler fuel and can bring most of the rest of the bituminous coals at least close to acceptability with relatively little loss in total fuel value.

  5. Pyrolysis of Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of relevant literature on coal pyrolysis.Pyrolysis, as a process technology, has received considerable attention from many researchers because it is an important intermediate stage in coal conversion.Reactions parameters as the temperature, pressure, coal particle size, heating rate, soak time, type of reactor, etc. determine the total carbon conversion and the transport of volatiles and therebythe product distribution. Part of the possible environmental pollutants could be removed by optimising the pyrolysis conditions. Therefore, this process will be subsequently interesting for coal utilization in the future

  6. Petrographers fingerprint coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, D.E. [Pearson and Associates Ltd. (USA)

    2001-05-01

    A new system of coal fingerprinting called Digipet generates reflectance profiles by using an automated digital imaging system in which tens of millions of individual reflectance measurements are obtained. Images are conditioned to generate a detailed smooth histogram which convey information on the coal sample's provenance and history. Expert interpretation can reveal further information. The article gives details of the instrument and shows sample reflectance profiles. It discusses some applications in sampling coal charged to coke ovens of the Indiana Harbor Coke Co, and at a Midwest generating plant where it detected the presence of rogue high volatile coal. 3 figs.

  7. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  8. Late Permian Tsunamites in Guryul Ravine (Kashmir, India) - revisited and rejected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystyn, Leopold; Horacek, Micha; Brandner, Rainer; Parcha, Suraj

    2014-05-01

    Recent claims for tsunami-related event beds induced by the Siberian Trap basalts in this section (Brookfield et al., 2013) have to be questioned. Identical storm generated carbonate beds occur not only during a short interval close to the Permian-Triassic (P-T) boundary but through a major part of the late Permian (Changhsingian) succession there - as low as 26 m below the so-called tsunami beds. Moreover, during our recent study in a closely neighbouring place called Mandakpal (less than 10 km to the southeast), no signs of tsunamites have been detected in time-correlative finegrained sediments. Based on sedimentary and trace fossil evidence we interpret the late Permian of Guryul as relatively shallow, neritic and delta-influenced. The so-called tsunamites are shelly-enriched discontinuous carbonate lenses fed downslope through local channels. Judging from the distinct facies change from the storm related "tsunamites" to thinly bedded mud turbidites above, the sudden deepening may be explained by local and still rift-related tectonics along the NIM (North-Indian Gondwana Margin) which led to episodic seismic induced sediment redeposition in the area of Guryul. Synsedimentary tectonic activity with tilting and eventual Horst and Graben structure building along the large NIM is indicated by margin inversion during the P-T boundary interval leading to sedimentary breaks and 20 times thinner, condensed limestone deposits far offshore from Guryul in Spiti (Krystyn et al., 2004) and Tibet (Orchard et al., 1994). Thus, local seismic activity seems to be a far more logic explanation of the Guryul "tsunamites" than the eruption of the Siberian Traps more than 6000 km away. References Brookfield, M. E., Algeo, T. J., Hannigan, R., Williams, J and Bhat, G. M., 2013: Shaken and Stirred: Seismites and Tsunamites at the Permian-Triassic boundary, Guryul Ravine, Kashmir, India. Palaios, v. 28, 568-582. Krystyn, L., Balini, M. and Nicora, A., 2004: Lower and Middle Triassic

  9. Further paleomagnetic results for lower Permian basalts of the Baoshan Terrane, southwestern China, and paleogeographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingchao; Yang, Zhenyu; Tong, Ya-Bo; Wang, Heng; Gao, Liang; An, Chunzhi

    2015-05-01

    The Baoshan Terrane of southwestern China is considered to have been part of the Cimmerian block during the late Paleozoic; consequently, knowledge of its paleoposition and geological evolution can provide constraints on the Permian breakup of northern East Gondwana. Therefore, we conducted paleomagnetic and rockmagnetic studies on lower Permian basalts from four localities in the Baoshan Terrane. The basalts hold a stable characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) at high temperatures (300-680 °C) that is carried by magnetite, maghemite, and hematite with both pseudo-single and multiple domains. To test the reliability of data from these volcanic rocks, we analyzed the geomagnetic secular variation (GSV) and reliability of both the present data and previous paleomagnetic data. The results from 23 sites yield a single reversed polarity directed downwards to the southwest, giving a site-mean direction of Dg/Ig = 156.7°/56.6° (kg = 8.0, α95 = 11.4°) before tilt correction, and Ds/Is = 218.3°/60.1° (ks = 14.1, α95 = 8.4°) after tilt correction. The result passed the fold test, but the GSV was able to be averaged out in only two sections. All available data were examined section-by-section using the angular dispersion (SB) of virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) to ensure that the GSV was completely averaged out. Because the dispersion in declinations is likely to have been affectedby subsequent tectonic deformation, the paleosecular variation (PSV) could not be evaluated from all the data amassed from different sections, and the PSV was able to be removed from only four (combined) sections. A small-circle fit of these VGPs gives an averaged paleocolatitude of 51.9° ± 3.7° (N = 31 sites) centered on 24°N, 99°E. The result indicates that the sampled area of the Baoshan Terrane was located at a latitude of 38°S ± 3.7° during the late early Permian. A comparison of this result with early Permian data from Gondwanan blocks suggests that the Baoshan Terrane

  10. Lower Permian formations of different geodynamic environments in A'nyemaqen ophiolitic zone (Buqingshan Mts., eastern Kunlun, Qinghai Province, China)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Lower Permian formations within the Buqingshan Mountains (A'nyemaqen ophiolitic zone, eastern sector of the eastern Kunlun) were formed in the following paleogeodynamic environments (from north to south): ( 1 ) shelf and slope of a passive continental margin in a marginal sea; (2) partially Permian metamorphic rocks of subduction-accretion complexes and volcanogenic rocks of an ensimatic island arc, of the age limited from above by the Asselian - Sakmarian;and (3) an island arc slope and oceanic trench. Subduction-accretion complexes and the island arc volcanites are overlain with a sharp angular unconformity by a carbonate-conglomerate sequence, which presents as local molasse of the Early Permian age. Based on fusulinids from the basal limestone, the age of the local molasse is first defined as the Yakhtashian-Bolorian, i.e. Artinskian-Kungurian (?). The thorough investigations revealed that the initial closure of the eastern Paleotethys within the eastern Kunlun corresponded to the Sakmarian-Yakhtashian (Artinskian) boundary, whereas in the western Paleotethys sector (Northern Pamirs) the closure occurred considerably earlier, prior to the Late Bashkirian.Thus, the idea that the Paleotethys in the eastern Kunlun reached its maximum width in the Permian, is highly questionable.During the Early Permian the A'nyemaqen branch of the Paleotethys intensely decreased. Beginning from the Bolorian (Kungurian) and up to the end of the Permian this branch represented its relict in the form ora marginal sea depression. It may be suggested that the Paleotethys closure in the A'nyemaqen took place gradually from the west to the east and covered a long period from the Late Carboniferous to the terminal Early Permian.

  11. Global taxonomic diversity of anomodonts (tetrapoda, therapsida and the terrestrial rock record across the Permian-Triassic boundary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Fröbisch

    Full Text Available The end-Permian biotic crisis (~252.5 Ma represents the most severe extinction event in Earth's history. This paper investigates diversity patterns in Anomodontia, an extinct group of therapsid synapsids ('mammal-like reptiles', through time and in particular across this event. As herbivores and the dominant terrestrial tetrapods of their time, anomodonts play a central role in assessing the impact of the end-Permian extinction on terrestrial ecosystems. Taxonomic diversity analysis reveals that anomodonts experienced three distinct phases of diversification interrupted by the same number of extinctions, i.e. an end-Guadalupian, an end-Permian, and a mid-Triassic extinction. A positive correlation between the number of taxa and the number of formations per time interval shows that anomodont diversity is biased by the Permian-Triassic terrestrial rock record. Normalized diversity curves indicate that anomodont richness continuously declines from the Middle Permian to the Late Triassic, but also reveals all three extinction events. Taxonomic rates (origination and extinction indicate that the end-Guadalupian and end-Permian extinctions were driven by increased rates of extinction as well as low origination rates. However, this pattern is not evident at the final decline of anomodont diversity during the Middle Triassic. Therefore, it remains unclear whether the Middle Triassic extinction represents a gradual or abrupt event that is unique to anomodonts or more common among terrestrial tetrapods. The end-Permian extinction represents the most distinct event in terms of decline in anomodont richness and turnover rates.

  12. Deposition and alteration of carbonaceous series within a Neotethyan rift at the western boundary of the Arabian plate: The late Permian Um Irna Formation, NW Jordan, a petroleum system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dill, H.G.; Kus, J. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 51 01 53 D-30631 Hannover (Germany); Bechtel, A.; Gratzer, R. [Department of Applied Geosciences and Geophysics, University of Leoben, Peter Tunner Strasse 5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Abu Hamad, A.M.B. [Geology Department, University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan)

    2010-01-07

    During the late Permian (Kungurian to Kazanian) a Neotethyan rift basin evolved at the western boundary of the Arabian Plate, in what is called today the Dead Sea Valley of western Jordan. The break-up of Pangaea was accompanied by low-sinuosity sandy braided- to meandering-fluvial drainage systems which were fed by the uplift of the Arabian Shield and by poorly aerated swamps and ponds that concentrated plant debris of the Cathaysian floral province in the Um Irna Formation. These proximal wet fan sediments are overlain by a dry fan characterized by extensive reddish floodplain deposits, anastomosing channel systems and paleosols. The wet fan is underlain by Cambrian sandstones. These units serve as the top and bottom seals of the OM-bearing system of the Um Irna Formation. The sedimentary rocks of the OM-bearing Um Irna Formation underwent supergene, diagenetic and epigenetic hydrothermal alteration under an elevated geothermal gradient. The temperature increased from the time of deposition of the wet to the time of deposition of the dry fan and caused remobilization of manganese already pre-concentrated in the Cambrian footwall rocks of the rift basin. The anomalous heat regime may be accounted for as a predecessor stage of the Dead Sea Rift which is still active today. Oil seeps are found along faults and fractures near this deep-seated lineamentary fault zone. The deposition and alteration of the organic matter in this late Permian rift are of great consequence for oil generation in the region. Organic petrographic investigations revealed that organic-rich terrestrial carbonaceous and coal rich sediments of mainly of type III kerogen are dominant in the Um Irna Formation. In addition, aquatic liptinite rich sedimentary input (fresh water lake and/or lacustrine swamp) of type I kerogen is also noted. Coal derived organic matter occurs in the form of coaly particles with ranks from subbituminous A to high volatile bituminous C. Higher plant-derived macerals as

  13. Effects of igneous intrusion on microporosity and gas adsorption capacity of coals in the Haizi Mine, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingyu; Cheng, Yuanping

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of igneous intrusions on pore structure and adsorption capacity of the Permian coals in the Huaibei Coalfield, China. Twelve coal samples were obtained at different distances from a ~120 m extremely thick sill. Comparisons were made between unaltered and heat-affected coals using geochemical data, pore-fracture characteristics, and adsorption properties. Thermal alteration occurs down to ~1.3 × sill thickness. Approaching the sill, the vitrinite reflectance (R(o)) increased from 2.30% to 2.78%, forming devolatilization vacuoles and a fine mosaic texture. Volatile matter (VM) decreased from 17.6% to 10.0% and the moisture decreased from 3.0% to 1.6%. With decreasing distance to the sill, the micropore volumes initially increased from 0.0054 cm(3)/g to a maximum of 0.0146 cm(3)/g and then decreased to 0.0079 cm(3)/g. The results show that the thermal evolution of the sill obviously changed the coal geochemistry and increased the micropore volume and adsorption capacity of heat-affected coal (60-160 m from the sill) compared with the unaltered coals. The trap effect of the sill prevented the high-pressure gas from being released, forming gas pocket. Mining activities near the sill created a low pressure zone leading to the rapid accumulation of methane and gas outbursts in the Haizi Mine. PMID:24723841

  14. Effects of Igneous Intrusion on Microporosity and Gas Adsorption Capacity of Coals in the Haizi Mine, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the effects of igneous intrusions on pore structure and adsorption capacity of the Permian coals in the Huaibei Coalfield, China. Twelve coal samples were obtained at different distances from a ~120 m extremely thick sill. Comparisons were made between unaltered and heat-affected coals using geochemical data, pore-fracture characteristics, and adsorption properties. Thermal alteration occurs down to ~1.3 × sill thickness. Approaching the sill, the vitrinite reflectance (Ro increased from 2.30% to 2.78%, forming devolatilization vacuoles and a fine mosaic texture. Volatile matter (VM decreased from 17.6% to 10.0% and the moisture decreased from 3.0% to 1.6%. With decreasing distance to the sill, the micropore volumes initially increased from 0.0054 cm3/g to a maximum of 0.0146 cm3/g and then decreased to 0.0079 cm3/g. The results show that the thermal evolution of the sill obviously changed the coal geochemistry and increased the micropore volume and adsorption capacity of heat-affected coal (60–160 m from the sill compared with the unaltered coals. The trap effect of the sill prevented the high-pressure gas from being released, forming gas pocket. Mining activities near the sill created a low pressure zone leading to the rapid accumulation of methane and gas outbursts in the Haizi Mine.

  15. Clean coal technologies market potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drazga, B. (ed.)

    2007-01-30

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  16. Microwave spectra for the three 13C1 isotopologues of propene and new rotational constants for propene and its 13C1 isotopologues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Norman C.; Groner, Peter; Conrad, Andrew R.; Gurusinghe, Ranil; Tubergen, Michael J.

    2016-10-01

    New measurements of microwave lines (A and E) of propene and its three 13C1 isotopologues have been made in the 10-22 GHz region with FT accuracy. The revised lines for propene along with many hundreds from the literature were fitted with the ERHAM program for internal rotors to give improved rotational constants. The new constants are A0 = 46280.2904(16), B0 = 9305.24260(30), and C0 = 8134.22685(28) MHz. Lines for the 3-13C1 species were observed in a pure sample; lines for the 1-13C1 and 2-13C1 species were observed in natural abundance. In fitting the limited sets of lines for the 13C1 species, many of the centrifugal distortion constants and most of the tunneling parameters were transferred from the fit of propene itself with 27 parameters. Improved rotational constants for the 13C1 species are reported.

  17. Paleomagnetism and Thermal History of the Permian Succession of the Velebit Mts (Dinarides, Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, M.; Werner, T.; Vlahovic, I.; Srodon, J.; Anczkiewicz, A.; Velic, I.; Sidorczuk, M.

    2012-12-01

    The studied area of Velebit Mts, a part of the Adria Microplate, belonged to a NE margin of Gondwana during the Carboniferous and Permian. While Permian is characterised by clastics, post-Permian sedimentation is dominated by a thick sequence of carbonate rocks. Today, the entire sequence, representing a stratigraphic range from Carboniferous to Recent, is in places more than 10,000 m thick. The mid-Permian deposits of the core part of the Velebit Mt. at Kosna and Crne Grede localities were investigated using paleomagnetic and rock magnetic measurements, supported by XRD, AFT and K-Ar studies of the clastic part of the profile (Carboniferous to Triassic). Hysteresis studies revealed that magnetic susceptibility of reddish siltstones/sandstones as well as underlying conglomerates is mostly carried by the paramagnetic matrix with a significant but varying contribution of hematite and some SP/SD magnetite. AMS fabric with low anisotropy ratio (1-3%) is strongly oblate at Kosna and weakly prolate at Crne Grede, reflecting differences in the contribution of magnetic phases. Thermal enhancement of AMS results in substantial increase of susceptibility, anisotropy ratio and more oblate fabric due to growth of SP magnetite fraction,.Enhanced AMS fabric tends to mimic tectonic fabric supporting that SP/SD magnetite is younger syntectonic phase more prone to record younger remagnetization. The paleotemperatures have been estimated by clay minerals analyses of the Carboniferous, Permian and Triassic shales. K-Ar and apatite fission track analyses (AFT) provided time constraints for the maximum paleotemperature and the uplift event, respectively. The paleotemperature estimates gave a range from ca. 140 to more than 200°C. Generally, the highest paleotemperatures are recorded within the Carboniferous rocks. K-Ar measurements of multiple fractions of illite-smectite separated from Triassic bentonites gave a consistent range of the Late Cretaceous ages of the maximum

  18. Presence of C1-Inhibitor Polymers in a Subset of Patients Suffering from Hereditary Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elenius Madsen, Daniel; Hansen, Søren; Gram, Jørgen Brodersen;

    2014-01-01

    , and it is speculated that C1-inh polymers may exist in patient plasma, challenging the current classification of HAE patients. To investigate the presence of C1-inh polymers in patient plasma samples, we developed an immunological method, where monoclonal antibodies produced against polymerized C1-inh were applied...... in native PAGE western blotting. Using this approach we analyzed genuine plasma samples from 31 Danish HAE families, and found that plasma samples from three genotypically distinct HAE type I families (classified upon C1-inh plasma concentrations) contained C1-inh polymers. Identical C1-inh polymerization....... Subjects suffering from HAE have been classified in type I patients with decreased functional and antigenic levels of C1-inh, and type II patients with decreased functional but normal antigenic C1-inh levels. However, a few reports have demonstrated that some mutations cause C1-inh polymerization in vitro...

  19. Homozygosity for a novel mutation in the C1q C chain gene in a Turkish family with hereditary C1q deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulez, N; Genel, F; Atlihan, F;

    2010-01-01

    . Immunologic studies revealed absence of classic pathway hemolytic activity and undetectable levels of Clq. Exon-specific amplification of genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction followed by direct sequence analysis revealed a novel homozygous missense mutation at codon 48 in the C1q C gene causing a glycine......-to-arginine substitution affecting the collagen-like region of C1q. No changes were seen in the exons of the A and B chains. The mutation affected both the formation and the secretion of C1q variant molecules. We describe a novel mutation in the C1q C chain gene that leads to an interchange in amino acids resulting...

  20. LIBS Analysis for Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Romero, Carlos; De Saro, Robert

    Coal is a non-uniform material with large inherent variability in composition, and other important properties, such as calorific value and ash fusion temperature. This quality variability is very important when coal is used as fuel in steam generators, since it affects boiler operation and control, maintenance and availability, and the extent and treatment of environmental pollution associated with coal combustion. On-line/in situ monitoring of coal before is fed into a boiler is a necessity. A very few analytical techniques like X-ray fluorescence and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis are available commercially with enough speed and sophistication of data collection for continuous coal monitoring. However, there is still a need for a better on-line/in situ technique that has higher selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy and precision, and that is safer and has a lower installation and operating costs than the other options. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is ideal for coal monitoring in boiler applications as it need no sample preparation, it is accurate and precise it is fast, and it can detect all of the elements of concern to the coal-fired boiler industry. LIBS data can also be adapted with advanced data processing techniques to provide real-time information required by boiler operators nowadays. This chapter summarizes development of LIBS for on-line/in situ coal applications in utility boilers.

  1. Improving coal handling effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, S.

    2003-10-01

    Appropriate coal handling systems are essential for successful coal utilisation. The paper looks at some of the options available, including crushers and hammer mills, wear-resistant liners for chutes and wagons, and dewatering systems. These are individual components within larger systems such as stockyard stacking and reclaiming installations. 5 photos.

  2. The coal deal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woof, M.

    2001-12-01

    This paper reports on the Katowice 2001 coal mining show in Poland. A wide array of mining equipment manufacturers supported the vent including companies from Poland, the Czech Republic, Germany, Finland, Sweden, the USA and the UK. There was a particular focus on underground coal although other sectors, such as copper mining, were also represented.

