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Sample records for permanent translocation heterozygote

  1. Ribosomal DNA, tri- and bi-partite pericentromeres in the permanent translocation heterozygote Rhoeo spathacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golczyk, Hieronim; Hasterok, Robert; Szklarczyk, Marek

    2010-12-01

    High- and low-stringency FISH and base-specific fluorescence were performed on the permanent translocation heterozygote Rhoeo spathacea (2n = 12). Our results indicate that 45S rDNA arrays, rDNA-related sequences and other GC-rich DNA fraction(s) are located within the pericentromeric regions of all twelve chromosomes, usually colocalizing with the chromomycin A(3)-positive bands. Homogenization of the pericentromeric regions appears to result from the concerted spread of GC-rich sequences, with differential amplification likely. We found new 5S rDNA patterns, which suggest a variability in the breakpoints and in the consequent chromosome reorganizations. It was found that the large 5S rDNA locus residing on each of the 8E and 9E arms consisted of two smaller loci. On each of the two chromosome arms 3b and 4b, in addition to the major subtelomeric 5S rDNA locus, a new minor locus was found interstitially about 40% along the arm length. The arrangement of cytotogenetic landmarks and chromosome arm measurements are discussed with regard to genome repatterning in Rhoeo.

  2. FISH-aimed karyotyping and characterization of Renner complexes in permanent heterozygote Rhoeo spathacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golczyk, Hieronim; Hasterok, Robert; Joachimiak, Andrzej J

    2005-02-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using 25S rDNA, 5S rDNA, and telomere sequences as probes was carried out in the complex permanent heterozygote Rhoeo spathacea. Telomere sites were exclusively terminal. All 10 25S rDNA loci were located distally and appeared transcriptionally active after silver staining. Six distal and 2 interstitial 5S rDNA sites were detected; 2 of the distal sites strictly colocalized with 25S rDNA loci. The 2 intercalary 5S rDNA loci occurred in short arms of 2 chromosomes that conjoined at meiosis. Chromosomes differed as to the amount of AT-rich centric heterochromatin, suggesting involvement of pericentromeric regions in translocations. The possibility of Robertsonian-like rearrangements was discussed. Double target FISH with ribosomal probes along with DAPI fluorescence gave the basis for full chromosome identification in mitosis. The 2 Renner complexes are structurally balanced, both having 5 25S and 4 5S rDNA sites. Centromere clustering, telomere association, a high number of NOR sites, and a strong tendency for formation of joint nucleoli contribute to the preservation of highly polarized Rabl arrangement at interphase. These findings were discussed in relation to meiotic catenation in Rhoeo.

  3. Cystic fibrosis Delta F508 heterozygotes, smoking, and reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A; Wittrup, H H

    1998-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is the most common fatal autosomal recessive disease affecting Caucasian populations. It remains a puzzle how this disease is maintained at such a remarkably high incidence, however, it could be due to a reproductive advantage in cystic fibrosis heterozygotes. We tested this hypot......Cystic fibrosis is the most common fatal autosomal recessive disease affecting Caucasian populations. It remains a puzzle how this disease is maintained at such a remarkably high incidence, however, it could be due to a reproductive advantage in cystic fibrosis heterozygotes. We tested.......001). In conclusion, overall these results do not support a reproductive advantage for cystic fibrosis DeltaF508 heterozygotes. However, the data cannot totally exclude the possibility that nonsmoking DeltaF508 heterozygotes experience a reproductive advantage while smoking DeltaF508 heterozygotes experience...... the opposite, a reproductive disadvantage. Accordingly, the data suggest a previously undocumented role of smoking on fecundity among cystic fibrosis heterozygotes....

  4. 40 CFR 798.5460 - Rodent heritable translocation assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fertile animals for cytological confirmation as translocation heterozygotes. (3) Animal selection—(i... administration include oral, inhalation, admixture with food or water, and IP or IV injection. (e) Test.... Criteria for determining normal and semisterile males are usually established for each new strain because...

  5. Herpes simplex virus-1 infection or Simian virus 40-mediated immortalization of corneal cells causes permanent translocation of NLRP3 to the nuclei

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    Shu-Long Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate into the potential involvement of pyrin containing 3 gene (NLRP3, a member of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors with cytosolic pattern recognition, in the host defense of corneas against viruses. METHODS: The herpes viral keratitis model was utilized in BALB/c mice with inoculation of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1. Corneal tissues removed during therapy of patients with viral keratitis as well as a Simian vacuolating virus 40 (SV40-immortalized human corneal epithelial cell line were also examined. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect NLRP3 in these subjects, focusing on their distribution in tissue or cells. Western blot was used to measure the level of NLRP3 and another two related molecules in NLPR3 inflammasome, namely caspase-1 and IL-1β. RESULTS: The NLRP3 activation induced by HSV-1 infection in corneas was accompanied with redistribution of NLRP3 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in both murine and human corneal epithelial cells. Furthermore, in the SV40-immortalized human corneal epithelial cells, NLRP3 was exclusively located in the nucleus, and treatment of the cells with high concentration of extracellular potassium (known as an inhibitor of NLRP3 activation effectively drove NLRP3 back to the cytoplasm as reflected by both immunohistochemistry and Western blot. CONCLUSION: It is proposed that herpes virus infection activates and causes redistribution of NLRP3 to nuclei. Whether this NLRP3 translocation occurs with other viral infections and in other cell types merit further study.

  6. Cystic fibrosis heterozygotes do not have increased platelet activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Inge; Michelson, Alan D.; Frelinger III, Andrew L.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: We have previously demonstrated platelet hyperreactivity in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Carriers of one CF m utation (heterozygotes) have been shown to have abnormalities related to the presence of only one-half the normal amount of CF transmembrane conductance regulator protein...

  7. Reciprocal translocations in mice taken from the thirty-kilometer zone around the crippled reactor of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomerantseva, M.D.; Ramajya, L.K.; Testov, B.V.; Chekhovich, A.V.; Shevchenko, V.A.; Shaks, A.I.; Lobaneva, N.V.

    1990-01-01

    A study was made of the incidence of genetic damages to germ cells of male mice taken from or exposed within the thirty-kilometer Zone of Chernobyl, the contaminated no-man's-land around the reactor that failed. At all contamination levels mouse spermatocytes exhibited reciprocal translocations, a relatively low frequency of which increased with increasing dose rate. Heterozygotes, with respect to reciprocal translocations (5%), were found among males exposed to enhanced radiation background as early embryons

  8. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in beta-thalassemia heterozygotes

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    Luciana de Souza Ondei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have evaluated the oxidant and antioxidant status of thalassemia patients but most focused mainly on the severe and intermediate states of the disease. Moreover, the oxidative status has not been evaluated for the different beta-thalassemia mutations. Objective: To evaluate lipid peroxidation and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity in relation to serum iron and ferritin in beta thalassemia resulting from two different mutations (CD39 and IVS-I-110 compared to individuals without beta-thalassemia. Methods: One hundred and thirty subjects were studied, including 49 who were heterozygous for beta-thalassemia and 81 controls. Blood samples were subjected to screening tests for hemoglobin. Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm mutations for beta-thalassemia, an analysis of thiobarbituric acid reactive species was used to determine lipid peroxidation, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity evaluations were performed. The heterozygous beta-thalassemia group was also evaluated for serum iron and ferritin status. Results: Thiobarbituric acid reactive species (486.24 ± 119.64 ng/mL and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values (2.23 ± 0.11 mM/L were higher in beta-thalassemia heterozygotes compared to controls (260.86 ± 92.40 ng/mL and 2.12 ± 0.10 mM/L, respectively; p-value < 0.01. Increased thiobarbituric acid reactive species values were observed in subjects with the CD39 mutation compared with those with the IVS-I-110 mutation (529.94 ± 115.60 ng/mL and 453.39 ± 121.10 ng/mL, respectively; p-value = 0.04. However, average Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values were similar for both mutations (2.20 ± 0.08 mM/L and 2.23 ± 0.12 mM/L, respectively; p-value = 0.39. There was no influence of serum iron and ferritin levels on thiobarbituric acid reactive species and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values. Conclusion: This study shows an increase of oxidative stress and

  9. Heterozygote Advantage in a Finite Population: Black Color in Wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Philip W; Stahler, Daniel R; Dekker, Dick

    2014-01-01

    There is a striking color polymorphism for wolves in the Yellowstone National Park where approximately half the wolves are black. The genetic basis for this polymorphism is known, and fitnesses of the genotypes are estimated. These estimates suggest that there is strong heterozygote advantage but substantial asymmetry in the fitness differences of the 2 homozygotes. Theoretically, such fitnesses in a finite population are thought to reduce genetic variation at least as fast as if there were no selection at all. Because the color polymorphism has remained at about the same frequency for 17 years, about 4 generations, we investigated whether this was consistent with the theoretical predictions. Counter to this general expectation of loss, given the initial frequency of black wolves, the theoretical expectation in this case was found to be that the frequency would only decline slowly over time. For example, if the effective population size is 20, then the expected black allele frequency after 4 generations would be 0.191, somewhat less than the observed value of 0.237. However, nearly 30% of the time the expected frequency is 0.25 or greater, consistent with the contemporary observed frequency. In other words and in contrast to general theoretical predictions, because of the short period of time in evolutionary terms and the relatively weak selection at low frequencies, the observed variation and the predicted theoretical variation are not inconsistent. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Breast cancer risk in ataxia telangiectasia (AT) heterozygotes: haplotype study in French AT families

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    Janin, N; Andrieu, N; Ossian, K; Laugé, A; Croquette, M-F; Griscelli, C; Debré, M; Bressac-de-Paillerets, B; Aurias, A; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiological studies in ataxia telangiectasia (AT) families have suggested that AT heterozygotes could have an increased cancer risk, especially breast cancer (BC) in women. It has also been suggested that an increased sensibility of AT heterozygotes to the effect of ionizing radiation could be responsible for the increased BC risk. BC relative risk (RR) estimation in AT heterozygotes within families ascertained through AT children is presented here. Family data collected included demographic characteristics, occurrence of cancers, past radiation exposures and blood samples. DNA samples were studied using seven ATM linked microsatellites markers allowing AT haplotypes reconstitution. The relative risk of BC was assessed using French estimated incidence rates. A significant increase risk of BC is found among obligate ATM heterozygotes with a point estimate of 3.32 (P = 0.002). BC relative risk calculated according to age is significantly increased among the obligate ATM heterozygotes female relatives with an age ≤ 44 years (RR = 4.55, P = 0.005). The BC relative risk is statistically borderline among the obligate ATM heterozygote female relatives with an age ≥ 45 years (RR = 2.48, P = 0.08). The estimated BC relative risk among ATM heterozygotes is consistent with previously published data. However, the increased risk is only a little higher than classical reproductive risk factors and similar to the risk associated with a first-degree relative affected by BC. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10362113

  11. Permanent education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardien, S.; Kirsch, R.

    1998-01-01

    The permanent education of the IPN-Lyon inscribes itself completely in the priorities of the tri-annual plan of education of CNRS. These priorities contribute to evolution of research, evaluation of the professions, integration during the professional carriers of the personnel and form the frame for new management practice implementation

  12. Dwarfism and age-associated spinal degeneration of heterozygote cmd mice defective in aggrecan

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    Watanabe, Hideto; Nakata, Ken; Kimata, Koji; Nakanishi, Isao; Yamada, Yoshihiko

    1997-01-01

    Mouse cartilage matrix deficiency (cmd) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a genetic defect of aggrecan, a large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in cartilage. The homozygotes (−/−) are characterized by cleft palate and short limbs, tail, and snout. They die just after birth because of respiratory failure, and the heterozygotes (+/−) appear normal at birth. Here we report that the heterozygotes show dwarfism and develop spinal misalignment with age. Within 19 months of age, they exhibit spastic gait caused by misalignment of the cervical spine and die because of starvation. Histological examination revealed a high incidence of herniation and degeneration of vertebral discs. Electron microscopy showed a degeneration of disc chondrocytes in the heterozygotes. These findings may facilitate the identification of mutations in humans predisposed to spinal degeneration. PMID:9192671

  13. Comparison of Parkinson risk in Ashkenazi Jewish Gaucher patients and GBA heterozygotes

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    Alcalay, Roy N.; Dinur, Tama; Quinn, Timothy; Sakanaka, Karina; Levy, Oren; Waters, Cheryl; Fahn, Stanley; Dorovski, Tsvyatko; Chung, Wendy K; Pauciulo, Michael; Nichols, William; Rana, Huma Q.; Balwani, Manisha; Bier, Louise; Elstein, Deborah; Zimran, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Importance Information on age-specific risk for Parkinson disease (PD) in Gaucher disease (GD) patients and glucocerebrosidase (GBA) heterozygotes is important for understanding the pathophysiology of the genetic association and for counseling these populations. Objective To estimate the age-specific risk of PD in Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) patients with Type-1 GD and in GBA heterozygotes. Setting Two tertiary Gaucher centers and a Parkinson’s tertiary center. Participants GD patients at Shaare Zedek, Jerusalem, Israel (n=332) and Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (n=95), and GBA non-carrier non-PD spouse controls at Columbia University, NY (n=77). All were AJ and most GD patients (98.1%) carried at least one N370S mutation. Main outcome measure Main outcome measure was a diagnosis of PD. Diagnosis was established in GD patients on examination. We used a validated family history interview that identifies PD with a sensitivity of 95.5% and specificity of 96.2% to identify PD in family members. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to estimate age-specific PD risk among GD patients (n=427), among their parents, who are obligate GBA mutation carriers (heterozygotes, n=694) and among non-carriers (parents of non-PD non-GD controls, n=154). The age-specific risk was compared among groups using the log-rank test. Results Among those who developed PD, patients with GD had a younger age-at-onset than GBA heterozygotes (54.2, versus 65.2, p=0.003). Estimated age-specific risk for PD at ages 60 and 80 was 4.7% and 9.1% among GD patients, 1.5% and 7.7% among heterozygotes, and 0.7% and 2.1% among non-carriers. PD risk was higher in GD patients than non-carriers (p=0.008, log-rank test) and in heterozygotes than non-carriers (p=0.026, log-rank test) but did not reach significance between GD patients and GBA heterozygotes (p=0.074, log-rank test). Conclusion GD patients and GBA heterozygotes have an increased age-specific risk for PD compared to controls, with a similar

  14. Problem-elephant translocation: translocating the problem and the elephant?

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    Prithiviraj Fernando

    Full Text Available Human-elephant conflict (HEC threatens the survival of endangered Asian elephants (Elephas maximus. Translocating "problem-elephants" is an important HEC mitigation and elephant conservation strategy across elephant range, with hundreds translocated annually. In the first comprehensive assessment of elephant translocation, we monitored 16 translocations in Sri Lanka with GPS collars. All translocated elephants were released into national parks. Two were killed within the parks where they were released, while all the others left those parks. Translocated elephants showed variable responses: "homers" returned to the capture site, "wanderers" ranged widely, and "settlers" established home ranges in new areas soon after release. Translocation caused wider propagation and intensification of HEC, and increased elephant mortality. We conclude that translocation defeats both HEC mitigation and elephant conservation goals.

  15. Heterologous Synapsis and Crossover Suppression in Heterozygotes for a Pericentric Inversion in the Zebra Finch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Priore, Lucía; Pigozzi, María I

    2015-01-01

    In the zebra finch, 2 alternative morphs regarding centromere position were described for chromosome 6. This polymorphism was interpreted to be the result of a pericentric inversion, but other causes of the centromere repositioning were not ruled out. We used immunofluorescence localization to examine the distribution of MLH1 foci on synaptonemal complexes to test the prediction that pericentric inversions cause synaptic irregularities and/or crossover suppression in heterozygotes. We found complete suppression of crossing over in the region involved in the rearrangement in male and female heterozygotes. In contrast, the same region showed high levels of crossing over in homozygotes for the acrocentric form of this chromosome. No inversion loops or synaptic irregularities were detected along bivalent 6 in heterozygotes suggesting that heterologous pairing is achieved during zygotene or early pachytene. Altogether these findings strongly indicate that the polymorphic chromosome 6 originated by a pericentric inversion. Since inversions are common rearrangements in karyotypic evolution in birds, it seems likely that early heterologous pairing could help to fix these rearrangements, preventing crossing overs in heterozygotes and their deleterious effects on fertility. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Simulations of polymer translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vocks, H.

    2008-01-01

    Transport of molecules across membranes is an essential mechanism for life processes. These molecules are often long, and the pores in the membranes are too narrow for the molecules to pass through as a single unit. In such circumstances, the molecules have to squeeze --- i.e., translocate ---

  17. Heterozygote advantage: the effect of artificial selection in livestock and pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Philip W

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of mutants in livestock and pets that have a heterozygote advantage because of artificial selection for these mutants in heterozygotes and strong detrimental effects from natural selection in homozygotes. In livestock, these mutants include ones that influence milk yield in dairy cattle, fecundity in sheep, litter size in pigs, muscling in beef cattle, color in horses, lean meat content in pigs, and comb morphology in chickens. In pets, these mutants include ones that influence tail length in cats and hairlessness, muscling, color, or ridgeback hair in dogs. A large variety of mutants are responsible, including small or large deletions or insertions and single base-pair nonsynonymous changes. Many of the mutants cause loss of function for the genes involved, a change that results in the pleiotropic effects of a desired phenotype in heterozygotes and low fitness or an undesirable phenotype in mutant homozygotes. I examine how selection changes the frequency of these mutants and provide an approach to estimate the amount of artificial selection that is necessary to maintain these mutants at the high frequencies often observed. The amount of artificial selection ranges from low selection favoring heterozygotes for double muscling in whippet dogs to very strong selection favoring the "flash" (part white, part solid) heterozygote in boxer dogs and the rose comb in chickens. In several examples (rose comb in Wyandotte chickens and the hair ridge in Rhodesian ridgeback dogs), there is actually stronger selection for the mutant than against it, making the frequency of the mutant greater than 50%. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. XY pair associates with the synaptonemal complex of autosomal male-sterile translocations in pachytene spermatocytes of the mouse (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forejt, J; Gregorová, S; Goetz, P

    1981-01-01

    Analysis of the chromosome behaviour at pachytene has been performed by means of the silver staining technique visualizing the synaptonemal complexes (SCs) in male mice heterozygous for the male-sterile translocations T(5;12)31Hm T(16;17)43H and T(7;19)145H, respectively. the T(9;17)138Ca male heterozygotes and T43H/T43H homozygous males were used as fertile controls. The sterile mice displayed a high frequency (about 60%) of pachytene spermatocytes with autosomal translocation configuration located in close vicinity of the XY pair. The dense round body (XAB), normally located near the X-chromosome axis in fertile males, exhibited abnormal affinity to translocation configuration in the sterile translocation heterozygotes. The incomplete synapsis of autosomes involved in translocation configuration was observed in more than 70% of the pachytene spermatocytes with the male-sterile translocations but less than 20% of the cells from T138Ca fertile male.s. A hypothesis relating the spermatogenic arrest of carriers of male-sterile rearrangements to the presumed interference with X chromosome inactivation in male meiosis is discussed.

  19. Heterozygote deficits in cyst plant-parasitic nematodes: possible causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montarry, Josselin; Jan, Pierre-Loup; Gracianne, Cecile; Overall, Andrew D J; Bardou-Valette, Sylvie; Olivier, Eric; Fournet, Sylvain; Grenier, Eric; Petit, Eric J

    2015-04-01

    Deviations of genotypic frequencies from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) expectations could reveal important aspects of the biology of populations. Deviations from HWE due to heterozygote deficits have been recorded for three plant-parasitic nematode species. However, it has never been determined whether the observed deficits were due (i) to the presence of null alleles, (ii) to a high level of consanguinity and/or (iii) to a Wahlund effect. The aim of the present work was, while taking into the possible confounding effect of null alleles, to disentangle consanguinity and Wahlund effect in natural populations of those three economically important cyst nematodes using microsatellite markers: Globodera pallida, G. tabacum and Heterodera schachtii, pests of potato, tobacco and sugar beet, respectively. The results show a consistent pattern of heterozygote deficiency in the three nematode species sampled at the spatial scale of the host plant. We demonstrate that the prevalence of null alleles is weak and that heterozygote deficits do not have a single origin. Our results suggested that it is restricted dispersal that leads to heterozygote deficits through both consanguinity and substructure, which effects can be linked to soil movement, cyst density, and the number of generations per year. We discuss potential implications for the durability of plant resistances that are used to protect crops against parasites in which mating between relatives occur. While consanguineous mating leads to homozygosity at all loci, including loci governing avirulence/virulence, which favours the expression of virulence when recessive, the Wahlund effect is expected to have no particular effect on the adaptation of nematodes to resistances. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Heterozygote loss of ACE2 is sufficient to increase the susceptibility to heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wang; Patel, Vaibhav B; Parajuli, Nirmal; Fan, Dong; Basu, Ratnadeep; Wang, Zuocheng; Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Penninger, Josef M; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2014-08-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) metabolizes Ang II into Ang 1-7 thereby negatively regulating the renin-angiotensin system. However, heart disease in humans and in animal models is associated with only a partial loss of ACE2. ACE2 is an X-linked gene; and as such, we tested the clinical relevance of a partial loss of ACE2 by using female ACE2(+/+) (wildtype) and ACE2(+/-) (heterozygote) mice. Pressure overload in ACE2(+/-) mice resulted in greater LV dilation and worsening systolic and diastolic dysfunction. These changes were associated with increased myocardial fibrosis, hypertrophy, and upregulation of pathological gene expression. In response to Ang II infusion, there was increased NADPH oxidase activity and myocardial fibrosis resulting in the worsening of Ang II-induced diastolic dysfunction with a preserved systolic function. Ang II-mediated cellular effects in cultured adult ACE2(+/-) cardiomyocytes and cardiofibroblasts were exacerbated. Ang II-mediated pathological signaling worsened in ACE2(+/-) hearts characterized by an increase in the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 and STAT-3 pathways. The ACE2(+/-) mice showed an exacerbated pressor response with increased vascular fibrosis and stiffness. Vascular superoxide and nitrotyrosine levels were increased in ACE2(+/-) vessels consistent with increased vascular oxidative stress. These changes occurred with increased renal fibrosis and superoxide production. Partial heterozygote loss of ACE2 is sufficient to increase the susceptibility to heart disease secondary to pressure overload and Ang II infusion. Heart disease in humans with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy is associated with a partial loss of ACE2. Heterozygote female ACE2 mutant mice showed enhanced susceptibility to pressure overload-induced heart disease. Heterozygote female ACE2 mutant mice showed enhanced susceptibility to Ang II-induced heart and vascular diseases. Partial loss of ACE2 is sufficient to enhance the susceptibility to

  1. Heterozygote to homozygote related living donor liver transplantation in maple syrup urine disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, N; Loveland, J; Zuckerman, M; Moshesh, P; Britz, R; Botha, J

    2015-05-01

    Liver transplantation is an accepted treatment modality in the management of MSUD. To our knowledge, ours is only the second successful case to date of a patient with MSUD receiving an allograft from an RLD who is a heterozygous carrier for the disease. In view of the worldwide shortage of available organs for transplantation, heterozygote to homozygote transplantation in the setting of MSUD may provide a viable alternative for those awaiting transplantation. We report on the case of a two-yr-old infant with MSUD, who received a left lateral segment (segments II and III) liver transplant from his mother, a heterozygote carrier of one of the three abnormal genes implicated in MSUD. Post-operative BCAA levels normalized in our patient and remained so on an unrestricted protein diet and during times of physiological stress. To date, this is only the second case of a successful RLD liver transplant in a child with MSUD. Preliminary results indicate that RLD liver transplants are at least equivalent to deceased donor liver transplants in the treatment of MSUD, although longer term follow-up is required. Heterozygote to homozygote RLD transplant in patients with MSUD presents a new pool of potential liver donors. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Production of reciprocal translocation lines and genetical analysis of tetravalent behavior in barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makino, Tokuhiko

    1988-03-01

    The seeds of a barley cultivar, Chikurinibaraki No.1 and of an early mutant line, Ea 52, derived from it were exposed to the external irradiation of gamma ray and thermal neutrons, and to the internal irradiation with the alpha ray from the nuclear reaction B-10 (n, alpha) Li-7 generated by the thermal neutron irradiation of B-10 imbibed seeds. The reciprocal translocation induced by these irradiation was detected and bred in the pedigrees of irradiated materials by the selection in terms of the partial sterility of seeds. The examination of seed fertility and chromosome pairing at the MI of meiosis of the F/sub 1/ hybrid between the selected lines and the original cultivar was also used. Consequently, 50 homozygous lines of reciprocal translocation were confirmed. The tester lines for translocated chromosomes were established by the cytological examination of the chromosome pairing in the hybrids between each two of the tester lines. The investigation of the inheritance of translocation heterozygotes showed that most of the newly obtained lines differently behaved from the expectation on the genetical basis of reciprocal translocation. (Kako, I.).

  3. Production of reciprocal translocation lines and genetical analysis of tetravalent behavior in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Tokuhiko

    1988-01-01

    The seeds of a barley cultivar, Chikurinibaraki No.1 and of an early mutant line, Ea 52, derived from it were exposed to the external irradiation of gamma ray and thermal neutrons, and to the internal irradiation with the alpha ray from the nuclear reaction B-10 (n, alpha) Li-7 generated by the thermal neutron irradiation of B-10 imbibed seeds. The reciprocal translocation induced by these irradiation was detected and bred in the pedigrees of irradiated materials by the selection in terms of the partial sterility of seeds. The examination of seed fertility and chromosome pairing at the MI of meiosis of the F 1 hybrid between the selected lines and the original cultivar was also used. Consequently, 50 homozygous lines of reciprocal translocation were confirmed. The tester lines for translocated chromosomes were established by the cytological examination of the chromosome pairing in the hybrids between each two of the tester lines. The investigation of the inheritance of translocation heterozygotes showed that most of the newly obtained lines differently behaved from the expectation on the genetical basis of reciprocal translocation. (Kako, I.)

  4. HFE C282Y/H63D compound heterozygotes are at low risk of hemochromatosis-related morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrin, Lyle C; Bertalli, Nadine A; Dalton, Gregory W; Osborne, Nicholas J; Constantine, Clare C; McLaren, Christine E; English, Dallas R; Gertig, Dorota M; Delatycki, Martin B; Nicoll, Amanda J; Southey, Melissa C; Hopper, John L; Giles, Graham G; Anderson, Gregory J; Olynyk, John K; Powell, Lawrie W; Allen, Katrina J

    2009-07-01

    The risk of hemochromatosis-related morbidity is unknown among HFE compound heterozygotes (C282Y/H63D). We used a prospective population-based cohort study to estimate the prevalence of elevated iron indices and hemochromatosis-related morbidity for compound heterozygotes. In all, 31,192 subjects of northern European descent were genotyped for HFE C282Y and H63D. An HFE-genotype stratified random sample of 1,438 subjects, followed for an average of 12 years to a mean age of 65 years, completed questionnaires and gave blood. Clinical examinations were blinded to HFE genotype. A total of 180 (84 males) clinically examined C282Y/H63D participants were compared with 330 (149 males) controls with neither HFE mutation; 132 (65 males) and 270 (122 males), respectively, had serum iron measures at both timepoints. Mean serum ferritin (SF) and transferrin saturation (TS) were significantly greater for male and female compound heterozygotes than for wild-types at baseline and follow-up (all P females who were premenopausal at baseline, where SF was similar in both genotype groups. For subjects with serum measures from both baseline and follow-up, mean SF and TS levels did not change significantly for men or for postmenopausal women, but for premenopausal women SF levels increased from 43 to 109 microg/L for compound heterozygotes and from 35 to 64 microg/L for wild-types (both P female compound heterozygotes had a similar prevalence of hemochromatosis-related morbidity to wild-types. One of 82 males and zero of 95 females had documented iron overload-related disease. For male compound heterozygotes, mean iron indices do not change during middle age but for female compound heterozygotes menopause results in increased mean SF. Although compound heterozygotes might maintain elevated iron indices during middle age, documented iron overload-related disease is rare.

  5. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Print Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of Essure ...

  6. Translocations of chromosome end-segments and facultative heterochromatin promote meiotic ring formation in evening primroses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golczyk, Hieronim; Massouh, Amid; Greiner, Stephan

    2014-03-01

    Due to reciprocal chromosomal translocations, many species of Oenothera (evening primrose) form permanent multichromosomal meiotic rings. However, regular bivalent pairing is also observed. Chiasmata are restricted to chromosomal ends, which makes homologous recombination virtually undetectable. Genetic diversity is achieved by changing linkage relations of chromosomes in rings and bivalents via hybridization and reciprocal translocations. Although the structural prerequisite for this system is enigmatic, whole-arm translocations are widely assumed to be the mechanistic driving force. We demonstrate that this prerequisite is genome compartmentation into two epigenetically defined chromatin fractions. The first one facultatively condenses in cycling cells into chromocenters negative both for histone H3 dimethylated at lysine 4 and for C-banding, and forms huge condensed middle chromosome regions on prophase chromosomes. Remarkably, it decondenses in differentiating cells. The second fraction is euchromatin confined to distal chromosome segments, positive for histone H3 lysine 4 dimethylation and for histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation. The end-segments are deprived of canonical telomeres but capped with constitutive heterochromatin. This genomic organization promotes translocation breakpoints between the two chromatin fractions, thus facilitating exchanges of end-segments. We challenge the whole-arm translocation hypothesis by demonstrating why reciprocal translocations of chromosomal end-segments should strongly promote meiotic rings and evolution toward permanent translocation heterozygosity. Reshuffled end-segments, each possessing a major crossover hot spot, can furthermore explain meiotic compatibility between genomes with different translocation histories.

  7. Radioimmunoassay and heat denaturation enzyme assay for the detection of Tay-Sachs heterozygotes during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, C.; Gold, R.J.M.; Mahuran, D.; Lowden, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Tay-Sachs disease results from a loss of activity of hexosaminidase A (HEX A) in body tissues and fluids. Heterozygotes for the disease are usually identified by their relatively low ratio of heat-labile HEX A to total hexosaminidase. During pregnancy an intermediate isoenzyme (HEX I) increases in activity in serum and obscures the heterozygote status. HEX I does not increase in leucocytes, tears and other body tissues but because of technical difficulties in these assays the authors examined the feasibility of using a radioimmunoassay for HEX A. By univariate analysis, the heat denaturation assay gave a lower cost of misclassification for non-pregnant normals while RIA did so for pregnant normals. A combination of both tests led to reduced cost of misclassification compared to either alone. Bayesian analysis of bivariate gaussian density functions for heat denaturation and for radioimmunoassays of HEX isoenzymes was employed to calculate misclassification frequencies. Among the parameters examined, HEX A measured by RIA and % HEX A by heat-denaturation assay were the two having the best discriminatory power. (Auth.)

  8. Identification of ataxia telangiectasia heterozygotes by flow cytometric analysis of X-ray damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, N.S.

    1989-01-01

    Flow cytometry was used to identify heterozygotes for the autosomal recessive DNA-repair deficiency disease ataxia telangiectasia (AT). Confluent G 0 /G 1 fibroblasts from 4 homozygotes (at/at), 5 obligate heterozygates (at/+) and 7 presumed normal (+/+) were X-irradiated with 200 Rad and subcultured immediately in medium containing 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Cells were harvested 72 h later and stained with fluoresceinated anti-BrdU antibody to identify cells that had entered S phase. They were counterstained with propidium iodide to measure total DNA content. On the basis of relative release from G 0 /G 1 , the at/+ strains as a group were distinguished from both the presumed +/+ strains and at/at strains, although the individual values for some strains did show overlap between genotypes. When 10 cell strains were coded and analyzed in 'blind' experiments, all 4 heterozygotes were correctly assigned. By a similar assay in which exponentially growing cultures were pulsed briefly with BrdU 8 h after irradiation with 400 Rad and then harvested immediately, presumed +/+ cells as a group could be distinguished from at/at cells but not from at/- cells. This combination of assays assists in the identification of all 3 AT genotypes. This should be of both basic and diagnostic use, particularly in families known to segregate AT. (author). 37 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  9. Object permanence in the Goffin cockatoo (Cacatua goffini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auersperg, Alice M I; Szabo, Birgit; von Bayern, Auguste M P; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    The ability to represent hidden objects plays an important role in the survival of many species. In order to provide an inclusive synopsis of the current benchmark tasks used to test object permanence in animals for a psittacine representative, we tested eight Goffin cockatoos (Cacatua goffini) on Stages 3-6 of Piagetian object permanence as well as derivations of spatial transposition, rotation, and translocation tasks. Subjects instantly solved visible displacement 3b and 4a but showed an extended plateau for solving Stage 5a at a very late age (10 months). Subjects readily solved most invisible displacement tasks including double hidings and four angles (90°, 180°, 270°, and 360°) of rotation and translocations at high performance levels, although Piagetian Stage 6 invisible displacement tasks caused more difficulties for the animals than transposition, rotations, and translocation tasks. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Urinary excretion of radiocopper in presymptomatic and symptomatic Wilson's disease, heterozygotes and controls: its significance in diagnosis and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, K; Hanka, R; Walshe, J M [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Clinical School

    1978-07-01

    Radiocopper (/sup 64/Cu, /sup 67/Cu), given intravenously, has been used to study the pattern of excretion of copper in patients with presymptomatic, symptomatic and treated Wilson's disease, together with heterozygotes for the Wilson's disease gene and a control group of patients with a variety of neurological lesions mimicking wilson's disease. The most important radiochemical findings were as follows. Heterozygotes excreted less of the injected copper than controls both under basal conditions and after penicillamine. Presymptomatic patients excreted less radiocopper than heterozygotes after penicillamine although the excretion during the basal 24 hour period was very much greater. Patients with symptomatic Wilson's disease had by far the highest excretion of radiocopper in all three time periods which fell after treatment, pro rata with time, as had been found for stable copper. These results were subjected to computer analysis. There was no overlap between the various groups with the exception of a single control subject who had combined pyramidal and extrapyramidal system degeneration of obscure aetiology. This patient was classified by the computer as 'heterozygote'. These findings lend further support to the hypothesis that the loss of a single gene for copper balance can be detected with a high degree of accuracy and also that presymptomatic patients can be selected from a sibship for prophylactic treatment without the risk of subjecting healthy heterozygotes to unnecessary and potentially hazardous longterm therapy.

  11. Structural differences in reciprocal translocations. Potential for a model of risk in Rcp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, A

    1979-10-01

    Interchange segment sizes and the sizes of chromosome imbalance arising from the different modes of meiotic segregation were measured in a selected sample of 20 reciprocal translocations (Rep). The Rep were selected by two modes of ascertainment: (I) neonates with an unbalanced form of the translocation, and (II) couples with recurrent spontaneous abortions without evidence of full-term translocation aneuploid offspring. The measurements (% of haploid autosomal length: %HAL) were plotted as the observed or potential chromosomal imbalance with monosomy (abscissa) and trisomy (ordinate). It was found that (a) the interchange segments were larger in the spontaneous abortion Rcp, (b) that all of the imbalances observed in full-term neonates plotted close to the origin and to the left of the line joining 4% trisomy to 2% monosomy, and (c) the imbalances observed in the neonates in each individual Rcp were of the smallest size possible arising by any segregation mode. It was concluded that a major factor in the survival to term of aneuploid conceptuses is the size (proportion of genome) of the chromosome abnormality, irrespective of the origin of the chromosome regions. These results are discussed in relation to their use as a model to evaluate the risk of abnormal offspring in the progeny of translocation heterozygotes (the Chromosome Imbalance Size-Viability Model).

  12. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa

  13. Electochemical detection of chromosome translocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Dimaki, Maria; Silahtaroglu, Asli

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetics is a study of the cell structure with a main focus on chromosomes content and their structure. Chromosome abnormalities, such as translocations may cause various genetic disorders and heametological malignancies. Chromosome translocations are structural rearrangements of two...... chromosomes that results in formation of derivative chromosomes with a mixed DNA sequence. The method currently used for their detection is Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization, which requires a use of expensive, fluorescently labeled probes that target the derivative chromosomes. We present here a double...... hybridization approach developed for label-free detection of the chromosome translocations. For specific translocation detection it is necessary to determine that the two DNA sequences forming a derivative chromosome are connected, which is achieved by two subsequent hybridization steps. The electrochemical...

  14. Chromosomal Translocations in Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae-Facilitators of Adaptive Radiation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H Adler

    Full Text Available A macrogenomic investigation of a Holarctic clade of black flies-the Simulium cholodkovskii lineage-provided a platform to explore the implications of a unique, synapomorphic whole-arm interchange in the evolution of black flies. Nearly 60 structural rearrangements were discovered in the polytene complement of the lineage, including 15 common to all 138 analyzed individuals, relative to the central sequence for the entire subgenus Simulium. Three species were represented, of which two Palearctic entities (Simulium cholodkovskii and S. decimatum were sympatric; an absence of hybrids confirmed their reproductive isolation. A third (Nearctic entity had nonhomologous sex chromosomes, relative to the other species, and is considered a separate species, for which the name Simulium nigricoxum is revalidated. A cytophylogeny is inferred and indicates that the two Palearctic taxa are sister species and these, in turn, are the sister group of the Nearctic species. The rise of the S. cholodkovskii lineage encompassed complex chromosomal and genomic restructuring phenomena associated with speciation in black flies, viz. expression of one and the same rearrangement as polymorphic, fixed, or sex linked in different species; taxon-specific differentiation of sex chromosomes; and reciprocal translocation of chromosome arms. The translocation is hypothesized to have occurred early in male spermatogonia, with the translocated chromosomal complement being transmitted to the X- and Y-bearing sperm during spermatogenesis, resulting in alternate disjunction of viable F1 translocation heterozygotes and the eventual formation of more viable and selectable F2 translocation homozygous progeny. Of 11 or 12 independently derived whole-arm interchanges known in the family Simuliidae, at least six are associated with subsequent speciation events, suggesting a facilitating role of translocations in adaptive radiations. The findings are discussed in the context of potential

  15. HFE C282Y/H63D Compound Heterozygotes Are at Low Risk of Hemochromatosis-Related Morbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Gurrin, Lyle C.; Bertalli, Nadine A.; Dalton, Gregory W.; Osborne, Nicholas J.; Constantine, Clare C.; McLaren, Christine E.; English, Dallas R.; Gertig, Dorota M.; Delatycki, Martin B.; Nicoll, Amanda J.; Southey, Melissa C.; Hopper, John L.; Giles, Graham G.; Anderson, Gregory J.; Olynyk, John K.

    2009-01-01

    The risk of hemochromatosis-related morbidity is unknown among HFE compound heterozygotes (C282Y/H63D). We used a prospective population-based cohort study to estimate the prevalence of elevated iron indices and hemochromatosis-related morbidity for compound heterozygotes. In all, 31,192 subjects of northern European descent were genotyped for HFE C282Y and H63D. An HFE-genotype stratified random sample of 1,438 subjects, followed for an average of 12 years to a mean age of 65 years, complete...

  16. Marxism as permanent revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that the 'permanent revolution' represented the dominant element in Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels' political discourse, and that it tended to overrule considerations encapsulated in 'historical materialism'. In Marx and Engels's understanding, permanent revolution did not

  17. Two sibs who are double heterozygotes for achondroplasia and pseudoachondroplastic dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, C G; Rogers, J G; Mayne, V

    1994-01-01

    We report a family in which two sibs have both achondroplasia and pseudoachondroplastic dysplasia. The mother has achondroplasia and the father has pseudoachondroplastic dysplasia, which he had inherited from his father. Both children appeared typical of achondroplasia at birth. By 1 1/2 years they had developed a fixed lumbar kyphosis with gibbus and had additional x ray changes unusual for just achondroplasia and suggestive of pseudoachondroplastic dysplasia. Subsequently both children have shown characteristic features of both conditions and have grown less well than expected for achondroplasia. Radiographs show the striking synergistic effects of the two conditions. MRI in both sibs confirmed brain stem compression at the foramen magnum. This may be an important complication and should be actively sought in any double heterozygote. Images PMID:7966194

  18. Stigmatization of carrier status: social implications of heterozygote genetic screening programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenen, R H; Schmidt, R M

    1978-01-01

    Possible latent psychological and social consequences ensuing from genetic screening programs need to be investigated during the planning phase of national genetic screening programs. The relatively few studies which have been performed to determine psychological, social, and economic consequences resulting from a genetic screening program are reviewed. Stigmatization of carrier-status, having major psychosocial implications in heterozygote genetic screening programs, is discussed and related to Erving Goffman's work in the area of stigmatization. Questions are raised regarding the relationship between such variables as religiosity and sex of the individual and acceptance of the status of newly identified carrier of a mutant gene. Severity of the deleterious gene and visibility of the carrier status are two important factors to consider in an estimation of potential stigma. Specific implications are discussed for four genetic diseases: Tay-Sachs, Sickle-Cell Anemia, Huntington's disease and Hemophilia. PMID:152585

  19. Alterations in plasma lipoproteins and apolipoproteins before the age of 40 in heterozygotes for lipoprotein lipase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijvoet, S.; Gagné, S. E.; Moorjani, S.; Gagné, C.; Henderson, H. E.; Fruchart, J. C.; Dallongeville, J.; Alaupovic, P.; Prins, M. [=Martin H.; Kastelein, J. J.; Hayden, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    We have assessed the expression of heterozygosity for lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency by studying a single large French Canadian family comprising 92 persons including 21 carriers of the catalytically defective P207L mutation. Phenotypic changes distinguishing heterozygotes from controls were

  20. Translocations of Chromosome End-Segments and Facultative Heterochromatin Promote Meiotic Ring Formation in Evening Primroses[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golczyk, Hieronim; Massouh, Amid; Greiner, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Due to reciprocal chromosomal translocations, many species of Oenothera (evening primrose) form permanent multichromosomal meiotic rings. However, regular bivalent pairing is also observed. Chiasmata are restricted to chromosomal ends, which makes homologous recombination virtually undetectable. Genetic diversity is achieved by changing linkage relations of chromosomes in rings and bivalents via hybridization and reciprocal translocations. Although the structural prerequisite for this system is enigmatic, whole-arm translocations are widely assumed to be the mechanistic driving force. We demonstrate that this prerequisite is genome compartmentation into two epigenetically defined chromatin fractions. The first one facultatively condenses in cycling cells into chromocenters negative both for histone H3 dimethylated at lysine 4 and for C-banding, and forms huge condensed middle chromosome regions on prophase chromosomes. Remarkably, it decondenses in differentiating cells. The second fraction is euchromatin confined to distal chromosome segments, positive for histone H3 lysine 4 dimethylation and for histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation. The end-segments are deprived of canonical telomeres but capped with constitutive heterochromatin. This genomic organization promotes translocation breakpoints between the two chromatin fractions, thus facilitating exchanges of end-segments. We challenge the whole-arm translocation hypothesis by demonstrating why reciprocal translocations of chromosomal end-segments should strongly promote meiotic rings and evolution toward permanent translocation heterozygosity. Reshuffled end-segments, each possessing a major crossover hot spot, can furthermore explain meiotic compatibility between genomes with different translocation histories. PMID:24681616

  1. The permanent process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; McCullagh, Peter

    We extend the boson process first to a large class of Cox processes and second an even larger class of infinitely divisible point processes. Density and moment results are studied in detail. These results are obtained in closed form as weighted permanents, so the extension is called a permanent...... process. Temporal extensions and a particularly tractable case of the permanent process are also studied. Extensions of the ferminon process along similar lines, leading to so-called determinant processes, are discussed at the end. While the permanent process is attractive, the determinant process...

  2. The risk of familial Mediterranean fever in MEFV heterozygotes: a statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jéru, Isabelle; Hentgen, Véronique; Cochet, Emmanuelle; Duquesnoy, Philippe; Le Borgne, Gaëlle; Grimprel, Emmanuel; Stojanovic, Katia Stankovic; Karabina, Sonia; Grateau, Gilles; Amselem, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive autoinflammatory disorder due to MEFV mutations and one of the most frequent Mediterranean genetic diseases. The observation of many heterozygous patients in whom a second mutated allele was excluded led to the proposal that heterozygosity could be causal. However, heterozygosity might be coincidental in many patients due to the very high rate of mutations in Mediterranean populations. To better delineate the pathogenicity of heterozygosity in order to improve genetic counselling and disease management. Complementary statistical approaches were used: estimation of FMF prevalence at population levels, genotype comparison in siblings from 63 familial forms, and genotype study in 557 patients from four Mediterranean populations. At the population level, we did not observe any contribution of heterozygosity to disease prevalence. In affected siblings of patients carrying two MEFV mutations, 92% carry two mutated alleles, whereas 4% are heterozygous with typical FMF diagnosis. We demonstrated statistically that patients are more likely to be heterozygous than healthy individuals, as shown by the higher ratio heterozygous carriers/non carriers in patients (pclassical Mendelian FMF per se, but constitutes a susceptibility factor for clinically-similar multifactorial forms of the disease. We also provide a first estimate of the risk for heterozygotes to develop FMF.

  3. Prenatal detection of a probable heterozygote for ADA deficiency and severe combined immunodeficiency disease using a microradioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, D.A.; Kleijer, W.J.; Niermeijer, M.F.; Galjaard, H.; Herbschleb-Voogt, E.

    1980-01-01

    A pregnancy at risk for adenosine deaminase deficiency and severe combined immunodeficiency disease has been investigated by assay of adenosine deaminase activity in cultured amniotic fluid cells using a microradioassay. A low-normal level of consistent with heterozygote status in the foetus was found and confirmed after birth by assay of red cell and fibroblast adenosine deaminase activities. It is suggested that the radioassay method offers significant advantages in sensitivity and specificity over the standard spectrophotometric procedure. (author)

  4. Bacterial translocation: impact of probiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Jeppsson, Bengt; Mangell, Peter; Adawi, Diya; Molin, Göran

    2004-01-01

    There is a considerable amount of data in humans showing that patients who cannot take in nutrients enterally have more organ failure in the intensive care unit, a less favourable prognosis, and a higher frequency of septicaemia, in particular involving bacterial species from the intestinal tract. However, there is little evidence that this is connected with translocation of bacterial species in humans. Animal data more uniformly imply the existence of such a connection. The main focus of thi...

  5. Suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, Jennifer M; Bishop, Phillip J

    2009-02-01

    Translocations are important tools in the field of conservation. Despite increased use over the last few decades, the appropriateness of translocations for amphibians and reptiles has been debated widely over the past 20 years. To provide a comprehensive evaluation of the suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation, we reviewed the results of amphibian and reptile translocation projects published between 1991 and 2006. The success rate of amphibian and reptile translocations reported over this period was twice that reported in an earlier review in 1991. Success and failure rates were independent of the taxonomic class (Amphibia or Reptilia) released. Reptile translocations driven by human-wildlife conflict mitigation had a higher failure rate than those motivated by conservation, and more recent projects of reptile translocations had unknown outcomes. The outcomes of amphibian translocations were significantly related to the number of animals released, with projects releasing over 1000 individuals being most successful. The most common reported causes of translocation failure were homing and migration of introduced individuals out of release sites and poor habitat. The increased success of amphibian and reptile translocations reviewed in this study compared with the 1991 review is encouraging for future conservation projects. Nevertheless, more preparation, monitoring, reporting of results, and experimental testing of techniques and reintroduction questions need to occur to improve translocations of amphibians and reptiles as a whole.

  6. Markovian description of unbiased polymer translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondaini, Felipe; Moriconi, L.

    2012-01-01

    We perform, with the help of cloud computing resources, extensive Langevin simulations which provide compelling evidence in favor of a general Markovian framework for unbiased three-dimensional polymer translocation. Our statistical analysis consists of careful evaluations of (i) two-point correlation functions of the translocation coordinate and (ii) the empirical probabilities of complete polymer translocation (taken as a function of the initial number of monomers on a given side of the membrane). We find good agreement with predictions derived from the Markov chain approach recently addressed in the literature by the present authors. -- Highlights: ► We investigate unbiased polymer translocation through membrane pores. ► Large statistical ensembles have been produced with the help of cloud computing resources. ► We evaluate the two-point correlation function of the translocation coordinate. ► We evaluate empirical probabilities for complete polymer translocation. ► Unbiased polymer translocation is described as a Markov stochastic process.

