Duran, Xavier; Martínez, José Miguel; Benavides, Fernando G
To analyze the association between occupational factors (number of contracts and occupational category) and potential years of working life lost (PYWLL) due to non-work related permanent disability (PD). The study design was a retrospective cohort of 11,812 workers affiliated with the Social Security System in Spain that began a non-work related PD between 2004 and 2009. The PYWLL was defined as the time in years between the age at which a worker initiates a PD and age 65 or the age of reinstatement to a job. The PYWLL was analyzed by calculating the quartiles and using an approach based on a median regression. The difference in medians of PYWLL between men and women was 2.49 years (95% CI: 2.01-2.97); between skilled non-manual and unskilled manual workers was 1.88 years (95% CI: 1.08-2.69); between workers with three or more contracts and workers with a single contract in the period was 3.78 years (95% CI: 3.28-4.29). Women, non-skilled workers and employees that have had more contracts within the period of study are those with greatest loss of PYWLL. This suggests that individuals with poorer working and employment conditions could have more PYWLL.
Martikainen, Janne A; Kautiainen, Hannu; Rantalaiho, Vappu; Puolakka, Kari T
To estimate the development and potential disproportional distribution of longterm productivity costs (PC) and their determinants leading to work absenteeism and permanent work disability in working-aged patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A cohort of subjects with early RA was created by identifying the new cases of RA from the national drug reimbursement register that had been granted a special reimbursement for their antirheumatic medications for RA from 2000-2007. The dataset was enriched by cross-linking with other national registries detailing work absenteeism days and permanent disability pensions. In the base case, the human capital approach was applied to estimate PC based on subjects' annual number of absenteeism days and incomes. Hurdle regression analysis was applied to study the determinants of PC. Among the 7831 subjects with early RA, the mean (bootstrapped 95% CI) annual PC per person-observation year was €4800 (4547-5070). The annual PC declined after the first year of RA diagnosis, but increased significantly in subsequent years. In addition, the PC was heavily disproportionally concentrated in a small fraction of patients with RA, because only around 20% of patients accounted for the majority of total annual PC. The initiation of active drug treatment during the first 3 months after RA diagnosis significantly reduced the cumulative PC when compared with no drug treatment. The longterm PC increased significantly in parallel with years elapsing after RA diagnosis. Further, the majority of these PC are incurred by a small proportion of patients.
Bruce Cater; Sohee Kang; Byron Lew; Marco Pollanen
Using data from Ontario, we study the extent to which education mitigates the realized work-disabling effects of permanent occupational injury. Focusing first on the rates of post-injury employment, our results suggest that education has a strong disability-mitigating effect in cases of knee and shoulder injuries, but a smaller effect where workers have experienced permanent back or wrist/finger injuries. A comparison of pre- and post-injury occupations then reveals that education mitigates d...
Bruce, Susan; Muhammad, Zayyad
This article presents a review of the literature on object permanence with an emphasis on research on children with severe disabilities. Object permanence is the realisation that objects continue to exist in time and place even when they are no longer visible. This understanding is achieved across Stages IV-VI of Piaget's Sensorimotor Period.…
Full Text Available In this paper, we attempted to present the problem of establishing adequate structure of financing medium agricultural enterprises and to point out the necessity for permanent working capital in those agricultural enterprises which can’t cover fixed assets, long-term placements and portion of inventories (raw material and spare parts, production in process with own equity and long-term sources of financing. For the purpose of analysing adequate structure of financing medium agricultural enterprises, we will use one of the most popular methods, such as case study and ratio analysis. Results of the research show that in primary agricultural production, next to standard long-term investment loans and short-term loans for investment in agricultural production, there is a necessity for financing in the permanent working capital which could assist continuity of production process and enable conditions for more profitable business in agriculture. It also should be noted that real and book value on this level of permanent working capital differs substantially.
... applied with other types of disabilities requiring hospitalization for indefinite periods. The need for... permanency of total disability contained in § 3.340, the following special considerations apply in pension... permanence of total disability will be established as of the earliest date consistent with the evidence in...
Neal-Boylan, Leslie; Hopkins, Amy; Skeete, Rachel; Hartmann, Sarah B; Iezzoni, Lisa I; Nunez-Smith, Marcella
The authors sought to generate insights and hypotheses about the professional experiences of registered nurses and physicians with self-identified disabilities to inform local and national policy conversations on supporting a diverse health care workforce. In 2009-2010, the authors conducted in-depth interviews in person and over the telephone with a sample of licensed registered nurses and physicians across the country who self-identified as having a permanent disability. They coded the interview transcripts to identify key themes across the participants' responses. The authors interviewed 10 registered nurses and 10 physicians. Five novel and consistent themes emerged from the data analysis: (1) Living and working with a physical/sensory disability narrows the career choices and trajectories of nurses and physicians, (2) nurses and physicians struggle with decisions regarding whether to disclose and discuss their disabilities at work, (3) nurses and physicians rarely seek legally guaranteed workplace accommodations, instead viewing patient safety as a personal responsibility, (4) interpersonal interactions often reflect the institutional climate and set the tone for how welcome nurses and physicians feel at work, and (5) reactions to workplace disability-related challenges run an emotional spectrum from anger and grief to resilience and optimism. The responses revealed several missed opportunities for supporting health care professionals with disabilities in the workplace. These findings should inform the continuing debate regarding what defines "reasonable accommodation" and how to create a workplace that is welcoming for nurses and physicians with disabilities.
Tüchsen, Finn; Christensen, Karl Bang; Feveile, Helene
of 4,217 male and 4,105 female employees from a national survey were followed up for subsequent DPR. RESULTS AND IMPACT ON INDUSTRY AND GOVERNMENT: Having had a work injury was a strong predictor of DPR among men. After control for age, smoking, body mass index, body postures, and physical demands......, the hazard ratio (HR) among those employees who had ever experienced a work injury was 1.80 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-2.68). No association was found among women. SUMMARY: Having had a reportable work injury is a strong predictor of subsequent DPR for men....
Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Lau, Daniel; Pozzoli, Dario
and occupation by estimating a quasi-maximum-likelihood discrete factor model. Data on sickness absence and disability spells for the population of older workers come from the Danish administrative registers for 1998-2002. We generally find an independent role of both education and occupation on temporary work......This paper investigates whether education and working in a physically demand- ing job causally impact temporary work incapacity, i.e. sickness absence, and permanent work incapacity, i.e. the inflow to disability via sickness absence. Our contribution is to allow endogeneity of both education...... incapacity only. Having at least primary education reduces women's (men's) probability of temporary work incapacity by 16% (38%) while working in a physically demanding job increases it by 37% (26%). On the other hand, conditional on sickness absence, the effects of education and occupation on permanent work...
Scott-Marshall, Heather K; Tompa, Emile; Wang, Ying; Liao, Qing
Recent estimates indicate that at least one in five activity-limiting injuries occurs at work. Of individuals who suffer these injuries approximately 10% experience some degree of functional impairment. We were interested in investigating long-term mortality risk in individuals with permanent impairment from work injury and to examine whether work disability is a significant explanatory factor. We used a retrospective matched cohort methodology to examine differences in mortality rates between individuals with permanent impairment from a work injury and a group of non-injured controls over a 19-year period. We used a sample of impaired workers to investigate the impact of work disability on mortality risk using percentage of earnings recovery after injury as the key proxy measure. All analyses were stratified by sex. Permanent impairment from a work injury was predictive of premature mortality in both male and female claimants, though the risk was slightly higher among women. Work disability was a key explanatory factor in the rate of death among impaired workers, the effects being more pronounced in men. We also found that higher impairment level was associated with mortality in men but not in women. The study demonstrates the impact of permanent work-related impairment on longevity and identifies work disability as an important determinant of mortality risk. Given the disconnect between impairment ratings derived from standard diagnostic tools and labour-market activity after accident, more research is needed on the specific factors that contribute to work disability, particularly those related to psycho-social health and well-being.
Paciente oncológico con incapacidad laboral absoluta: características epidemiológicas, supervivencia y seguimiento de su incapacidad laboral Cancer patients with absolut permanent incapacity: epidemiology, survival and monitoring work disability
Raúl Jesús Regal Ramos
formación oncológica y aumentando las revisiones. Estas revisiones podrán establecerse en el momento de la calificación de la invalidez o a posteriori, tras seleccionar aquellos casos que, con una supervivencia y edad razonables, no presenten otras limitaciones constitutivas de IPA.Each year the incidence of cancer in Spain increases, as well as the survival, and at the same time the economic cost due to Absolute Permanent Disability (APD caused by these diseases. Objective: Know the epidemiological characteristics of cancer patients with APD and what variables are associated to survival beyond 5 years, in order to establish criteria for the review of the working capacity of these patients. Method: We analyzed all patients evaluated in the Medical Unit of The National Institute of Social Security in Madrid in 2005, under 55 years of age, with the diagnosis of neoplasic disease and whose final evaluation was APD. We analyzed the following variables: age, sex, marital status, occupation, type of Social Security affiliation, type of cancer (distinguishing whether it was widespread and / or had had relapses, the presence of other associated diseases, the presence of other conditions which in themselves were constitutive of APD and finally the survival beyond 5 years. Among the patients who were alive in November 2010 we studied the relationship of variables with the survival and evolution of the degree of disability. Results: The total number of patients studied was 212. The most frequent type of tumors in women were breast and lung cancer and in men lung and colon-rectum. The 5-year survival was 30 %.This survival decreases with age, depending on the type of tumor, the presence of metastasis and / or relapses and the presence of comorbidity. Tumors that cause most number of deaths are lung cancer in men and breast cancer in women. Regarding the followup of disability, 54 % (35 of 64 of the survivors had not been reviewed and had no sequels or other conditions
Hauglann, Beate; Benth, Jūratė Šaltytė; Fosså, Sophie D; Dahl, Alv A
The aims of this cohort study were to explore various longitudinal aspects of employment and disability pension due to permanently reduced work ability among women with breast cancer and to investigate the impact of breast cancer on income. In a national register-based controlled cohort study from Norway, 1,548 women diagnosed with breast cancer (all stages) between 1992 and 1996 at the age 45-54 years and 1,548 cancer-free women matched for age, municipality and civil status were followed for up to 14 years. Medical data from the Cancer Registry of Norway were linked with longitudinal data on employment, social security benefits and socio-demography collected from other national official registries. Compared to cancer-free controls, breast cancer patients were significantly more likely to receive disability pension (hazard ratio (HR) 2.7, 95% CI 2.3-3.2) after adjustment for unmatched socio-demographic variables (education, income and children employment rates were higher in non-disabled patients than in non-disabled controls (82% vs. 77%, p = 0.008). Working breast cancer patients experienced a temporary negative effect on employment income. A considerable proportion of women with breast cancer will over time experience permanently reduced work ability and become disability pension holders. In case of reduced work ability in breast cancer survivors, medical personel caring for them should consider and discuss with them rehabilitation and workplace adjustment in order to prevent early disability pension.
Quinn, P Roger
After a workplace injury or disability, there is a period of hardship and adjustment for the injured party as well as all stakeholders in the workers' compensation process. Ultimately, however, return to work is considered. The author reviews this often challenging exercise from the Canadian perspective and stresses the need for timely intervention, honest communication, the coordination of information and resources--and the need for flexibility. A case study on low back pain is included.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Disability and disability certificates are like double-edged swords. On one hand, a non-qualifying individual may avail certain benefits and privileges reserved for disabled person due to over calculation; and on other hand, a deserving disabled may not be able to get benefit out of the granted opportunities due to under calculation. This study was thus undertaken to analyse the disability certificates issued at our institution to determine the fallacies that are evident in the criteria for disability assessment. METHODOLOGY 500 cases of permanent physical disability (PPD resulting from road traffic accidents (RTA satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were re-examined after final assessment of disability and the assessed disability was reviewed in terms of the defect in function of body; the total percentage of disability allotted to the candidate and the appropriateness of the assessed value in relation to the hindrance caused to daily routine. OBSERVATIONS No discrepancy was noted in 355 cases, but in rest of 145 cases a number of discrepancies were noted in relation to the above said criteria of comparison. Out of these, in 20% cases, the percentage of disability did not include a note of the total impact of the disability on physical, mental, social life of the disabled person resulting in more non-functioning as compared to the calculated resulting permanent disability. In rest 30% cases with discrepancies, calculated percentage had ill correlation between malfunctioning of the body part and its overall calculation in relation to the body as a whole. Rest 50% cases were those where similar malfunctioning resulting from different lesions was assessed differently resulting in different percentages of permanent physical disabilities. CONCLUSION A serious revision of these guidelines in lieu of discrepancies must be ensued to benefit one and all equally and to ensure uniformity in the process which is a gateway to
Presser, Harriet B.; Altman, Barbara
More than one-fifth of employed persons with disabilities work late or rotating shifts, about the same as nondisabled workers. Day workers with disabilities receive lower hourly wages than nondisabled workers. Except for men, nonday workers with disabilities receive wages similar to their nondisabled counterparts. (Contains 27 references.)…
Working Length Determination of Root Canal of Young Permanent Tooth: An In Vitro Study. A Diwanji, AS Rathore, R Arora, V Dhar, A Madhusudan, J Doshi. Abstract. Background: Determination of correct working length is one of the keys to success in endodontic therapy. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ...
Unemployed and temporary agency workers and workers with expired fixed-term contracts are a particularly vulnerable group, at risk for sickness absence and prolonged work disability due to psychological problems. These workers who are without an employment contract, are also known as non-permanent
Goulet, S; Doré, F Y; Rousseau, R
Cats (Felis catus) find an object when it is visibly moved behind a succession of screens. However, when the object is moved behind a container and is invisibly transferred from the container to the back of a screen, cats try to find the object at or near the container rather than at the true hiding place. Four experiments were conducted to study search behavior and working memory in visible and invisible displacement tests of object permanence. Experiment 1 compared performance in single and in double visible displacement trials. Experiment 2 analyzed search behavior in invisible displacement tests and in analogs using a transparent container. Experiments 3 and 4 tested predictions made from Experiment 1 and 2 in a new situation of object permanence. Results showed that only the position changes that cats have directly perceived are encoded and activated in working memory, because they are unable to represent or infer invisible movements.
Lerner, Debra; Allaire, Saralynn H; Reisine, Susan T
To describe current programs and policies for addressing work disability among adults with chronic health conditions, and to identify opportunities for new research aimed at reducing the problem. The authors conducted secondary data analysis and a literature review. Millions of Americans with a chronic health condition have a work disability or are at risk of developing one. This public health problem is costing hundreds of billions of dollars a year nationally in lost productivity and diminishing the quality of life of millions of Americans. The medical care system, employers, and government--three traditional sources of help for adults with chronic health problems--are not sufficiently oriented toward the primary or secondary prevention of work disability. New research is urgently needed to reduce the burden of work disability on individuals and society.
Hedlund, Frank Huess
’s Compensation Commissioner (WCC) but to access it on a timely basis is difficult. The legislative system under the Department of Labour (DOL) provides coarse but timely recordings. Interpretation is not simple however; both systems have seen changes to reporting formats and inclusion criteria over time, which...... less so for permanently disabling accidents/incidents. The paper examines if effects of the popular practice of replacing permanent workers with contract workers is visible in the WCC statistics – firm conclusions cannot be drawn however, due to data shortcomings. Data inaccuracies are reviewed...
Brooks, Tony; Petersson, Eva; Hasselblad, Stefan
This paper reflects upon a case study where exploration, play and empowerment in interactive therapy sessions with audio and visual stimuli resulted in achievement, self-esteem and a shared pride between a young adult with profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD), his mother...... and the special teacher that conducted the sessions. Following the gift to the mother of a video recording that depicted the young adult’s progress as a result of the sessions it was found that upon viewing he was able to recognize himself and associate to his activities. Further, when watching alongside his...
Nevala-Puranen, Nina; Sörensen, Lars
In agriculture, occupational injuries are common, and several of them lead to permanent physical disability. The objective of this case study was to assess the strain and the ergonomic needs of four farmers (aged 34-49 years) with physical disabilities. A maximal bicycle ergometer test or an arm-crank test was done to assess their maximal heart rate (HR max ) and maximal oxygen consumption (V0 2max ). The strain at work was analyzed by measuring heart rate (HR), muscle activity (EMG), and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE). The farmers were interviewed as to possible and impossible work tasks and the ergonomic redesign measures taken to improve the work environment. The work tasks performed were mainly light or moderate work for the cardiorespiratory system according to mean HR (88-102 beats/min), the percentage of HR range (17-31% HRR), and the relative V0 2 (22-46% V0 2max ). The mean activity of the trapezius muscles was 0.4-9% of the maximal voluntary contraction (%MVC). All the participants had work tasks they were unable to perform. They had made ergonomie redesign changes mainly to the tractor. This case study showed that some agricultural work tasks were possible for farmers with physical disabilities and that the physical strain associated with these tasks was mainly light or moderate.
Full Text Available Disability is one of problems in leprosy or Morbus Hansen (MH, which can cause the patient loose his autonomy and may affect his social relationship with family and community. Disability occurs due to neurological inflammation that can manifest as silent neuritis (which develops without any pain. Silent neuritis can be recognized early with a routine prevention of disability (POD assessment. A 19-year-old male patient was referred from a District General Hospital with a history of numbness and stiffness of his 4th and 5th fingers of his left hand since 1 month before admittance. The patient was refered by Community Health Center (CHC or PUSKESMAS after a one year treatment and RFT. During his treatment at the CHC, no assessment of peripheral nerve or POD had ever been performed. The POD assessment at our hospital demonstrated sensory deficit at some points of assessment on both palms and reduced muscle strength of the first and 5th fingers in both hands. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV performed at the outpatient of Neurology Department, showed multiple mononeuropathy MH with irreversible damage. Nerve damage is still considered reversible when it occurs less than 6 months. In this case, the silent neuritis was not detected early and there was delayed treatment; as showed by NCV which revealed a manifestation of irreversible nerve damage. Routine POD assessment may detect the condition and appropriate treatment may overcome the nerve damage.
Full Text Available Many sociologists have argued that work no longer plays the central role in contemporary life experience because we have entered an age of insecurity in relation to employment, and knowledge workers are often pictured as egoistical portfolio workers who are only interested in their careers and no longer loyal to their employers. Cappelli (1999 on the other hand argues that more insecure employment relations is a result of employers’ strategy to buy workers rather than offering them long-term relations. Using case studies from seven different knowledge work contexts in Norway, this article argues that more temporary employment relations is not the result of career-seeking portfolio workers, but of changes in employment practices of their employers. These are not primarily changes in the formal employment contracts from permanent to temporary employment, but in the social contracts as they are practiced by the employers and experienced by the knowledge workers in the different contexts of knowledge work. The reason for more temporary relations was not because work does not matter for knowledge workers. On the contrary, we found that they accepted insecure conditions because work mattered and because they were eager to take on new tasks, learn the trade in new fields, and show that they were able to do the job. When they left their employer, it was because they were not able to do a good job in their positions or because they were increasingly directly exposed to an insecure market that signaled that they were not profitable (enough for their employer. Although changes in employment practices by the employers toward more short-term relations are not caused by disloyal portfolio workers, these practices may produce the problem of disloyal workers who have to secure their employment in the labor market.
Full Text Available Permanent magnets (PMs are today widely used in electrical machines of all sorts. With their increase in popularity, the amount of research has increased as well. In this study, the magnetic flux density ripple of the working point of the PMs in a 100 kW PM synchronous generator has been investigated for three different load cases: no load, AC load, and DC load. The PMs will be subjected to a shift in working point as a consequence of the characteristics of the electrical loading. This study is based on finite element method simulations where the ripple of the magnetic flux density in the PMs was recorded at three positions within a PM. The slot harmonic of 7.5 times the electrical frequency (f(el was present in the results for all load cases, but mainly at the surface of the PM, as expected. Results showed an unexpected harmonic of 1.5 f(el, assumed to be an undertone of the slot harmonics. The 6f(el harmonic for the DC load case was significantly higher than for the AC load case and is caused by the current fluctuation during passive rectification. For the studied machine, the added harmonics in the magnetic field due to passive rectification are less than the slot-related harmonics.
Full Text Available Context: Assessment of physical disability is an important duty of a plastic surgeon especially for those of us who are in an institutional practice. Aim: The Gazette of India notification gives a guideline regarding the assessment of the disability. However, the calculations as per the guidelines are time consuming. In this article, a spreadsheet program which is based on the notification is presented. The aim of this article is to design a spreadsheet program which is simple, reproducible, user friendly, less time consuming and accurate. Materials and Methods: This spreadsheet program was designed using the Microsoft Excel. The spreadsheet program was designed on the basis of the guidelines in the Gazette of India Notification regarding the assessment of Locomotor Disability to Quantify Permanent Physical Impairment. Two representative examples are presented to help understand the application of this program. Results: Two spreadsheet programs, one for upper limb and another for the lower limb are presented. The representative examples show the accuracy of the program to match the results of the traditional method of calculation. Conclusion: A simple spreadsheet program can be designed to assess disability as per the Gazette of India Notification. This program is easy to use and is accurate.
Lowe, Jean; MacLean, Peggy C.; Shaffer, Michele L.; Watterberg, Kristi
Object permanence is considered the earliest method for assessing working memory. Factors affecting object permanence performance in a sample of two hundred and thirty-three 18- to 22-month olds born with extremely low birth weight were examined. It was hypothesized that object permanence would be directly related to emotional and attention regulation, that children with lower birth weight and higher illness severity would have more difficulty on the object permanence task, and that no ethnic...
Experiences of work among people with disabilities who are HIV-positive in Zambia. ... HIV in Lusaka, not only secondary to the effects of HIV influencing their physical capacity to work ... Keywords: qualitative, disability, stigma, Southern Africa ...
Hall, Edward; Wilton, Robert
Western governments have emphasized paid work as a key route to social inclusion for disabled people. Although the proportion of disabled people in "mainstream" employment has increased in recent decades, rates remain significantly below those for non-disabled people. Moreover, disabled workers continue to face discrimination and a lack of…
Lowe, Jean; MacLean, Peggy C; Shaffer, Michele L; Watterberg, Kristi
Object permanence is considered the earliest method for assessing working memory. Factors affecting object permanence performance in a sample of two hundred and thirty-three 18- to 22-month olds born with extremely low birth weight were examined. It was hypothesized that object permanence would be directly related to emotional and attention regulation, that children with lower birth weight and higher illness severity would have more difficulty on the object permanence task, and that no ethnic/racial differences would be found, as this is considered a culturally unbiased task. Attainment of object permanence had a significant positive association with emotional and attention regulation, even after controlling the medical severity and socioeconomic factors. More girls than boys passed the object permanence items. There was no ethnic/racial difference on object permanence. Our findings indicate that object permanence may be a culturally fair way of assessing development, and emotional and attention regulation are potential avenues of intervention for such skill.
Sandqvist, Gunnel; Hesselstrand, Roger; Petersson, Ingemar F
OBJECTIVE: To study work disability (WD) with reference to levels of sick leave and disability pension in early systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Patients with SSc living in the southern part of Sweden with onset of their first non-Raynaud symptom between 2003 and 2009 and with a followup of 36...... months were included in a longitudinal study. Thirty-two patients (26 women, 24 with limited SSc) with a median age of 47.5 years (interquartile range 43-53) were identified. WD was calculated in 30-day intervals from 12 months prior to disease onset until 36 months after, presented as the prevalence...... of WD per year (0-3) and as the period prevalence of mean net days per month (± SD). Comparisons were made between patients with different disease severity and sociodemographic characteristics, and between patients and a reference group (RG) from the general population. RESULTS: Seventy-eight percent...
Nota, Laura; Santilli, Sara; Ginevra, Maria C; Soresi, Salvatore
This study examines the importance of work in life of people with disability and then focuses on employer attitudes towards these people. In the light of Stone and Colella's model, the study examines the employer attitudes and the role of variables such as type of disability, employer experience in the hiring of persons with disabilities, the description of hypothetical hirees with disabilities, the ways in which employers evaluate work performance and social acceptability, and the work tasks that they consider appropriate for workers with disability. Eighty employers were randomly assigned to standard condition (candidates with disability were presented by referring to the disability they presented) or positive condition (candidates were presented with reference to their strengths). It was found that the type of disability and its presentation influence employer attitudes. In addition, realistic and conventional tasks were considered appropriate for hirees with disabilities. Implications were discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ramonda, Roberta; Marchesoni, Antonio; Carletto, Antonio; Bianchi, Gerolamo; Cutolo, Maurizio; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco; Fusaro, Enrico; De Vita, Salvatore; Galeazzi, Mauro; Gerli, Roberto; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Minisola, Giovanni; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; Pellerito, Raffaele; Salaffi, Fausto; Paolazzi, Giuseppe; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Scarpa, Raffaele; Bagnato, Gianfilippo; Triolo, Giovanni; Valesini, Guido; Punzi, Leonardo; Olivieri, Ignazio
The aim was to establish how patients experience the impact of spondyloarthritis (SpA) on work disability and working life. The survey was performed in 17/20 regions in Italy (1 January to 31 March 2013). A multiple-choice questionnaire was published on the official website of the sponsor - the National Association of Rheumatic Patients (ANMAR) - and hard-copies were distributed at outpatient clinics for rheumatic patients. Respondents (n = 770) were of both sexes (56 % men), educated (62 % at high school or more), of working age (75 % aged ≤60 years), and affected by SpA. The most common types diagnosed were ankylosing spondylitis (AS) (39 %) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) (36 %). Respondents were working full-time (45 %), part-time (8 %) or had retired (22 %); 15 % were unemployed (for reasons linked to the disease or for other reasons, students or housewives). Patients reported disability (39 %), were receiving disability benefits (34 %), were experiencing important limitations that were hindering their professional development/career (36 %) and some had to change/leave their job or lost it because of SpA (21 %). Employed respondents (n = 383) had worked on average 32.2 h in the last 7 days. More hours of work were lost over the last 7 days due to SpA (2.39 h vs 1.67 h). The indirect costs of the disease amounted to €106/week for patients reporting well-being/good physical conditions/improvement and €216/week for those reporting permanent impairment. Most patients were in the midst of their productive years and were experiencing considerable difficulties in carrying out their job because of the disease: half of them reported disability and one third were experiencing important limitations in their career perspective.
Jovanović Predrag P.
Full Text Available The disabled enjoy special protection at work (in the work environment. The importance of this protection essentially determines the status of the disabled in the society, because it is connected with the work of the disabled with which get the means of life, but they are also brought into an equal position with other persons that do not have disability and whose working abilities are not reduced. There is a lot of vagueness in terms of terminological and meaning determination of the concept of disability, both in the international and the domestic law. We tried to elaborate the issue of disability in the paper firstly in the terminological and meaning sense and then to present international legal and domestic platform of their protection at work connected with the work, too (the work environment. Special emphasis was put on the concept of the disabled worker and their equal protection, with a critic review on the existing solutions in the effective law.
Bohle, Philip; Quinlan, Michael; Kennedy, David; Williamson, Ann
The expansion of precarious employment in OECD countries has been widely associated with negative health and safety effects. Although many shiftworkers are precariously employed, shiftwork research has concentrated on full-time workers in continuing employment. This paper examines the impact of precarious employment on working hours, work-life conflict and health by comparing casual employees to full-time, "permanent" employees working in the same occupations and workplaces. Thirty-nine convergent interviews were conducted in two five-star hotels. The participants included 26 full-time and 13 casual (temporary) employees. They ranged in age from 19 to 61 years and included 17 females and 22 males. Working hours ranged from zero to 73 hours per week. Marked differences emerged between the reports of casual and full-time employees about working hours, work-life conflict and health. Casuals were more likely to work highly irregular hours over which they had little control. Their daily and weekly working hours ranged from very long to very short according to organisational requirements. Long working hours, combined with low predictability and control, produced greater disruption to family and social lives and poorer work-life balance for casuals. Uncoordinated hours across multiple jobs exacerbated these problems in some cases. Health-related issues reported to arise from work-life conflict included sleep disturbance, fatigue and disrupted exercise and dietary regimes. This study identified significant disadvantages of casual employment. In the same hotels, and doing largely the same jobs, casual employees had less desirable and predictable work schedules, greater work-life conflict and more associated health complaints than "permanent" workers.
Ogden, Lydia; McAllister, Carolyn; Neely-Barnes, Susan
Three hundred members of the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) responded to a survey regarding the inclusion of disability content in social work courses and supports needed to increase disability content. Although respondents generally agreed that disability content is important in social work education, its inclusion is inconsistent, with most frequent inclusion in courses on diversity and least frequent inclusion in courses on research. Respondents identified barriers to increasing disability content, including lack of resources for teaching, lack of relevant faculty expertise, and an overcrowded curriculum. Strategies and resources for infusing disability content into social work education are discussed.
Alavinia, S M; de Boer, A G E M; van Duivenbooden, J C; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Burdorf, A
Maintaining the ability of workers to cope with physical and psychosocial demands at work becomes increasingly important in prolonging working life. To analyse the effects of work-related factors and individual characteristics on work ability and to determine the predictive value of work ability on receiving a work-related disability pension. A longitudinal study was conducted among 850 construction workers aged 40 years and older, with average follow-up period of 23 months. Disability was defined as receiving a disability pension, granted to workers unable to continue working in their regular job. Work ability was assessed using the work ability index (WAI). Associations between work-related factors and individual characteristics with work ability at baseline were evaluated using linear regression analysis, and Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the predictive value of work ability for disability. Work-related factors were associated with a lower work ability at baseline, but had little prognostic value for disability during follow-up. The hazard ratios for disability among workers with a moderate and poor work ability at baseline were 8 and 32, respectively. All separate scales in the WAI had predictive power for future disability with the highest influence of current work ability in relation to job demands and lowest influence of diseases diagnosed by a physician. A moderate or poor work ability was highly predictive for receiving a disability pension. Preventive measures should facilitate a good balance between work performance and health in order to prevent quitting labour participation.
Mohamed, Ahmed Hassan Hemdan
Extensive efforts have been made to maximize the potential of children with disabilities in Oman. The establishment of Al-Wafaa centers of disabilities served as a channel to help families secure a variety of services provided to children with different disabling conditions. The purpose of this study was to explore the burnout of staff working in…
Crimmins, Eileen M; Hayward, Mark D
This paper investigates the association between job characteristics and work disability among men and women in older working ages in the United States. We examine whether the association persists when controlling for major chronic disease experience. We also address whether job characteristics are ultimately associated with the receipt of disability benefits. Data are from the Health and Retirement Survey and are nationally representative of noninstitutionalized persons 51-61 in 1992. Disability onset is estimated using a hazard modeling approach for those working at wave 1 (N = 5,999). A logistic regression analysis of disability benefits is based on a risk set of 525 persons who become work-disabled before the second interview. Women's disability onset and health problems appear less related to job characteristics than men's. For men, work disability is associated with stressful jobs, lack of job control, and environmentally hazardous conditions but is not associated with physical demands. Participation in disability benefit programs among those with work disability is unrelated to most job characteristics or health conditions. Understanding of the differing process to work disability for men and women and the relationship between work and health by gender is important for current policy development.
Ekblom-Kullberg, S; Kautiainen, H; Alha, P; Leirisalo-Repo, M; Julkunen, H
To study education, employment, absenteeism, and work disability (WD) in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) compared to population controls. The study included 181 women of working age with SLE (mean age 44.0 years, disease duration 12.7 years) and 549 female population controls matched for age living in the same metropolitan area of Helsinki. Data regarding education, employment, absenteeism, and WD in patients and controls were obtained by questionnaire and personal interview. Basic education, vocational, or academic degrees and occupational categories in patients with SLE were similar to those in controls. In total, 62% of the patients were employed, compared to 77% of the controls (p Absenteeism and work disability are, however, 2-3 times more common than in controls. Less than half of the patients were on permanent disability pension due to SLE 20 years after diagnosis of the disease.
Full Text Available This article focusses on the borderland between "work" and "not work" in UK disability benefit systems. People who claim disability benefits often have to prove that they are "incapable of work" in order to qualify. The idea of incapacity for work requires an understanding of the meaning of the term "work," a concept which has a common sense simplicity but which is much more difficult to define in practice. UK disability benefit systems have developed the notion of "permitted work" to allow people to do small amounts of paid work while retaining entitlement to benefit. This concept of "permitted work" has its roots in the early twentieth century when claimants were sometimes entitled to disability benefits if any work that they did was considered to be sufficiently trivial to not count as "work." Policy on this changed over time, with particular developments after the Second World War, as rehabilitation and therapy became the key focus of permitted work rules. Current developments in UK social security policy treat almost everyone as a potential worker, changing the way in which permitted work operates. This article uses archive material on appeals against refusals of benefit, policy documents and case law to consider the social meanings of these moving boundaries of permitted work. Disability benefits are not value neutral: they are measures of social control which divide benefit claimants into those who are required to participate in the labour market and those who are exempted from this requirement.
Lustig, Daniel C.; Zanskas, Stephen
Purpose: The purpose of this pilot study was to compare the work value preferences of individuals with disabilities with the work value preferences for a sample of individuals without disabilities. Methods: The preferred work values of a sample of vocational rehabilitation consumers were compared to workers employed in a Southeastern university.…
Shuey, Kim M; Willson, Andrea E
In this article, we examine the connection between trajectories of work disability and economic precarity in late midlife. We conceptualize work disability as a possible mechanism linking early and later life economic disadvantage. We model trajectories of work disability characterized by timing and stability for a cohort of Baby Boomers (22-32 in 1981) using 32 years of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and latent class analysis. Measures of childhood disadvantage are included as predictors of work disability trajectories, which are subsequently included in logistic regression models predicting four economic outcomes (poverty, asset poverty, home ownership, and pension ownership) at ages 54-64. Childhood disadvantage selected individuals into five distinct classes of work disability that differed in timing and stability. All of the disability trajectories were associated with an increased risk of economic insecurity in late midlife compared to the never work disabled. This study contributes to the aging literature through its incorporation of the early life origins of pathways of disability and their links to economic outcomes approaching retirement. Findings suggest work disability is anchored in early life disadvantage and is associated with economic insecurity later in life. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
In this study more than 1,000 cases of long-term disability among members of the press and media were evaluated. Mental disorders were the main cause of disability in almost every fourth case. In women psychiatric illnesses were even more important. The most common diagnosis was that of a depressive disorder which accounted for more than half of all psychiatric cases. The causes of disability of other insurance systems such as the German social security scheme and the pension and disability plan for the medical profession were compared. Mental illnesses are the leading cause of disability in white collar workers and orthopaedic illnesses, especially disorders of the vertebral column, are the leading cause in blue collar workers, as one might have expected. In females mental disorders are even more common than in men whereas men tend to have more cardiovascular problems than women. In this study also some interesting features regarding disability caused by various illnesses after long-term follow-up were found. This opens unknown perspectives allowing new assessment of diseases and eventually will enable the actuary to price medical diagnoses for disability insurance.
McDougall, Alicia; Nowrouzi-Kia, Behdin
An estimated 313 million workplace accidents resulting in injury occur worldwide every year. Therefore, the burden of workplace injury and disability is present at the individual and the societal level and involves several stakeholders. There has been a shift in paradigm from workplace disability and injury treatment to workplace disability prevention. Occupational therapy practitioners are well positioned to address this multifaceted societal issue. Opening communication lines among stakeholders allows for a more holistic, collaborative, and comprehensive approach to disability, injury, and pain management. The positive results researchers have found at the individual level when using a holistic approach translate to benefits for all of the stakeholders involved. Occupational therapy practitioners may espouse a work disability prevention approach to reduce work disability rates and provide timely return-to-work outcomes for clients. The transition to the preventative model requires collaboration among stakeholders but would be beneficial to all stakeholders involved in the workplace. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
J.A.C. Verhoef (Joan)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work
Wienert, J; Spanier, K; Radoschewski, F M; Bethge, M
Effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and self-rated work ability are known independent correlates and predictors of intended disability pension claims. However, little research has focused on the interrelationship between the three and whether self-rated work ability mediates the relationship between ERI and intended disability pension claims. To investigate whether self-rated work ability mediates the association between ERI and intended disability pension claims. Baseline data from participants of the Third German Sociomedical Panel of Employees, a 5-year cohort study that investigates determinants of work ability, rehabilitation utilization and disability pensions in employees who have previously received sickness benefits, were analysed. We tested direct associations between ERI with intended disability pension claims (Model 1) and self-rated work ability (Model 2). Additionally, we tested whether work ability mediates the association between ERI and intended disability pension claims (Model 3). There were 2585 participants. Model 1 indicated a significant association between ERI and intended disability pension claims. Model 2 showed a significant association between ERI and self-rated work ability. The mediation in Model 3 revealed a significant indirect association between ERI and intended disability pension claims via self-rated work ability. There was no significant direct association between ERI and intended disability pension claims. Our results support the adverse health-related impact of ERI on self-rated work ability and intended disability pension claims. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Bell, Nicole S
.... Major Findings to date: Musculoskeletal disability is increasing more rapidly than other types of disability, particularly among females, soldiers between the ages of 21-35, white soldiers, of lower to mid-level enlisted...
Ferrari, Lea; Nota, Laura; Soresi, Salvatore
People's ideas about work can greatly affect the ways in which they characterize their own work experience and their lives. The first aim of the present study was to analyze the concept of work in individuals with mild or moderate intellectual disability working in competitive or sheltered work settings and, second, to compare the notions of work…
Nota, Laura; Santilli, Sara; Ginevra, Maria C.; Soresi, Salvatore
Background: This study examines the importance of work in life of people with disability and then focuses on employer attitudes towards these people. In the light of Stone and Colella's model, the study examines the employer attitudes and the role of variables such as type of disability, employer experience in the hiring of persons with…
markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work participation in these young adults and the support they need to achieve suitable employment is needed. Interventions to improve the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities were lacking. The...
Ervasti, Jenni; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Pekka; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Ahola, Kirsi; Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna
Research on temporary employment as a risk factor for work disability due to depression is mixed, and few studies have measured work disability outcome in detail. We separately examined the associations of temporary employment with (i) the onset of work disability due to depression, (ii) the length of disability episodes, and (iii) the recurrence of work disability, taking into account the possible effect modification of sociodemographic factors. We linked the prospective cohort study data of 107 828 Finnish public sector employees to national registers on work disability (>9 days) due to depression from January 2005 to December 2011. Disability episodes were longer among temporary than permanent employees after adjustment for age, sex, level of education, chronic somatic disease, and history of mental/behavioral disorders [cumulative odds ratio (COR) 1.37, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.25-51). The association between temporary employment and the length of depression-related disability episodes was more pronounced among participants with a low educational level (COR 1.95, 95% CI 1.54-2.48) and older employees (>52 years; COR 3.67, 95% CI 2.83-4.76). The association was weaker in a subgroup of employees employed for ≥ 50% of the follow-up period (95% of the original sample). Temporary employment was not associated with the onset or recurrence of depression-related work disability. Temporary employment is associated with slower return to work, indicated by longer depression-related disability episodes, especially among older workers and those with a low level of education. Continuous employment might protect temporary employees from prolonged work disability.
Bruce, Susan M.; Vargas, Claudia
Introduction: This article discusses the impact of blindness and low vision on the development of object permanence and provides suggestions for assessment and instruction. Methods: The reviewed literature was identified by searching both ERIC and Psych Info using combinations of search terms such as "object permanence" and "visual…
Laaksonen, Mikko; Gould, Raija
When it is possible that the employee's work ability can be restored through treatment or rehabilitation, disability pension in Finland is granted for a fixed period. We examined which factors are associated with return to work (RTW) after such temporary disability pension. The study included all Finnish residents whose temporary disability pension from the earnings-related pension system started in 2008 (N = 10,269). Competing risks regression analysis was applied to examine register-based determinants for RTW after temporary disability pension due to mental disorders, musculoskeletal diseases, other diseases, and injury over a 4-year follow-up period. The overall cumulative incidence of RTW was 25%. RTW was more probable after temporary disability pension due to injury and musculoskeletal diseases and less probable after temporary disability pension due to mental disorders. Younger age and higher education increased RTW but differences between genders, private and public sector employees, and occupational classes were relatively small. The probability of RTW was higher among those who were employed before their temporary disability pension (subhazard ratio in multivariate analysis 2.41 (95% CI 2.13-2.72) and among the 9% who participated in vocational rehabilitation during their pension [SHR 2.10 (95% CI 1.90-2.31)]. With some exceptions, the results were fairly similar for all diagnostic causes of temporary disability pension. Return to work after temporary disability pension was relatively uncommon. Nevertheless, in all diagnostic groups RTW continued for the whole follow-up period. The low educated and those not employed before temporary disability pension need more support in their RTW. The strong association between vocational rehabilitation and RTW suggests that increasing rehabilitation among those with impaired work ability may promote RTW.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The expansion of precarious employment in OECD countries has been widely associated with negative health and safety effects. Although many shiftworkers are precariously employed, shiftwork research has concentrated on full-time workers in continuing employment. This paper examines the impact of precarious employment on working hours, work-life conflict and health by comparing casual employees to full-time, "permanent" employees working in the same occupations and workplaces. METHODS: Thirty-nine convergent interviews were conducted in two five-star hotels. The participants included 26 full-time and 13 casual (temporary employees. They ranged in age from 19 to 61 years and included 17 females and 22 males. Working hours ranged from zero to 73 hours per week. RESULTS: Marked differences emerged between the reports of casual and full-time employees about working hours, work-life conflict and health. Casuals were more likely to work highly irregular hours over which they had little control. Their daily and weekly working hours ranged from very long to very short according to organisational requirements. Long working hours, combined with low predictability and control, produced greater disruption to family and social lives and poorer work-life balance for casuals. Uncoordinated hours across multiple jobs exacerbated these problems in some cases. Health-related issues reported to arise from work-life conflict included sleep disturbance, fatigue and disrupted exercise and dietary regimes. CONCLUSIONS:This study identified significant disadvantages of casual employment. In the same hotels, and doing largely the same jobs, casual employees had less desirable and predictable work schedules, greater work-life conflict and more associated health complaints than "permanent" workers.OBJETIVOS: O crescimento do número de empregos precários em países da OECD está largamente associado a efeitos negativos à saúde e segurança. Embora muitos
Abásolo, Lydia; Blanco, Margarita; Bachiller, Javier; Candelas, Gloria; Collado, Paz; Lajas, Cristina; Revenga, Marcelino; Ricci, Patricia; Lázaro, Pablo; Aguilar, Maria Dolores; Vargas, Emilio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Hernández-García, César; Carmona, Loreto; Jover, Juan A
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a frequent cause of work disability, accounting for productivity losses in industrialized societies equivalent to 1.3% of the U.S. gross national product. To evaluate whether a population-based clinical program offered to patients with recent-onset work disability caused by MSDs is cost-effective. Randomized, controlled intervention study. The inclusion and follow-up periods each lasted 12 months. Three health districts in Madrid, Spain. All patients with MSD-related temporary work disability in 1998 and 1999. The control group received standard primary care management, with referral to specialized care if needed. The intervention group received a specific program, administered by rheumatologists, in which care was delivered during regular visits and included 3 main elements: education, protocol-based clinical management, and administrative duties. Efficacy variables were 1) days of temporary work disability and 2) number of patients with permanent work disability. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. 1,077 patients were included in the study, 7805 in the control group and 5272 in the intervention group, generating 16,297 episodes of MSD-related temporary work disability. These episodes were shorter in the intervention group than in the control group (mean, 26 days compared with 41 days; P < 0.001), and the groups had similar numbers of episodes per patient. Fewer patients received long-term disability compensation in the intervention group (n = 38 [0.7%]) than in the control group (n = 99 [1.3%]) (P < 0.005). Direct and indirect costs were lower in the intervention group than in the control group. To save 1 day of temporary work disability, 6.00 dollars had to be invested in the program. Each dollar invested generated a benefit of 11.00 dollars. The program's net benefit was in excess of 5 million dollars. The study was unblinded. Implementation of the program, offered to the general population, improves short
Chou, Yueh-Ching; Fu, Li-yeh; Chang, Heng-Hao
Background: This study explored the experiences of working mothers with an adult child with intellectual disabilities to understand how they reconcile paid work and care responsibilities. Methods: Fifteen working mothers in Taiwan with an adult child with intellectual disabilities were interviewed, and an interpretative phenomenological approach…
Mazza, Elena T.
The professional literature on gatekeeping in social work education has grown; however, there remains a dearth in the literature regarding how educators truly work to engage students who are experiencing a psychiatric disability or other emotional problem. This qualitative study explored the experiences of 26 social work educators from 22 colleges…
Van der Molen, M. J.; Van Luit, J. E. H.; Jongmans, M. J.; Van der Molen, M. W.
Background: Previous research into working memory of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) has established clear deficits. The current study examined working memory in children with mild ID (IQ 55-85) within the framework of the Baddeley model, fractionating working memory into a central executive and two slave systems, the phonological…
Virtanen, M; Kivimäki, M; Singh-Manoux, A; Gimeno, D; Shipley, M J; Vahtera, J; Akbaraly, T N; Marmot, M G; Ferrie, J E
Privatisation and private sector practices have been increasingly applied to the public sector in many industrialised countries. Over the same period, long-term work disability has risen substantially. We examined whether a major organisational change--the transfer of public sector work to executive agencies run on private sector lines--was associated with an increased risk of work disability. The study uses self-reported data from the prospective Whitehall II cohort study. Associations between transfer to an executive agency assessed at baseline (1991-1994) and work disability ascertained over a period of approximately 8 years at three follow-up surveys (1995-1996, 1997-1999 and 2001) were examined using Cox proportional hazard models. In age- and sex-adjusted models, risk of work disability was higher among the 1263 employees who were transferred to an executive agency (HR 1.90, 95% CI 1.46 to 2.48) compared with the 3419 employees whose job was not transferred. These findings were robust to additional adjustment for physical and mental health and health behaviours at baseline. Increased work disability was observed among employees exposed to the transfer of public sector work to executive agencies run on private sector lines. This may highlight an unintentional cost for employees, employers and society.
Kolstad, Henrik A; Christensen, Michael V; Jensen, Lone Donbæk
for patients who were not working. CONCLUSIONS: Notification of an occupational disease may, as an unintended side effect, increase the risk of work disability. A cautious interpretation is warranted because data analyses may not fully have accounted for the poorer vocational prognosis already present......OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze if notification of an occupational disease increases the risk of work disability. METHODS: We included 2304 patients examined at the Department of Occupational Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, 1998-2005 and followed them for two years. A total......, occupational, and social characteristics that predict poorer vocational prognosis. Analyses that adjusted for these differences showed an increased risk of work disability following notification for patients who were working when notified at baseline (HR (adj)1.46, 95% CI 1.17-1.82). No effect was seen...
Jalba, C. K.; Muminovic, A.; Epple, S.; Barz, C.; Nasui, V.
Automation processes enter more and more into all areas of life and production. Especially people with disabilities can hardly keep step with this change. In sheltered workshops in Germany people with physical and mental disabilities get help with much dedication, to be integrated into the work processes. This work shows that cooperation between disabled people and industrial robots by means of industrial image processing can successfully result in the production of highly complex products. Here is described how high-pressure hydraulic pumps are assembled by people with disabilities in cooperation with industrial robots in a sheltered workshop. After the assembly process, the pumps are checked for leaks at very high pressures in a completely automated process.
Background: The article presents the results of psychosocial burdens in special educators (specialists in the field of oligophrenopedagogy) with intellectually disabled students. In theoretical part, specific context of occupational stress in special educators was introduced. Additionally, the need of broader research context regarding occupational stress and the risk of burnout in special educators working with intellectually disabled individuals were included. Material and Methods: The resu...
Dr. J.A.C. Verhoef
This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work participation in these young adults and the
Hedlund, Frank Huess
This paper examines two properties of the South African NOSA 5-Star System, a voluntary occupational health and safety (OHS) management system. The first property is the association between system implementation and final OHS outcomes measured as incidence rates of fatal and permanently disabling...... of their positive impact on OHS. It is clear though, that such systems cannot substitute authority enforcement activities.......This paper examines two properties of the South African NOSA 5-Star System, a voluntary occupational health and safety (OHS) management system. The first property is the association between system implementation and final OHS outcomes measured as incidence rates of fatal and permanently disabling...... injury. The second is the association between the Star audit rating and rates of serious occupational injury. Although there are many uncertainties involved the paper argues that companies committed to the NOSA system experienced fewer fatal and permanently disabling injuries than the general...
Polvinen, Anu; Laaksonen, Mikko; Rantala, Juha; Hietaniemi, Marjukka; Kannisto, Jari; Kuivalainen, Susan
The aim of this study was to find out whether health and financial factors are associated with engagement in paid work during a disability pension. The data included a 10 per cent sample of Finns aged 20-62 years who were drawing earnings-related full or partial disability pension in 2012 ( n = 14,418). Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios for working while on a full or partial disability pension. Fourteen per cent of full disability pensioners and 76 per cent of partial disability pensioners were engaged in paid work. Full disability pensioners due to mental disorders were working less often than full disability pensioners due to other diseases. Partial disability pensioners due to cardiovascular diseases were working more than partial disability pensioners due to other diseases. More recent timing of disability pension was associated with working for both partial and full disability pensioners. Working while on disability pension was more common among those with higher education. Partial disability pensioners with average pension worked more often than those with high pension. By knowing the factors associated with working while on a disability pension, policies could be more efficiently allocated to encourage disability pensioners to take up work. One way would be to support disability pensioners with low education to work more. Another way to increase work among disability pensioners is to support the recently retired in working longer.
Gensby, Ulrik; Lund, Thomas; Kowalski, Krystyna
Return-to-work (RTW) following work related injuries or illnesses is receiving continued attention from a wide spectrum of research fields and is an important topic for many policy- and decision-makers. In particular long-term sickness absence is a challenge associated with a series of negative...... is still needed. This review will evaluate the effect of workplace disability management programs promoting RTW - i.e. report on the evidence and describes and combine results from individual studies on workplace disability management programs and explain possible variations in practice....
Bartys, Serena; Frederiksen, Pernille; Bendix, Tom
Work disability due to low back pain is a significant global health concern. Current policy and practice aimed at tackling this problem is largely informed by the biopsychosocial model. Resultant interventions have demonstrated some small-scale success, but they have not created a widespread...... and disability benefits), healthcare and family systems (spouse/partner/close others) can act as obstacles to work participation for those with low back pain. Systematic searches of several scientific and grey literature sources were conducted, resulting in 1762 records. Following a systematic exclusion process...
Monkiewicz, Jacqueline A.; Shanahan, J.; Murphy, Nicholas Arnold; Gilbert, Lauren
The Working Group on Accessibility and Disability (WGAD) was formed by the Council of the American Astronomical Society in late 2015 in order to monitor and addresses issues of inclusivity in the astronomical community related to disability. WGAD promotes of the principles of universal accessibility and disability justice in both professional astronomy and astronomy education. The short term goals of WGAD for the next two years include producing a set of guidelines for a wide range of activities including supporting improved access to journals, data, and conferences. We will provide information and training regarding universal design as a guiding principle. The longer term goals of WGAD include integrating universal design as primary design strategy across the board in our many aspects of daily work life.
Flores, Noelia; Jenaro, Cristina; Orgaz, M. Begona; Martin, M. Victoria
Background: This paper examines the perceived quality of working life of workers with intellectual disabilities. Specifically, this paper looks at participants' perceptions in relation to perceived job demands and resources and their impact on experienced job satisfaction. Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, 507 workers with intellectual…
Solvoll, Betty-Ann; Hall, Elisabeth; Støre Brinchmann, Berit
Background: Healthcare providers caring for learning-disabled individuals in institutions face challenges of what is right or wrong in their daily work. Serving this group, it is of utmost importance for the healthcare staff to raise awareness and to understand how ethical values are at stake...