  3. Development of coal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    It is an important issue to expand stable coal supply areas for Japan, especially to assure stable supply of overseas coals. The investigations on geological structures in foreign countries perform surveys on geological structures in overseas coal producing countries and basic feasibility studies. The investigations select areas with greater business risks in coal producing countries and among private business entities. The geological structure investigations were carried out on China, Indonesia and Malaysia and the basic feasibility studies on Indonesia during fiscal 1994. The basic coal resource development investigations refer to the results of previous physical explorations and drilling tests to develop practical exploration technologies for coal resources in foreign countries. The development feasibility studies on overseas coals conduct technological consultation, surface surveys, physical explorations, and trial drilling operations, and provide fund assistance to activities related thereto. Fiscal 1994 has provided fund assistance to two projects in Indonesia and America. Fund loans are provided on investigations for development and import of overseas coals and other related activities. Liability guarantee for development fund is also described.

  4. State coal profiles, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  5. Rapid Carbonate Depositional Changes Following the Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction:Sedimentary Evidence from South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Tian; Jinnan Tong; David Bottjer; Daoliang Chu; Lei Liang; Huyue Song; Haijun Song

    2015-01-01

    Various environmental changes were associated with the Permian-Triassic mass extinc-tion at 252.2 Ma. Diverse unusual sediments and depositional phenomena have been uncovered as re-sponses to environmental and biotic changes. Lithological and detailed conodont biostratigraphic cor-relations within six Permian-Triassic boundary sections in South China indicate rapid fluctuations in carbonate deposition. Four distinct depositional phases can be recognized:(1) normal carbonate depo-sition on the platform and slope during the latest Permian;(2) reduced carbonate deposition at the on-set of the main extinction horizon; (3) expanded areas of carbonate deposition during the Hindeodus changxingsensis Zone to the H. parvus Zone;and (4) persistent mud-enriched carbonate deposition in the aftermath of the Permian-Triassic transition. Although availability of skeletal carbonate was sig-nificantly reduced during the mass extinction, the increase in carbonate deposition did not behave the same way. The rapid carbonate depositional changes, presented in this study, suggest that diverse envi-ronmental changes played key roles in the carbonate deposition of the Permian-Triassic mass extinction and onset of its aftermath. An overview of hypotheses to explain these changes implies enhanced terres-trial input, abnormal ocean circulation and various geobiological processes contributed to carbonate saturation fluctuations, as the sedimentary response to large volcanic eruptions.

  6. CONODONT BIOSTRATIGRAPHY AND LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY ACROSS THE PERMIAN-TRIASSIC BOUNDARY AT THE LUKAC SECTION IN WESTERN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEA KOLAR-JURKOVSEK

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Detailed conodont biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy of the Late Permian and Early Triassic beds were studied at the LukaC section in western Slovenia. The analyzed section is composed of the Bellerophon Formation ("evaporite-dolomite member" and the newly introduced Lukaè Formation ("transitional beds", "streaky limestone member" and "carbonate-clastic beds member". The Permian-Triassic boundary interval is represented by "transitional beds" of carbonate facies deposited in shallow restricted marine conditions. The presence of H. parvus in sample L1 in the "transitional beds" marks the systemic boundary between Permian and Triassic. The studied interval is characterized by a diverse microfauna that contain conodonts, foraminifers, ostracods and gastropods. Six conodont zones have been recognized, in ascending order, the latest Changhsingian (uppermost Permian praeparvus Zone, and the Griesbachian (lowermost Triassic parvus, lobata, staeschei-isarcica, postparvus and anceps zones. This faunal succession represents the first known and the most complete conodont biozonation across the Permian-Triassic interval from the entire Dinaric region. The recognized conodont biozones can be correlated with the biozonation of the Southern Alps and of the GSSP Meishan D section. 

  7. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  8. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  9. Coal resources of Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    In the late 1800s, whaling ships carried Alaskan coal, and it was used to thaw ground for placer gold mining. Unfortunate and costly political maneuvers in the early 1900s delayed coal removal, but the Alaska Railroad and then World War II provided incentives for opening mines. Today, 33 million acres (about 9% of the state) is classified as prospectively valuable for coal, much of it under federal title. Although the state's geology is poorly known, potential for discovery of new fields exists. The US Geological Survey estimates are outdated, although still officially used. The total Alaska onshore coal resource is estimated to be 216 to 4216 billion tons of which 141 billion tons are identified resources; an additional 1430 billion tons are believed to lie beneath Cook Inlet. Transportation over mountain ranges and wetlands is the biggest hurdle for removal. Known coal sources and types are described and mapped. 1 figure.

  10. Pyrolysis of Indonesian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachimoellah; Endah [Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopemba, Surabaya (Indonesia). Department of Chemical Engineering; Karaman, N.; Kusuma, S.A. [UPN Surabaya, (Indonesia). Department of Chemical Engineering

    1997-04-01

    It has been estimated that there is 36 billion tons of coal resource potential in Indonesia. Over 21.4 billion tons is classified as low rank (lignitic) coal. The coal deposits are located mainly in Sumatra and Kalimantan. As an energy source, low rank coals are not widely used, because of their high moisture content, low calorific value and variable ash content. One of the key questions for utilizing low rank coal is whether lignite can be upgraded into another form which is more economically viable. In this study tests were carried out in a pilot plant fixed bed pyrolysis reactor unit provided with hopper, electric heater, coolers and product receivers. The yield of char, tar and gases was found to depend on temperature which also affected the composition of gas produced. Results also indicated the temperature and particle size giving maximum tar yield, gas concentration, and the atmosphere of inert nitrogen. 1 tab., 2 figs., 10 refs.

  11. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sarofim, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gueishen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mandalaparty, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, H. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  12. Attitudes toward Women Coal Miners in an Appalachian Coal Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Roger B.; Stout-Wiegand, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    In a coal mining community, a survey revealed that the level of negative sentiment toward women coal miners was substantial and varied by gender role. Male coal miners were negative toward female co-workers, but they supported women's right to coal mine jobs, while female homemakers did not. (Author/CH)

  13. An abrupt extinction in the Middle Permian (Capitanian) of the Boreal Realm with a causal link to anoxia, acidification and mercury poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, David; Wignall, Paul; Joachimski, Michael; Sun, Yadong; Savov, Ivan; Grasby, Stephen; Beauchamp, Benoit; Blomeier, Dierk

    2016-04-01

    The controversial Capitanian (Middle Permian, 262 Ma) extinction event is mostly known from equatorial latitudes and consequently its global extent is poorly resolved. We demonstrate that there were two, severe extinctions amongst brachiopods in northern Boreal latitudes (Spitsbergen), in the Middle to Late Permian, separated by a recovery phase. New age dating of the Kapp Starostin Formation of Spitsbergen using strontium and carbon isotopic trends suggests that the first crisis occurred in the Capitanian. This age assignment indicates that this Middle Permian extinction is manifest at higher latitudes. Redox proxies (pyrite framboids and trace metals) show that the Boreal crisis coincided with an intensification of oxygen depletion, implicating anoxia in the extinction scenario. The highly toxic metal mercury becomes enriched in strata at the Middle Permian extinction level implicating death-by-toxicity (and a possible link to volcanism). Finally, the near-total loss of carbonates across the Boreal Realm in the Middle to Late Permian also suggests a role for acidification. New in prep. data from Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada (samples collected July 2015) tentatively suggests that this potent "three strikes and you're out" extinction mechanism was a Boreal-wide phenomenon. The Late Permian recovery interval saw the appearance of new brachiopod and bivalve taxa alongside survivors, and an increased mollusk dominance, resulting in an assemblage reminiscent of younger Mesozoic assemblages. The subsequent end-Permian mass extinction terminated this Late Permian radiation.

  14. High arsenic coals related to sedimentary rock-hosted gold deposition in southwestern Guizhou Province, People`s Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkin, H.E.; Warwick, P.D.; Finkelman, R.B. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Zheng, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, Guizhou (China); Zhou, D. [Autonomous Prefecture Anti-Epidemic Station of Southwest Guizhou Province (China)

    1998-12-31

    The rural population of southwestern Guizhou Province, China uses locally derived coal for domestic heating, cooking, and drying of various food stuffs by un-vented stoves. Coal became the dominant fuel source after deforestation earlier this century. Approximately 40 years ago, symptoms of arsenic poisoning, in some cases extreme, appeared in isolated, rural populations. More than 3,000 cases of arsenosis have been documented, whereas the affected population exceeds 10,000. Chemical analyses show that selected coals are extremely enriched in As and contain high concentrations of other trace elements deleterious to health. Southwestern Guizhou Province is underlain by an extensive thickness of Upper Paleozoic and Lower Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. The Permian, although aerially much less extensive, contains coal-bearing argillaceous sedimentary rocks of the Longtan Formation. The predominantly rural population in this mountainous region obtains most of their coal from many, very small mines operated locally. Southwestern Guizhou Province is also the site of extensive, mostly small-scale, gold mining from discontinuous sedimentary rock-hosted, Carlin-type gold deposits. Gold is currently being mined from areas that contact high-arsenic coals. The structural complexity of the area as well as the gold-As- rich coal association suggests that coal zones containing high As are probably as irregular and discontinuous as the gold deposits. The local public health officials have instituted a program of testing the coal being mined for its high As concentration. A collaborative study between the US Geological Survey and the Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry in Guiyang, Chinese Academy of Science is investigating the origin, occurrence, and distribution of arsenic in these coals. The goal is to be able to understand the petrogenesis in order to be able to predict and delineate arsenic-rich coals or zones.

  15. Economic Limit of Coal Mining Closedown in Restructuring Coal Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    One of the key points in restructuring the coal industry is to close some deficient coal mines which haveneither economic result nor social benefit. Based on the relationship among production, cost, and profit, differenteconomic limits for closing coal mines in different cases were put forward. The relationship between the profit andclosedown cost of deficient coal mines was analyzed and an overall economic limit for closing a deficient coal minewas also proposed.

  16. Coal Activities for Secondary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Coal Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This collection of lesson plans designed for teachers of 4th- through 12th-grade students utilizes an assortment of teaching strategies for topics related to coal and the coal industry. Activities cover the following topics: coal formation; coal identification; "the geologist's dilemma" (a supply and demand activity); geologic time and the…

  17. rhC1INH: a new drug for the treatment of attacks in hereditary angioedema caused by C1-inhibitor deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Lilian; Farkas, Henriette

    2011-03-01

    Recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor (rhC1INH) (Ruconest(®), Pharming) is a new drug developed for the relief of symptoms occurring in patients with angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency. Pertinent results have already been published elsewhere; this article summarizes the progress made since then. Similar to the purified C1-inhibitor derived from human plasma, the therapeutic efficacy of rhC1INH results from its ability to block the actions of enzymes belonging to the overactivated bradykinin-forming pathway, at multiple locations. During clinical trials into the management of acute edema, a total of 190 subjects received recombinant C1-inhibitor by intravenous infusion on 714 occasions altogether. Dose-ranging efficacy studies established 50 U/kg as the recommended dose, and demonstrated the effectiveness of this agent in all localizations of hereditary angioedema attacks. Studies into the safety of rhC1INH based on 300 administrations to healthy subjects or hereditary angioedema patients followed-up for 90 days have not detected the formation of autoantibodies against rhC1INH or IgE antibodies directed against rabbit proteins, even after repeated administration on multiple occasions. These findings met favorable appraisal by the EMA, which granted European marketing authorization for rhC1INH. Pharming is expected to file a biological licence with the US FDA by the end of 2010 to obtain marketing approval in the USA. The launch of rhC1INH onto the pharmaceutical market may represent an important progress in the management of hereditary angioedema patients. PMID:21426252

  18. rhC1INH: a new drug for the treatment of attacks in hereditary angioedema caused by C1-inhibitor deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Lilian; Farkas, Henriette

    2011-03-01

    Recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor (rhC1INH) (Ruconest(®), Pharming) is a new drug developed for the relief of symptoms occurring in patients with angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency. Pertinent results have already been published elsewhere; this article summarizes the progress made since then. Similar to the purified C1-inhibitor derived from human plasma, the therapeutic efficacy of rhC1INH results from its ability to block the actions of enzymes belonging to the overactivated bradykinin-forming pathway, at multiple locations. During clinical trials into the management of acute edema, a total of 190 subjects received recombinant C1-inhibitor by intravenous infusion on 714 occasions altogether. Dose-ranging efficacy studies established 50 U/kg as the recommended dose, and demonstrated the effectiveness of this agent in all localizations of hereditary angioedema attacks. Studies into the safety of rhC1INH based on 300 administrations to healthy subjects or hereditary angioedema patients followed-up for 90 days have not detected the formation of autoantibodies against rhC1INH or IgE antibodies directed against rabbit proteins, even after repeated administration on multiple occasions. These findings met favorable appraisal by the EMA, which granted European marketing authorization for rhC1INH. Pharming is expected to file a biological licence with the US FDA by the end of 2010 to obtain marketing approval in the USA. The launch of rhC1INH onto the pharmaceutical market may represent an important progress in the management of hereditary angioedema patients.

  19. No Abrupt Changes in redox conditions associated with the end-Permian marine ecosystem collapse in the east Greenland basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper K.; Shen, Y; Piasecki, Stefan;

    2010-01-01

    Multiple observations have revealed that environmental disturbances may have been linked to the end-Permian mass extinction and delayed biotic recovery. Biogeochemical constraints on the temporal and spatial changes of oceanic redox chemistry during the Permian–Triassic interval are essential...... to evaluate global significance of previous hypotheses and to improve our understanding of extinction and recovery processes. To investigate redox ocean chemistry change associated with the end-Permian extinction and subsequent delayed biotic recovery, we examine framboidal pyrites as well as sulfur isotopic....... Our detailed examination of framboidal pyrites challenges a leading hypothesis that euxinia in the photic zone caused the end-Permian ecosystem collapse. We identify several positive and negative S-isotopic shifts before and after the extinction event and demonstrate that a positive S-isotopic shift...

  20. New Middle Permian palaeopteran insects from Lodève Basin in southern France (Ephemeroptera, Diaphanopterodea, Megasecoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Prokop

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Three new palaeopteran insects are described from the Middle Permian (Guadalupian of Salagou Formation in the Lodève Basin (South of France, viz. the diaphanopterodean Alexrasnitsyniidae fam. n., based on Alexrasnitsynia permiana gen. et sp. n., the Parelmoidae Permelmoa magnifica gen. et sp. n., and Lodevohymen lapeyriei gen. et sp. n. (in Megasecoptera or Diaphanopterodea, family undetermined. In addition the first record of mayflies attributed to family Syntonopteridae (Ephemeroptera is reported. These new fossils clearly demonstrate that the present knowledge of the Permian insects remains very incomplete. They also confirm that the Lodève entomofauna was highly diverse providing links to other Permian localities and also rather unique, with several families still not recorded in other contemporaneous outcrops.

  1. Serum IgG antibodies to C1q in hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnieski, J J; Naff, G B

    1989-09-01

    Urticaria, angioedema, and arthritis are cardinal features of hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome (HUVS). Considered to be an immune complex-mediated disorder, HUVS has been differentiated from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), based on its clinical manifestations and the C1q precipitin (C1q-p) reaction, which is manifested as gel precipitation of C1q by a small percentage of HUVS IgG molecules. This phenomenon has been attributed to an Fc region abnormality, and the responsible IgG molecules are said to possess C1q-p activity. We purified IgG from 4 HUVS patients and confirmed that HUVS IgG contains C1q binding activity. F(ab')2 fragments from these patients also bound to C1q, as measured by 2 different C1q binding methods at physiologic ionic strength; HUVS IgG Fc fragments did not bind to C1q. Preincubation of HUVS F(ab')2 fragments with antibody to human F(ab')2 prevented subsequent binding to C1q. We conclude that IgG antibodies to C1q are present in HUVS serum, and it is likely that these antibodies are C1q-p. Because the clinical manifestations of HUVS and the presence of anti-C1q antibodies have been described in patients with SLE, our findings support the concept that HUVS is an autoimmune syndrome related to SLE. PMID:2528353

  2. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1A - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. 1.666(c)-1A Section 1.666(c)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1A Pro rata portion of taxes deemed...

  3. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1 - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. 1.666(c)-1 Section 1.666(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1 Pro rata portion of taxes deemed...

  4. Coal Mines Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Guhe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, automatic detection, communication and microcontroller technologies, to realize the operational parameters of the mining area. The data acquisition terminal take the PIC 16F877A chip integrated circuit as a core for sensing the data, which carries on the communication through the RS232 interface with the main control machine, which has realized the intelligent monitoring. Data management system uses EEPROM chip as a Black box to store data permanently and also use CCTV camera for recording internal situation. The system implements the real-time monitoring and displaying for data undermine, query, deletion and maintenance of history data, graphic statistic, report printing, expert diagnosis and decision-making support. The Research, development and Promote Application will provide the safeguard regarding the mine pit control in accuracy, real-time capacity and has high reliability.

  5. Trace fossil evidence for late Permian shallow water condition in Guryul ravine, Kashmir, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcha, Suraj; Horacek, Micha; Krystyn, Leopold; Pandey, Shivani

    2015-04-01

    The present study is focused on the Late Permian (Changhsingian) succession, present in the Guryul ravine, Kashmir Basin. The basin has a complete Cambro-Triassic sequence and thus contains a unique position in the geology of Himalaya. The Guryul Ravine Permian mainly comprises of mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sediments deposited in a shallow-shelf or ramp setting. The present assemblage of Ichnofossils is the first significant report of trace fossils in the Guryul ravine since early reports in the 1970s. The Ichnofossils reported from this section include: Diplichnites, Dimorphichnus, Monomorphichnus, Planolites, Skolithos along with burrow, scratch marks and annelid worm traces?. The ichnofossils are mainly preserved in medium grain sandstone-mudstone facies. The Ichnofossils are widely distributed throughout the section and are mostly belonging to arthropods and annelid origin, showing behavioral activity, mainly dwelling and feeding, and evidence the dominant presence of deposit feeders. The vertical to slightly inclined biogenic structures are commonly recognized from semi-consolidated substrate which are characteristic features of the near shore/foreshore marine environment, with moderate to high energy conditions. The topmost layer of silty shale contains trace fossils like Skolithos and poorly preserved burrows. The burrow material filled is same as that of host rock. The studied Zewan C and D sequence represents the early to late part of the Changhsingian stage, from 40 to 5 m below the top of Zewan D member with bioturbation still evident in some limestone layers till 2 metres above. No trace fossils could be recognized in the topmost 3 m beds of Zewan D due to their gliding related amalgamated structure. The widespread distribution of traces and their in situ nature will be useful for interpretation of the paleoecological and paleoenvironmental conditions during the late Permian in the Guryul ravine of Kashmir.

  6. Solonker ophiolite in Inner Mongolia, China: A late Permian continental margin-type ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhi-wen; Xu, Bei; Shi, Guan-zhong; Zhao, Pan; Faure, M.; Chen, Yan

    2016-09-01

    The Solonker ophiolite is exposed along the border between Mongolia and China within the Solonker zone, the southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), and it is composed dominantly of serpentinized peridotite with subordinate gabbro, basaltic lava, radiolarian-bearing siliceous rocks, and minor plagiogranite. Meanwhile, layered mafic-ultramafic cumulates are not ubiquitous. In this study, zircon grains from two gabbros and a plagiogranite yield 206Pb/238U ages of 259 ± 6 Ma, 257 ± 3 Ma and 263 ± 1 Ma. These data were interpreted to represent the formation age of the Solonker ophiolite. The studied gabbros and basalts have a tholeiitic composition, showing a MORB affinity. They are also characterized by enrichment of Pb and depletion of Nb relative to La and Th. Furthermore, the studied gabbros contain inherited zircon grains and display a large range of zircon Hf isotopes (εHf(t) = - 5.27 to + 10.19). These features imply that crustal contamination played an important role in the generation of these mafic rocks. Major elements derived from the radiolarian-bearing siliceous rocks suggest a continental margin setting. This is confirmed by rock association. Terrigenous rocks (sandstones and siltstones) interstratified with siliceous rocks. U-Pb dating of detrital zircon grains in sandstones from both the northern and southern sides of the Solonker ophiolite belt, along with published data, reveals that the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian strata in fault contact with the Solonker ophiolite was deposited above Early Paleozoic orogens. The lines of petrological, geochemical, geochronological, and isotopic evidence led us to propose that the Solonker ophiolite is a Late Permian continental margin-type body formed during the early stages of opening of an ocean basin, following rifting and break-up of the Early Paleozoic orogens. Accordingly, the Permian Solonker zone is characterized by an intra-continental extensional setting.