  7. Markovian description of unbiased polymer translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondaini, Felipe [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica Celso Suckow da Fonseca, UnED Angra dos Reis, Angra dos Reis, 23953-030, RJ (Brazil); Moriconi, L., E-mail: moriconi@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-10-01

    We perform, with the help of cloud computing resources, extensive Langevin simulations which provide compelling evidence in favor of a general Markovian framework for unbiased three-dimensional polymer translocation. Our statistical analysis consists of careful evaluations of (i) two-point correlation functions of the translocation coordinate and (ii) the empirical probabilities of complete polymer translocation (taken as a function of the initial number of monomers on a given side of the membrane). We find good agreement with predictions derived from the Markov chain approach recently addressed in the literature by the present authors. -- Highlights: ► We investigate unbiased polymer translocation through membrane pores. ► Large statistical ensembles have been produced with the help of cloud computing resources. ► We evaluate the two-point correlation function of the translocation coordinate. ► We evaluate empirical probabilities for complete polymer translocation. ► Unbiased polymer translocation is described as a Markov stochastic process.

  8. Permanences GAG-EPA

    CERN Document Server

    GAC-EPA

    2015-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 5 mai de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 2 juin, 1er septembre, 6 octobre, 3 novembre et 1er décembre 2015. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires.

  9. Permanent quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, E.D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A family of quadrupole magnets using a soft iron return yoke and circular cross-section permanent magnet poles were fabricated to investigate the feasibility for use in ion or electron beam focusing applications in accelerators and transport lines. Magnetic field measurements yielded promising results. In fixed-field applications, permanent magnets with sufficient gradients would be a low cost substitute for conventional electromagnets, eliminating the need for power supplies, associated wiring, and cooling. Based on preliminary tests, it was seen that permanent quadrupole magnets can offer a low cost, reliable solution in applications requiring small, fixed-field focusing devices for use in ion or electron-beam transport systems. Permanent magnets do require special considerations in design, fabrication, handling, and service that are different than encountered in conventional quadrupole magnets. If these basic conditions are satisfied, the resulting beam-focusing device would be stable, maintenance free, with virtually an indefinite lifetime

  10. Permanent quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, E.D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A family of quadrupole magnets using a soft iron return yoke and circular cross-section permanent magnet poles were fabricated to investigate the feasibility for use in ion or electron beam focusing applications in accelerators and transport lines. Magnetic field measurements yielded promising results. In fixed-field applications, permanent magnets with sufficient gradients would be a low cost substitute for conventional electromagnets, eliminating the need for power supplies, associated wiring, and cooling. (author)

  11. Marxism as permanent revolution

    OpenAIRE

    van Ree, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that the 'permanent revolution' represented the dominant element in Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels' political discourse, and that it tended to overrule considerations encapsulated in 'historical materialism'. In Marx and Engels's understanding, permanent revolution did not represent a historical shortcut under exceptional circumstances, but the course revolutions in the modern era would normally take. Marx and Engels traced back the pattern to the sixteenth century. It is ...

  12. Translocations affecting human immunoglobulin heavy chain locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sklyar I. V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Translocations involving human immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH locus are implicated in different leukaemias and lymphomas, including multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. We have analysed published data and identified eleven breakpoint cluster regions (bcr related to these cancers within the IgH locus. These ~1 kbp bcrs are specific for one or several types of blood cancer. Our findings could help devise PCR-based assays to detect cancer-related translocations, to identify the mechanisms of translocations and to help in the research of potential translocation partners of the immunoglobulin locus at different stages of B-cell differentiation.

  13. Iron overload in HFE C282Y heterozygotes at first genetic testing: a strategy for identifying rare HFE variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Martinez, Patricia; Grandchamp, Bernard; Cunat, Séverine; Cadet, Estelle; Blanc, François; Nourrit, Marlène; Lassoued, Kaiss; Schved, Jean-François; Rochette, Jacques

    2011-04-01

    Heterozygotes for the p.Cys282Tyr (C282Y) mutation of the HFE gene do not usually express a hemochromatosis phenotype. Apart from the compound heterozygous state for C282Y and the widespread p.His63Asp (H63D) variant allele, other rare HFE mutations can be found in trans on chromosome 6. We performed molecular investigation of the genes implicated in hereditary hemochromatosis in six patients who presented with iron overload but were simple heterozygotes for the HFE C282Y mutation at first genetic testing. Functional impairment of new variants was deduced from computational methods including molecular modeling studies. We identified four rare HFE mutant alleles, three of which have not been previously described. One mutation is a 13-nucleotide deletion in exon 6 (c.1022_1034del13, p.His341_Ala345 > LeufsX119), which is predicted to lead to an elongated and unstable protein. The second one is a substitution of the last nucleotide of exon 2 (c.340G > A, p.Glu114Lys) which modifies the relative solvent accessibility in a loop interface. The third mutation, p.Arg67Cys, also lies in exon 2 and introduces a destabilization of the secondary structure within a loop of the α1 domain. We also found the previously reported c.548T > C (p.Leu183Pro) missense mutation in exon 3. No other known iron genes were mutated. We present an algorithm at the clinical and genetic levels for identifying patients deserving further investigation. Conclusions Our results suggest that additional mutations in HFE may have a clinical impact in C282Y carriers. In conjunction with results from previously described cases we conclude that an elevated transferrin saturation level and elevated hepatic iron index should indicate the utility of searching for further HFE mutations in C282Y heterozygotes prior to other iron gene studies.

  14. Introduction to permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijlstra, H.

    1985-01-01

    Some general considerations concerning the application of permanent magnets are developed. The relevant magnet properties are discussed, with particular reference to Nd-Fe-B alloy. The author comes to the following conclusions; the air gap field B should be high, for high electrical efficiency; the magnet should face the air gap, for efficient use of the magnet material; the magnet material should therefore have a high remanence; and the new Nd-Fe-B magnet fits in nicely, having (potentially) the highest remanence ever reported in permanent magnets, combined with sufficient coercivity to sustain it

  15. Luxation of the elbow complicated by proximal radio-ulnar translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekloef, O.; Nybonde, T.; Karlsson, G.; St. Goeran's Children's Hospital, Stockholm

    1990-01-01

    Luxation of the elbow complicated by proximal radio-ulnar translocation is a rare entity. The clue to diagosis is the reversed position of the bones of the proxomal forearm. In the a.p. projection the radial head articulates with the trochlea and the ulna with the capitellum. This unexpected anatomic relationship is easily overlooked. Delayed reduction may result in permanent impairment of elbow motility. Our experience with three recent cases is presented. (orig.)

  16. Luxation of the elbow complicated by proximal radio-ulnar translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekloef, O.; Nybonde, T.; Karlsson, G. (St. Goeran' s Children' s Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Radiology St. Goeran' s Children' s Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Surgery)

    1990-03-01

    Luxation of the elbow complicated by proximal radio-ulnar translocation is a rare entity. The clue to diagosis is the reversed position of the bones of the proxomal forearm. In the a.p. projection the radial head articulates with the trochlea and the ulna with the capitellum. This unexpected anatomic relationship is easily overlooked. Delayed reduction may result in permanent impairment of elbow motility. Our experience with three recent cases is presented. (orig.).

  17. Translocality in Global Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Søderberg, Anne-Marie; Krishna, S.

    2017-01-01

    . We explored how agile processes in global outsourcing impacts work conditions of the Indian IT developers, and were surprised to find that agile methodologies, even after 3 years of implementation, created a stressful and inflexible work environment negatively impacting their personal lives. Many......What happens when agile methods are introduced in global outsourcing set-ups? Agile methods are designed to empower IT developers in decision-making through self-managing collocated teams. We studied how agile methods were introduced into global outsourcing from the Indian IT vendor’s perspective...... of the negative aspects of work, which agile methodologies were developed to reduce, were evident in the global agile outsourcing set-up. We propose translocality to repudiate the dichotomy of global/local reminding us that methodologies and technologies must be understood as immediately localized and situated...

  18. Object permanence in lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Anja M; Wright, Patricia C; Szelistowski, William A

    2009-03-01

    Object permanence, the ability to mentally represent objects that have disappeared from view, should be advantageous to animals in their interaction with the natural world. The objective of this study was to examine whether lemurs possess object permanence. Thirteen adult subjects representing four species of diurnal lemur (Eulemur fulvus rufus, Eulemur mongoz, Lemur catta and Hapalemur griseus) were presented with seven standard Piagetian visible and invisible object displacement tests, plus one single visible test where the subject had to wait predetermined times before allowed to search, and two invisible tests where each hiding place was made visually unique. In all visible tests lemurs were able to find an object that had been in clear view before being hidden. However, when lemurs were not allowed to search for up to 25-s, performance declined with increasing time-delay. Subjects did not outperform chance on any invisible displacements regardless of whether hiding places were visually uniform or unique, therefore the upper limit of object permanence observed was Stage 5b. Lemur species in this study eat stationary foods and are not subject to stalking predators, thus Stage 5 object permanence is probably sufficient to solve most problems encountered in the wild.

  19. All paired up with no place to go: pairing, synapsis, and DSB formation in a balancer heterozygote.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei J Gong

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The multiply inverted X chromosome balancer FM7 strongly suppresses, or eliminates, the occurrence of crossing over when heterozygous with a normal sequence homolog. We have utilized the LacI-GFP: lacO system to visualize the effects of FM7 on meiotic pairing, synapsis, and double-strand break formation in Drosophila oocytes. Surprisingly, the analysis of meiotic pairing and synapsis for three lacO reporter couplets in FM7/X heterozygotes revealed they are paired and synapsed during zygotene/pachytene in 70%-80% of oocytes. Moreover, the regions defined by these lacO couplets undergo double-strand break formation at normal frequency. Thus, even complex aberration heterozygotes usually allow high frequencies of meiotic pairing, synapsis, and double-strand break formation in Drosophila oocytes. However, the frequencies of failed pairing and synapsis were still 1.5- to 2-fold higher than were observed for corresponding regions in oocytes with two normal sequence X chromosomes, and this effect was greatest near a breakpoint. We propose that heterozygosity for breakpoints creates a local alteration in synaptonemal complex structure that is propagated across long regions of the bivalent in a fashion analogous to chiasma interference, which also acts to suppress crossing over.

  20. Quantitative Trait Loci Influencing Hb F Levels in Southern Thai Hb E (HBB: c.79G>A) Heterozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesornsit, Aumpika; Jeenduang, Nutjaree; Horpet, Dararat; Plyduang, Thunyaluk; Nuinoon, Manit

    2018-01-01

    Variation of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) expression in heterozygous Hb E (HBB: c.79G>A) individuals is associated with several genetic modifiers and not well understood. This study was undertaken in order to determine the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including XmnI G γ (rs7482144), rs766432 on the BCL11A gene and rs9376074 on the HBS1L gene, on Hb F levels in Southern Thai heterozygous Hb E individuals. A total of 97 Southern Thai subjects carrying heterozygous Hb E were selected for the hematological study. After excluding the samples with α-thalassemia (α-thal) interaction or moderate anemia, because both conditions can affect the hematological parameters, the remaining 74 samples were submitted to SNP analysis. Hematological parameters were measured using an automated hematology analyzer and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that rs766432 was strongly associated with increased Hb F levels and rs7482144 was associated with Hb F levels in each subgroup (genotype) of rs766432. This study suggested that the BCL11A locus has a major effect on Hb F levels compared with the XmnI polymorphism in Hb E heterozygotes. This association of Hb F levels with SNPs is useful for the interpretation of hemoglobin (Hb) typing in heterozygous Hb E samples with high Hb F levels. Future research will need to address the better understanding of the mechanisms of the SNPs that regulate Hb F production without stress erythropoiesis in Hb E heterozygotes.

  1. Male meiosis and gametogenesis in wild house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) from a chromosomal hybrid zone; a comparison between "simple" Robertsonian heterozygotes and homozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, B M; Searle, J B; Everett, C A

    1992-01-01

    Wild male house mice Mus musculus domesticus were collected from the hybrid zone between the John o'Groats race (2n = 32) and the standard race (2n = 40) in northern Scotland. Meiosis in both homozygotes (2n = 32, 36, and 40) and single Robertsonian heterozygotes (2n = 33, 35, and 37) was found to be orderly. At prophase/metaphase I in heterozygotes, a trivalent was formed from the metacentric and two homologous acrocentrics. At pachytene, this trivalent usually had a single side arm at the position of the centromeres, as a result of nonhomologous pairing of the acrocentrics. This side arm persisted into diplotene. Generally only a single chiasma was formed between each acrocentric and the metacentric. Anaphase I nondisjunction frequencies were estimated as 1.5% for the homozygotes and 2.7% for the heterozygotes. The extent of germ cell death between the pachytene and round spermatid stages was 18% greater in heterozygotes than in homozygotes. Our results concur with previous studies which indicate that single Robertsonian heterozygotes in wild house mice have near-normal fertility.

  2. The Question of Decalage Between Object Permanence and Person Permanence

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Jackson, Elaine

    1978-01-01

    Presents a study of decalage between object permanence and person permanence. Decalage was influenced by environmental as well as stimulus factors with infants tested between 6- and 81/4-months/of-age. (BD)

  3. Variable Permanent Magnet Quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, T.; Iwashita, Y.; Kyoto U.; Kumada, M.; NIRS, Chiba; Spencer, C.M.; SLAC

    2007-01-01

    A permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) is one of the candidates for the final focus lens in a linear collider. An over 120 T/m strong variable permanent magnet quadrupole is achieved by the introduction of saturated iron and a 'double ring structure'. A fabricated PMQ achieved 24 T integrated gradient with 20 mm bore diameter, 100 mm magnet diameter and 20 cm pole length. The strength of the PMQ is adjustable in 1.4 T steps, due to its 'double ring structure': the PMQ is split into two nested rings; the outer ring is sliced along the beam line into four parts and is rotated to change the strength. This paper describes the variable PMQ from fabrication to recent adjustments

  4. Superconducting permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wipf, S.L.; Laquer, H.L.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of superconducting permanent magnets with fields trapped in shells or cylinders of Type II superconductors is an old one. Unfortunately, the low values of 0.5 to 1T for the first flux jump field, which is independent of the actual current density, have frustrated its implementation with classical Type II superconductors. The fact that the flux jump fields for high temperature superconductors should be an order of magnitude larger at liquid nitrogen temperatures allows us to reconsider these options. Analysis of the hysteresis patterns, based on the critical state model, shows that, if the dimensions are chosen so that the sample is penetrated at a field B/sub p/, which is equal to or just less than the first flux jump field, B/sub fj/, a temporarily applied field of 2B/sub fj/ will trap 0.5 B/sub fj/. Thus for a 90 K superconductor with a B/sub fj/ of 6T, a permanent field of 3 T should be trapped, with an energy product of 1.8 MJ/m/sup 3/ (225 MG . Oe). This is five times as large as for the best permanent magnet materials. The authors discuss means to verify the analysis and the limitations imposed by the low critical current densities in presently available high temperature superconductors

  5. Lawful Permanent Residents - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  6. Carbon and nitrogen translocation between seagrass ramets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marbà, N.; Hemminga, M.A.; Mateo, M.A.; Duarte, C.M.; Maas, Y.E.M.; Terrados, J.; Gacia, E.

    2002-01-01

    The spatial scale and the magnitude of carbon and nitrogen translocation was examined in 5 tropical (Cymodocea serrulata, Halophila stipulacea, Halodule uninervis, Thalassodendron ciliatum, Thalassia hemprichii) and 3 temperate (Cymodocea nodosa, Posidonia oceanica, Zostera noltii) seagrass species

  7. Dudleya Variegata Translocation - San Diego [ds654

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — At Mission Trails Regional Park, a translocation project of Dudleya variegata was conducted in efforts to save the population from a private property undergoing...

  8. New permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K.-H.; Krabbes, G.; Fink, J.; Gruß, S.; Kirchner, A.; Fuchs, G.; Schultz, L.

    2001-05-01

    Permanent magnets play an important role and are widely spread in daily-life applications. Due to their very low costs, large availability of the row materials and their high chemical stability, hard ferrites are still dominant in the permanent magnet market although their relatively poor magnetic properties are a distinct disadvantage. Today's high-performance magnets are mostly made from Nd 2Fe 14B. The aim of research is to combine the large spontaneous magnetization of 3d metals with strong anisotropy fields known from rare-earth transition-metal compounds and, at the same time, to maintain a high value of the Curie temperature. However, the number of iron-rich rare-earth intermetallics is very limited and, consequently, not much success can be noted in this field for the last 10 years. One alternative concept is to use magnetic fields trapped in type II superconductors where much higher fields can be achieved compared to conventional rare-earth magnets. Very recently, we obtained a trapped field as high as 14.4 T in a melt-textured YBCO bulk sample of a few centimeters in diameter. This is the highest value ever achieved in a bulk superconductor. The trapped field of a superconductor is not governed by the Laplace equation and, therefore, levitation works without any additional (active) stabilization. The disadvantage of these magnets is their low working temperature (of liquid nitrogen and below).

  9. Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, J.; Lebec, G.; Penel, C.; Revol, F.; Kitegi, C.

    2010-01-01

    For an in-vacuum undulator operated at small gaps the permanent magnet material needs to be highly resistant to possible electron beam exposure. At room temperature, one generally uses Sm 2 Co 17 or high coercivity NdFeB magnets at the expense of a limited field performance. In a cryogenic permanent magnet undulator (CPMU), at a temperature of around 150 K, any NdFeB grade reveals a coercivity large enough to be radiation resistant. In particular, very high remanence NdFeB material can be used to build undulators with enhanced field and X-ray brilliance at high photon energy provided that the pre-baking of the undulator above 100 deg. C can be eliminated. The ESRF has developed a full scale 2 m long CPMU with a period of 18 mm. This prototype has been in operation on the ID6 test beamline since January 2008. A significant effort was put into the characterization of NdFeB material at low temperature, the development of dedicated magnetic measurement systems and cooling methods. The measured heat budget with beam is found to be larger than expected without compromising the smooth operation of the device. Leading on from this first experience, new CPMUs are currently being considered for the upgrade of the ESRF.

  10. The use of heterozygote soybean chlorophyll-deficient mutant gene Y11 as a test-system for environmental monitoring after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashidov, N.; Grodzinski, D.

    1994-01-01

    A heterozygote soybean line contains a gene of chlorophyll-deficiency, y 11 gene. The gene Y 11 is only partially dominant over y 11 ; thus heterozygote Y 11 y 11 plant has leaves of light green colour. Mitotic crossing-over and somatic mosaicism on Y 11 y 11 leaves of heterozygote plants are observed by scheme Y 11 Y 11 - Y 11 y 11 - y 11 y 11 as double and/or single spots. Investigation has been carried out to evaluate the low level radioactivity effects on heterozygote soybean as test-system. Solution of 3 H 2 O and 90 SrCl 2 has been used as a beta-source. The seeds were soaked in 3 H 2 O (0.2 MBq/ml) for 96 h or in 90 SrCl 2 water solution (10 MBq/ml) during 3 days. The effects of beta-irradiation were compared with the data from experiments with acute gamma-irradiation. The dose used ranged from 1 to 30 Gy (dose rate 0.14 Gy/c). Some experimental plots were also selected in Kiev, Zaporozhe regions and in the 10-km zone around Chernobyl. In the field experiments the lowest frequency of somatic mutation was registered in Kiev and Zaporozhe region where the environmental conditions were comparatively clear. But for the low accumulated doses in the 10-km zone around Chernobyl and in the laboratory experiments with beta-irradiation (for 3 H and 90 Sr), the genetic effects were high enough. It is necessary to take into account that for acute gamma-irradiation a nearly linear relationship between the dose and frequency of the somatic mutation was estimated. This fact allows to determine RBE for environmental pollution with various radioactive isotopes. It is proposed to use the heterozygote soybean as a sensitive test-system for studying the genetic effects in radioactive contaminated areas of Chernobyl region. (author)

  11. Stochastic resonance during a polymer translocation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Debasish; Muthukumar, M.

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the occurrence of stochastic resonance when a flexible polymer chain undergoes a single-file translocation through a nano-pore separating two spherical cavities, under a time-periodic external driving force. The translocation of the chain is controlled by a free energy barrier determined by chain length, pore length, pore-polymer interaction, and confinement inside the donor and receiver cavities. The external driving force is characterized by a frequency and amplitude. By combining the Fokker-Planck formalism for polymer translocation and a two-state model for stochastic resonance, we have derived analytical formulas for criteria for emergence of stochastic resonance during polymer translocation. We show that no stochastic resonance is possible if the free energy barrier for polymer translocation is purely entropic in nature. The polymer chain exhibits stochastic resonance only in the presence of an energy threshold in terms of polymer-pore interactions. Once stochastic resonance is feasible, the chain entropy controls the optimal synchronization conditions significantly.

  12. Translocation and radio-telemetry monitoring of pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea (Spix, 1823, in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAR. Dias

    Full Text Available Two groups of pygmy marmoset (Cebuella pygmaea were rescued along the left bank of the Madeira River during the formation of Santo Antônio Hydroelectric Dam reservoir in the state of Rondônia, Northern Brazil. Reintroduction of both groups occurred in areas of open Tropical rainforest located within the project´s Permanent Preservation Area. A post-release monitoring was conducted for three months using radio-telemetry. Individuals of each group remained together and settled in stable home ranges near their respective release sites. The mortality rate of translocated animals was about 7%. This seems to be the first report documenting the complete group translocation of C. pygmaea and the first to successfully employ radio-telemetry techniques in monitoring this species. This study demonstrated the feasibility of translocation and the use of radio-telemetry in monitoring C. pygmaea.

  13. Nuclear translocation and retention of growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertani, Hichem C; Raccurt, Mireille; Abbate, Aude

    2003-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that GH is subject to rapid receptor-dependent nuclear translocation. Here, we examine the importance of ligand activation of the GH-receptor (GHR)-associated Janus kinase (JAK) 2 and receptor dimerization for hormone internalization and nuclear translocation by use...... of cells stably transfected with cDNA for the GHR. Staurosporine and herbimycin A treatment of cells did not affect the ability of GH to internalize but resulted in increased nuclear accumulation of hormone. Similarly, receptor mutations, which prevent the association and activation of JAK2, did not affect...... the ability of the hormone to internalize or translocate to the nucleus but resulted in increased nuclear accumulation of GH. These results were observed both by nuclear isolation and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Staurosporine treatment of cells in which human GH (hGH) was targeted to the cytoplasm...

  14. Thyroid aplasia in male sibling of heterozygotic twins born to the hyperthyroid mother treated with propylthiouracil during pregnancy (case report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarzouki, A A

    2012-01-01

    A 30-year-old pregnant female was diagnosed to have thyrotoxicosis (TSH= 0.005 µU/ml) at 13th week of gestation. Propylthiouracil (PTU; 200 mg daily) was prescribed to her and four weekly follow ups by the endocrinologist and obstetrician were ensured. At each examination TSH, FT4 and FT3 levels were normal and she became symptom free. Repeated ultrasound examination throughout the pregnancy did not reveal any fetal abnormality. The lady normally delivered heterozygotic twins. Umbilical cord blood of the baby boy twin showed a high TSH (541 µU/ml; reference range 0.270 - 4.20 μU/ml). He was started on thyroxine therapy (50 µg once daily). Ultrasound reported the absence of the thyroid gland. One month later TSH was within normal range and thyroxine dose was adjusted to 25 µg once daily. Repeated ultrasound confirmed the absence of thyroid gland. TSH was repeatedly normal. The boy is currently doing well on thyroxine replacement therapy. The other non-identical twin was a healthy girl with normal thyroid function tests and always thereafter. This case report suggested that PTU could be a hazardous drug to the fetus, since the mother gave birth to a baby with thyroid aplasia. PTU, Thyroid aplasia, Thyrotoxicosis, TSH.

  15. Critical Newborn Screens in Double Heterozygotes of Inborn Errors of Metabolism—A Clinical Report and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine G. Langley

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The practice of newborn screening has been in place in the USA since the 1960s, with individual states initially screening for different numbers of disorders. In the early 2000s many efforts were made to standardize the various disorders being screened. Currently, there are at least 34 disorders that each state is mandated to include on their screening panel. Of those 34 disorders, the majority are inborn errors of metabolism (IEM which include urea cycle disorders (UCD, citrullinemia (CIT and argininosuccinic aciduria (ASA, as well as a number of fatty acid oxidation disorders. We present here four cases of infants who had critical newborn screens (NBS in the Commonwealth of Virginia and underwent genetic testing because their clinical presentation and follow-up laboratory studies were not consistent with the disorder that was flagged by NBS. These newborns were found to be carriers for two different IEMs (in three cases or compound heterozygotes (in one case. Currently no guidelines exist with respect to the appropriate way to manage these children who may or may not be symptomatic in the newborn period. We propose some general recommendations for management based on our experience with these four probands, and discuss the necessity for further conversation and collaboration between physicians encountering these not-so-infrequent presentations.

  16. A guinea pig strain with recessive heredity of deafness, producing normal-hearing heterozygotes with resistance to noise trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjönsberg, Asa; Herrlin, Petra; Duan, Maoli; Johnson, Ann-Christin; Ulfendahl, Mats

    2005-01-01

    A new strain of waltzing guinea pigs arose spontaneously in a guinea pig breeding facility in Germany in 1996. In addition to obvious vestibular dysfunction, the waltzing animals appear deaf already at birth. Histological analysis revealed that the waltzers lack an open scala media due to the collapse of Reissner's membrane onto the surface of the hearing organ. Subsequent breeding has shown that this strain has a recessive mode of inheritance. The homozygotes are deaf and display a waltzing behaviour throughout their lives while the heterozygotes show no significant signs of inner ear injury despite being carriers of this specific mutated gene of hearing impairment. However, the heterozygous animals offer the opportunity to study how hereditary factors interact with auditory stress. In the present study, the susceptibility of the carriers to noise was investigated. Auditory brainstem responses were obtained prior to and after noise exposure (4 kHz, 110 dB, 6 h). The carriers were significantly less affected by the noise as compared to control animals. This difference was still significant at 4 weeks following noise exposure. It is suggested that the heterozygous animals have an endogenous resistance to auditory stress. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. [The Object Permanence Fallacy.] Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Ben S.

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that Greenberg's challenge to the centrality of object permanence in developmental thinking reveals that developmentalists' theories about childhood speak about their own self-images. Notes that developmentalists have been guilty of not only the object permanence fallacy but also the genetic fallacy, or the mistaken belief that describing…

  18. Translocations used to generate chromosome segment duplications ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a duplication (Dp) of the translocated segment and four inviable (white, W) ascospores with .... of this work, namely, the definition of breakpoint junction sequences of 12 ..... then our results would place supercontig 10.9 in distal. LG VIR. A third ...

  19. Familial cryptic translocation in Angelman syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyerts, L.K.; Wiley, J.E.; Loud, K.M. [ECU School of Medicine, Greenville, NC (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The majority of patients with Angelman syndrome have been shown to have a cytogenetic or molecular deletion on the maternally derived chromosome 15. We report on a case of Angelman syndrome in which this deletion occurs as an unbalanced cryptic translocation involving chromosomes 14 and 15. The proband was diagnosed clinically as having Angelman syndrome. Multiple cytogenetic studies were done without detecting any deletion. When DNA probes (Oncor) specific for the Prader Willi/Angelman locus became available, the patient was restudied and found to be deleted for {open_quotes}region A{close_quotes} (D15S11) but not for {open_quotes}region B{close_quotes} (GABRB3). No other abnormality was detected. The proband`s mother was then studied. The chromosome 15 marker probe and D15S11 were detected on different chromosomes. Using alpha-satellite probes, a cryptic 14;15 translocation was uncovered. This balanced translocation was also found to be carried by the sister of the proband. This case, along with a case presented at the 1993 ASHG meeting, illustrates the need for using acrocentric probes when studying Angelman syndrome patients. The proband was studied using additional probes specific for this region and found to be deleted for SNRPN but not for D15S10. The breakpoint of the translocation in this patient delineates the smallest deletion of the Angelman syndrome region reported to date and therefore may represent the specific gene involved.

  20. Nitrogen uptake and translocation by Chara

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, C.P.; Escher, M.; Portielje, R.; Klein, de J.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The potential for above-ground and below-ground uptake and subsequent internal translocation of ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) by the macroalga Chara spp. was investigated. In a two compartment experimental set-up separating above-ground and below-ground algal parts, the charophytes were exposed

  1. 11C-methionine translocation in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Hiromi; Bughio, Naimatullah; Shigeta Ishioka, Noriko

    2000-01-01

    11 C-methionine was supplied to barley plants through a single leaf or via the roots and real time 11 C movement was monitored using a PETIS (positron emitting tracer imaging system). In Fe-deficient plants, 11 C-methionine was translocated from the tip of the absorbing leaf to the discrimination center' at the basal part of the shoot and then retranslocated to all the chlorotic leaves, while a negligible amount was retranslocated to the roots. In Fe-sufficient plants, methionine was translocated from the absorbing leaf to the discrimination center and then only to the newest leaf on the main shoot. A negligible amount was also retranslocated to the roots. Although, in Fe-sufficient plants, methionine translocation was observed from absorbing roots to shoots, in Fe-deficient plants, only a little amount was translocated from roots to shoots. In conclusion, methionine from the upper portion of a plant is not used as a precursor of mugineic acid under Fe-deficiency conditions. (author)

  2. Increased Risk for Other Cancers in Addition to Breast Cancer for CHEK2*1100delC Heterozygotes Estimated From the Copenhagen General Population Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Näslund-Koch, Charlotte; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E

    2016-01-01

    % CI, 1.01 to 1.85) for men (sex difference: P = .63). For CHEK2*1100delC heterozygotes compared with noncarriers, the age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratios were 5.76 (95% CI, 2.12 to 15.6) for stomach cancer, 3.61 (95% CI, 1.33 to 9.79) for kidney cancer, 3.45 (95% CI, 1.09 to 10.9) for sarcoma, and 1...

  3. Topology optimized permanent magnet systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørk, R.; Bahl, C. R. H.; Insinga, A. R.

    2017-09-01

    Topology optimization of permanent magnet systems consisting of permanent magnets, high permeability iron and air is presented. An implementation of topology optimization for magnetostatics is discussed and three examples are considered. The Halbach cylinder is topology optimized with iron and an increase of 15% in magnetic efficiency is shown. A topology optimized structure to concentrate a homogeneous field is shown to increase the magnitude of the field by 111%. Finally, a permanent magnet with alternating high and low field regions is topology optimized and a Λcool figure of merit of 0.472 is reached, which is an increase of 100% compared to a previous optimized design.

  4. Topology optimized permanent magnet systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian; Insinga, Andrea Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Topology optimization of permanent magnet systems consisting of permanent magnets, high permeability iron and air is presented. An implementation of topology optimization for magnetostatics is discussed and three examples are considered. The Halbach cylinder is topology optimized with iron...... and an increase of 15% in magnetic efficiency is shown. A topology optimized structure to concentrate a homogeneous field is shown to increase the magnitude of the field by 111%. Finally, a permanent magnet with alternating high and low field regions is topology optimized and a ΛcoolΛcool figure of merit of 0...

  5. Periodic permanent magnet focused klystron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Patrick; Read, Michael; Ives, R Lawrence

    2015-04-21

    A periodic permanent magnet (PPM) klystron has beam transport structures and RF cavity structures, each of which has permanent magnets placed substantially equidistant from a beam tunnel formed about the central axis, and which are also outside the extent of a cooling chamber. The RF cavity sections also have permanent magnets which are placed substantially equidistant from the beam tunnel, but which include an RF cavity coupling to the beam tunnel for enhancement of RF carried by an electron beam in the beam tunnel.

  6. Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disorder due to two novel compound heterozygote mutations in PKHD1 gene: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Miryounesi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disorder (ARPCKD is one of the most prevalent hereditary disorders in neonates and children. Its frequency is between 1/6000 to 1/55000 births. In the most severe cases, it can be diagnosed prenatally by the presence of enlarged, echogenic kidneys and oligohydramnios. However, in the milder forms, clinical manifestations are usually detected in neonatal and childhood period. PKHD1 gene located on chromosome 6 is linked with this disorder. About half of detected mutations in this gene are missense ones. The largest protein product of this gene is called the FPC/polyductin complex (FPC. It is a single-membrane spanning protein whose absence leads to abnormal ciliogenesis in the kidneys. Case presentation: Here we present a 5-year-old female patient affected with ARPCKD. She has been born to a non-consanguineous healthy Iranian parents. No similar disorder has been seen in the family. Prenatal history has been normal. In order to find the genetic background, DNA was extracted from patient's peripheral blood lymphocytes. PKHD1 gene exons and exon-intron boundaries were sequenced using next generation sequencing platform. Two novel variants have been detected in compound heterozygote state in the patient (c.6591C>A, c.8222C>A. Bioinformatics tools predicted these variants to be pathogenic. Conclusion: In the present study, we detected two novel variants in PKHD1 gene in a patient with ARPCKD. The relatively mild phenotype of this patient is in accordance with the missense mutations found. Molecular genetic tools can help in accurate risk assessment as well as precise genotype-phenotype correlation establishment in families affected with such disorder to decrease the birth of affected individuals through preimplantation genetic diagnosis or better management of disorder.

  7. Translocation heterozygosity in southern African species of Viscum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wiens

    1980-11-01

    Full Text Available Sex-associated and floating translocation complexes are characteristic of dioecious species of  Viscum,  but are virtually absent in monoecious species. The majority of dioecious species has fixed sex-associated translocation complexes with the male being the heterozygous sex. The sex-associated multivalent is usually O4 (ring-of-four or O6 , rarely O8 . Dioecious species without sex-associated translocations are much less common. Most of the dioecious species are also polymorphic for floating translocations, producing one or more additional multivalents ranging from O4 to O12. Floating translocations may be more frequent in species that do not have sex-associated translocations. Supernumerary chromosomes are also present in several species. Sex ratios are at unity in most dioecious species, but female-biased ratios may occur in some species. The high correlation between dioecy and translocation heterozygosity suggests that translocations are primarily associated with the origin and establishment of dioecy. Any róle in the maintenance of biased sex ratios through meiotic drive is probably secondary. Sex-associated translocations may serve to stabilize dioecy by bringing the sex factors into close linkage. Subsequent structural rearrangements within a sex-associated translocation complex may bring the sex factors together in one chromosome pair, releasing floating translocations. The high frequencies of floating translocation heterozygosity in some species indicate that such heterozygosity also has adaptive value.

  8. Preimplantation genetic haplotyping a new application for diagnosis of translocation carrier's embryos- preliminary observations of two robertsonian translocation carrier families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamash, Jana; Rienstein, Shlomit; Wolf-Reznik, Haike; Pras, Elon; Dekel, Michal; Litmanovitch, Talia; Brengauz, Masha; Goldman, Boleslav; Yonath, Hagith; Dor, Jehoshua; Levron, Jacob; Aviram-Goldring, Ayala

    2011-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis using fluorescence in-situ hybridization (PGD-FISH) is currently the most common reproductive solution for translocation carriers. However, this technique usually does not differentiate between embryos carrying the balanced form of the translocation and those carrying the homologous normal chromosomes. We developed a new application of preimplantation genetic haplotyping (PGH) that can identify and distinguish between all forms of the translocation status in cleavage stage embryos prior to implantation. Polymorphic markers were used to identify and differentiate between the alleles that carry the translocation and those that are the normal homologous chromosomes. Embryos from two families of robertsonian translocation carriers were successfully analyzed using polymorphic markers haplotyping. Our preliminary results indicate that the PGH is capable of distinguishing between normal, balanced and unbalanced translocation carrier embryos. This method will improve PGD and will enable translocation carriers to avoid transmission of the translocation and the associated medical complications to offspring.

  9. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2014 Country

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  10. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2011 State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  11. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2015 Country

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  12. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2016 State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  13. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2014 State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  14. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2015 State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  15. Obstructive jaundice promotes bacterial translocation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzu, M A; Kale, I T; Cöl, C; Tekeli, A; Tanik, A; Köksoy, C

    1999-01-01

    Significant bacterial translocation was demonstrated following experimental biliary obstruction, however very little is known about the importance and the prevalence of gut-origin sepsis in obstructive jaundice patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the concept of gut-origin sepsis in obstructive jaundiced patients and its clinical importance. Twenty-one patients requiring laparotomy for obstructive jaundice (group I) and thirty patients operated on electively mainly for chronic cholecystitis (group II) were studied. Peritoneal swab, mesenteric lymph node, portal venous blood, liver wedge biopsy and bile were sampled for culture immediately after opening the peritoneum. Additionally, peripheral blood samples were taken pre- and post-operatively from all patients. Post-operatively, patients were monitored for infectious complications. The mean serum bilirubin concentration, gamma glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase levels in jaundiced patients before therapeutic intervention were significantly higher than in control patients. Five patients demonstrated bacterial translocation in group I (24%), whereas only one did so in group II (3.5%, p jaundice significantly promotes bacterial translocation in humans, however, its clinical importance has yet to be defined.

  16. Radiation induced reciprocal translocations and inversions in anopheles albimanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, P.E.; Seawright, J.A.; Benedict, M.Q.; Narang, S.

    1982-01-01

    Reciprocal translocations and inversions were induced in Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann by irradiation of males with X rays. A total of 1669 sperm were assayed, and 175 new aberrations were identified as follows: 102 reciprocal translocations (67 autosomal and 35 sex-linked), 45 pericentric inversions, and 28 paracentric inversions. Eleven of the translocations were nearly whole-arm interchanges, and these were selected for the construction of 'capture systems' for compound chromosomes. Two double-heterozygous translocation strains and four homozygous translocation strains were established. Anopheles albimanus females were irradiated, and a pseudolinkage scheme involving mutant markers was employed to identify reciprocal translocations. The irradiation of females was very inefficient; only one translocation was recovered from 1080 ova tested

  17. Financial costs of large carnivore translocations--accounting for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian J Weise

    Full Text Available Human-carnivore conflict continues to present a major conservation challenge around the world. Translocation of large carnivores is widely implemented but remains strongly debated, in part because of a lack of cost transparency. We report detailed translocation costs for three large carnivore species in Namibia and across different translocation scenarios. We consider the effect of various parameters and factors on costs and translocation success. Total translocation cost for 30 individuals in 22 events was $80,681 (US Dollars. Median translocation cost per individual was $2,393, and $2,669 per event. Median cost per cheetah was $2,760 (n = 23, and $2,108 per leopard (n = 6. One hyaena was translocated at a cost of $1,672. Tracking technology was the single biggest cost element (56%, followed by captive holding and feeding. Soft releases, prolonged captivity and orphaned individuals also increased case-specific costs. A substantial proportion (65.4% of the total translocation cost was successfully recovered from public interest groups. Less than half the translocations were confirmed successes (44.4%, 3 unknown with a strong species bias. Four leopards (66.7% were successfully translocated but only eight of the 20 cheetahs (40.0% with known outcome met these strict criteria. None of the five habituated cheetahs was translocated successfully, nor was the hyaena. We introduce the concept of Individual Conservation Cost (ICC and define it as the cost of one successfully translocated individual adjusted by costs of unsuccessful events of the same species. The median ICC for cheetah was $6,898 and $3,140 for leopard. Translocations are costly, but we demonstrate that they are not inherently more expensive than other strategies currently employed in non-lethal carnivore conflict management. We conclude that translocation should be one available option for conserving large carnivores, but needs to be critically evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  18. Financial costs of large carnivore translocations--accounting for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Florian J; Stratford, Ken J; van Vuuren, Rudolf J

    2014-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflict continues to present a major conservation challenge around the world. Translocation of large carnivores is widely implemented but remains strongly debated, in part because of a lack of cost transparency. We report detailed translocation costs for three large carnivore species in Namibia and across different translocation scenarios. We consider the effect of various parameters and factors on costs and translocation success. Total translocation cost for 30 individuals in 22 events was $80,681 (US Dollars). Median translocation cost per individual was $2,393, and $2,669 per event. Median cost per cheetah was $2,760 (n = 23), and $2,108 per leopard (n = 6). One hyaena was translocated at a cost of $1,672. Tracking technology was the single biggest cost element (56%), followed by captive holding and feeding. Soft releases, prolonged captivity and orphaned individuals also increased case-specific costs. A substantial proportion (65.4%) of the total translocation cost was successfully recovered from public interest groups. Less than half the translocations were confirmed successes (44.4%, 3 unknown) with a strong species bias. Four leopards (66.7%) were successfully translocated but only eight of the 20 cheetahs (40.0%) with known outcome met these strict criteria. None of the five habituated cheetahs was translocated successfully, nor was the hyaena. We introduce the concept of Individual Conservation Cost (ICC) and define it as the cost of one successfully translocated individual adjusted by costs of unsuccessful events of the same species. The median ICC for cheetah was $6,898 and $3,140 for leopard. Translocations are costly, but we demonstrate that they are not inherently more expensive than other strategies currently employed in non-lethal carnivore conflict management. We conclude that translocation should be one available option for conserving large carnivores, but needs to be critically evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  19. Transient or permanent fisheye views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mikkel Rønne; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Transient use of information visualization may support specific tasks without permanently changing the user interface. Transient visualizations provide immediate and transient use of information visualization close to and in the context of the user’s focus of attention. Little is known, however......, about the benefits and limitations of transient visualizations. We describe an experiment that compares the usability of a fisheye view that participants could call up temporarily, a permanent fisheye view, and a linear view: all interfaces gave access to source code in the editor of a widespread...... programming environment. Fourteen participants performed varied tasks involving navigation and understanding of source code. Participants used the three interfaces for between four and six hours in all. Time and accuracy measures were inconclusive, but subjective data showed a preference for the permanent...

  20. Connecting Temporary and Permanent Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjerne, Iben Sandal; Velikova, Silviya Svejenova

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between a permanent organization and a series of temporary organizations. It draws on an in-depth study of the process through which a Danish film production company, seeking to balance innovation and persistence in a troubled industry, struggles to realize...... a novel children’s film and its sequels. The study reveals tensions at different levels as well as boundary work and boundary roles that address them, bringing in shadows of past and future projects. The study extends the understanding of the dialectic between temporary and permanent organizing...

  1. Measurement of background translocation frequencies in individuals with clones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, Marcelle J. [California State Univ. (CalState), Hayward, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    In the leukemia case the unseparated B and T lymphocytes had a high translocation frequency even after 0.0014, respectively. After purging all clones from the data, the translocation frequencies for Bio 8 and Bio 23 were 0.00750.0014 and 0.0073 metaphases were scored for chromosomal aberrations,, specifically reciprocal translocations, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Metaphase spreads were used from two healthy, unexposed individuals (not exposed to radiation, chemotherapy or radiotherapy) and one early B- precursor acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) patient (metaphase spreads from both separated T lymphocytes and unseparated B and T lymphocytes were scored). All three individuals had an abnormally high translocation frequency. The high translocation frequencies resulted from clonal expansion of specific translocated chromosomes. I show in this thesis that by purging (discounting or removing) clones from the data of unexposed individuals, one can obtain true background translocation frequencies. In two cases, Bio 8 and Bio 23, the measured translocation frequency for chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 was 0.0124 purging all of the clones from the data. This high translocation frequency may be due to a low frequency of some clones and may not be recognized. The separated T lymphocytes had a higher translocation frequency than expected.

  2. DNA damage in leukocytes from fanconi anemia patients and heterozygotes induced by mitomycin C and ionizing radiation as assessed by the comet and comet - FISH assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohseni Meybodi, A.; Mozdarani, H.

    2009-01-01

    Lymphocytes of Fanconi anemia (FA) show an increased sensitivity to the alkylating agents such as mitomycin C (MMC), but their responses to gamma-irradiation is controversial. The extent of DNA damage in leukocytes of FA patients following irradiation and MMC treatment was studied at cellular and single chromosome level. Methods: DNA damage induced by gamma-rays and MMC was measured in leukocytes of FA patients and carriers at whole genome level using the comet assay. Also, at the DNA level of specific chromosome involved in this disease using a modified comet-FISH protocol with whole chromosome painting probes (chromosomes 16 and 13), DNA damage in leukocytes of FA patients and heterozygotes were compared to healthy individuals. Results: Baseline DNA damage in leukocytes of patients and heterozygotes was higher than in controls. Net induced DNA damage by gamma-rays in leukocytes of FA cases was not significantly different from that of healthy donors and heterozygotes. Net induced DNA damage by MMC was statistically higher and significantly different (P<0.05) in patients than other groups. Hybridization of chromosome 16 reveals more signals in the tail but the number of spots in the tail was not significantly higher than the hybridization spots for chromosome 13 in both gamma-irradiated and MMC treated samples. Conclusion: Results indicate that DNA damage induced by MMC could be a better index for diagnosis of FA patients compared to gamma-rays. Results of comet-FISH showed no difference between the sensitivity of chromosome 16 and 13 to MMC and radiation. It may indicate that, although the FA-A gene is located on chromosome 16, this chromosome might have a similar sensitivity as other chromosomes

  3. FTO Is Associated with Aortic Valve Stenosis in a Gender Specific Manner of Heterozygote Advantage: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Thron

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within the Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO gene have been linked with increased body weight. However, the data on an association of FTO with cardiovascular diseases remains conflicting. Therefore, we ascertained whether FTO is associated with aortic valve stenosis (AVS, one of the most frequent cardiovascular diseases in the Western world.In this population-based case-control study the FTO SNP rs9939609 was analyzed in 300 German patients with AVS and 429 German controls of the KORA survey S4, representing a random population. Blood samples were collected prior to aortic valve replacement in AVS cases and FTO rs9939609 was genotyped via ARMS-PCR. Genotype frequencies differed significantly between AVS cases and KORA controls (p = 0.004. Separate gender-analyses uncovered an association of FTO with AVS exclusively in males; homozygote carriers for the risk-allele (A had a higher risk to develop AVS (p = 0.017, odds ratio (OR 1.727; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.087-2.747, recessive model, whereas heterozygote carriers for the risk-allele showed a lower risk (p = 0.002, OR 0.565, 95% CI 0.384-0.828, overdominant model. After adjustment for multiple co-variables, the odds ratios of heterozygotes remained significant for an association with AVS (p = 0.008, OR 0.565, 95% CI 0.369-0.861.This study revealed an association of FTO rs9939609 with AVS. Furthermore, this association was restricted to men, with heterozygotes having a significantly lower chance to develop AVS. Lastly, the association between FTO and AVS was independent of BMI and other variables such as diabetes mellitus.

  4. FTO Is Associated with Aortic Valve Stenosis in a Gender Specific Manner of Heterozygote Advantage: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thron, Cindy; Akhyari, Payam; Godehardt, Erhard; Lichtenberg, Artur; Rüther, Ulrich; Seehaus, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene have been linked with increased body weight. However, the data on an association of FTO with cardiovascular diseases remains conflicting. Therefore, we ascertained whether FTO is associated with aortic valve stenosis (AVS), one of the most frequent cardiovascular diseases in the Western world. In this population-based case-control study the FTO SNP rs9939609 was analyzed in 300 German patients with AVS and 429 German controls of the KORA survey S4, representing a random population. Blood samples were collected prior to aortic valve replacement in AVS cases and FTO rs9939609 was genotyped via ARMS-PCR. Genotype frequencies differed significantly between AVS cases and KORA controls (p = 0.004). Separate gender-analyses uncovered an association of FTO with AVS exclusively in males; homozygote carriers for the risk-allele (A) had a higher risk to develop AVS (p = 0.017, odds ratio (OR) 1.727; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.087-2.747, recessive model), whereas heterozygote carriers for the risk-allele showed a lower risk (p = 0.002, OR 0.565, 95% CI 0.384-0.828, overdominant model). After adjustment for multiple co-variables, the odds ratios of heterozygotes remained significant for an association with AVS (p = 0.008, OR 0.565, 95% CI 0.369-0.861). This study revealed an association of FTO rs9939609 with AVS. Furthermore, this association was restricted to men, with heterozygotes having a significantly lower chance to develop AVS. Lastly, the association between FTO and AVS was independent of BMI and other variables such as diabetes mellitus.