Mellin, Elizabeth A.; Hunt, Brandon; Lorenz, Dawn C.
Faculty in CORE-accredited rehabilitation counseling programs (N = 46) were surveyed to assess preparation for work with youth with psychiatric disabilities and to identify barriers to developing and maintaining a specialization focused on this population within the curriculum. Although faculty reported that students enrolled in their programs…
James N. Laditka
Full Text Available The United States workforce is aging. At the same time more people have chronic conditions, for longer periods. Given these trends the importance of work disability, physical or nervous problems that limit a person’s type or amount of work, is increasing. No research has examined transitions among multiple levels of work disability, recovery from work disability, or trends. Limited research has focused on work disability among African Americans and Hispanics, or separately for women and men. We examined these areas using data from 30,563 adults in the 1968–2015 Panel Study of Income Dynamics. We estimated annual probabilities of work disability, recovery, and death with multinomial logistic Markov models. Microsimulations accounting for age and education estimated outcomes for African American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white women and men. Results from these nationally representative data suggested that the majority of Americans experience work disability during working life. Most spells ended with recovery or reduced severity. Among women, African Americans and Hispanics had less moderate and severe work disability than whites. Among men, African Americans became severely work disabled more often than whites, recovered from severe spells more often and had shorter severe spells, yet had more severe work disability at age 65. Hispanic men were more likely to report at least one spell of severe work disability than whites; they also had substantially more recovery from severe work disability, and a lower percentage of working years with work disability. Among African Americans and Hispanics, men were considerably more likely than women to have severe work disability at age 65. Work disability declined significantly across the study period for all groups. Although work disability has declined over several decades, it remains common. Results suggest that the majority of work disability spells end with recovery, underscoring the importance of
The article presents the results of psychosocial burdens in special educators (specialists in the field of oligophrenopedagogy) with intellectually disabled students. In theoretical part, specific context of occupational stress in special educators was introduced. Additionally, the need of broader research context regarding occupational stress and the risk of burnout in special educators working with intellectually disabled individuals were included. The results were obtained using Plichta and Pyzalski's Questionnaire of Occupational Burdens in Teaching (QOBT). The presented results are based on a research sample (N = 100) of special educators (female) teaching intellectually disabled students attending special schools in the city of Lódz. The obtained results were compared with the results coming from a large random sample of public school teachers working with non-intellectually disabled children from the Lodi voivodeship (N = 429) and referred to the norms of QOBT. The results show significant percentage of respondents obtaining high level of occupational burdens (conflict situations - 45%, organizational burdens - 31%, lack of work sense - 40%, global score - 40%). Seniority is not related to the level of burdens. Some significant differences concerning the level of occupational burdens between both groups of teachers were found. The study showed e.g. the strong need for supporting special educators in the workplace context and the need of implementing preventive and remedial measures at both individual and organizational levels (especially in terms of improving personal relationships in a workplace). Generally, the results show similarity of the stressors' ranking in special educators and school teachers working with non-intellectually disabled children.
Full Text Available Background: The article presents the results of psychosocial burdens in special educators (specialists in the field of oligophrenopedagogy with intellectually disabled students. In theoretical part, specific context of occupational stress in special educators was introduced. Additionally, the need of broader research context regarding occupational stress and the risk of burnout in special educators working with intellectually disabled individuals were included. Material and Methods: The results were obtained using Plichta and Pyżalski's Questionnaire of Occupational Burdens in Teaching (QOBT. The presented results are based on a research sample (N = 100 of special educators (female teaching intellectually disabled students attending special schools in the city of Łódź. The obtained results were compared with the results coming from a large random sample of public school teachers working with non-intellectually disabled children from the Łodź voivodeship (N = 429 and referred to the norms of QOBT. Results: The results show significant percentage of respondents obtaining high level of occupational burdens (conflict situations - 45%, organizational burdens - 31%, lack of work sense - 40%, global score - 40%. Seniority is not related to the level of burdens. Some significant differences concerning the level of occupational burdens between both groups of teachers were found. Conclusions: The study showed e.g. the strong need for supporting special educators in the workplace context and the need of implementing preventive and remedial measures at both individual and organizational levels (especially in terms of improving personal relationships in a workplace. Generally, the results show similarity of the stressors' ranking in special educators and school teachers working with non-intellectually disabled children. Med Pr 2014;65(2:239–250
Dalager-Pedersen, Michael; Koch, Kristoffer; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Nielsen, Henrik
Little is known about the prognosis of community-acquired bacteraemia (CAB) in workforce adults. We assessed return to workforce, risk for sick leave, disability pension and mortality within 1 year after CAB in workforce adults compared with blood culture-negative controls and population controls. Population-based cohort study. North Denmark, 1996-2011. We used population-based healthcare registries to identify all patients aged 20-58 years who had first-time blood cultures obtained within 48 h of medical hospital admission, and who were part of the workforce (450 bacteraemia exposed patients and 6936 culture-negative control patients). For each bacteraemia patient, we included up to 10 matched population controls. Return to workforce, risk of sick leave, permanent disability pension and mortality within 1 year after bacteraemia. Regression analyses were used to compute adjusted relative risks (RRs) with 95% CIs. One year after admission, 78% of patients with CAB, 85.7% of culture-negative controls and 96.8% of population controls were alive and in the workforce, and free from sick leave or disability pension. Compared with culture-negative controls, bacteraemia was associated with an increased risk for long-term sick leave (4-week duration, 40.2% vs 23.9%, adjusted RR, 1.51; CI 1.34 to 1.70) and an increased risk for mortality (30-day mortality, 4% vs 1.4%, adjusted RR, 2.34, CI 1.22 to 4.50; 1-year mortality, 8% vs 3.9%, adjusted RR, 1.73; CI 1.18 to 2.55). Bacteraemia patients had a risk for disability pension similar to culture-negative controls (2.7% vs 2.6%, adjusted RR, 0.99, CI 0.48 to 2.02) but greater than population controls (adjusted RR, 5.20; 95% CI 2.16 to 12.50). CAB is associated with long duration of sick leave and considerable mortality in working-age adults when compared with blood culture-negative controls, and an increased 1-year risk for disability pension when compared with population controls.
Horsboel, Trine A; Nielsen, Claus V; Nielsen, Bendt; Andersen, Niels T; De Thurah, Annette
Patients with haematological malignancies have a poorer labour market prognosis than the general population. We have previously found that they have low rates of return to work, and a higher risk of being granted disability pension, than individuals without a history of these diseases. The aim of this study was to further investigate the labour market prognosis for these patients, by comparing the risk of being granted wage-subsidised (WS) employment as a result of permanently reduced work capacity among patients diagnosed with haematological malignancies to a reference cohort, and to determine if relative risks differ between subtypes of haematological malignancies. We combined data from national registers on Danish patients diagnosed with haematological malignancies between 2000 and 2007 and a reference cohort without a history of these diseases. A total of 3194 patients and 28 627 reference individuals were followed until they were granted WS employment, disability pension, anticipatory pension, old age pension, emigration, death or until 26 February 2012, whichever came first. A total of 310 (10%) patients and 795 (3%) reference individuals had their work capacity permanently reduced to an extent that they were granted WS employment during the follow-up period. Age- and gender-adjusted relative risks differed significantly between the subgroups of haematological malignancies, and four years after diagnosis they ranged from 2.47 (95% CI 1.46-4.16) for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma to 10.83 (95% CI 7.15-16.40) for patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia. All eight subtypes of haematological malignancies were associated with an increased risk of being granted WS employment due to permanently reduced work capacity compared to the reference cohort. The relative risks differed according to haematological malignancy subtype, and the highest was found for patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia.
Laditka, James N.; Laditka, Sarah B.
The United States workforce is aging. At the same time more people have chronic conditions, for longer periods. Given these trends the importance of work disability, physical or nervous problems that limit a person’s type or amount of work, is increasing. No research has examined transitions among multiple levels of work disability, recovery from work disability, or trends. Limited research has focused on work disability among African Americans and Hispanics, or separately for women and men. ...
Chou, Yueh-Ching; Fu, Li-yeh; Chang, Heng-Hao
This study explored the experiences of working mothers with an adult child with intellectual disabilities to understand how they reconcile paid work and care responsibilities. Fifteen working mothers in Taiwan with an adult child with intellectual disabilities were interviewed, and an interpretative phenomenological approach was adopted for data collection and analysis. All included mothers prioritized their caregiving role over paid work. The strategies used by these mothers to make paid work fit with caregiving included having strong social networks and informal support for their care work, use of formal services, personal religious beliefs and positive attitudes towards care, as well as having flexible working hours due to self-employment, good relations with employers, working positions and work locations. Formal systems, which include both welfare and labour policies, need to be responsive to and involved in supporting these working mothers, especially those who lack good personal networks. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Laditka, James N; Laditka, Sarah B
The United States workforce is aging. At the same time more people have chronic conditions, for longer periods. Given these trends the importance of work disability, physical or nervous problems that limit a person's type or amount of work, is increasing. No research has examined transitions among multiple levels of work disability, recovery from work disability, or trends. Limited research has focused on work disability among African Americans and Hispanics, or separately for women and men. We examined these areas using data from 30,563 adults in the 1968-2015 Panel Study of Income Dynamics. We estimated annual probabilities of work disability, recovery, and death with multinomial logistic Markov models. Microsimulations accounting for age and education estimated outcomes for African American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white women and men. Results from these nationally representative data suggested that the majority of Americans experience work disability during working life. Most spells ended with recovery or reduced severity. Among women, African Americans and Hispanics had less moderate and severe work disability than whites. Among men, African Americans became severely work disabled more often than whites, recovered from severe spells more often and had shorter severe spells, yet had more severe work disability at age 65. Hispanic men were more likely to report at least one spell of severe work disability than whites; they also had substantially more recovery from severe work disability, and a lower percentage of working years with work disability. Among African Americans and Hispanics, men were considerably more likely than women to have severe work disability at age 65. Work disability declined significantly across the study period for all groups. Although work disability has declined over several decades, it remains common. Results suggest that the majority of work disability spells end with recovery, underscoring the importance of rehabilitation and
von Bonsdorff, Monika E; Rantanen, Taina; Törmäkangas, Timo; Kulmala, Jenni; Hinrichs, Timo; Seitsamo, Jorma; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Ilmarinen, Juhani; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B
Little is known about the wellbeing and mobility limitation of older disability retirees. Personal and environmental factors, such as time spent in working life, may either exacerbate or mitigate the onset of mobility limitation in general population. We aimed to study perceived midlife work ability as a determinant of self-reported mobility limitation in old age among municipal employees who transitioned into non-disability and disability retirement. 4329 participants of the Finnish Longitudinal Study of Municipal Employees (FLAME) had retired during January 1985 and July 2000. They had data on retirement, perceived work ability in 1985, and self-reported mobility limitation (non-disability retirement n = 2870, men 39%; and diagnose-specific disability retirement n = 1459, men 48%). Self-reported mobility was measured in 1985, 1992, 1997 and 2009. The latest score available was used to assess the number of mobility limitation. Work ability was measured by asking the respondents to evaluate their current work ability against their lifetime best in 1985. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for work ability predicting mobility limitation in non-disability and diagnose-specific disability retirement groups were calculated using Poisson regression models. The prevalence of mobility limitation for those who transitioned into non-disability retirement (Incidence Rate, IR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.44-0.46) was lower compared to those who retired due to disability (IR = 0.65, CI = 0.63-0.66). A one-point increase in the work ability score decreased the risk for having one more mobility limitation among non-disability and all diagnose-specific retirement groups (musculoskeletal disease, cardiovascular disease, mental disorder, and other diseases). Better midlife work ability may protect from old age mobility limitation among those who retire due to non-disability and disability. Promoting work ability in midlife may lead to more independent, active
Kalina, C M
Managers are challenged to demonstrate all programs as economically essential to the business, generating an appreciable return on investment. Further challenge exists to blend and integrate clinical and business objectives in program development. Disability management programs must be viewed as economically essential to the financial success of the business to assure management support for clinical interventions and return-to-work strategies essential for a successful program. This paper discusses a disability management program integrating clinical and business goals and objectives in return-to-work strategies to effect positive clinical, social-cultural, and business results. Clinical, educational, social, and economic challenges in the development, implementation, and continued management of a disability program at a large corporation with multiple global work sites are defined. Continued discussion addresses the effective clinical interventions and educational strategies utilized successfully within the workplace environment in response to each defined challenge. A multiple disciplinary team approach, clinical and business outcome measures, and quality assurance indicators are discussed as major program components. This article discusses a successful program approach focusing on business process and methodology. These parameters are used to link resources to strategy, developing a product for implementing and managing a program demonstrating economic value added through effective clinical medical case management.
Etevaldo Matos Maia Filho
Full Text Available Purpose: The present study aims to evaluate, ex vivo, the accuracy of electronic apex locators Root ZX II and Romiapex-15, for working length (WL determination in permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: Fourteen single-rooted teeth (incisors and canines, with their apices fully formed were used. The dental crowns were removed. The anatomic length of the tooth (real measurement was visually determined through the insertion of a size 10 K-file until the tip of the instrument could be observed in the apical foramen under a microscope (20X. Teeth were fixed in a model of resin and adapted into alginate soaked with saline solution, which was used as an electrical conductor. Using a K-file, root canals were measured electronically using both devices. The results obtained for each apex locator were compared to the real measurements. The accuracy between the devices was statistically analyzed using the Bland-Altman graph, Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC, and Student’s t-test. Results: The mean difference between the measurements using the Root ZX II was 0.277mm greater than the real measurement, while the measurements from the Romiapex-15 were 0.308mm higher on average. The comparison between Root ZX II and Romiapex-15 had no significant difference (p= 0.868. Conclusion: It was concluded that Root ZX II and Romiapex-15 had similar accuracy. Romiapex-15 could be an option for WL determination in permanent teeth.
Full Text Available For families with a disabled child, the usual challenges of family life can be further complicated by the need to access a wide range of services provided by a plethora of professionals and agencies. Key working aims to support children and their families in navigating these complexities ensuring easy access to relevant, high quality, and coordinated care. The aim of this paper is to explore the key worker role in relation to “being a key worker” and “having a key worker”. The data within this paper draw on a larger evaluation study of the Blackpool Early Support Pilot Programme. The qualitative study used an appreciative and narrative approach and utilised mixed methods (interviews, surveys and a nominal group workshop. Data were collected from 43 participants (parents, key workers, and other stakeholders. All stakeholders who had been involved with the service were invited to participate. In the paper we present and discuss the ways in which key working made a difference to the lives of children and their families. We also consider how key working transformed the perspectives of the key workers creating a deeper and richer understanding of family lives and the ways in which other disciplines and agencies worked. Key working contributed to the shift to a much more family-centred approach, and enhanced communication and information sharing between professionals and agencies improved. This resulted in families feeling more informed. Key workers acted in an entrepreneurial fashion, forging new relationships with families and between families and other stakeholders. Parents of young disabled children and their service providers benefited from key working. Much of the benefit accrued came from strong, relational, and social-professional networking which facilitated the embedding of new ways of working into everyday practice. Using an appreciative inquiry approach provided an effective and relevant way of engaging with parents, professionals
Robert W Teasell
Full Text Available Disability is a multifactorial phenomena in chronic pain disorders, as it is for other painful and nonpainful medical conditions. Socioeconomic factors are important determinants of disability, although this aspect of disability in chronic pain disorders is often ignored. Lower socioeconomic status has been shown to be associated with an increase in the frequency and severity of disability, and the rate of progression to disability in patients with chronic pain. Work disability in lower socioeconomic groups is associated with issues of physical work demands and work flexibility (ie, the ability to control the pace of work, take unscheduled breaks or engage in modified work. Workplace interventions, particularly in the subacute phase, that are geared to workers' limitations offer the best opportunity to reduce the current burden of disability. Where such work modifications are not available, disability will be problematic.
Geiger, Ben Baumberg; Garthwaite, Kayleigh; Warren, Jon; Bambra, Clare
It has been argued that social security disability assessments should directly assess claimants' work capacity, rather than relying on proxies such as on functioning. However, there is little academic discussion of how such assessments could be conducted. The article presents an account of different models of direct disability assessments based on case studies of the Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, Norway, the United States of America, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, utilising over 150 documents and 40 expert interviews. Three models of direct work disability assessments can be observed: (i) structured assessment, which measures the functional demands of jobs across the national economy and compares these to claimants' functional capacities; (ii) demonstrated assessment, which looks at claimants' actual experiences in the labour market and infers a lack of work capacity from the failure of a concerned rehabilitation attempt; and (iii) expert assessment, based on the judgement of skilled professionals. Direct disability assessment within social security is not just theoretically desirable, but can be implemented in practice. We have shown that there are three distinct ways that this can be done, each with different strengths and weaknesses. Further research is needed to clarify the costs, validity/legitimacy, and consequences of these different models. Implications for rehabilitation It has recently been argued that social security disability assessments should directly assess work capacity rather than simply assessing functioning - but we have no understanding about how this can be done in practice. Based on case studies of nine countries, we show that direct disability assessment can be implemented, and argue that there are three different ways of doing it. These are "demonstrated assessment" (using claimants' experiences in the labour market), "structured assessment" (matching functional requirements to workplace demands), and "expert assessment" (the
Spekhorst, Lieke M; Oldenburg, Bas; van Bodegraven, Ad A; de Jong, Dirk J; Imhann, Floris; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E; Pierik, Marieke J; van der Woude, Janneke C; Dijkstra, Gerard; D'Haens, Geert; Löwenberg, Mark; Weersma, Rinse K; Festen, Eleonora A M
To determine the prevalence of work disability in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and to assess risk factors associated with work disability. For this retrospective cohort study, we retrieved clinical data from the Dutch IBD Biobank on July 2014, containing electronic patient records of 3388 IBD patients treated in the eight University Medical Centers in the Netherlands. Prevalence of work disability was assessed in 2794 IBD patients and compared with the general Dutch population. Multivariate analyses were performed for work disability (sick leave, partial and full disability) and long-term full work disability (> 80% work disability for > 2 years). Prevalence of work disability was higher in Crohn's disease (CD) (29%) and ulcerative colitis (UC) (19%) patients compared to the general Dutch population (7%). In all IBD patients, female sex, a lower education level, and extra-intestinal manifestations, were associated with work disability. In CD patients, an age > 40 years at diagnosis, disease duration > 15 years, smoking, surgical interventions, and anti-TNFα use were associated with work disability. In UC patients, an age > 55 years, and immunomodulator use were associated with work disability. In CD patients, a lower education level (OR = 1.62, 95%CI: 1.02-2.58), and in UC patients, disease complications (OR = 3.39, 95%CI: 1.09-10.58) were associated with long-term full work disability. The prevalence of work disability in IBD patients is higher than in the general Dutch population. Early assessment of risk factors for work disability is necessary, as work disability is substantial among IBD patients.
Gensby, Ulrik; Lund, Thomas; Kowalski, Krystyna
This report presents a Campbell systematic review on the effectiveness of workplace disability management programs (WPDM programs) promoting return to work (RTW), as implemented and practised by employers. The objectives of this review were to assess the effects of WPDM programs, to examine...... non-randomized studies (NRS) and eleven single group ‘before and after’ studies (B & A)), including data from eleven different WPDM programs, met the inclusion criteria. There were insufficient data on the characteristics of the sample and the effect sizes were uncertain. There is a lack of evidence...
Solvoll, Betty-Ann; Hall, Elisabeth O C; Brinchmann, Berit Støre
Healthcare providers caring for learning-disabled individuals in institutions face challenges of what is right or wrong in their daily work. Serving this group, it is of utmost importance for the healthcare staff to raise awareness and to understand how ethical values are at stake. What ethical challenges are discussed among healthcare providers working with adults with learning disabilities? The study had a qualitative and investigative design. The study was conducted in a community institution for adults with learning disabilities. Participants were healthcare providers joining regular focused group discussions. Two groups participated and each group consisted of six participants. The conversations were taped and transcribed. The study was reported to Norwegian Social Science Data Services and was approved by the regional ethics committee. Findings are presented in four themes: (a) feeling squeezed between conflicting actions, (b) being the client's spokesman, (c) searching shared responsibility, and (d) expecting immediate and fixed solutions. The healthcare providers wanted to be the clients' advocates. They felt obliged to speak up for the clients, however, seeking for someone with whom to share the heavily experienced responsibility. Data likewise revealed that the group discussions created expectations among the healthcare providers; they expected smart and final solutions to the problems they discussed. The discussion focuses on everyday ethical challenges, the meaning of being in-between and share responsibility, and the meaning of ethical sensitivity. Ethical challenges can be demanding for the staff; they might feel squeezed in-between contradictory attitudes or feel alone in decision-making. Frequent conversations about ethical challenges do not solve the ethical problems here-and-now, but they do visualize them. This also visualizes the staff's need for support. © The Author(s) 2014.
Liukko, Jyri; Kuuva, Niina
This article explores which concrete factors hinder or facilitate the cooperation of return-to-work (RTW) professionals in a complex system of multiple stakeholders. The empirical material consists of in-depth interviews with 24 RTW professionals from various organizations involved in work disability management in Finland. The interviews were analyzed using thematic content analysis. The study revealed several kinds of challenges in the cooperation of the professionals. These were related to two partly interrelated themes: communication and distribution of responsibility. The most difficult problems were connected to the cooperation between public employment offices and other stakeholders. However, the study distinguished notable regional differences depending primarily on the scale of the local network. The main areas of improvement proposed by the interviewees were related to better networking of case managers and expansion of expertise. The article argues for the importance of systematic networking and stresses the role of public employment services in the multi-actor management of work disabilities. The article contributes to existing work disability case management models by suggesting the employment administration system as an important component in addition to health care, workplace and insurance systems. The study also highlights the need for expansion of expertise in the field. Implications for Rehabilitation Cooperation between RTW professionals in public employment offices and other organizations involved in work disability management was considered inadequate. In order to improve the cooperation of RTW professionals, the stakeholders need to create more systematic ways of communication and networking with professionals in other organizations. There is a need to expand the expertise in work disability management and rehabilitation, partly by increasing the role of other professionals than physicians.
Guo, Liyan; Xia, Changliang; Wang, Huimin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Shi, Tingna
As is well known, the armature current will be ahead of the back electromotive force (back-EMF) under load condition of the interior permanent magnet (PM) machine. This kind of advanced armature current will produce a demagnetizing field, which may make irreversible demagnetization appeared in PMs easily. To estimate the working points of PMs more accurately and take demagnetization under consideration in the early design stage of a machine, an improved equivalent magnetic network model is established in this paper. Each PM under each magnetic pole is segmented, and the networks in the rotor pole shoe are refined, which makes a more precise model of the flux path in the rotor pole shoe possible. The working point of each PM under each magnetic pole can be calculated accurately by the established improved equivalent magnetic network model. Meanwhile, the calculated results are compared with those calculated by FEM. And the effects of d-axis component and q-axis component of armature current, air-gap length and flux barrier size on working points of PMs are analyzed by the improved equivalent magnetic network model.
Background The objective of our study was to describe factors associated with repeat workers' compensation claims and to compare the work disability arising in workers with single and multiple compensation claims. Methods All initial injury claims lodged by persons of working age during a five year period (1996 to 2000) and any repeat claims were extracted from workers' compensation administrative data in the state of Victoria, Australia. Groups of workers with single and multiple claims were identified. Descriptive analysis of claims by affliction, bodily location, industry segment, occupation, employer and workplace was undertaken. Survival analysis determined the impact of these variables on the time between the claims. The economic impact and duration of work incapacity associated with initial and repeat claims was compared between groups. Results 37% of persons with an initial claim lodged a second claim. This group contained a significantly greater proportion of males, were younger and more likely to be employed in manual occupations and high-risk industries than those with single claims. 78% of repeat claims were for a second injury. Duration between the claims was shortest when the working conditions had not changed. The initial claims of repeat claimants resulted in significantly (p claims. Conclusions A substantial proportion of injured workers experience a second occupational injury or disease. These workers pose a greater economic burden than those with single claims, and also experience a substantially greater cumulative period of work disability. There is potential to reduce the social, health and economic burden of workplace injury by enacting prevention programs targeted at these workers. PMID:21696637
Different aspects of the construction of a building extension to the Geneva-Cointrin Airport in Switzerland are approached. At the end of the work, the airport will count six new gates. The priorities of the project are the comfort and the security of the passengers, the minimisation of energy consumption and environmental impact. A large part of the building facades is glassy favouring daylighting and natural space heating. In summer, a network of water-cooled tubes and plates hanging close to the ceiling makes up the air cooling. Globally, the airport fuel consumption has decreased since 1987, while the built surface has more than doubled. The installation, in 1996, of four Low-Nox burners in the thermal power plant also contributed to save primary energy.
Jetha, Arif; Pransky, Glenn; Fish, Jon; Hettinger, Lawrence J.
Background Return-to-work (RTW) within a complex organizational system can be associated with suboptimal outcomes. Purpose To apply a sociotechnical systems perspective to investigate complexity in RTW; to utilize system dynamics modeling (SDM) to examine how feedback relationships between individual, psychosocial, and organizational factors make up the work disability system and influence RTW. Methods SDMs were developed within two companies. Thirty stakeholders including senior managers, an...
Karhula, Kati; Hakola, Tarja; Koskinen, Aki; Ojajärvi, Anneli; Kivimäki, Mika; Härmä, Mikko
We aimed to study whether permanent night workers sleep and psychosocial factors differ from day workers and shift workers. The participants (n = 9 312, 92% females, average age 45 years, most commonly nurses and departmental secretaries) were day workers (DW, n = 2 672), shift workers (SW, n = 6 486) and permanent night workers (PNW, n = 154). The Finnish Public Sector survey responses from six hospital districts from 2012 were combined to payroll data from 91 days preceding the survey. The data were analyzed using Pearson χ 2 -test, one-way ANOVA and multinomial logistic regression analysis. The PNWs reported slightly longer average sleep length than the SWs or the DWs (7:27 vs. 7:13 and 7:10 h, p < 0.001). The PNWs reported least often difficulties in maintaining sleep (p < 0.001) compared to the SWs and the DWs. The PNWs reported most often difficulties to fall asleep and fatigue during free-time (p-values <0.001). The DWs and PNWs experienced less often work-life conflict than the SWs (25 and 26 vs. 38%, p < 0.001). The PNWs were more often satisfied with autonomy at work and appreciation and fair treatment by colleagues than the DWs or the SWs (p < 0.001). The SWs and PNWs reported remarkably higher occurrence of verbal (p < 0.001, OR 3.71, 95% CI 3.23-4.27 and OR 7.67, 95% CI 5.35-10.99, respectively) and physical workplace violence (p < 0.001, OR 9.24, 95% CI 7.17-11.90 and OR 28.34, 95% CI 16.64-43.06, respectively) compared to DWs. Conclusively, PNWs reported contradictory differences in sleep quality compared to DWs and SWs. PNWs are more often satisfied with their colleagues and autonomy at work than DWs or SWs but face workplace violence remarkably more often.
Rank, Mark R; Hirschl, Thomas A
Work disability has implications for individual health, national health care expenditures, economic productivity, and the social safety net. Knowledge about population dynamics and risk factors associated with work disability are not delineated by cross-sectional research. In this paper the authors estimate, for the first time, the prospective lifetime risk that a head of household will report a work disability. Using forty years of longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), we estimate the lifetime risk of developing a work disability and conduct a logistic regression analysis to examine personal characteristics that increase the likelihood of a self-reported work disability. Life table methods are used to calculate lifetime prevalence, and to compute covariate effects. Between the ages of 25 and 60, over half (54.6%) of U.S. household heads will self-report a work disability, and approximately one quarter (24.1%) will self-report a severe work disability. Persons with income below 150% of the federal poverty level, or lower educational attainment, have an increased likelihood of reporting a work disability. This study finds that more than half of U.S. household heads will self-report a work disability, which is a higher prevalence than in existing cross-sectional estimates. The social context for this finding is that work disability is a major driver of spending on health care services and the social safety net. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Monika E. von Bonsdorff
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the wellbeing and mobility limitation of older disability retirees. Personal and environmental factors, such as time spent in working life, may either exacerbate or mitigate the onset of mobility limitation in general population. We aimed to study perceived midlife work ability as a determinant of self-reported mobility limitation in old age among municipal employees who transitioned into non-disability and disability retirement. Methods 4329 participants of the Finnish Longitudinal Study of Municipal Employees (FLAME had retired during January 1985 and July 2000. They had data on retirement, perceived work ability in 1985, and self-reported mobility limitation (non-disability retirement n = 2870, men 39 %; and diagnose-specific disability retirement n = 1459, men 48 %. Self-reported mobility was measured in 1985, 1992, 1997 and 2009. The latest score available was used to assess the number of mobility limitation. Work ability was measured by asking the respondents to evaluate their current work ability against their lifetime best in 1985. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs for work ability predicting mobility limitation in non-disability and diagnose-specific disability retirement groups were calculated using Poisson regression models. Results The prevalence of mobility limitation for those who transitioned into non-disability retirement (Incidence Rate, IR = 0.45, 95 % CI = 0.44–0.46 was lower compared to those who retired due to disability (IR = 0.65, CI = 0.63–0.66. A one-point increase in the work ability score decreased the risk for having one more mobility limitation among non-disability and all diagnose-specific retirement groups (musculoskeletal disease, cardiovascular disease, mental disorder, and other diseases. Conclusions Better midlife work ability may protect from old age mobility limitation among those who retire due to non-disability
Background Early retirement due to disability is a public health and work environment problem that shortens working careers. Transition to disability retirement is based on ill-health, but working conditions are also of relevance. We examined the contributions of work arrangements, physical working conditions and psychosocial working conditions to subsequent disability retirement. Methods The data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study cohort on employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland. Information on working conditions was obtained from the baseline surveys conducted in 2000, 2001 and 2002. These data were linked with register data on disability retirement and their main diagnoses obtained from the Finnish Centre for Pensions. Follow up by the end of 2008 yielded 525 disability retirement events. The analysed data included 6525 participants and 525 disability retirement events. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated from Cox regression analysis. Results Several working conditions showed own associations with disability retirement before adjustment. After adjustment for all working conditions, the primary risk factors for all-cause disability retirement were physical workload among women (HR 2.02, 95% CI 1.57-2.59) and men (HR 2.00, 95% CI 1.18-3.38), and low job control among women (HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.29-1.99). In addition, for disability retirement due to musculoskeletal causes, the risk factors were physical workload and low job control. For disability retirement due to mental causes the risk factors were computer work and low job control. Furthermore, occupational class was a risk factor for disability retirement due to all causes and musculoskeletal diseases. Conclusions Among various working conditions, those that are physically demanding and those that imply low job control are potential risk factors for disability retirement. Improving the physical working environment and enhancing control over one’s job is likely
Full Text Available Sleepiness has repeatedly been demonstrated to affect performance on a variety of cognitive tasks. While the effects of total sleep deprivation (TSD have been extensively studied, acute partial sleep deprivation (PSD, a more frequent form of sleep loss, has been studied much less often. The present study examined the effects of sleep deprivation on novel tasks involving classic sensory, working, and permanent memory systems. While the tasks did implicate different memory systems, they shared a need for effortful, sustained attention to maintain successful performance. Because of the novelty of the tasks, an initial study of the effects of TSD was carried out. The effects of PSD were subsequently examined in a second study, in which subjects were permitted only 4 h of sleep. A general detrimental effect of both total and PSD on accuracy of detection was observed and to a lesser extent, a slowing of the speed of responding on the different tasks. This overall effect is best explained by the often-reported inability to sustain attention following sleep loss. Specific effects on distinct cognitive processes were also observed, and these were more apparent following total than PSD.
Gosselin, Dominique; De Koninck, Joseph; Campbell, Kenneth
Sleepiness has repeatedly been demonstrated to affect performance on a variety of cognitive tasks. While the effects of total sleep deprivation (TSD) have been extensively studied, acute partial sleep deprivation (PSD), a more frequent form of sleep loss, has been studied much less often. The present study examined the effects of sleep deprivation on novel tasks involving classic sensory, working, and permanent memory systems. While the tasks did implicate different memory systems, they shared a need for effortful, sustained attention to maintain successful performance. Because of the novelty of the tasks, an initial study of the effects of TSD was carried out. The effects of PSD were subsequently examined in a second study, in which subjects were permitted only 4 h of sleep. A general detrimental effect of both total and PSD on accuracy of detection was observed and to a lesser extent, a slowing of the speed of responding on the different tasks. This overall effect is best explained by the often-reported inability to sustain attention following sleep loss. Specific effects on distinct cognitive processes were also observed, and these were more apparent following total than PSD.
Szubert, Zuzanna; Sobala, Wojciech
The health condition of public transport drivers is one of the factors playing a role in assuring safety of passengers taking use of this kind of transportation means. Therefore, the assessment of pathologies occurring in this occupational group is essential from the prevention point of view. Drivers employed in the municipal transport system are at particular risk. The aim of the study was to define health reasons of work disability among bus and tram drivers in general and to indicate pathologies responsible for disabilities in particular. The study covered 940 drivers (including 788 men and 152 women) employed in a municipal transportation enterprise during the years 1996-2000. Bus (30%) and tram (22%) drivers as well as transport service workers (48%), aged over 45 years, but under the retirement age, were eligible for the study. The analysis of temporary work disability during a five-year period was based on sickness absence, sickness absence rate and the average duration of sickness absence. The analysis revealed that diseases of the circulatory system form the major group of pathologies responsible for total sickness absence among bus drivers (43%), tram drivers (27%) and transport service workers (27%). These disease are also a leading cause of earlier retirement. They mostly include ischemic heart disease in bus drivers and hypertension in tram drivers. Cancers (pleura, kidney and eye) were responsible for 9% of sickness absence in the group of male tram drivers, whereas endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases and immunity disorders (diabetes, disorders of thyroid gland) in 16% of female tram drivers. Diseases of the musculoskeletal system were major causes of sickness absence among female tram drivers (24%), whereas malignant and benign neoplasms of breast and uterine myoma in 24% of female transport service workers. The results of the analysis are in agreement with the literature findings and provide explicit evidence that employment in the
Jetha, Arif; Pransky, Glenn; Fish, Jon; Hettinger, Lawrence J
Background Return-to-work (RTW) within a complex organizational system can be associated with suboptimal outcomes. Purpose To apply a sociotechnical systems perspective to investigate complexity in RTW; to utilize system dynamics modeling (SDM) to examine how feedback relationships between individual, psychosocial, and organizational factors make up the work disability system and influence RTW. Methods SDMs were developed within two companies. Thirty stakeholders including senior managers, and frontline supervisors and workers participated in model building sessions. Participants were asked questions that elicited information about the structure of the work disability system and were translated into feedback loops. To parameterize the model, participants were asked to estimate the shape and magnitude of the relationship between key model components. Data from published literature were also accessed to supplement participant estimates. Data were entered into a model created in the software program Vensim. Simulations were conducted to examine how financial incentives and light duty work disability-related policies, utilized by the participating companies, influenced RTW likelihood and preparedness. Results The SDMs were multidimensional, including individual attitudinal characteristics, health factors, and organizational components. Among the causal pathways uncovered, psychosocial components including workplace social support, supervisor and co-worker pressure, and supervisor-frontline worker communication impacted RTW likelihood and preparedness. Interestingly, SDM simulations showed that work disability-related policies in both companies resulted in a diminishing or opposing impact on RTW preparedness and likelihood. Conclusion SDM provides a novel systems view of RTW. Policy and psychosocial component relationships within the system have important implications for RTW, and may contribute to unanticipated outcomes.
Kristen Faye Bean
Full Text Available Disability content has been slowly integrated into social work curricula despite the large proportion of social workers supporting people with disabilities and its requirement in social work education by the Council on Social Work Education Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards. Schools of social work offer disability content to their students in three ways: infused, dedicated (specialization, or a combination of both. A content analysis of 1620 course titles and descriptions from the top schools of social work was conducted to assess the integration of disability content into social work curricula. Eighty percent of the schools included disability content in their curriculum. Disability content was more likely to be integrated using the infused rather than the dedicated model.
Støver, Morten; Pape, Kristine; Johnsen, Roar; Fleten, Nils; Sund, Erik R; Ose, Solveig Osborg; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon
To investigate the associations between work environment indicators and health- related work disability. A health survey of 5,749 working 40-42-year-old Norwegians from Nordland County were linked to a national register for disability pension during a follow-up of over 18 years. The risk for disability pension following various self-reported physical and psychosocial work environmental exposures (individual and cumulative) were estimated using Cox regression analysis. Both cumulative physical and psychosocial work environmental exposures were associated with an increased risk for disability pension, although this association was attenuated for most variables after adjusting for health and education. An increase in five poor psychosocial work environmental exposures was associated with a 22% increased risk for disability (adjusted hazard ratio, aHR, 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.44), whereas a similar increase in five poor physical work environmental exposures was associated with a 29% increased risk (aHR, 1.29, 95% CI 1.16-1.44). There were no indications of statistical interaction between either sex or education and work exposures. People who report a poor work environment are at a higher risk for subsequent work disability. This finding suggests that improving working conditions may be an area of intervention in order to reduce the number of people who leave the labour market with a disability pension.
To analyse the determinants of part-time employment and examine the impact of having a disability on the probability of working part-time. Our dataset allows us to take into account the heterogeneity within the disabled collective and identify the incidence of part-time work, for example, by type of disability and compare the results obtained. Using data from the ad hoc module on disability of the Spanish Labour Force Survey 2002 (which contains detailed information on key characteristics of disabled population), we used a bivariate probit model to estimate the probability of disabled women working part-time and of being employed. The results show that disabled women have a higher probability of working part-time as compared to non-disabled women, especially those with progressive illnesses, digestive and stomach disorders and chest or breathing problems. In addition, there is a positive relationship between longer disability durations and levels of part-time employment. Part-time employment can be used as a means to increase the levels of employment of disabled women, especially for those who face important barriers and difficulties as they try to enter into the labour market (e.g., those with epilepsy, mental, emotional conditions and other progressive illnesses or having long-term disabilities).
The economic growth in Asia Pacific brings with it challenges and opportunities in many areas of work and health. As economies grow and work demands increase so do accidents, injures and work disability. Burns, chemical exposures, and construction related injuries are often catastrophic in severity and lead to work disability, major acute medical and subsequent rehabilitation efforts. In addition to these acute injuries, musculoskeletal and chronic illnesses are also sources of work disability. Industrial injuries and health problems are often explained and managed based on the classic unidimensional hazard prevention model. In contrast, work disability is a multi-factorial problem and requires more complex conceptualizations than an exposure outcome model. The economic impact of disability, limitations of the widely used impairment based disability determination method, lack of adherence to wide scale implementation of evidence based clinical approaches, the need for meaningful stakeholder involvement and the potential of a multivariable view of work disability, in all aspects of work disability prevention, management and policy are discussed in the context of Asia Pacific economic growth. With ideal alignment of diverse goals and incentives along with consideration of past efforts in disability prevention and management, new models, processes and policies can be created as commerce in these countries continues to grow.
Full Text Available The present case study investigates the effects of a cognitive training of verbal working memory that was proposed for Davide, a fourteen-year-old boy diagnosed with mild intellectual disability. The program stimulated attention, inhibition, switching, and the ability to engage either in verbal dual tasks or in producing inferences after the content of a short passage had been encoded in episodic memory. Key elements in our program included (1 core training of target cognitive mechanisms; (2 guided practice emphasizing concrete strategies to engage in exercises; and (3 a variable amount of adult support. The study explored whether such a complex program produced near transfer effects on an untrained dual task assessing verbal working memory and whether effects on this and other target cognitive mechanisms (i.e., attention, inhibition and switching were long-lasting and produced far transfer effects on cognitive flexibility. The effects of the intervention program were investigated with a research design consisting of four subsequent phases lasting eight or ten weeks, each preceded and followed by testing. There was a control condition (phase 1 in which the boy received, at home, a stimulation focused on the visuospatial domain. Subsequently, there were three experimental training phases, in which stimulation in the verbal domain was first focused on attention and inhibition (phase 2a, then on switching and simple working memory tasks (phase 2b, then on complex working memory tasks (phase 3. A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered before and after each training phase and seven months after the conclusion of the intervention. The main finding was that Davide changed from being incapable of addressing the dual task request of the listening span test in the initial assessment to performing close to the normal limits of a thirteen-year-old boy in the follow-up assessment with this test, when he was fifteen years old.
Shaw, William S; Pransky, Glenn; Patterson, William; Linton, Steven J; Winters, Thomas
To identify subgroups of patients with work-related back pain based on disability risk factors. Patients with work-related back pain (N = 528) completed a 16-item questionnaire of potential disability risk factors before their initial medical evaluation. Outcomes of pain, functional limitation, and work disability were assessed 1 and 3 months later. A K-Means cluster analysis of 5 disability risk factors (pain, depressed mood, fear avoidant beliefs, work inflexibility, and poor expectations for recovery) resulted in 4 sub-groups: low risk (n = 182); emotional distress (n = 103); severe pain/fear avoidant (n = 102); and concerns about job accommodation (n = 141). Pain and disability outcomes at follow-up were superior in the low-risk group and poorest in the severe pain/fear avoidant group. Patients with acute back pain can be discriminated into subgroups depending on whether disability is related to pain beliefs, emotional distress, or workplace concerns.
Reno, Virginia P.; Ekman, Lisa D.
Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) is an essential lifeline for millions of Americans. Without it, many families would be in deep financial distress. SSDI is insurance that workers pay for through premiums deducted from their pay. In return, workers gain the right to monthly benefits if a disabling condition ends their capacity to earn a…
Full Text Available Depression is a major cause of disability in working populations and the reduction of socioeconomic inequalities in disability is an important public health challenge. We examined work disability due to depression with four indicators of socioeconomic status.A prospective cohort study of 125 355 Finnish public sector employees was linked to national register data on work disability (>9 days due to depressive disorders (International Classification of Diseases, codes F32-F34 from January 2005 to December 2011. Primary outcomes were the onset of work disability due to depressive disorders and, among those with such disability, return to work after and recurrent episodes of work disability due to depression.We found a consistent inverse socioeconomic gradient in work disability due to depression. Lower occupational position, lower educational level, smaller residence size, and rented (vs. owner-occupied residence were all associated with an increased risk of work disability. Return to work was slower for employees with basic education (cumulative odds ratio = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.05-1.39 compared to those with higher education. Recurrent work disability episodes due to depression were less common among upper-grade non-manual workers (the highest occupational group than among lower-grade non-manual (hazard ratio = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.07-1.25 and manual (hazard ratio = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02-1.26 workers.These data from Finnish public sector employees show persistent socioeconomic inequalities in work disability due to depression from 2005 to 2011 in terms of onset, recovery and recurrence.
Holwerda, Anja; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra
Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are three to four times less often employed compared to their non-disabled peers. Evidence for factors associated with work participation of young adults with ID is limited. Furthermore, studies on predictors for sustainable work participation among
Holwerda, Anja; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra
Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are three to four times less often employed compared to their non-disabled peers. Evidence for factors associated with work participation of young adults with ID is limited. Furthermore, studies on predictors for sustainable work participation among young adults with ID is lacking altogether.…
Holwerda, A.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; de Boer, M.R.; Groothoff, J.W.; Brouwer, S.
Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are three to four times less often employed compared to their non-disabled peers. Evidence for factors associated with work participation of young adults with ID is limited. Furthermore, studies on predictors for sustainable work participation among
Devereux, Jason; Hastings, Richard; Noone, Steve
Background: Staff in intellectual disability services can be at risk of stress and burnout at work. Given that staff well-being has implications for the quality of life of the staff themselves and people with intellectual disabilities themselves, this is an important research and practical topic. In this paper, we review work stress theories that…
Brooks, Sharon; Paterson, Gail
This article describes a project about using contact work with people with learning disabilities and autistic spectrum disorder. People with learning disabilities and additional autistic spectrum disorder are at risk of becoming socially isolated because of their difficulties in interacting with others. Contact work is a form of Pre-Therapy, which…
Clayton, Olivia; Chester, Andrea; Mildon, Robyn; Matthews, Jan
Background: Challenges for practitioners who work with parents with intellectual disability arise from several sources. The purpose of the current study was to identify the stressors experienced by practitioners who work with parents with intellectual disability in Australia, investigate coping strategies and explore training needs so as to inform…
Croon, de E.M.; Sluiter, J.K.; Nijssen, TF; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Lankhorst, G.J.; Frings-Dresen, MH
BACKGROUND: Work disability-a common outcome of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-is a societal (for example, financial costs) and individual problem (for example, loss of status, income, social support, and distraction from pain and distress). Until now, factors that predict work disability in RA have not
Pluta, David J.; Accordino, Michael P.
This investigation was a baseline study to determine if the speed of return to work could be predicted for people with psychiatric disabilities in a private sector setting. Participants with psychiatric disability claims who returned to work (N = 300) were obtained from a nationwide "Fortune 500" insurance company. The authors compared the speed…
To analyse the use of part-time work among older workers with disabilities compared with their non-disabled counterparts within a European context. Cross-sectional. Data were drawn from the 2004 Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. The key advantage of this dataset is that it provides a harmonized cross-national dimension, and contains information for European individuals aged 50 years or over on a wide range of health indicators, disability, socio-economic situation, social relations, etc. Older people with disabilities (aged 50-64 years) are more likely to have a part-time job compared with their non-disabled counterparts. Although there is an important employment gap between the two groups, many older workers with disabilities use part-time work to achieve a better balance between their health status and working life. The econometric analysis corroborated that being disabled has a positive effect on the probability of working on a part-time basis, although this effect varies by country. Policy makers must encourage part-time employment as a means of increasing employment opportunities for older workers with disabilities, and support gradual retirement opportunities with flexible and reduced working hours. It is crucial to change attitudes towards older people with disabilities in order to increase their labour participation and reduce their levels of poverty and marginalization.
Vall Castelló, Judit
Policymakers and organizations representing people with disabilities have highlighted the importance of promoting the employment prospects of disabled individuals as a determinant to ensure their broader integration into the society. Policy reforms that attempt to incentivise disabled individuals to work typically involve reduced financial punishments for earning above a predetermined threshold (substantial gainful activity). This paper exploits a Spanish reform that entirely eliminated any disincentives for disabled individuals to work. Partially disabled individuals in Spain are subject to income taxation in all regions except in the province of Bizkaia. Before 2007, partially disabled individuals in Bizkaia were exempt from income taxation if they did not work. In December 2006, a new law was passed in Bizkaia that distinguished between individuals aged 55 or younger, who were no longer tax-exempt, and those who were older than 55 years, who continued to be tax-exempt if they did not work. I exploit this change in the legislation and employ both a difference-in-difference strategy comparing the employment outcomes of disabled young men across provinces and time as well as a triple difference model with disabled men older than 55 years, who are unaffected by the policy. My results show that the reform increased the probability of working by 6.5 percentage points for disabled men aged 55 or younger. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder
with alternative frameworks, such as social and cultural constructions, materialist and political economy perspectives, and critiques of disciplinary power and the discourses of normalcy and measurement. These alternative conceptualizations drawn from humanities, social sciences, and disability studies can form...
Busse, Jason W; Dolinschi, Roman; Clarke, Andrew; Scott, Liz; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Amick, Benjamin C; Rivilis, Irina; Cole, Donald
Return to work after a leave on disability is a common phenomenon, but little is known about the attitudes of employees or their supervisors towards the disability management process. We report on employee and supervisor feedback from one disability management experience. 389 consecutive employees from the Ontario offices of a single private Canadian insurance company returning to work from short-term disability, and their supervisors. We surveyed employees and their supervisors about their experience with, and attitudes towards, the disability management process. Of those surveyed, 88 employees and 75 supervisors provided data (response rates of 22.6% and 19.3% respectively). The majority of respondents (79.1% of employees and supervisors) endorsed positive attitudes towards their disability management experience. More than 25% of employees disagreed with the following three items: case managers contributed to recovery, case managers removed barriers to recovery, and sufficient support was provided in the return to work process. More than 25% of employees and managers reported that a commitment to modify an unhelpful work situation was not followed through. The majority of participating employees returning to work from short-term disability, and their supervisors, reported a high level of satisfaction with the disability management process. Areas that may benefit from attention include some aspects of case manager-employee interaction and ensuring that support during the return to work process is provided, including modification to work situations when appropriate.
Lochhead, Lois E; MacMillan, Peter D
The Oswestry disability index (ODI) is the most widely used measure of perceived disability for low back conditions. It has been adopted without adaptation in functional capacity evaluation (FCE). Rigorous testing of the ODI with modern psychometric methods, in this setting, is warranted. To determine the psychometric properties of the ODI in FCE: unidimensionality; differential item functioning; item coverage and to identify poorly functioning items, allowing for improvement of these items and recalibration of the scale. Rasch analysis, specifically Masters' partial credit model, was conducted on data. 133 work-disabled individuals presenting for FCE in northern British Columbia, Canada. All items had one poorly functioning option. Items were rescaled from six categories to five, improving the psychometric properties of the ODI as a unidimensional (disability due to back pain) scale. Item difficulty range is sufficient for a population with mild to severe disability. Although two of the ten ODI items functioned marginally unsatisfactorily in the unrevised state, the 5-option revised ODI appears superior. Use in clinical settings across a broad spectrum of disability levels could help establish its psychometric properties. Health professionals should be aware that the ODI may perform differently depending on client population.
Conclusion: A synthesis of findings was presented in a narrative that reflects the themes of youth with disabilities and employment in the world, work transition endeavours in the developing world and a specific focus on this group in South Africa. The review revealed a gap in knowledge and evidence pertaining to youth with disabilities and employment, highlighting these as research foci, and emphasising the need for youth-focused research that generates knowledge about disability and transitions into the labour force.
Pawłowska-Cyprysiak, Karolina; Konarska, Maria
The aim of this study was to present the situation of women with disabilities on the labour market. Women with disabilities suffer from social and professional discrimination. They are discriminated because of their gender and disability. The Q1 Labour Force Participation Study (2013) showed that, in Poland, labour force participation for men and women with disabilities was 29.4% and 14.7%, respectively, while the unemployment rate was 16.1% for men and 17.2% for women. Quarterly information on employment, unemployment and economic inactivity was gathered from a Labour Force Survey in the first quarter of 2013; data from the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy were also included. The participants of the survey were 15 years old or older; they were members of a sample household. The methodology was based on definitions recommended by the International Labour Office and Eurostat. It is important that women with disabilities are substantially less professionally active, while the unemployment rate for them is only slightly higher.
Lisa S. Patchner
Full Text Available During the past fifty years a revolution in how we recognize advocate, medically treat, and interact with people with disabilities has taken place within contemporary society. From historical civil rights legislation to greater access to society’s rights and benefits, to technological advances and population longevity, people with disabilities are integrating themselves into society. As we begin to explore the 21st Century new concerns regarding the cost of chronic care and society’s desire to fund these costs are beginning to emerge. The desire to qualify the cost of care by functional longevity has begun to emerge in both private and public service delivery systems. As professional social workers begin to expand their sociopolitical influence, they will be challenged to uphold the rights of self-determination that people with disabilities have striven to attain.