  7. A calcium isotope test of end-Permian ocean acidification using biogenic apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, J.; Brown, S. T.; DePaolo, D. J.; Paytan, A.; Shen, S.; Chen, J.; Payne, J.

    2011-12-01

    Submarine erosional truncation of uppermost Permian carbonate strata has been interpreted to reflect ocean acidification coincident with the end-Permian mass extinction. Although this scenario is consistent with carbon isotope and paleontological data, several alternative scenarios, such as ocean overturn or collapse of the biological pump, can also account for the carbon isotope and paleontological evidence. Calcium isotopes provide a geochemical proxy to test between acidification and alternative scenarios. Specifically, a negative shift in the calcium isotope composition (δ44/40Ca) of seawater is predicted under the acidification scenario but not the alternatives. The δ44/40Ca of carbonate rocks from south China exhibits a negative excursion of approximately 0.3%, but this shift could result from either a change in the δ44/40Ca of seawater or a change in carbonate mineralogy because calcite and aragonite exhibit substantially different fractionation factors relative to seawater. To test whether the negative shift in δ44/40Ca reflects seawater δ44/40Ca or carbonate mineralogy, we measured the δ44/40Ca of conodont microfossils (calcium hydroxyapatite) from the global stratotype section for the Permian-Triassic boundary at Meishan, China. The conodont δ44/40Ca record shows a negative excursion similar in stratigraphic position and magnitude to that previously observed in carbonate rocks. Parallel negative excursions in the δ44/40Ca of carbonate rocks and conodont microfossils cannot be accounted for by a change in carbonate mineralogy but are consistent with a negative shift in the δ44/40Ca of seawater. These data add further support for the ocean acidification scenario, pointing toward strong similarities between the greatest catastrophe in the history of animal life and anticipated global change during the 21st century.

  8. Blastoid Body Size - Changes from the Carboniferous to the End-Permian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L.; Tolosa, R.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate, known for affecting biodiversity within genera of animal species, is often addressed as a major variable of geological systems. The Mississippian subperiod of the Carboniferous was noted for its lush, tropical climate that sustained a variety of biological life. In contrast, the Permian era was marked primarily by an ice age that had started earlier during the Pennsylvanian. The blastoids, a class of the Echinodermata phylum, were in existence from the Silurian (443.4 Ma) to the end of the Permian (252.28 Ma). This study focused on whether climate affected blastoid theca size over the span of those one hundred million years between the Mississippian and the Permian or if was simply a negligible factor. We analyzed size data from the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology and correlated it to both Cope's Rule, which states that size increases with geologic time, and Bergmann's Rule, which states that latitude and temperature are catalysts for size change. CO2 levels from known records served as a proxy for global temperature. Our results indicated that the blastoids increased in size by 59% over geologic time. The size of the blastoids increased over geologic time, following Cope's Rule. According to our graphs in R, there was an inverse relationship between volume and climate. Size decreased as temperature increased, which follows Bergmann's Rule. However, we also wanted to observe spatial factors regarding Bergmann's Rule such as paleolatitude and paleolongitude. This info was taken from the Paleobiology Database and showed that a majority of the blastoids were found near the equator, which, according to the other part of Bergmann's Rule, suggests that they would therefore increase in size. Further tests implied strong correlations between temperature, volume, and paleolocation. We ultimately believe that although Cope's Rule is in effect, Bergmann's mechanisms for size may not apply to the blastoids due to the environments that the blastoids lived in or

  9. Permian plate margin volcanism and tuffs in adjacent basins of west Gondwana: Age constraints and common characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gamundí, Oscar

    2006-12-01

    Increasing evidence of Permian volcanic activity along the South American portion of the Gondwana proto-Pacific margin has directed attention to its potential presence in the stratigraphic record of adjacent basins. In recent years, tuffaceous horizons have been identified in late Early Permian-through Middle Permian (280-260 Ma) sections of the Paraná Basin (Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay). Farther south and closer to the magmatic tract developed along the continental margin, in the San Rafael and Sauce Grande basins of Argentina, tuffs are present in the Early to Middle Permian section. This tuff-rich interval can be correlated with the appearance of widespread tuffs in the Karoo Basin. Although magmatic activity along the proto-Pacific plate margin was continuous during the Late Paleozoic, Choiyoi silicic volcanism along the Andean Cordillera and its equivalent in Patagonia peaked between the late Early Permian and Middle Permian, when extensive rhyolitic ignimbrites and consanguineous airborne tuffaceous material erupted in the northern Patagonian region. The San Rafael orogenic phase (SROP) interrupted sedimentation along the southwestern segment of the Gondwana margin (i.e., Frontal Cordillera, San Rafael Basin), induced cratonward thrusting (i.e., Ventana and Cape foldbelts), and triggered accelerated subsidence in the adjacent basins (Sauce Grande and Karoo) located inboard of the deformation front. This accelerated subsidence favored the preservation of tuffaceous horizons in the syntectonic successions. The age constraints and similarities in composition between the volcanics along the continental margin and the tuffaceous horizons in the San Rafael, Sauce Grande, Paraná, and Karoo basins strongly suggest a genetic linkage between the two episodes. Radiometric ages from tuffs in the San Rafael, Paraná, and Karoo basins indicate an intensely tuffaceous interval between 280 and 260 Ma.

  10. Significance of new breakthrough in and favorable targets of gas exploration in the Middle Permian system, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Shen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Permian system in the Sichuan Basin represents favorable conditions for the formation of natural gas reservoirs. However, only fracture-vuggy limestone gas reservoirs were discovered in early exploration, whose scales and results were limited. In 2014, a high-yield industrial gas flow was produced there in Well Shuangtan 1, the major risk-exploration well, which means a great breakthrough in natural gas exploration in the Middle Permian system, Sichuan Basin. This plays a strategically important and guiding role in oil and gas exploration in ultra-deep marine formations. This paper illustrates the deployment background of Well Shuangtan 1, major exploration achievements and its significance in the gas exploration in the Middle Permian system, Sichuan Basin. Moreover, exploration potential and subsequent exploration targets of Middle Permian are analyzed in terms of its hydrocarbon source conditions, sedimentary characteristics, reservoir characteristics and areal extension, resources and favorable exploration zones. It is concluded that the Middle Permian system in the Sichuan Basin is a continent-connected carbonate platform with carbonate deposits being dominant. There are three types of reservoirs, including pore dolomite, karst fracture-vuggy, and fracture, which present considerable natural gas resources and huge exploration potential. Favorable exploration zones classification of Middle Permian in the Sichuan Basin indicates that the most favorable exploration zones are mainly distributed in the central-western Sichuan Basin. In particular, the northwestern Sichuan Basin is the most favorable exploration area which is characterized by the most excellent hydrocarbon source conditions, developed dolomite reservoirs and zonal distribution of structures.

  11. Sedimentology and distribution of Upper Permian lowstand fans, Bredehorn Member, Schuchert Dal Formation, East Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreiner-Moeller, M.; Piasecki, S.; Stemmerik, L.

    1999-07-01

    The Upper Permian basin of central East Greenland was characterized by shallow marine platform carbonates along the basin margins and over fault crests, and deeper water siliciclastics in the basin centres during the later stages of deposition. The basinal, siliciclastic-dominated succession includes the organic rich, source prone shales of the Ravnefjeld Formation and sandy and silty sediments of the Schuchert Dal Formation. The traditional view of these formations is that they represent discrete stages of basin evolution. However, renewed fieldwork indicates that the lower part of the sandy Bredehorn Member of the Schuchert Dal Formation is time equivalent to the upper part of the Ravnefjeld Formation. The presentation discusses the details.

  12. Geology, geochemistry and petrophysics of the Woodford Shale, Permian Basin, west Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, N.B.; Hemmesch, N.T.; Mnich, C.A. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering; Aoudia, K.; Miskimins, J. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Sequence stratigraphic analysis can be done on black shales, however it requires an integrated multidisciplinary approach. Sea-level cycles are expressed even in the middle of a shale basin and are expressed in lithofacies, mineralogy, geochemistry and well logs. The cycles are important for shale gas, impacting gas generation, storage and fracture development. Geology, geochemistry and petrophysics of the Woodford Shale, located in the Permian Basin of west Texas were discussed in this presentation. Specifically, the presentation discussed the stratigraphy in a black shale, motivation for rock properties research, and factor analysis results. It was concluded that cycles affect gas generation capacity and rock properties. tabs., figs.

  13. Paleomagnetism of Lower Permian Abo and Yeso Formation, Carizzo Arroyo, Lucero Uplift, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronis, M. S.; Geissman, J. W.

    2002-12-01

    We report paleomagnetic data from Lower Permian hematite-cemented sandstones and siltstones from Carrizo Arroyo, on the eastern edge of the Lucero uplift along the west-side of the middle Rio Grande rift, to test the hypothesis that the rift margins have accommodated extensional strain via vertical axis rotation. In addition, we present a revised interpretation of the structural setting and deformation history of the area, were late-Tertiary transtensional stresses have produced the majority of the structures in the area. The paleomagnetic data are discussed in the context of this hypothesis. In the Rio Grande rift area, a mid-Cenozoic and younger extensional feature defining the eastern margin of the Colorado Plateau, relatively little work has been done to assess the magnitude and sense of vertical axis rotations of fault-bounded crustal blocks within and at the margins of the plateau. A growing body of evidence shows that the Colorado Plateau has experienced some degree of vertical axis rotation and some magnitude of northward translation, although the magnitudes of the rotation and translation have been subject to considerable debate. Eight to ten oriented samples from 50 sites have been fully demagnetized with all sites yielding interpretable results: 41 sites from three sections in the Lower Permian Abo Formation, and 9 sites in the Meseta Blanca Member of the overlying Yeso Formation. In most cases, progressive thermal demagnetization resulted in a nearly univectorial decay of the magnetization to the origin that is well grouped at the site level. After correcting for modest dip of strata, the 50 sites in Carrizo Arroyo yield an estimate group mean (D = 162.1°, I = -4.1°, α95 = 6.8°, k = 10.18). Overall, the data from this part of the west side of the rift are discordant, in a clockwise since, with Early Permian (about D = 140°, I = -2.0°) and mid-Permian (about D = 145°, I = -4.0°) expected directions. We interpret the paleomagnetic data from

  14. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  15. The origin and early evolution of Sauria: reassessing the permian Saurian fossil record and the timing of the crocodile-lizard divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín D Ezcurra

    Full Text Available Sauria is the crown-group of Diapsida and is subdivided into Lepidosauromorpha and Archosauromorpha, comprising a high percentage of the diversity of living and fossil tetrapods. The split between lepidosauromorphs and archosauromorphs (the crocodile-lizard, or bird-lizard, divergence is considered one of the key calibration points for molecular analyses of tetrapod phylogeny. Saurians have a very rich Mesozoic and Cenozoic fossil record, but their late Paleozoic (Permian record is problematic. Several Permian specimens have been referred to Sauria, but the phylogenetic affinity of some of these records remains questionable. We reexamine and review all of these specimens here, providing new data on early saurian evolution including osteohistology, and present a new morphological phylogenetic dataset. We support previous studies that find that no valid Permian record for Lepidosauromorpha, and we also reject some of the previous referrals of Permian specimens to Archosauromorpha. The most informative Permian archosauromorph is Protorosaurus speneri from the middle Late Permian of Western Europe. A historically problematic specimen from the Late Permian of Tanzania is redescribed and reidentified as a new genus and species of basal archosauromorph: Aenigmastropheus parringtoni. The supposed protorosaur Eorasaurus olsoni from the Late Permian of Russia is recovered among Archosauriformes and may be the oldest known member of the group but the phylogenetic support for this position is low. The assignment of Archosaurus rossicus from the latest Permian of Russia to the archosauromorph clade Proterosuchidae is supported. Our revision suggests a minimum fossil calibration date for the crocodile-lizard split of 254.7 Ma. The occurrences of basal archosauromorphs in the northern (30°N and southern (55°S parts of Pangea imply a wider paleobiogeographic distribution for the group during the Late Permian than previously appreciated. Early archosauromorph

  16. The influence of brown coal exploitation in Poland on the groundwater pollution as determined by isotopic analyses of sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research deals with pollution impact on natural water resources in the industrial area of Belchatow, central Poland, where a large brown coal deposit is exploited and the coal is burned in an electric power plant. To trace the sources of groundwater pollutants the stable isotope analysis of oxygen and sulphur in sulphates was applied. The mass-spectrometric analysis was performed on SO42- samples from numerous wells and piezometres in the excavation area. By repetitive sampling performed in November 1994, May 1995 and December 1996 significant changes of SO42- concentration and sulphur and oxygen isotopic ratios in several sites were recorded. The interpretation of isotope ratios allowed us to recognize three groups of sulphates: (1) from the leaching of Permian salt dome, (2) produced by the leaching of soluble sulphates from an ash pool and (3) produced by oxidation of natural sulphides in water-bearing rocks. (author)

  17. Human keratinocyte ATP2C1 localizes to the Golgi and controls Golgi Ca2+ stores

    OpenAIRE

    Behne, M J; Tu, Chia-Ling L; Aronchik, I; Epstein, E; Bench, G.; Bikle, D D; Pozzan, T; Mauro, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Hailey-Hailey disease (MIM16960) is a blistering skin disease caused by mutations in the Ca2+ ATPase ATP2C1. We found that the abnormal Ca2+ signaling seen in Hailey-Hailey disease keratinocytes correlates with decreased protein levels of ATP2C1. Human ATP2C1 protein approximated 115 kDa in size. The ATP2C1 is localized to the Golgi apparatus in human keratinocytes, similar to its localization in yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans. To test whether the ATP2C1 controls Golgi Ca2+ stores, we measu...

  18. A Systematic Analysis of Coal Accumulation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Aiguo

    2008-01-01

    Formation of coal seam and coal-rich zone is an integrated result of a series of factors in coal accumulation process. The coal accumulation system is an architectural aggregation of coal accumulation factors. It can be classified into 4 levels: the global coal accumulation super-system, the coal accumulation domain mega.system, the coal accumulation basin system, and the coal seam or coal seam set sub-system. The coal accumulation process is an open, dynamic, and grey system, and is meanwhile a system with such natures as aggregation, relevance, entirety, purpose-orientated, hierarchy, and environment adaptability. In this paper, we take coal accumulation process as a system to study origin of coal seam and coal-rich zone; and we will discuss a methodology of the systematic analysis of coal accumulation process. As an example, the Ordos coal basin was investigated to elucidate the application of the method of the coal accumulation system analysis.

  19. Quarterly coal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  20. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining...

  1. Proximate analysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donahue, C.J.; Rais, E.A. [University of Michigan, Dearborn, MI (USA)

    2009-02-15

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash content are determined for each sample and comparisons are made. Proximate analysis is performed on a coal sample from a local electric utility. From the weight percent sulfur found in the coal (determined by a separate procedure the Eschka method) and the ash content, students calculate the quantity of sulfur dioxide emissions and ash produced annually by a large coal-fired electric power plant.

  2. Hard Pressed for Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Higher prices and the worst snowstorms in 50 years have strained China’s coal supply to the limit There’s little coal left. Jiang Zhangshui wears an expression of worry on his face.As president of Zhejiang Tianma Thermal Power Co. Ltd., he’s had to keep his eyes on the snow falfing in Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province. During a lull in the storm he drives to the airport and flies to Beijing. Like his counterparts at many other

  3. Prospects for coal and clean coal technology in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    This report examines the current energy outlook for the Philippines in regard not only to coal but also other energy resources. The history of the power sector, current state of play and future plans to meet the increasing energy demand from a growing population are discussed. There is also analysis of the trends for coal demand and production, imports and exports of coal and the types of coal-fired power stations that have been built. This includes examination of the legislation involving coal and the promotion of clean coal technologies.

  4. Higher coronary heart disease and heart attack morbidity in Appalachian coal mining regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendryx, M.; Zullig, K.J. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Community Medicine

    2009-11-15

    This study analyzes the U.S. 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data (N = 235,783) to test whether self-reported cardiovascular disease rates are higher in Appalachian coal mining counties compared to other counties after control for other risks. Dependent variables include self-reported measures of ever (1) being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with a specific form of CVD including (2) stroke, (3) heart attack, or (4) angina or coronary heart disease (CHD). Independent variables included coal mining, smoking, BMI, drinking, physician supply, diabetes co-morbidity, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and others. SUDAAN Multilog models were estimated, and odds ratios tested for coal mining effects. After control for covariates, people in Appalachian coal mining areas reported significantly higher risk of CVD (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.14-1.30), angina or CHO (OR = 1.29, 95% C1 = 1.19-1.39) and heart attack (OR = 1.19, 95% C1 = 1.10-1.30). Effects were present for both men and women. Cardiovascular diseases have been linked to both air and water contamination in ways consistent with toxicants found in coal and coal processing. Future research is indicated to assess air and water quality in coal mining communities in Appalachia, with corresponding environmental programs and standards established as indicated.

  5. A Proposed Area for Study of Accessory Section and Point of Terrestrial Permian-Triassic Boundary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    After the establishment of the global stratotype section and point (GSSP) of the PermianTriassic boundary (PTB), the definition of the accessory section and point (ASP) of the terrestrial Permian-Triassic boundary (TPTB) is now on the agenda. However, all good TPTB sections so far known have the following shortcomings: (1) the exact TPTB horizon is difficult to define paleontologically with high-resolution, and (2) accurate correlation between marine and terrestrial PTBs is hard to attain. In order to enhance the understanding of the nature of the global life crisis in both the marine and terrestrial environments across the Paleozoic-Mesozoic transition, these shortcomings need to be addressed. In western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan, Southwest China, some fossiliferous PTB sections which include marine, paralic and terrestrial are well-developed, allowing bed-to-bed correlation of the PTB sequences.Fortunately, the marine PTB sequence in this area is almost the same as found at the Meishan Section,where the GSSP of the PTB is located, which may provide a reliable auxiliary marker for high-resolution demarcation of the TPTB. These features found in western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan make this area a good place to study the ASP of the TPTB, so we propose to study the ASP of the TPTB in this area.

  6. Filamentous cyanobacteria fossils and their significance in the Permian-Triassic boundary section at Laolongdong, Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG HongXia; WU YaSheng; CAI ChunFang

    2008-01-01

    The microbial communities blooming immediately after the end-Permian mass extinction represent abnormally extreme environments, and vary in different areas. In this study, filamentous cyanobacterial biota was found in the strata after the extinction in the famous Permian-Triassic boundary section at Laolongdong, Chongqing, southwest China. In thin sections, the filamentous cyanobacterial fossils are below 1 mm in length, and generally taper to one end, with the widest diameter up to 0.08 mm. Some of them are curved, indicating that they are soft in life. Their walls are composed of cryptocrystalline to microcrystalline calcites. The filaments have round cross section, and are internally filled with micrites and fine sparry calcites, which indicate that the filaments are originally empty. They are randomly dis-tributed in the rocks, but in some places, they tend to be distributed in radial pattern. The filamentous organisms are morphologically similar to Rivularia of Rivulariaceae, Cyanobacteria Phylum, but with calcified sheaths, and are tentatively regarded as an indeterminate new species in Rivularia: Rivularia sp. Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic autotrophic, and can survive in dysoxic condition. The blooming of this organism and the absence of other organisms may indicate that the environment was oxygen-deficient and shallow, since this photosynthetic autotrophic organism needed to live within photic zone.