  5. Familial study of ataxia telangiectasia. Heterozygotes identification on the basis of sensitivity of gamma-irradiated cultures to caffeine post-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlak, A.L.; Kotecki, M. [Polska Akademia Nauk, Poznan (Poland). Zaklad Genetyki Czlowieka; Ignatowicz, R. [Centrum Zdrowia Dziecka, Warsaw (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The effects of caffeine (CF), {gamma}-irradiation + CF post-treatment on chromosomal aberrations were studied in lymphocyte cultures from a patient with ataxia telangiectasia (AT), his parents and brother. In the studied family both the homozygotes and the obligatory heterozygotes of AT showed increased sensitivity to CF post-treatment. Individual differences in sensitivity to {gamma}-irradiation + CF post-treatment proved to be correlated with the sensitivity of non-irradiated cells to CF treatment, but not to {gamma}-irradiation. (author). 19 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Familial study of ataxia telangiectasia. Heterozygotes identification on the basis of sensitivity of gamma-irradiated cultures to caffeine post-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlak, A.L.; Kotecki, M.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of caffeine (CF), γ-irradiation + CF post-treatment on chromosomal aberrations were studied in lymphocyte cultures from a patient with ataxia telangiectasia (AT), his parents and brother. In the studied family both the homozygotes and the obligatory heterozygotes of AT showed increased sensitivity to CF post-treatment. Individual differences in sensitivity to γ-irradiation + CF post-treatment proved to be correlated with the sensitivity of non-irradiated cells to CF treatment, but not to γ-irradiation. (author). 19 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. High performance permanent magnet materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, S.G.; Herbst, J.F.; Koon, N.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 25 selections. Some of the titles are: Initial magnetization behavior of rapidly quenched neodymium-iron-boron magnets; Optimization of liquid dynamic compaction for Fe-Nd-B magnet alloys; Misch-metal and/or aluminum substitutions in Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets; and NdFeB magnets with improved temperature characteristics

  8. OAS :: Member States : Permanent Representatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rights Actions against Corruption C Children Civil Registry Civil Society Contact Us Culture Cyber Barbados Belize Bolivia Brazil Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba 1 Dominica (Commonwealth of) Dominican Gutierez Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Belize Diego Pary Rodríguez Bolivia Diego Pary Rodríguez

  9. Longing Itineraries: Building the Translocal Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo López Angel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Migration has reshaped social practices, the sense of belonging has been rethought, and the membership is renegotiated and contended; this is why strategies for their sustainability have been generated. The translocal community operates through multilocated relationships that reveal the ways in which migrants are adapting to the new demands of the community. We emphasize the emotional impulse of nostalgia as one of the vehicles of sustainability for the community. The community is redefined and understood in a set of socio-cultural relationships its members generate, and where the locality is not central, but the connection. A new dimension of the social community space is not just the community gathered in a specific place, but also that agreements, commitments, and acknowledgments are exhibited and settled in the cyberspace; this cyberspace gives cohesion and brings a dynamic element to preserve the community, despite the fact that it is even less concrete than the spatial notion of territory. Facebook, YouTube and a blog are the web platforms of the virtual space where "neighbors, compatriots and citizens" (categories of ascription from the migration get together, where there is a reproduction of social practices (even the most ancient and fundamental ones, to give a new dimension to a translocal, multilocated and ciberlocated community.

  10. Another reptile translocation to a national park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.R. Branch

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available On 4 May 1988 a sub-adult (50 mm snout-vent length, 42 mm tail Jones' girdled lizard Cordylus tropidosternum jonesi was collected in a pile of wood being off-loaded at the new restcamp in the Karoo National Park, Beaufort West. The wood had been transported by lorry from the Kruger National Park. The specimen is deposited in the herpetological collection of the Port Elizabeth Museum (PEM R 4584. Jones' girdled lizard is a small, arboreal cordylid that shelters under tree bark and in hollow logs. It is common and widely-distributed in the Kruger National Park (Pienaar, Haacke & Jacobsen 1983, The Reptiles of the Kruger National Park, 3rd edition. Pretoria: National Parks Board and adjacent lowveld, being replaced in northern Zimbabwe and East Africa by the nominate race. Hewitt & Power (1913, Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 3: 147-176, 1913 reported a similar translocation of the species to Kimberley in association with timber brought to the diamond mining camps. One of us noted recently the ease and danger of the unwitting spread of commensal reptile species into conservation areas (Branch 1978, Koedoe 30: 165, and this is confirmed by this additional example. We recommend that should similar shipments of wood be considered essential, then they be fumigated to prevent the translocation of other alien organisms that may potentially have more dangerous consequences.

  11. Arsenic Uptake and Translocation in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nannan; Wang, Jingchao; Song, Won-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a highly toxic metalloid that is classified as a non-threshold class-1 carcinogen. Millions of people worldwide suffer from As toxicity due to the intake of As-contaminated drinking water and food. Reducing the As concentration in drinking water and food is thus of critical importance. Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with As and the reduction of As contamination in food depend on a detailed understanding of As uptake and transport in plants. As transporters play essential roles in As uptake, translocation and accumulation in plant cells. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of As transport in plants, with an emphasis on As uptake, mechanisms of As resistance and the long-distance translocation of As, especially the accumulation of As in grains through phloem-mediated transport. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Factors affecting translocation and sclerotial formation in Morchella esculenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amir, R.; Levanon, D.; Hadar, Y.; Chet, I.

    1995-01-01

    Amir, R., Levanon, D., Hadar, Y., and Chet, I. 1995. Factors affecting translocation and sclerotial formation in Morchella esculenta. Experimental Mycology 19, 61-70. Morchella esculenta was grown on square split plates, forming sclerotia on one side and mycelium on the other. After the fungus ceased to colonize and before sclerotial initials appeared, [ 14 C]3-O-methyl glucose was added to the edge of the plate on the mycelial side. The effect of various activities in the mycelium (source) and sclerotia (sink) on sclerotial formation and translocation were examined using inhibitors and water potential changes of the media. Sodium azide or cycloheximide applied separately to both sides inhibited both sclerotial formation and translocation, showing that processes in the source and sink depend on metabolic activities as well as protein synthesis. The use of nikkomycin inhibited sclerotial formation, without affecting translocation to the sclerotia. Since the hyphal tips swelled and burst, the translocated compounds were lost to the media. In a strain defective in sclerotial formation, used as a control, no translocation took place, showing that there is a connection between sclerotial formation and translocation. Reversal of the water potential gradient between the two media (lower on the mycelial side), reduced the formation of sclerotia and translocation to them. Translocation to Morchella sclerotia takes place via turgor driven mass flow, but is nevertheless affected by activities in both the source and the sink. (author)

  13. Label Free Chromosome Translocation Detection with Silicon nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Frøhling, Kasper Bayer

    HROMOSOME translocation, which is a rearrangement of arms between two chromosomes, is a major group of chromosome abnormalities leading to cancer. As a result, two derivative chromosomes with sequences coming from both chromosomes are formed. The current translocation detection method is a Fluore......HROMOSOME translocation, which is a rearrangement of arms between two chromosomes, is a major group of chromosome abnormalities leading to cancer. As a result, two derivative chromosomes with sequences coming from both chromosomes are formed. The current translocation detection method...

  14. Translocation of cell-penetrating peptides into Candida fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zifan; Karlsson, Amy J

    2017-09-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are small peptides capable of crossing cellular membranes while carrying molecular cargo. Although they have been widely studied for their ability to translocate nucleic acids, small molecules, and proteins into mammalian cells, studies of their interaction with fungal cells are limited. In this work, we evaluated the translocation of eleven fluorescently labeled peptides into the important human fungal pathogens Candida albicans and C. glabrata and explored the mechanisms of translocation. Seven of these peptides (cecropin B, penetratin, pVEC, MAP, SynB, (KFF) 3 K, and MPG) exhibited substantial translocation (>80% of cells) into both species in a concentration-dependent manner, and an additional peptide (TP-10) exhibiting strong translocation into only C. glabrata. Vacuoles were involved in translocation and intracellular trafficking of the peptides in the fungal cells and, for some peptides, escape from the vacuoles and localization in the cytosol were correlated to toxicity toward the fungal cells. Endocytosis was involved in the translocation of cecropin B, MAP, SynB, MPG, (KFF) 3 K, and TP-10, and cecropin B, penetratin, pVEC, and MAP caused membrane permeabilization during translocation. These results indicate the involvement of multiple translocation mechanisms for some CPPs. Although high levels of translocation were typically associated with toxicity of the peptides toward the fungal cells, SynB was translocated efficiently into Candida cells at concentrations that led to minimal toxicity. Our work highlights the potential of CPPs in delivering antifungal molecules and other bioactive cargo to Candida pathogens. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  15. Automated phenotyping of permanent crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeek, K. Thomas; Steddom, Karl; Zamudio, Joseph; Pant, Paras; Mullenbach, Tyler

    2017-05-01

    AGERpoint is defining a new technology space for the growers' industry by introducing novel applications for sensor technology and data analysis to growers of permanent crops. Serving data to a state-of-the-art analytics engine from a cutting edge sensor platform, a new paradigm in precision agriculture is being developed that allows growers to understand the unique needs of each tree, bush or vine in their operation. Autonomous aerial and terrestrial vehicles equipped with multiple varieties of remote sensing technologies give AGERpoint the ability to measure key morphological and spectral features of permanent crops. This work demonstrates how such phenotypic measurements combined with machine learning algorithms can be used to determine the variety of crops (e.g., almond and pecan trees). This phenotypic and varietal information represents the first step in enabling growers with the ability to tailor their management practices to individual plants and maximize their economic productivity.

  16. Permanently calibrated interpolating time counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jachna, Z; Szplet, R; Kwiatkowski, P; Różyc, K

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new architecture of an integrated time interval counter that provides its permanent calibration in the background. Time interval measurement and the calibration procedure are based on the use of a two-stage interpolation method and parallel processing of measurement and calibration data. The parallel processing is achieved by a doubling of two-stage interpolators in measurement channels of the counter, and by an appropriate extension of control logic. Such modification allows the updating of transfer characteristics of interpolators without the need to break a theoretically infinite measurement session. We describe the principle of permanent calibration, its implementation and influence on the quality of the counter. The precision of the presented counter is kept at a constant level (below 20 ps) despite significant changes in the ambient temperature (from −10 to 60 °C), which can cause a sevenfold decrease in the precision of the counter with a traditional calibration procedure. (paper)

  17. The cycloid Permanent Magnetic Gear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Andersen, Torben Ole; Jørgensen, Frank T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new permanent-magnet gear based on the cycloid gearing principle. which normally is characterized by an extreme torque density and a very high gearing ratio. An initial design of the proposed magnetic gear was designed, analyzed, and optimized with an analytical model...... regarding torque density. The results were promising as compared to other high-performance magnetic-gear designs. A test model was constructed to verify the analytical model....

  18. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2011 Country

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanet residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been gratned the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  19. An Updated View of Translocator Protein (TSPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzio Denora

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Decades of study on the role of mitochondria in living cells have evidenced the importance of the 18 kDa mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO, first discovered in the 1977 as an alternative binding site for the benzodiazepine diazepam in the kidneys. This protein participates in a variety of cellular functions, including cholesterol transport, steroid hormone synthesis, mitochondrial respiration, permeability transition pore opening, apoptosis, and cell proliferation. Thus, TSPO has become an extremely attractive subcellular target for the early detection of disease states that involve the overexpression of this protein and the selective mitochondrial drug delivery. This special issue was programmed with the aim of summarizing the latest findings about the role of TSPO in eukaryotic cells and as a potential subcellular target of diagnostics or therapeutics. A total of 9 papers have been accepted for publication in this issue, in particular, 2 reviews and 7 primary data manuscripts, overall describing the main advances in this field.

  20. Delayed reproduction of translocated red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    James R. McCormick; Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; Brent Burt

    2001-01-01

    Twelve pairs of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers were translocated to the Angelina National Forest from 21 October 1998 to 17 December 1998. Five breeding pairs (consisting of at least one trnnslocated bird) produced eggs/nestlings within the first breeding season after translocation. Clutch initiation dates for all five pairs were later than those of resident breeders. The...

  1. Chromosomal Translocations: Chicken or Egg? | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many tumor cells have abnormal chromosomes. Some of these abnormalities are caused by chromosomal translocations, which occur when two chromosomes break and incorrectly rejoin, resulting in an exchange of genetic material. Translocations can activate oncogenes, silence tumor suppressor genes, or result in the creation of completely new fusion gene products. While there is

  2. Teaching Object Permanence: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Susan M.; Vargas, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    "Object permanence," also known as "object concept" in the field of visual impairment, is one of the most important early developmental milestones. The achievement of object permanence is associated with the onset of representational thought and language. Object permanence is important to orientation, including the recognition of landmarks.…

  3. 21 CFR 886.4445 - Permanent magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permanent magnet. 886.4445 Section 886.4445 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4445 Permanent magnet. (a) Identification. A permanent magnet is a nonelectric device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and remove metallic...

  4. Multistep Current Signal in Protein Translocation through Graphene Nanopores

    KAUST Repository

    Bonome, Emma Letizia

    2015-05-07

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. In nanopore sensing experiments, the properties of molecules are probed by the variation of ionic currents flowing through the nanopore. In this context, the electronic properties and the single-layer thickness of graphene constitute a major advantage for molecule characterization. Here we analyze the translocation pathway of the thioredoxin protein across a graphene nanopore, and the related ionic currents, by integrating two nonequilibrium molecular dynamics methods with a bioinformatic structural analysis. To obtain a qualitative picture of the translocation process and to identify salient features we performed unsupervised structural clustering on translocation conformations. This allowed us to identify some specific and robust translocation intermediates, characterized by significantly different ionic current flows. We found that the ion current strictly anticorrelates with the amount of pore occupancy by thioredoxin residues, providing a putative explanation of the multilevel current scenario observed in recently published translocation experiments.

  5. Mechanisms underlying stage-1 TRPL channel translocation in Drosophila photoreceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh-Ha Lieu

    Full Text Available TRP channels function as key mediators of sensory transduction and other cellular signaling pathways. In Drosophila, TRP and TRPL are the light-activated channels in photoreceptors. While TRP is statically localized in the signaling compartment of the cell (the rhabdomere, TRPL localization is regulated by light. TRPL channels translocate out of the rhabdomere in two distinct stages, returning to the rhabdomere with dark-incubation. Translocation of TRPL channels regulates their availability, and thereby the gain of the signal. Little, however, is known about the mechanisms underlying this trafficking of TRPL channels.We first examine the involvement of de novo protein synthesis in TRPL translocation. We feed flies cycloheximide, verify inhibition of protein synthesis, and test for TRPL translocation in photoreceptors. We find that protein synthesis is not involved in either stage of TRPL translocation out of the rhabdomere, but that re-localization to the rhabdomere from stage-1, but not stage-2, depends on protein synthesis. We also characterize an ex vivo eye preparation that is amenable to biochemical and genetic manipulation. We use this preparation to examine mechanisms of stage-1 TRPL translocation. We find that stage-1 translocation is: induced with ATP depletion, unaltered with perturbation of the actin cytoskeleton or inhibition of endocytosis, and slowed with increased membrane sterol content.Our results indicate that translocation of TRPL out of the rhabdomere is likely due to protein transport, and not degradation/re-synthesis. Re-localization from each stage to the rhabdomere likely involves different strategies. Since TRPL channels can translocate to stage-1 in the absence of ATP, with no major requirement of the cytoskeleton, we suggest that stage-1 translocation involves simple diffusion through the apical membrane, which may be regulated by release of a light-dependent anchor in the rhabdomere.

  6. Minimizing the cost of translocation failure with decision-tree models that predict species' behavioral response in translocation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mehregan; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Bull, C Michael

    2015-08-01

    The high number of failures is one reason why translocation is often not recommended. Considering how behavior changes during translocations may improve translocation success. To derive decision-tree models for species' translocation, we used data on the short-term responses of an endangered Australian skink in 5 simulated translocations with different release conditions. We used 4 different decision-tree algorithms (decision tree, decision-tree parallel, decision stump, and random forest) with 4 different criteria (gain ratio, information gain, gini index, and accuracy) to investigate how environmental and behavioral parameters may affect the success of a translocation. We assumed behavioral changes that increased dispersal away from a release site would reduce translocation success. The trees became more complex when we included all behavioral parameters as attributes, but these trees yielded more detailed information about why and how dispersal occurred. According to these complex trees, there were positive associations between some behavioral parameters, such as fight and dispersal, that showed there was a higher chance, for example, of dispersal among lizards that fought than among those that did not fight. Decision trees based on parameters related to release conditions were easier to understand and could be used by managers to make translocation decisions under different circumstances. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Permanent magnets including undulators and wigglers

    CERN Document Server

    Bahrdt, J

    2010-01-01

    After a few historic remarks on magnetic materials we introduce the basic definitions related to permanent magnets. The magnetic properties of the most common materials are reviewed and the production processes are described. Measurement techniques for the characterization of macroscopic and microscopic properties of permanent magnets are presented. Field simulation techniques for permanent magnet devices are discussed. Today, permanent magnets are used in many fields. This article concentrates on the applications of permanent magnets in accelerators starting from dipoles and quadrupoles on to wigglers and undulators.

  8. Assay of the β-glucosidase activity with natural labelled and artificial substrates in leukocytes from homozygotes and heterozygotes with the Norrbottnian type (Type 3) of Gaucher disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svennerholm, L.; Haakansson, G.; Dreborg, S.

    1980-01-01

    Leukocytes were isolated from 14 patients (7 males and 7 females) with Gaucher disease of the Norrbottnian type (Type 3), 32 obligate heterozygotes (16 males and 16 females) for this disease and 20 controls (10 males and 10 females). After collection, the cells were transported in dry ice to the laboratory, where they were assayed. The assays were repeated after the cells had been stored for 12 months. β-Glucosidase activity was assayed with D-[glucose-U- 14 C]glucosylceramide at pH 5.8 with Cutscum-Na-cholate as a detergent and 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-glucoside at pH 4.1 with Triton-Na-taurocholate as a detergent. The activities of two marker enzymes, 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-galactosidase and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, were assayed in aliquots of the same leukocyte samples. (Auth.)

  9. Short alleles revealed by PCR demonstrate no heterozygote deficiency at minisatellite loci D1S7, D7S21, and D12S11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, S.; Castro, A.; Fernandez-Fernandez, I.; Pancorbo, M.M. de [Universidad del Pais Vasco, Vizcaya (Spain)

    1997-02-01

    Short VNTR alleles that go undetected after conventional Southern blot hybridization may constitute an alternative explanation for the heterozygosity deficiency observed at some minisatellite loci. To examine this hypothesis, we have employed a screening procedure based on PCR amplification of those individuals classified as homozygotes in our databases for the loci D1S7, D7S21, and D12S11. The results obtained indicate that the frequency of these short alleles is related to the heterozygosity deficiency observed. For the most polymorphic locus, D1S7, {approximately}60% of those individuals previously classified as homozygotes were in fact heterozygotes for a short allele. After the inclusion of these new alleles, the agreement between observed and expected heterozygosity, along with other statistical tests employed, provide additional evidence for lack of population substructuring. Comparisons of allele frequency distributions reveal greater differences between racial groups than between closely related populations. 45 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Optimally segmented permanent magnet structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bjørk, Rasmus; Smith, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We present an optimization approach which can be employed to calculate the globally optimal segmentation of a two-dimensional magnetic system into uniformly magnetized pieces. For each segment the algorithm calculates the optimal shape and the optimal direction of the remanent flux density vector......, with respect to a linear objective functional. We illustrate the approach with results for magnet design problems from different areas, such as a permanent magnet electric motor, a beam focusing quadrupole magnet for particle accelerators and a rotary device for magnetic refrigeration....

  11. Allelic hierarchy of CDH23 mutations causing non-syndromic deafness DFNB12 or Usher syndrome USH1D in compound heterozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Julie M; Bhatti, Rashid; Madeo, Anne C; Turriff, Amy; Muskett, Julie A; Zalewski, Christopher K; King, Kelly A; Ahmed, Zubair M; Riazuddin, Saima; Ahmad, Nazir; Hussain, Zawar; Qasim, Muhammad; Kahn, Shaheen N; Meltzer, Meira R; Liu, Xue Z; Munisamy, Murali; Ghosh, Manju; Rehm, Heidi L; Tsilou, Ekaterini T; Griffith, Andrew J; Zein, Wadih M; Brewer, Carmen C; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Friedman, Thomas B

    2011-11-01

    Recessive mutant alleles of MYO7A, USH1C, CDH23, and PCDH15 cause non-syndromic deafness or type 1 Usher syndrome (USH1) characterised by deafness, vestibular areflexia, and vision loss due to retinitis pigmentosa. For CDH23, encoding cadherin 23, non-syndromic DFNB12 deafness is associated primarily with missense mutations hypothesised to have residual function. In contrast, homozygous nonsense, frame shift, splice site, and some missense mutations of CDH23, all of which are presumably functional null alleles, cause USH1D. The phenotype of a CDH23 compound heterozygote for a DFNB12 allele in trans configuration to an USH1D allele is not known and cannot be predicted from current understanding of cadherin 23 function in the retina and vestibular labyrinth. To address this issue, this study sought CDH23 compound heterozygotes by sequencing this gene in USH1 probands, and families segregating USH1D or DFNB12. Five non-syndromic deaf individuals were identified with normal retinal and vestibular phenotypes that segregate compound heterozygous mutations of CDH23, where one mutation is a known or predicted USH1 allele. One DFNB12 allele in trans configuration to an USH1D allele of CDH23 preserves vision and balance in deaf individuals, indicating that the DFNB12 allele is phenotypically dominant to an USH1D allele. This finding has implications for genetic counselling and the development of therapies for retinitis pigmentosa in Usher syndrome. ACCESSION NUMBERS: The cDNA and protein Genbank accession numbers for CDH23 and cadherin 23 used in this paper are AY010111.2 and AAG27034.2, respectively.

  12. Forced Translocation of Polymer through Nanopore: Deterministic Model and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqian; Panyukov, Sergey; Liao, Qi; Rubinstein, Michael

    2012-02-01

    We propose a new theoretical model of forced translocation of a polymer chain through a nanopore. We assume that DNA translocation at high fields proceeds too fast for the chain to relax, and thus the chain unravels loop by loop in an almost deterministic way. So the distribution of translocation times of a given monomer is controlled by the initial conformation of the chain (the distribution of its loops). Our model predicts the translocation time of each monomer as an explicit function of initial polymer conformation. We refer to this concept as ``fingerprinting''. The width of the translocation time distribution is determined by the loop distribution in initial conformation as well as by the thermal fluctuations of the polymer chain during the translocation process. We show that the conformational broadening δt of translocation times of m-th monomer δtm^1.5 is stronger than the thermal broadening δtm^1.25 The predictions of our deterministic model were verified by extensive molecular dynamics simulations

  13. [Clinical characteristics and preimplantation genetic diagnosis for male Robertsonian translocations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Lian, Ying; Qiao, Jie; Liu, Ping

    2012-08-18

    To explore the clinical characteristics and the preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for male Robertsonian translocations. From Jan 2005 to Oct 2011, 96 PGD cycles of 80 male Robertsonian translocations were performed at the Center of Reproductive Medicine of Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing. All the couples were involved in assisted reproductive therapy because of oligozoospermia or repeated abortions. Pregnancy results and clinical characteristics were analyzed in this study. Of all the 80 Robertsonian translocation couples, 62 (77.50%, 62/80) couples suffered from primary infertility due to severe oligoospermia and 8 (10%, 8/80) couples suffered from secondary infertility due to oligoospermia. Moreover, 10 (12.50%, 10/80) couples had recurrent spontaneous abortion. Of all the 80 male Robertsonian translocations, 50 were (13; 14) translocations and 15 (14; 21) translocations. The study showed that 79 PGD cycles had the balanced embryos to transfer and 25 cycles resulted in clinical pregnancies. The clinical pregnancy rate per transfer cycle was 31.65% (25 of 79). Now, 18 couples had 21 viable infants and 3 were ongoing pregnant. Oligozoospermia is the main factor for the infertility of the male Robertsonian translocations. Artificial reproductive techniques can solve their reproductive problems. Moreover, PGD will decrease the risk of recurrent spontaneous abortion and the malformations.

  14. Genetic outcomes from the translocations of the critically endangered woylie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo PACIONI, Adrian F.WAYNE, Peter B.S.SPENCER

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Translocations are an important conservation strategy for many species. However simply observing demographic growth of a translocated population is not sufficient to infer species recovery. Adequate genetic representation of the source population(s and their long-term viability should also be considered. The woylie Bettongia penicillata ogilbyi has been subject to more formal translocations for conservation than any other marsupial that, up until recently, has resulted in one of the most successful species recoveries in Australia. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers to assess the genetic outcomes of translocated woylie populations. These populations have lost genetic variability, differentiated from their source population and the supplementation program on two island populations appears to have failed. We discuss the conservation implications that our results have for managing threatened species, outline some general recommendations for the management of present and future translocations and discuss the appropriate sampling design for the establishment of new populations or captive breeding programs that may mitigate the genetic ‘erosion’ seen in our study species. This research provides some practical outcomes and a pragmatic understanding of translocation biology. The findings are directly applicable to other translocation programs [Current Zoology 59 (3: 294-310, 2013].

  15. Permanent magnet-based MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David Mitchell

    1997-10-01

    The principal goal of this project is to design and build a low-cost, imaging quality permanent magnet, together with the requisite shim, gradient, and radiofrequency coils, and to integrate the magnet with an existing imaging station. There are commercial products presently available that are very similar to this imager, but information about these products is proprietary. We present here all of the details concerning the design and the manufacturing process for constructing the permanent magnet, and include suggestions for improvement. Specifically, the prototype has a mass of about 150 kilograms and is therefore portable. It's C-type geometry allows maximum access to the imaging region, which is an oblate sphere about 0.5 inches in diameter centered in a 4.7 inch air gap between two seven-inch diameter polefaces. It is hoped that this imaging magnet will serve as the prototype for a series of larger versions that will be clinically useful and affordable to physicians in developing nations. To this end, scientists in the United States and Mexico have begun to collaborate with the intention to create an MRI institute in Mexico that will train new students in this discipline, and fabricate improved imagers. The prototype resulting from this work will seed the creation of this institute, and is intended to entice students into the study of MRI by enabling hands-on interaction with an otherwise prohibitively expensive instrument.

  16. Permanent burying method for product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Goro; Sakata, Noboru; Hironaka, Yoshikazu; Shigematsu, Kazuo; Yurugi, Masahiro; Minami, Masayoshi; Yoshisaki, Masato.

    1995-01-01

    In a method of permanently burying an object by filling and solidifying a cement mortar in gaps between each of objects to be buried underground, cement mortar is filled into gaps, which comprises water at a unit amount determined as from 200 to 250kg/m 3 , a cement at low water/cement ratio (%) of from 70 to 400%, and contains fine powder having an average grain size of not greater than 100μm (not containing cement) of 50 to 800kg/m 3 , fine aggregates of 800 to 1200kg/m 3 , UERAN gum (a bio-gum powder produced by aerobic fermentation of alcaligenes-bacteria) of 20g/m 3 to 1.3kg/m 3 , a dispersing agent of 0 to 40kg/m 3 , a swelling agent of 0 to 40kg/m 3 . Then if the mortar blended with the UERAN gum is injected, any gaps can be filled tightly, no breeding is caused and since the amount of cement is small, it does not suffer from temperature cracking. Therefore, the state of filling is kept permanently, and environmental pollution caused by radioactive wastes can be prevented. (N.H.)

  17. Mode of ATM-dependent suppression of chromosome translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, Motohiro, E-mail: motoyama@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Suzuki, Keiji; Oka, Yasuyoshi; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yamashita, Shunichi [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We addressed how ATM suppresses frequency of chromosome translocation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ATM/p53-dependent G1 checkpoint suppresses translocation frequency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ATM and DNA-PKcs function in a common pathway to suppress translocation. -- Abstract: It is well documented that deficiency in ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein leads to elevated frequency of chromosome translocation, however, it remains poorly understood how ATM suppresses translocation frequency. In the present study, we addressed the mechanism of ATM-dependent suppression of translocation frequency. To know frequency of translocation events in a whole genome at once, we performed centromere/telomere FISH and scored dicentric chromosomes, because dicentric and translocation occur with equal frequency and by identical mechanism. By centromere/telomere FISH analysis, we confirmed that chemical inhibition or RNAi-mediated knockdown of ATM causes 2 to 2.5-fold increase in dicentric frequency at first mitosis after 2 Gy of gamma-irradiation in G0/G1. The FISH analysis revealed that ATM/p53-dependent G1 checkpoint suppresses dicentric frequency, since RNAi-mediated knockdown of p53 elevated dicentric frequency by 1.5-fold. We found ATM also suppresses dicentric occurrence independently of its checkpoint role, as ATM inhibitor showed additional effect on dicentric frequency in the context of p53 depletion and Chk1/2 inactivation. Epistasis analysis using chemical inhibitors revealed that ATM kinase functions in the same pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to suppress dicentric frequency. From the results in the present study, we conclude that ATM minimizes translocation frequency through its commitment to G1 checkpoint and DNA double-strand break repair pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-PKcs.

  18. Translocation of threatened plants as a conservation measure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Ren, Hai; Liu, Qiang; Wen, XiangYing; Maunder, Michael; Gao, JiangYun

    2015-12-01

    We assessed the current status of plant conservation translocation efforts in China, a topic poorly reported in recent scientific literature. We identified 222 conservation translocation cases involving 154 species, of these 87 were Chinese endemic species and 101 (78%) were listed as threatened on the Chinese Species Red List. We categorized the life form of each species and, when possible, determined for each case the translocation type, propagule source, propagule type, and survival and reproductive parameters. A surprisingly large proportion (26%) of the conservation translocations in China were conservation introductions, largely implemented in response to large-scale habitat destruction caused by the Three-Gorge Dam and another hydropower project. Documentation and management of the translocations varied greatly. Less than half the cases had plant survival records. Statistical analyses showed that survival percentages were significantly correlated with plant life form and the type of planting materials. Thirty percent of the cases had records on whether or not individuals flowered or fruited. Results of information theoretic model selection indicated that plant life form, translocation type, propagule type, propagule source, and time since planting significantly influenced the likelihood of flowering and fruiting on the project level. We suggest that the scientific-based application of species conservation translocations should be promoted as part of a commitment to species recovery management. In addition, we recommend that the common practice of within and out of range introductions in nature reserves to be regulated more carefully due to its potential ecological risks. We recommend the establishment of a national office and database to coordinate conservation translocations in China. Our review effort is timely considering the need for a comprehensive national guideline for the newly announced nation-wide conservation program on species with extremely

  19. Mechanical design of translocating motor proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wonmuk; Lang, Matthew J

    2009-01-01

    Translocating motors generate force and move along a biofilament track to achieve diverse functions including gene transcription, translation, intracellular cargo transport, protein degradation, and muscle contraction. Advances in single molecule manipulation experiments, structural biology, and computational analysis are making it possible to consider common mechanical design principles of these diverse families of motors. Here, we propose a mechanical parts list that include track, energy conversion machinery, and moving parts. Energy is supplied not just by burning of a fuel molecule, but there are other sources or sinks of free energy, by binding and release of a fuel or products, or similarly between the motor and the track. Dynamic conformational changes of the motor domain can be regarded as controlling the flow of free energy to and from the surrounding heat reservoir. Multiple motor domains are organized in distinct ways to achieve motility under imposed physical constraints. Transcending amino acid sequence and structure, physically and functionally similar mechanical parts may have evolved as nature's design strategy for these molecular engines.

  20. Absorption and translocation of phosphorus-32 in guava leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, William

    1997-01-01

    Phosphorus is easily absorbed by the leaves and translocated. The objective of this work was to evaluate the absorption and translocation of P by guava leaves, with time. When a solution containing 2% MAP and specific activity 0.15 μCi/ml was applied. MAP labelled with 32 P was applied in the 3 rd pair of leaves. These and other leaves, roots and stem were collected separately and analyzed accordingly. The results showed that 20 days after application 12% of the applied P was absorbed by the guava leaves. The translocation of P started immediately after its absorption reaching 20% 2fter 20 days. (author). 19 refs., 4 tabs

  1. BCR translocation to derivative chromosome 2, a new case of chronic myeloid leukemia with complex variant translocation and Philadelphia chromosome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Achkar, W.; Wafa, A.; Al-Medani, S.

    2011-01-01

    The well-known typical fusion gene BCR/ABL can be observed in connection with a complex translocation event in only 5-8% of cases with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Herein we report an exceptional CML case with complex chromosomal aberrations not observed before, translocated BCR to the derivative chromosome 2 [der(2)], additional to involving a four chromosomes translocation implying chromosomal regions such as 1p32 and 2q21 besides 9q34 and 22q11.2. Which were characterized by molecular cytogenetics. (author)

  2. Advance and permanent public information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    d'Oleon, C.

    1990-01-01

    The accident at CHERNOBYL highlighted one of the major problems facing the nuclear industry at present and during the years to come: the need to provide information. There are two aspects to this requirement: information at a time of crisis issued when an accident such as that at CHERNOBYL takes place, but which has to be based on a procedure set up before the crisis, and advance and permanent information which prepares the ground for information at a time of crisis. The requirement for information is of particular importance in France, given the preponderance of nuclear energy in the electricity generating industry. The procedure covers the principles which were forcefully asserted by the French public authorities during the CHERNOBYL crisis, the resources strengthened or established at that time, and finally, the introduction of a policy of wider-ranging communication which is based on the idea that one can never compromise with safety

  3. CHALLENGES OF PERMANENT TEACHER TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Manuela Valles-Ornelas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The new challenges for teachers and managers require to assume permanent formation as a tool for responding effectively and efficiently to them, different perspective to strengthen from the initial teacher education programs. The research was done in a primary school in the state of Chihuahua. The method used was research action, the question was: How can we encourage the lifelong learning and training of the staff of this school, with the purpose to assist them in these processes to improve the service that the school provides to students. The school group is the center of the process, the cooperative and collaborative work accompanied by educational leadership and persuasive provide better results, and all accompanied by the professional selfinvitation.

  4. Modern permanent magnetic materials - preparation and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodewald, W.

    1989-01-01

    First of all, the basic properties of the classical (steel, AlNiCo) permanent magnetic materials and the modern rare-earth (RE) permanent magnetic materials are compared. Since the properties of RE permanent magnets depend on the particular production process, the fundamentals of the main industrial processes (powder metallurgy, rapid-solidification technique) are described and the typical properties are explained. Furthermore the production processes in development such as mechanical alloying, melt spinning technique and extrusion upsetting are briefly outlined. For applying the permanent magnets, they have to be completely magnetized. The magnetization behaviour of the various RE permanent magnets is discussed by means of the internal demagnetization curve. Finally the various influences on the temperature stability of RE permanent magnets are compiled. (orig./MM) [de

  5. A case of posttraumatic splenic translocation into the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnowski, P.; Sikorski, L.; Ziemianski, A.

    1993-01-01

    A case of the left diaphragmatic hernia due to blunt thoracic and abdominal trauma is presented. Characteristic radiological signs of splenic translocation into the thorax contributed to quick diagnosis and immediate surgical intervention. (author)

  6. Multistep Current Signal in Protein Translocation through Graphene Nanopores

    KAUST Repository

    Bonome, Emma Letizia; Lepore, Rosalba; Raimondo, Domenico; Cecconi, Fabio; Tramontano, Anna; Chinappi, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    of graphene constitute a major advantage for molecule characterization. Here we analyze the translocation pathway of the thioredoxin protein across a graphene nanopore, and the related ionic currents, by integrating two nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

  7. Microbial translocation and cardiometabolic risk factors in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trøseid, Marius; Manner, Ingjerd W; Pedersen, Karin K

    2014-01-01

    of microbial translocation are closely associated with several cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hypertension, coagulation abnormalities, endothelial dysfunction, and carotid atherosclerosis. Future studies should investigate whether associations between microbial...

  8. Intrusive luxation of 60 permanent incisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsilingaridis, Georgios; Malmgren, Barbro; Andreasen, Jens O

    2012-01-01

      Intrusive luxation in the permanent dentition is an uncommon injury but it is considered one of the most severe types of dental trauma because of the risk for damage to the periodontal ligament, pulp and alveolar bone. Management of intrusive luxation in the permanent dentition is controversial....... The purpose of this study was to evaluate pulp survival and periodontal healing in intrusive luxated permanent teeth in relation to treatment alternatives, degree of intrusion and root development....

  9. Carbon translocation in zooanthaellae-coelenterate symbioses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battey, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    When host and algal triglycerides synthesized in the symbiotic sea anemone Condylactis gigantea during light and dark incubations in 14 C-bicarbonate and 14 C-acetate were deacylated, more then 80% of the radioactivity was found in the fatty acid moiety. In contrast, triglycerides isolated from zooxanthellae and host incubated in 14 C-glycerol in the dark were found to have more then 95% of their radioactivity in the glycerol moiety. During 14 C-glycerol incubations in the light, radioactivity in the fatty acid moiety of zooxanthellae triglyceride fatty acid moiety stayed below 5% during 14 C-glycerol incubations in the light. These results show neither the zooxanthellae nor host can rapidly convert glycerol to fatty acid. Radioactivity from 14 C-glycerol that does eventually appear in host lipid may have been respired to 14 CO 2 then photosynthetically fixed by the zooxanthellae and synthesized into lipid fatty acid. The isolated zooxanthellae of C. gigantea contained 3.62 +/- 0.33 mM glycerol, which was 26x the 0.141 +/- 0.02 mM found in the coelenterate tissue. Aposymbiotic coelenterate tissue contained 0.169 +/- 0.05 mM glycerol. The metabolic inhibitors, sodium cyanide, aminooxyacetic acid and cerulenin were used to try and uncouple the production of glycerol by the zooxanthellae from its utilization by the coelenterate host. 10 -5 M NaCN increased the ratio of cross photosynthesis to respiration in both intact tentacles and isolated zooxanthellae, increased translocation from 17.7 +/- 3.5% of total fixed carbon in controls to 43.5 +/- 5.79%, and doubled the amount of photosynthetically fixed carbon accumulating in the coelenterate host over that in controls

  10. Bacterial translocation in clinical intestinal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicalese, L; Sileri, P; Green, M; Abu-Elmagd, K; Kocoshis, S; Reyes, J

    2001-05-27

    Bacterial translocation (BT) has been suggested to be responsible for the high incidence of infections occurring after small bowel transplantation (SBTx). Bacterial overgrowth, alteration of the mucosal barrier function as a consequence of preservation injury or acute rejection (AR), and potent immunosuppression are all associated with BT. The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the correlation of BT with these events. Fifty pediatric SBTx recipients on tacrolimus and prednisone immunosuppression were analyzed. Blood, stool, and liver biopsies and peritoneal fluid were cultured (circa 4000 total specimens) when infection was clinically suspected or as part of follow-up. BT episodes were considered when microorganisms were found simultaneously in blood or liver biopsy and stool. BT (average of 2.0 episodes/patient) was evident in 44% of patients and was most frequently caused by Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Enterobacter, and Klebsiella. The presence of a colon allograft was associated with a higher rate of BT (75% vs. 33.3%). Furthermore, the transplantation procedure (colon vs. no colon) affected the rate of BT: SBTx=40% vs. 25%, combined liver and SBTx=100% vs. 30%, multivisceral transplantation=25% vs. 50%. AR was associated with 39% of BT episodes. BT followed AR in 9.6% of the cases. In 5.2% of the cases, positive blood cultures without stool confirmation of the bacteria were seen. Prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT) affected BT rate significantly (CIT>9 hr 76% vs. CIT<9 hr 20.8%). This study shows that 1) a substantial percentage of, but not all, BT is associated with AR, 2) the presence of a colon allograft increases the risk for BT, and 3) a long CIT is associated with a high incidence of BT after SBTx.

  11. Meiotic delay of translocation carrying spermatocytes responsible for reduced transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buul, P.P.W. van

    1991-01-01

    Using in vivo pulse labelling of spermatocytes from mice irradiated with different doses of X-rays (6 and 7 Gy). The authors demonstrated that cells having translocations derived from irradiated stem cells tend to spend longer time at the meiotic prophase than normal cells. At the 2 Gy level this effect is much less pronounced. The recorded delay forms a good explanation for the reduced transmission of translocations to the next generation observed by others. (author)

  12. Uptake, translocation, and debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moming Zhao; Shuzhen Zhang; Sen Wang; Honglin Huang

    2012-01-01

    Uptake,translocation and debromination of three polybrominated diphenyl ethers(PBDEs),BDE-28,-47 and-99,in maize were studied in a hydroponic experiment.Roots took up most of the PBDEs in the culture solutions and more highly brominated PBDEs had a stronger uptake capability.PBDEs were detected in the stems and leaves of maize after exposure but rarely detected in the blank control plants.Furthermore,PBDE concentrations decreased from roots to stems and then to leaves,and a very clear decreasing gradient was found in segments upwards along the stem.These altogether provide substantiating evidence for the acropetal translocation of PBDEs in maize.More highly brominated PBDEs were translocated with more difficulty.Radial translocation of PBDEs from nodes to sheath inside maize was also observed.Both acropetal and radial translocations were enhanced at higher transpiration rates,suggesting that PBDE transport was probably driven by the transpiration stream.Debromination of PBDEs occurred in all parts of the maize,and debromination patterns of different parent PBDEs and in different parts of a plant were similar but with some differences.This study for the first time provides direct evidence for the acropetal translocation of PBDEs within plants,elucidates the process of PBDE transport and clarifies the debromination products of PBDEs in maize.

  13. The Unexplored Mechanisms and Regulatory Functions of Ribosomal Translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, Jose Luis

    In every cell, protein synthesis is carried out by the ribosome, a complex macromolecular RNA-protein assembly. Decades of structural and kinetic studies have increased our understanding of ribosome initiation, decoding, translocation and termination. Yet, the underlying mechanism of these fundamental processes has yet to be fully delineated. Hence, the molecular basis of regulation remains obscure. Here, single-molecule fluorescence methods are applied to decipher the mechanism and regulatory roles of the multi-step process of directional substrate translocation on the ribosome that accompanies every round of protein synthesis. In Chapter 1, single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) is introduced as a tool for studying bacterial ribosome translocation. Chapter 2 details the experimental methods. In Chapter 3, the elongation factor G(EF-G)-catalyzed movement of substrates through the ribosome is examined from several perspectives or signals reporting on various degrees of freedom of ribosome dynamics. Two ribosomal states interconvert in the presence of EF-G(GDP), displaying novel head domain motions, until relocking takes place. In Chapter 4, in order to test if the mentioned fluctuations leading to relocking are correlated to the engagement of the P-site by the peptidyl-tRNA, the translocation of miscoded tRNAs is studied. Severe defects in the relocking stages of translocation reveal the correlation between this new stage of translocation and P-site tRNA engagement.

  14. Conflict bear translocation: investigating population genetics and fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukesh; Sharma, Lalit Kumar; Charoo, Samina Amin; Sathyakumar, Sambandam

    2015-01-01

    The Asiatic black bear population in Dachigam landscape, Jammu and Kashmir is well recognized as one of the highest density bear populations in India. Increasing incidences of bear-human interactions and the resultant retaliatory killings by locals have become a serious threat to the survivorship of black bears in the Dachigam landscape. The Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu and Kashmir has been translocating bears involved in conflicts, henceforth 'conflict bears' from different sites in Dachigam landscape to Dachigam National Park as a flagship activity to mitigate conflicts. We undertook this study to investigate the population genetics and the fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park. We identified 109 unique genotypes in an area of ca. 650 km2 and observed bear population under panmixia that showed sound genetic variability. Molecular tracking of translocated bears revealed that mostly bears (7 out of 11 bears) returned to their capture sites, possibly due to homing instincts or habituation to the high quality food available in agricultural croplands and orchards, while only four bears remained in Dachigam National Park after translocation. Results indicated that translocation success was most likely to be season dependent as bears translocated during spring and late autumn returned to their capture sites, perhaps due to the scarcity of food inside Dachigam National Park while bears translocated in summer remained in Dachigam National Park due to availability of surplus food resources. Thus, the current management practices of translocating conflict bears, without taking into account spatio-temporal variability of food resources in Dachigam landscape seemed to be ineffective in mitigating conflicts on a long-term basis. However, the study highlighted the importance of molecular tracking of bears to understand their movement patterns and socio-biology in tough terrains like Dachigam landscape.

  15. Conflict bear translocation: investigating population genetics and fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh

    Full Text Available The Asiatic black bear population in Dachigam landscape, Jammu and Kashmir is well recognized as one of the highest density bear populations in India. Increasing incidences of bear-human interactions and the resultant retaliatory killings by locals have become a serious threat to the survivorship of black bears in the Dachigam landscape. The Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu and Kashmir has been translocating bears involved in conflicts, henceforth 'conflict bears' from different sites in Dachigam landscape to Dachigam National Park as a flagship activity to mitigate conflicts. We undertook this study to investigate the population genetics and the fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park. We identified 109 unique genotypes in an area of ca. 650 km2 and observed bear population under panmixia that showed sound genetic variability. Molecular tracking of translocated bears revealed that mostly bears (7 out of 11 bears returned to their capture sites, possibly due to homing instincts or habituation to the high quality food available in agricultural croplands and orchards, while only four bears remained in Dachigam National Park after translocation. Results indicated that translocation success was most likely to be season dependent as bears translocated during spring and late autumn returned to their capture sites, perhaps due to the scarcity of food inside Dachigam National Park while bears translocated in summer remained in Dachigam National Park due to availability of surplus food resources. Thus, the current management practices of translocating conflict bears, without taking into account spatio-temporal variability of food resources in Dachigam landscape seemed to be ineffective in mitigating conflicts on a long-term basis. However, the study highlighted the importance of molecular tracking of bears to understand their movement patterns and socio-biology in tough terrains like Dachigam landscape.

  16. [Identification of a novel WART-like chromosome rearrangement in complex heterozygotes in an interracial hybrid zone of the common shrew Sorex araneus L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, S V; Bulatova, N Sh

    2010-09-01

    Karyotypes uncharacteristic of pure races or hybrids were identified in the interracial hybrid zones of the common shrew Sorex araneus L. that were recently discovered in the European part of Russia. This suggests the actual existence in natural populations of WART-like rearrangements (whole-arm reciprocal translocations) along with Robertsonian fusions of acrocentrics. Demonstration of new and still rare chromosome variants is the aim of this communication.