Ekberg, Kerstin; Pransky, Glenn S; Besen, Elyssa; Fassier, Jean-Baptise; Feuerstein, Michael; Munir, Fehmidah; Blanck, Peter
Purpose Flexible work arrangements are growing in order to develop resource-efficient production and because of advanced technologies, new societal values, changing demographics, and globalization. The article aims to illustrate the emerging challenges and opportunities for work disability prevention efforts among workers in alternate work arrangements. Methods The authors participated in a year-long collaboration that ultimately led to an invited 3-day conference, "Improving Research of Employer Practices to Prevent Disability," held October 14-16, 2015, in Hopkinton, Massachusetts, USA. The collaboration included a topical review of the literature, group conference calls to identify key areas and challenges, drafting of initial documents, review of industry publications, and a conference presentation that included feedback from peer researchers and a roundtable discussion with experts having direct employer experience. Results Both worker and employer perspectives were considered, and four common alternate work arrangements were identified: (a) temporary and contingent employment; (b) small workplaces; (c) virtual work/telework; and (d) lone workers. There was sparse available research of return-to-work (RTW) and workplace disability management strategies with regard to alternate work patterns. Limited research findings and a review of the grey literature suggested that regulations and guidelines concerning disabled workers are often ambiguous, leading to unsatisfactory protection. At the workplace level, there was a lack of research evidence on how flexible work arrangements could be handled or leveraged to support RTW and prevent disability. Potential negative consequences of this lack of organizational guidance and information are higher costs for employers and insurers and feelings of job insecurity, lack of social support and integration, or work intensification for disabled workers. Conclusions Future studies of RTW and workplace disability prevention
Lederer, Valérie; Loisel, Patrick; Rivard, Michèle; Champagne, François
Researchers are confronted to numerous definitions of work ability/disability, influenced by their context of emergence, discipline, purpose, underlying paradigm and relationship to time. This study provides an in-depth analysis of the concept through a systematic scoping review and the development of an integrative concept map of work (dis)ability. The research questions are: How has work (dis)ability been conceptualized from the perspectives of research, practice, policy and industry in the published scientific literature? How has the conceptualization of work (dis)ability evolved over time? A search strategy was designed with a library scientist to retrieve scientific publications containing explicit definition(s) of work (dis)ability in leading-edge databases. The screening and the extraction of the definitions were achieved by duplicate assessment. The definitions were subject to a comparative analysis based on the grounded theory approach. In total, 423 abstracts were retrieved from the bibliographic databases. After removing duplicates, 280 unique records were screened for inclusion. A final set of 115 publications containing unique original conceptual definitions served as basis for analysis. The scientific literature does not reflect a shared, integrated vision of the exact nature and dimensions of work (dis)ability. However, except for a few definitions, there seems to be a consensus that work (dis)ability is a relational concept resulting from the interaction of multiple dimensions that influence each other through different ecological levels. The conceptualization of work (dis)ability also seems to have become more dynamic over time. The way work (dis)ability is defined has important implications for research, compensation and rehabilitation.
Kocman, Andreas; Weber, Germain
Current research on employment options for people with Intellectual Disability emphasizes the importance of employee needs and satisfaction. The study aims at systematically reviewing the literature on job satisfaction and related constructs. A systematic literature search was conducted. Studies were included if (i) they are specific to effects of work, (ii) assessed variables are related to job satisfaction, QoWL, attitudes towards work or work motivation and if (iii) studies reported intellectual disability-specific results. Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Findings were classified according to the socio-cognitive model of job satisfaction. Current literature suggests high job satisfaction in people with intellectual disability. Predictors of job satisfaction are similar to people without disabilities, albeit the importance of factors differs. Stronger consideration of well-established theories and measures from organizational psychology would enhance future research. Findings indicate that high satisfaction ratings might result from lack of control over vocational decisions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lund, Thomas; Labriola, Merete; Feveile, Helene
Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the fraction of permanent disability pensions among the working population in Denmark that can be attributed to differences in health behaviour. Methods A total of 8,287 employees were interviewed regarding health behaviour, work environment...... status. Workplace-based smoking cessation could substantially decrease permanent disability retirement from work....
Andersen, Lars Louis; Jakobsen, Markus D; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen
To determine the effect of specific resistance training on forearm pain and work disability in industrial technicians.......To determine the effect of specific resistance training on forearm pain and work disability in industrial technicians....
Kiregu, Joshua; Murindahabi, Nathalie K; Tumusiime, David; Thomson, Dana R; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L; Ahayo, Anita
Disability affects approximately 15% of the world's population, and has adverse socio-economic effects, especially for the poor. In Rwanda, there are a number of government compensation programs that support the poor, but not specifically persons with disability (PWDs). This study investigates the relationship between poverty and government compensation on disability among working-age adults in Rwanda. This was a secondary analysis of 35,114 adults aged 16 to 65 interviewed in the 2010/2011 Rwanda Household Wealth and Living Conditions survey, a national cross-sectional two-stage cluster survey, stratified by district. This study estimated self-reported major disability, and used chi-square tests to estimate associations (pRwanda, we recommend deliberately targeted services to those with disability via cash transfers, placements in disability-appropriate employment, and micro-savings programs.
Cooney, John B.; Young, John, III; Luckner, John L.; Ferrell, Kay Alicyn
This article is intended to assist teachers and researchers in designing studies that examine the efficacy of a particular intervention or strategy with students with sensory disabilities. Ten research designs that can establish causal inference (the ability to attribute any effects to the intervention) with and without randomization are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Work Instability Scale for Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA-WIS is established and is used by physicians to identify patients at risk of job loss for rapid intervention. The study objective was to explore the concept of Work Instability (a mismatch between an individual's abilities and job demands in Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS and develop a Work Instability Scale specific to this population. Methods New items generated from qualitative interviews were combined with items from the RA-WIS to form a draft AS-WIS. Rasch analysis was used to examine the scaling properties of the AS-WIS using data generated through a postal survey. The scale was validated against a gold standard of expert assessment, a test-retest survey examined reliability. Results Fifty-seven participants who were in work returned the postal survey. Of the original 55 items 38 were shown to fit the Rasch model (χ2 37.5; df 38; p 0.494 and free of bias for gender and disease duration. Following analysis for discrimination against the gold standard assessments 20 items remained with good fit to the model (χ2 24.8; df 20; p 0.21. Test-retest reliability was 0.94. Conclusion The AS-WIS is a self-administered scale which meets the stringent requirements of modern measurement. Used as a screening tool it can identify those experiencing a mismatch at work who are at risk of job retention problems and work disability. Work instability is emerging as an important indication for the use of biologics, thus the AS-WIS has the potential to become an important outcome measure.
According to the Department of Social Development, disability grants are available to adult South African citizens and permanent residents who are incapacitated and unable to work due to illness or disability. A number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PWAs) have accessed disability grants once they have fulfilled the criteria ...
Ann Kristin Knudsen
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Mental disorders are prevalent diagnoses in disability benefit statistics, with awards often granted at younger age than for other diagnoses. We aimed to compare the number of lost working years following disability benefit award for mental disorders versus other diagnostic groups. METHODS: Data from the complete Norwegian official registry over disability benefit incidence, including primary diagnoses, were analyzed for the period 2001 to 2003 (N = 77,067, a time-period without any reform in the disability benefit scheme. Lost working years due to disability benefit award before scheduled age retirement at age 67 were calculated. RESULTS: Musculoskeletal disorders were the commonest reason for disability benefit awards (36.3% with mental disorders in second place (24.0%. However, mental disorders were responsible for the most working years lost (33.8% compared with musculoskeletal disorders (29.4%. Individuals awarded disability benefit for a mental disorder were on average 8.9 years younger (46.1 years than individuals awarded for a musculoskeletal disorder (55.0 years, and 6.9 years younger than individuals awarded for any other somatic disorder (53.0 years. Anxiety and depressive disorders were the largest contributors to lost working years within mental disorders. CONCLUSION: Age at award is highly relevant when the total burden of different diagnoses on disability benefits is considered. There is great disparity in total number of lost working years due to disability benefit award for different diagnostic groups. The high number of lost working years from mental disorders has serious consequences for both the individual and for the wider society and economy.
Willis, Diane S; Thurston, Mhairi
Increased longevity will mean an increase in people presenting with cognitive and physical disabilities, such as sight loss or dementia. The Patient Rights (Scotland) Act 2011 states that health care should be patient-focussed, taking into account patient needs. This will necessitate nursing curricula to reflect the needs of people who have disabilities and equip the future workforce with knowledge and skills to provide appropriate care. This study explores student nurses' strengths and weakness when working with people with disabilities and identifies opportunities and threats to developing their knowledge and skills to meet the needs of this population. As part of a study day, students from the year one Nursing programme were asked to take part in a SWOT analysis and post comments under the categories: strengths, weakness, opportunity and threats on a central wall about working with people with disabilities. Students acknowledged some of the challenges of being disabled especially in a health setting but also believed they were developing their skills to provide holistic care that ensured autonomy. Communication was viewed as both a strength and weakness and was identified as an essential skill to working effectively with people who had a disability. Students acknowledged that clinical staff were not always experts in working with people who were disabled and welcomed the opportunity to work with experts and clients as well as being directed to resources to increase their knowledge. Integration of disability into the nursing curriculum is needed to ensure students have awareness of and the confidence to work effectively with people who have a range of cognitive and physical disabilities alongside other medical problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.M.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Beekman, A.T.F.
Background: This longitudinal study aims to compare long-term work disability and absenteeism between anxiety and depressive disorders focusing on the effects of different course trajectories (remission, recurrence and chronic course) and specific symptom dimensions (anxiety arousal, avoidance
Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.M.; Hardevel, F.; de Graaf, R.; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.; Beekman, A.T.
Background This longitudinal study aims to compare long-term work disability and absenteeism between anxiety and depressive disorders focusing on the effects of different course trajectories (remission, recurrence and chronic course) and specific symptom dimensions (anxiety arousal, avoidance
Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.; Beekman, A.T.
BACKGROUND: This longitudinal study aims to compare long-term work disability and absenteeism between anxiety and depressive disorders focusing on the effects of different course trajectories (remission, recurrence and chronic course) and specific symptom dimensions (anxiety arousal, avoidance
Hendriks, Sanne M; Spijker, Jan; Licht, Carmilla M M; Hardeveld, Florian; de Graaf, Ron; Batelaan, Neeltje M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Beekman, Aartjan T F
This longitudinal study aims to compare long-term work disability and absenteeism between anxiety and depressive disorders focusing on the effects of different course trajectories (remission, recurrence and chronic course) and specific symptom dimensions (anxiety arousal, avoidance behaviour and depressive mood). We included healthy controls, subjects with a history of - and current anxiety and/or depressive disorders with a paid job (n=1632). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to diagnose anxiety and depressive disorders and to assess course trajectories at baseline, over 2 and 4 years. The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II and the Health and Labour Questionnaire Short Form were used to measure work disability and absenteeism. Symptom dimensions were measured using the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Fear Questionnaire and the Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology. A history of - and current anxiety and/or depressive disorders were associated with increasing work disability and absenteeism over 4 years, compared to healthy controls. Long-term work disability and absenteeism were most prominent in comorbid anxiety-depressive disorder, followed by depressive disorders, and lowest in anxiety disorders. A chronic course, anxiety arousal and depressive mood were strong predictors for long-term work disability while baseline psychiatric status, a chronic course and depressive mood were strong predictors for long-term work absenteeism. Results cannot be generalized to other anxiety disorders, such as obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder and specific phobias. Self-reported measures of work disability and absenteeism were used. Our results demonstrate that depressive syndromes and symptoms have more impact on future work disability and absenteeism than anxiety, implying that prevention of depression is of major importance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Labriola, Merete; Feveile, Helene; Christensen, Karl B; Strøyer, Jesper; Lund, Thomas
The objectives were to identify the impact of ergonomic work environment exposures on the risk of disability pension. A representative sample of 8475 employees of the total working population in Denmark were interviewed regarding work environment exposures and followed in a national register with data on granted disability pension. For women, approximately 34% of the disability pension cases were attributable to ergonomic work environment exposures. For men, 21% of the disability pension cases were attributable to ergonomic work environment. Ergonomic work environment, especially physically demanding work, working with hands lifted and repetitive work, are areas of intervention at the workplace that can facilitate and prolong labour market participation. The study provides estimates for the association between ergonomic exposures at work and administrative, cost-related measures of work disability in a large population-based longitudinal cohort study over 14 years. Approximately 21% for men and 34% for women of the disability pension cases were attributable to ergonomic work environment exposures.
Holler, Roni; Werner, Shirli
Over the last decades, the disability movement has been advocating for a paradigmatic shift in how disability is perceived and managed: from a medical or individual perspective focusing on the person's body and mind to a social perspective emphasizing the context and barriers of disability. However, we still know little about the perceptions of helping professionals, particularly social workers who work closely with disabled people. Thus, the aim of the current study is to develop and validate a scale-Perceptions Toward Disability Scale (PTDS)-to measure how social workers view disability: as an individual or social category. This paper describes the three phases of the scale's construction. First, scale items were formulated and its content validity was examined. Next, a pilot of 30 social workers completed a questionnaire and an initial exploratory factor analysis was conducted. In the third and main phase, the final draft was completed in 2016 by 565 Israeli social work students to assess its psychometric properties. Both exploratory and confirmatory factorial validity and discriminant validity analyses were conducted. The results of a confirmatory factor analysis revealed two distinct factors: an individual perspective of disability comprised of eight items (α = 0.77) and a social perspective of disability comprised of ten (α = 0.66). Subsequent analyses supported the scale's discriminant validity as indicated by the lack of an association between the Attitude Toward Disabled Persons Scale (ATDP) and the social model subscale (r = .13, p = .19) and by the weak negative relation with the individual model subscale (r = -.25, p = .01). These findings show that the PTDS possesses promising construct validity and provide support for its utility. This easy-to-administer instrument offers several practical benefits and can serve as a framework for further empirical research regarding social work practice with disabled people. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons
Kritsotakis, George; Galanis, Petros; Papastefanakis, Emmanouil; Meidani, Flora; Philalithis, Anastas E; Kalokairinou, Athena; Sourtzi, Panayota
To examine and compare undergraduate healthcare students' attitudes towards people with physical or intellectual disabilities in Greece. The experience that people with disabilities have with health care is a complex interaction between their medical condition and the social and physical environment. Attitudes of the nursing and healthcare staff affect the quality of care and people's adaptation to their disability, self-image and rehabilitation outcomes. Descriptive cross-sectional survey. Nursing, Social Work and Medicine students (N = 1007, 79.4% female) attending three universities (Athens, Crete) completed during 2014-2016 two standardised scales regarding physical (ATDP-B) and intellectual disability (CLAS-ID). Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Attitudes towards people with physical disabilities in Greece (ATDP-B scores) were poor with scores just above the mid-point. Medical studies and higher knowledge and work with individuals with physical disabilities signified marginally more positive attitudes. Gender and age displayed no associations with attitudes. Regarding intellectual disability (CLAS-ID scores), nursing students had slightly less positive attitudes in "Similarity" but more positive attitudes in "Sheltering" subscales. Previous work and contact was related to more favourable and higher age to less favourable "Similarity" and "Sheltering" attitudes. Males had higher "Exclusion" scores. Those who knew people with intellectual disabilities had less favourable "Empowerment" attitudes. Knowledge was related to more positive attitudes in all four CLAS-ID subscales. Greek health and social care students showed poor attitudes towards people with physical and intellectual disability. When holding unfavourable attitudes, healthcare professionals become less involved with the people they care for and they do not provide nursing care to the best of their abilities. Undergraduate and continuing education, along with
Gjesdal, Sturla; Bratberg, Espen
The aim of the study was to identify predictors for the transition from long-term sickness absence into disability pension with a special focus on gender. The study used data from a national database containing a 10% random sample of the Norwegian adult population (The KIRUT database). The study population were all individuals in the database who on 1 January 1990 were eligible for sick pay from the Norwegian National Insurance System: 83,398 men and 75,586 women. Individuals below 60 years with long-term sickness absence starting in 1990 and 1991 were identified, 6,434 men and 8,233 women, and followed up for three years. Background data were used as independent variables in a logistic regression of the probability for receiving disability pension during follow-up. Annual cumulative incidence of long-term sickness absence was 6.5% for women and 4.9% for men. During follow-up, 12.4% of the women and 12.6% of the men received disability pension. Among full-time employed women only 10.3% had become disability pensioners, while the corresponding proportion for women working part-time was 15.5%. For men the figures were 12.1% (full-time) and 18.1% (part-time). In the logistic regression of the whole sample the female odds ratio was insignificant. The dominant predictive factors for disability pension were age and duration of the sickness spells. Working part-time also increased the risk. Higher levels of education and having children below 7 years reduced the probability for disability pension. Separate regressions for men and women showed that the 'protective' effect of having small children only remained for women.
Breinegaard, Nina; Jensen, Johan Høy; Bonde, Jens Peter
Objective: This study examines the impact of organizational change and psychosocial work environment on non-disability early retirement among senior public service employees. Methods: In January and February 2011, Danish senior public service employees aged 58–64 years (N=3254) from the Capital...... psychosocial work environment contribute to non-disability early retirement among senior public service employees, measured at work-unit level....... Region of Denmark responded to a survey assessing psychosocial work environment (ie, social capital, organizational justice, and quality of management). Work-unit organizational changes (ie, change of management, merging, demerging, and relocation) were recorded from January 2009 to March 2011. Weekly...
Haryanti, R. H.
Vocational education is positioned within the framework of Vocational Education for All. Therefore, the alignment between the world of education and the world of work is an issue that is always actual within the framework of vocational education, including being an actual issue for people with disabilities. This article aims to map how the state frames disability and vocational education issues within the framework of public policy. The research was conducted using qualitative research method in which the data obtained from the study of documentation. Analysis of the data using content analysis. The results of the study show that the State Policy has not fully framed the issue of vocational education for the disabled into special policies. The vocational education policy for the disabled is still integrated in the major policies in certain institutions. No policy innovations have yet significantly provided a special place for the disabled.
Human resources is one of the important aspect in the management. Thereover recruitment must be accommodate by management, in order to achieve the companys goal. Employees behavior at work will influence employees output. Currently, the company is not only recruit a permanent employees but also hire a temporary employee. The objectives of this research to measure if there are significant differences in work attitudes between permanent employees and temporary employee in the Bank Sulut. Th...
Ahola, Kirsi; Virtanen, Marianna; Honkonen, Teija; Isometsä, Erkki; Aromaa, Arpo; Lönnqvist, Jouko
Work disability due to common mental disorders has increased in Western countries during the past decade. The contribution of depressive, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders to all disability pensions at the population level is not known. Epidemiological health data from the Finnish Health 2000 Study, gathered in 2000-2001, was linked to the national register on disability pensions granted due to the ICD-10 diagnoses up to December 2007. Mental health at baseline was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Sociodemographic, clinical, and work-related factors, health behaviors, and treatment setting were used as covariates in the logistic regression analyses among the 3164 participants aged 30-58 years. Anxiety, depressive, and comorbid common mental disorders predicted disability pension when adjusted for sex and age. In the fully adjusted multivariate model, comorbid common mental disorders, as well as physical illnesses, age over 45 years, short education, high job strain, and previous long-term sickness absence predicted disability pension. The study population included persons aged 30 or over. Sub groups according to mental disorders were quite small which may have diminished statistical power in some sub groups. Baseline predictors were measured only once and the length of exposure could not be determined. The systems regarding financial compensation to employees differ between countries. Comorbid mental disorders pose a high risk for disability pension. Other independent predictors of work disability include socio-demographic, clinical, work-related, and treatment factors, but not health behavior. More attention should be paid to work-related factors in order to prevent chronic work disability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Ni, Pengsheng; McDonough, Christine; Peterik, Kara; Marino, Molly; Meterko, Mark; Rasch, Elizabeth K; Chan, Leighton; Brandt, Diane; Jette, Alan M
Purpose To improve the mental health component of the Work Disability Functional Assessment Battery (WD-FAB), developed for the US Social Security Administration's (SSA) disability determination process. Specifically our goal was to expand the WD-FAB scales of mood & emotions, resilience, social interactions, and behavioral control to improve the depth and breadth of the current scales and expand the content coverage to include aspects of cognition & communication function. Methods Data were collected from a random, stratified sample of 1695 claimants applying for the SSA work disability benefits, and a general population sample of 2025 working age adults. 169 new items were developed to replenish the WD-FAB scales and analyzed using factor analysis and item response theory (IRT) analysis to construct unidimensional scales. We conducted computer adaptive test (CAT) simulations to examine the psychometric properties of the WD-FAB. Results Analyses supported the inclusion of four mental health subdomains: Cognition & Communication (68 items), Self-Regulation (34 items), Resilience & Sociability (29 items) and Mood & Emotions (34 items). All scales yielded acceptable psychometric properties. Conclusions IRT methods were effective in expanding the WD-FAB to assess mental health function. The WD-FAB has the potential to enhance work disability assessment both within the context of the SSA disability programs as well as other clinical and vocational rehabilitation settings.
Nielsen, Mette Lykke; Dyreborg, Johnny; Lipscomb, Hester
There is broad agreement that precarious work is a growing problem, and that it is highly prevalent among young employees. The aim of this paper is to examine the discursive representations of precarious work among young employees aged 18-24 in the healthcare sector, the metal industry and retail...... their position and how they position themselves in relation to uncertainty and vulnerability at work. We conclude that precarious work is not, in fact, simply a characteristic of young employees’ work as such, but rather it is related to their position in the labor market and the type of jobs in which...... they are employed. While some are in transition, others are at risk of being trapped in precarious work....
Nielsen, Mette Lykke; Dyreborg, Johnny; Lipscomb, Hester
employees aged 18–24 in the healthcare sector, the metal industry and retail trade captured in 46 interviews involving 74 participants. Results are discussed taking into consideration the Nordic welfare model with an active labour marked policy. We conclude that precarious work is not, in fact, simply......There is broad agreement that precarious work is a growing problem, and that it is highly prevalent among young employees. The financial crisis in 2008 has reinforced the need for knowledge about how precarious work affects young employees. This paper explores how the concept of precarious work may...... a characteristic of young employees’ work as such, but rather it is related to their position in the labour market and the type of jobs in which they are employed. While some are in transition, others are at risk of being trapped in precarious and risky working conditions....
Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders; McIntosh, James
for the hours off work. When the worker’s health improves, working hours are increased until the sick-listed worker is able to work regular hours. Previous studies either concern specially designed pro-grams with a limited population of disabled workers or they do not take into account the unobserved...
Saeed Reza Abadi
Full Text Available Objective: Analysis and Matching the legal system of Work for Persons with disability in Iran with Standards of International Labor Organization concerning to Decent Work. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive – Analytic study , after studying International efforts around Labor law for Persons With Disability , in the context of general and special Human rights documents and ILO ‘s Standards, the present Legal system for the work of persons with disability in Iran, Include Laws and Regulations has been considered by Using the Library – documentation method. Results: In the scope of fundamental Rights, Iranian legal system 1- About Disabled compulsory Work has enough guarantees like other workers, and there is not any deficiency. 2- About Freedom of syndicalism: there is not any deficiency too, and there is not any limitation for Disabled workers and employers membership in present associations. 3- In subject of equal remuneration, despite of non-ratification any special approval, but the Base Wage has determined the same for disabled workers (like the others in article 41 of the Labor Law. 4- About nondiscrimination, also based on present legal foundations, any kind of discrimination because of disability has been prohibited, and in field of employment, by ratification the comprehensive law recently in 2004 and by joining to convention for persons with disability in 2008 has taken serious steps too. Specially the significant gap of facilities presented in various areas of rationing public sector employment, Direct and Indirect Educational services for entering the labor market , and self –employment between war reterans and other groups of disability has been narrowed. Conclusion: Based on results of present comparative research, legal principles for fundamental Rights of vocation for people with disabilities in Iran attempt to meet the basic standards of Decent Work and thus it seems that the crucial issue, besides the passing the
Roelen, C.A.M.; Rhenen, van W.; Groothoff, J.W.; Klink, van der J.J.L.; Twisk, W.R.; Heymans, M.W.
Work ability predicts future disability pension (DP). A single-item work ability score (WAS) is emerging as a measure for work ability. This study compared single-item WAS with the multi-item work ability index (WAI) in its ability to identify workers at risk of DP.
Roelen, C.A.M.; van Rhenen, W.; Groothoff, J.W.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Heymans, M.W.
Objectives Work ability predicts future disability pension (DP). A single-item work ability score (WAS) is emerging as a measure for work ability. This study compared single-item WAS with the multi-item work ability index (WAI) in its ability to identify workers at risk of DP. Methods This
Roelen, Corne A. M.; van Rhenen, Willem; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Heymans, Martijn W.
Objectives Work ability predicts future disability pension (DP). A single-item work ability score (WAS) is emerging as a measure for work ability. This study compared single-item WAS with the multi-item work ability index (WAI) in its ability to identify workers at risk of DP. Methods This
Alavinia, S. M.; de Boer, A. G. E. M.; Van Duivenbooden, J. C.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Burdorf, A.
Background Maintaining the ability of workers to cope with physical and psychosocial demands at work becomes increasingly important in prolonging working life. Aims To analyse the effects of work-related factors and individual characteristics on work ability and to determine the predictive value of
Cornelius, L.R.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; de Boer, M.R.; Groothoff, J.W.; Brouwer, S.
Objective In most industrialized countries, disability benefit rates have increased substantially in the past decade. Few beneficiaries return into employment once disability benefit is awarded. The present study aims to investigate which factors predict functional improvement and future work status
Full Text Available Disability affects approximately 15% of the world's population, and has adverse socio-economic effects, especially for the poor. In Rwanda, there are a number of government compensation programs that support the poor, but not specifically persons with disability (PWDs. This study investigates the relationship between poverty and government compensation on disability among working-age adults in Rwanda.This was a secondary analysis of 35,114 adults aged 16 to 65 interviewed in the 2010/2011 Rwanda Household Wealth and Living Conditions survey, a national cross-sectional two-stage cluster survey, stratified by district. This study estimated self-reported major disability, and used chi-square tests to estimate associations (p<0.1 with income, government compensation, occupation type, participation in public works programs, and household poverty status. Non-collinear economic variables were included in a multivariate logistic regression, along with socio-demographic confounders that modified the relationship between any economic predictor and the outcome by 10% or more. All analyses adjusted for sampling weights, stratification, and clustering of households.Over 4% of working-age adults reported having a major disability and the most prevalent types of disability in order were physical, mental, and then sensory disability. In bivariate analysis, annual income, occupation type, and poverty status were associated with major disability (p<0.001 for all. Occupation type was dropped because it was collinear with income. Age, education, and urban/rural residence were confounders. In the multivariate analysis, adults in all income groups had about half the odds of disability compared to adults with no income (Rwf1-120,000 OR = 0.57; Rwf120,000-250,000 OR = 0.61; Rwf250,000-1,000,000 OR = 0.59; Rwf1,000,000+ OR = 0.66; p<0.05 for all, and non-poor adults had 0.77 the odds of disability compared to poor adults (p = 0.001.Given that personal income rather than
Halonen, Jaana I; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Pentti, Jaana; Virtanen, Marianna; Ervasti, Jenni; Oksanen, Tuula; Lallukka, Tea
To examine the combined effects of childhood adversities and low adult socioeconomic status (SES) on the risk of future work disability. Included were 34 384 employed Finnish Public Sector study participants who responded to questions about childhood adversities (none vs any adversity, eg, parental divorce or financial difficulties) in 2008, and whose adult SES in 2008 was available. We categorised exposure into four groups: neither (reference), childhood adversity only, low SES only or both. Participants were followed from 2009 until the first period of register-based work disability (sickness absence >9 days or disability pension) due to any cause, musculoskeletal or mental disorders; retirement; death or end of follow-up (December 2011). We ran Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for behavioural, health-related and work-related covariates, and calculated synergy indices for the combined effects. When compared with those with neither exposure, HR for work disability from any cause was increased among participants with childhood adversity, with low SES, and those with both exposures. The highest hazard was observed in those with both exposures: HR 2.53, 95% CI 2.29 to 2.79 for musculoskeletal disability, 1.55, 95% CI 1.36 to 1.78 for disability due to mental disorders and 1.29, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.39 for disability due to other reasons. The synergy indices did not indicate synergistic effects. These findings indicate that childhood psychosocial adversity and low adult SES are additive risk factors for work disability. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Full Text Available This paper summarizes a study conducted in 2012 with the purpose of analyzing work ideologies constructed by the media regarding subjectivity towards disability during the 2009 implementation of the Special Act Declaring a State of Fiscal Emergency to Save the Credit of Puerto Rico (Act No. 7. Through a qualitative design and the manifest and latent content analysis techniques, and using the Disability and Human Subjectivity Models as the theoretical framework, a total of four hundred and sixty-seven (467 newspaper articles published between February and October 2009 was reviewed. Results demonstrate that only fourteen articles (3%, which constitute the units of analysis, made reference, directly or indirectly, to disability. The content of these articles is based on an ideology that excludes people with disabilities from social participation because they are considered incapable, unfit and worthless. The disability and human subjectivity models that predominate are the socio-political and positional-existential ideology, respectively. It was concluded that the work ideologies constructed by the media regarding subjectivity towards disability are used to exclude people with disabilities from the job market, without recognizing their power and ability of being and doing.
Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Brandt, Mikkel
OBJECTIVE: Imbalance between work demands and individual resources can lead to musculoskeletal disorders and reduced work ability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two contrasting interventions on work ability among slaughterhouse workers with chronic pain and work disability....... METHODS: Sixty-six slaughterhouse workers with upper-limb chronic pain and work disability were randomly allocated to 10 weeks of either strength training for the shoulder, arm, and hand muscles (3 times per week, 10 minutes per session) or ergonomic training (usual care control group) from September.......9-3.7] in the strength training group corresponding to a moderate effect size (Cohen's d 0.52). Within-group changes indicated that between-group differences were mainly caused by a reduction in WAI in the ergonomic group. Of the 7 items of WAI, item 2 (work ability in relation to the demands of the job) and item 7...
Bethge, Matthias; Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Neuderth, Silke
To determine whether the Work Ability Index (WAI), a short 7-item self-report questionnaire addressing issues of perceived disability, impairment, and expectations for resuming work, predicts application for disability pension, recommendations for further treatment, and other adverse work-related criteria in patients with chronic back pain after rehabilitation. Cohort study with 3-month follow-up. Seven inpatient rehabilitation centers. Patients (N=294; 168 women; mean age, 49.9y) with chronic back pain. The WAI was completed at the beginning of rehabilitation. All patients were treated according to the German rehabilitation guidelines for chronic back pain and work-related medical rehabilitation. Application for disability pension, as assessed by a postal questionnaire 3 months after discharge. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of the association between the WAI at baseline and subsequent application for disability pension revealed an area under the curve of .80 (95% confidence interval [CI], .62-.97). Youden index was highest when the WAI cutoff value was ≤20 points (sensitivity, 72.7%; specificity, 82.2%; total correct classification, 81.7%). After adjusting for age and sex, persons with a baseline WAI score of ≤20 points had 15.6 times (95% CI, 3.6-68.2) higher odds of subsequent application for disability pension, 4.9 times (95% CI, 1.5-16.8) higher odds of unemployment, and 6 times (95% CI, 2.4-15.2) higher odds of long-term sick leave at follow-up. The WAI could help rehabilitation professionals identify patients with back pain with a high risk of a subsequent application for disability pension. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Njelesani, Janet; Nixon, Stephanie; Cameron, Deb; Parsons, Janet; Menon, Anitha
This paper focuses on accounts of how having a disability and being HIV-positive influences experiences of work among 21 people (12 women, 9 men) in Lusaka, Zambia. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in English, Bemba, Nyanja, or Zambian sign language. Descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted. Three major themes were generated. The first, a triple burden, describes the burden of having a disability, being HIV-positive, and being unemployed. The second theme, disability and HIV is not inability, describes participants' desire for work and their resistance to being regarded as objects of charity. Finally, how work influences HIV management, describes the practicalities of working and living with HIV. Together these themes highlight the limited options available to persons with disabilities with HIV in Lusaka, not only secondary to the effects of HIV influencing their physical capacity to work, but also because of the attendant social stigma of being a person with a disability and HIV-positive.
Brandenburg, Janin; Klesczewski, Julia; Fischbach, Anne; Schuchardt, Kirsten; Büttner, Gerhard; Hasselhorn, Marcus
In transparent orthographies like German, isolated learning disabilities in either reading or spelling are common and occur as often as a combined reading and spelling disability. However, most issues surrounding the cognitive causes of these isolated or combined literacy difficulties are yet unresolved. Recently, working memory dysfunctions have been demonstrated to be promising in explaining the emergence of literacy difficulties. Thus, we applied a 2 (reading disability: yes vs. no) × 2 (spelling disability: yes vs. no) factorial design to examine distinct and overlapping working memory profiles associated with learning disabilities in reading versus spelling. Working memory was assessed in 204 third graders, and multivariate analyses of variance were conducted for each working memory component. Children with spelling disability suffered from more pronounced phonological loop impairments than those with reading disability. In contrast, domain-general central-executive dysfunctions were solely associated with reading disability, but not with spelling disability. Concerning the visuospatial sketchpad, no impairments were found. In sum, children with reading disability and those with spelling disability seem to be characterized by different working memory profiles. Thus, it is important to take both reading and spelling into account when investigating cognitive factors of literacy difficulties in transparent orthographies. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.
Emberland, Jan S; Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Knardahl, Stein
Relations between several occupational psychological and social factors and disability retirement remain largely unexplored. Knowledge of which specific aspects of the work environment that affect risk of disability is a prerequisite for the success of organizational interventions aiming to prevent premature work force exit. The objective of the present study was to determine contributions to registered disability retirement by a broad range of psychological and social work exposures while taking into account effects of mechanical exposure. Written consent was obtained from 13 012 employees (96 organizations) representing a wide range of occupations, to link their survey responses to data from the Norwegian national registry of disability compensation. Median follow-up time was 5.8 years. To determine effects of self-reported work exposures on risk of disability retirement hazard ratios (HR) and 99% confidence intervals (99% CI) were calculated with Cox regression analysis. Effects of sex, age group, skill level, sickness absence in the last three years, and work exposures estimated to be confounders were accounted for. Post hoc stratification by sex was conducted to explore if identified predictors affected risk of disability retirement differently in men compared to women. Contributors to higher risk of disability retirement were "role conflict" (high level HR 1.55 99% CI 1.07 to 2.24) and "physical workload" (high level HR 1.93 99% CI 1.39 to 2.68). Contributors to lower risk of disability retirement were "positive challenge" (high level HR 0.56 99% CI 0.34 to 0.93), "fair leadership" (high level HR 0.56 99% CI 0.39 to 0.81), and "control over work intensity" (high level HR 0.62, 99% CI 0.47 to 0.82). Direction of effects was not dependent on sex in any of the five identified predictors. Several specific psychological and social work factors are independent contributors to risk of disability retirement. In order to prevent premature work force exit workplace
Jan S. Emberland
Full Text Available Abstract Background Relations between several occupational psychological and social factors and disability retirement remain largely unexplored. Knowledge of which specific aspects of the work environment that affect risk of disability is a prerequisite for the success of organizational interventions aiming to prevent premature work force exit. The objective of the present study was to determine contributions to registered disability retirement by a broad range of psychological and social work exposures while taking into account effects of mechanical exposure. Methods Written consent was obtained from 13 012 employees (96 organizations representing a wide range of occupations, to link their survey responses to data from the Norwegian national registry of disability compensation. Median follow-up time was 5.8 years. To determine effects of self-reported work exposures on risk of disability retirement hazard ratios (HR and 99% confidence intervals (99% CI were calculated with Cox regression analysis. Effects of sex, age group, skill level, sickness absence in the last three years, and work exposures estimated to be confounders were accounted for. Post hoc stratification by sex was conducted to explore if identified predictors affected risk of disability retirement differently in men compared to women. Results Contributors to higher risk of disability retirement were “role conflict” (high level HR 1.55 99% CI 1.07 to 2.24 and “physical workload” (high level HR 1.93 99% CI 1.39 to 2.68. Contributors to lower risk of disability retirement were “positive challenge” (high level HR 0.56 99% CI 0.34 to 0.93, “fair leadership” (high level HR 0.56 99% CI 0.39 to 0.81, and “control over work intensity” (high level HR 0.62, 99% CI 0.47 to 0.82. Direction of effects was not dependent on sex in any of the five identified predictors. Conclusions Several specific psychological and social work factors are independent contributors to risk of
P. Benda; M. Ulman; M. Šmejkalová
The main focus of this article is to verify experimentally the possibility of using Augmented Reality as a platform for display educational materials in the field of horticulture in the real world for people with intellectual disabilities. Experimental verification was attended by eight people with varying levels of mental disability. The educational material was presented to the research participants in the form of a video, which was accessible ...
Boonen, A.; Chorus, A.; Miedema, H.; van der Heijde, D.; Landewé, R.; Schouten, H.; van der Tempel, H.; van der Linden, S.
To investigate withdrawal from the labour force because of inability to work owing to ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to determine the characteristics of patients with no job because of work disability attributable to AS. A postal questionnaire was sent to 709 patients with AS aged 16-60 years
Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Christoffer H
The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in the shoulder, arm and hand is high among slaughterhouse workers, allegedly due to the highly repetitive and forceful exposure of these body regions during work. Work disability is a common consequence of these pains. Lowering the physical exposure through...
Codling, Mary; Knowles, Jane; Vevers, Ann
People with learning disabilities are living longer lives. Over the past few years, research has explored the needs of people with learning disabilities, their families and learning disability professionals in relation to end-of-life care and death. However, little is known about the needs of paid carers and their experience of end-of-life care. This article discusses the development, implementation and evaluation of a study day about end-of-life care that was delivered to paid carers on two separate occasions in Berkshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust. A total of 43 paid carers attended and the days were well evaluated. The need for further training for paid carers who work with people with learning disabilities at the end of life was highlighted.
Center Director Roy Bridges (standing, center) poses with members of the Disability Awareness and Action Working Group (DAAWG), which is holding the 1999 Technology Fair Oct. 20-21 at Kennedy Space Center. The Fair is highlighting vendors demonstrating mobility, hearing, vision and silent disability assistive technology. The purpose is to create an awareness of the types of technology currently available to assist people with various disabilities in the workplace. The theme is that of this year's National Disability Employment Awareness Month, 'Opening Doors to Ability.' Some of the vendors participating are Canine Companions for Independence, Goodwill Industries, Accessible Structures, Division of Blind Services, Space Coast Center for Independent Living, KSC Fitness Center and Delaware North Parks Services.
Schuchardt, K; Gebhardt, M; Mäehler, C
In recent years, there has been increased research interest in the functioning of working memory in people with intellectual disabilities. Although studies have repeatedly found these individuals to have weak working memory skills, few investigations have distinguished between different degrees of intellectual disability. This study aims to help close this research gap and, in so doing, to examine whether the deficits observed reflect a developmental lag or a qualitative deviation from normal development. In a 5-group design, the working memory performance of a group of 15-year-olds with mild intellectual disability (IQ 50-69) was compared with that of two groups of children (aged 10 and 15 years) with borderline intellectual disability (IQ 70-84) and with that of two groups of children with average intellectual abilities (IQ 90-115) matched for mental and chronological age (aged 7 and 15 years). All children were administered a comprehensive battery of tests assessing the central executive, the visual-spatial sketchpad, and the phonological loop. The results showed deficits in all three components of working memory, and revealed that these deficits increased with the degree of intellectual disability. The findings indicate that, relative to their mental age peers, children with learning difficulties show structural abnormalities in the phonological store of the phonological loop, but developmental lags in the other two subsystems. Similar patterns of results emerged for both subgroups of children with intellectual disability, indicating that problems with phonological information processing seem to be one of the causes of cognitive impairment in individuals with intellectual disability.
Figueiredo-Ferraz, H; Gil-Monte, P R; Olivares-Faúndez, V E
The problem of mobbing has attracted a great deal of attention over the past few years. This concern has increased the study of the phenomena, which has resulted in many scientific publications. Mobbing has been characterised as an emerging risk at work. The aim of this longitudinal study was to analyse the influence of mobbing on depressive symptoms in a sample of employees working with people with intellectual disabilities (ID). The sample consisted of 372 Spanish employees working with people with ID at 61 job centres in the Valencian Community (Spain). Seventy-nine (21.2%) participants were men, and 293 were (78.8%) women. Mobbing was evaluated by the Mobbing-UNIPSICO scale, and depressive symptoms were measured using the Zung Self Rating Depression Scale. Using analyses of variance (anova), we tested the differences in depressive symptoms according to the mobbing criteria indicated by Leymann, that is, frequency and duration at Time 1 and Time 2. Employees who met the mobbing criteria: frequency (at least once a week) and duration (at least 6 months) at the two study times presented significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms than employees who met mobbing criteria at Time 1, but did not meet any criteria for mobbing at Time 2, and employees who did not meet any criteria for mobbing at Time 1 or Time 2. We conclude that permanence of mobbing from Time 1 to Time 2 increases depressive symptoms. © 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
WA10 Working in partnership with people with learning disabilities: academics and people with learning disabilities working together to disseminate the findings of a confidential inquiry into deaths of people with learning disabilities through film.
In England, between 2010-2013, a Confidential Inquiry into premature Deaths of People with Learning Disabilities was commissioned by the Department of Health. This took place in SW England led by Norah Fry Research Centre at Bristol University. Findings from the investigations into 247 deaths included that men with learning disabilities die, on average 13 years sooner and women, on average 20 years sooner, than the general population. Over 1/3 (37%) were found to be avoidable, being amenable to good quality healthcare. A number of key recommendations were made which required understanding by a range of audiences including people with learning disabilities and their carers. This workshop will demonstrate how academics can work with actors with learning disabilities to disseminate research findings about a sensitive subject in a thought provoking and accessible way. Academics worked with the MISFITs theatre company to make a DVD about the findings and recommendations of the Confidential Inquiry. The DVD presents the findings of the Confidential Inquiry through the stories of John, Bill, Karen and Emily. It powerfully illustrates the importance of diagnosing and treating illness of people with learning disabilities in a timely and appropriate manner and highlights the measures that could be taken to reduce premature deaths in this population. The session provides an example of how the voices of people with learning disabilities can communicate research messages effectively to people with learning disabilities, health and social care practitioners and others who support the learning disability population. © 2015, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Milena Sousa de Oliveira
Full Text Available The strugles lived by the persons with disabilities on their quest for attaining their proper rights have taken the shape of a true democratic battle with the increasing number of persons in this situation and the uprise in their worldwide influence. The advances reached by this minority group have drawn, at first, international attention and, subsequently, national acceptance, leading to the signature of the New York Covention, in 2008. In fact, the equality principle - treating the equals equally and the unequals unequally - looses its meaning without the defiinition of what are these inequalities and who are the people who suffer from it. One of the main approaches for achieving equality is by protecting these people's right to work, inclusive within the public sphere. Work a productive act of citizenship and, as such, cannot be denied or limited due to the disability. For the persons with disabilities, working in the public service is a challenge which has been only partially solved. Although their access to jobs in the public service has been widely guaranteed, it is still necessary to ensure the essential conditions for the effective accomplishment of their assigned duties. The main goal of this paper is to analize the evolution of the national and international law in terms of the current understanding that implementing the rights of people with disabilities should be centered on inclusion. After a brief investigation of the legislation protecting the rights of the people with disabilities, we make a detailed study of the internal, State and Federal Law in order to identify the presence or absence of regulations that promote the adaptation or readaptation of workers with disabilities. The analysis will be focused on the comparison between the worker's attained post and his/hers actual duties and the responsabilities, specially in the cases on which the readaptation process act in terms of promoting the exclusion of the person with
Burton, Cynthia Z; Vella, Lea; Twamley, Elizabeth W
Prospective memory (the ability to remember to do things) has clear implications for everyday functioning, including employment, in people with severe mental illnesses (SMI). This study aimed to evaluate prospective memory performance and its relationship to real-world functional variables in an employment-seeking sample of people with SMI (Clinical Trial registration number NCT00895258). 153 individuals with DSM-IV diagnosis of depression (n = 58), bipolar disorder (n = 37), or schizophrenia (n = 58) who were receiving outpatient psychiatric care at a university clinic enrolled in a trial of supported employment and completed a baseline assessment. Prospective memory was measured with the Memory for Intentions Test (MIST); real-world functional status included work history variables, clinical history variables, baseline functional capacity (UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment-Brief), and work outcomes (weeks worked and wages earned during two years of supported employment). Participants with schizophrenia performed worse on the MIST than did those with affective disorders. Independent of diagnosis, education, and estimated intellectual functioning, prospective memory significantly predicted variance in measures of disability and illness burden (disability benefits, hospitalization history, current functional capacity), and work outcomes over two years of supported employment (weeks worked). Worse prospective memory appears to be associated with greater illness burden and functional disability in SMI. Mental health clinicians and employment specialists may counsel clients to use compensatory prospective memory strategies to improve work performance and decrease functional disability associated with SMI.
In the United States, approximately 125,000 people with disabilities are employed through Community Rehabilitation Programs in manufacturing, assembly, and service jobs. These jobs have significant hazards and, consequently, the workers are at risk of injury. Training that empowers workers to participate in prevention efforts can help reduce work-related injuries. In general this kind of health and safety training in the United States is limited. It is even more so for workers with intellectual disabilities, in part because there have not been programs for teaching individuals with cognitive challenges health and safety skills, adapted to their learning needs. This paper describes the development and promotion of the Staying Safe at Work curriculum of UC Berkeley's Labor Occupational Health Program, which is designed for use by support agencies and employers of workers with intellectual disabilities. The goal of this program is to teach these workers essential occupational safety and health skills in a manner they can understand.
Holwerda, A.; Groothoff, J.W.; de Boer, M.R.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; Brouwer, S.
Purpose: To investigate the impact of diagnosis, co-morbidity, secondary conditions (e.g. learning problems, subclinical mental and somatic complaints, addictions, and socio-emotional and behavioral problems) and problems in social context on work ability as assessed by Insurance Physicians (IPs) in
Holwerda, Anja; Groothoff, Johan W.; de Boer, Michiel R.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Brouwer, Sandra
Purpose: To investigate the impact of diagnosis, co-morbidity, secondary conditions (e. g. learning problems, subclinical mental and somatic complaints, addictions, and socio-emotional and behavioral problems) and problems in social context on work ability as assessed by Insurance Physicians (IPs)
van der Molen, M.J.; van Luit, J.E.H.; van der Molen, M.W.; Jongmans, M.J.
Everyday memory and its relationship to working memory was investigated in adolescents with mild intellectual disability and compared to typically developing adolescents of the same age (CA) and younger children matched on mental age (MA). Results showed a delay on almost all memory measures for the
Van der Molen, M. J.; Henry, L. A.; Van Luit, J. E H
Background: The purpose of the current cross-sectional study was to examine the developmental progression in working memory (WM) between the ages of 9 and 16 years in a large sample of children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID). Baddeley's influential WM model was used as a
Achterberg, Thea J.; Wind, Haije; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.
Purpose: To define the most important factors for the work participation of the young disabled according to experts. Method: A Delphi study was conducted with internet questionnaires. Health-related, personal and environmental factors known from literature were presented to insurance physicians and
van der Molen, M.J.
The validity of Baddeley's working memory model within the typically developing population, was tested. However, it is not clear if this model also holds in children and adolescents with mild to, borderline intellectual disabilities (ID; IQ score 55-85). The main purpose of this study was therefore,
Schuchardt, Kirsten; Maehler, Claudia; Hasselhorn, Marcus
Recent studies indicate that children with intellectual disabilities have functional limitations primarily in the phonological loop of working memory (Baddeley, 1986). These findings are indicative of a specific structural deficit. Building on this research, the present study examines whether it is possible to identify specific phonological…
van der Molen, M.J.
The two main objectives of this thesis are a) to unravel working memory (WM) strengths and weaknesses in children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID), and b) to investigate if WM can be trained effectively in these children. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the thesis and encompasses
Van der Molen, M. J.; Van Luit, J. E. H.; Van der Molen, M. W.; Klugkist, I.; Jongmans, M. J.
Background: The goal of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a computerised working memory (WM) training on memory, response inhibition, fluid intelligence, scholastic abilities and the recall of stories in adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities attending special education. Method: A total of 95 adolescents with…
Van der Molen, M. J.; Van Luit, J. E. H.; Van der Molen, Maurits W.; Jongmans, Marian J.
Everyday memory and its relationship to working memory was investigated in adolescents with mild intellectual disability and compared to typically developing adolescents of the same age (CA) and younger children matched on mental age (MA). Results showed a delay on almost all memory measures for the adolescents with mild intellectual disability…
van der Molen, Mariet J.
The validity of Baddeley's working memory model within the typically developing population, was tested. However, it is not clear if this model also holds in children and adolescents with mild to, borderline intellectual disabilities (ID; IQ score 55-85). The main purpose of this study was therefore, to explore the model's validity in this…
Van der Molen, M. J.; Henry, L. A.; Van Luit, J. E. H.
Background: The purpose of the current cross-sectional study was to examine the developmental progression in working memory (WM) between the ages of 9 and 16 years in a large sample of children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID). Baddeley's influential WM model was used as a theoretical framework. Furthermore, the…
thank Les Boden, David Levine, Peter Schochet, David Wittenberg, David Mann, Dave Stapleton and an anonymous referee for helpful input at various stages...Ruseckaite, R., and A. Collie . “Repeat Workers’ Compensation Claims: Risk Factors, Costs and Work Disability.” BMC Public Health, vol. 11, June 2011, pp
Delavarian, Mona; Bokharaeian, Behrouz; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar
We designed a working memory (WM) training programme in game framework for mild intellectually disabled students. Twenty-four students participated as test and control groups. The auditory and visual-spatial WM were assessed by primary test, which included computerised Wechsler numerical forward and backward sub-tests and secondary tests, which…
Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders
In response to an increasing number of sickness and disability beneficiaries, many countries have launched policies that emphasize the role of case management. This study measures the effect of case-management interview (CMI) on long-term sick-listed employees’ probability of returning to work...
Colwell, Cynthia M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of disability simulations on the attitudes of individuals who will be working with children with special needs in music settings and to compare these attitudes between student music therapists and pre-service music educators. Each participant completed a questionnaire on the first day of class…
Lustig, Daniel C.; Zanskas, Stephen
Although research supports a relationship between work and psychological factors, one area not studied is the relationship between preferred career value and psychological factors. This study investigated the relationship between preferred career values and psychological problems for individuals with disabilities. Career values have been shown to…
Ram-Tsur, Ronit; Faust, Miriam; Zivotofsky, Ari Z.
The present study investigates the performance of persons with reading disabilities (PRD) on a variety of sequential visual-comparison tasks that have different working-memory requirements. In addition, mediating relationships between the sequential comparison process and attention and memory skills were looked for. Our findings suggest that PRD…
Swanson, H. Lee
This longitudinal study assessed (a) whether performance changes in working memory (WM) as a function of dynamic testing were related to growth in reading comprehension and (b) whether WM performance among subgroups of children with reading disabilities (RD; children with RD only, children with both reading and arithmetic deficits, and low verbal…
Pedersen, Jacob; Bjørner, Jakob; Burr, Hermann
Studies of labor market outcomes like sickness absence are usually restricted to a single outcome. This paper investigates the use of multi-state models for studying multiple transitions between sick-listing, work, unemployment, and disability pension by analyzing longitudinal register data. Every...
van der Molen, M.J.; van Luit, J.E.H.; van der Molen, M.W.; Klugkist, I.; Jongmans, M.J.