  7. Research on Outcrop Sequence Stratigraphy of Permian in Middle-Lower Yangtze Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    According to the latest International Chronostratigraphic Scheme (ICS, 2000), the Permian in the Middle-Lower Yangtze region of South China can be divided into three series and nine stages relevant to the traditional six stages of South China. From Assellian to Changxingian of Permian, 44 Ma in age range, the strata are composed of 14 third-order sequences, each of which is 3.14 Ma in average age range. There is one third-order sequence of Zisongian, equivalent to middle and upper Chuanshan Formation or equal to Asselian and two thirds of Sakmarian. There are two third-order sequences, corre sponding to Liang-shan Formation or Zhenjiang Formation and upper Chuanshan Formation, which are assigned to Longlingian, coinciding with Artinskian and one third of Sakmarian. In addition, three third-order sequences, equal to Qixia Formation, are attributed to Chihsian, corresponding to Kubergandian and one third of Roadian. Four third-order sequences, comprising Gufeng, Maokou, Yanqiao,Yinping and Wuxue formations, are assigned to Maokouan, equivalent to two thirds of Roadian, Word ian and Capitanian. Two third-order sequences, equal to Longtan Formation or Wujiaping Formation,are included in Wuchiapingian. Other two third-order sequences, corresponding to Changxing Formation or Dalong Formation, are assigned to Changhsingian. In brief, these above third-order sequences can be incorporated into 4 sequences sets.

  8. Early-Middle Permian Reef Frameworks and Reef-building Models in the Eastern Kunlun Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田树刚; 范嘉松

    2001-01-01

    Reef frameworks and building models of the Early-Middle Permian in the eastern Kunlun Mountains have been verified through studies of reef-building communities, palaeoecology and carbonate facies. The eastern Kunlun reefs are built mainly by 6 reef-building communities, which include 11 major categories of frame-building organisms and 6 categories of reef-associated organisms. Eight types of reef-frames have been distinguished and eleven kinds of rocks identified to belong to 6 reef facies. Three sorts of reefs classified by previous researchers, namely mudmounds, knoll reefs and walled reefs, are well developed in the study area. Such reef-facies association and reef distribution show that there are 4 models of reef growth and development, i.e. the tidal-bank knoll-reef model, the plateau-margin wall-reef model, the composite wall-reef model and the deep-water mudmound model. The reefs are mainly constructed by calcareous sponge and calcareous algae, which are similar to all Permian reefs in other areas of South China and the world. Their great scales indicate a secular stable platform-marginal environment.

  9. The Siberian Traps and the End-Permian mass extinction: a critical review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andy SAUNDERS; Marc REICHOW

    2009-01-01

    The association between the Siberian Traps,the largest continental flood basalt province,and thelargest-known mass extinction event at the end of the Permian period,has been strengthened by re-cently-published high-precision 40Ar/39Ar dates from widespread localities across the Siberian prov-ince[i].We argue that the impact of the volcanism was amplified by the prevailing late Permian envi-ronmental conditions-in particular,the hothouse climate,with sluggish oceanic circulation,that wasleading to widespread oceanic anoxia.Volcanism released large masses of sulphate aerosols andcarbon dioxide,the former triggering short-duration volcanic winters,the latter leading to long-termwarming.Whilst the mass of CO2 released from individual eruptions was small compared with the totalmass of carbon in the atmosphere-ocean system,the long 'mean lifetime' of atmospheric C02,com-pared with the eruption flux and duration,meant that significant accumulation could occur over periodsof 10s years.Compromise of the carbon sequestration systems (by curtailment of photosynthesis,de-struction of biomass,and warming and acidification of the oceans) probably led to rapid atmosphericCO2 build-up,warming,and shallow-water anoxia,leading ultimately to mass extinction.

  10. Application of seismic facies and attributes analysis on the identification of Permian igneous rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yongzhong; Yang Haijun; Liu Yongfu; Wang Shuangshuang; Yang Peng; Zhao Jixiang

    2012-01-01

    Seismic facies and attributes analysis techniques are introduced.The geological characteristics of some oil fields in western China are used in conjunction with drilling results and logging data to identify the lithology,intrusion periods,and distribution range of the Permian igneous rocks in this area.The lithologic classification,the vertical and horizontal distribution,and the intrusion periods of igneous rock were deduced through this study.Combining seismic facies and attributes analysis based on optimization can describe the igneous rock in detail.This is an efficient way to identify lithology and intrusion periods.Using geological data and GR-DT logging cross-plots the Permian igneous rock from TP to TT was divided into three periods.The lithology of the first period is tuff and clasolite with a thickness ranging from 18 to 80 ms.The second is basalt with a thickness ranging from 0 to 20 ms.The third is tuff and clasolite and dacite whose thickness ranges from 60 to 80 ms.These results can help understand the clasolite trap with low amplitude and the lithologic trap of the Carboniferous and Silurian.They can also guide further oil and/or gas exploration.

  11. Dynamic anoxic ferruginous conditions during the end-Permian mass extinction and recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, M. O.; Wood, R. A.; Poulton, S. W.; Richoz, S.; Newton, R. J.; Kasemann, S. A.; Bowyer, F.; Krystyn, L.

    2016-07-01

    The end-Permian mass extinction, ~252 million years ago, is notable for a complex recovery period of ~5 Myr. Widespread euxinic (anoxic and sulfidic) oceanic conditions have been proposed as both extinction mechanism and explanation for the protracted recovery period, yet the vertical distribution of anoxia in the water column and its temporal dynamics through this time period are poorly constrained. Here we utilize Fe-S-C systematics integrated with palaeontological observations to reconstruct a complete ocean redox history for the Late Permian to Early Triassic, using multiple sections across a shelf-to-basin transect on the Arabian Margin (Neo-Tethyan Ocean). In contrast to elsewhere, we show that anoxic non-sulfidic (ferruginous), rather than euxinic, conditions were prevalent in the Neo-Tethys. The Arabian Margin record demonstrates the repeated expansion of ferruginous conditions with the distal slope being the focus of anoxia at these times, as well as short-lived episodes of oxia that supported diverse biota.

  12. Functional diversity of marine ecosystems after the Late Permian mass extinction event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, William J.; Twitchett, Richard J.

    2014-03-01

    The Late Permian mass extinction event about 252 million years ago was the most severe biotic crisis of the past 500 million years and occurred during an episode of global warming. The loss of around two-thirds of marine genera is thought to have had substantial ecological effects, but the overall impacts on the functioning of marine ecosystems and the pattern of marine recovery are uncertain. Here we analyse the fossil occurrences of all known benthic marine invertebrate genera from the Permian and Triassic periods, and assign each to a functional group based on their inferred lifestyle. We show that despite the selective extinction of 62-74% of these genera, all but one functional group persisted through the crisis, indicating that there was no significant loss of functional diversity at the global scale. In addition, only one new mode of life originated in the extinction aftermath. We suggest that Early Triassic marine ecosystems were not as ecologically depauperate as widely assumed. Functional diversity was, however, reduced in particular regions and habitats, such as tropical reefs; at these smaller scales, recovery varied spatially and temporally, probably driven by migration of surviving groups. We find that marine ecosystems did not return to their pre-extinction state, and by the Middle Triassic greater functional evenness is recorded, resulting from the radiation of previously subordinate groups such as motile, epifaunal grazers.

  13. Regional summary and recommended study areas for the Texas Panhandle portion of the Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the regional geologic and environmental characterizations that have been completed for the Permian region of study, and describes the procedure used to identify study areas for the next phase of investigation. The factors evaluated in the Permian region fall into three broad areas: health and safety, environmental and socioeconomic, and engineering and economic considerations. Health and safety considerations included salt depth and thickness, faults, seismic activity, groundwater, salt dissolution, energy and mineral resources, presence of boreholes, and interactive land uses. Salt depth and thickness was the key health and safety factor, and when mapped, provded to be a discriminator. The evaluation of environmental and socioeconomic conditions focused primarily on the presence of urban areas and on designated land uses such as parks, wildlife areas, and historic sites. Engineering and economic considerations centered primarily on salt depth, which was already evaluated in the health and safety area. The Palo Duro and Dalhart basins are recommended for future studies on the basis of geology. In these two basins, salt depth and thickness appear promising, and there is less likelihood of past or future oil and gas exploratory holes. Environmental and socioeconomic factors did not preclude any of the basins from further study. 66 references, 16 figures, 2 tables

  14. Structure and evolution of Middle Permian palaeo-seamounts in Bayan Har and its adjacent area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yongbiao

    2005-01-01

    Middle Permian palaeo-seamounts in the area of Bayan Har are generally composed of volcanic basement and carbonate cap. Basaltic lava, volcanic breecia and polymictic breccia can be identified as the main kinds of rock in the basement of palaeo-seamounts. Massive bioclastic limestone and reef framestone formed the carbonate cap of the palaeo-sea- mounts. The contact relationship between carbonate cap and volcanic basement is a kind of conformity or depositional unconformity. Study of the structure and petrology of palaeo-sea- mounts suggests that the evolution history of the palaeo-seamounts in this area can be divided into five stages at least. They are the origin of the first volcanic basement, the formation of the first carbonate cap, the breaking of the first carbonate cap by renewed volcanism, the deposition of red calcareous mudstone and the rebuilding of the second carbonate cap at last. In one of the palaeo-seamounts, volcanic activation took place even after the reconstruction of the second carbonate cap. Lots of fusulinid fossils, such as Neoschwagerina craticulifera Schwager, Schwagerina sp. and Verbeekina sp., were found both in the carbonate cap and volcanic basement, showing that the palaeo-seamounts were originated and developed within the Maokou stage of Middle Permian.

  15. Calcium and calcium isotope changes during carbon cycle perturbations at the end-Permian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, Nemanja; Zeebe, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Negative carbon and calcium isotope excursions, as well as climate shifts, took place during the most severe mass extinction event in Earth's history, the end-Permian (˜252 Ma). Investigating the connection between carbon and calcium cycles during transient carbon cycle perturbation events, such as the end-Permian, may help resolve the intricacies between the coupled calcium-carbon cycles, as well as provide a tool for constraining the causes of mass extinction. Here, we identify the deficiencies of a simplified calcium model employed in several previous studies and we demonstrate the importance of a fully coupled carbon-cycle model when investigating the dynamics of carbon and calcium cycling. Simulations with a modified version of the LOSCAR model, which includes a fully coupled carbon-calcium cycle, indicate that increased weathering rates and ocean acidification (potentially caused by Siberian Trap volcanism) are not capable of producing trends observed in the record, as previously claimed. Our model results suggest that combined effects of carbon input via Siberian Trap volcanism (12,000 Pg C), the cessation of biological carbon export, and variable calcium isotope fractionation (due to a change in the seawater carbonate ion concentration) represents a more plausible scenario. This scenario successfully reconciles δ13C and δ44Ca trends observed in the sediment record, as well as the proposed warming of >6oC.

  16. Research on Genesis of Pyrite near the Permian-Triassic Boundary in Meishan, Zhejiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yao-fa; TANG Yue-gang; CHOU Chen-lin

    2006-01-01

    The content and crystal forms of pyrite and sulfur isotope composition of pyrite sulfur as well as its vertical distribution near the Permian-Triassic (P/T) boundary in the Meishan section, Changxing county, Zhejiang province, China were studied using geological, petrological, mineralogical and geochemical methods (techniques). The result showed that the genesis of abundant pyrites in bed 24e2 at the uppermost part of the Changxing Formation in the Meishan section may be related to volcanic activity. In bed 24e2 of the Meishan section, pyrite has its highest content of 1.84% and the sulfur isotope composition has the highest δ34S value at +2.2‰ which is very similar to that of the average value of volcanic gas. There are some volcanic products such as β-quartz, siliceous cylinders and siliceous spherules which coexisted with pyrites in beds 24e2 and 24f. It can be concluded that a large quantity of volcanic ash fell into the South China Sea and was incorporated into marine sediments during the formation of limestone at the uppermost part of the Changxing Formation. The volcanic eruption with massive amounts of H2S and SO2 gas at the end of the Permian period resulted in the enrichment of H2S in the South China Sea areas. The reaction of H2S with reactive iron minerals formed the mass of abundant pyrites.

  17. Coal market outlook in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal is the major primary energy source in China. It is forecast that coal will account for over 60% of the primary energy consumption mix, and the total coal demand will reach 2.3-2.9 billion tons in 2020. However, ensuring the coal supply will be faced with a lot of obstacles in fields such as the degree of detailed exploration of coal reserves, the level of mining technology and mine safety, the production capacity building of mines, transport conditions, and ecological and environmental impacts. More comprehensive measures should be adopted, including improvements in energy efficiency, strengthening coal production and transportation capacity, to rationalise coal mine disposition and the coal production structure, and to raise the levels of coal mining technologies and mine safety management, etc. (author)

  18. Widespread inclination shallowing in Permian and Triassic paleomagnetic data from Laurentia: Support from new paleomagnetic data from Middle Permian shallow intrusions in southern Illinois (USA) and virtual geomagnetic pole distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeier, M.; Van Der Voo, R.; Denny, F.B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent paleomagnetic work has highlighted a common and shallow inclination bias in continental redbeds. The Permian and Triassic paleomagnetic records from Laurentia are almost entirely derived from such sedimentary rocks, so a pervasive inclination error will expectedly bias the apparent polar wander path of Laurentia in a significant way. The long-standing discrepancy between the apparent polar wander paths of Laurentia and Gondwana in Permian and Triassic time may be a consequence of such a widespread data-pathology. Here we present new Middle Permian paleomagnetic data from igneous rocks and a contact metamorphosed limestone from cratonic Laurentia. The exclusively reversed Middle Permian magnetization is hosted by low-Ti titanomagnetite and pyrrhotite and yields a paleomagnetic pole at 56.3??S, 302.9??E (A95=3.8, N=6). This pole, which is unaffected by inclination shallowing, suggests that a shallow inclination bias may indeed be present in the Laurentian records. To further consider this hypothesis, we conduct a virtual geomagnetic pole distribution analysis, comparing theoretical expectations of a statistical field model (TK03.GAD) against published data-sets. This exercise provides independent evidence that the Laurentian paleomagnetic data is widely biased, likely because of sedimentary inclination shallowing. We estimate the magnitude of this error from our model results and present and discuss several alternative corrections. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Measurement of the (eta c)(1S) production cross-section in proton-proton collisions via the decay (eta c)(1S) -> p(p)over-bar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Beteta, C. Abellaen; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M. -O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjornstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Perez, D. Campora; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Garcia, L. Castillo; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Cheung, S. -F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Vidal, X. Cid; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Torres, M. Cruz; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Deleage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suarez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elena, E.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. -M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Farber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R. F.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Garcia Pardinas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gavrilov, G.; Geraci, A.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Giani, S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Gobel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gaendara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Grauges, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Gruenberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hess, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J. -P.; Lefevre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrancois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.

    2015-01-01

    The production of the eta(c)(1S) state in protonproton collisions is probed via its decay to the p (p) over bar final state with the LHCb detector, in the rapidity range 2.0 6.5GeV/c. The cross-section for prompt production of eta(c)(1S) meso

  20. Acceleration of C1~C4 and AFM Observation of the Tracks of C1~C4 in CR-39

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Utilizing the 200 type intensive current cesium sputter ion source of HI-13 tandem and changing themagnetic field of the injector magnet, carbon cluster negative ions C1-~C4- were extracted for graphitepellet. Current intensities of C1-~C4- were 8.0, 7.6, 0.9 and 1.3μA, respectively. The change of charge

  1. Biodegradation and adsorption of C1- and C2-phenanthrenes and C1- and C2-dibenzothiophenes in the presence of clay minerals: effect on forensic diagnostic ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Head, Ian M; Manning, David A C

    2014-07-01

    The impact of modified montmorillonites on adsorption and biodegradation of crude oil C1-phenanthrenes, C1-dibenzothiophenes, C2-phenanthrenes and C2-dibenzothiophenes was investigated in aqueous clay/oil microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. Consequently, the effect on C1-dibenzothiophenes/C1-phenanthrenes, C2-dibenzothiophenes/C2-phenanthrenes, 2+3-methyldibenzothiophene/4-methyldibenzothiophene and 1-methyldibenzothiophene/4-methyldibenzothiophene ratios commonly used as diagnostic ratios for oil forensic studies was evaluated. The clay mineral samples were treated to produce acid activated montmorillonite, organomontmorillonite and homoionic montmorillonite which were used in this study. The different clay minerals (modified and unmodified) showed varied degrees of biodegradation and adsorption of the C1-phenanthrenes, C1-dibenzothiophenes, C2-phenanthrenes and C2-dibenzothiophenes. The study indicated that as opposed to biodegradation, adsorption has no effect on the diagnostic ratios. Among the diagnostic ratios reviewed, only C2-dibenzothiophenes/C2-phenanthrenes ratio was neither affected by adsorption nor biodegradation making this ratio very useful in forensic studies of oil spills and oil-oil correlation.

  2. Characteristics of Coal Ashes in Yanzhou Mining District and Distribution of Trace Elements in Them

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂建; 彭子成; 杨萍玥; 桂和荣; 王桂梁

    2001-01-01

    In the process of combustion of coal organic and inorganic materials in it will undergo a complex variation. Part of them will become volatiles and, together with coal smoke, enter into atmosphere, some will remain in micro-particulates such as ash and dust and find their way into atmosphere in the form of solid particles, and the rest will be retained in ash and slag. Coal ashes are the residues of organic and inorganic substances in coal left after coal combustion and the composition of coal ashes is dependent on that of minerals and organic matter in coal This paper deals with the chemical composition of coal ashes, the distribution of trace elements in them and their petrological characteristics, and also studies the relationship between the yield of coal ashes and the distribution of trace elements. In addition, a preliminary study is also under taken on the factors that affect the chemical composition of coal ashes. As viewed from the analyses of coal ash samples collected from the Yanzhou mining district, it can be seen clearly that coal ashes from the region studied are composed chiefly of crystalline materials, glassy ma terials and uncombusted organic matter and the major chemical compositions are SiO2, A12O3,Fe2O3, and CaO, as well as minor amounts of SO3, P2O5, Na2O, K2O and TiO2. During the combustion of coal, its trace elements will be redistributed and most of them are enriched in coal ashes. At the same time, the concentrations of the trace elements in flying ash are much higher than those of bottom ash, i.e. , with decreasing particle-size of coal ashes their concen trations will become higher and higher. So the contents of trace elements are negatively propor tional to the particle-size of coal ashes. There has been found a positive correlation between the trace elements Th, V, Zn, Cu and Pb and the yield of coal ashes while a negative correlation between C1 and the yield of coal ashes.

  3. Bioinformatic identification of genes encoding C1q-domain containing proteins in zebrafish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    C1q is the first subcomponent of classical pathway in the complement system and a major link between innate and acquired immunities. The globular (gC1q) domain similar with C1q was also found in many non-complement C1q-domain-containing (C1qDC) proteins which have similar crystal structure to that of the multifunctional tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family, and also have diverse functions. In this study, we identified a total of 52 independent gene sequences encoding C1q-domain-containing proteins through comprehensive searches of zebrafish genome, cDNA and EST databases. In comparison to 31 orthologous genes in human and different numbers in other species, a significant selective pressure was suggested during vertebrate evolution. Domain organization of C1q-domain-containing (C1qDC) proteins mainly includes a leading signal peptide, a collagen-like region of variable length, and a C-terminal C1q domain. There are 11 highly conserved residues within the C1q domain, among which 2 are invariant within the zebrafish gene set. A more extensive database searches also revealed homologous C1qDC proteins in other vertebrates, invertebrates and even bacterium, but no homologous sequences for encoding C1qDC proteins were found in many species that have a more recent evolutionary history with zebrafish. Therefore, further studies on C1q-domain-containing genes among different species will help us understand evolutionary mechanism of innate and acquired immunities.