  17. 3-D analysis of eddy current in permanent magnet of interior permanent magnet motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawase, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Fukanaga, Hiromu; Ito, Shokichi

    2002-01-01

    Interior permanent magnet motors are widely used in various fields. However, in high-speed operations, it is important to decrease the eddy current loss in the permanent magnet. In order to decrease the eddy current loss, we propose to divide the permanent magnet. In this paper, we clarified the effect of division of permanent magnet on the eddy current loss using the 3-D finite element method. (Author)

  18. Corporate Policies with Permanent and Transitory Shocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J-P. Decamps (Jean-Paul); S. Gryglewicz (Sebastian); E. Morellec (Erwan); S. Villeneuve (Stephane)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe model the financing, cash holdings, and hedging policies of a firm facing financing frictions and subject to permanent and transitory cash flow shocks. We show that permanent and transitory shocks generate distinct, sometimes opposite, effects on corporate policies and use the model

  19. OAS :: Authorities : Permanent Representatives to the OAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rights Actions against Corruption C Children Civil Registry Civil Society Contact Us Culture Cyber Representative of Belize Diego Pary Rodríguez Bolivia Diego Pary Rodríguez Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Bolivia José Luiz Machado Brazil José Luiz Machado e Costa Ambassador, Permanent Representative

  20. Leadership in a (permanent) crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heifetz, Ronald; Grashow, Alexander; Linsky, Marty

    2009-01-01

    The current economic crisis is not just another rough spell. Today's mix of urgency, high stakes, and uncertainty will continue even after the recession ends. The immediate crisis--which we will get through with policy makers' expert technical adjustments--sets the stage for a sustained, or even permanent, crisis, a relentless series of challenges no one has encountered before. Instead of hunkering down and relying on their familiar expertise to deal with the sustained crisis, people in positions of authority--whether they are CEOs or managers heading up a company initiative--must practice what the authors call adaptive leadership. They must, of course, tackle the underlying causes of the crisis, but they must also simultaneously make the changes that will allow their organizations to thrive in turbulent environments. Adaptive leadership is an improvisational and experimental art, requiring some new practices. Like Julie Gilbert, who overcame internal resistance to reorient Best Buy toward female purchasers, adaptive leaders get things done to meet today's challenges and then modify those things to thrive in tomorrow's world. They also embrace disequilibrium, using turbulence as an opportunity to build crucial new capacities, as Paul Levy did to rescue Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center from a profound financial crisis. Finally, adaptive leaders, such as Egon Zehnder, the founder of an executive search firm, draw out the leadership skills that reside deep in the organization, recognizing the interdependence of all employees and mobilizing everyone to generate solutions.

  1. Guidelines for removing permanent makeup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Bettina Rümmelein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Permanent makeup (PMU is a frequently implemented cosmetic procedure performed by beauticians. From a technical point, PMU is considered a facial tattoo. Failed procedures or a change of mind can lead to the desire for removal. The purpose of this retrospective evaluation of patients who came to the clinic with the desire to remove PMU between 2011 and 2015 was to explore the problems, side effects, and results in order to define treatment guidelines for other doctors. We evaluated 87 individual cases in total. In treatable cases, i.e. 52 out of the 87 cases, laser treatments were performed using a nanosecond Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG laser. It takes between 1-12 treatments to remove the PMU. In three cases, the colour of the PMU could not be removed by laser and remained after the treatment. In two cases, laser treatment had to be terminated due to colour changes towards the green-blue spectrum. Before PMU removal, laser test shots are urgently recommended as unforeseeable colour changes can cause severe aesthetically unpleasant results. Covered up PMU (skin colour is particularly susceptible to changes in colour. Heat-induced shrinking of the eye area can cause an ectropium. Surgical solutions also have to be taken into consideration. The use of proper eye protection with intraocular eye shields is mandatory. This article is an attempt to set up some guidelines for the treatment of PMU removal.

  2. Transcuticular translocation of radionuclides on plant leaf surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Ken-ichi; Watanabe, Tadakazu; Ambe, Shizuko; Yamaguchi, Isamu

    1996-01-01

    The cuticle covering all the outermost surfaces of the aerial parts of plants could play a selective role in uptake and translocation of radionuclides from air into plants. In this study, we investigated the transcuticular uptake and translocation behavior via water droplets of various radionuclides in red clover, orchard grass, Japanese radish and mung bean. Ten μl of an aqueous solution of the multitracer generated from Au was applied to the upper surface of the 2nd leaf of the plants at the 5th leaf stage. The plants were then grown for 14 days at 25degC and 70% RH under illumination of artificial solar lights. The transcuticular uptake and translocation throughout the plant were periodically assayed by determining the radioactivity in the surface residue, the cuticle layer beneath the applied site, the leaf area outside the applied site, the other aerial parts and the root of the plant, using an HPGe detector. The applied radionuclides were absorbed into, in turn, the cuticle layer beneath the applied site and then translocated through the cuticle to the inner tissue and eventually to the other aerial parts and finally to the roots, of the plant. The distribution and accumulation in the plant seems to depend upon the characteristics of each radionuclide and plant species. Ca * and Te * tended to remain on leaf surfaces without being absorbed into the cuticle. On the other hand, Sc * , Co * , Zn * , Se * , Rb * , and Eu * were easily absorbed and translocated to every part of the plant including the root. The other radionuclides such as Be * , Mn * , Sr * , Y * , Ba * , Ce * , Pm * , Gd * , Hf * , Yb * , Lu * , Os * , Ir * , and Pt * remained in the region close to the site of their application. The above results possibly indicate the existence of mechanisms common to these plants for selective transcuticular uptake and translocation of radionuclides within plant tissues, though their translocation was considerably influenced by the plant species. (author)

  3. High-speed detection of DNA translocation in nanopipettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraccari, Raquel L.; Ciccarella, Pietro; Bahrami, Azadeh; Carminati, Marco; Ferrari, Giorgio; Albrecht, Tim

    2016-03-01

    We present a high-speed electrical detection scheme based on a custom-designed CMOS amplifier which allows the analysis of DNA translocation in glass nanopipettes on a microsecond timescale. Translocation of different DNA lengths in KCl electrolyte provides a scaling factor of the DNA translocation time equal to p = 1.22, which is different from values observed previously with nanopipettes in LiCl electrolyte or with nanopores. Based on a theoretical model involving electrophoresis, hydrodynamics and surface friction, we show that the experimentally observed range of p-values may be the result of, or at least be affected by DNA adsorption and friction between the DNA and the substrate surface.We present a high-speed electrical detection scheme based on a custom-designed CMOS amplifier which allows the analysis of DNA translocation in glass nanopipettes on a microsecond timescale. Translocation of different DNA lengths in KCl electrolyte provides a scaling factor of the DNA translocation time equal to p = 1.22, which is different from values observed previously with nanopipettes in LiCl electrolyte or with nanopores. Based on a theoretical model involving electrophoresis, hydrodynamics and surface friction, we show that the experimentally observed range of p-values may be the result of, or at least be affected by DNA adsorption and friction between the DNA and the substrate surface. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Gel electrophoresis confirming lengths and purity of DNA samples, comparison between Axopatch 200B and custom-built setup, comprehensive low-noise amplifier characterization, representative I-V curves of nanopipettes used, typical scatter plots of τ vs. peak amplitude for the four LDNA's used, table of most probable τ values, a comparison between different fitting models for the DNA translocation time distribution, further details on the stochastic numerical simulation of the scaling statistics and the derivation of the extended

  4. Role of non-equilibrium conformations on driven polymer translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkar, H H; Muthukumar, M

    2018-01-14

    One of the major theoretical methods in understanding polymer translocation through a nanopore is the Fokker-Planck formalism based on the assumption of quasi-equilibrium of polymer conformations. The criterion for applicability of the quasi-equilibrium approximation for polymer translocation is that the average translocation time per Kuhn segment, ⟨τ⟩/N K , is longer than the relaxation time τ 0 of the polymer. Toward an understanding of conditions that would satisfy this criterion, we have performed coarse-grained three dimensional Langevin dynamics and multi-particle collision dynamics simulations. We have studied the role of initial conformations of a polyelectrolyte chain (which were artificially generated with a flow field) on the kinetics of its translocation across a nanopore under the action of an externally applied transmembrane voltage V (in the absence of the initial flow field). Stretched (out-of-equilibrium) polyelectrolyte chain conformations are deliberately and systematically generated and used as initial conformations in translocation simulations. Independent simulations are performed to study the relaxation behavior of these stretched chains, and a comparison is made between the relaxation time scale and the mean translocation time (⟨τ⟩). For such artificially stretched initial states, ⟨τ⟩/N K polymers including single stranded DNA (ssDNA), double stranded DNA (dsDNA), and synthetic polymers. Even when these data are rescaled assuming a constant effective velocity of translocation, it is found that for flexible (ssDNA and synthetic) polymers with N K Kuhn segments, the condition ⟨τ⟩/N K polymers such as ssDNA, a crossover from quasi-equilibrium to non-equilibrium behavior would occur at N K ∼ O(1000).

  5. A Novel Occulta-Type Spina Bifida Mediated by Murine Double Heterozygotes EphA2 and EphA4 Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Linda Abdullah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Eph receptor tyrosine kinase have previously been implicated in cranial neural tube development. Failure of neural tube closure leads to the devastating conditions known as anencephaly and spina bifida. EphA2 and EphA4 are expressed at the tips of the closing spinal neural folds prior and during neural tube closure. We investigated the possible role of murine EphA2 and EphA4 during the last step of primary neural tube closure, which is adhesion and fusion. The individual mouse knockouts of EphA2 and EphA4 per se do not exhibit neural tube defects (NTDs. The embryos generated by the crossing of double heterozygotes Epha2tm1Jrui/+Epha4rb-2J/+ displayed NTDs with a wide degree of severity including close exencephaly and close spina bifida (spina bifida occulta. Interestingly, mutants displaying NTDs had skin covering the underlying lesion. The tissue sections revealed the elevated neural folds had not adhered and fused. The phenotypes seen in Epha2tm1Jrui/+Epha4rb-2J/+ double heterozygous embryos suggest both genes play a compensatory role with each other in the adhesion and fusion of the neural tube. In this study, there exists a >50% penetrance of NTDs in the mouse mutants, which genetically have a single allele each of EphA2 and EphA4 absent.

  6. Sorting genomes by reciprocal translocations, insertions, and deletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xingqin; Li, Guojun; Li, Shuguang; Xu, Ying

    2010-01-01

    The problem of sorting by reciprocal translocations (abbreviated as SBT) arises from the field of comparative genomics, which is to find a shortest sequence of reciprocal translocations that transforms one genome Pi into another genome Gamma, with the restriction that Pi and Gamma contain the same genes. SBT has been proved to be polynomial-time solvable, and several polynomial algorithms have been developed. In this paper, we show how to extend Bergeron's SBT algorithm to include insertions and deletions, allowing to compare genomes containing different genes. In particular, if the gene set of Pi is a subset (or superset, respectively) of the gene set of Gamma, we present an approximation algorithm for transforming Pi into Gamma by reciprocal translocations and deletions (insertions, respectively), providing a sorting sequence with length at most OPT + 2, where OPT is the minimum number of translocations and deletions (insertions, respectively) needed to transform Pi into Gamma; if Pi and Gamma have different genes but not containing each other, we give a heuristic to transform Pi into Gamma by a shortest sequence of reciprocal translocations, insertions, and deletions, with bounds for the length of the sorting sequence it outputs. At a conceptual level, there is some similarity between our algorithm and the algorithm developed by El Mabrouk which is used to sort two chromosomes with different gene contents by reversals, insertions, and deletions.

  7. A somatic origin of homologous Robertsonian translocations and isochromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, W.P.; Bernasconi, F.; Schinzel, A.A. (Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland)); Basaran, S.; Yueksel-Apak, M. (Univ. of Istanbul (Turkey)); Neri, G. (Universita Cattolica, Rome (Italy)); Serville, F. (Hopital d' Enfants Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France)); Balicek, P.; Haluza, R. (Univ. Hospital of Hradeck Kralove, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)); Farah, L.M.S. (Escuola Paulista de Medicina, Sao Paulo (Brazil)) (and others)

    1994-02-01

    One t(14q 14q), three t(15q 15q), two t(21q21q), and two t(22q22q) nonmosaic, apparently balanced, de novo Robertsonian translocation cases were investigated with polymorphic markers to establish the origin of the translocated chromosomes. Four cases had results indicative of an isochromosome: one t(14q14q) case with mild mental retardation and maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) for chromosome 14, one t(15q15q) case with the Prader-Willi syndrome and UPD(15), a phenotypically normal carrier of t(22q22q) with maternal UPD(22), and a phenotypically normal t(21q21q) case of paternal UPD(21). All UPD cases showed complete homozygosity throughout the involved chromosome, which is supportive of a postmeiotic origin. In the remaining four cases, maternal and paternal inheritance of the involved chromosome was found, which unambiguously implies a somatic origin. One t(15q15q) female had a child with a ring chromosome 15, which was also of probable postmeiotic origin as recombination between grandparental haplotypes had occurred prior to ring formation. UPD might be expected to result from de novo Robertsonian translocations of meiotic origin; however, all de novo homologous translocation cases, so far reported, with UPD of chromosomes 14, 15, 21, or 22 have been isochromosomes. These data provide the first direct evidence that nonmosaic Robertsonian translocations, as well as isochromosomes, are commonly the result of a mitotic exchange. 75 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  8. Electrostatics of polymer translocation events in electrolyte solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukdagli, Sahin; Ala-Nissila, T

    2016-07-07

    We develop an analytical theory that accounts for the image and surface charge interactions between a charged dielectric membrane and a DNA molecule translocating through the membrane. Translocation events through neutral carbon-based membranes are driven by a competition between the repulsive DNA-image-charge interactions and the attractive coupling between the DNA segments on the trans and the cis sides of the membrane. The latter effect is induced by the reduction of the coupling by the dielectric membrane. In strong salt solutions where the repulsive image-charge effects dominate the attractive trans-cis coupling, the DNA molecule encounters a translocation barrier of ≈10 kBT. In dilute electrolytes, the trans-cis coupling takes over image-charge forces and the membrane becomes a metastable attraction point that can trap translocating polymers over long time intervals. This mechanism can be used in translocation experiments in order to control DNA motion by tuning the salt concentration of the solution.

  9. Nonabsorbable Antibiotics Reduce Bacterial and Endotoxin Translocation in Hepatectomised Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Kakkos

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that septic complications, occurring after major hepatectomies, may be caused by gram negative bacteria, translocating from the gut. We investigated in rats, the effect of extended hepatectomy on the structure and morphology of the intestinal mucosa as well as on the translocation of intestinal bacteria and endotoxins. We also examined the effect of nonabsorbable antibiotics on reducing the intestinal flora and consequently the phenomenon of translocation by administering neomycin sulphate and cefazoline. Hepatectomy was found to increase translocation, while administration of nonabsorbable antibiotics decreased it significantly. In addition, hepatectomy increased the aerobic cecal bacterial population, which normalised in the group receiving antibiotics. Among the histological parameters evaluated, villus height demonstrated a significant reduction after hepatectomy, while the number of villi per cm and the number of mitoses per crypt, remained unchanged. Our results indicate that administration of nonabsorbable antibiotics presents a positive effect on bacterial and endotoxin translocation after extended hepatectomy, and this may be related to reduction of colonic bacterial load as an intraluminal effect of antibiotics.

  10. Mechanism for translocation of fluoroquinolones across lipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramariuc, O.; Rog, T.; Javanainen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Classical atom-scale molecular dynamics simulations, constrained free energy calculations, and quantum mechanical (QM) calculations are employed to study the diffusive translocation of ciprofloxacin (CPFX) across lipid membranes. CPFX is considered here as a representative of the fluoroquinolone...... antibiotics class. Neutral and zwitterionic CPFX coexist at physiological pH, with the latter being predominant. Simulations reveal that only the neutral form permeates the bilayer, and it does so through a novel mechanism that involves dissolution of concerted stacks of zwitterionic ciprofloxacins....... Subsequent QM analysis of the observed molecular stacking shows the important role of partial charge neutralization in the stacks, highlighting how the zwitterionic form of the drug is neutralized for translocation. The findings propose a translocation mechanism in which zwitterionic CPFX molecules approach...

  11. Biological mechanisms and translocation kinetics of particulate plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruenger, F.W.; Stevens, W.; Atherton, D.R.; Roswell, R.L.; Smith, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The dissolution and elimination of particulate 239 Pu from its initial sites of deposition in phagocytic organs (the liver, spleen, and lung), as well as its translocation and redeposition in soft tissue organs and skeleton have been investigated. Beagles were injected intravenously with particulate Pu and sacrificed sequentially at times ranging from 33 to 830 days after injection. Equations that describe the overall retention of Pu in liver, spleen, lung, and bone were calculated. Plutonium mobilized from these organs either re-entered the blood stream and redeposited in the skeleton and liver parenchyma or was excreted. The protracted translocation of Pu to bone surfaces potentially exposes all cells involved in osteogenesis to continuous α-radiation, a situation that could enhance the hazard of developing osteosarcoma. A kinetic model that describes the translocation of Pu from the phagocytic compartments to blood and its subsequent redistribution to bone, liver, and other organs was formulated

  12. Evaluating descriptors for the lateral translocation of membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanova, Olga; Borbe, Stefan; Mühlfeld, Stefanie; Becker, Martin; Kubitz, Ralf; Häussinger, Dieter; Berlage, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Microscopic images of tissue sections are used for diagnosis and monitoring of therapy, by analysis of protein patterns correlating to disease states. Spatial protein distribution is influenced by protein translocation between different membrane compartments and quantified by comparison of microscopic images of biological samples. Cholestatic liver diseases are characterized by translocation of transport proteins, and quantification of their dislocation offers new diagnostic options. However, reliable and unbiased tools are lacking. The nowadays used manual method is slow, subjective and error-prone. We have developed a new workflow based on automated image analysis and improved it by the introduction of scale-free descriptors for the translocation quantification. This fast and unbiased method can substitute the manual analysis, and the suggested descriptors perform better than the earlier used statistical variance.

  13. Crystallographic snapshot of cellulose synthesis and membrane translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jacob L W; Strumillo, Joanna; Zimmer, Jochen

    2013-01-10

    Cellulose, the most abundant biological macromolecule, is an extracellular, linear polymer of glucose molecules. It represents an essential component of plant cell walls but is also found in algae and bacteria. In bacteria, cellulose production frequently correlates with the formation of biofilms, a sessile, multicellular growth form. Cellulose synthesis and transport across the inner bacterial membrane is mediated by a complex of the membrane-integrated catalytic BcsA subunit and the membrane-anchored, periplasmic BcsB protein. Here we present the crystal structure of a complex of BcsA and BcsB from Rhodobacter sphaeroides containing a translocating polysaccharide. The structure of the BcsA-BcsB translocation intermediate reveals the architecture of the cellulose synthase, demonstrates how BcsA forms a cellulose-conducting channel, and suggests a model for the coupling of cellulose synthesis and translocation in which the nascent polysaccharide is extended by one glucose molecule at a time.

  14. Permanent multipole magnets with adjustable strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbach, K.

    1983-01-01

    Preceded by a short discussion of the motives for using permanent magnets in accelerators, a new type of permanent magnet for use in accelerators is presented. The basic design and most important properties of a quadrople will be described that uses both steel and permanent magnet material. The field gradient produced by this magnet can be adjusted without changing any other aspect of the field produced by this quadrupole. The generalization of this concept to produce other multipole fields, or combination of multipole fields, will also be presented

  15. Nanocrystalline permanent magnets with enhanced properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonowicz, M.

    2002-01-01

    Parameters of permanent magnets result from the combination of intrinsic properties such as saturation magnetization, magnetic exchange, and magnetocrystalline energy, as well as microstructural parameters such as phase structure, grain size, and orientation. Reduction of grain size into nanocrystalline regime (∼ 50 nm) leads to the enhanced remanence which derives from ferromagnetic exchange coupling between highly refined grains. In this study the fundamental phenomena, quantities, and structure parameters, which define nanophase permanent magnets are presented and discussed. The theoretical considerations are confronted with experimental data for nanocrystalline Sm-Fe-N type permanent magnets. (author)

  16. Permanent molars: Delayed development and eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathi R

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Delayed development and eruption of all the permanent molars is a rare phenomenon, which can cause disturbance in the developing occlusion. The eruption of permanent first and second molars is very important for the coordination of facial growth and for providing sufficient occlusal support for undisturbed mastication. In the case described, the first permanent molars were delayed in their development and were seen erupting at the age of nine and a half years. Severe disparity between the left and the right side of the dentition with respect to the rate of development of molars were also present.

  17. Reactor safety review of permanent changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, K.F.

    1997-01-01

    Operational compliance engineers review all changes as part of a change control process. Each change, permanent or temporary, is required to undergo an intricate review process to ensure that the benefits associated with the change outweigh the risk. For permanent changes, it is necessary to ensure that the proposed design meets the nuclear safety requirements, conforms to the licensing requirements and complies with regulatory requirements. In addition, during installation of the permanent change and prior to in-service, a configuration management process is in place to align the change with operating and maintenance documents. (author)

  18. Permanent multipole magnets with adjustable strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbach, K.

    1983-03-01

    Preceded by a short discussion of the motives for using permanent magnets in accelerators, a new type of permanent magnet for use in accelerators is presented. The basic design and most important properties of a quadrupole will be described that uses both steel and permanent magnet material. The field gradient produced by this magnet can be adjusted without changing any other aspect of the field produced by this quadrupole. The generalization of this concept to produce other multipole fields, or combination of multipole fields, will also be presented

  19. Scintigraphic visualization of bacterial translocation in experimental strangulated intestinal obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeev, Yu.M.; Popov, M.V.; Salato, O.V.; Lishmanov, Yu.B.; Grigorev, E.G.; Aparcin, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain scintigraphic images depicting translocation of 99m Tc-labelled Escherichia coli bacteria through the intestinal barrier and to quantify this process using methods of nuclear medicine. Thirty male Wistar rats (including 20 rats with modelled strangulated intestinal obstruction and 10 healthy rats) were used for bacterial scintigraphy. 99m Tc-labelled E. coli bacteria ( 99m Ts-E. coli) with an activity of 7.4-11.1 MBq were administered into a section of the small intestine. Scintigraphic visualization of bacterial translocation into organs and tissues of laboratory animals was recorded in dynamic (240 min) and static (15 min) modes. The number of labelled bacteria, which migrated through the intestinal barrier, was quantified by calculating the translocation index (TI). Control indicated no translocation of 99m Ts-E. coli administered into the intestine through the parietes of the small intestine's distal part in healthy animals. Animals with strangulated obstruction demonstrated different migration strength and routes of labelled bacteria from strangulated and superior to strangulation sections of the small intestine. 99m Ts-E. coli migrated from the strangulated loop into the peritoneal cavity later causing systemic bacteraemia through peritoneal resorption. The section of the small intestine, which was superior to the strangulation, demonstrated migration of labelled bacteria first into the portal and then into the systemic circulation. The strangulated section of the small intestine was the main source of bacteria dissemination since the number of labelled bacteria, which migrated from this section significantly, exceeded that of the area superior to the strangulation section of the small intestine (p = 0.0003). Bacterial scintigraphy demonstrated the possibility of visualizing migration routes of labelled bacteria and quantifying their translocation through the intestinal barrier. This approach to study bacterial

  20. Radioecological sensitivity of permanent grasslands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, Benoit

    2009-01-01

    The project 'SENSIB' of the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) aims at characterizing and classifying parameters with significant impact on the transfer of radioactive contaminants in the environment. This thesis is focused on permanent grassland areas. Its objectives are the analysis of the activity variations of two artificial radionuclides ( 137 Cs and 90 Sr) in the chain from soil to dairy products as well as the categorization of ecological and anthropogenic parameters, which determine the sensitivity of the studied area. For this study, in situ sampling is carried out in 15 farms in 3 different French regions (Charente, Puy-de-Dome and Jura). The sampling sites are chosen according to their natural variations (geology, altitude and climate) and the soil types. Additionally to the radiologic measurements, geographic, soil and vegetation data as well as data concerning cattle-rearing and cheese manufacturing processes are gathered. From the soil to the grass vegetation, 137 Cs transfer factors vary between 3 x 10-3 and 148 x 10-3 Bq kg-1 (dry weight) per Bq kg-1 (dry weight) (N = 73). Theses transfer factors are significantly higher in the Puy-de-Dome region than in the Jura region. The 137 Cs transfer factor from cattle feed to milk varies from 5.9 x 10-3 to 258 x 10-3 Bq kg-1 (fresh weight) per Bq kg-1 (dry weight) (N = 28). Statistically, it is higher in the Charente region. Finally, the 90 Sr transfer factor from milk to cheese ranges from 3.9 to 12.1. The studied site with the highest factor is the Jura (N = 25). The link between milk and dairy products is the stage with the most 137 Cs and 90 Sr transfers. A nonlinear approach based on a discretization method of the transfer factor with multiple comparison tests admits a classification of the sensitivity factors from soil to grass vegetation. We can determine 20 factors interfering in the 137 Cs transfer into the vegetation, for instance, the clay rate of the soils or a marker

  1. The Genetics of a Probable Insertional Translocation in SORDARIA BREVICOLLIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, D J

    1979-05-01

    A chromosome rearrangement has been isolated and characterized in Sordaria brevicollis. Crosses to spore color mutants on each of the seven linkage groups have enabled the breakpoints to be mapped. The simplest hypothesis to account for the results is that a piece of linkage group VI has been translocated to linkage group V and inserted 2.7 map units from its centromere. Previous reports of markers on this linkage group with centromere distances greater than 2.7 units make it unlikely that the translocation is quasiterminal.

  2. Free energy evaluation in polymer translocation via Jarzynski equality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondaini, Felipe, E-mail: fmondaini@if.ufrj.br [Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica Celso Suckow da Fonseca, Petrópolis, 25.620-003, RJ (Brazil); Moriconi, L., E-mail: moriconi@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68528, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-05-01

    We perform, with the help of cloud computing resources, extensive Langevin simulations, which provide free energy estimates for unbiased three-dimensional polymer translocation. We employ the Jarzynski equality in its rigorous setting, to compute the variation of the free energy in single monomer translocation events. In our three-dimensional Langevin simulations, the excluded-volume and van der Waals interactions between beads (monomers and membrane atoms) are modeled through a repulsive Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential and consecutive monomers are subject to the Finite-Extension Nonlinear Elastic (FENE) potential. Analysing data for polymers with different lengths, the free energy profile is noted to have interesting finite-size scaling properties.

  3. Free energy evaluation in polymer translocation via Jarzynski equality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondaini, Felipe; Moriconi, L.

    2014-01-01

    We perform, with the help of cloud computing resources, extensive Langevin simulations, which provide free energy estimates for unbiased three-dimensional polymer translocation. We employ the Jarzynski equality in its rigorous setting, to compute the variation of the free energy in single monomer translocation events. In our three-dimensional Langevin simulations, the excluded-volume and van der Waals interactions between beads (monomers and membrane atoms) are modeled through a repulsive Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential and consecutive monomers are subject to the Finite-Extension Nonlinear Elastic (FENE) potential. Analysing data for polymers with different lengths, the free energy profile is noted to have interesting finite-size scaling properties.

  4. The action spectrum in chloroplast translocation in multilayer leaf cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Lechowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By measurement of light transmittance through a leaf as criterion of chloroplast translocation, the action spectrum of Ajuga reptans was established. In the spectrum obtained, a correction was introduced for leaf autoabsorption calculated on the basis of the Beer-Lambert law. The action spectrum has two maxima: at λ= 375 nm and λ= 481 nm. The range above 502 nm has no significant effect on chloroplast translocation. Comparison with other objects examined demonstrated that in multilayer leaf cells riboflavin seems also to be a photoreceptor active in this process.

  5. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danly, C R; Merrill, F E; Barlow, D; Mariam, F G

    2014-08-01

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL's pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

  6. Macroscopic simulation of isotropic permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckner, Florian; Abert, Claas; Vogler, Christoph; Heinrichs, Frank; Satz, Armin; Ausserlechner, Udo; Binder, Gernot; Koeck, Helmut; Suess, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Accurate simulations of isotropic permanent magnets require to take the magnetization process into account and consider the anisotropic, nonlinear, and hysteretic material behaviour near the saturation configuration. An efficient method for the solution of the magnetostatic Maxwell equations including the description of isotropic permanent magnets is presented. The algorithm can easily be implemented on top of existing finite element methods and does not require a full characterization of the hysteresis of the magnetic material. Strayfield measurements of an isotropic permanent magnet and simulation results are in good agreement and highlight the importance of a proper description of the isotropic material. - Highlights: • Simulations of isotropic permanent magnets. • Accurate calculation of remanence magnetization and strayfield. • Comparison with strayfield measurements and anisotropic magnet simulations. • Efficient 3D FEM–BEM coupling for solution of Maxwell equations.

  7. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G.

    2014-01-01

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components

  8. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AL. Update on mutations in glucokinase (GCK), which cause maturity-onset diabetes of the young, permanent neonatal diabetes, and hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Hum Mutat. 2009 Nov;30(11):1512-26. ...

  10. [Permanent education in health: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccas, Fernanda Luppino; Batista, Sylvia Helena Souza da Silva

    2014-02-01

    To undertake a meta-synthesis of the literature on the main concepts and practices related to permanent education in health. A bibliographical search was conducted for original articles in the PubMed, Web of Science, LILACS, IBECS and SciELO databases, using the following search terms: "public health professional education", "permanent education", "continuing education", "permanent education health". Of the 590 articles identified, after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 48 were selected for further analysis, grouped according to the criteria of key elements, and then underwent meta-synthesis. The 48 original publications were classified according to four thematic units of key elements: 1) concepts, 2) strategies and difficulties, 3) public policies and 4) educational institutions. Three main conceptions of permanent education in health were found: problem-focused and team work, directly related to continuing education and education that takes place throughout life. The main strategies for executing permanent education in health are discussion, maintaining an open space for permanent education , and permanent education clusters. The most limiting factor is mainly related to directly or indirect management. Another highlight is the requirement for implementation and maintenance of public policies, and the availability of financial and human resources. The educational institutions need to combine education and service aiming to form critical-reflexive graduates. The coordination between health and education is based as much on the actions of health services as on management and educational institutions. Thus, it becomes a challenge to implement the teaching-learning processes that are supported by critical-reflexive actions. It is necessary to carry out proposals for permanent education in health involving the participation of health professionals, teachers and educational institutions. To undertake a meta-synthesis of the literature on the main concepts and

  11. Radioelement gauges. Appliances intended for permanent installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-08-01

    The present norm defines for radioelement gauges intended for permanent installation: a classification of instruments and beam shutter devices; recommended construction techniques which satisfy health physics requirements; monitoring and test methods; information which must appear on the instruments [fr

  12. Canadian Eskimo permanent tooth emergence timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhall, J T; Belier, P L; Mayhall, M F

    1978-08-01

    To identify the times of emergence of the permanent teeth of Canadian Eskimos (Inuit), 368 children and adolescents were examined. The presence or absence of all permanent teeth except the third molars was recorded and these data subjected to probit analysis. Female emergence times were advanced over males. Generally, the Inuit of both sexes showed statistically significant earlier emergence times than Montreal children, except for the incisors. The present results do not support hypotheses indicating that premature extraction of the deciduous teeth advances the emergence of their succedaneous counterparts. There is some indication the controls of deciduous tooth emergence continue to play some part in emergence of the permanent dentition, especially the first permanent teeth that emerge.

  13. Multiple Unerupted Permanent Teeth Associated with Noonan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [2] Oral findings in patients with NS include a high arched palate ... the atypical dental anomalies such as multiple unerupted permanent ... clinical features in a child with NS. .... Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

  14. Magnetic spring based on two permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsivilitsin, V.Yu.; Mil'man, Yu.V.; Goncharuk, V.A.; Bondar, I.B.

    2011-01-01

    A new type of the magnetic spring construction 'two permanent magnets' has been considered. A mathematical expression for the estimation of a pulling-in force has been offered. This expression is verified experimentally on the produced operating magnetic spring. The theoretical and experimental data are in good accordance. A number of advantages of the magnetic spring over the construction 'permanent magnet - magnetic circuit' such as an insignificant friction force between two magnets and a higher pulling force are discussed.

  15. Permanent Magnet Dipole for DIRAC Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Vorozhtsov, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    Two dipole magnets including one spare unit are needed for the for the DIRAC experiment. The proposed design is a permanent magnet dipole. The design based on Sm2Co17 blocks assembled together with soft ferromagnetic pole tips. The magnet provides integrated field strength of 24.6 10-3 T×m inside the aperture of 60 mm. This Design Report summarizes the main magnetic and mechanic design parameters of the permanent dipole magnets.

  16. EDITORIAL: Permanent revolution - or evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-03-01

    Honorary Editor It was that temporary Bolshevik Leon Trotsky who developed the principle of `permanent revolution', a principle that perhaps characterizes the recent history of education in (south) Britain more than does, say, principles traditionally associated with the Conservative or Labour parties. As this editorial is being written, changes are being made to primary school education, and the long-awaited details of the post-Dearing reorganizing of post-16 education are yet to hit the overful bookshelves and filing cabinets of school heads and examination board officials. But something unique has happened recently which might have surprised even Trotsky. The Secretary of State for Education has set up targets for primary school pupils' attainment and threatened (or promised) to resign if they are not met within the lifetime of our newly elected parliament. Of course, if Mr Blunkett is still in a position to resign at that stage he will have been the longest serving Secretary of State since time immemorial. But we should not carp: this is truly a revolutionary idea. Not the promise to resign - although this idea is not so fashionable now as it once was. The revolutionary idea is that a major change to an educational process is actually being made that carries with it a predicted and testable outcome. By contrast, when school physics was refreshed a generation ago by the introduction of Nuffield courses at both pre- and post-16 stages, no `targets' were set. I and many other physics teachers certainly preferred teaching these to teaching their predecessor syllabuses, and might even dare to assert that the pupils liked them too. But we still don't really know whether or not they learned more - or even better - physics. Very little happened as far as the outside world was concerned: the usual fraction of students gave up physics at the usual ages, and those who were examined didn't really get a better reward for their more up-to-date and more enjoyably learned

  17. Workplace bullying a risk for permanent employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuskamp, Dominic; Ziersch, Anna M; Baum, Fran E; Lamontagne, Anthony D

    2012-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the risk of experiencing workplace bullying was greater for those employed on casual contracts compared to permanent or ongoing employees. A cross-sectional population-based telephone survey was conducted in South Australia in 2009. Employment arrangements were classified by self-report into four categories: permanent, casual, fixed-term and self-employed. Self-report of workplace bullying was modelled using multiple logistic regression in relation to employment arrangement, controlling for sex, age, working hours, years in job, occupational skill level, marital status and a proxy for socioeconomic status. Workplace bullying was reported by 174 respondents (15.2%). Risk of workplace bullying was higher for being in a professional occupation, having a university education and being separated, divorced or widowed, but did not vary significantly by sex, age or job tenure. In adjusted multivariate logistic regression models, casual workers were significantly less likely than workers on permanent or fixed-term contracts to report bullying. Those separated, divorced or widowed had higher odds of reporting bullying than married, de facto or never-married workers. Contrary to expectation, workplace bullying was more often reported by permanent than casual employees. It may represent an exposure pathway not previously linked with the more idealised permanent employment arrangement. A finer understanding of psycho-social hazards across all employment arrangements is needed, with equal attention to the hazards associated with permanent as well as casual employment. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  18. Pros and cons of characterising an optical translocation setup

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maphanga, Charles

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available an optical translocation setup Charles Maphanga 1, 2 , Rudzani Malabi 1, 2 , Saturnin Ombinda-Lemboumba 1 , Malik Maaza 2 , Patience Mthunzi-Kufa 1, 2* 1 Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, National Laser Centre, P O BOX 395, Pretoria...

  19. Centrifugally driven microfluidic disc for detection of chromosomal translocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Anna Line; Kwasny, Dorota; Bosco, Filippo G.

    2012-01-01

    and prognosis of patients. In this work we demonstrate a novel, centrifugally-driven microfluidic system for controlled manipulation of oligonucleotides and subsequent detection of chromosomal translocations. The device is fabricated in the form of a disc with capillary burst microvalves employed to control...

  20. Polymer translocation through a nanopore: a showcase of anomalous diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milchev, A; Dubbeldam, Johan L A; Rostiashvili, Vakhtang G; Vilgis, Thomas A

    2009-04-01

    We investigate the translocation dynamics of a polymer chain threaded through a membrane nanopore by a chemical potential gradient that acts on the chain segments inside the pore. By means of diverse methods (scaling theory, fractional calculus, and Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations), we demonstrate that the relevant dynamic variable, the transported number of polymer segments, s(t), displays an anomalous diffusive behavior, both with and without an external driving force being present. We show that in the absence of drag force the time tau, needed for a macromolecule of length N to thread from the cis into the trans side of a cell membrane, scales as tauN(2/alpha) with the chain length. The anomalous dynamics of the translocation process is governed by a universal exponent alpha= 2/(2nu + 2 - gamma(1)), which contains the basic universal exponents of polymer physics, nu (the Flory exponent) and gamma(1) (the surface entropic exponent). A closed analytic expression for the probability to find s translocated segments at time t in terms of chain length N and applied drag force f is derived from the fractional Fokker-Planck equation, and shown to provide analytic results for the time variation of the statistical moments and . It turns out that the average translocation time scales as tau proportional, f(-1)N(2/alpha-1). These results are tested and found to be in perfect agreement with extensive Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics computer simulations.

  1. Selective bowel decontamination results in gram-positive translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R J; Smith, S D; Rowe, M I

    1990-05-01

    Colonization by enteric gram-negative bacteria with subsequent translocation is believed to be a major mechanism for infection in the critically ill patient. Selective bowel decontamination (SBD) has been used to control gram-negative infections by eliminating these potentially pathogenic bacteria while preserving anaerobic and other less pathogenic organisms. Infection with gram-positive organisms and anaerobes in two multivisceral transplant patients during SBD led us to investigate the effect of SBD on gut colonization and translocation. Twenty-four rats received enteral polymixin E, tobramycin, amphotericin B, and parenteral cefotaxime for 7 days (PTA + CEF); 23 received parenteral cefotaxime alone (CEF), 19 received the enteral antibiotics alone (PTA), 21 controls received no antibiotics. Cecal homogenates, mesenteric lymph node (MLN), liver, and spleen were cultured. Only 8% of the PTA + CEF group had gram-negative bacteria in cecal culture vs 52% CEF, 84% PTA, and 100% in controls. Log Enterococcal colony counts were higher in the PTA + CEF group (8.0 + 0.9) vs controls (5.4 + 0.4) P less than 0.01. Translocation of Enterococcus to the MLN was significantly increased in the PTA + CEF group (67%) vs controls (0%) P less than 0.01. SBD effectively eliminates gram-negative organisms from the gut in the rat model. Overgrowth and translocation of Enterococcus suggests that infection with gram-positive organisms may be a limitation of SBD.

  2. Toponomics method for the automated quantification of membrane protein translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanova, Olga; Borbe, Stefan; Mühlfeld, Stefanie; Becker, Martin; Kubitz, Ralf; Häussinger, Dieter; Berlage, Thomas

    2011-09-19

    Intra-cellular and inter-cellular protein translocation can be observed by microscopic imaging of tissue sections prepared immunohistochemically. A manual densitometric analysis is time-consuming, subjective and error-prone. An automated quantification is faster, more reproducible, and should yield results comparable to manual evaluation. The automated method presented here was developed on rat liver tissue sections to study the translocation of bile salt transport proteins in hepatocytes. For validation, the cholestatic liver state was compared to the normal biological state. An automated quantification method was developed to analyze the translocation of membrane proteins and evaluated in comparison to an established manual method. Firstly, regions of interest (membrane fragments) are identified in confocal microscopy images. Further, densitometric intensity profiles are extracted orthogonally to membrane fragments, following the direction from the plasma membrane to cytoplasm. Finally, several different quantitative descriptors were derived from the densitometric profiles and were compared regarding their statistical significance with respect to the transport protein distribution. Stable performance, robustness and reproducibility were tested using several independent experimental datasets. A fully automated workflow for the information extraction and statistical evaluation has been developed and produces robust results. New descriptors for the intensity distribution profiles were found to be more discriminative, i.e. more significant, than those used in previous research publications for the translocation quantification. The slow manual calculation can be substituted by the fast and unbiased automated method.

  3. Bladder calculus resulting from an intravesical translocation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although perforation of the uterus by an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is commonly encountered, intravesical translocation and secondary calculus formation is a very rare complication.We report a case of a 60-year old multiparous woman in whom an intrauterine contraceptive Copper-T device inserted 12 years ...

  4. Diphtheria toxin translocation across cellular membranes is regulated by sphingolipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spilsberg, Bjorn; Hanada, Kentaro; Sandvig, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    Diphtheria toxin is translocated across cellular membranes when receptor-bound toxin is exposed to low pH. To study the role of sphingolipids for toxin translocation, both a mutant cell line lacking the first enzyme in de novo sphingolipid synthesis, serine palmitoyltransferase, and a specific inhibitor of the same enzyme, myriocin, were used. The serine palmitoyltransferase-deficient cell line (LY-B) was found to be 10-15 times more sensitive to diphtheria toxin than the genetically complemented cell line (LY-B/cLCB1) and the wild-type cell line (CHO-K1), both when toxin translocation directly across the plasma membrane was induced by exposing cells with surface-bound toxin to low pH, and when the toxin followed its normal route via acidified endosomes into the cytosol. Toxin binding was similar in these three cell lines. Furthermore, inhibition of serine palmitoyltransferase activity by addition of myriocin sensitized the two control cell lines (LY-B/cLCB1 and CHO-K1) to diphtheria toxin, whereas, as expected, no effect was observed in cells lacking serine palmitoyltransferase (LY-B). In conclusion, diphtheria toxin translocation is facilitated by depletion of membrane sphingolipids

  5. Resource Control: A Translocation Of The Scramble For Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adopting a theoretical framework successfully adapted from the biological and medical sciences, namely; translocation analysis, the paper traces the ancestry of the present resource control problem to the scramble, first, and then, the use of fiscal and revenue allocation commissions during the colonial era, and the ...

  6. Single-Molecule Studies of Bacterial Protein Translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kedrov, Alexej; Kusters, Ilja; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2013-01-01

    In prokaryotes, a large share of the proteins are secreted from the cell through a process that requires their translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane. This process is mediated by the universally conserved Sec system with homologues in the endoplasmic reticulum and thylakoid membranes of

  7. Introduction: translocal development, development corridors and development chains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoomers, E.B.; Westen, A.C.M. van

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers an introduction to this Special Issue of International Development Planning Review. It uses the concepts of translocal development, development corridors and development chains to secure a better grasp of what development means in the context of globalisation and how ‘local

  8. Concentration Polarization in Translocation of DNA through Nanopores and Nanochannels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, S.; Dubsky, P.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter we provide a theory to show that high-field electrokinetic translocation of DNA through nanopores or nanochannels causes large transient variations of the ionic concentrations in front and at the back of the DNA due to concentration polarization (CP). The CP causes strong local

  9. Transcuticular translocation of radionuclides on plant leaf surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Ken-ichi; Watanabe, Tadakazu; Ambe, Shizuko; Yamaguchi, Isamu [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The cuticle covering all the outermost surfaces of the aerial parts of plants could play a selective role in uptake and translocation of radionuclides from air into plants. In this study, we investigated the transcuticular uptake and translocation behavior via water droplets of various radionuclides in red clover, orchard grass, Japanese radish and mung bean. Ten {mu}l of an aqueous solution of the multitracer generated from Au was applied to the upper surface of the 2nd leaf of the plants at the 5th leaf stage. The plants were then grown for 14 days at 25degC and 70% RH under illumination of artificial solar lights. The transcuticular uptake and translocation throughout the plant were periodically assayed by determining the radioactivity in the surface residue, the cuticle layer beneath the applied site, the leaf area outside the applied site, the other aerial parts and the root of the plant, using an HPGe detector. The applied radionuclides were absorbed into, in turn, the cuticle layer beneath the applied site and then translocated through the cuticle to the inner tissue and eventually to the other aerial parts and finally to the roots, of the plant. The distribution and accumulation in the plant seems to depend upon the characteristics of each radionuclide and plant species. Ca{sup *} and Te{sup *} tended to remain on leaf surfaces without being absorbed into the cuticle. On the other hand, Sc{sup *}, Co{sup *}, Zn{sup *}, Se{sup *}, Rb{sup *}, and Eu{sup *} were easily absorbed and translocated to every part of the plant including the root. The other radionuclides such as Be{sup *}, Mn{sup *}, Sr{sup *}, Y{sup *}, Ba{sup *}, Ce{sup *}, Pm{sup *}, Gd{sup *}, Hf{sup *}, Yb{sup *}, Lu{sup *}, Os{sup *}, Ir{sup *}, and Pt{sup *} remained in the region close to the site of their application. The above results possibly indicate the existence of mechanisms common to these plants for selective transcuticular uptake and translocation of radionuclides within plant

  10. Cold-inhibited phloem translocation in sugar beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grusak, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental studies were undertaken on a simplified single source leaf-single sink leaf, or single source leaf-double sink leaf sugar beet system to investigate the responsive nature of the long-distance phloem translocation system to localized cooling perturbations on the source leaf petiole. Experiments were performed by using a steady state [ 14 C]-labelling system for the source leaf, and translocation into the sink leaf (leaves) was monitored with a Geiger-Mueller system. A specially designed Peltier apparatus enabled cooling of the source petiole to 1 0 C (or other desired temperatures) at various positions on the petiole, over different lengths, and at different rates of cooling. Initial experiment were designed to test the predictions of a mathematical recovery model of translocation inhibited by cold. The results did not support the mathematical model, but did suggest that vascular anastomoses may be involved in the recovery response. Selective petiolar incision/excision experiments showed that anastomoses were capable of re-establishing translocation following a disruption of flow. Studies with two monitored sink levels suggested that the inhibition to slow-coolings was not due to reduced translocation through the cooled source petiole region, but rather, was due to a repartitioning of flow among the terminal sinks (sink leaves and hypocotyl/crown region above the heat-girdled root). This repartitioning occurred via a redirection of flow through the vascular connections in the crown region of the plant, and appeared to be promoted by rapid, physical signals originating from the cooled region of the petiole

  11. MiT family translocation renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argani, Pedram

    2015-03-01

    The MiT subfamily of transcription factors includes TFE3, TFEB, TFC, and MiTF. Gene fusions involving two of these transcription factors have been identified in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The Xp11 translocation RCCs were first officially recognized in the 2004 WHO renal tumor classification, and harbor gene fusions involving TFE3. The t(6;11) RCCs harbor a specific Alpha-TFEB gene fusion and were first officially recognized in the 2013 International Society of Urologic Pathology (ISUP) Vancouver classification of renal neoplasia. These two subtypes of translocation RCC have many similarities. Both were initially described in and disproportionately involve young patients, though adult translocation RCC may overall outnumber pediatric cases. Both often have unusual and distinctive morphologies; the Xp11 translocation RCCs frequently have clear cells with papillary architecture and abundant psammomatous bodies, while the t(6;11) RCCs frequently have a biphasic appearance with both large and small epithelioid cells and nodules of basement membrane material. However, the morphology of these two neoplasms can overlap, with one mimicking the other. Both of these RCCs underexpress epithelial immunohistochemical markers like cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) relative to most other RCCs. Unlike other RCCs, both frequently express the cysteine protease cathepsin k and often express melanocytic markers like HMB45 and Melan A. Finally, TFE3 and TFEB have overlapping functional activity as these two transcription factors frequently heterodimerize and bind to the same targets. Therefore, on the basis of clinical, morphologic, immunohistochemical, and genetic similarities, the 2013 ISUP Vancouver classification of renal neoplasia grouped these two neoplasms together under the heading of "MiT family translocation RCC." This review summarizes our current knowledge of these recently described RCCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Atlas of alien and translocated indigenous aquatic animals in southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Moor, IJ

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available This report serves as an introduction to the problem of alien and translocated aquatic animals in southern Africa is given followed by checklists of the different species which have been introduced into or translocated within the subcontinent...

  13. Translocation Study of Some Zooxanthellae Clade to the Survival and Growth of Goniastrea Aspera After Bleaching

    OpenAIRE

    Purnomo, Pujiono W

    2014-01-01

    Inter-host translocation technique of zooxanthellae was attempted to prove Buddemier and Futin's (1993) theory on adaptation. The recent trend of coral products trading must be anticipated by its mass production through artificial techniques, the alternation of natural resources. Translocation bio-technique of zooxanthellae on coral was expected to resolve the problem and the translocation study should provide fundamental answer to coral recovery. The study of zooxanthellae translocation was ...