Background: The goal of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a computerised working memory (WM) training on memory, response inhibition, fluid intelligence, scholastic abilities and the recall of stories in adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities attending special
Mattila-Holappa, Pauliina; Joensuu, Matti; Ahola, Kirsi; Koskinen, Aki; Tuisku, Katinka; Ervasti, Jenni; Virtanen, Marianna
We examined the extent to which psychotherapeutic and work-oriented interventions were included in a medical treatment and rehabilitation plan and whether they predicted future employment among young adults with work disability due to a mental disorder. Data were obtained from the treatment and rehabilitation plans of 1163 young adults aged 18‒34 years, who in 2008 were granted fixed-term work disability compensation due to a mental disorder and were followed for 5 years. Forty-six percent had no proposal for psychotherapy or a work-oriented intervention in their treatment and rehabilitation plan, 22 % had a plan for only a psychotherapeutic intervention, 23 % had a plan for only a work-oriented intervention, and 10 % had both types of interventions planned. Having a planned psychotherapeutic intervention (HR = 1.35, 95 % CI 1.07-1.69) and of the work-oriented interventions, planned rehabilitative courses and training (HR = 1.34, 95 % CI 1.03-1.70) predicted quicker entry into competitive employment. Having a plan for both a psychotherapeutic and work-oriented intervention was associated with being employed at the end of the follow-up (OR = 1.77, 95 % CI 1.07-2.95). Young adults with a long-term psychiatric work disability episode rarely have a recorded plan for rehabilitation in their treatment and rehabilitation plan although psychotherapeutic interventions and a combination of a psychotherapeutic and work-oriented intervention might help them gain employment.
Labriola, Merete; Feveile, Helene; Christensen, Karl B
The objectives were to identify the impact of ergonomic work environment exposures on the risk of disability pension. A representative sample of 8475 employees of the total working population in Denmark were interviewed regarding work environment exposures and followed in a national register...... with data on granted disability pension. For women, approximately 34% of the disability pension cases were attributable to ergonomic work environment exposures. For men, 21% of the disability pension cases were attributable to ergonomic work environment. Ergonomic work environment, especially physically...... demanding work, working with hands lifted and repetitive work, are areas of intervention at the workplace that can facilitate and prolong labour market participation. The study provides estimates for the association between ergonomic exposures at work and administrative, cost-related measures of work...
Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Brandt, Mikkel; Jay, Kenneth; Persson, Roger; Aagaard, Per; Andersen, Lars L
Imbalance between work demands and individual resources can lead to musculoskeletal disorders and reduced work ability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two contrasting interventions on work ability among slaughterhouse workers with chronic pain and work disability. Sixty-six slaughterhouse workers with upper-limb chronic pain and work disability were randomly allocated to 10 weeks of either strength training for the shoulder, arm, and hand muscles (3 times per week, 10 minutes per session) or ergonomic training (usual care control group) from September to December 2012. The outcome measure was the change from baseline to 10-week follow-up in the work ability index (WAI). A priori hypothesis testing showed a group×time interaction for WAI (Ptraining group, WAI increased 2.3 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.9-3.7] in the strength training group corresponding to a moderate effect size (Cohen's d 0.52). Within-group changes indicated that between-group differences were mainly caused by a reduction in WAI in the ergonomic group. Of the 7 items of WAI, item 2 (work ability in relation to the demands of the job) and item 7 (mental resources) increased following strength training compared with ergonomic training (Ptraining at the workplace prevents deterioration of work ability among manual workers with chronic pain and disability exposed to forceful and repetitive job tasks. Thus, strength training performed at the workplace may in fact be regarded as a complex biopsychosocial intervention modality that reaches further than the specific physiological benefits of training per se.
Vieira, E R; Albuquerque-Oliveira, P R; Barbosa-Branco, A
To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of disability benefits due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) granted to Brazilian private sector workers. This was a population-based epidemiological study of MSD-related benefits among registered private sector workers (n=32 959 329). The prevalence (benefits/10 000 workers/year) of work disability benefits was calculated by gender, age, state, Human Development Index (HDI), economic activity, MSD type and work-relatedness. The prevalence of MSD-related benefits in Brazil among registered private sector workers in 2008 was 93.6/10 000 workers. The prevalence increased with age, and was higher for women (112.2) than for men (88.1), although the former had shorter benefit duration. The gender-adjusted prevalence by state varied from 16.6 to 90.3 for non-work-related, and from 7.8 to 59.6 for work-related benefits. The Brazilian states with a high-very high HDI had the highest prevalence. The top four most common types of MSD-related benefits were due to back pain, intervertebral disc disorders, sinovitis/tenosynovitis and shoulder disorders. MSD is a frequent cause of work disability in Brazil. There were differences in prevalence among economic activities and between states grouped by HDI. This study demonstrates that further evaluation of the contributing factors associated with MSD-related disability benefits is required. Factors that should be considered include production processes, political organisation, socioeconomic and educational characteristics, the compensation and recording systems, and employee-employer power relationships. These factors may play an important role in the prevalence of MSD-related disability benefits, especially in countries with large socioeconomic iniquities such as Brazil.
Kinn, Liv Grethe; Holgersen, Helge; Aas, Randi W; Davidson, Larry
To explore how persons with psychiatric disabilities experience facilitators of and barriers to participation in paid work in transitional, supported, and open employment settings, in order to provide guidance for efforts to attract and retain these persons in gainful employment as a key dimension of recovery and community life. A metasynthesis was conducted using 16 qualitative studies published between 1990 and 2011. Ten themes, two phases, and an overarching metaphor were identified. The first five themes describe facilitators of and impediments to getting a job (getting off the bench): (1) fighting inertia; (2) taking control; (3) encouraging peers; (4) disruptions related to the illness; (5) lack of opportunities and supports. The next five themes represent facilitators of and impediments to working (skating on the ice); (6) going mainstream; (7) social cohesion; (8) clarity in role and responsibilities; (9) environmental factors; (10) managing self-disclosure. We chose as our overarching metaphor "Balancing on Skates on the Icy Surface of Work," as we view both iceskaters and workers with psychiatric disabilities as needing to achieve and maintain their balance while being "on the edge" between various extremities. We have shown that, for persons with psychiatric disabilities to "get off the bench" and "onto the ice" of employment, they may need to be supported in finding and maintaining their balance in new situations through a combination of learning new skills and competencies (learning how to skate) while receiving in vivo assistance from empathic and knowledgeable supporters (being coached while on the ice).
Holwerda, Anja; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R; Groothoff, Johan W; van der Klink, Jac J L
Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities from special needs education, their parents and their school teachers regarding future work and the extent to which these expectations predict work outcome. Data on 341 young adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities, coming from special needs education, aged 17-20 years, and with an ability to work according to the Social Security Institute were examined. The school teacher's expectation was the only perspective that significantly predicted entering competitive employment, with a complementary effect of the expectation of parents and a small additional effect of the expectation of the young adult. Expectations of school teachers and parents are valuable in predicting work outcome. Therefore, it is important for professionals working with the young adult in the transition from school to work to incorporate the knowledge of school teachers and parents regarding the abilities of the young adult to enter competitive employment as a valuable source of information.
Knardahl, Stein; Johannessen, Håkon A.; Sterud, Tom
Background: Previous studies indicate that psychological, social, and organizational factors at work contribute to health, motivation, absence from work, and functional ability. The objective of the study was to assess the current state of knowledge of the contribution of psychological, social, a...... social support from ones superior. Conclusions: Psychological and organizational factors at work contribute to disability retirement with the most robust evidence for the role of work control. We recommend the measurement of specific exposure factors in future studies.......Background: Previous studies indicate that psychological, social, and organizational factors at work contribute to health, motivation, absence from work, and functional ability. The objective of the study was to assess the current state of knowledge of the contribution of psychological, social......, and organizational factors to disability retirement by a systematic review and meta-analyses. Methods: Data sources: A systematic literature search for studies of retirement due to disability in Medline, Embase, and PsychINFO was performed. Reference lists of relevant articles were hand-searched for additional...
Tamborini, Christopher R; Reznik, Gayle L; Couch, Kenneth A
We assess how divorce through midlife affects the subsequent probability of work-limiting health among U.S. women. Using retrospective marital and work disability histories from the Survey of Income and Program Participation matched to Social Security earnings records, we identify women whose first marriage dissolved between 1975 and 1984 (n = 1,214) and women who remain continuously married (n = 3,394). Probit and propensity score matching models examine the cumulative probability of a work disability over a 20-year follow-up period. We find that divorce is associated with a significantly higher cumulative probability of a work disability, controlling for a range of factors. This association is strongest among divorced women who do not remarry. No consistent relationships are observed among divorced women who remarry and remained married. We find that economic hardship, work history, and selection into divorce influence, but do not substantially alter, the lasting impact of divorce on work-limiting health. © American Sociological Association 2016.
The Secretariat has received a communication dated 26 May 2009 from the Permanent Mission of Austria, transmitting a working paper entitled 'Multilateralisation of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Increasing Transparency and Sustainable Security'. The working paper is based on a food-for-thought paper previously submitted by Austria on 10 May 2007, and issued as INFCIRC/706. As requested in that communication, the working paper is herewith circulated for the information of all Member States
Haveman, Robert H.; Wolfe, Barbara L.
This paper presents a decision-process model for explaining the growth in transfer recipiency (the receipt by working age people of disability income), the choice of work status, and the reduction in labor force participation of older workers. It is hypothesized that the attractiveness of disability income transfer options has led older male…
Schüssler-Fiorenza Rose, Sophia Miryam; Eslinger, Jessica G; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Scaccia, Jamie; Lai, Betty S; Lewis, Catrin; Alisic, Eva
To examine the impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and support on self-reported work inability of adults reporting disability. Adults (ages 18-64) who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 2009 or 2010 and who reported having a disability (n = 13,009). The study used a retrospective cohort design with work inability as the main outcome. ACE categories included abuse (sexual, physical, emotional) and family dysfunction (domestic violence, incarceration, mental illness, substance abuse, divorce). Support included functional (perceived emotional/social support) and structural (living with another adult) support. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders (age, sex and race) and to evaluate whether there was an independent effect of ACEs on work inability after adding other important predictors (support, education, health) to the model. ACEs were highly prevalent with almost 75% of the sample reporting at least one ACE category and over 25% having a high ACE burden (4 or more categories). ACEs were strongly associated with functional support. Participants experiencing a high ACE burden had a higher adjusted odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval] of 1.9 [1.5-2.4] of work inability (reference: zero ACEs). Good functional support (adjusted OR 0.52 [0.42-0.63]) and structural support (adjusted OR 0.48 [0.41-0.56]) were protective against work inability. After adding education and health to the model, ACEs no longer appeared to have an independent effect. Structural support remained highly protective, but functional support only appeared to be protective in those with good physical health. ACEs are highly prevalent in working-age US adults with a disability, particularly young adults. ACEs are associated with decreased support, lower educational attainment and worse adult health. Health care providers are encouraged to screen for ACEs. Addressing the effects of ACEs on health and support, in addition to
O'Brien, Gerald V
In the United States, genetic research, as well as policy and practice innovations based on this research, has expanded greatly over the past few decades. This expansion is indicated, for example, by the mapping of the human genome, an expansion of genetic counseling, and other biogenetic research. Also, a disability rights movement that in many ways parallels other "minority" rights campaigns has expanded. The coexistence of these developments poses intriguing challenges for social work that the profession has yet to address in a meaningful way. These issues are especially pertinent for social work professionals in the crucial role as advocates for marginalized populations. This article describes some ofthe concerns of disability rights activists relative to genetic innovations and goals as well as the instrumental role of the social work community in this important debate.
Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N
Childhood adversity has been linked with adult health problems. We hypothesized that childhood adversity would also be associated with work limitations due to physical or nervous health problems, known as work disability. With data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) (1968-2013; n=6,045; 82,374 transitions; 129,107 person-years) and the 2014 PSID Childhood Retrospective Circumstances Study, we estimated work disability transition probabilities with multinomial logistic Markov models. Four or more adversities defined a high level. Microsimulations quantified adult work disability patterns for African American and non-Hispanic white women and men, accounting for age, education, race, sex, diabetes, heart disease, obesity, and sedentary behavior. Childhood adversity was significantly associated with work disability. Of African American women with high adversity, 10.2% had moderate work disability at age 30 versus 4.1% with no reported adversities; comparable results for severe work disability were 5.6% versus 1.9% (both pwork disability remained significant after adjusting for diabetes, heart disease, obesity, and sedentary behavior (pwork disability throughout adult life. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Guimarães, B M; Martins, L B; Barkokébas Junior, B
This article presents the results of a survey carried out on leading periodicals in the areas of Ergonomics, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, the aim of which was to identify scientific publications on the inclusion at work of people with disabilities. The survey of articles published on this topic in the following journals was conducted in December 2010: Applied Ergonomics, Ergonomics, the International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Disability and Rehabilitation, and the Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation. The survey covered issues published between 2000 and 2010 and was conducted electronically using the CAPES Periodicals Portal. To collect the articles, it was necessary to check the articles published in each of the issues of each volume of these periodicals. This is how the articles on the topic in question were found. There were 27 articles on the topic of inclusion at work of people with disabilities, of which 13 were published in the Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation and 12 in Disability and Rehabilitation. Thus, it is clear that the issue in question is still a subject that is seldom dealt with in these publications and it is noted that only two articles were published in Ergonomics journals in this period, thus confirming the paucity of scientific publications on this subject.
Achterberg, T J; Wind, H; de Boer, A G E M; Frings-Dresen, M H W
The aim of this systematic review was to study factors which promote or hinder young disabled people entering the labor market. We systematically searched PubMed (by means of MESH and text words), EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science and CINAHL for studies regarding (1) disabled patients diagnosed before the age of 18 years and (2) factors of work participation. Out of 1,268 retrieved studies and 28 extended studies from references and four from experts, ten articles were included. Promoting factors are male gender, high educational level, age at survey, low depression scores, high dispositional optimism and high psychosocial functioning. Female and low educational level gives high odds of unemployment just like low IQ, inpatient treatment during follow up, epilepsy, motor impairment, wheelchair dependency, functional limitations, co-morbidity, physical disability and chronic health conditions combined with mental retardation. High dose cranial radiotherapy, type of cancer, and age of diagnosis also interfered with employment. Of the promoting factors, education appeared to be important, and several physical obstructions were found to be hindering factors. The last mentioned factors can be influenced in contrast to for instance age and gender. However, to optimize work participation of this group of young disabled it is important to know the promoting or hindering influence for employment.
Smyth, Emmett; Healy, Olive; Lydon, Sinėad
Previous research has suggested that challenging behaviour emitted by persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities negatively impacts upon the levels of stress and burnout of those who support and care for them. In the current study a sample of disability support workers in the UK (N=138) reported their levels of perceived stress, burnout, and commitment to their work. The relationship between the frequency and severity of aggressive/destructive behaviours to which they were exposed, and these three measures were examined. Results showed that participants scored lower on measures of burnout in the current study than has been reported by similar research studies in the UK and North America. The results revealed an association between challenging behaviours experienced and participants' perceived stress and emotional exhaustion. Perceived stress and burnout were also associated with participants' commitment to their work. Finally, a series of regression analyses identified a number of predictors of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment among disability support workers. The results and their implications for the consideration of disability support worker wellbeing and future research in this area are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Carers and people with disabilities are two disadvantaged groups at risk of social exclusion. Work is an important route to social inclusion, but carers and people with disabilities are under-represented in the work force. The present paper reports key findings from a new study that evaluated People into Employment (PIE), a pilot employment project in the north-east of England designed to support people with disabilities, carers and former carers in gaining mainstream work. The study aimed to identify what clients, partner agencies and employers perceived to be PIE's most important services, its strengths and areas where there was scope for further development. The study collected quantitative and qualitative data at the mid-point and at the end of the project through two questionnaire surveys, and interviews with PIE clients, the project development officer, partner agencies and employers. Drawing on the 'pathway model', the findings show that PIE's interventions included mobilising, matching, mediating and supporting activities. Key ingredients in PIE's success include: tailor-made job-search activities and training; adjusting the pace at which people move towards sustained employment; recognising and responding to the differing needs of people with disabilities, carers and former carers; confidence boosting; accompanying clients to job interviews; good job matching; and ongoing practical and emotional support for both clients and employers. Rudimentary calculations suggest that the cost per job to the project is less than the cost per job for large national projects. Overall, these findings illustrate how access to employment via flexible job-search services geared up to the local labour market can successfully promote social inclusion for carers and people with disabilities.
Belkis Vicente Sánchez
Full Text Available Background: ischemic heart disease represents a major challenge given the large number of people affected by this condition, its increasing contribution to overall mortality, the frequent disability resulting from it, and the complexity and high cost of its treatment. Objective: to describe the work disability caused by ischemic heart disease in patients treated at the internal medicine consultation and assessed by the Expert Medical Labor Commission of Cienfuegos municipality. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted including all patients with ischemic heart disease treated at the internal medicine consultation and assessed by the Expert Medical Labor Commission of Cienfuegos municipality from October 2012 to July 2013. The variables analyzed were: age, sex, occupation, years of work and accrued salary, clinical diagnosis, length of time the condition had been present and associated chronic diseases; existence of prior assessment by an Expert Medical Labor Commission and decision reached, previous days of sick leave and current decision of the commission. The data were analyzed using SPSS (version 18.0 and the results are shown in tables and graphs as numbers and percentages. Results: a predominance of men was observed. Forty two point nine percent were service workers and the average number of years of work was 24.60. Forty two point nine percent were previously assessed by the commission. Two hundred one point thirteen days of sick leave were granted and social security expenditure in a month was high. Diabetes mellitus was the most common chronic disease followed by hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia. Of the workers previously assessed, half received permanent and temporary disability benefits. Conclusions: ischemic heart disease causes different degrees of disability. Its costs in terms of social security are increasing.
Gignac, Monique A M; Cao, Xingshan; Tang, Kenneth; Beaton, Dorcas E
To examine the type, degree, and episodic nature of arthritis-related work place activity limitations and the consistency of the relationship of activity limitations to job modifications and work place outcomes. Using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire, individuals with osteoarthritis (OA) or inflammatory arthritis (IA) were interviewed at 4 time points, 18 months apart. At baseline, all participants (n = 490; 381 women, 109 men) were employed. Respondents were recruited using community advertising and from rheumatology and rehabilitation clinics. The Workplace Activity Limitations Scale (WALS) assessed arthritis-related disability with job tasks. Job modifications/accommodations (e.g., scheduling changes), work place outcomes (e.g., absenteeism), demographics, illness, and work context were also measured. Repeated cross-sectional logistic regressions examined levels of WALS disability with job modifications and outcomes at each time point. Similar levels of activity limitations were found comparing OA and IA with fewer difficulties with global aspects of work (e.g., scheduling) than with specific tasks (e.g., working with hands). Three-quarters of the participants had episodic or intermittent WALS difficulty over time. Medium and high levels of work place activity limitations were significantly associated with job modifications, and high WALS difficulty was consistently related to negative work outcomes. Many individuals with arthritis report some difficulty with work place activities. However, these difficulties are often intermittent and may not result in changes to work productivity until they are consistently high. This is important for designing work place interventions and for employers, insurers, and the government to understand to avoid viewing individuals with arthritis as a permanent drain on work place and health resources. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.
Vassos, Maria; Nankervis, Karen; Skerry, Trevor; Lante, Kerrie
The aim of this study was to explore work engagement and job burnout within the disability support worker (DSW) population, using the job demands-resources (JD-R) model as a guiding theory. The research measured a set of work-related demands and resources related to working within the disability sector in order to assess which demands/resources account for a significant portion of unique variance when used to model DSW engagement and burnout. This study sampled 258 DSWs from across Australia who completed an online or paper questionnaire that included measures of engagement, burnout and the demands/resources of interest. With regard to demands, role ambiguity was significantly associated with the three engagement scores and the three burnout scores. It also accounted for the most unique variance in the three engagement scores (vigour [VI], dedication [DE] and absorption [AB]), and the personal accomplishment (PA) burnout score. With regard to resources, job feedback was significantly associated with two of the engagement scores (VI and DE) and all three burnout scores. It accounted for the most unique variance in VI and DE, and PA. In conclusion, this research adds to the existing disability workforce literature as it represents one of the first comprehensive investigations of work engagement within this population. Improved job descriptions, on-the-job feedback and the creation of specialist support workers are offered as recommendations to improve the psychosocial health of DSWs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this article is to analyse the incidence of part-time employment among people with disabilities within a European context. Particular attention is paid to the type of part-time employment (voluntary vs. involuntary) and the levels of job satisfaction that people with disabilities report. Using data from the European Community Household Panel for the period 1995-2001, we estimate part-time rates, preferences and levels of job satisfaction for people with and without disabilities for 13 European countries. The results show that a higher number of people with disabilities work part-time, compared to non-disabled workers. This is mainly due to disabled part-time workers having a much higher preference for part-time working than people without disability. This finding is corroborated when we analyse the levels of job satisfaction for disabled part-time workers. Part-time employment becomes a relevant instrument for policy makers and employers to improve the social inclusion, income and labour conditions of the people with disabilities because it allows these people to achieve a much better balance between their personal and health needs and working life.
Srivastava, Shirley; Sirvastava, Shirley; Chamberlain, Anne
To determine the views of organizations of and for disabled people in order to inform the writing of the British Society of Research Medicines policy document "Vocational Rehabilitation--The Way Forward". PATIENTS/ORGANIZATIONS: A single mailing was sent to 98 disability organizations within the UK. A semi-structured postal questionnaire focused on factors (i) within the National Health Service; (ii) external to it, mainly in the workplace, making it difficult for people to stay in work in the presence of disease/disability, or to find work after losing their job (within the last 6 months). A 30% response rate, with many incomplete questionnaires, was obtained so that 24 complete questionnaires were analysed. The dominant findings concerning the National Health Service were, overwhelmingly, that it was perceived as impacting deleteriously on the work of disabled people with delays to consultation, investigation and rehabilitation and a lack of appreciation of workplace issues. Employers were seen as unresponsive to the needs of workers, with negative attitudes to disability. The changes required in both areas were closely related to these findings. Though the organizations surveyed were not representative, nevertheless there was considerable agreement about the need for both the National Health Service and employers to be more responsive to the workplace needs of disabled people.
Kerätär, Raija; Taanila, Anja; Jokelainen, Jari; Soukainen, Jouko; Ala-Mursula, Leena
Comprehensive understanding of the prevalence and quality of work disabilities and unmet needs for health care and rehabilitation to support return to work (RTW) among jobseekers. Community-level, cross-sectional analysis with multidimensional clinical work ability assessments. Paltamo, Finland. Unemployed citizens either participating in the Full-Employment Project or long-term unemployed (n = 230, 81%). Based on data from theme interviews, patient records, supervisors' observations of work performance and clinical examinations, a physician concluded the individual's work ability, categorised into four groups: good work ability, good work ability expected after RTW support, able to transitional work only or unable to work. These groups were cross tabulated with primary diagnoses, types of plans to support RTW, as well as categories of social functioning and motivation, for which sensitivity and specificity scores in detecting work disability were calculated. Only about half of the jobseekers had good work ability, 27% were found unable to work in the open labour market and 15% even eligible for a disability pension. For 20%, care or rehabilitation was seen necessary to enable RTW. Poor supervisor- and self-rated performance at work or poor social functioning appeared as sensitive measures in detecting work disability. Work disabilities and unmet needs for health care and rehabilitation are highly prevalent among jobseekers, as depicted using a multidimensional work ability assessment procedure inspired by the International Classification of Functioning (ICF). Further development of work ability assessment practices is clearly needed. KEY POINTS Although the association of unemployment with poor health is well known, evidence on the work ability of the unemployed remains scarce. Work disabilities are common among the unemployed. Multidimensional work ability assessment among the unemployed reveals unmet needs for care and rehabilitation to support return to
Rantonen, O; Alexanderson, K; Pentti, J; Kjeldgård, L; Hämäläinen, J; Mittendorfer-Rutz, E; Kivimäki, M; Vahtera, J; Salo, P
Aims Social workers report high levels of stress and have an increased risk for hospitalisation with mental diagnoses. However, it is not known whether the risk of work disability with mental diagnoses is higher among social workers compared with other human service professionals. We analysed trends in work disability (sickness absence and disability pension) with mental diagnoses and return to work (RTW) in 2005-2012 among social workers in Finland and Sweden, comparing with such trends in preschool teachers, special education teachers and psychologists. Records of work disability (>14 days) with mental diagnoses (ICD-10 codes F00-F99) from nationwide health registers were linked to two prospective cohort projects: the Finnish Public Sector study, years 2005-2011 and the Insurance Medicine All Sweden database, years 2005-2012. The Finnish sample comprised 4849 employees and the Swedish 119 219 employees covering four occupations: social workers (Finland 1155/Sweden 23 704), preschool teachers (2419/74 785), special education teachers (832/14 004) and psychologists (443/6726). The reference occupations were comparable regarding educational level. Risk of work disability was analysed with negative binomial regression and RTW with Cox proportional hazards. Social workers in Finland and Sweden had a higher risk of work disability with mental diagnoses compared with preschool teachers and special education teachers (rate ratios (RR) 1.43-1.91), after adjustment for age and sex. In Sweden, but not in Finland, social workers also had higher work disability risk than psychologists (RR 1.52; 95% confidence interval 1.28-1.81). In Sweden, in the final model special education teachers had a 9% higher probability RTW than social workers. In Sweden, in the final model the risks for work disability with depression diagnoses and stress-related disorder diagnoses were similar to the risk with all mental diagnoses (RR 1.40-1.77), and the probability of RTW was 6% higher in
Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Palmer, Keith T; Felli, Vanda E; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H; Felknor, Sarah A; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Serra, Consol; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R; Sadeghian, Farideh; Masood Kadir, M; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S P; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Marziale, Maria H; Sarquis, Leila M; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V; Quintana, Leonardo A; Rojas, Marianela; Salazar Vega, Eduardo J; Harris, E Clare; Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Martinez, J Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M; Pesatori, Angela C; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Sirk, Tuuli; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kelsall, Helen L; Hoe, Victor C W; Urquhart, Donna M; Derrett, Sarah; McBride, David; Herbison, Peter; Gray, Andrew
To compare the prevalence of disabling low back pain (DLBP) and disabling wrist/hand pain (DWHP) among groups of workers carrying out similar physical activities in different cultural environments, and to explore explanations for observed differences, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in 18 countries. Standardised questionnaires were used to ascertain pain that interfered with everyday activities and exposure to possible risk factors in 12,426 participants from 47 occupational groups (mostly nurses and office workers). Associations with risk factors were assessed by Poisson regression. The 1-month prevalence of DLBP in nurses varied from 9.6% to 42.6%, and that of DWHP in office workers from 2.2% to 31.6%. Rates of disabling pain at the 2 anatomical sites covaried (r = 0.76), but DLBP tended to be relatively more common in nurses and DWHP in office workers. Established risk factors such as occupational physical activities, psychosocial aspects of work, and tendency to somatise were confirmed, and associations were found also with adverse health beliefs and group awareness of people outside work with musculoskeletal pain. However, after allowance for these risk factors, an up-to 8-fold difference in prevalence remained. Systems of compensation for work-related illness and financial support for health-related incapacity for work appeared to have little influence on the occurrence of symptoms. Our findings indicate large international variation in the prevalence of disabling forearm and back pain among occupational groups carrying out similar tasks, which is only partially explained by the personal and socioeconomic risk factors that were analysed. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. All rights reserved.
Lu, Chunming; Qi, Zhenghan; Harris, Adrianne; Weil, Lisa Wisman; Han, Michelle; Halverson, Kelly; Perrachione, Tyler K.; Kjelgaard, Margaret; Wexler, Kenneth; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Gabrieli, John D. E.
Background Individuals with reading disability and individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are characterized, respectively, by their difficulties in reading and social communication, but both groups often have impaired phonological working memory (PWM). It is not known whether the impaired PWM reflects distinct or shared neuroanatomical abnormalities in these two diagnostic groups. Methods White-matter structural connectivity via diffusion weighted imaging was examined in 64 children,...
Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Palmer, Keith T.; Felli, Vanda E.; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H.; Felknor, Sarah A.; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Serra, Consol; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R.; Sadeghian, Farideh; Masood Kadir, M.; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S.P.; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R.; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Marziale, Maria H.; Sarquis, Leila M.; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V.; Quintana, Leonardo A.; Rojas, Marianela; Salazar Vega, Eduardo J.; Harris, E. Clare; Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Martinez, J. Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G.; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M.; Pesatori, Angela C.; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Sirk, Tuuli; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J.; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A. Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kelsall, Helen L.; Hoe, Victor C.W.; Urquhart, Donna M.; Derrett, Sarah; McBride, David; Herbison, Peter; Gray, Andrew
To compare the prevalence of disabling low back pain (DLBP) and disabling wrist/hand pain (DWHP) among groups of workers carrying out similar physical activities in different cultural environments, and to explore explanations for observed differences, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in 18 countries. Standardised questionnaires were used to ascertain pain that interfered with everyday activities and exposure to possible risk factors in 12,426 participants from 47 occupational groups (mostly nurses and office workers). Associations with risk factors were assessed by Poisson regression. The 1-month prevalence of DLBP in nurses varied from 9.6% to 42.6%, and that of DWHP in office workers from 2.2% to 31.6%. Rates of disabling pain at the 2 anatomical sites covaried (r = 0.76), but DLBP tended to be relatively more common in nurses and DWHP in office workers. Established risk factors such as occupational physical activities, psychosocial aspects of work, and tendency to somatise were confirmed, and associations were found also with adverse health beliefs and group awareness of people outside work with musculoskeletal pain. However, after allowance for these risk factors, an up-to 8-fold difference in prevalence remained. Systems of compensation for work-related illness and financial support for health-related incapacity for work appeared to have little influence on the occurrence of symptoms. Our findings indicate large international variation in the prevalence of disabling forearm and back pain among occupational groups carrying out similar tasks, which is only partially explained by the personal and socioeconomic risk factors that were analysed. PMID:23688828
Center Director Roy Bridges stops to pet one of the dogs that serves with Canine Companions for Independence, a vendor displaying its capabilities at the Disability Awareness and Action Working Group (DAAWG) 1999 Technology Fair being held Oct. 20-21 at Kennedy Space Center. Standing at the right is Carol Cavanaugh, with KSC Public Services; behind Bridges is Nancie Strott (left), a multi-media specialist with Dynacs and chairperson of the Fair, and Sterling Walker (right), director of Engineering Development and chairman of DAAWG. The Fair is highlighting vendors demonstrating mobility, hearing, vision and silent disability assistive technology. The purpose is to create an awareness of the types of technology currently available to assist people with various disabilities in the workplace. The theme is that of this year's National Disability Employment Awareness Month, 'Opening Doors to Ability.' Some of the other vendors participating are Goodwill Industries, Accessible Structures, Division of Blind Services, Space Coast Center for Independent Living, KSC Fitness Center and Delaware North Parks Services.
Lu, Chunming; Qi, Zhenghan; Harris, Adrianne; Weil, Lisa Wisman; Han, Michelle; Halverson, Kelly; Perrachione, Tyler K; Kjelgaard, Margaret; Wexler, Kenneth; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Gabrieli, John D E
Individuals with reading disability or individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are characterized, respectively, by their difficulties in reading or social communication, but both groups often have impaired phonological working memory (PWM). It is not known whether the impaired PWM reflects distinct or shared neuroanatomical abnormalities in these two diagnostic groups. White-matter structural connectivity via diffusion weighted imaging was examined in sixty-four children, ages 5-17 years, with reading disability, ASD, or typical development (TD), who were matched in age, gender, intelligence, and diffusion data quality. Children with reading disability and children with ASD exhibited reduced PWM compared to children with TD. The two diagnostic groups showed altered white-matter microstructure in the temporo-parietal portion of the left arcuate fasciculus (AF) and in the temporo-occipital portion of the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), as indexed by reduced fractional anisotropy and increased radial diffusivity. Moreover, the structural integrity of the right ILF was positively correlated with PWM ability in the two diagnostic groups, but not in the TD group. These findings suggest that impaired PWM is transdiagnostically associated with shared neuroanatomical abnormalities in ASD and reading disability. Microstructural characteristics in left AF and right ILF may play important roles in the development of PWM. The right ILF may support a compensatory mechanism for children with impaired PWM.
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this research is designing a computerized program, in game format, for working memory training in mild intellectual disabled children. Methods: 24 students participated as test and control groups. The auditory and visual-spatial WM were assessed by primary test, which included computerized Wechsler numerical forward and backward sub- tests, and secondary tests, which contained three parts: dual visual-spatial test, auditory test, and a one-syllable word recalling test. Results: The results showed significant differnces between working memory capacity in the intellectually disabled children and normal ones (P-value<0.00001. After using the computerized working memory training, Visual-spatial WM, auditory WM, and speaking were improved in the trained group. The mentioned four tests showed significant differences between pre-test and post-test. The trained group showed more improvements in forward tasks. The trained participant’s processing speed increased with training. Discussion: According to the results, comprehensive human-computer interfaces and the aplication of computer in children training, especially in traing of intellectual disabled children with impairements in visual and auditory perceptions, could be more effective and vaulable.
Brandenburg, Janin; Klesczewski, Julia; Fischbach, Anne; Schuchardt, Kirsten; Büttner, Gerhard; Hasselhorn, Marcus
In transparent orthographies like German, isolated learning disabilities in either reading or spelling are common and occur as often as a combined reading and spelling disability. However, most issues surrounding the cognitive causes of these isolated or combined literacy difficulties are yet unresolved. Recently, working memory dysfunctions have…
Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee Yen; Mey, See Ching; Eng, Tan Kok; Othman, Rosly; Omar, Ahmad Fairuz
Transition services are required by law for students with disabilities in many developed countries. In Malaysia, however, there is still no specific legislation mandating that school-to-work transition planning and services be provided to students with disabilities. This study investigated the state of the transition services provided by…
Kuiper, L.; Bakker, M.; van der Klink, J.J.L.
The aim of this study is to discuss the role of human values and relations in the employment of people with work-relevant disabilities. Purpose: Finding and maintaining a paid job is known to be more difficult for people with a disability. The aim of the study is to explore the use which people with
Gulley, Stephen P; Altman, Barbara M
An overarching question in health policy concerns whether the current mix of public and private health coverage in the United States can be, in one way or another, expanded to include all persons as it does in Canada. As typically high-end consumers of health care services, people with disabilities are key stakeholders to consider in this debate. The risk is that ways to cover more persons may be found only by sacrificing the quantity or quality of care on which people with disabilities so frequently depend. Yet, despite the many comparisons made of Canadian and U.S. health care, few focus directly on the needs of people with disabilities or the uninsured among them in the United States. This research is intended to address these gaps. Given this background, we compare the health care experiences of working-age uninsured and insured Americans with Canadian individuals (all of whom, insured) with a special focus on disability. Two questions for research guide our inquiry: (1) On the basis of disability severity level and health insurance status, are there differences in self-reported measures of access, utilization, satisfaction with, or quality of health care services within or between the United States and Canada? (2) After controlling covariates, when examining each level of disability severity, are there any significant differences in these measures of access, utilization, satisfaction, or quality between U.S. insured and Canadian persons? Cross-sectional data from the Joint Canada/United States Survey of Health (JCUSH) are analyzed with particular attention to disability severity level (none, nonsevere, or severe) among three analytic groups of working age residents (insured Americans, uninsured Americans, and Canadians). Differences in three measures of access, one measure of satisfaction with care, one quality of care measure, and two varieties of physician contacts are compared. Multivariate methods are then used to compare the healthcare experiences of
Szeto, Grace P Y; Cheng, Andy S K; Lee, Edwin W C; Schonstein, Eva; Gross, Douglas P
This is a discussion paper to examine the issues surrounding management of work-related injuries by physiotherapists and occupational therapists in Hong Kong. Therapists working in public hospitals are faced with managing injured workers with limited resources and this frequently results in suboptimal outcomes. In this paper, five experienced therapists critically reviewed the current practices in the physiotherapy and occupational therapy professions in Hong Kong, with regard to managing patients with work injuries. In many hospitals, therapists still practice with a disease-based model focusing on symptom relief and restoration of general physical function. We collated information about current programs initiated by physiotherapists and occupational therapists to provide more strategic intervention strategies for early screening of high-risk patients and adaptive biopsychosocial interventions targeting return-to-work outcomes. Clinical and system-level barriers and facilitators of a major paradigm shift towards work disability prevention are discussed. Physiotherapists and occupational therapists need to develop more strategic collaborations and actively voice out the need for major systematic changes within the local healthcare system, in order to provide a more effective management approach in line with the concept of Work Disability Prevention.
I. V. Ivenskih
Full Text Available Introduction: In the article we consider the structure of psychological preparedness of future teachers of the primary education level to work with students in the conditions of inclusive education. The following components are pointed out: motivation and values – the component which presupposes the formation of a new value – transformation of the direct relationship with a child into an indirect sociocultural relationship; activity component, which presupposes that a teacher has an ability not only to analyze their professional activity but also to create new situations of inclusive practice, to be more precise, a teacher should be able to plan the individual trajectory of each student’s development and create new ways of academic communication and new forms of academic interaction at the lesson; reflective-evaluative component, which presupposes that a future teacher has an ability to assess the achievements of each student while mastering an educational program, putting a special emphasis on the student’s individual success and progress in the process of his training, education and development. For this reason, at the stage of training future teachers of the primary education level at university they are to attend lectures aimed at educating them in the field of psychology and pedagogics concerning the peculiarities of the age psychic development and general psychic development of disabled children in primary school taking into consideration the specificity of student integration, the zones of actual and perspective development of a child, specific features of interdisciplinary and collective interaction of the specialists working with these children. Future teachers are also to be engaged in practical work of both types – on the campus and off-campus.Results: The article is devoted to the problem of specific features of professional preparedness of future teachers of the primary education level to work with students in the
Theis, Kristina A; Roblin, Douglas W; Helmick, Charles G; Luo, Ruiyan
Chronic conditions are among the major causes of work disability (WD), which is associated with lower employment, less economic activity, and greater dependence on social programs, while limiting access to the benefits of employment participation. We estimated the overall prevalence of WD among working-age (18-64 years) U.S. adults and the most common causes of WD overall and by sex. Next, we estimated the prevalence and most common causes of WD among adults with 12 common chronic conditions by sex and age. We hypothesized that musculoskeletal conditions would be among the most common causes of WD overall and for individuals with other diagnosed chronic conditions. Data were obtained from years 2011, 2012, and 2013 of the National Health Interview Survey. WD was defined by a "yes" response to one or both of: "Does a physical, mental, or emotional problem NOW keep you from working at a job or business?" and "Are you limited in the kind OR amount of work you can do because of a physical, mental or emotional problem?" Overall, 20.1 million adults (10.4% (95% CI = 10.1-10.8) of the working-age population) reported WD. The top three most commonly reported causes of WD were back/neck problems 30.3% (95% CI = 29.1-31.5), depression/anxiety/emotional problems 21.0% (19.9-22.0), and arthritis/rheumatism 18.6 (17.6-19.6). Musculoskeletal conditions were among the three most common causes of WD overall and by age- and sex-specific respondents across diagnosed chronic conditions. Quantifying the prevalence and causes of work disability by age and sex can help prioritize interventions. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between chronic respiratory diseases and work disability has been demonstrated a number of times over the past 20 years, but still little is known about work disability in occupational cohorts of workers exposed to respiratory irritants. This study investigated job or task changes due to respiratory problems as an indicator of work disability in pulp mill workers occupationally exposed to irritants. Methods Data about respiratory symptoms and disease diagnoses, socio-demographic variables, occupational exposures, gassing episodes, and reported work changes due to respiratory problems were collected using a questionnaire answered by 3226 pulp mill workers. Information about work history and departments was obtained from personnel files. Incidence and hazard ratios for respiratory work disability were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results The incidence of respiratory work disability among these pulp mill workers was 1.6/1000 person-years. The hazard ratios for respiratory work disability were increased for workers reporting gassings (HR 5.3, 95% CI 2.7-10.5 and for those reporting physician-diagnosed asthma, chronic bronchitis, and chronic rhinitis, when analyzed in the same model. Conclusions This cohort study of pulp mill workers found that irritant peak exposure during gassing episodes was a strong predictor of changing work due to respiratory problems, even after adjustment for asthma, chronic bronchitis, and chronic rhinitis.
Full Text Available Studies of work disability in diabetes have examined diabetes as a homogeneous disease. We sought to identify subgroups among persons with diabetes based on potential risk factors for work disability.Participants were 2,445 employees with diabetes from three prospective cohorts (the Finnish Public Sector study, the GAZEL study, and the Whitehall II study. Work disability was ascertained via linkage to registers of sickness absence and disability pensions during a follow-up of 4 years. Study-specific latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups according to prevalent comorbid disease and health-risk behaviours. Study-specific associations with work disability at follow-up were pooled using fixed-effects meta-analysis.Separate latent class analyses for men and women in each cohort supported a two-class solution with one subgroup (total n = 1,086; 44.4% having high prevalence of chronic somatic diseases, psychological symptoms, obesity, physical inactivity and abstinence from alcohol and the other subgroup (total n = 1,359; 55.6% low prevalence of these factors. In the adjusted meta-analyses, participants in the 'high-risk' group had more work disability days (pooled rate ratio = 1.66, 95% CI 1.38-1.99 and more work disability episodes (pooled rate ratio = 1.33, 95% CI 1.21-1.46. These associations were similar in men and women, younger and older participants, and across occupational groups.Diabetes is not a homogeneous disease in terms of work disability risk. Approximately half of people with diabetes are assigned to a subgroup characterised by clustering of comorbid health conditions, obesity, physical inactivity, abstinence of alcohol, and associated high risk of work disability; the other half to a subgroup characterised by a more favourable risk profile.
Ustün, T B; Cooper, J E; van Duuren-Kristen, S; Kennedy, C; Hendershot, G; Sartorius, N
This article reviews the key issues arising in the revision of the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps (ICIDH) from a mental health perspective, and describes the work of the Disability Working Group of the WHO's Division of Mental Health. The ICIDH, which describes the consequences of disorders at three levels as impairments, disabilities, and handicaps, is generally applicable and useful for mental health purposes. While some impairments are mainly a consequence of 'mental' disorders (e.g. cognitive impairment), there should be no differences between mental and physical disorders in the classification scheme, to avoid a dichotomy between mind and body. There is also a need to improve the ways in which interference with the performance of social roles is described, since this is often the most obvious consequence of mental disorders. This article presents the potentials of the ICIDH in the field of mental health, and gives recommendations for the development of the revision process of the ICIDH. To stimulate the process of producing a 'common language' in the ICIDH related to mental health issues, former and potential users of the ICIDH are invited to give comments and suggestions.
Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
and Midlife Biobank with a job exposure matrix and a national register containing information on social transfer payment. By coding individual job histories from the Danish version of ISCO-codes (International Standard Classification of Occupations), we calculated cumulative occupational mechanical exposures......-regression analyses estimated the relative risk of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA) and disability pension with cumulative occupational mechanical exposures throughout working life. Analyses were censored for competing events and adjusted for multiple confounders. Results: During the follow-up period......, 970 persons (19.3%) had ≥1 episode of LTSA and 85 persons (1.7%) were granted a disability pension. Number of ton-, lifting- and kneeling-years showed an exposure-response association with increased risk of LTSA (P
Sophia Miryam Schüssler-Fiorenza Rose
Full Text Available To examine the impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs and support on self-reported work inability of adults reporting disability.Adults (ages 18-64 who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 2009 or 2010 and who reported having a disability (n = 13,009.The study used a retrospective cohort design with work inability as the main outcome. ACE categories included abuse (sexual, physical, emotional and family dysfunction (domestic violence, incarceration, mental illness, substance abuse, divorce. Support included functional (perceived emotional/social support and structural (living with another adult support. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders (age, sex and race and to evaluate whether there was an independent effect of ACEs on work inability after adding other important predictors (support, education, health to the model.ACEs were highly prevalent with almost 75% of the sample reporting at least one ACE category and over 25% having a high ACE burden (4 or more categories. ACEs were strongly associated with functional support. Participants experiencing a high ACE burden had a higher adjusted odds ratio (OR [95% confidence interval] of 1.9 [1.5-2.4] of work inability (reference: zero ACEs. Good functional support (adjusted OR 0.52 [0.42-0.63] and structural support (adjusted OR 0.48 [0.41-0.56] were protective against work inability. After adding education and health to the model, ACEs no longer appeared to have an independent effect. Structural support remained highly protective, but functional support only appeared to be protective in those with good physical health.ACEs are highly prevalent in working-age US adults with a disability, particularly young adults. ACEs are associated with decreased support, lower educational attainment and worse adult health. Health care providers are encouraged to screen for ACEs. Addressing the effects of ACEs on health and support, in addition to
Wolfe, Frederick; Walitt, Brian T; Katz, Robert S; Häuser, Winfried
To determine prevalence and incidence of US Social Security Disability and Supplemental Security Income (SSD) in patients with fibromyalgia and to investigate prediction of SSD. Over a mean of 4 years (range 1-13 years), we studied 2,321 patients with physician-diagnosed fibromyalgia (prevalent cases) and applied modified American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 2010 research criteria to identify criteria-positive patients. During the study, 34.8% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 32.9-36.8%) of fibromyalgia patients received SSD. The annual incidence of SSD among patients not receiving SSD at study enrollment was 3.4% (95% CI 3.0-3.9%), and 25% were estimated to be work disabled at 9.0 years of followup. By comparison, the prevalence of SSD in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with concomitant fibromyalgia was 55.6% (95% CI 54.3-57.0%) and was 42.4% in osteoarthritis (OA). By study conclusion, 31.4% of SSD awardees were no longer receiving SSD. In univariate models, incident SSD in patients with fibromyalgia was predicted by sociodemographic measures and by symptom burden; but the strongest predictor was functional status (Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index [HAQ DI]). In multivariable models, the HAQ DI and the Short Form 36-item health survey physical and mental component summary scores, but no other variables, predicted SSD. Fibromyalgia criteria-positive patients had more SSD, but the continuous scale, polysymptomatic distress index derived from the ACR criteria was a substantially better predictor of SSD than a criteria-positive diagnosis. The prevalence of SSD is high in fibromyalgia, but not higher than in RA and OA patients who satisfy fibromyalgia criteria. The best predictors of work disability are functional status variables. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.
Engelman, Michal; Kestenbaum, Bert M; Zuelsdorff, Megan L; Mehta, Neil K; Lauderdale, Diane S
Public debates about both immigration policy and social safety net programs are increasingly contentious. However, little research has explored differences in health within America's diverse population of foreign-born workers, and the effect of these workers on public benefit programs is not well understood. We investigate differences in work disability by nativity and origins and describe the mix of health problems associated with receiving Social Security Disability Insurance benefits. Our analysis draws on two large national data sources-the American Community Survey and comprehensive administrative records from the Social Security Administration-to determine the prevalence and incidence of work disability between 2001 and 2010. In sharp contrast to prior research, we find that foreign-born adults are substantially less likely than native-born Americans to report work disability, to be insured for work disability benefits, and to apply for those benefits. Overall and across origins, the foreign-born also have a lower incidence of disability benefit award. Persons from Africa, Northern Europe, Canada, and parts of Asia have the lowest work disability benefit prevalence rates among the foreign-born; persons from Southern Europe, Western Europe, the former Soviet Union, and the Caribbean have the highest rates.
Rijssen, H.J. van; Schellart, A.J.M.; Anema, J.R.; Boer, W.E.L. de; Beek, A.J. van der
Background Physicians require specific communication skills, because the face-to-face contact with their patients is an important source of information. Although physicians who perform work disability assessments attend some communication-related training courses during their professional education,
Detaille, S.I.; Heerkens, Y.H.; Engels, J.A.; Gulden, J.W.J. van der; Dijk, F.J. van
OBJECTIVE: Based on prospective and retrospective disease cohort studies, the aim of this review was to determine common prognostic factors for work disability among employees with rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, and ischemic heart disease
Detaille, Sarah I.; Heerkens, Yvonne F.; Engels, Josephine A.; van der Gulden, Joost W. J.; van Dijk, Frank J. H.
Objective Based on prospective and retrospective disease cohort studies, the aim of this review was to determine common prognostic factors for work disability among employees with rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, and ischemic heart disease
... physical or mental impairment has earnings that exceed the Substantial Gainful Activity (SGA) level, which represents SSA's principal standard for determining whether a disabled individual is able to work...
Michelle S. Ballan
Full Text Available Women with disabilities experience intimate partner violence (IPV at higher rates than both nondisabled women and men, and men with disabilities. Their significant exposure to IPV suggests notable levels of trauma-related symptomology. However, there is a dearth of research on trauma and IPV among women with disabilities, and services tailored to their diverse strengths and needs are scarce. Guided by critical disability theory and feminist disability theory, this article describes culturally sensitive, trauma- informed approaches to practice with female survivors of IPV with disabilities.
Milner, Allison; Aitken, Zoe; Krnjacki, Lauren; Bentley, Rebecca; Blakely, Tony; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Kavanagh, Anne M
Equity and fairness at work are associated with a range of organizational and health outcomes. Past research suggests that workers with disabilities experience inequity in the workplace. It is difficult to conclude whether the presence of disability is the reason for perceived unfair treatment due to the possible confounding of effect estimates by other demographic or socioeconomic factors. The data source was the Household, Income, and Labor Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey (2001-2012). Propensity for disability was calculated from logistic models including gender, age, education, country of birth, and father's occupational skill level as predictors. We then used nearest neighbor (on propensity score) matched analysis to match workers with disabilities to workers without disability. Results suggest that disability is independently associated with lower fairness of pay after controlling for confounding factors in the propensity score matched analysis; although results do suggest less than half a standard deviation difference, indicating small effects. Similar results were apparent in standard multivariable regression models and alternative propensity score analyses (stratification, covariate adjustment using the propensity score, and inverse probability of treatment weighting). Whilst neither multivariable regression nor propensity scores adjust for unmeasured confounding, and there remains the potential for other biases, similar results for the two methodological approaches to confounder adjustment provide some confidence of an independent association of disability with perceived unfairness of pay. Based on this, we suggest that the disparity in the perceived fairness of pay between people with and without disabilities may be explained by worse treatment of people with disabilities in the workplace.
Eklund, Mona; Sandlund, Mikael
It is possible that people with psychiatric disabilities who visit day centres have previous work experiences that may be seen as resources for their current engagement in day centre activities. Research in this respect seems to lack, however. To investigate work experiences among attendees at day centres for people with psychiatric disabilities and relationships with current type of day centre (work-oriented, meeting place-oriented or mixed), engagement in day centre activities, motivation and socio-demographic and health-related factors. Seventy-seven attendees responded to questionnaires. Global Assessment of Functioning, GAF, was also used. Work was categorised into Group I (professionals, semi-professionals), Group II (clerical support, services workers) and Group III (e.g. craft workers, elementary occupations). Almost everyone had previously had open-market employment; more than half for ≥ 10 years. Group I was more common in mixed centres, Group II in meeting place-oriented ones and Group III in work-oriented ones. Group I more frequently had college degree and was rated high on GAF functioning. Women were over-represented in Group II, and men in Group III and in meeting place-oriented centres. Attending mixed centres was more likely when having a college degree, scoring high on GAF functioning and being highly engaged in activities. Attendees at work-oriented day centres were characterised by being motivated for spending time alone and reporting a diagnosis of psychosis. The participants had unused working capacity. No clear-cut relationships were found between work experiences and the investigated correlates.
Van der Molen, M J; Van Luit, J E H; Van der Molen, M W; Klugkist, I; Jongmans, M J
The goal of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a computerised working memory (WM) training on memory, response inhibition, fluid intelligence, scholastic abilities and the recall of stories in adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities attending special education. A total of 95 adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities were randomly assigned to either a training adaptive to each child's progress in WM, a non-adaptive WM training, or to a control group. Verbal short-term memory (STM) improved significantly from pre- to post-testing in the group who received the adaptive training compared with the control group. The beneficial effect on verbal STM was maintained at follow-up and other effects became clear at that time as well. Both the adaptive and non-adaptive WM training led to higher scores at follow-up than at post-intervention on visual STM, arithmetic and story recall compared with the control condition. In addition, the non-adaptive training group showed a significant increase in visuo-spatial WM capacity. The current study provides the first demonstration that WM can be effectively trained in adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities.
