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Sample records for permanganate standard solution

  1. Szilard-Chalmers Effect in Permanganate Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broda, E.

    1944-07-01

    This report was written by E. Broda at the Cavendish Laboratory (Cambridge) in January 1944 by Engelbert Broda and is about the Szilard-Chalmers effect in Permanganate Solutions. The Szilard-Chalmers effect in permanganate was studied in order to see what extent it is quantitative, or at least reproducible, in different conditions. The measurement description and results are discussed in this report. (nowak)

  2. Hot 56Mn reactions in permanganate solutions: a quasi solution state study [Paper No. NC-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedgaonkar, V.G.; Mitra, S.

    1982-01-01

    Neutron activation of aqueous solutions of transition metal and ammonium permanganates over the concentration range 1-10 -3 M has been performed. Retentions for concentrated solutions were much higher than the solid state values, and upon dilution, a limiting value of approx. 4 per cent was attained. Activation of 1-10 -1 M permanganate quasi solutions containing either alumina or a polystyrene cation exchanger allowed continuous extraction of the recoil species before their recombination. (author)

  3. Oxidative desulfurization of Cayirhan lignites by permanganate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guru, M.; Tuzun, F.N.; Murathan, A.S.; Asan, A.; Kiyak, T. [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Unless important developments record new and renewable energy sources, the role of fossil fuels as an energy resource goes on. It is possible to detect sulfur, heavy metals, and tracer elements such as arsenic and selenium by decreasing calorific value of coals. Sulfur oxides, which are the main pollutants in atmosphere, are irritative to humans and plants, and erosion occurs on buildings. Although there are high lignite reservoirs, high sulfur content limits the efficient use of them. In this research, it is aimed to convert combustible sulfur in coal to non-combustible sulfur form in the ash by oxidizing it with permanganate solution. During this research, the effect of two different parameters of potassium permanganate concentration, processing time, and mean particle size were investigated at constant room temperature and shaking rate. The conversion of combustible sulfur to non-combustible sulfur form was achieved optimally with 0.14 M potassium permanganate solution, 0.1 mm mean particle size at 16 h of treatment time, and the combustible sulfur amount was decreased by 46.37% compared to undoped conditions.

  4. Topical 5% potassium permanganate solution accelerates the healing process in chronic diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Enciso, Iván; Madrigal-Perez, Violeta M; Lara-Esqueda, Agustin; Diaz-Sanchez, Martha G; Guzman-Esquivel, Jose; Rosas-Vizcaino, Luis E; Virgen-Jimenez, Oscar O; Kleiman-Trujillo, Juleny; Lagarda-Canales, Maria R; Ceja-Espiritu, Gabriel; Rangel-Salgado, Viridiana; Lopez-Lemus, Uriel A; Delgado-Enciso, Josuel; Lara-Basulto, Agustin D; Soriano Hernández, Alejandro D

    2018-02-01

    Potassium permanganate has been reported to be an effective treatment for certain types of wounds. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of potassium permanganate in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. A single-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus that presented with a foot ulcer persisting for >3 months. The control group (n=10) was treated with the current standard treatment, which comprises of measures for reducing pressure in the ulcerated area, daily cleansing of the ulcer with potable water and antiseptic wash solution, and the application of a disinfectant solution on the entire surface area of the ulcer; while the intervention group (n=15) received the standard treatment plus 5% topical potassium permanganate solution applied once a day for 21 days. In the intervention group, 1 patient did not tolerate the treatment and was eliminated from the study on the first day. The remaining patients tolerated the interventions well. At the end of the treatment period, ulcers in the control group had decreased by 38% whereas those in the intervention group decreased by 73% (Ppermanganate is well tolerated and significantly accelerates the healing process of diabetic foot ulcers.

  5. Reduction of potassium permanganate solution by γ-irradiated sodium chloride [Paper No. RD-21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phansalkar, V.K.; Ravishankar, D.

    1982-01-01

    The dissolution of γ-irradiated sodium chloride in potassium permanganate solution results in the reduction of MnO 4 - ions. This has been inferred from spectrophotometric studies. This has been explained on the basis of interaction of colour centres with MnO 4 - ions. The extent to which MnO 4 - ions are reduced are found to vary with

  6. Chemical effects induced by dissolving γ-irradiated alkali halides in aqueous nitrate, permanganate and chromate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phansalkar, V.K.; Bapat, L.; Ravishankar, D.

    1982-01-01

    Dissolution of γ-irradiated alkali halides in aqueous solutions of sodium nitrate, potassium permanganate and potassium chromate at neutral pH induces chemical changes leading to the formation of NO 2 - in nitrate, Mn(IV) and Cr(III) species in permanganate and chromate solutions, respectively. Further, the studies on nitrate and permanganate systems show that the amount of NO 2 - and Mn(IV) formed grows by increasing the dose of γ-irradiation of the salt and the amount of irradiated salt. Moreover, the extent of chemical changes effected by irradiated chlorides has been found to be more than that of bromides. The mesh size of the irradiated salt and the presence of scavengers like I - and methanol in the system, affects the yield of NO 2 - . (author)

  7. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) as a product of potassium permanganate reaction with aqueous solutions of dimethylamine (DMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejewski, Przemysław; Nawrocki, Jacek

    2009-03-01

    The reactivity of permanganate with dimethylamine, as possible path of NDMA formation, has been investigated. The results have shown that potassium permanganate reaction with aqueous solutions of dimethylamine (DMA) leads to the formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). The contact time, the molar ratio of permanganate and DMA, pH and presence of nitrite are the key factors influencing the efficiency of NDMA formation. Significant conversion rates of DMA to NDMA were observed only for the high doses of permanganate, which were many times higher than those typically used in water treatment. This reaction however is of importance for water treatment technology, since it shows the possibility of NDMA formation as a result of oxidation of DMA. It is likely that nitrosation is the main path of the reaction. An important role of MnO2 suspension, formed as a result of permanganate reduction in NDMA formation is emphasized. Significant influence of MnO2 suspension on NDMA formation should draw our attention to the potential impact of MnO2 activated filtration beds on NDMA formation.

  8. Radiolysis of permanganate and its mixtures with bromate and nitrate ions in solution at pH 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedgaonkar, V.G.; Kulkarni, S.A.; Mahajan, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    γ-radiolysis of aqueous solutions of pure permanganate and its binary mixture with nitrite and bromate ions at pH 10 is studied as a function of concentration and dose. In pure system G(-MnO 4 - ) increases with the increase in initial concentration from 0.68 to a maximum of 25. The rise is sharp above 10 -2 M concentration which indicates the occurrence of a chain mechanism. In the presence of bromate or nitrite the G value decreases: the G(-MnO 4 - ) in 10 -3 M permanganate solution is 1.07, with 10 -1 M bromate it is 0.2 and with 10 -2 M nitrite it is 0.7. A mechanism based on the cometitive kinetics is envisaged to explain the observed results. (author)

  9. Radiolysis of nitrite, bromate and permanganate ions and their binary mixtures in aqueous solutions at pH 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedgaonkar, V.G.; Kulkarni, S.A.; Mahajan, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    #betta#-radiolysis of pure systems viz. nitrite, bromate and permanganate and their binary mixtures (MNO 4- /NO 2- , MnO 4- /BrO 3- ) in aqueous solution at pH 10 is studied as a function of dose and concentration. In pure systems the G(NO 3- ), G(Br - ) and G(-MnO 4- ) increase with increasing concentration. The first two show an identical limiting value of approximately 0.5 while the last increases from 0.68 below 10 4 M and reaches 2.5 at 10 - 2 M concentration. Presence of 10 - 1 M BrO 3- or 10 - 2 M NO 2- reduces the G(-MnO 4- ) from 1.07 for the pure 10 - 3 M permanganate solution to 0.2 and 0.7 respectively. A mechanism based on the competitive kinetics is envisaged to explain the observed results. (author)

  10. Kinetics and mechanism of permanganate oxidation of iota- and lambda-carrageenan polysaccharides as sulfated carbohydrates in acid perchlorate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Refat M; Fawzy, Ahmed; Ahmed, Gamal A; Zaafarany, Ishaq A; Asghar, Basim H; Takagi, Hideo D; Ikeda, Yasuhisa

    2011-10-18

    The kinetics of oxidation of iota- and lambda-carrageenan as sulfated carbohydrates by permanganate ion in aqueous perchlorate solutions at a constant ionic strength of 2.0 mol dm(-3) have been investigated spectrophotometrically. The pseudo-first-order plots were found to be of inverted S-shape throughout the entire courses of reactions. The initial rates were found to be relatively slow in the early stages, followed by an increase in the oxidation rates over longer time periods. The experimental observations showed first-order dependences in permanganate and fractional first-order kinetics with respect to both carrageenans concentration for both the induction and autoacceleration periods. The results obtained at various hydrogen ion concentrations showed that the oxidation processes in these redox systems are acid-catalyzed throughout the two stages of oxidation reactions. The added salts lead to the prediction that Mn(III) is the reactive species throughout the autoacceleration periods. Kinetic evidence for the formation of 1:1 intermediate complexes was revealed. The kinetic parameters have been evaluated and tentative reaction mechanisms in good agreement with the kinetic results are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The growth rates of KDP crystals in solutions with potassium permanganate additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, A. E.; Vorontsov, D. A.; Nezhdanov, A. V.; Noskova, A. N.; Portnov, V. N.

    2017-01-01

    We have found that growth of the {101} faces of a KDP (KH2PO4) crystal is suppressed, and the growth rate of the {100} faces passes through the maximum with increasing addition of KMnO4 to a solution with pH=4.7. We have concluded that the [MnH2PO4]2+ complex and MnO2 particles affect the growth kinetics. The X-ray and electronic paramagnetic resonance data show that manganese is incorporated into the crystal in the form of Mn3+ and Mn4+. The local excess of a positive charge in the area with incorporated [MnH2PO4]2+ complex can be compensated by the shift of the hydrogen atoms in the KDP structure.

  12. Modeling the absorption spectrum of the permanganate ion in vacuum and in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Hedegård, Erik Donovan

    The absorption spectrum of the MnO$_{4}$$^{-}$ ion has been a test-bed for quantum-chemical methods over the last decades. Its correct description requires highly-correlated multiconfigurational methods, which are incompatible with the inclusion of finite-temperature and solvent effects due to their high computational demands. Therefore, implicit solvent models are usually employed. Here we show that implicit solvent models are not sufficiently accurate to model the solvent shift of MnO$_{4}$$^{-}$, and we analyze the origins of their failure. We obtain the correct solvent shift for MnO$_{4}$$^{-}$ in aqueous solution by employing the polarizable embedding (PE) model combined with a range-separated complete active space short-range density functional theory method (CAS-srDFT). Finite-temperature effects are taken into account by averaging over structures obtained from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The explicit treatment of finite-temperature and solvent effects facilitates the interpretation of the bands in the low-energy region of the MnO$_{4}$$^{-}$ absorption spectrum, whose assignment has been elusive.

  13. Determination of moxifloxacin and its oxidation products with kinetic evaluation under potassium permanganate treatment in acidic solution by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubicka, Urszula; Zmudzki, Paweł; Zajdel, Paweł; Krzek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, and reproducible ultra-performance LC method for the determination of moxifloxacin (MOXI) oxidation stability under permanganate treatment in acidic conditions (pH 3.0-6.0) was developed. Besides the MOXI peak [retention time (RT) = 2.58], four additional products (RT = 0.86, 0.91, 1.42, and 1.89) were observed in all conditions tested. The oxidation process followed second-order reaction kinetics and depended upon solution acidity. The highest reaction rate constant was observed at pH 3.0, and this value decreased as the pH was increased to 6.0. The oxidation products were characterized, and their fragmentation pathways, derived from MS/MS data, were proposed. Two of these products were identified as hydroxyl derivatives of MOXI and two others as their oxidation product analogs with molecular ions of 418.4 and 416.4 m/z, respectively.

  14. A sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric determination of traces of tungsten in solution based on its inhibitory effect on the decolorization reaction of potassium permanganate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković Branka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes a rapid and sensitive method for the determination of ultra micro amounts of tungsten (VI based on its inhibitory effect on the oxidation of 4-hidroxycoumarine by potassium permanganate in the presence of hydrochloric acid. The sensitivity of the method is 20 ng/cm3. The probable relative error is -4.8-13 % for the W(VI concentration range 250 to 20 ng/cm3, respectively. Kinetic equations for the investigated process which determine the order of the reactions regarding to each reaction parameter under certain experimental conditions were proposed, and they allowed quantification of the unknown concentrations W(VI in solution. The detection and quantification limit of the method are 4.5 and 15.1 ng/cm3. The effects of certain foreign ions upon the reaction rate were determined for the assessing the selectivity of the method.

  15. Kinetics and mechanism for degradation of dichlorvos by permanganate in drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Qiang, Zhimin; Adams, Craig; Tian, Fang; Zhang, Tao

    2009-08-01

    The degradation kinetics and mechanism of dichlorvos by permanganate during drinking water treatment were investigated. The reaction of dichlorvos with permanganate was of second-order overall with negligible pH dependence and an activation energy of 29.5 kJ x mol(-1). At pH 7.0 and 25 degrees C, the rate constant was 25.2+/-0.4M(-1)s(-1). Dichlorvos was first degraded to trimethyl phosphate (TMP) and dimethyl phosphate (DMP) simultaneously which approximately accounted for or=95% with respect to phosphorus mass, respectively. Further oxidation of DMP generated a final byproduct, monomethyl phosphate (MMP). MMP was for the first time identified as a major byproduct in chemical oxidation of dichlorvos. The kinetic model based on degradation mechanism and determined reaction rate constants allowed us to predict the evolution of dichlorvos and its byproduct concentrations during permanganate pre-oxidation process at water treatment plants. These results suggest that even though the dichlorvos concentration in surface water complies with the surface water quality standards of China (50 microg L(-1)), its concentration after conventional water treatment will most probably exceed the drinking water quality standards (1 microg L(-1)). Moreover, luminescent bacteria test shows that the acute toxicity of dichlorvos solution evidently increased after permanganate oxidation.

  16. Effect of γ radiation on the solution of potassium permanganate complex with di-tert.-butyl-dibenzo-18-crown-6 in benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlyarchuk, V.V.; Zatonskij, S.V.; Mikhajlenko, I.E.; Saraeva, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    Effect of 60 Co gamma-radiation on benzene containing KMnO 4 solubilized with crown-ether is studied. Radiation was carried out at room temperature with doses up to 28 kGy at dose rate of 3.9 Gy/s. Sharp increase of diphenyl yield and absence of phenylcyclohexadiene (PCH) in radiolysis products points out interaction of permanganate-ion with predecessors of PCH formation. High yield of permanganate decomposition results from reactions with excited molecules of the solvent

  17. Two-phase titration of cerium(III) by permanganate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarev, A.I.; Lazareva, V.I.; Gerko, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a method for the two-phase titrimetric determination of cerium(III) with permanganate which does not require an expenditure of sugar and preliminary removal of chlorides and nitrates. The interaction of cerium(III) with permanganate at room temperature was studied as a function of the pH, the concentration of pyrophosphate, tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP), permanganate, and extraneous compounds, the rate of titration, and the time of stay of the solution in air before titration. The investigations were conducted according to the following methodology: water, solution of cerium(III) pyrophosphate, and TPP were introduced into an Erlenmeyer flask with a side branch near the bottom for clearer observation of the color of the chloroform phase. The authors established the given pH value, poured the water into a volume of 50 ml, and added chloroform. The result was titrated with permanganate solutions of various concentrations until a violet color appeared in the chloroform phase

  18. Thermodynamic stability of radioactivity standard solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iroulard, M.G.

    2007-04-01

    The basic requirement when preparing radioactivity standard solutions is to guarantee the concentration of a radionuclide or a radioelement, expressed in the form of activity concentration (Ac = A/m (Bq/g), with A: activity and m: mass of solution). Knowledge of the law of radioactive decay and the half-life of a radionuclide or radioelement makes it possible to determine the activity concentration at any time, and this must be confirmed subsequently by measurement. Furthermore, when radioactivity standard solutions are prepared, it is necessary to establish optimal conditions of thermodynamic stability of the standard solutions. Radioactivity standard solutions are prepared by metrology laboratories from original solutions obtained from a range of suppliers. These radioactivity standard solutions must enable preparation of liquid and/or solid radioactivity standard sources of which measurement by different methods can determine, at a given instant, the activity concentration of the radionuclide or radioelement present in the solution. There are a number of constraints associated with the preparation of such sources. Here only those that relate to the physical and chemical properties of the standard solution are considered, and therefore need to be taken into account when preparing a radioactivity standard solution. These issues are considered in this document in accordance with the following plan: - A first part devoted to the chemical properties of the solutions: - the solubilization media: ultra-pure water and acid media, - the carriers: concentration, oxidation state of the radioactive element and the carrier element. - A second part describing the methodology of the preparation, packaging and storage of standard solutions: - glass ampoules: the structure of glasses, the mechanisms of their dissolution, the sorption phenomenon at the solid-solution interface, - quartz ampoules, - cleaning and packaging: cleaning solutions, internal surface coatings and

  19. Thermodynamic stability of radioactivity standard solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iroulard, M.G

    2007-04-15

    The basic requirement when preparing radioactivity standard solutions is to guarantee the concentration of a radionuclide or a radioelement, expressed in the form of activity concentration (Ac = A/m (Bq/g), with A: activity and m: mass of solution). Knowledge of the law of radioactive decay and the half-life of a radionuclide or radioelement makes it possible to determine the activity concentration at any time, and this must be confirmed subsequently by measurement. Furthermore, when radioactivity standard solutions are prepared, it is necessary to establish optimal conditions of thermodynamic stability of the standard solutions. Radioactivity standard solutions are prepared by metrology laboratories from original solutions obtained from a range of suppliers. These radioactivity standard solutions must enable preparation of liquid and/or solid radioactivity standard sources of which measurement by different methods can determine, at a given instant, the activity concentration of the radionuclide or radioelement present in the solution. There are a number of constraints associated with the preparation of such sources. Here only those that relate to the physical and chemical properties of the standard solution are considered, and therefore need to be taken into account when preparing a radioactivity standard solution. These issues are considered in this document in accordance with the following plan: - A first part devoted to the chemical properties of the solutions: - the solubilization media: ultra-pure water and acid media, - the carriers: concentration, oxidation state of the radioactive element and the carrier element. - A second part describing the methodology of the preparation, packaging and storage of standard solutions: - glass ampoules: the structure of glasses, the mechanisms of their dissolution, the sorption phenomenon at the solid-solution interface, - quartz ampoules, - cleaning and packaging: cleaning solutions, internal surface coatings and

  20. Two-phase titration of cerium(3) by permanganate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarev, A.I.; Lazareva, V.I.; Gerko, V.V.

    1986-01-01

    Reaction of cerium (3) and permanganate was investigated at a room temperature depending on PH, concentrations of pyrophosphate, cerium (3), tetraphenylphosphonium and foreign compounds. Selective method of two-phase titration determination of cerium (3) by permanganate without using silver compounds, preliminary separation of chlorides, nitrates, was developed. The method was tested using alloys based on iron, nickel, REE, copper, cobalt (S r ≤0.008). Correctness is proved with method of standard additives

  1. Oxygen isotope effect on 55Mn nuclear magnetic shielding in permanganate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, A.R.; Lutz, O.; Mueller, M.; Nolle, A.

    1976-01-01

    By Fourier transform NMR spectroscopy the 55 Mn resonance lines of the different permanganate species 55 Mn 16 Osub(4-n) 18 Osub(n) - (n=0,1,2,3,4) have been resolved in aqueous solutions of potassium permanganate. An isotope effect on the Larmor frequency of 55 Mn of (0.599 +- 0.015)ppm to lower frequency was found for the substition of an 16 O atom by an 18 O atom in the permanganate ion. An oxygen exchange rate in the permanganate-water system is given. (orig.) [de

  2. Development of standardized radioactive 46Sc solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Hongshan; Jia Zhang; Yu Yiguang; Sun Naiyao

    1988-01-01

    A method of preparation of standardized radioactive 46 Sc solution is developed. The separation of 46 Sc, the composition of 46 Sc solution and its stability, and radioactivity measurement of 46 Sc are systematically studied. The results obtained in the study and in the applications in many laboratories have shown that our method is effective and reliable

  3. Acid-permanganate oxidation of potassium tetraphenylboron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-02-01

    Scoping experiments have been performed which show that potassium tetraphenylboron (KTPB) is rapidly oxidized by permanganate in acidic solutions at room temperature. The main Products are CO 2 , highly oxidized organic compounds related to tartaric and tartronic acids, boric acid, and potassium phosphate (when phosphoric acid is used as the source of acid). One liter of 0.6M NaMnO 4 /2.5M H 3 PO 4 solution will destroy up to 8 grams of KTPB. The residual benzene concentration has been measured to be less than the RCRA limit of 0.5 ppm. Approximately 30% of the organic material is released as CO 2 (trace CO) and 0.16% as benzene vapor. The reaction is well behaved, no foaming or spattering. Tests were performed from .15M to near 1M permanganate. The phosphoric acid concentration was maintained at a concentration at least three times that of the permanganate since an excess of acid was desired and this is the ratio that these two reagents are consumed in the oxidation

  4. Evaluating Effects from Contacting Superlig(R) 644 Resin with Sodium Permanganate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, W.J. III

    2002-01-01

    This work simulates the inadvertent transfer of 1M sodium permanganate solution into the lead cesium ion exchange column containing SuperLig(R) 644 resin. The effects of contacting 1 molar sodium permanganate with SuperLig(R) 644 are characterized using the Advanced Reactive System Screening Tool

  5. Standardization of {sup 32}P radioactive solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Caio Pinheiros; Koskinas, Marina Fallone; Almeida, Jamille da Silveira; Yamazaki, Ione M.; Dias, Mauro da Silva, E-mail: cpmarques@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The standardization of {sup 32}P radioactive solution using three different methods is presented. The disintegration rate was determined by the CIEMAT/NIST and TDCR methods in liquid scintillator systems and self-absorption extrapolation method using 4π(PC)-β system. The results obtained for the activity of the {sup 32}P solution were compared and they agree within the experimental uncertainties. (author)

  6. Thermal decomposition kinetics of strontium permanganate trihydrate, cadmium permanganate hexahydrate and calcium permanganate pentahydrate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, K.R.; Schaeffer, D.A.; Herley, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    A thermogravimetric study of the kinetics of thermal nuclei formation and growth has been carried out for the dehydration and decomposition of single crystal strontium permanganate trihydrate, cadmium permanganate hexahydrate, and calcium permanganate pentahydrate. The isothermal dehydration of strontium parmanganate trihydrate occurs in two stages between 50 and 100 0 C. The dehydration kinetics suggest that the two dehydration stages are based on a single-step nucleation process followed by a growth process without nuclei overlap. The resulting activation energies are consistent with the proposed nucleation theory. For the dehydration kinetics of cadmium permanganate hexahydrate, an overlapping nucleation growth mechanism appears to be operating between 30 and 60 0 C. The results are irreproducible for the dehydration of calcium permanganate pentahydrate at 100 0 C. The thermal decomposition studies indicate that the data of the sigmoidal, isothermal fractional decomposition vs. time curves are reproducible for whole and ground crystals of each dehydrated permanganate. All of the data plots contain an induction or slow rate period, an acceleratory and a decay period. The induction period can be shortened by irradiation with 60 Co γ-rays prior to decomposition. Activation energies obtained for all three materials for the various thermal decomposition periods are found to be similar to those published previously on other alkali and alkaline-earth permanganates. (Auth.)

  7. Beware of the Permanganate Volcano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Ellie

    1980-01-01

    Discusses hazards associated with the permanganate demonstration of volcanic eruptions. Alternate demonstrations are described, including the ammonium dichromate reaction, lava flow demonstration with baking soda and vinegar, and punk to illustrate air pollution from volcanic ash and cinders. (CS)

  8. Oxidative degradation of pentachlorophenol by permanganate for ISCO application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Roger; Chiron, Serge

    2018-03-01

    Potassium permanganate (KMnO 4 ) has been an effective technology for the in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of many organic compounds including chlorinated alkanes and alkenes, but it has rarely been applied for oxidizing aromatic organochlorines. This study confirms the ability of permanganate to oxidize an aromatic chlorinated compound, pentachlorophenol (PCP), in an efficient manner at neutral pH. The rate of the reaction between KMnO 4 and PCP was calculated and the results indicated that the reaction between PCP and permanganate is relatively fast with a second-order rate constant k″ ∼ 30 M -1  s -1 . Besides the kinetic aspect, the authors identified the main reaction by-products, and proposed a possible reaction mechanism scheme. The general pathway shows the formation of chlorinated intermediates, and ultimately, the complete mineralization to chloride, water, and CO 2 confirmed by total organic carbon and chloride measurement in solution. Flow-through column experiments, consisting of flushing a PCP-contaminated sandy or natural soil with oxidant, showed the good ability of permanganate to eliminate the pollutant. After 24 h of treatment, 77% and 56% of PCP abatement were obtained for sandy and natural soil, respectively. These findings show the high potential of permanganate for the in situ remediation of aromatic organochlorine contaminated soils.

  9. Effect of Rap1 binding on DNA distortion and potassium permanganate hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihan, Yann-Vaï; Matot, Béatrice; Pietrement, Olivier; Giraud-Panis, Marie-Josèphe; Gasparini, Sylvaine; Le Cam, Eric; Gilson, Eric; Sclavi, Bianca; Miron, Simona; Le Du, Marie-Hélène

    2013-03-01

    Repressor activator protein 1 (Rap1) is an essential factor involved in transcription and telomere stability in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Its interaction with DNA causes hypersensitivity to potassium permanganate, suggesting local DNA melting and/or distortion. In this study, various Rap1-DNA crystal forms were obtained using specifically designed crystal screens. Analysis of the DNA conformation showed that its distortion was not sufficient to explain the permanganate reactivity. However, anomalous data collected at the Mn edge using a Rap1-DNA crystal soaked in potassium permanganate solution indicated that the DNA conformation in the crystal was compatible with interaction with permanganate ions. Sequence-conservation analysis revealed that double-Myb-containing Rap1 proteins all carry a fully conserved Arg580 at a position that may favour interaction with permanganate ions, although it is not involved in the hypersensitive cytosine distortion. Permanganate reactivity assays with wild-type Rap1 and the Rap1[R580A] mutant demonstrated that Arg580 is essential for hypersensitivity. AFM experiments showed that wild-type Rap1 and the Rap1[R580A] mutant interact with DNA over 16 successive binding sites, leading to local DNA stiffening but not to accumulation of the observed local distortion. Therefore, Rap1 may cause permanganate hypersensitivity of DNA by forming a pocket between the reactive cytosine and Arg580, driving the permanganate ion towards the C5-C6 bond of the cytosine.

  10. Permanganate Fixation of Plant Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenhauer, Hilton H.

    1959-01-01

    In an evaluation of procedures explored to circumvent some of the problems of osmium tetroxide-fixation and methacrylate embedding of plant materials, excised segments of root tips of Zea mays were fixed for electron microscopy in potassium permanganate in the following treatment variations: unbuffered and veronal-acetate buffered solutions of 0.6, 2.0, and 5.0 per cent KMnO4 at pH 5.0, 6.0, 6.7, and 7.5, and temperatures of 2–4°C. and 22°C. After fixation the segments were dehydrated, embedded in epoxy resin, sectioned, and observed or photographed. The cells of the central region of the rootcap are described. The fixation procedures employing unbuffered solutions containing 2.0 to 5.0 per cent KMnO4 at a temperature of 22°C. gave particularly good preservation of cell structure and all membrane systems. Similar results were obtained using a solution containing 2.0 per cent KMnO4, buffered with veronal-acetate to pH 6.0, and a fixation time of 2 hours at 22°C. The fixation procedure utilizing veronal-acetate buffered, 0.6 per cent KMnO4 at 2–4°C. and pH 6.7 also gave relatively good preservation of most cellular constituents. However, preservation of the plasma membrane was not so good, nor was the intensity of staining so great, as that with the group of fixatives containing greater concentrations of KMnO4. The other fixation procedures did not give satisfactory preservation of fine structure. A comparison is made of cell structures as fixed in KMnO4 or OsO4. PMID:14423414

  11. 75 FR 23298 - Potassium Permanganate From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Permanganate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China. SUMMARY: The... on potassium permanganate from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  12. 75 FR 51112 - Potassium Permanganate From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Permanganate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of an expedited five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China... of the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China would be likely to lead to...

  13. Potassium permanganate for mercury vapor environmental control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuivinen, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) was evaluated for application in removing mercury vapor from exhaust air systems. The KMnO4 may be used in water solution with a liquid spray scrubber system or as a solid adsorber bed material when impregnated onto a zeolite. Air samples contaminated with as much as 112 mg/cu m of mercury were scrubbed to 0.06mg/cum with the KMnO4-impregnated zeolite (molecular sieve material). The water spray solution of permanganate was also found to be as effective as the impregnated zeolite. The KMnO4-impregnated zeolite was applied as a solid adsorber material to (1) a hardware decontamination system, (2) a model incinerator, and (3) a high vacuum chamber for ion engine testing with mercury as the propellant. A liquid scrubber system was also applied in an incinerator system. Based on the results of these experiments, it is concluded that the use of KMnO4 can be an effective method for controlling noxious mercury vapor.

  14. Status of potassium permanganate - 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for potassium permanganate will be presented. Initial Label Claim (Columnaris on catfish/HSB): 1) Human Food Safety - Complete for all fin fish (June 1999). A hazard charac...

  15. Process Development for Permanganate Addition During Oxidative Leaching of Hanford Tanks Sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Deschane, Jaquetta R.; Peterson, Reid A.; Blanchard, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Previous Bechtel National, Incorporated (BNI)-sponsored studies have targeted optimizing sodium permanganate for the selective oxidation of chromium from washed Hanford tank sludges (Rapko et al. 2004; Rapko et al. 2005). The recommendation from previous work was that contact with sodium permanganate in a minimally caustic solution, i.e., 0.1 to 0.25 M [OH-] initially, provided maximum Cr dissolution while minimizing concomitant Pu dissolution. At the request of BNI, further work on oxidative alkaline leaching was performed

  16. Oxidative degradation of Boltysh shale by alkaline potassium permanganate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pobul, I Ya; Fomina, A S

    1974-01-01

    This reaction proceeded in stages at 47 to 48/sup 0/C with a 3 percent solution of potassium permanganate in a 1 percent alkaline solution. The products were separated into groups and identified by gas-liquid chromatography. Small amounts of monocarboxylic acids were identified, with normal and branched chains, from acetic to lauric acid. Dicarboxylic acids were mainly of normal structure, or methyl substituted, from succinic to hexadecanedicarboxylic acid. No tricarboxylic acids were detected. For products of primary oxidation insoluble in acid media, a high content of C/sub 10/-C/sub 16/ acids was characteristic, and for the final degree of oxidation C/sub 11/-C/sub 18/ acids. The organic portion of shale consists of structural units, differing in mass and in stability to alkaline permanganate.

  17. Extracting silica from rice husk treated with potassium permanganate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, S.H.; Naveed, S.

    2008-01-01

    As an agro-waste material the rice husk is abundantly available is rice growing areas. In many areas rice husk after burning involves disposal problems because of higher quantities of silica present in it. Rice husk contains about 20 per cent silica, which is present in hydrated amorphous form. On thermal treatment the silica converts into crystobalite, which is a crystalline form of silica. However amorphous silica can be produced under controlled conditions ensuring high reactivity and large surface area. Leaching the rice husk with organic acids and alkalies removes the metallic impurities from its surface. How a dilute solution of potassium permanganate affects the rice husk is the subject of this research paper. The rice husk was treated with the dilute solution of potassium permanganate at room temperature and then analyzed by SEM, TGA and the ash by analytical treatment after burning under controlled temperature. The SEM results revealed that the protuberances of the rice husk were eaten away by the solution of potassium permanganate. Pyrolysis of rice husks showed that the thermal degradation of the treated rice husk was faster than the untreated rice husk where as analytical results confirmed the presence of more amorphous silica than untreated rice husk. (author)

  18. catalysed oxidation of atenolol by alkaline permanganate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Kinetics of ruthenium (III) catalyzed oxidation of atenolol by permanganate in alkaline medium at constant ionic strength of 0⋅30 mol dm3 has been studied spectrophotometrically using a rapid kinetic accessory. Reaction between permanganate and atenolol in alkaline medium exhibits 1 : 8 stoichiometry.

  19. Suicidal Ingestion of Potassium Permanganate Crystals: A Rare Encounter

    OpenAIRE

    Karthik, Ravikanti; Veerendranath, Hari Prasad Kanakapura; Wali, Siddraj; Mohan, Murali N T; Kumar, Praveen A. C.; Trimurty, Gaganam

    2014-01-01

    Potassium permanganate poisoning is not common. Although Symptoms of potassium permanganate ingestion are gastrointestinal and Complications due to ingestion of potassium permanganate include cardiovascular depression, hepatic and renal damage, upper airway obstruction, bleeding tendency and methemoglobinemia. Gastric damage due to potassium permanganate has rarely been reported previously. We are reporting a 34-year old female patient who presented to our Emergency Department after suicidal ...

  20. Cyanobacterial Treatment Options: Permanganate and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will begin with a brief overview of drinking water treatment options for cyanobacteria and their toxins. The treatment discussion will focus on the impacts of permanganate addition to suspensions of toxin-producing Microcystis aeruginosa, followed by powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition. Results will be presented that show changes in toxin concentrations, chlorophyll-a concentrations and cell membrane integrity. The EPA Small Systems Webinar Presentations allow the dissemination of the latest Agency guidance and research to a large geographically dispersed audience while minimizing taxpayer expense

  1. Characteristics of permanganate oxidation of TCE at low reagent concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, N C; Hyun, S G; Park, W W; Lee, E S; Schwartz, F W

    2009-12-01

    A controlled-release technique using potassium permanganate (KMnO4) has been recently developed as a long-term and semi-passive remediation scheme for dilute groundwater plumes of chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene. Batch experiments were performed to evaluate TCE removal efficiencies of a low concentration of permanganate (MnO4-) solution and to estimate the optimum dose of permanganate required to remove low levels of TCE from groundwater plumes without leaving intermediate organic forms. Experimental results indicated that when the molar ratio of [MnO4-]0/[TCE]0 was about 10, 95% of the TCE in the plume was removed within less than 90 min, and about 90% of the chloride in the organic forms was converted into inorganic ions, while the TCE removal rates and the chloride conversion rates were considerably lower when the [TCE]0/ [MnO4-]0 values were lower. These data suggested that the [MnO4-]0 and the [MnO4-]0/[TCE]0 values would have strong effects on the efficiency and completeness of TCE oxidation. Further detailed investigations of the effect of [MnO4-]0 and [MnO4-]0/[TCE]0 values on the removal efficiencies and completeness of the TCE oxidation are warranted for successful application of the controlled-release KMnO4 technique in practice.

  2. Oxygen isotope effect in 55Mn and 95Mo NMR spectra of the permanganate and molybdate ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckler, K.U.; Haase, A.R.; Lutz, O.; Mueller, M.; Nolle, A.

    1977-01-01

    By Fourier transform NMR spectroscopy the 55 Mn and 95 Mo resonance lines in the different permanganate and molybdate species Mn 16 Osub(4-n) 18 Osub(n) - and Mo 16 Osub(4-n) 18 Osub(n) 2- (n = 0,1,2,3,4) have been resolved in aqueous solutions of potassium permanganate and sodium molybdate. An isotopic effect on the Larmor frequency for 55 Mn of (0.59+-0.02)ppm and for 95 Mo of (0.25+-0.01)ppm to lower frequency has been found for the substitution of one 16 O atom by one 18 O atom. The relaxation rates 1/T 1 of 55 Mn in the different lines of the permanganate solution are equal within the limits of error. The oxygen exchange rate for the water-permanganate system has been evaluated. (orig.) [de

  3. Structure, morphology and electrochemical behaviour of manganese oxides prepared by controlled decomposition of permanganate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donne, S.W.; Jones, B.C. [Discipline of Chemistry, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Hollenkamp, A.F. [CSIRO Energy Technology, Box 312, Clayton South, Vic. 3169 (Australia)

    2010-01-01

    Hydrothermal decomposition of permanganate, conducted in a range of pH-controlled solutions (from strongly acidic to strongly basic), is used to prepare manganese dioxides that are well-suited for use as supercapacitor electrode materials. While permanganate is thermodynamically unstable, the kinetics of its decomposition in an aqueous environment are very slow, until the temperature is raised to {proportional_to}200 C. Although the resultant materials are relatively crystalline and have low total pore volume, their prominent meso-porosity leads to good electrochemical performance. Best behaviour is obtained for material from permanganate decomposition in 0.01 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution, for which composite electrodes (150 {mu}m thick) yield {proportional_to}150 F g{sup -1} at 5 mV s{sup -1} in a 9 M KOH electrolyte. (author)

  4. Potassium permanganate cleansing is an effective sanitary method for the reduction of bacterial bioload on raw Coriandrum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanya, Supram Hosuru; Pai, Vasudha; Bairy, Indira; Nayak, Niranjan; Gokhale, Shishir; Sathian, Brijesh

    2018-02-13

    Raw vegetables including flowers, leaves, stems, and roots are important carriers of food borne pathogens. We evaluated the bacteriological contamination of unwashed coriander leaves, and effectiveness of cleansing with 0.1% potassium permanganate solution as decontamination method. Significant bacterial contamination including pathogens like Salmonella species and Aeromonas species were isolated from unwashed coriander leaves. Decontamination with 0.1% potassium permanganate was found to be more effective than three steps wash with sterile water.

  5. Using slow-release permanganate candles to remediate PAH-contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Lindy; Sakulthaew, Chainarong; Comfort, Steve

    2012-11-30

    Surface waters impacted by urban runoff in metropolitan areas are becoming increasingly contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Slow-release oxidant candles (paraffin-KMnO(4)) are a relatively new technology being used to treat contaminated groundwater and could potentially be used to treat urban runoff. Given that these candles only release permanganate when submerged, the ephemeral nature of runoff events would influence when the permanganate is released for treating PAHs. Our objective was to determine if slow-release permanganate candles could be used to degrade and mineralize PAHs. Batch experiments quantified PAH degradation rates in the presence of the oxidant candles. Results showed most of the 16 PAHs tested were degraded within 2-4 h. Using (14)C-labled phenanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene, we demonstrated that the wax matrix of the candle initially adsorbs the PAH, but then releases the PAH back into solution as transformed, more water soluble products. While permanganate was unable to mineralize the PAHs (i.e., convert to CO(2)), we found that the permanganate-treated PAHs were much more biodegradable in soil microcosms. To test the concept of using candles to treat PAHs in multiple runoff events, we used a flow-through system where urban runoff water was pumped over a miniature candle in repetitive wet-dry, 24-h cycles. Results showed that the candle was robust in removing PAHs by repeatedly releasing permanganate and degrading the PAHs. These results provide proof-of-concept that permanganate candles could potentially provide a low-cost, low-maintenance approach to remediating PAH-contaminated water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Suicidal ingestion of potassium permanganate crystals: a rare encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Ravikanti; Veerendranath, Hari Prasad Kanakapura; Wali, Siddraj; Mohan, Murali N T; Kumar, Praveen A C; Trimurty, Gaganam

    2014-01-01

    Potassium permanganate poisoning is not common. Although Symptoms of potassium permanganate ingestion are gastrointestinal and Complications due to ingestion of potassium permanganate include cardiovascular depression, hepatic and renal damage, upper airway obstruction, bleeding tendency and methemoglobinemia. Gastric damage due to potassium permanganate has rarely been reported previously. We are reporting a 34-year old female patient who presented to our Emergency Department after suicidal ingestion of potassium permanganate crystals. After treatment, the patient was discharged home on the 8(th) day after admission. So we conclude that Emergency endoscopy has a significant role in diagnosis and management of potassium permanganate ingestion.

  7. Control of manganese dioxide particles resulting from in situ chemical oxidation using permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimi, Michelle; Ko, Saebom

    2009-02-01

    In situ chemical oxidation using permanganate is an approach to organic contaminant site remediation. Manganese dioxide particles are products of permanganate reactions. These particles have the potential to deposit in the subsurface and impact the flow-regime in/around permanganate injection, including the well screen, filter pack, and the surrounding subsurface formation. Control of these particles can allow for improved oxidant injection and transport and contact between the oxidant and contaminants of concern. The goals of this research were to determine if MnO(2) can be stabilized/controlled in an aqueous phase, and to determine the dependence of particle stabilization on groundwater characteristics. Bench-scale experiments were conducted to study the ability of four stabilization aids (sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP), Dowfax 8390, xanthan gum, and gum arabic) in maintaining particles suspended in solution under varied reaction conditions and time. Variations included particle and stabilization aid concentrations, ionic content, and pH. HMP demonstrated the most promising results, as compared to xanthan gum, gum arabic, and Dowfax 8390 based on results of spectrophotometric studies of particle behavior, particle filtration, and optical measurements of particle size and zeta potential. HMP inhibited particle settling, provided for greater particle stability, and resulted in particles of a smaller average size over the range of experimental conditions evaluated compared to results for systems that did not include HMP. Additionally, HMP did not react unfavorably with permanganate. These results indicate that the inclusion of HMP in a permanganate oxidation system improves conditions that may facilitate particle transport.

  8. Using slow-release permanganate candles to remediate PAH-contaminated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauscher, Lindy, E-mail: purplerauscher@neb.rr.com [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915 (United States); Sakulthaew, Chainarong, E-mail: chainarong@huskers.unl.edu [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915 (United States); Department of Veterinary Technology, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Comfort, Steve, E-mail: scomfort1@unl.edu [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915 (United States)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We quantified the efficacy of slow-release permanganate-paraffin candles to degrade and mineralize PAHs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 14}C-labeled PAHs were used to quantify both adsorption and transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Permanganate-treated PAHs were more biodegradable in soil microcosms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A flow-through candle system was used to quantify PAH removal in urban runoff. - Abstract: Surface waters impacted by urban runoff in metropolitan areas are becoming increasingly contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Slow-release oxidant candles (paraffin-KMnO{sub 4}) are a relatively new technology being used to treat contaminated groundwater and could potentially be used to treat urban runoff. Given that these candles only release permanganate when submerged, the ephemeral nature of runoff events would influence when the permanganate is released for treating PAHs. Our objective was to determine if slow-release permanganate candles could be used to degrade and mineralize PAHs. Batch experiments quantified PAH degradation rates in the presence of the oxidant candles. Results showed most of the 16 PAHs tested were degraded within 2-4 h. Using {sup 14}C-labled phenanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene, we demonstrated that the wax matrix of the candle initially adsorbs the PAH, but then releases the PAH back into solution as transformed, more water soluble products. While permanganate was unable to mineralize the PAHs (i.e., convert to CO{sub 2}), we found that the permanganate-treated PAHs were much more biodegradable in soil microcosms. To test the concept of using candles to treat PAHs in multiple runoff events, we used a flow-through system where urban runoff water was pumped over a miniature candle in repetitive wet-dry, 24-h cycles. Results showed that the candle was robust in removing PAHs by repeatedly releasing permanganate and degrading the PAHs. These results provide

  9. Using slow-release permanganate candles to remediate PAH-contaminated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, Lindy; Sakulthaew, Chainarong; Comfort, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We quantified the efficacy of slow-release permanganate-paraffin candles to degrade and mineralize PAHs. ► 14 C-labeled PAHs were used to quantify both adsorption and transformation. ► Permanganate-treated PAHs were more biodegradable in soil microcosms. ► A flow-through candle system was used to quantify PAH removal in urban runoff. - Abstract: Surface waters impacted by urban runoff in metropolitan areas are becoming increasingly contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Slow-release oxidant candles (paraffin–KMnO 4 ) are a relatively new technology being used to treat contaminated groundwater and could potentially be used to treat urban runoff. Given that these candles only release permanganate when submerged, the ephemeral nature of runoff events would influence when the permanganate is released for treating PAHs. Our objective was to determine if slow-release permanganate candles could be used to degrade and mineralize PAHs. Batch experiments quantified PAH degradation rates in the presence of the oxidant candles. Results showed most of the 16 PAHs tested were degraded within 2–4 h. Using 14 C-labled phenanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene, we demonstrated that the wax matrix of the candle initially adsorbs the PAH, but then releases the PAH back into solution as transformed, more water soluble products. While permanganate was unable to mineralize the PAHs (i.e., convert to CO 2 ), we found that the permanganate-treated PAHs were much more biodegradable in soil microcosms. To test the concept of using candles to treat PAHs in multiple runoff events, we used a flow-through system where urban runoff water was pumped over a miniature candle in repetitive wet–dry, 24-h cycles. Results showed that the candle was robust in removing PAHs by repeatedly releasing permanganate and degrading the PAHs. These results provide proof-of-concept that permanganate candles could potentially provide a low-cost, low-maintenance approach to

  10. Chemical effects of nuclear transformations in metal permanganates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Hun; Kim, Bong Whan

    1986-01-01

    The chemical effects resulting from the capture of the thermal neutrons by manganese in different crystalline permanganates, that is, potassium permanganate,sodium permanganate, silver permanganate, barium permanganate and ammonium permanganate, have been investigated. The distribution of radioactive manganese formed has been determined by using different absorbents and ion-exchangers, that is,manganese dioxide, alumina, Zeolite A-3, Kaolinite and Dowex-50. The distribution of radioactive manganese in various adsorbents and ion-exchangers has almost similar result for each permanganate. The affinity for radioactive manganous ion is greatest for Dewex-50. A significant increase of retention is shown through the thermal annealing and the retention depends on the first ionization potential of metal ion in permanganates. (Author)

  11. Evaluation of the kinetic oxidation of aqueous volatile organic compounds by permanganate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoodlu, M.G.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; Hartog, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The use of permanganate solutions for in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is a well-established groundwater remediation technology, particularly for targeting chlorinated ethenes. The kinetics of oxidation reactions is an important ISCO remediation design aspect that affects the efficiency and oxidant

  12. Oxidizing purification of liquid radioactive waste from organic substances and radionuclides by K permanganate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudenko, L.I.; Dzhuzha, O.V.; Khan, V.E.

    2007-01-01

    The basic opportunity of the oxidizing purification of liquid radioactive waste (LRW) with the use of a water solution of potassium permanganate for the preliminary preparation of LRW at a stage prior to the evaporating devices of the Chernobyl NPP is shown

  13. 75 FR 63856 - Potassium Permanganate From China Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... Permanganate From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review... potassium permanganate from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury... Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4183 (September 2010), entitled Potassium Permanganate from...

  14. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebnem Eren Cevik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.

  15. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.

  16. Permanganate diffusion and reaction in sedimentary rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiuyuan; Dong, Hailiang; Towne, Rachael M; Fischer, Timothy B; Schaefer, Charles E

    2014-04-01

    In situ chemical oxidation using permanganate has frequently been used to treat chlorinated solvents in fractured bedrock aquifers. However, in systems where matrix back-diffusion is an important process, the ability of the oxidant to migrate and treat target contaminants within the rock matrix will likely determine the overall effectiveness of this remedial approach. In this study, a series of diffusion experiments were performed to measure the permanganate diffusion and reaction in four different types of sedimentary rocks (dark gray mudstone, light gray mudstone, red sandstone, and tan sandstone). Results showed that, within the experimental time frame (~2 months), oxidant migration into the rock was limited to distances less than 500 μm. The observed diffusivities for permanganate into the rock matrices ranged from 5.3 × 10(-13) to 1.3 × 10(-11) cm(2)/s. These values were reasonably predicted by accounting for both the rock oxidant demand and the effective diffusivity of the rock. Various Mn minerals formed as surface coatings from reduction of permanganate coupled with oxidation of total organic carbon (TOC), and the nature of the formed Mn minerals was dependent upon the rock type. Post-treatment tracer testing showed that these Mn mineral coatings had a negligible impact on diffusion through the rock. Overall, our results showed that the extent of permanganate diffusion and reaction depended on rock properties, including porosity, mineralogy, and organic carbon. These results have important implications for our understanding of long-term organic contaminant remediation in sedimentary rocks using permanganate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigating multiple solutions in the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allanach, B.C. [DAMTP, CMS, University of Cambridge,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); George, Damien P. [DAMTP, CMS, University of Cambridge,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge,JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Nachman, Benjamin [SLAC, Stanford University,2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2014-02-07

    Recent work has shown that the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (CMSSM) can possess several distinct solutions for certain values of its parameters. The extra solutions were not previously found by public supersymmetric spectrum generators because fixed point iteration (the algorithm used by the generators) is unstable in the neighbourhood of these solutions. The existence of the additional solutions calls into question the robustness of exclusion limits derived from collider experiments and cosmological observations upon the CMSSM, because limits were only placed on one of the solutions. Here, we map the CMSSM by exploring its multi-dimensional parameter space using the shooting method, which is not subject to the stability issues which can plague fixed point iteration. We are able to find multiple solutions where in all previous literature only one was found. The multiple solutions are of two distinct classes. One class, close to the border of bad electroweak symmetry breaking, is disfavoured by LEP2 searches for neutralinos and charginos. The other class has sparticles that are heavy enough to evade the LEP2 bounds. Chargino masses may differ by up to around 10% between the different solutions, whereas other sparticle masses differ at the sub-percent level. The prediction for the dark matter relic density can vary by a hundred percent or more between the different solutions, so analyses employing the dark matter constraint are incomplete without their inclusion.

  18. Ocular Injury due to Potassium Permanganate Granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chareenun Chirapapaisan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a rare case of ocular injury due to potassium permanganate (KMnO4 granules in a child. Methods: This is a retrospective case report. Results: A 2-year-old boy was transferred to our emergency room with severe pain in his right eye, inflamed eyelids, and brownish stains on his fingers. Chemical injury was suspected. Copious eye irrigation was immediately performed. Diffuse brownish splotches were then observed at the inferior bulbar conjunctiva. Otherwise, systemic organs were intact. Complete eye exam under general anesthesia revealed a 5-mm epithelial defect at the central cornea, along with generalized conjunctival injection and limbal ischemia, inferiorly. Multiple semi-dissolved granules of KMnO4 trapped in the inferior fornix were identified. The chemical particles were gradually washed out and removed; however, the brownish stains remained. The patient received preservative-free steroid, antibiotic eye drops, and lubricants as regular management for mild to moderate degree of ocular burn. Pseudomembrane developed early and transformed into symblepharon within a few days after the injury. Membrane adhesion was lysed, and more aggressive medications were then substituted. Commercial amniotic membrane (PROKERA® was also applied to promote wound healing and to prevent recurrence of symblepharon. The ocular surface was eventually restored, and corneal transparency was preserved. Conclusion: Ocular injury with the granular form of KMnO4 is rare. Its toxicity is comparable to concentrated KMnO4 solution. However, the dissolved particles that had been absorbed in the stained conjunctiva were continuously released and damaged the ocular surface more than we primarily anticipated. Awareness of this condition and prompt management yield a good treatment outcome.

  19. Lessons learned in streamlining the preparation of SNM standard solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.P.; Johnson, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    Improved safeguard measurements have produced a demand for greater quantities of reliable SNM solution standards. At the Savannah River Plant (SRP), the demand for these standards has been met by several innovations to improve the productivity and reliability of standards preparations. With the use of computer controlled balance, large batches of SNM stock solutions are prepared on a gravimetric basis. Accurately dispensed quantities of the stock solution are weighed and stored in bottles. When needed, they are quantitatively transferred to tared containers, matrix adjusted to target concentrations, weighed, and measured for density at 25 0 C. Concentrations of SNM are calculated both gravimetrically and volumetrically. Calculated values are confirmed analytically before the standards are used in measurement control program (MCP) activities. The lessons learned include: MCP goals include error identification and management. Strategy modifications are required to improve error management. Administrative controls can minimize certain types of errors. Automation can eliminate redundancy and streamline preparations. Prudence and simplicity enhance automation success. The effort expended to increase productivity has increased the reliability of standards and provided better documentation for quality assurance

  20. Interoperable and standard e-Health solution over Bluetooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, I; Del Valle, P; Munoz, P; Trigo, J D; Escayola, J; Martínez-Espronceda, M; Muñoz, A; Serrano, L; Garcia, J

    2010-01-01

    The new paradigm of e-Health demands open sensors and middleware components that permit transparent integration and end-to-end interoperability of new personal health devices. The use of standards seems to be the internationally adopted way to solve these problems. This paper presents the implementation of an end-to-end standards-based e-Health solution. This includes ISO/IEEE11073 standard for the interoperability of the medical devices in the patient environment and EN13606 standard for the interoperable exchange of the Electronic Healthcare Record. The design strictly fulfills all the technical features of the most recent versions of both standards. The implemented prototype has been tested in a laboratory environment to demonstrate its feasibility for its further transfer to the healthcare system.

  1. Improving the treatment of non-aqueous phase TCE in low permeability zones with permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokejaroenrat, Chanat; Comfort, Steve; Sakulthaew, Chainarong; Dvorak, Bruce

    2014-03-15

    Treating dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) embedded in low permeability zones (LPZs) is a particularly challenging issue for injection-based remedial treatments. Our objective was to improve the sweeping efficiency of permanganate (MnO4(-)) into LPZs to treat high concentrations of TCE. This was accomplished by conducting transport experiments that quantified the penetration of various permanganate flooding solutions into a LPZ that was spiked with non-aqueous phase (14)C-TCE. The treatments we evaluated included permanganate paired with: (i) a shear-thinning polymer (xanthan); (ii) stabilization aids that minimized MnO2 rind formation and (iii) a phase-transfer catalyst. In addition, we quantified the ability of these flooding solutions to improve TCE destruction under batch conditions by developing miniature LPZ cylinders that were spiked with (14)C-TCE. Transport experiments showed that MnO4(-) alone was inefficient in penetrating the LPZ and reacting with non-aqueous phase TCE, due to a distinct and large MnO2 rind that inhibited the TCE from further oxidant contact. By including xanthan with MnO4(-), the sweeping efficiency increased (90%) but rind formation was still evident. By including the stabilization aid, sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) with xanthan, permanganate penetrated 100% of the LPZ, no rind was observed, and the percentage of TCE oxidized increased. Batch experiments using LPZ cylinders allowed longer contact times between the flooding solutions and the DNAPL and results showed that SHMP+MnO4(-) improved TCE destruction by ∼16% over MnO4(-) alone (56.5% vs. 40.1%). These results support combining permanganate with SHMP or SHMP and xanthan as a means of treating high concentrations of TCE in low permeable zones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Design Tool for Planning Permanganate Injection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Chemical Spill 10 CSTR continuously stirred tank reactors CT contact time EDB ethylene dibromide ESTCP Environmental Security Technology...63 6.2 Simulating Oxidant Distribution Using a Series of CSTRs ...ER- 0625. 6.2 SIMULATING OXIDANT DISTRIBUTION USING A SERIES OF CSTRS 6.2.1 MODEL DEVELOPMENT The transport and consumption of permanganate

  3. Optimization and evaluation of alkaline potassium permanganate pretreatment of corncob.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lijuan; Cui, Youzhi; Cai, Rui; Liu, Xueqiang; Zhang, Cuiying; Xiao, Dongguang

    2015-03-01

    Alkaline potassium permanganate solution (APP) was applied to the pretreatment of corncob with a simple and effective optimization of APP concentration, reaction time, temperature and solid to liquid ratio (SLR). The optimized pretreatment conditions were at 2% (w/v) potassium permanganate with SLR of 1:10 treating for 6h at 50°C. This simple one-step treatment resulted in significant 94.56% of the cellulose and 81.47% of the hemicellulose recoveries and 46.79% of the lignin removal of corncob. The reducing sugar in the hydrolysate from APP-pretreated corncob was 8.39g/L after 12h enzymatic hydrolysis, which was 1.44 and 1.29 folds higher than those from raw and acid pretreated corncobs. Physical characteristics, crystallinity and structure of the pretreated corncob were analyzed and assessed by SEM, XRD and FTIR. The APP pretreatment process was novel and enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose by affecting composition and structural features. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Kinetics and selectivity of permanganate chemiluminescence: a study of hydroxyl and amino disubstituted benzene positional isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Teo; Smith, Zoe M; Adcock, Jacqui L; Hindson, Christopher M; Barnett, Neil W; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Francis, Paul S

    2011-11-30

    Examination of the chemiluminescence reactions of dihydroxybenzenes, aminophenols and phenylenediamines with acidic potassium permanganate has provided a new understanding of the relationships between analyte structure, reaction conditions, kinetics of the light-producing pathway and emission intensity, with broad implications for this widely utilised chemiluminescence detection system. Using a permanganate reagent prepared in a polyphosphate solution and adjusted to pH 2.5, large differences in the rate of reaction with different positional isomers were observed, with the meta-substituted forms reacting far slower and therefore exhibiting much lower chemiluminescence intensities in flow analysis systems. The preliminary partial reduction of permanganate to form significant concentrations of Mn(III) increased the rate of reaction with all analytes tested, resulting in comparable or (in the case of aminophenol and phenylenediamine) even greater emission intensities for the meta-isomers, demonstrating the opportunity to tune the selectivity of the reagent towards certain classes of compound or even specific positional isomers of the same compound. Using more acidic permanganate reagents, in which polyphosphates are not required, the discrepancy between the chemiluminescence intensities was still observed, but was less prominent due to the generally faster rates of reaction. The enhancement of these chemiluminescence reactions by on-line addition of formic acid or formaldehyde can in part also be attributed to the generation of significant pools of the key Mn(III) precursor to the emitting species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Vehicular ad hoc networks standards, solutions, and research

    CERN Document Server

    Molinaro, Antonella; Scopigno, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    This book presents vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) from the their onset, gradually going into technical details, providing a clear understanding of both theoretical foundations and more practical investigation. The editors gathered top-ranking authors to provide comprehensiveness and timely content; the invited authors were carefully selected from a list of who’s who in the respective field of interest: there are as many from Academia as from Standardization and Industry sectors from around the world. The covered topics are organized around five Parts starting from an historical overview of vehicular communications and standardization/harmonization activities (Part I), then progressing to the theoretical foundations of VANETs and a description of the day-one standard-compliant solutions (Part II), hence going into details of vehicular networking and security (Part III) and to the tools to study VANETs, from mobility and channel models, to network simulators and field trial methodologies (Part IV), and fi...