  4. The importance of polarizability: comparison of models of carbon disulphide in the ionic liquids [C1C1im][NTf2] and [C4C1im][NTf2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynden-Bell, Ruth M; Quitevis, Edward L

    2016-06-28

    The local environment of CS2 and in solution in two ionic liquids ([C1C1im][NTf2] and [C4C1im][NTf2]) are investigated by atomistic simulation and compared with that in neat CS2. The intermolecular vibrational densities of states of CS2 are calculated and compared with experimental OHD-RIKES spectra. The fair agreement of the results from solutions but poor agreement of the results from neat CS2 suggest that while collective effects are unimportant in solutions, they have a major effect on the OHD-RIKES spectrum of neat CS2. Comparing polarizable and unpolarizable models for CS2 emphasizes the importance of polarizability in determining local structure. PMID:27273458

  5. Coal 99; Kol 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparre, C.

    2000-07-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1998. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1998 was 680 000 tons and somewhat lower than in 1997. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of waterpower. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. During 1998 these figures are 1 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. Steel-works, however, increase their use of steam coal in order to replace the more expensive coke. The import of metallurgical coal in 1998 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.1 mill tons of coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.4 mill tons from which 0.3 mill tons were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has ordered a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has put a fluid bed boiler for various fuels into operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm Energi, Haesselbyverket, has invested

  6. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  7. Timing of the terrestrial Permian-Triassic boundary biotic crisis:Implications from U-Pb dating of authigenic zircons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Late Permian to Early Triassic transition represents one of the most important Phanerozoic mass extinction episodes. The cause of this event is still in debate between catastrophic and gradual mechanisms. This study uses the U-Pb method on zircons from the uppermost Permian/lowermost Triassic clay deposits at Chahe (Guizhou Province, SW China) to examine time constraints for this event. The results of both this and previous studies show that the ages of Bed 68a and 68c (the upper clay bed of the terrestrial Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB)) respectively are 252.6±2.8 and 247.5±2.8 Ma. This age (within the margin of error) almost accords with the upper clay bed (Bed 28) age of Meishan and the eruption age of Tunguss Basalt, and is so far the most accurate age obtained from terrestrial PTB. The claystone of Bed 68 was formed in the earliest Triassic. The biotic crisis occurred at nearly the same time in terrestrial and marine environments during Permian-Triassic interval; however the extinction patterns and processes are different. The extinction pattern of the terrestrial plants shows a major decline at the PTB after long-term evolution, followed by a retarded extinction of the relicts in the earliest Triassic.

  8. A comparison of the Iberian and Ebro Basins during the Permian and Triassic, eastern Spain : A quantitative subsidence modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas, H.; Gaspar-Escribano, J.M.; López-Gómez, J.; Wees, J.-D. van; Cloetingh, S.; Horra, R. de la; Arche, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Permian-Triassic sediments of the Iberian Plate are a well studied case of classical Buntsandstein-Muschelkalk-Keuper facies, with good sedimentological interpretations and precise datings based on pollen and spore assemblages, ammonoids and foraminifera. Synrift-postrift cycles are recorded in

  9. Massive volcanism at the Permian-Triassic boundary and its impact on the isotopic composition of the ocean and atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korte, Christoph; Pande, P.; Kalia, P.;

    2010-01-01

    Bulk carbonate and conodonts from three Permian-Triassic (P-T) boundary sections at Guryul Ravine (Kashmir), Abadeh (central Iran) and Pufels/Bula/Bulla (Italy) were investigated for d13C and d18O. Carbon isotope data highlight environmental changes across the P-T boundary and show the following ...

  10. Production and characterization of a murine monoclonal IgM antibody to human C1q receptor (C1qR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybridoma cell line that produces a monoclonal antibody (MAb) to cell surface C1q receptor (C1qr) has been produced by fusion of the P3 x 63-Ag8.653 mouse myeloma cell line with the spleen cells of a CD-1 mouse that had been hyperimmunized with viable Raji cell suspensions (5 x 107 cells/inoculum). This MAb, designated II1/D1, is an IgM antibody with lambda-light chain specificity. Radiolabeled or unlabeled, highly purified II1/D1 was used to determine that: a) this antibody competes for C1q binding sites on C1qR-bearing cells; b) the molecule recognized by this MAb is the C1qR; and c) cells that are known to bind C1q also bind II1/D1 in a specific manner. Western blot analysis of solubilized Raji, or U937 cell membranes, showed that the 125I-MAb detected a major protein band of approximately 85000 m.w. in its unreduced state, indicating that the C1qR is similar, if not identical, in both types of cells. Analyses of 125I-II/D1 binding experiments revealed that the antibody bound to Raji cells or u937 cells in a specific manner. Uptake of the antibody was saturable, with equilibrium virtually attained within 35 min. Scatchard analysis of the binding data using the intact MAb suggests that the affinity constant K/sub D/ is 2.9 x 10-10 M, and at apparent saturation, 24.6 ng of the antibody were bound per 2 x 106 cells, giving an estimated 7.8 x 103 antibody molecules bound per cell. That the II1/D1 antibody is specifically directed to the C1q was further evidenced by an ELISA in which the ability of C1qR-bearing cells to bind the MAb was abrogated by c-C1q in a specific dose-dependent manner

  11. Cell surface expression and function of the macromolecular C1 complex on the surface of human monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga K Hosszu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of the subunits of the C1 complex (C1q, C1s, C1r, and its regulator C1 inhibitor (C1-Inh by human monocytes has been previously established. However, surface expression of these molecules by monocytes has not been shown. Using flow cytometry and antigen-capture ELISA, we show here for the first time that, in addition to C1q, PB monocytes and the monocyte-derived U937 cells express C1s and C1r, as well as Factor B and C1-Inh on their surface. C1s and C1r immunoprecipitated with C1q, suggesting that at least some of the C1q on these cells is part of the C1 complex. Furthermore, the C1 complex on U937 cells was able to trigger complement activation via the classical pathway. The presence of C1-Inh may ensure that an unwarranted autoactivation of the C1 complex does not take place. Since C1-Inh closely monitors the activation of the C1 complex in a sterile or infectious inflammatory environment, further elucidation of the role of C1 complex is crucial to dissect its function in monocyte, DC and T cell activities, and its implications in host defense and tolerance.

  12. Journal of Coal Science & Engineering(China)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Guide for Authors Journal of Coal Science & Engineering(English Edition), a comprehensive academic periodical of the China Coal Society, covers the fields of coal science and technology including coal geology, exploration,mine survey, mine project assessment, mine construction, coal mining, coal mine electrical machinery,mine safety, coal processing and utilization, coal mine environmental protection, etc. It reflects the latest research results and findings.

  13. Denver Coal Basin boundary from 1999 National Coal Resource Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representing the extent of the Denver coal basin boundary. This theme was created specifically for the National Coal...

  14. Raton Coal Basin boundary, 1999 Coal Resource Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shape file contains a polygon representing the extent of the Raton Coal Basin boundary. This theme was created specifically for the National Coal...

  15. What component of coal causes coal workers' pneumoconiosis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCunney, R.J.; Morfeld, P.; Payne, S. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Biological Engineering

    2009-04-15

    The objective was to evaluate the component of coal responsible for coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). A literature search of PubMED was conducted to address studies that have evaluated the risk of CWP based on the components of coal. The risk of CWP (CWP) depends on the concentration and duration of exposure to coal dust. Epidemiology studies have shown inverse links between CWP and quartz content. Coal from the USA and Germany has demonstrated links between iron content and CWP; these same studies indicate virtually no role for quartz. In vitro studies indicate strong mechanistic links between iron content in coal and reactive oxygen species, which play a major role in the inflammatory response associated with CWP. The active agent within coal appears to be iron, not quartz. By identifying components of coal-before mining activities, the risk of developing CWP may be reduced.

  16. Marked variability in clinical presentation and outcome of patients with C1q immunodeficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Schaarenburg, Rosanne A; Schejbel, Lone; Truedsson, Lennart;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Globally approximately 60 cases of C1q deficiency have been described with a high prevalence of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). So far treatment has been guided by the clinical presentation rather than the underlying C1q deficiency. Recently, it was shown that C1q production can be...... restored by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Current literature lacks information on disease progression and quality of life of C1q deficient persons which is of major importance to guide clinicians taking care of patients with this rare disease. METHODS: We performed an international...... survey, of clinicians treating C1q deficient patients. A high response rate of >70% of the contacted clinicians yielded information on 45 patients with C1q deficiency of which 25 are published. RESULTS: Follow-up data of 45 patients from 31 families was obtained for a median of 11 years after diagnosis...

  17. Global thermal coal trade outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood Mackenzie operates coal consulting offices in several cities around the world and is the number one consulting company in terms of global coal coverage. The company offers a unique mine-by-mine research methodology, and owns a proprietary modeling system for coal and power market forecasting. This presentation provided an overview of global thermal markets as well as recent market trends. Seaborne markets have an impact on price far greater than the volume of trade would imply. Research has also demonstrated that the global thermal coal market is divided between the Pacific and Atlantic Basins. The current status of several major coal exporting countries such as Canada, the United States, Venezuela, Colombia, Indonesia, Australia, China, South Africa, and Russia was displayed in an illustration. The presentation included several graphs indicating that the seaborne thermal coal market is highly concentrated; traditional coal flow and pricing trends shift as Asian demand growth and supply constraints lead to chronic under supply; coal prices have risen to historic highs in recent times; and, the Asian power sector demand is a major driver of future growth. The correlation between oil and gas markets to thermal coal was illustrated along with two scenarios of coal use in the United States in a carbon-constrained world. The impact of carbon legislation on coal demand from selected coal regions in the United States was also discussed. Wood Mackenzie forecasts a very strong growth in global thermal coal demand, driven largely by emerging Asian economies. tabs., figs

  18. C1-esterase inhibitor treatment: preclinical safety aspects on the potential prothrombotic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürmann, Daniel; Herzog, Eva; Raquet, Elmar; Nolte, Marc W; May, Frauke; Müller-Cohrs, Jochen; Björkqvist, Jenny; Dickneite, Gerhard; Pragst, Ingo

    2014-11-01

    Human plasma-derived C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) is an efficacious and safe treatment for hereditary angioedema. However, thrombotic events in subjects treated with C1-INH at recommended or off-label, high doses have been reported. In this study, we addressed the potential prothrombotic risk of C1-INH treatment in high doses using a non-clinical rabbit model. Following intravenous infusion of C1-INH to rabbits at doses up to 800 IU/kg, the exposure and the pharmacodynamic efficacy of C1-INH in rabbits were confirmed by activity measurements of C1-esterase, and coagulation factors XIa and XIIa, respectively. Potential prothrombotic effects were assessed following induction of venous and arterial thrombosis using in vivo models of venous and arterial stasis, complemented by various in vitro assays of coagulation markers. Administration of C1-INH at doses up to 800 IU/kg did not potentiate thrombus formation during venous stasis. In contrast, inhibition of arterial occlusion was observed upon C1-INH administration when compared with isotonic saline treatment, indicating antithrombotic rather than prothrombotic activity of high dose C1-INH treatment in vivo. This was further confirmed in vitro by decreased thrombin generation, increased activated partial thromboplastin time, clotting time and clot formation time, and inhibition of platelet aggregation. No relevant changes in fibrinolysis or in the levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes, and prothrombin fragment 1+2 were observed upon high dose C1-INH treatment. The data suggest that treatment of healthy rabbits with high doses of C1-INH could potentially inhibit coagulation and thrombus formation rather than induce a prothrombotic risk.

  19. New insight into the effects of heparinoids on complement inhibition by C1-inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppelaars, F; Damman, J; de Vrij, E L; Burgerhof, J G M; Saye, J; Daha, M R; Leuvenink, H G; Uknis, M E; Seelen, M A J

    2016-06-01

    Complement activation is of major importance in numerous pathological conditions. Therefore, targeted complement inhibition is a promising therapeutic strategy. C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) controls activation of the classical pathway (CP) and the lectin pathway (LP). However, conflicting data exist on inhibition of the alternative pathway (AP) by C1-INH. The inhibitory capacity of C1-INH for the CP is potentiated by heparin and other glycosaminoglycans, but no data exist for the LP and AP. The current study investigates the effects of C1-INH in the presence or absence of different clinically used heparinoids on the CP, LP and AP. Furthermore, the combined effects of heparinoids and C1-INH on coagulation were investigated. C1-INH, heparinoids or combinations were analysed in a dose-dependent fashion in the presence of pooled serum. Functional complement activities were measured simultaneously using the Wielisa(®) -kit. The activated partial thrombin time was determined using an automated coagulation analyser. The results showed that all three complement pathways were inhibited significantly by C1-INH or heparinoids. Next to their individual effects on complement activation, heparinoids also enhanced the inhibitory capacity of C1-INH significantly on the CP and LP. For the AP, significant potentiation of C1-INH by heparinoids was found; however, this was restricted to certain concentration ranges. At low concentrations the effect on blood coagulation by combining heparinoids with C1-INH was minimal. In conclusion, our study shows significant potentiating effects of heparinoids on the inhibition of all complement pathways by C1-INH. Therefore, their combined use is a promising and a potentially cost-effective treatment option for complement-mediated diseases. PMID:26874675

  20. C1-inhibitor polymers activate the FXII-dependent kallikrein-kinin system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elenius Madsen, Daniel; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Biltoft, Daniel;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The FXII-dependent kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) is tightly regulated by the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) C1-inhibitor (C1-inh). When regulation of the FXII-dependent KKS fails, which is the case in hereditary angioedema (HAE), patients consequently experience invalidating edema......-inh polymers in vivo. CONCLUSION: Polymerization of the C1-inh transforms the major inhibitor of the FXII-dependent KKS, into a potent activator of the very same system. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: The C1-inh polymers might play a role in the pathophysiology of HAE, but several diseases are characterized...

  1. Acquired C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency in lymphomas: prevalence, symptoms, and response to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekos, Christine; Perkmann, Thomas; Krauth, Maria; Raderer, Markus; Lechner, Klaus; Jaeger, Ulrich

    2016-09-01

    We retrospectively studied the prevalence of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1 INH) deficiency in 131 patients with various lymphomas. We determined C1 INH activity, C1 INH antigen, and C4 concentration at diagnosis and after chemotherapy. In follicular lymphoma (FL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) consecutive patients were studied. In these entities, the prevalence of C1 INH deficiency was 10.2% in DLBCL, 4.1% in CLL, and 0% in FL and Hodgkin lymphoma. In indolent lymphomas, we identified only single cases of C1 INH deficiency, predominantly in splenic marginal zone lymphomas (SMZL) (four cases). Only three patients were symptomatic while the majority (11 cases) was asymptomatic. In DLBCL patients who were successfully treated with chemotherapy, complete normalization of C1 INH activity and C4 was observed. In contrast, C1 INH deficiency remained in SMZL patients after splenectomy. We conclude that C1 INH deficiency in lymphomas is frequently asymptomatic and responsive to immunochemotherapy.

  2. Presence of commercial coal in the Taimyr coal basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Androsov, B.N.

    1980-05-01

    This article presents the results of a geologic expedition to the Far North of the USSR, where coal resources in the Taimyr Peninsula have been discovered. The surface of the basin is 80,000 square kilometers. Maps provide general information on the geological structure of the basin, location of coal deposits, and the richest seams. Geological structure of the basin, strata in which coal deposits are located, and properties of the coal are described (petrographic components, caking and coking properties, calorific value, ash content etc.). The so-called coefficient of coal content which ranges from 3% or below up to 11% is given for individual regions of the basin. The number of coal seams, their thickness and geological disturbances are described. Taimyr coals represent a full range of various ranks from gas coals to anthracite. The Taimyr coals have lower calorific value and lower nitrogen content than coals from the Donetsk basin. The majority of Taimyr coals have low ash and sulfur content. The best outlook for discovering rich seams of coking and fat coal are in the Taimyr-Ozerskii region of the basin particularly in Chernoyarskoe, Ugol'noe, Ozernoe, and Zayach'e. (13 refs.) (In Russian)

  3. Coal production, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal production in the United States in 1991 declined to a total of 996 million short tons, ending the 6-year upward trend in coal production that began in 1985. The 1991 figure is 33 million short tons below the record level of 1.029 billion short tons produced in 1990 (Table 1). Tables 2 through 33 in this report include data from mining operations that produced, prepared, and processed 10,000 or more short tons during the year. These mines yielded 993 million short tons, or 99.7 percent of the total coal production in 1991, and their summary statistics are discussed below. The majority of US coal (587 million short tons) was produced by surface mining (Table 2). Over half of all US surface mine production occurred in the Western Region, though the 60 surface mines in this area accounted for only 5 percent of the total US surface mines. The high share of production was due to the very large surface mines in Wyoming, Texas and Montana. Nearly three quarters of underground production was in the Appalachian Region, which accounted for 92 percent of underground mines. Continuous mining methods produced the most coal among those underground operations that responded. Of the 406 million short tons, 59 percent (239 million short tons) was produced by continuous mining methods, followed by longwall (29 percent, or 119 million short tons), and conventional methods (11 percent, or 46 million short tons)

  4. Coal liquefaction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-07-01

    Coal liquefaction is an emerging technology receiving great attention as a possible liquid fuel source. Currently, four general methods of converting coal to liquid fuel are under active development: direct hydrogenation; pyrolysis/hydrocarbonization; solvent extraction; and indirect liquefaction. This work is being conducted at the pilot plant stage, usually with a coal feed rate of several tons per day. Several conceptual design studies have been published recently for large (measured in tens of thousands of tons per day coal feed rate) commercial liquefaction plants, and these reports form the data base for this evaluation. Products from a liquefaction facility depend on the particular method and plant design selected, and these products range from synthetic crude oils up through the lighter hydrocarbon gases, and, in some cases, electricity. Various processes are evaluated with respect to product compositions, thermal efficiency, environmental effects, operating and maintenance requirements, and cost. Because of the large plant capacities of current conceptual designs, it is not clear as to how, and on what scale, coal liquefaction may be considered appropriate as an energy source for Integrated Community Energy Systems (CES). Development work, both currently under way and planned for the future, should help to clarify and quantify the question of applicability.

  5. China's post-coal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ye; Stern, Nicholas; Wu, Tong; Lu, Jiaqi; Green, Fergus

    2016-08-01

    Slowing GDP growth, a structural shift away from heavy industry, and more proactive policies on air pollution and clean energy have caused China's coal use to peak. It seems that economic growth has decoupled from growth in coal consumption.

  6. Low-rank coal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  7. Observation of $B^0_s\\rightarrow\\chi_{c1}\\phi$ decay and study of $B^0\\rightarrow\\chi_{c1,2}K^{*0}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Di Ruscio, F; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Holtrop, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; Mc Skelly, B; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Sirendi, M; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Van Dijk, M; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-01-01

    The first observation of the decay $B^0_s\\rightarrow\\chi_{c1}\\phi$ and a study of $B^0\\rightarrow\\chi_{c1,2}K^{*0}$ decays are presented. The analysis is performed using a dataset, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb experiment in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The following ratios of branching fractions are measured: \\begin{equation*} \\begin{array}{lll} \\dfrac{\\cal{B}(B^0_s\\rightarrow\\chi_{c1}\\phi)}{\\cal{B}(B^0_s\\rightarrow J/\\psi\\phi)} &=& (18.9 \\pm1.8\\,(stat)\\pm1.3\\,(syst)\\pm0.8\\,(\\cal{B})) \\times 10^{-2}, \\\\ \\dfrac{\\cal{B}(B^0\\rightarrow\\chi_{c1}K^{*0})}{\\cal{B}(B^0\\rightarrow J/\\psi K^{*0})} &=& (19.8 \\pm1.1\\,(stat)\\pm1.2\\,(syst)\\pm0.9\\,(\\cal{B})) \\times 10^{-2}, \\\\ \\dfrac{\\cal{B}(B^0\\rightarrow\\chi_{c2}K^{*0})}{\\cal{B}(B^0\\rightarrow\\chi_{c 1}K^{*0})} &=& (17.1 \\pm5.0\\,(stat)\\pm1.7\\,(syst)\\pm1.1\\,(\\cal{B})) \\times 10^{-2}, \\\\ \\end{array} \\end{equation*} where the third uncertainty is due to the limited knowledge o...