Pelegrina, Santiago; Capodieci, Agnese; Carretti, Barbara; Cornoldi, Cesare
It has been argued that children with learning disabilities (LD) encounter severe problems in working memory (WM) tasks, especially when they need to update information stored in their WM. It is not clear, however, to what extent this is due to a generally poor updating ability or to a difficulty specific to the domain to be processed. To examine this issue, two groups of children with arithmetic or reading comprehension LD and a group of typically developing children (9 to 10 years old) were assessed using two updating tasks requiring to select the smallest numbers or objects presented. The results showed that children with an arithmetic disability failed in a number updating task, but not in the object updating task. The opposite was true for the group with poor reading comprehension, whose performance was worse in the object than in the number updating task. It may be concluded that the problem of WM updating in children with LD is also due to a poor representation of the material to be updated. In addition, our findings suggest that the mental representation of the size of objects relates to the semantic representation of the objects' properties and differs from the quantitative representation of numbers. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.
Martins, Anabela Correia
The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was approved by the World Health Assembly in 2001. Ten years later, strong arguments have arisen regarding the added value of ICF to the policies on employment and the outcomes at the workplace. As a conceptual framework, ICF has universality because of its inclusive and comprehensive view of human functioning. At a practical level ICF can be used to quantify the impact of impairment on an individual's ability to act in his/her environment and to assess interventions to minimize the impact of disability and maximize functioning. To explore key indicators of social participation (life habits) of persons with disabilities, particularly related to work, among environmental and personal factors. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaires from a convenience sample of 149 working-age persons with disabilities. Social participation is a construct composed by multiple components and employment domain is the strongest indicator of participation. Correlations between social participation and personal factors, such as self-efficacy and attitudes towards disability were moderate. Those who are employed scored higher quality of life in terms of satisfaction with life, more positive attitudes toward disabilities and higher self-efficacy than the ones who are retired or unemployed. Persons using adapted wheelchair and those who were involved in wheelchair selection scored higher in social participation in general, performance at work, and quality of life. Age and disability duration were not associated with participants' employment status. These findings suggest that rehabilitation and vocational agents, like physiotherapists and other professionals, should have knowledge and understanding of the multiple factors that influence persons with disabilities' participation at work. Programs should provide appropriate wheelchairs, skills training, empowerment and problem-solving strategies in
The aim of this article is to examine the experiences of families with young adults with learning disabilities trying to access services. The landscape of disability services for this group is made up of day care, special vocational training and respite places. It aims to identify the extent of an implementation gap between government rhetoric and the degree to which services are characterised as being non-supportive interactions on the ground. Using Ireland as a case study, during a time when the economy is booming and government rhetoric claims unparalleled developments in allocating resources and extra respite 'places', this article identifies the main challenges faced by family carers associated with accessing appropriate services for their disabled adult child, in their attempt to achieve greater independence. This article reports the findings of a qualitative study in which individual semistructured interviews were held with family carers (n = 25) and representatives from national carer organisations (n = 6) in Ireland. These were people caring for an adult (18-30 years) with a learning disability and their experiences were also useful in cross-checking the carer organisation interviews. The findings show that there is limited flexibility, choice and availability in meeting the preferences of the service-users, and throughout the study, services were characterised as being non-supportive interactions. This is not simply symptomatic of a lack of resources. Despite improved funding, supportive attitudes and flexibility are still crucial in meeting user requirements at the level of delivery; thus highlighting that often the system works for the system, not for the user.
Full Text Available Children with intellectual disabilities show deficits in both reasoning ability and working memory (WM that impact everyday functioning and academic achievement. In this study we investigated the feasibility of cognitive training for improving WM and non-verbal reasoning (NVR ability in children with intellectual disability. Participants were randomized to a 5-week adaptive training program (intervention group or non-adaptive version of the program (active control group. Cognitive assessments were conducted prior to and directly after training, and one year later to examine effects of the training. Improvements during training varied largely and amount of progress during training predicted transfer to WM and comprehension of instructions, with higher training progress being associated with greater transfer effects. The strongest predictors for training progress were found to be gender, co-morbidity and baseline capacity on verbal WM. In particular, females without an additional diagnosis and with higher baseline performance showed greater progress. No significant effects of training were observed at the one-year follow-up, suggesting that training should be more intense or repeated in order for effects to persist in children with intellectual disabilities. A major finding of this study is that cognitive training is feasible in children with intellectual disabilities and can help improve their cognitive capacities. However, a minimum cognitive capacity or training ability seems necessary for the training to be beneficial, with some individuals showing little improvement in performance. Future studies of cognitive training should take into consideration how inter-individual differences in training progress influence transfer effects and further investigate how baseline capacities predict training outcome.
Carretero, Noelia; Luciano, Juan V
Although workplace bullying is a severe psychosocial risk with a high prevalence, there is a lack of studies addressing its incidence, particularly among staff working with people with intellectual disability. We examined the prevalence and incidence of workplace bullying in a sample of Spanish employees working with people with intellectual disability. The socio-demographic characteristics of victims and non-victims of workplace bullying were also analyzed. Multicenter study with two phases (T1 and T2) carried out in Valencia (Spain). The sample consisted of 696 employees from 66 centers in T1. One year later (T2), 422 employees from 61 centers agreed to participate in the study again. Workplace bullying was assessed by means of the instrument "Mobbing-UNIPSICO". The prevalence of workplace bullying was 18.9% and 20.4% in T1 and T2, respectively. Of the 335 employees who were not victims of workplace bullying at T1 who were followed up at T2, 36 reported that they suffered workplace bullying a year later, that is, the accumulated incidence was 11%. In contrast, 81 workers who had been victims of workplace bullying at T1 and who were followed up at T2, 32 reported that they did not suffered from workplace bullying a year later. The victims had more stable contracts and more seniority in the organization/job than the non-victims in T1, but this result was not replicated in T2. Workplace bullying is a phenomenon with substantial prevalence, but also with considerable incidence (11%) among staff working with people with an intellectual disability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bertoli, A M; Fernández, M; Alarcón, G S; Vilá, L M; Reveille, J D
To examine the risk factors for self-reported work disability in patients from the LUpus in MInorities: NAture vs. Nurture cohort with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients with SLE of Hispanic (Texas and Puerto Rico), African American and Caucasian ethnicity were studied. Work disability was defined by patients' self-report. Only patients known to be employed at the baseline visit were included. The probabilities of self-reporting work disability over time were examined by the Kaplan-Meier method; differences between ethnic groups were examined by the log-rank test. The relationship of baseline socioeconomic-demographic, clinical, behavioural and psychological features with work disability was examined by standard statistical tests. Variables with p
Bertoli, A M; Fernández, M; Alarcón, G S; Vilá, L M; Reveille, J D
Objective To examine the risk factors for self‐reported work disability in patients from the LUpus in MInorities: NAture vs. Nurture cohort with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Patients with SLE of Hispanic (Texas and Puerto Rico), African American and Caucasian ethnicity were studied. Work disability was defined by patients' self‐report. Only patients known to be employed at the baseline visit were included. The probabilities of self‐reporting work disability over time were examined by the Kaplan–Meier method; differences between ethnic groups were examined by the log‐rank test. The relationship of baseline socioeconomic–demographic, clinical, behavioural and psychological features with work disability was examined by standard statistical tests. Variables with p⩽0.10 in these analyses were examined by logistic regression. Results The rate of self‐reported work disability among the 273 patients studied was 19% at 5 years; it was numerically higher for the African Americans (25%) than for the Hispanics from Texas (19%) and the Caucasians (18%). The rate for the Hispanics from Puerto Rico was 7% at 2 years; 5‐year rates could not be estimated for this ethnic subgroup (shorter follow‐up in the cohort). In the regression analysis, age, male sex, poverty, total disease duration, disease activity and damage accrual were predictors of work disability. Conclusions The rate of work disability was 19% at 5 years. Patients with SLE with more severe disease and with lower socioeconomic status are at high risk of becoming disabled. The toll SLE imposes could possibly be reduced in patients at risk if, in addition to medical treatment, services needed to overcome their disadvantageous socioeconomic status are provided. PMID:16815862
Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Eisen, Sue; Ni, Pengsheng; Rasch, Elizabeth K; Rogers, E Sally; Jette, Alan
Questions exist related to the best way to use medical evidence relative to self-report as part of the SSA disability determination process. To examine concordance between provider and claimant responses along the four dimensions of work related behavioral health functioning: Social Interactions, Mood and Emotions, Behavioral Control, and Self-Efficacy. Using secondary data from a larger study, which collected data on individuals reporting difficulties with work (claimants) due to mental conditions, 39 items were completed by claimants and their healthcare provider. Inter-rater agreement was assessed using three techniques: Cohen's kappa, percent absolute agreement, and folded mountain plots. A sample of 65 dyads was obtained. Inter-rater agreement was low for most items (k=0.0-0.20) with a minority of items having fair agreement (k=0.21-0.40) Percent agreement was fair: Mood and Emotions (46%), Self-Efficacy (44%), Behavioral Control (39%) and Social Interactions (38%). Overall, providers reported lower functioning compared to claimants for the Behavioral Control and Self-Efficacy scales; the reverse trend held for the Mood and Emotions scale. Results indicate discordance between provider and claimant report of behavioral health functioning. Understanding reasons for and approaches to reconciling the inconsistencies between claimant and provider perspectives is a complex task. These findings have implications for how best to assess mental and behavioral-health related work disability in the absence of an established gold standard measure.
Labrecque, Marie-Elise; Coutu, Marie-France; Durand, Marie-José; Fassier, Jean-Baptiste; Loisel, Patrick
Purpose This study assesses how well two cartoons transfer knowledge of principles of work disability prevention among stakeholders, according to their level of experience. We also document stakeholders' perceptions of the usefulness of the cartoons. Method We performed a descriptive study. Two groups of stakeholders were recruited: (1) experienced (working for more than 2 years in work disability), (2) non-experienced (in training). A self-administered questionnaire with open-ended questions documented stakeholders' understanding of each cartoon box and their perception of the possible usefulness of the cartoons. We transformed qualitative responses into quantitative responses for descriptive purposes. We performed independent t tests to compare the groups' level of understanding, and content analysis for the perception of usefulness. Results Overall, 149 stakeholders (50 experienced and 99 non-experienced) participated and identified 79.4 and 61.4 % of all principles presented in each of the two cartoons respectively. Experienced stakeholders identified more principles compared to non-experienced stakeholders (p = 0.007). Both cartoons were perceived to be useful for knowledge transfer. Conclusions Principles were generally well identified in the cartoons by all participants. Cartoons can be used as an effective tool among stakeholders to achieve a common understanding in order to coordinate their actions.
Chou, Yueh-Ching; Fu, Li-Yeh; Pu, Cheng-Yun; Chang, Heng-Hao
Whether employed and nonemployed mothers of children with intellectual disability (ID) have different experiences with reconciliation between care and work has rarely been explored. A survey was conducted in a county in Taiwan and 487 mothers aged younger than 65 and having a child with ID were interviewed face to face at their homes to explore whether there are different factors related to the reconciliation between care and work among employed and nonemployed mothers. Except for the common ground of mothers' health and care demands, logistic regression revealed work flexibility and care support were important for employed mothers. In contrast, the success of reconciliation for nonemployed mothers was determined by their individual characteristics (i.e., age, marital status, family income). Reconciliation policies for mothers with different employment statuses need to use different strategies.
Saunders, S L; MacEachen, E; Nedelec, B
Effort is a concept that underlies programs assisting people with work disability to re-enter the labour force. During re-entry, attention is paid to the effort invested by the worker with an injury. However, for those with chronic work disability, the motivation to return to work (RTW) may be questioned by benefit service providers and healthcare professionals. The objective of this paper is to describe the efforts made by people with long term work-disability to regain a foothold on the labour market. This phenomenological study explored the meaning of work for people with long-term work disability and job loss. Twenty-seven interviews were conducted with nine participants. A thematic analysis was completed of the collected data. A key finding of this study is the variety and degree of effort exerted by participants to regain employment, despite time away from the workplace and system barriers. Effort was exerted to retain pre-accident employment; to obtain new work following job loss; and, to remain in a new job. This study suggests that if the RTW effort of people with long-term work disability is not fully acknowledged or supported, this population will remain unemployed where their strengths as competent, experienced workers will continue to be wasted.
Kremer, A.M.; Pal, T.M.; Keimpema, A.R.J.
Objectives: The aim was to gain insight into work experiences and problems of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to develop more effective guidelines for preventing work disability and work loss. Methods: A total of 617 patients aged 45-60, recruited from pulmonary outpatient
Kremer, A. M.; Pal, T. M.; van Keimpema, A. R. J.
The aim was to gain insight into work experiences and problems of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to develop more effective guidelines for preventing work disability and work loss. A total of 617 patients aged 45-60, recruited from pulmonary outpatient clinics and general
Holte, H H; Tambs, K; Bjerkedal, T
Manual work is reported to be a risk factor for becoming a disability pensioner due to osteoarthritis. This association may be due to covariation with other variables. We wanted to assess if manual work remained a risk factor after adjusting for number of hours worked, income, level of education, gender and marital status, and if the risk associated with manual work was equal in the 1970s and the 1980s. In a prospective study, data on all new disability pensioners with osteoarthritis in Norway during the two follow-up periods, 1971-1980 and 1981-1990, were analysed by logistic regression. The study include data on all subjects living in Norway and registered as 50-56 years old and employed either in the census collected in 1970 or in the census of 1980. Manual workers have nearly twice the probability of becoming a disability pensioner with osteoarthritis compared to professionals after adjusting for part-time work, income, level of education, marital status and gender. Adjusted for other risk factors, the probability of becoming a disability pensioner with osteoarthritis was three times higher in the 1980s compared to the 1970s. The relatively strong association between manual work and disability pensioning with osteoarthritis suggests difficulties in adjusting manual work patterns for a person with osteoarthritis, which may have increased during the study period as implied by the separate effect of the 1980s.
Full Text Available The research was aimed to determine the relationship between working memory and intelligence in children with mild intellectual disability (MID, ages 10 to 14. The sample encompassed 53 children with MID, 47.2% of girls and 52.8% of boys. Their IQ ranges from 50 to 70 (AS=63.17; SD=6.56. The tasks that assess the Central Executive aspect of the working memory system, namely in verbal and non-verbal modality, have been selected. The obtained results indicate that working memory ('central executor' and intelligence are the constructs that significantly correlate in the range of 0.29 to 0.41, depending upon the working memory modality. It was determined that IQ category explains about 19% of the variability of the verbal and non-verbal working memory results, grouped in the unified model (p<0.05. However, the statistically significant relation was determined by means of the individual variables analysis only between IQ and non-verbal working memory (p<0.01. The statistically significant differences have also been determined in the non-verbal working memory development in the participants belonging to lower and higher IQ categories (p<0.05.
Full Text Available Working memory is activated in situations which require active control of directing attention, processing information and making it available for a short time. Its content is limited in capacity and changes with regard to the context of a performed activity. Self-control is the capacity of a voluntary conscious effort to persist in achieving a previously set goal. The aim of this research was to determine the relation of verbal and visuospatial aspects of working memory with self-control skills in persons with mild intellectual disability (ID. The sample included 40 participants 8-12 years of age (M=10.65, SD=1.19. Memorizing a Maze task, adapted for participants with ID, was used to determine the capacity of visuospatial aspect of working memory. Memorizing Animals task was used to assess verbal aspect of working memory, and Self-Control Rating Scale was used to determine the acquisition level of self-control skills. It was determined that verbal aspects of working memory were significantly related to the acquired level of self-control skills (p=0.002. There was no significant relation between the results of tasks assessing the capacity of visuospatial working memory and the success on the scale assessing self-control capacity (p=0.089. The relation between self-control and verbal aspect of working memory may be explained by close links between using speech and applying self-regulation strategies.
Vester-Andersen, Marianne K; Prosberg, Michelle V; Vind, Ida
BACKGROUND: To assess the occurrence and risk of unemployment (UE), sick leave (SL), and work disability (WD) in incident patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) after 7 years of follow-up compared with the background population and to determine outcome predictors. METHODS: The study popul...... underscores the need for the early identification of risk factors. A multidisciplinary approach to secure IBD patients' participation in the labor market is recommended.......BACKGROUND: To assess the occurrence and risk of unemployment (UE), sick leave (SL), and work disability (WD) in incident patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) after 7 years of follow-up compared with the background population and to determine outcome predictors. METHODS: The study...... population consisted of patients aged 18 to 67 years (N = 379) from an IBD inception cohort registered January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2004 in the Copenhagen area. Clinical data were retrospectively collected from medical records. Data on UE, SL, and WD were retrieved from national registries. A random...
... competent persons—not less than a physician and a social worker qualified by professional training and... or XVI of the Social Security Act must: (1) Contain a definition of permanently and totally disabled..., skills, and work experience, and the probable functioning of the individual in his particular situation...
Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
-regression analyses estimated the relative risk of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA) and disability pension with cumulative occupational mechanical exposures throughout working life. Analyses were censored for competing events and adjusted for multiple confounders. Results: During the follow-up period......Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prospective association of cumulative mechanical exposure during working life with health-related labor market outcomes. Methods: This prospective cohort study combines data from 5076 older workers (age 49-63 years) from the Copenhagen Aging...... from a JEM for ton-years (lifting 1000 kg each day in one year), lifting-years (lifting loads weighing ≥20 kg >10 times each day in one year), kneeling-years (kneeling for one hour each day in one year) and vibration-years (whole-body vibration for one hour each day in one year). Cox...
Full Text Available Bulgaria's membership in the European Union defines the orientation of our country in line with the key strategic priorities of Europe 2020, which aims to achieve smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The role of the cooperative system becomes especially important at this time when the EU itself is constructed as a union of equal socially oriented states. In the paper is depicted the role of the labour working producer cooperatives for disabled people as one of the main actors of the social economy in the EU which contribute to solving many economic and social problems of a substantial part of the Bulgarian population and to implement the priorities of the strategy "Europe 2020". In line with this aim, are given suggestion for the trends in improving their activity. So that they could provide better labour rehabilitation, strengthen the social integration of their members, promotion of production, improvement of working conditions, proposals for changes in legislation.
Full Text Available Work is important for one’s self-esteem, social standing and ability to participate in the community as well as for the material advantages it brings to individuals and their families. The evidence suggests that the benefits of employment outweigh the risks of work and are greater than the risks of long-term unemployment or sickness absence. Individuals may be born with physical or intellectual disadvantages (e.g., cerebral palsy, or they may be acquired during childhood or adult life. Some progressive conditions may present in childhood or adolescence (e.g., some muscular dystrophies and these need to be distinguished from those presenting later in life (e.g., trauma, stroke. Vocational rehabilitation (VR thus takes three forms: preparing those with a disability, health or mental health condition for the world of work, job retention for those in work and assisting those out of work into new work. Important components of VR consist of the attributes of the individual, the skills/knowledge of their health professionals, the knowledge and attitudes of actual or potential employers and the assistance that is provided by the state or other insurance facility. Charities are playing an increasing role.
Reinholdt, Sofia; Alexanderson, Kristina
This study examined some plausible explanations for the higher rates of ill-health seen in extremely gender-segregated occupations. The focus was on the work experiences of disability pensioners with last jobs prior to pensioning characterized by segregated conditions (i.e., less than 10% of the employees of their own sex). Seven interviews were subjected to qualitative content analyses focusing on aspects of health selection, gender differences in work tasks, and in the work situation. The results show a negative health selection into occupations in which the participants constitute an extreme minority. There were some differences in work tasks between the gender in extreme minority and the other gender. Exposure to different stress factors related to the minority status included increased visibility, performance pressure, and harassment. Gender had been of main importance for differences in exposure, for assigning work tasks, and for interaction dynamics between the groups in majority and extreme minority. A combination of negative health selection, gender marking of work tasks, and group interaction dynamics related to group proportions and gender may play a role in cumulative health risks. Additional longitudinal studies are needed to identify mechanisms and interactions in this context in order to better understand possible relationships between occupational gender segregation and increased health risks.
 Oral findings in patients with NS include a high arched palate ... the atypical dental anomalies such as multiple unerupted permanent ... clinical features in a child with NS. .... Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Gardien, S.; Kirsch, R.
The permanent education of the IPN-Lyon inscribes itself completely in the priorities of the tri-annual plan of education of CNRS. These priorities contribute to evolution of research, evaluation of the professions, integration during the professional carriers of the personnel and form the frame for new management practice implementation
Bokma, Wicher A; Batelaan, Neeltje M; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Penninx, Brenda W J H
Anxiety and/or Depressive Disorders (ADDs) and Chronic Somatic Diseases (CSDs) are associated with substantial levels of health-related disability and work impairment. However, it is unclear whether comorbid ADDs and CSDs additively affect functional outcomes. This paper examines the impact of ADDs, CSDs, and their comorbidity on disability, work absenteeism and presenteeism. Baseline data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (n=2371) were used. We assessed presence of current ADDs (using psychiatric interviews, CIDI) and presence of self-reported CSDs. Outcome measures were disability scores (WHO-DAS II questionnaire, overall and domain-specific), work absenteeism (≤2weeks and >2weeks; TiC-P) and presenteeism (reduced and impaired work performance; TiC-P). We conducted multivariate regression analyses adjusted for socio-demographics. Both ADDs and CSDs significantly and independently impact total disability, but the impact was substantially larger for ADDs (main effect unstandardized β=20.1, pabsenteeism (OR for extended absenteeism=1.42, p=.015) and presenteeism (OR for impaired work performance=1.42, p=.013), associations with ADDs were stronger (OR for extended absenteeism=6.64, pperformance=7.51, pabsenteeism and presenteeism, but the impact of ADDs far exceeds that of CSDs. CSDs and ADDs interact synergistically on disability, thereby bolstering the current view that patients with physical mental comorbidity (PM-comorbidity) form a severe subgroup with an unfavourable prognosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ellenkamp, Joke J H; Brouwers, Evelien P M; Embregts, Petri J C M; Joosen, Margot C W; van Weeghel, Jaap
People with an intellectual disability value work as a significant part of their lives, and many of them want to participate in regular paid employment.Current estimates show that the number of people with ID who have some form of paid employment are very low, ranging from 9 to 40% across different countries,despite legislations. This review examines papers published in the past 20 years in an attempt to answer the following research question: ‘What work environment-related factors contribute to obtaining or maintaining work in competitive employment for people with an intellectual disability?’ The databases of PubMed, PsycINFO,CINAHL, Embase and Web of Science were searched for relevant papers published between 1993 and 2013. All papers were independently screened by two researchers.Methodological quality of the studies was evaluated, and data on work environment-related factors stimulating employment for people with intellectual disabilities were extracted and grouped into categories. A total of 1932 articles were retrieved. After extensive screening for relevance and quality, 26 articles were included in this review. Four themes/categories with work environment related factors that could influence work participation were distinguished. Five studies were conducted on employers’ decisions and opinions. Eight focused on job content and performance, and eight on workplace interaction and culture. Five studies evaluated support by job coaches. Despite ongoing legislation to promote participation of people with intellectual disabilities in the paid workforce, research in this area is still extremely scarce. In the past 20 years, very few studies have focused on work environment-related factors that can enhance competitive work for people with intellectual disabilities.This review shows that relevant work environment-related factors for obtaining and maintaining work in competitive employment include supporting the employers by paying specific attention to
Knierman, Karen A.; Diaz Merced, Wanda; Aarnio, Alicia; Garcia, Beatriz; Monkiewicz, Jacqueline A.; Murphy, Nicholas Arnold
The AAS Working Group on Accessibility and Disability (WGAD) was formed in January of 2016 with the express purpose of seeking equity of opportunity and building inclusive practices for disabled astronomers at all educational and career stages. In this presentation, we will provide a summary of current activities, focusing on developing best practices for accessibility with respect to astronomical databases, publications, and meetings. Due to the reliance of space sciences on databases, it is important to have user centered design systems for data retrieval. The cognitive overload that may be experienced by users of current databases may be mitigated by use of multi-modal interfaces such as xSonify. Such interfaces would be in parallel or outside the original database and would not require additional software efforts from the original database. WGAD is partnering with the IAU Commission C1 WG Astronomy for Equity and Inclusion to develop such accessibility tools for databases and methods for user testing. To collect data on astronomical conference and meeting accessibility considerations, WGAD solicited feedback from January AAS attendees via a web form. These data, together with upcoming input from the community and analysis of accessibility documents of similar conferences, will be used to create a meeting accessibility document. Additionally, we will update the progress of journal access guidelines and our social media presence via Twitter. We recommend that astronomical journals form committees to evaluate the accessibility of their publications by performing user-centered usability studies.
Full Text Available Xue Bai,1,2 Daniel WH Ho,2 Karen Fung,3 Lily Tang,3 Moon He,3 Kim Wan Young,4 Florence Ho,2 Timothy Kwok2,5 1Department of Applied Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong; 2Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, Shatin, Hong Kong; 3Hong Chi Association, Hong Kong; 4Department of Social Work, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong; 5Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong Objective: This study examines the effectiveness of a life story work program (LSWp in older adults with mild-to-moderate levels of intellectual disability (ID. Methods: Using a quasiexperimental design, this study assigned 60 older adults who were between 50–90 years old with mild-to-moderate levels of ID to receive either the LSWp (intervention group, N=32 or usual activities (control group, N=28 during a period of 6 months. Evaluation was made based on the outcomes assessed by the Mood Interest and Pleasure Questionnaire, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and the Personal Well-being Index – ID. Results and conclusion: LSWp shows potential for improving the quality of life and preventing the loss of interest and pleasure in older adults with ID. It also shows promise in enhancing their socialization skills. Patients with better communication abilities seemed to benefit more from the LSWp. Keywords: life story work, life story book, intellectual disabilities, older adults, effectiveness
Herron, Daniel; Priest, Helena M.; Read, Sue
Background: There has been an increase in inclusive research in the learning disability field; however, this has not been reflected within learning disability and dementia research, where little is known from the perspective of people with learning disabilities. This paper will define inclusive research, explore reasons for the dearth of inclusive…
Based on ethnographic research conducted in north-west Cambodia in 2000-2001, this paper examines why disabled people experience systematic marginalisation in the labour market. Although there are no official data on the relationship between disability and employment status in Cambodia, this research suggests that disabled people are more likely…
Fotiadou, Elpida; Malliarou, Maria; Zetta, Stella; Gouva, Mary; Kotrotsiou, Evaggelia
The concept of nursing care in learning disability community settings has not been investigated in Greece. The aim of this paper is to investigate how nurses working in learning disability community settings perceive the meaning of nursing care. The sample consisted of 100 nurses and nursing assistants working in a social care hospice. Participants were asked to answer questions about socio- demographic characteristics of the sample and fill in a questionnaire of care (GR-NDI-24), the "Job-Communication-Satisfaction-Importance" (JCSI) questionnaire and the altruism scale of Ahmed and Jackson. The data analysis was realized with statistical methods of descriptive and inductive statistics. The analysis was made with the use of SPSS (version 19). The majority of the sample was women (78%). The majority of participants were married (66 %), DE graduates (66%) without postgraduate studies (96.7%). The mean age of respondents was 36.98±6.70 years. On the scales of caring and altruism, the mean values were 40.89±15.87 and 28.12±4.16 respectively. Very or fully satisfied with his work was 72% of the sample. The scope of work emerges as the most important factor influencing job satisfaction. The wages and working conditions (73% and 40% respectively) are the parameters of work which gathers the most dissatisfaction, while the salary is emerging as the most important parameter, the improvement of which would provide the highest satisfaction. Marginally statistically significant difference was observed in the range between TE graduates (d=40) and those of the DE grade (d=37), p=0.053. No statistically significant differences were observed in relation to other working and demographic characteristics (p>0.05). Greater care importance was associated with greater job satisfaction (pmateriality of care and job satisfaction in future research will allow to further highlight all the aspects affecting job satisfaction and performance of nurses. This will identify critical
Van Puyenbroeck, Joris; Maes, Bea
Background: This study evaluates the effects of reminiscence group work on the subjective well-being of ageing people with intellectual disabilities. Methods: The content of the successive group work sessions was manipulated as follows: a control-phase with three "current topics" sessions, an experimental phase with six "reminiscence" sessions and…
Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
absence (LTSA) and disability pension was estimated from exposure to 12 different psychosocial work characteristics during working life among 5076 older workers from the CAMB cohort (Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank). Analyses were censored for competing events and adjusted for age, gender, physical...
Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Otto Melchior; Clausen, Thomas; Rugulies, Reiner; Møller, Anne; Andersen, Lars L
The aim was to explore the association between retrospectively assessed psychosocial working conditions during working life and prospectively assessed risk of sickness absence and disability pension among older workers. The prospective risk of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA) and disability pension was estimated from exposure to 12 different psychosocial work characteristics during working life among 5076 older workers from the CAMB cohort (Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank). Analyses were censored for competing events and adjusted for age, gender, physical work environment, lifestyle, education, and prior LTSA. LTSA was predicted by high levels of cognitive demands (HR 1.31 (95% CI 1.10-1.56)), high levels of emotional demands (HR 1.26 (95% CI 1.07-1.48)), low levels of influence at work (HR 1.30 (95% CI 1.03-1.64)), and high levels of role conflicts (HR 1.34 (95% CI 1.09-1.65)). Disability pension was predicted by low levels of influence at work (HR 2.73 (95% CI 1.49-5.00)) and low levels of recognition from management (HR 2.04 (95% CI 1.14-3.67)). This exploratory study found that retrospectively assessed high cognitive demands, high and medium emotional demands, low influence at work, low recognition from management, medium role clarity, and high role conflicts predicted LTSA and/or disability pension.
Fulgosi-Masnjak, Rea; And Others
This study compared the perceived personal competence of two groups of parents of primary grade children in Croatia with (N=86) and without (N=186) mild intellectual disability. The comparison was based on the parents' perceived competence in the areas of parental role, self-respect, locus of control, and social anxiousness. Children in the two…
Swanson, H Lee; Jerman, Olga
This 3-year longitudinal study determined whether (a) subgroups of children with reading disabilities (RD) (children with RD only, children with both reading and arithmetic deficits, and low verbal IQ readers) and skilled readers varied in working memory (WM) and short-term memory (STM) growth and (b) whether growth in an executive system and/or a phonological storage system mediated growth in reading performance. A battery of memory and reading measures was administered to 84 children (11-17 years of age) across three testing waves spaced 1 year apart. The results showed that skilled readers yielded higher WM growth estimates than did the RD groups. No significant differentiation among subgroups of children with RD on growth measures emerged. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that WM (controlled attention), rather than STM (phonological loop), was related to growth in reading comprehension and reading fluency. The results support the notion that deficient growth in the executive component of WM underlies RD.
Breivik, Cathrine Nansdal; Nilsen, Roy Miodini; Myrseth, Erling; Finnkirk, Monica Katrine; Lund-Johansen, Morten
We examined whether reduced hearing, tinnitus, dizziness, and unsteadiness affected the patients' ability to maintain work within a time frame of 2-10 years after diagnosis. A total of 434 consecutive patients were followed at regular intervals. Data on symptoms were scored prospectively and dichotomized by visual analog scales for tinnitus and vertigo. Study design is retrospective. Hearing acuity was scored according to the Gardner-Robertson scale, and unsteadiness was measured on a balance platform. Patients were asked about working status, and scored as receiving governmental compensation for disability. Two hundred six patients were eligible for study. Of these, one died and nine were lost to follow-up. Ninety-seven patients received conservative management, 49 patients recieved gamma knife radiosurgery, and 50 patients were treated by microsurgery. Mean follow-up time was 58.7 months (range, 20-132 months). There was a significant increase in the number of individuals receiving compensation during the study period (P < 0.0001). At baseline, the proportion of pension receivers was within same range as that of the age- and sex-matched Norwegian population (5.61% vs. 6.91%; case-control odds ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval 0.45-1.49; P = 0.51, not significant). At the final time point, the increase in the number of receivers deviated significantly from the reference population (case-control odds ratio, 3.80; 95% confidence interval 2.71-5.33; P ≤ 0.001). Examining symptoms at first presentation as predictors of future dependence revealed that vertigo and higher mean age were associated with a higher risk (P < 0.001 and P = 0.015, respectively). No other symptoms were predictive of dependence. In a prospectively followed cohort of Norwegian patients with vestibular schwannoma, vestibular complaints were significant predictors for becoming dependant of disability pension. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jetha, Arif; Pransky, Glenn; Hettinger, Lawrence J
Work disability (WD) is characterized by variable and occasionally undesirable outcomes. The underlying determinants of WD outcomes include patterns of dynamic relationships among health, personal, organizational and regulatory factors that have been challenging to characterize, and inadequately represented by contemporary WD models. System dynamics modeling (SDM) methodology applies a sociotechnical systems thinking lens to view WD systems as comprising a range of influential factors linked by feedback relationships. SDM can potentially overcome limitations in contemporary WD models by uncovering causal feedback relationships, and conceptualizing dynamic system behaviors. It employs a collaborative and stakeholder-based model building methodology to create a visual depiction of the system as a whole. SDM can also enable researchers to run dynamic simulations to provide evidence of anticipated or unanticipated outcomes that could result from policy and programmatic intervention. SDM may advance rehabilitation research by providing greater insights into the structure and dynamics of WD systems while helping to understand inherent complexity. Challenges related to data availability, determining validity, and the extensive time and technical skill requirements for model building may limit SDM's use in the field and should be considered. Contemporary work disability (WD) models provide limited insight into complexity associated with WD processes. System dynamics modeling (SDM) has the potential to capture complexity through a stakeholder-based approach that generates a simulation model consisting of multiple feedback loops. SDM may enable WD researchers and practitioners to understand the structure and behavior of the WD system as a whole, and inform development of improved strategies to manage straightforward and complex WD cases.
Liebel, Spencer W; Nelson, Jason M
We investigated the auditory and visual working memory functioning in college students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, learning disabilities, and clinical controls. We examined the role attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder subtype status played in working memory functioning. The unique influence that both domains of working memory have on reading and math abilities was investigated. A sample of 268 individuals seeking postsecondary education comprise four groups of the present study: 110 had an attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis only, 72 had a learning disability diagnosis only, 35 had comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disability diagnoses, and 60 individuals without either of these disorders comprise a clinical control group. Participants underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation, and licensed psychologists employed a multi-informant, multi-method approach in obtaining diagnoses. In the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder only group, there was no difference between auditory and visual working memory functioning, t(100) = -1.57, p = .12. In the learning disability group, however, auditory working memory functioning was significantly weaker compared with visual working memory, t(71) = -6.19, p attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder only group, there were no auditory or visual working memory functioning differences between participants with either a predominantly inattentive type or a combined type diagnosis. Visual working memory did not incrementally contribute to the prediction of academic achievement skills. Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder did not demonstrate significant working memory differences compared with clinical controls. Individuals with a learning disability demonstrated weaker auditory working memory than individuals in either the attention-deficit/hyperactivity or clinical control groups. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University
Hinkka, Katariina; Kuoppala, Jaana; Väänänen-Tomppo, Irma; Lamminpää, Anne
To study associations between psychosocial work factors (PWF) and sick leave, occupational accident, and disability pension. A random population of 967 civil servants participated in a survey on PWF and health. The median follow-up time was 7 years. Frequent feedback from supervisor, good opportunities for mental growth, good team climate, and high appreciation were associated with a decrease in the risk of sickness absences and shift/period work, monotonous movements, and crowdedness of workplace were associated with an increase in the risk of sickness absences. Good communication at work was associated with a decrease in client violence and high work pressure was associated with an increased risk of occupational accidents. High work control and good team climate were associated with a decreased and shift/period work and client violence was associated with an increased risk of disability pensions. Psychosocial work factors can predict health outcomes with economic impact.
Abraído-Lanza, Ana F; White, Kellee; Armbrister, Adria N; Link, Bruce G
To document disparities in health status, activity limitations, and disability in work and housework between Latinos and non-Latino whites with arthritis. We examined whether sociodemographic factors (age, income, and education) account for the disparities between the ethnic groups, and whether comorbid conditions, disease duration, health care utilization, and functional abilities predict health status, activity limitations, and work and housework disability after controlling for sociodemographic variables. We analyzed data from the Condition file of the 1994 National Health Interview Survey on Disability, Phase I. The risk of worse health, activity limitations, and work and housework disability was >2 times greater among Latinos compared with non-Latino whites. In the regression models accounting for potential confounders, Latino ethnicity remained significantly associated with poorer health status, but not activity limitations or disability in work or housekeeping. Of the socioeconomic status variables, education had a significant protective effect on work disability and health status. Comorbid conditions and health care utilization increased the likelihood of worse health, activity limitations, and work disability. Limitations in physical function were associated with poorer health and disability in work and homemaking. Social status differences between Latinos and non-Latinos may account for disparities in activity limitations and disability in work and housework. Education may provide various health benefits, including access to a range of occupations that do not require physical demands. The findings help to address the great gap in knowledge concerning factors related to the health and disability status of Latinos with arthritis.
Reinhardt, Jan D; Wahrendorf, Morten; Siegrist, Johannes
Prevention of disability in the ageing workforce is essential for sustaining economic growth in Europe. In order to provide information on entry points for preventive measures, it is important to better understand sociodemographic, socioeconomic and work-related determinants of disability in older employees. We aimed to test the hypothesis that low socioeconomic position and exposure to a stressful psychosocial work environment at baseline contribute to later disability. We further assumed that the association of socioeconomic position with disability is partly mediated by exposure to adverse working conditions. We studied longitudinal data from the first two waves of the Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe comprising 11 European countries. Sociodemographic, socioeconomic and work-related factors (low control, effort-reward imbalance) and baseline disability of 2665 male and 2209 female employees aged between 50 and 64 years were used to predict disability 2 years later. Following the International Classification of Functioning (ICF), disability was subdivided into the components 'impairment' and 'restriction in activities and participation'. Two multilevel Poisson regressions were fitted to the data. After adjusting for baseline disability and relevant confounding variables, low socioeconomic position and chronic stress at work exerted significant effects on disability scores 2 years later. We found some support for the hypothesis that the association of socioeconomic position with disability is partly mediated by work stress. Investing in reduction of work stress and reducing social inequalities in health functioning are relevant entry points of policies that aim at maintaining work ability in early old age.
Noben Cindy YG
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Netherlands, absenteeism and reduced productivity due to work disability lead to high yearly costs reaching almost 5% of the gross national product. To reduce the economic burden of sick leave and reduced productivity, different employability interventions for work-disabled employees or employees at risk of work disability have been developed. Within this study, called 'CASE-study' (Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Sustainable Employability, five different employability interventions directed at work disabled employees with divergent health complaints will be analysed on their effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. This paper describes a consistent and transparent methodological design to do so. Methods/design Per employability intervention 142 participants are needed whereof approximately 66 participants receiving the intervention will be compared with 66 participants receiving usual care. Based on the intervention-specific characteristics, a randomized control trial or a quasi-experiment with match-criteria will be conducted. Notwithstanding the study design, eligible participants will be employees aged 18 to 63, working at least 12 h per week, and at risk of work disability, or already work-disabled due to medical restrictions. The primary outcome will be the duration of sick leave. Secondary outcomes are health status and quality of life. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline and then 6, 12 and 18 months later. Economic costs will consist of healthcare costs and cost of lost production due to work disability, and will be evaluated from a societal perspective. Discussion The CASE-study is the first to conduct economic evaluations of multiple different employability interventions based on a similar methodological framework. The cost-effectiveness results for every employability intervention will be published in 2014, but the methods, strengths and weaknesses of the study protocol are discussed in this paper. To
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to discuss the role of human values and relations in the employment of people with work-relevant disabilities. Purpose: Finding and maintaining a paid job is known to be more difficult for people with a disability. The aim of the study is to explore the use which people with a disability make of their private and professional network in finding and maintaining a paid job and the role values play in these relations. This was placed in the context of three complementary perspectives: a perspective that stresses the importance of other than merely rationalistic values, a perspective that stresses the importance of values in work and an interpersonal perspective in which ‘the Other’ is central. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were held with 8 people with a working disability. As well, 4 interviews were held with people from their private network (family and partner and 4 interviews with people from their professional network (colleagues and employers. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. A framework analysis was used to identify the different values in the interviews. This was done with use of MAXqda. Results: The interviews showed that both romantic and rational values and arguments were mentioned by the employers in the context of hiring people with a work-relevant disability; they need to be willing to adjust. The importance of human relations was emphasised in the values mentioned by the respondents when talking about having a paid job. Moreover, ‘the Other’ played an important role in the employment process of people with a work-relevant disability. People with such a disability asked their private network to help them and to provide emotional support. Conclusion: Enabling values and relations had more chance if they were in line with the mission and central value of the organisation. This was one of the first studies on the role that human values and relations play in maintaining a paid
Ker?t?r, Raija; Taanila, Anja; Jokelainen, Jari; Soukainen, Jouko; Ala-Mursula, Leena
Objective Comprehensive understanding of the prevalence and quality of work disabilities and unmet needs for health care and rehabilitation to support return to work (RTW) among jobseekers. Design Community-level, cross-sectional analysis with multidimensional clinical work ability assessments. Setting Paltamo, Finland. Participants Unemployed citizens either participating in the Full-Employment Project or long-term unemployed (n?=?230, 81%). Main outcome measures Based on data from theme int...
Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J; Lambert, Trevor W
To report a qualitative study of themes doctors raised spontaneously, in a large-scale prospective cohort study covering many aspects of their medical careers, when referring to their own chronic illness or disability. Questionnaire survey. UK. Questionnaires were sent one, five and 10 years after graduation to 44,539 doctors who qualified between 1993 and 2012 in the UK: 38,613 questionnaires were returned and 11,859 respondents provided comments made by doctors about their training or work. The comments of 123 doctors about their own chronic illness or disability. Main themes raised included poor support for doctors with chronic illness or disability, delays in and changes to careers (either planned ahead or imposed), the impact of pressure at work, difficulties returning to work after illness, limitations on career choices and inadequate careers advice for doctors with chronic illness or disabilities. More needs to be done to ensure that doctors with chronic illness or disability receive appropriate support. Occupational health guidance should be monitored closely, with more support for ill doctors including adjustments to the job, help if needed with morale and mental health, and advice on career options. Further studies should establish the prevalence of long-term health conditions among doctors.
Mattila-Holappa, Pauliina; Joensuu, Matti; Ahola, Kirsi; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna
We examined attachment to employment and education among young adults before they were granted a fixed-term work disability pension due to psychiatric diagnosis, and the factors associated with this attachment. The data comprised all persons aged 18-34 who received a new-onset fixed-term disability pension compensation due to a mental disorder in Finland in 2008 (N = 1163). The data were derived from pension applications and the enclosed medical records, and were linked to employment records from a period of three years before the disability pension. We analysed the factors associated with attachment to employment or education with log-binomial regression analysis. Fifty percent of the participants were attached to employment or education before work disability pension. The attached were more often women; had higher basic and vocational education; had mood disorder rather than psychosis diagnosis as a primary diagnosis; and had no record of harmful alcohol use or drug use, or recorded symptoms of mental disorders already at school-age. The level of attachment to employment or education before work disability pension is low among young adults with mental disorders and several risk factors predict poor attachment; severe or comorbid mental disorder, early-life psychiatric morbidity, substance use, male sex, low basic education, and lacking vocational education.
Swanson, H Lee
This study investigated the role of strategy instruction and working memory capacity (WMC) on problem solving solution accuracy in children with and without math disabilities (MD). Children in grade 3 (N = 204) with and without MD subdivided into high and low WMC were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: verbal strategies (e.g., underlining question sentence), visual strategies (e.g., correctly placing numbers in diagrams), verbal + visual strategies, and an untreated control. The dependent measures for training were problem solving accuracy and two working memory transfer measures (operation span and visual-spatial span). Three major findings emerged: (1) strategy instruction facilitated solution accuracy but the effects of strategy instruction were moderated by WMC, (2) some strategies yielded higher post-test scores than others, but these findings were qualified as to whether children were at risk for MD, and (3) strategy training on problem solving measures facilitated transfer to working memory measures. The main findings were that children with MD, but high WM spans, were more likely to benefit from strategy conditions on target and transfer measures than children with lower WMC. The results suggest that WMC moderates the influence of cognitive strategies on both the targeted and non-targeted measures.
Ingrid L. Potgieter
Full Text Available Orientation: South Africa has faced a number of discriminatory practices in the past. Most of these practices are still present today. Although a considerate amount of attention has been given to discrimination based on gender, race and religion, limited emphasis has been placed on discrimination based on disability, specifically within the workplace. Research purpose: The objective of the study was to explore the perceptions of individuals living with a disability with regards to career advancement challenges they face in the South African workplace. Motivation for study: The research literature shows that irrespective of employment equity legislation, employees with disabilities have restricted opportunities to advance in their careers. Research is needed to assist these employees with their career development. Research design, approach and method: A qualitative research design with an exploratory approach was followed. Probability, purposeful and snowballing sampling techniques were applied in this study on 15 employed individuals with declared disabilities. The data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews and the verbatim transcriptions were analysed by content analysis. Main findings/results: The findings indicated that people with disabilities generally experience career advancement challenges and reach career plateau. Managers and colleagues’ lack of knowledge about disability has an adverse impact on the careers of people living with a disability. The study found that human resource practices, especially promotion opportunities, discriminate against employees with disabilities. Furthermore, the study further indicated that there is prejudice against invisible disabilities, and as a result, employees are reluctant to declare their disability. Practical implications: Human resource practitioners and managers need to recognise the influence that disabilities have on the career advancement of individuals living with a
Lammerts, Lieke; Vermeulen, Sylvia J; Schaafsma, Frederieke G; van Mechelen, Willem; Anema, Johannes R
Workers without a permanent employment contract represent a vulnerable group within the working population. Mental disorders are a major cause of sickness absence within this group. Common mental disorders are stress-related, depressive and anxiety disorders. To date, little attention has been paid to effective return to work interventions for this type of sick-listed workers. Therefore, a participatory supportive return to work program has been developed. It combines elements of a participatory return to work program, integrated care and direct placement in a competitive job.The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this program compared to care as usual. The cost-effectiveness of the participatory supportive return to work program will be examined in a randomised controlled trial with a follow-up of twelve months.The program strongly involves the sick-listed worker in the identification of obstacles for return to work and possible solutions, resulting in a consensus based action plan. This plan will be used as a starting point for the search of suitable competitive employment with support of a rehabilitation agency. During this process the insurance physician of the sick-listed worker contacts other caregivers to promote integrated care.Workers eligible to participate in this study have no permanent employment contract, have applied for a sickness benefit at the Dutch Social Security Agency and are sick-listed between two and fourteen weeks due to mental health problems.The primary outcome measure is the duration until first sustainable return to work in a competitive job. Outcomes are measured at baseline and after three, six, nine and twelve months. If the participatory supportive return to work program proves to be cost-effective, the social security system, the sick-listed worker and society as a whole will benefit. A cost-effective return to work program will lead to a
Stieglitz, Dana Duval; Vinson, David R; Hampton, Michelle De Coux
This study investigated effectiveness of an equipment-based Pilates protocol for reducing pain and disability in individuals with work-related chronic low back pain (CLBP). Twelve workers with non-specific CLBP participated in a quasi-experimental, one-group, pretest-posttest pilot study of supervised 6-week equipment-based Pilates exercise. Pain severity was assessed using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS). Physical function was assessed using the Oswestry disability index (ODI). The Pilates intervention significantly reduced pain (mean decrease in VAS 30.75 ± 20.27, p Pilates exercise reduced pain and disability in workers with CLBP. Further research is needed to investigate Pilates exercise for rehabilitation of work-related injuries in large populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sin, Chih Hoong
The reliance on medical information and on occupational health (OH) professionals in ascertaining fitness of applicants and registrants within the educational and employment contexts may lead to the medicalisation of disability. The Disability Rights Commission's Formal Investigation into the regulation of three public sector professions of nursing, social work and teaching in Britain sheds light on the nature of regulatory fitness requirements and how these are implemented in practice. The multi-pronged investigation included a review of relevant statutory and regulatory frameworks, formal written and oral evidence submitted by key stakeholder organisations and research into formal and informal fitness assessments within the education and employment contexts. There are varied and vague fitness requirements in all three professions. OH professionals figure prominently in formal and informal decision-making around fitness within education and employment settings, regardless of regulatory prescriptions. There is a multitude of approaches. There are, however, particular issues in the deployment of OH expertise within the employment setting. The determination of fitness should not rely solely on medical information. Blanket fitness requirements that are not contextualized against specific competencies for particular jobs are inappropriate. More collaborative and integrated working is necessary, particularly in exploring how reasonable adjustments may be provided to enable safe and effective practice. The positive spirit of the disability equality duty should be embraced.
Marfeo, Elizabeth E.; Haley, Stephen M.; Jette, Alan M.; Eisen, Susan V.; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Meterko, Mark; McDonough, Christine M.; Chan, Leighton; Brandt, Diane E.; Rasch, Elizabeth K.
Physical and mental impairments represent the two largest health condition categories for which workers receive Social Security disability benefits. Comprehensive assessment of physical and mental impairments should include aspects beyond medical conditions such as a person’s underlying capabilities as well as activity demands relevant to the context of work. The objective of this paper is to describe the initial conceptual stages of developing new measurement instruments of behavioral health and physical functioning relevant for Social Security work disability evaluation purposes. To outline a clear conceptualization of the constructs to be measured, two content models were developed using structured and informal qualitative approaches. We performed a structured literature review focusing on work disability and incorporating aspects of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) as a unifying taxonomy for framework development. Expert interviews provided advice and consultation to enhance face validity of the resulting content models. The content model for work-related behavioral health function identifies five major domains (1) Behavior Control, (2) Basic Interactions, (3) Temperament and Personality, (4) Adaptability, and (5) Workplace Behaviors. The content model describing physical functioning includes three domains (1) Changing and Maintaining Body Position, (2) Whole Body Mobility, and (3) Carrying, Moving and Handling Objects. These content models informed subsequent measurement properties including item development, measurement scale construction, and provided conceptual coherence guiding future empirical inquiry. The proposed measurement approaches show promise to comprehensively and systematically assess physical and behavioral health functioning relevant to work. PMID:23548543
Knauth, P.; Rutenfranz, J.; Romberg, H.P.; Decoster, F.; Kiesswetter, E. (Dortmund Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Arbeitsphysiologie); Schulz, H. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Psychiatrie, Muenchen (Germany, F.R.). Klinisches Inst.)
In connection with experimental shift work 20 volunteers were examined while working on different rapidly or slowly rotating shift systems. Sleep was analyzed over a total of 112 days. Sleep was disturbed by children's noise or traffic noise. Sleep duration and sleep quality were particularly badly affected by noise with a high information value (children's noise). The ultradian rhythmicity of sleep did not appear to be disrupted by the change from day to night work. There were no significant differences between morning sleep and afternoon sleep after night work. In the laboratory experiments with fixed sleep durations, no separate effects on sleep quality could be established for different shift systems.