  6. New phenomenon of potassium permanganate treatment effect in polymer irradiated with heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Mi; Liu Yibao; Wei Qianglin; Fu Yuanyong; Ju Wei; Chen Dongfeng; Wu Zhendong; Liang Haiying

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nuclear track membranes offer distinct advantages over conventional membranes due to their precisely determined structure. Their pore size, shape and density can be controlled intentionally so that a membrane with the required characteristics can be produced. The track etching technology plays an important role in the production of nuclear track membranes. Purpose: The effect of potassium permanganate solution pretreatment on the etching rate for polyethylene terephthalate film (PET) is studied in this work. Methods: The conductivity method is used in this research. Under different conditions, the PET films were pretreated for 1 h, 2 h, 3 h, 4 h, 5 h and 6 h by potassium permanganate solution. 5%, 15%, 25%, 35% of 2-mol·L -1 sulfuric acid solutions were added in 0.1 mol·L -1 potassium permanganate solution. Results: Track etching rate reached a peak at 2 h, Afterwards, with the pretreatment time increasing, the track etching rate declined, and the longer of the pretreatment time, the smaller of the bulk etching rate. Half cone angle either. Adding to sulfuric solution, the experimental results show that the effect on track etching rate is small, with the amount of sulfuric acid increasing, bulk etching rate becomes larger, the same change with half cone angle. In addition, the DC voltage used in the conductivity method also has impact on the track etching rate. Conclusion: The experiment has provided a method to improve the etching rate. (authors)

  7. Gamma radiation effects on vitamin C standard solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaro, Jose Daniel V.; Mansur Netto, Elias

    1995-01-01

    This word shows the physical - chemical effects of gamma radiation on standard solutions of vitamin C. Samples with concentration of 50 mg/ml were exposed to different doses of gamma radiations: 1,0 2,5 and 5,0 kGy, using a cobalt-60 source, with storing periods of 0,15 and 30 days. The results showed a vitamin C concentration loss, with a minimum of 17% for the dose of 1,0 kGy immediately after irradiation and a maximum of 81% for the dose of 5 kGy and 30 days after irradiation. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs

  8. Potassium Permanganate Poisoning: A Nonfatal Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan M. Eteiwi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute poisoning by potassium permanganate is a rare condition with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of the condition relies on a history of exposure or ingestion and a high degree of clinical suspicion. Oxygen desaturation and the presence of methemoglobin are also helpful indicators. Since no specific antidote is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Few cases have been reported in the literature following potassium permanganate ingestion, whether intentional or accidental, and most of the patients in these cases had unfavorable outcomes, which was not the case in our patient. Our patient, a 73-year-old male, purchased potassium permanganate over the counter mistaking it for magnesium salt, which he frequently used as a laxative. Several hours after he ingested it, he was admitted to the endocrine department at King Hussein Medical Center, Jordan, with acute rapidly evolving shortness of breath. During hospitalization, his liver function tests deteriorated. Since he was diagnosed early and managed promptly he had a favorable outcome.

  9. Improving the treatment of non-aqueous phase TCE in low permeability zones with permanganate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chokejaroenrat, Chanat, E-mail: chanat@sut.ac.th [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0531 (United States); School of Environmental Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Comfort, Steve, E-mail: scomfort1@unl.edu [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915 (United States); Sakulthaew, Chainarong, E-mail: cvtcns@ku.ac.th [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915 (United States); Department of Veterinary Technology, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Dvorak, Bruce, E-mail: bdvorak1@unl.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0531 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Transport experiments used transmissive and low permeability zones (LPZs). • {sup 14}C-labeled TCE was used to quantify oxidation of DNAPL in LPZs by permanganate. • Stabilization aids prevented MnO{sub 2} rind formation. • DNAPL oxidation improved when xanthan and stabilization aids were used. - Abstract: Treating dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) embedded in low permeability zones (LPZs) is a particularly challenging issue for injection-based remedial treatments. Our objective was to improve the sweeping efficiency of permanganate (MnO{sub 4}{sup −}) into LPZs to treat high concentrations of TCE. This was accomplished by conducting transport experiments that quantified the penetration of various permanganate flooding solutions into a LPZ that was spiked with non-aqueous phase {sup 14}C-TCE. The treatments we evaluated included permanganate paired with: (i) a shear-thinning polymer (xanthan); (ii) stabilization aids that minimized MnO{sub 2} rind formation and (iii) a phase-transfer catalyst. In addition, we quantified the ability of these flooding solutions to improve TCE destruction under batch conditions by developing miniature LPZ cylinders that were spiked with {sup 14}C-TCE. Transport experiments showed that MnO{sub 4}{sup −} alone was inefficient in penetrating the LPZ and reacting with non-aqueous phase TCE, due to a distinct and large MnO{sub 2} rind that inhibited the TCE from further oxidant contact. By including xanthan with MnO{sub 4}{sup −}, the sweeping efficiency increased (90%) but rind formation was still evident. By including the stabilization aid, sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) with xanthan, permanganate penetrated 100% of the LPZ, no rind was observed, and the percentage of TCE oxidized increased. Batch experiments using LPZ cylinders allowed longer contact times between the flooding solutions and the DNAPL and results showed that SHMP + MnO{sub 4}{sup −} improved TCE destruction by

  10. Improving the treatment of non-aqueous phase TCE in low permeability zones with permanganate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chokejaroenrat, Chanat; Comfort, Steve; Sakulthaew, Chainarong; Dvorak, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Transport experiments used transmissive and low permeability zones (LPZs). • 14 C-labeled TCE was used to quantify oxidation of DNAPL in LPZs by permanganate. • Stabilization aids prevented MnO 2 rind formation. • DNAPL oxidation improved when xanthan and stabilization aids were used. - Abstract: Treating dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) embedded in low permeability zones (LPZs) is a particularly challenging issue for injection-based remedial treatments. Our objective was to improve the sweeping efficiency of permanganate (MnO 4 − ) into LPZs to treat high concentrations of TCE. This was accomplished by conducting transport experiments that quantified the penetration of various permanganate flooding solutions into a LPZ that was spiked with non-aqueous phase 14 C-TCE. The treatments we evaluated included permanganate paired with: (i) a shear-thinning polymer (xanthan); (ii) stabilization aids that minimized MnO 2 rind formation and (iii) a phase-transfer catalyst. In addition, we quantified the ability of these flooding solutions to improve TCE destruction under batch conditions by developing miniature LPZ cylinders that were spiked with 14 C-TCE. Transport experiments showed that MnO 4 − alone was inefficient in penetrating the LPZ and reacting with non-aqueous phase TCE, due to a distinct and large MnO 2 rind that inhibited the TCE from further oxidant contact. By including xanthan with MnO 4 − , the sweeping efficiency increased (90%) but rind formation was still evident. By including the stabilization aid, sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) with xanthan, permanganate penetrated 100% of the LPZ, no rind was observed, and the percentage of TCE oxidized increased. Batch experiments using LPZ cylinders allowed longer contact times between the flooding solutions and the DNAPL and results showed that SHMP + MnO 4 − improved TCE destruction by ∼16% over MnO 4 − alone (56.5% vs. 40.1%). These results support

  11. Oxidation of propionic acid-3-14C with alkaline permanganate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, M.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism of oxidation of propionic acid with permanganate in alkaline medium was reinvestigated using methyl- 14 C labelled propionate. The preferential rupture of the αC-βC bond in propionate in highly concentrated alkaline solutions of NaOH (and KOH) was confirmed and the appearance of 14 C-labelled oxalate explained by the formation of the symmetrical intermediate which decomposes in two different modes. (author)

  12. Transmission investment problems in Europe: Going beyond standard solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buijs, Patrik; Bekaert, David; Cole, Stijn; Van Hertem, Dirk; Belmans, Ronnie

    2011-01-01

    The European transmission grid is facing an investment challenge. There is a strong call for more transmission capacity. At the same time, the investment climate is fierce and troubled by public opposition, a complex regulatory framework, etc. Many transmission capacity expansion projects are delayed or canceled. In this paper different technology options suitable for increasing transmission capacity are discussed. The aim is to provide policy-makers with information on technologies without going too much into technical details. The focus is on opportunities and limitations to implement various technological alternatives in practice, including technical solutions that go beyond constructing new connection lines. The criteria used in this technology assessment are based on the obstacles reported in the European Priority Interconnection Plan. This ensures a realistic approach based on problems encountered in real projects. Although AC overhead lines (OHL) will remain the standard solution for grid expansion, it is argued that different technology options can overcome many obstacles that OHL face. Additionally, it is illustrated that the higher investment costs for some solutions can be offset with an increased benefit, e.g. by accomplishing investments with smaller delays due to fewer obstacles encountered. - Research highlights: → Assessment of real problems encountered in transmission investments. → Comparison of transmission technologies. → Techno-economic evaluation of transmission technologies.

  13. Providers and Patients Caught Between Standardization and Individualization: Individualized Standardization as a Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansmann, Lena; Pfaff, Holger

    2018-01-01

    In their 2017 article, Mannion and Exworthy provide a thoughtful and theory-based analysis of two parallel trends in modern healthcare systems and their competing and conflicting logics: standardization and customization. This commentary further discusses the challenge of treatment decision-making in times of evidence-based medicine (EBM), shared decision-making and personalized medicine. From the perspective of systems theory, we propose the concept of individualized standardization as a solution to the problem. According to this concept, standardization is conceptualized as a guiding framework leaving room for individualization in the patient physician interaction. The theoretical background is the concept of context management according to systems theory. Moreover, the comment suggests multidisciplinary teams as a possible solution for the integration of standardization and individualization, using the example of multidisciplinary tumor conferences and highlighting its limitations. The comment also supports the authors’ statement of the patient as co-producer and introduces the idea that the competing logics of standardization and individualization are a matter of perspective on macro, meso and micro levels. PMID:29626403

  14. Standard physics solution to the solar neutrino problem?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dar, A [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Physics

    1996-11-01

    The {sup 8}B solar neutrino flux predicted by the standard solar model (SSM) is consistent within the theoretical and experimental uncertainties with that at Kamiokande. The Gallium and Chlorine solar neutrino experiments, however, seem to imply that the {sup 7}Be solar neutrino flux is strongly suppressed compared with that predicted by the SSM. If the {sup 7}Be solar neutrino flux is suppressed, still it can be due to astrophysical effects not included in the simplistic SSM. Such effects include short term fluctuations or periodic variation of the temperature in the solar core, rotational mixing of {sup 3}He in the solar core, and dense plasma effects which may strongly enhance p-capture by {sup 7}Be relative to e-capture. The new generation of solar observations which already look non stop deep into the sun, like Superkamiokande through neutrinos, and SOHO and GONG through acoustic waves, may point at the correct solution. Only Superkamiokande and/or future solar neutrino experiments, such as SNO, BOREXINO and HELLAZ, will be able to find out whether the solar neutrino problem is caused by neutrino properties beyond the minimal standard electroweak model or whether it is just a problem of the too simplistic standard solar model. (author) 1 fig., 3 tabs., refs.

  15. Microwave- and Ultrasound-Accelerated Green Permanganate Oxidation of Thioethers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luu, Thi Xuan Thi; Le, Huu Tan; Le, Thach Ngoc

    2015-01-01

    Product formation from the solvent-free oxidation of aliphatic, cyclic or aromatic thioethers by permanganate supported on copper sulfate pentahydrate has been investigated in detail with respect to the importance of the nature of thioethers, the molar ratio of potassium permanganate absorbed...

  16. LIMITS IN APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS TO INNOVATIVE CERAMIC SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fragassa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gres Porcelain stoneware is a ceramic with a compact, hard, coloured and non-porous body. It is largely used as building materials, for a quality architecture, offering high resistance to impact, stress, wear, scratching, frost, chemical attach and stains. It is produced in flat tiles, billions of tons per year. A very prominent technology, based on a pyroclastic deformation, permits to obtain bended porcelain tiles as innovative solutions for a modern architecture. This technology is grounded on a proper combination of heavy machining by cutting tools and secondary firing in a kiln. This new element, the bended tile, can be used in several innovative applications (as steps, shelves, benches, radiators.... But, new functions require a better and in-depth knowledge of these materials, especially referring to the mechanical proprieties. This paper investigates the limits of applicability of ISO standards for the quality classification of ceramics and experimental measures of their mechanical proprieties.

  17. Flowsheet Validation For The Permanganate Digestion Of REILLEX(trademark) HPQ Anion Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyser, E.

    2009-01-01

    The flowsheet for the digestion of Reillex(trademark) HPQ was validated both under the traditional alkaline conditions and under strongly acidic conditions. Due to difficulty in performing a pH adjustment in the large tank where this flowsheet must be performed, the recommended digestion conditions were changed from pH 8-10 to 8 M HNO 3 . Thus, no pH adjustment of the solution is required prior to performing the permanganate addition and digestion and the need to sample the digestion tank to confirm appropriate pH range for digestion may be avoided. Neutralization of the acidic digestion solution will be performed after completion of the resin digestion cycle. The amount of permanganate required for this type of resin (Reillex(trademark) HPQ) was increased from 1 kg/L resin to 4 kg/L resin to reduce the amount of residual resin solids to a minimal amount ( 2 ) solids (1.71 kg/L resin) and involves the generation of a significant liquid volume due to the low solubility of permanganate. However, since only two batches of resin (40 L each) are expected to be digested, the total waste generated is limited.

  18. Enhanced degradation of Orange G by permanganate with the employment of iron anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Lingjun; Shi, Zhou; Zhou, Shiqing

    2017-01-01

    Iron anode was employed to enhance the degradation of Orange G (OG) by permanganate (EC/KMnO 4 ). Continuously generated Fe 2+ from iron anode facilitated the formation of fresh MnO 2 , which plays a role in catalyzing permanganate oxidation. The EC/KMnO 4 system also showed a better performance to remove OG than Fe 2+ /KMnO 4 , indicating the importance of in situ formed fresh MnO 2 . Besides, the effects of applied current, KMnO 4 dosage, solution pH, and natural organics were evaluated and results demonstrated that high current and oxidant dosage are favorable for OG removal. And the application of iron anode has a promoting effect on the KMnO 4 oxidation over a wide pH range (5.0-9.0), while the Fe 2+ /KMnO 4 process does not. For natural organics, its presence could inhibit OG removal due to its competitive role. And the promoting effect of OG removal by the EC/KMnO 4 process in natural water was confirmed. At last, the EC/KMnO 4 process showed a satisfying performance on the decolorization and mineralization of OG. This study provides a potential technology to enhance permanganate oxidation and broadens the knowledge of azo dye removal.

  19. Oxidative elimination of cyanotoxins: comparison of ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide and permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Eva; Onstad, Gretchen D; Kull, Tomas P J; Metcalf, James S; Acero, Juan L; von Gunten, Urs

    2007-08-01

    As the World Health Organization (WHO) progresses with provisional Drinking Water Guidelines of 1 microg/L for microcystin-LR and a proposed Guideline of 1 microg/L for cylindrospermopsin, efficient treatment strategies are needed to prevent cyanotoxins such as these from reaching consumers. A kinetic database has been compiled for the oxidative treatment of three cyanotoxins: microcystin-LR (MC-LR), cylindrospermopsin (CYN), and anatoxin-a (ANTX) with ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide and permanganate. This kinetic database contains rate constants not previously reported and determined in the present work (e.g. for permanganate oxidation of ANTX and chlorine dioxide oxidation of CYN and ANTX), together with previously published rate constants for the remaining oxidation processes. Second-order rate constants measured in pure aqueous solutions of these toxins could be used in a kinetic model to predict the toxin oxidation efficiency of ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide and permanganate when applied to natural waters. Oxidants were applied to water from a eutrophic Swiss lake (Lake Greifensee) in static-dose testing and dynamic time-resolved experiments to confirm predictions from the kinetic database, and to investigate the effects of a natural matrix on toxin oxidation and by-product formation. Overall, permanganate can effectively oxidize ANTX and MC-LR, while chlorine will oxidize CYN and MC-LR and ozone is capable of oxidizing all three toxins with the highest rate. The formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the treated water may be a restriction to the application of sufficiently high-chlorine doses.

  20. Three Rate-Constant Kinetic Model for Permanganate Reactions Autocatalyzed by Colloidal Manganese Dioxide: The Oxidation of L-Phenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Benito, Joaquin F; Ferrando, Jordi

    2014-12-26

    The reduction of permanganate ion to MnO(2)-Mn(2)O(3) soluble colloidal mixed oxide by l-phenylalanine in aqueous phosphate-buffered neutral solutions has been followed by a spectrophotometric method, monitoring the decay of permanganate ion at 525 nm and the formation of the colloidal oxide at 420 nm. The reaction is autocatalyzed by the manganese product, and three rate constants have been required to fit the experimental absorbance-time kinetic data. The reaction shows base catalysis, and the values of the activation parameters at different pHs have been determined. A mechanism including both the nonautocatalytic and the autocatalytic reaction pathways, and in agreement with the available experimental data, has been proposed. Some key features of this mechanism are the following: (i) of the two predominant forms of the amino acid, the anionic form exhibits a stronger reducing power than the zwitterionic form; (ii) the nonautocatalytic reaction pathway starts with the transfer of the hydrogen atom in the α position of the amino acid to permanganate ion; and (iii) the autocatalytic reaction pathway involves the reduction of Mn(IV) to Mn(II) by the amino acid and the posterior reoxidation of Mn(II) to Mn(IV) by permanganate ion.

  1. Absence of redox processes in the annealing of permanganates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedgaonkar, V.G.; Mitra, S.; Kulkarni, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    Initial retentions upon neutron activation of alkaline earth and Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd permanganates were in the range 8-17 per cent. Isostructural hexahydrates of Mg, Zn and Cd permanganates showed identifical values of approximately 8 per cent. Radiation annealing was negligible and the extent of thermal annealing was hardly 2-5 per cent in all the salts. Probable mechanisms are discussed. (author)

  2. Impact of Strontium Nitrate and Sodium Permanganate Addition on Solid-Liquid Separation of SRS High Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    As a pretreatment step for the caustic side solvent extraction (CSSX) flowsheet, the process contacts the incoming salt solution containing entrained sludge with monosodium titanate (MST) to adsorb strontium and actinides. An operation filters the resulting slurry to remove the sludge and MST. Previous work for the River Protection Program at Hanford suggests that addition of strontium nitrate and sodium permanganate for strontium and actinide removal, rather than MST, improves the filtration rate for comparable waste streams

  3. DETERMINATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE, NITROGEN OXIDES, AND CARBON DIOXIDE IN EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC UTILITY PLANTS BY ALKALINE PERMANGANATE SAMPLING AND ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A manual 24-h integrated method for determining SO2, NOx, and CO2 in emissions from electric utility plants was developed and field tested downstream from an SO2 control system. Samples were collected in alkaline potassium permanganate solution contained in restricted-orifice imp...

  4. 21 CFR 250.108 - Potassium permanganate preparations as prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium permanganate preparations as... or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.108 Potassium permanganate preparations as... women resulting from the misuse of potassium permanganate in an effort to induce abortion. Reports from...

  5. 75 FR 65448 - Potassium Permanganate From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-001] Potassium Permanganate From... Trade Commission (``ITC'') that revocation of the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from... order on potassium permanganate from the PRC pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as...

  6. 75 FR 52509 - Potassium Permanganate from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-001] Potassium Permanganate from...'') initiated a sunset review of the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from the People's Republic... antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from the PRC pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of...

  7. Enhanced permanganate in situ chemical oxidation through MnO2 particle stabilization: evaluation in 1-D transport systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimi, Michelle; Quickel, Mark; Ko, Saebom

    2009-02-27

    In situ chemical oxidation using permanganate is an increasingly employed approach to organic contaminant remediation at hazardous waste sites. Manganese dioxide (MnO2) particles form as a by-product of the reaction of permanganate with contaminants and naturally-reduced subsurface materials. These particles are of interest because they have the potential to deposit in the subsurface and impact the flow regime in/around permanganate injection, including the well screen, filter pack, and the surrounding subsurface formation. Control of these particles can allow for improved oxidant injection and transport, and contact between the oxidant and contaminants of concern. Sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP) has previously been identified as a promising aid to stabilize MnO2 in solution when included in the oxidizing solution, increasing the potential to inhibit particle deposition and impact subsurface flow. The goal of the experimental studies described herein was to investigate the ability of HMP to prevent particle deposition in transport studies using four different types of porous media. Permanganate was delivered to a contaminant source zone (trichloroethylene) located within four different media types with variations in sand, clay, organic carbon, and iron oxides (as goethite) content. Deposition of MnO2 within the columns was quantified with distance from the source zone. Experiments were repeated in replicate columns with the inclusion of HMP directly with the oxidant delivery solution, and MnO2 deposition was again quantified. While total MnO2 deposition within the 60 cm columns did not change significantly with the addition of HMP, deposition within the contaminant source zone decreased by 25-85%, depending on the specific media type. The greatest differences in deposition were observed in the goethite-containing and clay-containing columns. Columns containing these two media types experienced completely plugged flow in the oxidant-only delivery systems; however

  8. Degradation kinetics and transformation products of chlorophene by aqueous permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinxin; Chen, Jing; Wang, Siyuan; Ge, Jiali; Qu, Ruijuan; Feng, Mingbao; Sharma, Virender K; Wang, Zunyao

    2018-07-01

    This paper evaluates the oxidation of an antibacterial agent, chlorophene (4-chloro-2-(phenylmethyl)phenol, CP), by permanganate (Mn(VII)) in water. Second-order rate constant (k) for the reaction between Mn(VII) and CP was measured as (2.05 ± 0.05) × 10 1  M -1  s -1 at pH 7.0 for an initial CP concentration of 20.0 μM and Mn(VII) concentration of 60.0 μM. The value of k decreased with increasing pH in the pH range of 5.0-7.0, and then increased with an increase in solution pH from 7.0 to 10.0. The presence of MnO 2 and Fe 3+ in water generally enhanced the removal of CP, while the effect of humic acid was not obvious. Fourteen oxidation products of CP were identified by an electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and direct oxidation, ring-opening, and decarboxylation were mainly observed in the reaction process. The initial reaction sites of CP by Mn(VII) oxidation were rationalized by density functional theory calculations. Toxicity changes of the reaction solutions were assessed by the luminescent bacteria P. phosphoreum, and the intermediate products posed a relatively low ecological risk during the degradation process. The efficient removal of CP in secondary clarifier effluent and river water demonstrated the potential application of this Mn(VII) oxidation method in water treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Massive-scale data management using standards-based solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, J

    1999-01-01

    In common with many large institutes, CERN has traditionally developed and maintained its own data management solutions. Recently, a significant change of direction has taken place and we have now adopted commercial tools, together with a small amount of site- specific code, for this task. The solutions chosen were originally studied as part of research and development projects oriented towards the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which is currently under construction at CERN. They have since been adopted not only by the LHC collaborations, which are due to take production data starting in 2005, but also by numerous current experiments, both at CERN and at other High Energy Physics laboratories. Previous experiments, that used data management tools developed in-house, are also studying a possible move to the new environment. To meet the needs of today's experiments, data rates of up to 35 MB/second and data volumes of many hundred TB per experiment must be supported. Data distribution to multiple sites must be pr...

  10. Corrosion of cupronickel alloy in permanganate under acidic condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, Veena; Chandramohan, P.; Srinivasan, M.P.; Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V.

    2007-01-01

    Cupronickel alloys are used as heat exchanger tube materials in nuclear power plant auxiliary coolant systems. In this work, the corrosion behaviour of cupronickel (70:30) alloy in permanganic acid medium was studied. Corrosion rate was found to follow logarithmic kinetics. Cyclic polarization studies showed that cupronickel did not undergo pitting in permanganic acid medium but uniform corrosion was observed. Presence of 0.43 mol/m 3 chromate in 2.5 mol/m 3 permanganic acid was found to decrease the corrosion rate of cupronickel by 50%. EIS and XPS studies revealed that the film formed on cupronickel was protective in nature and contained oxides of copper, nickel and manganese (mainly MnOOH). The composition of the film on cupronickel that had undergone chromate treatment also showed similar film except that it contained some chromium (III)

  11. Trendy solutions: Why do states adopt Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standards?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, Jess [Georgia Institute of Technology, 685 Cherry Street, Atlanta, GA 30332-0345 (United States)], E-mail: jess.chandler@gatech.edu

    2009-08-15

    Thirty-four states had adopted Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standards (SEPS) or similar goals by the end of 2008, with 14 adoptions since 2006. There appears to be something trendy about SEPS and states may adopt SEPS when internal variables would indicate otherwise. This analysis extends the current discussion of SEPS adoption beyond internal variables, relying on innovation and diffusion theory. Logistic regression with SEPS adoption as the dependent variable is used to test internal determinants and diffusion measures for the years 1997-2008. Of the internal determinants variables, affluence and government ideology were found to be positive and significant. The results show that regional and neighbor diffusion variables are significant in SEPS adoption decisions-even when accounting for ideological distance from previous adopters.

  12. Trendy solutions. Why do states adopt Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standards?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, Jess [Georgia Institute of Technology, 685 Cherry Street, Atlanta, GA 30332-0345 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Thirty-four states had adopted Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standards (SEPS) or similar goals by the end of 2008, with 14 adoptions since 2006. There appears to be something trendy about SEPS and states may adopt SEPS when internal variables would indicate otherwise. This analysis extends the current discussion of SEPS adoption beyond internal variables, relying on innovation and diffusion theory. Logistic regression with SEPS adoption as the dependent variable is used to test internal determinants and diffusion measures for the years 1997-2008. Of the internal determinants variables, affluence and government ideology were found to be positive and significant. The results show that regional and neighbor diffusion variables are significant in SEPS adoption decisions - even when accounting for ideological distance from previous adopters. (author)

  13. Trendy solutions: Why do states adopt Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standards?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, Jess

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-four states had adopted Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standards (SEPS) or similar goals by the end of 2008, with 14 adoptions since 2006. There appears to be something trendy about SEPS and states may adopt SEPS when internal variables would indicate otherwise. This analysis extends the current discussion of SEPS adoption beyond internal variables, relying on innovation and diffusion theory. Logistic regression with SEPS adoption as the dependent variable is used to test internal determinants and diffusion measures for the years 1997-2008. Of the internal determinants variables, affluence and government ideology were found to be positive and significant. The results show that regional and neighbor diffusion variables are significant in SEPS adoption decisions-even when accounting for ideological distance from previous adopters.

  14. The crystal structures of some alkyldiaminium perchlorates, permanganates and hexachlouranates (IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marais, M.A.

    1984-12-01

    The diquaternary nitrogen cations N,N,N,N 1 ,N 1 ,N 1 -hexaalkyl-1,2-ethane-diaminium and N,N,N,N 1 ,N 1 ,N 1 -hexaalkyl-1,6-hexanediaminium (alkyl = n-octyl for example) are important potential solvent extractants for the extraction of transition metals (Co, Cu) and uranium from HCl medium. Since the alkyldiaminium skeleton constitutes the active centre in solution, the conformations of the cations in association with typical metallate counter-ions were of interest. The crystal structures of the hexachloro-uranate (IV) and permanganate salts of the hexamethyl ethanediaminium ion, as well as the hexachlorouranate (IV) and perchlorate salts of the hexamethyl hexanediaminium ion were therefore determined by X-ray crystallography. No evidence of any deformation of the cation skeleton from their previously well-established conformations were, however, found. The structures can all be understood as typical ionic salts in which the packing and structural features are dominated by the relatively large cations. In the permanganate salt of the N,N,N,N 1 ,N 1 ,N 1 -1,2-ethanediaminium cation the bridging methylene groups display an unusual type of positional disorder, for which there is only one precedent (also discovered in this laboratory). The values of the Mn-O and U-Cl bond lengths in the permanganate and hexachlorouranate ions were determined with a precision comparable to that of the most accurate values obtained so far in other salts. These distances are also in excellent agreement with previous values, and provide further confirmation for two bond lengths for which very few estimates were previously available

  15. Potassium Permanganate as an Alternative for Gold Mining Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordiales, M.; Fernández, D.; Verdeja, L. F.; Sancho, J.

    2015-09-01

    The feasibility of using potassium permanganate as a reagent for cyanide oxidation in wastewater was experimentally studied. Both artificial and production wastewater from two different gold mines were tested. The experiments had three goals: determine the optimum reagent concentration and reaction time required to achieve total cyanide removal, obtain knowledge of the reaction kinetics, and improve the management of the amount of reagent. The results indicate that potassium permanganate is an effective and reliable oxidizing agent for the removal of cyanide from gold mining wastewater.

  16. Novel application of vacuum sealing drainage with continuous irrigation of potassium permanganate for managing infective wounds of gas gangrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ning; Wu, Xing-Huo; Liu, Rong; Yang, Shu-Hua; Huang, Wei; Jiang, Dian-Ming; Wu, Qiang; Xia, Tian; Shao, Zeng-Wu; Ye, Zhe-Wei

    2015-08-01

    Traumatic gas gangrene is a fatal infection mainly caused by Clostridium perfringens. It is a challenge to manage gas gangrene in open wounds and control infection after debridement or amputation. The aim of the present study was to use vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) with continuous irrigation of potassium permanganate to manage infective wounds of gas gangrene and observe its clinical efficacy. A total of 48 patients with open traumatic gas gangrene infection were included in this study. Amputations were done for 27 patients, and limb salvage procedures were performed for the others. After amputation or aggressive debridement, the VSD system, including polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) foam dressing and polyurethane (PU) film, with continuous irrigation of 1:5000 potassium permanganate solutions, was applied to the wounds. During the follow-up, all the patients healed without recurrence within 8-18 months. There were four complications. Cardiac arrest during amputation surgery occurred in one patient who suffered from severe septic shock. Emergent resuscitation was performed and the patient returned to stable condition. One patient suffered from mixed infection of Staphylococcal aureus, and a second-stage debridement was performed. One patient suffered from severe pain of the limb after the debridement. Exploratory operation was done and the possible reason was trauma of a local peripheral nerve. Three cases of crush syndrome had dialysis treatment for concomitant renal failure. In conclusion, VSD can convert open wound to closed wound, and evacuate necrotic tissues. Furthermore, potassium permanganate solutions help eliminate anaerobic microenvironment and achieve good therapeutic effect on gas gangrene and mixed infection. VSD with continuous irrigation of potassium permanganate is a novel, simple and feasible alternative for severe traumatic open wounds with gas gangrene infection.

  17. Flow-injection chemiluminescent determination of estrogen benzoate using the tris(1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II)-permanganate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Cao, Wei; Qiao, Shuang; Liu, Wenwen; Yang, Jinghe

    2011-01-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) detection for the determination of estrogen benzoate, using the reaction of tris(1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II)-Na(2)SO(3)-permanganate, is described. This method is based on the CL reaction of estrogen benzoate (EB) with acidic potassium permanganate and tris(1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II). The CL intensity is greatly enhanced when Na(2)SO(3) is added. After optimization of the different experimental parameters, a calibration graph for estrogen benzoate is linear in the range 0.05-10 µg/mL. The 3 s limit of detection is 0.024 µg/mL and the relative standard deviation was 1.3% for 1.0 µg/mL estrogen benzoate (n = 11). This proposed method was successfully applied to commercial injection samples and emulsion cosmetics. The mechanism of CL reaction was also studied. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Spectrophotometric assay of pioglitazone hydrochloride using permanganate in acidic and basic media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanakapura Basavaiah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pioglitazone hydrochloride (PGH is an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent used in the treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus. Potassium permanganate was found to oxidize PGH both in acidic and basic conditions, based on which two simple and sensitive methods were developed for its determination in bulk sample and tablets, and validated. In the first method (indirect method, PGH was reacted with a measured excess of standard permanganate in H2SO4 medium, and the residual oxidant was determined by measuring its absorbance at 550 nm. The second method (Direct method entails treating PGH with permanganate in NaOH medium, followed by the measurement of the resulting bluish-green manganite at 610 nm. Experimental variables affecting the reactions were studied and optimized. Under optimum conditions, linear relationships with good correlation coefficients were found between absorbance and concentration in the ranges, 1.25 – 25 µg mL-1 (Indirect method and 1-12 µg mL-1 (Direct method with respective molar absorptivity values of 1.10 × 104 and 2.77 × 104 l mol-1 cm-1. The limits of detection (LOD and quantification (LOQ were 0.36 and 1.08 (Indirect method and 0.23 and 0.69 µg mL-1 (Direct method. Intra-day and inter-day precisions were satisfactory, with %RSD values of ≤2.11, and the respective accuracies were excellent with %RE values of ≤2. The methods were also validated for robustness, ruggedness and selectivity. The methods were applied to the determination of PGH in its tablets with good accuracy and precision, and no interference from the tablet additives was encountered. The results were also compared with those obtained by a reference method.

  19. The preparation of primary standard solutions for each of the noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallett, R.C.; Wall, G.J.; Jones, E.A.; Royal, S.J.

    1977-01-01

    A revised method for the preparation of primary standard solutions for each of the noble metals is described. It is now recommended that standard noble-metal solutions should be made from the pure metals and not from salts as previously described. Metals should have a certified purity of 99,95 per cent or better, and the purity should be confirmed by analysis, the techniques of emission spectography or spark-source mass spectrography being used. After the metals have been dissolved, the solutions are made up to volume and the metal content of the standard solutions is checked. For most instrumental techniques for which the standards are intended, the check analysis should be within 0,3 per cent of the certified value

  20. Cyanobacterial Treatment Options: Permanganate and Powdered Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will begin with a brief overview of drinking water treatment options for cyanobacteria and their toxins. The treatment discussion will focus on the impacts of permanganate addition to suspensions of toxin-producing Microcystis aeruginosa, followed by powdered ac...

  1. Consumption of potassium permanganate by impurities in deuterium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The titrimetric measurement of the consumption of potassium permanganate by impurities in deuterium oxide is one of the required methods intended for use in establishing whether the deuterium oxide is of sufficient purity to meet specifications. The method includes a discussion of reagents, procedure, and calculation

  2. Reaction of iodine oxidation by potassium permanganate in tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhlov, M.L.; Legin, E.K.

    1990-01-01

    Stoichiometry was determined and kinetics of iodine oxidation by potassium permanganate in tributylphosphate was studied. Kinetic scheme, which agrees with stoichiometry and experimental kinetic equation of the reaction, is suggested. A mixture is the reaction product. It is ascertained that when the mixture is heated, thermal decomposition of iodate to iodide occurs without elementary iodine separation, which is catalyzed by polymanganate

  3. Acute toxicity of potassium permanganate to fingerlings of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... Key words: Potassium permanganate, acute toxicity, LC50, LT50, behaviour, Clarias gariepinus, Nigeria. ... soft waters where other chemicals, such as copper sulphate, were too .... The temperature (oC) was measured by dipping a dry bulb thermo- .... (KMnO4) interferes with the respiratory mechanisms of.

  4. Acute toxicity of potassium permanganate to fingerlings of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory static bioassays were conducted to determine the 96-h LC50 and the lethal levels of concentrations of the aquaculture therapeutant, potassium permanganate (KMnO4) on fingerlings (mean weight, 6.24 ± 0.15 g and mean length, 4.25 ± 0.07 cm) of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. A total number of one ...

  5. To postpone the precipitation of manganese oxides in the degradation of tetrachloroethylene by controlling the permanganate concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiwei; Qiu, Zhaofu; Zhao, Zhexuan; Lu, Shuguang; Sui, Qian; Gu, Xiaogang

    2017-01-01

    Controlled-release permanganate (CRP) is a relatively new technology used to treat contaminated groundwater. This study tested the encapsulation of permanganate using stearic acid to realize controlled-release properties. Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the performance of manganese oxides (MnO 2 ) in the reaction between CRP and the contaminant of interest: tetrachloroethylene (PCE). The results showed that higher ionic strengths (I = 0.1 mol/L) cause earlier precipitation of MnO 2 colloids. Using CRP to degrade PCE could decrease the amount of MnO 2 colloids produced and postpone precipitation compared to raw potassium permanganate (KMnO 4 ) under high ionic strength conditions by controlling the KMnO 4 concentration in the solution. The amount of MnO 2 colloids produced and the time of precipitation depended more on the CRP grain size than on the CRP mass ratio. Controlling the KMnO 4 concentration used in the reaction could control the formation of MnO 2 precipitates in the premise of guarantee the removal rate of PCE.

  6. Molybdate and molybdate/permanganate conversion coatings on Mg-8.5Li alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Guixiang, E-mail: wgx0357@126.com [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang Milin; Wu Ruizhi [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2012-01-15

    A novel environment-friendly conversion coating for Mg-8.5Li alloy was obtained by immersing in a solution of molybdate. The concentration of ammonium molybdate and the addition of potassium permanganate were discussed in this experiment. The surface morphology of the conversion coatings was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the chemical composition was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The corrosion resistance of Mg-8.5Li alloy and conversion coatings were investigated by means of potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and weight loss measurement. The results showed that the coatings with cracked morphology were homogeneous and uniform. The conversion coatings were mainly composed of metal-oxide as detected by XPS. The results of electrochemical measurement and weight loss measurement revealed that the molybdate conversion coating had better corrosion resistance than bare alloy and chromate conversion coating, and the molybdate/permanganate conversion coating had lower corrosion current density and higher coating resistance than the molybdate conversion coating.

  7. Molybdate and molybdate/permanganate conversion coatings on Mg-8.5Li alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guixiang; Zhang Milin; Wu Ruizhi

    2012-01-01

    A novel environment-friendly conversion coating for Mg-8.5Li alloy was obtained by immersing in a solution of molybdate. The concentration of ammonium molybdate and the addition of potassium permanganate were discussed in this experiment. The surface morphology of the conversion coatings was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the chemical composition was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The corrosion resistance of Mg-8.5Li alloy and conversion coatings were investigated by means of potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and weight loss measurement. The results showed that the coatings with cracked morphology were homogeneous and uniform. The conversion coatings were mainly composed of metal-oxide as detected by XPS. The results of electrochemical measurement and weight loss measurement revealed that the molybdate conversion coating had better corrosion resistance than bare alloy and chromate conversion coating, and the molybdate/permanganate conversion coating had lower corrosion current density and higher coating resistance than the molybdate conversion coating.

  8. Characterization of kerogen from Messel shale based on multistage alkaline permanganate degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitorovic, D.; Ambles, A.; Bajc, S.; Cvetkovic, O.

    1988-07-01

    A 17-step alkaline permanganate degradation of kerogen from Messel shale (F.R.G.) was carried out. A very high total yield of oxidation products was obtained (91.7% based on original kerogen). Detailed g.c.-m.s. analyses of ether-soluble acids, soluble products of further controlled permanganate degradation of precipitated acids and acids from aqueous solutions, served as a basis for the quantitative estimation of the participation of various types of products and for comparison with other kerogens. Taking into account the slight aliphatic nature of the acidic oxidation products (53.4%), the existence of an aliphatic cross-linked nucleus in the Messel shale kerogen is postulated. However, on the basis of high participation of both aromatic (21.2%), and alkane-polycarboxylic (20.2%) and cyloalkanoic (5.2%) acids, a high proportion of alicyclic, heterocyclic and aromatic structural elements in the structure of this kerogen was demonstrated. The most interesting finding was the isolation and identification, in significant amounts, of a series of monocarboxylic mono- and bicyclic cycloalkanoic acids. A small quantity of isoprenoid acids was found in the oxidation products. A homogeneous structure of the Messel shale kerogen is suggested. 17 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Role of ligands in permanganate oxidation of organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jin; Pang, Su-Yan; Ma, Jun

    2010-06-01

    We previously demonstrated that several ligands such as phosphate, pyrophosphate, EDTA, and humic acid could significantly enhance permanganate oxidation of triclosan (one phenolic biocide), which was explained by the contribution of ligand-stabilized reactive manganese intermediates in situ formed upon permanganate reduction. To further understand the underlying mechanism, we comparatively investigated the influence of ligands on permanganate oxidation of bisphenol A (BPA, one phenolic endocrine-disrupting chemical), carbamazepine (CBZ, a pharmaceutical containing the olefinic group), and methyl p-tolyl sulfoxide (TMSO, a typical oxygen-atom acceptor). Selected ligands exerted oxidation enhancement for BPA but had negligible influence for CBZ and TMSO. This was mainly attributed to the effects of identified Mn(III) complexes, which would otherwise disproportionate spontaneously in the absence of ligands. The one-electron oxidant Mn(III) species exhibited no reactivity toward CBZ and TMSO for which the two-electron oxygen donation may be the primary oxidation mechanism but readily oxidized BPA. The latter case was a function of pH, the complexing ligand, and the molar [Mn(III)]:[ligand] ratio, generally consistent with the patterns of ligand-affected permanganate oxidation. Moreover, the combination of the one-electron reduction of Mn(III) (Mn(III) + e(-) -->Mn(II)) and the Mn(VII)/Mn(II) reaction in excess ligands (Mn(VII) + 4Mn(II) ----> (ligands) 5Mn(III)) suggested a catalytic role of the Mn(III)/Mn(II) pair in permanganate oxidation of some phenolics in the presence of ligands.

  10. Identification of forensically important fly eggs using a potassium permanganate staining technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Piangjai, Somsak; Boonchu, Noppawan; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Hope, Michelle; Olson, Jimmy K

    2004-01-01

    Fly eggs found in corpses can be utilized as entomological evidence in forensic investigations of deaths if the species of fly and the developmental rate at a temperature similar to the death scene are known. The species identification of fly eggs is particularly important, and previously, scanning electron microscope has been used for this purpose. Herein, we report a simple technique, using light microscopy, to identify forensically important eggs of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Chrysomya pacifica Kurahashi, Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, Aldrichina grahami (Aldrich), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Musca domestica L. and Megaselia scalaris (Loew). A 1% potassium permanganate solution was used to stain egg surfaces for 1 min, followed by dehydration in 15, 70, and 95%, absolute alcohol (each solution for 1 min) and the eggs were permanently mounted. The characteristics are based on the width of plastron, morphology of plastron area surrounding the micropyle and chorionic sculpturing, with the length of egg being used as supplemental feature.

  11. Oscillations in the permanganate oxidation of glycine in a stirred flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poros, Eszter; Kurin-Csörgei, Krisztina; Szalai, István; Orbán, Miklós

    2013-09-19

    Oscillatory behavior is reported in the permanganate oxidation of glycine in the presence of Na2HPO4 in a stirred flow reactor. In near-neutral solutions, long-period sustained oscillations were recorded in the potential of a Pt electrode and in the light absorbance measured at λ = 418 and 545 nm, characteristic wavelengths for following the evolution of the intermediate [Mn(IV)] and reagent [MnO4(-) ] during the course of the reaction. No evidence of bistability was found. The chemical and physical backgrounds of the oscillatory phenomenon are discussed. In the oscillatory cycle, the positive feedback is attributed to the autocatalytic formation of a soluble Mn(IV) species, whereas the negative feedback arises from its removal from the solution in the form of solid MnO2. A simple model is suggested that qualitatively simulates the experimental observations in batch runs and the dynamics that appears in the flow system.

  12. Massive bosons interacting with gravity: No standard solutions in Robertson-Walker space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zecca, A.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of the interaction of boson and gravitational field is formulated in the Robertson-Walker space-time. It consist the simultaneous solution of the boson and of the Einstein field equation whose source is the energy momentum tensor of the boson field. By direct verification it is shown that the problem does not admit solutions in the class of massive standard solutions, previously determined, of the boson field equation. Also there cannot be solutions, in case of massive interacting boson, that are superpositions of standard solutions. The case of massless boson field is left open. The result is essentially due to the very special form of the Einstein tensor in Robertson-Walker metric.

  13. The use of permanganate as a sequencing reagent for identification of 5-methylcytosine residues in DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Fritzsche, E; Hayatsu, H; Igloi, G L; Iida, S; Kössel, H

    1987-01-01

    The use of permanganate as a reagent for DNA sequencing by chemical degradation has been studied with respect to its specificity for 5-methylcytosine residues. At weakly acidic pH and room temperature, 0.2 mM potassium permanganate reacts preferentially with thymine, 5-methylcytosine, and to a lesser extent with purine residues, while cytosine remains essentially intact. Permanganate oxidation is, therefore, a suitable DNA sequencing reaction for positive discrimination between 5-methylcytosi...

  14. Influence of different nominal molecular weight fractions of humic acids on phenol oxidation by permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Di; Guan, Xiaohong; Ma, Jun; Yu, Min

    2009-11-01

    The effects of humic acid (HA) and its different nominal molecular weight (NMW) fractions on the phenol oxidation by permanganate were studied. Phenol oxidation by permanganate was enhanced by the presence of HA at pH 4-8, while slightly inhibited at pH 9-10. The effects of HA on phenol oxidation by permanganate were dependent on HA concentration and permanganate/phenol molar ratios. The high NMW fractions of HA enhanced phenol oxidation by permanganate at pH 7 more significantly than the low fractions of HA. The apparent second-order rate constants of phenol oxidation by permanganate in the presence of HA correlated well with their specific ultraviolet absorption (SUVA) at 254 nm and specific violet absorption (SVA) at 465 or 665 nm. High positive correlation coefficients (R(2) > 0.72) implied that pi-electrons of HA strongly influenced the reactivity of phenol towards permanganate oxidation which agreed well with the information provided by fluorescence spectroscopy. The FTIR analysis indicated that the HA fractions rich in aliphatic character, polysaccharide-like substances, and the amount of carboxylate groups had less effect on phenol oxidation by permanganate. The negative correlation between the rate constants of phenol oxidation by permanganate and O/C ratios suggested that the oxidation of phenol increased with a decrease in the content of oxygen-containing functional groups.

  15. Optimization of permanganic etching of polyethylenes for scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naylor, K.L.; Phillips, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    The permanganic etching technique has been studied as a function of time, temperature, and concentration for a series of polyethylenes. Kinetic studies show that a film of reaction products builds up on the surface, impeding further etching, an effect which is greatest for the lowest-crystallinity polymers. SEM studies combined with EDS show that the film contains sulfur, potassium and some manganese. An artifact is produced by the etching process which is impossible to remove by washing procedures if certain limits of time, temperature, and concentration are exceeded. For lower-crystallinity polyethylenes multiple etching and washing steps were required for optimal resolution. Plastic deformation during specimen preparation, whether from scratches or freeze fracturing, enhances artifact formation. When appropriate procedures are used, virtually artifact-free surfaces can be produced allowing a combination of permanganic etching and scanning electron microscopy to give a rapid method for detailed morphological characterization of bulk specimens

  16. Scintillation detector with anticoincidence shield for determination of the radioactive concentration of standard solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, R.; Radoszewski, T.

    1982-01-01

    The construction and parameters of the prototype liquid scintillation detector for disintegration rate determination of standard solutions is described. The detector is equipped with a liquid scintillation anticoincidence shield with a volume of 40 l. The instrument is placed in the building of the Radioisotope Production and Distribution Centre in the Institute of Nuclear Research at Swierk. The results of instrument background reduction are described. The counting efficiency of several beta-emitters 3 H, 63 Ni, 14 C and 90 Sr + 90 Y is given, as well as the examples of a disintegration rate determination of low radioactivity concentration of standard solutions. (author)

  17. Solution standards for quality control of nuclear-material analytical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical chemistry measurement control depends upon reliable solution standards. At the Savannah River Plant Control Laboratory over a thousand analytical measurements are made daily for process control, product specification, accountability, and nuclear safety. Large quantities of solution standards are required for a measurement quality control program covering the many different analytical chemistry methods. Savannah River Plant produced uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium metals or oxides are dissolved to prepare stock solutions for working or Quality Control Standards (QCS). Because extensive analytical effort is required to characterize or confirm these solutions, they are prepared in large quantities. These stock solutions are diluted and blended with different chemicals and/or each other to synthesize QCS that match the matrices of different process streams. The target uncertainty of a standard's reference value is 10% of the limit of error of the methods used for routine measurements. Standard Reference Materials from NBS are used according to special procedures to calibrate the methods used in measuring the uranium and plutonium standards so traceability can be established. Special precautions are required to minimize the effects of temperature, radiolysis, and evaporation. Standard reference values are periodically corrected to eliminate systematic errors caused by evaporation or decay products. Measurement control is achieved by requiring analysts to analyze a blind QCS each shift a measurement system is used on plant samples. Computer evaluation determines whether or not a measurement is within the +- 3 sigma control limits. Monthly evaluations of the QCS measurements are made to determine current bias correction factors for accountability measurements and detect significant changes in the bias and precision statistics. The evaluations are also used to plan activities for improving the reliability of the analytical chemistry measurements

  18. Evaluation of the kinetic oxidation of aqueous volatile organic compounds by permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodlu, Mojtaba G; Hassanizadeh, S Majid; Hartog, Niels

    2014-07-01

    The use of permanganate solutions for in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is a well-established groundwater remediation technology, particularly for targeting chlorinated ethenes. The kinetics of oxidation reactions is an important ISCO remediation design aspect that affects the efficiency and oxidant persistence. The overall rate of the ISCO reaction between oxidant and contaminant is typically described using a second-order kinetic model while the second-order rate constant is determined experimentally by means of a pseudo first order approach. However, earlier studies of chlorinated hydrocarbons have yielded a wide range of values for the second-order rate constants. Also, there is limited insight in the kinetics of permanganate reactions with fuel-derived groundwater contaminants such as toluene and ethanol. In this study, batch experiments were carried out to investigate and compare the oxidation kinetics of aqueous trichloroethylene (TCE), ethanol, and toluene in an aqueous potassium permanganate solution. The overall second-order rate constants were determined directly by fitting a second-order model to the data, instead of typically using the pseudo-first-order approach. The second-order reaction rate constants (M(-1) s(-1)) for TCE, toluene, and ethanol were 8.0×10(-1), 2.5×10(-4), and 6.5×10(-4), respectively. Results showed that the inappropriate use of the pseudo-first-order approach in several previous studies produced biased estimates of the second-order rate constants. In our study, this error was expressed as a function of the extent (P/N) in which the reactant concentrations deviated from the stoichiometric ratio of each oxidation reaction. The error associated with the inappropriate use of the pseudo-first-order approach is negatively correlated with the P/N ratio and reached up to 25% of the estimated second-order rate constant in some previous studies of TCE oxidation. Based on our results, a similar relation is valid for the other volatile

  19. Electrokinetic Enhanced Permanganate Delivery for Low Permeability Soil Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A. I.; Gerhard, J.; Reynolds, D. A.; Sleep, B. E.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    Contaminant mass sequestered in low permeability zones (LPZ) in the subsurface has become a significant concern due to back diffusion of contaminants, leading to contaminant rebound following treatment of the high permeability strata. In-situ remediation technologies such as in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) are promising, however, successful delivery of oxidants into silts and clays remains a challenge. Electrokinetics (EK) has been proposed as a technique that can overcome this challenge by delivering oxidants into low permeability soils. This study demonstrates the ability of EK to facilitate permanganate delivery into silt for treatment of trichloroethene (TCE). A two-dimensional sandbox was packed with alternate vertical layers of coarse sand and silt contaminated with high concentrations of aqueous phase TCE. Nine experiments were conducted to compare EK-enhanced in-situ chemical oxidation (EK-ISCO) to ISCO alone or EK alone. Frequent groundwater sampling at multiple locations combined with image analysis provided detailed mapping of TCE, permanganate, and manganese dioxide mass distributions. EK-ISCO successfully delivered the permanganate throughout the silt cross-section while ISCO without EK resulted in permanganate delivery only to the edges of the silt layer. EK-ISCO resulted in a 4.4 order-of-magnitude (OoM) reduction in TCE concentrations in the coarse sand compared to a 3.5 OoM reduction for ISCO alone. This study suggests that electrokinetics coupled with ISCO can achieve enhanced remediation of lower permeability strata, where remediation technologies for successful contaminant mass removal would otherwise be limited.

  20. Protein-bound solute removal during extended multipass versus standard hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eloot, Sunny; Van Biesen, Wim; Axelsen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    and middle molecules compared to standard hemodialysis (SHD). Since protein-bound solutes (PBS) exert important pathophysiological effects, we investigated whether MPHD results in improved removal of PBS as well. METHODS: A cross-over study (Clinical Trial NCT01267760) was performed in nine stable HD......), hippuric acid (HA), indole acetic acid (IAA), indoxyl sulfate (IS), and p-cresylsulfate (PCS). Dialyser extraction ratio, reduction ratio, and solute removal were calculated for these solutes. RESULTS: Already at 60 min after dialysis start, the extraction ratio in the hemodialyser was a factor 1.4-4 lower...

  1. Development and characterization of colloidal silica-based slow-release permanganate gel (SRP-G): laboratory investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eung Seok; Gupta, Neha

    2014-08-01

    Slow-release permanganate (MnO4(-)) gel (SRP-G) is a hyper-saline KMnO4 solution that can be used for treating large, dilute, or deep plumes of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. Ideally, the SRP-G injected into aquifers will slowly gelate to form MnO4(-) gel in situ, and the gel will slowly releases MnO4(-). Objectives of this study were to develop SRP-G using colloidal silica as gelling solution, characterize its gelation and release kinetics, and delineate its dynamics in a saturated sandy media. The SRP-G exhibited a two-phase increase in viscosity: a lag phase characterized by little increase in viscosity followed by a short gelation phase. Gelation lag times of SRP-G solutions increased (from 0.5h to 13d) with decreasing KMnO4 concentrations (from 25 to 8 g L(-1)). Permanganate release from gelated SRP-G increased with increasing KMnO4 concentrations, and was characterized as asymptotic release with initial peak (0.9-2.2 mg min(-1)) followed by more attenuated release. Gelation lag times of SRP-G flowing in sands (linear velocity=2.1md(-1)) increased (1, 3, and 6h) with decreasing KMnO4 concentrations (25.0, 23.0, and 22.9 g L(-1)). Permanganate release from gelated SRP-Gs continued for up to 3d and was characterized as asymptotic release with an initial peak release (∼1.2 g min(-1)) followed by more attenuated release over 70h. Dilution of SRP-G by dispersion in porous media affects gelation and release kinetics. Increasing the silica concentration in the SRP-G may facilitate gelation and extend the duration of MnO4(-) release from emplaced SRP-G in porous media. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Experimental investigations on potassium permanganate doped polyvinyl alcohol - polyvinyl pyrrolidone blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, G.; Lobo, Blaise

    2018-04-01

    Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) doped polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) - polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) blend films were prepared by solution casting technique, in the doping range varying from 0.01 wt % up to 4.70 wt %. The microstructural changes caused by doping, and the modified properties of these films were studied using Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and temperature dependent direct current (DC) electrical measurements. Temperature variation of electrical resistivity was found to obey Arrhenius relation, from which activation energy was determined. The study was supported by AFM scans, which showed an increase in surface roughness and the presence of spike-like structures, due to interaction of dopant with the polymeric blend. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) scans revealed two stages of degradation in KMnO4 doped PVA - PVP blend films.

  3. Inhibiting and healing effects of potassium permanganate for silane films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    She, Zuxin; Li, Qing, E-mail: liqingswu@yeah.net; Wang, Shaoyin; Luo, Fei; Chen, Funan; Li, Longqin

    2013-07-31

    In this study, the inhibiting and healing effects of potassium permanganate for silane films were investigated, and the optimal mole ratio of MnO{sub 4}{sup −}/Cl{sup −} was also obtained. The inhibiting process and healing mechanism were studied by electrochemical measurements and scanning electron microcopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy. Results demonstrated that the introduction of potassium permanganate to electrolyte could stop the development of corrosion process and the optimal inhibiting mole ratio of MnO{sub 4}{sup −}/Cl{sup −} is 2 × 10{sup −1} with a protective efficiency about 99.24%. According to its high protective efficiency and the nice results of long-term immersion test, potassium permanganate as an inhibitor could prolong the lifetime of silane films and expand its scope of application. - Highlights: • Healing sol–gel film was obtained by adding KMnO{sub 4} into electrolyte. • An optimal inhibitor mole ratio of MnO{sub 4}{sup −}/Cl{sup −} for Si sol–gel was 2 × 10{sup −1}. • The best protective efficiency was approximately 99.24%. • The inhibiting effect may be due to production of insoluble manganese hydroxide/oxide.

  4. Preparation of uranium standard solutions for x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.M.; Cate, J.L.; Pickles, W.L.

    1978-03-01

    A method has been developed for gravimetrically preparing uranium nitrate standards with an estimated mean error of 0.1% (1 sigma) and a maximum error of 0.2% (1 sigma) for the total uranium weight. Two source materials, depleted uranium dioxide powder and NBS Standard Reference Material 960 uranium metal, were used to prepare stock solutions. The NBS metal proved to be superior because of the small but inherent uncertainty in the stoichiometry of the uranium oxide. These solutions were used to prepare standards in a freeze-dried configuration suitable for x-ray fluorescence analysis. Both gravimetric and freeze-drying techniques are presented. Volumetric preparation was found to be unsatisfactory for 0.1% precision for the sample size of interest. One of the primary considerations in preparing uranium standards for x-ray fluorescence analysis is the development of a technique for dispensing a 50-μl aliquot of a standard solution with a precision of 0.1% and an accuracy of 0.1%. The method developed corrects for variation in aliquoting and for evaporation loss during weighing. Two sets, each containing 50 standards have been produced. One set has been retained by LLL and one set retained by the Savannah River project

  5. A note on the standard electron transfer potential at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samec, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2009), s. 75-81 ISSN 0034-6691 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/07/1257 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions * interfacial electron transfer * standard electron trasfer potential * homogeneous electron transfer Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  6. Standard specification for leak detector solutions intended for use on brasses and other copper alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers the requirements for leak detector solutions suitable for use in checking the leakage of valves, pipes, fittings, joints, and so forth of a pressurized gas system fabricated from brasses and other copper alloys. 1.2 This specification deals with the stress corrosion cracking aspect of leak detector solutions. The effectiveness, chemical, physical and mechanical properties of leak detector solutions are not within the scope of this specification. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  7. Providers and Patients Caught Between Standardization and Individualization: Individualized Standardization as a Solution Comment on "(Re) Making the Procrustean Bed? Standardization and Customization as Competing Logics in Healthcare".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansmann, Lena; Pfaff, Holger

    2017-08-12

    In their 2017 article, Mannion and Exworthy provide a thoughtful and theory-based analysis of two parallel trends in modern healthcare systems and their competing and conflicting logics: standardization and customization. This commentary further discusses the challenge of treatment decision-making in times of evidence-based medicine (EBM), shared decision-making and personalized medicine. From the perspective of systems theory, we propose the concept of individualized standardization as a solution to the problem. According to this concept, standardization is conceptualized as a guiding framework leaving room for individualization in the patient physician interaction. The theoretical background is the concept of context management according to systems theory. Moreover, the comment suggests multidisciplinary teams as a possible solution for the integration of standardization and individualization, using the example of multidisciplinary tumor conferences and highlighting its limitations. The comment also supports the authors' statement of the patient as co-producer and introduces the idea that the competing logics of standardization and individualization are a matter of perspective on macro, meso and micro levels. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  8. A study of the decomposition of silver permanganate at high temperatures with an x-ray diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Witt, B.

    1978-12-01

    A study is made of the thermal decay products of silver permanganate at temperatures between 100 degrees Celsius and 800 degrees Celsius. Previous studies have shown that silver permanganate and the decomposition of silver permanganate decay into an amorphous product and remains in that state until the temperature is higher than 350 degrees Celsius. The amorphous phase is tested at different temperatures

  9. Parabola-like shaped pH-rate profile for phenols oxidation by aqueous permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juanshan; Sun, Bo; Zhang, Jing; Guan, Xiaohong

    2012-08-21

    Oxidation of phenols by permanganate in the pH range of 5.0-9.0 generally exhibits a parabola-like shape with the maximum reaction rate obtained at pH close to phenols' pK(a). However, a monotonic increase or decrease is observed if phenols' pK(a) is beyond the pH range of 5.0-9.0. A proton transfer mechanism is proposed in which the undissociated phenol is directly oxidized by permanganate to generate products while a phenolate-permanganate adduct, intermediate, is formed between dissociated phenol and permanganate ion and this is the rate-limiting step for phenolates oxidation by permanganate. The intermediate combines with H(+) and then decomposes to products. Rate equations derived based on the steady-state approximation can well simulate the experimentally derived pH-rate profiles. Linear free energy relationships (LFERs) were established among the parameters obtained from the modeling, Hammett constants, and oxygen natural charges in phenols and phenolates. LFERs reveal that chlorine substituents have opposite influence on the susceptibility of phenols and phenolates to permanganate oxidation and phenolates are not necessarily more easily oxidized than their neutral counterparts. The chlorine substituents regulate the reaction rate of chlorophenolates with permanganate mainly by influencing the natural charges of the oxygen atoms of dissociated phenols while they influence the oxidation of undissociated chlorophenols by permanganate primarily by forming intramolecular hydrogen bonding with the phenolic group.