  8. Sequence stratigraphy, organic petrology and chemistry applied to the upper and lower coal seams in the Candiota Coalfield, Parana Basin, RS, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, J.S. de; Kalkreuth, W. [Instituto de Geociencias, UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2010-12-01

    The Permian age coal seams in the Candiota Coalfield represent the largest coal deposit of the country. Currently two seams are mined, called ''Camada Candiota Superior'' and ''Camada Candiota Inferior''. The other coal seams of the coalfield, seams S1-S9 (upper seams) and I1-I5 (lower seams) have as yet not been exploited. The objective of this paper is to perform a detailed sequence stratigraphic, petrologic and chemical study of the upper and lower coal seams, thereby generating data for assisting in the development and better use of the coal-bearing interval. The methodology includes application of the concepts of sequence stratigraphy, which includes the lithological interpretation of the core to establish the depositional environments and genetic correlation between facies associations to define parasequences and bounding surfaces; coal petrology (analysis of the reflectance of vitrinite, determination of the petrographic composition of the coals by maceral analyses), and chemical analyses such as sulphur determination, proximate analyses (ash, moisture, volatile matter, and fixed carbon), and elemental analyses. Three main depositional systems were so far identified: alluvial fan, fluvial system, lagoonal estuary system. This study shows that coal development was controlled by accommodation/accumulation rates, with coal seams with greater thickness and lateral continuity being formed within the transgressive systems tract (lagoonal depositional system) of parasequence 2 (PS2), indicating that the accumulation rates of the peat and distribution of the coal seams were controlled by stratigraphic setting. Vitrinite reflectances for the upper and lower coal seams are indicative of subbituminous rank (Rrandom = 0.36-0.47%), with evidence that anomalously low reflectance values are related to high mineral-matter contents. Maceral composition is highly variable, with some coal seams being extremely rich in inertinite (up to

  9. Coal: the dinosaur wakes up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In western countries, coal is considered as an industry of the past, but at the Earth's scale the situation is radically the opposite. Since three years, coal is the faster developing energy source, in particular thanks to China expansion and to the oil crisis which makes coal more competitive. This short paper presents the situation of coal mining in China: projects, working conditions and environmental impact. (J.S.)

  10. Coal analysis by nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low energy gamma ray transmission measurements on coal samples from 17 different coal mines in India gave ash contents varying from 13.5 per cent to 42.5 per cent. This variation is due to varying contents of mineral oxides and silicates present in coal. The measured value of ash contents in coal samples of different origin shows good agreement when compared, with the values obtained by chemical method. (author). 10 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  11. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  12. Definition of rehabilitation strategies for pre-strip tertiary spoil at coal mines in central Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the open-cut coal mines of central Queensland, the conventional dragline removal of overburden results in a spoil surface dominated by Permian sediments. In recent years, however, a number of mines have changed their coal exposure methods to include a pre-stripping operation to create a bench for the dragline up to 50 m below the surface. This approach has allowed economic coal recovery from greater depths, but, since this pre-strip material is being deposited on existing spoil piles, it has resulted in a major change in the type of spoil material on the surface. The aims of this project were, firstly, to define the characteristics of this pre-strip material that could cause problems for the establishment and growth of both introduced pasture grasses and native tree species, and secondly, to explore possible spoil amendments which could ameliorate some or all of these limitations. Analyses on the range of spoils included pH, EC and sodicity. Straw mulch also reduced the crust strength and was an effective means of improving vegetative establishment. A complementary field trial was established at Saraji mine in April 1991, and after 4 months, treatments which involved a 30 cm capping of soil on the spoil resulted in the highest densities of tree seedling

  13. Numerical simulation of dewatering thick unconsolidated aquifers for safety of underground coal mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HANG Yuan; ZHANG Gai-ling; YANG Guo-yong

    2009-01-01

    With an increase of mining the upper limits under unconsolidated aquifers, dewatering of the bottom aquifer of the Quaternary system has become a major method to avoid water and sand inrushes. In the 8th District of the Taiping Coal Mine in south-western Shandong province, the bottom aquifer of the Quaternary system is moderate to excellent in water-yielding capacity. The base rock above the coal seam is very thin in the concealed coal field of the Carboniferous and Permian systems. Therefore, a comprehensive dewatering plan from both the ground surface and the panel was proposed to lower the groundwater level in order to ensure mining safety. According to the hydrogeologic conditions of the 8th District, we established a numerical model so that we could simulate the groundwater flow in the dewatering process. We obtained the simulation parameters from previous data using backward modeling, such as the average coefficient of permeability of 12 m/d and the elastic storage coefficient of 0.002. From the same model, we predicted the movement of groundwater and water level variables and obtained the visible effect of the dewatering project. Despite the overburden failure during mining, no water and/or sand inrush occurred because the groundwater level in the bottom aquifer was lowered to a safe water level.

  14. Tetracyclic diterpenoid hydrocarbons in some Australian coals, sediments and crude oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Rohinton A.; Alexander, Robert; Kagi, Robert Ian; Knox, John

    1985-10-01

    Tetracyclic diterpenoid hydrocarbons (diterpanes) based on the ent-beyerane, phyllocladane and ent-kaurane skeletons have been identified in the hydrocarbon extracts of some Australian coals, sediments and crude oils. Structures were assigned to the geological diterpanes by comparison with synthetically prepared reference compounds. Studies of a sample suite consisting of low-rank coals and sediments indicate that the ratios of C-16 epimers of phyllocladane and ent-kaurane are maturity dependent, and that the relative proportion of the thermodynamically preferred 16β (H)-compounds increases with increasing thermal maturity. Thermodynamic equilibrium for the interconversion reactions is attained in sediments before the onset of crude oil generation. The most likely natural product precursors for the tetracyclic diterpanes are considered to be the tetracyclic diterpene hydrocarbons which occur widely in the leaf resins of conifers. Tetracyclic diterpanes have been identified in sediments and coals of Permian age or younger, suggesting that these compounds are markers for both modern and extinct families of conifers. In particular, phyllocladane is proposed as a marker for the Podocarpaceae family of conifers.

  15. The C1q family of proteins: insights into the emerging non-traditional functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhane eGhebrehiwet

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Research conducted over the past 20 years have helped us unravel not only the hidden structural and functional subtleties of human C1q, but also has catapulted the molecule from a mere recognition unit of the classical pathway to a well-recognized molecular sensor of damage modified self or non-self antigens. Thus, C1q is involved in a rapidly expanding list of pathological disorders—including autoimmunity, trophoblast migration, preeclampsia and cancer. The results of two recent reports are provided to underscore the critical role C1q plays in health and disease. First is the observation by Singh and colleagues showing that pregnant C1q-/- mice recapitulate the key features of human preeclampsia that correlate with increased fetal death. Treatment of the C1q-/- mice with pravastatin restored trophoblast invasiveness, placental blood flow, and angiogenic balance and, thus, prevented the onset of preeclampsia. Second is the report by Hong et al., which showed that C1q can induce apoptosis of prostate cancer cells by activating the tumor suppressor molecule WW-domain containing oxydoreductase (WWOX or WOX1 and destabilizing cell adhesion. Downregulation of C1q on the other hand enhanced prostate hyperplasia and cancer formation due to failure of WOX1 activation. Recent evidence also shows that C1q belongs to a family of structurally and functionally related TNFα-like family of proteins that may have arisen from a common ancestral gene. Therefore C1q not only shares the diverse functions with the TNF family of proteins, but also explains why C1q has retained some of its ancestral cytokine-like activities. This review is intended to highlight some of the structural and functional aspects of C1q by underscoring the growing list of its non-traditional functions.

  16. Pyrolysis of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Suresh P.; Bair, Wilford G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

  17. TEKO returns to coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak government will not grant state long-term credit guarantee sized about 1 billion Slovak crowns, which Geoterm, a.s., Kosice company would like to get from World bank. Loan should be used as for construction of geothermal source in village Durkov near Kosice, which would be connected in Kosice thermal plant TEKO, a.s. Geothermal sources capacity after realization of planned investments should reach half of present output of plant. The nearest TEKO investments should head to changes in plant production process. Plant wants to redirect in heat and thermal energy production from existing dominant gas consumption to black coal incineration. Black coal incineration is more advantageous than natural gas exploitation in spite of ecologic loads. TEKO also will lower gas consumption for at least 30 per cent and rise up present black coal consumption almost twice

  18. The new deal of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While coal appears as an inescapable resource to answer the energy needs of the 21. century, its highly CO2 emitting combustion represents a major risk with respect to the requirements of the fight against climate change. In the first part of this book, the basic aspects of energy markets are explained and in particular the role that coal is going to play in the world's energy supplies. In the second part, the new coal usages are presented, which, combined with CO2 capture and sequestration techniques, should allow to conciliate a massive use of coal and the respect of environmental constraints. This book is based on the works presented in February 2008 by the French institute of petroleum (IFP) about the new outlets of coal and the risks for climate change. Content: 1 - coal, energy of the 21. century: abundant and well distributed reserves; growing up world production; exponential world demand; international trade: still limited but in full expansion; 2 - Technologies for a CO2-free coal: CO2 capture and sequestration technologies; towards poly-generation; production of coal-derived liquid fuels; 3 - Appendices: coals formation; coal in China: status and perspectives; coal in the USA: status and perspectives; coal in India: status and perspectives; COACH: an ambitious European project; CBM - E-CBM, status and perspectives. (J.S.)

  19. Microscopic coal research in Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hacquebard, P.A.

    1955-01-01

    Since the industrial developments of Europe and North America in the nineteenth century, coal has been considered as the most important mineral wealth a country could possess. Coal was often referred to as King Coal, and it was not until around 1950 that its position as the major fuel for modern soc

  20. Coal type and burnout performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester, E.; Cloke, M. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    1999-07-01

    A variety of coals underwent refire tests in a drop tube furnace. Characteristics of the coal fractions, the pyrolysed char fractions and the refired char fractions were compared to determine links between coal composition, intermediate char products and burnout. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  1. Competitive edge of western coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper expresses views on the competitive advantages of one of the nation's most remarkable energy resources--Western coal. It covers utilization of Western coal, and its advantages. The Arkansas Power and Light Company and its demand for coal are also covered

  2. Wanted: Clean Coal Burning Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China is intent on developing clean coal burning technology, an objective it can achieve through installing desulfurization facilities at coal-burning power plants that will control SO2 emissions and environmental pollution. According to kuo Yi, deputy director general of the Department of Science and Technology of the State Environmental Protection Agency, China is a major coal-buming country:

  3. Measuring Apparatus for Coal Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The measuring apparatus for coal powder, equipped with radioactive source, is a set of device andcan be used to measure the density in the pipes and cumulative consumed amount of coal powder in apower plant, and to examine and display the status of the coal powder input system. It is sketched asFig. 1.

  4. Chemistry of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Further progress has been made in the investigation into uses of residues from hydrogenation of coal in plastic mixtures. Filter residues of oil and rat filtration are suitable as filler for sound barrier plates with particularly good sound attenuation qualities. Success was also achieved in processing coal extracts and coal converted to anthracene oil mixed with commercial plastics into strong sealing material foil. In order to manufacture needle coke of high quality from filtered hard coal tar, a continuous plant was set to work, which can convert about 20 kg/hour of tar filtrate into coke. The calcination of the coke and further processing into experimental electrodes follow. The distillate oils occurring during coking of tar can be converted into isotropic coke after treatment by coking to produce secondary tar. These types of coke can be processed into graphite bodies without binding material, and are suitable for cladding material for nuclear reactors. Experiments for the development of new systems based on waterglass polyisocyanate were successful. They are suitable for solidifying rock in fault zones underground and for sealing against running water. Also single component systems on the basis of polyurethane prepolymers were developed to seal against the ingress of water and to solidify wet rock strata. By using special highly reactive polyoils, polyurethane systems could be formulated, which permit the solidifaction of very loose and wet rock strata. They have good mechanical properties and excellent adhesion to rock and coal. The glue cartridge (KK cartridge) developed from extruded coal-plastic material has continued to prove successful underground. A new resin material was developed for the adhesion anchor on the basis of polyurethane prepolymer.

  5. Natural radioactivity in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a compilation of information from open literature on the occurrence of natural radioactive nuclides in coal. Special attention is given to the distribution of these nuclides on the different streams leaving coal-fired plants in relation to combustion technology and flue-gas cleaning. Different calculations of resulting doses to orifical group as well as collective dose commitment are compiled. The conclusion to be made is that coal in general contains less natural activity than ordinary soil and rock. The doses caused by modern plants are indeed very small and it is possible that the use of coal results in a certain, though insignificant, reduction of doses, calculated as collective dose commitment through the Suess-effect. Combustion of coal releases CO2 free of carbon-14 into the atmosphere, which results in a somewhat lower activity of carbon-14 in living organisms. People, who live in the vicinity of a large coalfired plant and eat locally produced food, could get a dose of about 10-6 Sv/year, due to the occurence of antural radioactive nuclides in coals. This is approximately the same dose that is caused by some hours exposure to a typical concentration of radon daughters in the air in Swedish homes. Estimates of this kind are very inaccurate. In the literatur values have been found from 10-7 to above 10-4 Sv/year, depending on the assumptions made by the various authors. The radiation in dwellings, today, in Sweden have been estimated to give 7 times 10-3 Sv per year and person. The conclusion to be made from this literature review, is that modern coaltechnology will only give a neglible increase in doses. This is in accordance with conclusion made in recent years. (author)

  6. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    OpenAIRE

    McCollum, David L.

    2007-01-01

    After years of relatively slow growth, coal is undergoing a renaissance. Some 140 coal power plants are planned, and the Energy Information Administration (EIA) projects that the U.S. will consume almost 1,800 million tons of coal in 2030, up from about 1,150 million tons this year. In addition, while EIA’s estimates do not take coal-to-hydrogen production into consideration, several recent studies suggest that if the hydrogen economy ever comes to fruition coal could be a feedstock of choice...

  7. Fluorine in Asturian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Tarazona, M.R.; Suarez-Fernandez, G.P.; Cardin, J.M. (Instituto Nacional del Carbon, Oviedo (Spain))

    1994-07-01

    Concentrations of fluorine in Asturian bituminous coals and anthracites have been determined. Fluorine analysis has been carried out by comparing oxygen bomb combustion and pyrohydrolysis methods. Pyrohydrolysis revealed higher values in samples whose ash contents were greater than 25 wt%, which in turn was related to fluorine contents higher than 100 ppm. Good correlation between fluorine and ash content suggests that fluorine is present in these coals in mineral species, and is not probably associated with organic matter. The association of fluorine with phosphorus is also discussed. An excess of fluorine concentration versus phosphorus, corresponding to fluorapatite, has been found. 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Genetic analysis of complement C1s deficiency associated with systemic lupus erythematosus highlights alternative splicing of normal C1s gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armano, MT; Ferriani, VP; Florido, MP;

    2008-01-01

    ' fibroblasts when analyzed by confocal microscopy. We show that all four siblings are homozygous for a mutation at position 938 in exon 6 of the C1s cDNA that creates a premature stop codon. Our investigations led us to reveal the presence of previously uncharacterized splice variants of C1s mRNA transcripts...... in normal human cells. These variants are derived from the skipping of exon 3 and from the use of an alternative 3' splice site within intron 1 which increases the size of exon 2 by 87 nucleotides....

  9. Homozygosity for a novel mutation in the C1q C chain gene in a Turkish family with hereditary C1q deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulez, N; Genel, F; Atlihan, F;

    2010-01-01

    Hereditary complete deficiency of complement component C1q is associated with a high prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus and increased susceptibility to severe recurrent infections. An 11-year-old girl was screened for immunodeficiency due to a history of recurrent meningitis and pneumonia....... Immunologic studies revealed absence of classic pathway hemolytic activity and undetectable levels of Clq. Exon-specific amplification of genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction followed by direct sequence analysis revealed a novel homozygous missense mutation at codon 48 in the C1q C gene causing a glycine...

  10. Investigation of deep permeable strata in the permian basin for future geothermal energy reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.; Swift, Douglas B.

    1999-09-23

    This project will investigate a previously unidentified geothermal energy resource, opening broad new frontiers to geothermal development. Data collected by industry during oil and gas development demonstrate deep permeable strata with temperatures {ge} 150 C, within the optimum window for binary power plant operation. The project will delineate Deep Permeable Strata Geothermal Energy (DPSGE) assets in the Permian Basin of western Texas and southeastern New Mexico. Presently, geothermal electrical power generation is limited to proximity to shallow, high-temperature igneous heat sources. This geographically restricts geothermal development. Delineation of a new, less geographically constrained geothermal energy source will stimulate geothermal development, increasing available clean, renewable world energy reserves. This proposal will stimulate geothermal reservoir exploration by identifying untapped and unrealized reservoirs of geothermal energy. DPSGE is present in many regions of the United States not presently considered as geothermally prospective. Development of this new energy source will promote geothermal use throughout the nation.

  11. Response of Late Carboniferous and Early Permian Plant Communities to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimichele, William A.; Pfefferkorn, Hermann W.; Gastaldo, Robert A.

    Late Carboniferous and Early Permian strata record the transition from a cold interval in Earth history, characterized by the repeated periods of glaciation and deglaciation of the southern pole, to a warm-climate interval. Consequently, this time period is the best available analogue to the Recent in which to study patterns of vegetational response, both to glacial-interglacial oscillation and to the appearance of warm climate. Carboniferous wetland ecosystems were dominated by spore-producing plants and early gymnospermous seed plants. Global climate changes, largely drying, forced vegetational changes, resulting in a change to a seed plant-dominated world, beginning first at high latitudes during the Carboniferous, reaching the tropics near the Permo-Carboniferous boundary. For most of this time plant assemblages were very conservative in their composition. Change in the dominant vegetation was generally a rapid process, which suggests that environmental thresholds were crossed, and involved little mixing of elements from the wet and dry floras.

  12. Nystroemiaceae, a new family of Permian gymnosperms from China with an unusual combination of features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Pfefferkorn, Hermann W.

    2010-01-01

    Nystroemiaceae is proposed as a new family of gymnosperms from the Permian of Cathaysia that adds to the diversity of gymnosperms known from this critical time in seed plant evolution. This family is characterized by bifurcating and highly branched pinnate ovuliferous organs bearing bicornute ovules (seeds) and entire leaves with anastomozing veins that are born on complex and modern-looking branching systems with clear axillary branching. The reconstruction is based on numerous large specimens from two localities in North China, in which the different plant parts are attached to each other. The ovulate structures show some apparently plesiomorphic (primitive) character states more typical of early seed plants, whereas the leaves and branches show the clearly apomorphic (derived) character states of broad-leaved gymnosperms. PMID:19656793

  13. Response of Late Carboniferous and Early Permian plant communities to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiMichele, W.A.; Pfefferkorn, H.W.; Gastaldo, R.A. [Smithsonian Institute, Washington, DC (USA). National Museum of National History

    2001-07-01

    Late Carboniferous and Early Permian strata record the transition from a cold interval in Earth history, characterized by the repeated periods of glaciation and deglaciation of the southern pole, to a warm-climate interval. Consequently, this time period is the best available analogue to the Recent in which to study patterns of vegetational response, both to glacial-interglacial oscillation and to the appearance of warm climate. Carboniferous wetland ecosystems were dominated by spore-producing plants and early gymnospermous seed plants. Global climate changes, largely drying, forced vegetational changes, resulting in a change to a seed plant-dominated world, beginning first at high latitudes during the Carboniferous, reaching the tropics near the Permo-Carboniferous boundary. For most of this time plant assemblages were very conservative in their composition. Change in the dominant vegetation was generally a rapid process, which suggests that environmental thresholds were crossed, and involved little mixing of elements from the wet and dry floras.