Haukenes, Inger; Mykletun, Arnstein; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Hansen, Hans-Tore; Mæland, John Gunnar
The social gradient in disability pension is well recognized, however mechanisms accounting for the gradient are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between occupational class and subsequent disability pension among middle-aged men and women, and to what extent work-related factors accounted for the association. A subsample (N = 7031) of the population-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK) conducted in 1997-99, provided self-reported information on health and work-related factors, and were grouped in four strata by Erikson, Goldthorpe and Portocareros occupational class scheme. The authors obtained follow-up data on disability pension by linking the health survey to national registries of benefit (FD-trygd). They employed Cox regression analysis and adjusted for gender, health (medical conditions, mental health, self-perceived health, somatic symptoms) and work-related factors (working hours, years in current occupation, physical demands, job demands, job control). A strong gradient in disability pension by occupational class was found. In the fully adjusted model the risk (hazard ratio) ranged from 1.41 (95% CI 0.84 to 2.33) in the routine non-manual class, 1.87 (95% CI 1.07 to 3.27) in the skilled manual class and 2.12 (95% CI 1.14 to 3.95) in the unskilled manual class, employing the administrator and professional class as reference. In the gender and health-adjusted model work-related factors mediated the impact of occupational class on subsequent disability pension with 5% in the routine non-manual class, 26% in the skilled manual class and 24% in the unskilled manual class. The impact of job control and physical demands was modest, and mainly seen among skilled and unskilled manual workers. Workers in the skilled and unskilled manual classes had a substantial unexplained risk of disability pension. Work-related factors only had a moderate impact on the disability risk. Literature indicates an accumulation of hazards in the
Full Text Available Abstract Background The social gradient in disability pension is well recognized, however mechanisms accounting for the gradient are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between occupational class and subsequent disability pension among middle-aged men and women, and to what extent work-related factors accounted for the association. Methods A subsample (N = 7031 of the population-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK conducted in 1997-99, provided self-reported information on health and work-related factors, and were grouped in four strata by Erikson, Goldthorpe and Portocareros occupational class scheme. The authors obtained follow-up data on disability pension by linking the health survey to national registries of benefit (FD-trygd. They employed Cox regression analysis and adjusted for gender, health (medical conditions, mental health, self-perceived health, somatic symptoms and work-related factors (working hours, years in current occupation, physical demands, job demands, job control. Results A strong gradient in disability pension by occupational class was found. In the fully adjusted model the risk (hazard ratio ranged from 1.41 (95% CI 0.84 to 2.33 in the routine non-manual class, 1.87 (95% CI 1.07 to 3.27 in the skilled manual class and 2.12 (95% CI 1.14 to 3.95 in the unskilled manual class, employing the administrator and professional class as reference. In the gender and health-adjusted model work-related factors mediated the impact of occupational class on subsequent disability pension with 5% in the routine non-manual class, 26% in the skilled manual class and 24% in the unskilled manual class. The impact of job control and physical demands was modest, and mainly seen among skilled and unskilled manual workers. Conclusions Workers in the skilled and unskilled manual classes had a substantial unexplained risk of disability pension. Work-related factors only had a moderate impact on the disability risk
Background The social gradient in disability pension is well recognized, however mechanisms accounting for the gradient are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between occupational class and subsequent disability pension among middle-aged men and women, and to what extent work-related factors accounted for the association. Methods A subsample (N = 7031) of the population-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK) conducted in 1997-99, provided self-reported information on health and work-related factors, and were grouped in four strata by Erikson, Goldthorpe and Portocareros occupational class scheme. The authors obtained follow-up data on disability pension by linking the health survey to national registries of benefit (FD-trygd). They employed Cox regression analysis and adjusted for gender, health (medical conditions, mental health, self-perceived health, somatic symptoms) and work-related factors (working hours, years in current occupation, physical demands, job demands, job control). Results A strong gradient in disability pension by occupational class was found. In the fully adjusted model the risk (hazard ratio) ranged from 1.41 (95% CI 0.84 to 2.33) in the routine non-manual class, 1.87 (95% CI 1.07 to 3.27) in the skilled manual class and 2.12 (95% CI 1.14 to 3.95) in the unskilled manual class, employing the administrator and professional class as reference. In the gender and health-adjusted model work-related factors mediated the impact of occupational class on subsequent disability pension with 5% in the routine non-manual class, 26% in the skilled manual class and 24% in the unskilled manual class. The impact of job control and physical demands was modest, and mainly seen among skilled and unskilled manual workers. Conclusions Workers in the skilled and unskilled manual classes had a substantial unexplained risk of disability pension. Work-related factors only had a moderate impact on the disability risk. Literature indicates
d'Errico, A; Mamo, C; Tomaino, A; Dalmasso, M; Demaria, M; Costa, G
Surveillance systems of occupational mortality are useful tools to identify cases of diseases suspected as occupational and to monitor their occurrence over time, in space and in population subgroups. Many surveillance systems make use of administrative data in which information about occupations and/or economic sectors of the subjects enrolled is reported, such as death certificates, hospital discharge data, census data, tax and pension records, and workers' compensation archives. In the present study we analyzed the mortality of a cohort of road construction and maintenance workers enrolled through the Italian national archive of work disability compensations, also in order to evaluate the possible use of this administrative source to monitor occupational mortality. 8,000 subjects (7,879 males) receiving a disability compensation while working in the "road construction and maintenance" sector were identified from INAIL (National Institute for Insurance of Accidents at Work) archives. Vital status of these subjects was ascertained using the information available in INAIL archives and in the national tax register. For those found to be deceased from INAIL or tax archives, or without any information on vital status, a mail follow-up was started. We considered as observation period the years from 1980 to 1993. A record linkage with the ISTAT (Italian Institute of Statistics) national mortality registry was performed and the cause of death was retrieved for 964 out of 1,259 subjects. The analysis was restricted to males, leaving altogether 863 observed deaths with ascertained cause (84.7% of 1,019 total male deaths). SMR for overall mortality and PMR for specific cause mortality were computed, using the general Italian male population as reference. Overall mortality was significantly reduced (SMR = 79.0; 95% CI = 74.2-84.0). Proportional mortality analysis revealed significant excess risks for all malignant tumours (332 deaths, PMR = 1.08) and for digestive diseases
Hubertsson, Jenny; Petersson, Ingemar F; Thorstensson, Carina A; Englund, Martin
To investigate sick leave and disability pension in working-age subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) compared with the general population. Population-based cohort study: individual-level inpatient and outpatient Skåne Health Care Register data were linked with data from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency. In 2009 all working-age (16-64 years) Skåne County residents who in 1998-2009 had been diagnosed with knee OA (International Classification of Diseases-10 code M17) were identified and their sick leave and disability pension in 2009 related to those of the general working-age population (n=789 366) standardised for age. 15 345 working-age residents (49.6% women) with knee OA were identified. Compared with the general population, the RR (95% CI) of having had one or more episodes of sick leave during the year was 1.82 (1.73 to 1.91) for women and 2.03 (1.92 to 2.14) for men with knee OA. The corresponding risk for disability pension was 1.54 (1.48 to 1.60) for women and 1.36 (1.28 to 1.43) for men with knee OA. The annual mean number of sick days was 87 for each patient with knee OA and 57 for the general population (age- and sex-standardised). Of all sick leave and disability pension in the entire population, 2.1% of days were attributable to knee OA or associated comorbidity in the patients with knee OA (3.1% for sick leave and 1.8% for disability pension). Subjects with doctor-diagnosed knee OA have an almost twofold increased risk of sick leave and about 40-50% increased risk of disability pension compared with the general population. About 2% of all sick days in society are attributable to knee OA.
Ellenkamp, J.H.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Joosen, M.C.W.; van Weeghel, J.
Background People with an intellectual disability value work as a significant part of their lives, and many of them want to participate in regular paid employment. Current estimates show that the number of people with ID who have some form of paid employment are very low, ranging from 9 to 40 %
Bellman, Scott; Burgstahler, Sheryl; Ladner, Richard
This case study describes evidence-based practices employed by a collection of University of Washington projects that engage high school and postsecondary students with disabilities in work-based learning experiences such as industry and research internships, career development activities, job shadows, field trips, and mock interviews. The purpose of the article is two-fold. First, authors share best practices with others who wish to increase the participation of students with disabilities in work-based learning and thereby contribute to their academic and career success. The article discusses methods used to recruit students, employers and mentors, match students with specific opportunities, and prepare students for success. Second, authors share outcomes from studies regarding participation in these work-based learning opportunities, which include increased employment success, motivation to work toward a career, knowledge about careers and the workplace, job-related skills, ability to work with supervisors and coworkers, skills in self-advocating for accommodations, and perceived career options.
Soeker, Mohammed Shaheed; De Jongh, Jo Celene; Diedericks, Amy; Matthys, Kelly; Swart, Nicole; van der Pol, Petra
Protective workshops and sheltered employment settings have been instrumental in developing the work skills of people with disabilities, however there has been a void in the literature about its influence on the ability of individuals to find employment in the open labor market. The aim of the study is to explore the experiences and perceptions of people with disabilities about the development of their work skills for transitioning into the open labor market. Five individuals with various types of disabilities and two key informants participated in the study. The research study was positioned within the qualitative paradigm specifically utilizing an exploratory and descriptive research design. In order to gather data from the participants, semi structured interviews were used. Three themes emerged from the findings of the study. Theme one, designated as "Reaching a ceiling", reflected the barriers that the participants experienced regarding work skills development. Theme two, designated as "Enablers for growth within the workplace", related to the enabling factors related to development of the work skills of persons with a disability (PWD). The final theme related to the meaning that PWD associated to their worker role and was designated as "A sense of universality". The participants highlighted that they felt their coworkers in the workshops were "like family" to them and thoroughly enjoyed the work tasks and work environment, expressing specific support from their fellow workers. Through reaching their goals, engaging in their work tasks and having the sense of universality in the workplace, the workers felt that the work they participated in gave them meaning to their life. The findings of the study indicated that managers of protective workshops and sheltered employment settings should consider selecting work tasks that enable the development of skills needed in the open labour market. A work skills development system whereby PWD in these workshops could
Cunningham, Rhonda Phillips
Research has suggested many children with learning disabilities (LD) have deficits in working memory (WM) that hinder their academic achievement. Cogmed RM, a computerized intervention, uses adaptive training over 25 sessions and has shown efficacy in improving WM in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a variety of…
Kellems, Ryan O.; Springer, Ben; Wilkins, Melinda K.; Anderson, Caroline
The ultimate goal for school psychologists, special education practitioners, and other professionals who work with adolescents with disabilities is to help students plan and prepare to transition from school to adult life with the skills and knowledge to live happy, productive, and fulfilling lives. This article describes how school psychologists…
Parish, Susan L.
A focus group study was conducted to develop an understanding of the experiences of mothers who are trying to balance employment with caring for an adolescent with developmental disabilities. Mothers reported facing considerable difficulties balancing work and caregiving responsibilities because support services rapidly declined when their child…
Lee, Heok In; Rojewski, Jay W.; Gregg, Noel
Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, a propensity score analysis revealed significant causal effects for a secondary career and technical education (CTE) concentration on the postsecondary work outcomes of adolescents with high-incidence disabilities. High school students identified as CTE concentrators (three or more high…
Dickerson, Elizabeth G.
Purpose: The purpose of this quantitative research was to examine what relationships, if any, exist between the independent variable of burnout and dependent variables of job satisfaction for special education teachers who work with students who have moderate to severe disabilities ages 5 to 22 in a Southern California school district.…
Passolunghi, Maria Chiara; Mammarella, Irene Cristina
This study examines visual and spatial working memory skills in 35 third to fifth graders with both mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) and poor problem-solving skills and 35 of their peers with typical development (TD) on tasks involving both low and high attentional control. Results revealed that children with MLD, relative to TD children,…
Peijnenborgh, J.C.A.W.; Hurks, P.M.; Aldenkamp, Albert; Vles, Johan S H; Hendriksen, J.G.M.
The effectiveness of working memory (WM) training programmes is still a subject of debate. Previous reviews were heterogeneous with regard to participant characteristics of the studies included. To examine whether these programmes are of added value for children with learning disabilities (LDs), a
Jarvisalo, J.; Andersson, B.; Boedeker, W.; Houtman, I.
There is evidence that mental health as a cause of sickness absenteeism and work disability may be increasing in Europe. Researchers from four European countries, all active in social insurance related research, therefore, initiated country reports that analyses available statistics on disorders
Anderson, E S; Smith, R; Thorpe, L N
The study aims to evaluate an interprofessional community-based learning event, focussing on disability. The learning opportunity was based on the Leicester Model of Interprofessional Education, organised around the experiences and perceptions of service users and their carers. Programme participants were drawn from medicine and social work education in Leicester, UK, bringing together diverse traditions in the care of people with disabilities. Small student groups (3-4 students) worked from one of the eight community rehabilitation hospitals through a programme of contact with people with disabilities in hospital, at home or in other community settings. The evaluation, in March 2005, used a mixed methods approach, incorporating questionnaire surveys, focus group interviews with students and feedback from service users. Responses were collated and analysed using quantitative and qualitative measures. Fifty social work and 100 medical students completed the first combined delivery of the module. The findings indicated that the merging of social work and medical perspectives appear to create some tensions, although overall the student experience was found to be beneficial. Service users (16 responses) valued the process. They were not concerned at the prospect of meeting a number of students at home or elsewhere and were pleased to think of themselves as educators. Problems and obstacles still anticipated include changing the mindset of clinicians and practising social workers to enable them to support students from each other's disciplines in practice learning. The generally positive outcomes highlight that disability focussed joint learning offers a meaningful platform for interprofessional education in a practice environment.
Jones, Sarah; Bucholz, Jessica L.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an iPad to increase work related behaviors for one adult with disabilities in a vocational setting. A multiple baseline across behaviors single subject research design was used to determine if an iPad helped to increase independence in three identified behaviors, which included…
Sametz, Rebecca R.
For youth with disabilities, transitioning from school to work and adult life often means overcoming multiple social, academic, and environmental constraints that may present as roadblocks to meeting society's expectations of 'successful transition' (Lehman, Clark, Bullis, Rinkin, & Castellanos, 2002). According to the United States Department…
Zijlmans, L. J. M.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Gerits, L.; Bosman, A. M. T.; Derksen, J. J. L.
Background: Staff working with clients with intellectual disabilities (ID) who display challenging behaviour may contribute to the continuation of this behaviour, because it causes emotional reactions such as anxiety, anger and annoyance, which may prohibit adequate response behaviour. To enhance staff behaviour and treatment skills a training…
Couch, Kenneth A; Tamborini, Christopher R; Reznik, Gayle L
We provide new evidence on the long-term impact of divorce on work disability among U.S. men. Using data from the 2004 Survey of Income and Program Participation linked to U.S. Social Security Administration records, we assess the relationship between divorce and subsequent self-reports of work limitations and the receipt of federal disability benefits. The examination of self-reports and administrative records of medically qualified benefits provides dual confirmation of key relationships. We compare men who experienced a marital dissolution between 1975 and 1984 with continuously married men for 20 years following divorce using fixed-effects and propensity score matching models, and choose a sample to help control for selection into divorce. On average, we find that divorce is not associated with an increased probability of self-reported work limitations or receipt of disability benefits over the long run. However, among those who do not remarry, we do find that divorce increases men's long-term probability of both self-reported work limitations and federal disability benefit receipt. Lack of marital resources may drive this relationship. Alternative estimates that do not control for selection into divorce demonstrate that selection bias can substantially alter findings regarding the relationship between marital status changes and subsequent health.
Axelsson, Anna Karin
Background: Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities need support to function in an optimal way. However, there is a limited knowledge about the role of external personal assistants working in the children's home. Materials and Methods: A mixed method study was performed including qualitative data from interviews with 11…
Varekamp, Inge; Haafkens, Joke A.; Detaille, Sarah I.; Tak, Paul P.; van Dijk, Frank J. H.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the perspectives of employees with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with those of medical professionals regarding what persons with RA need to prevent work disability. METHODS: Concept mapping was conducted in a group session with 21 employees and by mail with 17 medical
Coughlin, Jennifer; McCoy, Kathleen M.; Kenzer, Amy; Mathur, Sarup R.; Zucker, Stanley H.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a self-monitoring strategy on independent work behavior. The three subjects were in first grade, seven years old, identified with mild intellectual disability (MID), and had an Individualized Education Plan (IEP) with targeted functional academic and behavior goals. The purpose of this study was to…
Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Rose, Tracey; Grant, Robert; Wijne, Astrid
Background: Many people with intellectual disabilities are affected by death, yet conversations about death are often avoided by staff working with them. This study aimed to assess staff training needs and to develop, trial and evaluate a training course on communicating about death and dying. Method:(i) Semi-structured interviews with 20 staff in…
Ferri, Beth A.; Connor, David J.
In this article we examine some of the omnipresent yet unacknowledged discourses of social and economic disadvantage and dis/ability within schools in the US. First, we document ways that social class, race, and dis/ability function within schools to further disadvantage and exclude already marginalized students. Next, we show how particular ways…
Career Options Inst., Latham, NY.
This resource guide provides practical advice, materials, and strategies designed to overcome the barriers that have interfered with successful placement of persons with disabilities in the workplace, especially women and girls. It is designed for use by educators interested in improving career preparation of students with disabilities. Section 1…
Staples, Kelli E.; Diliberto, Jennifer A.
According to the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA), school systems must ensure that the individualized education program (IEP) team includes the parent of the child with a disability. Teachers often report the challenges of getting parents to attend IEP meetings often assuming parents' lack of interest with involvement…
Achterberg, T. J.; Wind, H.; de Boer, A. G. E. M.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.
Introduction The aim of this systematic review was to study factors which promote or hinder young disabled people entering the labor market. Methods We systematically searched PubMed (by means of MESH and text words), EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science and CINAHL for studies regarding (1) disabled
Mackey, Ellen; Dodd, Karen
Following Beacroft & Dodd's (2009) audit of pain recognition and management within learning disability services in Surrey, it was recommended that learning disability services should receive training in pain recognition and management. Two hundred and seventy-five services were invited to participate, of which 197 services in Surrey accepted…
Wahlström, Lina; Bergström, Helena; Marttila, Anneli
Deinstitutionalisation has influenced the life situation for people with intellectual disabilities, whilst the experiences of health promotion in group homes now are limited. This study aimed to explore aspects important to consider when promoting health amongst persons with intellectual disabilities in group homes, from the perspective of…
Taggart, L.; McMillan, R.; Lawson, A.
Aim: There is a growing evidence of the physical and mental health inequalities in people with intellectual disability (ID) although less has been written concerning the mental health of women with ID (International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual Disabilities). This is compared with the substantive literature published within…
Full Text Available The influence of the conditions of ascent and descent on the stairs with disabilities is shown. The study involved 12 persons with lower limb prosthetic right or left foot. The purpose was to determine the specific conditions of disabled people in the process of adaptation to the complicated conditions of their life. Underlying this approach is the study of the biomechanical characteristics the movements of disabled people in special terms. The factors that influence the effectiveness of the disability movement on the stairs is shown. These include slope angle, a compensatory effort of the hands and the ability to maintain balance while moving. These studies are the basis for a meaningful solution to improve the disability movement in the complicated conditions.
Kennedy, Jae; Wood, Elizabeth Geneva; Frieden, Lex
The objective of this study was to assess trends in health insurance coverage, health service utilization, and health care access among working-age adults with and without disabilities before and after full implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), and to identify current disability-based disparities following full implementation of the ACA. The ACA was expected to have a disproportionate impact on working-age adults with disabilities, because of their high health care usage as well as...
Parish, Susan L
A focus group study was conducted to develop an understanding of the experiences of mothers who are trying to balance employment with caring for an adolescent with developmental disabilities. Mothers reported facing considerable difficulties balancing work and caregiving responsibilities because support services rapidly declined when their child reached adolescence. Service cuts were related to the fact that adolescents are expected to be able to care for themselves, despite the fact that for many adolescents with disabilities, this is not possible. The mothers also reported that the preponderance of the responsibility for arranging care for their children was theirs and was not shouldered by their partners. Policy implications are discussed.
Jääskeläinen, Anne; Kausto, Johanna; Seitsamo, Jorma; Ojajärvi, Anneli; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Arjas, Elja; Leino-Arjas, Päivi
We analyzed the work ability index (WAI) and its first item (work ability score, WAS) - and subsequent four-year changes thereof - as predictors of disability pension (DP). We linked survey responses of 5251 Finnish municipal employees, aged 44-58 years, to pension and death register data until 2009. Job content (physical, mental, or mixed) was based on observation. Baseline (1981) WAI was divided into poor (37) and WAS into poor (0-5), moderate (6-7), and good/excellent (8-10). Four-year changes in these scores were classified as strong decline (
Samsuddin, Shamshimah; Ismail, Noriszura
Studies of SOCSO's contributor outcomes like disability are usually restricted to a single outcome. In this respect, the study has focused on the approach of multi-state Markov model for estimating the transition probabilities among SOCSO's contributor in Malaysia between states: work, temporary disability, permanent disability and death at yearly intervals on age, gender, year and disability category; ignoring duration and past disability experience which is not consider of how or when someone arrived in that category. These outcomes represent different states which depend on health status among the workers.
Levén, Anna; Lyxell, Björn; Andersson, Jan; Danielsson, Henrik; Rönnberg, Jerker
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between prospective memory, working memory, retrospective memory and self-rated memory capacity in adults with and without intellectual disability. Prospective memory was investigated by means of a picture-based task. Working memory was measured as performance on span tasks. Retrospective memory was scored as recall of subject performed tasks. Self-ratings of memory performance were based on the prospective and retrospective mem...
Breinegaard, Nina; Jensen, Johan Høy; Bonde, Jens Peter
Objective This study examines the impact of organizational change and psychosocial work environment on non-disability early retirement among senior public service employees. Methods In January and February 2011, Danish senior public service employees aged 58-64 years (N=3254) from the Capital Region of Denmark responded to a survey assessing psychosocial work environment (ie, social capital, organizational justice, and quality of management). Work-unit organizational changes (ie, change of management, merging, demerging, and relocation) were recorded from January 2009 to March 2011. Weekly data on non-disability early retirement transfer were obtained from the DREAM register database, which holds weekly information about all public benefit payments in Denmark. Hazard ratios (HR) for early retirement following employees' 60 th birthday were estimated with Cox regression adjusted for age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Results Exposure to change of management [HR 1.37, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.13-1.66], mergers (HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.02-1.48), and relocation of work unit (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.54) increased rate of non-disability early retirement, while demerging of work unit did not (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.79-1.33). Work units with lower levels of social capital (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.05-1.41), organizational justice, (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.32), and quality of management (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.25) increased rate of early retirement. Conclusion Organizational change and poor psychosocial work environment contribute to non-disability early retirement among senior public service employees, measured at work-unit level.
Swanson, H Lee; Kehler, Pam; Jerman, Olga
Two experiments investigated the effects of strategy knowledge and strategy training on the working memory (WM) performance in children (ages 10-11) with and without reading disabilities (RD). Experiment 1 examined the relationship between strategy knowledge (stability of strategy choices) and WM performance as a function of initial, gain (cued), and maintenance conditions. WM performance was significantly improved for both groups under cued conditions; however, the performances of children with RD were inferior to those of children without RD across all memory conditions. Measures of WM capacity rather than strategy stability or processing efficiency best predicted reading comprehension performance. Experiment 2 assessed the effects of strategy training on WM performance by randomly assigning children to strategy instruction or control conditions. Significant improvements in WM performance occurred as a function of training conditions, but the residual WM differences between the reading groups remained. Although the results showed that stable strategy choices, cued performance, and strategy instruction significantly bolstered WM performance in children with RD, their overall WM performance, however, was constrained by capacity limitations.
Background Physicians require specific communication skills, because the face-to-face contact with their patients is an important source of information. Although physicians who perform work disability assessments attend some communication-related training courses during their professional education, no specialised and evidence-based communication skills training course is available for them. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: 1) to systematically develop a training course aimed at improving the communication skills of physicians during work disability assessment interviews with disability claimants, and 2) to plan an evaluation of the training course. Methods A physician-tailored communication skills training course was developed, according to the six steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol. Data were collected from questionnaire studies among physicians and claimants, a focus group study among physicians, a systematic review of the literature, and meetings with various experts. Determinants and performance objectives were formulated. A concept version of the training course was discussed with several experts before the final training course programme was established. The evaluation plan was developed by consulting experts, social insurance physicians, researchers, and policy-makers, and discussing with them the options for evaluation. Results A two-day post-graduate communication skills training course was developed, aimed at improving professional communication during work disability assessment interviews. Special focus was on active teaching strategies, such as practising the skills in role-play. An adoption and implementation plan was formulated, in which the infrastructure of the educational department of the institute that employs the physicians was utilised. Improvement in the skills and knowledge of the physicians who will participate in the training course will be evaluated in a randomised controlled trial. Conclusions The feasibility and
van Rijssen, H Jolanda; Schellart, Antonius J M; Anema, Johannes R; de Boer, Wout E L; van der Beek, Allard J
Physicians require specific communication skills, because the face-to-face contact with their patients is an important source of information. Although physicians who perform work disability assessments attend some communication-related training courses during their professional education, no specialised and evidence-based communication skills training course is available for them. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: 1) to systematically develop a training course aimed at improving the communication skills of physicians during work disability assessment interviews with disability claimants, and 2) to plan an evaluation of the training course. A physician-tailored communication skills training course was developed, according to the six steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol. Data were collected from questionnaire studies among physicians and claimants, a focus group study among physicians, a systematic review of the literature, and meetings with various experts. Determinants and performance objectives were formulated. A concept version of the training course was discussed with several experts before the final training course programme was established. The evaluation plan was developed by consulting experts, social insurance physicians, researchers, and policy-makers, and discussing with them the options for evaluation. A two-day post-graduate communication skills training course was developed, aimed at improving professional communication during work disability assessment interviews. Special focus was on active teaching strategies, such as practising the skills in role-play. An adoption and implementation plan was formulated, in which the infrastructure of the educational department of the institute that employs the physicians was utilised. Improvement in the skills and knowledge of the physicians who will participate in the training course will be evaluated in a randomised controlled trial. The feasibility and practical relevance of the communication
Anema Johannes R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians require specific communication skills, because the face-to-face contact with their patients is an important source of information. Although physicians who perform work disability assessments attend some communication-related training courses during their professional education, no specialised and evidence-based communication skills training course is available for them. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: 1 to systematically develop a training course aimed at improving the communication skills of physicians during work disability assessment interviews with disability claimants, and 2 to plan an evaluation of the training course. Methods A physician-tailored communication skills training course was developed, according to the six steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol. Data were collected from questionnaire studies among physicians and claimants, a focus group study among physicians, a systematic review of the literature, and meetings with various experts. Determinants and performance objectives were formulated. A concept version of the training course was discussed with several experts before the final training course programme was established. The evaluation plan was developed by consulting experts, social insurance physicians, researchers, and policy-makers, and discussing with them the options for evaluation. Results A two-day post-graduate communication skills training course was developed, aimed at improving professional communication during work disability assessment interviews. Special focus was on active teaching strategies, such as practising the skills in role-play. An adoption and implementation plan was formulated, in which the infrastructure of the educational department of the institute that employs the physicians was utilised. Improvement in the skills and knowledge of the physicians who will participate in the training course will be evaluated in a randomised controlled trial
Lin, Jin-Ding; Lee, Tzong-Nan; Loh, Ching-Hui; Yen, Chia-Feng; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Wu, Jia-Ling; Tang, Chi-Chieh; Lin, Lan-Ping; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Sheng-Ru
Little explicit attention has been given to the generic health profile of staff working for people with intellectual disability in institutions. This study aimed to provide a profile of physical and mental health of staff working in disability welfare institutions, and to examine the possible demographic and organizational factors that explain an…
Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo, resultado de investigación documental del grupo Estudios sobre el Desarrollo Sociomoral, presenta un análisis sobre la historia y la evolución intelectual de Lawrece Kohlberg, pionero de la Psicología del Desarrollo Moral. Específicamente, el análisis de su obra gira alrededor de tres tópicos: la filosofía moral, la psicología del desarrollo y la pedagogía.Abstract This paper, documental research outcome of the ''Estudios sobre el Desarrollo Sociomoral'' research group, presents an analysis of the history and intellectual evolution of Lawrence Kohlberg, pioneer of Moral Development Psychology. Specifically, the analysis of his work revolves around three issues: moral Philosophy, developmental Psychology and Pedagogy.
Roelen, Corné A M; van Rhenen, Willem; Groothoff, Johan W; van der Klink, Jac J L; Twisk, Jos W R; Heymans, Martijn W
Work ability predicts future disability pension (DP). A single-item work ability score (WAS) is emerging as a measure for work ability. This study compared single-item WAS with the multi-item work ability index (WAI) in its ability to identify workers at risk of DP. This prospective cohort study comprised 11 537 male construction workers, who completed the WAI at baseline and reported DP after a mean 2.3 years of follow-up. WAS and WAI were calibrated for DP risk predictions with the Hosmer-Lemeshow (H-L) test and their ability to discriminate between high- and low-risk construction workers was investigated with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). At follow-up, 336 (3%) construction workers reported DP. Both WAS [odds ratio (OR) 0.72, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.66-0.78] and WAI (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.52-0.63) scores were associated with DP at follow-up. The WAS showed miscalibration (H-L model χ (�)=10.60; df=3; P=0.01) and poorly discriminated between high- and low-risk construction workers (AUC 0.67, 95% CI 0.64-0.70). In contrast, calibration (H-L model χ �=8.20; df=8; P=0.41) and discrimination (AUC 0.78, 95% CI 0.75-0.80) were both adequate for the WAI. Although associated with the risk of future DP, the single-item WAS poorly identified male construction workers at risk of DP. We recommend using the multi-item WAI to screen for risk of DP in occupational health practice.
Kocman, Andreas; Weber, Germain
Background: Current research on employment options for people with Intellectual Disability emphasizes the importance of employee needs and satisfaction. The study aims at systematically reviewing the literature on job satisfaction and related constructs. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted. Studies were included if (i) they are…
Full Text Available Working memory training has been increasingly popular in the last year. Previous studies has shown that children with intellectual disabilities have low working memory capacity and therefore have a great potential for improvement by this type of intervention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of working memory and cognitive training for children with intellectual disabilities. The effects reported in previous studies have varied and therefore meta-analysis of articles in the major databases was conducted. Inclusion criteria included to have a pretest-posttest design with a training group and a control group and to have measures of working memory or short-term memory. Ten studies with 28 comparisons were included. The results reveal a significant overall pretest-posttest small effect size for of working memory training for children with intellectual disabilities compared to controls. A mixed working memory approach, considering both verbal and visuo-spatial components and working mainly on strategies, was the only significantly effective training type with a medium effect size. The most commonly reported training type with 60 percent of the included comparisons, visuo-spatial working memory training, had a non-significant effect size that was close to zero. We conclude that even if there is an overall effect of working memory training, a mixed working memory approach appears to cause this effect. Given the few studies included and the different characteristics of the included studies, interpretations should be done with caution. However, different types of interventions appear to have different effects. Even if the results were promising, more studies are needed to better understand how to design an effective working memory intervention for this group and to understand if, and how, these short-term effects remains over time and transfer to everyday activities.
Aarseth, Guri; Natvig, Bård; Engebretsen, Eivind; Lie, Anne Kveim
Medical certificates influence the distribution of economic benefits in welfare states; however, the qualitative aspects of these texts remain largely unexplored. The present study is the first systematic investigation done of these texts. Our aim was to investigate how GPs select and mediate information about their patients' health and how they support their conclusions about illness, functioning and fitness for work in medical certificates. We performed a textual analysis of thirty-three medical certificates produced by general practitioners (GP) in Norway at the request of the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration (NAV).The certificates were subjected to critical reading using the combined analytic methods of narratology and linguistics. Some of the medical information was unclear, ambiguous, and possibly misleading. Evaluations of functioning related to illness were scarce or absent, regardless of diagnosis, and, hence, the basis of working incapacity was unclear. Voices in the text frequently conflated, obscuring the source of speaker. In some documents, the expert's subtle use of language implied doubts about the claimant's credibility, but explicit advocacy also occurred. GPs show little insight into their patients' working lives, but rather than express uncertainty and incompetence, they may resort to making too absolute and too general statements about patients' working capacity, and fail to report thorough assessments. A number of the texts in our material may not function as sufficient or reliable sources for making decisions regarding social benefits. Certificates as these may be deficient for several reasons, and textual incompetence may be one of them. Physicians in Norway receive no systematic training in professional writing. High-quality medical certificates, we believe, might be economical in the long term: it might increase the efficiency with which NAV processes cases and save costs by eliminating the need for unnecessary and expensive
Holwerda, Anja; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.
Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental
Holwerda, A.; Brouwer, S.; de Boer, M.R.; Groothoff, J.W.; van der Klink, J.J.L.
Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental
Holwerda, Anja; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.
Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental
This thesis explores the experience and support needs of siblings with a brother or sister with intellectual disability. Through review of what is a quite limited literature and from original qualitative research, involving interviews with siblings, the author examines their social reality, focusing especially on their relationships with their disabled brother or sister and with the wider society. Particular attention is given to identifying to what extent the siblings' lives are influenced b...
Faber, B J M; Wind, H; Frings-Dresen, M H W
The percentage of young people with disabilities who are employed is relatively low. Motivation is considered to be an important factor in facilitating or hindering their ability to obtain employment. We aimed to develop a topic list that could serve as an interview guide for professionals in occupational health care which would aid them in their discussion of work motivation-related issues with this group. We systematically searched Pubmed, PsychInfo and Picarta. Studies were included if they described aspects of work motivation and/or instruments that assess work motivation. Based on the results of our literature survey, we developed a list of topics that had been shown to be related to work motivation. Our search resulted in 12 articles describing aspects of work motivation and 17 articles describing instruments that assess work motivation. The aspects that we found were intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, goal setting, self-efficacy, expectancy, values and work readiness. Based on this information we developed an interview guide that includes seven topic areas: intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, goal setting, expectancy, values, self- efficacy, and work readiness. The topics within the interview guide and the literature survey data that is presented will shed light on the role that motivation plays on the work participation among young people with disabilities.
Daucourt, Mia C; Schatschneider, Christopher; Connor, Carol M; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Hart, Sara A
Recent achievement research suggests that executive function (EF), a set of regulatory processes that control both thought and action necessary for goal-directed behavior, is related to typical and atypical reading performance. This project examines the relation of EF, as measured by its components, Inhibition, Updating Working Memory, and Shifting, with a hybrid model of reading disability (RD). Our sample included 420 children who participated in a broader intervention project when they were in KG-third grade (age M = 6.63 years, SD = 1.04 years, range = 4.79-10.40 years). At the time their EF was assessed, using a parent-report Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), they had a mean age of 13.21 years ( SD = 1.54 years; range = 10.47-16.63 years). The hybrid model of RD was operationalized as a composite consisting of four symptoms, and set so that any child could have any one, any two, any three, any four, or none of the symptoms included in the hybrid model. The four symptoms include low word reading achievement, unexpected low word reading achievement, poorer reading comprehension compared to listening comprehension, and dual-discrepancy response-to-intervention, requiring both low achievement and low growth in word reading. The results of our multilevel ordinal logistic regression analyses showed a significant relation between all three components of EF (Inhibition, Updating Working Memory, and Shifting) and the hybrid model of RD, and that the strength of EF's predictive power for RD classification was the highest when RD was modeled as having at least one or more symptoms. Importantly, the chances of being classified as having RD increased as EF performance worsened and decreased as EF performance improved. The question of whether any one EF component would emerge as a superior predictor was also examined and results showed that Inhibition, Updating Working Memory, and Shifting were equally valuable as predictors of the hybrid model of RD
Mia C. Daucourt
Full Text Available Recent achievement research suggests that executive function (EF, a set of regulatory processes that control both thought and action necessary for goal-directed behavior, is related to typical and atypical reading performance. This project examines the relation of EF, as measured by its components, Inhibition, Updating Working Memory, and Shifting, with a hybrid model of reading disability (RD. Our sample included 420 children who participated in a broader intervention project when they were in KG-third grade (age M = 6.63 years, SD = 1.04 years, range = 4.79–10.40 years. At the time their EF was assessed, using a parent-report Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF, they had a mean age of 13.21 years (SD = 1.54 years; range = 10.47–16.63 years. The hybrid model of RD was operationalized as a composite consisting of four symptoms, and set so that any child could have any one, any two, any three, any four, or none of the symptoms included in the hybrid model. The four symptoms include low word reading achievement, unexpected low word reading achievement, poorer reading comprehension compared to listening comprehension, and dual-discrepancy response-to-intervention, requiring both low achievement and low growth in word reading. The results of our multilevel ordinal logistic regression analyses showed a significant relation between all three components of EF (Inhibition, Updating Working Memory, and Shifting and the hybrid model of RD, and that the strength of EF’s predictive power for RD classification was the highest when RD was modeled as having at least one or more symptoms. Importantly, the chances of being classified as having RD increased as EF performance worsened and decreased as EF performance improved. The question of whether any one EF component would emerge as a superior predictor was also examined and results showed that Inhibition, Updating Working Memory, and Shifting were equally valuable as predictors of the
van Campen, Cretien; Cardol, Mieke
People with chronic physical disabilities participate less in both paid and voluntary work and are less satisfied with their lives than people without health problems. Governments and scientists have suggested that participation in employment is the main road to well-being. We analysed national survey data on the participation in work and satisfaction with life, comparing people with a chronic illness and a physical disability (n=603) to people with a chronic illness but without a physical disability (n=1199) and the general population (n=6128) in the Netherlands. The results show that the relationship between happiness and work is different for people with a chronic illness and a physical disability, as compared to the other two populations. Fewer people with a chronic illness and disability were categorized as 'satisfied people with work' (i.e. participating in work and satisfied with their life), while most people belonged to a group of 'satisfied people without work' and, surprisingly, not to the expected group of 'dissatisfied people without work'. In order to explain this exceptional distribution we modelled satisfied participation in work as an outcome of a balance between personal resources and barriers. By means of discriminant regression analysis, we identified the severity of motor disability as the main barrier, and education level and age, as the main resource factors that distinguish between 'satisfied people with work' and others among the group of people with a chronic illness and a physical disability.
Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Haley, Stephen M; Jette, Alan M; Eisen, Susan V; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Meterko, Mark; McDonough, Christine M; Chan, Leighton; Brandt, Diane E; Rasch, Elizabeth K
Physical and mental impairments represent the 2 largest health condition categories for which workers receive Social Security disability benefits. Comprehensive assessment of physical and mental impairments should include aspects beyond medical conditions such as a person's underlying capabilities as well as activity demands relevant to the context of work. The objective of this article is to describe the initial conceptual stages of developing new measurement instruments of behavioral health and physical functioning relevant for Social Security work disability evaluation purposes. To outline a clear conceptualization of the constructs to be measured, 2 content models were developed using structured and informal qualitative approaches. We performed a structured literature review focusing on work disability and incorporating aspects of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a unifying taxonomy for framework development. Expert interviews provided advice and consultation to enhance face validity of the resulting content models. The content model for work-related behavioral health function identifies 5 major domains: (1) behavior control, (2) basic interactions, (3) temperament and personality, (4) adaptability, and (5) workplace behaviors. The content model describing physical functioning includes 3 domains: (1) changing and maintaining body position, (2) whole-body mobility, and (3) carrying, moving, and handling objects. These content models informed subsequent measurement properties including item development and measurement scale construction, and provided conceptual coherence guiding future empirical inquiry. The proposed measurement approaches show promise to comprehensively and systematically assess physical and behavioral health functioning relevant to work. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rayner, L; Simpson, A; Matcham, F; Shetty, S; Lahoti, O; Groom, G; Hotopf, M
This cross-sectional survey aimed to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and drug and alcohol dependence in a limb reconstruction population and examine associations with demographic and functional variables. As part of routine clinical care, data were collected from 566 patients attending a tertiary referral centre for limb reconstruction between April 2012 and February 2016. Depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and alcohol and drug dependence were measured using standardised self-report screening tools. 173 patients (30.6% CI 26.7-34.4) screened positive for at least one of the mental disorders assessed. 110 (19.4% CI 16.2-22.7) met criteria for probable major depression; 112 (19.9% CI 16.6-23.2) patients met criteria for probable generalised anxiety disorder; and 41 (7.6% CI 5.3-9.8) patients met criteria for probable PTSD. The prevalence of probable alcohol dependence and probable drug dependence was 1.6% (CI 0.6-2.7) and 4.5% (CI 2.7-6.3), respectively. Patients who screened positive for depression, anxiety and PTSD reported significantly higher levels of pain, fatigue, and functional impairment. Depression and anxiety were independently associated with work disability after adjustment for covariates (OR 1.98 (CI 1.08-3.62) and OR 1.83 (CI 1.04-3.23), respectively). The high prevalence and adverse associations of probable mental disorder in limb reconstruction attest to the need for routine psychological assessment and support. Integrated screening and management of mental disorder in this population may have a positive impact on patients' emotional, physical and occupational rehabilitation. A randomised controlled trial is needed to test this hypothesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lifshitz, Hefziba; Kilberg, Esther; Vakil, Eli
Integrative research review infers generalizations about a substantive subject, summarizes the accumulated knowledge that research has left unresolved and generates a new framework on these issues. Due to methodological issues emerging from working memory (WM) studies in the population with non-specific intellectual disability (NSID) (N=64) between 1990-2014, it is difficult to conclude on WM performance in this population. This integrative research review aimed to resolve literature conflicts on WM performance among individuals with NSID and to identify the conditions/moderators that govern their WM performance compared to controls with Typical development. We used the six stages of integrative research review: problem formulation, data collection, evaluation, data analysis, results, interpretation and discussion. The findings indicate two types of moderators that determine WM performance in the population with NSID: Participants' moderators (criteria for matching the ID and TD groups, CA and MA), and task moderators [the three WM components of Baddeley and Hitch's (1974) model and task load]. Only an interaction between the two moderators determines WM performance in this population. The findings indicate a hierarchy (from more to less preserved) in WM performance of individuals with NSID: The visuospatial tasks, then some of the executive functions tasks, and the phonological loop tasks being less preserved. Furthermore, at a low level of control, the performance of participants with NSID was preserved beyond the modality and vice versa. Modality and MA/intelligence determine WM performance of individuals with ID. Educators should prepare intervention programs take the impact of the two moderators into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lövgren, Veronica; Markström, Urban; Sauer, Lennart
This article presents an overview of research about support-to-work in relation to psychiatric and intellectual disabilities. The overview shows that support-to-work services are multifaceted, and that work can be seen as a tool for individual rehabilitation or as a set of goals to achieve. Providers are presented with specific components, which are characterized by systematic, targeted, and individualized interventions. The overview illustrates a need for long-term engagement and cooperation of and between welfare services and agents within the labor market to dissolve the Gordian knot that the transition from welfare interventions to employment seems to be.
Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Green, Vanessa A; Oliva, Doretta; Campodonico, Francesca
To assess whether two persons with multiple disabilities could learn a work activity (i.e., assembling trolley wheels) with the support of a technology system. After an initial baseline, the study compared the effects of intervention sessions relying on the technology system (which called the participants to the different workstations and provided feedback and final stimulation) with the effects of intervention sessions carried out without technology. The two types of intervention sessions were conducted according to an alternating treatments design. Eventually, only intervention sessions relying on the technology system were used. Both participants managed to assemble wheels independently during intervention sessions relying on the technology system while they failed during sessions without the system. Their performance was strengthened during the final part of the study, in which only sessions with the system occurred. Technology may be critical in helping persons with multiple disabilities manage multi-step work activities.
Full Text Available Introduction: Occupational inclusion is one of the major contemporary challenges in promoting the human rights of people with disabilities in any country. Objective: To carry out a theoretical discussion and analysis of public policy through the characteristics of the legislative framework of the Latin American countries with their respective initiatives, policies and programs to promote the labor inclusion of people with disabilities. Method: The documents were analyzed, with emphasis on content analysis, in order to form a analysis framework on the main characteristics, similarities and challenges faced by these countries. Results: The main initiatives of the Latin American countries have been: 1. approval of legislation with mandatory vacancies in companies and public service; 2. creation of national computerized occupational intermediation systems; 3. Entrepreneurship of people with disabilities and 4. policies for personalized follow-up of the labor inclusion itinerary. Conclusion: The main challenges common to Latin American countries, which become barriers to inclusion, are: 1. To comply with the quotas reserved and to carry out supervision; 2. To increase the educational and professional qualification of the people; 3. To reconcile benefits of non-contributory / social security incomes with occupational contributions, 4. Raise awareness among businesses, families and society about the productivity and capacities of people with disabilities, and 5. Create tax exemptions and other incentives for companies to hire people with disabilities.
Murray, Christopher; Doren, Bonnie
The current investigation was designed to evaluate the effects of the Working at Gaining Employment Skills (WAGES) curriculum on the social and occupational skills of adolescents with disabilities. Adolescents with disabilities were assigned to either an intervention or control condition. Youth in the intervention group were exposed to the WAGES…
Falkstedt, Daniel; Backhans, Mona; Lundin, Andreas; Allebeck, Peter; Hemmingsson, Tomas
Rates of disability pension are greatly increased among people with low education. This study examines the extent to which associations between education and disability pensions might be explained by differences in working conditions. Information on individuals at age 13 years was used to assess confounding of associations. Two nationally representative samples of men and women born in 1948 and 1953 in Sweden (22 889 participants in total) were linked to information from social insurance records on cause (musculoskeletal, psychiatric, and other) and date (from 1986-2008) of disability pension. Education data were obtained from administrative records. Occupation data were used for measurement of physical strain at work and job control. Data on paternal education, ambition to study, and intellectual performance were collected in school. Women were found to have higher rates of disability pension than men, regardless of diagnosis, whereas men had a steeper increase in disability pension by declining educational level. Adjustment of associations for paternal education, ambition to study, and intellectual performance at age 13 had a considerable attenuating effect, also when disability pension with a musculoskeletal diagnosis was the outcome. Despite this, high physical strain at work and low job control both contributed to explain the associations between low education and disability pensions in multivariable models. Working conditions seem to partly explain the increased rate of disability pension among men and women with lower education even though this association does reflect considerable selection effects based on factors already present in late childhood.
Lee, Amy; Kiemle, Gundi
Background: This study examines the experiences of qualified nurses working with individuals diagnosed with both intellectual disability and personality disorder (PD) in a medium-secure forensic intellectual disability setting. Potential training needs are highlighted, as well as other ways in which services could better support staff to work…
Ducic, Bojan; Gligorovic, Milica; Kaljaca, Svetlana
Background: Social competence deficit is one of the main characteristics of intellectual disability. The aim of this paper is to determine the influence of working memory (WM) and self-regulation (SR) on social skills in persons with moderate intellectual disability (MID). Method: The sample included 41 participants with MID, aged 14-21.…
Background Women’s higher risk of disability pension compared with men is found in countries with high female work participation and universal welfare schemes. The aim of the study was to examine the extent to which self-perceived health, family situation and work factors explain women’s higher risk of disability pension. We also explored how these factors influenced the gender difference across educational strata. Methods The population-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK) was conducted in 1997–99 and included inhabitants born in 1953–57 in Hordaland County, Norway. The current study included 5,959 men and 6,306 women in paid work with valid information on education and self-perceived health. Follow-up data on disability pension, for a period of 5–7 years, was obtained by linking the health survey to a national registry of disability pension. Cox regression analyses were employed. Results During the follow-up period 99 (1.7%) men and 230 (3.6%) women were awarded disability pension, giving a twofold risk of disability pension for women compared with men. Except for a moderate impact of self-perceived health, adjustment for family situation and work factors did not influence the gender difference in risk. Repeating the analyses in strata of education, the gender difference in risk of disability pension among the highly educated was fully explained by self-perceived health and work factors. In the lower strata of education there remained a substantial unexplained gender difference in risk. Conclusions In a Norwegian cohort of middle-aged men and women, self-perceived health, family situation and work factors could not explain women’s higher likelihood of disability pension. However, analyses stratified by educational level indicate that mechanisms behind the gender gap in disability pension differ by educational levels. Recognizing the heterogeneity within gender may contribute to a deeper understanding of women’s higher risk of disability pension. PMID
Haukenes, Inger; Gjesdal, Sturla; Rortveit, Guri; Riise, Trond; Maeland, John Gunnar
Women's higher risk of disability pension compared with men is found in countries with high female work participation and universal welfare schemes. The aim of the study was to examine the extent to which self-perceived health, family situation and work factors explain women's higher risk of disability pension. We also explored how these factors influenced the gender difference across educational strata. The population-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK) was conducted in 1997-99 and included inhabitants born in 1953-57 in Hordaland County, Norway. The current study included 5,959 men and 6,306 women in paid work with valid information on education and self-perceived health. Follow-up data on disability pension, for a period of 5-7 years, was obtained by linking the health survey to a national registry of disability pension. Cox regression analyses were employed. During the follow-up period 99 (1.7%) men and 230 (3.6%) women were awarded disability pension, giving a twofold risk of disability pension for women compared with men. Except for a moderate impact of self-perceived health, adjustment for family situation and work factors did not influence the gender difference in risk. Repeating the analyses in strata of education, the gender difference in risk of disability pension among the highly educated was fully explained by self-perceived health and work factors. In the lower strata of education there remained a substantial unexplained gender difference in risk. In a Norwegian cohort of middle-aged men and women, self-perceived health, family situation and work factors could not explain women's higher likelihood of disability pension. However, analyses stratified by educational level indicate that mechanisms behind the gender gap in disability pension differ by educational levels. Recognizing the heterogeneity within gender may contribute to a deeper understanding of women's higher risk of disability pension.
Lambeek, Ludeke C; van Mechelen, Willem; Knol, Dirk L; Loisel, Patrick; Anema, Johannes R
To evaluate the effectiveness of an integrated care programme, combining a patient directed and a workplace directed intervention, for patients with chronic low back pain. Population based randomised controlled trial. Primary care (10 physiotherapy practices, one occupational health service, one occupational therapy practice) and secondary care (five hospitals). 134 adults aged 18-65 sick listed for at least 12 weeks owing to low back pain. Patients were randomly assigned to usual care (n=68) or integrated care (n=66). Integrated care consisted of a workplace intervention based on participatory ergonomics, involving a supervisor, and a graded activity programme based on cognitive behavioural principles. The primary outcome was the duration of time off work (work disability) due to low back pain until full sustainable return to work. Secondary outcome measures were intensity of pain and functional status. The median duration until sustainable return to work was 88 days in the integrated care group compared with 208 days in the usual care group (P=0.003). Integrated care was effective on return to work (hazard ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 2.8, P=0.004). After 12 months, patients in the integrated care group improved significantly more on functional status compared with patients in the usual care group (P=0.01). Improvement of pain between the groups did not differ significantly. The integrated care programme substantially reduced disability due to chronic low back pain in private and working life. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN28478651.
Benarous, Lucas; Terrier, Benjamin; Laborde-Casterot, Hervé; Bérezné, Alice; Dunogué, Bertrand; Cohen, Pascal; Puéchal, Xavier; Mouthon, Luc; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Guillevin, Loic
Improved therapeutic strategies for ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) have transformed acute and life-threatening diseases into chronic ones responsible for marked morbidity that could impact employment, work disability and quality of life (QoL). We aimed to analyse work, handicaps and QoL of AAV patients and identify their determinants. Patients with AAV were included in a cross-sectional study assessing employment, work disability and QoL. Specific and non-specific questionnaires, including SF-36, were sent to patients, and clinical-biological data that could affect QoL and their determinants were analysed. Questionnaires were completed by 189 patients. Among 94 working-age (employed; 23% of workers felt that their disease qualitatively limited the nature of their work, while 43% felt it limited the quantity of work they could do; 50% thought their disease had hindered their careers and 43% that it had led to a salary reduction. These results were comparable for the different vasculitides. QoL was significantly impaired for AAV patients compared to the general population (pemployment seemed to be preserved for the majority of the patients.