  10. Determination of plutonium in nitric acid solutions - Method by oxidation by cerium(IV), reduction by iron(II) ammonium sulfate and amperometric back-titration with potassium dichromate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a precise and accurate analytical method for determining plutonium in nitric acid solutions. Plutonium is oxidized to plutonium(VI) in a 1 mol/l nitric acid solution with cerium(IV). Addition of sulfamic acid prevents nitrite-induced side reactions. The excess of cerium(IV) is reduced by adding a sodium arsenite solution, catalysed by osmium tetroxide. A slight excess of arsenite is oxidized by adding a 0.2 mol/l potassium permanganate solution. The excess of permanganate is reduced by adding a 0.1 mol/l oxalic acid solution. Iron(III) is used to catalyse the reduction. A small excess of oxalic acid does not interfere in the subsequent plutonium determination. These reduction and oxidation stages can be followed amperometrically and the plutonium is left in the hexavalent state. The sulfuric acid followed by a measured amount of standardized iron(II) ammonium sulfate solution in excess of that required to reduce the plutonium(VI) to plutonium(IV) is added. The excess iron(II) and any plutonium(III) formed to produce iron(III) and plutonium(IV) is amperometrically back-titrated using a standard potassium dichromate solution. The method is almost specifically for plutonium. It is suitable for the direct determination of plutonium in materials ranging from pure product solutions, to fast reactor fuel solutions with a uranium/plutonium ratio of up to 10:1, either before or after irradiation

  11. Reinvestigation of the role of humic acid in the oxidation of phenols by permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Zhang, Jing; Du, Juanshan; Qiao, Junlian; Guan, Xiaohong

    2013-12-17

    Humic acid (HA) affects the oxidation of phenolic compounds by permanganate, but the role of HA in the oxidation of phenols by permanganate is far from clear. The mechanisms by which HA influences the oxidation of phenols by permanganate at pH 5.0-9.0 were systematically examined in this study. The presence of HA enhanced the oxidation of phenolic compounds by permanganate at pH ≤7.0, with greater enhancement at lower pH values. The presence of HA facilitated the in situ formation of MnO2, implying the importance of reductive moieties of HA in this reaction. This was supported by the finding that HA preoxidized by ozone showed enhancements in the oxidation of phenols by permanganate at pH 5.0-6.0 smaller than those seen with pristine HA. The good correlation between HA-induced improvement in the oxidation rates of phenols by permanganate and those by preformed colloidal MnO2 at pH 5.0 confirmed that contribution of MnO2 formed in situ for the oxidation of phenols under this condition. The differences in the influence of Na2S2O3 and HA on the oxidation of phenol by permanganate revealed the fact that the continuous generation of fresh MnO2 and stabilization of the MnO2 formed in situ by HA were crucial for the HA-induced enhancement of the oxidation of phenols by permanganate at pH ≤7.0. The consumption of permanganate by HA and the poor oxidation ability of in situ-generated MnO2 under alkaline conditions resulted in the slightly negative effect of HA on the degradation rates of phenols by permanganate at pH >7.0.

  12. Potentiometric flow injection system for determination of reductants using a polymeric membrane permanganate ion-selective electrode based on current-controlled reagent delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjing; Ding, Jiawang; Liang, Rongning; Qin, Wei

    2011-10-17

    A polymeric membrane permanganate-selective electrode has been developed as a current-controlled reagent release system for potentiometric detection of reductants in flow injection analysis. By applying an external current, diffusion of permanganate ions across the polymeric membrane can be controlled precisely. The permanganate ions released at the sample-membrane interface from the inner filling solution of the electrode are consumed by reaction with a reductant in the sample solution thus changing the measured membrane potential, by which the reductant can be sensed potentiometrically. Ascorbate, dopamine and norepinephrine have been employed as the model reductants. Under the optimized conditions, the potential peak heights are proportional to the reductant concentrations in the ranges of 1.0×10(-5) to 2.5×10(-7)M for ascorbate, of 1.0×10(-5) to 5.0×10(-7)M for dopamine, and of 1.0×10(-5) to 5.0×10(-7)M for norepinephrine, respectively with the corresponding detection limits of 7.8×10(-8), 1.0×10(-7) and 1.0×10(-7)M. The proposed system has been successfully applied to the determination of reductants in pharmaceutical preparations and vegetables, and the results agree well with those of iodimetric analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxidation kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by permanganate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsey, S.P.; Thomson, N.R.; Barker, J.F. [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2010-04-15

    The reactivity of permanganate towards polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbons (PAHs) is well known but little kinetic information is available. This study investigated the oxidation kinetics of a selected group of coal tar creosote compounds and alkylbenzenes in water using permanganate, and the correlation between compound reactivity and physical/chemical properties. The oxidation of naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, carbazole isopropylbenzene, ethylbenzene and methylbenzene closely followed pseudo first-order reaction kinetics. The oxidation of pyrene was initially very rapid and did not follow pseudo first-order kinetics at early times. Fluoranthene was only partially oxidized and the oxidation of anthracene was too fast to be captured. Biphenyl, dibenzofuran, benzene and tert-butylbenzene were non-reactive under the study conditions. The oxidation rate was shown to increase with increasing number of polycyclic rings because less energy is required to overcome the aromatic character of a polycyclic ring than is required for benzene. Thus the rate of oxidation increased in the series naphthalene < phenanthrene < pyrene. The rate of side chain reactivity is controlled by the C-H bond strength. For the alkyl substituted benzenes an excellent correlation was observed between the reaction rate coefficients and bond dissociation energies, but for the substituted PAHs the relationship was poor. A trend was found between the reaction rate coefficients and the calculated heats of complexation indicating that significant ring oxidation occurred in addition to side chain oxidation. Clar's aromatic sextet theory was used to predict the relative stability of arenes towards ring oxidation by permanganate.

  14. Improvement of precision method of spectrophotometry with inner standardization and its use in plutonium solutions analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, A.V.; Stepanov, D.A.; Nikitina, S.A.; Gogoleva, T.D.; Grigor'eva, M.G.; Bulyanitsa, L.S.; Panteleev, Yu.A.; Pevtsova, E.V.; Domkin, V.D.; Pen'kin, M.V.

    2006-01-01

    Precision method of spectrophotometry with inner standardization is used for analysis of pure Pu solutions. Improvement of the spectrophotometer and spectrophotometric method of analysis is done to decrease accidental constituent of relative error of the method. Influence of U, Np impurities and corrosion products on systematic constituent of error of the method, and effect of fluoride-ion on completeness of Pu oxidation in sample preparation are studied [ru

  15. Synthesis and crystal structure of the cesium silver permanganate Cs_3Ag[MnO_4]_4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauchert, Joerg M.; Henning, Harald; Schleid, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    After successful syntheses and structural refinements of the already known permanganates of cesium (Cs[MnO_4]) and silver (Ag[MnO_4]) we started to blend aqueous solutions of both components in various molar ratios. From crystallization experiments of these mixtures only three species of crystals with different chemical compositions were obtained: tricesium monosilver tetrakispermanganate (Cs_3Ag[MnO_4]_4) and, depending upon the respective ratio, either additional silver permanganate or surplus cesium permanganate, namely. The new title compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pnnm (no. 58) with two formula units per unit cell and cell dimensions of a = 764.53(4), b = 1883.57(9) and c = 584.34(3) pm. The crystal structure of Cs_3Ag[MnO_4]_4 consists of two crystallographically distinguishable cesium cations. (Cs1)"+ is surrounded by fourteen oxygen atoms constructing a slightly distorted bicapped hexagonal prism. These polyhedra are connected through edge-sharing with two other polyhedra of this kind to form chains along [001]. The chains are linked to each other via sixfold coordinated Ag"+ cations (d(Ag-O) = 238-246 pm), arranged in such a manner that they link three oxygen atoms of two cesium polyhedra, leading to a two-dimensional layer spreading out parallel to the (001) plane. Together with the two crystallographically different tetrahedral oxomanganate(VII) anions [MnO_4]"- (d(Mn-O) = 161-162 pm) the other kind of cesium cations ((Cs2)"+ with CN = 13) finally connect these layers three-dimensionally. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Rebound of a coal tar creosote plume following partial source zone treatment with permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, N R; Fraser, M J; Lamarche, C; Barker, J F; Forsey, S P

    2008-11-14

    The long-term management of dissolved plumes originating from a coal tar creosote source is a technical challenge. For some sites stabilization of the source may be the best practical solution to decrease the contaminant mass loading to the plume and associated off-site migration. At the bench-scale, the deposition of manganese oxides, a permanganate reaction byproduct, has been shown to cause pore plugging and the formation of a manganese oxide layer adjacent to the non-aqueous phase liquid creosote which reduces post-treatment mass transfer and hence mass loading from the source. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of partial permanganate treatment to reduce the ability of a coal tar creosote source zone to generate a multi-component plume at the pilot-scale over both the short-term (weeks to months) and the long-term (years) at a site where there is >10 years of comprehensive synoptic plume baseline data available. A series of preliminary bench-scale experiments were conducted to support this pilot-scale investigation. The results from the bench-scale experiments indicated that if sufficient mass removal of the reactive compounds is achieved then the effective solubility, aqueous concentration and rate of mass removal of the more abundant non-reactive coal tar creosote compounds such as biphenyl and dibenzofuran can be increased. Manganese oxide formation and deposition caused an order-of-magnitude decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Approximately 125 kg of permanganate were delivered into the pilot-scale source zone over 35 days, and based on mass balance estimates 35% reduction for all monitored compounds except for biphenyl, dibenzofuran and fluoranthene 150 days after treatment, which is consistent with the bench-scale experimental results. Pre- and post-treatment soil core data indicated a highly variable and random spatial distribution of mass within the source zone and provided no insight into the mass removed of any of the

  17. Standard Gibbs free energies for transfer of actinyl ions at the aqueous/organic solution interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitatsuji, Yoshihiro; Okugaki, Tomohiko; Kasuno, Megumi; Kubota, Hiroki; Maeda, Kohji; Kimura, Takaumi; Yoshida, Zenko; Kihara, Sorin

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Standard Gibbs free energies for ion-transfer of tri- to hexavalent actinide ions. → Determination is based on distribution method combined with ion-transfer voltammetry. → Organic solvents examined are nitrobenzene, DCE, benzonitrile, acetophenone and NPOE. → Gibbs free energies of U(VI), Np(VI) and Pu(VI) are similar to each other. → Gibbs free energies of Np(V) is very large, comparing with ordinary monovalent cations. - Abstract: Standard Gibbs free energies for transfer (ΔG tr 0 ) of actinyl ions (AnO 2 z+ ; z = 2 or 1; An: U, Np, or Pu) between an aqueous solution and an organic solution were determined based on distribution method combined with voltammetry for ion transfer at the interface of two immiscible electrolyte solutions. The organic solutions examined were nitrobenzene, 1,2-dichloroethane, benzonitrile, acetophenone, and 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether. Irrespective of the type of organic solutions, ΔG tr 0 of UO 2 2+ ,NpO 2 2+ , and PuO 2 2+ were nearly equal to each other and slightly larger than that of Mg 2+ . The ΔG tr 0 of NpO 2 + was extraordinary large compared with those of ordinary monovalent cations. The dependence of ΔG tr 0 of AnO 2 z+ on the type of organic solutions was similar to that of H + or Mg 2+ . The ΔG tr 0 of An 3+ and An 4+ were also discussed briefly.

  18. Establishing the traceability of a uranyl nitrate solution to a standard reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.H.; Clark, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    A uranyl nitrate solution for use as a Working Calibration and Test Material (WCTM) was characterized, using a statistically designed procedure to document traceability to National Bureau of Standards Reference Material (SPM-960). A Reference Calibration and Test Material (PCTM) was prepared from SRM-960 uranium metal to approximate the acid and uranium concentration of the WCTM. This solution was used in the characterization procedure. Details of preparing, handling, and packaging these solutions are covered. Two outside laboratories, each having measurement expertise using a different analytical method, were selected to measure both solutions according to the procedure for characterizing the WCTM. Two different methods were also used for the in-house characterization work. All analytical results were tested for statistical agreement before the WCTM concentration and limit of error values were calculated. A concentration value was determined with a relative limit of error (RLE) of approximately 0.03% which was better than the target RLE of 0.08%. The use of this working material eliminates the expense of using SRMs to fulfill traceability requirements for uranium measurements on this type material. Several years' supply of uranyl nitrate solution with NBS traceability was produced. The cost of this material was less than 10% of an equal quantity of SRM-960 uranium metal

  19. Convergence and periodic solutions for the input impedance of a standard ladder network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ucak, C; Acar, C

    2007-01-01

    The input impedance of an infinite ladder network is computed by using the recursive relation and by assuming that the input impedance does not change when a new block is added to the network. However, this assumption is not true in general and standard textbooks do not always treat these networks correctly. This paper develops a general solution to obtain the input impedance of a standard ladder network of impedances and admittances for any number of blocks. Then, this result is used to provide the convergence condition for the infinite ladder network. The conditions which lead to periodic input impedance are exploited. It is shown that there are infinite numbers of periodic points and no paradoxical behaviour exists in the standard ladder network

  20. The state of permanganate with relation to in situ chemical oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronda, Brenda; Dingens, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) with permanganate had its beginnings over 10 years ago. Since that time, many sites have been successfully treated for organic compounds including chlorinated ethenes (perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, etc.) phenols, explosives such as RDX, and many other organics. The successful application of ISCO with permanganate requires the integration of many site-specific factors into the remedial design. ISCO with permanganate is an effective technology, not only for its oxidative properties and persistence, but also for its application flexibility to remediate soil and groundwater. The merits of any type of treatment technology can be assessed in terms of effectiveness, ease of use, reaction rate, and cost. The use of permanganate for in situ chemical oxidation results in the complete mineralization of TCE and PCE and can result in treatment levels below detection limits. Permanganate is a single component oxidizer, which is easily handled, mixed and distributed to the subsurface. Permanganate is also inexpensive to design and implement as compared to other technologies. This presentation will provide a general overview of the application and safety aspects of ISCO with permanganate. This paper will discuss the advantages and limitations of this technology, typical cost ranges, site evaluation and application technologies. (authors)

  1. Growth of permanganate conversion coating on 2024-Al alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulinich, S.A.; Akhtar, A.S.; Wong, P.C.; Wong, K.C.; Mitchell, K.A.R.

    2007-01-01

    The growth of permanganate conversion coating on aluminum 2024-T3 alloy has been studied by characterizing, with scanning Auger microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, the coatings formed by immersion of the alloy in the coating bath (containing KMnO 4 and Na 2 B 4 O 7 , pH 9.1) for different periods of time and at different temperatures. At room temperature, during the first 1-5 min of immersion, MnO 2 deposits are formed only on the second-phase intermetallic particles (of Al-Cu-Mg and Al-Cu-Fe-Mn types), but the coating starts to develop on the Al matrix surface after 5-10 min. The coating slows down and stops after about 150 min, with a thinner deposit over the alloy matrix. The process is accelerated at higher temperatures, for example at 68 deg. C it self-limits after about 3 min. The electrochemical growth process appears to follow that established for the chromate conversion coatings, although XPS does not detect significant MnO 4 - incorporation into the permanganate coatings

  2. Oxidation kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsey, Steven P; Thomson, Neil R; Barker, James F

    2010-04-01

    The reactivity of permanganate towards polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbons (PAHs) is well known but little kinetic information is available. This study investigated the oxidation kinetics of a selected group of coal tar creosote compounds and alkylbenzenes in water using permanganate, and the correlation between compound reactivity and physical/chemical properties. The oxidation of naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, carbazole isopropylbenzene, ethylbenzene and methylbenzene closely followed pseudo first-order reaction kinetics. The oxidation of pyrene was initially very rapid and did not follow pseudo first-order kinetics at early times. Fluoranthene was only partially oxidized and the oxidation of anthracene was too fast to be captured. Biphenyl, dibenzofuran, benzene and tert-butylbenzene were non-reactive under the study conditions. The oxidation rate was shown to increase with increasing number of polycyclic rings because less energy is required to overcome the aromatic character of a polycyclic ring than is required for benzene. Thus the rate of oxidation increased in the series naphthalenepermanganate. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Removal of emerging pollutants by Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Sun, Bo; Xiong, Xinmei; Gao, Naiyun; Song, Weihua; Du, Erdeng; Guan, Xiaohong; Zhou, Gongming

    2014-10-15

    TiO2 supported ruthenium nanoparticles, Ru/TiO2 (0.94‰ as Ru), was synthesized to catalyze permanganate oxidation for degrading emerging pollutants (EPs) with diverse organic moieties. The presence of 1.0 g L(-1) Ru/TiO2 increased the second order reaction rate constants of bisphenol A, diclofenac, acetaminophen, sulfamethoxazole, benzotriazole, carbamazepine, butylparaben, diclofenac, ciprofloxacin and aniline at mg L(-1) level (5.0 μM) by permanganate oxidation at pH 7.0 by 0.3-119 times. The second order reaction rate constants of EPs with permanganate or Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation obtained at EPs concentration of mg L(-1) level (5.0 μM) underestimated those obtained at EPs concentration of μg L(-1) level (0.050 μM). Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate could decompose a mixture of nine EPs at μg L(-1) level efficiently and the second order rate constant for each EP was not decreased due to the competition of other EPs. The toxicity tests revealed that Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation was effective not only for elimination of EPs but also for detoxification. The removal rates of sulfamethoxazole by Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation in ten successive cycles remained almost constant in ultrapure water and slightly decreased in Songhua river water since the sixth run, indicating the satisfactory stability of Ru/TiO2. Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation was selective and could remove selected EPs spiked in real waters more efficiently than chlorination. Therefore, Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation is promising for removing EPs with electron-rich moieties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ru(III) catalyzed permanganate oxidation of aniline at environmentally relevant pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Hui; Guan, Xiaohong

    2014-07-01

    Ru(III) was employed as catalyst for aniline oxidation by permanganate at environmentally relevant pH for the first time. Ru(III) could significantly improve the oxidation rate of aniline by 5-24 times with its concentration increasing from 2.5 to 15 μmol/L. The reaction of Ru(III) catalyzed permanganate oxidation of aniline was first-order with respect to aniline, permanganate and Ru(III), respectively. Thus the oxidation kinetics can be described by a third-order rate law. Aniline degradation by Ru(III) catalyzed permanganate oxidation was markedly influenced by pH, and the second-order rate constant (ktapp) decreased from 643.20 to 2.67 (mol/L)⁻¹sec⁻¹ with increasing pH from 4.0 to 9.0, which was possibly due to the decrease of permanganate oxidation potential with increasing pH. In both the uncatalytic and catalytic permanganate oxidation, six byproducts of aniline were identified in UPLC-MS/MS analysis. Ru(III), as an electron shuttle, was oxidized by permanganate to Ru(VI) and Ru(VII), which acted the co-oxidants for decomposition of aniline. Although Ru(III) could catalyze permanganate oxidation of aniline effectively, dosing homogeneous Ru(III) into water would lead to a second pollution. Therefore, efforts would be made to investigate the catalytic performance of supported Ru(III) toward permanganate oxidation in our future study. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Ruthenium nanoparticles supported on CeO2 for catalytic permanganate oxidation of butylparaben.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Sun, Bo; Guan, Xiaohong; Wang, Hui; Bao, Hongliang; Huang, Yuying; Qiao, Junlian; Zhou, Gongming

    2013-11-19

    This study developed a heterogeneous catalytic permanganate oxidation system with ceria supported ruthenium, Ru/CeO2 (0.8‰ as Ru), as catalyst for the first time. The catalytic performance of Ru/CeO2 toward butylparaben (BP) oxidation by permanganate was strongly dependent on its dosage, pH, permanganate concentration and temperature. The presence of 1.0 g L(-1) Ru/CeO2 increased the oxidation rate of BP by permanganate at pH 4.0-8.0 by 3-96 times. The increase in Ru/CeO2 dosage led to a progressive enhancement in the oxidation rate of BP by permanganate at neutral pH. The XANES analysis revealed that (1) Ru was deposited on the surface of CeO2 as Ru(III); (2) Ru(III) was oxidized by permanganate to its higher oxidation state Ru(VI) and Ru(VII), which acted as the co-oxidants in BP oxidation; (3) Ru(VI) and Ru(VII) were reduced by BP to its initial state of Ru(III). Therefore, Ru/CeO2 acted as an electron shuttle in catalytic permanganate oxidation process. LC-MS/MS analysis implied that BP was initially attacked by permanganate or Ru(VI) and Ru(VII) at the aromatic ring, leading to the formation of various hydroxyl-substituted and ring-opening products. Ru/CeO2 could maintain its catalytic activity during the six successive runs. In conclusion, catalyzing permanganate oxidation with Ru/CeO2 is a promising technology for degrading phenolic pollutants in water treatment.

  6. Thermal annealing of recoil 56Mn in strontium permanganate under (n,γ) process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Shuddhodan P.; Vijaya

    2002-01-01

    Chemical stabilization of recoil 56 Mn in strontium permanganate (hydrous and anhydrous) has been investigated with a special reference to pre-and post-activation thermal annealing treatments. The retention of 56 Mn in neutron irradiated strontium permanganate showed significant variation on thermal annealing in both pre-and post-activation heated target. The recoil re-entry process obeys simple first order kinetics and the activation energy deduced for thermal annealing process is very low as computed by classical Arrhenius plots. The results observed are discussed in the light of existing ideas for understanding the recoil stabilization mechanism of parent reformation and the nature of precursors in permanganates. (author)

  7. Bias in the absorption coefficient determination of a fluorescent dye, standard reference material 1932 fluorescein solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeRose, Paul C.; Kramer, Gary W.

    2005-01-01

    The absorption coefficient of standard reference material[registered] (SRM[registered]) 1932, fluorescein in a borate buffer solution (pH=9.5) has been determined at λ=488.0, 490.0, 490.5 and 491.0 nm using the US national reference UV/visible spectrophotometer. The purity of the fluorescein was determined to be 97.6% as part of the certification of SRM 1932. The solution measured was prepared gravimetrically by diluting SRM 1932 with additional borate buffer. The value of the absorption coefficient was corrected for bias due to fluorescence that reaches the detector and for dye purity. Bias due to fluorescence was found to be on the order of -1% for both monochromatic and polychromatic (e.g., diode-array based) spectrophotometers

  8. Reduction and Immobilization of Potassium Permanganate on Iron Oxide Catalyst by Fluidized-Bed Crystallization Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Xia Li

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A manganese immobilization technology in a fluidized-bed reactor (FBR was developed by using a waste iron oxide (i.e., BT-3 as catalyst which is a by-product from the fluidized-bed Fenton reaction (FBR-Fenton. It was found that BT-3 could easily reduce potassium permanganate (KMnO4 to MnO2. Furthermore, MnO2 could accumulate on the surface of BT-3 catalyst to form a new Fe-Mn oxide. Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the KMnO4-reduction mechanism, including the effect of KMnO4 concentration, BT-3 dosage, and operational solution pH. The results showed that the pH solution was a significant factor in the reduction of KMnO4. At the optimum level, pHf 6, KMnO4 was virtually reduced in 10 min. A pseudo-first order reaction was employed to describe the reduction rate of KMnO4.

  9. Lorentz-violating vortex solutions in the CPT-even electrodynamics of the Standard Model Extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira Junior, Manoel M.; Hora, E. da

    2011-01-01

    Full text: In this work, we investigate the formation of static rotationally symmetric solutions on the (1+3) dimensional CPT-even and Lorentz-violating photonic sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME). The main goal of this work is to show the possibility of obtaining these solutions, even in the presence of Lorentz-breaking fields. A secondary goal is to examine the effects of these fields on topologically non-trivial configurations. In order to obtain these results, we focus on specific components of Lorentz-violating background, dealing with static Euler-Lagrange equations, from which we fix temporal gauge (absence of electric field) as a proper gauge choice. We assume the usual rotationally symmetric Ansatz, inserting it in the Euler-Lagrange equations previously obtained. This Ansatz describes the Higgs and gauge fields via profile functions g(r) and a(r), respectively. From this Ansatz, we construct suitable boundary conditions near the origin. Also, we write the energy density in terms of these two profile functions, obtaining from it asymptotic boundary conditions. This set of conditions is used to numerically solve the Euler-Lagrange equations (by means of the shooting method). Finally, we plot solutions for some physical quantities (Higgs field, magnetic field and energy density) for several values of the Lorentz-violating parameters. From these plots, we discuss the influence of these coefficients on the topologically non-trivial rotationally symmetric configurations, focusing on the profiles of both magnetic field and energy density. (author)

  10. Kinetics studies of oxidation of niacinamide by alkaline potassium permanganate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandipsingh Gour

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of niacinamide in alkaline media is carried out using potassium permanganate as a oxiding agent. The reaction was monitored using UV-Visible spectrophotometer at 525 nm. It was found to be zero order with respect to oxidant,, fractional order with respect to hydrogen ion concentration and first order with respect to substrate. The thermodynamic parameters(were determinied . The average (?G# was found to be 87.60 KJ/mol. The values ?S# was found to be -0.2132 KJ/mole and energy of activation was found to be 23.95 KJ/mole. A suitable mechanism is proposed based on the experimental conditions.

  11. Potassium permanganate poisoning--a rare cause of fatal self poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, K L; Tan, T H; Cheung, W L

    1997-01-01

    Attempted suicide by self poisoning is common because of the ready availability of drugs, whether prescribed or bought over the counter. In some cases, the ingestion of seemingly innocuous household products or chemicals can result in death. Potassium permanganate is an example. Poisoning with potassium permanganate can be fatal when a significant amount is ingested, as shown by a patient who suffered both the corrosive and systemic toxic effects of this chemical.

  12. Influence of humic acids of different origins on oxidation of phenol and chlorophenols by permanganate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Di; Guan Xiaohong; Ma Jun; Yang Xue; Cui Chongwei

    2010-01-01

    The influences of humic acids (HAs) of different origins, including two commercial HAs, three soil HAs and one aquatic HA, on phenols oxidation by permanganate were studied. The apparent second-order rate constants of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP)/phenol oxidation by permanganate in the presence of HAs at pH 7 followed the order of commercial HA (Shanghai) > soil HAs > commercial HA (Fluka) > aquatic HA. Moreover, the commercial HA (Shanghai) could accelerate the oxidation of different chlorophenols (CP) significantly under neutral condition. The FTIR analysis demonstrated greater content of C=C moieties and less amount of carboxylate, aliphatic groups and polysaccharide-like substances in soil HAs than in aqueous HA, suggesting that the increase of aromaticity in HA was beneficial to the oxidation of phenols by permanganate. The apparent second-order rate constants of 2-CP/phenol oxidation by permanganate in the presence of HAs correlated well with specific visible absorption (SVA) at 665 nm of HAs. High positive correlation coefficients (R 2 > 0.75) implied that π-electrons of HA strongly influenced the reactivity of 2-CP/phenol towards permanganate oxidation, which agreed well with positive correlation between Fluorescence Regional Integration (FRI) and the apparent second-order rate constants. The π-π interaction between HAs and phenols, the steric hindrance effect and the dissociation of phenols may affect the oxidation of phenols by permanganate in the presence of HA at pH = 7.0.

  13. The impact of pre-oxidation with potassium permanganate on cyanobacterial organic matter removal by coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naceradska, Jana; Pivokonsky, Martin; Pivokonska, Lenka; Baresova, Magdalena; Henderson, Rita K; Zamyadi, Arash; Janda, Vaclav

    2017-05-01

    The study investigates the effect of permanganate pre-oxidation on the coagulation of peptides/proteins of Microcystis aeruginosa which comprise a major proportion of the organic matter during cyanobacterial bloom decay. Four different permanganate dosages (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg KMnO 4 mg -1 DOC) were applied prior to coagulation by ferric sulphate. Moreover, changes in sample characteristics, such as UV 254 , DOC content and molecular weight distribution, after pre-oxidation were monitored. The results showed that permanganate pre-oxidation led to a reduction in coagulant dose, increased organic matter removals by coagulation (by 5-12% depending on permanganate dose), microcystin removal (with reductions of 91-96%) and a shift of the optimum pH range from 4.3 to 6 without to 5.5-7.3 with pre-oxidation. Degradation of organic matter into inorganic carbon and adsorption of organic matter onto hydrous MnO 2 are suggested as the main processes responsible for coagulation improvement. Moreover, permanganate prevented the formation of Fe-peptide/protein complexes that inhibit coagulation at pH about 6.2 without pre-oxidation. The study showed that carefully optimized dosing of permanganate improves cyanobacterial peptide/protein removal, with the benefit of microcystin elimination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Permanganate oxidation of sulfur compounds to prevent poisoning of Pd catalysts in water treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles-Wedler, Dalia; Mackenzie, Katrin; Kopinke, Frank-Dieter

    2008-08-01

    The practical application of Pd-catalyzed water treatment processes is impeded by catalyst poisoning by reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs). In this study, the potential of permanganate as a selective oxidant for the removal of microbially generated RSCs in water and as a regeneration agent for S-poisoned catalysts was evaluated. Hydrodechlorination using Pd/Al2O3 was carried out as a probe reaction in permanganate-pretreated water. The activity of the Pd catalysts in the successfully pretreated reaction medium was similar to that in deionized water. The catalyst showed no deactivation behavior in the presence of permanganate at a concentration level or = 0.08 mM, a significant but temporary inhibition of the catalytic dechlorination was observed. Unprotected Pd/Al2O3, which had been completely poisoned by sulfide, was reactivated by a combined treatment with permanganate and hydrazine. However, the anthropogenic water pollutants thiophene and carbon disulfide were resistant against permanganate. Together with the preoxidation of catalyst poisons, hydrophobic protection of the catalysts was studied. Pd/zeolite and various hydrophobically coated catalysts showed a higher stability against ionic poisons and permanganate than the uncoated catalyst. By means of a combination of oxidative water pretreatment and hydrophobic catalyst protection, we provide a new tool to harness the potential of Pd-catalyzed hydrodehalogenation for the treatment of real waters.

  15. Influence of humic acids of different origins on oxidation of phenol and chlorophenols by permanganate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Di, E-mail: hedy1997@hotmail.com [State Key Lab of Urban Water Resource and Environment (HIT), Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Guan Xiaohong, E-mail: hitgxh@126.com [State Key Lab of Urban Water Resource and Environment (HIT), Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Ma Jun, E-mail: majun@hit.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Urban Water Resource and Environment (HIT), Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Yang Xue, E-mail: yangxue1_ok@163.com [State Key Lab of Urban Water Resource and Environment (HIT), Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Cui Chongwei, E-mail: cuichongwei1991@126.com [State Key Lab of Urban Water Resource and Environment (HIT), Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China)

    2010-10-15

    The influences of humic acids (HAs) of different origins, including two commercial HAs, three soil HAs and one aquatic HA, on phenols oxidation by permanganate were studied. The apparent second-order rate constants of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP)/phenol oxidation by permanganate in the presence of HAs at pH 7 followed the order of commercial HA (Shanghai) > soil HAs > commercial HA (Fluka) > aquatic HA. Moreover, the commercial HA (Shanghai) could accelerate the oxidation of different chlorophenols (CP) significantly under neutral condition. The FTIR analysis demonstrated greater content of C=C moieties and less amount of carboxylate, aliphatic groups and polysaccharide-like substances in soil HAs than in aqueous HA, suggesting that the increase of aromaticity in HA was beneficial to the oxidation of phenols by permanganate. The apparent second-order rate constants of 2-CP/phenol oxidation by permanganate in the presence of HAs correlated well with specific visible absorption (SVA) at 665 nm of HAs. High positive correlation coefficients (R{sup 2} > 0.75) implied that {pi}-electrons of HA strongly influenced the reactivity of 2-CP/phenol towards permanganate oxidation, which agreed well with positive correlation between Fluorescence Regional Integration (FRI) and the apparent second-order rate constants. The {pi}-{pi} interaction between HAs and phenols, the steric hindrance effect and the dissociation of phenols may affect the oxidation of phenols by permanganate in the presence of HA at pH = 7.0.

  16. Analysis of Radio communication solutions in small and isolated communities under the IEEE 802.22 standard

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo Arzubi, Alejandro; Castro Lechtaler, Antonio; Foti, Antonio Roberto; Fusario, Rubén J.; García Guibout, Jorge; Sens, Lorena

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the use of wireless communications has increased significantly. Rural communities without cable network communication have found a solution in wireless technologies. Based on previous fieldwork, this paper analyzes software development of integration based technologies for communication equipment. It focuses on the feasibility of the IEEE 802.22 standard as a solution to the wireless problem.

  17. Two-loop renormalization in the standard model, part III. Renormalization equations and their solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actis, S.; Passarino, G.

    2006-12-01

    In part I and II of this series of papers all elements have been introduced to extend, to two loops, the set of renormalization procedures which are needed in describing the properties of a spontaneously broken gauge theory. In this paper, the final step is undertaken and finite renormalization is discussed. Two-loop renormalization equations are introduced and their solutions discussed within the context of the minimal standard model of fundamental interactions. These equations relate renormalized Lagrangian parameters (couplings and masses) to some input parameter set containing physical (pseudo-)observables. Complex poles for unstable gauge and Higgs bosons are used and a consistent setup is constructed for extending the predictivity of the theory from the Lep1 Z-boson scale (or the Lep2 WW scale) to regions of interest for LHC and ILC physics. (orig.)

  18. Two-loop renormalization in the standard model, part III. Renormalization equations and their solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Actis, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Passarino, G. [Torino Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Teorica; INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    In part I and II of this series of papers all elements have been introduced to extend, to two loops, the set of renormalization procedures which are needed in describing the properties of a spontaneously broken gauge theory. In this paper, the final step is undertaken and finite renormalization is discussed. Two-loop renormalization equations are introduced and their solutions discussed within the context of the minimal standard model of fundamental interactions. These equations relate renormalized Lagrangian parameters (couplings and masses) to some input parameter set containing physical (pseudo-)observables. Complex poles for unstable gauge and Higgs bosons are used and a consistent setup is constructed for extending the predictivity of the theory from the Lep1 Z-boson scale (or the Lep2 WW scale) to regions of interest for LHC and ILC physics. (orig.)

  19. Oxidative degradation of triclosan by potassium permanganate: Kinetics, degradation products, reaction mechanism, and toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Qu, Ruijuan; Pan, Xiaoxue; Wang, Zunyao

    2016-10-15

    In this study, we systematically investigated the potential applicability of potassium permanganate for removal of triclosan (TCS) in water treatment. A series of kinetic experiments were carried out to study the influence of various factors, including the pH, oxidant doses, temperature, and presence of typical anions (Cl(-), SO4(2-), NO3(-)), humic acid (HA), and fulvic acid (FA) on triclosan removal. The optimal reaction conditions were: pH = 8.0, [TCS]0:[KMnO4]0 = 1:2.5, and T = 25 °C, where 20 mg/L of TCS could be completely degraded in 120 s. However, the rate of TCS (20 μg/L) oxidation by KMnO4 ([TCS]0:[KMnO4]0 = 1:2.5) was 1.64 × 10(-3) mg L(-1)·h(-1), lower than that at an initial concentration of 20 mg/L (2.24 × 10(3) mg L(-1)·h(-1)). A total of eleven products were detected by liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) analysis, including phenol and its derivatives, benzoquinone, an organic acid, and aldehyde. Two main reaction pathways involving CO bond cleavage (-C(8)O(7)-) and benzene ring opening (in the less chlorinated benzene ring) were proposed, and were further confirmed based on frontier electron density calculations and point charges. Furthermore, the changes in the toxicity of the reaction solution during TCS oxidation by KMnO4 were evaluated by using both the luminescent bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum and the water flea Daphnia magna. The toxicity of 20 mg/L triclosan to D. magna and P. phosphoreum after 60 min was reduced by 95.2% and 43.0%, respectively. Phenol and 1,4-benzoquinone, the two representative degradation products formed during permanganate oxidation, would yield low concentrations of DBPs (STHMFP, 20.99-278.97 μg/mg; SHAAFP, 7.86 × 10(-4)-45.77 μg/mg) after chlorination and chloramination. Overall, KMnO4 can be used as an effective oxidizing agent for TCS removal in water and wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Standardization of a 89Sr solution from a BIPM intercomparison using a liquid scintillation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, P.A.L.; Loureiro, J.S.; Bernardes, E.M.O.

    2002-01-01

    A procedure to standardize 89 Sr (as strontium chloride) solutions, within the frame of a BIPM intercomparison, by the CIEMAT/NIST method was presented for Instagel Plus, HiSafe III and Ultima Gold liquid scintillation cocktails. The stability was studied for two types of samples: those obtained by direct addition of the 89 Sr solution and those by the extra addition of 0.5 ml of HCl (0.1 mol l -1 ) to the cocktails. The results only showed good stability with the three scintillants used when additional HCl was added to the cocktails. The activities per unit mass determined for 89 Sr were: 26.344 kBq g -1 for Instagel Plus; 26.335 kBq g -1 for HiSafe III; and 26.310 kBq g -1 for Ultima Gold (at a reference time of 2000.10.01, 00 h UT) with a total uncertainty of 0.5% in each case (k=1)

  1. A long-term bench-scale investigation of permanganate consumption by aquifer materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiuyuan; Thomson, Neil R

    2009-11-20

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) applications using permanganate involve the injection or release of permanganate into the subsurface to destroy various target contaminants. Naturally occurring reduced components associated with aquifer materials can exert a significant oxidant demand thereby reducing the amount of permanganate available for the destruction of contaminants as well as reducing the overall rate of oxidation. Quantification of this natural oxidant demand (NOD) is a requirement for site-specific assessment and the design of cost-effective oxidant delivery systems. To further our understanding of the interaction between permanganate and aquifer materials, aerobic and anaerobic aquifer materials from eight representative sites throughout North America were tested in a series of systematic bench-scale experiments. Various permanganate to aquifer solids mass loading ratios at different initial permanganate concentrations in well-mixed batch reactors were monitored for >300 days. All NOD temporal profiles demonstrated an initial fast consumption rate followed by a persistent slower consumption rate. The data generated show that the mass loading ratio, the initial permanganate concentration, and the nature and quantity of reduced aquifer material species are the main factors controlling permanganate consumption rates. A higher initial permanganate concentration or a larger mass loading ratio produced a larger fast NOD consumption rate and generated a corresponding higher maximum NOD value. Hence, both the NOD temporal profile and the maximum NOD are not single-valued but are heavily dependent on the experimental conditions. Predictive relationships were developed to estimate the maximum NOD and the NOD at 7 days based on aquifer material properties. The concentration of manganese oxides deposited on the aquifer solids was highly correlated with the mass of permanganate consumed suggesting that passivation of NOD reaction sites occurred due to the formation

  2. Permanganate gel (PG) for groundwater remediation: compatibility, gelation, and release characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eung Seok; Olson, Pamela R; Gupta, Neha; Solpuker, Utku; Schwartz, Franklin W; Kim, Yongje

    2014-02-01

    Permanganate (MnO4(-)) is a strong oxidant that is widely used for treating chlorinated ethylenes in groundwater. This study aims to develop hyper-saline MnO4(-) solution (MnO4(-) gel; PG) that can be injected into aquifers via wells, slowly gelates over time, and slowly release MnO4(-) to flowing water. In this study, compatibility and miscibility of gels, such as chitosan, aluminosilicate, silicate, and colloidal silica gels, with MnO4(-) were tested. Of these gels, chitosan was reactive with MnO4(-). Aluminosilicates were compatible but not readily miscible with MnO4(-). Silicates and colloidal silica were both compatible and miscible with MnO4(-), and gelated with addition of KMnO4 granules. Colloidal silica has low initial viscosity (<15cP), exhibited delayed gelation characteristics with the lag times ranging from 0 to 200min. Release of MnO4(-) from the colloidal silica-based PG gel occurred in a delayed fashion, with maximum duration of 24h. These results suggested that colloidal silica can be used to create PG or delayed-gelling forms containing other oxidants which can be used for groundwater remediation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Primary standardization of a {sup 177}Lu solution; Padronizacao primaria de uma solucao de {sup 177}Lu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwahara, Akira; Silva, Carlos Jose da; Tauhata, Luiz; Oliveira, Estela Maria de, E-mail: iwahara@ird.gov.b, E-mail: carlos@ird.gov.b, E-mail: tauhata@ird.gov.b, E-mail: estela@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rezende, Eduarda Alexandre, E-mail: eduarda@ird.gov.b [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Quimica (CEFET), Nilopolis, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    For the purpose to make available reliable standards of {sup 177}Lu to the users and producers, a radionuclide solution was standardized using the primary methods of coincidence 4{pi}{beta}(PC)-{gamma}(NaI(Tl)) and of 4{pi}{beta}(LS)-{gamma}(NaI(Tl)). The results presented a convergence in the range of evaluated uncertainties. The standard uncertainties were of the 0.50 and 0.74% for the anticoincidence and coincidence respectively

  4. Sensitive and selective spectrophotometric determination of pantoprazole sodium in pharmaceuticals using permanganate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. VINAY

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple visible spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of pantoprazole sodium sesquihydrate (PSS. The method is based on the formation of a brown colored product on treating PSS with permanganate in neutral medium, the absorbance being measured at 350 nm. The experimental conditions for the assay were optimized. The absorbance is found to increase linearly with the concentration of PSS and the calibration graph is linear in the range of 2.5-40.0 μg ml-1 with a linear regression coefficient of 0.998. The calculated molar absorptivity value is 1.27x104 l mol-1 cm-1 and the corresponding Sandel sensitivity is 0.0341 µg cm-2. The limits of detection (LOD and quantification (LOQ are calculated to be 0.49 and 1.47 µg ml-1, respectively. Intra-day and inter-day accuracy expressed as relative error were better than 2.0% and the corresponding precision (RSD was less than 2.5 %. The developed and validated method was applied to the determination of the active ingredient in a tablet dosage form and the results obtained agreed well with those of the reference method. The accuracy and reliability of the method were ascertained by performing recovery experiments via standard-addition procedure.

  5. Permanganate oxidation of α-amino acids: kinetic correlations for the nonautocatalytic and autocatalytic reaction pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Benito, Joaquin F

    2011-09-08

    The reactions of permanganate ion with seven α-amino acids in aqueous KH(2)PO(4)/K(2)HPO(4) buffers have been followed spectrophotometrically at two different wavelengths: 526 nm (decay of MnO(4)(-)) and 418 nm (formation of colloidal MnO(2)). All of the reactions studied were autocatalyzed by colloidal MnO(2), with the contribution of the autocatalytic reaction pathway decreasing in the order glycine > l-threonine > l-alanine > l-glutamic acid > l-leucine > l-isoleucine > l-valine. The rate constants corresponding to the nonautocatalytic and autocatalytic pathways were obtained by means of either a differential rate law or an integrated one, the latter requiring the use of an iterative method for its implementation. The activation parameters for the two pathways were determined and analyzed to obtain statistically significant correlations for the series of reactions studied. The activation enthalpy of the nonautocatalytic pathway showed a strong, positive dependence on the standard Gibbs energy for the dissociation of the protonated amino group of the α-amino acid. Linear enthalpy-entropy correlations were found for both pathways, leading to isokinetic temperatures of 370 ± 21 K (nonautocatalytic) and 364 ± 28 K (autocatalytic). Mechanisms in agreement with the experimental data are proposed for the two reaction pathways.

  6. Model creation of moving redox reaction boundary in agarose gel electrophoresis by traditional potassium permanganate method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hai-Yang; Liu, Qian; Li, Jia-Hao; Fan, Liu-Yin; Cao, Cheng-Xi

    2013-02-21

    A novel moving redox reaction boundary (MRRB) model was developed for studying electrophoretic behaviors of analytes involving redox reaction on the principle of moving reaction boundary (MRB). Traditional potassium permanganate method was used to create the boundary model in agarose gel electrophoresis because of the rapid reaction rate associated with MnO(4)(-) ions and Fe(2+) ions. MRB velocity equation was proposed to describe the general functional relationship between velocity of moving redox reaction boundary (V(MRRB)) and concentration of reactant, and can be extrapolated to similar MRB techniques. Parameters affecting the redox reaction boundary were investigated in detail. Under the selected conditions, good linear relationship between boundary movement distance and time were obtained. The potential application of MRRB in electromigration redox reaction titration was performed in two different concentration levels. The precision of the V(MRRB) was studied and the relative standard deviations were below 8.1%, illustrating the good repeatability achieved in this experiment. The proposed MRRB model enriches the MRB theory and also provides a feasible realization of manual control of redox reaction process in electrophoretic analysis.

  7. Solution Calorimetry Experiments for Physical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizen, Deborah A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents two experiments: the first one measures the heat of an exothermic reaction by the reduction of permanganate by the ferris ion; the second one measures the heat of an endothermic process, the mixing of ethanol and cyclohexane. Lists tables to aid in the use of the solution calorimeter. (MVL)

  8. Oxidation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) by chlorine, ozone and permanganate--a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shanshan; Zhao, Zhiwei; Xu, Yongpeng; Tian, Jiayu; Qi, Hong; Lin, Wei; Cui, Fuyi

    2014-06-15

    Sulfamethoxazole (SMX), a typical sulfonamide antibiotic, has been widely detected in secondary wastewater effluents and surface waters. In this work we investigated the oxidative degradation of SMX by commonly used oxidants of chlorine, ozone and permanganate. Chlorine and ozone were shown to be more effective for the removal of SMX (0.05-5.0mg/L), as compared with permanganate. Higher pH enhanced the oxidation of SMX by ozone and permanganate, but decreased the removal by chlorine. Moreover, the ozonation of SMX was significantly influenced by the presence of humic acid (HA), which exhibited negligible influence on the oxidation by chlorine and permanganate. Fairly lower mineralization of SMX occurred during the oxidation reactions, with the highest dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal of 13% (for ozone). By using LC-MS/MS, 7, 5 and 5 oxidation products were identified for chlorine, ozone and permanganate and possible transformation pathways were proposed. It was shown that different oxidants shared some common pathways, such as the cleavage of SN bond, the hydroxylation of the benzene ring, etc. On the other hand, each of the oxidants also exhibited exclusive degradation mechanisms, leading to the formation of different transformation products (TPs). This work may provide useful information for the selection of oxidants in water treatment processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Influence of pH on Kinetics of Anilines Oxidation by Permanganate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Sun, Bo; Guan, Xiao-hong

    2016-02-15

    To investigate the effect of pH on the oxidation of anilines by potassium permanganate, aniline and p-Chloroaniline were taken as the target contaminants, and the experiments were conducted under the condition with potassium permanganate in excess over a wide pH range. The reaction displayed remarkable autocatalysis, which was presumably ascribed to the formation of complexes by the in situ generated MnOx and the target contaminants on its surface, and thereby improved the oxidation rate of the target contaminants by permanganate. The reaction kinetics was fitted with the pseudo-first-order kinetics at different pH to obtain the pseudo-first-order reaction constants (k(obs)). The second-order rate constants calculated from permanganate concentration and k,b, increased with the increase of pH and reached the maximum near their respective pKa, after which they decreased gradually. This tendency is called parabola-like shaped pH-rate profile. The second-order rate constants between permanganate and anilines were well fitted by the proton transfer model proposed by us in previous work.

  10. Effect of γ-exposure on retention of recoil 56Mn in permanganates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, S.P.; Vijaya

    2002-01-01

    Full text: γ-exposure effect on recombination of recoil 56 Mn atom in La, Sr and Ba permanganates were studied with a special emphasis to pre-and post-activation γ-ray irradiation treatment using 60 Co source. Permanganates were inactivated by ionizing radiation as a function of γ-dose without neutron irradiation, however, pronounced effects were seen after neutron activation. Pre-irradiation increase the initial retention and promotes the annealing phenomenon as the introduction of defect into the lattice though on the other hand radiolytic phenomenon may also appear. Pre-activated sample gave higher retention value for lanthanum and barium permanganates in comparison to strontium permanganate at different γ-doses for desired period of gamma annealing than those obtained at corresponding γ-doses for similar length of time in case of post-activated targets. Kinetics of annealing by γ-radiolytic effects follow first order rate law. The observed results are discussed in the light of existing ideas for understanding the recoil stabilization phenomenon of parent reformation and the nature of precursors in permanganates

  11. 78 FR 14773 - U.S. Environmental Solutions Toolkit-Landfill Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ...--Landfill Standards AGENCY: International Trade Administration, DOC. ACTION: Notice and Request for Comment... or services relevant to landfill environmental standards. The Department of Commerce continues to..., Web site address, contact information, and landfill environmental standards category of interest from...

  12. Permanganate-based synthesis of manganese oxide nanoparticles in ferritin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Cameron R.; Smith, Trevor J.; Embley, Jacob S.; Maxfield, Jake H.; Hansen, Kameron R.; Peterson, J. Ryan; Henrichsen, Andrew M.; Erickson, Stephen D.; Buck, David C.; Colton, John S.; Watt, Richard K.

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates the comproportionation reaction of MnII with {{{{MnO}}}4}- as a route for manganese oxide nanoparticle synthesis in the protein ferritin. We report that {{{{MnO}}}4}- serves as the electron acceptor and reacts with MnII in the presence of apoferritin to form manganese oxide cores inside the protein shell. Manganese loading into ferritin was studied under acidic, neutral, and basic conditions and the ratios of MnII and permanganate were varied at each pH. The manganese-containing ferritin samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, UV/Vis absorption, and by measuring the band gap energies for each sample. Manganese cores were deposited inside ferritin under both the acidic and basic conditions. All resulting manganese ferritin samples were found to be indirect band gap materials with band gap energies ranging from 1.01 to 1.34 eV. An increased UV/Vis absorption around 370 nm was observed for samples formed under acidic conditions, suggestive of MnO2 formation inside ferritin.

  13. Accurate determination of arsenic in arsenobetaine standard solutions of BCR-626 and NMIJ CRM 7901-a by neutron activation analysis coupled with internal standard method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Tsutomu; Chiba, Koichi; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Hioki, Akiharu; Matsue, Hideaki

    2010-09-15

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) coupled with an internal standard method was applied for the determination of As in the certified reference material (CRM) of arsenobetaine (AB) standard solutions to verify their certified values. Gold was used as an internal standard to compensate for the difference of the neutron exposure in an irradiation capsule and to improve the sample-to-sample repeatability. Application of the internal standard method significantly improved linearity of the calibration curve up to 1 microg of As, too. The analytical reliability of the proposed method was evaluated by k(0)-standardization NAA. The analytical results of As in AB standard solutions of BCR-626 and NMIJ CRM 7901-a were (499+/-55)mgkg(-1) (k=2) and (10.16+/-0.15)mgkg(-1) (k=2), respectively. These values were found to be 15-20% higher than the certified values. The between-bottle variation of BCR-626 was much larger than the expanded uncertainty of the certified value, although that of NMIJ CRM 7901-a was almost negligible. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Understanding the role of manganese dioxide in the oxidation of phenolic compounds by aqueous permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jin; Gao, Yuan; Pang, Su-Yan; Lu, Xue-Ting; Zhou, Yang; Ma, Jun; Wang, Qiang

    2015-01-06

    Recent studies have shown that manganese dioxide (MnO2) can significantly accelerate the oxidation kinetics of phenolic compounds such as triclosan and chlorophenols by potassium permanganate (Mn(VII)) in slightly acidic solutions. However, the role of MnO2 (i.e., as an oxidant vs catalyst) is still unclear. In this work, it was demonstrated that Mn(VII) oxidized triclosan (i.e., trichloro-2-phenoxyphenol) and its analogue 2-phenoxyphenol, mainly generating ether bond cleavage products (i.e., 2,4-dichlorophenol and phenol, respectively), while MnO2 reacted with them producing appreciable dimers as well as hydroxylated and quinone-like products. Using these two phenoxyphenols as mechanistic probes, it was interestingly found that MnO2 formed in situ or prepared ex situ greatly accelerated the kinetics but negligibly affected the pathways of their oxidation by Mn(VII) at acidic pH 5. The yields (R) of indicative products 2,4-dichlorophenol and phenol from their respective probes (i.e., molar ratios of product formed to probe lost) under various experimental conditions were quantified. Comparable R values were obtained during the treatment by Mn(VII) in the absence vs presence of MnO2. Meanwhile, it was confirmed that MnO2 could accelerate the kinetics of Mn(VII) oxidation of refractory nitrophenols (i.e., 2-nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol), which otherwise showed negligible reactivity toward Mn(VII) and MnO2 individually, and the effect of MnO2 was strongly dependent upon its concentration as well as solution pH. These results clearly rule out the role of MnO2 as a mild co-oxidant and suggest a potential catalytic effect on Mn(VII) oxidation of phenolic compounds regardless of their susceptibility to oxidation by MnO2.

  15. Investigation into the temporal stability of aqueous standard solutions of psilocin and psilocybin using high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastos, N; Barnett, N W; Pfeffer, F M; Lewis, S W

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation into the temporal stability of aqueous solutions of psilocin and psilocybin reference drug standards over a period of fourteen days. This study was performed using high performance liquid chromatography utilising a (95:5% v/v) methanol: 10 mM ammonium formate, pH 3.5 mobile phase and absorption detection at 269 nm. It was found that the exclusion of light significantly prolonged the useful life of standards, with aqueous solutions of both psilocin and psilocybin being stable over a period of seven days.

  16. Removal of Anabaena spiroides by potassium permanganate pre-oxidation: effect on photosynthetic capacity and molecular weight distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Junlian; Zhang, Xiaodong; Lv, Liping

    2017-11-01

    Bench scale tests were conducted to investigate the effect of potassium permanganate pre-oxidation on the photosynthetic activity and molecular weight distribution of Anabaena spiroides. Different concentrations of potassium permanganate were added into the suspension of Anabaena spiroides, one of the dominant algae in water bloom, and after pre-oxidation of permanganate for 1 h, the results show that the removal rate significantly increases by 33.99~36.35% compared to direct coagulation. Then, the algal characteristics, including photosynthetic ability, the changes in extracellular organic matter three-dimensional fluorescence, and the distribution of molecular weight were conducted and the results show that along with increasing concentration of potassium permanganate, the photosynthetic ability of algae decreases, more extracellular organic matter is secreted, and large molecular weight matter (humic-like and fulvic-like substances) are generated. Therefore, this study demonstrates that potassium permanganate could be used in addressing the algae-rich water.

  17. Effect of Permanganate Preoxidation to Natural Organic Matter and Disinfection by-Products Formation Potential Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayah, E. N.; Yeh, H. H.

    2018-01-01

    Laboratory scale experiments was conducted to examine effect of permanganate (KMnO4) peroxidation in characterizing and to remove natural organic matter (NOM) in source water. The experimental results shows that increasing permanganate dosage could decreased aromatic matter, as indicated by decreasing UV254 and SUVA value about 23% and 28%, respectively. It seems that permanganate preoxidation caused the breakdown of high molecular weight (MW) organics into low MW ones, as represented by increasing NPDOC about 10%. Further, disinfection by-products formation potential (DBPFP) in terms of trihalomethanes formation potential (THMFP) and haloacetic acid formation potential (HAAP) decreased about 15% and 23%, respectively. HAAFP removal is higher than THMFP removal and that DPBFP removal is consistent with UV254 and NPDOC removal.

  18. Oxidation kinetics of crystal violet by potassium permanganate in acidic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sameera Razi; Ashfaq, Maria; Mubashir; Masood, Summyia

    2016-05-01

    The oxidation kinetics of crystal violet (a triphenylmethane dye) by potassium permanganate was focused in an acidic medium by the spectrophotometric method at 584 nm. The oxidation reaction of crystal violet by potassium permanganate is carried out in an acidic medium at different temperatures ranging within 298-318 K. The kinetic study was carried out to investigate the effect of the concentration, ionic strength and temperature. The reaction followed first order kinetics with respect to potassium permanganate and crystal violet and the overall rate of the reaction was found to be second order. Thermodynamic activation parameters like the activation energy ( E a), enthalpy change (Δ H*), free energy change (Δ G*), and entropy change (Δ S*) have also been evaluated.

  19. Coupling surfactants with permanganate for DNAPL removal : coinjection or sequential application as delivery methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugan, P.J. [Carus Corp., Peru, IL (United States); Siegrist, R.L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Crimi, M.L. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation described a study conducted to test the effectiveness of surfactant-enhanced permanganate for the remediation of dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPL). When DNAPL enters the environment, it can pollute millions of gallons of ground water and create huge dissolved plumes that act as long-term sources of contamination. Surfactants were used to enhance the solubilization and mobilization of DNAPL during the remediation process. In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) was then used to deliver oxidants into the sub-surface to destroy organic contaminants in the soil and ground water. Experimental 2-D flow-through cell studies of 72 surfactants were conducted with the permanganate to evaluate delivery methods and determine compatible co-solvents for the surfactant process. Delivery methods included co-injection and sequential application. Four compatible surfactants were found to be compatible with the permanganate. A 90 percent DNAPL remediation rate was achieved using relatively low surfactant and oxidant concentrations. tabs., figs.