  14. Sedimentary environments of organic matter from Middle Permian source rocks in northern Xinjiang,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Jianyu; KOU Hansheng; ZHOU Lifa; HAN Zhongyuan

    2006-01-01

    A systematic analysis of the inorganic and organic geochemistry of Middle Permian source rocks comprising carbonate rocks and mudstones was carried out, with samples collected from the outcrop and bore of the Junggar, Turpan and Ili basins in northern Xinjiang. This study confirmed that sedimentary parameters for an ancient water body, such as inorganic geochemistry and paleosalinity, have a close relation to the organic matter of source rocks. It is also disclosed that phytane predominance in the source rocks is mainly due to a reducing environment. Biomarkers, such as gammacerane and β-carotene, in the samples reflect a specific salinity in the sedimentary environments. Sedimentary zones with a strong reducing environment are more likely to produce deposits of primary organic matter, which will be buried and preserved contemporarily. Consequently, the source rocks are generally high in organic content and better in organic type than ordinary ones, and vice versa.

  15. Restoration of marine ecosystems following the end-Permian mass extinction: pattern and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Life came closest to complete annihilation during the end-Permian mass extinction (EPME). Pattern and cause of this great dying have long been disputed. Similarly, there is also some debate on the recovery rate and pattern of marine organisms in the aftermath of the EPME. Some clades recovered rapidly, within the first 1-3 Myr of the Triassic. For instance, foraminiferal recovery began 1 Myr into the Triassic and was not much affected by Early Triassic crises. Further, some earliest Triassic body and trace fossil assemblages are also more diverse than predicted. Others, ie. Brachiopods, corals etc., however, did not rebound until the Middle Triassic. In addition, although ammonoids recovered fast, reaching a higher diversity by the Smithian than in the Late Permian, much of this Early Triassic radiation was within a single group, the Ceratitina, and their morphological disparity did not expand until the end-Spathian. Here, I like to broaden the modern ecologic network model to explore the complete trophic structure of fossilized ecosystems during the Permian-Triassic transition as a means of assessing the recovery. During the Late Permian and Early Triassic, primary producers, forming the lowest trophic level, were microbes. The middle part of the food web comprises primary and meso-consumer trophic levels, the former dominated by microorganisms such as foraminifers, the latter by opportunistic communities (i.e. disaster taxa), benthic shelly communities, and reef-builders. They were often consumed by invertebrate and vertebrate predators, the top trophic level. Fossil record from South China shows that the post-extinction ecosystems were degraded to a low level and typified by primary producers or opportunistic consumers, which are represented by widespread microbialites or high-abundance, low-diversity communities. Except for some opportunists, primary consumers, namely foraminifers, rebounded in Smithian. Trace-makers recovered in Spathian, which also saw

  16. Volcanism, Mass Extinction, and Carbon Isotope Fluctuations in the Middle Permian of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wignall, Paul B.; Sun, Yadong; Bond, David P. G.; Izon, Gareth; Newton, Robert J.; Védrine, Stéphanie; Widdowson, Mike; Ali, Jason R.; Lai, Xulong; Jiang, Haishui; Cope, Helen; Bottrell, Simon H.

    2009-05-01

    The 260-million-year-old Emeishan volcanic province of southwest China overlies and is interbedded with Middle Permian carbonates that contain a record of the Guadalupian mass extinction. Sections in the region thus provide an opportunity to directly monitor the relative timing of extinction and volcanism within the same locations. These show that the onset of volcanism was marked by both large phreatomagmatic eruptions and extinctions amongst fusulinacean foraminifers and calcareous algae. The temporal coincidence of these two phenomena supports the idea of a cause-and-effect relationship. The crisis predates the onset of a major negative carbon isotope excursion that points to subsequent severe disturbance of the ocean-atmosphere carbon cycle.

  17. Permian carbonates of Baoshan block, Western Yunnan and their paleoclimatic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jiaxin; LIANG Dingyi; WU Ming

    2004-01-01

    Recently, much attention has been paid to the climatic significance of carbonates originating in shallow water. Permian carbonates of shallow shelf origin are present in the upper part of the Dingjiazhai Formation, the upper part of the Yongde Formation, and the Shazipo Formation on the Baoshan block of Western Yunnan. Their skeleton and non-skeleton grain associations have been investigated in this study. The carbonates of the Dingjiazhai Formation indicate a Bryonoderm (bryozoans-echinoderm) association without non-skeleton grains. The carbonates of Yongde and Shazipo formations show Chloroforam (green algae-foraminifers) association with peloids. Oolites develop in the Shazipo Formation. Based on the comparisons of grain association with coeval carbonates formed in different paleolatitudes (i.e. various paleoclimatic zones), the carbonates of the Dingjiazhai Formation were thought to have been accumulated in shelf environments of warm-temperate zone, and those of the Yongde and Shazipo formations in shelf environments of warm-water.

  18. 18 CFR 1c.1 - Prohibition of natural gas market manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibition of natural gas market manipulation. 1c.1 Section 1c.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET MANIPULATION §...

  19. Anti-DNA antibodies cross-react with C1q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchin, Giovanni; Son, Myoungsun; Kim, Sun Jung; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Zhang, Jie; Diamond, Betty

    2013-08-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder that involves multiple organ systems and typically presents as a chronic inflammatory disease. Antibodies to double-stranded (ds) DNA are present in approximately 70% of patients and form nucleic acid containing immune complexes which activate dendritic cells through engagement of toll-like receptors, leading to a pro-inflammatory, pro-immunogenic milieu. In addition, anti-dsDNA antibodies deposit in kidneys to initiate glomerulonephritis. Antibodies to C1q have also been implicated in lupus nephritis and are found in 30-50% of patients. C1q is a known suppressor of immune activation and C1q deficiency is the strongest risk factor for SLE. We previously identified a subset of anti-DNA antibodies that binds the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. We now show that both mouse and human anti-DNA antibodies with this specificity bind C1q. These antibodies bind to Clq in glomeruli and exhibit decreased glomerular deposition in the absence of C1q. We propose that this subset of anti-DNA antibodies participates in lupus pathogenesis through direct targeting of C1q on glomeruli and also through removal of soluble C1q thereby limiting the ability of C1q to mediate immune homeostasis.

  20. 26 CFR 301.6104(c)-1 - Disclosure of certain information to State officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the communication from the Internal Revenue Service to the organization which informs such... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure of certain information to State officers. 301.6104(c)-1 Section 301.6104(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 26 CFR 1.412(c)(1)-2 - Shortfall method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shortfall method. 1.412(c)(1)-2 Section 1.412(c... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.412(c)(1)-2 Shortfall method. (a) In general—(1) Shortfall method. The shortfall method is a funding method that adapts a...

  2. 26 CFR 301.6323(c)-1 - Protection for commercial transactions financing agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... is any right to payment for goods sold or leased or for services rendered which is not evidenced by... financing agreements. 301.6323(c)-1 Section 301.6323(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... the tax lien filing, (2) Is in qualified property covered by the terms of a commercial...

  3. 26 CFR 1.267(c)-1 - Constructive ownership of stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Constructive ownership of stock. 1.267(c)-1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.267(c)-1 Constructive ownership of stock. (a) In general. (1) The determination of stock ownership for purposes of section 267(b) shall be...

  4. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  5. 26 CFR 1.641(c)-1 - Electing small business trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electing small business trust. 1.641(c)-1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.641(c)-1 Electing small business trust. (a) In general. An electing small business trust (ESBT) within the meaning of section...

  6. 26 CFR 40.6302(c)-1 - Use of Government depositaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in 31 CFR part 203). (2) Deposits by electronic funds transfer. For the requirement to deposit excise... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Use of Government depositaries. 40.6302(c)-1...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS § 40.6302(c)-1 Use of Government depositaries....

  7. 26 CFR 1.475(c)-1 - Definitions-dealer in securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions-dealer in securities. 1.475(c)-1 Section 1.475(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... a manner that allows recognition of unrealized gains or losses or deductions for additions to...

  8. Autoantibodies against C1q in systemic lupus erythematosus are antigen-driven

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaller, Monica; Bigler, Cornelia; Danner, Doris;

    2009-01-01

    Autoantibodies against complement C1q (anti-C1q Abs) were shown to strongly correlate with the occurrence of severe nephritis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), suggesting a potential pathogenic role by interfering with the complement cascade. To analyze the humoral immune...

  9. Depositional environment and organic geochemistry of the Upper Permian Ravenfjeld Formation source rock in East Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, F.G.; Piasecki, S.; Stemmerik, L. (Geologoical Survey of Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Telnaes, N. (Norsk Hydro Research Center, Bergen (Norway))

    1993-09-01

    The Upper Permian Ravnefjeld Formation in East Greenland is composed of shales that laterally pass into carbonate buildups and platforms of the Wegener Halvo Formation. The Ravnefjeld Formation is subdivided into five units that can be traced throughout the Upper Permian depositional basin. Two of the units are laminated and organic rich and were deposited under anoxic conditions. They are considered good to excellent source rocks for liquid hydrocarbons with initial average TOC (total organic carbon) values between 4 and 5% and HI (hydrogen index) between 300 and 400. The cumulative source rocks are separated and enclosed by three units of bioturbated siltstone with a TOC of less than 0.5% and an HI of less than 100. These siltstones were deposited under relatively oxic conditions. The organic geochemistry of the source rocks is typical for marine source rocks with some features normally associated with carbonate/evaporite environments [low Pr/Ph (pristane/phytane), low CPI (carbon preference index), distribution of tricyclic and pentacyclic terpanes]. The establishment of anoxic conditions and subsequent source rock deposition was controlled by eustatic sea level changes. The subenvironment (paleogeographic setting, influx of carbonate material, water depth, salinity) has some influence on a number of bulk parameters [TOC-HI relations, TOC-TS (total sulfur) relations] and, in particular, biomarker parameters such as Pr/Ph and terpane ratios. All the basal shales or shales in the vicinity of carbonate buildups of platforms are characterized by low Pr/Ph, high C[sub 23] tricyclic terpanes, and high C[sub 35] and C[sub 33] hopanes. 52 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Permian Triassic palynofloral transition in Chintalapudi area, Godavari Graben, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neerja Jha; M Basava Chary; Neha Aggarwal

    2012-10-01

    The entire 606 m-thick sedimentary sequence in borecore MCP-7 from Chintalapudi area, Chintalapudi sub-basin has been lithologically designated as Kamthi Formation. However, the palynological investigation revealed five distinct palynoassemblages, which essentially fall under two groups, one group (Palynoassemblage-I, II and III) having dominance of striate disaccates along with presence of some stratigraphically significant taxa, belongs to Late Permian (Raniganj) palynoflora, while the other group (Palynoassemblages IV and V) shows sharp decline in percentage of characteristic taxa of first group, i.e., striate disaccates, and consequent rise or dominance of taeniate and cingulate cavate spores, belongs to Early Triassic (Panchet) palynoflora. Palynoassemblage-I, II and III (Group I) are characterized by dominance of striate disaccates chiefly, Striatopodocarpites spp. and Faunipollenites spp. Along with presence of rare but stratigraphically significant taxa, viz., Gondisporites raniganjensis, Falcisporites nuthaliensis, Klausipollenites schaubergeri, Chordasporites sp., Striomonosaccites, ovatus, Crescentipollenites multistriatus, Verticipollenites debiles, Strotersporites crassiletus, Guttulapollenites hannonicus, G. gondwanensis, Hamiapollenites insolitus, Corisaccites alutus, Lunatisporites ovatus, Weylandites spp. and Vitreisporites pallidus. Palynoassemblage-I is distinguished by significant presence of Densipollenites spp. while Palynoassemblage-II shows significant presence of Crescentipollenites spp. and Palynoassemblage-III differs from the above two assemblages in having significant presence of Guttulapollenites hannonicus. Palynoassemblage-IV (Group II) is characterized by high percentage of taeniate disaccates chiefly Lunatisporites spp., while Palynoassemblage-V (Group II) is characterized by cingulate-cavate trilete spores chiefly, Lundbladispora spp. and Densoisporites spp. Striate disaccates show a sharp decline in these two assemblages. In

  11. Biogeochemical Records at Shangsi Section, Northeast Sichuan in China: The Permian Paleoproductivity Proxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Zhongwu; Hu Chaoyong; Yan Jiaxin; Xie Xinong

    2008-01-01

    The marine primary producers assimilate the atmospheric CO2 to form the organic carbon in surface water. The organic carbon then settles down through the water column and is removed from the oceans by final preservation in sediments in the form of petroleum or nature gases. The reconstruction of paleoproductlvity will thus improve our understanding of the biological processes in the formation of fossil energy resource and help to locate new sites for future exploration. In this study, biorelated elements P, Cd, Al, Ba, as well as redox sensitive element Mo, were analyzed in the 448 rock samples collected from Permian strata at the Shangsi (上寺) Section, Guangyuan (广元), Northeast Sichuan (四川) in China. On the basis of the Ti content, the nondetrital contents of P, Ca, and Al, denoted as Pxs, Cdxs, and Alxs, were calculated and found to coincide with the TOC content throughout the whole section, with some enrichment intervals being found in the middle part of Chihsia Formation, topmost Maokou (茅口) Formation, and Dalong (大隆) Formation. This suggests that the biorelated elements could be used as proxies for the paleoproductivity here in this section. Baxs, a paleoproductivity indicator widely used in the paleoceanography, shows insignificant correlation with TOC, Pxs, Cdxs, and Alxs, probably arising from the loss of biological barium in anoxic conditions. Compiled with the data of TOC content and Pxs Cdxs, and Alxs, three episodes of enhanced paleoproductivity were identified in Permian strata including the middle part of Chihsla Formation, topmost Maokou Formation, and Dalong Formation.

  12. Dolomitized cells within chert of the Permian Assistência Formation, Paraná Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calça, Cléber P.; Fairchild, Thomas R.; Cavalazzi, Barbara; Hachiro, Jorge; Petri, Setembrino; Huila, Manuel Fernando Gonzalez; Toma, Henrique E.; Araki, Koiti

    2016-04-01

    Dolomitic microscopic structures in the form of microspheres, "horseshoe- shaped" objects, and thin botryoidal crusts found within microfossiliferous chert within stromatolites of the Evaporite Bed (EB) of the Permian Assistência Formation, Irati Subgroup, Paraná Basin, Brazil, have been investigated by means of optical microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectrometry and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The microspheres were identified as dolomitized coccoidal cyanobacteria based on similarity in size, spheroidal and paired hemispheroidal morphologies and colonial habit to co-occurring silicified organic-walled cyanobacteria embedded within the same microfabric and rock samples. The co-occurrence of dolomite, pyrite framboids, and abundant dispersed carbonaceous material and silicified cells is consistent with a hypersaline depositional environment with abundant cyanobacterial mats and elevated Mg2 +/Ca2 + ratios and reducing conditions with active anoxic microbial processes near the water-(bio)sediment interface. The abundance of extracellular polymeric substances facilitated anoxic microbial processes (sulfate reduction), providing essential conditions for possible primary microbially induced dolomitization. In most of the dolomitized cells dolomite occurs only as an external layer; in fully dolomitized cells magnesium is richest in the outermost layer. Presumably, the dolomitization process was favored by the presence of anoxic microbial degraders and negatively charged functional groups at the surface of the cyanobacterial cells. Botryoidal dolomite rims of silica-filled fenestrae formed by a similar process and inherited the botryoidal morphology of the cell as originally lining the fenestrae. Silicification interrupted the dolomitization of the largely organic biosediment, mostly by permineralization, but locally by substitution, thereby preserving not only dolomitic microspheres, but also huge numbers of structurally

  13. Microbialite of anoxic condition from Permian-Triassic transition in Guizhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU YaSheng; JIANG HongXia; YANG Wan; FAN JiaSong

    2007-01-01

    Spherical microfossils are present in the Hindeodus parvus zone of the Lower Triassic in Ziyun, Guizhou Province. They generally range from 0.15 to 0.30 mm across, with micritic wall and filled by micro-sparry calcites, and are evenly scattered in micritic matrix. Their abundance makes the rock assigned to microbialites. The accompanied organisms include ostracods and algal mat, but no gastropods or bivalves. Presence of small (<7 μm) pyrite framboids indicates that this bed formed in anoxic conditions. In some sections, this bed is overlain and underlain by tidal-flat micritic limestone with microgastropods and small burrows. Occurrence only in deposits on reef top indicates that the microbial organism was benthic, and needed sunlight in life. The size of the microbial fossil exceeds that of any bacteria or cyanobacteria. Thus, it does not belong to these two phyla. It may belong to lower green algae, and is assigned to a new species in a new genus, Ziyunosphaeridium sinensis gen. et sp. nov. Up to now, the rocks described as microbialites from the Permian-Triassic transition include six types: (1) porous micritic limestone such as that descried from Japan by Sano and Nakashima (1997), (2) limestone with rich globular microfossils such as that described from the Nanpanjiang Basin in China by Lehrmann (1999), (3) dendroidal limestone such as that described from the vicinity of Chongqing by Kershaw et al. (1999), (4) spherical microbial limestone adapted to anoxic environments described from Ziyun, Guizhou reported in this paper, (5) limestone with cyanobacterial fossils such as that described by Wang et al. (2005), and (6) stromatolites. All these microbialites are not reefs in the proper sense, and the argument that Permian reef ecosystems extended into the Mesozoic is incorrect.

  14. Microbialite of anoxic condition from Permian-Triassic transition in Guizhou,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Spherical microfossils are present in the Hindeodus parvus zone of the Lower Triassic in Ziyun,Guizhou Province. They generally range from 0.15 to 0.30 mm across,with micritic wall and filled by micro-sparry calcites,and are evenly scattered in micritic matrix. Their abundance makes the rock as-signed to microbialites. The accompanied organisms include ostracods and algal mat,but no gastro-pods or bivalves. Presence of small (<7 μm) pyrite framboids indicates that this bed formed in anoxic conditions. In some sections,this bed is overlain and underlain by tidal-flat micritic limestone with microgastropods and small burrows. Occurrence only in deposits on reef top indicates that the micro-bial organism was benthic,and needed sunlight in life. The size of the microbial fossil exceeds that of any bacteria or cyanobacteria. Thus,it does not belong to these two phyla. It may belong to lower green algae,and is assigned to a new species in a new genus,Ziyunosphaeridium sinensis gen. et sp. nov. Up to now,the rocks described as microbialites from the Permian-Triassic transition include six types: (1) porous micritic limestone such as that descried from Japan by Sano and Nakashima (1997),(2) limestone with rich globular microfossils such as that described from the Nanpanjiang Basin in China by Lehrmann (1999),(3) dendroidal limestone such as that described from the vicinity of Chongqing by Kershaw et al. (1999),(4) spherical microbial limestone adapted to anoxic environments described from Ziyun,Guizhou reported in this paper,(5) limestone with cyanobacterial fossils such as that described by Wang et al. (2005),and (6) stromatolites. All these microbialites are not reefs in the proper sense,and the argument that Permian reef ecosystems extended into the Mesozoic is incorrect.

  15. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    For coal-fired power plants information of the moisture content in the coal is important to determine and control the dynamical behavior of the power plants. E.g. a high moisture content in the coal can result in a decreased maximum load gradient of the plant. In this paper a method for estimating...... the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...... estimator is verified on a couple of sets of measurement data, from which it is concluded that the designed estimator estimates the real coal moisture content....

  16. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, B.