  14. Microbial Translocation in HIV Infection is Associated with Dyslipidemia, Insulin Resistance, and Risk of Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karin Kaereby; Pedersen, Maria; Trøseid, Marius

    2013-01-01

    Microbial translocation has been suggested to be a driver of immune activation and inflammation. We hypothesized that microbial translocation may be related to dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and the risk of coronary heart disease in HIV-infected individuals.......Microbial translocation has been suggested to be a driver of immune activation and inflammation. We hypothesized that microbial translocation may be related to dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and the risk of coronary heart disease in HIV-infected individuals....

  15. Permanent magnet materials and their application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, P.

    1994-01-01

    Permanent magnets are of great industrial importance in industrial drives, consumer products, computers, and automobiles. Since 1970, new classes of magnet materials have been developed. This book reviews the older and newer materials and is presented as a comprehensive design text for permanent magnets and their applications. After an initial chapter on the fundamentals of magnetism, the author discusses magnetic physics considerations specific to permanent magnets and describes the fabrications and characteristics of commercial materials: alnico, samarium-cobalt, ferrite, and neodymium-iron-boron. Thermal stability, magnet design procedures, magnetic field analysis methods, and measurement methods are discussed in subsequent chapters, followed by a concluding chapter reviewing commercial and industrial products that use permanent magnets. The chapter on thermal properties of magnet materials is of particular interest, bringing together information not readily found elsewhere. The review of applications is also deserving of attention, specifically the sections on motors and actuators. Although particle accelerator applications are discussed, the use of permanent magnet sextuples in modern ECR ion sources is not mentioned

  16. Cylindrical Hall Thrusters with Permanent Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Merino, Enrique; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of permanent magnets instead of electromagnet coils for low power Hall thrusters can offer a significant reduction of both the total electric power consumption and the thruster mass. Two permanent magnet versions of the miniaturized cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) of different overall dimensions were operated in the power range of 50W-300 W. The discharge and plasma plume measurements revealed that the CHT thrusters with permanent magnets and electromagnet coils operate rather differently. In particular, the angular ion current density distribution from the permanent magnet thrusters has an unusual halo shape, with a majority of high energy ions flowing at large angles with respect to the thruster centerline. Differences in the magnetic field topology outside the thruster channel and in the vicinity of the channel exit are likely responsible for the differences in the plume characteristics measured for the CHTs with electromagnets and permanent magnets. It is shown that the presence of the reversing-direction or cusp-type magnetic field configuration inside the thruster channel without a strong axial magnetic field outside the thruster channel does not lead to the halo plasma plume from the CHT.

  17. 40 CFR 798.5955 - Heritable translocation test in drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... drosophila melanogaster. 798.5955 Section 798.5955 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....5955 Heritable translocation test in drosophila melanogaster. (a) Purpose. The heritable translocation test in Drosophila measures the induction of chromosomal translocations in germ cells of insects...

  18. Translocation as a conservation tool for Agassiz's desert tortoises: Survivorship, reproduction, and movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. E. Nussear; C. R. Tracy; P. A. Medica; D. S. Wilson; R. W. Marlow; P. S. Corn

    2012-01-01

    We translocated 120 Agassiz's desert tortoises to 5 sites in Nevada and Utah to evaluate the effects of translocation on tortoise survivorship, reproduction, and habitat use. Translocation sites included several elevations, and extended to sites with vegetation assemblages not typically associated with desert tortoises in order to explore the possibility of moving...

  19. Meiotic behaviour and spermatogenesis in male mice heterozygous for translocation types also occurring in man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhoff, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis a start was made with meiotic observations of mouse translocation types - a Robertsonian translocation and a translocation between a metacentric and an acrocentric chromosome - which also occur in man. It is generally accepted that, when no chromosomal rearrangements are involved, man

  20. Dek-can rearrangement in translocation (6;9)(p23;q34)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soekarman, D.; von Lindern, M.; van der Plas, D. C.; Selleri, L.; Bartram, C. R.; Martiat, P.; Culligan, D.; Padua, R. A.; Hasper-Voogt, K. P.; Hagemeijer, A.

    1992-01-01

    The translocation (6;9)(p23;q34) is mainly found in specific subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The diagnosis of this translocation is not easy since the cytogenetic change is quite subtle. The two genes involved in this translocation were recently isolated

  1. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States. [61 FR 37386, July 18...

  2. 13 CFR 120.900 - Sources of permanent financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sources of permanent financing... Development Company Loan Program (504) Permanent Financing § 120.900 Sources of permanent financing. Permanent financing for each Project must come from three sources: the Borrower's contribution, Third-Party Loans, and...

  3. Static devices with new permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, J.; Laforest, J.; Pauthenet, R.

    1987-01-01

    The high remanence and coercivity of the new permanent magnet materials are of special interest in the static applications. High ordering temperature and are uniaxial anisotropy at the origin of their good permanent magnet properties are obtained in rare earth-transition metal compounds. Binary SmCo/sub 5/ and Sm/sub 2/Co/sub 17/ and ternary Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 14/B compounds are the basis materials of the best permanent magnets. new concepts of calculations of static devices with these magnets can be applied: the magnetization can be considered as ridig, the density of the surface Amperian current is constant, the relative permeability is approximately 1 and the induction calculations are linear. Examples of hexapoles with Sm-Co and NdFeB magnets are described and the performances are compared. The problems of temperature behavior and corrosion resistance are underlined

  4. The history of permanent magnet materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Permanent-magnet materials play a large and growing, but largely unseen, role in today's technology. Many common devices in the home and elsewhere, including appliances, computers and printers, contain permanent-magnet motors and actuators. The growth of applications for permanent magnets results in large part from the improvements in magnetic properties, which allow the engineer to design smaller, lighter and more efficient devices. The properties of the greatest technological interest are remanence, coercivity and maximum energy product. All are non-equilibrium and high structure-sensitive. Coercivity is particularly sensitive to microstructure, while remanence is sensitive to texture (crystallographic alignment). The energy product depends on both coercivity and remanence. The more than one hundredfold increase in the available energy product in this century, and the corresponding amount of magnet required for a specific application, are shown

  5. Analysis of a spherical permanent magnet actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Jewell, G.W.; Howe, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a new form of actuator with a spherical permanent magnet rotor and a simple winding arrangement, which is capable of a high specific torque by utilizing a rare-earth permanent magnet. The magnetic-field distribution is established using an analytical technique formulated in spherical coordinates, and the results are validated by finite element analysis. The analytical field solution allows the prediction of the actuator torque and back emf in closed forms. In turn, these facilitate the characterization of the actuator and provide a firm basis for design optimization, system dynamic modeling, and closed-loop control law development. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  6. Treatment of ectopic first permanent molar teeth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hennessy, Joe

    2012-11-01

    Ectopic eruption of the first permanent molar is a relatively common occurence in the developing dentition. A range of treatment options are available to the clinician provided that diagnosis is made early. Non-treatment can result in premature exfoliation of the second primary molar, space loss and impaction of the second premolar. This paper will describe the management of ectopic first permanent molars, using clinical examples to illustrate the available treatment options. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This paper is relevant to every general dental practitioner who treats patients in mixed dentition.

  7. Permanent isolation surface barrier: Functional performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, N.R.

    1993-10-01

    This document presents the functional performance parameters for permanent isolation surface barriers. Permanent isolation surface barriers have been proposed for use at the Hanford Site (and elsewhere) to isolate and dispose of certain types of waste in place. Much of the waste that would be disposed of using in-place isolation techniques is located in subsurface structures, such as solid waste burial grounds, tanks, vaults, and cribs. Unless protected in some way, the wastes could be transported to the accessible environment via transport pathways, such as water infiltration, biointrusion, wind and water erosion, human interference, and/or gaseous release

  8. Magnetic guns with cylindrical permanent magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vokoun, David; Beleggia, Marco; Heller, Luděk

    2012-01-01

    The motion of a cylindrical permanent magnet (projectile) inside a tubular permanent magnet, with both magnets magnetized axially, illustrates nicely the physical principles behind the operation of magnetic guns. The force acting upon the projectile is expressed semi-analytically as derivative...... of the magnetostatic interaction energy. For comparison, the forces involved are also calculated numerically using finite elements methods. Based on the conservation of the magnetostatic and kinetic energies, the exit and asymptotic velocities are determined. The derived formulas can be used to optimize the generated...... forces and motion of the inner cylindrical magnet....

  9. Treatment of ectopic first permanent molar teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Joe; Al-Awadhi, E A; Dwyer, Lian O; Leith, Rona

    2012-11-01

    Ectopic eruption of the first permanent molar is a relatively common occurence in the developing dentition. A range of treatment options are available to the clinician provided that diagnosis is made early. Non-treatment can result in premature exfoliation of the second primary molar, space loss and impaction of the second premolar. This paper will describe the management of ectopic first permanent molars, using clinical examples to illustrate the available treatment options. This paper is relevant to every general dental practitioner who treats patients in mixed dentition.

  10. Markers of immunity and bacterial translocation in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    to be correlated to portal hypertension, a clinically relevant haemodynamic alteration, and appeared to be associated with increased mortality. To assess the consequences of BT on immunity, we developed an assay for the detection of bacterial DNA (bDNA), a novel marker of BT. Using the assay in the second study......Bacterial translocation (BT), the migration of enteric bacteria to extraintestinal sites, is related to immune stimulation and haemodynamic changes in experimental cirrhosis. These changes may be highly relevant to patients with cirrhosis, where changes in the circulation cause serious......, in 38 patients with ascites, we found no association between bDNA and immunity, in contrast to some previous findings. In the final paper, exploring one possible translocation route, we hypothesized a difference in bDNA levels between the blood from the veins draining the gut on one hand and the liver...

  11. Regulation of Neuronal Protein Trafficking and Translocation by SUMOylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy M. Henley

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Post-translational modifications of proteins are essential for cell function. Covalent modification by SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier plays a role in multiple cell processes, including transcriptional regulation, DNA damage repair, protein localization and trafficking. Factors affecting protein localization and trafficking are particularly crucial in neurons because of their polarization, morphological complexity and functional specialization. SUMOylation has emerged as a major mediator of intranuclear and nucleo-cytoplasmic translocations of proteins involved in critical pathways such as circadian rhythm, apoptosis and protein degradation. In addition, SUMO-regulated re-localization of extranuclear proteins is required to sustain neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission. Thus, SUMOylation is a key arbiter of neuronal viability and function. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances in our understanding of regulation of neuronal protein localization and translocation by SUMO and highlight exciting areas of ongoing research.

  12. Sex Chromosome Translocations in the Evolution of Reproductive Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Martin L.

    1972-01-01

    Haldane's rule states that in organisms with differentiated sex chromosomes, hybrid sterility or inviability is generally expressed more frequently in the heterogametic sex. This observation has been variously explained as due to either genic or chromosomal imbalance. The fixation probabilities and mean times to fixation of sex-chromosome translocations of the type necessary to explain Haldane's rule on the basis of chromosomal imbalance have been estimated in small populations of Drosophila melanogaster. The fixation probability of an X chromosome carrying the long arm of the Y(X·YL) is approximately 30% greater than expected under the assumption of no selection. No fitness differences associated with the attached YL segment were detected. The fixation probability of a deficient Y chromosome is 300% greater than expected when the X chromosome contains the deleted portion of the Y. It is suggested that sex-chromosome translocations may play a role in the establishment of reproductive isolation. PMID:4630586

  13. A meiotic study of two translocations and a tertiary trisomic in the mouse (Mus musculus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de P.

    1975-01-01

    In this section, the order of the articles has not been closely followed. Each point ends with the number(s) of the article(s) (as given in the contents), where the conclusion is based on.

    1) Cytological meiotic studies of T(2;8)26H and T(1;13)70H heterozygotes and Ts(1

  14. Analysis of photosynthate translocation velocity and measurement of weighted average velocity in transporting pathway of crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Cailin; Luo Shishi; Gong Jian; Zhang Hao; Ma Fei

    1996-08-01

    The translocation profile pattern of 14 C-photosynthate along the transporting pathway in crops were monitored by pulse-labelling a mature leaf with 14 CO 2 . The progressive spreading of translocation profile pattern along the sheath or stem indicates that the translocation of photosynthate along the sheath or stem proceed with a range of velocities rather than with just a single velocity. The method for measuring the weighted average velocity of photosynthate translocation along the sheath or stem was established in living crops. The weighted average velocity and the maximum velocity of photosynthate translocation along the sheath in rice and maize were measured actually. (4 figs., 3 tabs.)

  15. A strategy for generation and balancing of autosome: Y chromosome translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sonal S; Cheong, Han; Meller, Victoria H

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method for generation and maintenance of translocations that move large autosomal segments onto the Y chromosome. Using this strategy we produced ( 2;Y) translocations that relocate between 1.5 and 4.8 Mb of the 2nd chromosome.. All translocations were easily balanced over a male-specific lethal 1 (msl-1) mutant chromosome. Both halves of the translocation carry visible markers, as well as P-element ends that enable molecular confirmation. Halves of these translocations can be separated to produce offspring with duplications and with lethal second chromosome deficiencies . Such large deficiencies are otherwise tedious to generate and maintain.

  16. Polymer translocation in the presence of excluded volume and explicit hydrodynamic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillouzic, Steve; Slater, Gary W.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular Dynamics simulations of polymer translocation are hereby reported. No external force was applied to the polymer during translocation, and the dynamics was dominated by polymer-pore interactions. It was found that hydrodynamic interactions play an important role in the relaxation of the polymer on each side of the membrane but have a negligible impact on the translocation process itself. Also, the scaling laws obtained for the relaxation and translocation times indicate that long translocating polymers may be considered to be following a quasi-equilibrium anomalous diffusion process in the absence of external forces

  17. International study of factors affecting human chromosome translocations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sigurdson, A.J.; Ha, M.; Hauptmann, M.; Bhatti, P.; Šrám, Radim; Beskid, Olena; Tawn, E.J.; Whitehouse, C.A.; Lindholm, C.; Nakano, M.; Kodama, Y.; Nakamura, N.; Vorobtsova, I.; Oestreicher, U.; Stephan, G.; Yong, L.C.; Bauchinger, M.; Schmid, E.; Chung, H.W.; Darroudi, F.; Roy, L.; Voisin, P.; Barquinero, J.F.; Livingston, G.; Blakey, D.; Hayata, I.; Zhang, W.; Wang, Ch.; Benett, L.M.; Littlefield, L.G.; Edwards, A.A.; Kleinerman, R.A.; Tucker, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 652, č. 2 (2008), s. 112-121 ISSN 1383-5718 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05; GA MŽP SI/340/2/00; GA MŽP SL/740/5/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Chromosome translocations * FISH * Background frequency Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.363, year: 2008

  18. "Translocal Express" juba täna! / Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    2009-01-01

    27. märtsil algab Kumu Kunstimuuseumis "Public Preparation'i" ("Avalik ettevalmistus") sarja rahvusvaheline seminar "Translocal Express. Golden Age" ("Translokaalne ekspress. Kuldaeg"), kus on kõne all ajalookirjutamise ja kollektiivse mälu roll praegu domineerivas natsionalistlikus diskursuses ja selle käsitlemine kaasaegses kunstis. Seminaril on lähtutud eelkõige kunstnike Martin Krenni (Viin) ja Kristina Normani teoste tutvustamisest

  19. Single-strand DNA molecule translocation through nanoelectrode gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiongce; Payne, Christina M; Cummings, Peter T; Lee, James W

    2007-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the translocation of single-strand DNA through nanoscale electrode gaps under the action of a constant driving force. The application behind this theoretical study is a proposal to use nanoelectrodes as a screening gap as part of a rapid genomic sequencing device. Preliminary results from a series of simulations using various gap widths and driving forces suggest that the narrowest electrode gap that a single-strand DNA can pass is ∼1.5 nm. The minimum force required to initiate the translocation within nanoseconds is ∼0.3 nN. Simulations using DNA segments of various lengths indicate that the minimum initiation force is insensitive to the length of DNA. However, the average threading velocity of DNA varies appreciably from short to long DNA segments. We attribute such variation to the different nature of drag force experienced by the short and long DNA segments in the environment. It is found that DNA molecules deform significantly to fit in the shape of the nanogap during the translocation

  20. Spatial behaviour and survival of translocated wild brown hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer, C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fragility of many populations of brown hares in Western Europe is a concern for managers, hunters and naturalists. We took advantage of a locally high density population to use wild individuals to restock areas where the species had disappeared or was close to disappearing. The aim of the project was to assess the evolution of the spatial behaviour after release using radio–tracking. Over 150 wild brown hares were translocated, one third of which were fitted with radio collars. In addition, fifteen individuals were radio–tagged and released back into the source population as a control. Most individuals settled in less than two months and their seasonal home range, once settled, was similar to that observed in the source population. Mean duration of tracking was not significantly different between the two groups. Moreover, two years after the last translocation, tagged individuals can still be observed, but most hares present are not tagged, which indicates natural reproduction of the released individuals. The translocation of wild individuals thus appears to give encouraging results.

  1. Dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generoso, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations are a major component of radiation or chemically induced genetic damage in mammalian germ cells. The types of aberration produced are dependent upon the mutagen used and the germ-cell stage treated. For example, in male meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells certain alkylating chemicals induce both dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations while others induce primarily dominant-lethal mutations. Production of these two endpoints appears to be determined by the stability of alkylation products with the chromosomes. If the reaction products are intact in the male chromosomes at the time of sperm entry, they may be repaired in fertilized eggs. If repair is not effected and the alkylation products persist to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication, they lead to chromatid-type aberrations and eventually to dominant-lethality. The production of heritable translocations, on the other hand, requires a transformation of unstable alkylation products into suitable intermediate lesions. The process by which these lesions are converted into chromosome exchange within the male genome takes place after sperm enters the egg but prior to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication (i.e., chromosome-type). Thus, dominant-lethal mutations result from both chromatid- and chromosome-type aberrations while heritable translocations result primarily from the latter type. DNA target sites associated with the production of these two endpoints are discussed

  2. Dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Generoso, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations are a major component of radiation or chemically induced genetic damage in mammalian germ cells. The types of aberration produced are dependent upon the mutagen used and the germ-cell stage treated. For example, in male meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells certain alkylating chemicals induce both dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations while others induce primarily dominant-lethal mutations. Production of these two endpoints appears to be determined by the stability of alkylation products with the chromosomes. If the reaction products are intact in the male chromosomes at the time of sperm entry, they may be repaired in fertilized eggs. If repair is not effected and the alkylation products persist to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication, they lead to chromatid-type aberrations and eventually to dominant-lethality. The production of heritable translocations, on the other hand, requires a transformation of unstable alkylation products into suitable intermediate lesions. The process by which these lesions are converted into chromosome exchange within the male genome takes place after sperm enters the egg but prior to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication (i.e., chromosome-type). Thus, dominant-lethal mutations result from both chromatid- and chromosome-type aberrations while heritable translocations result primarily from the latter type. DNA target sites associated with the production of these two endpoints are discussed.

  3. Black bears in Arkansas: Characteristics of a successful translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly G.; Clark, Joseph D.

    1994-01-01

    In 1958, the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission began translocating black bears (Ursus americanus) from Minnesota to the Interior Highlands (Ozark and Ouachita mountains) of Arkansas where bears had been extirpated early in this century. This project continued for 11 years with little public imput, during which time an estimated 254 bears were released. We estimate there are now >2,500 bears in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma, making it one of the most successful translocations of a Carnivora. Factors that contributed to the success include use of wild-captured animals, elimination of major factors associated with extirpation, release into prime habitats within the former range, multiple release sites, release of 20–40 animals/year for eight years, and release of mostly males prior to release of mostly females. Studies on two allopatric populations demonstrate that they are now diverging in some demographic characteristics, including litter size, cub survivorship, and adult sex-ratio. Translocation of black bears to the Interior Highlands is successful in terms of numbers of animals, but it will not be truly successful until people accept black bears as part of the regional fauna. To that end, those associated with management and research of bears in Arkansas are now focussing on public education and control of nuisance bears.

  4. Translocation of 11C from leaves of Helianthus: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fensom, D.S.; Aikman, D.; Scobie, J.; Drinkwater, A.; Ledingham, K.W.O.

    1977-01-01

    11 C fed to leaves as 11 CO 2 was used to study the dynamics of short-term translocation of photosynthate in Helianthus. As in 14 C studies small amounts of tracer were often detected in the stem close to the fed leaf in th first 5 min, followed by a larger mass flow after 15 min. The speed of mass flow of tracer movement was calculated to be 60 to 400 cm.h -1 depending on the method of calculation. There was no evidence in the premass flow for discrete spots along the stem or petiole where tracer accumulated. Neither was there firm evidence for pulses of tracer moving steadily forward, but there were point fluctuations of greater variability than would be expected by chance alone, which suggest the possibility of aberrations of movement superimposed on the mass flow. Details of these aberrations could not be assessed with certainty from these preliminary experiments owing to the rather low tracer activity. The translocation profiles were sensitive to the prior light conditioning of the plant and above all to chilling. In Helianthus the latter produced temporary restrictions in translocation which lasted for some 10-12 min. (author)

  5. Tubular permanent magnet actuators: cogging forces characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulides, J.J.H.; Janssen, J.L.G.; Encica, L.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Tubular permanent magnet actuators are evermore used in demanding industrial and automotive applications. However, these actuators can suffer from large cogging forces, which have a destabilizing effect on the servo control system and compromise position and speed control accuracy. This paper

  6. Laced permanent magnet quadrupole drift tube magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinberg, B.; Behrsing, G.U.; Halbach, K.; Marks, J.S.; Morrison, M.E.; Nelson, D.H.

    1988-10-01

    A laced permanent magnet quadrupole drift tube magnet has been constructed for a proof-of-principle test. The magnet is a conventional tape-wound quadrupole electromagnet, using iron pole- pieces, with the addition of permanent magnet material (neodymium iron) between the poles to reduce the effects of saturation. The iron is preloaded with magnetic flux generated by the permanent magnet material, resulting in an asymmetrical saturation curve. Since the polarity of the quadrupole magnets in a drift tube linac is not reversed we can take advantage of this asymmetrical saturation to provide greater focusing strength. The magnet configuration has been optimized and the vanadium permendur poles needed in a conventional quadrupole have been replaced with iron poles. The use of permanent magnet material has allowed us to increase the focusing strength of the magnet by about 20% over that of a conventional tape-wound quadrupole. Comparisons will be made between this magnet and the conventional tape-wound quadrupole. 3 refs., 5 figs

  7. Standards on the permanence of recording materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, Peter Z.

    1996-02-01

    The permanence of recording materials is dependent upon many factors, and these differ for photographic materials, magnetic tape and optical disks. Photographic permanence is affected by the (1) stability of the material, (2) the photographic processing and (3) the storage conditions. American National Standards on the material and the processing have been published for different types of film and standard test methods have been established for color film. The third feature of photographic permanence is the storage requirements and these have been established for photographic film, prints and plates. Standardization on the permanence of electronic recording materials is more complicated. As with photographic materials, stability is dependent upon (1) the material itself and (2) the storage environment. In addition, retention of the necessary (3) hardware and (4) software is also a prerequisite. American National Standards activity in these areas has been underway for the past six years. A test method for the material which determines the life expectancy of CD-ROMs has been standardized. The problems of determining the expected life of magnetic tape have been more formidable but the critical physical properties have been determined. A specification for the storage environment of magnetic tape has been finalized and one on the storage of optical disks is being worked on. Critical but unsolved problems are the obsolescence of both the hardware and the software necessary to read digital images.

  8. resonant inverter supplied interior permanent magnet (ipm)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    [5] Zhenyue Hong, “DC-voltage link resonant inverters”, Department of Electrical and. Electronic Engineering University of. Canterbury, New Zealand. [6] Kalyan Kumar Halder, Naruttam Kumar Roy and B.C. Ghosh, “Position Sensorless. Control for an Interior Permanent Magnet. Synchronous Motor SVM Drive with ANN.

  9. 78 FR 14122 - Revocation of Permanent Variances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... Douglas Fir planking had to have at least a 1,900 fiber stress and 1,900,000 modulus of elasticity, while the Yellow Pine planking had to have at least 2,500 fiber stress and 2,000,000 modulus of elasticity... the permanent variances, and affected employees, to submit written data, views, and arguments...

  10. Sexism and Permanent Exclusion from School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Focussing on narratives collected during a two year participant observation research project in the children's services department of an urban local authority, this article addresses the intersection between incidents of permanent exclusion from school and assumptions made on the basis of a young person's gender. The article considers gendered…

  11. Pupil Dilation and Object Permanence in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois, Sylvain; Jackson, Iain R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relative merits of looking time and pupil diameter measures in the study of early cognitive abilities of infants. Ten-month-old infants took part in a modified version of the classic drawbridge experiment used to study object permanence (Baillargeon, Spelke, & Wasserman, 1985). The study involved a factorial design where…

  12. Risk factors for permanent hypernasality after adenoidectomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To investigate the causes of persistent, apparently permanent hypernasal speech following adenoidectomy in 10 subjects without overt cleft palates, and to establish a protocol to be followed before this operation is perfonmed. Design. Retrospective and descriptive design. Participants. Ten subjects, fulfilling the ...

  13. Radionuclides gauges. Gauges designed for permanent installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This present norm determines, for radionuclides gauges designed for permanent installation, the characteristics that these gauges should satisfied in their construction and performance to respect the prescriptions. It indicates the testing methods which permit to verify the agreement, gives a classification of gauges and specifies the indications to put on the emitter block [fr

  14. Dovetail spoke internal permanent magnet machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, James Pellegrino [Ballston Lake, NY; EL-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Lokhandwalla, Murtuza [Clifton Park, NY; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad [Latham, NY; VanDam, Jeremy Daniel [West Coxsackie, NY

    2011-08-23

    An internal permanent magnet (IPM) machine is provided. The IPM machine includes a stator assembly and a stator core. The stator core also includes multiple stator teeth. The stator assembly is further configured with stator windings to generate a stator magnetic field when excited with alternating currents and extends along a longitudinal axis with an inner surface defining a cavity. The IPM machine also includes a rotor assembly and a rotor core. The rotor core is disposed inside the cavity and configured to rotate about the longitudinal axis. The rotor assembly further includes a shaft. The shaft further includes multiple protrusions alternately arranged relative to multiple bottom structures provided on the shaft. The rotor assembly also includes multiple stacks of laminations disposed on the protrusions and dovetailed circumferentially around the shaft. The rotor assembly further includes multiple pair of permanent magnets for generating a magnetic field, which magnetic field interacts with the stator magnetic field to produce a torque. The multiple pair of permanent magnets are disposed between the stacks. The rotor assembly also includes multiple middle wedges mounted between each pair of the multiple permanent magnets.

  15. Permanent downhole seismic sensors in flowing wells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaques, P.; Ong, H.; Jupe, A.; Brown, I.; Jansenns, M.

    2003-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the 'Oilfield of the Future' will incorporate distributed permanent downhole seismic sensors in flowing wells. However the effectiveness of these sensors will be limited by the extent to which seismic signals can be discriminated, or de-coupled, from flow induced

  16. Causes of permanent childhood hearing impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, Anna M. H.; Admiraal, Ronald J. C.; Kant, Sarina G.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Wever, Capi C.; Kunst, Henricus P. M.; Frijns, Johan H. M.; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; Oudesluys-Murphy, A. M.; Korver, A. M. H.; Frijns, J. H. M.; Wever, C. C.; Konings, S.; Beers, W.; Dekker, F. W.; de Vries, J. J. C.; Vossen, A. C. T. M.; Kant, S. G.; van den Akker-van Marle, M. E.; Rieffe, C.; Ens-Dokkum, M. H.; van Straaten, H. L. M.; Uilenburg, N. N.; Elvers, B.; Loeber, G.; Meuwese-Jongejeugd, J.; Maré, M. J.; Van Zanten, G. A.; Goedegebure, A.; Coster, F.; Goverts, S. T.; Admiraal, R. J. C.; Cremers, C. W. R. J.; Kunst, H. P. M.; de Leeuw, M.; Dijkhuizen, J.; Scharloo, M.; Hoeben, D.; Rijpma, G.; Graef, W.; Linschoten, D.; Kuijper, J.; Hof, N. J.; Pans, D.; Jorritsma, F.; van Beurden, M.; ter Huurne, C. T.; Brienesse, P.; Koldewijn, G. J.; Letourneur, K. G.

    2011-01-01

    The causes of Permanent Childhood Hearing Impairment (PCHI) are often quoted as being hereditary in 50%, acquired in 25%, and unknown in 25% of cases. Interest in the causes of PCHI has grown recently due to increasing diagnostic possibilities. We investigated the evidence for the reported

  17. Causes of permanent childhood hearing impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, A.M.; Admiraal, R.J.C.; Kant, S.G.; Dekker, F.W.; Wever, C.; Kunst, H.P.M.; Frijns, J.H.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The causes of Permanent Childhood Hearing Impairment (PCHI) are often quoted as being hereditary in 50%, acquired in 25%, and unknown in 25% of cases. Interest in the causes of PCHI has grown recently due to increasing diagnostic possibilities. We investigated the evidence for the

  18. Permanent magnet motor technology design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gieras, Jacek F

    2009-01-01

    Demonstrates the construction of permanent magnet (PM) motor drives and supplies ready-to-implement solutions to common roadblocks along the way. This book also supplies fundamental equations and calculations for determining and evaluating system performance, efficiency, reliability, and cost. It explores modern computer-aided design of PM motors.

  19. Constant force linear permanent magnet actuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulides, J.J.H.; Encica, L.; Meessen, K.J.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    In applications, such as vibration isolation, gravity compensation, pick-and-place machines, etc., there is a need for (long-stroke) passive constant force actuators combined with tubular permanent magnet actuators to minimize the power consumption, hence, passively counteract the gravitational

  20. Permanent isolation surface barrier development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    The exhumation and treatment of wastes may not always be the preferred alternative in the remediation of a waste site. In-place disposal alternatives, under certain circumstances, may be the most desirable alternatives to use in the protection of human health and the environment. The implementation of an in-place disposal alternative will likely require some type of protective covering that will provide long-term isolation of the wastes from the accessible environment. Even if the wastes are exhumed and treated, a long-term barrier may still be needed to adequately dispose of the treated wastes or any remaining waste residuals. Currently, no open-quotes provenclose quotes long-term barrier is available. The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site. The permanent isolation barrier technology also could be used at other sites. Permanent isolation barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with redundant protective features. Drawings of conceptual permanent isolation surface barriers are shown. The natural construction materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity. The objective of current designs is to use natural materials to develop a maintenance-free permanent isolation surface barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1,000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling the exhalation of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion-related problems

  1. Permanent isolation surface barrier development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wing, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    The exhumation and treatment of wastes may not always be the preferred alternative in the remediation of a waste site. In-place disposal alternatives, under certain circumstances, may be the most desirable alternatives to use in the protection of human health and the environment. The implementation of an in-place disposal alternative will likely require some type of protective covering that will provide long-term isolation of the wastes from the accessible environment. Even if the wastes are exhumed and treated, a long-term barrier may still be needed to adequately dispose of the treated wastes or any remaining waste residuals. Currently, no {open_quotes}proven{close_quotes} long-term barrier is available. The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site. The permanent isolation barrier technology also could be used at other sites. Permanent isolation barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with redundant protective features. Drawings of conceptual permanent isolation surface barriers are shown. The natural construction materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity. The objective of current designs is to use natural materials to develop a maintenance-free permanent isolation surface barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1,000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling the exhalation of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion-related problems.

  2. TFE3-positive renal cell carcinomas are not always Xp11 translocation carcinomas: Report of a case with a TPM3-ALK translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorner, Paul Scott; Shago, Mary; Marrano, Paula; Shaikh, Furqan; Somers, Gino R

    2016-10-01

    Translocation-associated renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a distinct subtype of RCC with gene rearrangements of the TFE3 or TFEB loci. The TFE3 gene is located at Xp11 and can fuse to a number of translocation partners, resulting in high nuclear expression of TFE3 protein. TFE3 immunostaining is often used as a surrogate marker for a TFE3 translocation. We report a case of an RCC that expressed TFE3 but showed only gain of TFE3 rather than a translocation. Moreover, this case had a t(1;2) translocation fusing ALK and TMP3, identical to that seen in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour. There was resulting overexpression of ALK protein in a cytoplasmic and membranous pattern. The patient was not treated with chemotherapy but following regional nodal recurrence, an ALK inhibitor was added and the patient remains alive one year later. There are only rare reports of RCC with an ALK-TMP3 fusion, and these tumours can express TFE3 on some unknown basis not related to a TFE3 translocation. Any RCC positive for TFE3 and lacking a translocation should be tested for ALK expression and translocation. Recognition of this subtype of RCC will allow ALK inhibitor therapy to be added, in the hope of improving patient outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficient induction of Wheat-agropyron cristatum 6P translocation lines and GISH detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Song

    Full Text Available The narrow genetic background restricts wheat yield and quality improvement. The wild relatives of wheat are the huge gene pools for wheat improvement and can broaden its genetic basis. Production of wheat-alien translocation lines can transfer alien genes to wheat. So it is important to develop an efficient method to induce wheat-alien chromosome translocation. Agropyroncristatum (P genome carries many potential genes beneficial to disease resistance, stress tolerance and high yield. Chromosome 6P possesses the desirable genes exhibiting good agronomic traits, such as high grain number per spike, powdery mildew resistance and stress tolerance. In this study, the wheat-A. cristatum disomic addition was used as bridge material to produce wheat-A. cristatum translocation lines induced by (60Co-γirradiation. The results of genomic in situ hybridization showed that 216 plants contained alien chromosome translocation among 571 self-pollinated progenies. The frequency of translocation was 37.83%, much higher than previous reports. Moreover, various alien translocation types were identified. The analysis of M2 showed that 62.5% of intergeneric translocation lines grew normally without losing the translocated chromosomes. The paper reported a high efficient technical method for inducing alien translocation between wheat and Agropyroncristatum. Additionally, these translocation lines will be valuable for not only basic research on genetic balance, interaction and expression of different chromosome segments of wheat and alien species, but also wheat breeding programs to utilize superior agronomic traits and good compensation effect from alien chromosomes.

  4. Development of cryogenic permanent magnet undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Toru; Tanaka, Takashi; Shirasawa, Katsutoshi; Kitamura, Hideo; Bizen, Teruhiko; Seike, Takamitsu; Marechal, Xavier; Tsuru, Rieko; Iwaki, Daisuke

    2005-01-01

    A short period undulator increases not only the photon energy of undulator radiation, but also the brilliance due to its increased number of undulator periods. As a result, brilliant undulator radiation becomes available in the photon energy range, which is currently covered by wigglers. In order to develop a short period undulator, high performance magnets are indispensable and superconductive undulators have been actively investigated in recent years. In this paper, however, we propose a new approach, so called a cryogenic permanent magnet undulator using NdFeB magnets at the temperatures around 150 K. The current status of this cryogenic permanent magnet undulator development at SPring-8 is presented including the results of the magnetic field measurements on a prototype undulator. (author)

  5. Autistic children and the object permanence task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrien, J L; Tanguay, P; Barthélémy, C; Martineaú, J; Perrot, A; Hameury, L; Sauvage, D

    1993-01-01

    Many mentally retarded autistic children can understand the concept of object permanence, but, in comparison to developmental-age matched normal children, the behavioral strategies they employ in carrying out the Casati-Lezine Object Permanence Test are deficient and lead to failure. These deficiencies appear unrelated to interference of stereotypic or other bizarre behavior in task performance. Similar problem-solving deficiencies can be found in mentally retarded children who are not autistic, suggesting that the deficiencies themselves are less related to the social-communication deficits of autistic children, but more to the general problem-solving difficulties found in children with a lower developmental quotient. Nevertheless, the qualitative analysis of results shows a tendency in autistic children, despite their better developmental level, to use less coordinated and regular sequences to solve the task than normal or mentally retarded children.

  6. Design and construction of permanent magnetic gears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frank Thorleif

    /l]. Measurement from this gear has resulted in a measured total torque density of 23 [Nm/l]. Mechanical versions of this gear type are found with total torque density in the 16 to 31 [Nm/l] range. The third and last gear technology that is investigated is a gear that reminds of a planetary gear. Research shows......This thesis deals with design and development of permanent magnetic gears. The goal of this thesis is to develop knowledge and calculation software for magnetic gears. They use strong NdFeB permanent magnets and a new magnetic gear technology, which will be a serious alternative to classical...... mechanical gears. The new magnetic gear will have a high torque density1 relationship –high efficiency and are maintenance free. In this project was manufactured two test gears which is tested and verified with models developed in this project. Present technological status for magnetic gears is introduced...

  7. Robotized Surface Mounting of Permanent Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hultman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Using permanent magnets on a rotor can both simplify the design and increase the efficiency of electric machines compared to using electromagnets. A drawback, however, is the lack of existing automated assembly methods for large machines. This paper presents and motivates a method for robotized surface mounting of permanent magnets on electric machine rotors. The translator of the Uppsala University Wave Energy Converter generator is used as an example of a rotor. The robot cell layout, equipment design and assembly process are presented and validated through computer simulations and experiments with prototype equipment. A comparison with manual assembly indicates substantial cost savings and an improved work environment. By using the flexibility of industrial robots and a scalable equipment design, it is possible for this assembly method to be adjusted for other rotor geometries and sizes. Finally, there is a discussion on the work that remains to be done on improving and integrating the robot cell into a production line.

  8. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2010-01-12

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has a ferromagnetic outer stator mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. Pluralities of top and bottom stator poles are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the ferromagnetic outer stator. A ferromagnetic inner rotor is coupled to the shaft and has i) a rotor core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second discs having respective outer edges with first and second pluralities of permanent magnets (PMs) mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the rotor core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  9. Regulation of fields excited by permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchenko, I.S.

    1989-01-01

    Two methods of fast regulation of fields excited by permanent magnets in salient-pole electron-optical lenses are described: 1)the hybrid method realized using the additional electromagnet introduced to a magnetic chain sequentially its field being composed or substracted with magnetosolid exciter field; 2)the method with saturation of a part of a magnetic circuit, with saturation being achievable at the begining or in the end of a regulation cycle. In the second method it is proposed to direct orthogonally the main flux excited by permanent magnets and the flux in the saturated part of the magnetic circuit excited using an electromagnet. It is shown that the second method allows one to reduce the required ampere-coils by more than an order as compared to the first method at one and the same regulation range and other equal conditions. The frequency of field regulation in the experimental mock-up was 10 kHz. 3 refs.; 2 figs

  10. Sensorless Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Torben N.

    Permanent magnet machines, with either surface mounted or embedded magnets on the rotor, are becoming more common due to the key advantages of higher energy conversion efficiency and higher torque density compared to the classical induction machine. Besides energy efficiency the permanent magnet...... the synchronous machine requires knowledge of the rotor shaft position due to the synchronous and undamped nature of the machine. The rotor position may be measured using a mechanical sensor, but the sensor reduces reliability and adds cost to the system and for this reason sensorless control methods started...... are dependent on the phase currents and rotor position. Based on the flux linkages the differential inductances are determined and used to establish the inductance saliency in terms of ratio and orientation. The orientation and its dependence on the current and rotor position are used to analyse the behaviour...

  11. Characterizing permanent magnet blocks with Helmholtz coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, D. W.; Timpf, J.

    1992-08-01

    Most of the insertion devices to be installed at the Advanced Photon Source will utilize permanent magnets in their magnetic structures. The quality of the spectral output is sensitive to the errors in the field of the device which are related to variations in the magnetic properties of the individual blocks. The Advanced Photon Source will have a measurement facility to map the field in the completed insertion devices and equipment to test and modify the magnetic strength of the individual magnet blocks. One component of the facility, the Helmholtz coil permanent magnet block measurement system, has been assembled and tested. This system measures the total magnetic moment vector of a block with a precision better than 0.01% and a directional resolution of about 0.05°. The design and performance of the system will be presented.

  12. Urethral alarm probe for permanent prostate implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutajar, D.; Lerch, M.; Takacs, G.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a urethral dosimetry system for real time dose verification along the urethra during permanent implant prostate brachytherapy. The urethral alarm uses 'spectroscopic dosimetry' to calculate the dose rate along the urethra in real time. The application of spectroscopic dosimetry for the urethral alarm probe was verified using Monte Carlo calculations. In phantom depth dose measurements as well as isotropy measurements were performed to verify the usefulness of the urethra alarm probe as an in vivo real time dosimeter. (author)

  13. Neutron induced permanent damage in Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, G.P.; Rosen, M.

    1982-01-01

    14 MeV neutron induced permanent changes in the critical current density of Josephson junctions due to displacement damage in the junction barrier are estimated using a worst case model and the binary collision simulation code MARLOWE. No likelihood of single event hard upsets is found in this model. It is estimated that a fluence of 10 18 -10 19 neutrons/cm 2 are required to change the critical current density by 5%

  14. High-field permanent-magnet structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leupoid, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a permanent magnet structure. It comprises an azimuthally circumscribed section of a hollow hemispherical magnetic flux source, the magnetic orientation in the section with respect to the polar axis being substantially equal to twice the polar angle, a superconducting planar sheet abutting one flat face of the section along a longitudinal meridian, and at least one other planar sheet of selected material abutting another flat face of the section and perpendicular to the first-mentioned sheet

  15. Magnetic guns with cylindrical permanent magnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vokoun, David; Beleggia, M.; Heller, Luděk

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 324, č. 9 (2012), s. 1715-1719 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP107/11/0391; GA AV ČR IAA100100920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : permanent magnet * cylindrical magnet * Earnshaw's theorem * magnetic gun * magnetostatic interaction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.826, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304885311008997

  16. Permanent Quadriplegia Following Replacement of Voice Prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Kayhan; Erdur, Omer; Kibar, Ertugrul

    2016-11-01

    The authors presented a patient with quadriplegia caused by cervical spine abscess following voice prosthesis replacement. The authors present the first reported permanent quadriplegia patient caused by voice prosthesis replacement. The authors wanted to emphasize that life-threatening complications may be faced during the replacement of voice prosthesis. Care should be taken during the replacement of voice prosthesis and if some problems have been faced during the procedure patients must be followed closely.

  17. Axial flux permanent magnet brushless machines

    CERN Document Server

    Gieras, Jacek F; Kamper, Maarten J

    2008-01-01

    Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) brushless machines are modern electrical machines with a lot of advantages over their conventional counterparts. They are being increasingly used in consumer electronics, public life, instrumentation and automation system, clinical engineering, industrial electromechanical drives, automobile manufacturing industry, electric and hybrid electric vehicles, marine vessels and toys. They are also used in more electric aircrafts and many other applications on larger scale. New applications have also emerged in distributed generation systems (wind turbine generators

  18. Permanents, Determinants, and Generalized Complementary Basic Matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiedler, Miroslav; Hall, F.J.; Stroev, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2014), s. 1041-1051 ISSN 1846-3886 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0473 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : factorization * GCB-matrix * permanent * intrinsic product Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.583, year: 2014 http://files.ele-math.com/abstracts/oam-08-57-abs.pdf

  19. ERUPTION PATTERN OF PERMANENT TEETH -IN TANZANIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was visible in the oral vacity. Generally permanent teeth erupted earlier in girls than in boys. The differences were 0.1 - 0.2 years for incisors and first molars, 0.2 - 0.4 years for canines and premolars and 0.3 - 0.5 years for second molars. Except for the second premolars, mandibular teeth erupted earlier than the maxillary in ...

  20. Hyaluronan synthase mediates dye translocation across liposomal membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina Andria P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyaluronan (HA is made at the plasma membrane and secreted into the extracellular medium or matrix by phospolipid-dependent hyaluronan synthase (HAS, which is active as a monomer. Since the mechanism by which HA is translocated across membranes is still unresolved, we assessed the presence of an intraprotein pore within HAS by adding purified Streptococcus equisimilis HAS (SeHAS to liposomes preloaded with the fluorophore Cascade Blue (CB. Results CB translocation (efflux was not observed with mock-purified material from empty vector control E. coli membranes, but was induced by SeHAS, purified from membranes, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. CB efflux was eliminated or greatly reduced when purified SeHAS was first treated under conditions that inhibit enzyme activity: heating, oxidization or cysteine modification with N-ethylmaleimide. Reduced CB efflux also occurred with SeHAS K48E or K48F mutants, in which alteration of K48 within membrane domain 2 causes decreased activity and HA product size. The above results used liposomes containing bovine cardiolipin (BCL. An earlier study testing many synthetic lipids found that the best activating lipid for SeHAS is tetraoleoyl cardiolipin (TO-CL and that, in contrast, tetramyristoyl cardiolipin (TM-CL is an inactivating lipid (Weigel et al, J. Biol. Chem. 281, 36542, 2006. Consistent with the effects of these CL species on SeHAS activity, CB efflux was more than 2-fold greater in liposomes made with TO-CL compared to TM-CL. Conclusions The results indicate the presence of an intraprotein pore in HAS and support a model in which HA is translocated to the exterior by HAS itself.

  1. Financing of permanent working capital in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Branko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we attempted to present the problem of establishing adequate structure of financing medium agricultural enterprises and to point out the necessity for permanent working capital in those agricultural enterprises which can’t cover fixed assets, long-term placements and portion of inventories (raw material and spare parts, production in process with own equity and long-term sources of financing. For the purpose of analysing adequate structure of financing medium agricultural enterprises, we will use one of the most popular methods, such as case study and ratio analysis. Results of the research show that in primary agricultural production, next to standard long-term investment loans and short-term loans for investment in agricultural production, there is a necessity for financing in the permanent working capital which could assist continuity of production process and enable conditions for more profitable business in agriculture. It also should be noted that real and book value on this level of permanent working capital differs substantially.

  2. Absorption and translocation of arsenate arsenic by coffee plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, J F; Yamaguchi, S

    1964-01-01

    Studies on arsenate arsenic absorption and translocation in coffee plants were carried out using arsenic-77 applied either to leaves or to roots through the nutrient solution. The youngest leaves were unable to export arsenic and only an acropetal movement in the transpiration stream was observed. From the second pair of leaves, it moved into the growing leaves. From the fourth pair it moved downward through the stem and into the roots. Roots absorbed high amounts of arsenate once absorbed it moved via the xylem of the transpiration stream into the leaves. 7 references, 2 figures.

  3. U.S. Lawful Permanent Residents: Fiscal Year 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  4. U.S. Legal Permanent Residents: Fiscal Year 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A legal permanent resident (LPR) or “green card” recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  5. U.S. Legal Permanent Residents: Fiscal Year 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A legal permanent resident (LPR) or “green card” recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  6. U.S. Legal Permanent Residents: Fiscal Year 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A legal permanent resident (LPR) or “green card” recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  7. 76 FR 78698 - Proposed Revocation of Permanent Variances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... Administration (``OSHA'' or ``the Agency'') granted permanent variances to 24 companies engaged in the... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration [Docket No. OSHA-2011-0054] Proposed Revocation of Permanent Variances AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA...

  8. sizing of wind powered axial flux permanent magnet alternator using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-10-04

    Oct 4, 2016 ... Keywords: Wind-Power, Axial flux, Axial Flux Permanent Machines (AFPM), Axial Flux Permanent Magnet ... energy for power generation, a high constraint is the .... arrangements as Single-Rotor Single-Stator Structure.

  9. Analysis of Hall Probe Precise Positioning with Cylindrical Permanent Magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belicev, P.; Vorozhtsov, A.S.; Vorozhtsov, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    Precise positioning of a Hall probe for cyclotron magnetic field mapping, using cylindrical permanent magnets, was analyzed. The necessary permanent magnet parameters in order to achieve ±20 μm position precision, were determined. (author)

  10. U.S. Lawful Permanent Residents: Fiscal Year 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs), also known as “green card” holders, are non-citizens who are lawfully authorized to live permanently within the United States.