  20. Influence of humic acids of different origins on oxidation of phenol and chlorophenols by permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Di; Guan, Xiaohong; Ma, Jun; Yang, Xue; Cui, Chongwei

    2010-10-15

    The influences of humic acids (HAs) of different origins, including two commercial HAs, three soil HAs and one aquatic HA, on phenols oxidation by permanganate were studied. The apparent second-order rate constants of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP)/phenol oxidation by permanganate in the presence of HAs at pH 7 followed the order of commercial HA (Shanghai)>soil HAs>commercial HA (Fluka)>aquatic HA. Moreover, the commercial HA (Shanghai) could accelerate the oxidation of different chlorophenols (CP) significantly under neutral condition. The FTIR analysis demonstrated greater content of CC moieties and less amount of carboxylate, aliphatic groups and polysaccharide-like substances in soil HAs than in aqueous HA, suggesting that the increase of aromaticity in HA was beneficial to the oxidation of phenols by permanganate. The apparent second-order rate constants of 2-CP/phenol oxidation by permanganate in the presence of HAs correlated well with specific visible absorption (SVA) at 665 nm of HAs. High positive correlation coefficients (R(2)>0.75) implied that pi-electrons of HA strongly influenced the reactivity of 2-CP/phenol towards permanganate oxidation, which agreed well with positive correlation between Fluorescence Regional Integration (FRI) and the apparent second-order rate constants. The pi-pi interaction between HAs and phenols, the steric hindrance effect and the dissociation of phenols may affect the oxidation of phenols by permanganate in the presence of HA at pH=7.0. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Microbial Community Response of an Organohalide Respiring Enrichment Culture to Permanganate Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Nora B; Atashgahi, Siavash; Saccenti, Edoardo; Grotenhuis, Tim; Smidt, Hauke; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2015-01-01

    While in situ chemical oxidation is often used to remediate tetrachloroethene (PCE) contaminated locations, very little is known about its influence on microbial composition and organohalide respiration (OHR) activity. Here, we investigate the impact of oxidation with permanganate on OHR rates, the abundance of organohalide respiring bacteria (OHRB) and reductive dehalogenase (rdh) genes using quantitative PCR, and microbial community composition through sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. A PCE degrading enrichment was repeatedly treated with low (25 μmol), medium (50 μmol), or high (100 μmol) permanganate doses, or no oxidant treatment (biotic control). Low and medium treatments led to higher OHR rates and enrichment of several OHRB and rdh genes, as compared to the biotic control. Improved degradation rates can be attributed to enrichment of (1) OHRB able to also utilize Mn oxides as a terminal electron acceptor and (2) non-dechlorinating community members of the Clostridiales and Deltaproteobacteria possibly supporting OHRB by providing essential co-factors. In contrast, high permanganate treatment disrupted dechlorination beyond cis-dichloroethene and caused at least a 2-4 orders of magnitude reduction in the abundance of all measured OHRB and rdh genes, as compared to the biotic control. High permanganate treatments resulted in a notably divergent microbial community, with increased abundances of organisms affiliated with Campylobacterales and Oceanospirillales capable of dissimilatory Mn reduction, and decreased abundance of presumed supporters of OHRB. Although OTUs classified within the OHR-supportive order Clostridiales and OHRB increased in abundance over the course of 213 days following the final 100 μmol permanganate treatment, only limited regeneration of PCE dechlorination was observed in one of three microcosms, suggesting strong chemical oxidation treatments can irreversibly disrupt OHR. Overall, this detailed investigation into dose

  2. Synthesis and crystal structure of the cesium silver permanganate Cs{sub 3}Ag[MnO{sub 4}]{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauchert, Joerg M.; Henning, Harald; Schleid, Thomas [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    After successful syntheses and structural refinements of the already known permanganates of cesium (Cs[MnO{sub 4}]) and silver (Ag[MnO{sub 4}]) we started to blend aqueous solutions of both components in various molar ratios. From crystallization experiments of these mixtures only three species of crystals with different chemical compositions were obtained: tricesium monosilver tetrakispermanganate (Cs{sub 3}Ag[MnO{sub 4}]{sub 4}) and, depending upon the respective ratio, either additional silver permanganate or surplus cesium permanganate, namely. The new title compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pnnm (no. 58) with two formula units per unit cell and cell dimensions of a = 764.53(4), b = 1883.57(9) and c = 584.34(3) pm. The crystal structure of Cs{sub 3}Ag[MnO{sub 4}]{sub 4} consists of two crystallographically distinguishable cesium cations. (Cs1){sup +} is surrounded by fourteen oxygen atoms constructing a slightly distorted bicapped hexagonal prism. These polyhedra are connected through edge-sharing with two other polyhedra of this kind to form chains along [001]. The chains are linked to each other via sixfold coordinated Ag{sup +} cations (d(Ag-O) = 238-246 pm), arranged in such a manner that they link three oxygen atoms of two cesium polyhedra, leading to a two-dimensional layer spreading out parallel to the (001) plane. Together with the two crystallographically different tetrahedral oxomanganate(VII) anions [MnO{sub 4}]{sup -} (d(Mn-O) = 161-162 pm) the other kind of cesium cations ((Cs2){sup +} with CN = 13) finally connect these layers three-dimensionally. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Gas Generation during Sodium Permanganate Addition to HB-Line Phase II Filtrate Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, B.C.

    2002-01-01

    HB-Line Phase II process requires the addition of sodium permanganate followed by a sodium nitrite addition to prevent the precipitation of plutonium solids in a non-geometrically safe vessel. Previous experimental work has shown this method effective. Current concerns are related to the gas generated by the reaction. Potential difficulties include tank over-pressurization and tank overflow due to foaming or eructation. It is also necessary to verify that the quantity of permanganate specified by the facility is sufficient to reach the desired endpoint in a single addition

  4. Permanganate-assisted removal of PCR inhibitors during the DNA Chelex extraction from stained denim samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pîrlea, Sorina; Puiu, Mihaela; Răducan, Adina; Oancea, Dumitru

    2017-03-01

    In this study, it was demonstrated that the DNA Chelex extraction combined with the permanganate assisted-oxidation is highly efficient in removing the PCR inhibitors often found in clothing materials, such as phthalocyanine. The extraction assays were conducted in saliva, blood and epithelial cells samples mixed with three oxidation-resistant dye copper(II) α-phthalocyanine, copper(II) β-phthalocyanine and tetrasulfonated copper(II) β-phthalocyanine. After DNA amplification, all samples were able to provide full DNA profiles. The permanganate/Chelex system was tested further on denim-stained samples and displayed the same ability to remove the PCR inhibitors from the commercial textile materials.

  5. Standard test method for isotopic analysis of hydrolyzed uranium hexafluoride and uranyl nitrate solutions by thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This method applies to the determination of isotopic composition in hydrolyzed nuclear grade uranium hexafluoride. It covers isotopic abundance of 235U between 0.1 and 5.0 % mass fraction, abundance of 234U between 0.0055 and 0.05 % mass fraction, and abundance of 236U between 0.0003 and 0.5 % mass fraction. This test method may be applicable to other isotopic abundance providing that corresponding standards are available. 1.2 This test method can apply to uranyl nitrate solutions. This can be achieved either by transforming the uranyl nitrate solution to a uranyl fluoride solution prior to the deposition on the filaments or directly by depositing the uranyl nitrate solution on the filaments. In the latter case, a calibration with uranyl nitrate standards must be performed. 1.3 This test method can also apply to other nuclear grade matrices (for example, uranium oxides) by providing a chemical transformation to uranyl fluoride or uranyl nitrate solution. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address al...

  6. Preparation and certification of solutions of perdeuterated polycyclic aromatic compounds intended for use as surrogate internal standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quilliam, M.A.; Hardstaff, W.R.; Anacleto, J.F.; LeBlanc, M.D.; Stergiopoulos, V.; Dick, K.L.; Bowser, M.T.; Curtis, J.M.; Embree, D.J.; Sim, P.G.; Boyd, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Two standard solutions of deuterated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) have been prepared for use as surrogate internal standards. Solution DPAC-1 contains 21 deuterated PACs, and is intended for use with mass spectrometric (MS) detection. Most of the difficulties in certifying concentrations in DPAC-1 arose from the fact that none of the individual compounds was 100% deuterated, so that effects of mass spectrometric fragmentation are convoluted with those of isotopic distributions. The best methods are discussed for using such internal standards so as to minimize these problems, together with those arising from kinetic isotope effects. Solution DPAC-2 contains 6 deuterated PACs, and is primarily intended for use with reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FLD, dural programmed wavelength mode), in which the signals for analyte and internal standard are separated chromatographically rather than via the detector. Full details of the preparation of these solutions are described. In addition, examples of their use in the analysis of a certified coal-tar extract (NIST SRM 1597) are described briefly. In one example a novel HPLC-MS technique was employed, and in the other the HPLC-FLD technique was used. (orig.)

  7. Combined low-volume polyethylene glycol solution plus stimulant laxatives versus standard-volume polyethylene glycol solution: A prospective, randomized study of colon cleansing before colonoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hookey, Lawrence C; Depew, William T; Vanner, Stephen J

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The effectiveness of polyethylene glycol solutions (PEG) for colon cleansing is often limited by the inability of patients to drink adequate portions of the 4 L solution. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a reduced volume of PEG combined with stimulant laxatives would be better tolerated and as or more effective than the standard dose. METHODS Patients undergoing outpatient colonoscopy were randomly assigned to receive either low-volume PEG plus sennosides (120 mg oral sennosides syrup followed by 2 L PEG) or the standard volume preparation (4 L PEG). The subjects rated the tolerability of the preparations and their symptoms. Colonoscopists were blind to the colonic cleansing preparation and graded the cleansing efficacy using a validated tool (the Ottawa scale). RESULTS The low-volume PEG plus sennosides preparation was significantly better tolerated than the standard large volume PEG (Psennosides preparation was better tolerated, it was not as effective as standard large-volume PEG. However, in view of the significant difference in tolerance, further research investigating possible improvements in the reduced-volume regimen seems warranted. PMID:16482236

  8. Sensitive spectrophotometric assay of simvastatin in pharmaceuticals using permanganate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalsang Tharpa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, sensitive, selective and inexpensive spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of simvastatin (SMT in bulk drug and in tablets using permanganate as the oxidimetric reagent. In method A, SMT is treated with a measured excess of permanganate in acetic acid medium and the unreacted oxidant is measured at 550 nm, whereas in method B the reaction is carried out in alkaline medium and the resulting manganate is measured at 610 nm. In method A, the amount of permanganate reacted corresponds to the SMT content and the absorbance is found to decrease linearly with the concentration; and in method B, the absorbance increases with concentration. The working conditions of assays were optimized, and the methods were validated according to the current ICH guidelines. Under optimum conditions, SMT could be assayed in the concentration ranges, 1.47 - 17.67x10-5 and 2.27 - 27.18 x10-6 mol/L by method A and method B, respectively. The calculated molar absorptivities are 3.2 x 10³ and 2.5 x 10(4 L/mol/cm for method A and method B, respectively with corresponding Sandell sensitivity values of 0.0387 and 0.0178 μg/cm². The limits of detection (LOD and quantification (LOQ have also been reported. Accuracy and precision for the assay were determined by calculating the intra-day and inter-day at three concentrations; the intra-day RSD was Dois métodos espectrofotométricos simples, sensíveis, seletivos e baratos são descritos para a determinação de sinvastatina (SMT a granel e em comprimidos, utilizando permanganato como reagente oxidimétrico. No método A, a SMT é tratada com excesso conhecido de permanganato em meio de ácido acético e o oxidante que não reage é medido a 550 nm, enquanto no método B, a reação é efetuada em meio alcalino e o manganato resultante é medido a 610 nm. No método A, a quantidade de permanganato que reage corresponde ao conteúdo de SMT e a absorbância diminui linearmente com o aumento da

  9. Where does the standard application end and where does the solution made-to measure begin?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chovan, P.

    2004-01-01

    Aim of this presentation is to explain necessity of made-to measure solutions and their extent within the enterprise information systems development. The author presents DELTA E S, Plc approach to these questions, explains possible risks and benefits from these tailored made solutions. All the presentation is going to be supported by experiences and results from the realised or active projects

  10. Reaction kinetics of hydrazine neutralization in steam generator wet lay-up solution: Identifying optimal degradation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schildermans, Kim; Lecocq, Raphael; Girasa, Emmanuel

    2012-09-01

    During a nuclear power plant outage, hydrazine is used as an oxygen scavenger in the steam generator lay-up solution. However, due to the carcinogenic effects of hydrazine, more stringent discharge limits are or will be imposed in the environmental permits. Hydrazine discharge could even be prohibited. Consequently, hydrazine alternatives or hydrazine degradation before discharge is needed. This paper presents the laboratory tests performed to characterize the reaction kinetics of hydrazine neutralization using bleach or hydrogen peroxide, catalyzed with either copper sulfate (CuSO 4 ) or potassium permanganate (KMnO 4 ). The tests are performed on two standard steam generator lay-up solutions based on different pH control agents: ammonia or ethanolamine. Different neutralization conditions are tested by varying temperature, oxidant addition, and catalyst concentration, among others, in order to identify the optimal parameters for hydrazine neutralization in a steam generator wet lay-up solution. (authors)

  11. Matrix-Matched Iron-Oxide Laser Ablation ICP-MS U–Pb Geochronology Using Mixed Solution Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Courtney-Davies

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available U–Pb dating of the common iron-oxide hematite (α-Fe2O3, using laser-ablation inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS, provides unparalleled insight into the timing and processes of mineral deposit formation. Until now, the full potential of this method has been negatively impacted by the lack of suitable matrix-matched standards. To achieve matrix-matching, we report an approach in which a U–Pb solution and ablated material from 99.99% synthetic hematite are simultaneously mixed in a nebulizer chamber and introduced to the ICP-MS. The standard solution contains fixed U- and Pb-isotope ratios, calibrated independently, and aspiration of the isotopically homogeneous solution negates the need for a matrix-matched, isotopically homogenous natural iron-oxide standard. An additional advantage of using the solution is that the individual U–Pb concentrations and isotope ratios can be adjusted to approximate that in the unknown, making the method efficient for dating hematite containing low (~10 ppm to high (>1 wt % U concentrations. The above-mentioned advantage to this solution method results in reliable datasets, with arguably-better accuracy in measuring U–Pb ratios than using GJ-1 Zircon as the primary standard, which cannot be employed for such low U concentrations. Statistical overlaps between 207Pb/206Pb weighted average ages (using GJ-1 Zircon and U–Pb upper intercept ages (using the U–Pb mixed solution method of two samples from iron-oxide copper-gold (IOCG deposits in South Australia demonstrate that, although fractionation associated with a non-matrix matched standard does occur when using GJ-1 Zircon as the primary standard, it does not impact the 207Pb/206Pb or upper intercept age. Thus, GJ-1 Zircon can be considered reliable for dating hematite using LA-ICP-MS. Downhole fractionation of 206Pb/238U is observed to occur in spot analyses of hematite. The use of rasters in future studies will hopefully minimize

  12. The use of potassium permanganate for eliminating smells in the purification of urban sewage. Permanganate potasico para eliminacion de olores en depuracion de aguas residuales urbanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo Valdes, L. (Industrial Quimica del Nalon, S.A. (Spain))

    1993-03-01

    Chemical oxidation is an effective way to eliminate bad odors in wastewater treatment facilities at reasonable cost. Potassium permangate is one of the strongest oxidants commercially available. Its application in wastewater treatment- simple and safe- constitutes a very effective means to remove hydrogen sulfide, the main component responsible of offensive odors, whose presence is also undesirable due to its toxic and corrosive properties. Additionally, the use of potassium permanganate has a positive effect in sludge processing. (Author)

  13. Indirect spectrophotometric determination of piroxicam and tenoxicam through oxidation with potassium permanganate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Amin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Three rapid, simple, accurate and selective validated spectrophtometric methods (A, B and C for the determination of piroxicam (PX and tenoxicam (TX in bulk sample and in dosage forms are described. The methods are based on the oxidation of the studied drugs by a known excess of potassium permanganate in sulfuric acid medium and subsequent determination of unreacted oxidant by reacting it with Methylene Blue (Basic Blue 9 dye (method A, Acid Red 27 (Amaranth dye (method B and Acid Orange 7 (orange II dye (method C, in the same medium at a suitable λmax = 660, 520 and 485 nm, respectively. The reacted oxidant was found to be corresponding to the drug content. Regression analysis of Beer-Lambert plots showed good correlations in the concentration ranges 1.0-8.0, 1.0-9.0 and 1.0-7.2 μg mL-1 using methods A, B and C, respectively, for PX and 0.3-7.0, 0.3-1.6 and 0.3-2.5 μg mL-1 using methods A, B and C, respectively, for TX. The stoichiometric ratios for the cited drugs to oxidant were studied. The optimum reaction conditions and other analytical parameters were evaluated. The proposed methods were applied successfully to determine the examined drugs either in pure form or pharmaceutical formulations with good accuracy and precision. The relative standard deviations were ≤ 0.33 with recoveries 98.9-101.7% for PX and ≤ 0.49 with recoveries 99.4-102.0% for TX.

  14. Development of a Design Tool for Planning Aqueous Amendment Injection Systems Permanganate Design Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    CSTR continuously stirred tank reactors CT contact time EDB ethylene dibromide ESTCP Environmental Security Technology Certification Program...63 6.2 Simulating Oxidant Distribution Using a Series of CSTRs -------------------- 63 6.2.1 Model...SIMULATING OXIDANT DISTRIBUTION USING A SERIES OF CSTRS 6.2.1 MODEL DEVELOPMENT The transport and consumption of permanganate are simulated within the

  15. Treating a natural outbreak of columnaris in channel catfish with copper sulfate and potassium permanganate

    Science.gov (United States)

    An F. Columnare-exclusive epizootic occurred in fingerling channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) during normal tank culture practices at SNARC. Fish were transferred to the ultra low-flow system and 2.1 mg/L copper sulfate or 3 mg/L potassium permanganate was administered; an untreated control was ...

  16. XPERT DESIGN AND DIAGNOSTICS' (XDD) IN-SITU CHEMICAL OXIDATION PROCESS USING POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE (KMNO4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xpert Design and Diagnostic's (XDD)potassium permanganate in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) process was evaluated under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at the former MEC Building site located in Hudson, New Hampshire. At this site, both soil and ...

  17. [Reactivity of several classes of pesticides with UV, ozone and permanganate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Qiang, Zhi-min; Tian, Fang; Zhang, Tao

    2009-01-01

    The reactivity of eight classes of 26 extensively used pesticides, namely, organochlorines, thiadiazole, dinitroanaline, acetamides, triazines, uracil and carbamates, with three common disinfectants or oxidants including UV254 (average intensity of 10.8 mW x cm(-2)), ozone (dosage of 4.1 - 6.2 mg x L(-1)) and permanganate (dosage of 15.8 mg x L(-1)) was investigated. The reactions were allowed to proceed for 30 min at pH 7.0 and ambient temperature (25 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C). Results indicate that under the applied experimental conditions, more than 95% of chlorobenzilate, etridiazole, alachlor, butachlor, metolachlor, propachlor, atrazine, simazine, aldicarb, oxamyl and methiocarb could be effectively removed by UV254; and the removal efficiencies of other pesticides were in a range of 12.9%-77.7%. Ozone could completely degrade chloroneb, dichlorvos, bromacil, aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran, oxamyl and methiocarb; prometon and aldicarb sulfone were resistant to ozonation; and the removal efficiencies of other pesticides varied from 19.0% to 93.1%. Permanganate could fully degrade dichlorvos, aldicarb and methiocarb; organochlorines, dinitroanaline, thiadiazole, acetamides and other carbamates were resistant to permanganate oxidation; and the removal efficiencies of other pesticides ranged from 16.0% to 88.2%. If the practical dosage applied in drinking water treatment is considered, it is expected that most of the pesticides will be completely degraded by ozone, a few by permanganate, but probably none by UV254 .

  18. Chemiluminescence evidence supporting the selective role of ligands in the permanganate oxidation of micropollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, Mark S; Adcock, Jacqui L; Terry, Jessica M; Smith, Zoe M; Parry, Samuel; Linton, Stuart M; Thornton, Megan T; Barrow, Colin J; Francis, Paul S

    2013-10-10

    The selective increase in the oxidation rate of certain organic compounds with permanganate in the presence of environmental "ligands" and reduced species has been ascribed to the different reactivity of the target compounds toward Mn(III), which bears striking similarities to recent independent investigations into the use of permanganate as a chemiluminescence reagent. In spite of the importance of Mn(III) in the light-producing pathway, the dependence of the oxidation mechanism for any given compound on this intermediate could not be determined solely through the emission intensity. However, target compounds susceptible to single-electron oxidation by Mn(III) (such as bisphenol A and triclosan) can be easily distinguished by the dramatic increase in chemiluminescence intensity when a permanganate reagent containing high, stable concentrations of Mn(III) is used. The differences are accentuated under the low pH conditions that favor the chemiluminescence emission due to the greater reactivity of Mn(III) and the greater influence of complexing agents. This study supports the previously postulated selective role of ligands and reducing agents in permanganate oxidations and demonstrates a new approach to explore the chemistry of environmental manganese redox processes.

  19. The effect of copper sulfate, potassium permanganate, and peracetic acid on Ichthyobodo necator in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichthyobodo necator is a single celled biflagellate that can cause significant mortalities in fish, particularly young, tank-reared fish. Copper sulfate (CuSO4), potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and peracetic acid (PAA) were evaluated for effectiveness against Ichthybodosis in juvenile channel catfis...

  20. Effectiveness of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate on channel catfish infected with Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) were evaluated for their effectiveness to curtail mortality and decrease bacterial load in fish tissues and water in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus naturally infected with Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris. Fis...

  1. Potassium permanganate is not an effective pond disinfectant to control Dero digitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proliferative gill disease (PGD) is a major problem in cultured channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. This parasite requires Dero digitata to complete its life cycle. It is believed potassium permanganate disinfects ponds and reduces D. digitata populations, but this practice has not been verified...

  2. ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES FOR ISCO METHODS IN-SITU FENTON OXIDATION IN-SITU PERMANGANATE OXIDATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The advantages and disadvantages of in-situ Fenton oxidation and in-situ permanganate oxidation will be presented. This presentation will provide a brief overview of each technology and a detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each technology. Included in the ...

  3. Oxidation of volatile organic vapours in air by solid potassium permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodlu, Mojtaba Ghareh; Hartog, Niels; Majid Hassanizadeh, S; Raoof, Amir

    2013-06-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may frequently contaminate groundwater and pose threat to human health when migrating into the unsaturated soil zone and upward to the indoor air. The kinetic of chemical oxidation has been investigated widely for dissolved VOCs in the saturated zone. But, so far there have been few studies on the use of in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of vapour phase contaminants. In this study, batch experiments were carried out to evaluate the oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE), ethanol, and toluene vapours by solid potassium permanganate. Results revealed that solid potassium permanganate is able to transform the vapour of these compounds into harmless oxidation products. The degradation rates for TCE and ethanol were higher than for toluene. The degradation process was modelled using a kinetic model, linear in the gas concentration of VOC [ML(-3)] and relative surface area of potassium permanganate grains (surface area of potassium permanganate divided by gas volume) [L(-1)]. The second-order reaction rate constants for TCE, ethanol, and toluene were found to be equal to 2.0×10(-6) cm s(-1), 1.7×10(-7) cm s(-1), and 7.0×10(-8) cm s(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Binary Mixtures of Permanganate and Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds in Groundwater Samples: Sample Preservation and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground water samples collected at sites where in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) has been deployed may contain binary mixtures of ground water contaminants and permanganate (MnO4-), an oxidant injected into the subsurface to destroy the contaminant. Commingling of the oxidant and ...

  5. Effects of Smallmouth Buffalo and Potassium Permanganate Treatment on Plankton ans Pond Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Removal of intermediate hosts is one option for control of disease in channel catfish production systems. We evaluated use of predaceous fish (smallmouth buffalo) and chemical treatment (potassium permanganate) to remove snails that serve as hosts protecting Dero worms. Both methods of treatment r...

  6. Permanganate Degradation of Reillex HPQ Ion Exchange Resin for Use in HB-Line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, B.W.

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of Reillex TM HPQ resin as a replacement for the Ionac A-641 resin currently authorized for use in H B-Line. The study concentrated on the ability of the existing alkaline permanganate digestion process to convert spent resin for disposal

  7. Permanganate oxidizable carbon reflects a processed soil fraction that is sensitive to management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permanganate oxidizable C (POXC; i.e., active C) is a relatively new method that can quantify labile soil C rapidly and inexpensively. Despite limited reports of positive correlations with particulate organic carbon (POC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and other soil carbon (C) fractions, little i...

  8. Microbial Community Response of an Organohalide Respiring Enrichment Culture to Permanganate Oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutton, N.B.; Atashgahi, S.; Saccenti, E.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Smidt, H.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    While in situ chemical oxidation is often used to remediate tetrachloroethene (PCE) contaminated locations, very little is known about its influence on microbial composition and organohalide respiration (OHR) activity. Here, we investigate the impact of oxidation with permanganate on OHR rates, the

  9. The impact of pre-oxidation with potassium permanganate on cyanobacterial organic matter removal by coagulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Načeradská, Jana; Pivokonský, Martin; Pivokonská, Lenka; Barešová, Magdalena; Henderson, R.K.; Zamyadi, A.; Janda, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 114, May (2017), s. 42-49 ISSN 0043-1354 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : algal organic matter * coagulation * Microcystis aeruginosa * peptides/proteins * permanganate pre-oxidation * water treatment Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 6.942, year: 2016

  10. Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NOx by microwave with potassium permanganate over zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zai-shan Wei; He-jingying Niu; Yong-feng Ji [Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China). School of Environmental Science and Engineering

    2009-02-15

    Simultaneous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) removal from flue gas can be achieved with high efficiency by microwave with potassium permanganate (KMnO{sub 4}) over zeolite. The experimental results showed that the microwave reactor could be used to oxidation of SO{sub 2} to sulfate with the best desulfurization efficiency of 96.8% and oxidize NOx to nitrates with the best NOx removal efficiency of 98.4%. Microwave accentuates catalytic oxidation treatment, and microwave addition can increase the SO{sub 2} and NOx removal efficiency by 7.2% and 12.2% separately. The addition of zeolite to microwave potassium permanganate increases from 16.5% to 43.5% the microwave removal efficiency for SO{sub 2}, and the NOx removal efficiency from 85.6% to 98.2%. The additional use of potassium permanganate to the microwave zeolite leads to the enhancement of SO{sub 2} removal efficiency up from 53.9% to 95%, and denitrification efficiency up from 85.6% to 98.2%. The optimal microwave power and empty bed residence time (EBRT) on simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification are 259 W and 0.357 s, respectively. SO{sub 2} and NOx were rapidly oxidized in microwave induced catalytic oxidation reaction using potassium permanganate with zeolite being the catalyst and microwave absorbent. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Formate detection by potassium permanganate for enhanced hydrogen production in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Toshinari [Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, 220 Jack E. Brown Building, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States); Wood, Thomas K. [Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, 220 Jack E. Brown Building, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States); Department of Biology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3258 (United States); Zachry Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3136 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Mutagenesis of Escherichia coli for hydrogen production is difficult since there is no high-throughput screen. Here we describe a method for rapid detection of enhanced hydrogen production by engineered strains by detecting formate via potassium permanganate; in E. coli, hydrogen is synthesized from formate using the formate hydrogen lyase system. (author)

  12. Degradation of progestagens by oxidation with potassium permanganate in wastewater effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Paul B; Zamyadi, Arash; Broseus, Romain; Prévost, Michèle; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the oxidation of selected progestagenic steroid hormones by potassium permanganate at pH 6.0 and 8.0 in ultrapure water and wastewater effluents, using bench-scale assays. Second order rate constants for the reaction of potassium permanganate with progestagens (levonorgestrel, medroxyprogesterone, norethindrone and progesterone) was determined as a function of pH, presence of natural organic matter and temperature. This work also illustrates the advantages of using a novel analytical method, the laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD-APCI) interface coupled to tandem mass spectrometry apparatus, allowing for the quick determination of oxidation rate constants and increasing sample throughput. The second-order rate constants for progestagens with permanganate determined in bench-scale experiments ranged from 23 to 368 M(-1) sec(-1) in both wastewater and ultrapure waters with pH values of 6.0 and 8.0. Two pairs of progestagens exhibited similar reaction rate constants, i.e. progesterone and medroxyprogesterone (23 to 80 M(-1) sec(-1) in ultrapure water and 26 to 149 M(-1) sec(-1) in wastewaters, at pH 6.0 and 8.0) and levonorgestrel and norethindrone (179 to 224 M(-1) sec(-1) in ultrapure water and 180 to 368 M(-1) sec(-1) in wastewaters, at pH 6.0 and 8.0). The presence of dissolved natural organic matter and the pH conditions improved the oxidation rate constants for progestagens with potassium permanganate only at alkaline pH. Reaction rates measured in Milli-Q water could therefore be used to provide conservative estimates for the oxidation rates of the four selected progestagens in wastewaters when exposed to potassium permanganate. The progestagen removal efficiencies was lower for progesterone and medroxyprogesterone (48 to 87 %) than for levonorgestrel and norethindrone (78 to 97%) in Milli-Q and wastewaters at pH 6.0-8.2 using potassium permanganate dosages of 1 to 5 mg L(-1) after contact times of 10 to 60 min. This

  13. Software life cycle management standards real-world solutions and scenarios for savings

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, David

    2011-01-01

    Software Life Cycle Management Standards will help you apply ISO/IEC 19770 to your business and enjoy the rewards it offers. David Wright calls on his vast experience to explain how the Standard applies to the whole of the software life cycle, not just the software asset management aspects. His informative guide gives up-to-date information using practical examples, clear diagrams and entertaining anecdotes.

  14. An determination of man-made γ-emitting radionuclides in coal fly ash and standard solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Cuihua; Zhou Qiang

    2004-01-01

    We participated an international comparison on the determination of man-made γ-emitting radionuclides in coal fly ash and in standard solution organized by the Analytical Quality Control Service of the IAEA in 2002. The sample was dispensed in 100.0 ± 0.1 g aliquots in plastic container and was spiked with known amounts of certified standard γ-emitting radionuclides 54 Mn, 57 Co, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 88 Y, 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 241 Am. The determination of the anthropogenic )γ-emitting radionuclides in the test samples was carried out with an ORTEC gamma-ray spectrometry system coupled with a HPGe detector with resolution of 1.75 keV and relative efficiency of 55% for 137 Cs, located in a 10 cm thick lead container. The energy and efficiency calibration were with home-made volume calibration sources containing some of the radionuclides to be analyzed. The analysis procedure is described elsewhere. Table 1 lists the results of the determination and the comparisons with IAEA reference data and evaluation. Overall our results are agreeable in ±8.6% with the IAEA reference data, except for 60 Co. The differences for 60 Co was -10.8%. It may be caused by the 60 Co calibration source made with residual of quiet old standard solution. The difference for 241 Am is due to self-absorption in the fly ash sample. This bias was small for the solution sample. For standard solution sample, the results are agreeable within ±3.7% for all radionuclides except for 60 Co, being 12%. (authors)

  15. The 1993 QUASIMEME laboratory-performance study: chlorobiphenyls in fish oil and standard solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, D.E.; Boer, de J.

    1994-01-01

    A laboratory-performance study has been undertaken to improve the measurement of chlorobiphenyls in marine biota as part of the QUASIMEME (EU - Measurement and Testing) project. Fifty-two laboratories were invited to participate, of which 47 returned data on nine congeners in iso-octane solution and

  16. Cost and Fuel Efficient SCR-only Solution for post-2010 HD Emission Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloudt, R.P.M.; Willems, F.P.T.; Heijden, van der P.

    2009-01-01

    A promising SCR-only solution is presented to meetpost-2010 NOx emission targets for heavy dutyapplications. The proposed concept is based on anengine from a EURO IV SCR application, which isconsidered optimal with respect to fuel economy andcosts. The addition of advanced SCR after

  17. Cost and fuel efficient SCR-only solution for post-2010 HD emission standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloudt, R.P.M.; Willems, F.P.T.; Heijden, P.V.A.M. van der

    2009-01-01

    A promising SCR-only solution is presented to meet post-2010 NOx emission targets for heavy duty applications. The proposed concept is based on an engine from a EURO IV SCR application, which is considered optimal with respect to fuel economy and costs. The addition of advanced SCR after treatment

  18. Efficacy of handrubbing with alcohol based solution versus standard handwashing with antiseptic soap: randomised clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girou, Emmanuelle; Loyeau, Sabrina; Legrand, Patrick; Oppein, Françoise; Brun-Buisson, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of handrubbing with an alcohol based solution versus conventional handwashing with antiseptic soap in reducing hand contamination during routine patient care. Design Randomised controlled trial during daily nursing sessions of 2 to 3 hours. Setting Three intensive care units in a French university hospital. Participants 23 healthcare workers. Interventions Handrubbing with alcohol based solution (n=12) or handwashing with antiseptic soap (n=11) when hand hygiene was indicated before and after patient care. Imprints taken of fingertips and palm of dominant hand before and after hand hygiene procedure. Bacterial counts quantified blindly. Main outcome measures Bacterial reduction of hand contamination. Results With handrubbing the median percentage reduction in bacterial contamination was significantly higher than with handwashing (83% v 58%, P=0.012), with a median difference in the percentage reduction of 26% (95% confidence interval 8% to 44%). The median duration of hand hygiene was 30 seconds in each group. Conclusions During routine patient care handrubbing with an alcohol based solution is significantly more efficient in reducing hand contamination than handwashing with antiseptic soap. What is already known on this topicTo improve compliance with hand hygiene during patient care, handrubbing with an alcohol based solution has been proposed as a substitute for handwashing because of its rapid action and accessibilityExperimental studies show that handrubbing is at least as effective as medicated soap in reducing artificial contamination of handsMany healthcare workers still have reservations regarding its efficacy and are reluctant to use this techniqueWhat this study addsWhen used in routine practice, handrubbing with an alcohol based solution after contact with patients achieved a greater reduction in bacterial contamination of hands than conventional handwashing with medicated soap PMID:12183307

  19. BENCH-SCALE VISUALIZATION OF DNAPL REMEDIATION PROCESSES IN ANALOG HETEROGENEOUS AQUIFERS: SURFACTANT FLOODS, AND IN SITU OXIDATION USING PERMANGANATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have conducted well-controlled DNAPL remediation experiments using surfactants (Aerosol MA and Tween 80) to increase solubility and an oxidant (permanganate) to chemically degrade the DNAPL. Photographs and digital image analysis illustrate previously unobserved interactions b...

  20. A Rare Case of Anal and Perianal Chemical Burn in a Child due to Potassium Permanganate Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Suvashis; Bhojani, Jatin; Sharma, Sharadendu

    2018-02-09

    Many chemicals used as medical treatments can cause chemical burns as an untoward side effect. One of such chemicals is potassium permanganate. It is a caustic chemical used as a disinfectant. The most common sites of burn by potassium permanganate are exposed sites like the face and hands. Chemical burns in the perianal and anal region are rare in clinical practice and even sparser in the pediatric age group. In this article, we report a case of perianal and anal chemical burn in an 18-month-old, male child, caused by potassium permanganate crystal applied wrongly for the treatment of pinworm infestation. As a chemical burn in this region can have serious complications, it is necessary to be vigilant when using such chemicals in these cases. Early and timely management in such cases leads to good outcomes. This is the first of such cases of chemical burn caused by potassium permanganate in the anal and perianal region.

  1. The preparation and measurement of activity for 57Co standard solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jingxia; Yu Yiguang; Du Hongshan; Chen Xilin

    1994-12-01

    In the preparation of 57 Co, the reactions of 56 Fe (d, n) 57 Co and 56 Fe(d,2n) 57 Co were selected by using 8.7 MeV deuteron to radiate natural iron which was electroplated on copper target. The methods of TBP-Benzene extraction and cation exchange were used for separating and purifying 57 Co. The purity of the solution was checked by HPGe γ spectrometer and the total contents of γ impurities were below 0.2%. To prepare the source, silicon gel suspension was electrosprayed on VYNS thin film which was metallized by gold to form a proper source pad. Weighing balance was used to quantitatively prepare the sources. Research on the effects of the working gas pressure and the working voltage on the plateau curve was carried on by the pressurized 4 πβ-γ coincidence equipment. Finally, efficiency extrapolation method was used to accurately measure the specific activity of 57 Co solution by means of changing the discrimination threshold. The total uncertainty is about 1.2%(3σ) . It is shown that the solution is uniform, stable and accuracy with the reliable specific activity through the domestic comparison. (6 figs.; 6 tabs.)

  2. Effects of adenosine and defibrotide adjunct to a standard crystalloid cardioplegic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, V; Mariscalco, G; Borsani, P; Tenconi, S; Bruno, V D; Leva, C; Ferrarese, S; Sala, A

    2005-06-01

    Adenosine has many actions potentially useful as adjunct to a cardioplegia. Defibrotide was recently shown to have protective effects during cardiac arrest. The aim of this study was to compare these 2 substances to delineate their profile of action in the setting of cardioplegic arrest. A Langendorff model for isolated rat hearts was employed: 3 groups of 8 hearts each were used, respectively with plain St. Thomas cardioplegia as control (group C), and the same solution added with adenosine (group A) or defibrotide (group D). The hearts had a baseline perfusion for 30 minutes with Krebs-Henseleit solution at 37 degrees C, cardioplegia administration for 3 minutes, then 30 minutes of ischemia without any perfusion and finally 30 minutes of reperfusion with Krebs-Henseleit solution at 37 degrees C. The time to attain heart arrest was 20% shorter in group A, but this difference did not reach statistical significance (A: 13.6+/-1.5; D: 16.8+/-2.7; C: 17.3+/-2.2 s). The heart rate during reperfusion in group A was almost identical to baseline, while in both group C and D it was significantly lower (A: 101%, D: 93.4%, C: 82.4%, pdefibrotide have protective effects in an isolated model of cardioplegic arrest. Adenosine is significantly more active on heart rate while defibrotide is more active on contractily. Further studies are justified in order to test the combination of these 2 drugs.

  3. 77 FR 48491 - Regulatory New Drug Review: Solutions for Study Data Exchange Standards; Notice of Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... input from industry, technology vendors, and other members of the public regarding the advantages and disadvantages of current and emerging open, consensus-based standards for the exchange of regulated study data... many years, it is not an extensible modern technology. Moreover, it is not supported and maintained by...

  4. Gold standards and expert panels: a pulmonary nodule case study with challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dave P.; O'Shaughnessy, Kathryn F.; Wood, Susan A.; Castellino, Ronald A.

    2004-05-01

    Comparative evaluations of reader performance using different modalities, e.g. CT with computer-aided detection (CAD) vs. CT without CAD, generally require a "truth" definition based on a gold standard. There are many situations in which a true invariant gold standard is impractical or impossible to obtain. For instance, small pulmonary nodules are generally not assessed by biopsy or resection. In such cases, it is common to use a unanimous consensus or majority agreement from an expert panel as a reference standard for actionability in lieu of the unknown gold standard for disease. Nonetheless, there are three major concerns about expert panel reference standards: (1) actionability is not synonymous with disease (2) it may be possible to obtain different conclusions about which modality is better using different rules (e.g. majority vs. unanimous consensus), and (3) the variability associated with the panelists is not formally captured in the p-values or confidence intervals that are generally produced for estimating the extent to which one modality is superior to the other. A multi-reader-multi-case (MRMC) receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study was performed using 90 cases, 15 readers, and a reference truth based on 3 experienced panelists. The primary analyses were conducted using a reference truth of unanimous consensus regarding actionability (3 out of 3 panelists). To assess the three concerns noted above: (1) additional data from the original radiology reports were compared to the panel (2) the complete analysis was repeated using different definitions of truth, and (3) bootstrap analyses were conducted in which new truth panels were constructed by picking 1, 2, or 3 panelists at random. The definition of the reference truth affected the results for each modality (CT with CAD and CT without CAD) considered by itself, but the effects were similar, so the primary analysis comparing the modalities was robust to the choice of the reference truth.

  5. Oxidation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with aqueous permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Álvarez, Tania; Rodil, Rosario; Quintana, José Benito; Triñanes, Sara; Cela, Rafael

    2013-06-01

    Potassium permanganate is a strong oxidant widely used in drinking water treatment, that can react with organic micropollutants. Thus, the oxidation kinetics and transformation route of seven non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) upon reaction with potassium permanganate was investigated. A liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) system was used to follow the time course of pharmaceuticals concentrations and for the identification of their by-products. Under strong oxidation conditions (2 mg L(-1) KMnO4, 24 h), only two NSAIDs were significantly degraded: indomethacine and diclofenac. The degradation kinetics of these two drugs was investigated at different concentrations of permanganate, chlorides, phosphates and sample pH by means of a full factorial experimental design. Depending on these factors, half-lives were in the range: 2-270 h for indomethacine and 3-558 h for diclofenac, equivalent to apparent second order constants between 0.65 and 9.5 M(-1) s(-1) and 0.27 and 7.4 M(-1) s(-1), respectively. Permanganate concentration was the most significant factor on NSAIDs oxidation kinetics, but the pH also played a significant role in diclofenac reaction, being faster at acidic pH. In the case of indomethacine, the dose of permanganate seemed also to play an autocatalytic effect. The use of an accurate-mass high resolution LC-Q-TOF-MS system permitted the identification of a total of 13 by-products. The transformation path of these drugs consisted mainly of hydroxylations, decarboxylations and oxidation of aromatic double bonds, with ring opening. The software predicted toxicity of these products indicates that they are expected not to be more toxic than the NSAIDs, with the exception of two indomethacine by-products. Reaction in real samples was slower and/or incomplete for both pharmaceuticals, depending on the organic matter content of the sample. However, still all transformation products could be detected for

  6. Reactions of hypoiodous acid with model compounds and the formation of iodoform in absence/presence of permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaodan; Ma, Jun; von Gunten, Urs

    2017-08-01

    The kinetics for the reactions of hypoiodous acid (HOI) with various phenols (phenol, 4-nitrophenol, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid), 3-oxopentanedioic acid (3-OPA) and flavone were investigated in the pH range of 6.0-11.0. The apparent second order rate constants for the reactions of HOI with phenolic compounds, 3-OPA, flavone and citric acid at pH 8.0 are 10-10 7  M -1 s -1 , (4.0 ± 0.3) × 10 3  M -1 s -1 , (2.5 ± 0.2) × 10 3  M -1 s -1 and permanganate/HOI/3-OPA and permanganate/iodide/3-OPA system at pH permanganate. For pH > 8.0, in presence of permanganate, iodoform formation is significantly inhibited and iodate formation enhanced, which is due to a faster permanganate-mediated HOI disproportionation to iodate compared to the iodination process. The production of reactive iodine in real waters containing iodide in contact with permanganate may lead to the formation of iodinated organic compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tsallis distribution as a standard maximum entropy solution with 'tail' constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bercher, J.-F.

    2008-01-01

    We show that Tsallis' distributions can be derived from the standard (Shannon) maximum entropy setting, by incorporating a constraint on the divergence between the distribution and another distribution imagined as its tail. In this setting, we find an underlying entropy which is the Renyi entropy. Furthermore, escort distributions and generalized means appear as a direct consequence of the construction. Finally, the 'maximum entropy tail distribution' is identified as a Generalized Pareto Distribution

  8. Standard Methods of Analysis of Sulfochromate Etch Solution Used in Surface Preparation of Aluminum

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2012-01-01

    1.1 These methods offer a means for controlling the effectiveness of the etchant which is normally used for preparing the surface of aluminum alloys for subsequent adhesive bonding. As the etchant reacts with the aluminum, hexavalent chromium is converted to trivalent chromium; a measure of the two and the difference can be used to determine the amount of dichromate used. 1.2 The sulfochromate solution can be replenished by restoring the sodium dichromate and the sulfuric acid to the original formulation levels. The lower limit of usefulness will vary depending upon solution storage, adhesives used, critical nature of bond capability, variety of metals processed, etc. and should be determined. Replenishment will be limited to the number of times the chemical ingredients can be restored and maintained to the required levels and should be determined by the user. Sludge collecting in the bottom of a tank should be minimized by periodic removal of sludge. For some applications, the hexavalent chromium should not ...

  9. Interprovincial regulatory barriers to procurement in western Canada's oil and gas sector : potential standardization-based solutions : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, R.; Godin, M.; Josty, P.

    2008-01-01

    This study reviewed the regulatory environment related to the oil and gas industry in western Canada in order to identify factors limiting the procurement of goods and services required by the industry. The aim of the study was to identify solutions based on the development of voluntary industry standards. Literature and reports related to interprovincial trade and standards were reviewed. The procurement divisions of oil and gas companies and suppliers to the oil and gas industry were consulted in addition to government official and industry experts. A review of provincial technical regulations was completed. The study identified 3 candidates for specific action within the standards system: (1) modular transport platforms; (2) regulatory conformance procedures; and (3) the mobility of skilled workers. Results of the study indicated that the development of service standards for technical and inspection activities of importance to the petroleum industry will help to facilitate the increased mobility of skilled workers, while initiatives to develop a standard information disclosure and exchange format for all federal, provincial and territorial jurisdictions will address the conflicting regimes to which oil and gas products and services are subjected. 40 refs., 5 tabs.

  10. Expanding wave solutions of the Einstein equations that induce an anomalous acceleration into the Standard Model of Cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Blake; Smoller, Joel

    2009-08-25

    We derive a system of three coupled equations that implicitly defines a continuous one-parameter family of expanding wave solutions of the Einstein equations, such that the Friedmann universe associated with the pure radiation phase of the Standard Model of Cosmology is embedded as a single point in this family. By approximating solutions near the center to leading order in the Hubble length, the family reduces to an explicit one-parameter family of expanding spacetimes, given in closed form, that represents a perturbation of the Standard Model. By introducing a comoving coordinate system, we calculate the correction to the Hubble constant as well as the exact leading order quadratic correction to the redshift vs. luminosity relation for an observer at the center. The correction to redshift vs. luminosity entails an adjustable free parameter that introduces an anomalous acceleration. We conclude (by continuity) that corrections to the redshift vs. luminosity relation observed after the radiation phase of the Big Bang can be accounted for, at the leading order quadratic level, by adjustment of this free parameter. The next order correction is then a prediction. Since nonlinearities alone could actuate dissipation and decay in the conservation laws associated with the highly nonlinear radiation phase and since noninteracting expanding waves represent possible time-asymptotic wave patterns that could result, we propose to further investigate the possibility that these corrections to the Standard Model might be the source of the anomalous acceleration of the galaxies, an explanation not requiring the cosmological constant or dark energy.

  11. Ultrafast X-ray absorption study of longitudinal-transverse phonon coupling in electrolyte aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Yishuo; Adams, Bernhard W.; Dohn, Asmus Ougaard

    2017-01-01

    Ultrafast X-ray absorption spectroscopy is applied to study the conversion of longitudinal to transverse phonons in aqueous solution. Permanganate solutes serve as X-ray probe molecules that permit the measurement of the conversion of 13.5 GHz, longitudinal phonons to 27 GHz, transverse phonons...

  12. Advances in the use of acidic potassium permanganate as a chemiluminescence reagent: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adcock, Jacqui L.; Barnett, Neil W.; Barrow, Colin J.; Francis, Paul S., E-mail: psf@deakin.edu.au

    2014-01-07

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analytical applications of acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence. •Discussion of emitting species and light-producing reaction pathways. •Influence of enhancers such as polyphosphates, formaldehyde and sulfite. •Clinical, forensic, food science, agricultural and environmental applications. -- Abstract: We review the analytical applications of acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence published since our previous comprehensive review in mid-2007 to early 2013. This includes a critical evaluation of evidence for the emitting species, the influence of additives such as polyphosphates, formaldehyde, sulfite, thiosulfate, lanthanide complexes and nanoparticles, the development of a generalized reaction mechanism, and the use of this chemistry in pharmaceutical, clinical, forensic, food science, agricultural and environmental applications.

  13. Advances in the use of acidic potassium permanganate as a chemiluminescence reagent: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adcock, Jacqui L.; Barnett, Neil W.; Barrow, Colin J.; Francis, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analytical applications of acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence. •Discussion of emitting species and light-producing reaction pathways. •Influence of enhancers such as polyphosphates, formaldehyde and sulfite. •Clinical, forensic, food science, agricultural and environmental applications. -- Abstract: We review the analytical applications of acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence published since our previous comprehensive review in mid-2007 to early 2013. This includes a critical evaluation of evidence for the emitting species, the influence of additives such as polyphosphates, formaldehyde, sulfite, thiosulfate, lanthanide complexes and nanoparticles, the development of a generalized reaction mechanism, and the use of this chemistry in pharmaceutical, clinical, forensic, food science, agricultural and environmental applications

  14. Oxidation of sodium (2-14C) acetate with alkaline permanganate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, M.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanism and kinetics of the oxidation of sodium acetate with permanganate in alkile and neutral media have been investigated using (2- 14 C) acetate. The reaction is first order with respect to both permanganate and acetate ions. The initial second order rate constants depend linearly on the square of the hydroxide ion concentration. Arrhenius activation energy of the oxidation reaction carried out in 12M NaOH is 24.0 kcal/mole in the temperature interval of 50-100 deg C. The mechanism of the principal path leading to the oxalate formation and the mechanism of the side reaction resulting in the carbon dioxide production have been proposed and discussed. (author)

  15. Improving the sweeping efficiency of permanganate into low permeable zones to treat TCE: experimental results and model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokejaroenrat, Chanat; Kananizadeh, Negin; Sakulthaew, Chainarong; Comfort, Steve; Li, Yusong

    2013-11-19

    The residual buildup and treatment of dissolved contaminants in low permeable zones (LPZs) is a particularly challenging issue for injection-based remedial treatments. Our objective was to improve the sweeping efficiency of permanganate into LPZs to treat dissolved-phase TCE. This was accomplished by conducting transport experiments that quantified the ability of xanthan-MnO4(-) solutions to penetrate and cover (i.e., sweep) an LPZ that was surrounded by transmissive sands. By incorporating the non-Newtonian fluid xanthan with MnO4(-), penetration of MnO4(-) into the LPZ improved dramatically and sweeping efficiency reached 100% in fewer pore volumes. To quantify how xanthan improved TCE removal, we spiked the LPZ and surrounding sands with (14)C-lableled TCE and used a multistep flooding procedure that quantified the mass of (14)C-TCE oxidized and bypassed during treatment. Results showed that TCE mass removal was 1.4 times greater in experiments where xanthan was employed. Combining xanthan with MnO4(-) also reduced the mass of TCE in the LPZ that was potentially available for rebound. By coupling a multiple species reactive transport model with the Brinkman equation for non-Newtonian flow, the simulated amount of (14)C-TCE oxidized during transport matched experimental results. These observations support the use of xanthan as a means of enhancing MnO4(-) delivery into LPZs for the treatment of dissolved-phase TCE.

  16. Physicochemical properties of manganese oxides obtained via the sol-gel method: The reduction of potassium permanganate by polyvinyl alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanets, A. I.; Prozorovich, V. G.; Krivoshapkina, E. F.; Kuznetsova, T. F.; Krivoshapkin, P. V.; Katsoshvili, L. L.

    2017-08-01

    Experimental data on the sol-gel synthesis of manganese oxides formed during the reduction of potassium permanganate by polyvinyl alcohol in an aqueous medium are presented. The physicochemical properties of the obtained manganese oxide systems that depend on the conditions of the synthesis are studied by means of DTA, XRD, SEM, and the low temperature adsorption-desorption of nitrogen. It is found that the obtained samples have a mesoporous structure and predominantly consist of double potassium-manganese oxide K2Mn4O8 with a tunnel structure and impurities of oxides such as α-MnO2, MnO, α-Mn2O3, and Mn5O8. It is shown that the proposed method of synthesis allows us to regulate the size and volume of mesopores and, to a lesser extent, the texture of the obtained oxides, which can be considered promising sorbents for the selective extraction of strontium and cesium ions from multicomponent aqueous solutions.

  17. Oxidation of triclosan by permanganate (Mn(VII)): importance of ligands and in situ formed manganese oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jin; Pang, Su-Yan; Ma, Jun

    2009-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine permanganate (Mn(VII); KMnO(4)) oxidation of the widely used biocide triclosan (one phenolic derivative) in aqueous solution at pH values of 5-9. Under slightly acidic conditions, the reactions displayed autocatalysis, suggesting the catalytic role of in situ formed MnO(2). This was further supported by the promoting effects of the addition of preformed MnO(2) colloids on Mn(VII) oxidations of triclosan and two other selected phenolics (i.e., phenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol), as well as p-nitrophenol which otherwise showed negligible reactivity toward Mn(VII) and MnO(2) colloids, respectively. Surprisingly, phosphate buffer significantly enhanced Mn(VII) oxidation of triclosan, as well as phenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol over a wide pH range. Further, several other selected ligands (i.e., pyrophosphate, EDTA, and humic acid) also exerted oxidation enhancement, supporting a scenario where highly active aqueous manganese intermediates (Mn(INT)(aq)) formed in situ upon Mn(VII) reduction might be stabilized to a certain extent in the presence of ligands and subsequently involved in further oxidation of target phenolics, whereas without stabilizing agents Mn(INT)(aq) autodecomposes or disproportionates spontaneously. The effectiveness of Mn(VII) for the oxidative removal of triclosan in natural water and wastewater was confirmed. Their background matrices were also found to accelerate Mn(VII) oxidation of phenolics.

  18. Indirect spectrophotometric determination of piroxicam and tenoxicam through oxidation with potassium permanganate

    OpenAIRE

    A.S. Amin; H.A. Dessouki; K.M. Khalil

    2010-01-01

    Three rapid, simple, accurate and selective validated spectrophtometric methods (A, B and C) for the determination of piroxicam (PX) and tenoxicam (TX) in bulk sample and in dosage forms are described. The methods are based on the oxidation of the studied drugs by a known excess of potassium permanganate in sulfuric acid medium and subsequent determination of unreacted oxidant by reacting it with Methylene Blue (Basic Blue 9) dye (method A), Acid Red 27 (Amaranth) dye (method B) and Acid Oran...

  19. Reaction of lithium, sodium and potassium polyphosphates with potassium permanganate at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paderova, L.V.; Onuchina, T.V.; Kochergin, V.P.

    1996-01-01

    A study was made on destruction of molten polyphosphates of alkaline metals by potassium permanganate during change of KMnO 4 content, test time and temperature. Ortho-, di, tri- and tetraphosphate-anions, as well as manganese compounds with different oxidation degree were revealed in products of component interaction. Empirical equations of the dependence of the value of average molecular mass on change of melt temperature were derived. 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  20. In Situ Chemical Oxidation Using Potassium Permanganate. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The In Situ Chemical Oxidation Using Potassium Permanganate [KMnO4] treats soils or groundwater contaminated with a range of organic chemicals, including trichlorethylene. Potential application to metal and radionuclide contaminants, including oxidation/immobilization of uranium, is being investigated. This technology is designed for use with efficient delivery systems, such as the Multi-Point Injection System and Deep Soil Mixing, to treat contaminants in low permeability soils

  1. [Problems and ways of solutions to harmonize standards for air pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avaliani, S L; Novikov, S M; Shashina, T A; Skvortsova, N S; Kislitsin, V A; Mishina, A L

    2012-01-01

    In the article the basic problems of harmonization of domestic regulatory framework of air pollution with the WHO recommendations and normative values adopted in the EU, U.S. and other countries are considered. The important role of health risk analysis methodology in the process of harmonization of regulation and control of air quality has been pointed out. The necessity of radical changes in the structure and content of the basic normative document GN 2.1.6.1338-03 "maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of pollutants in the air of populated areas" has been shown. The algorithm of the procedure that justifies the new list of normative values in the air harmonized with international recommendations and standards of developed countries has been proposed.

  2. Analysis and specification of an open platform for outpatient care in consideration of actual standard solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosales Saurer, Bruno

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The field of ambulatory nursing is rapidly growing due to rising health care costs and the demographic development. Today there are approximately 2 million persons in Germany who need outpatient care. Experts predict that there will be more than twice as much by 2050. Ambulatory care nurses must quickly and efficiently assess their patients’ condition and needs. Against this background, the VitaBIT project started in July 2007 with the objective of reorganizing ambulatory care in order to improve quality while at the same time increasing efficiency and saving costs. VitaBIT is promoted by the German federal ministry of economy and technology (BMWi. VitaBIT runs up to the end of 2009, partners of the project are CAS Software AG, PTV Planung Transport Verkehr AG, FZI Forschungszentrum Informatik, Sozial- und Diakoniestation Weinstadt e.V. und Wibu-Systems AG. VitaBIT aims to design an ICT platform for the safe application of mobile information services in ambulatory nursing. Communication and secure information exchange between all parties involved in the care process will also be guaranteed. The article explains the project’s current approach to develop a user-oriented solution by integrating already existing components and services.

  3. Vacuum oscillation solution to the solar neutrino problem in standard and nonstandard pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhiani, Z.G.; Rossi, A.

    1995-01-01

    The neutrino long wavelength (just-so) oscillation is reexamined as a solution to the solar neutrino problem. We consider the just-so scenario in various cases: in the framework of the solar models with a relaxed prediction of the boron neutrino flux, as well as in the presence of the nonstandard weak range interactions between neutrino and matter constituents. We show that the fit of the experimental data in the just-so scenario is not very good for any reasonable value of the 8 B neutrino flux, but it substantially improves if the nonstandard τ-neutrino--electron interaction is included. These new interactions could also remove the conflict of the just-so picture with the shape of the SN 1987A neutrino spectrum. Special attention is devoted to the potential of the future real-time solar neutrino detectors such as Super-Kamiokande, SNO, and BOREXINO, which could provide the model-independent tests for the just-so scenario. In particular, these imply a specific deformation of the original solar neutrino energy spectra and time variation of the intermediate energy monochromatic neutrino ( 7 Be and pep) signals

  4. Watermarking Techniques Using Least Significant Bit Algorithm for Digital Image Security Standard Solution- Based Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Muzakir

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ease of deployment of digital image through the internet has positive and negative sides, especially for owners of the original digital image. The positive side of the ease of rapid deployment is the owner of that image deploys digital image files to various sites in the world address. While the downside is that if there is no copyright that serves as protector of the image it will be very easily recognized ownership by other parties. Watermarking is one solution to protect the copyright and know the results of the digital image. With Digital Image Watermarking, copyright resulting digital image will be protected through the insertion of additional information such as owner information and the authenticity of the digital image. The least significant bit (LSB is one of the algorithm is simple and easy to understand. The results of the simulations carried out using android smartphone shows that the LSB watermarking technique is not able to be seen by naked human eye, meaning there is no significant difference in the image of the original files with images that have been inserted watermarking. The resulting image has dimensions of 640x480 with a bit depth of 32 bits. In addition, to determine the function of the ability of the device (smartphone in processing the image using this application used black box testing. 

  5. Uses of the potassium permanganate to eliminate copper cyanide from waste water resulting from a lixiviation plant in a gold mine (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sancho, J. P.; Fernandez, B.; Ayala, J.; Garcia, M. P.; Lavandeira, A.

    2009-01-01

    The use of cyanide in the hydrometallurgical and chemical industries has led to the emergence of a major environmental problem due to its high toxicity. Te wastewater generated at these plants is hazardous to the environment and therefore must be managed properly. For this purpose, they undergo detoxification processes after lodes from the plant are accumulated in waste-resistant containment ponds that mast be waterproof to prevent environmental disasters from leakages or massive flood. This work shows the results obtained in laboratory tests carried out with plant waters and demonstrates the efficacy of potassium permanganate as an oxidant of cyanide wastewater from a gold hydrometallurgical plant. In the process the destruction of the copper cyanide complexes is solution is achieved and copper metal ions are eliminated through precipitation mostly as hydroxide. (Author) 28 refs.

  6. Kinetics and Mechanistic Study of Permanganate Oxidation of Fluorenone Hydrazone in Alkaline Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fawzy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation kinetics of fluorenone hydrazone (FH using potassium permanganate in alkaline medium were measured at a constant ionic strength of 0.1 mol dm−3 and at 25°C using UV/VIS spectrophotometer. A first-order kinetics has been monitored in the reaction of FH with respect to [permanganate]. Less-than-unit order dependence of the reaction on [FH] and [OH−] was revealed. No pronounced effect on the reaction rate by increasing ionic strength was recorded. Intervention of free radicals was observed in the reaction. The reaction mechanism describing the kinetic results was illustrated which involves formation of 1 : 1 intermediate complex between fluorenone hydrazones and the active species of permanganate. 9H-Fluorenone as the corresponding ketone was found to be the final oxidation product of fluorenone hydrazone as confirmed by GC/MS analysis and FT-IR spectroscopy. The expression rate law for the oxidation reaction was deduced. The reaction constants and mechanism have been evaluated. The activation parameters associated with the rate-limiting step of the reaction, along with the thermodynamic quantities of the equilibrium constants, have been calculated and discussed.