Lazaridis, Konstantinos; Jovanović, Jovica; Jovanović, Jovana; Šarac, Ivana; Jovanović, Stefan
To determine which specific groups of occupational stress factors influence the duration of temporary work disability related to arterial hypertension and joint complications/co-morbidities. Workers (n = 1398; 1009 in the exposed group, 389 in the control group) with arterial hypertension who worked at one workplace for a minimum of 10 years were divided into 10 subgroups, depending on the presence of joint complications/co-morbidities. The intensity of seven groups of occupational stress factors, the total score of Occupational Stress Index (OSI) and the average number of lost working days during 1 year were analysed. The number of lost working days due to arterial hypertension and joint complications/co-morbidities was significantly higher in the exposed group. In all subgroups of the exposed group there was a high correlation between the number of lost working days and the total OSI score. Specific occupational stress factors were associated with specific complications: High Demands with chronic myocardial infarction, Strictness with cerebral haemorrhage, Conflict/Uncertainty with cerebral infarction, Extrinsic Time Pressure with acute myocardial infarction, and Avoidance/Symbolic Aversiveness with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. There are specific groups of occupational stress factors which can influence the duration of work disability associated with certain complications and co-morbidities of arterial hypertension.
Heller, Tamar; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.; Drum, Charles; Peterson, Jana
A scoping review of studies on physical activity and nutrition health promotion interventions for individuals with intellectual disabilities was conducted. Searches included MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases from 1986 through July 2006. The final number included 11 articles comprising 12 studies. Generally, this review indicated some…
S. Garcia Mandico (Silvia); M.P. García-Gómez (Pilar); A.C. Gielen (Anne); O.A. O'Donnell (Owen)
markdownabstractThe trends in the composition of the disability insurance (DI) program show the strong increase in the incidence of mental disorders in its rolls over the past decade. In fact, the OECD reports that the share of individuals with mental health conditions represents one third of all DI
Roeden, John M.; Maaskant, Marian A.; Curfs, Leopold M. G.
Background: Research studies into the effect of therapies have shown that a good relationship between the client and his caregiver is a key factor in a positive treatment outcome. Methods: The nominal group technique (NGT) has been used in this study to discover what clients with intellectual disabilities feel contributes to a successful working…
Parish, Susan L.; Rose, Roderick A.; Swaine, Jamie G.; Dababnah, Sarah; Mayra, Ellen Tracy
Understanding the financial well-being of single mothers who care for children with developmental disabilities is important to ensure that public policies can be effectively targeted to support these vulnerable families. The authors analyze data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation to describe income poverty, asset poverty, income,…
O'Brien, Gerald V.
In the United States, genetic research, as well as policy and practice innovations based on this research, has expanded greatly over the past few decades. This expansion is indicated, for example, by the mapping of the human genome, an expansion of genetic counseling, and other biogenetic research. Also, a disability rights movement that in many…
Heisey, Allyson G.
Since the mid-1970s, teleworking has been recognized as being beneficial to organizations, individuals, and communities. In the 1980s and 1990s, advancements in technology made teleworking an attractive option for many workers, including those with disabilities. Teleworking has gained popularity and has been heralded as a method of accommodation…
Fillary, Rose; Pernice, Regina
Background: Research evidence suggests that investigation of workplace culture assists in enhancing social inclusion of and job retention by people with intellectual disability. Method: This research explored the potential of using Hagner's (2000) "Workplace Culture Survey" to identify inclusive characteristics of eight New Zealand…
This article describes how students with disabilities in regular classes are using the WebQuest lesson format to access the Internet. It explains essential WebQuest principles, creating a draft Web page, and WebQuest components. It offers an example of a WebQuest about salvaging the sunken ships, Titanic and Lusitania. A WebQuest planning form is…
Holmes, Janet; Fillary, Rose
This study analyzed tape-recorded workplace small talk collected in New Zealand workplaces, including workplaces employing workers with intellectual disabilities. The topics, the distributional patterns, and the functions of small talk are described, and aspects of the management of small talk which may present problems to workers with…
Faber, B. J. M.; Wind, H.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.
The percentage of young people with disabilities who are employed is relatively low. Motivation is considered to be an important factor in facilitating or hindering their ability to obtain employment. We aimed to develop a topic list that could serve as an interview guide for professionals in
Szymanski, Edna Mora, Ed.; Parker, Randall M., Ed.
This text presents the context, theories, resources, and strategies necessary to promote the employment of people with disabilities. The book is intended for rehabilitation professionals, special educators, psychologists, social workers, mental health counselors, vocational counselors, and vocational educators. The 12 chapters are based on a model…
... Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Print Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of Essure ...
Higgins, Agnes; Sharek, Danika; Nolan, Maeve; Sheerin, Barbara; Flanagan, Paul; Slaicuinaite, Sniguole; Mc Donnell, Sinead; Walsh, Heather
. To report a study evaluating the effectiveness of a 1-day interdisciplinary sexuality education programme for staff working with people with acquired physical disability. Changes associated with an acquired physical disability can diminish a person's self-esteem, sense of attractiveness, relationships, and sexual functioning. Research suggests that people are dissatisfied with the quality of information and support around sexuality during their rehabilitation. A mixed methods design was used, involving pretest and posttest questionnaires and interviews. Questionnaire data were analysed using descriptive statistics and paired samples t-tests to evaluate the effects of the programme on knowledge, skills, and comfort. Interview data were analyzed thematically, with particular emphasis on participants' opinions about the application of the course within practice. Participants were working in the area of acquired disability and rehabilitation, and were drawn from a number of disciplines. Data were collected between 2008-2009. Comparison of the pre- and postmeasures, based on paired samples t-tests, showed that the programme statistically significantly increased participants' knowledge, skills, and comfort. Participants felt positive and enthusiastic about the programme and reported numerous incidents where they were more willing to raise issues for discussion and create a supportive listening space for patients to talk about their concerns around sexuality. Providing healthcare practitioners with a 1-day programme leads to positive changes in knowledge, skills, and comfort towards sexuality. Sexuality education may be an ideal topic for bringing practitioners together within an interdisciplinary education context. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Sokka, Tuulikki; Kautiainen, Hannu; Pincus, Theodore; Verstappen, Suzanne M M; Aggarwal, Amita; Alten, Rieke; Andersone, Daina; Badsha, Humeira; Baecklund, Eva; Belmonte, Miguel; Craig-Müller, Jürgen; da Mota, Licia Maria Henrique; Dimic, Alexander; Fathi, Nihal A; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco; Fukuda, Wataru; Géher, Pál; Gogus, Feride; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia; Hamoud, Hisham; Haugeberg, Glenn; Henrohn, Dan; Horslev-Petersen, Kim; Ionescu, Ruxandra; Karateew, Dmitry; Kuuse, Reet; Laurindo, Ieda Maria Magalhaes; Lazovskis, Juris; Luukkainen, Reijo; Mofti, Ayman; Murphy, Eithne; Nakajima, Ayako; Oyoo, Omondi; Pandya, Sapan C; Pohl, Christof; Predeteanu, Denisa; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Sharma, Banwari; Shono, Eisuke; Sibilia, Jean; Sierakowski, Stanislaw; Skopouli, Fotini N; Stropuviene, Sigita; Toloza, Sergio; Valter, Ivo; Woolf, Anthony; Yamanaka, Hisashi
Work disability is a major consequence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), associated not only with traditional disease activity variables, but also more significantly with demographic, functional, occupational, and societal variables. Recent reports suggest that the use of biologic agents offers potential for reduced work disability rates, but the conclusions are based on surrogate disease activity measures derived from studies primarily from Western countries. The Quantitative Standard Monitoring of Patients with RA (QUEST-RA) multinational database of 8,039 patients in 86 sites in 32 countries, 16 with high gross domestic product (GDP) (>24K US dollars (USD) per capita) and 16 low-GDP countries (<11K USD), was analyzed for work and disability status at onset and over the course of RA and clinical status of patients who continued working or had stopped working in high-GDP versus low-GDP countries according to all RA Core Data Set measures. Associations of work disability status with RA Core Data Set variables and indices were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analyses. At the time of first symptoms, 86% of men (range 57%-100% among countries) and 64% (19%-87%) of women <65 years were working. More than one third (37%) of these patients reported subsequent work disability because of RA. Among 1,756 patients whose symptoms had begun during the 2000s, the probabilities of continuing to work were 80% (95% confidence interval (CI) 78%-82%) at 2 years and 68% (95% CI 65%-71%) at 5 years, with similar patterns in high-GDP and low-GDP countries. Patients who continued working versus stopped working had significantly better clinical status for all clinical status measures and patient self-report scores, with similar patterns in high-GDP and low-GDP countries. However, patients who had stopped working in high-GDP countries had better clinical status than patients who continued working in low-GDP countries. The most significant identifier of work disability in
Mussen, Lauren; Boyd, Tristan; Bykerk, Vivian; de Leon, Faye; Li, Lihua; Boire, Gilles; Hitchon, Carol; Haraoui, Boulos; Thorne, J Carter; Pope, Janet
We determined the prevalence of work disability in early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) and undifferentiated early inflammatory arthritis (EIA) patients at first enrollment into the Canadian Early Arthritis Cohort (CATCH) who met the 2010 ACR criteria versus those not meeting criteria, to determine the impact of meeting new criteria on work disability status. Data at first visit into the cohort were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association of other variables in our database with work disability. 1,487 patients were enrolled in the CATCH study, a multi-site observational, prospective cohort of patients with EIA. 934 patients were excluded (505 based on missing criteria for ACR 2010 classification, as anti-CCP was absent, and 429 were not working for other reasons). Of the 553 patients included, 71 % were female with mean disease duration of 6.4 months. 524 (94.8 %) were employed while 29 (5.2 %) reported work disability at first visit. There were no differences between those meeting 2010 ACR criteria versus those who did not. Baseline characteristics associated with work disability were male gender, age, education, income, HAQ, and positive RF status. The mean HAQ score in work disabled patients was 1.4 versus 0.9 in those who were working (p 50 years; p = 0.3), lower education (p = 0.3) or RF positivity (p = 0.6). We found rates of work disability to be low at entry into this EIA cohort compared to previous studies. There may be potential for intervention in ERA to prevent the development of work disability.
Evaluation of social disablement, psychiatric symptoms and autonomy in long-stay psychiatric patients Avaliação do comportamento social, sintomas psiquiátricos e autonomia em pacientes psiquiátricos de longa permanência
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data on prevalence of social disablement, psychiatric symptoms and independent living skills in long-stay psychiatric patients are scarce in Brazil. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was carried out on a population of 881 long-stay psychiatric patients. METHOD: Data were collected from all the patients living in the Municipal Mental Health Institute from Rio de Janeiro city, using 3 instruments: Social Behaviour Schedule (SBS-BR, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, and Independent Living Skills Survey (ILSS-BR. RESULTS: 75% of total patients presented poor independent living skills, and high rates of social disablement, specially in the items: poor self care (50,9%, little spontaneous communication (46,2% and underactivity (37,5%. 15.1% of schizophrenic patients showed severe symptoms of hallucinations, delusions and conceptual disorganization.11.5% did not present psychiatric symptoms in the last month, and 16% showed no social disablement CONCLUSION: 50% of patients are older than 65 years and have been living in the institution for more than 38 years. They present high rates of problem behaviours and poor autonomy. Our data should suggest the adoption of treatment programs or interventions for those patients. Also, there is a group without psychiatric symptoms, good autonomy degree and no social disablement that could live in therapeutic residences in the community.INTRODUÇÃO: No Brasil ainda são escassos os dados sobre limitações no comportamento social, sintomas psiquiátricos e habilidades de vida independente. Nesse sentido foi realizado um estudo seccional em uma população de 881 pacientes psiquiátricos de longa permanência. METODOLOGIA: Foram coletados dados de todos os pacientes residentes no Instituto Municipal Juliano Moreira, utilizando três instrumentos: Avaliação das Limitações no Comportamento Social (SBS-BR, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS e o Inventário de Habilidades de Vida Independente para
Autonomy of mid-seriously and seriously intellectually disabled persons is encouraged both by legislations on human rights and the modern social care and services. The process leading to the maximum possible autonomy is illustrated by a developmental spiral in our model. Specialty of the development is that the personal educational projects are realized during everyday activities. The process requires conscious professionals with an empowering and motivating attitude, with adult relationship to the intellectually disabled persons and versatile skills and tools. In this educational relationship the social professional and the supported person are equal partners moving together along the spiral of human development. An innovative tool-battery has been developed aiding support-staff in the 'pedagogical' task embedded into everyday social services. The tool-battery and its first application in supported living services of the Hungarian Down Foundation are introduced in this paper.
Full Text Available This paper presents the system AmICog, designed specifically to assist people with cognitive disabilities in their workplaces. To do that we employ mobile devices for two different purposes: on the one hand, to show interactive guides adapted to the user, the task and the user’s context. On the other hand, to locate and provide directions in indoors environments.
Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Otto Melchior; Clausen, Thomas; Rugulies, Reiner; Møller, Anne; Andersen, Lars L
Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prospective association of cumulative mechanical exposure during working life with health-related labor market outcomes. Methods This prospective cohort study combines data from 5076 older workers (age 49-63 years) from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank with a job exposure matrix and a national register containing information on social transfer payment. By coding individual job histories from the Danish version of ISCO-codes (International Standard Classification of Occupations), we calculated cumulative occupational mechanical exposures from a JEM for ton-years (lifting 1000 kg each day in one year), lifting-years (lifting loads weighing ≥20 kg >10 times each day in one year), kneeling-years (kneeling for one hour each day in one year) and vibration-years (whole-body vibration for one hour each day in one year). Cox-regression analyses estimated the relative risk of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA) and disability pension with cumulative occupational mechanical exposures throughout working life. Analyses were censored for competing events and adjusted for multiple confounders. Results During the follow-up period, 970 persons (19.3%) had ≥1 episode of LTSA and 85 persons (1.7%) were granted a disability pension. Number of ton-, lifting- and kneeling-years showed an exposure-response association with increased risk of LTSA (Ppension (HR 1.75 95% CI 1.01-3.04). Conclusions Cumulative occupational mechanical exposures during working life - such as lifting and kneeling work - increased the risk of LTSA. Importantly, being exposed to lifting increased the risk of disability pension.
Full Text Available This article is based on the pilot study "Workplaces for All" conducted in Macedonia in 2006. Another article by Prof. Risto Petrov, based on a part of the same study was published in Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation January-June No. 1-2, Skopje, 2006; 1-123.The study was a qualitative research project conducted in co-operation between Macedonian and Norwegian scientists and representatives from a Macedonian disabled people's organisation (DPO. The main objective was to get research based knowledge about working conditions among people with disabilities in Macedonia in order to prepare for further research, and to raise awareness about the importance of joining forces to improve the rights and working conditions for people with disabilities.The pilot study included qualitative interviews of employers and employees at seven protective companies. The study has shown the advantage of having partners from different organisations working together in a research project. The findings do not unveil any irregularities or mistreatment of this quite vulnerable group of employees.The pilot study has produced research based documentation about employment and working conditions among people with disabilities in Macedonia. Even though the study found the conditions quite positive, it unveiled several challenges that should be looked deeper into. Among these are the use of assistive technology and adaptations, the social inclusion both in the company and in the local society and the regulations and process of receiving benefits by the protective companies.
Fell, A K; Abrahamsen, R; Henneberger, P K; Svendsen, M V; Andersson, E; Torén, K; Kongerud, J
The current knowledge on respiratory work disability is based on studies that used crude categories of exposure. This may lead to a loss of power, and does not provide sufficient information to allow targeted workplace interventions and follow-up of patients with respiratory symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify occupations and specific exposures associated with respiratory work disability. In 2013, a self-administered questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of the general population, aged 16-50, in Telemark County, Norway. We defined respiratory work disability as a positive response to the survey question: 'Have you ever had to change or leave your job because it affected your breathing?' Occupational exposures were assessed using an asthma-specific job-exposure matrix, and comparison of risks was made for cases and a median of 50 controls per case. 247 workers had changed their work because of respiratory symptoms, accounting for 1.7% of the respondents ever employed. The 'breath-taking jobs' were cooks/chefs: adjusted OR 3.6 (95% CI 1.6 to 8.0); welders: 5.2 (2.0 to 14); gardeners: 4.5 (1.3 to 15); sheet metal workers: 5.4 (2.0 to 14); cleaners: 5.0 (2.2 to 11); hairdressers: 6.4 (2.5 to 17); and agricultural labourers: 7.4 (2.5 to 22). Job changes were also associated with a variety of occupational exposures, with some differences between men and women. Self-report and job-exposure matrix data showed similar findings. For the occupations and exposures associated with job change, preventive measures should be implemented. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Fell, AKM; Abrahamsen, R; Henneberger, PK; Svendsen, MV; Andersson, E; Torén, K; Kongerud, J
Background The current knowledge on respiratory work disability is based on studies that used crude categories of exposure. This may lead to a loss of power, and does not provide sufficient information to allow targeted workplace interventions and follow-up of patients with respiratory symptoms. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify occupations and specific exposures associated with respiratory work disability. Methods In 2013, a self-administered questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of the general population, aged 16–50, in Telemark County, Norway. We defined respiratory work disability as a positive response to the survey question: ‘Have you ever had to change or leave your job because it affected your breathing?’ Occupational exposures were assessed using an asthma-specific job-exposure matrix, and comparison of risks was made for cases and a median of 50 controls per case. Results 247 workers had changed their work because of respiratory symptoms, accounting for 1.7% of the respondents ever employed. The ‘breath-taking jobs’ were cooks/chefs: adjusted OR 3.6 (95% CI 1.6 to 8.0); welders: 5.2 (2.0 to 14); gardeners: 4.5 (1.3 to 15); sheet metal workers: 5.4 (2.0 to 14); cleaners: 5.0 (2.2 to 11); hairdressers: 6.4 (2.5 to 17); and agricultural labourers: 7.4 (2.5 to 22). Job changes were also associated with a variety of occupational exposures, with some differences between men and women. Conclusions Self-report and job-exposure matrix data showed similar findings. For the occupations and exposures associated with job change, preventive measures should be implemented. PMID:27365181
Full Text Available This article focuses on the Disability Studies in Education (DSE conference as an example of expanding disability studies (DS. First, the origins, purpose, and history of the DSE conference are described as a valid alternative discipline to special education. Second, the following three questions are posed in relation to DSE scholars: (1 To what degree can we transgress within existing structures of teacher education and doctoral programs without being provided lip-service, coopted, or dismissed as ideological versus practical? (2 To what degree can we engage (and critique the field of special education within its journals and conferences—and provide a greater plurality of perspectives within them? And, (3 how can we strategize to widely circulate ideas within DSE throughout education and its related fields? Presentations from the 2012 DSE conference are analyzed, described, and used as a collective response to help answer these questions. Fourth, DSE scholars share post-conference thoughts on the future of DSE. Finally, the deep debt of DSE to DS is acknowledged, along with speculation about possible ways in which DSE may help inform the growth of DS. Keywords: disability studies in education, critical special educators, teacher education, research in education, ideology
Andersén, Åsa; Larsson, Kjerstin; Pingel, Ronnie; Kristiansson, Per; Anderzén, Ingrid
To investigate perceived self-efficacy in unemployed young adults with disabilities, and the association between self-efficacy and transition to work or studies. This prospective cohort study collected data through self-report questionnaires and registry data from a vocational rehabilitation project with young adults, aged 19-29 years. The Swedish Social Insurance Agency, the Swedish Public Employment Service and the participating municipalities identified potential participants for the study. A total of 531 participants were included in the study, of which 249 (47%) were available for analysis. Multinomial logistic regression models were carried out to estimate the associations between self-efficacy, demographic (age, country of birth, education level), health and employment status. The latter was coded as: 'no transition to work or studies', 'transition to studies', and 'transition to work'. A higher level of self-efficacy was associated with increased odds for 'transition to work' (OR = 2.37, p young adults with disabilities in order to support their transition and integration into the labour market.
Reichard, Amanda; Stransky, Michelle; Phillips, Kimberly; McClain, Monica; Drum, Charles
While it is commonly accepted that disparities in unmet need for care vary by age, race/ethnicity, income, education, and access to care, literature documenting unmet needs experienced by adults with different types of disabilities is developing. The main objective was to determine whether subgroups of people with disabilities are more likely than people without disabilities to delay/forgo necessary care, in general and among the insured. We used pooled Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data (2004-2010) to examine delaying or forgoing medical, dental, and pharmacy care among five disability subgroups (physical, cognitive, visual, hearing, multiple) and the non-disabled population. Logistic regression was conducted to examine delayed/forgone care, controlling for sociodemographic, health, and health care factors. Over 13% of all working-age adults delayed/forwent necessary care; lack of insurance was the strongest predictor of unmet needs. Among the insured, disability subgroups were greater than two times more likely to report delayed/forgone care than adults without disabilities. Insured working-age adults with multiple chronic conditions and those with ADL/IADL assistance needs had higher odds of delayed or forgone care than their peers without these characteristics. Reasons related to affordability were most often listed as leading to unmet needs, regardless of disability. Although insurance status most strongly predicted unmet needs for care, many people with insurance delayed/forewent necessary care. Even among the insured, all disability subgroups had significantly greater likelihood of having to delay/forgo care than those without disabilities. Differences also existed between the disability subgroups. Cost was most frequently cited reason for unmet needs. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Campen, C. van; Cardol, M.
People with chronic physical disabilities participate less in both paid and voluntary work and are less satisfied with their lives than people without health problems. Governments and scientists have suggested that participation in employment is the main road to well-being. We analysed national survey data on the participation in work and satisfaction with life, comparing people with a chronic illness and a physical disability (n=603) to people with a chronic illness but without a physical di...
Martins, L B; Barkokébas Junior, B; Guimarães, B M
The aim of this paper is to present the results of the evaluation of the job of bricklayer in the construction industry to determine the profile of workers with disabilities who could perform this function and what adjustments are needed. The methods and techniques used in the field study were: direct observation of the activities and the environment, interviews with bricklayers on building sites, a video and photographic record of tasks being carried out to analyze the job of bricklayer, software resources were used. This study set out the disabilities most commonly caused by work accidents in the civil construction industry and simulated the conditions of the individuals to determine whether they could perform the activities of this function and what adaptations are needed. It was observed that workers with hearing impairments could perform activities without any change in the workplace and individuals who had had a leg or foot amputated need to use appropriate prostheses to perform the activities of the function. Thus, it was shown that the activity of professionals with experience in Ergonomics is essential since, by the activity of gathering data and analysing the physical, cognitive and organizational requirements of jobs and by collecting data on and analysing the functional capabilities of the worker with a disability, adaptations to jobs can be adequately defined.
Ropponen, Annina; Alexanderson, Kristina; Svedberg, Pia
To a large extent, it is unknown whether work absences other than sickness absence (SA) covered by social benefits such as parental leave, rehabilitation, or unemployment would predict disability pension (DP). We investigated whether part-time work or having received social benefits for sick leave, rehabilitation, or parental leave would be predictors for DP taking into account familial confounding (genetics and shared environment, e.g., social background) in these associations. A sample of 17,640 same-sex Swedish twin ndividuals [corrected] was followed from 2000 to 2008 via national registries for their receipt of social benefits and DP including additional baseline questionnaire data. Cox proportional hazard ratios were estimated. Full-time work was less common (47 %) among those being granted DP during the follow-up compared to those without DP (69 %). Self-reported full-time work, part-time work (≥50 %), and self-employment and registry data of caring for a child were the direct protective factors, whereas self-reported part-time work (Part-time work and social benefits play different roles in predicting DP. Thus, full-time work, part-time work (≥50 %), self-employment, and benefits for parental leave seem to protect from DP. In contrast, SA and part-time work (<50 %) carry a highly increased risk for DP. Although these associations were mainly independent from several mediating factors, some of the associations seem to be influenced by family situation, social benefits, or severity of diseases.
Sokka, Tuulikki; Kautiainen, Hannu; Pincus, Theodore
,039 patients in 86 sites in 32 countries, 16 with high gross domestic product (GDP) (>24K US dollars (USD) per capita) and 16 low-GDP countries (work and disability status at onset and over the course of RA and clinical status of patients who continued working or had stopped working...... countries) and 64% (19%-87%) of women working. More than one third (37%) of these patients reported subsequent work disability because of RA. Among 1,756 patients whose symptoms had begun during the 2000s, the probabilities of continuing to work were 80% (95% confidence interval (CI) 78......ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Work disability is a major consequence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), associated not only with traditional disease activity variables, but also more significantly with demographic, functional, occupational, and societal variables. Recent reports suggest that the use...
von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Seitsamo, Jorma; Ilmarinen, Juhani; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; von Bonsdorff, Monika E; Rantanen, Taina
Lower occupational class correlates with a higher disability risk later in life. However, it is not clear whether the demands made by mental and physical work relative to individual resources in midlife predict well-being in old age. This study investigated prospectively whether work ability in midlife predicts disability severity in activities of everyday living in old age. Data come from the population-based 28-year follow-up called Finnish Longitudinal Study of Municipal Employees. A total of 2879 occupationally active persons aged 44-58 years answered a questionnaire on work ability at baseline in 1981 and activities of daily living in 2009. At baseline, perceived work ability relative to lifetime best was categorized into excellent, moderate, and poor work ability. At follow-up, disability scales were constructed based on the severity and frequency of difficulties reported in self-care activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). There was a graded prevalence of ADL and IADL disability severity, according to excellent, moderate and poor midlife work ability (pwork ability had an 11 to 20% higher mean ADL or IADL disability severity score, compared with those with excellent midlife work ability (reference), incidence rate ratios (IRR) ranging from 1.11 (95% CI 1.01-1.22) to 1.20 (95% CI 1.10-1.30). Those with poor midlife work ability had a mean ADL or IADL disability severity score 27 to 38% higher than the referent, IRRs ranging from 1.27 (95% CI 1.09-1.47) to 1.38 (95% CI 1.25-1.53). Adjusting for socio-economics, lifestyle factors and chronic diseases only slightly attenuated the associations. Work ability, an indicator of the de- mands made by mental and physical work relative to individuals' mental and physical resources, predicted disability severity 28 years later among middle-aged municipal employees.
Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Hegedüs, Laszlo
nodular goitre (TNG) HR was 2.10 (95% CI: 1.02-4.36). With respect to labour market income, the income of hyperthyroid individuals increased on average 1189 € less than their controls (Psimilar results...... market income. Similar results in monozygotic twins discordant for hyperthyroidism suggest that genetic confounding is unlikely.......OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk of disability pension and changes in labour market income in patients with hyperthyroidism. METHODS: From a 5% random sample of the Danish population and twins from the Danish Twin Registry we identified 1942 hyperthyroid singletons and 7768 non-hyperthyroid (matched...
Weise, Janelle; Fisher, Karen R; Trollor, Julian N
Generalist mental health professionals are inadequately equipped to meet the rights of people with intellectual disability. A better understanding of the attributes of effective professionals may assist in the development of workforce capacity in this area. Twenty-eight family/support persons of people with intellectual disability participated in four focus groups. Thematic analysis was undertaken applying the Intellectual Disability Mental Health Core Competencies Framework. Participants described attributes that aligned with current professional expectations such as working together and new attributes such as differentiating between behaviour and mental health. An unexpected finding was the need for professionals to be able to infer meaning by interpreting multiple sources of information. Participants also wanted professionals to acknowledge their professional limitations and seek professional support. Family/support persons identified a range of attributes of effective mental health professionals to support people with intellectual disability. Further research is necessary, particularly from the perspective of people with intellectual disability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kennedy, Jae; Wood, Elizabeth Geneva; Frieden, Lex
The objective of this study was to assess trends in health insurance coverage, health service utilization, and health care access among working-age adults with and without disabilities before and after full implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), and to identify current disability-based disparities following full implementation of the ACA. The ACA was expected to have a disproportionate impact on working-age adults with disabilities, because of their high health care usage as well as their previously limited insurance options. However, most published research on this population does not systematically look at effects before and after full implementation of the ACA. As the US Congress considers new health policy reforms, current and accurate data on this vulnerable population are essential. Weighted estimates, trend analyses and analytic models were conducted using the 1998-2016 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) and the 2014 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Compared with working-age adults without disabilities, those with disabilities are less likely to work, more likely to earn below the federal poverty level, and more likely to use public insurance. Average health costs for this population are 3 to 7 times higher, and access problems are far more common. Repeal of key features of the ACA, like Medicaid expansion and marketplace subsidies, would likely diminish health care access for working-age adults with disabilities.
Ropponen, Annina; Svedberg, Pia; Koskenvuo, Markku; Silventoinen, Karri; Kaprio, Jaakko
Physical work loading and psychological stress commonly co-occur in working life, hence potentially having an interrelationship that may affect work incapacity. This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate the effect of stability and change in physical work loading and stress on the risk of disability pension (DP) due to musculoskeletal diagnoses (MSD), while accounting for familial confounding in these associations. Data on 12,455 twins born before 1958 were surveyed of their physical work loading and psychological stress of daily activities in 1975 and 1981. The follow-up data was collected from pension registers until 2004. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used. During the follow up, 893 participants were granted DP due to MSD. Stable high (hazard ratio, HR, 2.21), but also increased physical work loading (HR 2.05) and high psychological stress (HR 2.22) were associated with increased risk for DP, and had significant interaction (p=0.032). The associations were confirmed when accounting for several confounding factors. Stable high but also increased physical work loading and psychological stress of daily activities between two timepoints with 6 years apart confirms their predictive role for an increased risk of DP. Both physical work loading and psychological stress seem to be independent from various confounding factors hence suggesting direct effect on risk for DP providing potential for occupational health care to early identification of persons at risk. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Norrefalk, Jan-Rickard; Littwold-Pöljö, Agneta; Ryhle, Leif; Jansen, Gunilla Brodda
To evaluate the effect of a 1-2 week multiprofessional team assessment, without a real rehabilitation effort, 60 patients suffering from long-standing pain and on long-lasting time on sick leave were studied. A questionnaire concerning their daily activities, quality of life, pain intensity, sick-leave level, and their work state was filled out by all patients before starting the assessment and at a 1-year follow-up. The results from the assessment period and the multiprofessional team decision of the patient's working ability were compared with the actual working rate after 1 year. The follow-up showed a significant reduction of sick leave and a higher level of activity (P work. However, the team evaluation of the patient's work ability did not correlate to predict the actual outcome. The patient's pain intensity, life satisfaction, gender, age, ethnic background, and time absent from work before the start of the evaluation showed no correlation to reduction on time on sickness benefit level. These parameters could not be used as predictors in this study.
Conclusion: Work ability is closely related to job and career satisfaction, and perceived control at work among obstetric nursing. In order to improve work ability, nurses need to work in environments that support them and allow them to be engaged in the decision-making processes.
This paper explores the influence of marital disruption and family environment on three major events that mark the transition from adolescence to young adulthood for children between the ages of 16 and 25, these being leaving school, entering the labor market and obtaining permanent employment. This is a gender approach, given that the two sexes…
Clausen, Thomas; Burr, Hermann; Borg, Vilhelm
To investigate whether high psychosocial job demands (quantitative demands and work pace) and low psychosocial job resources (influence at work and quality of leadership) predicted risk of disability pensioning among employees in four occupational groups--employees working with customers, employees working with clients, office workers and manual workers--in line with the propositions of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. Survey data from 40,554 individuals were fitted to the DREAM register containing information on payments of disability pension. Using multi-adjusted Cox regression, observations were followed in the DREAM-register to assess risk of disability pensioning. Average follow-up time was 5.9 years (SD=3.0). Low levels of influence at work predicted an increased risk of disability pensioning and medium levels of quantitative demands predicted a decreased risk of disability pensioning in the study population. We found significant interaction effects between job demands and job resources as combinations low quality of leadership and high job demands predicted the highest rate of disability pensioning. Further analyses showed some, but no statistically significant, differences between the four occupational groups in the associations between job demands, job resources and risk of disability pensioning. The study showed that psychosocial job demands and job resources predicted risk of disability pensioning. The direction of some of the observed associations countered the expectations of the JD-R model and the findings of the present study therefore imply that associations between job demands, job resources and adverse labour market outcomes are more complex than conceptualised in the JD-R model. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Ni, Pengsheng; Haley, Stephen M; Jette, Alan M; Bogusz, Kara; Meterko, Mark; McDonough, Christine M; Chan, Leighton; Brandt, Diane E; Rasch, Elizabeth K
To develop a broad set of claimant-reported items to assess behavioral health functioning relevant to the Social Security disability determination processes, and to evaluate the underlying structure of behavioral health functioning for use in development of a new functional assessment instrument. Cross-sectional. Community. Item pools of behavioral health functioning were developed, refined, and field tested in a sample of persons applying for Social Security disability benefits (N=1015) who reported difficulties working because of mental or both mental and physical conditions. None. Social Security Administration Behavioral Health (SSA-BH) measurement instrument. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) specified that a 4-factor model (self-efficacy, mood and emotions, behavioral control, social interactions) had the optimal fit with the data and was also consistent with our hypothesized conceptual framework for characterizing behavioral health functioning. When the items within each of the 4 scales were tested in CFA, the fit statistics indicated adequate support for characterizing behavioral health as a unidimensional construct along these 4 distinct scales of function. This work represents a significant advance both conceptually and psychometrically in assessment methodologies for work-related behavioral health. The measurement of behavioral health functioning relevant to the context of work requires the assessment of multiple dimensions of behavioral health functioning. Specifically, we identified a 4-factor model solution that represented key domains of work-related behavioral health functioning. These results guided the development and scale formation of a new SSA-BH instrument. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nelson, Jason M; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A
Test anxiety and its correlates were examined with college students with and without specific reading disability (RD; n = 50 in each group). Results indicated that college students with RD reported higher test anxiety than did those without RD, and the magnitude of these differences was in the medium range on two test anxiety scales. Relative to college students without RD, up to 5 times as many college students with RD reported clinically significant test anxiety. College students with RD reported significantly higher cognitively based test anxiety than physically based test anxiety. Reading skills, verbal ability, and processing speed were not correlated with test anxiety. General intelligence, nonverbal ability, and working memory were negatively correlated with test anxiety, and the magnitude of these correlations was medium to large. When these three cognitive constructs were considered together in multiple regression analyses, only working memory and nonverbal ability emerged as significant predictors and varied based on the test anxiety measure. Implications for assessment and intervention are discussed. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.
van Rensburg, Elsie S Janse; Poggenpoel, Marie; Myburgh, Chris
Student nurses (SNs) experience emotional discomfort during placement in the clinical psychiatric learning environment. This may negatively influence their mental health. Limited support is available to assist both SNs working with persons with intellectual disabilities and nurse educators during clinical accompaniment. This article aims to discuss the generation of this framework to enhance student support. A theory-generative, qualitative, exploratory, descriptive, contextual design was utilised to develop the framework by applying four steps. In step 1 concept analysis identified the central concept through field work. Data were collected from 13 SNs purposively selected from a specific higher educational institution in Gauteng through two focus group interviews, reflective journals, a reflective letter, naïve sketches, drawings and field notes and analysed with thematic coding. The central concept was identified from the results, supported by a literature review and defined by essential attributes. The central concept was classified through a survey list and demonstrated in a model case. In step 2 the central concepts were placed into relationships with each other. The conceptual framework was described and evaluated in step 3 and guidelines for implementation were described in step 4. The focus of this article will be on generating the conceptual framework. The central concept was 'the facilitation of engagement on a deeper emotional level of SNs'. The conceptual framework was described and evaluated. The conceptual framework can enhance the educational practices of nurse educators and can SN's practices of care for persons with intellectual disabilities.
Olofsson, T; Petersson, I F; Eriksson, J K; Englund, M; Nilsson, J A; Geborek, P; Jacobsson, L T H; Askling, J; Neovius, M
To examine predictors of work ability gain and loss after anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) start, respectively, in working-age patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with a special focus on disease duration. Patients with RA, aged 19-62 years, starting their first TNF inhibitor 2006-2009 with full work ability (0 sick leave/disability pension days during 3 months before bio-start; n=1048) or no work ability (90 days; n=753) were identified in the Swedish biologics register (Anti-Rheumatic Treatment In Sweden, ARTIS) and sick leave/disability pension days retrieved from the Social Insurance Agency. Outcome was defined as work ability gain ≥50% for patients without work ability at bio-start and work ability loss ≥50% for patients with full work ability, and survival analyses conducted. Baseline predictors including disease duration, age, sex, education level, employment, Health Assessment Questionnaire, Disease Activity Score 28 and relevant comorbidities were estimated using Cox regression. During 3 years after anti-TNF start, the probability of regaining work ability for totally work-disabled patients was 35% for those with disease duration start, disease duration did not predict work ability loss. Baseline disability pension was also a strong predictor of work ability gain after treatment start. A substantial proportion of work-disabled patients with RA who start anti-TNF therapy regain work ability. Those initiating treatment within 5 years of symptom onset have a more than doubled 3-year probability of regaining work ability compared with later treatment starts. This effect seems largely due to the impact of disease duration on disability pension status. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Alvaro, San Martín; Rafael, Pagani Mario
Intellectual disability, commonly known as mental retardation in the International Classification of Disease from World Health Organization, is the term that describes an intellectual and adaptive cognitive disability that begins in early life during the developmental period. Currently the term intellectual disability is the preferred one. Although our understanding of the physiological basis of learning and learning disability is poor, a general idea is that such condition is quite permanent...
Horner-Johnson, Willi; Dobbertin, Konrad
People with disabilities experience barriers to dental care, which may vary depending on type of disability and disability complexity (e.g., impact on activities of daily living). The purpose of this study was to examine differences in dental insurance, receipt of dental checkups, and delayed and unmet needs for dental care by type and complexity of disability. We conducted cross-sectional analysis of 2002-2011 data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Multivariable logistic regression analyses compared adults ages 18-64 in five disability type groups (physical, cognitive, vision, hearing, or multiple disabilities) to those with no disabilities, and compared people with complex activity limitations to those without complex limitations. All disability types except hearing had significantly higher adjusted odds of being without dental insurance, as did people with complex activity limitations. All disability groups except those with cognitive disabilities had increased odds of receiving dental checkups less than once a year. Similarly, all disability groups were at increased risk of both delayed and unmet needs for dental care. Odds ratios were generally highest for people with multiple types of disabilities. There are significant disparities in having dental insurance and receiving dental care for adults with disabilities, especially those with multiple types of disabilities, after controlling for socioeconomic and demographic differences. Further, disparities in care were apparent even when controlling for presence of dental insurance. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Munkholm, Natalie Videbæk; Lane, Jackie
, and to gear society to embrace diversities, as the Danish employment agency Specialisterne has done so successfully in the case of adults with autism. Countries such as Denmark and the UK have much to learn from each other to tackle successfully this last bastion of workplace inequality....... mechanisms that extend beyond these traditional measures, such as workplace collective agreements. While the UK has a long history of supporting people with disabilities by legislating in all aspects of society, Denmark has been at the forefront with social mechanisms, but has been reluctant to ensure...... or national governments, nor the laissez-faire method of leaving the level of protection to be decided by collective agreement is entirely satisfactory. A different perspective altogether would be to adopt the substantive diversity theory which would focus on a person's abilities and what they are able to do...
Müller, K.-H.; Krabbes, G.; Fink, J.; Gruß, S.; Kirchner, A.; Fuchs, G.; Schultz, L.
Permanent magnets play an important role and are widely spread in daily-life applications. Due to their very low costs, large availability of the row materials and their high chemical stability, hard ferrites are still dominant in the permanent magnet market although their relatively poor magnetic properties are a distinct disadvantage. Today's high-performance magnets are mostly made from Nd 2Fe 14B. The aim of research is to combine the large spontaneous magnetization of 3d metals with strong anisotropy fields known from rare-earth transition-metal compounds and, at the same time, to maintain a high value of the Curie temperature. However, the number of iron-rich rare-earth intermetallics is very limited and, consequently, not much success can be noted in this field for the last 10 years. One alternative concept is to use magnetic fields trapped in type II superconductors where much higher fields can be achieved compared to conventional rare-earth magnets. Very recently, we obtained a trapped field as high as 14.4 T in a melt-textured YBCO bulk sample of a few centimeters in diameter. This is the highest value ever achieved in a bulk superconductor. The trapped field of a superconductor is not governed by the Laplace equation and, therefore, levitation works without any additional (active) stabilization. The disadvantage of these magnets is their low working temperature (of liquid nitrogen and below).
... About CDC.gov . Disability & Health Home Disability Overview Disability Inclusion Barriers to Inclusion Inclusion Strategies Inclusion in Programs & Activities Resources Healthy Living Disability & Physical Activity Disability & Obesity Disability & Smoking Disability & Breast ...
Brown, Theresa J.; Clark, Christine
Background: Work family balance (WFB) is an individual's perception of the fit between work and family roles. Among employed parents of typically developing children WFB has been demonstrated to impact work functioning and physical and psychological health. Emerging from this mature field of research are examinations of WFB among parents of…
Scanlon, Kelly A; Gray, George M; Francis, Royce A; Lloyd, Shannon M; LaPuma, Peter
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a systems-based method used to determine potential impacts to the environment associated with a product throughout its life cycle. Conclusions from LCA studies can be applied to support decisions regarding product design or public policy, therefore, all relevant inputs (e.g., raw materials, energy) and outputs (e.g., emissions, waste) to the product system should be evaluated to estimate impacts. Currently, work-related impacts are not routinely considered in LCA. The objectives of this paper are: 1) introduce the work environment disability-adjusted life year (WE-DALY), one portion of a characterization factor used to express the magnitude of impacts to human health attributable to work-related exposures to workplace hazards; 2) outline the methods for calculating the WE-DALY; 3) demonstrate the calculation; and 4) highlight strengths and weaknesses of the methodological approach. The concept of the WE-DALY and the methodological approach to its calculation is grounded in the World Health Organization's disability-adjusted life year (DALY). Like the DALY, the WE-DALY equation considers the years of life lost due to premature mortality and the years of life lived with disability outcomes to estimate the total number of years of healthy life lost in a population. The equation requires input in the form of the number of fatal and nonfatal injuries and illnesses that occur in the industries relevant to the product system evaluated in the LCA study, the age of the worker at the time of the fatal or nonfatal injury or illness, the severity of the injury or illness, and the duration of time lived with the outcomes of the injury or illness. The methodological approach for the WE-DALY requires data from various sources, multi-step instructions to determine each variable used in the WE-DALY equation, and assumptions based on professional opinion. Results support the use of the WE-DALY in a characterization factor in LCA. Integrating
Ervasti, Jenni; Joensuu, Matti; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Ahola, Kirsi; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna
Knowledge about factors influencing return to work (RTW) after depression-related absence is highly relevant, but the evidence is scattered. We performed a systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases up to February 1, 2016 to retrieve cohort studies on the association between various predictive factors and return to work among employees with depression for review and meta-analysis. We also analyzed unpublished data from the Finnish Public Sector study. Most-adjusted estimates were pooled using fixed effects meta-analysis. Eleven published studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria, representing 22 358 person-observations from five different countries. With the additional unpublished data from the 14 101 person-observations from the Finnish Public Sector study, the total number of person-observations was 36 459. The pooled estimates were derived from 2 to 5 studies, with the number of observations ranging from 260 to 26 348. Older age (pooled relative risk [RR] 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84-0.87), somatic comorbidity (RR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.77-0.83), psychiatric comorbidity (RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.83-0.88) and more severe depression (RR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.98) were associated with a lower rate of return to work, and personality trait conscientiousness with higher (RR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.10) return to work. While older age and clinical factors predicted slower return, significant heterogeneity was observed between the studies. There is a dearth of observational studies on the predictors of RTW after depression. Future research should pay attention to quality aspects and particularly focus on the role of workplace and labor market factors as well as individual and clinical characteristics on RTW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Ree, E.
This article argues that the 'permanent revolution' represented the dominant element in Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels' political discourse, and that it tended to overrule considerations encapsulated in 'historical materialism'. In Marx and Engels's understanding, permanent revolution did not
Giummarra, Melita J; Cameron, Peter A; Ponsford, Jennie; Ioannou, Liane; Gibson, Stephen J; Jennings, Paul A; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie
Purpose Traumatic injury is a leading cause of work disability. Receiving compensation post-injury has been consistently found to be associated with poorer return to work. This study investigated whether the relationship between receiving compensation and return to work was associated with elevated symptoms of psychological distress (i.e., anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder) and perceived injustice. Methods Injured persons, who were employed at the time of injury (n = 364), were recruited from the Victorian State Trauma Registry, and Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry. Participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist, Injustice Experience Questionnaire, and appraisals of pain and work status 12-months following traumatic injury. Results Greater financial worry and indicators of actual/perceived injustice (e.g., consulting a lawyer, attributing fault to another, perceived injustice, sustaining compensable injury), trauma severity (e.g., days in hospital and intensive care, discharge to rehabilitation), and distress symptoms (i.e., anxiety, depression, PTSD) led to a twofold to sevenfold increase in the risk of failing to return to work. Anxiety, post-traumatic stress and perceived injustice were elevated following compensable injury compared with non-compensable injury. Perceived injustice uniquely mediated the association between compensation and return to work after adjusting for age at injury, trauma severity (length of hospital, admission to intensive, and discharge location) and pain severity. Conclusions Given that perceived injustice is associated with poor return to work after compensable injury, we recommend greater attention be given to appropriately addressing psychological distress and perceived injustice in injured workers to facilitate a smoother transition of return to work.
Fekete, Christine; Wahrendorf, Morten; Reinhardt, Jan D; Post, Marcel W M; Siegrist, Johannes
Evidence on the adverse effects of work stress on quality of life (QoL) is largely derived from general populations, while respective information is lacking for people with disabilities. We investigated associations between work stress and QoL and the potentially moderating role of socioeconomic circumstances in employed persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Cross-sectional data from 386 employed men and women with SCI (≥18 work h/week) from the Netherlands, Switzerland, Denmark, and Norway were analyzed. Work stress was assessed with the 'effort-reward imbalance' (ERI) model and the control component of the 'demand/control' model. QoL was operationalized with five WHOQoL BREF items. Socioeconomic circumstances were measured by years of formal education and perception of financial hardship. We applied ordinal and linear regressions to predict QoL and introduced interaction terms to assess a potential moderation of socioeconomic circumstances. Multivariate analyses showed consistent associations between increased ERI and decreased overall QoL (coefficient -1.55, p life satisfaction (health -1.32, p work stress and QoL among persons with SCI.
Zijlmans, Linda J M; Embregts, Petri J C M; Bosman, Anna M T
Working with clients who show challenging behavior can be emotionally demanding and stressful for support staff, because this behavior may cause a range of negative emotional reactions and feelings. These reactions are of negative influence on staff wellbeing and behavior. Research has focused on negative emotions of staff. However, a distinction between emotions and feelings has never been made in the research field of intellectual disabilities. Negative emotions and feelings may be regulated by emotional intelligence, a psychological construct that takes into account personal style and individual differences. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between emotional intelligence on the one hand and emotions and feelings on the other. Participants were 207 support staff serving clients with moderate to borderline intellectual disabilities and challenging behavior. Emotional intelligence, emotions, and feelings were measured with questionnaires. The results show that emotional intelligence, emotions, and feelings are related. However, found relationships were weak. Most significant relations were found between feelings and stress management and adaptation elements of emotional intelligence. Because the explored variables can change over time they call for a longitudinal research approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kowalski, Christoph; Driller, Elke; Ernstmann, Nicole; Alich, Saskia; Karbach, Ute; Ommen, Oliver; Schulz-Nieswandt, Frank; Pfaff, Holger
Many people working in human services in Western countries suffer from burnout, characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and decreased personal performance. Prevention of emotional exhaustion (the first phase of burnout) constitutes a great challenge because emotional exhaustion may cause increasing turnover rates in staff and lead to a lesser quality of care. Prevention of emotional exhaustion requires knowledge of its predictors. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between emotional exhaustion, social capital, workload, and latitude in decision-making among German professionals working in the care of persons with intellectual and physical disabilities. The study was based on a survey in a sheltered workshop and 5 homes for disabled persons with 175 professionals. Burnout was measured with the German version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS). A multivariate logistic regression analysis was computed. Logistic regression identified the following three significant predictors of emotional exhaustion in the sample: workload (OR, 4.192; CI, 2.136-8.227), latitude in decision-making (OR, 0.306; CI, 0.115-0.811), and male gender (OR, 4.123; CI, 1.796-9.462). Nagelkerke's Pseudo-R(2) was 0.344. The results of this study demonstrate that specific factors in work organization are associated with emotional exhaustion. Taking into account sociodemographic changes and the upcoming challenges for human services professionals, the results underline the importance of considering aspects of organization at the workplace to prevent burnout. Specific circumstances of male employees must be considered. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Raggi, Alberto; Giovannetti, Ambra Mara; Schiavolin, Silvia; Brambilla, Laura; Brenna, Greta; Confalonieri, Paolo Agostino; Cortese, Francesca; Frangiamore, Rita; Leonardi, Matilde; Mantegazza, Renato Emilio; Moscatelli, Marco; Ponzio, Michela; Torri Clerici, Valentina; Zaratin, Paola; De Torres, Laura
This cross-sectional study aims to identify the predictors of work-related difficulties in a sample of employed persons with multiple sclerosis as addressed with the Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of work difficulties: predictors included demographic variables (age, formal education), disease duration and severity, perceived disability and psychological variables (cognitive dysfunction, depression and anxiety). The targets were the questionnaire's overall score and its six subscales. A total of 177 participants (108 females, aged 21-63) were recruited. Age, perceived disability and depression were direct and significant predictors of the questionnaire total score, and the final model explained 43.7% of its variation. The models built on the questionnaire's subscales show that perceived disability and depression were direct and significant predictors of most of its subscales. Our results show that, among patients with multiple sclerosis, those who were older, with higher perceived disability and higher depression symptoms have more and more severe work-related difficulties. The Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties can be fruitfully exploited to plan tailored actions to limit the likelihood of near-future job loss in persons of working age with multiple sclerosis. Implications for rehabilitation Difficulties with work are common among people with multiple sclerosis and are usually addressed in terms of unemployment or job loss. The Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties is a disease-specific questionnaire developed to address the amount and severity of work-related difficulties. We found that work-related difficulties were associated to older age, higher perceived disability and depressive symptoms. Mental health issues and perceived disability should be consistently included in future research targeting work-related difficulties.
Baglieri and Shapiro (2012) argue that considering attitudes toward disability is an important step toward building a more inclusive society. This study examines attitudes toward disability of staff members of vocational and independent living skills programs for young adults with disabilities in four Jewish summer camps. McDermott and Varenne's…
Mammarella, Irene C.; Cornoldi, Cesare; Pazzaglia, Francesca; Toso, Cristina; Grimoldi, Mario; Vio, Claudio
The paper describes the performance of three children with specific visuospatial working memory (VSWM) impairments (Study 1) and three children with visuospatial (nonverbal) learning disabilities (Study 2) assessed with a battery of working memory (WM) tests and with a number of school achievement tasks. Overall, performance on WM tests provides…
Nexo, M A; Watt, T; Pedersen, J
CONTEXT: Little is known about how thyroid diseases affect work ability. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of work disability for patients with thyroid disease compared with the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In a longitudinal register study, ...
Lin, Jin-Ding; Lee, Tzong-Nan; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Wu, Jia-Ling; Chu, Cordia M.
Little is known about the job strain of staff working in disability institutions. This study investigated the staff's job strain profile and its determinants which included the worker characteristics and the psychosocial working environments in Taiwan. A cross-sectional study survey was carried out among 1243 workers by means of a self-answered…
Olsson, M. B.; Hwang, C. P.
Background: The aim of the study was to compare mothers' and fathers' involvement in paid work and child-care in families of children with intellectual disability (ID) and control families and to test if differences in well-being between mothers and fathers of children with ID can be explained by differences in involvement in paid work and…
Data on pre-retirement invalidity and incapacity to work are simple process-data gathered from routine procedures within our social system. It is therefore an obvious step to use them in describing the prevalent morbidity and relations between work and the incidence of illnesses. However, closer examinations have shown that the analysis of such secondary data does not provide particularly well-founded results, especially regarding causal relations between work itself and the so-called work-related diseases. All in all, the rate of incapacity for work is a product of illness, personal well-being, individual attitude towards work, and the social environment. The latter is influenced in particular by the management and organisational structures within a company. Therefore, few of the programmes designed to reduce the rate of incapacity to work have any great effect. They aim at the symptoms without really tackling the real causes. Low rates of incapacity to work accompanied by a lasting improvement in the overall productivity of the whole staff can only be achieved by a organisational culture that is based on raising motivation, personal well-being, and health.