  11. U.S. Legal Permanent Residents: Fiscal Year 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A legal permanent resident (LPR) or “green card” recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  12. Milton Friedman and the Emergence of the Permanent Income Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiang-Ke Chao

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the evolution of MiltonFriedman's permanent income hypothesis from the 1940s to 1960s, andhow it became the paradigm of modern consumption theory. Modellingunobservables, such as permanent income and permanent consumption, isa long-standing issue in economics and econometrics. While theconventional approach has been to set an empirical model to make"permanent income" measurable, the historical change in the meaningof that theoretical construct is al...

  13. Use of chromosome translocations for measuring prior environment exposures in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, J. D.

    1997-05-01

    Recent advances in cytogenetic methodology are beginning to have a major impact upon our ability to provide assessments of environmental exposure in humans. The advent of fluorescent-based techniques for `painting` whole chromosomes has made the analysis of chromosome translocations rapid, specific, sensitive and routine. Chromosome painting has been used to address a wide variety of scientific questions, resulting in an increased understanding of the biological consequences of adverse environmental exposure. This paper describes the use of chromosome translocations as a biological marker of exposure and effect in humans. The relevance of translocations is discussed, as are the advantages and disadvantages of painting compared to classical cytogenetic methods for translocation evaluation. The factors to consider in the use of translocations as a retrospective indicator of exposure are then described. Several theoretical parameters that are important to the use of translocations are provided, and the paper concludes with a vision for the future of cytogenetic methodology.

  14. Akt phosphorylation is essential for nuclear translocation and retention in NGF-stimulated PC12 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong Le Xuan Nguyen; Choi, Joung Woo; Lee, Sang Bae; Ye, Keqiang; Woo, Soo-Dong; Lee, Kyung-Hoon; Ahn, Jee-Yin

    2006-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) elicits Akt translocation into the nucleus, where it phosphorylates nuclear targets. Here, we describe that Akt phosphorylation can promote the nuclear translocation of Akt and is necessary for its nuclear retention. Overexpression of Akt-K179A, T308A, S473A-mutant failed to show either nuclear translocation or nuclear Akt phosphorylation, whereas expression of wild-type counterpart elicited profound Akt phosphorylation and induced nuclear translocation under NGF stimulation. Employing the PI3K inhibitor and a variety of mutants PI3K, we showed that nuclear translocation of Akt was mediated by activation of PI3K, and Akt phosphorylation status in the nucleus required PI3K activity. Thus the activity of PI3K might contribute to the nuclear translocation of Akt, and that Akt phosphorylation is essential for its nuclear retention under NGF stimulation conditions

  15. Polymer translocation under a pulling force: Scaling arguments and threshold forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menais, Timothée

    2018-02-01

    DNA translocation through nanopores is one of the most promising strategies for next-generation sequencing technologies. Most experimental and numerical works have focused on polymer translocation biased by electrophoresis, where a pulling force acts on the polymer within the nanopore. An alternative strategy, however, is emerging, which uses optical or magnetic tweezers. In this case, the pulling force is exerted directly at one end of the polymer, which strongly modifies the translocation process. In this paper, we report numerical simulations of both linear and structured (mimicking DNA) polymer models, simple enough to allow for a statistical treatment of the pore structure effects on the translocation time probability distributions. Based on extremely extended computer simulation data, we (i) propose scaling arguments for an extension of the predicted translocation times τ ˜N2F-1 over the moderate forces range and (ii) analyze the effect of pore size and polymer structuration on translocation times τ .

  16. Permanent magnet design for high-speed superconducting bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John R.; Uherka, Kenneth L.; Abdoud, Robert G.

    1996-01-01

    A high temperature superconducting bearing including a permanent magnet rotor levitated by a high temperature superconducting structure. The rotor preferably includes one or more concentric permanent magnet rings coupled to permanent magnet ring structures having substantially triangular and quadrangular cross-sections. Both alternating and single direction polarity magnet structures can be used in the bearing.

  17. Permanent magnet design for high-speed superconducting bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, J.R.; Uherka, K.L.; Abdoud, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    A high temperature superconducting bearing including a permanent magnet rotor levitated by a high temperature superconducting structure is disclosed. The rotor preferably includes one or more concentric permanent magnet rings coupled to permanent magnet ring structures having substantially triangular and quadrangular cross-sections. Both alternating and single direction polarity magnet structures can be used in the bearing. 9 figs

  18. Generation of magnetic fields for accelerators with permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinander, T.

    1994-01-01

    Commercially available permanent magnet materials and their properties are reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of using permanent magnets as compared to electromagnets for the generation of specific magnetic fields are discussed. Basic permanent magnet configurations in multipole magnets and insertion devices are presented. (orig.)

  19. 6 CFR 7.29 - Documents of permanent historical value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Documents of permanent historical value. 7.29... NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.29 Documents of permanent historical value. The... contained in records determined to have permanent historical value under 44 U.S.C. 2107 before they are...

  20. Insulin-induced translocation of IR to the nucleus in insulin responsive cells requires a nuclear translocation sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesten, Dov; Horovitz-Fried, Miriam; Brutman-Barazani, Tamar; Sampson, Sanford R

    2018-04-01

    Insulin binding to its cell surface receptor (IR) activates a cascade of events leading to its biological effects. The Insulin-IR complex is rapidly internalized and then is either recycled back to the plasma membrane or sent to lysosomes for degradation. Although most of the receptor is recycled or degraded, a small amount may escape this pathway and migrate to the nucleus of the cell where it might be important in promulgation of receptor signals. In this study we explored the mechanism by which insulin induces IR translocation to the cell nucleus. Experiments were performed cultured L6 myoblasts, AML liver cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Insulin treatment induced a rapid increase in nuclear IR protein levels within 2 to 5 min. Treatment with WGA, an inhibitor of nuclear import, reduced insulin-induced increases nuclear IR protein; IR was, however, translocated to a perinuclear location. Bioinformatics tools predicted a potential nuclear localization sequence (NLS) on IR. Immunofluorescence staining showed that a point mutation on the predicted NLS blocked insulin-induced IR nuclear translocation. In addition, blockade of nuclear IR activation in isolated nuclei by an IR blocking antibody abrogated insulin-induced increases in IR tyrosine phosphorylation and nuclear PKCδ levels. Furthermore, over expression of mutated IR reduced insulin-induced glucose uptake and PKB phosphorylation. When added to isolated nuclei, insulin induced IR phosphorylation but had no effect on nuclear IR protein levels. These results raise questions regarding the possible role of nuclear IR in IR signaling and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Balanced translocation linked to psychiatric disorder, glutamate, and cortical structure/function

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Pippa A; Duff, Barbara; Blackwood, Douglas H R; Romaniuk, Liana; Watson, Andrew; Whalley, Heather C; Li, Xiang; Dauvermann, Maria R; Moorhead, T William J; Bois, Catherine; Ryan, Niamh M; Redpath, Holly; Hall, Lynsey; Morris, Stewart W; van Beek, Edwin J R

    2016-01-01

    Rare genetic variants of large effect can help elucidate the pathophysiology of brain disorders. Here we expand the clinical and genetic analyses of a family with a (1;11)(q42;q14.3) translocation multiply affected by major psychiatric illness and test the effect of the translocation on the structure and function of prefrontal, and temporal brain regions. The translocation showed significant linkage (LOD score 6.1) with a clinical phenotype that included schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorde...

  2. Survival of translocated sharp-tailed grouse: Temporal threshold and age effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Steven; Coates, Peter S.; Delehanty, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Context: The Columbian sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus) is a subspecies of conservation concern in the western United States, currently occupying ≤10% of its historic range. Land and management agencies are employing translocation techniques to restore Columbian sharp-tailed grouse (CSTG) populations. However, establishing self-sustaining populations by translocating grouse often is unsuccessful, owing, in part, to low survivorship of translocated grouse following release.Aims: We measured and modelled patterns of CSTG mortality for 150 days following translocation into historic range, to better understand patterns and causes of success or failure in conservation efforts to re-establish grouse populations.Methods: We conducted two independent multi-year translocations and evaluated individual and temporal factors associated with CSTG survival up to 150 days following their release. Both translocations were reintroduction attempts in Nevada, USA, to establish viable populations of CSTG into their historic range.Key results: We observed a clear temporal threshold in survival probability, with CSTG mortality substantially higher during the first 50 days following release than during the subsequent 100 days. Additionally, translocated yearling grouse exhibited higher overall survival (0.669 ± 0.062) than did adults (0.420 ± 0.052) across the 150-day period and higher survival than adults both before and after the 50-day temporal threshold.Conclusions: Translocated CSTG are especially vulnerable to mortality for 50 days following release, whereas translocated yearling grouse are more resistant to mortality than are adult grouse. On the basis of the likelihood of survival, yearling CSTG are better candidates for population restoration through translocation than are adult grouse.Implications: Management actions that ameliorate mortality factors for 50 days following translocation and translocations that employ yearling grouse will

  3. Meiotic behaviour and spermatogenesis in male mice heterozygous for translocation types also occurring in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijhoff, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis a start was made with meiotic observations of mouse translocation types - a Robertsonian translocation and a translocation between a metacentric and an acrocentric chromosome - which also occur in man. As an exogeneous factor of possible influence, the meiotic effects of two types of radiation (fission neutrons and X-rays) administered at relatively low doses 2 and 3 hours before prometaphase-metaphase II (probably during metaphase-anaphase I), were determined in Rb4Bnr/+-males. (Auth.)

  4. Occurence of translocations between irradiated and intact chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myasnyankina, E.N.; Abeleva, Eh.A.; Generalova, M.V.

    1980-01-01

    Two translocations between irradiated father and intact mother autosomes are obtained in Drosophila melanogaster. Five out of 283 regular translocations (between the second and the third chromosomes of an irradiated male) are accompanied by a recombination over the second or the third chromosomes. Nine flies out of twenty considered to be recombinants, could originate due to mutations. The data obtained prove that intact female autosomes can take part in the exchange with homologic (recombinations) and heterologic (translocations) irradiated male autosomes

  5. Translocation of photoassimilates in γ-irradiated soybean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursino, D.J.; Schefski, H.; Latour, P.W.

    1977-01-01

    Young soybean plants received on a single occasion a dose of 3.75 krads of γ-radiation after which they were allowed to photoassimilate 14 CO 2 so that the magnitude of translocation and distribution pattern of exported 14 C could be determined. In comparison to the non-irradiated controls, plants exposed to ionizing radiation showed a large reduction, almost 70%, in the magnitude of 14 C exported from the source leaf in a one hour period. Furthermore, the pattern of distribution of exported 14 C was altered such that less was exported to the shoot apex region and more to the region below the node of the source leaf. Replacement of the shoot apex with 20 ppm IAA immediately following irradiation completely restored the pattern of distribution but was able to only partially increase the magnitude of translocation. These results are interpreted with reference to the results from the author's previous study with soybean showing radiation effects on photosynthesis and shoot development. (author)

  6. Myeloid translocation genes differentially regulate colorectal cancer programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parang, Bobak; Bradley, Amber M.; Mittal, Mukul K.; Short, Sarah P.; Thompson, Joshua J.; Barrett, Caitlyn W.; Naik, Rishi D.; Bilotta, Anthony J.; Washington, Mary K.; Revetta, Frank L.; Smith, Jesse J.; Chen, Xi; Wilson, Keith T.; Hiebert, Scott W.; Williams, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid translocation genes (MTGs), originally identified as chromosomal translocations in acute myelogenous leukemia, are transcriptional corepressors that regulate hematopoietic stem cell programs. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database revealed that MTGs were mutated in epithelial malignancy and suggested that loss of function might promote tumorigenesis. Genetic deletion of MTGR1 and MTG16 in the mouse has revealed unexpected and unique roles within the intestinal epithelium. Mtgr1−/− mice have progressive depletion of all intestinal secretory cells, and Mtg16−/− mice have a decrease in goblet cells. Furthermore, both Mtgr1−/− and Mtg16−/− mice have increased intestinal epithelial cell proliferation. We thus hypothesized that loss of MTGR1 or MTG16 would modify Apc1638/+-dependent intestinal tumorigenesis. Mtgr1−/− mice, but not Mtg16−/− mice, had a 10-fold increase in tumor multiplicity. This was associated with more advanced dysplasia, including progression to invasive adenocarcinoma, and augmented intratumoral proliferation. Analysis of ChIP-seq datasets for MTGR1 and MTG16 targets indicated that MTGR1 can regulate Wnt and Notch signaling. In support of this, immunohistochemistry and gene expression analysis revealed that both Wnt and Notch signaling pathways were hyperactive in Mtgr1−/− tumors. Furthermore, in human colorectal cancer (CRC) samples MTGR1 was downregulated at both the transcript and protein level. Overall our data indicates that MTGR1 has a context dependent effect on intestinal tumorigenesis. PMID:27270437

  7. [Bacterial Translocation from Intestine: Microbiological, Immunological and Pathophysiological Aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podoprigora, G I; Kafarskaya, L I; Bainov, N A; Shkoporov, A N

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial translocation (BT) is both pathology and physiology phenomenon. In healthy newborns it accompanies the process of establishing the autochthonous intestinal microbiota and the host microbiome. In immunodeficiency it can be an aethio-pathogenetic link and a manifestation of infection or septic complications. The host colonization resistance to exogenous microbic colonizers is provided by gastrointestinal microbiota in concert with complex constitutional and adaptive defense mechanisms. BT may be result of barrier dysfunction and self-purification mechanisms involving the host myeloid cell phagocytic system and opsonins. Dynamic cell humoral response to microbial molecular patterns that occurs on the mucous membranes initiates receptorsignalingpathways and cascade ofreactions. Their vector and results are largely determined by cross-reactivity between microbiome and the host genome. Enterocyte barriers interacting with microbiota play leading role in providing adaptive, homeostatic and stress host reactivity. Microcirculatory ischemic tissue alterations and inflammatory reactions increase the intestinal barrier permeability and BT These processes a well as mechanisms for apoptotic cells and bacteria clearance are justified to be of prospective research interest. The inflammatory and related diseases caused by alteration and dysfunction of the intestinal barrier are reasonably considered as diseases of single origin. Maternal microbiota affects theformation of the innate immune system and the microbiota of the newborn, including intestinal commensal translocation during lactation. Deeper understanding of intestinal barrier mechanisms needs complex microbiological, immunological, pathophysiological, etc. investigations using adequate biomodels, including gnotobiotic animals.

  8. Translocation of the neonicotinoid seed treatment clothianidin in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Adam; Krupke, Christian H

    2017-01-01

    Neonicotinoid seed treatments, typically clothianidin or thiamethoxam, are routinely applied to >80% of maize (corn) seed grown in North America where they are marketed as a targeted pesticide delivery system. Despite this widespread use, the amount of compound translocated into plant tissue from the initial seed treatment to provide protection has not been reported. Our two year field study compared concentrations of clothianidin seed treatments in maize to that of maize without neonicotinoid seed treatments and found neonicotinoids present in root tissues up to 34 days post planting. Plant-bound clothianidin concentrations followed an exponential decay pattern with initially high values followed by a rapid decrease within the first ~20 days post planting. A maximum of 1.34% of the initial seed treatment was successfully recovered from plant tissues in both study years and a maximum of 0.26% was recovered from root tissue. Our findings show neonicotinoid seed treatments may provide protection from some early season secondary maize pests. However, the proportion of the neonicotinoid seed treatment clothianidin translocated into plant tissues throughout the growing season is low overall and this observation may provide a mechanism to explain reports of inconsistent efficacy of this pest management approach and increasing detections of environmental neonicotinoids.

  9. Translocation of the neonicotinoid seed treatment clothianidin in maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Alford

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid seed treatments, typically clothianidin or thiamethoxam, are routinely applied to >80% of maize (corn seed grown in North America where they are marketed as a targeted pesticide delivery system. Despite this widespread use, the amount of compound translocated into plant tissue from the initial seed treatment to provide protection has not been reported. Our two year field study compared concentrations of clothianidin seed treatments in maize to that of maize without neonicotinoid seed treatments and found neonicotinoids present in root tissues up to 34 days post planting. Plant-bound clothianidin concentrations followed an exponential decay pattern with initially high values followed by a rapid decrease within the first ~20 days post planting. A maximum of 1.34% of the initial seed treatment was successfully recovered from plant tissues in both study years and a maximum of 0.26% was recovered from root tissue. Our findings show neonicotinoid seed treatments may provide protection from some early season secondary maize pests. However, the proportion of the neonicotinoid seed treatment clothianidin translocated into plant tissues throughout the growing season is low overall and this observation may provide a mechanism to explain reports of inconsistent efficacy of this pest management approach and increasing detections of environmental neonicotinoids.

  10. Novel Class of Potential Therapeutics that Target Ricin Retrograde Translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Redmann

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ricin toxin, an A-B toxin from Ricinus communis, induces cell death through the inhibition of protein synthesis. The toxin binds to the cell surface via its B chain (RTB followed by its retrograde trafficking through intracellular compartments to the ER where the A chain (RTA is transported across the membrane and into the cytosol. Ricin A chain is transported across the ER membrane utilizing cellular proteins involved in the disposal of aberrant ER proteins by a process referred to as retrograde translocation. Given the current lack of therapeutics against ricin intoxication, we developed a high-content screen using an enzymatically attenuated RTA chimera engineered with a carboxy-terminal enhanced green fluorescent protein (RTAE177Qegfp to identify compounds that target RTA retrograde translocation. Stabilizing RTAE177Qegfp through the inclusion of proteasome inhibitor produced fluorescent peri-nuclear granules. Quantitative analysis of the fluorescent granules provided the basis to discover compounds from a small chemical library (2080 compounds with known bioactive properties. Strikingly, the screen found compounds that stabilized RTA molecules within the cell and several compounds limited the ability of wild type RTA to suppress protein synthesis. Collectively, a robust high-content screen was developed to discover novel compounds that stabilize intracellular ricin and limit ricin intoxication.

  11. Molecular determinants of nucleolar translocation of RNA helicase A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhe; Kenworthy, Rachael; Green, Christopher; Tang, Hengli

    2007-01-01

    RNA helicase A (RHA) is a member of the DEAH-box family of DNA/RNA helicases involved in multiple cellular processes and the life cycles of many viruses. The subcellular localization of RHA is dynamic despite its steady-state concentration in the nucleoplasm. We have previously shown that it shuttles rapidly between the nucleus and the cytoplasm by virtue of a bidirectional nuclear transport domain (NTD) located in its carboxyl terminus. Here, we investigate the molecular determinants for its translocation within the nucleus and, more specifically, its redistribution from the nucleoplasm to nucleolus or the perinucleolar region. We found that low temperature treatment, transcription inhibition or replication of hepatitis C virus caused the intranuclear redistribution of the protein, suggesting that RHA shuttles between the nucleolus and nucleoplasm and becomes trapped in the nucleolus or the perinucleolar region upon blockade of transport to the nucleoplasm. Both the NTD and ATPase activity were essential for RHA's transport to the nucleolus or perinucleolar region. One of the double-stranded RNA binding domains (dsRBD II) was also required for this nucleolar translocation (NoT) phenotype. RNA interference studies revealed that RHA is essential for survival of cultured hepatoma cells and the ATPase activity appears to be important for this critical role

  12. Adenine nucleotide translocator transports haem precursors into mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoki Azuma

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Haem is a prosthetic group for haem proteins, which play an essential role in oxygen transport, respiration, signal transduction, and detoxification. In haem biosynthesis, the haem precursor protoporphyrin IX (PP IX must be accumulated into the mitochondrial matrix across the inner membrane, but its mechanism is largely unclear. Here we show that adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT, the inner membrane transporter, contributes to haem biosynthesis by facilitating mitochondrial accumulation of its precursors. We identified that haem and PP IX specifically bind to ANT. Mitochondrial uptake of PP IX was inhibited by ADP, a known substrate of ANT. Conversely, ADP uptake into mitochondria was competitively inhibited by haem and its precursors, suggesting that haem-related porphyrins are accumulated into mitochondria via ANT. Furthermore, disruption of the ANT genes in yeast resulted in a reduction of haem biosynthesis by blocking the translocation of haem precursors into the matrix. Our results represent a new model that ANT plays a crucial role in haem biosynthesis by facilitating accumulation of its precursors into the mitochondrial matrix.

  13. Zinc translocation accelerates infarction after mild transient focal ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J-M; Zipfel, G J; Park, K H; He, Y Y; Hsu, C Y; Choi, D W

    2002-01-01

    Excess release of chelatable zinc (Zn(2+)) from central synaptic vesicles may contribute to the pathogenesis of selective neuronal cell death following transient forebrain ischemia, but a role in neurodegeneration after focal ischemia has not been defined. Adult male Long-Evans rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 30 min followed by reperfusion developed delayed cerebral infarction reaching completion 3 days after the insult. One day after the insult, many degenerating cerebral neurons exhibited increased intracellular Zn(2+), and some labeled with the antibody against activated caspase-3. I.c.v. administration of the Zn(2+) chelator, EDTA saturated with equimolar Ca(2+) (CaEDTA), 15 min prior to ischemia attenuated subsequent Zn(2+) translocation into cortical neurons, and reduced infarct volume measured 3 days after ischemia. Although the protective effect of CaEDTA at this endpoint was substantial (about 70% infarct reduction), it was lost when insult severity was increased (from 30 to 60 min MCAO), or when infarct volume was measured at a much later time point (14 days instead of 3 days after ischemia). These data suggest that toxic Zn(2+) translocation, from presynaptic terminals to post-synaptic cell bodies, may accelerate the development of cerebral infarction following mild transient focal ischemia.

  14. Translocation of cesium in plants after foliar deposition - Experiments and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proehl, G.; Voigt, G.; Mueller, H.

    1991-01-01

    The translocation of cesium from the foliage to the edible parts as function of the time period between deposition and harvest has been determined for cereals, potatoes, green beans and carrots. From the results the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. The maximum of the cesium translocation is 40 to 50 and 70 to 90 days before harvest for cereals and potatoes respectively. For green beans a maximum was observed after deposition 15 days before harvest; 2. The variations of the translocation factors are less if the translocation is normalized to the yield; 3. The translocation factors are in good agreement with those of other investigators. The agreement between the experimental series is better for a normalization of the translocation factor on the yield; 4. For cereals and potatoes the translocation can be described with gaussian functions which are consistent with the physiological development of cereals and potatoes. Although the approach in ECOSYS tends to over predict slightly the translocation for barley and potatoes there is a good overall agreement between the experiments and this model; 5. According to the investigations available the translocation of cesium can be predicted within a factor of 3 for cereals and a factor of 4 for potatoes. Sources of the uncertainties besides the biological variability and the inherent experimental error are differences in the development of the plants due to weather conditions, farm management and plant diseases. (9 refs., 5 figs.)

  15. Efficient secretion of small proteins in mammalian cells relies on Sec62-dependent posttranslational translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakkaraju, Asvin K. K.; Thankappan, Ratheeshkumar; Mary, Camille; Garrison, Jennifer L.; Taunton, Jack; Strub, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian cells secrete a large number of small proteins, but their mode of translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum is not fully understood. Cotranslational translocation was expected to be inefficient due to the small time window for signal sequence recognition by the signal recognition particle (SRP). Impairing the SRP pathway and reducing cellular levels of the translocon component Sec62 by RNA interference, we found an alternate, Sec62-dependent translocation path in mammalian cells required for the efficient translocation of small proteins with N-terminal signal sequences. The Sec62-dependent translocation occurs posttranslationally via the Sec61 translocon and requires ATP. We classified preproteins into three groups: 1) those that comprise ≤100 amino acids are strongly dependent on Sec62 for efficient translocation; 2) those in the size range of 120–160 amino acids use the SRP pathway, albeit inefficiently, and therefore rely on Sec62 for efficient translocation; and 3) those larger than 160 amino acids depend on the SRP pathway to preserve a transient translocation competence independent of Sec62. Thus, unlike in yeast, the Sec62-dependent translocation pathway in mammalian cells serves mainly as a fail-safe mechanism to ensure efficient secretion of small proteins and provides cells with an opportunity to regulate secretion of small proteins independent of the SRP pathway. PMID:22648169

  16. Use of wild–caught individuals as a key factor for success in vertebrate translocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummel, L.; MartInez-AbraIn, A.; Mayol, J.; Ruiz-Olmo, J.; Mañas, F.; Jimenez, J.; Gomez, J.A.; Oro, D.

    2016-07-01

    Success of vertebrate translocations is crucial to improve efficacy and efficiency of conservation actions but it is often difficult to assess because negative results (failed translocations) are seldom published. We developed surveys and sent them to heads of conservation services in three major Spanish Mediterranean regions. The purpose of our surveys was to determine which methodological factor, that could easily be implemented in practice, was more influential for translocation success. These factors included the origin of translocated individuals (captive or wild) and translocation effort (propagule size and program duration). After analyzing 83 programs, corresponding to 34 different vertebrate species, by means of generalized linear mixed modelling, we found that ‘origin’ was more relevant for translocation success than ‘effort’, although we could not rule out some role of translocation effort. Variance in success of translocation programs involving individuals from wild sources was smaller and consequently results more predictable. Origin interacted with taxa so that success was higher when using wild birds and especially wild fish and mammals, but not when releasing reptiles. Hence, we suggest that, for any given effort, translocation results will be better for most vertebrate taxa if individuals from wild sources are used. When this is not feasible, managers should release captive–reared individuals for a long number of years rather than a short number of years. (Author)

  17. Can Characteristics of Reciprocal Translocations Predict the Chance of Transferable Embryos in PGD Cycles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsbeth Dul

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Translocation carriers have an increased risk of miscarriage or the birth of a child with congenital anomalies. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD is performed in translocation carriers to select for balanced embryos and, thus, increase the chance of an ongoing pregnancy. However, a common experience is that reciprocal translocation carriers produce a high percentage of unbalanced embryos, which cannot be transferred. Therefore, the pregnancy rates in PGD in this patient group are low. In a cohort of 85 reciprocal translocation carriers undergoing PGD we have searched for cytogenetic characteristics of the translocations that can predict the percentage of balanced embryos. Using shape algorithms, the most likely segregation mode per translocation was determined. Shape algorithm, breakpoint location, and relative chromosome segment sizes proved not to be independent predictors of the percentage of balanced embryos. The ratio of the relative sizes of the translocated segments of both translocation chromosomes can give some insight into the chance of transferable embryos: Very asymmetrical translocations have a higher risk of unbalanced products (p = 0.048. Counseling of the couples on the pros and cons of all their reproductive options remains very important.

  18. Use of wild–caught individuals as a key factor for success in vertebrate translocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rummel, L.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Success of vertebrate translocations is crucial to improve efficacy and efficiency of conservation actions but it is often difficult to assess because negative results (failed translocations are seldom published. We developed surveys and sent them to heads of conservation services in three major Spanish Mediterranean regions. The purpose of our surveys was to determine which methodological factor, that could easily be implemented in practice, was more influential for translocation success. These factors included the origin of translocated individuals (captive or wild and translocation effort (propagule size and program duration. After analyzing 83 programs, corresponding to 34 different vertebrate species, by means of generalized linear mixed modelling, we found that ‘origin’ was more relevant for translocation success than ‘effort’, although we could not rule out some role of translocation effort. Variance in success of translocation programs involving individuals from wild sources was smaller and consequently results more predictable. Origin interacted with taxa so that success was higher when using wild birds and especially wild fish and mammals, but not when releasing reptiles. Hence, we suggest that, for any given effort, translocation results will be better for most vertebrate taxa if individuals from wild sources are used. When this is not feasible, managers should release captive–reared individuals for a long number of years rather than a short number of years.

  19. Translocation of reindeer from South Georgia to the Falkland Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron M. Bell

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the first translocation of reindeer Rangifer tarandus from South Georgia to the Falkland Islands, in the South Atlantic Ocean. Reindeer were introduced from Norway to the subantarctic island of South Georgia on three occasions in the early 1900s by Norwegian whalers, and today they exist as two discrete herds, numbering approximately 2600 individuals in total. Because of concerns over the impact on native vegetation, the long-term eradication of reindeer from South Georgia has recently been proposed. A translocation of reindeer to the Falkland Islands was undertaken in 2001 by the Falkland Island Government with two objectives: (1 to preserve the genetic resources of at least one of the South Georgia herds; and (2 to facilitate the diversification of the agricultural sector of the Falkland Islands by establishing a commercial reindeer herd. Techniques developed and used in North America for the successful relocation of large numbers of calves were adopted for the translocation. A total of 59 calves (26 females and 33 males were successfully translocated from South Georgia to the Falklands Islands in 2001, and subsequently produced their first offspring in 2003. Good husbandry practices and an understanding of biology and behaviour are essential for the successful translocation of reindeer.Flytting av rein fra Sør-Georgia til FalklandsøyeneAbstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Artikkelen beskriver den første overføring av rein Rangifer tarandus fra Sør-Georgia til Falklandsøyene i søratlanteren. Tamrein fra Norge ble flyttet til den subarktiske øya Sør-Georgia ved tre anledninger i perioden 1911 til 1925 i forbindelse med den norske hvalfangsten der. I dag består bestanden av rundt regnet 2600 dyr fordelt på to geografisk atskilte flokker. Av hensyn til den naturlige vegetasjonen på øya er det forslag om å på sikt utrydde reinbestanden på øya. Regjeringen på Falklandsøyene foretok en første overføring av

  20. Permanent magnet based dipole magnets for next generation light sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Watanabe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We have developed permanent magnet based dipole magnets for the next generation light sources. Permanent magnets are advantageous over electromagnets in that they consume less power, are physically more compact, and there is a less risk of power supply failure. However, experience with electromagnets and permanent magnets in the field of accelerators shows that there are still challenges to replacing main magnets of accelerators for light sources with permanent magnets. These include the adjustability of the magnetic field, the temperature dependence of permanent magnets, and the issue of demagnetization. In this paper, we present a design for magnets for future light sources, supported by experimental and numerical results.

  1. Rare earth permanent magnet with easy magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.S.; Camp, F.E.

    1998-01-01

    Rare earth permanent magnets have high energy products and coercivities, and thus the volume miniaturization of magnetic devices has been possible with improved magnetic performance. Although the high energy products of these rare earth permanent magnets provide substantial advantages for magnetic design and application, the strong magnetic force of the magnetized magnets makes assembly difficult. Therefore, a special device is needed to assemble the magnetized magnets. On the other hand, unmagnetized magnets are assembled and then they are magnetized. The assembled magnets are generally more difficult to magnetize than unassembled magnets because a much less effective magnetic field may be applied to them. This is particularly true for the rare earth permanent magnets because they usually need a much higher magnetic field to be fully magnetized than alnico or ferrite magnets. To obtain optimum magnetic properties, the required minimum magnetizing fields for SmCo 5 , Sm 2 TM 17 and Nd 2 Fe 14 B magnets were reported as 25-30 kOe, 45-60 kOe and 25-30 kOe, respectively. If the required magnetizing field for full saturation could be lowered, the effective utilization of magnetic properties would be maximized and the magnetic design option could be expanded with reduced restrictions. To meet this demand, we have sought to lower the field required for full magnetic saturation, and found that an increase in Dy content in R-(Fe,Co,Cu)-B type magnets lowers the field required for full saturation as well as improves the temperature stability. By increasing the H ci with Dy addition from 14 kOe to 24 and 34 kOe, the field required for full magnetic saturation decreases from about 20 to 15 and 10 kOe, respectively. This dual benefit will open up new application areas with more freedom for magnet design options. The mechanism for the lower magnetizing fields will be discussed. (orig.)

  2. [The influence of combinations of alien translocations on in vitro androgenesis in near-isogenic lines of spring bread wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibikeeva, Yu E; Sibikeev, S N

    2014-07-01

    The features of in vitro androgenesis were studied in Cultured anthers of spring bread wheats L503 and Dobrynya, having 7DS-7DL-7Ae#1 L translocation with genes Lrl9/Sr25 (Lrl9 translocation) from Agropyron elongatum (Host.) P.B. and their near-isogenic lines carrying combinations of Lrl9 translocation with translocations: 1BL-IR#1S with genes Pm8/Sr31/Lr26/Yr9 (Lr26translocation) from Secale cereal L., 4BS-4BL-2R#1L with genes Lr25/Pm7 (Lr25 translocation) from Secale cereal, 3DS-3DL-3Ae#1L with genes Lr24/Sr24 (Lr24 translocation) from Agropyron elongatum and 6BS-6BL-6U#1L with gene Lr9 (Lr9 translocation) from Aegilops umbellulata Zhuk. In comparison with those varieties having received the Lrl9 translocation, the following was established: (1) the combination of translocations Lr19+26 increased embryo frequency and green plant regeneration; (2) the combination of translocations Lr19+9 decreased embryo frequency but increased green plant regeneration; (3) the combination of translocations Lr19+24 decreased embryo frequency but increased green and albino plant regeneration; (4) the combination of translocations Lr19+25 increased embryo frequency and green plant regeneration but decreased albino plant regeneration. Thus, on near-isogenic lines of spring bread wheat, the influences of genotypes of four alien translocation combinations on in vitro androgenesis were determined.

  3. Tunable high-gradient permanent magnet quadrupoles

    CERN Document Server

    Shepherd, B J A; Marks, N; Collomb, N A; Stokes, D G; Modena, M; Struik, M; Bartalesi, A

    2014-01-01

    A novel type of highly tunable permanent magnet (PM) based quadrupole has been designed by the ZEPTO collaboration. A prototype of the design (ZEPTO-Q1), intended to match the specification for the CLIC Drive Beam Decelerator, was built and magnetically measured at Daresbury Laboratory and CERN. The prototype utilises two pairs of PMs which move in opposite directions along a single vertical axis to produce a quadrupole gradient variable between 15 and 60 T/m. The prototype meets CLIC's challenging specification in terms of the strength and tunability of the magnet.

  4. Patients with atrial fibrillation and permanent pacemaker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Frederik; Ruwald, Martin H; Lindhardt, Tommi Bo

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The management of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) with rate-lowering or anti-arrhythmic drugs has markedly changed over the last decade, but it is unknown how these changes have affected patients with NVAF with a permanent pacemaker (PPM). METHODS: Through Danish......,261. Thus, the proportional amount of NVAF patients with a PPM decreased from 1.3% to 1.1% (p = 0.015). Overall 45.9% had atrial fibrillation (AF) duration less than one year and the proportion declined from 55.5% to 42.4% (p

  5. Planar permanent magnet multipoles: Measurements and configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremer, T.; Tatchyn, R.

    1995-05-01

    Biplanar arrays of N rectangular permanent magnet (PM) blocks can be used to generate high quality N-pole fields in close proximity to the array axis. In applications featuring small-diameter charged particle beams, N-poles of adequate quality can be realized at relatively low cost using small volumes of PM material. In this paper we report on recent measurements performed on planar PM multipoles, and discuss techniques for improving the field quality of such devices at distances appreciably far away from the axis. Applications to hybrid/PM insertion device designs for linac-driven Free Electron Laser (FEL) operation in the x-ray range are described

  6. Permanent phonetic identification code for radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatua, R.; Somasundaram, S.; Srivastava, D.N.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes a system of self-checking short and easily memorisable 4-digit 'Permanent Phonetic Radiation Code' (PPRC) using radix 128 for Indians occupationally exposed to radiation, to facilitate entry of all radiation dose data pertaining to an individual in a single record of a file. The logic of PPRC is computer compatible. The necessary computer program has been developed in Health Physics Division for printing the PPRCs in Devanagari script through dot-matrix printers for making it understandable to the majority of the persons concerned. (author)

  7. Tuning permanent magnets with adjustable field clamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schermer, R.I.

    1987-01-01

    The effective length of a permanent-magnet assembly can be varied by adjusting the geometrical parameters of a field clamp. This paper presents measurements on a representative dipole and quadrupole as the field clamp is withdrawn axially or radially. The detailed behavior depends upon the magnet multipolarity and geometry. As a rule-of-thumb, a 3-mm-thick iron plate placed at one end plane of the magnet will shorten the length by one-third of the magnet bore radius

  8. Permanent-magnet-less synchronous reluctance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S

    2012-09-11

    A permanent magnet-less synchronous system includes a stator that generates a magnetic revolving field when sourced by an alternating current. An uncluttered rotor is disposed within the magnetic revolving field and spaced apart from the stator to form an air gap relative to an axis of rotation. The rotor includes a plurality of rotor pole stacks having an inner periphery biased by single polarity of a north-pole field and a south-pole field, respectively. The outer periphery of each of the rotor pole stacks are biased by an alternating polarity.

  9. Finite element analysis of permanent magnet motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boglietti, A.; Chiampi, M.; Tartaglia, M.; Chiarabaglio, D.

    1989-01-01

    The analysis of permanent magnet D.C. brushless motors, supplied by current control inverters, is developed employing a finite element package tailored for such devices. The study is devoted to predicting the performance of a set of four poles machines, under different operating conditions (no-load, rated load). The over-load conditions are also considered including the saturation effect. Moreover the influence of such design parameters, as the tooth shape and the number of magnet segments, is investigated. Computed results are found in satisfactory agreement with experimental ones

  10. Permanent Commission for Health and Safety

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2007-01-01

    The mandate of the Staff Association's permanent commission for Health and Safety is to examine all aspects of health and safety related to the working environment at CERN. In no way does it wish to be a substitute for the official bodies that are responsible for these matters. The Commission's aim is to formulate remarks on and make proposals about these questions to the relevant bodies and the CERN Management. Its main focus is the safety of the CERN staff but it is also concerned with the safety of the installations and of the CERN environment. The Commission reports to the Staff Council and the Executive Committee of the Staff Association.

  11. [Permanent constrictions of the jaws (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, A; Michaud, J

    1981-01-01

    Permanent constrictions of the jaws are of various types depending on the site of the lesion: temporomaxillary ankylosis, extra-articular constrictions of bone, skin, muscle, or mucosal origin, and those arising from tumors. The commonest cause is injury, those due to infection being currently less frequently observed, which cannot be said for those of tumoral origin. The consequences are difficulty in taking foud and poor buccodental hygiene, while temporomaxillary ankylosis in children provokes mandibular growth disturbances. Surgical treatment is aimed at removing the constriction. Total resection of the ankylosed block is essential to avoid recurrences, while reeducation of buccal opening must be started early and continued for long periods in all cases.

  12. Permanent Magnet Eddy Current Loss Analysis of a Novel Motor Integrated Permanent Magnet Gear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yuqiu; Lu, Kaiyuan; Ye, Yunyue

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new motor integrated permanent magnet gear (MIPMG) is discussed. The focus is on eddy current loss analysis associated to permanent magnets (PMs). A convenient model of MIPMG is provided based on 2-D field-motion coupled time-stepping finite element method for transient eddy...... current analysis. The model takes the eddy current effect of PMs into account in determination of the magnetic field in the air-gap and in the magnet regions. The eddy current losses generated in the magnets are properly interpreted. Design improvements for reducing the eddy current losses are suggested...

  13. The prognosis of MYC translocation positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma depends on the second hit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clipson, Alexandra; Barrans, Sharon; Zeng, Naiyan; Crouch, Simon; Grigoropoulos, Nicholas F; Liu, Hongxiang; Kocialkowski, Sylvia; Wang, Ming; Huang, Yuanxue; Worrillow, Lisa; Goodlad, John; Buxton, Jenny; Neat, Michael; Fields, Paul; Wilkins, Bridget; Grant, John W; Wright, Penny; Ei-Daly, Hesham; Follows, George A; Roman, Eve; Watkins, A James; Johnson, Peter W M; Jack, Andrew; Du, Ming-Qing

    2015-07-01

    A proportion of MYC translocation positive diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) harbour a BCL2 and/or BCL6 translocation, known as double-hit DLBCL, and are clinically aggressive. It is unknown whether there are other genetic abnormalities that cooperate with MYC translocation and form double-hit DLBCL, and whether there is a difference in clinical outcome between the double-hit DLBCL and those with an isolated MYC translocation. We investigated TP53 gene mutations along with BCL2 and BCL6 translocations in a total of 234 cases of DLBCL, including 81 with MYC translocation. TP53 mutations were investigated by PCR and sequencing, while BCL2 and BCL6 translocation was studied by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization. The majority of MYC translocation positive DLBCLs (60/81 = 74%) had at least one additional genetic hit. In MYC translocation positive DLBCL treated by R-CHOP ( n  = 67), TP53 mutation and BCL2, but not BCL6 translocation had an adverse effect on patient overall survival. In comparison with DLBCL with an isolated MYC translocation, cases with MYC/TP53 double-hits had the worst overall survival, followed by those with MYC/BCL2 double-hits. In MYC translocation negative DLBCL treated by R-CHOP ( n  = 101), TP53 mutation, BCL2 and BCL6 translocation had no impact on patient survival. The prognosis of MYC translocation positive DLBCL critically depends on the second hit, with TP53 mutations and BCL2 translocation contributing to an adverse prognosis. It is pivotal to investigate both TP53 mutations and BCL2 translocations in MYC translocation positive DLBCL, and to distinguish double-hit DLBCLs from those with an isolated MYC translocation.

  14. Experience with FISH-detected translocations as an indicator in retrospective dose reconstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressl, S.; Romm, H.; Ganguly, B.B.; Stephan, G.

    2000-01-01

    The prerequisite for the use of translocations as an indicator in retrospective dose reconstructions, is knowledge of the background level, persistence, and the availability of dose response curves for the conversion of translocation frequencies into doses. The results obtained in these areas are summarised. Cells with complete painted chromosome material are evaluated. Those showing any aberrations which involve painted material are stored in a computerised system, and described in detail. The simultaneous painting of whole chromosomes and centromeres has proved to provide a better level of discrimination between translocations and dicentrics. Following irradiation, direct proportionality was observed between DNA content covered by the painted chromosomes (11-19%) and the translocation frequency. The background level of translocations was determined in 42 healthy subjects, aged between 21 and 73 years of age. The statistical analyses of the data revealed no influence from sex and smoking habits on the translocation frequency. A clear increase in translocation yield was, however, observed for age. For the whole genome the frequency is at a level of 3 to 11 per 1000 cells, for all types of translocations. In a radiation accident victim (Estonia) the frequency of translocations was determined over a post-exposure time of four years. For two-way translocations, the half-time was calculated to be 7.0 years, and that for one-way translocations 5.2 years. On the basis of our control data and our dose response curve, the lowest detectable radiation dose is about 0.3 Gy in subjects under 40 years of age, and about 0.5 Gy for those older than 40 years of age. (author)

  15. Translocation of iodine-129 in soil and transfer to vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handl, J.

    1989-01-01

    The translocation of I-129 in the soil and its long-term transfer from soil to plant have been investigated using an undisturbed soil column and a pasture on a river bank. The I-129 profiles in the soils of the monolith and the pasture exhibit clear differences in the distribution of radioiodine after 52 and 47 months, respectively. At those times after surface contamination of both soil types 88% (monolith) and 66% (pasture) of the total I-129 activity were found in the top soil layer of 10 cm, indicating that translocation in the pasture soil is faster than in the monolith. Apart from soil-specific parameters this behaviour may be explained by anaerobic conditions created in the soil due to high water levels in the nearby river attecting the chemical form of iodine. The distribution of stable iodine was found rather homogeneous in both soils with mean contents of 3 mg I-127 kg -1 d.w. in the upper 15 cm and 4 mg I-127 kg -1 d.w. in deeper layers in case of the monolith. For the pasture soil the corresponding values are about 4 and 5 mg I-127 kg -1 d.w. Transfer factors plant/soil (dry weight basis) of I-129 obtained from the monolith 39 g and 52 months after contamination are 1.5x10 -3 and 2.1x10 -3 , respectively. Data from the pasture 35 and 47 months after contamination show values of 9.0x10 -3 and 8.4x10 -3 , respectively. Transfer factors of stable iodine are significantly higher in both soils yielding an average value of 1.0 for the monolith and 0.3 for the pasture. Delay constants (related to a top soil layer of 10 cm) calculated for I-129 using data obtained from the long-term translocation processes to deeper soil layers in the monolith and in the pasture show values of 1x10 -9 s -1 and 4x10 -9 s -1 , respectively. (orig.) [de

  16. Cd translocation into generative organs of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, M.; Woerner, A.; Schubert, S. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Pflanzenernaehrung

    1997-12-31

    Linseed is able to accumulate considerably high concentrations of Cd in generative organs, the dietary critical value of 0.3 {mu}g Cd/g seed often being exceeded. Differences between genotypes of linseed in this respect, however, have been observed but the underlying mechanisms responsible for these differences are unknown. The aim of the present work was to identify these mechanisms by studying the Cd accumulation of the linseed genotypes Antares and McGregor which differ in their ability to accumulate Cd in the seeds. Cultivar Antares is a high and cv. McGregor is low Cd accumulator which was confirmed in a pot experiment. It was found that the differences between these genotypes were Cd-specific and were caused neither by single seed weight nor by Cd translocation into the shoot. The distribution pattern of Cd within mature capsules between the pericarp and the seeds differed from that of Ca which was used as a phloem-immobile reference ion. From these results we conclude that Cd was translocated from the pericarp into the seeds via the phloem. This conclusion was supported by direct Cd determination in collected phloem sap from linseed stems. As sources of seed-Cd we identified the pericarps of capsules and the leaves. The genotype differences concerning the Cd concentrations in the seeds may be explained in terms of differences in phloem translocation of Cd. (orig.) [Deutsch] Oellein vermag Cd in betraechtlichen Konzentrationen in den Samen zu akkumulieren. Aus diesem Grund wird der Grenzwert fuer Diaetlein von 0,3 {mu}g/g Samen im Anbau haeufig ueberschritten. Es gibt jedoch genotypische Unterschiede, deren zugrundeliegende Mechanismen nicht bekannt sind. Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit bestand darin, diese Mechanismen an den Oelleinsorten Antares und McGregor zu untersuchen. Antares akkumuliert grosse, McGregor hingegen geringe Mengen Cd in den Samen. Diese Beobachtungen konnten in einem Gefaessversuch bestaetigt werden. Es wurde gezeigt, dass die

  17. Variable high gradient permanent magnet quadrupole (QUAPEVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteau, F.; Ghaith, A.; N'Gotta, P.; Benabderrahmane, C.; Valléau, M.; Kitegi, C.; Loulergue, A.; Vétéran, J.; Sebdaoui, M.; André, T.; Le Bec, G.; Chavanne, J.; Vallerand, C.; Oumbarek, D.; Cosson, O.; Forest, F.; Jivkov, P.; Lancelot, J. L.; Couprie, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Different applications such as laser plasma acceleration, colliders, and diffraction limited light sources require high gradient quadrupoles, with strength that can reach up to 200 T/m for a typical 10 mm bore diameter. We present here a permanent magnet based quadrupole (so-called QUAPEVA) composed of a Halbach ring and surrounded by four permanent magnet cylinders. Its design including magnetic simulation modeling enabling us to reach 201 T/m with a gradient variability of 45% and mechanical issues are reported. Magnetic measurements of seven systems of different lengths are presented and confirmed the theoretical expectations. The variation of the magnetic center while changing the gradient strength is ±10 μm. A triplet of QUAPEVA magnets is used to efficiently focus a beam with large energy spread and high divergence that is generated by a Laser Plasma Acceleration source for a free electron laser demonstration and has enabled us to perform beam based alignment and control the dispersion of the beam.