  7. Kinetics of the oxidation of cylindrospermopsin and anatoxin-a with chlorine, monochloramine and permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Eva; Sordo, Ana; Metcalf, James S; Acero, Juan L

    2007-05-01

    Cyanobacteria produce toxins that may contaminate drinking water sources. Among others, the presence of the alkaloid toxins cylindrospermopsin (CYN) and anatoxin-a (ANTX) constitutes a considerable threat to human health due to the acute and chronic toxicity of these compounds. In the present study, not previously reported second-order rate constants for the reactions of CYN and ANTX with chlorine and monochloramine and of CYN with potassium permanganate were determined and the influence of pH and temperature was established for the most reactive cases. It was found that the reactivity of CYN with chlorine presents a maximum at pH 7 (rate constant of 1265 M(-1)s(-1)). However, the oxidation of CYN with chloramine and permanganate are rather slow processes, with rate constants chlorination product of CYN was found to be 5-chloro-CYN (5-Cl-CYN), which reacts with chlorine 10-20 times slower than the parent compound. The reactivity of ANTX with chlorine and chloramines is also very low (kchlorine dose of 1.5 mg l(-1) was enough to oxidize CYN almost completely. However, 3 mg l(-1) of chlorine was able to remove only 8% of ANTX, leading to a total formation of trihalomethanes (TTHM) at a concentration of 150 microg l(-1). Therefore, chlorination is a feasible option for CYN degradation during oxidation and disinfection processes but not for ANTX removal. The permanganate dose required for CYN oxidation is very high and not applicable in waterworks.

  8. Kinetic and Mechanistic Aspects of the Reactions of Iodide and Hypoiodous Acid with Permanganate: Oxidation and Disproportionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaodan; Salhi, Elisabeth; Liu, Huiling; Ma, Jun; von Gunten, Urs

    2016-04-19

    Oxidation kinetics of iodide and HOI/OI(-) by permanganate were studied in the pH range of 5.0-10.0. Iodide oxidation and iodate formation were faster at lower pH. The apparent second-order rate constants (k(obs)) for iodide oxidation by permanganate decrease with increasing pH from 29 M(-1) s(-1) at pH 5.0 and 6.9 M(-1) s(-1) at pH 7.0 to 2.7 M(-1) s(-1) at pH 10.0. k(obs) for HOI abatement are 56 M(-1) s(-1) at pH 5.0, 2.5 M(-1) s(-1) at pH 7.0, and 173 M(-1) s(-1) at pH 10.0. Iodate yields over HOI abatement decrease from 98% at pH 6.0 to 33% for pH ≥ 9.5, demonstrating that HOI disproportionation dominates HOI transformation by permanganate at pH ≥ 8.0. MnO2 formed as a product from permanganate reduction, oxidizes HOI to iodate for pH oxidation or disproportionation induced by MnO2 is much lower than for permanganate. During treatment of iodide-containing waters, the potential for iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs) formation is highest at pH 7.0-8.0 due to the long lifetime of HOI. For pH oxidized by permanganate to iodate, whereas for pH ≥ 8.0, HOI/OI(-) undergoes a fast permanganate-mediated disproportionation.

  9. Short-term dissolution experiments on various cement formulations in standard Canadian shield saline solution in the presence of clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimann, R.B.; Stanchell, M.A.T.

    1986-12-01

    A commercially available sulphate-resisting portland cement (SRPC) and three cement formulations derived from it by adding 10 and 20 vol% silica fume or 35 vol% fly-ash have been leached in Standard Canadian Shield Saline Solution (SCSSS) with added calcium-montmorillonite or sodium-montmorillonite at 150 degrees C for 14 days. The leach solutions have been analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy for silicon, magensium, iron and potassium, and by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry for aluminum and phosphorous. The surfaces of the leached samples have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and by X-ray powder diffraction methods. Cumulative pore size distrubtion curves have been recorded for as-cured and leached cement samples. It has been shown that the presence of clay accelerates the rate of dissolution of the various cements, and that the pH of the leaching solutions plays a dominant role in the elemental release kinetics

  10. A SOA broker solution for standard discovery and access services: the GI-cat framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrini, Enrico

    2010-05-01

    GI-cat ideal users are data providers or service providers within the geoscience community. The former have their data already available through an access service (e.g. an OGC Web Service) and would have it published through a standard catalog service, in a seamless way. The latter would develop a catalog broker and let users query and access different geospatial resources through one or more standard interfaces and Application Profiles (AP) (e.g. OGC CSW ISO AP, CSW ebRIM/EO AP, etc.). GI-cat actually implements a broker components (i.e. a middleware service) which carries out distribution and mediation functionalities among "well-adopted" catalog interfaces and data access protocols. GI-cat also publishes different discovery interfaces: the OGC CSW ISO and ebRIM Application Profiles (the latter coming with support for the EO and CIM extension packages) and two different OpenSearch interfaces developed in order to explore Web 2.0 possibilities. An extended interface is also available to exploit all available GI-cat features, such as interruptible incremental queries and queries feedback. Interoperability tests performed in the context of different projects have also pointed out the importance to enforce compatibility with existing and wide-spread tools of the open source community (e.g. GeoNetwork and Deegree catalogs), which was then achieved. Based on a service-oriented framework of modular components, GI-cat can effectively be customized and tailored to support different deployment scenarios. In addition to the distribution functionality an harvesting approach has been lately experimented, allowing the user to switch between a distributed and a local search giving thus more possibilities to support different deployment scenarios. A configurator tool is available in order to enable an effective high level configuration of the broker service. A specific geobrowser was also naturally developed, for demonstrating the advanced GI-cat functionalities. This client

  11. Evaluation of the Ross fast solution of Richards' equation in unfavourable conditions for standard finite element methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crevoisier, D.; Voltz, M.; Chanzy, A.

    2009-01-01

    Ross [Ross PJ. Modeling soil water and solute transport - fast, simplified numerical solutions. Agron J 2003;95:1352-61] developed a fast, simplified method for solving Richards' equation. This non-iterative 1D approach, using Brooks and Corey [Brooks RH, Corey AT. Hydraulic properties of porous media. Hydrol. papers, Colorado St. Univ., Fort Collins: 1964] hydraulic functions, allows a significant reduction in computing time while maintaining the accuracy of the results. The first aim of this work is to confirm these results in a more extensive set of problems, including those that would lead to serious numerical difficulties for the standard numerical method. The second aim is to validate a generalisation of the Ross method to other mathematical representations of hydraulic functions. The Ross method is compared with the standard finite element model, Hydrus-1D [Simunek J, Sejna M, Van Genuchten MTh. The HYDRUS-1D and HYDRUS-2D codes for estimating unsaturated soil hydraulic and solutes transport parameters. Agron Abstr 357; 1999]. Computing time, accuracy of results and robustness of numerical schemes are monitored in 1D simulations involving different types of homogeneous soils, grids and hydrological conditions. The Ross method associated with modified Van Genuchten hydraulic functions [Vogel T, Cislerova M. On the reliability of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity calculated from the moisture retention curve. Transport Porous Media 1988:3:1-15] proves in every tested scenario to be more robust numerically, and the compromise of computing time/accuracy is seen to be particularly improved on coarse grids. Ross method run from 1.25 to 14 times faster than Hydrus-1D. (authors)

  12. Design challenges and gaps in standards in developing an interoperable zero footprint DI thin client for use in image-enabled electronic health record solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Arun; Koff, David; Bak, Peter; Bender, Duane; Castelli, Jane

    2015-03-01

    The deployment of regional and national Electronic Health Record solutions has been a focus of many countries throughout the past decade. A major challenge for these deployments has been support for ubiquitous image viewing. More specifically, these deployments require an imaging solution that can work over the Internet, leverage any point of service device: desktop, tablet, phone; and access imaging data from any source seamlessly. Whereas standards exist to enable ubiquitous image viewing, few if any solutions exist that leverage these standards and meet the challenge. Rather, most of the currently available web based DI viewing solutions are either proprietary solutions or require special plugins. We developed a true zero foot print browser based DI viewing solution based on the Web Access DICOM Objects (WADO) and Cross-enterprise Document Sharing for Imaging (XDS-I.b) standards to a) demonstrate that a truly ubiquitous image viewer can be deployed; b) identify the gaps in the current standards and the design challenges for developing such a solution. The objective was to develop a viewer, which works on all modern browsers on both desktop and mobile devices. The implementation allows basic viewing functionalities of scroll, zoom, pan and window leveling (limited). The major gaps identified in the current DICOM WADO standards are a lack of ability to allow any kind of 3D reconstruction or MPR views. Other design challenges explored include considerations related to optimization of the solution for response time and low memory foot print.

  13. Organic solution-processible electroluminescent molecular glasses for non-doped standard red OLEDs with electrically stable chromaticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Xiaoman; Zuo, Weiwei; Liu, Yingliang, E-mail: liuylxn@sohu.com; Zhang, Zhenru; Zeng, Cen; Xu, Shengang; Cao, Shaokui, E-mail: caoshaokui@zzu.edu.cn

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The D–A–D electroluminescent molecular glasses are synthesized. • Non-doped red electroluminescent film is fabricated by spin-coating. • Red OLED shows stable wavelength, luminous efficiency and chromaticity. • CIE1931 coordinate is in accord with standard red light in PAL system. - Abstract: Organic light-emitting molecular glasses (OEMGs) are synthesized through the introduction of nonplanar donor and branched aliphatic chain into electroluminescent emitters. The target OEMGs are characterized by {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, IR, UV–vis and fluorescent spectra as well as elemental analysis, TG and DSC. The results indicated that the optical, electrochemical and electroluminescent properties of OEMGs are adjusted successfully by the replacement of electron-donating group. The non-doped OLED device with a standard red electroluminescent emission is achieved by spin-coating the THF solution of OEMG with a triphenylamine moiety. This non-doped red OLED device takes on an electrically stable electroluminescent performance, including the stable maximum electroluminescent wavelength of 640 nm, the stable luminous efficiency of 2.4 cd/A and the stable CIE1931 coordinate of (x, y) = (0.64, 0.35), which is basically in accord with the CIE1931 coordinate (x, y) = (0.64, 0.33) of standard red light in PAL system.

  14. Modeling the absorption spectrum of the permanganate ion in vacuum and in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Hedegård, Erik Donovan

    2017-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of the MnO4(-) ion has been a test-bed for quantum-chemical methods over the last decades. Its correct description requires highly-correlated multiconfigurational methods, which are incompatible with the inclusion of finite-temperature and solvent effects due to their high...

  15. Modeling the absorption spectrum of the permanganate ion in vacuum and in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Hedegård, Erik Donovan

    2017-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of the MnO4(-) ion has been a test-bed for quantum-chemical methods over the last decades. Its correct description requires highly-correlated multiconfigurational methods, which are incompatible with the inclusion of finite-temperature and solvent effects due to their high...... by employing the polarizable embedding (PE) model combined with a range-separated complete active space short-range density functional theory method (CAS-srDFT). Finite-temperature effects are taken into account by averaging over structures obtained from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The explicit...... treatment of finite-temperature and solvent effects facilitates the interpretation of the bands in the low-energy region of the MnO4(-) absorption spectrum, whose assignment has been elusive....

  16. Comparison of permanganate preoxidation and preozonation on algae containing water: cell integrity, characteristics, and chlorinated disinfection byproduct formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Pengchao; Ma, Jun; Fang, Jingyun; Guan, Yinghong; Yue, Siyang; Li, Xuchun; Chen, Liwei

    2013-12-17

    Aqueous suspensions of Microcystis aeruginosa were preoxidized with either ozone or permanganate and then subjected to chlorination under conditions simulating drinking water purification. The impacts of the two oxidants on the algal cells and on the subsequent production of dissolved organic matter and disinfection byproducts were investigated. Preozonation dramatically increased disinfection byproduct formation during chlorination, especially the formation of haloaldehydes, haloacetonitriles, and halonitromethanes. Preoxidation with permanganate had much less effect on disinfection byproduct formation. Preozonation destroyed algal cell walls and cell membranes to release intracellular organic matter (IOM), and less than 2.0% integrated cells were left after preozonation with the dosage as low as 0.4 mg/L. Preoxidation with permanganate mainly released organic matter adsorbed on the cells' surface without causing any damage to the cells' integrity, so the increase in byproduct formation was much less. More organic nitrogen and lower molecular weight precursors were produced in a dissolved phase after preozonation than permanganate preoxidation, which contributes to the significant increase of disinfection byproducts after preozonation. The results suggest that permanganate is a better choice than ozone for controlling algae derived pollutants and disinfection byproducts.

  17. Customized smart grids, a practical test. No standard solution in sight; Massgeschneiderte Smart Grids im Praxistest. Keine einheitliche Loesung in Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrosik, Jan [Siemens AG (Germany). Bereich Energy Automation

    2011-09-05

    Smart grids are viewed as a universal solution to the increasingly complex problems of power supply. It is correct that smart grids will be indispensable in future power supply, it is wrong to assume that there will be a standardized and universal solution. Customized systems are required as grids tend to differ greatly.

  18. Determination of H-atom reaction rate constants by the competition kinetic technique using riboflavin as a standard solute [Paper No. RD-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishore, Kamal; Moorthy, P.N.; Rao, K.N.

    1982-01-01

    Riboflavin has been used as a standard solute to evaluate H-atom rate constants of other solutes by steady state radiolytic competition kinetic method. The bleaching of absorbance of riboflavin at 445 nm as a result of its reaction with H-atoms is made use of in estimating its decomposition. The merits and demerits of this method are discussed. (author)

  19. Standard Gibbs free energies of reactions of ozone with free radicals in aqueous solution: quantum-chemical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Sergej; von Sonntag, Clemens

    2011-11-01

    Free radicals are common intermediates in the chemistry of ozone in aqueous solution. Their reactions with ozone have been probed by calculating the standard Gibbs free energies of such reactions using density functional theory (Jaguar 7.6 program). O(2) reacts fast and irreversibly only with simple carbon-centered radicals. In contrast, ozone also reacts irreversibly with conjugated carbon-centered radicals such as bisallylic (hydroxycylohexadienyl) radicals, with conjugated carbon/oxygen-centered radicals such as phenoxyl radicals, and even with nitrogen- oxygen-, sulfur-, and halogen-centered radicals. In these reactions, further ozone-reactive radicals are generated. Chain reactions may destroy ozone without giving rise to products other than O(2). This may be of importance when ozonation is used in pollution control, and reactions of free radicals with ozone have to be taken into account in modeling such processes.

  20. Standard test method for gamma energy emission from fission products in uranium hexafluoride and uranyl nitrate solution

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of gamma energy emitted from fission products in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) and uranyl nitrate solution. It is intended to provide a method for demonstrating compliance with UF6 specifications C 787 and C 996 and uranyl nitrate specification C 788. 1.2 The lower limit of detection is 5000 MeV Bq/kg (MeV/kg per second) of uranium and is the square root of the sum of the squares of the individual reporting limits of the nuclides to be measured. The limit of detection was determined on a pure, aged natural uranium (ANU) solution. The value is dependent upon detector efficiency and background. 1.3 The nuclides to be measured are106Ru/ 106Rh, 103Ru,137Cs, 144Ce, 144Pr, 141Ce, 95Zr, 95Nb, and 125Sb. Other gamma energy-emitting fission nuclides present in the spectrum at detectable levels should be identified and quantified as required by the data quality objectives. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its us...

  1. Development of an Alternative Treatment Scheme for Sr/TRU Removal: Permanganate Treatment of AN-107 Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RT Hallen; SA Bryan; FV Hoopes

    2000-08-04

    A number of Hanford tanks received waste containing organic complexants, which increase the volubility of Sr-90 and transuranic (TRU) elements. Wastes from these tanks require additional pretreatment to remove Sr-90 and TRU for immobilization as low activity waste (Waste Envelope C). The baseline pretreatment process for Sr/TRU removal was isotopic exchange and precipitation with added strontium and iron. However, studies at both Battelle and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) have shown that the Sr/Fe precipitates were very difficult to filter. This was a result of the formation of poor filtering iron solids. An alternate treatment technology was needed for Sr/TRU removal. Battelle had demonstrated that permanganate treatment was effective for decontaminating waste samples from Hanford Tank SY-101 and proposed that permanganate be examined as an alternative Sr/TRU removal scheme for complexant-containing tank wastes such as AW107. Battelle conducted preliminary small-scale experiments to determine the effectiveness of permanganate treatment with AN-107 waste samples that had been archived at Battelle from earlier studies. Three series of experiments were performed to evaluate conditions that provided adequate Sr/TRU decontamination using permanganate treatment. The final series included experiments with actual AN-107 diluted feed that had been obtained specifically for BNFL process testing. Conditions that provided adequate Sr/TRU decontamination were identified. A free hydroxide concentration of 0.5M provided adequate decontamination with added Sr of 0.05M and permanganate of 0.03M for archived AN-107. The best results were obtained when reagents were added in the sequence Sr followed by permanganate with the waste at ambient temperature. The reaction conditions for Sr/TRU removal will be further evaluated with a 1-L batch of archived AN-107, which will provide a large enough volume of waste to conduct crossflow filtration studies (Hallen et al. 2000a).

  2. Development of an Alternative Treatment Scheme for Sr/TRU Removal: Permanganate Treatment of AN-107 Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallen, R.T.; Bryan, S.A.; Hoopes, F.V.

    2000-01-01

    A number of Hanford tanks received waste containing organic complexants, which increase the volubility of Sr-90 and transuranic (TRU) elements. Wastes from these tanks require additional pretreatment to remove Sr-90 and TRU for immobilization as low activity waste (Waste Envelope C). The baseline pretreatment process for Sr/TRU removal was isotopic exchange and precipitation with added strontium and iron. However, studies at both Battelle and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) have shown that the Sr/Fe precipitates were very difficult to filter. This was a result of the formation of poor filtering iron solids. An alternate treatment technology was needed for Sr/TRU removal. Battelle had demonstrated that permanganate treatment was effective for decontaminating waste samples from Hanford Tank SY-101 and proposed that permanganate be examined as an alternative Sr/TRU removal scheme for complexant-containing tank wastes such as AW107. Battelle conducted preliminary small-scale experiments to determine the effectiveness of permanganate treatment with AN-107 waste samples that had been archived at Battelle from earlier studies. Three series of experiments were performed to evaluate conditions that provided adequate Sr/TRU decontamination using permanganate treatment. The final series included experiments with actual AN-107 diluted feed that had been obtained specifically for BNFL process testing. Conditions that provided adequate Sr/TRU decontamination were identified. A free hydroxide concentration of 0.5M provided adequate decontamination with added Sr of 0.05M and permanganate of 0.03M for archived AN-107. The best results were obtained when reagents were added in the sequence Sr followed by permanganate with the waste at ambient temperature. The reaction conditions for Sr/TRU removal will be further evaluated with a 1-L batch of archived AN-107, which will provide a large enough volume of waste to conduct crossflow filtration studies (Hallen et al. 2000a)

  3. Histopathological and bacterial study of Persian sturgeon fry, Acipenser persicus (Borodin, 1897) exposed to copper sulfate and potassium permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshtaghi, Batol; Khara, Hossein; Pazhan, Zabiyollah; Shenavar, Alireza

    2016-09-01

    Persian sturgeon frys were exposed to different concentrations of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate in order to the evaluation of their impacts on bacterial load of skin, gill and surrounding water and also the histopathological alternations of gill tissue. For this purpose, the sublethal doses were determined after a pre-test and then the experiment was done in 4 (for copper sulfate: 0.07, 0.14, 026 and 0.5 mg/l) and 5 (for potassium permanganate: 0.07, 0.14, 026, 0.5 and 1 mg/l) treatments with three replicates inside the glass aquaria. Also, one group without disinfecting drug was considered as control for each experiment. The microbial and histopathological investigations were done after 96 h exposure. According to our results, a range of histopathological alternations were observed in gills tissue including mucus coagulation and secretion, hyperplasia, lamellar necrosis, hyperplasia, lamellar adhesion, haemorrhage, thickening of secondary lamellae, hypertrophy of supporter cartilage, clubbing of gill lamellae and sliming of primary lamellae. The severity of these alternations increased with increasing of the doses of the copper sulfate and potassium permanganate. The bacterial load (CFU/g) of gill, skin and surrounding water was lower in 0.07 mg/l copper sulfate treatment and 1 mg/l potassium permanganate treatment (P permanganate have disinfecting effects on bacterial load of gill, skin and surrounding water, although this is along with some histopathological alternations. Also, it seems that the copper sulfate has higher disinfecting power than potassium permanganate.

  4. Standard partial molar heat capacities and enthalpies of formation of aqueous aluminate under hydrothermal conditions from integral heat of solution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulier, Yohann; Tremaine, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Heats of solution of NaAlO 2 (s) were measured at five temperatures up to 250 °C. • Standard molar enthalpies of solution were determined from the measured heats of solution. • Standard molar enthalpies of solution were correlated with the density model. • The density model allows us to determine the standard molar heat capacities of reaction. - Abstract: Heats of solution of sodium aluminum oxide, NaAlO 2 (s), were measured in aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions using a Tian–Calvet heat-flow calorimeter (Setaram, Model C80) with high pressure “batch cells” made of hastelloy C-276, at five temperatures from (373.15 to 523.15) K, steam saturation pressure, and concentrations from (0.02 to 0.09) mol · kg −1 . Standard molar enthalpies of solution, Δ soln H ∘ , and relative standard molar enthalpies, [H ∘ (T) − H ∘ (298.15 K)], of NaAl(OH) 4 (aq) were determined from the measured heats of solution. The results were fitted with the “density” model. The temperature dependence of Δ soln H ∘ from the model yielded the standard molar heat capacities of reaction, Δ soln C p ∘ , from which standard partial molar heat capacities for aqueous aluminate, C p ∘ [A1(OH) 4 − ,aq], were calculated. Standard partial molar enthalpies of formation, Δ f H ∘ , and entropies, S ∘ , of A1(OH) 4 − (aq) were also determined. The values for C p ∘ [A1(OH) 4 − ,aq] agree with literature data determined up to T = 413 K from enthalpy of solution and heat capacity measurements to within the combined experimental uncertainties. They are consistent with differential heat capacity measurements up to T = 573 K from Schrödle et al. (2010) [29] using the same calorimeter, but this method has the advantage that measurements could be made at much lower concentrations in the presence of an excess concentration of ligand. To our knowledge, these are the first standard partial molar heat capacities measured under hydrothermal conditions by the

  5. Modification of radiation-induced oxic and anoxic damage by caffeine and potassium permanganate in barley seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesavan, P.C.; Dodd, N.J.F.

    1976-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that both the immediate and post-irradiation oxygen effects in barley seeds decrease in magnitude in the presence of potassium permanganate and caffeine. This implied that these two types of oxygen effect have features in common. With the removal of the radiation-induced oxygen-sensitive sites, by anoxic hydration, caffeine potentiated the oxygen-independent component of damage, in seeds irradiated in a dry or pre-soaked state. Potassium permanganate, on the other hand, enhanced the anoxic radiation damage only in seeds irradiated in a dry state. The possible mode of action of KMnO 4 and caffeine in barley seeds is discussed. (author)

  6. Low temperature thermal annealing in fast neutron-irradiated potassium permanganate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, C W; Lecington, W C [New Hampshire Univ., Durham (USA). Dept. of Chemistry

    1975-01-01

    The effect of thermal annealing on the retention of recoil /sup 54/Mn as permanganate in crystalline KMnO/sub 4/ irradiated with fast neutrons at liquid nitrogen temperature has been studied. The retention after 4 hrs of annealing increases from about 8% at -196/sup 0/ to a maximum of 61% at 180/sup 0/, then decreases at higher temperatures. A single activation energy (approximately 0.01 eV) applies to the thermal annealing process between -196/sup 0/ and -40/sup 0/. Extrapolation of the data suggests that below -229/sup 0/ no thermal annealing would occur.

  7. Thermal modulation voltammetry with laser heating at an aqueous|nitrobenzene solution microinterface: determination of the standard entropy changes of transfer for tetraalkylammonium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinoue, Teruo; Ikeda, Eiji; Watariguchi, Shigeru; Kibune, Yasuyuki

    2007-01-01

    Thermal modulation voltammetry (TMV) with laser heating was successfully performed at an aqueous|nitrobenzene (NB) solution microinterface, by taking advantage of the fact that laser light with a wavelength of 325.0 nm is optically transparent to the aqueous solution but opaque to the NB solution. When the laser beam impinges upon the interface from the aqueous solution side, a temperature is raised around the interface through the thermal diffusion subsequent to the light-to-heat conversion following the optical absorption by the NB solution near the interface. Based on such a principle, we achieved a fluctuating temperature perturbation around the interface for TMV by periodically irradiating the interface with the laser beam. On the other hand, the fluctuating temperature perturbation has influence on currents for transfer of an ion across the interface to produce fluctuating currents synchronized with the perturbation through temperature coefficients of several variables concerning the transfer, such as the standard transfer potential and the diffusion coefficient of the ion. Consequently, TMV has the possibility of providing information about the standard entropy change of transfer corresponding to a temperature coefficient of the standard transfer potential and a temperature coefficient of the diffusion coefficient. In this work, the aqueous|NB solution interface of 30 microm in diameter was irradiated with the laser beam at 10 Hz, and the currents synchronized with the periodical irradiation were recorded as a function of the potential difference across the interface in order to construct a TM voltammogram. TM voltammograms were measured for transfer of tetramethylammonium, tetraethylammonium, tetrapropylammonium, and tetra-n-butylammonium ions from the aqueous solution to the NB solution, and the standard entropy change of transfer was determined for each ion, according to an analytical procedure based on a mathematical expression of the TM voltammogram

  8. Preparation procedure and certification of uranous-uranic oxide and nitric acid solution of neptunium as standard specimens of plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulyanitsa, L.S.; Lipovskij, A.A.; Ryzhinskij, M.V.; Preobrazhensskaya, L.D.; Aleksandruk, V.M.; Alekseeva, N.A.; Gromova, E.A.; Solntseva, L.F.; Shereshevskaya, I.I.

    1981-01-01

    Two techniques of certification of standard specimens of plant (SSP) are considered. The first technique-comparison with initial SS-metallic uranium NBS-960 - is used for certification of uranium. protoxide-oxide. The mass part of the sum of analyzed impurities in prepared initial SS is (8.4+-0.8)x10 -3 %. For certification according to mass uranium part the method of gravimetric potentiometric titration with semiautomatic titrator is used; the mean quadratic deviation of the method is s=0.0002-0.0003, certified value of uranium mass part in SSP (taking account of the error of initial SS) is (84.80+-0.02)%. The second technigue - a simplified circular experiment - is used for certification of SSP-nitric acid solution of neptunium as to Np mass part. Coulometry at controlled potential and coulometry at controlled current and two variants of potentiometric titration are used as certification methods of analysis. Relative mean quadratic deviations of the methods are ssub(r)=0.0014-0.0023. When calculating total error of certified value of neptunium mass part constituents of both accidental and unremoved systematic errors of the methods were included. The final certification result of SSP is (5.707+-0.018)% [ru

  9. Oxidation of alkylarenes to the corresponding acids using aqueous potassium permanganate by hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambulgekar, G V; Samant, S D; Pandit, A B

    2004-05-01

    Oxidation of toluene using aqueous potassium permanganate was studied under heterogeneous condition in the presence of hydrodynamic cavitation and compared with the results of the reaction under acoustic cavitation. Various parameters, such as quantity of potassium permanganate, toluene to aqueous phase ratio, reaction time and cavitation parameters such as orifice plate, and pump discharge pressure were optimized. The reaction was found to be considerably accelerated at ambient temperature in the presence of cavitation. On comparison, it was found that when 1 kJ of energy was passed to the reaction mixture in the case of acoustic cavitation, the product obtained was 4.63 x 10(-6) mol, whereas when 1 kJ of energy was passed to the reaction mixture in the case of hydrodynamic cavitation the product obtained was 2.70 x 10(-5) mol. Hence, about six times more product would be obtained in the case of hydrodynamic cavitation than in the case of acoustic cavitation at same energy dissipation. It has been observed that further optimization is possible.

  10. Spectrophotometric Determination of Aminoglycoside Antibiotics Based on their Oxidation by Potassium Permanganate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Didamony, A. M.; Ghoneim, A. K.; Telebany, A. M.; Amin, A. S.

    2006-01-01

    A rapid, simple and sensitive validated spectrophotometric methods have been described for the assay of neomycin and streptomycin either in pure form or in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed methods were based on the oxidation of the studied drugs by a known excess of potassium permanganate in acidic medium and estimating the unreacted permanganate with amaranth dye (method A), acid orange II (method B), indigocarmine (method C), and methylene blue (method D), in the same acid medium at a suitable λ max =521, 485, 610 and 664 nm, respectively. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 5-10 and 2-7 mg mL -1 for neomycin and streptomycin, respectively. The apparent molar absorptivity and sandell sensitivity values are in the range 5.47-6.20x10 4 , 2.35-2.91x10 5 L mol -1 cm -1 and 7.57-8.59, 5.01-6.2 ng cm -2 for neomycin and streptomycin, respectively. Different variables affecting the reaction were studied and optimized. The proposed methods were applied successfully to the determination of the examined drugs either in a pure or pharmaceutical dosage forms with good accuracy and precision. No interferences were observed from excipients and the results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained using the official methods

  11. Permanganate Treatment of Savannah River Site Simulant Wastes for Strontium and Actinide Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the use of sodium permanganate and strontium nitrate to remove the actinides and radio-strontium from Savannah River Site (SRS) waste supernate. We examined the quantities of chemical feed reagents along with increased mixing and the excess of organic reductant. Additionally, we examined two processing schemes including that applicable to either the Salt Waste Processing Facility or the Alpha Removal Process (ARP) (5.6 M sodium ion concentration) conditions and the conditions for an In-Tank application (7.5 M sodium ion concentration). Our results support the following conclusions: The process met minimum required decontamination factors (DFs) within the tested parameter sets for strontium and plutonium in both the ARP and In-Tank application. The strontium DFs far exceeded the required values within the tested parameter sets. Within the ARP application, the use of peroxide as the reductant for permanganate produced higher plutonium DFs than the use of sodium formate. Reductant concentration and degree of mixing strongly influenced radionuclide decontamination. In the formate application under the ARP process, increasing the reductant concentration and mixing energy resulted in higher Sr and Pu decontamination

  12. Determination of cyanide using a chemiluminescence system composed of permanganate, rhodamine B, and gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjadi, Mohammad; Hassanzadeh, Javad; Manzoori, Jamshid L.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new chemiluminescence (CL) system based on the oxidation of rhodamine B (RhoB) with alkaline potassium permanganate in the presence of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) and anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate. Free RhoB is weakly chemiluminescent when oxidized with permanganate at alkaline pH values. However, a remarkably strong enhancement of CL is observed in the presence of Au-NPs, probably due to a strong interaction between RhoB and the NPs. The possible mechanism was studied via recording the CL emission. It is also found that the intensity of CL gradually decreases in the presence of cyanide due to its interaction with the Au-NPs. The relation between the decreased CL intensity and cyanide concentration was exploited to develop a method for the determination of cyanide in the 0.01–0.5 μM concentration range, with a detection limit of 2.8 nM. The method was used to determine cyanide in spiked water, urine, and serum. (author)

  13. Kinetic studies of potassium permanganate adsorption by activated carbon and its ability as ethylene oxidation material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprilliani, F.; Warsiki, E.; Iskandar, A.

    2018-03-01

    Generally, ethylene production in many horticultural products has been seen to be detrimental to the quality during storage and distribution process. For this reason, removing ethylene from storage or distribution atmosphere is needed to maintain the quality. One of the technologies that can be applied is the use of potassium permanganate (KMnO4). KMnO4 is an active compound that can be used as an oxidizing agent on ethylene removal process. KMnO4 is not recommended for direct used application. As the result, additional material is required to impregnate the potassium permanganate. The inert materials used are commercial activated carbon. Activated carbon is chosen because it has high surface area. The purpose of this research is to determine kinetics adsorption and oxidation model of ethylene removal material. The kinetics adsorption was determined using the pseudo-first and second-order kinetic models. The data on adsorption process show that the second-order equation is more suitable to express the adsorption process on this research. The analyzing of the ethylene oxidation capacity increased with time until it reaches an optimal value. The ethylene oxidation rate is able to be estimated by the formula r = 0.1967 [C2H4]0.99 [KMnO4]0.01; MSE = 0.44 %. The actual and estimation data of ethylene oxidation show that the model is fitted to describe the actual ethylene oxidation under same experimental conditions.

  14. The importance of chain length for the polyphosphate enhancement of acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Brendan J; Adcock, Jacqui L; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Peristyy, Anton; Stevenson, Paul G; Barnett, Neil W; Conlan, Xavier A; Francis, Paul S

    2014-09-09

    Sodium polyphosphate is commonly used to enhance chemiluminescence reactions with acidic potassium permanganate through a dual enhancement mechanism, but commercially available polyphosphates vary greatly in composition. We have examined the influence of polyphosphate composition and concentration on both the dual enhancement mechanism of chemiluminescence intensity and the stability of the reagent under analytically useful conditions. The average chain length (n) provides a convenient characterisation, but materials with similar values can exhibit markedly different distributions of phosphate oligomers. There is a minimum polyphosphate chain length (∼6) required for a large enhancement of the emission intensity, but no further advantage was obtained using polyphosphate materials with much longer average chain lengths. Providing there is a sufficient average chain length, the optimum concentration of polyphosphate is dependent on the analyte and in some cases, may be lower than the quantities previously used in routine detection. However, the concentration of polyphosphate should not be lowered in permanganate reagents that have been partially reduced to form high concentrations of the key manganese(III) co-reactant, as this intermediate needs to be stabilised to prevent formation of insoluble manganese(IV). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Gold nanorods-enhanced rhodamine B-permanganate chemiluminescence and its analytical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Javad; Amjadi, Mohammad; Manzoori, Jamshid L; Sorouraddin, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-04-15

    A novel enhanced chemiluminescence system was developed by applying gold nanorods (Au NRs) as catalysts in rhodamine B-permanganate reaction. Au NRs with three different aspect ratios were synthesized by seed mediated growth method and characterized by UV-Vis spectra and transmission electron microscopy. It was demonstrated that Au NRs have much higher catalytic effect than spherical nanoparticles on rhodamine B-permanganate chemiluminescence reaction. Among various sizes of Au NRs, those with average aspect ratio of 3.0 were found to have the most remarkable catalytic activity. As an analytical application of the new chemiluminescence system, albumin as a model protein was quantified based on its interaction with NRs. Albumin binds to Au NRs active surfaces and inhibits their catalytic action and therefore decreases the intensity of chemiluminescence. This diminution effect is linearly related to the concentration of the human and bovine serum albumin over the ranges of 0.45-90 and 0.75-123 nmol L(-1), respectively with the corresponding limits of detection of 0.18 and 0.30 nmol L(-1). The method was successfully applied to the determination of albumin in human and bovine serum samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Oxidative removal of quinclorac by permanganate through a rate-limiting [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dean; Cheng, Hanyang; Jiang, Xiaohua; Sun, Huiqing; Kong, Fanyu; Liang, Rongning; Qiang, Zhimin; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2018-04-05

    Quinclorac, a widely used herbicide in agriculture, has been recognized as an emerging environmental pollutant owing to its long persistence and potential risk to humans. However, no related information is available on the degradation of quinclorac by employing oxidants. Herein, the reactivity of quinclorac with permanganate was systematically investigated in water by combining experimental and computational approaches. The reaction followed overall second-order kinetics pointing to a bimolecular rate-limiting step. The second-order rate constant was found to be 3.47 × 10-3 M-1 s-1 at 25 °C, which was independent of pH over the range from 5 to 9 and was dependent on temperature over the range from 19 to 35 °C. The initial product was identified by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS to be mono-hydroxylated quinclorac, which was more susceptible to further oxidation. The result could be supported by the complete simulation of the reaction process in DFT calculations, indicating the [3 + 2] cycloaddition oxidation of the benzene ring in the rate-limiting step. The plausible mechanism was then proposed, accompanied by the analysis of the HOMO indicating the hydroxylation position and of the ESP suggesting a more electron-rich moiety. Considering the high effectiveness and low toxicity, permanganate oxidation was considered to be a very promising technique for removing quinclorac from aquatic environments.

  17. Oxidative dissolution of ruthenium deposits onto stainless steel by permanganate ions in alkaline medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floquet, S.; Eysseric, C.; Maurel, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA/Valrho), Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2008-07-01

    During spent nuclear fuel reprocessing ruthenium is liable to form black ruthenium deposits on the stainless steel walls of process equipments. These deposits promote corrosion and can eventually obstruct the off-gas lines. The results of decontamination of 304L stainless steel test specimens covered with RuO(OH){sub 2} . xH{sub 2}O deposits by permanganate ions in alkaline medium are described. The ruthenium deposits were dissolved by oxidation of RuO(OH){sub 2} to RuO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ions, while the permanganate ions were reduced to MnO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ions and then to manganese dioxide MnO{sub 2}. The parameters affecting the kinetics of oxidative dissolution of these deposits were examined. The results indicate that the oxidative dissolution kinetics depends on the instantaneous surface area of the deposit, and that the dissolution rate increases with the concentrations of MnO{sub 4}{sup -} and OH{sup -} ions. (orig.)

  18. Effect of natural Bayah zeolite particle size reduction to physico-chemical properties and absortion against potassium permanganate (KMnO4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayanti, Siti Mariana; Syamsu, Khaswar; Warsiki, Endang; Yuliani, Sri

    2016-02-01

    Recently, researches on nanotechnology have been developed very rapid, as well as the utilization of nano-zeolites. Nano-sized material has several advantages which are expanding absorptive surfaces so it will enhance the material absorption and shorten the absorption time. Zeolite as a KMnO4 binder, has been widely recognized for its ability to extend the shelf life of vegetables and fruits. This study was conducted to determine zeolites physico-chemical characters from different particle size and the effect on KMnO4 absorption. Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) is a strong oxidizer for reducing the quantity of ethylene in storage process of fresh horticultural products. The treatment consisted of (1) different length of milling time (10, 20, 30, 40, and 60 minutes) and (2) the duration of chemical activation with 1 N KOH solution. Physical and chemical characters of zeolite were analyzed using BET, PSA, XRD and SEM. The research design was randomized design. The result implied that milling time was significantly affecting the zeolite particle size, material surface area, and the size of pore diameter and volume. Milling treatment for 40 minutes produced higher zeolite surface area and pore volume than other treatments. While the duration of chemical activation using 1 N KOH solution gives different effect on zeolite absorption to KMnO4 solution. Milling time for 60 minutes and activated for 48 hours has higher initial adsorption than other treatments.

  19. Slow-release Permanganate Gel (SRP-G) for Groundwater Remediation: Spreading, Gelation, and Release in Porous and Low-Permeability Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E. S.; Hastings, J.; Kim, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) like trichloroethylene (TCE) serve as the most common form of groundwater pollution in the world. Pore-plugging by the solid oxidation product MnO2 and limited lateral dispersion of the oxidant are two common problems with existing in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) schemes that could be alleviated through the development of a delayed gelation method for oxidant delivery. The objective of the current study was to further develop and optimize slow-release permanganate gel (SRP-G), a solution comprising colloidal silica and KMnO4, as a novel low-cost treatment option for large and dilute TCE plumes in groundwater. Batch tests showed that gelation could be delayed through manipulation of KMnO4 concentration, pH, and silica particle size of the SRP-G solution. In flow-through columns and flow-tanks filled with saturated sands, silica concentration had little effect on the gelation lag stage and release rate, but increasing silica concentration was associated with increasing release duration. When compared to a pure KMnO4 solution, visual observations and [MnO4-] measurements from flow tank tests demonstrated that the SRP-G prolonged the release duration and enhanced lateral spreading of the oxidant.

  20. Prevention of ischemia-reperfusion lung injury during static cold preservation by supplementation of standard preservation solution with HEMO2life® in pig lung transplantation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorion, M; Polard, V; Favereau, F; Hauet, T; Zal, F; Fadel, E; Sage, E

    2017-10-25

    We describe the results of adding a new biological agent HEMO 2 life ® to a standard preservation solution for hypothermic static lung preservation aiming to improve early functional parameters after lung transplantation. HEMO 2 life ® is a natural oxygen carrier extracted from Arenicola marina with high oxygen affinity developed as an additive to standard organ preservation solutions. Standard preservation solution (Perfadex ® ) was compared with Perfadex ® associated with HEMO 2 life ® and with sham animals after 24 h of hypothermic preservation followed by lung transplantation. During five hours of lung reperfusion, functional parameters and biomarkers expression in serum and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. After five hours of reperfusion, HEMO 2 life ® group led to significant improvement in functional parameters: reduction of graft vascular resistance (p preservation improves early graft function after prolonged cold ischemia in lung transplantation.

  1. [Study of relationship between consumption of potassium permanganate and total organic carbon on plastic kitchen utensils, food packages and toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Masako; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko

    2009-10-01

    Consumption of potassium permanganate and total organic carbon (TOC) were investigated as indices of total organic matter migrated into water from plastic kitchen utensils, food packages and toys for children. The samples were soaked in water at 60 or 95 degrees C for 30 min for kitchen utensils and food packages, and at 40 degrees C for 30 min for toys and the eluates were examined, using the two indices. The quantitation limits were both 0.5 microg/mL. Among 97 kitchen utensils and food packages tested, consumption of potassium permanganate and TOC were 0.5-10.9 microg/mL and ND-18.9 microg/mL for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tea-pot spouts and nylon kitchen utensils, respectively. Among 32 toys tested, the levels were 0.8-45.5 microg/mL and 0.5-8.9 microg/mL from PVC toys and block toys made by ethylene vinyl acetate resin. The levels for other samples were very low. There were large discrepancies between consumption of potassium permanganate and TOC for some PVC products and nylon kitchen utensils. The cause may be a marked difference of the oxidation decomposition rate by potassium permanganate, depending on the kind of organic matter that migrated from the plastics.

  2. Fast and efficient green synthesis of thiosulfonate S-esters by microwave-supported permanganate oxidation of symmetrical disulfides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thi, Luu Thi Xuan; Thi Nguyen, Thao-Tran; Le, Thach Ngoc

    2015-01-01

    Potassium permanganate absorbed on copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate has been found to be an efficient, inexpensive, and green oxidation agent for the synthesis of “symmetrical” thiosulfonate S-esters by oxidation of the corresponding symmetrical disulfides. The oxidation reactions were carried out...

  3. Comparative effects of copper sulfate or potassium permanganate on channel catfish concurrently infected with Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator

    Science.gov (United States)

    An opportunistic study was conducted to determine the effects of two chemical therapeutants on channel catfish (CCF) Ictalurus punctatus concurrently infected Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) were investigated for their abil...

  4. A Neat Trick Using Oxalic Acid Dihydrate and Potassium Permanganate and Other Experiments with Small Organic Amine or Oxygenated Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelland, Malcolm A.

    2011-01-01

    Solid potassium permanganate (KMnO[subscript 4]) is shown to react in a variety of ways with small organic amines or oxygenated compounds depending on whether they are liquids or solids and whether water is present. In particular, its reaction with solid oxalic acid dihydrate can be initiated by the moisture in one's breath, making an intriguing…

  5. Evaluation of potassium permanganate against an experimental subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish, Icatlurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) as a prophylactic and therapeutic treatment for subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare was demonstrated in experimentally infected channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Catfish experimentally infected with F. columnare to mimic a subacute infec...

  6. Hot atom chemistry in oxyanion targets: Part 3. Some theoretical aspects of reincorporation of parent form in permanganates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, S.P.; Singh, J.

    1988-01-01

    An attempt is made to advance qualitative and quantitative interpretations for the observed data on retention of recoil 56 Mn in potassium and ammonium permanganates in the light of following physical models; (a) extreme back-diffusion model, (b) billiard-ball collision model and (c) hot zone model. (author). 6 tables, 22 refs

  7. Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} by microwave with potassium permanganate over zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Zai-shan; Niu, He-jingying; Ji, Yong-feng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2009-02-15

    Simultaneous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) removal from flue gas can be achieved with high efficiency by microwave with potassium permanganate (KMnO{sub 4}) over zeolite. The experimental results showed that the microwave reactor could be used to oxidation of SO{sub 2} to sulfate with the best desulfurization efficiency of 96.8% and oxidize NO{sub x} to nitrates with the best NO{sub x} removal efficiency of 98.4%. Microwave accentuates catalytic oxidation treatment, and microwave addition can increase the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal efficiency by 7.2% and 12.2% separately. The addition of zeolite to microwave potassium permanganate increases from 16.5% to 43.5% the microwave removal efficiency for SO{sub 2}, and the NO{sub x} removal efficiency from 85.6% to 98.2%. The additional use of potassium permanganate to the microwave zeolite leads to the enhancement of SO{sub 2} removal efficiency up from 53.9% to 95%, and denitrification efficiency up from 85.6% to 98.2%. The optimal microwave power and empty bed residence time (EBRT) on simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification are 259 W and 0.357 s, respectively. SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} were rapidly oxidized in microwave induced catalytic oxidation reaction using potassium permanganate with zeolite being the catalyst and microwave absorbent. (author)

  8. Analysis of sources of bulk conductivity change in saturated silica sand after unbuffered TCE oxidation by permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hort, Ryan D; Revil, André; Munakata-Marr, Junko

    2014-09-01

    Time lapse resistivity surveys could potentially improve monitoring of permanganate-based in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of organic contaminants such as trichloroethene (TCE) by tracking changes in subsurface conductivity that result from injection of permanganate and oxidation of the contaminant. Bulk conductivity and pore fluid conductivity changes during unbuffered TCE oxidation using permanganate are examined through laboratory measurements and conductivity modeling using PHREEQC in fluid samples and porous media samples containing silica sand. In fluid samples, oxidation of one TCE molecule produces three chloride ions and one proton, resulting in an increase in fluid electrical conductivity despite the loss of two permanganate ions in the reaction. However, in saturated sand samples in which up to 8mM TCE was oxidized, at least 94% of the fluid conductivity associated with the presence of protons was removed within 3h of sand contact, most likely through protonation of silanol groups found on the surface of the sand grains. Minor conductivity effects most likely associated with pH-dependent reductive dissolution of manganese dioxide were also observed but not accounted for in pore-fluid conductivity modeling. Unaccounted conductivity effects resulted in an under-calculation of post-reaction pore fluid conductivity of 2.1% to 5.5%. Although small increases in the porous media formation factor resulting from precipitation of manganese dioxide were detected (about 3%), these increases could not be confirmed to be statistically significant. Both injection of permanganate and oxidation of TCE cause increases in bulk conductivity that would be detectable through time-lapse resistivity surveys in field conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Standardization of NaI gamma spectrometer using a newly developed standard for the estimation of 228Ra in rare earth chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, A.; Patra, R.P.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.; Patro, P.

    2018-01-01

    Monazite is a naturally occurring mineral which is a phosphate of various rare earths and thorium with traces of uranium. Indian Rare Earths Limited has set up a Monazite Processing Plant (MoPP) at Orissa Sand Complex (OSCOM), Odisha for recovery of various elements from Monazite. The finely ground monazite is processed with hot NaOH to separate the phosphate component as Tri-Sodium Phosphate from the mixed hydroxide. Then the mixed hydroxide is treated with HCl at controlled pH to separate rare earth as rare earth chloride solution. The rare earth chloride solution also contains 228 Ra which is generated in the 232 Th decay series. The rare earth chloride solution is then treated with BaCl 2 , MgSO 4 and Na 2 S; 228 Ra gets co-precipitated with Ba as Lead-Barium Sulfate. To meet the regulatory requirement, 228 Ra activity is reduced to below 1 Bq/g limit

  10. A DFT study of permanganate oxidation of toluene and its ortho-nitroderivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Paweł; Wijker, Reto S; Hofstetter, Thomas B; Paneth, Piotr

    2014-02-01

    Calculations of alternative oxidation pathways of toluene and its ortho-substituted nitro derivatives by permanganate anion have been performed. The competition between methyl group and ring oxidation has been addressed. Acceptable results have been obtained using IEFPCM/B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) calculations with zero-point (ZPC) and thermal corrections, as validated by comparison with the experimental data. It has been shown that ring oxidation reactions proceed via relatively early transition states that become quite unsymmetrical for reactions involving ortho-nitrosubstituted derivatives. Transition states for the hydrogen atom abstraction reactions, on the other hand, are late. All favored reactions are characterized by the Gibbs free energy of activation, ΔG(≠), of about 25 kcal mol(-1). Methyl group oxidations are exothermic by about 20 kcal mol(-1) while ring oxidations are around thermoneutrality.

  11. Gradients of electric fields and effective charges in alkali metal permanganates on NMR data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, V.P.; Kirakosyan, G.A.; Meladze, M.A.; German, K.Eh.

    1993-01-01

    Pulse method of 55 Mn, 39 K, 87 Rb, 133 Cs NMR in 7.04 T field was used to study polycrystal permanganates of alkali metals KMnO 4 , RbMnO 4 , CsMnO 4 in 100-440 K range. Qaudrupole bond constants, parameters of tensor asymmetry of electric field gradient (EFG) and isotropic values of chemical shifts were determined in result of analysis of resonance line shape. Cation positions in RbMnO 4 and CsMnO 4 are characterized by two nonequivalent states with 1:1 occupation. Effective charges on oxygen and manganese atoms were calculated in the framework of point charge model, using structural data and experimental EFG values on cation nuclei

  12. Potassium permanganate-glutaraldehyde chemiluminescence system catalyzed by gold nanoprisms toward selective determination of fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhasani, Jafar; Hassanzadeh, Javad; Ghorbani-Kalhor, Ebrahim

    2016-02-01

    Gold and silver nanoparticles (NPs) are shown to exert a positive effect on the chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of permanganate aldehydes. Interestingly, between various shapes examined, Au nanoprisms have the highest beneficial effect. This effect is even more notable in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant. UV-vis spectra and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the NP shapes and sizes. Furthermore, it was observed that iron(III) ions can slightly increase CL emission of this system. This intensification is very effective in the presence of fluoride ions (F(-)). These observations form the basis of the method for the high sensitive determination of F(-) in the 6-1200 nmol L(-1) concentration range, with a detection limit of 2.1 nmol L(-1). The proposed method has good precision and was satisfactorily used in the selective determination of low concentrations of fluoride ion in real samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Removal of iron and manganese from groundwater: a study of using potassium permanganate and sedimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsheikh Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments are done for different combinations of Fe+2 and Mn+2 concentrations. The obtained results show that Potassium Permanganate (PP gives good results in iron and manganese removal. By using PP dose near to half of the theoretically required one, it can remove up to 100 % and 90 % of iron and manganese, respectively over different tested concentrations at pH=7.0. Increasing rate of filtration influences the Mn+2 removal process obviously. Sedimentation is required when combined concentrations of iron and manganese are greater than 5.0 ppm to reduce filter rapid clogging. Using conventional treatment with adding alum, flocculation, sedimentation and filtration can remove up to 97% and 18% of iron and manganese, respectively. Using PP in addition to alum enhances manganese removal but decreases iron removal. However, using alum with increasing pH to 10 leads to 100 % and 95 % of Fe+2 and Mn+2 removal and increases filter working period.

  14. Determination of ethanol using permanganate-CdS quantum dot chemiluminescence system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhasani, Jafar; Hassanzadeh, Javad

    2015-08-01

    A novel and highly sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of ethanol was developed based on the CdS quantum dots (QDs)-permanganate system. It was found that KMnO4 could directly oxidize CdS QDs in acidic media resulting in relatively high CL emission. A possible mechanism was proposed for this reaction based on UV/Vis absorption, fluorescence and the generated CL emission spectra. However, it was observed that ethanol had a remarkable inhibition effect on this system. This effect was exploited in the determination of ethanol within the concentration range 12-300 µg/L, with detection at 4.3 µg/L. In order to evaluate the capability of presented method, it was satisfactorily utilized in the determination of alcohol in real samples. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Oxidative Degradation of Phenol containing Wastewater using Fenton Reagent, Permanganate and Ultraviolet Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Rahman, N.M.; Talaat, H.A.; Sorour, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    Phenol containing wastewaters are generated by numerous industrial units including integrated steel mills, textile mills, plastic production, etc. The present work is targeted to explore the viable oxidation techniques for degradation of phenolic wastewater. Three modes of treatment have been adopted in this study, namely, sole oxidant mode using Fenton reagent or permanganate, UV-assisted oxidation and two consequent chemical oxidation steps. Results indicated the superiority of fenton reagent over KMnO 4 oxidation in the sole oxidant mode. On the other hand, UV-assisted KMnO 4 oxidation enables almost complete COD reduction. Dual chemical oxidation mode employing KMnO 4 oxidation followed by Fenton reagent is also an efficient oxidative degradation system

  16. Potassium permanganate and tetraethylammonium chloride are a safe and effective substitute for osmium tetroxide in solid-phase fluorescent chemical cleavage of mismatch.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, E; Deeble, V J; Woods, C G; Taylor, G R

    1997-01-01

    Whilst chemical cleavage of mismatch (CCM) detects all point mutations in DNA, its widespread use has been hampered by the complex multistage methodology and the need for toxic chemicals, in particular osmium tetroxide. Here we show that osmium tetroxide can be replaced by potassium permanganate, giving the same spectrum of mutation detection, but with greater sensitivity. The use of potassium permanganate is compatible with solid phase capture and fluorescent detection, giving a safer method...

  17. Investigation on surface structure of potassium permanganate/nitric acid treated poly(tetrafluoroethylene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Congli; Liu, Shuling; Gong, Tianlong; Gu, Aiqun; Yu, Zili

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new transformation (conversion) mechanism of PTFE surface from a hydrophobicity to a hydrophilicity was proposed through the treatment of KMnO 4 /HNO 3 . • Chemical reactions or defluorination of PTFE described in the reported paper was testified to be a misconceived conclusion by the combination of several testing measurements (IR, XPS, XRD and so on) in our present work. • Deposition of manganese oxide and/or manganese hydroxide on PTFE surface contributed to the hydrophilic property of the modified PTFE with KMnO 4 /HNO 3 treated. • The deposition thickness on the modified PTFE surface was about 5 μm, which was significantly helpful in enhancing the adhesive strength of PTFE with other materials. - Abstract: In the previous articles concerning the treatment of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) with potassium permanganate/nitric acid mixture, the conversion of a hydrophobic to a hydrophilic surface was partially assigned to the defluorination of PTFE and then the introduction of carbonyl and hydroxyl groups into the defluorinated sites. In the present work, PTFE sheets were treated with potassium permanganate/nitric acid, and the surfaces before and after treatment were comparatively characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface sediments of the treated PTFE were also determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The results indicate that the conversion of the hydrophobicity to the hydrophilicity on the modified PTFE surface is mainly due to the deposition of hydrophilic manganese oxides which covered the fluorocarbon surface, and no detectable chemical reactions of PTFE occur in the treating process

  18. Investigation on surface structure of potassium permanganate/nitric acid treated poly(tetrafluoroethylene)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Congli; Liu, Shuling; Gong, Tianlong; Gu, Aiqun; Yu, Zili, E-mail: ziliyu@scu.edu.cn

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • A new transformation (conversion) mechanism of PTFE surface from a hydrophobicity to a hydrophilicity was proposed through the treatment of KMnO{sub 4}/HNO{sub 3}. • Chemical reactions or defluorination of PTFE described in the reported paper was testified to be a misconceived conclusion by the combination of several testing measurements (IR, XPS, XRD and so on) in our present work. • Deposition of manganese oxide and/or manganese hydroxide on PTFE surface contributed to the hydrophilic property of the modified PTFE with KMnO{sub 4}/HNO{sub 3} treated. • The deposition thickness on the modified PTFE surface was about 5 μm, which was significantly helpful in enhancing the adhesive strength of PTFE with other materials. - Abstract: In the previous articles concerning the treatment of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) with potassium permanganate/nitric acid mixture, the conversion of a hydrophobic to a hydrophilic surface was partially assigned to the defluorination of PTFE and then the introduction of carbonyl and hydroxyl groups into the defluorinated sites. In the present work, PTFE sheets were treated with potassium permanganate/nitric acid, and the surfaces before and after treatment were comparatively characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface sediments of the treated PTFE were also determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The results indicate that the conversion of the hydrophobicity to the hydrophilicity on the modified PTFE surface is mainly due to the deposition of hydrophilic manganese oxides which covered the fluorocarbon surface, and no detectable chemical reactions of PTFE occur in the treating process.

  19. Time series geophysical monitoring of permanganate injections and in situ chemical oxidation of PCE, OU1 area, Savage Superfund Site, Milford, NH, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Philip T.; Smith, Thor E.; Williams, John H.; Degnan, James R.

    2012-01-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatment with sodium permanganate, an electrically conductive oxidant, provides a strong electrical signal for tracking of injectate transport using time series geophysical surveys including direct current (DC) resistivity and electromagnetic (EM) methods. Effective remediation is dependent upon placing the oxidant in close contact with the contaminated aquifer. Therefore, monitoring tools that provide enhanced tracking capability of the injectate offer considerable benefit to guide subsequent ISCO injections. Time-series geophysical surveys were performed at a superfund site in New Hampshire, USA over a one-year period to identify temporal changes in the bulk electrical conductivity of a tetrachloroethylene (PCE; also called tetrachloroethene) contaminated, glacially deposited aquifer due to the injection of sodium permanganate. The ISCO treatment involved a series of pulse injections of sodium permanganate from multiple injection wells within a contained area of the aquifer. After the initial injection, the permanganate was allowed to disperse under ambient groundwater velocities. Time series geophysical surveys identified the downward sinking and pooling of the sodium permanganate atop of the underlying till or bedrock surface caused by density-driven flow, and the limited horizontal spread of the sodium permanganate in the shallow parts of the aquifer during this injection period. When coupled with conventional monitoring, the surveys allowed for an assessment of ISCO treatment effectiveness in targeting the PCE plume and helped target areas for subsequent treatment.

  20. Time series geophysical monitoring of permanganate injections and in situ chemical oxidation of PCE, OU1 area, Savage Superfund Site, Milford, NH, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Philip T; Smith, Thor E; Williams, John H; Degnan, James R

    2012-05-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatment with sodium permanganate, an electrically conductive oxidant, provides a strong electrical signal for tracking of injectate transport using time series geophysical surveys including direct current (DC) resistivity and electromagnetic (EM) methods. Effective remediation is dependent upon placing the oxidant in close contact with the contaminated aquifer. Therefore, monitoring tools that provide enhanced tracking capability of the injectate offer considerable benefit to guide subsequent ISCO injections. Time-series geophysical surveys were performed at a superfund site in New Hampshire, USA over a one-year period to identify temporal changes in the bulk electrical conductivity of a tetrachloroethylene (PCE; also called tetrachloroethene) contaminated, glacially deposited aquifer due to the injection of sodium permanganate. The ISCO treatment involved a series of pulse injections of sodium permanganate from multiple injection wells within a contained area of the aquifer. After the initial injection, the permanganate was allowed to disperse under ambient groundwater velocities. Time series geophysical surveys identified the downward sinking and pooling of the sodium permanganate atop of the underlying till or bedrock surface caused by density-driven flow, and the limited horizontal spread of the sodium permanganate in the shallow parts of the aquifer during this injection period. When coupled with conventional monitoring, the surveys allowed for an assessment of ISCO treatment effectiveness in targeting the PCE plume and helped target areas for subsequent treatment. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Histopathological and bacterial study of skin and gill of grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella, (Valenciennes 1844) exposed to copper sulfate and potassium permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooyandeh, Fatemeh; Sadeghpour, Ali; Khara, Hossein; Pajand, Zabihollah

    2016-09-01

    The gill histology and bacterial load of skin of the grass carp juveniles were investigated in relation to various concentrations of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate. For this purpose, the sublethal doses were determined after a pre-test and then the experiment was done in five treatments (for copper sulfate: 1, 1.94, 3.71, 7.07 and 15 mg/l and for potassium permanganate: 0.25, 0.52, 1.91, 2.27 and 5 mg/l) with three replicates inside the glass aquaria. Also, one group without disinfecting product was considered as control for each experiment. The microbial and histopathological investigations were done after 96 h exposure. According to results, the lowest bacterial load (CFU/g) of skin was observed in 15 mg/l copper sulfate treatment and 0.25 mg/l potassium permanganate treatment (P permanganate. In this regard, the highest histological damages were observed in 15 mg/l copper sulfate and 5 mg/l potassium permanganate respectively. Our results showed that low dosage of potassium permanganate has best effect on reducing of bacterial load of skin with lowest adverse effects on gill tissue.