    For coal-fired power plants information of the moisture content in the coal is important to determine and control the dynamical behavior of the power plants. E.g. a high moisture content in the coal can result in a decreased maximum load gradient of the plant. In this paper a method for estimating...... the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...... estimator is verified on a couple sets of measurement data, from which it is concluded that the designed estimator estimates the real coal moisture content....

  17. Crossing point temperature of coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Xuyao; Deming Wang; James A. Milke; Xiaoxing Zhong

    2011-01-01

    A further understanding of the self-heating of coal was obtained by investigating the crossing point temperature (CPT) of different ranks of coal. The tests were carried out using a self-designed experimental system for coal self-heating. 50 g (±0.01 g) of coal particles ranging from 0.18 mm to 0.38 mm in size were put into a pure copper reaction vessel attached to the center of a temperature programmed enclosure. The temperature program increased the temperature at a rate of 0.8 ℃/min. Dry air was permitted to flow into the coal reaction vessel at different rates. The surrounding temperature and the coal temperature were monitored by a temperature logger. The results indicate that CPT is affected by coal rank, moisture, sulfur,and the experimental conditions. Higher ranked coals show higher CPT values. A high moisture content causes a delay phenomenon during the self-heating of the coal. Drying at 40 ℃ decreases the effects of moisture. The reactivity of sulfur components in the coal is low under dry and low-temperature conditions.These components form a film that covers the coal surface and slightly inhibits the self-heating of the coal.The flow rate of dry air, and the heating rate of the surroundings, also affect the self-heating of the coal. The most appropriate experimental conditions for coal samples of a given weight and particle size were determined through contrastive analysis. Based on this analysis we propose that CPTs be determined under the same, or nearly the same conditions, for evaluation of the spontaneous combustion of coal.

  18. Recombinant replacement therapy for hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Dumitru; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Cicardi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema is a rare genetic condition transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized most commonly by the production of either inadequate or nonfunctioning C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH), a blood protein that regulates proteases in the complement, fibrinolytic and contact systems. Patients with hereditary angioedema suffer from episodic, unpredictable manifestations of edema affecting multiple anatomical locations, including the GI tract, facial tissue, the upper airway, oropharynx, urogenital region and/or the arms and legs. A rational approach to treatment is replacement of C1-INH protein, to normalize the levels of C1-INH activity and halt the progression of the biochemical activation processes underlying the edema formation. Ruconest is a highly purified recombinant human C1-INH. This article will focus on the results of ten clinical studies demonstrating the efficacy and safety of Ruconest(®) (Pharming Group NV, Leiden, the Netherlands), which is now approved for use in Europe, Israel and the USA. PMID:26250409

  19. Recombinant replacement therapy for hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Dumitru; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Cicardi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema is a rare genetic condition transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized most commonly by the production of either inadequate or nonfunctioning C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH), a blood protein that regulates proteases in the complement, fibrinolytic and contact systems. Patients with hereditary angioedema suffer from episodic, unpredictable manifestations of edema affecting multiple anatomical locations, including the GI tract, facial tissue, the upper airway, oropharynx, urogenital region and/or the arms and legs. A rational approach to treatment is replacement of C1-INH protein, to normalize the levels of C1-INH activity and halt the progression of the biochemical activation processes underlying the edema formation. Ruconest is a highly purified recombinant human C1-INH. This article will focus on the results of ten clinical studies demonstrating the efficacy and safety of Ruconest(®) (Pharming Group NV, Leiden, the Netherlands), which is now approved for use in Europe, Israel and the USA.

  20. Analysis of the mechanical property of mudstone/shale in paralic coal measures and its influence factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-ping MENG; Xian-ming XIAN

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical property of mudstone/shale in coal measures is a key factor of engineering mechanics that influences the development of shale gas.A rock mechanics test was performed in order to analyze the complete stress-strain mechanic characteristics and influence factors of mudstone/shale in paralic coal measures,from the Carboniferous-Permian periods in a coal field of Northern China.The relationship between the mechanical properties of mudstone/shale in coal measures,and its chemical component,water content are established,and their models are constructed.Research results show that mudstone/shale has low mechanical strength,low elastic modulus and a high Poisson's ratio.The complete stress-strain curve has apparent elastoplastic deformation characteristics,and after reaching peak strength,it exhibits obvious strain softening characteristics.The uniaxial compressive strength of mudstone/shale and its elastic modulus increases exponentially with the increase of SiO2 content,and as the ignition loss increases,the uniaxial compressive strength and elastic modulus of mudstone/shale will decrease according to the law of power function.The compressive strength of mudstone/shale and its elastic modulus will decrease with the increase of water content in mudstone/shale.

  1. NaC1型、CsC1型晶胞化学式单位数目的确定和应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王克林

    2011-01-01

    @@ NaC1型晶体(如Li、Na、K、Rb的卤化物,Mg、Ca、Sr、Ba的氧化物和硫化物及除AgI外AgX等)和CsCl型晶体(如CsC1、CsBr、CsI、TlCl、TlBr、NH4C1等)中晶胞边长(即晶胞参数a0)及阴、阳离子核间距离d等微观属性的测定,在通常实验条件下难以完成.然而NaC1型和CsCl型晶体中晶胞均呈立方体,根据晶胞的结构特点,确定其中的"分子"数目(即化学式单位数目)Z,利用晶体的密度D,从而获得a0、d等微观属性.

  2. Study on C1 in Displacement Coefficient Method%位移系数法中的C1参数研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶小萍; 李亚明; 王平山

    2009-01-01

    C1为FEMA 273/356提出的位移系数法中考虑预期的最大弹塑性位移与弹性位移比值的一个参数,并在FEMA 440中作了修正,此值与结构的延性降低系数和场地情况有关.提出了适合中国四类场地三种设计地震分组共12种情况的C1值.采用416条实际地震波作为输入,依据规范对场地的分类指标以及场地特征周期对地震波进行分类,考虑6种不同结构延性降低系数的情况,进行大样本数值分析,以FEMA 440中提出的C1的公式为基准对结果进行回归拟合,得出适合中国场地情况C1值计算公式.

  3. Self-administration of C1-inhibitor concentrate in patients with hereditary or acquired angioedema caused by C1-inhibitor deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Levi; G. Choi; C. Picavet; C.E. Hack

    2006-01-01

    Background: Administration of C1-inhibitor concentrate is effective for prophylaxis and treatment of severe angioedema attacks caused by Cl-inhibitor deficiency. The concentrate should be administered intravenously and hence needs to be administered by health care professionals, which might cause co

  4. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  5. China's coal export and inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the development of world's business and trade, coal has become a large part of the import and export goods in the international market. The total amount of coal trade has risen a lot. China is rich in coal resources. According to the estimate made by some experts, the reserve which has been explored recently could be exploited hundreds of years. China's output of raw coal has risen a lot during the past forty years. China coal industry has developed rapidly since the 1980s. It is possible for China to become a big coal export country since it has rich resources and increasing output. The paper suggests four steps which must be taken to expand coal exports in China: improve the level of management and administration of coal mines so as to raise the economic benefit; the follow-up production capacity of the present mines must be enhanced rapidly; step up construction of new large-scale mines; and China's coal washing capacity must be improved speedily since the low capacity has seriously influenced the improvement of coal quality. The paper describes the inspection bureaus and companies that have developed to perform inspection of exports in order to guarantee the quality of export coal

  6. Kinetics of coal pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seery, D.J.; Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M. (United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (USA)); Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.; Hsu, J.; Hajaligol, M.; Sarofim, A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Jenkins, R.; Mallin, J.; Espindola-Merin, B. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA)); Essenhigh, R.; Misra, M.K. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (USA))

    1989-07-01

    This report contains results of a coordinated, multi-laboratory investigation of coal devolatilization. Data is reported pertaining to the devolatilization for bituminous coals over three orders of magnitude in apparent heating rate (100 to 100,000 + {degree}C/sec), over two orders of magnitude in particle size (20 to 700 microns), final particle temperatures from 400 to 1600{degree}C, heat transfer modes ranging from convection to radiative, ambient pressure ranging from near vacuum to one atmosphere pressure. The heat transfer characteristics of the reactors are reported in detail. It is assumed the experimental results are to form the basis of a devolatilization data base. Empirical rate expressions are developed for each phase of devolatilization which, when coupled to an awareness of the heat transfer rate potential of a particular devolatilization reactor, indicate the kinetics emphasized by a particular system reactor plus coal sample. The analysis indicates the particular phase of devolatilization that will be emphasized by a particular reactor type and, thereby, the kinetic expressions appropriate to that devolatilization system. Engineering rate expressions are developed from the empirical rate expressions in the context of a fundamental understanding of coal devolatilization developed in the course of the investigation. 164 refs., 223 figs., 44 tabs.

  7. Keeping Warm Without Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Heat-pump technology offers a clean heating alternative to coal With no air conditioning or indoor heating, families in southeast Beijing’s Fangzhuang neighbor-hood still enjoy refreshing warm air all year round. The secret is in the pump technology. Heat pumps cool the homes in summer and warm them in winter just like a central air-conditioning system.

  8. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  9. Coal combustion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, C.S.

    1996-06-01

    This section describes research and development related to coal combustion being performed for the Fossil Energy Program under the direction of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The key activity involves the application of chaos theory for the diagnosis and control of fossil energy processes.

  10. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V. (GVSt), Herne (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    International the coal market in 2014 was the first time in a long time in a period of stagnation. In Germany, the coal consumption decreased even significantly, mainly due to the decrease in power generation. Here the national energy transition has now been noticable affected negative for coal use. The political guidances can expect a further significant downward movement for the future. In the present phase-out process of the German hard coal industry with still three active mines there was in 2014 no decommissioning. But the next is at the end of 2015, and the plans for the time after mining have been continued. [German] International war der Markt fuer Steinkohle 2014 erstmals seit langem wieder von einer Stagnation gekennzeichnet. In Deutschland ging der Steinkohlenverbrauch sogar deutlich zurueck, vor allem wegen des Rueckgangs in der Stromerzeugung. Hier hat sich die nationale Energiewende nun spuerbar und fuer die Steinkohlennutzung negativ ausgewirkt. Die politischen Weichenstellungen lassen fuer die Zukunft eine weitere erhebliche Abwaertsbewegung erwarten. Bei dem im Auslaufprozess befindlichen deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau mit noch drei aktiven Bergwerken gab es 2014 keine Stilllegung. Doch die naechste steht zum Jahresende 2015 an, und die Planungen fuer die Zeit nach dem Bergbau sind fortgefuehrt worden.

  11. Coal and coffee grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landais, C.

    The Sopad Nestle plant in Dieppe is the number 1 plant in France producing soluble coffee and chicory. Since 1983, it recovers and uses a production byproduct, coffee grounds as fuel, with coal, with an ignifluid boiler (hot fluidized bed), built by Fives-Cail-Babcock.

  12. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  13. Iodine-catalyzed coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, J.T.; Duffield, J.E.; Davidson, M.G. (Amoco Oil Company, Naperville, IL (USA). Research and Development Dept.)

    Coals of two different ranks were liquefied in high yields using catalytic quantities of elemental iodine or iodine compounds. Iodine monochloride was found to be especially effective for enhancing both coal conversion and product quality. It appears that enhancement in coal conversion is due to the unique ability of iodine to catalyze radical-induced bond scission and hydrogen addition to the coal macromolecule or coal-derived free radicals. The starting iodine can be fully accounted for in the reaction products as both organic-bound and water-soluble forms. Unconverted coal and the heavy product fractions contain the majority of the organic-bound iodine. The results of iodine-catalyzed coal reactions emphasize the need for efficient hydrogen atom transfer along with bond scission to achieve high conversion and product quality. 22 refs., 12 tabs.

  14. Buckets of money for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revival of coal prices is providing record profits for Australian coal producers. As the world's largest coal exporter, any move in coal prices has significant ramifications for the Australian economy. The coal boom of the mid-1980s resulted in a massive increase in mine capacity and subsequently excess supply. This resulted in the decade between 1990 and 2000 seeing benchmark prices for coking coal in Japan plummeting to $US 39 a tonne (down from around the $US 52 mark) and a price of $US 28 for a tonne of steaming coal. Asia's financial problems, late in the decade coupled with a rapid fall in Asian steel making, also added to our coal export woes. As a result for most of the 1990s, Australia's coal sector delivered inadequate returns, was seen as over-capitalised and suffered from a profound investor indifference. But the sector is now seeing a definite turnaround in fortunes. Prices for thermal coal are on the rise and the benchmark coking coal prices to Asia have also jumped. Market analysts reported the price for contract deliveries of thermal coal in April this year were $US 34.50 ($AUD 69.35) up by $US 5.75 from the same time last year. The increased production is expected on the back of a continued rise in export demand, further improvement in prices, significant improvements in mine productivity, a weak Australian dollar and the probability of new projects and mine extensions going into operation. The improved returns have also flowed into rising valuations for listed coal miners. Over the last year, coal miners such as MIM and Gympie Gold, have delighted in share price gains of 12 per cent and 55 per cent respectively. These sort of performances are being repeated across the Australian industry

  15. Thyroid hormone transport and metabolism by OATP1C1 and consequences of genetic variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Deure, Wendy M; Hansen, Pia Skov; Peeters, Robin P;

    2008-01-01

    OATP1C1 has been characterized as a specific thyroid hormone transporter. Based on its expression in capillaries in different brain regions, OATP1C1 is thought to play a key-role in transporting thyroid hormone across the blood-brain barrier. For this reason, we studied the specificity of...... iodothyronine transport by OATP1C1 in detail by analysis of thyroid hormone uptake in OATP1C1-transfected COS1 cells. Furthermore, we examined whether OATP1C1 is rate-limiting in subsequent thyroid hormone metabolism in cells co-transfected with deiodinases. We also studied the effect of genetic variation in...... the OATP1C1 gene: polymorphisms were determined in 155 blood donors and 1192 Danish twins, and related to serum thyroid hormone levels. In vitro effects of the polymorphisms were analyzed in cells transfected with the variants. Cells transfected with OATP1C1 showed increased transport of T4 and T4...

  16. Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate inhibits the complement classical pathway by potentiating C1 inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Hua Zhou

    Full Text Available Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS has become the subject of multidisciplinary investigation as a non-traditional contaminant in the heparin therapeutic preparations that were linked to severe adverse events. In this study, it was found that OSCS inhibited complement fixation on bacteria and bacterial lysis mediated by the complement classical pathway. The inhibition of complement by OSCS is not due to interference with antibody/antigen interaction or due to consumption of C3 associated with FXII-dependent contact system activation. However, OSCS complement inhibition is dependent on C1 inhibitor (C1inh since the depletion of C1inh from either normal or FXII-deficient complement plasma prevents OSCS inhibition of complement activity. Surface plasmon resonance measurements revealed that immobilized C1inhibitor bound greater than 5-fold more C1s in the presence of OSCS than in presence of heparin. Although heparin can also inhibit complement, OSCS and OSCS contaminated heparin are more potent inhibitors of complement. Furthermore, polysulfated glycosaminoglycan (PSGAG, an anti-inflammatory veterinary medicine with a similar structure to OSCS, also inhibited complement in the plasma of dogs and farm animals. This study provides a new insight that in addition to the FXII-dependent activation of contact system, oversulfated and polysulfated chondroitin-sulfate can inhibit complement activity by potentiating the classical complement pathway regulator C1inh. This effect on C1inh may play a role in inhibiting inflammation as well as impacting bacterial clearance.

  17. Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate inhibits the complement classical pathway by potentiating C1 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhao-Hua; Rajabi, Mohsen; Chen, Trina; Karnaukhova, Elena; Kozlowski, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) has become the subject of multidisciplinary investigation as a non-traditional contaminant in the heparin therapeutic preparations that were linked to severe adverse events. In this study, it was found that OSCS inhibited complement fixation on bacteria and bacterial lysis mediated by the complement classical pathway. The inhibition of complement by OSCS is not due to interference with antibody/antigen interaction or due to consumption of C3 associated with FXII-dependent contact system activation. However, OSCS complement inhibition is dependent on C1 inhibitor (C1inh) since the depletion of C1inh from either normal or FXII-deficient complement plasma prevents OSCS inhibition of complement activity. Surface plasmon resonance measurements revealed that immobilized C1inhibitor bound greater than 5-fold more C1s in the presence of OSCS than in presence of heparin. Although heparin can also inhibit complement, OSCS and OSCS contaminated heparin are more potent inhibitors of complement. Furthermore, polysulfated glycosaminoglycan (PSGAG), an anti-inflammatory veterinary medicine with a similar structure to OSCS, also inhibited complement in the plasma of dogs and farm animals. This study provides a new insight that in addition to the FXII-dependent activation of contact system, oversulfated and polysulfated chondroitin-sulfate can inhibit complement activity by potentiating the classical complement pathway regulator C1inh. This effect on C1inh may play a role in inhibiting inflammation as well as impacting bacterial clearance. PMID:23077587

  18. Trichinella spiralis Paramyosin Binds Human Complement C1q and Inhibits Classical Complement Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Sun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichinella spiralis expresses paramyosin (Ts-Pmy as a defense mechanism. Ts-Pmy is a functional protein with binding activity to human complement C8 and C9 and thus plays a role in evading the attack of the host's immune system. In the present study, the binding activity of Ts-Pmy to human complement C1q and its ability to inhibit classical complement activation were investigated.The binding of recombinant and natural Ts-Pmy to human C1q were determined by ELISA, Far Western blotting and immunoprecipitation, respectively. Binding of recombinant Ts-Pmy (rTs-Pmy to C1q inhibited C1q binding to IgM and consequently inhibited C3 deposition. The lysis of antibody-sensitized erythrocytes (EAs elicited by the classical complement pathway was also inhibited in the presence of rTs-Pmy. In addition to inhibiting classical complement activation, rTs-Pmy also suppressed C1q binding to THP-1-derived macrophages, thereby reducing C1q-induced macrophages migration.Our results suggest that T. spiralis paramyosin plays an important role in immune evasion by interfering with complement activation through binding to C1q in addition to C8 and C9.

  19. Coal availability: issues in assessing US coal reserves and resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newcombe, R J

    1981-05-01

    There are a number of important uncertainties about the economic significance of US coal resources. These uncertainties can be categorized as affecting: the physical size and location of coal resources and reserves; the regional and local variation in coal quality; and the legal and economic availability of coal resources. A more precise understanding of coal availability is important. Richard Schmidt has suggested that consumer undertainty about reserve magnitude and availability may be exploited by producers in setting contract prices, and it has been suggested that errors in assessing the geological and legal recoverability of coal resources may affect coal prices more significantly than variability in estimates of production and distribution costs. Further, misconceptions about coal availability are more likely to cause underestimates then overestimates of future prices. The objectives of this paper are: to discuss some methods used in modeling the nation's coal reserves; and to identify some of the problems involved. The issue of coal availability is addressed in an effort to suggest the need for a systematic approach to the problem.

  20. Characterization of coal porosity for naturally tectonically stressed coals in Huaibei coal field, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoshi; Ju, Yiwen; Hou, Quanlin; Li, Zhuo; Wei, Mingming; Fan, Junjia

    2014-01-01

    The enrichment of coalbed methane (CBM) and the outburst of gas in a coal mine are closely related to the nanopore structure of coal. The evolutionary characteristics of 12 coal nanopore structures under different natural deformational mechanisms (brittle and ductile deformation) are studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption. The results indicate that there are mainly submicropores (2~5 nm) and supermicropores (coal and mesopores (10~100 nm) and micropores (5~10 nm) in brittle deformed coal. The cumulative pore volume (V) and surface area (S) in brittle deformed coal are smaller than those in ductile deformed coal which indicates more adsorption space for gas. The coal with the smaller pores exhibits a large surface area, and coal with the larger pores exhibits a large volume for a given pore volume. We also found that the relationship between S and V turns from a positive correlation to a negative correlation when S > 4 m(2)/g, with pore sizes coal. The nanopore structure (coal. PMID:25126601