  18. Influence of relief on permanent preservation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Alexandre Rosa; Chimalli, Tessa; Peluzio, João Batista Esteves; da Silva, Aderbal Gomes; Dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino Alves; Lorenzon, Alexandre Simões; Teixeira, Thaisa Ribeiro; de Castro, Nero Lemos Martins; Soares Ribeiro, Carlos Antonio Alvares

    2016-01-15

    Many countries have environmental legislation to protecting natural resources on private property. In Brazil, the Brazilian Forestry Code determines specific areas to maintain with natural vegetation cover, known as areas of permanent preservation (APP). Currently, there are few studies that relate topographic variables on APP. In this context, we sought to evaluate the influence of relief on the conservation of areas of permanent preservation (APP) in the areas surrounding Caparaó National Park, Brazil. By using the chi-squared statistical test, we verified that the presence of forest cover is closely associated with altitude. The classes of APP in better conservation status are slopes in addition to hilltops and mountains, whereas APP streams and springs are among the areas most affected by human activities. The most deforested areas are located at altitudes below 1100.00 m and on slopes less than 45°. All orientations of the sides were significant for APP conservation status, with the southern, southeastern, and southwestern sides showing the lower degrees of impact. The methodology can be adjusted to environmental legislation to other countries.

  19. Introduction to the permanent magnet motor market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawa, Toshihiro; Hamada, Kaneyuki [Yaskawa Electric Corp. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    According to the Kyoto summit on global warming (COP3) in December 1997, the green-house gas emission level has to be reduced to 92-94% of the 1990 green-house gas level by the year 2014-2018. This would require conserving energy. An efficient means of achieving this voluntary goal is by employing high-efficiency drives, since motors consume 70% of all electricity for industrial use in Japan. As adjustable speed drives become popular, interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors, lately, have been recognized for high-efficiency performance. Due to the progress in permanent magnet technology combined with modern control methods, especially vector control with and without speed-sensors, the IPM motor is gaining in popularity. Compact size and high-efficiency performance is furthering the IPM motor as the preferred motor in many applications. This paper describes the principle and operation of IPM motors and compares its performance with that of an induction motor. Important features and practical control methods for IPM motors are presented. Various application examples highlighting the advantages of employing an IPM motor system are discussed. The applications include, but are not limited to, machine tools, fans, pumps, elevators, cranes, etc. (orig.)

  20. Permanent synchronization of camcorders via LANC protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancic, Damir; Smith, Steven L.

    2006-02-01

    A device, which keeps two camcorders permanently in synchronization, has been developed. The mentioned device uses LANC (CONTROL-L) camcorder's inputs for synchronization. It enables controlling of two camcorders simultaneously via built-in buttons, by using external LANC remote controller and/or by the PC via serial (RS232) communication. Since device requires LANC inputs on camcorders or ACC inputs on still cameras, it can be used on some camcorders produced by manufacturers Sony and Canon or some still cameras produced by Sony. The device initially synchronizes camcorders or still cameras by applying arbitrarily delayed power-up pulses on LANC (ACC) inputs. Then, on user demand, the camcorders can be permanently synchronized (valid only for some camcorders produced by Sony). The effectiveness of the proposed device is demonstrated by several experiments on three types of camcorders (DCR-TRV900E, HDR-HC1, HVR-Z1U) and one type of still camera (DSC-V1). The electronic schemes, PCB layouts, firmware and communication programs are freely available (under GPL licence).

  1. Automatic design of permanent magnet coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonnet, J.-P.; Pandele, P.; Coutel, C.; Wurtz, F.

    1998-01-01

    Up to now, two main methods have been used to design permanent magnet couplings : finite element calculation, and analytical expressions of the forces between the magnets. The two methods use the same starting point, the permanent magnet coupling dimensions. The calculated parameters are the forces and the torques. The optimization of the couplings shape is generally done by using different curves describing torque variations as a function of the different geometrical parameters. We have developed a very new approach solving the reverse problem. Choosing the value of the torque, the airgap and an optimization criterium, the new method automatically calculates the size of the magnets and the ideal number of poles. It is based on a software, PASCOSMA, using an analytical model of the coupling which can be eventually corrected by a finite element method like FLUX2D. The coupling optimization is automatically made, keeping the parameters between predefined values. For a given application, it is very easy to obtain the best design, for example with the minimum magnet volume. (orig.)

  2. Sealing Occlusal Dentin Caries in Permanent Molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Vibeke; Borum, Mette Kit; Møller, Kirsten Dynes

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of postponing restorative intervention of manifest occlusal caries in young, permanent dentition by non-invasive sealing. This RCT-designed study included 521 occlusal lesions in 521 patients aged 6 to 17 y. Based on clinical and radiog......The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of postponing restorative intervention of manifest occlusal caries in young, permanent dentition by non-invasive sealing. This RCT-designed study included 521 occlusal lesions in 521 patients aged 6 to 17 y. Based on clinical...... longevity of sealings and restorations until retreatments, and 3) compare effectiveness of sealings and restorations to halt caries progression in sealed lesions and beneath restorations. Furthermore, we aimed to identify factors influencing longevity and the effectiveness of sealings and restorations.......001). The median survival time for sealings not replaced by restorations was 7.3 y (CI, 6.4 y to NA). Survival of sealings was increased in patients with low caries risk and/or excellent oral hygiene, second molars compared with first molars, and lesions not extending the middle one-third of the dentin. Survival...

  3. Positive selection at codon 38 of the human KCNE1 (= minK gene and sporadic absence of 38Ser-coding mRNAs in Gly38Ser heterozygotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeufer Arne

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background KCNE1 represents the regulatory beta-subunit of the slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium channel (IKs. Variants of KCNE1 have repeatedly been linked to the long-QT syndrome (LQTS, a disorder which predisposes to deafness, ventricular tachyarrhythmia, syncope, and sudden cardiac death. Results We here analyze the evolution of the common Gly38Ser variant (rs1805127, using genomic DNAs, complementary DNAs, and HEK293-expressed variants of altogether 19 mammalian species. The between species comparison reveals that the human-specific Gly38Ser polymorphism evolved under strong positive Darwinian selection, probably in adaptation to specific challenges in the fine-tuning of IKs channels. The involved amino acid exchanges (Asp > Gly, Gly > Ser are moderately radical and do not induce apparent changes in posttranslational modification. According to population genetic analyses (HapMap phase II a heterozygote advantage accounts for the maintenance of the Gly38Ser polymorphism in humans. On the other hand, the expression of the 38Ser allele seems to be disadvantageous under certain conditions, as suggested by the sporadic deficiency of 38Ser-coding mRNAs in heterozygote Central Europeans and the depletion of homozygotes 38Ser in the Yoruban sample. Conclusion We speculate that individual differences in genomic imprinting or genomic recoding might have contributed to conflicting results of recent association studies between Gly38Ser polymorphism and QT phenotype. The findings thus highlight the relevance of mRNA data in future association studies of genotypes and clinical disorders. To the best of our knowledge, they moreover provide first time evidence for a unique pattern; i.e. coincidence of positive Darwinian selection and polymorphism with a sporadically suppressed expression of one allele.

  4. Tailoring particle translocation via dielectrophoresis in pore channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shoji; Tsutsui, Makusu; Theodore, Hu; Yuhui, He; Arima, Akihide; Tsuji, Tetsuro; Doi, Kentaro; Kawano, Satoyuki; Taniguchi, Masateru; Kawai, Tomoji

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and controlling electrophoretic motions of nanoscopic objects in fluidic channels are a central challenge in developing nanopore technology for molecular analyses. Although progress has been made in slowing the translocation velocity to meet the requirement for electrical detections of analytes via picoampere current measurements, there exists no method useful for regulating particle flows in the transverse directions. Here, we report the use of dielectrophoresis to manipulate the single-particle passage through a solid-state pore. We created a trap field by applying AC voltage between electrodes embedded in a low-aspect-ratio micropore. We demonstrated a traffic control of particles to go through center or near side surface via the voltage frequency. We also found enhanced capture efficiency along with faster escaping speed of particles by virtue of the AC-mediated electroosmosis. This method is compatible with nanopore sensing and would be widely applied for reducing off-axis effects to achieve single-molecule identification. PMID:27527126

  5. Mitochondrial tRNA gene translocations in highly eusocial bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Silvestre

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial gene rearrangement events, especially involving tRNA genes, have been described more frequently as more complete mitochondrial genome sequences are becoming available. In the present work, we analyzed mitochondrial tRNA gene rearrangements between two bee species belonging to the tribes Apini and Meliponini within the "corbiculate Apidae". Eleven tRNA genes are in different genome positions or strands. The molecular events responsible for each translocation are explained. Considering the high number of rearrangements observed, the data presented here contradict the general rule of high gene order conservation among closely related organisms, and also represent a powerful molecular tool to help solve questions about phylogeny and evolution in bees.

  6. Physical insights into the blood-brain barrier translocation mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorakis, Panagiotis E.; Müller, Erich A.; Craster, Richard V.; Matar, Omar K.

    2017-08-01

    The number of individuals suffering from diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) is growing with an aging population. While candidate drugs for many of these diseases are available, most of these pharmaceutical agents cannot reach the brain rendering most of the drug therapies that target the CNS inefficient. The reason is the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a complex and dynamic interface that controls the influx and efflux of substances through a number of different translocation mechanisms. Here, we present these mechanisms providing, also, the necessary background related to the morphology and various characteristics of the BBB. Moreover, we discuss various numerical and simulation approaches used to study the BBB, and possible future directions based on multi-scale methods. We anticipate that this review will motivate multi-disciplinary research on the BBB aiming at the design of effective drug therapies.

  7. Translocation of labelled fertilizer nitrogen in soil columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haunold, E.; Zvara, J.

    1975-01-01

    The translocation of 15 labeled ammonium and nitrate fertilizer was studied under normal weather conditions for two years in columns filled with different soils. At the end of the experimental period, which usually lasted for 9 months, between 5.9-10.3% of the ammonium fertilizer was leached out, 33.7-50.1% remained in the soil and 39.5-59.7% was lost as gas. For nitrate nitrogen the figures were: 22.6-47.3% leached out, 16.7-40% remaining in the soil, 12.7-60.0% lost as gas. The ammonium fertilizer moving through the soil interchanged with 1-13% of the soil nitrogen, the nitrate fertilizer with only 0.5-2%

  8. Real-time analysis of nitrogen translocation in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Hiroaki

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen absorbed by roots is transported to the leaves through xylem vessels and then retranslocated to the new leaves, such as root and storage organs through sieve tubes. It is very important to know how this nitrogen movement occurs in the plants and what mechanisms are involved in controlling this movement in order to increase the efficiency of fertilizer. In this experiments, 13 N and 15 N was used to detect the nitrogen circulation in plants, in combination with the technique for positron detection in real time and for collection of sap in sieve tubes and analysis of 15 N in it. By using 13 N, nitrogen movement from root to shoot was analyzed within 10 min after 13 N was applied to the roots. On the other hand, nitrogen retranslocation through sieve tubes was detected by the analysis of 15 N in the phloem sap over 6 hrs. All data suggest the dynamic translocation of nitrogen in rice plants. (author)

  9. Comparison of torque capability of three-phase permanent magnet synchronous motors with different permanent magnet arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumberger, Bojan; Stumberger, Gorazd; Hadziselimovic, Miralem; Hamler, Anton; Gorican, Viktor; Jesenik, Marko; Trlep, Mladen

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a comparison of torque capability of three-phase permanent magnet synchronous motors with different permanent magnet arrangement. Motors with the following permanent magnet topologies were accounted for in the comparison: the surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous motor (SMPMSM), the interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM), the permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance motor (PMASRM) and the flux reversal permanent magnet motor (FRPMM). Finite element method analysis is employed to determine the performance of each motor. Calculated performance of four-pole IPMSM determined by finite element method calculation is confirmed with the measurements at nearly constant nominal output power in the range of speed 3000-10,000 rpm

  10. Translocation of Cell Penetrating Peptide Engrafted Nanoparticles Across Skin Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlolla, Ram R; Desai, Pinaki; Belay, Kalayu; Singh, Mandip

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the ability of cell penetrating peptides (CPP) to translocate the lipid payload into the skin layers. Fluorescent dye (DID-oil) encapsulated nano lipid crystal nanoparticles (FNLCN) were prepared using Compritol, Miglyol and DOGS-NTA-Ni lipids by hot melt homogenization technique. The FNLCN surface was coated with TAT peptide (FNLCNT) or control YKA peptide (FNLCNY) and in vitro rat skin permeation studies were performed using Franz diffusion cells. Observation of lateral skin sections obtained using cryotome with a confocal microscope demonstrated that skin permeation of FNLCNT was time dependent and after 24 h, fluorescence was observed upto a depth of 120 µm which was localized in the hair follicles and epidermis. In case of FNLCN and FNLCNY formulations fluorescence was mainly observed in the hair follicles. This observation was further supported by confocal Raman spectroscopy where higher fluorescence signal intensity was observed at 80 and 120 µm depth with FNLCNT treated skin and intensity of fluorescence peaks was in the ratio of 2:1:1 and 5:3:1 for FNLCNT, FNLCN, and FNLCNY treated skin sections, respectively. Furthermore, replacement of DID-oil with celecoxib (Cxb), a model lipophilic drug showed similar results and after 24 h, the CXBNT formulation increased the Cxb concentration in SC by 3 and 6 fold and in epidermis by 2 and 3 fold as compared to CXBN and CXBNY formulations respectively. Our results strongly suggest that CPP can translocate nanoparticles with their payloads into deeper skin layers. PMID:20413152

  11. Distribution and Translocation of 141Ce (III) in Horseradish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoshan; Zhou, Qing; Lu, Tianhong; Fang, Min; Huang, Xiaohua

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Rare earth elements (REEs) are used in agriculture and a large amount of them contaminate the environment and enter foods. The distribution and translocation of 141Ce (III) in horseradish was investigated in order to help understand the biochemical behaviour and toxic mechanism of REEs in plants. Method The distribution and translocation of 141Ce (III) in horseradish were investigated using autoradiography, liquid scintillation counting (LSC) and electron microscopic autoradiography (EMARG) techniques. The contents of 141Ce (III) and nutrient elements were analysed using an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). Results The results from autoradiography and LSC indicated that 141Ce (III) could be absorbed by horseradish and transferred from the leaf to the leaf-stalk and then to the root. The content of 141Ce (III) in different parts of horseradish was as follows: root > leaf-stalk > leaf. The uptake rates of 141Ce (III) in horseradish changed with the different organs and time. The content of 141Ce (III) in developing leaves was greater than that in mature leaves. The results from EMARG indicated that 141Ce (III) could penetrate through the cell membrane and enter the mesophyll cells, being present in both extra- and intra-cellular deposits. The contents of macronutrients in horseradish were decreased by 141Ce (III) treatment. Conclusions 141Ce (III) can be absorbed and transferred between organs of horseradish with time, and the distribution was found to be different at different growth stages. 141Ce (III) can enter the mesophyll cells via apoplast and symplast channels or via plasmodesmata. 141Ce (III) can disturb the metabolism of macronutrients in horseradish. PMID:17921527

  12. Muscle contraction increases carnitine uptake via translocation of OCTN2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuichi, Yasuro; Sugiura, Tomoko; Kato, Yukio; Takakura, Hisashi; Hanai, Yoshiteru; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Masuda, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Muscle contraction augmented carnitine uptake into rat hindlimb muscles. ► An increase in carnitine uptake was due to an intrinsic clearance, not blood flow. ► Histochemical analysis showed sarcolemmal OCTN2 was emphasized after contraction. ► OCTN2 protein in sarcolemmal fraction was increased in contracting muscles. -- Abstract: Since carnitine plays an important role in fat oxidation, influx of carnitine could be crucial for muscle metabolism. OCTN2 (SLC22A5), a sodium-dependent solute carrier, is assumed to transport carnitine into skeletal muscle cells. Acute regulation of OCTN2 activity in rat hindlimb muscles was investigated in response to electrically induced contractile activity. The tissue uptake clearance (CL uptake ) of L-[ 3 H]carnitine during muscle contraction was examined in vivo using integration plot analysis. The CL uptake of [ 14 C]iodoantipyrine (IAP) was also determined as an index of tissue blood flow. To test the hypothesis that increased carnitine uptake involves the translocation of OCTN2, contraction-induced alteration in the subcellular localization of OCTN2 was examined. The CL uptake of L-[ 3 H]carnitine in the contracting muscles increased 1.4–1.7-fold as compared to that in the contralateral resting muscles (p uptake of [ 14 C]IAP was much higher than that of L-[ 3 H]carnitine, but no association between the increase in carnitine uptake and blood flow was obtained. Co-immunostaining of OCTN2 and dystrophin (a muscle plasma membrane marker) showed an increase in OCTN2 signal in the plasma membrane after muscle contraction. Western blotting showed that the level of sarcolemmal OCTN2 was greater in contracting muscles than in resting muscles (p < 0.05). The present study showed that muscle contraction facilitated carnitine uptake in skeletal muscles, possibly via the contraction-induced translocation of its specific transporter OCTN2 to the plasma membrane.

  13. The Enzymology of Protein Translocation across the Escherichia coli Plasma Membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wickner, William; Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Hartl, Franz-Ulrich

    1991-01-01

    Converging physiological, genetic, and biochemical studies have established the salient features of preprotein translocation across the plasma membrane of Escherichia coli. Translocation is catalyzed by two proteins, a soluble chaperone and a membrane-bound translocase. SecB, the major chaperone for

  14. Most Uv-Induced Reciprocal Translocations in SORDARIA MACROSPORA Occur in or near Centromere Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblon, G; Zickler, D; Lebilcot, S

    1986-02-01

    In fungi, translocations can be identified and classified by the patterns of ascospore abortion in asci from crosses of rearrangement x normal sequence. Previous studies of UV-induced rearrangements in Sordaria macrospora revealed that a major class (called type III) appeared to be reciprocal translocations that were anomalous in producing an unexpected class of asci with four aborted ascospores in bbbbaaaa linear sequence (b = black; a = abortive). The present study shows that the anomalous type III rearrangements are, in fact, reciprocal translocations having both breakpoints within or adjacent to centromeres and that bbbbaaaa asci result from 3:1 disjunction from the translocation quadrivalent.-Electron microscopic observations of synaptonemal complexes enable centromeres to be visualized. Lengths of synaptonemal complexes lateral elements in translocation quadrivalents accurately reflect chromosome arm lengths, enabling breakpoints to be located reliably in centromere regions. All genetic data are consistent with the behavior expected of translocations with breakpoints at centromeres.-Two-thirds of the UV-induced reciprocal translocations are of this type. Certain centromere regions are involved preferentially. Among 73 type-III translocations, there were but 13 of the 21 possible chromosome combinations and 20 of the 42 possible combinations of chromosome arms.

  15. Comparative study of the reciprocal translocation rate in spermatocytes after irradiation of newborn and adult mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomerantseva, M.D.

    1978-01-01

    The yield of reciprocal translocations was investigated in spermatocytes of the CBA male mice irradiated immediately after their brith or after the irradiation of the stem spermatogonia at the age of 3 months. The irradiation doses were 100, 200, 400 R X-rays 300 R gamma-rays 60 Co. The yield of translocations in both groups was the same

  16. ESX-1-mediated translocation to the cytosol controls virulence of mycobacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Houben, Diane; Demangel, Caroline; Van Ingen, Jakko; Perez, Jorge; Baldeó n, Lucy R.; Abdallah, Abdallah; Caleechurn, Laxmee; Bottai, Daria; Van Zon, Maaike; De Punder, Karin; Van Der Laan, Tridia; Kant, Arie; Bossers-De Vries, Ruth; Willemsen, Peter Th J; Bitter, Wilbert M.; Van Soolingen, Dick; Brosch, Roland; Van Der Wel, Nicole N.; Peters, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium species, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, are among the most potent human bacterial pathogens. The discovery of cytosolic mycobacteria challenged the paradigm that these pathogens exclusively localize within the phagosome of host cells. As yet the biological relevance of mycobacterial translocation to the cytosol remained unclear. In this current study we used electron microscopy techniques to establish a clear link between translocation and mycobacterial virulence. Pathogenic, patient-derived mycobacteria species were found to translocate to the cytosol, while non-pathogenic species did not. We were further able to link cytosolic translocation with pathogenicity by introducing the ESX-1 (type VII) secretion system into the non-virulent, exclusively phagolysosomal Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Furthermore, we show that translocation is dependent on the C-terminus of the early-secreted antigen ESAT-6. The C-terminal truncation of ESAT-6 was shown to result in attenuation in mice, again linking translocation to virulence. Together, these data demonstrate the molecular mechanism facilitating translocation of mycobacteria. The ability to translocate from the phagolysosome to the cytosol is with this study proven to be biologically significant as it determines mycobacterial virulence. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Comparative sensitivity of photosynthesis and translocation to sulfur dioxide damage in Phaseolus vulgaris L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    The inhibiting effect of sulfur dioxide on photosynthesis in a mature bean leaf and, simultaneously, on the rate of carbohydrate translocation from this same leaf has been examined. The results show a reduction of 0, 13, and 73% in net photosynthesis and 39, 44, and 69% in translocation, at concentrations of 0.1, 1, and 3 ppm sulfur dioxide, respectively. The inhibition of translocation at 0.1 ppm sulfur dioxide without any accompanying inhibition of net photosynthesis indicates that translocation is considerably more sensitive to sulfur dioxide damage. The mechanism of translocation inhibition at 1 ppm sulfur dioxide or less is shown to be independent of photosynthetic inhibition. Whereas, it is suggested that at higher concentrations significant inhibition of photosynthesis causes an additive reduction of translocation due to reduced levels of transport sugars. Autoradiograms of 14 C-labeled source leaves indicate that one possible mechanism of sulfur dioxide damage to translocation is the inhibition of sieve-tube loading. Inhibition of phloem translocation at common ambient levels (0.1 ppm) of sulfur dioxide is important to the overall growth and yield of major agricultural crops sensitive to sulfur dioxide

  18. Live birth from a patient with a three-way balanced translocation t(5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Array comparative genomic hybridisation (array-CGH) was used to screen embryos for chromosome imbalances. Methods: Embryo biopsy, preimplantation genetic diagnosis using a 24sure+ kit to detect translocations in embryos. Results: Of 10 embryos tested, 2 were found to have an unbalanced translocation, ...

  19. ESX-1-mediated translocation to the cytosol controls virulence of mycobacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Houben, Diane

    2012-05-08

    Mycobacterium species, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, are among the most potent human bacterial pathogens. The discovery of cytosolic mycobacteria challenged the paradigm that these pathogens exclusively localize within the phagosome of host cells. As yet the biological relevance of mycobacterial translocation to the cytosol remained unclear. In this current study we used electron microscopy techniques to establish a clear link between translocation and mycobacterial virulence. Pathogenic, patient-derived mycobacteria species were found to translocate to the cytosol, while non-pathogenic species did not. We were further able to link cytosolic translocation with pathogenicity by introducing the ESX-1 (type VII) secretion system into the non-virulent, exclusively phagolysosomal Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Furthermore, we show that translocation is dependent on the C-terminus of the early-secreted antigen ESAT-6. The C-terminal truncation of ESAT-6 was shown to result in attenuation in mice, again linking translocation to virulence. Together, these data demonstrate the molecular mechanism facilitating translocation of mycobacteria. The ability to translocate from the phagolysosome to the cytosol is with this study proven to be biologically significant as it determines mycobacterial virulence. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis by fluorescence in situ hybridization of reciprocal and Robertsonian translocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Kai Chen

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: There is a trend whereby the outcome for Robertsonian translocation group carriers is better than that for reciprocal translocation group carriers. Aneuploidy screening may possibly be added in order to improve the outcome, especially for individuals with an advanced maternal age. The emergence of an array-based technology should help improve this type of analysis.

  1. CHROMOSOMAL SUBLOCALIZATION OF THE 2 13 TRANSLOCATION BREAKPOINT IN ALVEOLAR RHABDOMYOSARCOMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SHAPIRO, DN; VALENTINE, MB; SUBLETT, JE; SINCLAIR, AE; TEREBA, AM; SCHEFFER, H; BUYS, CHCM; LOOK, AT

    A characteristic balanced reciprocal chromosomal translocation [t(2;13)(q35;q14)] has been identified in more than 50% of alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas. As the first step in characterization of the genes involved in this translocation, we constructed somatic cell hybrids that retained either the

  2. Comparison of experimentally determined translocation of 134Cs in potatoes with the radioecological code CHECOSYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesen, T.; Egli, J.; Andres, R.

    1997-01-01

    The verification and adoption of radioecological models is a continuous process. Greenhouse trials on the translocation of radiocaesium from leaves to potato tubers showed a 4-12 times higher translocation rate compared to the radioecological code CHECOSYS. The possible reasons for the differences are discussed. (author) 1 tab., 3 refs

  3. Analysis of 1;17 translocation breakpoints in neuroblastoma: implications for mapping of neuroblastoma genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roy, N.; Laureys, G.; van Gele, M.; Opdenakker, G.; Miura, R.; van der Drift, P.; Chan, A.; Versteeg, R.; Speleman, F.

    1997-01-01

    Deletions and translocations resulting in loss of distal 1p-material are known to occur frequently in advanced neuroblastomas. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) showed that 17q was most frequently involved in chromosome 1p translocations. A review of the literature shows that 10 of 27 cell

  4. Diagnostics Systems for Permanent Hall Thrusters Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Santos, Jean; Miranda, Rodrigo; Possa, M. Gabriela

    This work describes the development of Permanent Magnet Hall Effect Plasma Thruster (PHALL) and its diagnostic systems at The Plasma Physics Laboratory of University of Brasilia. The project consists on the construction and characterization of plasma propulsion engines based on the Hall Effect. Electric thrusters have been employed in over 220 successful space missions. Two types stand out: the Hall-Effect Thruster (HET) and the Gridded Ion Engine (GIE). The first, which we deal with in this project, has the advantage of greater simplicity of operation, a smaller weight for the propulsion subsystem and a longer shelf life. It can operate in two configurations: magnetic layer and anode layer, the difference between the two lying in the positioning of the anode inside the plasma channel. A Hall-Effect Thruster-HET is a type of plasma thruster in which the propellant gas is ionized and accelerated by a magneto hydrodynamic effect combined with electrostatic ion acceleration. So the essential operating principle of the HET is that it uses a J x B force and an electrostatic potential to accelerate ions up to high speeds. In a HET, the attractive negative charge is provided by electrons at the open end of the Thruster instead of a grid, as in the case of the electrostatic ion thrusters. A strong radial magnetic field is used to hold the electrons in place, with the combination of the magnetic field and the electrostatic potential force generating a fast circulating electron current, the Hall current, around the axis of the Thruster, mainly composed by drifting electrons in an ion plasma background. Only a slow axial drift towards the anode occurs. The main attractive features of the Hall-Effect Thruster are its simple design and operating principles. Most of the Hall-Effect Thrusters use electromagnet coils to produce the main magnetic field responsible for plasma generation and acceleration. In this paper we present a different new concept, a Permanent Magnet Hall

  5. Meiotic chromosomal translocations in male mice induced by X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savkovic, N.; Pecevski; Vuksanovic, L.; Radivojevic, D.; Alavantic, D.

    1983-01-01

    The dose-response curve for reciprocal translocations induced by acute exposure of spermatogonial stem cells to X-rays in treated mice and their F-1 sons was examined. Male mice were totally irradiated with doses of 1Gy;5x1Gy and 5Gy. The obtained results show that frequency of the chromosomal translocations in directly treated animals is dose dependent. The percentage of animals irradiated with 1Gy which had the chromosomal translocations was 60, while this percentage in animals irradiated with single and fractionated dose of 5Gy was 100. The frequency of chromosomal translocations varies from 1.5% to 8.0%. Multivalent configurations in F-1 males were observed after exposure to 5Gy only. The incidence of F-1 translocated males was 17.5%.

  6. Translocation of 14C in adventitiously rooting Calluna vulgaris on peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallen, B.

    1983-01-01

    Seasonal variation in translocation of 14 C-labelled assimilates showed that 14 C-translocation within woody tissue was mainly limited to the phytomass produced during the last eight years. Independent of overgrowth of basal stem segments or decumbent sections by Sphagnum, or of subsequent adventitious rooting, the allocation followed a negative exponential from the assimilating units down the plant, and reached negligible values in 8-yr-old wood. Translocation to fine roots was however, mainly restricted to the shallow roots. Already at ca. 10 cm depth, the fine roots contained only about 5% of the concentration in the fine roots in the surface. During spring and autumn translocation to below ground parts dominated. During summer the main translocation was within the above ground green shoots and flowers. Here most of the allocated 14 C was irreversibly bound. There were only weak indications of accumulation of moblie 14 C-compounds in the woody parts near the soil surface. (author)

  7. Unraveling the relationship between microbial translocation and systemic immune activation in HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Liang; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic immune activation is a key factor in HIV-1 disease progression. The translocation of microbial products from the intestinal lumen into the systemic circulation occurs during HIV-1 infection and is associated closely with immune activation; however, it has not been determined conclusively whether microbial translocation drives immune activation or occurs as a consequence of HIV-1 infection. In an important study in this issue of the JCI, Kristoff and colleagues describe the role of microbial translocation in producing immune activation in an animal model of HIV-1 infection, SIV infection of pigtailed macaques. Blocking translocation of intestinal bacterial LPS into the circulation dramatically reduced T cell activation and proliferation, production of proinflammatory cytokines, and plasma SIV RNA levels. This study directly demonstrates that microbial translocation promotes the systemic immune activation associated with HIV-1/SIV infection. PMID:24837427

  8. Permanent scatterer InSAR processing: Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehls, John F.

    2006-04-01

    It has been speculated that slow, aseismic movement may be occurring along some of the fracture zones crosscutting the Forsmark area. The purpose of this study is to determine if it is possible to measure such movement using dInSAR. Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) is a technique that compares the phases of multiple radar images of an area to measure surface change. The method has the potential to detect millimetric surface deformation along the sensor - target line-of-sight. Differences in phase between two images are easily viewed by combining, or interfering, the two phase-images. In the resulting image, the waves will either reinforce or cancel one another, depending upon the relative phases. The resulting image is called an interferogram and contains concentric bands of colour, or fringes, that are related to topography and/or surface deformation. New algorithms use many images acquired over a long time period to determine the movement history of individual objects, referred to as permanent scatterers. In the current project, standard PSInSAR processing was performed on 40 ERS-1 and ERS-2 scenes. The total area processed is approximately 1,500 km 2 . Slightly less than 20,000 permanent scatterers were identified.The highest densities were obtained along the coast and on the islands, where natural outcrops are more abundant. Two main classes of objects act as permanent scatterers in this area. The first are natural reflectors, such as rocks. The second are man-made reflectors, such as parts of buildings. Numerous local movements were found in the study area, relating to building subsidence, or compaction of anthropogenic fill. The dataset was divided into three groups for analysis, based upon the location of regional lineaments provided by SKB. Both statistical and geostatistical techniques were used. The median velocity of the three blocks did not differ by more than 0.2 mm/yr. This is not considered significant, given the possible magnitude of errors

  9. Permanent scatterer InSAR processing: Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehls, John F [Geological Survey of Norway, Trondheim (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    It has been speculated that slow, aseismic movement may be occurring along some of the fracture zones crosscutting the Forsmark area. The purpose of this study is to determine if it is possible to measure such movement using dInSAR. Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) is a technique that compares the phases of multiple radar images of an area to measure surface change. The method has the potential to detect millimetric surface deformation along the sensor - target line-of-sight. Differences in phase between two images are easily viewed by combining, or interfering, the two phase-images. In the resulting image, the waves will either reinforce or cancel one another, depending upon the relative phases. The resulting image is called an interferogram and contains concentric bands of colour, or fringes, that are related to topography and/or surface deformation. New algorithms use many images acquired over a long time period to determine the movement history of individual objects, referred to as permanent scatterers. In the current project, standard PSInSAR processing was performed on 40 ERS-1 and ERS-2 scenes. The total area processed is approximately 1,500 km{sup 2}. Slightly less than 20,000 permanent scatterers were identified.The highest densities were obtained along the coast and on the islands, where natural outcrops are more abundant. Two main classes of objects act as permanent scatterers in this area. The first are natural reflectors, such as rocks. The second are man-made reflectors, such as parts of buildings. Numerous local movements were found in the study area, relating to building subsidence, or compaction of anthropogenic fill. The dataset was divided into three groups for analysis, based upon the location of regional lineaments provided by SKB. Both statistical and geostatistical techniques were used. The median velocity of the three blocks did not differ by more than 0.2 mm/yr. This is not considered significant, given the possible magnitude of

  10. Control of permanent magnet synchronous motors

    CERN Document Server

    Vaez-Zadeh, Sadegh

    2018-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive, coherent, and up-to-date book devoted solely to the control of permanent magnet synchronous (PMS) motors, as the fastest growing AC motor. It covers a deep and detailed presentation of major PMS motor modeling and control methods. The readers can find rich materials on the fundamentals of PMS motor control in addition to new motor control methods, which have mainly been developed in the last two decades, including recent advancements in the field in a systematic manner. These include extensive modeling of PMS motors and a full range of vector control and direct torque control schemes, in addition to predictive control, deadbeat control, and combined control methods. All major sensorless control and parameter estimation methods are also studied. The book covers about 10 machine models in various reference frames and 70 control and estimation schemes with sufficient analytical and implementation details including about 200 original figures. A great emphasis is placed on energy-s...

  11. Object permanence tests on gibbons (Hylobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, Anna; Skollár, Gabriella; Szerencsy, Nóra; Ujhelyi, Mária

    2008-11-01

    Ten gibbons of various species (Symphalangus syndactylus, Hylobates lar, Nomascus gabriellae, and Nomascus leucogenys) were tested on object permanence tasks. Three identical wooden boxes, presented in a linear line, were used to hide pieces of food. The authors conducted single visible, single invisible, double invisible, and control displacements, in both random and nonrandom order. During invisible displacements, the experimenter hid the object in her hand before putting it into a box. The performance of gibbons was better than expected by chance in all the tests, except for the randomly ordered double displacement. However, individual analysis of performance showed great variability across subjects, and only 1 gibbon is assumed to have solved single visible and single invisible displacements without recourse to a strategy that the control test eliminated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Object permanence in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Natacha; Huber, Ludwig

    2004-03-01

    A series of 9 search tasks corresponding to the Piagetian Stages 3-6 of object permanence were administered to 11 common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Success rates varied strongly among tasks and marmosets, but the performances of most subjects were above chance level on the majority of tasks of visible and invisible displacements. Although up to 24 trials were administered in the tests, subjects did not improve their performance across trials. Errors were due to preferences for specific locations or boxes, simple search strategies, and attentional deficits. The performances of at least 2 subjects that achieved very high scores up to the successive invisible displacement task suggest that this species is able to represent the existence and the movements of unperceived objects. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  13. Distributed generation induction and permanent magnet generators

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, L

    2007-01-01

    Distributed power generation is a technology that could help to enable efficient, renewable energy production both in the developed and developing world. It includes all use of small electric power generators, whether located on the utility system, at the site of a utility customer, or at an isolated site not connected to the power grid. Induction generators (IGs) are the cheapest and most commonly used technology, compatible with renewable energy resources. Permanent magnet (PM) generators have traditionally been avoided due to high fabrication costs; however, compared with IGs they are more reliable and productive. Distributed Generation thoroughly examines the principles, possibilities and limitations of creating energy with both IGs and PM generators. It takes an electrical engineering approach in the analysis and testing of these generators, and includes diagrams and extensive case study examples o better demonstrate how the integration of energy sources can be accomplished. The book also provides the ...

  14. Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorn, Colette S. van, E-mail: cvandoorn@gmail.com; De Boo, Diederick W., E-mail: d.w.deboo@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Weersink, Els J. M., E-mail: e.j.m.weersink@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonology (Netherlands); Delden, Otto M. van, E-mail: o.m.vandelden@amc.uva.nl; Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: j.a.reekers@amc.uva.nl; Lienden, Krijn P. van, E-mail: k.p.vanlienden@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

  15. Forces between permanent magnets: experiments and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Manuel I

    2017-01-01

    This work describes a very simple, low-cost experimental setup designed for measuring the force between permanent magnets. The experiment consists of placing one of the magnets on a balance, attaching the other magnet to a vertical height gauge, aligning carefully both magnets and measuring the load on the balance as a function of the gauge reading. A theoretical model is proposed to compute the force, assuming uniform magnetisation and based on laws and techniques accessible to undergraduate students. A comparison between the model and the experimental results is made, and good agreement is found at all distances investigated. In particular, it is also found that the force behaves as r −4 at large distances, as expected. (paper)

  16. Electrical energy supply with permanent energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    It can be shown that there are no chances for solar and wind power plants in Northern Europe when estimating the investment costs and the floor space required. However, the decentralized utilization of the plants which is likely to become very interesting in a few years shows other results. As a complete annual balance by traditional stores would cause a considerably uneconomic increase of the investment costs supplementary energy sources are inevitable. The author points out how the various primary energy sources in question can be utilized and combined with each other. He describes the converters for the permanent (regenerative) energy sources, the available electrochemical stores and their application as well as the fundamental structures of the energy supply systems. Finally some advice is given regarding the recycling of energy and the operation by the consumers.

  17. Experience with the SLC permanent magnet multipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, G.; Spencer, J.

    1994-06-01

    Permanent magnets have been used in the SLC Damping Rings and their injection and extraction lines since 1985. Recent upgrades of the DR vacuum chambers provided an opportunity to check DR magnets prior to higher beam current operation. Several PM sextupoles downstream of the injection kickers in the electron ring had exceeded their thermal stabilization values of 80 degrees C and some showed serious mechanical deformations and radiation >1 R at contact. We discuss our observations, measurements and a few inexpensive modifications that should improve these magnets under such conditions. A new, block matching algorithm allowed us to use magnet blocks that had been considered unusable because of very different remament field strengths and easy axis errors

  18. Temporality and permanence in Romanian public art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Judit Balko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between permanent monuments and temporary art projects, as temporality is one of the strategies employed by Romanian artists to counterbalance the support that the Romanian state has shown only towards monuments and memorials dedicated to affirming its value. The complex nature of public art requires a careful consideration of the different dimensions this practice employs, and for that the Western debate on this matter can be a reference point in understanding Romanian public art. We will be looking at possible aspects of the functions of these two main directions in Romanian public art, as they stand methodically one in opposition to the other, in connection with the texts of Piotr Piotrowski (Art and Democracy in Post-communist Europe, 2012 and Boris Groys (Art Power, 2008.

  19. Permanent automatic recalibration system for scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auphan, Michel.

    1974-01-01

    A permanent automatic recalibration system for a scintillation camera, of the type consisting chiefly of a collimator if necessary, a scintillator, a light guide and a network of n photomultipliers coupled to a display system, is described. It uses a device to form a single reference light signal common to all the photomultiplication lines, integrated to these latter and associated with a periodic calibration control generator. By means of associated circuits governed by the control generator the gain in each line is brought to and/or maintained at a value between fixed upper and lower limits. Steps are taken so that any gain variation in a given line is adjusted with respect to the reference light signal common to all the lines. The light signal falls preferably in the same part of the spectrum as the scintillations formed in the scintillator [fr

  20. Inherited retarded eruption in the permanent dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, P; Kotsaki, A

    1997-01-01

    The term retarded eruption, may be used in cases where eruption is inhibited, causing an interruption in the coordination of tooth formation and tooth eruption. The phenomenon may be local or general, and several etiological factors for retarded eruption have been listed, comprising a lack of space, ankylosis, cysts, supernumerary teeth, hormone and vitamin deficiencies and several developmental disturbances and syndromes. The present paper describes several cases of retarded eruption where no factors other than inheritance have been evident. So far 14 cases have been evaluated, 9 boys and 5 girls. In addition several cases have been registered among parents and grandparents of the probands. Typical features are: retarded eruption, defined as more than 3 SD beyond mean eruption figures, comprises all teeth in the permanent dentition, and in 5 cases also second primary molars. The chronology of tooth formation are within normal limits. Consequently the teeth finish development still laying deeply buried in the jaws, often in aberrant positions and with curves or hooks on the roots. When the teeth finally get the "signal" for eruption, 5-15 years beyond normal eruption time, they move rather quickly into right positions, despite the long eruption paths and the hooked roots. Permanent teeth without, as well as with predecessors, are affected. Extraction of predecessors does not seem to provoke eruption. The main features in management are to take care of the primary teeth, to improve-esthetics, and offer surgery and orthodontics when needed. Analyses of pedigrees indicates that the genetic transmittance may be autosomal dominant as both sexes are affected, about half of the siblings show the trait, and the trait shows continuity through generations.

  1. Dose-response curve for translocation frequency with single pair of painted chromosome. A comparison with dicentric and micronuclei frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatachalam, P.; Paul, S.F.D.; Mohankumar, M.N.; Prabhu, B.K.; Gajendiran, N.; Jeevanram, R.K

    2000-07-01

    A translocation dose-response curve using a single pair of painted chromosomes was constructed. The translocation frequencies observed at different doses were compared to those obtained for dicentrics (DC) and micronuclei (MN). The translocation and DC frequency followed the Poisson distribution and MN showed over-dispersion. The translocation and DC frequencies were nearly the same for each dose point. Micronuclei showed a comparatively lower frequency. The alpha/beta ratio for translocations (0.916) and DC (0.974) were comparable, whereas the value for MN (1.526) was much higher. The equal frequencies of translocations and DC observed for a given dose indicated that genomic translocation frequency estimated using a single pair of painted chromosomes provides a reliable and easy method to measure translocation frequency. (autho000.

  2. Dose-response curve for translocation frequency with single pair of painted chromosome. A comparison with dicentric and micronuclei frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachalam, P.; Paul, S.F.D.; Mohankumar, M.N.; Prabhu, B.K.; Gajendiran, N.; Jeevanram, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    A translocation dose-response curve using a single pair of painted chromosomes was constructed. The translocation frequencies observed at different doses were compared to those obtained for dicentrics (DC) and micronuclei (MN). The translocation and DC frequency followed the Poisson distribution and MN showed over-dispersion. The translocation and DC frequencies were nearly the same for each dose point. Micronuclei showed a comparatively lower frequency. The alpha/beta ratio for translocations (0.916) and DC (0.974) were comparable, whereas the value for MN (1.526) was much higher. The equal frequencies of translocations and DC observed for a given dose indicated that genomic translocation frequency estimated using a single pair of painted chromosomes provides a reliable and easy method to measure translocation frequency. (author)

  3. Discussions on performance of two types of permanent multipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jianming; Xu Qing; Yin Zhaosheng

    1987-01-01

    The field distributions of MMD type and MW type multipole permanent magnets are calculated by means of programme POISCR and the results are summarized and discussed in this paper. The resutls show that, considering the nonlinearity of the real demagnetization curve of permanent magnet material, the field distributions of both types of permanent magnets with the same aperature are about the same but the field strength of MW type magnet with soft iron shield is higher than that of MMD type magnet

  4. Object permanence in adults : a cross-cultural perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Subbotski, Eugene; Trommsdorff, Gisela

    1992-01-01

    Soviet and German adult subjects observed the phenomenon of object non-permanence (destruction, reconstruction, or transformation of a physical object). Both samples attributed an equal degree of probability to real existence of object non-permanence. However, Soviet subjects attributed a significantly higher probability to the existence of "religion-independent" non-permanent mysterious phenomena, (e.g., "unidentified flying objects", "abominable snowman", "Loch Ness monster") while attribut...

  5. Design of permanent magnet synchronous motor within minimum cost

    OpenAIRE

    Півняк, Геннадій Григорович; Бешта, Олександр Степанович; Фурса, Сергій Григорійович; Neuberger, Nikolaus; Nolle, N.

    2010-01-01

    The article describes design and simulation experience of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The design goal is to develop PMSM of the least possible cost. For that purpose the standard induction motor stator was applied as a basic solution and permanent magnets were installed in rotor. Simulation results are presented, the dependence of efficiency and total loss on magnet material mass are obtained. The optimal value of permanent magnets is estimated for the given electric motor frame.

  6. Neuroprotective effects of andrographolide in a rat model of permanent cerebral ischaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Su Jing; Wong, WS Fred; Wong, Peter TH; Bian, Jin-Song

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Andrographolide is a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional medicinal herb, Andrographis paniculata. It possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity. The present study examined potential therapeutic effects of andrographolide on cerebral ischaemia using a rat model with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The MCA in rats was permanently occluded (by cautery), and 24 h later neurological effects were assessed with behavioural scores. Infarct volume and microglial activation were determined histologically. The p65 form of the transcription factor, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), was measured by Western blot, and cytokines by immunoassay of brain extracts. KEY RESULTS Andrographolide, given i.p. 1 h after pMCAO, reduced infarct volume with a maximum reduction of approximately 50% obtained at 0.1 mg·kg−1. Neurological deficits were also reduced by andrographolide, reflecting a correlation between infarct volume and neurological deficits. pMCAO was found to induce activation of microglia and elevate tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and prostaglandin (PG)E2 in the ischaemic brain areas. Andrographolide (0.1 mg·kg−1) significantly attenuated or abolished these effects. In addition, andrographolide suppressed the translocation of p65 from cytosol to nucleus, indicating reduced NF-κB activation. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Andrographolide exhibited neuroprotective effects, with accompanying suppression of NF-κB and microglial activation, and reduction in the production of cytokines including TNF-α and IL-1β, and pro-inflammatory factors such as PGE2. Our findings suggest that andrographolide may have therapeutic value in the treatment of stroke. PMID:20880404

  7. Muscle contraction increases carnitine uptake via translocation of OCTN2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuichi, Yasuro [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Sugiura, Tomoko; Kato, Yukio [Faculty of Pharmacy, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Takakura, Hisashi [Faculty of Human Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Hanai, Yoshiteru [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Hashimoto, Takeshi [Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu (Japan); Masuda, Kazumi, E-mail: masuda@ed.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Human Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan)

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Muscle contraction augmented carnitine uptake into rat hindlimb muscles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An increase in carnitine uptake was due to an intrinsic clearance, not blood flow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Histochemical analysis showed sarcolemmal OCTN2 was emphasized after contraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OCTN2 protein in sarcolemmal fraction was increased in contracting muscles. -- Abstract: Since carnitine plays an important role in fat oxidation, influx of carnitine could be crucial for muscle metabolism. OCTN2 (SLC22A5), a sodium-dependent solute carrier, is assumed to transport carnitine into skeletal muscle cells. Acute regulation of OCTN2 activity in rat hindlimb muscles was investigated in response to electrically induced contractile activity. The tissue uptake clearance (CL{sub uptake}) of L-[{sup 3}H]carnitine during muscle contraction was examined in vivo using integration plot analysis. The CL{sub uptake} of [{sup 14}C]iodoantipyrine (IAP) was also determined as an index of tissue blood flow. To test the hypothesis that increased carnitine uptake involves the translocation of OCTN2, contraction-induced alteration in the subcellular localization of OCTN2 was examined. The CL{sub uptake} of L-[{sup 3}H]carnitine in the contracting muscles increased 1.4-1.7-fold as compared to that in the contralateral resting muscles (p < 0.05). The CL{sub uptake} of [{sup 14}C]IAP was much higher than that of L-[{sup 3}H]carnitine, but no association between the increase in carnitine uptake and blood flow was obtained. Co-immunostaining of OCTN2 and dystrophin (a muscle plasma membrane marker) showed an increase in OCTN2 signal in the plasma membrane after muscle contraction. Western blotting showed that the level of sarcolemmal OCTN2 was greater in contracting muscles than in resting muscles (p < 0.05). The present study showed that muscle contraction facilitated carnitine uptake in skeletal muscles, possibly

  8. Uptake, translocation, and toxicity of gold nanorods in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Shahmansouri, Nastaran

    Nanomaterials are widely used in many different products, such as electronics, cosmetics, industrial goods, biomedical uses, and other material applications. The heavy emission of nanomaterials into the environment has motived increasing concern regarding the effects on ecosystems, food chains, and, human health. Plants can tolerate a certain amount of natural nanomaterials, but large amounts of ENMs released from a variety of industries could be toxic to plants and possibly threaten the ecosystem. Employing phytoremediation as a contamination treatment method may show promise. However a pre-requisite to successful treatment is a better understanding of the behavior and effects of nanomaterials within plant systems. This study is designed to investigate the uptake, translocation, bioavailability, and toxicity of gold nanorods in maize plants. Maize is an important food and feed crop that can be used to understand the potential hazardous effects of nanoparticle uptake and distribution in the food chain. The findings could be an important contribution to the fields of phytoremediation, agri-nanotechnology, and nanoparticle toxicity on plants. In the first experiment, hydroponically grown maize seedlings were exposed to similar doses of commercial non-coated gold nanorods in three sizes, 10x34 nm, 20x75 nm, and 40x96 nm. The three nanorod species were suspended in solutions at concentrations of 350 mg/l, 5.8 mg/l, and 14 mg/l, respectively. Maize plants were exposed to all three solutions resulting in considerably lower transpiration and wet biomass than control plants. Likewise, dry biomass was reduced, but the effect is less pronounced than that of transpiration and wet biomass. The reduced transpiration and water content, which eventually proved fatal to exposed plants, were most likely a result of toxic effect of gold nanorod, which appeared to physically hinder the root system. TEM images proved that maize plants can uptake gold particles and accumulate them in

  9. Bovine Lactoferrampin, Human Lactoferricin, and Lactoferrin 1-11 Inhibit Nuclear Translocation of HIV Integrase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Winston Yan; Wong, Jack Ho; Ip, Denis Tsz Ming; Wan, David Chi Cheong; Cheung, Randy Chifai; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate fragments derived from human and bovine lactoferrins for ability to inhibit nuclear translocation of HIV-1 integrase. It was shown that human lactoferricin, human lactoferrin 1-11, and bovine lactoferrampin reduced nuclear distribution of HIV-1 integrase. Bovine lactoferrampin could inhibit both the activity and nuclear translocation of HIV-1 integrase. Human lactoferrampin, bovine lactoferricin, and bovine lactoferrin 1-11 had no effect on HIV-1 integrase nuclear translocation. Human lactoferrampin which inhibited the activity of integrase did not prevent its nuclear translocation. Human lactoferricin and lactoferrin 1-11 did not inhibit HIV-1 integrase nuclear translocation despite their ability to attenuate the enzyme activity. The discrepancy between the findings on reduction of HIV-1 activity and inhibition of nuclear translocation of HIV-1 integrase was due to the different mechanisms involved. A similar reasoning can also be applied to the different inhibitory potencies of the milk peptides on different HIV enzymes, i.e., nuclear translocation.