  2. Reliable structural interpretation of small-angle scattering data from bio-molecules in solution--the importance of quality control and a standard reporting framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, David A; Guss, Jules Mitchell; Trewhella, Jill

    2012-05-17

    Small-angle scattering is becoming an increasingly popular tool for the study of bio-molecular structures in solution. The large number of publications with 3D-structural models generated from small-angle solution scattering data has led to a growing consensus for the need to establish a standard reporting framework for their publication. The International Union of Crystallography recently established a set of guidelines for the necessary information required for the publication of such structural models. Here we describe the rationale for these guidelines and the importance of standardising the way in which small-angle scattering data from bio-molecules and associated structural interpretations are reported.

  3. Standardization of a sulfur quantitative analysis method by X ray fluorescence in a leaching solution for bio-available sulfates in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales S, E.; Aguilar S, E.

    1989-11-01

    A method for bio-available sulfate analysis in soils is described. A Ca(H2PO4) leaching solution was used for soil samples treatment. A standard NaSO4 solution was used for preparing a calibration curve and also the fundamental parameters method approach was employed. An Am-241 (100 mCi) source and a Si-Li detector were employed. Analysis could be done in 5 minutes; good reproducibility, 5 and accuracy, 5 were obtained. The method is very competitive with conventional nephelometry where good and reproducible suspensions are difficult to obtain. (author)

  4. DNAPL remediation with in situ chemical oxidation using potassium permanganate - Part I. Mineralogy of Mn oxide and its dissolution in organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X. David; Schwartz, Franklin W.

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies on in situ chemical oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) with potassium permanganate indicated that the solid reaction product, Mn oxide, could reduce the permeability of the porous medium and impact the success of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) removal. In order to address the issue of permeability reduction caused by precipitation, this study investigated the mineralogy of Mn oxides and the possibilities of removing the solid precipitates by dissolution. The solid reaction product from the oxidation of TCE by permanganate is semi-amorphous potassium-rich birnessite, which has a layered mineral structure with an interlayer spacing of 7.3 Å. The chemical formula is K 0.854Mn 1.786O 4·1.55H 2O. It has a relatively small specific surface area at 23.6±0.82 m 2/g. Its point of zero charge (pzc) was measured as 3.7±0.4. This birnessite is a relatively active species and could participate in various reactions with existing organic and inorganic matter. The dissolution kinetics of Mn oxide was evaluated in batch experiments using solutions of citric acid, oxalic acid, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Initial dissolution rates were determined to be 0.126 mM/m 2/h for citric acid, 1.35 mM/m 2/h for oxalic acid, and 5.176 mM/m 2/h for EDTA. These rates compare with 0.0025 mM/m 2/h for nitric acid at pH=2. Organic acids dissolve Mn oxide quickly. Reaction rates increase with acid concentration, as tested with citric acid. The dissolution mechanism likely involves proton and ligand-promoted dissolution and reductive dissolution. Citric and oxalic acid can induce ligand-promoted dissolution, while EDTA can induce ligand-promoted and reductive dissolutions. At low pH, proton-promoted dissolution seems to occur with all the acids tested, but this process is not dominant. Reductive dissolution appears to be the most effective process in dissolving the solid, followed by ligand-promoted dissolution. These experiments indicate the significant

  5. Antioxidant capacity of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) - comparison between permanganate reducing antioxidant capacity and other antioxidant methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Boris M; Stajner, Dubravka; Slavko, Kevrešan; Sandra, Bijelić

    2012-09-15

    Ethanol extracts (80% in water) of 10 cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) genotypes were studied for antioxidant properties, using methods including DPPH(), ()NO, O(2)(-) and ()OH antiradical powers, FRAP, total phenolic and anthocyanin content (TPC and ACC) and also one relatively new, permanganate method (permanganate reducing antioxidant capacity-PRAC). Lipid peroxidation (LP) was also determined as an indicator of oxidative stress. The data from different procedures were compared and analysed by multivariate techniques (correlation matrix calculation and principal component analysis (PCA)). Significant positive correlations were obtained between TPC, ACC and DPPH(), ()NO, O(2)(-), and ()OH antiradical powers, and also between PRAC and TPC, ACC and FRAP. PCA found two major clusters of cornelian cherry, based on antiradical power, FRAP and PRAC and also on chemical composition. Chemometric evaluation showed close interdependence between PRAC method and FRAP and ACC. There was a huge variation between C. mas genotypes in terms of antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Crystal structures and thermal decomposition of permanganates AE[MnO_4]_2 . n H_2O with the heavy alkaline earth elements (AE=Ca, Sr and Ba)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, Harald; Bauchert, Joerg M.; Conrad, Maurice; Schleid, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Reexamination of the syntheses and crystal structures as well as studies of the thermal decomposition of the heavy alkaline earth metal permanganates Ca[MnO_4]_2 . 4 H_2O, Sr[MnO_4]_2 . 3 H_2O and Ba[MnO_4]_2 are the focus of this work. As an alternative to the very inelegant Muthmann method, established for the synthesis of Ba[MnO_4]_2 a long time ago, we employed a cation-exchange column loaded with Ba"2"+ cations and passed through an aqueous potassium-permanganate solution. We later used this alternative also with strontium- and calcium-loaded columns and all the compounds synthesized this way were indistinguishable from the products of the established methods. Ca[MnO_4]_2 . 4 H_2O exhibiting [CaO_8] polyhedra crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pccn with the lattice parameters a=1397.15(9), b=554.06(4) and c=1338.97(9) pm with Z=4, whereas Sr[MnO_4]_2 . 3 H_2O with [SrO_1_0] polyhedra adopts the cubic space group P2_13 with a=964.19(7) pm and Z=4. So the harder the AE"2"+ cation, the higher its demand for hydration in aqueous solution. Consequently, the crystal structure of Ba[MnO_4]_2 in the orthorhombic space group Fddd with a=742.36(5), b=1191.23(7) and c=1477.14(9) pm with Z=8 lacks any crystal water, but contains [BaO_1_2] polyhedra. During the thermal decomposition of Ca[MnO_4]_2 . 4 H_2O, the compound expels up to two water molecules of hydration, before the crystal structure collapses after the loss of the third H_2O molecule at 157 C. The crystal structure of Sr[MnO_4]_2 . 3 H_2O breaks down after the expulsion of the third water molecule as well, but this already occurs at 148 C. For both the calcium and the strontium permanganate samples, orthobixbyite-type α-Mn_2O_3 and the oxomanganates(III,IV) AEMn_3O_6 (AE=Ca and Sr) remain as final decomposition products at 800 C next to amorphous phases. On the other hand, the already anhydrous Ba[MnO_4]_2 thermally decomposes to hollandite-type BaMn_8O_1_6 and BaMnO_3 at 800 C.

  7. Laboratory-scale column study for remediation of TCE-contaminated aquifers using three-section controlled-release potassium permanganate barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Baoling; Li, Fei; Chen, Yanmei; Fu, Ming-Lai

    2013-05-01

    A laboratory-scale study with a sand column was designed to simulate trichloroethylene (TCE) pollution in the aquifer environment with three-section controlled-release potassium permanganate (CRP) barriers. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of CRP barriers in remediation of TCE in aquifers in a long-term and controlled manner. CRP particles with a 1:3 molar ratio of KMnO4 to stearic acid showed the best controlled-release properties in pure water, and the theoretical release time was 138.5 days. The results of TCE removal in the test column indicated that complete removal efficiency of TCE in a sand column by three-section CRP barriers could be reached within 15 days. The molar ratio of KMnO4 to TCE in the three-section CRP barriers was 16:1, which was much lower than 82:1 as required when KMnO4 solution is used directly to achieve complete destruction of TCE. This result revealed that the efficiency of CRP for remediation of TCE was highly improved after encapsulation.

  8. Directly oxidized chemiluminescence of 2-substituted-4,5-di(2-furyl)-1H -imidazole by acidic potassium permanganate and its analytical application for determination of albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jing; Zhang, Yumin; Huang, Zhongxiu; Han, Lu; Tang, Jieli; Wang, Shuaijun; Zhang, Yihua

    2011-07-01

    In the paper, 2,4,5-tri(2-furyl)-1H-imidazole (TFI) and 2-phenyl-4,5-di(2-furyl)-1H-imidazole (PDFI), were chosen to investigate chemiluminescence (CL) properties of 2-substituted-4,5-di(2-furyl)-1H-imidazoles. The directly oxidized CL of analytes by potassium permanganate (KMnO(4)) was in detail studied. The KMnO(4) could directly oxidize TFI/PDFI to produce strong CL emission in acidic solution. The effects of experimental conditions were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the effect of albumin on the TFI/PDFI-KMnO(4) system was investigated. It was found that the addition of albumin into the system could induce enhancement of CL signal, and the enhanced CL intensity is linearly related to the logarithm of concentration of albumin. Based on this study, a novel CL method has been developed for the determination of albumin with high sensitivity and good selectivity. The method was applied to the determination of albumin in human serum samples, and the results were in agreement with those obtained by the bromcresol green (BCG) method. The relative errors for the analytical results were from -5.8% to 4.2%. These new phenomena would further enable people to exploit more CL analytical application of the heterocyclic imidazole derivatives. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  9. Formation of assimilable organic carbon during oxidation of natural waters with ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, permanganate, and ferrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseier, Maaike K; Peter, Andreas; Traber, Jacqueline; von Gunten, Urs

    2011-02-01

    Five oxidants, ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, permanganate, and ferrate were studied with regard to the formation of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and oxalate in absence and presence of cyanobacteria in lake water matrices. Ozone and ferrate formed significant amounts of AOC, i.e. more than 100 μg/L AOC were formed with 4.6 mg/L ozone and ferrate in water with 3.8 mg/L dissolved organic carbon. In the same water samples chlorine dioxide, chlorine, and permanganate produced no or only limited AOC. When cyanobacterial cells (Aphanizomenon gracile) were added to the water, an AOC increase was detected with ozone, permanganate, and ferrate, probably due to cell lysis. This was confirmed by the increase of extracellular geosmin, a substance found in the selected cyanobacterial cells. AOC formation by chlorine and chlorine dioxide was not affected by the presence of the cells. The formation of oxalate upon oxidation was found to be a linear function of the oxidant consumption for all five oxidants. The following molar yields were measured in three different water matrices based on oxidant consumed: 2.4-4.4% for ozone, 1.0-2.8% for chlorine dioxide and chlorine, 1.1-1.2% for ferrate, and 11-16% for permanganate. Furthermore, oxalate was formed in similar concentrations as trihalomethanes during chlorination (yield ∼ 1% based on chlorine consumed). Oxalate formation kinetics and stoichiometry did not correspond to the AOC formation. Therefore, oxalate cannot be used as a surrogate for AOC formation during oxidative water treatment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Standard test method for determining whether gas-leak-detector fluid solutions can cause stress corrosion cracking of brass alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers an accelerated test method for evaluating the tendency of gas leak detection fluids (LDFs) to cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of brass components in compressed gas service. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  11. Preparation of anionic clay–birnessite manganese oxide composites by interlayer oxidation of oxalate ions by permanganate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arulraj, James; Rajamathi, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Oxalate intercalated anionic clay-like nickel zinc hydroxysalt was obtained starting from nickel zinc hydroxyacetate, Ni 3 Zn 2 (OH) 8 (OAc) 2 ·2H 2 O, by anion exchange. The intercalated oxalate species was reacted with potassium permanganate in such a way that the layered manganese oxide formed was within the interlayer region of the anionic clay resulting in a layered composite in which the negative charges on the birnessite type manganese oxide layers compensate the positive charges on the anionic clay layers. Birnessite to anionic clay ratio could be varied by varying the reaction time or the amount of potassium permanganate used. - Graphical abstract: Nickel zinc hydroxyoxalate was reacted with potassium permanganate to get nickel zinc hydroxide birnessite composites in which the positive charges on the hydroxide layers are neutralized by the negative charges on birnessite layers. Highlights: ► Anionic and cationic layered solid composites prepared. ► Ni–Zn hydroxyoxalate reacted with KMnO 4 to deposit MnO 2 in the interlayer. ► Birnessite layers coexist with anionic clay layers in the composites. ► Birnessite/anionic clay ratio controlled by amount of KMnO 4 used and reaction time

  12. Preparation of anionic clay-birnessite manganese oxide composites by interlayer oxidation of oxalate ions by permanganate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arulraj, James [Materials Research Group, Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph' s College, 36 Langford Road, Bangalore 560 027 (India); Rajamathi, Michael, E-mail: mikerajamathi@rediffmail.com [Materials Research Group, Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph' s College, 36 Langford Road, Bangalore 560 027 (India)

    2013-02-15

    Oxalate intercalated anionic clay-like nickel zinc hydroxysalt was obtained starting from nickel zinc hydroxyacetate, Ni{sub 3}Zn{sub 2}(OH){sub 8}(OAc){sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O, by anion exchange. The intercalated oxalate species was reacted with potassium permanganate in such a way that the layered manganese oxide formed was within the interlayer region of the anionic clay resulting in a layered composite in which the negative charges on the birnessite type manganese oxide layers compensate the positive charges on the anionic clay layers. Birnessite to anionic clay ratio could be varied by varying the reaction time or the amount of potassium permanganate used. - Graphical abstract: Nickel zinc hydroxyoxalate was reacted with potassium permanganate to get nickel zinc hydroxide birnessite composites in which the positive charges on the hydroxide layers are neutralized by the negative charges on birnessite layers. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anionic and cationic layered solid composites prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-Zn hydroxyoxalate reacted with KMnO{sub 4} to deposit MnO{sub 2} in the interlayer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Birnessite layers coexist with anionic clay layers in the composites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Birnessite/anionic clay ratio controlled by amount of KMnO{sub 4} used and reaction time.

  13. Uses of the potassium permanganate to eliminate copper cyanide from waste water resulting from a lixiviation plant in a gold mine (II): Pilot plant experiences; Aplicacion del permanganato potasico para la eliminacion de cianuros de cobre en aguas residuales de la planta de lixiviacion en una mina de oro (II): Ensayos en planta piloto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sancho, J. P.; Fernandez, B.; Ayala, J.; Gracia, M. P.; Lavandeira, A.

    2011-07-01

    The search for a detoxification treatment of the wastewater generated during industrial processes, has been a constant for all companies in general and for gold mining in particular, whose wastewater generally contains high concentrations of cyanide compounds with high toxicity. In the previous research work, developed in the laboratory, the efficacy of potassium permanganate as an oxidizing agent for cyanidic wastewater, from a gold hydrometallurgical plant, has been demonstrated, achieving the destruction of copper cyanide complexes present in solution and the subsequent metal removal by precipitation as hydroxide. This paper presents the conclusions obtained after the implementation of the process developed in the laboratory, at pilot-plant scale. (Author) 30 refs.

  14. Problems and solutions in application of IEEE standards at Savannah River Site, Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.S.; Bowers, T.L.; Chopra, B.J.; Thompson, T.T.; Zimmerman, E.W.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Material Production Facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) were designed, constructed, and placed into operation in the early 1950's, based on existing industry codes/standards, design criteria, analytical procedures. Since that time, DOE has developed Orders and Polices for the planning, design and construction of DOE Nuclear Reactor Facilities which invoke or reference commercial nuclear reactor codes and standards. The application of IEEE reactor design requirements such as Equipment Qualification, Seismic Qualification, Single Failure Criteria, and Separation Requirement, to non-reactor facilities has been a problem since the IEEE reactor criteria do not directly confirm to the needs of non-reactor facilities. SRS Systems Engineering is developing a methodology for the application of IEEE Standards to non-reactor facilities at SRS

  15. Flow injection determination of diclofenac sodium based on its sensitizing effect on the chemiluminescent reaction of acidic potassium permanganate-formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jingjing; Sun, Pulv; Ji, Zhongling; Li, Jianguo

    2015-02-01

    A sensitive and simple chemiluminescent (CL) method for the determination of diclofenac sodium has been developed by combining the flow injection technique and its sensitizing effect on the weak CL reaction between formaldehyde and acidic potassium permanganate. A calibration curve is constructed for diclofenac sodium under optimized experimental parameters over the range 0.040-5.0 µg/mL and the limit of detection is 0.020 µg/mL (3σ). The inter-assay relative standard deviation for 0.040 µg/mL diclofenac sodium (n = 11) is 2.0%. This method is rapid, sensitive, simple, and shows good selectivity and reproducibility. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of the studied diclofenac sodium in pharmaceutical preparations with satisfactory results. Furthermore, the possible mechanism for the CL reaction has been discussed in detail on the basis of UV and CL spectra. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Developing a yearlong Next Generation Science Standard (NGSS) learning sequence focused on climate solutions: opportunities, challenges and reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, E.; Centeno, D.

    2015-12-01

    Over the last four years, the Green Ninja Project (GNP) has been developing educational media (e.g., videos, games and online lessons) to help motivate student interest and engagement around climate science and solutions. Inspired by the new emphasis in NGSS on climate change, human impact and engineering design, the GNP is developing a technology focused, integrative, and yearlong science curriculum focused around solutions to climate change. Recognizing the importance of teacher training on the successful implementation of NGSS, we have also integrated teacher professional development into our curriculum. During the presentation, we will describe the design philosophy around our middle school curriculum and share data from a series of classes that are piloting the curriculum during Fall 2015. We will also share our perspectives on how data, media creation and engineering can be used to create educational experiences that model the type of 'three-dimensional learning' encouraged by NGSS.

  17. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron(II) Plutonium by Diode Array Spectrophotometry Free Acid by Titration in an Oxalate Solution 8 to 15 Free Acid by Iodate Precipitation-Potentiometric Titration Test Method 16 to 22 Uranium by Arsenazo I Spectrophotometric Test Method 23 to 33 Thorium by Thorin Spectrophotometric Test Method 34 to 42 Iron by 1,10-Phenanthroline Spectrophotometric Test Method 43 to 50 Impurities by ICP-AES Chloride by Thiocyanate Spectrophotometric Test Method 51 to 58 Fluoride by Distillation-Spectrophotometric Test Method 59 to 66 Sulfate by Barium Sulfate Turbidimetric Test Method 67 to 74 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrom...

  18. Standardized Patient Training Programs: an Efficient Solution to the Call for Quality Improvement in Oncologist Communication Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Melody; Berman, Abigail T; Vapiwala, Neha

    2015-09-01

    Several key medical and oncologic professional societies have endorsed the importance of physician communication as a quality improvement metric. Despite this clear message, there remain substantial barriers to communication skills training (CST) in oncologic specialties. Herein, we describe the major barriers to communications training and propose standardized patient (SP) programs as efficient and strategic starting points and as expansion opportunities for new and existing CSTs.

  19. Directly relating gas-phase cluster measurements to solution-phase hydrolysis, the absolute standard hydrogen electrode potential, and the absolute proton solvation energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, William A; Leib, Ryan D; O'Brien, Jeremy T; Williams, Evan R

    2009-06-08

    Solution-phase, half-cell potentials are measured relative to other half-cell potentials, resulting in a thermochemical ladder that is anchored to the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), which is assigned an arbitrary value of 0 V. A new method for measuring the absolute SHE potential is demonstrated in which gaseous nanodrops containing divalent alkaline-earth or transition-metal ions are reduced by thermally generated electrons. Energies for the reactions 1) M(H(2)O)(24)(2+)(g) + e(-)(g)-->M(H(2)O)(24)(+)(g) and 2) M(H(2)O)(24)(2+)(g) + e(-)(g)-->MOH(H(2)O)(23)(+)(g) + H(g) and the hydrogen atom affinities of MOH(H(2)O)(23)(+)(g) are obtained from the number of water molecules lost through each pathway. From these measurements on clusters containing nine different metal ions and known thermochemical values that include solution hydrolysis energies, an average absolute SHE potential of +4.29 V vs. e(-)(g) (standard deviation of 0.02 V) and a real proton solvation free energy of -265 kcal mol(-1) are obtained. With this method, the absolute SHE potential can be obtained from a one-electron reduction of nanodrops containing divalent ions that are not observed to undergo one-electron reduction in aqueous solution.

  20. Standard practice for exposure of metals and alloys by alternate immersion in neutral 3.5% Sodium Chloride solution

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for making alternate immersion stress corrosion tests in 3.5 % sodium chloride (NaCl) (). It is primarily for tests of aluminum alloys (Test Method G 47) and ferrous alloys, but may be used for other metals exhibiting susceptibility to chloride ions. It sets forth the environmental conditions of the test and the means for controlling them. Note 1 Alternate immersion stress corrosion exposures are sometimes made in substitute ocean water (without heavy metals) prepared in accordance with Specification D 1141. The general requirements of this present practice are also applicable to such exposures except that the reagents used, the solution concentration, and the solution pH should be as specified in Specification D 1141. 1.2 This practice can be used for both stressed and unstressed corrosion specimens. Historically, it has been used for stress-corrosion cracking testing, but is often used for other forms of corrosion, such as uniform, pitting, intergranular, and galvanic. ...

  1. Transuranium removal from Hanford high level waste simulants using sodium permanganate and calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.R.; Rosencrance, S.W.; Nash, C.A.; Fonduer, F.F.; Di Pirete, D.P.; Di Prete, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    Plutonium and americium are present in the Hanford high level liquid waste complexant concentrate (CC) due to the presence of complexing agents including di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D 2 EHPA), tributylphosphate (TBP), hydroxyethylene diamine triacetic acid (HEDTA), ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, glycolic acid, and sodium gluconate. The transuranic concentrations approach 600 nCi/g and require processing prior to encapsulation into low activity glass. BNFL's (British Nuclear Fuels Limited's) original process was a ferric co-precipitation method based on earlier investigations by Herting and Orth, et al. Furthermore, flocculation and precipitation are widely used for clarification in municipal water treatment. Co-precipitation of Np, Am, and Pu with ferric hydroxide is also used within an analytical method for the sum of those analytes. Tests to evaluate BNFL's original precipitation process indicated the measured decontamination factors (DFs) and filter fluxes were too low. Therefore, an evaluation of alternative precipitation agents to replace ferric ion was undertaken. Agents tested included various transition metals, lanthanide elements, uranium species, calcium, strontium, and permanganate

  2. Permanganate-bromide-silver nanoparticles as a new chemiluminescence system and its application to captopril determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjadi, Mohammad; Manzoori, Jamshid L; Hassanzadeh, Javad; Sorouraddin, Mohammad H

    2013-10-15

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) system based on the oxidation of bromide by permanganate in sulfuric acid medium is introduced. The enhancing effect of silver nanoparticles (NPs), synthesized by chemical reduction method, on this reaction was studied. It was demonstrated that spherical silver nanoparticles with average size of 18 nm had a most remarkable catalytic effect on this reaction. CL emission wavelengths and UV-vis spectra were used to characterize the system and propose a possible mechanism. Furthermore, it was found that captopril inhibits the action of NPs and decreases the intensity of CL. Based on this phenomenon, a new CL method was developed for the determination of captopril in the 3.0 × 10(-10) to 1.0 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) concentration range with a detection limit (3s) of 0.12 nmol L(-1). The method was successfully applied to the determination of captopril in pharmaceutical formulations, human urine and serum samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Oxidative Precipitation of Manganese from Acid Mine Drainage by Potassium Permanganate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regeane M. Freitas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although oxidative precipitation by potassium permanganate is a widely recognised process for manganese removal, research dealing with highly contaminated acid mine drainage (AMD has yet to be performed. The present study investigated the efficiency of KMnO4 in removing manganese from AMD effluents. Samples of AMD that originated from inactive uranium mine in Brazil were chemically characterised and treated by KMnO4 at pH 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0. Analyses by Raman spectroscopy and geochemical modelling using PHREEQC code were employed to assess solid phases. Results indicated that the manganese was rapidly oxidised by KMnO4 in a process enhanced at higher pH. The greatest removal, that is, 99%, occurred at pH 7.0, when treated waters presented manganese levels as low as 1.0 mg/L, the limit established by the Brazilian legislation. Birnessite (MnO2, hausmannite (Mn3O4, and manganite (MnOOH were detected by Raman spectroscopy. These phases were consistently identified by the geochemical model, which also predicted phases containing iron, uranium, manganese, and aluminium during the correction of the pH as well as bixbyite (Mn2O3, nsutite (MnO2, pyrolusite (MnO2, and fluorite (CaF2 following the KMnO4 addition.

  4. Reliable structural interpretation of small-angle scattering data from bio-molecules in solution - the importance of quality control and a standard reporting framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques David A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Small-angle scattering is becoming an increasingly popular tool for the study of bio-molecular structures in solution. The large number of publications with 3D-structural models generated from small-angle solution scattering data has led to a growing consensus for the need to establish a standard reporting framework for their publication. The International Union of Crystallography recently established a set of guidelines for the necessary information required for the publication of such structural models. Here we describe the rationale for these guidelines and the importance of standardising the way in which small-angle scattering data from bio-molecules and associated structural interpretations are reported.

  5. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solution to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Determination of Uranium 7 Specific Gravity by Pycnometry 15-20 Free Acid by Oxalate Complexation 21-27 Determination of Thorium 28 Determination of Chromium 29 Determination of Molybdenum 30 Halogens Separation by Steam Distillation 31-35 Fluoride by Specific Ion Electrode 36-42 Halogen Distillate Analysis: Chloride, Bromide, and Iodide by Amperometric Microtitrimetry 43 Determination of Chloride and Bromide 44 Determination of Sulfur by X-Ray Fluorescence 45 Sulfate Sulfur by (Photometric) Turbidimetry 46 Phosphorus by the Molybdenum Blue (Photometric) Method 54-61 Silicon by the Molybdenum Blue (Photometric) Method 62-69 Carbon by Persulfate Oxidation-Acid Titrimetry 70 Conversion to U3O8 71-74 Boron by ...

  6. Standard Glbbs Energy of Formation of the Hydroxyl Radical in Aqueous Solution. Rate Constants for the Reaction C102- -t O3 S 03- -t CIO,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klaning, U. K.; Sehested, Knud; Holcman, J.

    1985-01-01

    The rate constants of the following reactions were determined by pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow experiments: C102- + O3 + C102 + 03-(k f= (4 f 1) X lo6 dm3 mol-' s-', k, = (1.8 f 0.2) X lo5 dm3 mol-' s-]); C102 + OH - C103- + H+ (k = (4.0 * 0.4) X lo9 dm3 mol-' s-l); C102 + 0- - C103- (k = (2.......7 * 0.4) X lo9 dm3 mol-' s-l); and O3 + C102 - C103 + O2 (k = (1.05 f 0.10) X lo3 dm3 mol-l s-'), where kf is the forward rate of reaction and k, is the reverse rate of reaction. The standard Gibbs energy of formation of OH in aqueous solution A&O,,(OH) and the corresponding standard oxidation potential...

  7. [Dynamics of riboflavin level in aqueous humour of anterior chamber of experimental animals under standard stroma saturation by ultraviolet corneal cross-linking solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikbov, M M; Shevchuk, N E; Khalimov, A R; Bikbova, G M

    To evaluate the dynamics of riboflavin changes in the aqueous humour of the anterior chamber (AHAC) of rabbits' eyes during standard ultraviolet (UV) cross-linking with account to the area of corneal debridement. Forty two rabbits were studied sequentially. The following solutions of riboflavin were used for cornea saturation: IR - 0.1% isosmotic riboflavin, D - Dextralink (0.1% riboflavin with 20% dextran), R - 0.1% riboflavin with 1.0% hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC). Each solution was evaluated in 3 groups that differed in the diameter of corneal debridement: group 1 - Epi-Off 3 mm (IR-3, D-3, P-3), group 2 - Epi-Off 6 mm (IR-6, D-6, R-6), and group 3 - Epi-Off 9 mm (IR-9, D-9, R-9). Aqueous humour sampling (252 samples in total) was performed in 10-minute intervals within a 60 minute period. Riboflavin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ID-Vit microbiological test system; Immundiagnostik, Germany). Stable growth rates of riboflavin level in the AHAC (with maximum values reached at 30-40 min) were observed for solutions D and R, regardless of the variant of corneal debridement. Moreover, throughout the whole follow-up period and regardless of the area of corneal debridement, the solution D provided a relatively lower concentration of riboflavin in the AHAC as compared to the two other solutions. At 30 minutes, when the cornea was considered ready for UV irradiation, the riboflavin level in the AHAC ranged from 385±26.1 μg/l (D-9) to 665±28 μg/l (R-9). In groups IR-9, IR-6, P-6, IR-3, and P-3 riboflavin levels were found to be in the same range starting at 20 minutes. However, even a sufficient concentration of riboflavin in the cornea or AHAC cannot guarantee safe and effective UV cross-linking, since the removed epithelium limits the area of the stroma that can be saturated with riboflavin, while the area of UV exposure is 8-10 mm. Safe and efficient standard UV cross-linking may be performed only under sufficient saturation of the

  8. A Singlet Extension of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model: Towards a More Natural Solution to the Little Hierarchy Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Puente, Alejandro [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2012-05-01

    In this work, I present a generalization of the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), with an explicit μ-term and a supersymmetric mass for the singlet superfield, as a route to alleviating the little hierarchy problem of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). I analyze two limiting cases of the model, characterized by the size of the supersymmetric mass for the singlet superfield. The small and large limits of this mass parameter are studied, and I find that I can generate masses for the lightest neutral Higgs boson up to 140 GeV with top squarks below the TeV scale, all couplings perturbative up to the gauge unification scale, and with no need to fine tune parameters in the scalar potential. This model, which I call the S-MSSM is also embedded in a gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking scheme. I find that even with a minimal embedding of the S-MSSM into a gauge mediated scheme, the mass for the lightest Higgs boson can easily be above 114 GeV, while keeping the top squarks below the TeV scale. Furthermore, I also study the forward-backward asymmetry in the t¯t system within the framework of the S-MSSM. For this purpose, non-renormalizable couplings between the first and third generation of quarks to scalars are introduced. The two limiting cases of the S-MSSM, characterized by the size of the supersymmetric mass for the singlet superfield is analyzed, and I find that in the region of small singlet supersymmetric mass a large asymmetry can be obtained while being consistent with constraints arising from flavor physics, quark masses and top quark decays.

  9. Rheumatology education for undergraduate nursing, physiotherapy and occupational therapy students in the UK: standards, challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewlett, S; Clarke, B; O'Brien, A; Hammond, A; Ryan, S; Kay, L; Richards, P; Almeida, C

    2008-07-01

    Rheumatological conditions are common, thus nurses (Ns) occupational therapists (OTs) and physiotherapists (PTs) require at least basic rheumatology knowledge upon qualifying. The aim of this study was to develop a core set of teaching topics and potential ways of delivering them. A modified Delphi technique was used for clinicians to develop preliminary core sets of teaching topics for each profession. Telephone interviews with educationalists explored their views on these, and challenges and solutions for delivering them. Inter-professional workshops enabled clinicians and educationalists to finalize the core set together, and generate methods for delivery. Thirty-nine rheumatology clinicians (12N, 14OT, 13PT) completed the Delphi consensus, proposing three preliminary core sets (N71 items, OT29, PT26). Nineteen educationalists (6N, 7OT, 6PT) participated in telephone interviews, raising concerns about disease-specific vs generic teaching and proposing many methods for delivery. Three inter-professional workshops involved 34 participants (clinicians: N12, OT9, PT5; educationalists: N2, OT3, PT2; Patient 1) who reached consensus on a single core set comprising six teaching units: Anatomy and Physiology; Assessment; Management and Intervention; Psychosocial Issues; Patient Education; and the Multi-disciplinary Team, recommending some topics within the units receive greater depth for some professions. An innovative range of delivery options was generated plus two brief interventions: a Rheumatology Chat Show and a Rheumatology Road Show. Working together, clinicians and educationalists proposed a realistic core set of rheumatology topics for undergraduate health professionals. They proposed innovative delivery methods, with collaboration between educationalists, clinicians and patients strongly recommended. These potential interventions need testing.

  10. THE PRECAUTIONARY PROCEDURES IN THE CASE OF NON-COMPLIANCE WITH THE BALLAST WATER MANAGEMENT CON-VENTION’S STANDARDS – POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS FOR POLISH PORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Klopott

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On September 8, 2017 the International Convention for the Control and Manage-ment of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments (BWMC adopted in 2004 will enter into force. It imposes a lot of requirements on shipowners and port states. The aim of this article is to elaborate on the possible solutions that may be adopted in Polish ports as precau-tionary measures in the case of non-compliance with the provisions of BWMC. The article starts with a brief overview of BWMC and ballast water quality stand-ards. Further, it discusses the possible implications of not meeting the ballast water quality standards under BWMC. The elaboration of potential solutions and mitigation measures in the event of non-compliance with the BWMC constitutes the main part of the article. These are crucial to developing a port contingency plan and include, for example, shore-based reception facility for ballast water, mobile ballast water treatment systems, and using potable water. The article ends with a brief analysis of a possible fee systems for reception of ballast water. The research was based on a comprehensive analysis of the Convention and related legal documents, interviews with ports’ representatives as well as e-mail interviews with maritime authorities in the Baltic Sea countries.

  11. A study comparing standard and transepithelial collagen cross-linking riboflavin solutions: epithelial findings and pain scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Erdem; Novruzlu, Shahin; Ozmen, Mehmet C; Bilgihan, Kamil

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate epithelial signs and pain after epithelial-on corneal collagen cross-linking (Epi-on CCL) with new transepithelial riboflavin formulation and epithelial-off corneal collagen cross-linking (Epi-off CCL) with standard riboflavin formulation and to compare pain and duration of epithelial healing between both techniques. Thirty-nine eyes of 39 patients undergoing Epi-on CCL and 39 eyes of 39 patients undergoing Epi-off CCL were evaluated. Corneal epithelial signs and durations of corneal epithelial healing and subjective pain scores after the procedures were recorded and compared between 2 groups. Total epithelialization was observed after 2.7 ± 0.7 days in Epi-on CCL and 2.3 ± 0.4 days in Epi-off CCL (P = 0.006). The mean pain score on the first day was 3.1 ± 0.6 in Epi-on CCL and 2.3 ± 0.4 in Epi-off CCL with a significant difference (P = 0.0001). The epithelial damage was observed in both procedures; also, the epithelial healing time was longer in Epi-on CCL and it is of great importance that the patients should have therapeutic contact lenses until the epithelium heals in both procedures. The Epi-off CCL group had less pain scores than the Epi-on CCL group and more pain problems after Epi-on CCL still remains. The patient should be informed about pain, even if the Epi-on CCL procedure was performed.

  12. Effective Approach to Potassium Permanganate Poisoning: Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K. Nadikuda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Potassium permanganate (PP is a highly corrosive and deadly agent with a reported lethal dose of 10 g in adults. In this report, successful treatment of a patient poisoned with three times the lethal dose of PP is presented, and effective and early approach to such emergency toxicologic condition is discussed. Case Presentation:A 24-year-old woman presented to emergency room of our hospital following PP ingestion (30 g one hour earlier. She had swollen and stained (dark brown / black oral cavity, tongue, face, neck and palms. As the patient had stridor, labored respiration, and obstructive swollen upper airways in the emergency room; surgical bedside tracheotomy was performed and later she was transferred to intensive care unit for further treatments. Later, a 20-hour regimen of intravenous N-acetyl cysteine injection was started for her. The patient was also treated with proton pump inhibitor, broad spectrum antibiotics, steroid, analgesic and IV fluids. She was decannulated on the 7th day and discharged home on the 13th day post-admission. Discussion: No specific antidote is available for this poisoning and so the mainstay of treatment is supportive. Airway management is of utmost importance since PP exposure can cause upper airway edema leading to respiratory compromise. Intensivists should be prepared for difficult intubation, emergency cricothyrodotomy or surgical tracheostomy to secure airway. Steroids might be useful for reversing airway Conclusion: This case report mainly emphasizes the significance of early management of difficult airway during resuscitation of patients with ingestion of highly caustic agents, namely PP in this report, and timely supportive care for the improved ultimate outcome.

  13. Impact of humic acid on the degradation of levofloxacin by aqueous permanganate: Kinetics and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Ben, Weiwei; Ling, Wencui; Zhang, Yu; Qu, Jiuhui; Qiang, Zhimin

    2017-10-15

    Levofloxacin (LF) is a frequently detected fluoroquinolone in surface water, and permanganate (MnO 4 - ) is a commonly used oxidant in drinking water treatment. This study investigated the impact of humic acid (HA) on LF degradation by aqueous MnO 4 - from both kinetic and mechanistic aspects. In the absence of HA, the second-order rate constant (k) of LF degradation by MnO 4 - was determined to be 3.9 M -1  s -1 at pH 7.5, which increased with decreasing pH. In the presence of HA, the pseudo-first-order rate constant (k obs ) of LF degradation at pH 7.5 was significantly increased by 3.8- and 2.8-fold at [HA] o :[KMnO 4 ] o (mass ratio) = 0.5 and 1, respectively. Secondary oxidant scavenging and electron paramagnetic resonance tests indicated that HA could form a complex with Mn(III), a strongly oxidative intermediate produced in the reaction of MnO 4 - with HA, to induce the successive formation of superoxide radicals (O 2 - ) and hydroxyl radicals (OH). The resulting OH primarily contributed to the accelerated LF degradation, and the complex [HA-Mn(III)] could account for the rest of acceleration. The degradation of LF and its byproducts during MnO 4 - oxidation was mainly through hydroxylation, dehydrogenation and carboxylation, and the presence of HA led to a stronger destruction of LF. This study helps better understand the degradation of organic micropollutants by MnO 4 - in drinking water treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of surfactant enhanced permanganate oxidation and bidegradation of trichloroethylene in groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, T.T.; Kao, C.M. [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Yeh, T.Y. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: tyyeh@nuk.edu.tw; Liang, S.H.; Chien, H.Y. [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2009-01-15

    The industrial solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is among the most ubiquitous chlorinated solvents found in groundwater contamination. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of using non-ionic surfactant Simple Green{sup TM} (SG) to enhance the oxidative dechlorination of TCE by potassium permanganate (KMnO{sub 4}) employing a continuous stir batch reactor system (CSBR) and column experiments. The effect of using surfactant SG to enhance the biodegradation of TCE via aerobic cometabolism was also examined. Results from CSBR experiments revealed that combination of KMnO{sub 4} with surfactant SG significantly enhanced contaminant removal, particularly when the surfactant SG concentrated at its CMC. TCE degradation rates ranged from 74.1% to 85.7% without addition of surfactant SG while TCE degradation rates increased to ranging from 83.8% to 96.3% with presence of 0.1 wt% SG. Furthermore, results from column experiments showed that TCE was degraded from 38.1 {mu}M to 6.2 {mu}M in equivalent to 83.7% of TCE oxidation during first 560 min reaction. This study has also demonstrated that the addition of surfactant SG is a feasible method to enhance bioremediation efficiency for TCE contaminated groundwater. The complete TCE degradation was detected after 75 days of incubation with both 0.01 and 0.1 wt% of surfactant SG addition. Results revealed that surfactant enhanced chemical oxidation and bioremediation technology is one of feasible approaches to clean up TCE contaminated groundwater.

  15. Heterometallic cerium(IV) perrhenate, permanganate, and molybdate complexes supported by the imidodiphosphinate ligand [N(i-Pr2PO)2]-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Cang; Sung, Herman H Y; Dai, Feng-Rong; Chiu, Wai-Hang; Wong, Wai-Yeung; Williams, Ian D; Leung, Wa-Hung

    2013-03-04

    Heterometallic cerium(IV) perrhenate, permanganate, and molybdate complexes containing the imidodiphosphinate ligand [N(i-Pr2PO)2](-) have been synthesized, and their reactivity was investigated. Treatment of Ce[N(i-Pr2PO)2]3Cl (1) with AgMO4 (M = Re, Mn) afforded Ce[N(i-Pr2PO)2]3(ReO4) (2) or Ce2[N(i-Pr2PO)2]6(MnO4)2 (3). In the solid state, 3 is composed of a [Ce2{N(i-Pr2PO)2}6(MnO4)](+) moiety featuring a weak Ce-OMn interaction [Ce-OMn distance = 2.528(8) Å] and a noncoordinating MnO4(-) counteranion. While 3 is stable in the solid state and acetonitrile solution, it decomposes readily in other organic solvents, such as CH2Cl2. 3 can oxidize ethylbenzene to acetophenone at room temperature. Treatment of 1 with AgBF4, followed by reaction with [n-Bu4N]2[MoO4], afforded [Ce{N(i-Pr2PO)2}3]2(μ-MoO4) (4). Reaction of trans-Ce[N(i-Pr2PO)2]2(NO3)2 (5), which was prepared from (NH4)2Ce(NO3)6 and K[N(i-Pr2PO)2], with 2 equiv of [n-Bu4N][Cp*MoO3] yielded trans-Ce[N(i-Pr2PO)2]2(Cp*MoO3)2 (6). 4 can catalyze the oxidation of methyl phenyl sulfide with tert-butyl hydroperoxide with high selectivity. The crystal structures of complexes 3-6 have been determined.

  16. Standard molar volumes and heat capacities of aqueous solutions of sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate at temperatures up to 573 K and pressures to 28 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourtier, Emilie; Ballerat-Busserolles, Karine; Majer, Vladimir; Šedlbauer, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Original HT/HP data for NaTr(aq) obtained using non-commercial instruments. ► First heat capacity data for NaTr(aq) at conditions remote from ambient. ► Correction for association when calculating stand. therm. properties of Tr(aq) anion. - Abstract: Densities and heat capacities of aqueous solutions of sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate (sodium triflate) of concentrations from 0.025 to 0.3 mol · kg −1 were measured with high temperature, high pressure custom-made instruments at temperatures up to 573 K and at pressures up to 28 MPa. Standard molar volumes and standard molar heat capacities were obtained via extrapolation of the apparent molar properties to infinite dilution. The results for volumetric properties are consistent with earlier literature data, but no previous measurements exist for heat capacities of sodium triflate at superambient conditions. The new data were used for calculating the standard molar volumes and heat capacities for the triflate anion and compared with the results for triflic acid that should be essentially identical within the expected error margins. At temperatures above 473 K an effort was made to refine the processing of literature data for HCl(aq), taking into account its partial association, and subsequently to modify the value for Na + ion calculated from the standard thermodynamic values of NaCl(aq) where its ion pairing was already considered. This approach yields reasonable agreement at high temperatures between the values for triflate ion calculated from its salt and those for triflic acid.

  17. The effect of conditioning by permanganate on the dissolution behavior of stellite particles in organic complexing acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, V.; Chandramohan, P.; Srinivasan, M.P.; Sukumar, A.A.; Raju, V.S.; Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V.

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive hotspots found either in the primary heat transport circuit or auxiliary circuits of nuclear reactors are mainly due to particles containing activated cobalt. The main source of these particles are stellite alloys that are rich in cobalt and are used in primary cooling circuits in valves, pumps, etc. Due to either mechanical erosion or erosion coupled with corrosion under flow conditions (known as tribocorrosion), these stellite particles are released into the system. They are then activated by neutron absorption in the reactor core before being deposited on out-of-core surfaces, causing radiation exposure problems. In this paper, the possibility of dissolving stellite particles by using an oxidation-complexation process has been explored. Permanganate based reagents were evaluated for their efficiency in conditioning the stellite particles for their dissolution with organic acids. Permanganic acid was found to be the superior conditioning agent. Two alloys of stellite, viz. stellites no. 3 and no. 6, were studied with respect to their dissolution behavior

  18. Kinetic, mechanistic, and spectroscopic studies of permanganate oxidation of azinylformamidines in acidic medium, with autocatalytic behavior of manganese(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim H. Asghar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of permanganate oxidation of two substituted azinylformamidines (Azn-Fs, namely N,N-dimethyl-N′-(pyridin-2-ylformamidine (Py and N,N-dimethyl-N′-(pyrimidin-2-ylformamidine (Pym, in sulfuric acid were investigated using conventional spectrophotometry. Kinetic evidence for the formation of 1:1 intermediate complexes between the oxidant and substrates was obtained. The reactions of both substrates with permanganate showed similar kinetics, i.e. first order in [MnO4−]0 and fractional-first-order with respect to both [Azn-F]0 and [H+]. The initial product, Mn2+, was found to autocatalyze the oxidation process. Changes in the ionic strength and dielectric constant of the medium had no significant effect on the rate. The final oxidation products of Py and Pym were identified as 2-aminopyridine and 2-aminopyrimidine, respectively, in addition to dimethylamine and carbon dioxide. A plausible reaction mechanism is suggested and the reaction constants involved in the mechanism were evaluated.

  19. Evaluation of the therapeutic effect of potassium permanganate at early stages of an experimental acute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) against early stages of an experimental acute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) was evaluated. Fish were experimentally challenged, by waterborne exposure for 2 h to F. columnare after cutaneous abrasion, an...

  20. Effectiveness of copper sulfate, potassium permanganate, and peracetic acid to reduce mortality and infestation of Ichthyobodo nector in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque 1818)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichthyobodo necator is a single celled bi-flagellate parasite, and in high density can causes significant mortality in young fish. Copper sulfate (CuSO4), potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and peracetic acid (PAA) were evaluated for effectiveness against ichthyobodosis. Treatments were: untreated con...

  1. Oxidation of volatile organic compound vapours by potassium permanganate in a horizontal permeable reactive barrier under unsaturated conditions: experiments and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghareh Mahmoodlu, Mojtaba|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357287746

    2014-01-01

    In this research we evaluated the potential of using solid potassium permanganate to create a horizontal permeable reactive barrier (HPRB) for oxidizing VOC vapours in the unsaturated zone. We have performed batch experiments, short column, and long column experiments, and have fully analyzed the

  2. Characterization of tropical starches modified with potassium permanganate and lactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Franco Takizawa

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present work some tropical starches were modified by an oxidative chemical treatment with potassium permanganate and lactic acid. The native and modified samples were evaluated by mid-infrared spectroscopy, differential dyeing, pH, expansion power, solubility and swelling power, clarity of the pastes, susceptibility to syneresis, carboxyl content and reducing power. All modified samples presented dark blue color, higher expansion power (except corn starch, carboxyl content and reducing power. The solubility of the modified starch granules was very high at 90ºC. At this temperature, it was not possible to measure their swelling power. The viscographic analysis showed decrease in peak viscosity and higher degree of cooking instability. The principal component analysis of the mid-infrared spectra allowed separation between native and modified samples due to the presence of carboxyl groups. The expansion was inversely related with amylose content of the starches.No presente trabalho alguns amidos tropicais foram modificados por tratamento oxidativo com permanganato de potássio e ácido lático. Amidos nativos e modificados foram avaliadas por espectroscopia na região do infravermelho médio, coloração diferencial, pH, propriedade de expansão, poder de inchamento e solubilidade, claridade das pastas, susceptibilidade a sinérese, teor carboxilas e poder redutor. Todas as amostras modificadas adquiriram intensa coloração azul quando suspensas em azul de metileno, maiores valores de expansão (exceto o amido de milho, teor de carboxilas e poder redutor. A solubilidade dos grânulos dos amidos modificados foi muito alta a temperatura de 90°C, não tendo sido possível medir o poder de inchamento. A análise viscográfica mostrou um decréscimo no pico de viscosidade e alta instabilidade ao cozimento. A análise dos componentes principais dos espectros de infravermelho médio permitiu a separação entre as amostras nativas e modificadas

  3. A kinetic study of the enhancement of solution chemiluminescence of glyoxylic acid oxidation by manganese species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Abdel-Mageed, Amal; Agater, Irena B; Jewsbury, Roger A

    2015-08-01

    In order to study the mechanism of the enhancement of solution chemiluminescence, the kinetics of the decay of the oxidant and the chemiluminescence emission were followed for oxidations by permanganate, manganese dioxide sol and Mn(3+) (aq) of glyoxylic acid, using stopped-flow spectrophotometry. Results are reported for the glyoxylic acid oxidized under pseudo first-order conditions and in an acidic medium at 25 °C. For permanganate under these conditions, the decay is sigmoidal, consistent with autocatalysis, and for manganese dioxide sol and Mn(3+) it is pseudo first order. The effects of the presence of aqueous formaldehyde and Mn(2+) were observed and a fit to a simple mechanism is discussed. It is concluded that chemiluminescent enhancement in these systems is best explained by reaction kinetics. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. "Too good to be true": the controversy over the use of permanganate of potash as an antidote to snake poison and the circulation of Brazilian physiology in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimieiro Gomes, Ana Carolina

    2012-01-01

    This article examines an international controversy over the most visible scientific event of Brazilian physiology in the nineteenth century. In 1881, Brazilian scientist João Baptista Lacerda stated that he had found an efficient antidote to the poison of Brazilian snakes: permanganate of potash (nowadays, potassium permanganate). His findings were given great publicity in Brazil and traveled rapidly around the world. Scientists, especially in France, contradicted Lacerda's claims. They argued that permanganate of potash could not be a genuine antidote to snake bites since it could not neutralize snake venom when diffused in the body. Lacerda turned down such criticism, claiming that clinical observation provided solid evidence for the drug's local action, on the spot surrounding the bite. The controversy over the use of permanganate of potash as an antidote to snake bite illustrates different regimes of proof that could be mobilized in favor of a physiological discovery.

  5. The Effects of Biocompatible Compared with Standard Peritoneal Dialysis Solutions on Peritonitis Microbiology, Treatment, and Outcomes: the balANZ Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David W.; Brown, Fiona G.; Clarke, Margaret; Boudville, Neil; Elias, Tony J.; Foo, Marjorie W.Y.; Jones, Bernard; Kulkarni, Hemant; Langham, Robyn; Ranganathan, Dwarakanathan; Schollum, John; Suranyi, Michael G.; Tan, Seng H.; Voss, David

    2012-01-01

    ♦ Background: A multicenter, multi-country randomized controlled trial (the balANZ study) recently reported that peritonitis rates significantly improved with the use of neutral-pH peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions low in glucose degradation products (“biocompatible”) compared with standard solutions. The present paper reports a secondary outcome analysis of the balANZ trial with respect to peritonitis microbiology, treatment, and outcomes. ♦ Methods: Adult incident PD patients with residual renal function were randomized to receive either biocompatible or conventional (control) PD solutions for 2 years. ♦ Results: The safety population analysis for peritonitis included 91 patients in each group. The unadjusted geometric mean peritonitis rates in those groups were 0.30 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.22 to 0.41] episodes per patient-year for the biocompatible group and 0.49 (95% CI: 0.39 to 0.62) episodes per patient-year for the control group [incidence rate ratio (IRR): 0.61; 95% CI: 0.41 to 0.90; p = 0.01]. When specific causative organisms were examined, the rates of culture-negative, gram-positive, gram-negative, and polymicrobial peritonitis episodes were not significantly different between the biocompatible and control groups, although the biocompatible group did experience a significantly lower rate of non-pseudomonal gram-negative peritonitis (IRR: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.18 to 0.92; p = 0.03). Initial empiric antibiotic regimens were comparable between the groups. Biocompatible fluid use did not significantly reduce the risk of peritonitis-associated hospitalization (adjusted odds ratio: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.48 to 1.34), but did result in a shorter median duration of peritonitis-associated hospitalization (6 days vs 11 days, p = 0.05). Peritonitis severity was more likely to be rated as mild in the biocompatible group (37% vs 10%, p = 0.001). Overall peritonitis-associated technique failures and peritonitis-related deaths were comparable in the two groups

  6. Crystal structures and thermal decomposition of permanganates AE[MnO{sub 4}]{sub 2} . n H{sub 2}O with the heavy alkaline earth elements (AE=Ca, Sr and Ba)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, Harald; Bauchert, Joerg M.; Conrad, Maurice; Schleid, Thomas [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie

    2017-10-01

    Reexamination of the syntheses and crystal structures as well as studies of the thermal decomposition of the heavy alkaline earth metal permanganates Ca[MnO{sub 4}]{sub 2} . 4 H{sub 2}O, Sr[MnO{sub 4}]{sub 2} . 3 H{sub 2}O and Ba[MnO{sub 4}]{sub 2} are the focus of this work. As an alternative to the very inelegant Muthmann method, established for the synthesis of Ba[MnO{sub 4}]{sub 2} a long time ago, we employed a cation-exchange column loaded with Ba{sup 2+} cations and passed through an aqueous potassium-permanganate solution. We later used this alternative also with strontium- and calcium-loaded columns and all the compounds synthesized this way were indistinguishable from the products of the established methods. Ca[MnO{sub 4}]{sub 2} . 4 H{sub 2}O exhibiting [CaO{sub 8}] polyhedra crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pccn with the lattice parameters a=1397.15(9), b=554.06(4) and c=1338.97(9) pm with Z=4, whereas Sr[MnO{sub 4}]{sub 2} . 3 H{sub 2}O with [SrO{sub 10}] polyhedra adopts the cubic space group P2{sub 1}3 with a=964.19(7) pm and Z=4. So the harder the AE{sup 2+} cation, the higher its demand for hydration in aqueous solution. Consequently, the crystal structure of Ba[MnO{sub 4}]{sub 2} in the orthorhombic space group Fddd with a=742.36(5), b=1191.23(7) and c=1477.14(9) pm with Z=8 lacks any crystal water, but contains [BaO{sub 12}] polyhedra. During the thermal decomposition of Ca[MnO{sub 4}]{sub 2} . 4 H{sub 2}O, the compound expels up to two water molecules of hydration, before the crystal structure collapses after the loss of the third H{sub 2}O molecule at 157 C. The crystal structure of Sr[MnO{sub 4}]{sub 2} . 3 H{sub 2}O breaks down after the expulsion of the third water molecule as well, but this already occurs at 148 C. For both the calcium and the strontium permanganate samples, orthobixbyite-type α-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} and the oxomanganates(III,IV) AEMn{sub 3}O{sub 6} (AE=Ca and Sr) remain as final decomposition products at 800 C

  7. Enhanced chemiluminescence for trazodone trace analysis based on acidic permanganate oxidation in concurrent presence of rhodamine 6G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Keiichi; Sakata, Yuta; Moriuchi-Kawakami, Takayo; Shibutani, Yasuhiko

    2017-11-01

    A new sensitized chemiluminescence method by acidic permanganate oxidation was developed for the sensitive determination of trazodone. A fluorescent dye as used rhodamine 6G to increase a chemiluminescence intensity. Under optimum conditions, the liner range of the calibration curve was obtained for 1-5000 nmol/L. The limit of detection was calculated from 3σ of a blank was 0.23 nmol/L. The coexistent ions and substances had no interference with the chemiluminescence measurement. The chemiluminescence spectra were measured to elucidate a possible mechanism for the system. The present method was satisfactorily used in the determination of the drugs in pharmaceutical samples and animal serums. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Solvent free hydroxylation of the methyl esters of Blighia unijugata seed oil in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium permanganate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewuyi Adewale

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Extraction of oil from the seed of Blighia unijugata gave a yield of 50.82 ± 1.20% using hexane in a soxhlet extractor. The iodine and saponification values were 67.60 ± 0.80 g iodine/100 g and 239.20 ± 1.00 mg KOH/g respectively with C18:1 being the dominant fatty acid. Unsaturated methyl esters of Blighia unijugata which had been previously subjected to urea adduct complexation was used to synthesize methyl 9, 10-dihydroxyoctadecanoate via hydroxylation in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium permanganate (CTAP. The reaction was monitored and confirmed using FTIR and GC-MS. This study has revealed that oxidation reaction of mono unsaturated bonds using CTAP could be achieved under solvent free condition.

  9. Reduction of trihalomethane (THM) formation with potassium permanganate in potable water treatment; Aplicacion del permanganato potasico y la formacion de trihalometanos (THM) en los procesos de potabilizacion del agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre Pascual, G.; Monforte de Monleon, L.; Tos Boix, s.

    1996-04-01

    Replacing prechlorination with a preoxidation with potassium permanganate in potable water treatment has proved to be an effective way to reduce the formation of THM, organochlorinated compounds known to be carcinogenic. It has been proved that the use of potassium permanganate to reduce the formation of THM is a simple and economic treatment process, having the added affect of improving the taste of the treated water. (Author) 21 refs.

  10. Using slow-release permanganate candles to remove TCE from a low permeable aquifer at a former landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Mark D; Kambhu, Ann; Comfort, Steve D

    2012-10-01

    Past disposal of industrial solvents into unregulated landfills is a significant source of groundwater contamination. In 2009, we began investigating a former unregulated landfill with known trichloroethene (TCE) contamination. Our objective was to pinpoint the location of the plume and treat the TCE using in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO). We accomplished this by using electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) to survey the landfill and map the subsurface lithology. We then used the ERI survey maps to guide direct push groundwater sampling. A TCE plume (100-600 μg L(-1)) was identified in a low permeable silty-clay aquifer (K(h)=0.5 md(-1)) that was within 6m of ground surface. To treat the TCE, we manufactured slow-release potassium permanganate candles (SRPCs) that were 91.4 cm long and either 5. cm or 7.6 cm in dia. For comparison, we inserted equal masses of SRPCs (7.6-cm versus 5.1-cm dia) into the low permeable aquifer in staggered rows that intersected the TCE plume. The 5.1-cm dia candles were inserted using direct push rods while the 7.6-cm SRPCs were placed in 10 permanent wells. Pneumatic circulators that emitted small air bubbles were placed below the 7.6-cm SRPCs in the second year. Results 15 months after installation showed significant TCE reductions in the 7.6-cm candle treatment zone (67-85%) and between 10% and 66% decrease in wells impacted by the direct push candles. These results support using slow-release permanganate candles as a means of treating chlorinated solvents in low permeable aquifers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Standard Practice for Use of Mattsson's Solution of pH 7.2 to Evaluate the Stress- Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Copper-Zinc Alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the preparation and use of Mattsson's solution of pH 7.2 as an accelerated stress-corrosion cracking test environment for brasses (copper-zinc base alloys). The variables (to the extent that these are known at present) that require control are described together with possible means for controlling and standardizing these variables. 1.2 This practice is recommended only for brasses (copper-zinc base alloys). The use of this test environment is not recommended for other copper alloys since the results may be erroneous, providing completely misleading rankings. This is particularly true of alloys containing aluminum or nickel as deliberate alloying additions. 1.3 This practice is intended primarily where the test objective is to determine the relative stress-corrosion cracking susceptibility of different brasses under the same or different stress conditions or to determine the absolute degree of stress corrosion cracking susceptibility, if any, of a particular brass or brass component ...