Sağ, Sinem; Nas, Kemal; Sağ, Mustafa Serdar; Tekeoğlu, İbrahim; Kamanlı, Ayhan
In this study, our objective was to determine the work productivity and work disability of the patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to investigate the relation of these parameters with disease activity, anxiety, depression and quality of life. Fifty patients with the diagnosis of AS and 30 healthy control were included in the study. In patients with AS, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) was used to evaluate the disease activity; Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI) was used to evaluate the spinal mobility and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) was used to determine the functional status. In addition, the Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life (ASQoL) questionnaire and The Short Form (SF-36) Health Survey was used to evaluate the health status, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used for the evaluation of depression and anxiety and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire: Specific Health Problem v2.0 (WPAI:SHP) was used to evaluate the work productivity. In AS patients duration of disease at the diagnosis was 7.24 ± 6.23 years. The time lost at work due to the disease, decrease in the work productivity and impairment in the time off daily activities were worse in the patient group compared with the control group (pwork productivity was correlated with BASDAI and depression; difficulty in time-off activities was correlated with BASFI and anxiety and depression was correlated with BASDAI (pwork productivity was correlated with the subparameter vitality in SF-36, difficulty in time off activities was correlated with general health status, social functions, vitality and mental health (pworking conditions and the factors related to the disease had a significant correlation with work productivity. Factors related to the psychology and the disease were also correlated with the working conditions.
Few studies have focused on adverse relations of job strain to health in disabled employees by gender. In this study, the author explores gender differences in work-related stress, social support, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among 106 disabled employees in an electronics manufacturing plant during 2012-2013, using questionnaire data on demographics, perceived work-related stress, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Chinese version of the Job Content Questionnaire (C-JCQ), and HRQoL. The prevalence of stress related to workload, colleagues, and supervisor were 26.4%, 14.1%, and 8.5%, respectively. Disabled females had higher scores for psychological job demand than male disabled employees (p = .0219). Increasing psychological job demand scores were adversely related to physical function scores (β = -1.6) in males, whereas increasing decision latitude scores were positively related to role-limitation due to physical function (β = 2.3), general health (β = 1.2), vitality (β = 1.3), role-limitation due to emotional health (β = 2.6), and mental health (β = 0.9) scores in females. These results provide a better understanding of the HRQoL in female and male disabled workers, allowing for the development of stress-prevention programs specific for gender in disabled laborers.
Maria Cristina Tissi
Full Text Available Este estudo abordou a condição de trabalho com deficiência no comércio ambulante de São Paulo, enquanto vivência de processos de exclusão e, paradoxalmente, de inclusão social. O trabalho é concebido pelos ambulantes como elemento que proporciona relacionamentos sociais e confere dignidade e respeito na rede de relações das próprias vidas, mas o plano da sociabilidade, porém, mostra-se contraditório. No ponto de vista do processo de trabalho, a atuação no comércio ambulante revela traços de degradação moral e política; a permanência de um esquema de corrupção, a imposição da subordinação, etc., expressam uma exclusão social, mas os vendedores ambulantes com deficiência não podem ser considerados excluídos. É mais apropriado considerar que aproximam-se da zona de vulnerabilidade, caracterizada por Castel pela instabilidade ocupacional e relacionai.This study addressed work conditions and disability in street vendor activity in São Paulo as experience of exclusion processes and, paradoxically, of social inclusion. Work is considered by street vendors the element providing social relationships and dignity and respect in the social network, within strict limits, it also means opportunity for autonomy, decision, management of their own lives. However, as to sociability it is controversial. In respect to work process, street vendor activity shows signs of moral and political degradation. Maintenance of a corruption scheme, imposition of subordination, etc., express social exclusion, but the disabled street vendors could not be considered as excluded. It is more appropriate to consider them as closer to the vulnerability zone, characterized by occupational and relational unstability, according to Castel.
Ståhl, Christian; Costa-Black, Katia; Loisel, Patrick
This article explores and applies theories for analyzing socio-political aspects of implementation of work disability prevention (WDP) strategies. For the analysis, theories from political science are explained and discussed in relation to case examples from three jurisdictions (Sweden, Brazil and Québec). Implementation of WDP strategies may be studied through a conceptual framework that targets: (1) the institutional system in which policy-makers and other stakeholders reside; (2) the ambiguity and conflicts regarding what to do and how to do it; (3) the bounded rationality, path dependency and social systems of different stakeholders; and (4) coalitions formed by different stakeholders and power relations between them. In the case examples, the design of social insurance systems, the access to and infrastructure of healthcare systems, labor market policies, employers' level of responsibility, the regulatory environment, and the general knowledge of WDP issues among stakeholders played different roles in the implementation of policies based on scientific evidence. Future research may involve participatory approaches focusing on building coalitions and communities of practice with policy-makers and stakeholders, in order to build trust, facilitate cooperation, and to better promote evidence utilization. Implications for Rehabilitation Implementation of work disability prevention policies are subject to contextual influences from the socio-political setting and from relationships between stakeholders Stakeholders involved in implementing strategies are bound to act based on their interests and previous courses of action To promote research uptake on the policy level, stakeholders and researchers need to engage in collaboration and translational activities Political stakeholders at the government and community levels need to be more directly involved as partners in the production and utilization of evidence.
Stjerne, Iben Sandal; Velikova, Silviya Svejenova
This paper investigates the relationship between a permanent organization and a series of temporary organizations. It draws on an in-depth study of the process through which a Danish film production company, seeking to balance innovation and persistence in a troubled industry, struggles to realize...... a novel children’s film and its sequels. The study reveals tensions at different levels as well as boundary work and boundary roles that address them, bringing in shadows of past and future projects. The study extends the understanding of the dialectic between temporary and permanent organizing...
Rosenheck, Robert; Mueser, Kim T; Sint, Kyaw; Lin, Haiqun; Lynde, David W; Glynn, Shirley M; Robinson, Delbert G; Schooler, Nina R; Marcy, Patricia; Mohamed, Somaia; Kane, John M
Participation in work and school are central objectives for first episode psychosis (FEP) programs, but evidence effectiveness has been mixed in studies not focused exclusively on supported employment and education (SEE). Requirements for current motivation to work or go to school limit the generalizability of such studies. FEP participants (N=404) at thirty-four community treatment clinics participated in a cluster randomized trial that compared usual Community Care (CC) to NAVIGATE, a comprehensive, team-based treatment program that included ≥5h of SEE services per week, , grounded in many of the principles of the Individual Placement and Support model of supported employment combined with supported education services. All study participants were offered SEE regardless of their initial interest in work or school. Monthly assessments over 24months recorded days of employment and attendance at school, days of participation in SEE, and both employment and public support income (including disability income). General Estimation Equation models were used to compare CC and NAVIGATE on work and school participation, employment and public support income, and the mediating effect of receiving ≥3 SEE visits on these outcomes. NAVIGATE treatment was associated with a greater increase in participation in work or school (p=0.0486) and this difference appeared to be mediated by SEE. No group differences were observed in earnings or public support payments. A comprehensive, team-based FEP treatment approach was associated with greater improvement in work or school participation, and this effect appears to be mediated, in part, by participation in SEE. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Gallego, Gisselle; Chedid, Rebecca Jean; Dew, Angela; Lincoln, Michelle; Bundy, Anita; Veitch, Craig; Bulkeley, Kim; Brentnall, Jennie
To explore the characteristics of allied health professionals (AHPs) working with people with disabilities in western New South Wales (NSW). A cross-sectional survey was conducted using an online questionnaire. Rural western NSW. AHPs including physiotherapists, speech pathologists, occupational therapists and psychologists ('therapists') working with people with disabilities. AHPs characteristics. The majority of respondents were women (94%), with a mean age of 39 years; average time since qualification was 14 years; mean years in current position was 6. Most worked with people with a lifelong disability. Two thirds reported that family ties kept them in rural areas; 71% grew up in a rural/remote area. Most participants (94%) enjoyed the rural lifestyle, and 84% reported opportunities for social interaction as good or very good. Participants with dependent children were less likely to cease working in western NSW within 5 years than those without dependent children (P working with people with disabilities in rural NSW were identified. Overall working, but also social conditions and community attachment were important for this group. Understanding the workforce will contribute to policy development to meet increasing demands for therapy services. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
Eklund, Mona; Eklund, Lisa
Day centres can prepare for open-market employment, and attendees' work motivation is key in this. Adopting a gender perspective, this study investigated (1) motivation for day centre attendance, satisfaction with the day centre services, number of hours spent there, and number and type of occupations performed; and (2) whether those factors were related with motivation for open-market employment. Women (n = 164) and men (n = 160) with psychiatric disabilities completed self-report questionnaires. There were no gender differences regarding satisfaction with the day centre services or number of hours spent there, but women engaged in more occupations. More women than men performed externally-oriented services and textile work, while men were in the majority in workshops. Externally oriented services, working in workshops, and low satisfaction with the day centre services were associated with higher motivation for employment. Women and men were equally motivated for employment. Women scored higher on motivation for attending the day centre, something that may deter transition into open-market employment. For men, less motivation for attending day centres may reduce their possibilities of gaining skills that can facilitate transitioning to open-market employment. Thus, the possibility for transitioning from day centre activities to open-market employment may be gendered.
Cross-cultural adaptation of the Work Disability Diagnosis Interview (WoDDI for the Brazilian context Adaptación transcultural del Work Disability Diagnosis Interview (WoDDI para el contexto brasileño Adaptação transcultural do Work Disability Diagnosis Interview (WoDDI para o contexto brasileiro
Vivian Aline Mininel
Full Text Available The Work Disability Diagnosis Interview (WoDDI is a structured interview guide developed by the University of Sherbrooke, Canada to help clinicians detect the most important work-related disability predictors and to identify one or more causes of prolonged absenteeism. This methodological study aims for the cross-cultural adaptation of the WoDDI for the Brazilian context. The method followed international guidelines for studies of this kind, including the following steps: initial translation, synthesis of translations, back translation, evaluation by an expert committee and testing of the penultimate version. These steps allowed obtaining conceptual, semantic, idiomatic, experiential and operational equivalences, in addition to content validity. The results showed that the translated WoDDI is adapted to the Brazilian context and can be used after training.El Work Disability Diagnosis Interview (WoDDI es una guía de entrevista estructurada desarrollada por la Universidad de Sherbrooke (Canadá, para ayudar a los profesionales de la salud a detectar los predictores de mayor importancia para personas con trastornos relacionados con el trabajo y para identificar una o más causas de ausentismo prolongado del trabajo. Este estudio metodológico se dirige a la adaptación transcultural (WoDDI para el contexto brasileño. El método siguió las recomendaciones internacionales para este tipo de estudio, el que comprende las siguientes etapas: traducción inicial, síntesis de las traducciones, retraducción, revisión del comité de expertos y prueba de la versión pre-final. Estas medidas permitieron obtener la equivalencia conceptual, semántica, idiomática y la experiencia operacional, además de la validación del contenido. Los resultados mostraron que el WoDDI traducido se adapta a la realidad brasileña e puede ser utilizado, después de la capacitación previa.O Work Disability Diagnosis Interview (WoDDI é um guia de entrevista estruturada
Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Sociologisk Institut, KU, Anders
Previous studies find that participation in educational measures does not increase sick-listed employees’ chance of returning to work. This is surprising because education is supposed to increase human capital and raise productivity. However, a higher productivity may make the participants raise ...
Rosana F. Sampaio
Full Text Available En este estudio transversal se evalúan los factores asociados con la probabilidad de reincorporación al trabajo de los trabajadores incapacitados permanentes para la profesión habitual por accidente de trabajo. La muestra la forman los casos atendidos por el Centro de Rehabilitación Profesional (CRP de Belo Horizonte, Brasil, en 1995. Se analiza el hecho del trabajador ser aceptado o no en el programa, así como la posterior reinserción laboral mediante modelos logit. Respecto al primer, los factores más influyentes fueron la edad, la presencia de Lesiones por Esfuerzo Repetitivo (LER y el nivel de estudios. Analizado el resultado del programa, se observa que los hombres jóvenes de alta escolarización son los que tienen mayor probabilidad de reinserción laboral (90,9%. Existe una incongruencia respecto a la admisión de los trabajadores y el resultado del programa: para su admisión, el trabajador debe cumplir un perfil exigido por el mercado en lo que se refiere a la edad y al nivel de estudios; los portadores de LER cumplen estos criterios y, sin embargo, son los que con mayor dificultad se reincorporan al trabajo. Se observa, así mismo, una discriminación laboral clara hacia las mujeres, a pesar del hecho que las mismas presentan iguales condiciones de edad o de nivel educativo que los hombres.This cross-sectional study was conducted on permanently disabled workers assisted by the Center for Occupational Rehabilitation (CRP in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, to evaluate factors associated with their chances of readmission into the labor market. A logistic model was used to investigate workers' acceptance into the professional rehabilitation program and their return into the market. The most decisive factors for their acceptance were age, presence of repetitive strain injury (RSI, and educational level. The most favorable situation was that of workers with RSI under 40 years of age and with average schooling (75.6%. Results
To develop a better understanding of the experiences of volunteer work among youth with disabilities. A scoping review was undertaken to assess the benefits and challenges of volunteering among youth with disabilities. Comprehensive searches using six international databases were conducted. Eligible articles included: (a) youth aged 30 or younger, with a disability; (b) empirical research on the benefits or challenges of volunteering; (c) published in a peer-reviewed journal between 1980 and 2014. Of the 1558 articles identified, 20 articles - involving 1409 participants, aged 12-30, across five countries - met the inclusion criteria. Studies linked volunteering to the development of human capital (i.e. practical experience, improved self-determination, self-confidence, coping), enhanced social capital (i.e. social and communication skills, social inclusion) and improved cultural capital (i.e. helping others, contributing to community). Many youth with disabilities also encountered challenges - including lack of accessible volunteer opportunities, difficulties arranging transportation, and negative attitudes from potential supervisors. Young people with disabilities are willing and able to volunteer, and they report benefits of volunteering; however, they face many challenges in finding suitable volunteer positions. More rigorous research is needed to understand the health and social benefits of volunteering and how it can help youth develop career pathways. Implications for Rehabilitation Clinicians, educators and parents should discuss the benefits of volunteering with youth with disabilities and assist them in finding placements that match their interests and abilities. Managers and clinicians should consider incorporating volunteering into vocational rehabilitation programming (i.e. addressing how to find placements and connecting youth to organisations). Clinicians should encourage youth to take part in social and extracurricular activities to help build their
Lundin, A; Kjellberg, K; Leijon, O; Punnett, L; Hemmingsson, T
Purpose Work ability is commonly measured with self-assessments, in the form of indices or single items. The validity of these assessments lies in their predictive ability. Prospective studies have reported associations between work ability and sickness absence and disability pension, but few examined why these associations exist. Several correlates of work ability have been reported, but their mechanistic role is largely unknown. This study aims to investigate to what extent individual's own prognosis of work ability predicts labor market participation and whether this was due to individual characteristics and/or working conditions. Methods Self-assessed prognosis of work ability, 2 years from "now," in the Stockholm Public Health Questionnaire (2002-2003) was linked to national registers on sickness absence, disability pension and unemployment up to year 2010. Effects were studied with Cox regression models. Results Of a total of 12,064 individuals 1466 reported poor work ability. There were 299 cases of disability pension, 1466 long-term sickness absence cases and 765 long-term unemployed during follow-up. Poor work ability increased the risk of long-term sickness absence (HR 2.25, CI 95 % 1.97-2.56), disability pension (HR 5.19, CI 95 % 4.07-6.62), and long-term unemployment (HR 2.18, CI 95 % 1.83-2.60). These associations were partially explained by baseline health conditions, physical and (less strongly) psychosocial aspects of working conditions. Conclusions Self-assessed poor ability predicted future long-term sickness absence, disability pension and long-term unemployment. Self-assessed poor work ability seems to be an indicator of future labor market exclusion of different kinds, and can be used in public health monitoring.
Constantinidou, Fofi; Evripidou, Christiana
This study investigated the effects of stimulus presentation modality on working memory performance in children with reading disabilities (RD) and in typically developing children (TDC), all native speakers of Greek. It was hypothesized that the visual presentation of common objects would result in improved learning and recall performance as compared to the auditory presentation of stimuli. Twenty children, ages 10-12, diagnosed with RD were matched to 20 TDC age peers. The experimental tasks implemented a multitrial verbal learning paradigm incorporating three modalities: auditory, visual, and auditory plus visual. Significant group differences were noted on language, verbal and nonverbal memory, and measures of executive abilities. A mixed-model MANOVA indicated that children with RD had a slower learning curve and recalled fewer words than TDC across experimental modalities. Both groups of participants benefited from the visual presentation of objects; however, children with RD showed the greatest gains during this condition. In conclusion, working memory for common verbal items is impaired in children with RD; however, performance can be facilitated, and learning efficiency maximized, when information is presented visually. The results provide further evidence for the pictorial superiority hypothesis and the theory that pictorial presentation of verbal stimuli is adequate for dual coding.
Full Text Available Mit dem von der Dortmunder Professorin Ulrike Schildmann und der wissenschaftlichen Mitarbeiterin Bettina Bretländer herausgegebenen Band „Frauenforschung in der Behindertenpädagogik“ wird bewußt ein als Arbeitsbuch (S. 7 konzipiertes Werk vorgelegt nicht nur für Studentinnen und Studenten, sondern auch für alle anderen an diesen Fragen Interessierten. Dieser in der Einleitung formulierten Intention folgend, werden fachdiskursive und auf unterschiedlichen Bearbeitungsniveaus angesiedelte Beiträge präsentiert, die Leserinnen und Leser dazu einladen sollen, „sich intensiver mit den vielfältigen Fragestellungen des Zusammenhangs von Behinderung und Geschlecht auseinander zu setzen“ (S. 7.The book, “Women’s Studies in Educational Work With the Disabled”, edited by the Dortmund professor Ulrike Schildmann and the member of academic staff Bettina Bretländer, is consciously meant to be a a book to work with. It addresses not only students but everyone interested in the questions it deals with. Following this intention, outlined in the introduction, various contributions are being presented, which are meant to invite readers to deal with the complex questions of disability and gender in a more intensive way.
Møller, Jesper; McCullagh, Peter
We extend the boson process first to a large class of Cox processes and second an even larger class of infinitely divisible point processes. Density and moment results are studied in detail. These results are obtained in closed form as weighted permanents, so the extension is called a permanent...... process. Temporal extensions and a particularly tractable case of the permanent process are also studied. Extensions of the ferminon process along similar lines, leading to so-called determinant processes, are discussed at the end. While the permanent process is attractive, the determinant process...
Hayhoe, Celia Ray; Smith, Mike, CPF
The purpose of disability income insurance is to partially replace your income if you are unable to work because of sickness or an accident. This guide reviews the types of disability insurance, important terms and concepts and employer provided benefits.
Chou, Yueh-Ching; Kröger, Teppo
In this study, the concept of social capital is applied to an exploration of Guanxi (social networking to create good relationships) among working lone mothers of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) in Taiwan. Using in-depth interviews, this study explores the role of social capital, here referred to as 'care capital', in making it possible for working lone mothers to combine their roles as family carers and workers. Eleven divorced or widowed mothers combining their paid work with long-term care responsibilities were recruited from a survey or through NGOs and were interviewed at their home between October 2008 and July 2010. An interpretative phenomenological approach was adopted for data analysis. The findings revealed that the mothers' care capital was extremely limited and was lost, gained and lost again during their life-cycles of long-term care-giving. Guanxi, especially in relation to their employers, proved to be the sole source of care capital for these mothers, making reconciliation between work and care responsibilities possible. In the absence of formal or informal support, religion and the mother-child relationship seemed also to become a kind of care capital for these lone mothers, helping them to get by with their life-long care responsibilities. For formal social and healthcare services, not just in Taiwan but in every country, it is important to develop support for lone mothers of adults with ID who have long-term care responsibilities and low levels of care capital and thus face care poverty. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Snoezelen, or controlled multisensory stimulation, was first introduced in Israel in 1993. This paper presents a new concept of working with the whole family in the Snoezelen room with the participation of a social worker. The purpose was to facilitate family encounters with the child, to enable parents and siblings to become better acquainted with the resident through his/her strengths and special abilities, to encourage parental involvement in the care, to encourage increased visits, to improve quality of life (QOL for the resident, and to reinforce a better relationship between resident, family, and home. Sessions were divided into two major parts. The first segment (duration 20—40 min was free activity and the second was more structured (duration 15—30 min. Case stories are presented to illustrate the positive effects of this approach. Snoezelen can be used with the entire family with the participation of a social worker and can add new dimensions to communication.
Strnadová, Iva; Bernoldová, Jana; Adamcíková, Zdenka; Klusácek, Jan
Background: This study examined the attitudes, knowledge and experiences of practitioners in social services and child welfare working with mothers with intellectual disability. Method: The authors used a national survey, which was completed by 329 participants. Descriptive statistics and frequency tables were generated, and the associations…
Campen, C. van; Cardol, M.
People with chronic physical disabilities participate less in both paid and voluntary work and are less satisfied with their lives than people without health problems. Governments and scientists have suggested that participation in employment is the main road to well-being. We analysed national
Lee, Tzong-Nan; Lin, Jin-Ding; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Tang, Chi-Chieh; Wu, Jia-Ling; Fang, Wen-Hui; Chu, Cordia M.
The purposes of the present study were to determine whether extrinsic high-effort/low-reward conditions at work are associated with personal characteristics and the organizational environments. A cross-sectional survey was conducted (76.7% response rate, N = 1243) by recruiting the staff caring for people with intellectual disabilities of Taiwan…
Anema, J.R.; Giezen, A.M. van der; Buijs, P.C.; Mechelen, W. van
The aim of this article is to determine obstacles for return-to-work in disability management of low back pain patients sicklisted for three till four months. A cohort of 467 low back pain patients was recruited. A questionnaire was sent to their occupational physicians (OPs) concerning the medical
Chung, Man Cheung; Harding, Carly
Background: The present research extended previous research by broadening the dimensions of personality traits, and focusing on burnout and psychological well-being among staff working with people with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey in which 103 staff completed questionnaires…
Communication of 12 June 2009 received from the Permanent Missions of Germany and the Russian Federation with regard to a working paper 'Principles of fuel supply guarantees and the multilateralization of fuel cycle activities'
The Secretariat has received a communication dated 12 June 2009 from the Permanent Missions of Germany and the Russian Federation, transmitting the text of the working paper 'Principles of fuel supply guarantees and the multilateralization of fuel cycle activities' submitted by Germany and the Russian Federation to the Preparatory Committee for the 2010 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. As requested in that communication, the abovementioned paper is herewith circulated for the information of all Member States
This article uses theory on disability, embodiment and language to explore the production, context and presentation of two pieces of life-writing by Christopher Nolan. It examines Nolan's unusual use of language and form in his presentations of an experience of disability, and considers its literary and political significance. Consideration is…
The impact of ADHD symptoms and global impairment in childhood on working disability in mid-adulthood: a 28-year follow-up study using official disability pension records in a high-risk in-patient population
Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with ADHD have been associated with more employment difficulties in early adulthood than healthy community controls. To examine whether this association is attributable specifically to disturbance of activity and attention (ADHD or to psychopathology in general, we wanted to extend existing research by comparing the rate of mid-adulthood working disabilities for individuals diagnosed with ADHD as children with the rate for clinical controls diagnosed with either conduct disorder, emotional disorder or mixed disorder of conduct and emotions. Methods Former Norwegian child-psychiatric in-patients (n = 257 were followed up 17–39 years after hospitalization by record linkage to the Norwegian national registry of disability pension (DP awards. Based on the hospital records, the patients were re-diagnosed according to ICD-10. Associations between the diagnoses, other baseline factors and subsequent DP were investigated using Kaplan–Meier survival analyses and logrank testing. Results At follow-up, 19% of the participants had received a DP award. In the logrank testing, ADHD was the only disorder associated with a subsequent DP, with 30% being disabled at follow-up (p = 0.01. Low psychosocial functioning (assessed by the Children’s Global Assessment Scale at admission uniquely predicted future DP (p = 0.04. Conclusions ADHD in childhood was highly associated with later receiving a DP. Our finding of worse prognosis in ADHD compared with other internalizing and externalizing disorders in mid-adulthood supports the assumption of ADHD being specifically linked to working disability. Assessment of psychosocial functioning in addition to diagnostic features could enhance prediction of children who are most at risk of future disability.
Li, Andrew; Shaffer, Jonathan; Bagger, Jessica
We draw on the cross-domain model of work-family conflict and conservation of resources theory to examine the relationship between disability caregiving demands and the psychological well-being of employed caregivers. Using a sample of employed disability caregivers from a national survey, we found that the relationship between caregiving demands and family-to-work conflict was stronger when employees experienced high levels of strain from family. Additionally, we found high levels of family to-work conflict were subsequently associated with decreases in life satisfaction and increases in depression, but only when perceived supervisor support was low. Overall, our findings suggest an indirect relationship between caregiving demands and psychological well-being that is mediated by family-to-work conflict and is conditional on family strain and perceived supervisor support. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Kinnunen, Ulla; Nätti, Jouko
We investigated two single items of the Work Ability Index - work ability score, and future work ability - as predictors of register-based disability pension and long-term sickness absence over a three-year follow-up. Survey responses of 11,131 Finnish employees were linked to pension and long-term (more than 10 days) sickness absence register data by Statistics Finland. Work ability score was divided into poor (0-5), moderate (6-7) and good/excellent (8-10) and future work ability into poor (1-2) and good (3) work ability at baseline. Cox proportional hazard regressions were used in the analysis of disability pension, and a negative binomial model in the analysis of long-term sickness absence. The results were adjusted for several background, work- and health-related covariates. Compared with those with good/excellent work ability scores, the hazard ratios of disability pension after adjusting for all covariates were 9.84 (95% CI 6.68-14.49) for poor and 2.25 (CI 95% 1.51-3.35) for moderate work ability score. For future work ability, the hazard ratio was 8.19 (95% CI 4.71-14.23) among those with poor future work ability. The incidence rate ratios of accumulated long-term sickness absence days were 3.08 (95% CI 2.19-4.32) and 1.59 (95% CI 1.32-1.92) for poor and moderate work ability scores, and 1.51 (95% CI 0.97-2.36) for poor future work ability. The single items of work ability score and future work ability predicted register-based disability pension equally well, but work ability score was a better predictor of register-based long-term sickness absence days than future work ability in a three-year follow-up. Both items seem to be of use especially when examining the risk of poor work ability for disability but also for long sick leave.
Garcia, Ricardo Basso; Mammarella, Irene C; Tripodi, Doriana; Cornoldi, Cesare
This study examined forward and backward recall of locations and colours and the binding of locations and colours, comparing typically developing children - aged between 8 and 10 years - with two different groups of children of the same age with learning disabilities (dyslexia in one group, non-verbal learning disability [NLD] in the other). Results showed that groups with learning disabilities had different visuospatial working memory problems and that children with NLD had particular difficulties in the backward recall of locations. The differences between the groups disappeared, however, when locations and colours were bound together. It was concluded that specific processes may be involved in children in the binding and backward recall of different types of information, as they are not simply the resultant of combining the single processes needed to recall single features. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Curtis, Ben; Thompson, Steven
Historians of orthopaedics, artificial limbs and disability have devoted a great deal of attention to children and soldiers but have neglected to give sufficient space in their studies to industrial workers, the other patient group that has been identified as crucial to the development of these areas. Furthermore, this attention has led to an imbalanced focus on charitable and philanthropic activities as the main means of assistance and the neglect of a significant part of the voluntary sphere, the labour movement. This article, focusing on industrial south Wales, examines the efforts of working-class organisations to provide artificial limbs and a range of other surgical appliances to workers and their family members in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It finds that a distinctive, labourist conception of disability existed which envisaged disabled workers as an important priority and one to which significant time, effort and resources were devoted. PMID:25352721
Curtis, Ben; Thompson, Steven
Historians of orthopaedics, artificial limbs and disability have devoted a great deal of attention to children and soldiers but have neglected to give sufficient space in their studies to industrial workers, the other patient group that has been identified as crucial to the development of these areas. Furthermore, this attention has led to an imbalanced focus on charitable and philanthropic activities as the main means of assistance and the neglect of a significant part of the voluntary sphere, the labour movement. This article, focusing on industrial south Wales, examines the efforts of working-class organisations to provide artificial limbs and a range of other surgical appliances to workers and their family members in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It finds that a distinctive, labourist conception of disability existed which envisaged disabled workers as an important priority and one to which significant time, effort and resources were devoted.
da Silva Alexandre, T; de Oliveira Duarte, Y A; Ferreira Santos, J L; Wong, R; Lebrão, M L
Sarcopenia, defined as low muscle mass (LMM), and dynapenia have been associated with adverse outcomes in elderly. Contrast the association of sarcopenia versus dynapenia with incidence of disability. A four-year prospective study (2006-2010). São Paulo, Brazil. 478 individuals aged 60 and older from the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE) study who were non-disabled at baseline. Sarcopenia, measured according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP), includes: LMM assessed by skeletal muscle mass index ≤8.90kg/m2 (men) and ≤6.37kg/m2 (women); low muscle strength (LMS) assessed by handgrip strength sarcopenia required LMM plus LMS or LPP. Dynapenia was defined as handgrip strength sarcopenia or dynapenia status. After controlling for all covariates, sarcopenia was associated with mobility or IADL disability (relative risk ratio = 2.23, 95%Confidence Interval: 1.03-4.85). Dynapenia was not associated with disability. Sarcopenia according to the EWGSOP definition can be used in clinical practice as a screening tool for early functional decline (mobility or IADL disability).
Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Brix, Thomas Heiberg
To examine the risk of disability pension and changes in labour market income in patients with hyperthyroidism. From a 5% random sample of the Danish population and twins from the Danish Twin Registry we identified 1942 hyperthyroid singletons and 7768 non-hyperthyroid (matched 1:4) controls as well as 584 same-sex twin pairs discordant for hyperthyroidism. Singletons and twins were followed for a mean of 9 years (range 1-20). Cox regression analysis was used to examine the risk of disability pension and a difference-in-differences model was used to evaluate changes in labour market income. Hyperthyroid individuals had an increased risk of receiving disability pension: hazard ratio (HR) was 1.88, (95% CI: 1.57-2.24). Subdividing as to the cause of hyperthyroidism did not change this finding: Graves' disease (GD) HR was 1.51 (95% CI: 0.87-2.63) and toxic nodular goitre (TNG) HR was 2.10 (95% CI: 1.02-4.36). With respect to labour market income, the income of hyperthyroid individuals increased on average 1189 € less than their controls (Phyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism is associated with severe work disability as reflected by an 88% increased risk of receiving disability pension and a significant loss of labour market income. Similar results in monozygotic twins discordant for hyperthyroidism suggest that genetic confounding is unlikely. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.
Blick, Rachel N; Litz, Katherine S; Thornhill, Monica G; Goreczny, Anthony J
More individuals with an intellectual disability now possess prerequisite skills and supports necessary for successful work force integration than did previous generations. The current study compared quality of life of community-integrated workers with those participating in sheltered vocational workshops and adult day care programs. We considered numerous indices of quality of life, including inclusion and community participation; satisfaction within professional services, home life, and day activities; dignity, rights, and respect received from others; fear; choice and control; and family satisfaction. Our data revealed several important differences in quality of life across daytime activities; participants involved in community-integrated employment tended to be younger, indicated a greater sense of community integration, and reported more financial autonomy than did those who participated in adult day care programs and sheltered workshops. However, individuals reported no differences in overall satisfaction across daytime activities. We discuss generational differences across employment status as well as possible explanations to account for high levels of satisfaction across daytime activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peijnenborgh, Janneke C A W; Hurks, Petra M; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Vles, Johan S H; Hendriksen, Jos G M
The effectiveness of working memory (WM) training programmes is still a subject of debate. Previous reviews were heterogeneous with regard to participant characteristics of the studies included. To examine whether these programmes are of added value for children with learning disabilities (LDs), a systematic meta-analytic review was undertaken focusing specifically on LDs. Thirteen randomised controlled studies were included, with a total of 307 participants (age range = 5.5-17, Mean age across studies = 10.61, SD = 1.77). Potential moderator variables were examined, i.e., age, type of LD, training programme, training dose, design type, and type of control group. The meta-analysis indicated reliable short-term improvements in verbal WM, visuo-spatial WM, and word decoding in children with LDs after training (effect sizes ranged between 0.36 and 0.63), when compared to the untrained control group. These improvements sustained over time for up to eight months. Furthermore, children > 10 years seemed to benefit more in terms of verbal WM than younger children, both immediately after training as well as in the long-term. Other moderator variables did not have an effect on treatment efficacy.
Curnock, Esther; Leyland, Alastair H; Popham, Frank
Employment status has a dynamic relationship with health and disability. There has been a striking increase in the working age population receiving out-of-work disability benefits in many countries, including the UK. In response, recent UK welfare reforms have tightened eligibility criteria and introduced new conditions for benefit receipt linked to participation in return-to-work activities. Positive and negative impacts have been suggested but there is a lack of high quality evidence of the health impact when those receiving disability benefits move towards labour market participation. Using four waves of the UK's Understanding Society panel survey (2009-2013) three different types of employment and welfare transition were analysed in order to identify their impact on health. A difference-in-difference approach was used to compare change between treatment and control groups in mental and physical health using the SF-12. To strengthen causal inference, sensitivity checks for common trends used pre-baseline data and propensity score matching. Transitions from disability benefits to employment (n = 124) were associated on average with an improvement in the SF12 mental health score of 5.94 points (95% CI = 3.52-8.36), and an improvement in the physical health score of 2.83 points (95% CI = 0.85-4.81) compared with those remaining on disability benefits (n = 1545). Transitions to unemployed status (n = 153) were associated with a significant improvement in mental health (3.14, 95% CI = 1.17-5.11) but not physical health. No health differences were detected for those who moved on to the new out-of-work disability benefit. It remains rare for disability benefit recipients to return to the labour market, but our results indicate that for those that do, such transitions may improve health, particularly mental health. Understanding the mechanisms behind this relationship will be important for informing policies to ensure both work and welfare are 'good for
Haukka, Eija; Martimo, Kari-Pekka; Kivekäs, Teija; Horppu, Ritva; Lallukka, Tea; Solovieva, Svetlana; Shiri, Rahman; Pehkonen, Irmeli; Takala, Esa-Pekka; MacEachen, Ellen; Viikari-Juntura, Eira
Previous research suggests that work with a suitable workload may promote health and work retention in people with disability. This study will examine whether temporary work modifications at the early stage of work disability are effective in enhancing return to work (RTW) or staying at work among workers with musculoskeletal or depressive symptoms. A single-centre controlled trial with modified stepped wedge design will be carried out in eight enterprises and their occupational health services (OHSs) in nine cities in Finland. Patients seeking medical advice due to musculoskeletal pain (≥4 on a scale from 0-10) or depressive symptoms (≥1 positive response to 2 screening questions) and fulfilling other inclusion criteria are eligible. The study involves an educational intervention among occupational physicians to enhance the initiation of work modifications. Primary outcomes are sustained RTW (≥4 weeks at work without a new sickness absence (SA)) and the total number of SA days during a 12-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes are intensity of musculoskeletal pain (scale 0-10), pain interference with work or sleep (scale 0-10) and severity of depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ-9), inquired via online questionnaires at baseline and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after recruitment. Information on SA days will be collected from the medical records of the OHSs over 12 months, before and after recruitment. The findings will give new information about the possibilities of training physicians to initiate work modifications and their effects on RTW in employees with work disability due to musculoskeletal pain or depressive symptoms. The Coordinating Ethics Committee of Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa has granted approval for this study. The results will be published in peer-reviewed journals. ISRCTN74743666. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Jensen, Niels Rosendal
Anmeldelsen sammenligner indledningvist dansk og britisk socialpædagogisk arbejde med udviklingshæmmede, pointerer nogle ligheder og forskelle og diskuterer derefter bogens teoretiske grundlag og praktiske perspektiver....
Raúl Jesús Regal Ramos
ándolas con los requerimientos del puesto de trabajo, no obstante existen una serie de aspectos comunes relevantes en la valoración laboral de estos pacientes.Introduction: The recent publication of a consensus document by the Research Institute of Rare Diseases, the increased incidence of Arnold-Chiari malformation (by the increased demand of cervical MRI and, simultaneously, the increased presence of these patients in hospitals where doctors can assess their functional capacity, invites us to reflect on the assessment of the working disability of these patients. Objectives: This review pretends to make an approach to various relevant aspects on the assessment of these patients' working disability. Material and methods: The following bibliographical database have been reviewed until May 2010: Medline, Embase, Cochrane. Results: The intensity of the symptoms (mostly pain is not directly related to the severity of the lesions observed in the imaging tests. The clinical symptoms may fluctuate, with periods of exacerbation and remission. The symptoms that best respond to surgery are those due to compression of the brainstem (especially cervical headache, disappearing in some cases. The presence of atrophy, ataxia, scoliosis in the pre surgery tests, and more than two years between the beginning of the symptoms and the surgery are poor post surgery evolution factors. Those clinical manifestations that do not disappear in the post surgery period or in the follow-up period could be related to permanent damage of the neural pathways or their nuclei. Despite being a congenital disease, it could be treated as a working accident, if symptoms appear after trauma. Evidence of the effectiveness of pain treatment is low. Conclusions: These patients' evaluation should always be individualized, considering the organic and or functional limitations and relating them to the requests of their job. Nevertheless, there exists a series of common relevant aspects in these patients' working
Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 5 mai de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 2 juin, 1er septembre, 6 octobre, 3 novembre et 1er décembre 2015. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires.
Bush, E.D. Jr.
A family of quadrupole magnets using a soft iron return yoke and circular cross-section permanent magnet poles were fabricated to investigate the feasibility for use in ion or electron beam focusing applications in accelerators and transport lines. Magnetic field measurements yielded promising results. In fixed-field applications, permanent magnets with sufficient gradients would be a low cost substitute for conventional electromagnets, eliminating the need for power supplies, associated wiring, and cooling. Based on preliminary tests, it was seen that permanent quadrupole magnets can offer a low cost, reliable solution in applications requiring small, fixed-field focusing devices for use in ion or electron-beam transport systems. Permanent magnets do require special considerations in design, fabrication, handling, and service that are different than encountered in conventional quadrupole magnets. If these basic conditions are satisfied, the resulting beam-focusing device would be stable, maintenance free, with virtually an indefinite lifetime
Becerra, María-Teresa; Montanero, Manuel; Lucero, Manuel
Research into workplace adjustments for people with disabilities is a fundamental challenge of supported employment. The aim of the present work is to investigate the effect of several graphic resources as natural support for workers with intellectual disability. Two case studies were conducted to assess the performance of five workers engaged in office tasks, with three different support conditions. Results reveal a 20% increase in quality of performance of the tasks undertaken with graphic support as compared to support in which the participants received verbal instructions (VIs) from a work mate; and between 25 and 30% as compared to a control condition which included no help of any kind. These findings are consistent with previous studies which support the possibility of generating, at low cost, iconic materials (with maps or simple graphics), which progressively facilitate workers' autonomy, without dependence or help from the job trainer. We observed that the worst performance is in the support condition with VIs, this shows the limitations of this type of natural support, which is provided on demand by work mates without specialist knowledge of work support. Implications for Rehabilitation We studied the use of various types of natural support for people with intellectual disability in their workplace. The findings suggest that, with some brief training, the simple use in the workplace of graphic help on a card can increase between 20 and 30% the quality of performance of certain work tasks carried out by workers with intellectual disability. This advantage contrasts with the high cost or lower "manageability" of other material resources of natural support based on the use of technology.
Friis, Karina; Ekholm, Ola; Hundrup, Yrsa Andersen
Denmark is facing a shortage of nurses and this trend is anticipated to worsen within the next decades. The major reason for this shortage is that only very few nurses remain employed until the general retirement age. Every year several nurses are expelled from the labour market prematurely which causes a problem not only for the disabled nurses but also because it can affect the morale and productivity among the remaining personnel while new staff members are hired and trained. The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between lifestyle, working environment, socio-demographic factors and disability pension (DP) among nurses. The study was based on 12,028 nurses above the age of 44 who in 1993 completed a questionnaire. The survey information was combined with longitudinal data from a register compiled by Statistics Denmark. The follow-up period was from 1993 to 2002. Nurses with relatively low gross incomes were more likely to become disability pensioners compared to nurses with high incomes (hazard ratio, HR 1.33 and HR 2.17). Also, nurses who were singles had a higher probability of entering DP (HR 1.63). Nurses who worked fixed evening or night shifts had higher risks of DP than nurses who worked daytime exclusively (HR 1.51 and HR 1.45). Smoking, obesity and having a sedentary lifestyle were also risk indicators for DP (HR 1.42, HR 1.63 and HR 1.50). Furthermore, low influence and high physical demands at work increased the probability of entering DP (HR 1.39 and HR 1.22). DP among nurses is influenced by a number of factors. Nurses who have poor working environments and/or unhealthy lifestyles have higher risks of becoming disability pensioners. Also, nurses who are singles and/or have low gross incomes have higher probability of entering DP.
Barchitta, M; Fragapane, S; Consoli, M T; Pennisi, C; Agodi, A
The growing needs of people with disabilities require to integrate this issue into public health in order to improve political feasibility and to ensure that disability will not be left off from any strategic table. The main aim of the "Care for Work" project was to provide training contents to help workers and unemployed people to adapt their knowledge, skills and competencies to the care services sector in order to facilitate their insertion in a new employment source. The partners participating in the project are Organizations from 5 European countries. The project has been divided into seven Work Packages (WPs): three transversal WPs and four specific WPs, each addressing specific activities necessary to achieve the final objectives of the project. The "Care for Work" learning environment contains specific information and training on the techniques for caring people with acquired physical disabilities, as text documents and short training films. The project combines e-learning (Web 2.0) and mobile learning providing a flexible training platform for workers of care services sector. The "Care for Work" project offers specific training addressed to meet the new existing needs of workers of the care services sector and/or unemployed people. All the information and results of the project are available on the web page: www.careforwork.eu, and the present article is part of the WP "Valorization".
Bush, E.D. Jr.
A family of quadrupole magnets using a soft iron return yoke and circular cross-section permanent magnet poles were fabricated to investigate the feasibility for use in ion or electron beam focusing applications in accelerators and transport lines. Magnetic field measurements yielded promising results. In fixed-field applications, permanent magnets with sufficient gradients would be a low cost substitute for conventional electromagnets, eliminating the need for power supplies, associated wiring, and cooling. (author)
van Ree, E.
This article argues that the 'permanent revolution' represented the dominant element in Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels' political discourse, and that it tended to overrule considerations encapsulated in 'historical materialism'. In Marx and Engels's understanding, permanent revolution did not represent a historical shortcut under exceptional circumstances, but the course revolutions in the modern era would normally take. Marx and Engels traced back the pattern to the sixteenth century. It is ...
McPeek, K. Thomas; Steddom, Karl; Zamudio, Joseph; Pant, Paras; Mullenbach, Tyler
AGERpoint is defining a new technology space for the growers' industry by introducing novel applications for sensor technology and data analysis to growers of permanent crops. Serving data to a state-of-the-art analytics engine from a cutting edge sensor platform, a new paradigm in precision agriculture is being developed that allows growers to understand the unique needs of each tree, bush or vine in their operation. Autonomous aerial and terrestrial vehicles equipped with multiple varieties of remote sensing technologies give AGERpoint the ability to measure key morphological and spectral features of permanent crops. This work demonstrates how such phenotypic measurements combined with machine learning algorithms can be used to determine the variety of crops (e.g., almond and pecan trees). This phenotypic and varietal information represents the first step in enabling growers with the ability to tailor their management practices to individual plants and maximize their economic productivity.
Wallman, Johan K; Jöud, Anna; Olofsson, Tor; Jacobsson, Lennart T H; Bliddal, Henning; Kristensen, Lars E
The aim was to assess work-loss days before and after commencement of anti-TNF treatment in patients with non-radiographic axial spondylarthritis (nr-axSpA). Bionaïve nr-axSpA patients (n = 75), aged 17-62 years, fulfilling the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society criteria for axial spondyloarthritis and starting anti-TNF treatment during 2004-11, were retrieved from the observational South Swedish Arthritis Treatment Group study. Patient information was linked to Swedish Social Insurance Agency data on sick leave and disability pension from 1 year before to 2 years after anti-TNF initiation. Matched population references were included for comparison and to adjust for secular trends. The nr-axSpA patients had a median age of 35 years and disease duration of 6 years at the start of treatment. During the 2 years after anti-TNF initiation, mean work-loss days (including both sick leave and disability pension) in the nr-axSpA group decreased significantly from 3.4 to 1.9 times more than among the population references. The effect was seen on sick leave, whereas disability pension levels remained similar in both groups throughout. Anti-TNF therapy in nr-axSpA was associated with a significant and sustained improvement of work disability over 2 years. However, the proportion of work-loss days remained almost twice as high as in the general population at the end of follow-up. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Inclusión educativa de alumnos con discapacidades graves y permanentes : análisis de un modelo : la Comunidad Valenciana (España = Educational inclusion of students with severe and permanent disabilities : analysis of a model : the Region of Valencia
Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la inclusión educativa del alumnado con discapacidades graves y permanentes en la Comunidad Valenciana (España a través de los siguientes indicadores: concepción de las discapacidades graves y permanentes; responsabilidad de la escolarización y prestación de servicios; marco normativo; identificación, valoración y atención temprana; incidencia en la población; modelos y modalidades de escolarización; propuesta curricular; Centros y Unidades Específicos de Educación Especial; recursos personales y materiales; papel de las familias y financiación. Utiliza el método descriptivo en la revisión legislativa, documental, y bibliográfica, así como en el análisis de las fuentes estadísticas. Concluye señalando las mejoras inmediatas aplicables para una inclusión educativa real y de calidad.This article analyzes the educational inclusion of students with severe and permanent disabilities in the Region of Valencia with the following indicators: design of severe and permanent disabilities, regulatory framework, responsibility for providing schooling and services, identification and assessment of deficits, prevalence, proposed curriculum (model and modalities of care, special schools, human and material resources, role of families and funding. It utilizes the descriptive method in the legislative, documental and bibliographic revision, as well as in the analysis of statistical sources. The analysis concludes by pointing out the challenges that must guide future improvements to achieve a true educational equality.
Yara Dadalti Fragoso
Full Text Available CONTEXT: MIDAS was developed as a fast and efficient method for identification of migraine in need of medical evaluation and treatment. It was necessary to translate MIDAS, originally written in English, so as to apply it in Brazil and make it usable by individuals from a variety of social-economic-cultural backgrounds. OBJECTIVE: To translate and to apply MIDAS in Brazil. SETTING: Assessment of a sample of workers regularly employed by an oil refinery. SETTING: Refinaria Presidente Bernardes, Cubatão, São Paulo, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 404 workers of the company who correctly answered a questionnaire for the identification and evaluation of headache. When the individual considered it to be pertinent to his own needs, there was the option to answer MIDAS as well. METHODS: MIDAS, originally written in English, was translated into Brazilian Portuguese by a neurologist and by a translator specializing in medical texts. The final version of the translation was obtained when, for ten patients to whom it was applied, the text seemed clear and the results were consistent over three sessions. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Prevalence and types of primary headaches, evaluation of MIDAS as a tool for identification of more severe cases. RESULTS: From the total of 419 questionnaires given to the employees, 404 were returned correctly completed. From these, 160 persons were identified as presenting headaches, 44 of whom considered it worthwhile answering MIDAS. Nine of these individuals who answered MIDAS were identified as severe cases of migraine due to disability caused by the condition. An interview on a later date confirmed these results. Three were cases of chronic daily headache (transformed migraine and six were cases of migraine. CONCLUSIONS: MIDAS translated to Brazilian Portuguese was a useful tool for identifying severe cases of migraine and of transformed migraine in a working environment. The workers did not consider MIDAS to be difficult to answer. Their
Nittrouer, Christine L.; Shogren, Karrie A.; Pickens, Julie L.
Purpose: This study examined the impact of using a collaborative process with person-centered teams and a functional assessment of problems in the workplace to design individualized goals and self-management interventions to support young adults with disabilities. These young adults had achieved employment through a customized employment process…
Willems, A.P.A.M.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Hendriks, A.H.C.; Bosman, A.M.T.
Background: Training support staff in dealing with challenging behaviour in clients with intellectual disabilities (ID) is needed. The goal of this study is to determine which elements need to be incorporated in a training on staff interactions with these clients, building upon a framework and an
Willems, A.; Embregts, P.; Hendriks, L.; Bosman, A.
Background: Training support staff in dealing with challenging behaviour in clients with intellectual disabilities (ID) is needed. The goal of this study is to determine which elements need to be incorporated in a training on staff interactions with these clients, building upon a framework and an interpersonal model. As in functional analysis,…
Willems, A.P.A.M.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Hendriks, A.H.C.; Bosman, A.M.T.
Background Training support staff in dealing with challenging behaviour in clients with intellectual disabilities (ID) is needed. The goal of this study is to determine which elements need to be incorporated in a training on staff interactions with these clients, building upon a framework and an
Sims, David; Cabrita Gulyurtlu, Sandra S
There have been rapid developments in personalisation of health and social care in the UK over the past 5 years to develop a more flexible model of provision based upon greater choice and control for service users. This has been important for people with learning disabilities who are often dependent on others such as social workers to support their autonomy and independence. This article discusses a study carried out to explore the impact of personalisation on people with learning disabilities and the role of social workers to support this. A scoping review of the UK literature from 1996 to 2011 was conducted. It was found that there has not been a significant amount of empirical research in this area. Some studies, such as reports by InControl, have suggested that when implemented well, personalisation can have a positive impact on the lives of people with learning disabilities. Other literature highlighted the limitations and critiques of personalisation. Without the right support to manage budgets and autonomy, people with learning disabilities could be left vulnerable. In respect of the social workers, the finding of the review was that there was a lack of guidance on how to implement personalisation and a perceived threat to their traditional practice role, resulting in barriers to implementation. Although the literature emphasises the need for choice, control and autonomy in personalisation, the conclusion of this study is that more research needs to be carried out into how professional roles fit into and can support this process. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Vila, Montserrat; Pallisera, Maria; Fullana, Judit
Background: It is important to ensure that regular processes of labour market integration are available for all citizens. Method: Thematic content analysis techniques, using semi-structured group interviews, were used to identify the principal elements contributing to the processes of integrating people with disabilities into the regular labour…
Dispenza, Franco; Elston, Nikki C.; Huffstead, Mary E.; Suttles, Mackenzie G.; Golubovic, Nedeljko
Purpose: To identify meaningful educative experiences that contributed to the development of rehabilitation counselors' abilities to provide effective rehabilitation counseling services to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) persons living with chronic illness/disabilities (CID). Method: This was a secondary analysis of a larger…
Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.
Test anxiety and its correlates were examined with college students with and without specific reading disability (RD; n = 50 in each group). Results indicated that college students with RD reported higher test anxiety than did those without RD, and the magnitude of these differences was in the medium range on two test anxiety scales. Relative to…
Wallman, Johan K; Jöud, Anna; Olofsson, Tor
Society criteria for axial spondyloarthritis and starting anti-TNF treatment during 2004-11, were retrieved from the observational South Swedish Arthritis Treatment Group study. Patient information was linked to Swedish Social Insurance Agency data on sick leave and disability pension from 1 year before...