  12. Modification of cyanobacterial bloom-derived biomass using potassium permanganate enhanced the removal of microcystins and adsorption capacity toward cadmium (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Jihai; Gu, Ji-Dong; Peng, Liang; Luo, Si; Luo, Huili; Yan, Zhiyong; Wu, Genyi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Potassium permanganate removed microcystins in the cyanobacterial bloom-derived biomass (CBDB). • Potassium permanganate oxidation caused the transformation of hydroxyl to carboxyl on the CBDB. • Manganese dioxide was formed on the surface of CBDB. • Potassium permanganate oxidation process increased the adsorption capacity of CBDB toward Cd(II). - Abstract: Cyanobacterial biomass shows high adsorption capacity toward heavy metal ions. However, the cyanotoxins in the cyanobacterial biomass inhibit its application in heavy metals removal. In order to safely and effectively remove Cd(II) from water using cyanobacterial bloom-derived biomass (CBDB), KMnO 4 was used to modify CBDB. The results indicated that the microcystins in the CBDB were successfully removed by KMnO 4 . Potassium permanganate oxidation caused the transformation of hydroxyl to carboxyl on the CBDB, and formed manganese dioxide on the surface of CBDB. The oxidized CBDB showed higher adsorption capacity toward Cd(II) than that of unoxidized treatment. The optimal KMnO 4 concentration for increasing the adsorption capacity of CBDB toward Cd(II) was 0.2 g/L. The adsorption isotherm of Cd(II) by oxidized- or unoxidized-CBDB was well fitted by Langmuir model, indicating that the adsorption of Cd(II) by CBDB was monolayer adsorption. The desorption ratio of Cd(II) from oxidized CBDB was higher than that from unoxidized CBDB in the desorption process using NH 4 NO 3 and EDTA as desorbent. The results presented in this study suggest that KMnO 4 modified CBDB may be used as a safe and high efficient adsorbent in Cd(II) removal from water

  13. Modification of cyanobacterial bloom-derived biomass using potassium permanganate enhanced the removal of microcystins and adsorption capacity toward cadmium (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Jihai [College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Farmland Pollution Control and Agricultural Resources Use, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Gu, Ji-Dong [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Farmland Pollution Control and Agricultural Resources Use, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology and Toxicology, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Peng, Liang; Luo, Si; Luo, Huili [College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Yan, Zhiyong, E-mail: zhyyan111@163.com [College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Wu, Genyi, E-mail: wugenyi99@163.com [College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Potassium permanganate removed microcystins in the cyanobacterial bloom-derived biomass (CBDB). • Potassium permanganate oxidation caused the transformation of hydroxyl to carboxyl on the CBDB. • Manganese dioxide was formed on the surface of CBDB. • Potassium permanganate oxidation process increased the adsorption capacity of CBDB toward Cd(II). - Abstract: Cyanobacterial biomass shows high adsorption capacity toward heavy metal ions. However, the cyanotoxins in the cyanobacterial biomass inhibit its application in heavy metals removal. In order to safely and effectively remove Cd(II) from water using cyanobacterial bloom-derived biomass (CBDB), KMnO{sub 4} was used to modify CBDB. The results indicated that the microcystins in the CBDB were successfully removed by KMnO{sub 4}. Potassium permanganate oxidation caused the transformation of hydroxyl to carboxyl on the CBDB, and formed manganese dioxide on the surface of CBDB. The oxidized CBDB showed higher adsorption capacity toward Cd(II) than that of unoxidized treatment. The optimal KMnO{sub 4} concentration for increasing the adsorption capacity of CBDB toward Cd(II) was 0.2 g/L. The adsorption isotherm of Cd(II) by oxidized- or unoxidized-CBDB was well fitted by Langmuir model, indicating that the adsorption of Cd(II) by CBDB was monolayer adsorption. The desorption ratio of Cd(II) from oxidized CBDB was higher than that from unoxidized CBDB in the desorption process using NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} and EDTA as desorbent. The results presented in this study suggest that KMnO{sub 4} modified CBDB may be used as a safe and high efficient adsorbent in Cd(II) removal from water.

  14. Oxidation reaction of 4-allyl-4-hydroperoxy-2-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-dienone in the presence of potassium permanganate without a co-oxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Serdar Gültekin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available 4-Allyl-4-hydroperoxy-2-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-dienone (5 was synthesized by photooxygenation of commercially available Eugenol in the presence of tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP as a singlet oxygen sensitizer. The brief and one-pot syntheses of some natural product skeletons were conducted using the corresponding allylic hydroperoxide at different temperatures (0 oC and room temperature with potassium permanganate (KMnO 4 in mild condition at N 2(g atm.

  15. Uses of the potassium permanganate to eliminate copper cyanide from waste water resulting from a lixiviation plant in a gold mine (I); Aplicacion del permanganato potasico para la eliminacion de cianuros de cobre en aguas residuales de la planta de lixiviacion en una mina de oro (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sancho, J. P.; Fernandez, B.; Ayala, J.; Garcia, M. P.; Lavandeira, A.

    2009-07-01

    The use of cyanide in the hydrometallurgical and chemical industries has led to the emergence of a major environmental problem due to its high toxicity. Te wastewater generated at these plants is hazardous to the environment and therefore must be managed properly. For this purpose, they undergo detoxification processes after lodes from the plant are accumulated in waste-resistant containment ponds that mast be waterproof to prevent environmental disasters from leakages or massive flood. This work shows the results obtained in laboratory tests carried out with plant waters and demonstrates the efficacy of potassium permanganate as an oxidant of cyanide wastewater from a gold hydrometallurgical plant. In the process the destruction of the copper cyanide complexes is solution is achieved and copper metal ions are eliminated through precipitation mostly as hydroxide. (Author) 28 refs.

  16. Potassium permanganate effects on the quality and post-harvest conservation of sapodilla (Manilkara zapota (L. P.Royen fruits under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Edelky de Souza Freitas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sapodilla (Manilkara zapota (L. P. Royen is a climacteric fruit, very perishable, with high metabolic activity, rapid ripening and reduced storage time at room temperature, thus making difficult its commercialization. However, this research aimed to evaluate the effect of potassium permanganate (KMnO4 on the quality and post-harvest conservation of sapodilla fruit under modified atmosphere at room temperature. The sapodilla fruits were harvested when they reached physiological maturity and then accommodated in Styrofoam trays with PVC film coating. Within each package, KMnO4 were placed at different concentrations (0, 0.250, 0.375, and 0.500 g of KMnO4 per kg of fruit, respectively, impregnated in vermiculite. In addition, were kept in storage at room temperature (25 ± 1 °C and 54 ± 5% RU for fifteen days, with fruit quality analysis every five days. The potassium permanganate doses influenced the sapodilla fruit quality, wherein the concentration of 0.375 g of KMnO4 per kg of fruit was the most efficient, retarding the loss of firmness and vitamin C degradation of sapodilla fruits throughout five days storage under modified atmosphere at room temperature. The sapodilla fruit postharvest life stored under modified atmosphere with potassium permanganate 25 ± 1 °C and 54 ± 5% RU, is ten days.

  17. Microcystis aeruginosa-laden water treatment using enhanced coagulation by persulfate/Fe(II), ozone and permanganate: Comparison of the simultaneous and successive oxidant dosing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Qu, Fangshu; Chen, Wei; Liang, Heng; Wang, Tianyu; Cheng, Xiaoxiang; Yu, Huarong; Li, Guibai; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2017-11-15

    In this study, the application of enhanced coagulation with persulfate/Fe(II), permanganate and ozone for Microcystis-laden water treatment was investigated. Two oxidant dosage strategies were compared in terms of the organic removal performance: a simultaneous dosing strategy (SiDS) and a successive dosing strategy (SuDS). To optimize the oxidant species, oxidant doses and oxidant dosage strategy, the zeta potential, floc size and dimension fraction, potassium release and organic removal efficiency during the coagulation of algae-laden water were systematically investigated and comprehensively discussed. Ozonation causes most severe cell lysis and reduces organic removal efficiency because it releases intracellular organics. Moreover, ozonation can cause the release of odor compounds such as 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) and geosmin (GSM). With increasing doses, the performance of pollutant removal by coagulation enhanced by persulfate/Fe(II) or permanganate did not noticeably improve, which suggests that a low dosage of persulfate/Fe(II) and permanganate is the optimal strategy to enhance coagulation of Microcystis-laden water. The SiDS performs better than the SuDS because more Microcystis cell lysis occurs and less DOC is removed when oxidants are added before the coagulants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Kinetics of membrane damage to high (HNA) and low (LNA) nucleic acid bacterial clusters in drinking water by ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, ferrate(VI), and permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseier, Maaike K; von Gunten, Urs; Freihofer, Pietro; Hammes, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    Drinking water was treated with ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, ferrate(VI), and permanganate to investigate the kinetics of membrane damage of native drinking water bacterial cells. Membrane damage was measured by flow cytometry using a combination of SYBR Green I and propidium iodide (SGI+PI) staining as indicator for cells with permeabilized membranes and SGI alone to measure total cell concentration. SGI+PI staining revealed that the cells were permeabilized upon relatively low oxidant exposures of all tested oxidants without a detectable lag phase. However, only ozonation resulted in a decrease of the total cell concentrations for the investigated reaction times. Rate constants for the membrane damage reaction varied over seven orders of magnitude in the following order: ozone > chlorine > chlorine dioxide ≈ ferrate > permanganate > chloramine. The rate constants were compared to literature data and were in general smaller than previously measured rate constants. This confirmed that membrane integrity is a conservative and therefore safe parameter for disinfection control. Interestingly, the cell membranes of high nucleic acid (HNA) content bacteria were damaged much faster than those of low nucleic acid (LNA) content bacteria during treatment with chlorine dioxide and permanganate. However, only small differences were observed during treatment with chlorine and chloramine, and no difference was observed for ferrate treatment. Based on the different reactivity of these oxidants it was suggested that HNA and LNA bacterial cell membranes have a different chemical constitution. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Determining partial differential cross sections for low-energy electron photodetachment involving conical intersections using the solution of a Lippmann-Schwinger equation constructed with standard electronic structure techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seungsuk; Yarkony, David R

    2011-05-07

    A method for obtaining partial differential cross sections for low energy electron photodetachment in which the electronic states of the residual molecule are strongly coupled by conical intersections is reported. The method is based on the iterative solution to a Lippmann-Schwinger equation, using a zeroth order Hamiltonian consisting of the bound nonadiabatically coupled residual molecule and a free electron. The solution to the Lippmann-Schwinger equation involves only standard electronic structure techniques and a standard three-dimensional free particle Green's function quadrature for which fast techniques exist. The transition dipole moment for electron photodetachment, is a sum of matrix elements each involving one nonorthogonal orbital obtained from the solution to the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. An expression for the electron photodetachment transition dipole matrix element in terms of Dyson orbitals, which does not make the usual orthogonality assumptions, is derived.

  20. Determination of neurotransmitters and their metabolites using one- and two-dimensional liquid chromatography with acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Brendan J; Conlan, Xavier A; Stevenson, Paul G; Tye, Susannah; Reker, Ashlie; Barnett, Neil W; Adcock, Jacqui L; Francis, Paul S

    2014-09-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography with chemiluminescence detection based on the reaction with acidic potassium permanganate and formaldehyde was explored for the determination of neurotransmitters and their metabolites. The neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine were quantified in the left and right hemispheres of rat hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex, and the metabolites vanillylmandelic acid, 3,4-dihydrophenylacetic acid, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid and homovanillic acid were identified in human urine. Under optimised chemiluminescence reagent conditions, the limits of detection for these analytes ranged from 2.5 × 10(-8) to 2.5 × 10(-7) M. For the determination of neurotransmitter metabolites in urine, a two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography (2D-HPLC) separation operated in heart-cutting mode was developed to overcome the peak capacity limitations of the one-dimensional separation. This approach provided the greater separation power of 2D-HPLC with analysis times comparable to conventional one-dimensional separations.

  1. Absorption of Ethylene on Membranes Containing Potassium Permanganate Loaded into Alumina-Nanoparticle-Incorporated Alumina/Carbon Nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirgar, Ashkan; Han, Daewoo; Steckl, Andrew J

    2018-06-06

    Ethylene is a natural aging hormone in plants, and controlling its concentration has long been a subject of research aimed at reducing wastage during packaging, transport, and storage. We report on packaging membranes, produced by electrospinning, that act as efficient carriers for potassium permanganate (PPM), a widely used ethylene oxidant. PPM salt loaded on membranes composed of alumina nanofibers incorporating alumina nanoparticles outperform other absorber systems and oxidize up to 73% of ethylene within 25 min. Membrane absorption of ethylene generated by avocados was totally quenched in 21 h, and a nearly zero ethylene concentration was observed for more than 5 days. By comparison, the control experiments exhibited a concentration of 53% of the initial value after 21 h and 31% on day 5. A high surface area of the alumina nanofiber membranes provides high capacity for ethylene absorption over a long period of time. In combination with other properties, such as planar form, flexibility, ease of handling, and lightweight, these membranes are a highly desirable component of packaging materials engineered to enhance product lifetime.

  2. Spectrophotometric methods for the determination of ampicillin by potassium permanganate and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene in pharmaceutical preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Aslam Parwaz Khan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Two simple and sensitive kinetic methods for the determination of ampicillin (AMP are described. The first method is based on kinetic investigation of the oxidation reaction of the drug with alkaline potassium permanganate at room temperature for a fixed time of 25 min. The absorbance of the colored manganate ions is measured at 610 nm. The second method is based on the reaction of AMP with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB in the presence of 0.1 mol L−1 sodium bicarbonate. Spectrophotometric measurement was achieved by recording the absorbance at 490 nm for a fixed time of 60 min. All variables affecting the development of the color were investigated and the conditions were optimized. Plots of absorbance against concentration in both procedures were rectilinear over the ranges 5–30 and 50–260 μg mL−1, with mean recoveries 99.80 and 99.91, respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of AMP in bulk powder and in capsule dosage form. The determination of AMP by the fixed concentration method is feasible with the calibration equations obtained, but the fixed time method proves to be more applicable.

  3. Standard test method for isotopic abundance analysis of uranium hexafluoride and uranyl nitrate solutions by multi-collector, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2014-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the isotopic abundance analysis of 234U, 235U, 236U and 238U in samples of hydrolysed uranium hexafluoride (UF6) by inductively coupled plasma source, multicollector, mass spectrometry (ICP-MC-MS). The method applies to material with 235U abundance in the range of 0.2 to 6 % mass. This test method is also described in ASTM STP 1344. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. Potassium permanganate in drinking water treatment: reduction of organic matter and disinfection by-products; Permanganato potasico en potabilizacion de aguas : Reduccion de materias organicas y subproductos de desinfeccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin Galvin, R. [Universidad de Cordoba (Spain)

    1997-09-01

    This paper deals on the results obtained with the use of potassium permanganate (KMnO{sub 4}) in drinking water treatment. Thus, permanganization of water before chlorination implied the reduction of 50% in odors. Moreover, oxidation with KMnO{sub 4} reduced UV absorbency of water (UV-254nm) by a 17% more as compared with that obtained by chlorine. Finally as far as the production of organo-chlorinated compounds, the treatment with (potassium permanganate+chlorine) allowed an important reduction vs the conventional chlorination: only a 65% of total THMs were generated (between 58% and 80% of specific THM) and between 30 % and 68% of tri-and tetra-phenolchlorinated, as compared with only chlorination. (Author)

  5. Prospective randomized double-blind trial of branched chain amino acid enriched versus standard parenteral nutrition solutions in traumatized and septic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vente, J. P.; Soeters, P. B.; von Meyenfeldt, M. F.; Rouflart, M. M.; van der Linden, C. J.; Gouma, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The addition of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) to total parenteral nutrition (TPN) solutions of balanced aminoacid composition has been reported to result in improved nitrogen balance, preservation of plasma protein levels, and improved immune function; however, only a few large clinical studies

  6. trans-2-Tritylcyclohexanol as a chiral auxiliary in permanganate-mediated oxidative cyclization of 2-methylenehept-5-enoates: application to the synthesis of trans-(+)-linalool oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hazmi, Ali M; Sheikh, Nadeem S; Bataille, Carole J R; Al-Hadedi, Azzam A M; Watkin, Sam V; Luker, Tim J; Camp, Nicholas P; Brown, Richard C D

    2014-10-03

    The permanganate-mediated oxidative cyclization of a series of 2-methylenehept-5-eneoates bearing different chiral auxiliaries was investigated, leading to the discovery of trans-2-tritylcyclohexanol (TTC) as a highly effective chiral controller for the formation of the 2,5-substituted THF diol product with high diastereoselectivity (dr ∼97:3). Chiral resolution of (±)-TTC, prepared in one step from cyclohexene oxide, afforded (-)-(1S,2R)-TTC (er >99:1), which was applied to the synthesis of (+)-trans-(2S,5S)-linalool oxide.

  7. Treatment of dye wastewater with permanganate oxidation and in situ formed manganese dioxides adsorption: cation blue as model pollutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiping; Liu, Huijuan; Zhao, Xu; Qu, Jiuhui; Zhang, Ran

    2010-04-15

    This study investigated the process of potassium permanganate (KMnO(4)) oxidation and in situ formed hydrous manganese dioxides (deltaMnO(2)) (i.e., KMnO(4) oxidation and deltaMnO(2) adsorption) for the treatment of dye wastewater. The effectiveness of decolorization, removing dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and increasing biodegradable oxygen demand (BOD) were compared among these processes of KMnO(4) oxidation, deltaMnO(2) adsorption, and KMnO(4) oxidation and deltaMnO(2) adsorption. DeltaMnO(2) adsorption contributed to the maximum DOC removal of 65.0%, but exhibited limited capabilities of decolorizing and increasing biodegradability. KMnO(4) oxidation alone at pH 0.5 showed satisfactory decrease of UV-vis absorption peaks, and the maximum BOD(5)/DOC value of 1.67 was achieved. Unfortunately, the DOC removal was as low as 27.4%. Additionally, the great amount of acid for pH adjustment and the much too low pH levels limited its application in practice. KMnO(4) oxidation and deltaMnO(2) adsorption at pH 2.0 was the best strategy prior to biological process, in balancing the objectives of decolorization, DOC removal, and BOD increase. The optimum ratio of KMnO(4) dosage to X-GRL concentration (R(KMnO(4)/X-GRL)) was determined to be 2.5, at which KMnO(4) oxidation and deltaMnO(2) adsorption contributed to the maximal DOC removal of 53.4%. Additionally, the optimum pH for X-GRL treatment was observed to be near 3.0. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Indigenous technology development and standardization of the process for obtaining ready to use sterile sodium pertechnetate-Tc-99m solution from Geltech generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Sishir Kumar; Kothalkar, Chetan; Naskar, Prabhakar; Joshi, Sangeeta; Saraswathy, Padmanabhan; Dey, Arun Chandra; Vispute, Gunvant Leeladhar; Murhekar, Vishwas Vinayak; Pilkhwal, Neelam

    2013-01-01

    The indigenous design and technology development for processing large scale zirconium molybdate-Mo-99 (ZrMo-99) Geltech generator was successfully commissioned in Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), India, in 2006. The generator production facility comprises of four shielded plant facilities equipped with tongs and special process gadgets amenable for remote operations for radiochemical processing of ZrMo-99 gel. Over 2800 Geltech generators have been processed and supplied to user hospitals during the period 2006-2013. Geltech generator supplied by BRIT was initially not sterile. Simple elution of 99m Tc is performed by a sterile evacuated vial with sterile and pyrogen free 0.9% NaCl solution to obtain sodium ( 99m Tc) pertechnetate solution. A special type online 0.22 μm membrane filter has been identified and adapted in Geltech generator. The online filtration of 99m Tc from Geltech generator; thus, provided sterile 99m Tc sodium pertechnetate solution. Generators assembled with modified filter assembly were supplied to local hospital in Mumbai (Radiation Medicine Centre (RMC) and S.G.S. Medical College and KEM Hospital) and excellent performances were reported by users. (author)

  9. Indigenous technology development and standardization of the process for obtaining ready to use sterile sodium pertechnetate-Tc-99m solution from Geltech generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sishir Kumar; Kothalkar, Chetan; Naskar, Prabhakar; Joshi, Sangeeta; Saraswathy, Padmanabhan; Dey, Arun Chandra; Vispute, Gunvant Leeladhar; Murhekar, Vishwas Vinayak; Pilkhwal, Neelam

    2013-04-01

    The indigenous design and technology development for processing large scale zirconium molybdate-Mo-99 (ZrMo-99) Geltech generator was successfully commissioned in Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), India, in 2006. The generator production facility comprises of four shielded plant facilities equipped with tongs and special process gadgets amenable for remote operations for radiochemical processing of ZrMo-99 gel. Over 2800 Geltech generators have been processed and supplied to user hospitals during the period 2006-2013. Geltech generator supplied by BRIT was initially not sterile. Simple elution of Tc-99m is performed by a sterile evacuated vial with sterile and pyrogen free 0.9% NaCl solution to obtain sodium (Tc-99m) pertechnetate solution. A special type online 0.22 μm membrane filter has been identified and adapted in Geltech generator. The online filtration of Tc-99m from Geltech generator; thus, provided sterile Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate solution. Generators assembled with modified filter assembly were supplied to local hospital in Mumbai Radiation Medicine Centre (RMC) and S.G.S. Medical College and KEM Hospital) and excellent performances were reported by users.

  10. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of low-volume polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid versus standard-volume polyethylene glycol solution as bowel preparations for colonoscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Standard-volume polyethylene glycol (PEG gut lavage solutions are safe and effective, but they require the consumption of large volumes of fluid. A new lower-volume solution of PEG plus ascorbic acid has been used recently as a preparation for colonoscopy. AIM: A meta-analysis was performed to compare the performance of low-volume PEG plus ascorbic acid with standard-volume PEG as bowel preparation for colonoscopy. STUDY: Electronic and manual searches were performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs that compared the performance of low-volume PEG plus ascorbic acid with standard-volume PEG as bowel preparation for colonoscopy. After a methodological quality assessment and data extraction, the pooled estimates of bowel preparation efficacy during bowel cleansing, compliance with preparation, willingness to repeat the same preparation, and the side effects were calculated. We calculated pooled estimates of odds ratios (OR by fixed- and/or random-effects models. We also assessed heterogeneity among studies and the publication bias. RESULTS: Eleven RCTs were identified for analysis. The pooled OR for preparation efficacy during bowel cleansing and for compliance with preparation for low-volume PEG plus ascorbic acid were 1.08 (95% CI = 0.98-1.28, P = 0.34 and 2.23 (95% CI = 1.67-2.98, P<0.00001, respectively, compared with those for standard-volume PEG. The side effects of vomiting and nausea for low-volume PEG plus ascorbic acid were reduced relative to standard-volume PEG. There was no significant publication bias, according to a funnel plot. CONCLUSIONS: Low-volume PEG plus ascorbic acid gut lavage achieved non-inferior efficacy for bowel cleansing, is more acceptable to patients, and has fewer side effects than standard-volume PEG as a bowel preparation method for colonoscopy.

  11. Permanganate Treatment of DNAPLs in Reactive Barriers and Source Zone Flooding Schemes - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, F.W.

    2000-10-01

    This study provides a detailed process-level understanding of the oxidative destruction of the organic contaminant emphasizing on reaction pathways and kinetics. A remarkable rise in the MnO{sup {minus}} consumption rate with TCA and PCE mixtures proves that the phase transfer catalysts have the ability to increase oxidation rate of DNAPLs either in pure phase or mixtures and that there is significant potential for testing the catalyzed scheme under field conditions. Secondly, as an attempt to enhance the oxidation of DNAPL, we are trying to exploit cosolvency effects, utilizing various alcohol-water mixtures to increase DNAPL solubilization. Preliminary results of cosolvency experiments indicate the enhancement in the transfer of nonaqueous phase TCE to TBA-water solution and the rate of TCE degradation in aqueous phase.

  12. Standard test method for evaluating stress-corrosion cracking of stainless alloys with different nickel content in boiling acidified sodium chloride solution

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in an acidified boiling sodium chloride solution. This test method is performed in 25% (by mass ) sodium chloride acidified to pH 1.5 with phosphoric acid. This test method is concerned primarily with the test solution and glassware, although a specific style of U-bend test specimen is suggested. 1.2 This test method is designed to provide better correlation with chemical process industry experience for stainless steels than the more severe boiling magnesium chloride test of Practice G36. Some stainless steels which have provided satisfactory service in many environments readily crack in Practice G36, but have not cracked during interlaboratory testing using this sodium chloride test method. 1.3 This boiling sodium chloride test method was used in an interlaboratory test program to evaluate wrought stainless steels, including duplex (ferrite-austenite) stainless and an alloy with up to about 33% nickel. It may also b...

  13. A new technique for the deposition of standard solutions in total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) using pico-droplets generated by inkjet printers and its applicability for aerosol analysis with SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fittschen, U.E.A.; Hauschild, S.; Amberger, M.A.; Lammel, G.; Streli, C.; Foerster, S.; Wobrauschek, P.; Jokubonis, C.; Pepponi, G.; Falkenberg, G.; Broekaert, J.A.C.

    2006-01-01

    A new technique for the deposition of standard solutions on particulate aerosol samples using pico-droplets for elemental determinations with total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) is described. It enables short analysis times without influencing the sample structure and avoids time consuming scanning of the sample with the exciting beam in SR-TXRF analysis. Droplets of picoliter volume (∼ 5-130 pL) were generated with commercially available and slightly modified inkjet printers operated with popular image processing software. The size of the dried droplets on surfaces of different polarity namely silicone coated and untreated quartz reflectors, was determined for five different printer types and ten different cartridge types. The results show that droplets generated by inkjet printers are between 50 and 200 μm in diameter (corresponding to volumes of 5 to 130 pL) depending on the cartridge type, which is smaller than the width of the synchrotron beam used in the experiments (< 1 mm at an energy of 17 keV at the beamline L at HASYLAB, Hamburg). The precision of the printing of a certain amount of a single element standard solution was found to be comparable to aliquoting with micropipettes in TXRF, where for 2.5 ng of cobalt relative standard deviations of 12% are found. However, it could be shown that the printing of simple patterns is possible, which is important when structured samples have to be analysed

  14. Detection of pyrrolizidine alkaloids using flow analysis with both acidic potassium permanganate and tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) chemiluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, Bree A.; Barnett, Neil W.; Bos, Richard

    2005-01-01

    For the first time, analytically useful chemiluminescence was elicited from the reactions of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Heliotrine, retronecine, supinine, monocrotaline and echinatine N-oxide yielded chemiluminescence upon reaction with tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) whilst lasiocarpine, its N-oxide and supinine elicited light upon reaction with acidic potassium permanganate. Detection limits for heliotrine were 1.25 x 10 -7 M and 9 x 10 -9 M for tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(III) perchlorate with flow injection analysis (FIA) and the silica-immobilised reagent (4-[4-(dichloromethylsilanyl)-butyl]-4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine)bis (2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) with sequential injection analysis (SIA), respectively. Lasiocarpine was detectable at 1.4 x 10 -7 M using acidic potassium permanganate with FIA. Additionally, the silica-immobilised reagent was optimised with respect to the oxidant (ammonium ceric nitrate) concentration and the aspiration times which afforded a detection limit for codeine of 5 x 10 -10 M using SIA

  15. Detection of pyrrolizidine alkaloids using flow analysis with both acidic potassium permanganate and tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) chemiluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorman, Bree A. [School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Vic. 3217 (Australia); Barnett, Neil W. [School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Vic. 3217 (Australia)]. E-mail: barnie@deakin.edu.au; Bos, Richard [School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Vic. 3217 (Australia)

    2005-06-13

    For the first time, analytically useful chemiluminescence was elicited from the reactions of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Heliotrine, retronecine, supinine, monocrotaline and echinatine N-oxide yielded chemiluminescence upon reaction with tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) whilst lasiocarpine, its N-oxide and supinine elicited light upon reaction with acidic potassium permanganate. Detection limits for heliotrine were 1.25 x 10{sup -7} M and 9 x 10{sup -9} M for tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(III) perchlorate with flow injection analysis (FIA) and the silica-immobilised reagent (4-[4-(dichloromethylsilanyl)-butyl]-4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine)bis (2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) with sequential injection analysis (SIA), respectively. Lasiocarpine was detectable at 1.4 x 10{sup -7} M using acidic potassium permanganate with FIA. Additionally, the silica-immobilised reagent was optimised with respect to the oxidant (ammonium ceric nitrate) concentration and the aspiration times which afforded a detection limit for codeine of 5 x 10{sup -10} M using SIA.

  16. Introducing a standard method for experimental determination of the solvent response in laser pump, x-ray probe time-resolved wide-angle x-ray scattering experiments on systems in solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kasper Skov; Brandt van Driel, Tim; Kehres, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In time-resolved laser pump, X-ray probe wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments on systems in solution the structural response of the system is accompanied by a solvent response. The solvent response is caused by reorganization of the bulk solvent following the laser pump event, and in order...... response-the solvent term-experimentally when applying laser pump, X-ray probe time-resolved wide-angle X-ray scattering. The solvent term describes difference scattering arising from the structural response of the solvent to changes in the hydrodynamic parameters: pressure, temperature and density. We...... is demonstrated to exhibit first order behaviour with respect to the amount of energy deposited in the solution. We introduce a standardized method for recording solvent responses in laser pump, X-ray probe time-resolved X-ray wide-angle scattering experiments by using dye mediated solvent heating. Furthermore...

  17. Emprego do sal di-sódico de edta como padrão no preparo de soluções Use of EDTA disodium salt as standard for preparation of solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H. Pereira da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydrated sodium salt of EDTA, Na2H2Y·2H2O, cannot be used as a primary standard for titrations due to uncertainties in the water content. An alkalimetric titration of the homogenized solid in the presence of a small excess of BaCl2·2H2O allows one to titrate quantitatively the released two hydrogen cations with end-point indication by phenolphthalein or potentiometry. This leads one to calculate the average molar mass of the reagent and its water content, allowing to use it to prepare EDTA standard solutions. One titrated sample led to the formula Na2H2Y·1.876 H2O, and 370.01 g.mol-1 for the average molar mass.

  18. Flow injection chemiluminescence determination of loxoprofen and naproxen with the acidic permanganate-sulfite system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Juan Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel flow injection chemiluminescence (CL method for the determination of loxoprofen and naproxen was proposed based on the CL system of KMnO4, and Na2SO3 in acid media. The CL intensity of KMnO4-Na2SO3 was greatly enhaneed in the presence of loxoprofen and naproxen. The mechanism of the CL reaction was studied by the kinetic proecss and UV-vis absorption and the conditions were optimized. Under optimized conditions, the CL intensity was linear with loxoprofen and naproxen concentration in the range of 7.0 × 10−8 – 1.0 × 10−5 g/mL and 2.0 × 10−7 – 4.0 × 10−6 g/mL with the detection limit of 2.0 × 10−8 g/mL and 3.0 × 10−8 g/mL (S/N = 3, respectively. Thc relative standard deviations were 2.39% and 1.37% for 5.0 × 10−7 g/mL naproxen and 5.0 × 10−7 g/mL loxoprofen (n = 10, respectively. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied to thc determination of loxoprofen and naproxen in pharmaceutical preparations. Keywords: chemiluminescence, KMnO4, loxoprofen, naproxen

  19. Drinking water treatment using a submerged internal-circulation membrane coagulation reactor coupled with permanganate oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongguo; Liu, Dan; Qian, Yu; Wu, Yue; He, Peiran; Liang, Shuang; Fu, Xiaozheng; Li, Jiding; Ye, Changqing

    2017-06-01

    A submerged internal circulating membrane coagulation reactor (MCR) was used to treat surface water to produce drinking water. Polyaluminum chloride (PACl) was used as coagulant, and a hydrophilic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) submerged hollow fiber microfiltration membrane was employed. The influences of trans-membrane pressure (TMP), zeta potential (ZP) of the suspended particles in raw water, and KMnO 4 dosing on water flux and the removal of turbidity and organic matter were systematically investigated. Continuous bench-scale experiments showed that the permeate quality of the MCR satisfied the requirement for a centralized water supply, according to the Standards for Drinking Water Quality of China (GB 5749-2006), as evaluated by turbidity (<1 NTU) and total organic carbon (TOC) (<5mg/L) measurements. Besides water flux, the removal of turbidity, TOC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the raw water also increased with increasing TMP in the range of 0.01-0.05MPa. High ZP induced by PACl, such as 5-9mV, led to an increase in the number of fine and total particles in the MCR, and consequently caused serious membrane fouling and high permeate turbidity. However, the removal of TOC and DOC increased with increasing ZP. A slightly positive ZP, such as 1-2mV, corresponding to charge neutralization coagulation, was favorable for membrane fouling control. Moreover, dosing with KMnO 4 could further improve the removal of turbidity and DOC, thereby mitigating membrane fouling. The results are helpful for the application of the MCR in producing drinking water and also beneficial to the research and application of other coagulation and membrane separation hybrid processes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. [The coroner's autopsies in the Great Britain: the problems related to the quality of the studies, standardization, auditing, financial support and the approaches to their solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, I Yu; Kuprina, T A; Fetisov, V A; Minaeva, P V

    2018-01-01

    This article continues the series of previous publications of the authors based on the analysis of the detailed report of the experts of the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death program (NCEPOD) designed to evaluate the quality of autopsies carried out by the coroners in the Great Britain. It was shown that only in 13 to 55% of the 1,691 case the operators had an opportunity to refer the necropsy materials for the pathological study. The problems encountered in association with histological and toxicological analysis arose from the misunderstanding between the coroners and the pathologists as regard the organizational aspects of autopsy studies as swell as the financial and economic considerations. The Coroner Rules that had been adopted in 1984 and remained in force in the country until 2005 needed to be radically revised, corrected, and amended to facilitate the solution of a number of problems and eliminate the formal organizational and technical contradictions that hampered the further improvement of the quality of autopsies that must be performed by the corners at the national rather than the local level. The maximum number of the unacceptable results were revealed in the protocols of autopsires carried out by the forensic medical experts. All pathologists in the Great Britain are recommended to pay special attention to all cases of sudden death of the adult subjects and the deceased epileptic patients. The detailed investigations are mandatory in all cases of death following medical manipulations, such as surgical interventions, and complications.

  1. Investigating the sorption behavior of cadmium from aqueous solution by potassium permanganate-modified biochar: quantify mechanism and evaluate the modification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zixi; Zhang, Qian; Li, Meng; Niu, Dongyuan; Sang, Wenjiao; Verpoort, Francis

    2018-03-01

    In this work, a KMnO 4 -modified-biochar-based composite material with manganese oxide produced at 600 °C was fabricated to investigate the sorption mechanism of Cd(II) and to comprehensively evaluate the effect of the modification on biochar properties. Cd(II) adsorption mechanisms were mainly controlled by interaction with minerals, complexation with oxygen-containing functional groups, and cation-π interaction. The sorption capacity was significantly reduced after a deash treatment of biochar, almost shrunk by 3 and 3.5 times for pristine biochar (PBC) and modified biochar (MBC). For deashed PBC, oxygen-containing functional groups were the main contributor toward Cd(II) adsorption while interaction with minerals was significantly compromised and became negligible. The sorption capacity was also apparently decreased after the deash treatment of MBC; however, for deashed MBC, interaction with minerals still was the main contributor to the sorption ability, which could be attributed to the mechanism of interaction of Cd(II) with loaded MnO x on biochar. Cation-π interaction in MBC was notably enhanced compared to PBC due to the oxidation of KMnO 4 on biomass. Also, sorption performance by oxygen-containing functional groups was also enhanced. Hence, the modification by KMnO 4 has a significant effect on the Cd(II) sorption performance of biochar.

  2. Use of potassium permanganate integrated chemical-biological treatment schemes of wastewaters from agricultural industry; Aplicacion de permanganato potasico en sistemas de tratamiento integrado quimico-biologico en las aguas residuales de la industria agricola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medialdea, J. M.; Arnaiz, M. C.; Isac, L.; Ruiz, C.; Valentin, R.; Martinez, M. F.; Garcia, S.; Lebrato, J. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Cuenca, I.

    2000-07-01

    Present study assesses the applicability of a treatment scheme based on the combination of anaerobic biological digestion and chemical oxidation by potassium permanganate, in the purification of winery wastewaters. Biological digestion, performed using an experimental 1-liter reactor that operated discontinuously with completely mixed input and a mesophilic regime (35 degree centigree), removed 65% and 78% of water COD and BOD, and contributed 82,27% to the system global efficiency. Further chemical oxidation of effluent by Aquox -potassium permanganate eliminated 40% of residual COD, although contributed only 17,73% to global purification efficiency. However, effluent chemical oxidation at a dosage of 35 mg KMnO{sub 4}/L significantly increased effluent biodegradability. Results demonstrated the feasibility of analyzed working scheme and provide a positive valuation on the use of KMnO{sub 4} in the treatment of winery wastewaters. (Author) 24 refs.

  3. Plugging solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharipov, A U; Yangirov, I Z

    1982-01-01

    A clay-powder, cement, and water-base plugging solution is proposed having reduced solution viscosity characteristics while maintaining tensile strength in cement stone. This solution utilizes silver graphite and its ingredients, by mass weight, are as follows: cement 51.2-54.3%; claypowder 6.06-9.1%; silver graphite 0.24-0.33%; with water making up the remainder.

  4. Corrosion Compatibility Studies on Inconel-600 in NP Decontamination Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Yoon; Jung, Jun Young; Won, Huijun; Choi, Wangkyu; Moon, Jeikwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    It is well known that corrosion and contamination process in the primary cooling circuit of nuclear reactors are essentially interrelated: the contaminant isotopes are mostly corrosion products activated in the reactor core, and the contamination takes place on the out-core of Inconel-600 surface. This radionuclide uptake takes place up to the inner oxide layer and oxide/metal interface. So, it is necessary to remove inner oxide layer as well as outer oxide layer for excellent decontamination effects. The outer oxide layers are composed of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. On the other hand, the inner oxide layers are composed of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, (Ni{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x})(Cr{sub 1-y}Fe{sub y}){sub 2}O{sub 4}, and FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Because of chromium in the trivalent oxidation state which is difficult to dissolve, the oxide layer has an excellent protectiveness and become hard to be decontaminated. Alkaline permanganate (AP) or nitric permanganate (NP) oxidative phase has been used to dissolve the chromium-rich oxide. A disadvantage of AP process is the generation of a large volume of secondary waste. On the other hand, that of NP process is the high corrosion rate for Ni-base alloys. Therefore, for the safe use of oxidative phase in PWR system decontamination, it is necessary to reformulate the NP chemicals for decrease of corrosion rate. This study describes the corrosion compatibility on Inconel-600 and type 304 stainless steel in NP decontamination solution for PWR applications. To evaluate the general corrosion properties, weight change of NP treated specimens was measured. NP treated specimen surface was observed using optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for the evaluation of the localized corrosion. The effect of additives on the corrosion of the specimens was also evaluated. This study describes the corrosion compatibility on Inconel-600 and type 304 stainless steel in NP decontamination solution for PWR applications

  5. Corrosion Compatibility Studies on Inconel-600 in NP Decontamination Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Yoon; Jung, Jun Young; Won, Huijun; Choi, Wangkyu; Moon, Jeikwon

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that corrosion and contamination process in the primary cooling circuit of nuclear reactors are essentially interrelated: the contaminant isotopes are mostly corrosion products activated in the reactor core, and the contamination takes place on the out-core of Inconel-600 surface. This radionuclide uptake takes place up to the inner oxide layer and oxide/metal interface. So, it is necessary to remove inner oxide layer as well as outer oxide layer for excellent decontamination effects. The outer oxide layers are composed of Fe 3 O 4 and NiFe 2 O 4 . On the other hand, the inner oxide layers are composed of Cr 2 O 3 , (Ni 1-x Ni x )(Cr 1-y Fe y ) 2 O 4 , and FeCr 2 O 4 . Because of chromium in the trivalent oxidation state which is difficult to dissolve, the oxide layer has an excellent protectiveness and become hard to be decontaminated. Alkaline permanganate (AP) or nitric permanganate (NP) oxidative phase has been used to dissolve the chromium-rich oxide. A disadvantage of AP process is the generation of a large volume of secondary waste. On the other hand, that of NP process is the high corrosion rate for Ni-base alloys. Therefore, for the safe use of oxidative phase in PWR system decontamination, it is necessary to reformulate the NP chemicals for decrease of corrosion rate. This study describes the corrosion compatibility on Inconel-600 and type 304 stainless steel in NP decontamination solution for PWR applications. To evaluate the general corrosion properties, weight change of NP treated specimens was measured. NP treated specimen surface was observed using optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for the evaluation of the localized corrosion. The effect of additives on the corrosion of the specimens was also evaluated. This study describes the corrosion compatibility on Inconel-600 and type 304 stainless steel in NP decontamination solution for PWR applications. It is revealed that Inconel-600 specimen is more

  6. Classical solutions and extended supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Alfaro, V.; Fubini, S.; Furlan, G.

    1980-03-01

    The existence and properties of classical solutions for gravity coupled to matter fields have been investigated previously with the limitation to conformally flat solutions. In the search for a guiding criterion to determine the form of the coupling among the fields, one is led to consider supersymmetric theories, and the question arises whether classical solutions persist in these models. It is found that a discrepancy persists between supergravity and standard meron solutions. Owing to the appearance of the scalar field, a new set of meron solutions exists for particular Lagrangian models. In conclusion, the form of solutions in Minkowski space is discussed

  7. Stabilization of polymer solutions in the presence of oxidizing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, A; Serino, A; Jenkins, D; Lichaa, P M

    1974-01-01

    Many investigators in the field of heavy oil recovery techniques have confirmed the recovery efficiency which, in the miscible displacement method, has utilized polymer solutions as additives to the injection fluids. The viscosity increase of the displacing phase has lowered the mobility ratio with a significant improvement in the sweep efficiency. Recently, others have reported a notable improvement in the recovery of heavy crude by this same method of miscible displacement which causes a mobile fluid bank between the crude and the displacing fluid. There is an intervening oxidation reaction, promoting the in situ formation of surface-active agents on the interface of these 2 fluids. This study describes the effect on degradation of polymer solutions by such oxidizing agents as potassium chromate and potassium permanganate. The degradation of any polymer solution with or without additives is increased materially by an increase in temperature. The presence of NaCl brine is not often of any great significance in the time of gelation, especially with polymers of the polysaccharide type. (18 refs.)

  8. Sensitive and selective determination of fluvoxamine maleate using a sensitive chemiluminescence system based on the alkaline permanganate-Rhodamine B-gold nanoparticles reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Javad; Amjadi, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    A high-yield chemiluminescence (CL) system based on the alkaline permanganate-Rhodamine B reaction was developed for the sensitive determination of fluvoxamine maleate (Flu). Rhodamine B is oxidized by alkaline KMnO4 and a weak CL emission is produced. It was demonstrated that gold nanoparticles greatly enhance this CL emission due to their interaction with Rhodamine B molecules. It is also observed that sodium dodecyl sulfate, an anionic surfactant, can strongly increase this enhancement. In addition, it was demonstrated that a notable decrease in the CL intensity is observed in the presence of Flu. This may be related to Flu oxidation with KMnO4 . There is a linear relationship between the decrease in CL intensity and the Flu concentration over a range of 2-300 µg/L. A new simple, rapid and sensitive CL method was developed for the determination of Flu with a detection limit (3s) of 1.35 µg/L. The proposed method was used for the determination of Flu in pharmaceutical and urine samples. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. A novel technique using potassium permanganate and reflectance confocal microscopy to image biofilm extracellular polymeric matrix reveals non-eDNA networks in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swearingen, Matthew C; Mehta, Ajeet; Mehta, Amar; Nistico, Laura; Hill, Preston J; Falzarano, Anthony R; Wozniak, Daniel J; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne; Stoodley, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Biofilms are etiologically important in the development of chronic medical and dental infections. The biofilm extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) determines biofilm structure and allows bacteria in biofilms to adapt to changes in mechanical loads such as fluid shear. However, EPS components are difficult to visualize microscopically because of their low density and molecular complexity. Here, we tested potassium permanganate, KMnO4, for use as a non-specific EPS contrast-enhancing stain using confocal laser scanning microscopy in reflectance mode. We demonstrate that KMnO4 reacted with EPS components of various strains of Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus, yielding brown MnO2 precipitate deposition on the EPS, which was quantifiable using data from the laser reflection detector. Furthermore, the MnO2 signal could be quantified in combination with fluorescent nucleic acid staining. COMSTAT image analysis indicated that KMnO4 staining increased the estimated biovolume over that determined by nucleic acid staining alone for all strains tested, and revealed non-eDNA EPS networks in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm. In vitro and in vivo testing indicated that KMnO4 reacted with poly-N-acetylglucosamine and Pseudomonas Pel polysaccharide, but did not react strongly with DNA or alginate. KMnO4 staining may have application as a research tool and for diagnostic potential for biofilms in clinical samples. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A new application of micellar liquid chromatography in the determination of free ampicillin concentration in the drug-human serum albumin standard solution in comparison with the adsorption method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępnik, Katarzyna E; Malinowska, Irena; Maciejewska, Małgorzata

    2016-06-01

    The determination of free drug concentration is a very important issue in the field of pharmacology because only the unbound drug fraction can achieve a pharmacological effect. Due to the ability to solubilize many different compounds in micellar aggregates, micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) can be used for direct determination of free drug concentration. Proteins are not retained on the stationary phase probably due to the formation of protein - surfactant complexes which are excluded from the pores of stationary phase. The micellar method is simple and fast. It does not require any pre-preparation of the tested samples for analysis. The main aim of this paper is to demonstrate a completely new applicability of the analytical use of MLC concerning the determination of free drug concentration in the standard solution of human serum albumin. The well-known adsorption method using RP-HPLC and the spectrophotometric technique was applied as the reference method. The results show that the free drug concentration value obtained in the MLC system (based on the RP-8 stationary phase and CTAB) is similar to that obtained by the adsorption method: both RP-HPLC (95.83μgmL(-1), 79.86% of free form) and spectrophotometry (95.71μgmL(-1), 79.76%). In the MLC the free drug concentration was 93.98μgmL(-1) (78.3%). This indicates that the obtained results are within the analytical range of % of free ampicillin fraction and the MLC with direct sample injection can be treated like a promising method for the determination of free drug concentration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Solution preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results

  12. Exploring the potential of the permanganate oxidation method as a tool to monitor soil quality in agricultural upland systems of Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Catherine M.; Bruun, Thilde Bech; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The transition to more intensified upland systems is having an impact on the soil quality, defined as the ability of a soil to both provide and maintain essential services to an ecosystem. As many tropical upland soils are inherently low in quality, it is essential that impacts be monitored. Soil quality is assessed by using a combination of parameters that serve as indicators and cover the soil chemical, biological and physical properties. An ideal indicator should be sensitive to changes in the environment and management practices and should be widely accessible, meaning low resource requirement (i.e. time and equipment). Total organic carbon (TOC) content is a commonly used indicator of soil quality as it is linked to many soil functions and processes; however analysis is costly and requires access to advanced instrumental facilities, rendering it unsuited for many developing countries. An alternative indicator is the soil fraction dominated by easily decomposable carbon; this may be measured by treating soil samples with 0.2M potassium permanganate (KMnO4), an oxidizing agent which is thought to mimic the enzymes released by the soil microbial community. The advantage of this method is that it is accessible: it is fast, requires little resource input and is field appropriate. There is no consensus however as to which soil carbon fraction the method targets. Furthermore Skjemstad et al. (2006) has indicated that KMnO4 may oxidise charcoal, a component of the non-labile carbon pool; this has implications for the suitability of the method when used for soils of shifting cultivation systems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of permanganate oxidizable carbon (Pox C) as a reliable indicator of soil quality in agricultural upland systems in Northern Lao PDR. Focus was placed on the relations between Pox C and other soil quality parameters (bulk density, pH, CEC, TOC, total N, exchangeable K, plant available P) and upland rice yields. The

  13. Gold and Silver Extraction from Leach Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Bagdaulet K. Kenzhaliyev; Renata R. Iskhakova; Zamzagul D. Dosymbaeva; Esen N. Sulejmenov

    2014-01-01

    There has been carried out an investigation on the extraction of gold and silver from thiosulfate solutions: standard test and technological solutions of chemical and electrochemical leaching. The influence of related metals on the process of extracting gold from solution was studied. There has been conducted a comparative study of the IR spectra of solutions after the sorption of gold, silver and related metals.

  14. Serum creatinine and cystatin C provide conflicting evidence of acute kidney injury following acute ingestion of potassium permanganate and oxalic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijerathna, Thilini Madushanka; Gawarammana, Indika Bandara; Dissanayaka, Dhammika Menike; Palanagasinghe, Chathura; Shihana, Fathima; Dassanayaka, Gihani; Shahmy, Seyed; Endre, Zoltan Huba; Mohamed, Fahim; Buckley, Nicholas Alan

    2017-11-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common following deliberate self-poisoning with a combination washing powder containing oxalic acid (H 2 C 2 O 4 ) and potassium permanganate (KMnO 4 ). Early and rapid increases in serum creatinine (sCr) follow severe poisoning. We investigated the relationship of these increases with direct nephrotoxicity in an ongoing multicenter prospective cohort study in Sri Lanka exploring AKI following poisoning. Multiple measures of change in kidney function were evaluated in 48 consenting patients who had serial sCr and serum cystatin C (sCysC) data available. Thirty-eight (38/48, 79%) patients developed AKI (AKIN criteria). Twenty-eight (58%) had AKIN stage 2 or 3. Initial increases in urine creatinine (uCr) excretion were followed by a substantial loss of renal function. The AKIN stage 2 and 3 (AKIN2/3) group had very rapid rises in sCr (a median of 118% at 24 h and by 400% at 72 h post ingestion). We excluded the possibility that the rapid rise resulted from the assay used or muscle damage. In contrast, the average sCysC increase was 65% by 72 h. In most AKI, sCysC increases to the same extent but more rapidly than sCr, as sCysC has a shorter half-life. This suggests either a reduction in Cystatin C production or, conversely, that the rapid early rise of sCr results from increased production of creatine and creatinine to meet energy demands following severe oxidative stress mediated by H 2 C 2 O 4 and KMnO 4 . Increased early creatinine excretion supports the latter explanation, since creatinine excretion usually decreases transiently in AKIN2/3 from other causes.

  15. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  16. Decommissioning standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crofford, W.N.

    1980-01-01

    EPA has agreed to establish a series of environmental standards for the safe disposal of radioactive waste through participation in the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG). One of the standards required under the IRG is the standard for decommissioning of radioactive contaminated sites, facilities, and materials. This standard is to be proposed by December 1980 and promulgated by December 1981. Several considerations are important in establishing these standards. This study includes discussions of some of these considerations and attempts to evaluate their relative importance. Items covered include: the form of the standards, timing for decommissioning, occupational radiation protection, costs and financial provisions. 4 refs

  17. A Wronskian of Jost solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corona-Corona, Gulmaro

    2004-01-01

    Based on the standard fact that any matrix potential u=u(x) determines a family of Jost solutions whose parameter runs analytically (continuously) on the (closed) half planes, respectively, the zeros of a suitable matrix valued Wronskian of a Jost solution pair are explored

  18. Beyond the Standard Model

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    The necessity for new physics beyond the Standard Model will be motivated. Theoretical problems will be exposed and possible solutions will be described. The goal is to present the exciting new physics ideas that will be tested in the near future. Supersymmetry, grand unification, extra dimensions and string theory will be presented.

  19. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.

    2014-01-01

    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed

  20. Standardization Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Specifications and Standards; Guide Specifications; CIDs; and NGSs . Learn. Perform. Succeed. STANDARDIZATION DOCUMENTS Federal Specifications Commercial...national or international standardization document developed by a private sector association, organization, or technical society that plans ...Maintain lessons learned • Examples: Guidance for application of a technology; Lists of options Learn. Perform. Succeed. DEFENSE HANDBOOK

  1. Preparation of high purity plutonium oxide for radiochemistry instrument calibration standards and working standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, A.S.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1997-04-01

    Due to the lack of suitable high level National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable plutonium solution standards from the NIST or commercial vendors, the CST-8 Radiochemistry team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has prepared instrument calibration standards and working standards from a well-characterized plutonium oxide. All the aliquoting steps were performed gravimetrically. When a 241 Am standardized solution obtained from a commercial vendor was compared to these calibration solutions, the results agreed to within 0.04% for the total alpha activity. The aliquots of the plutonium standard solutions and dilutions were sealed in glass ampules for long term storage

  2. Soil Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of the soil solution in the root environment in the greenhouse industry differ much from those for field grown crops. This is caused firstly by the growing conditions in the greenhouse, which strongly differ from those in the field and secondly the function attributed to the soil

  3. Seeding Solutions

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Crucible Group operates on the basis of good faith –– producing best effort non-consensus texts. ..... science and technology-based solutions to agricultural production constraints, it is ...... In 1997 researchers at Case Western Reserve Medical School in Ohio (US) ...... Is there a need to update the system-wide IP audit?

  4. Circular Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annevelink, E.; Bos, H.L.; Meesters, K.P.H.; Oever, van den M.J.A.; Haas, de W.; Kuikman, P.J.; Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Sikirica, N.

    2016-01-01

    The fifth part of this report on Circular Solutions is about the circular principle From Waste to Resource. The purpose of this study is to select promising options for the implementation of this circular principle and to elaborate these options further.

  5. Podcast solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Michael W

    2005-01-01

    Podcasting is the art of recording radio show style audio tracks, then distributing them to listeners on the Web via podcasting software such as iPodder. From downloading podcasts to producing a track for fun or profit, ""Podcast Solutions"" covers the entire world of podcasting with insight, humor, and the unmatched wisdom of experience.

  6. Communications standards

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, A V

    1986-01-01

    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  7. Solution Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines an artifact building and evaluation proposal. Design Science Research (DSR) studies usually consider encapsulated artifact that have relationships with other artifacts. The solution prototype as a composed artifact demands for a more comprehensive consideration in its systematic...... environment. The solution prototype that is composed from blending product and service prototype has particular impacts on the dualism of DSR’s “Build” and “Evaluate”. Since the mix between product and service prototyping can be varied, there is a demand for a more agile and iterative framework. Van de Ven......’s research framework seems to fit this purpose. Van de Ven allows for an iterative research approach to problem solving with flexible starting point. The research activity is the result between the iteration of two dimensions. This framework focuses on the natural evaluation, particularly on ex...

  8. Permanganate/bisulfite (PM/BS) conditioning-horizontal electro-dewatering (HED) of activated sludge: Effect of reactive Mn(III) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinxin; Wang, Yili; Wang, Dongsheng

    2017-11-01

    A novel activated sludge (AS) conditioning method through permanganate/bisulfate (PM/BS) process was proposed. The method involved a new conditioner of reactive Mn(III) intermediate. Moreover, a Mn(III) conditioning-horizontal electro-dewatering (Mn(III) C-HED) process was established to improve AS dewatering performance. Underlying mechanisms were unraveled by investigating changes in physicochemical characteristics, scanning electron microscope (SEM) morphology, and transformation of water and organic matters. The optimum dewatering conditions for Mn(III) C-HED process with the final water content of 86.94% were determined as the combination of KMnO 4 0.01 mol/L AS and NaHSO 3 0.05 mol/L AS at 20 V for 120 min. Results showed that Mn(III) C-HED process effectively reduced free water and bound water with the corresponding removal ratios of 51.68% and 87.62% at the anode-side as well as 36.55% and 85.08% at the cathode-side, respectively. During the PM/BS process, the produced Mn(III), Mn 2+ , and MnO 2 exerted chemical and physical effects on AS conditioning and dewatering. Mn(III) disintegrated extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) fractions and cells in AS, as well as induced partial bound water release. Additionally, flocculation effect induced by Mn 2+ and MnO 2 skeleton building also benefited AS dewatering. AS cells were further disrupted under the effect of a horizontal electric field. Accordingly, EPS within the AS matrix was solubilized, tightly bound (TB)-EPS or loosely bound (LB)-EPS was converted to their corresponding outer EPS fractions, and AS dewaterability improved. Additionally, changes in pH and temperature at HED stage damaged the AS cells and changed the floc properties, thereby leading to easy separation of liquid and AS particles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Standardizing Emily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Donna

    1980-01-01

    A tongue-in-cheek version of a school administrator's "memorandum" illustrates how simplistic solutions to the educational problems, such as establishing minimum competencies for writing achievement, are generated and why they may not solve the problems. (RL)

  10. Adsorption Characteristics of Polyvinyl Alcohols in Solution on Expanded Graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Yan Pang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Expanded graphite (EG adsorbent was prepared with 50 mesh graphite as raw materials, potassium permanganate as oxidant, and vitriol as intercalation compound. Three kinds of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA with different degree of polymerization (DP in aqueous solution were used as adsorbates. We have studied the influence of initial PVA concentration, temperature and ionic strength on adsorption capacity. Langmuir constants and Gibbs free energy change (⊿G° were calculated according to experimental data respectively. Thermodynamic analysis indicates the equilibrium adsorbance of PVA on EG increase with the rise of SO42– concentration. Adsorption isotherms of PVA with different degree of polymerization are all types and we deduce PVA molecules lie flat on EG surface. Adsorption processes are all spontaneous. Kinetic studies show that the kinetic data can be described by pseudo second-order kinetic model. Second-order rate constants and the initial adsorption rate rise with the increasing of temperature and half-adsorption time decreases with the increasing of temperature. The adsorption activation energy of each PVA is less than 20 kJ•mol−1, physical adsorption is the major mode of the overall adsorption process.

  11. 3G Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saugstrup, Dan; Henten, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – The main purpose of this paper is to analyze which standard/technology will win the 3G mobile markets. In addition, two sub topics are examined. First, which kind of victory will it be – will one technological solution be all-dominating or is co-existence more likely? Second, which....... Originality/value – The paper is based on the understanding that a vast array of different factors in a complex dynamic environment goes into the determination of the outcome of such standardization games. However, the battle between 3G standards has already reached a level, where relatively certain...... predictions can be made. And, the paper contributes with a methodologically based discussion concerning the outcome of the battle between 3G standards....

  12. Training Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the benefits of and required process and recommendations for implementing the standardization of training in the nuclear power industry in the United States and abroad. Current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable training standardization in the nuclear power industry. The delivery of training through the Internet, Intranet and video over IP will facilitate this standardization and bring multiple benefits to the nuclear power industry worldwide. As the amount of available qualified and experienced professionals decreases because of retirements and fewer nuclear engineering institutions, standardized training will help increase the number of available professionals in the industry. Technology will make it possible to use the experience of retired professionals who may be interested in working part-time from a remote location. Well-planned standardized training will prevent a fragmented approach among utilities, and it will save the industry considerable resources in the long run. It will also ensure cost-effective and safe nuclear power plant operation

  13. The Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Cliff; Moore, Guy

    2012-04-01

    List of illustrations; List of tables; Preface; Acknowledgments; Part I. Theoretical Framework: 1. Field theory review; 2. The standard model: general features; 3. Cross sections and lifetimes; Part II. Applications: Leptons: 4. Elementary boson decays; 5. Leptonic weak interactions: decays; 6. Leptonic weak interactions: collisions; 7. Effective Lagrangians; Part III. Applications: Hadrons: 8. Hadrons and QCD; 9. Hadronic interactions; Part IV. Beyond the Standard Model: 10. Neutrino masses; 11. Open questions, proposed solutions; Appendix A. Experimental values for the parameters; Appendix B. Symmetries and group theory review; Appendix C. Lorentz group and the Dirac algebra; Appendix D. ξ-gauge Feynman rules; Appendix E. Metric convention conversion table; Select bibliography; Index.

  14. Effluent standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, G C [Pennsylvania State University (United States)

    1974-07-01

    At the conference there was a considerable interest in research reactor standards and effluent standards in particular. On the program, this is demonstrated by the panel discussion on effluents, the paper on argon 41 measured by Sims, and the summary paper by Ringle, et al. on the activities of ANS research reactor standards committee (ANS-15). As a result, a meeting was organized to discuss the proposed ANS standard on research reactor effluents (15.9). This was held on Tuesday evening, was attended by members of the ANS-15 committee who were present at the conference, participants in the panel discussion on the subject, and others interested. Out of this meeting came a number of excellent suggestions for changes which will increase the utility of the standard, and a strong recommendation that the effluent standard (15.9) be combined with the effluent monitoring standard. It is expected that these suggestions and recommendations will be incorporated and a revised draft issued for comment early this summer. (author)

  15. Nuclear standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtner, N.; Becker, K.; Bashir, M.

    1981-01-01

    This compilation of all nuclear standards available to the authors by mid 1980 represents the third, carefully revised edition of a catalogue which was first published in 1975 as EUR 5362. In this third edition several changes have been made. The title has been condensed. The information has again been carefully up-dated, covering all changes regarding status, withdrawal of old standards, new projects, amendments, revisions, splitting of standards into several parts, combination of several standards into one, etc., as available to the authors by mid 1980. The speed with which information travels varies and requires in many cases rather tedious and cumbersome inquiries. Also, the classification scheme has been revised with the goal of better adjustment to changing situations and priorities. Whenever it turned out to be difficult to attribute a standard to a single subject category, multiple listings in all relevant categories have been made. As in previous editions, within the subcategories the standards are arranged by organization (in Categorie 2.1 by country) alphabetically and in ascending numerical order. It covers all relevant areas of power reactors, the fuel cycle, radiation protection, etc., from the basic laws and governmental regulations, regulatory guides, etc., all the way to voluntary industrial standards and codes of pratice. (orig./HP)

  16. EG type radioactive calibration standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    EG standards are standards with a radioactive substance deposited as a solution on filtration paper and after drying sealed into a plastic disc or cylinder shaped casing. They serve the official testing of X-ray and gamma spectrometers and as test sources. The table shows the types of used radionuclides, nominal values of activity and total error of determination not exceeding +-4%. Activity of standards is calculated from the charge and the specific activity of standard solution used for the preparation of the standard. Tightness and surface contamination is measured for each standard. The manufacturer, UVVVR Praha, gives a guarantee for the given values of activity and total error of determination. (M.D.)

  17. Synthesised standards in natural matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of securing the most reliable standards for the accurate analysis of radionuclides is discussed in the paper and in the comment on the paper. It is contended in the paper that the best standards can be created by quantitative addition of accurately known spiking solutions into carefully selected natural matrices. On the other hand it is argued that many natural materials can be successfully standardized for numerous trace constituents. Both points of view are supported with examples. (U.K.)

  18. MATE standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, R. E.

    1982-11-01

    The MATE (Modular Automatic Test Equipment) program was developed to combat the proliferation of unique, expensive ATE within the Air Force. MATE incorporates a standard management approach and a standard architecture designed to implement a cradle-to-grave approach to the acquisition of ATE and to significantly reduce the life cycle cost of weapons systems support. These standards are detailed in the MATE Guides. The MATE Guides assist both the Air Force and Industry in implementing the MATE concept, and provide the necessary tools and guidance required for successful acquisition of ATE. The guides also provide the necessary specifications for industry to build MATE-qualifiable equipment. The MATE architecture provides standards for all key interfaces of an ATE system. The MATE approach to the acquisition and management of ATE has been jointly endorsed by the commanders of Air Force Systems Command and Air Force Logistics Command as the way of doing business in the future.

  19. Reducing Tri halomethanes in the Aigues de Terrassa Potable Water Treatment Plant Using Potassium Permanganate; Reduccion de trihalometanos en la ETAP de Aigues de Terrassa. Tratamiento con permanganato potasico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brull Fontsere, M.; Garcia Espejo, B.; Mellado Ruiz, J.

    2003-07-01

    Mina Publica de Aguas de Terrassa has changed the treatment in its potable water treatment plant which receivers water captured from the river Llobregat. This was prompted by the need to reduce the concentration of trihalomethanes (THM) in drinking water as provided for in Directive 98/83/EC, incorporated into Spanish law by means of Royal Decree 140/2003/. The company has moved the disinfecting stage to the end of the potabilising treatment process while simultaneously introducing the addition of potassium permanganate as apreoxidant. Given that the water in question in highly saline and also contains bromides, various compounds are generated among which bromoform is the most prominent followed, in decreasing rder of quantity, by dibromochloroethena and chloroform. However, the concentrations are much smallerthan those found prior to these changes so it can be concluded that have improved the supply and comply with current legislation. (Author)

  20. Lowering temperature to increase chemical oxidation efficiency: the effect of temperature on permanganate oxidation rates of five types of well defined organic matter, two natural soils, and three pure phase products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Weert, J P A; Keijzer, T J S; van Gaans, P F M

    2014-12-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is a soil remediation technique to remove organic pollutants from soil and groundwater with oxidants, like KMnO4. However, also natural organic compounds in soils are being oxidized, which makes the technique less efficient. Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the influence of temperature on this efficiency, through its effect on the relative oxidation rates - by permanganate - of natural organic compounds and organic pollutants at 16 and 15°C. Specific types of organic matter used were cellulose, oak wood, anthracite, reed - and forest peat, in addition to two natural soils. Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid-tetrachloroethene (DNAPL-PCE), DNAPL trichloroethene (DNAPL-TCE) and a mixture of DNAPL-PCE, -TCE and -hexachlorobutadiene were tested as pollutants. Compared to 16°C, oxidation was slower at 5°C for the specific types of organic matter and the natural soils, with exception of anthracite, which was unreactive. The oxidation rate of DNAPL TCE was lower at 5°C too. However, at this temperature oxidation was fast, implying that no competitive loss to natural organic compounds will be expected in field applications by lowering temperature. Oxidation of DNAPL-PCE and PCE in the mixture proceeded at equal rates at both temperatures, due to the dissolution rate as limiting factor. These results show that applying permanganate ISCO to DNAPL contamination at lower temperatures will limit the oxidation of natural organic matter, without substantially affecting the oxidation rate of the contaminant. This will make such remediation more effective and sustainable in view of protecting natural soil quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Solar solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhengrong

    2009-01-01

    China is facing enormous energy challenges. Everyone seems to know that we need to increase our energy supply by the equivalent of one power plant per week to support China's economic growth, which is allowing millions of people to enjoy better standards of living. Much less is known of the extent to which China has taken steps to mitigate the impact of that growing energy demand through incentives for greater efficiency and renewable energy. Policies include: Cutting energy intensity - 20 per cent between 2005 and 2010, saving five times as much CO 2 as the EU's goals. Cutting major pollutants by 10 per cent by 2010. Setting one of the world's most aggressive renewable energy standards: 15 per cent of national energy from renewables by 2020. Setting targets of 300 megawatts of installed solar by 2010, and 1.8 gigawatts by 2020, in the 2007 National Development and Reform Commission Renewable Energy Development Plan. Dedicating $180 billion for renewable energy by 2020. Imposing energy efficiency targets for the top 1,000 companies, a measure with greater carbon savings potential than most Western initiatives. Establishing building energy codes in all regions and extensive efficiency standards for appliances, which will be particularly important as China continues to grow. Targeting new buildings in major cities like Beijing, Shanghai and Chongqing, to achieve 65 per cent greater energy efficiency than local codes require. Closing thousands of older, smaller, dirtier power plants by 2010. China understands the economic development potential in clean energy technologies. Even the noted journalist Thomas Friedman has remarked that 'China is going green in a big way,' using domestic demand for cleaner energy to build low-cost, scalable green technologies. Suntech Power Holdings - now the world's largest solar photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturer, with operations around the globe - was just one of dozens of solar companies that realised the opportunity provided by

  2. Frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Riehle, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  3. Gold and Silver Extraction from Leach Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagdaulet K. Kenzhaliyev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been carried out an investigation on the extraction of gold and silver from thiosulfate solutions: standard test and technological solutions of chemical and electrochemical leaching. The influence of related metals on the process of extracting gold from solution was studied. There has been conducted a comparative study of the IR spectra of solutions after the sorption of gold, silver and related metals.

  4. Exact solutions and singularities in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Tseytlin, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    We construct two new classes of exact solutions to string theory which are not of the standard plane wave of gauged WZW type. Many of these solutions have curvature singularities. The first class includes the fundamental string solution, for which the string coupling vanishes near the singularity. This suggests that the singularity may not be removed by quantum corrections. The second class consists of hybrids of plane wave and gauged WZW solutions. We discuss a four-dimensional example in detail

  5. Enhanced safeguards via solution monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, T.; Wangen, L.

    1996-09-01

    Solution monitoring is defined as the essentially continuous monitoring of solution level, density, and temperature in all tanks in the process that contain, or could contain, safeguards-significant quantities of nuclear material. This report describes some of the enhancements that solution monitoring could make to international safeguards. The focus is on the quantifiable benefits of solution monitoring, but qualitatively, solution monitoring can be viewed as a form of surveillance. Quantitatively, solution monitoring can in some cases improve diversion detection probability. For example, the authors show that under certain assumptions, solution monitoring can be used to reduce the standard deviation of the annual material balance, σ MB , from approximately 17 kg to approximately 4 kg. Such reduction in σ MB will not always be possible, as they discuss. However, in all cases, solution monitoring would provide assurance that the measurement error models are adequate so that one has confidence in his estimate of σ MB . Some of the results in this report were generated using data that were simulated with prototype solution monitoring software that they are developing. An accompanying document describes that software

  6. Relevant Standards

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    .86: Ethernet over LAPS. Standard in China and India. G.7041: Generic Framing Procedure (GFP). Supports Ethernet as well as other data formats (e.g., Fibre Channel); Protocol of ... IEEE 802.3x for flow control of incoming Ethernet data ...

  7. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...

  8. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...

  9. Standard Fortran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, N.H.

    1981-01-01

    Because of its vast software investment in Fortran programs, the nuclear community has an inherent interest in the evolution of Fortran. This paper reviews the impact of the new Fortran 77 standard and discusses the projected changes which can be expected in the future

  10. Cathodic behaviours of a CrO sub 3 -graphite intercalation compound in non-aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurihara, M.; Miura, T.; Kishi, T. (Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1991-08-05

    CrO{sub 3}-graphite intercalation compound (GIC) specimen was prepared by solvent method using acetic acid as a solvent and potassium permanganate as a catalyst, and its cathodic behavior in a lithium cell was studied in non-aqueous solutions (1 mol/dm{sup 3} LiClO{sub 4} in propylene carbonate (PC) or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)). Changes in electronic and layered lattice structures induced by cathodic reduction were measured by electron spin resonance method and X-ray diffraction one, respectively. As a result, electrochemical insertion of Li into CrO{sub 3}-GIC proceeded only in DMSO solution where reduction of Cr components was followed by that of graphite units. The amount of discharge electricity for CrO{sub 3}-GIC in DMSO solution was three times as large as that for graphite. Although the effect of non-aqueous solutions on the lithiation reaction was not yet clear fundamentally, it was expected that another electrolyte solutions are probably found out based on this experiments from which Li is inserted into CrO{sub 3}-GIC at higher discharge potentials. 22 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Turbidimetric determination of polyacrylamide in aqueous solutions with the use of oxidizing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpyuk, A.D.; Kolyada, N.S.; Pshenichnikova, E.Yu.

    1992-01-01

    Polyacrylamide is widely used in industry. For example, one of the methods for obtaining microspheres of metal oxides, particularly a mixed nuclear fuel, is based on a process involving the ammoniacal precipitation of hydroxides from aqueous solutions of metal nitrates in the presence of polyacrylamide (PAA), which promotes the formation of spheres in the initial stages of the process. Monitoring the industrial process, the course of the treatment of the production waste products, and the composition of the waste water calls for determination of the content of PAA in industrial solutions. The existing methods for determining PAA are based on its chemical properties, which are specified by the presence of amide groupings in its molecule. The use of the classical methods of analysis, which are based on the reactions of PAA with formaldehyde, sulfuric acid, etc. and the hydrolysis of PAA, do not provide reliable results, since PAA is partially or completely hydrolyzed in industrial solutions. In addition, industrial solutions contain various modifiers, including urea and urotropin, and the method of determining PAA from the amount of ammonia evolved is consequently unacceptable. Turbidimetric methods of analysis, in which the content of PAA is evaluated from the turbidity caused by the formation of suspension during hydrolysis or upon the introduction of NaClO 4 or diisotubylphenoxyethoxyethyldimethylbenzyl chloride, are known. The purpose of the present work was to develop a simple quick method for determining polymers in solutions, including solutions from the production and treatment of nuclear fuel. The following reagents were proposed for the turbidimetric determination of PAA: cerium(IV) sulfate, potassium dichromate, and potassium permanganate. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  12. Solvent Extraction of Co, Ni and Mn from NCM Sulfate Leaching Solution of Li(NCMO2 Secondary Battery Scraps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Hyun Seon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the study on recycling Li(NCMO2 lithium-ion battery scraps, solvent extraction experiments were performed using different extraction agents such as PC88A, Cyanex272 and D2EHPA to separate Co, Ni and Mn from the leaching solution. When the ratio of Mn to Ni was about 0.4 in the leaching solution, the separation factor for Co and Mn was found to be less than 10 so that the separation of Co and Ni was insufficient. When solvent extraction was done using the solution with the lower Mn/Ni ratio of 0.05 where Mn was removed by potassium permanganate and chlorine dioxide, more than 99% of Mn could be extracted through five courses of extraction using 30vol% D2EHPA while the extraction rates of Co and Ni were around 17% and 11%, respectively. In the case that Mn was removed from the solution, the extraction rate of Co was higher than 99% whereas less than 7% Ni was extracted using Cyanex272 suggesting that Co and Ni elements were effectively separated.

  13. Mixed RIA standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talan, P.; Mucha, J.; Krizan, J.

    1986-01-01

    For the radioimmunoassay of digoxin, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine, 17β-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone and α 1 -fetoprotein a mixed standard was prepared of these substances in a gamma globulin solution at a concentration of 0.8 to 1.4 wt.% in an aqueous buffer at pH within the range of 6 - 9. The standard contains digoxin at a concentration of 10 -4 to 10 nmol/l, 17β-estradiol at 10 -4 to 2 nmol/l, progesteron at 10 -4 to 100 nmol/l, testosterone at 1o -4 to 21 nmol/l, and α 1 -fetoprotein at 10 -4 to 10 nmol/l with at least two of these substances having concentrations higher than 10 -3 nmol/l. Examples are given of the preparation of the mixed standard with different concentrations of the components. The use of the standard has the following advantages: it is labor saving, reduces the risk of failure in the manufacture of RIA kits, eliminates mistakes in the selection of kits for the determination of different substances and allows a more economical use of material. (E.S.)

  14. Buyer-supplier relationships and planning solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hvolby, H.H.; Trienekens, J.H.; Steger-Jensen, K.

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on supply chain relationships and segmented planning and ICT concepts. Major supplier segments are distinguished based on literature: capacity suppliers, standard suppliers, system suppliers and key suppliers. Next, current supply chain planning solutions are distinguished: vendor

  15. Business-to-business electronic commerce systems and services. Smart EC solution; Kigyoka nrenkei system solution system. Smart EC solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setoguchi, T.; Manchu, Y.; Katsumata, M. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Toshiba provides a range of information technology (IT) solutions called SmartEC Solution, which includes business-to-business electronic commerce systems and services based on international standards and industrial know-how, especially our electronic data interchange (EDI) know-how as a manufacturer. These IT solutions are supplied as services covering strategy planning, system integration, and application service provider based on five types of business-to-business electronic commerce. (author)

  16. Non-static vacuum strings: exterior and interior solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein-Schabes, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    New non-static cylindrically symmetric solutions of Einsteins's equations are presented. Some of these solutions represent string-like objects. An exterior vacuum solution is matched to a non-vacuum interior solution for different forms of the energy-momentum tensor. They generalize the standard static string. 12 refs

  17. National Green Building Standard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-07-01

    DOE's Building America Program is a research and development program to improve the energy performance of new and existing homes. The ultimate goal of the Building America Program is to achieve examples of cost-effective, energy efficient solutions for all U.S. climate zones. Periodic maintenance of an ANSI standard by review of the entire document and action to revise or reaffirm it on a schedule not to exceed five years is required by ANSI. In compliance, a consensus group has once again been formed and the National Green Building Standard is currently being reviewed to comply with the periodic maintenance requirement of an ANSI standard.

  18. Beyond the Standard Model course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    The necessity for new physics beyond the Standard Model will be motivated. Theoretical problems will be exposed and possible solutions will be described. The goal is to present the exciting new physics ideas that will be tested in the near future, at LHC and elsewhere. Supersymmetry, grand unification, extra dimensions and a glimpse of string theory will be presented.

  19. The Paperless Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    REI Systems, Inc. developed a software solution that uses the Internet to eliminate the paperwork typically required to document and manage complex business processes. The data management solution, called Electronic Handbooks (EHBs), is presently used for the entire SBIR program processes at NASA. The EHB-based system is ideal for programs and projects whose users are geographically distributed and are involved in complex management processes and procedures. EHBs provide flexible access control and increased communications while maintaining security for systems of all sizes. Through Internet Protocol- based access, user authentication and user-based access restrictions, role-based access control, and encryption/decryption, EHBs provide the level of security required for confidential data transfer. EHBs contain electronic forms and menus, which can be used in real time to execute the described processes. EHBs use standard word processors that generate ASCII HTML code to set up electronic forms that are viewed within a web browser. EHBs require no end-user software distribution, significantly reducing operating costs. Each interactive handbook simulates a hard-copy version containing chapters with descriptions of participants' roles in the online process.

  20. A Dual Egalitarian Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, F.; Slikker, M.; Tijs, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    In this note we introduce an egalitarian solution, called the dual egalitarian solution, that is the natural counterpart of the egalitarian solution of Dutta and Ray (1989).We prove, among others, that for a convex game the egalitarian solution coincides with the dual egalitarian solution for its

  1. The IAEA safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbassioun, Ahmad

    1995-01-01

    During the development of the NUSS standards, wide consultation was carried out with all the Member States to obtain a consensus and the programme was supervised by a Senior Advisory Group consisting of senior safety experts from 13 countries. This group of senior regulators later became what is now known as the Nuclear Safety Standards Advisory Group (NUSSAG) and comprises of senior regulatory experts from 16 countries. The standards that were developed comprise of four types of documents: safety fundamentals; codes of practice; safety guides; and safety practices. The safety fundamentals set out the basic objectives, concepts and principles for nuclear safety in nuclear power plants. The codes of practice, are of a legislative nature, and establish the general objectives that must be fulfilled to ensure adequate nuclear power plant safety. They cover five areas: governmental organization; siting, design, operation and quality assurance. The safety guides, administrative in character, recommend procedures and acceptable technical solutions to implement the codes and guides by presenting further details gained from Member States, on the application and interpretation of individual concepts in the NUSS codes and guides. In total in the NUSS series there is currently one Fundamentals document, five Codes of Practice and fifty-six Safety Guides

  2. The determination of psilocin and psilocybin in hallucinogenic mushrooms by HPLC utilizing a dual reagent acidic potassium permanganate and tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) chemiluminescence detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastos, Nicole; Lewis, Simon W; Barnett, Neil W; Sims, D Noel

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a procedure for the determination of psilocin and psilocybin in mushroom extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn chemiluminescence detection. A number of extraction methods for psilocin and psilocybin in hallucinogenic mushrooms were investigated, with a simple methanolic extraction being found to be most effective. Psilocin and psilocybin were extracted from a variety of hallucinogenic mushrooms using methanol. The analytes were separated on a C12 column using a (95:5% v/v) methanol:10 mM ammonium formate, pH 3.5 mobile phase with a run time of 5 min. Detection was realized through a dual reagent chemiluminescence detection system of acidic potassium permanganate and tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II). The chemiluminescence detection system gave improved detectability when compared with UV absorption at 269 nm, with detection limits of 1.2 x 10(-8) and 3.5 x 10(-9) mol/L being obtained for psilocin and psilocybin, respectively. The procedure was applied to the determination of psilocin and psilocybin in three Australian species of hallucinogenic mushroom.

  3. Plagiarism Detection by Online Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Dobraca, Amra

    2017-01-01

    The problem of plagiarism represents one of the burning issues of the modern scientific world. Detection of plagiarism is a problem that the Editorial Board encounters in their daily work. Software solutions represent a good solution for the detection of plagiarism. The problem of plagiarism will become most discussed topic of the modern scientific world, especially due to the development of standard measures, which rank the work of one author. Investment in education, education of young research personnel about the importance of scientific research, with paying particular attention on ethical behavior, becomes an imperative of academic staff. Editors have to invest additional effort in the development of the base of reviewers team as well as in their proper guidance, because after all, despite the software solutions, they are the best weapon to fight plagiarism. Peer review process should be a key of successful operation of each journal.

  4. Clinical ethics consultation's dilemma, and a solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Lisa M

    2011-01-01

    Clinical ethics consultation is on the horns of a dilemma. One horn skewers the field for its lack of standards, while the other horn skewers it for proposing arbitrary or deeply contested foundations. I articulate the dilemma by discussing several critiques of the field and the challenge of formulating standards and suggest that the solution lies, at least until a robust consensus emerges, with establishing a list of proscriptive standards to guide the field.

  5. The Dynamics of Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsson, Nils; Rasche, Andreas; Seidl, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper suggests that when the phenomenon of standards and standardization is examined from the perspective of organization studies, three aspects stand out: the standardization of organizations, standardization by organizations and standardization as (a form of) organization. Following a comp...

  6. Sampling in Developmental Science: Situations, Shortcomings, Solutions, and Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Jager, Justin; Putnick, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Sampling is a key feature of every study in developmental science. Although sampling has far-reaching implications, too little attention is paid to sampling. Here, we describe, discuss, and evaluate four prominent sampling strategies in developmental science: population-based probability sampling, convenience sampling, quota sampling, and homogeneous sampling. We then judge these sampling strategies by five criteria: whether they yield representative and generalizable estimates of a study’s t...

  7. Sampling in Developmental Science: Situations, Shortcomings, Solutions, and Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H; Jager, Justin; Putnick, Diane L

    2013-12-01

    Sampling is a key feature of every study in developmental science. Although sampling has far-reaching implications, too little attention is paid to sampling. Here, we describe, discuss, and evaluate four prominent sampling strategies in developmental science: population-based probability sampling, convenience sampling, quota sampling, and homogeneous sampling. We then judge these sampling strategies by five criteria: whether they yield representative and generalizable estimates of a study's target population, whether they yield representative and generalizable estimates of subsamples within a study's target population, the recruitment efforts and costs they entail, whether they yield sufficient power to detect subsample differences, and whether they introduce "noise" related to variation in subsamples and whether that "noise" can be accounted for statistically. We use sample composition of gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status to illustrate and assess the four sampling strategies. Finally, we tally the use of the four sampling strategies in five prominent developmental science journals and make recommendations about best practices for sample selection and reporting.

  8. Sampling in Developmental Science: Situations, Shortcomings, Solutions, and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Jager, Justin; Putnick, Diane L.

    2014-01-01

    Sampling is a key feature of every study in developmental science. Although sampling has far-reaching implications, too little attention is paid to sampling. Here, we describe, discuss, and evaluate four prominent sampling strategies in developmental science: population-based probability sampling, convenience sampling, quota sampling, and homogeneous sampling. We then judge these sampling strategies by five criteria: whether they yield representative and generalizable estimates of a study’s target population, whether they yield representative and generalizable estimates of subsamples within a study’s target population, the recruitment efforts and costs they entail, whether they yield sufficient power to detect subsample differences, and whether they introduce “noise” related to variation in subsamples and whether that “noise” can be accounted for statistically. We use sample composition of gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status to illustrate and assess the four sampling strategies. Finally, we tally the use of the four sampling strategies in five prominent developmental science journals and make recommendations about best practices for sample selection and reporting. PMID:25580049

  9. Kerr generalized solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papoyan, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    A Kerr generalized solution for a stationary axially-symmetric gravitational field of rotating self-gravitational objects is given. For solving the problem Einstein equations and their combinations are used. The particular cases: internal and external Schwarzschild solutions are considered. The external solution of the stationary problem is a Kerr solution generalization. 3 refs

  10. Radiochromic liquid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, J.E.; Culp, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    A radiochromic solution which is sensitive to small dosages of ionizing and ultraviolet radiation is described. It consists of a solution of a leucocyanide dye in a clear polar solvent with enough organic acid added to make the solution at least slightly acidic and responds to radiation by permanently changing color. Up to one half of the solution by weight can be replaced by a second solution of an aromatic solvent and an organic fluor. Another modification of the invention is a solution of a leucocyanide dye in a clear polar solvent having an aromatic group, an organic fluor, and enough organic acid to make the solution at least slightly acidic. (author)

  11. [Study on standardization of cupping technique: elucidation on the establishment of the National Standard Standardized Manipulation of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Part V, Cupping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shu-zhong; Liu, Bing

    2010-02-01

    From the aspects of basis, technique descriptions, core contents, problems and solutions, and standard thinking in standard setting process, this paper states experiences in the establishment of the national standard Standardized Manipulation of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Part V, Cupping, focusing on methodologies used in cupping standard setting process, the method selection and operating instructions of cupping standardization, and the characteristics of standard TCM. In addition, this paper states the scope of application, and precautions for this cupping standardization. This paper also explaines tentative ideas on the research of standardized manipulation of acupuncture and moxibustion.

  12. Liquid scintillation solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, E.C.

    1976-01-01

    The liquid scintillation solution described includes a mixture of: a liquid scintillation solvent, a primary scintillation solute, a secondary scintillation solute, a variety of appreciably different surfactants, and a dissolving and transparency agent. The dissolving and transparency agent is tetrahydrofuran, a cyclic ether. The scintillation solvent is toluene. The primary scintillation solute is PPO, and the secondary scintillation solute is dimethyl POPOP. The variety of appreciably different surfactants is composed of isooctylphenol-polyethoxyethanol and sodium dihexyl sulphosuccinate [fr

  13. EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT INTERNAL STANDARDS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    internal standard addition method was evaluated with the variation in solution ... background emissions involved in generating accurate and reliable .... The most suitable atomic and ionic wavelengths (λ) for the internal standards and precious ..... spectral interferences occur and using validation parameters is currently ...

  14. Plutonium solution analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded)

  15. Plutonium solution analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded).

  16. A New Standard Pulsar Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contopoulos, Ioannis; Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2014-01-01

    In view of recent efforts to probe the physical conditions in the pulsar current sheet, we revisit the standard solution that describes the main elements of the ideal force-free pulsar magnetosphere. The simple physical requirement that the electric current contained in the current layer consists of the local electric charge moving outward at close to the speed of light yields a new solution for the pulsar magnetosphere everywhere that is ideal force-free except in the current layer. The main elements of the new solution are as follows: (1) the pulsar spindown rate of the aligned rotator is 23% larger than that of the orthogonal vacuum rotator; (2) only 60% of the magnetic flux that crosses the light cylinder opens up to infinity; (3) the electric current closes along the other 40%, which gradually converges to the equator; (4) this transfers 40% of the total pulsar spindown energy flux in the equatorial current sheet, which is then dissipated in the acceleration of particles and in high-energy electromagnetic radiation; and (5) there is no separatrix current layer. Our solution is a minimum free-parameter solution in that the equatorial current layer is electrostatically supported against collapse and thus does not require a thermal particle population. In this respect, it is one more step toward the development of a new standard solution. We discuss the implications for intermittent pulsars and long-duration gamma-ray bursts. We conclude that the physical conditions in the equatorial current layer determine the global structure of the pulsar magnetosphere.

  17. Brane solutions of gravity-dilaton-axion systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E; Collinucci, A; Gran, U; Roest, D; Vandoren, S; Lukierski, J; Sorokin, D

    2005-01-01

    We consider general properties of brane solutions of gravity-dilaton-axion systems. We focus on the case of 7-branes and instantons. In both cases we show that besides the standard solutions there are new deformed solutions whose charges take value in any of the three conjugacy classes of SL(2, R).

  18. Static Solutions of Einstein's Equations with Cylindrical Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trendafilova, C. S.; Fulling, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    In analogy with the standard derivation of the Schwarzschild solution, we find all static, cylindrically symmetric solutions of the Einstein field equations for vacuum. These include not only the well-known cone solution, which is locally flat, but others in which the metric coefficients are powers of the radial coordinate and the spacetime is…

  19. Colliding black hole solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Mainuddin

    2005-01-01

    A new solution of Einstein equation in general relativity is found. This solution solves an outstanding problem of thermodynamics and black hole physics. Also this work appears to conclude the interpretation of NUT spacetime. (author)

  20. PFP solution stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aftanas, B.L.

    1996-01-01

    This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) addresses remediation of the plutonium-bearing solutions currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The recommendation from the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is that the solutions be treated thermally and stabilized as a solid for long term storage. For solutions which are not discardable, the baseline plan is to utilize a denitration process to stabilize the solutions prior to packaging for storage

  1. On the completeness of the set of Bethe-Hulthen solutions of the linear Heisenberg system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspers, W J; Labuz, M; Wal, A

    2006-01-01

    In this work we formulate the standard form of the solutions of the Heisenberg chain with periodic boundary conditions and show that these solutions can be transformed into the well-known Bethe-Hulthen solutions. The standard form is found by solving the secular problem, separated according to the irreducible representations of the translation group. The relevant parameters exp(ik j ) of the Bethe-Hulthen solutions are found from a set of linear equations with coefficients derived from the standard solutions. This correspondence between standard and Bethe-Hulthen solutions realizes the completeness of the Bethe-Hulthen method

  2. Classical solutions in supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baaklini, N.S.; Ferrara, S.; Nieuwenhuizen Van, P.

    1977-06-01

    Classical solutions of supergravity are obtained by making finite global supersymmetry rotation on known solutions of the field equations of the bosonic sector. The Schwarzschild and the Reissner-Nordstoem solutions of general relativity are extended to various supergravity systems and the modification to the perihelion precession of planets is discussed

  3. Liquid scintillation solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, E.C.

    1977-01-01

    A liquid scintillation solution is described which includes (1) a scintillation solvent (toluene and xylene), (2) a primary scintillation solute (PPO and Butyl PBD), (3) a secondary scintillation solute (POPOP and Dimethyl POPOP), (4) a plurality of substantially different surfactants and (5) a filter dissolving and/or transparentizing agent. 8 claims

  4. CERN single sign on solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormancey, E

    2008-01-01

    The need for Single Sign On has always been restricted by the absence of cross platform solutions: a single sign on working only on one platform or technology is nearly useless. The recent improvements in Web Services Federation (WS-Federation) standard enabling federation of identity, attribute, authentication and authorization information can now provide real extended Single Sign On solutions. Various solutions have been investigated at CERN and now, a Web SSO solution using some parts of WS-Federation technology is available. Using the Shibboleth Service Provider module for Apache hosted web sites and Microsoft ADFS as the identity provider linked to Active Directory user, users can now authenticate on any web application using a single authentication platform, providing identity, user information (building, phone...) as well as group membership enabling authorization possibilities. A typical scenario: a CERN user can now authenticate on a Linux/Apache website using Windows Integrated credentials, and his Active Directory group membership can be checked before allowing access to a specific web page

  5. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  6. Instant standard concept for data standards development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Erwin Johan Albert; Kulcsor, Istvan Zsolt; Roes, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the current results of an ongoing research about a new data standards development concept. The concept is called Instant Standard referring to the pressure that is generated by shrinking the length of the standardization process. Based on this concept it is estimated that the

  7. Setting Standards: Three Tales and a Proposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Præst; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pedersen, Kurt

    2001-01-01

    Technological development has a tendency to be reflected in standards. In some cases, the market is the vehicle for defining standards that will be the outcome of a competitive battle between (groups of) firms. In other cases authorities will attempt to influence the technology process - and the ......Technological development has a tendency to be reflected in standards. In some cases, the market is the vehicle for defining standards that will be the outcome of a competitive battle between (groups of) firms. In other cases authorities will attempt to influence the technology process...... - and the standards. The background may be industry policy in combination with the nature of the technology and the products. The battle thus may turn into a battle between the market and the administrators. This paper presents three industry cases, one representing the pure market solution, and two presenting...... conflicts of interests; both leading to the final victory for the market driven solution....

  8. Solvent wash solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neace, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a process for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution comprising an admixture of an organic extractant for uranium and plutonium and a non-polar organic liquid diluent, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. Comprising combining a wash solution consisting of: (a) water; and (b) a positive amount up to about, an including, 50 volume percent of at least one highly-polar water-miscible organic solvent, based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent, with the solvent extraction solution after uranium and plutonium values have been stripped from the solvent extraction solution, the diluent degradation products dissolving in the highly-polar organic solvent and the extractant and diluent of the extraction solution not dissolving in the highly-polar organic solvent, and separating the highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solution to obtain a purified extraction solution

  9. Proteins in solution: Fractal surfaces in solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tscheliessnig

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the surface of a protein in solution, as well of the interface between protein and 'bulk solution', is introduced. The experimental technique of small angle X-ray and neutron scattering is introduced and described briefly. Molecular dynamics simulation, as an appropriate computational tool for studying the hydration shell of proteins, is also discussed. The concept of protein surfaces with fractal dimensions is elaborated. We finish by exposing an experimental (using small angle X-ray scattering and a computer simulation case study, which are meant as demonstrations of the possibilities we have at hand for investigating the delicate interfaces that connect (and divide protein molecules and the neighboring electrolyte solution.

  10. Titrimetric and photometric methods for determination of hypochlorite in commercial bleaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B; Gengan, Prabhashini

    2010-01-01

    Two methods, simple titration and photometric methods for determination of hypochlorite are developed, based its reaction with hydrogen peroxide and titration of the residual peroxide by acidic permanganate. In the titration method, the residual hydrogen peroxide is estimated by titration with standard permanganate solution to estimate the hypochlorite concentration. The photometric method is devised to measure the concentration of remaining permanganate, after the reaction with residual hydrogen peroxide. It employs 4 ranges of calibration curves to enable the determination of hypochlorite accurately. The new photometric method measures hypochlorite in the range 1.90 x 10(-3) to 1.90 x 10(-2) M, with high accuracy and with low variance. The concentrations of hypochlorite in diverse commercial bleach samples and in seawater which is enriched with hypochlorite were estimated using the proposed method and compared with the arsenite method. The statistical analysis validates the superiority of the proposed method.

  11. Frequency Standards and Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Lute

    2009-04-01

    : its construction and performance (Invited) / T. Li ... [et al.].Compensated multi-pole mercury trapped ion frequency standard and stability evaluation of systematic effects (Invited) / E. A. Burt ... [et al.]. Research of frequency standards in SIOM - atomic frequency standards based on coherent storage (Invited) / B. Yan ... [et al.]. The PTB fountain clock ensemble preliminary characterization of the new fountain CSF2 / N. Nemitz ... [et al.]. The pulsed optically pumped clock: microwave and optical detection / S. Micalizio ... [et al.]. Research on characteristics of pulsed optically pumped rubidium frequency standard / J. Deng ... [et al.]. Status of the continuous cold fountain clocks at METAS-LTF / A. Joyet ... [et al.]. Experiments with a new [symbol]Hg+ ion clock / E. A. Burt ... [et al.]. Optimising a high-stability CW laser-pumped rubidium gas-cell frequency standard / C. Affolderbach ... [et al.]. Raman-Ramsey Cs cell atomic clock / R. Boudot ... [et al.] -- pt. VIII. Microwave resonators & oscillators. Solutions and ultimate limits in temperature compensation of metallic cylindrical microwave resonators (Invited) / A. De Marchi. Cryogenic sapphire oscillators (Invited) / J. G. Hartnett, E. N. Ivanov and M. E. Tobar. Ultra-stable optical cavity: design and experiments / J. Millo ... [et al.]. New results for whispering gallery mode cryogenic sapphire maser oscillators / K. Benmessai ... [et al.] -- pt. IX. Advanced techniques. Fundamental noise-limited optical phase locking at Femtowatt light levels (Invited) / J. Dick ... [et al.]. Microwave and optical frequency transfer via optical fibre / G. Marra ... [et al.]. Ultra-stable laser source for the [symbol]Sr+ single-ion optical frequency standard at NRC / P. Dubé, A. A. Madej and J. E. Bernard. Clock laser system for a strontium lattice clock / T. Legero ... [et al.]. Measurement noise floor for a long-distance optical carrier transmission via fiber / G. Grosche ... [et al.]. Optical frequency transfer

  12. Malaysian NDT standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazali Mohd Zin

    2001-01-01

    In order to become a developed country, Malaysia needs to develop her own national standards. It has been projected that by the year 2020, Malaysia requires about 8,000 standards (Department of Standard Malaysia). Currently more than 2,000 Malaysian Standards have been gazette by the government which considerably too low before tire year 2020. NDT standards have been identified by the standard working group as one of the areas to promote our national standards. In this paper the author describes the steps taken to establish the Malaysian very own NDT standards. The project starts with the establishment of radiographic standards. (Author)

  13. 1993 DOE technical standards managers workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This workshop is focused on the benefits of the DOE technical standards program, which is focused toward the preferred use of non-Government standards for DOE activities and the development of DOE technical standards when non-Government standards are not available or are inappropriate. One goal of the program is to replace redundant site-specific standards with more universally accepted documents that have been scrutinized by experts. This replacement is discussed at the workshop along with the problems encountered and solutions found. The workshop provided an opportunity for geographically dispersed people to meet and advance their standards knowledge and efforts to support the program. Safety issues have been the driving force behind the program to date. Several companies offer products and services that support the development, processing, and retrieval of standards. This document mostly comprise vugraphs.

  14. Solution mining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Showalter, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    A solution mining process which may be used for uranium, thorium, vanadium, copper, nickel, molybdenum, rhenium, and selenium is claimed. During a first injection-and-production phase of between 6 months and 5 years, a leaching solution is injected through at least one well into the formation to solubilize the mineral values and form a pregnant liquor. This liquor is recovered through another well. The leaching solution contains sulfuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, carbonic acid, an alkali metal carbonate, an alkali metal bicarbonate, ammonium carbonate or ammonium bicarbonate. Subsequently during a first production-only phase of between about 2 weeks and one year, injection of the leaching solution is suspended but pregnant liquor is still recovered. This stage is followed by a second injection-and-production phase of between 6 months and 5 years and a second production-only phase. The mineral values are separated from the pregnant liquor to form a barren liquor. The leaching agent is introduced into this liquor, and the solution is recycled. In a second claim for the solution mining of uranium, dilute carbonic acid is used as the leaching solution. The solution has a pH less than 7 and a bicarbonate ion concentration between about 380 ppm and 1000 ppm. The injection-and-production phase lasts between one and two years and the production only phase takes between one and four months. Carbon dioxide is introduced into the barren liquor to form a dilute carbonic acid solution and the solution is recycled

  15. Standard IEC 61850 substation automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bricchi, A.; Mezzadri, D. [Selta, Tortoreto (Italy)

    2008-07-01

    The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61850 standard is the reference communication protocol for all electrical substations protection and control systems. It creates models of all the elements and functionalities of an electrical substation, including physical elements such as switches or circuit breakers, as well as protection, control and monitoring functionalities. Network managers need to renew power substation automation and control systems in order to improve the efficiency and quality of services offered by electric utilities. Selta has proposed a new integrated solution for the automation of power substations which is fully compliant with the IEC 61850 norms. The solution involves the integration of control, automation, protection, monitoring and maintenance functions and applies leading edge technology to its systems, particularly for the TERNA network. The system is based on the use of many electronic devices at a power plant, each one with a specialized function, and all interconnected via a Station LAN. This solution, was tested on the TERNA network in Italy, in VHV and HV stations. It was shown to offer many advantages, such as an architecture based on full interoperability between control, monitoring and protection equipment; centralized and distributed automation; a LAN station that allows full interoperability between different bay units and protection relays in order to integrate equipment from various suppliers; the integration of automation systems in existing bay units and protection relays equipped with standard communication buses or with proprietary interfaces; and time synchronization for the entire system through a station GPS reception system. 10 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  16. The International Standards Organisation offshore structures standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, R.O.

    1994-01-01

    The International Standards Organisation has initiated a program to develop a suite of ISO Codes and Standards for the Oil Industry. The Offshore Structures Standard is one of seven topics being addressed. The scope of the standard will encompass fixed steel and concrete structures, floating structures, Arctic structures and the site specific assessment of mobile drilling and accommodation units. The standard will use as base documents the existing recommended practices and standards most frequently used for each type of structure, and will develop them to incorporate best published and recognized practice and knowledge where it provides a significant improvement on the base document. Work on the Code has commenced under the direction of an internationally constituted sub-committee comprising representatives from most of the countries with a substantial offshore oil and gas industry. This paper outlines the background to the code and the format, content and work program

  17. Liquid scintillation solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, E.C.

    1976-01-01

    The invention deals with a liquid scintillation solution which contains 1) a scintillation solvent (toluol), 2) a primary scintillation solute (PPO), 3) a secondary scintillation solute (dimethyl POPOP), 4) several surfactants (iso-octyl-phenol polyethoxy-ethanol and sodium di-hexyl sulfosuccinate) essentially different from one another and 5) a filter resolution and/or transparent-making agent (cyclic ether, especially tetrahydrofuran). (HP) [de

  18. Enhanced monitoring of hazardous waste site remediation: Electrical conductivity tomography and citizen monitoring of remediation through the EPA's community advisory group program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hort, Ryan D.

    In situ chemical oxidation using permanganate has become a common method for degrading trichloroethene (TCE) in contaminated aquifers. Its effectiveness, however, is dependent upon contact between the oxidant and contaminant. Monitoring permanganate movement after injection is often hampered by aquifer heterogeneity and insufficient well coverage. Time lapse electrical conductivity tomography increases the spatial extent of monitoring beyond well locations. This technique can create two- or three-dimensional images of the electrical conductivity within the aquifer to monitor aquifer chemistry changes caused by permanganate injection and oxidation reactions. In-phase and quadrature electrical conductivity were measured in homogeneous aqueous and porous media samples to determine the effects of TCE and humate oxidation by permanganate on both measures of conductivity. Further effects of clean sand, 10% kaolinite (v/v), and 10% smectite (v/v) on both types of conductivity were studied as well. Finally, in-phase electrical conductivity was measured over time after injecting permanganate solution into two-dimensional tanks containing artificial groundwater with and without TCE to observe the movement of the permanganate plume and its interaction with TCE and to examine the effectiveness of time-lapse conductivity tomography for monitoring the plume's movement. In-phase electrical conductivity after oxidation reactions involving permanganate, TCE, and humate could be accurately modeled in homogeneous batch samples. Use of forward modeling of in-phase conductivity from permanganate concentrations may be useful for improving recovery of conductivity values during survey inversion, but further work is needed combining the chemistry modeling with solute transport models. Small pH-related quadrature conductivity decreases were observed after TCE oxidation, and large quadrature conductivity increases were observed as a result of sodium ion addition; however, quadrature

  19. PERVASIVE BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocsana Tonis (Bucea-Manea

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The utility of BI solutions is accepted all over the world in the modern organizations. However, the BI solutions do not offer a constant feedback in line with the organizational activities. In this context, there have been developed pervasive BI solutions which are present at different levels of the organization, so that employees can observe only what is most relevant to their day-to-day tasks. They are organized in vertical silos, with clearly identified performance and expectations. The paper emphasizes the role of pervasive BI solutions in reaching the key performance indicators of the modern organizations, more important in the context of crisis.

  20. Improving LMA predictions with non standard interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Das, C R

    2010-01-01

    It has been known for some time that the well established LMA solution to the observed solar neutrino deficit fails to predict a flat energy spectrum for SuperKamiokande as opposed to what the data indicates. It also leads to a Chlorine rate which appears to be too high as compared to the data. We investigate the possible solution to these inconsistencies with non standard neutrino interactions, assuming that they come as extra contributions to the $\

  1. Standard Industry Fare Level

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Standard Industry Fare Level was establish after airline deregulation to serve as the standard against which a statutory zone of operating expense reasonableness was...

  2. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  3. Authentication: A Standard Problem or a Problem of Standards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Capes-Davis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Reproducibility and transparency in biomedical sciences have been called into question, and scientists have been found wanting as a result. Putting aside deliberate fraud, there is evidence that a major contributor to lack of reproducibility is insufficient quality assurance of reagents used in preclinical research. Cell lines are widely used in biomedical research to understand fundamental biological processes and disease states, yet most researchers do not perform a simple, affordable test to authenticate these key resources. Here, we provide a synopsis of the problems we face and how standards can contribute to an achievable solution.

  4. Solute-solute interactions in intermetallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Debashis; Murray, Ryan; Collins, Gary S., E-mail: collins@wsu.edu [Washington State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States); Zacate, Matthew O. [Northern Kentucky University, Department of Physics and Geology (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Experiments were carried out on highly ordered GdAl{sub 2} samples containing extremely dilute mole fractions of{sup 111}In/Cd probe-atom solutes (about 10{sup −11}), intrinsic antisite atoms Al{sub Gd} having mole fractions of order 0-10{sup −2}, and doped with Ag solutes at mole fractions of order 10{sup −2}. Three types of defect interactions were investigated. (1) Quadrupole interactions caused by Ag-solute atoms neighboring{sup 111}In/Cd solute probe atoms were detected using the method of perturbed angular correlation of gamma rays (PAC). Three complexes of pairs of In-probes and Ag-solutes occupying neighboring positions on Gd- and Al-sublattices were identified by comparing site fractions in Gd-poor and Gd-rich GdAl{sub 2}(Ag) samples and from the symmetry of the quadrupole interactions. Interaction enthalpies between solute-atom pairs were determined from temperature dependences of observed site fractions. Repulsive interactions were observed for close-neighbor complexes In{sub Gd}+Ag{sub Gd} and In{sub Gd}+Ag{sub Al} pairs, whereas a slightly attractive interaction was observed for In{sub Al}+Ag{sub Al}. Interaction enthalpies were all small, in the range ±0.15 eV. (2) Quadrupole interactions caused by intrinsic antisite atoms Al{sub Gd} neighboring In{sub Gd} probes were also detected and site fractions measured as a function of temperature, as in previous work on samples not doped with Ag-solutes [Temperature- and composition-driven changes in site occupation of solutes in Gd{sub 1+3x}Al{sub 2−3x}, Zacate and Collins (Phys. Rev. B69, 174202 (1))]. However, the effective binding enthalpy between In{sub Gd} probe and Al{sub Gd} antisite was found to change sign from -0.12 eV (attractive interaction) in undoped samples to + 0.24 eV (repulsive) in Ag-doped samples. This may be attributed to an attractive interaction between Al{sub Gd} antisite atoms and Ag-dopants that competes with the attractive interaction between In{sub Gd} and Al{sub Gd

  5. Uranium in aqueous solutions by colorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The method covers the quantitative determination of uranium in known volumes of aqueous solutions that contain radioactive nuclides. These solutions arise from processing of irradiated nuclear fuel and from laboratory studies on irradiated uranium. The method is applicable to solutions containing a minimum of 30 μg of uranium per sample although as little as 0.5 μg can be detected but with lower precision. Highest precision is obtained with 50 to 75 μg of uranium in the test sample. Dilutions must be made at concentrations above 750 μg/ml. The method includes a discussion of photometers and photometric practice, apparatus, reagents, cell matching, preparation of standard curves, calibration by the method of internal standards, procedure, calculation, and precision

  6. Solutions of nuclear pairing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balantekin, A. B.; Pehlivan, Y.

    2007-01-01

    We give the exact solution of orbit dependent nuclear pairing problem between two nondegenerate energy levels using the Bethe ansatz technique. Our solution reduces to previously solved cases in the appropriate limits including Richardson's treatment of reduced pairing in terms of rational Gaudin algebra operators

  7. On Lovelock vacuum solution

    OpenAIRE

    Dadhich, Naresh

    2010-01-01

    We show that the asymptotic large $r$ limit of all Lovelock vacuum and electrovac solutions with $\\Lambda$ is always the Einstein solution in $d \\geq 2n+1$ dimensions. It is completely free of the order $n$ of the Lovelock polynomial indicating universal asymptotic behaviour.

  8. Rational Solutions and Lump Solutions of the Potential YTSF Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong-Qian; Chen, Ai-Hua

    2017-07-01

    By using of the bilinear form, rational solutions and lump solutions of the potential Yu-Toda-Sasa-Fukuyama (YTSF) equation are derived. Dynamics of the fundamental lump solution, n1-order lump solutions, and N-lump solutions are studied for some special cases. We also find some interaction behaviours of solitary waves and one lump of rational solutions.

  9. Bolting multicenter solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bena, Iosif [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Bossard, Guillaume [Centre de Physique Théorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Katmadas, Stefanos; Turton, David [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2017-01-30

    We introduce a solvable system of equations that describes non-extremal multicenter solutions to six-dimensional ungauged supergravity coupled to tensor multiplets. The system involves a set of functions on a three-dimensional base metric. We obtain a family of non-extremal axisymmetric solutions that generalize the known multicenter extremal solutions, using a particular base metric that introduces a bolt. We analyze the conditions for regularity, and in doing so we show that this family does not include solutions that contain an extremal black hole and a smooth bolt. We determine the constraints that are necessary to obtain smooth horizonless solutions involving a bolt and an arbitrary number of Gibbons-Hawking centers.

  10. Standards for holdup measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Holdup measurement, needed for material balance, depend intensively on standards and on interpretation of the calibration procedure. More than other measurements, the calibration procedure using the standard becomes part of the standard. Standards practical for field use and calibration techniques have been developed. While accuracy in holdup measurements is comparatively poor, avoidance of bias is a necessary goal

  11. Creating standards: Creating illusions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    written standards may open up for the creation of illusions. These are created when written standards' content is not in accordance with the perception standard adopters and standard users have of the specific practice phenomenon's content. This general theoretical argument is exemplified by the specific...

  12. Chemiluminescence of graphene quantum dots induced by acidic potassium permanganate and its application to quenchometric flow-injection assays of hydroquinone in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Ming; Chen, Peiyun; Dong, Yajuan; Sun, Hanwen, E-mail: hanwen@hbu.edu.cn

    2016-09-15

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with particle size of 4.5±1.0 nm were prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found that KMnO{sub 4} could oxidize GQDs to produce a relatively intense chemiluminescence (CL) emission. The mechanism of CL generation was investigated based on absorption spectra and CL emission spectra. CL emission was attributed to the radiative recombination of oxidant-injected holes and thermally excited electrons in the GQDs. On the other hand, both KMnO{sub 4} and ∙O{sub 2}{sup −} could react with GQDs to produce GQDs∙{sup +} and GQDs∙{sup −}. The electron-transfer annihilation of GQDs∙{sup +} and GQDs∙{sup −} could form excited-state GQDs*, which acted as the final emitter in the system. In order to show the analytic potential of GQDs–KMnO{sub 4} CL system, it was applied for the determination of hydroquinone based on its diminishing effect. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed CL system exhibits excellent analytic performance for determination of hydroquinone. Calibration curve in the range of 2.49×10{sup −4}–9.96×10{sup −7} g mL{sup −1} was linear with the correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9924. The limit of detection was 8.46×10{sup −8} g mL{sup −1}, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was found to be 1.7% for 11 determinations of 4.98×10{sup −6} g mL{sup −1} hydroquinone. The applicability of the method was verified by applying to real tap water, lake water, and waste water samples. The recoveries were in the range of 89.7–97.1% with RSD of 0.9–2.1%. The proposed method has a good linearity, high sensitivity and good repeatability and can be applied for routine determination of hydroquinone in water.

  13. A saving solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckee, N

    1983-10-01

    Dr. Mujibur Rahaman, senior scientist at the International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research in Bangladesh, was interviewed recently in regard to oral rehydration therapy (ORT), a simple and inexpensive way of treating the loss of essential fluids and minerals that accompanies diarrhea. According to Rahaman, ORT, developed quite a while ago, is recently gaining more publicity and wider acceptance as a menas of replacing the water and electrolytes lost during acute diarrhea attack. The standard ingredients of the ORT mixture, as it is used in Bangladesh, are 3.5 gm of sodium chloride, or common salt, 2.5 gm sodium bicarbonate, and 1 gm of potassium chloride. To this one should add either 20 gm of glucose or 40 gm of sugar. This mixture should be dissolved in 1 liter of plain drinking water. Plain sugar is good enough. How much is needed depends on the severity and the duration of diarrhea. Calculations have shown that, as a rule of thumb, a child of 10-12 kg may require little more than a liter in about 24 hours. If the child has diarrhea of sufficient severity, it may require more than a liter. If the diarrhea is prolonged, it may require 2 liters. For children who are in danger of dying from dehydration, parents are warned to be watchful because further treatment and follow-up may be required. In Bangladesh a national program is currently providing the ORT in remote rural areas. At present about 1/3 of Bangladesh is covered. The national health service is distributing the solution free of cost in the villages where they have health volunteers. Although ORT is simple to make and simple to administer, one has to exercise some degree of caution with it in order to prevent infants getting dangerous symptoms like hypernatremia. ORT makes it possible for health educators to enter into the family. It is not totally correct to say water is the main problem or causative factor in producing diarrhea. In infantile diarrhea, the cause is most often a virus. Viral

  14. 1996 DOE technical standards program workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The workshop theme is `The Strategic Standardization Initiative - A Technology Exchange and Global Competitiveness Challenge for DOE.` The workshop goal is to inform the DOE technical standards community of strategic standardization activities taking place in the Department, other Government agencies, standards developing organizations, and industry. Individuals working on technical standards will be challenged to improve cooperation and communications with the involved organizations in response to the initiative. Workshop sessions include presentations by representatives from various Government agencies that focus on coordination among and participation of Government personnel in the voluntary standards process; reports by standards organizations, industry, and DOE representatives on current technology exchange programs; and how the road ahead appears for `information superhighway` standardization. Another session highlights successful standardization case studies selected from several sites across the DOE complex. The workshop concludes with a panel discussion on the goals and objectives of the DOE Technical Standards Program as envisioned by senior DOE management. The annual workshop on technical standards has proven to be an effective medium for communicating information related to standards throughout the DOE community. Technical standards are used to transfer technology and standardize work processes to produce consistent, acceptable results. They provide a practical solution to the Department`s challenge to protect the environment and the health and safety of the public and workers during all facility operations. Through standards, the technologies of industries and governments worldwide are available to DOE. The DOE Technical Standards Program, a Department-wide effort that crosscuts all organizations and disciplines, links the Department to those technologies.

  15. Flexible solution for interoperable cloud healthcare systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Mihaela Marcella; Lupşe, Oana Sorina; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara; Bernad, Elena

    2012-01-01

    It is extremely important for the healthcare domain to have a standardized communication because will improve the quality of information and in the end the resulting benefits will improve the quality of patients' life. The standards proposed to be used are: HL7 CDA and CCD. For a better access to the medical data a solution based on cloud computing (CC) is investigated. CC is a technology that supports flexibility, seamless care, and reduced costs of the medical act. To ensure interoperability between healthcare information systems a solution creating a Web Custom Control is presented. The control shows the database tables and fields used to configure the two standards. This control will facilitate the work of the medical staff and hospital administrators, because they can configure the local system easily and prepare it for communication with other systems. The resulted information will have a higher quality and will provide knowledge that will support better patient management and diagnosis.

  16. Collaboration Between Multistakeholder Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Maclean, Camilla

    Public interest in corporate social responsibility (CSR) has resulted in a wide variety of multistakeholder CSR standards in which companies can choose to participate. While such standards reflect collaborative governance arrangements between public and private actors, the market for corporate...... responsibility is unlikely to support a great variety of partly competing and overlapping standards. Increased collaboration between these standards would enhance both their impact and their adoption by firms. This report examines the nature, benefits, and shortcomings of existing multistakeholder standards...

  17. Thick brane solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Minamitsuji, Masato; Folomeev, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a comprehensive review on thick brane solutions and related topics. Such models have attracted much attention from many aspects since the birth of the brane world scenario. In many works, it has been usually assumed that a brane is an infinitely thin object; however, in more general situations, one can no longer assume this. It is also widely considered that more fundamental theories such as string theory would have a minimal length scale. Many multidimensional field theories coupled to gravitation have exact solutions of gravitating topological defects, which can represent our brane world. The inclusion of brane thickness can realize a variety of possible brane world models. Given our understanding, the known solutions can be classified into topologically non-trivial solutions and trivial ones. The former class contains solutions of a single scalar (domain walls), multi-scalar, gauge-Higgs (vortices), Weyl gravity and so on. As an example of the latter class, we consider solutions of two interacting scalar fields. Approaches to obtain cosmological equations in the thick brane world are reviewed. Solutions with spatially extended branes (S-branes) and those with an extra time-like direction are also discussed.

  18. Development of iodine based impinger solutions for the efficient capture of Hg{sup 0} using direct injection nebulization-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedrick, E.; Lee, T.G.; Biswas, P.; Zhuang, Y. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (USA). National Exposure Research Laboratory

    2001-09-15

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) with direct injection nebulization (DIN) was used to evaluate novel impinger solution compositions capable of capturing elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in EPA Method 5 type sampling. An iodine based impinger solution proved to be very efficient for Hg{sup 0} capture and was amenable to direct analysis by DIN-ICP/MS. Hg{sup 0} capture efficiency using aqueous iodine (I{sub 3}{sup -}) was comparable to Hg{sup 0} capture using acidified potassium permanganate impinger solutions which were analyzed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) with greater than 98% capture of Hg{sup 0} in the oxidizing impinger. Using DIN-ICP/MS, it was demonstrated for the first time that iodine can be generated just prior to impinger sampling for efficiently oxidizing Hg{sup 0} and retailing it in solution as HgI{sub 4}{sup 2-}. Due to the increased interest in Hg speciation from combustion sources and the potential for using DIN-ICP/MS for multiple metals analyses, an impinger sampling train for gaseous Hg speciation and multiple metals analyses using DIN-ICP/MS analyses is presented. The unique feature of such a sampling train is that each impinger solution in the series is amenable to direct analysis by DIN-ICP/MS. A bituminous coal was combusted in a bench scale coal system, and gaseous Hg species (oxidized and elemental) were determined using the proposed impinger train. The DIN-ICP/Ms instrumental detection limit was 0.003 ppb, and MDLs ranged from 0.007 to 0.116 {mu}g/L (ppb) in a variety of impinger solutions used for Hg capture. 33 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Professional Hadoop solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Lublinsky, Boris; Yakubovich, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    The go-to guidebook for deploying Big Data solutions with Hadoop Today's enterprise architects need to understand how the Hadoop frameworks and APIs fit together, and how they can be integrated to deliver real-world solutions. This book is a practical, detailed guide to building and implementing those solutions, with code-level instruction in the popular Wrox tradition. It covers storing data with HDFS and Hbase, processing data with MapReduce, and automating data processing with Oozie. Hadoop security, running Hadoop with Amazon Web Services, best practices, and automating Hadoop processes i

  20. Standardisation in standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    The following observations are offered by one who has served on national and international standards-writing committees and standards review committees. Service on working groups consists of either updating previous standards or developing new standards. The process of writing either type of document proceeds along similar lines. The first order of business is to recognise the need for developing or updating a standard and to identify the potential user community. It is also necessary to ensure that there is a required number of members willing to do the writing. A justification is required as to why a new standard should be developed, and this is written as a new work item proposal or a project initiation notification system form. This document must be filed officially and approved, and a search is then undertaken to ensure that the proposed new standard will not duplicate a standard that has already been published or is underway in another standards organisation. (author)