  10. Influence of the Location of Attractive Polymer-Pore Interactions on Translocation Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Bappa; Chaudhury, Srabanti

    2018-01-11

    We probe the influence of polymer-pore interactions on the translocation dynamics using Langevin dynamics simulations. We investigate the effect of the strength and location of the polymer-pore interaction using nanopores that are partially charged either at the entry or the exit or on both sides of the pore. We study the change in the translocation time as a function of the strength of the polymer-pore interaction for a given chain length and under the effect of an externally applied field. Under a moderate driving force and a chain length longer than the length of the pore, the translocation time shows a nonmonotonic increase with an increase in the attractive interaction. Also, an interaction on the cis side of the pore can increase the translocation probability. In the presence of an external field and a strong attractive force, the translocation time for shorter chains is independent of the polymer-pore interaction at the entry side of the pore, whereas an interaction on the trans side dominates the translocation process. Our simulation results are rationalized by a qualitative analysis of the free energy landscape for polymer translocation.

  11. Translocation of a polymer through a nanopore across a viscosity gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Hendrick W; Slater, Gary W

    2013-04-01

    The translocation of a polymer through a pore in a membrane separating fluids of different viscosities is studied via several computational approaches. Starting with the polymer halfway, we find that as a viscosity difference across the pore is introduced, translocation will predominately occur towards one side of the membrane. These results suggest an intrinsic pumping mechanism for translocation across cell walls which could arise whenever the fluid across the membrane is inhomogeneous. Somewhat surprisingly, the sign of the preferred direction of translocation is found to be strongly dependent on the simulation algorithm: for Langevin dynamics (LD) simulations, a bias towards the low viscosity side is found while for Brownian dynamics (BD), a bias towards the high viscosity is found. Examining the translocation dynamics in detail across a wide range of viscosity gradients and developing a simple force model to estimate the magnitude of the bias, the LD results are demonstrated to be more physically realistic. The LD results are also compared to those generated from a simple, one-dimensional random walk model of translocation to investigate the role of the internal degrees of freedom of the polymer and the entropic barrier. To conclude, the scaling of the results across different polymer lengths demonstrates the saturation of the directional preference with polymer length and the nontrivial location of the maximum in the exponent corresponding to the scaling of the translocation time with polymer length.

  12. Three-dimensional genome architecture influences partner selection for chromosomal translocations in human disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M Engreitz

    Full Text Available Chromosomal translocations are frequent features of cancer genomes that contribute to disease progression. These rearrangements result from formation and illegitimate repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, a process that requires spatial colocalization of chromosomal breakpoints. The "contact first" hypothesis suggests that translocation partners colocalize in the nuclei of normal cells, prior to rearrangement. It is unclear, however, the extent to which spatial interactions based on three-dimensional genome architecture contribute to chromosomal rearrangements in human disease. Here we intersect Hi-C maps of three-dimensional chromosome conformation with collections of 1,533 chromosomal translocations from cancer and germline genomes. We show that many translocation-prone pairs of regions genome-wide, including the cancer translocation partners BCR-ABL and MYC-IGH, display elevated Hi-C contact frequencies in normal human cells. Considering tissue specificity, we find that translocation breakpoints reported in human hematologic malignancies have higher Hi-C contact frequencies in lymphoid cells than those reported in sarcomas and epithelial tumors. However, translocations from multiple tissue types show significant correlation with Hi-C contact frequencies, suggesting that both tissue-specific and universal features of chromatin structure contribute to chromosomal alterations. Our results demonstrate that three-dimensional genome architecture shapes the landscape of rearrangements directly observed in human disease and establish Hi-C as a key method for dissecting these effects.

  13. TDP2 suppresses chromosomal translocations induced by DNA topoisomerase II during gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Herreros, Fernando; Zagnoli-Vieira, Guido; Ntai, Ioanna; Martínez-Macías, María Isabel; Anderson, Rhona M; Herrero-Ruíz, Andrés; Caldecott, Keith W

    2017-08-10

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by abortive topoisomerase II (TOP2) activity are a potential source of genome instability and chromosome translocation. TOP2-induced DNA double-strand breaks are rejoined in part by tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2)-dependent non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), but whether this process suppresses or promotes TOP2-induced translocations is unclear. Here, we show that TDP2 rejoins DSBs induced during transcription-dependent TOP2 activity in breast cancer cells and at the translocation 'hotspot', MLL. Moreover, we find that TDP2 suppresses chromosome rearrangements induced by TOP2 and reduces TOP2-induced chromosome translocations that arise during gene transcription. Interestingly, however, we implicate TDP2-dependent NHEJ in the formation of a rare subclass of translocations associated previously with therapy-related leukemia and characterized by junction sequences with 4-bp of perfect homology. Collectively, these data highlight the threat posed by TOP2-induced DSBs during transcription and demonstrate the importance of TDP2-dependent non-homologous end-joining in protecting both gene transcription and genome stability.DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by topoisomerase II (TOP2) are rejoined by TDP2-dependent non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) but whether this promotes or suppresses translocations is not clear. Here the authors show that TDP2 suppresses chromosome translocations from DSBs introduced during gene transcription.

  14. Leading tip drives soma translocation via forward F-actin flow during neuronal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Min; Zhang, Zheng-hong; Guan, Chen-bing; Xia, Di; Yuan, Xiao-bing

    2010-08-11

    Neuronal migration involves coordinated extension of the leading process and translocation of the soma, but the relative contribution of different subcellular regions, including the leading process and cell rear, in driving soma translocation remains unclear. By local manipulation of cytoskeletal components in restricted regions of cultured neurons, we examined the molecular machinery underlying the generation of traction force for soma translocation during neuronal migration. In actively migrating cerebellar granule cells in culture, a growth cone (GC)-like structure at the leading tip exhibits high dynamics, and severing the tip or disrupting its dynamics suppressed soma translocation within minutes. Soma translocation was also suppressed by local disruption of F-actin along the leading process but not at the soma, whereas disrupting microtubules along the leading process or at the soma accelerated soma translocation. Fluorescent speckle microscopy using GFP-alpha-actinin showed that a forward F-actin flow along the leading process correlated with and was required for soma translocation, and such F-actin flow depended on myosin II activity. In migrating neurons, myosin II activity was high at the leading tip but low at the soma, and increasing or decreasing this front-to-rear difference accelerated or impeded soma advance. Thus, the tip of the leading process actively pulls the soma forward during neuronal migration through a myosin II-dependent forward F-actin flow along the leading process.

  15. Timing of translocation influences birth rate and population dynamics in a forest carnivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facka, Aaron N; Lewis, Jeffrey C.; Happe, Patricia; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Callas, Richard; Powell, Roger A.

    2016-01-01

    Timing can be critical for many life history events of organisms. Consequently, the timing of management activities may affect individuals and populations in numerous and unforeseen ways. Translocations of organisms are used to restore or expand populations but the timing of translocations is largely unexplored as a factor influencing population success. We hypothesized that the process of translocation negatively influences reproductive rates of individuals that are moved just before their birthing season and, therefore, the timing of releases could influence translocation success. Prior to reintroducing fishers (Pekania pennanti) into northern California and onto the Olympic Peninsula of Washington, we predicted that female fishers released in November and December (early) would have a higher probability of giving birth to kits the following March or April than females released in January, February, and March (late), just prior to or during the period of blastocyst implantation and gestation. Over four winters (2008–2011), we translocated 56 adult female fishers that could have given birth in the spring immediately after release. Denning rates, an index of birth rate, for females released early were 92% in California and 38% in Washington. In contrast, denning rates for females released late were 40% and 11%, in California and Washington, a net reduction in denning rate of 66% across both sites. To understand how releasing females nearer to parturition could influence population establishment and persistence, we used stochastic population simulations using three-stage Lefkovitch matrices. These simulations showed that translocating female fishers early had long-term positive influences on the mean population size and on quasi-extinction thresholds compared to populations where females were released late. The results from both empirical data and simulations show that the timing of translocation, with respect to life history events, should be considered during

  16. A voltage-gated pore for translocation of tRNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koley, Sandip; Adhya, Samit, E-mail: nilugrandson@gmail.com

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •A tRNA translocating complex was assembled from purified proteins. •The complex translocates tRNA at a membrane potential of ∼60 mV. •Translocation requires Cys and His residues in the Fe–S center of RIC6 subunit. -- Abstract: Very little is known about how nucleic acids are translocated across membranes. The multi-subunit RNA Import Complex (RIC) from mitochondria of the kinetoplastid protozoon Leishmania tropica induces translocation of tRNAs across artificial or natural membranes, but the nature of the translocation pore remains unknown. We show that subunits RIC6 and RIC9 assemble on the membrane in presence of subunit RIC4A to form complex R3. Atomic Force Microscopy of R3 revealed particles with an asymmetric surface groove of ∼20 nm rim diameter and ∼1 nm depth. R3 induced translocation of tRNA into liposomes when the pH of the medium was lowered to ∼6 in the absence of ATP. R3-mediated tRNA translocation could also be induced at neutral pH by a K{sup +} diffusion potential with an optimum of 60–70 mV. Point mutations in the Cys{sub 2}–His{sub 2} Fe-binding motif of RIC6, which is homologous to the respiratory Complex III Fe–S protein, abrogated import induced by low pH but not by K{sup +} diffusion potential. These results indicate that the R3 complex forms a pore that is gated by a proton-generated membrane potential and that the Fe–S binding region of RIC6 has a role in proton translocation. The tRNA import complex of L. tropica thus contains a novel macromolecular channel distinct from the mitochondrial protein import pore that is apparently involved in tRNA import in some species.

  17. Tourette syndrome in a pedigree with a 7;18 translocation: Identification of a YAC spanning the translocation breakpoint at 18q22.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boghosian-Sell, L.; Overhauser, J. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Comings, D.E. [City of Hope Medical Center, Duarte, CA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by the presence of multiple, involuntary motor and vocal tics. Associated pathologies include attention deficit disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Extensive linkage analysis based on an autosomal dominant mode of transmission with reduced penetrance has failed to show linkage with polymorphic markers, suggesting either locus heterogeneity or a polygenic origin for Tourette syndrome. An individual diagnosed with Tourette syndrome has been described carrying a constitutional chromosome translocation. Other family members carrying the translocation exhibit features seen in Tourette syndrome including motor tics, vocal tics, and OCD. Since the disruption of specific genes by a chromosomal rearrangement can elicit a particular phenotype, we have undertaken the physical mapping of the 7;18 translocation such that genes mapping at the site of the breakpoint can be identified and evaluated for a possible involvement in Tourette syndrome. Using somatic cell hybrids retaining either the der(7) or the der(18), a more precise localization of the breakpoints on chromosomes 7 and 18 have been determined. Furthermore, physical mapping has identified two YAC clones that span the translocation breakpoint on chromosome 18 as determined by FISH. These YAC clones will be useful for the eventual identification of genes that map to chromosomes 7 and 18 at the site of the translocation. 41 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Sexual function after permanent prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galbreath, R.W.; Merrick, G.S.; Butler, W.M.; Stipetich, R.L.; Abel, L.J.; Lief, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of potency preservation following permanent prostate brachytherapy and to evaluate the effect of multiple clinical and treatment parameters on penile erectile function. Materials and Methods: 425 patients underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy from April 1995 to October 1999. 209 patients who were potent prior to brachytherapy and currently not receiving hormonal manipulation were mailed an International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire with a pre-addressed stamped envelope. 180 patients completed and returned the questionnaire. Median patient follow-up was 39 months (range 18-74 months). Pre-implant erectile function was assigned using a three-tiered scoring system (2 = erections always or nearly always sufficient for vaginal penetration; 1 = erections sufficient for vaginal penetration but considered suboptimal; 0 = the inability to obtain erections and/or erections inadequate for vaginal penetration). Post-implant potency was defined as an IIEF score >11. Clinical parameters evaluated for sexual function included patient age, clinical T stage, elapsed time since implantation, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and tobacco consumption. Evaluated treatment parameters included the utilization of neoadjuvant hormonal manipulation and the choice of isotope. The efficacy of sildenafil citrate in brachytherapy induced erectile dysfunction (ED) was also evaluated. Results: A pre-treatment erectile function score of 2 and 1 were assigned to 126 and 54 patients respectively. With 6 year follow up, 39% of patients maintained potency following prostate brachytherapy with a plateau on the curve. Post-implant preservation of potency (IIEF>11) correlated with pre-implant erectile function (50% versus 14% for pre-implant scores of 2 and 1 respectively, p≤0.0001), patient age (56%, 38%, and 23% for patients <60 years of age, 60-69 years of age, and ≥70 years of age respectively, p=0.012) and a history of diabetes mellitus

  19. Quality of life after permanent prostate implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arterbery, V. Elayne; Frazier, Arthur; Dalmia, Praveen; Porter, Arthur

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To report on the quality of life in patients who have received a permanent transperineal ultrasound guide prostate implant. There is increasing recognition that prostate cancer therapy impacts significantly on the patients ability to pursue relational, occupational and social interests. With the substantially expanded patient role in directing treatment for prostate cancer, the importance of examining quality of life outcomes in addition to survival has been underscored. Materials and Methods: 51 sequential patients with clinically localized prostate cancer who underwent permanent prostate implantation from September 1995 to October 1996 were evaluated. All patients were clinically staged as T1c or T2a and received implant with Iodine 125 or Palladium 103 as definitive treatment. Data was collected using the EORTC genitourinary group questionnaire and supplemental questions during an interview. Results: Urinary symptoms such as nocturia, frequency and dysuria were the most pronounced in the first two months after implant and then decreased in the majority of patients. The EORTC questionnaire was administered at 6 months and examined urinary quality, sexual quality and perception of symptoms. With regard to urinary quality, 17% had mild dysuria at 6 months and 40% noted that they urinated more frequently than pre implant. No patient had hematuria and 0 % were incontinent. 3% stated that they had occasional loss of minimal urine with severe urgency. Only 2% required intermittent self catheterization after implant secondary to obstructive symptoms. Over 90% were on an alpha blocker post implant for a minimum of 6 weeks. 0% reported psychological distress and 3% noted a disruption in social or family life. 15% experienced some fatigue and 10% noted a decreased functional status but only 1% a decreased role function. Additional questions addressed lifestyle and work issues. 100% would have an implant again as definitive treatment and 98% would recommend the

  20. Object permanence in young infants: further evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillargeon, R; DeVos, J

    1991-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that 4.5- and even 3.5-month-old infants realize that objects continue to exist when hidden. The goal of the present experiments was to obtain converging evidence of object permanence in young infants. Experiments were conducted using paradigms previously used to demonstrate object permanence in 5.5-month-old infants and 6.5-month-old infants. In one experiment, 3.5-month-old infants watched a short or a tall carrot slide along a track. The track's center was hidden by a screen with a large window in its upper half. The short carrot was shorter than the window's lower edge and so did not appear in the window when passing behind the screen; the tall carrot was taller than the window's lower edge and hence should have appeared in the window but did not. The infants looked reliably longer at the tall than at the short carrot event, suggesting that they (a) represented the existence, height, and trajectory of each carrot behind the screen and (b) expected the tall carrot to appear in the screen window and were surprised that it did not. Control trials supported this interpretation. In another experiment, 4.0-month-old infants saw a toy car roll along a track that was partly hidden by a screen. A large toy mouse was placed behind the screen, either on top or in back of the track. The female infants looked reliably longer when the mouse stood on top as opposed to in back of the track, suggesting that they (a) represented the existence and trajectory of the car behind the screen, (b) represented the existence and location of the mouse behind the screen, and (c) were surprised to see the car reappear from behind the screen when the mouse stood in its path. A second experiment supported this interpretation. The results of these experiments provide further evidence that infants aged 3.5 months and older are able to represent and to reason about hidden objects.

  1. Synaptonemal complex analysis of X-7 translocations in male mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, T. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville); Russell, L.B.; Cacheiro, N.L.A.

    1982-01-01

    The synaptonemal complexes of surface-spread spermatocytes of mice heterozygous for one of two reciprocal translations (R3 and R5) between the X and chromosome 7 have been examined by light and electron microscopy (EM). The break points of R3 were determined to be at 70% of chromosome 7, as measured from the centromere, and at 22% of the X. Translocation quadrivalents were formed almost exclusively. The break points of R5 were at 21% of chromosome 7 as measured from the centromere, and at 83% of the X. There was little indication that the break in the X interfered with sex-chromosome synapis between the 7X and Y. Univalent Y's were not observed in R3, and only seldom observed (8-14%) in R5. However, in contrast to R3, R5 formed quadrivalents relatively rarely (20% in the EM study of 100 nuclei), and hetermorphic bivalents of 7X-Y and X7-7 quite frequently (72%). Possible causes of this high bivalent frequency are discussed. Light-microsope (LM) analysis alone was found to be inadequate for interpreting synaptic configurations (quadrivalents vs. bivalents) in R5. The LM analysis was further complicated by the occurrence of nonhomologous synapsis in the heteromorphic bivalents of R5, a phenomonon easily recognized and interpreted in the EM portion of the study.

  2. Micro-Evolution in Grasshoppers Mediated by Polymorphic Robertsonian Translocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Pablo C.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on grasshoppers that are polymorphic for Robertsonian translocations because in these organisms the clarity of meiotic figures allows the study of both chiasma distribution and the orientation of trivalents and multivalents in metaphase I. Only five species of such grasshoppers were found in the literature, and all of them were from the New World: Oedaleonotus enigma (Scudder) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), Leptysma argentina Bruner, Dichroplus pratensis Bruner, Sinipta dalmani Stål, and Cornops aquaticum Bruner. A general feature of these species (except O. enigma) is that fusion carriers suffer a marked reduction of proximal and interstitial (with respect to the centromere) chiasma frequency; this fact, along with the reduction in the number of linkage groups with the consequent loss of independent segregation, produces a marked decrease of recombination in fusion carriers. This reduction in recombination has led to the conclusion that Robertsonian polymorphic grasshopper species share some properties with inversion polymorphic species of Drosophila, such as the central-marginal pattern (marginal populations are monomorphic, central populations are highly polymorphic). This pattern might be present in D. pratensis, which is certainly the most complex Robertsonian polymorphism system in the present study. However, L. argentina and C. aquaticum do not display this pattern. This issue is open to further research. Since C. aquaticum is soon to be released in South Africa as a biological control, the latitudinal pattern found in South America may repeat there. This experiment's outcome is open and deserves to be followed. PMID:23909914

  3. [Molecular genetics in chronic myeloid leukemia with variant Ph translocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Li, Jian-yong; Zhu, Yu; Qiu, Hai-rong; Pan, Jin-lan; Xu, Wei; Chen, Li-juan; Shen, Yun-feng; Xue, Yong-quan

    2007-08-01

    To explore the value of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH) techniques in the detection of genetic changes in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with variant Philadelphia translocation (vPh). Cytogenetic preparations from 10 CML patients with vPh confirmed by R banding were assayed with dual color dual fusion FISH technique. If only one fusion signal was detected in interphase cells, metaphase cells were observed to determine if there were derivative chromosome 9[der (9)] deletions. Meanwhile, the same cytogenetic preparations were assayed with M-FISH technique. Of the 10 CML patients with vPh, 5 were detected with der (9) deletions by FISH technique. M-FISH technique revealed that besides the chromosome 22, chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11 and 17 were also involved in the vPh. M-FISH technique also detected the abnormalities which were not found with conventional cytogenetics (CC), including two never reported abnormalities. The combination of CC, FISH and M-FISH technique could refine the genetic diagnosis of CML with vPh.

  4. Movilidad y desarrollo translocal en la Nicaragua (semi-rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griet Steel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende contribuir al debate sobre los vínculos entre la movilidad y el desarrollo, explorando el concepto de desarrollo translocal. Basado en trabajo de campo en los municipios de Matiguás y Muy Muy, éste analiza cómo la movilidad da forma a las estrategias de vida de los hogares (semi-rurales en Nicaragua, y explora cómo los diferentes miembros de un hogar utilizan la movilidad física como una estrategia de vida. Argumenta que los habitantes de áreas (semi-rurales consideran distintos tipos de movimientos como estrategias importantes para establecer enlaces entre personas y lugares, y para alcanzar un mejor bienestar en su comunidad natal. Al mismo tiempo muestra cómo la movilidad se forma en una arena de poder, lo que afecta su potencial. De esta manera, este artículo contribuye a un entendimiento dinámico y multidimensional de cómo los procesos de desarrollo dan forma a – y son formados por – la movilidad y la interconectividad.

  5. Cholesterol Hydroperoxide Generation, Translocation, and Reductive Turnover in Biological Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotti, Albert W; Korytowski, Witold

    2017-12-01

    Cholesterol is like other unsaturated lipids in being susceptible to peroxidative degradation upon exposure to strong oxidants like hydroxyl radical or peroxynitrite generated under conditions of oxidative stress. In the eukaryotic cell plasma membrane, where most of the cellular cholesterol resides, peroxidation leads to membrane structural and functional damage from which pathological states may arise. In low density lipoprotein, cholesterol and phospholipid peroxidation have long been associated with atherogenesis. Among the many intermediates/products of cholesterol oxidation, hydroperoxide species (ChOOHs) have a number of different fates and deserve special attention. These fates include (a) damage-enhancement via iron-catalyzed one-electron reduction, (b) damage containment via two-electron reduction, and (c) inter-membrane, inter-lipoprotein, and membrane-lipoprotein translocation, which allows dissemination of one-electron damage or off-site suppression thereof depending on antioxidant location and capacity. In addition, ChOOHs can serve as reliable and conveniently detected mechanistic reporters of free radical-mediated reactions vs. non-radical (e.g., singlet oxygen)-mediated reactions. Iron-stimulated peroxidation of cholesterol and other lipids underlies a newly discovered form of regulated cell death called ferroptosis. These and other deleterious consequences of radical-mediated lipid peroxidation will be discussed in this review.

  6. Uptake, translocation, and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, B.T.; Hoylman, A.M.

    1992-12-01

    A review of the scientific literature was conducted to determine the potential for plants to take up polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soils and the possibility of PAH movement from soils into vegetation at waste disposal sites associated with manufactured gas plants (MGP). Studies published since 1983 are considered in conjunction with previous publications and literature reviews on PAH uptake by vegetation. These studies indicate that the extent to which sorption to roots occurs is likely to be influenced by species-specific properties of the plant, physicochemical properties of each PAH, soil properties, and biodegradation rates of the PAHs in soil. PAHs containing five or more rings may sorb to plant roots but are not expected to be translocated to foliage in other than trace quantities. Uptake of naphthalene, anthracene, and benzo[a]anthracene by roots has been reported in the literature. In addition, eight PAHs of three and four rings (acenapthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene) were isolated from leaves and roots of four plant species collected near a coal tar disposal trench in eastern Tennessee. A total concentration of 5519 ng/g was observed for the eight PAHs in roots of lamb's quarters. Coal tar, in soil, was implicated as the source of PAHs in the four plant species

  7. Selenium uptake, translocation, assimilation and metabolic fate in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sors, T G; Ellis, D R; Salt, D E

    2005-12-01

    The chemical and physical resemblance between selenium (Se) and sulfur (S) establishes that both these elements share common metabolic pathways in plants. The presence of isologous Se and S compounds indicates that these elements compete in biochemical processes that affect uptake, translocation and assimilation throughout plant development. Yet, minor but crucial differences in reactivity and other metabolic interactions infer that some biochemical processes involving Se may be excluded from those relating to S. This review examines the current understanding of physiological and biochemical relationships between S and Se metabolism by highlighting their similarities and differences in relation to uptake, transport and assimilation pathways as observed in Se hyperaccumulator and non-accumulator plant species. The exploitation of genetic resources used in bioengineering strategies of plants is illuminating the function of sulfate transporters and key enzymes of the S assimilatory pathway in relation to Se accumulation and final metabolic fate. These strategies are providing the basic framework by which to resolve questions relating to the essentiality of Se in plants and the mechanisms utilized by Se hyperaccumulators to circumvent toxicity. In addition, such approaches may assist in the future application of genetically engineered Se accumulating plants for environmental renewal and human health objectives.

  8. Ready Experimental Translocation of Mycobacterium canettii Yields Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Fériel; Brégeon, Fabienne; Lepidi, Hubert; Donoghue, Helen D; Minnikin, David E; Drancourt, Michel

    2017-12-01

    Mycobacterium canettii , which has a smooth colony morphology, is the tuberculous organism retaining the most genetic traits from the putative last common ancestor of the rough-morphology Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. To explore whether M. canettii can infect individuals by the oral route, mice were fed phosphate-buffered saline or 10 6 M. canettii mycobacteria and sacrificed over a 28-day experiment. While no M. canettii was detected in negative controls, M. canettii -infected mice yielded granuloma-like lesions for 4/4 lungs at days 14 and 28 postinoculation (p.i.) and positive PCR detection of M. canettii for 5/8 mesenteric lymph nodes at days 1 and 3 p.i. and 5/6 pooled stools collected from day 1 to day 28 p.i. Smooth M. canettii colonies grew from 68% of lungs and 36% of spleens and cervical lymph nodes but fewer than 20% of axillary lymph nodes, livers, brown fat samples, kidneys, or blood samples throughout the 28-day experiment. Ready translocation in mice after digestive tract challenge demonstrates the potential of ingested M. canettii organisms to relocate to distant organs and lungs. The demonstration of this relocation supports the possibility that populations may be infected by environmental M. canettii . Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Studies on the translocation and distribution characteristics of carbon assimilates in blackberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuyu; Liu Hongjia

    1990-08-01

    The translocation and distribution characteristics of carbon assimilates were studied with the method of 14 CO 2 feeding. The results indicated that there were different translocation and distribution characteristics of carbon assimilates among the upper, middle and lower leaves in a shoot during annual cycle. Taking away leaves, sun-shading and drought could raise the exporting ratio of carbon assimilates in the feeding leaves and could change the distributing model of the tree. Most of the carbon assimilates were translocated to basic born branch after sun-shading and drought

  10. Translocation of the radioactive caesium via the calyx in persimmon fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekizawa, Haruhito; Sato, Mari; Aihara, Takashi; Murakami, Toshifumi; Hachinohe, Mayumi; Hamamatsu, Shioka

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate pathways of radioactive caesium contamination of persimmon fruit, we investigated translocation via the calyx. We treated calyces of immature and mature fruits (at either stage and both stages) with water containing caesium-137 (1000 Bq/kg) and measured concentrations in the calyx, pericarp, and flesh with a germanium semiconductor detector. All treated fruits had higher levels of radioactive caesium in all tissues than untreated fruits at harvest. The translocated radioactive caesium was retained in the fruit and not retranslocated. These results indicate that radioactive caesium is translocated via the calyx of persimmon at all stages of fruit development and is accumulated in the flesh. (author)

  11. High speed translocation of /sup 86/Rb in the phloem of Tradescantia viridis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penot, M.

    1976-01-01

    An autoradiographic study of the rooted shoots of Tradescantia viridis showed a high speed translocation of /sup 86/Rb applied to a leaf for short periods of time (5 to 2.5 min). The speed of this translocation (between 840 and 1.440 cm h/sup -1/) speaks for the existence of a very rapid phloem component translocating ions to an active sink, represented here by the growing roots. Pretreatment with cycloheximide (48 h, 50 mg 1/sup -1/) decreases the quantity of this long distance transport but not the velocity.

  12. Experimental observation of G banding verifying X-ray workers' chromosome translocation detected by FISH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yuanming; Li Jin; Wang Qin; Tang Weisheng; Wang Zhiquan

    2002-01-01

    Objective: FISH is the most effective way of detecting chromosome aberration and many factors affect its accuracy. G-banding is used to verify the results of early X-ray workers' chromosome translocation examined by FISH. Methods: The chromosome translocations of early X-ray workers have been analysed by FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) and G-banding, yields of translocation treated with statistics. Results: The chromosome aberrations frequencies by tow methods are closely related. Conclusion: FISH is a feasible way to analyse chromosome aberrations of X-ray workers and reconstruct dose

  13. Melanotic Xp11 Translocation Renal Cancer Managed With Radical Nephrectomy and IVC Tumor Thrombectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyad S. Khourdaji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer is a rarely observed neoplasm primarily affecting adolescents and young adults. Given the paucity of data describing this malignancy, its natural history and subsequent long-term management are not well understood. We report a case of melanotic Xp11 translocation with tumor thrombus extension managed with radical nephrectomy and inferior vena cava (IVC tumor thrombectomy. To our knowledge, this is the first case report to describe use of conventional tumor thrombectomy techniques in a patient with melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer.

  14. Variant Philadelphia translocations with different breakpoints in six chronic myeloid leukemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilhan Kuru

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Philadelphia (Ph chromosome, consisting of the t(9;22(q34;q11 translocation, is observed in ~90% of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. Variant Ph translocations are observed in 5%-10% of CML patients. In variant translocations 3 and possibly more chromosomes are involved. Herein we report 6 CML patients with variant Ph translocations.Materials and Methods: Bone marrow samples were examined using conventional cytogenetic meth ods. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with whole-chromosome paints and BCR-ABL 1D probes were used to confirm and/or complement the findings, and identify rearrangements beyond the resolution of conventional cytogenetic methods. Results: Variant Ph translocations in the 6 patients were as follows: t(7;22(p22;q11, t(9;22;15(q34;q11;q22, t(15;22(p11;q11, t(1;9;22;3(q24;q34;q11;q21, t(12;22(p13;q11, and t(4;8;9;22(q11;q13;q34;q11.Conclusion: Among the patients, 3 had simple and 3 had complex variant Ph translocations. Two of the presented cases had variant Ph chromosomes not previously described, 1 of which had a new complex Ph translocation involving chromosomes 1, 3, 9, 22, and t(1;9;22;3(q24;q34;q11;q21 apart from a clone with a classical Ph, and the other case had variant Ph translocation with chromosomes 4, 8, 9, and 22, and t(4;8;9;22(q11;q13;q34;q11 full complex translocation. Number of studies reported that some patients with variant Ph translocation were poor responders to imatinib. All of our patients with variant Ph translocations had suboptimal responses to imatinib, denoting a poor prognosis also. Variant Ph translocations may be important as they are associated with prognosis and therapy for CML patients.

  15. Studies on translocation of tritiated assimilates into potatoes and wheat grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.; Diabate, S.; Strack, S.; Raskob, W.

    1993-01-01

    Tritium released in the enviroment may be converted to organically bound tritium (OBT), mainly by photosynthesis in green leaves. Tritiated assimilates can be translocated from leaves to storage organs of crop plants. This should be considered in models calculating the dose due to the ingestion pathway. This paper describes experiments with wheat and potatoes, which have been designed to study the translocation of tritiated assimilates. Additionally, gas exchange measurements have been performed with the leaves of those plants. A model has been developed to estimate the generation of OBT and the translocation of tritiated assimilates into edible plant parts. (orig.) [de

  16. Stem-spermatogonial survival and incidence of reciprocal translocations in the γ-irradiated boar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, B.H.; Martin, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    To assess the effects of γ-radiation on stem-cell survival and incidence of reciprocal translocations, boar testes were irradiated with 100, 200, or 400 rad. Stem-cell survival was markedly affected by 100 rad (51% of control) and reduced to 34% of control by 400 rad. Production of differentiating spermatogonia renewal was incomplete at 12 weeks. Incidence of translocations peaked at 200 rad and the number occurring at 100 and 400 rad was similar. Kinetics of porcine spermatogonial renewal differs considerably from those of the rodent and, relative to the rodent, this may account for the boar's higher sensitivity to stem-cell killing and lower sensitivity to translocation

  17. Cytogenetic abnormalities of the descendants of permanent residents of heavily contaminated East Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaizhunusova, Nailya; Madiyeva, Madina; Tanaka, Kimio; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kawano, Noriyuki; Noso, Yoshihiro; Takeichi, Nobuo; Rakhypbekov, Tolebay; Urazalina, Nailya; Dovgal, Galina; Rymbaeva, Tamara; Tokanova, Sholpan; Beisengazina, Meruert; Kembayeva, Kulypash; Inoue, Ken

    2017-11-01

    More than 400 nuclear explosion tests were conducted at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) and significant radioactive substances were released. The long-term consequences of the activities at the SNTS and the appearance of any hereditary effects remain insufficiently studied about 25 years after the test site was closed. The population living in villages near the SNTS are considered to have been heavily exposed to external and internal radiation. This study aims to perform an assessment and comprehensive cytogenetic analysis of the inhabitants living near the SNTS, and their first-(F1) and second-(F2) generation children. Residents of the East Kazakhstan region living in the area covered by the former SNTS were included in the study. To evaluate the hereditary effects of nuclear testing, comprehensive chromosome analyses were performed in lymphocytes using conventional Giemsa and fluorescent in situ hybridization methods in 115 F1 and F2 descendants in the villages of Dolon and Sarzhal, which were heavily contaminated. The parents of the subjects had permanently lived in the villages. A higher number of stable-type chromosome aberrations such as translocations was found in these residents than in 80 residents of the control area, Kokpecty, which indicates the possibility that radiation had biological effects on the exposed subjects.

  18. Expression of serum insulin-like growth factors, insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins, and the growth hormone-binding protein in heterozygote relatives of Ecuadorian growth hormone receptor deficient patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, P J; Guevara-Aguirre, J; Rosenbloom, A L; Carlsson, L; Hintz, R L; Rosenfeld, R G

    1992-04-01

    Recently, an isolated population of apparent GH-receptor deficient (GHRD) patients has been identified in the Loja province of southern Ecuador. These individuals presented many of the physical and biochemical phenotypes characteristic of Laron-Syndrome and are believed to have a defect in the GH-receptor gene. In this study, we have compared the biochemical phenotypes between the affected individuals and their parents, considered to be obligate heterozygotes for the disorder. Serum GH, insulin-like growth factor I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) levels were measured by RIA Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins. (IGFBPs) were measured by Western ligand blotting (WLB) of serum samples, following separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and relative quantitation of serum IGFBPs was performed with a scanning laser densitometer. Serum GH-binding protein (GHBP) levels were measured with a ligand-mediated immunofunctional assay using a monoclonal antibody raised against the GHBP. These values were then compared to values obtained from normal, sex-matched adult Ecuadorian controls, to determine if the above parameters were abnormal in the heterozygotes. The serum IGF-I levels of the GHRD patients were less than 13% of control values for adults and 2% for children. However, the IGF-I levels of both the mothers and fathers were not significantly different from that of the control population. The serum IGF-II levels of the GHRD patients were approximately 20% of control values for adults and 12% for the children. The IGF-II levels of the mothers were reduced, but were not significantly different from that of the control population. However, IGF-II levels of the fathers were significantly lower than those of controls (64% of control male levels). WLB analysis of serum IGFBP levels of the affected subjects demonstrated increased IGFBP-2 and decreased IGFBP-3, suggesting an inverse relationship between these IGFBPs. The GHRD patients who had the

  19. Some economic aspects of rare-earth permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijlstra, H.

    1978-01-01

    The commercial feasibility of RE permanent magnets is analyzed in terms of price per unit of magnetostatic energy. The availability of the raw materials is also taken into consideration. The conclusion is that RE magnets are and remain relatively expensive as compared with other permanent magnets, and will find only limited application. (author)

  20. Modeling demagnetization effects in permanent magnet synchronous machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kral, C.; Sprangers, R.L.J.; Waarma, J.; Haumer, A.; Winter, O.; Lomonova, E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a permanent magnet model which takes temperature dependencies and demagnetization effects into account. The proposed model is integrated into a magnetic fundamental wave machine model using the model- ing language Modelica. For different rotor types permanent magnet models are

  1. Modeling of ironless permanent magnet planar motor structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeij, de J.; Lomonova, E.A.; Vandenput, A.J.A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an analytical model that includes end effects for ironless synchronous permanent-magnet planar actuators. Because of its flexibility, the model can be used to predict the performance of various permanent-magnet array and coil array topologies and commutation schemes. Moreover,

  2. Permanent tracheostomy: Its social impacts and their management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Upper respiratory tract obstruction resulting from bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve damage is commonly managed with permanent tracheostomy in our environment. Objective: To evaluate the social impacts of permanent tracheostomy and its management in Ondo State, Southwest Nigeria. Materials and ...

  3. Crustal deformations at permanent GPS sites in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Knudsen, Per; Tscherning, Carl Christian

    2005-01-01

    The National Survey and Cadastre (KMS) is responsible for the geodetic definition of the reference network in Denmark. Permanent GPS stations play an important role in the monitoring and maintenance of the geodetic network. During 1998 and 1999 KMS established three permanent GPS station in Denma...

  4. The M/G/1 queue with permanent customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.; Cohen, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The authors examine an M/G/1 FCFS (first come, first served) queue with two types of customers: ordinary customers, who arrive according to a Poisson process, and permanent customers, who immediately return to the end of the queue after having received a service. The influence of the permanent

  5. Budget allocation for permanent and contingent capacity under stochastic demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellaert, N.P.; Jeunet, J.; Mincsovics, G.Z.

    2009-01-01

    We develop a model of budget allocation for permanent and contingent workforce under stochastic demand. The level of permanent capacity is determined at the beginning of the horizon and is kept constant throughout whereas the number of temporary workers to be hired must be decided in each period.

  6. Budget allocation for permanent and contingent capacity under stochastic demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellaert, N.P.; Jeunet, J.; Mincsovics, G.Z.

    2011-01-01

    We develop a model of budget allocation for permanent and contingent workforce under stochastic demand. The level of permanent capacity is determined at the beginning of the horizon and is kept constant throughout, whereas the number of temporary workers to be hired must be decided in each period.

  7. Non-Syndromic Oligodontia in permanent dentition: A case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of a syndrome. The present case report highlights a unique case of non syndromic oligodontia, with agenesis of four permanent incisors, left permanent canine and right second premolar in the mandibular arch and its management with a novel fixed functional prosthetic appliance. Prosthetic rehabilitation is an urgent need ...

  8. Method and apparatus for assembling a permanent magnet pole assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Jr., Ralph James; Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran [Niskayuna, NY; Jansen, Patrick Lee [Scotia, NY; Dawson, Richard Nils [Voorheesville, NY; Qu, Ronghai [Clifton Park, NY; Avanesov, Mikhail Avramovich [Moscow, RU

    2009-08-11

    A pole assembly for a rotor, the pole assembly includes a permanent magnet pole including at least one permanent magnet block, a plurality of laminations including a pole cap mechanically coupled to the pole, and a plurality of laminations including a base plate mechanically coupled to the pole.

  9. Learning to Live With a Permanent Intestinal Ostomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard; Burcharth, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the impact of a permanent stoma on patients' everyday lives and to gain further insight into their need for ostomy-related education.......The aim of the study was to explore the impact of a permanent stoma on patients' everyday lives and to gain further insight into their need for ostomy-related education....

  10. Study of peristomal skin disorders in patients with permanent stomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlufsen, P; Olsen, A G; Carlsen, B

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the frequency, severity and diversity of peristomal skin disorders among individuals with a permanent stoma in a community population. All individuals with a permanent stoma (n=630) in a Danish community population were invited to participate in a cross-...

  11. Sensorless V/f Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel; Perera, P. D. Chandana; Galceran-Arellano, Samuel; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2010-01-01

    V/f control strategy for permanent magnet synchronous motors can be useful for HVAC applications, where not high performance is required. Permanent magnet synchronous motors have efficiency advantages over the induction motor. But open loop V/f control is not stable in the whole frequency range. As demonstrated, the V/f control strategy becomes

  12. A permanent magnet system for Kibble balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shisong; Bielsa, Franck; Stock, Michael; Kiss, Adrien; Fang, Hao

    2017-10-01

    The magnet is one of the fundamental elements in Kibble balances. The Kibble balance group at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) proposed a permanent magnet with a radial field, which has been widely employed in other Kibble balance experiments. In this paper, we discuss a different method of operation for the BIPM-type magnet, i.e. only the lower half of the magnetic circuit is closed. The merit of such a magnet is its convenience for opening the air gap and adjusting the coil. A disadvantage is that it can yield a lower and sloped magnetic field profile with less shielding. In the approach described, high permeability yokes are used to flatten the magnetic profile, which has proven to be a novel and convenient approach for removing the nonuniformity of the magnetic profile due to magnet magnetization asymmetries. The performance of the half-closed BIPM magnet is evaluated using experimental measurements. The results show that the half-closed magnetic circuit retains most of the main features of the fully-closed magnet and is a good option for the early stages of Kibble balance operations. In addition, the profile change due to the coil current is predicted and experimentally verified with a bifilar coil. Related systematic effects are discussed for the Planck constant measurement.

  13. Looking for permanent electric dipole moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakemi, Yasuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Exploration of the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) is one of the important ways to promote the research of fundamental symmetries and interactions. In this paper the progress of the exploration up to the present is overviewed and then the present status and expectation in future of the experiment using cooled unstable atoms which is the hopeful method to measure electron EDM is presented. At first the physical meaning of the CPT symmetry breaking is introduced and the upper limit of EDM of electron, muon, tau, proton, neutron, Λ hyperon and 199 Hg are tabulated. It is explained how EDM appears in the theory beyond the standard model, the supersymmetry model e.g. The on-going experiments of EDM exploration of neutrons, nuclei, electrons, molecules and charged particles are briefly reviewed. Finally the experiment to use the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) to produce ultra low temperature of nK range by using the laser to cool down radioactive element is presented. Since the amplification of EDM is expected to be large in heavy unstable atoms, francium isotopes which are obtained by heavy ion fusion of 197 Au target bombarded with 18 O beam are chosen in this experiment. It has been confirmed that Rb can be kept in the instrument for 20 minutes up to the present. Progress toward trapping Fr is under way by optimizing numbers of experimental parameters. Experiments by the groups in foreign countries are overviewed briefly. (S. Funahashi)

  14. Procedure for estimating permanent total enclosure costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukey, M E; Prasad, C; Toothman, D A; Kaplan, N

    1999-07-01

    Industries that use add-on control devices must adequately capture emissions before delivering them to the control device. One way to capture emissions is to use permanent total enclosures (PTEs). By definition, an enclosure which meets the US Environmental Protection Agency's five-point criteria is a PTE and has a capture efficiency of 100%. Since costs play an important role in regulatory development, in selection of control equipment, and in control technology evaluations for permitting purposes, EPA has developed a Control Cost Manual for estimating costs of various items of control equipment. EPA's Manual does not contain any methodology for estimating PTE costs. In order to assist environmental regulators and potential users of PTEs, a methodology for estimating PTE costs was developed under contract with EPA, by Pacific Environmental Services, Inc. (PES) and is the subject of this paper. The methodology for estimating PTE costs follows the approach used for other control devices in the Manual. It includes procedures for sizing various components of a PTE and for estimating capital as well as annual costs. It contains verification procedures for demonstrating compliance with EPA's five-point criteria. In addition, procedures are included to determine compliance with Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards. Meeting these standards is an important factor in properly designing PTEs. The methodology is encoded in Microsoft Exel spreadsheets to facilitate cost estimation and PTE verification. Examples are given throughout the methodology development and in the spreadsheets to illustrate the PTE design, verification, and cost estimation procedures.

  15. A Novel Permanent Magnetic Angular Acceleration Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Angular acceleration is an important parameter for status monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotary machinery. Therefore, we developed a novel permanent magnetic angular acceleration sensor, which is without rotation angle limitations and could directly measure the instantaneous angular acceleration of the rotating system. The sensor rotor only needs to be coaxially connected with the rotating system, which enables convenient sensor installation. For the cup structure of the sensor rotor, it has a relatively small rotational inertia. Due to the unique mechanical structure of the sensor, the output signal of the sensor can be directed without a slip ring, which avoids signal weakening effect. In this paper, the operating principle of the sensor is described, and simulated using finite element method. The sensitivity of the sensor is calibrated by torsional pendulum and angle sensor, yielding an experimental result of about 0.88 mV/(rad·s−2. Finally, the angular acceleration of the actual rotating system has been tested, using both a single-phase asynchronous motor and a step motor. Experimental result confirms the operating principle of the sensor and indicates that the sensor has good practicability.

  16. Magnetic Performance of a Nanocomposite Permanent Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Min; Han Guang-Bing; Gao Ru-Wei

    2011-01-01

    We build a sandwiched structure model in which the intergranular phase (IP) is homogeneously distributed between soft and hard magnetic grains, and gives a continuously anisotropic expression of the coupling part under the assumption that the IP weakens the intergrain exchange-coupling interaction. Based on the idea that the hardening mechanism is of the pinning type, we calculate the effect of the IP's thickness d and its anisotropy constant K 1 (0) on the intrinsic coercivity of a nanocomposite permanent material. The calculated results indicate that the domain wall goes twice through irreversible domain wall displacement during the process of moving from soft to hard magnetic grains, and the intrinsic coercivity increases with increasing d, but decreases with increasing K 1 (0). When d and K 1 (0) take 2 nm and 0.7K h , respectively, with K h being the anisotropy constant in the inner part of the hard magnetic grain, the calculated intrinsic coercivity is in good agreement with the experimental data. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  17. Design of permanent magnetic solenoids for REGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, Tim

    2013-10-15

    The Relativistic Electron Gun for Atomic Exploration (REGAE) is a small linear accelerator at DESY in Hamburg, which produces short, low emittance electron bunches. It is originally designed and built for ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) within the framework of the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL). Additionally, two future experiments are planned at REGAE. First, an external injection experiment for Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWA) will be performed in the framework of the LAOLA collaboration (LAboratory fOr Laser- and beam-driven plasma Acceleration). This experiment will provide a method for the reconstruction of the electric field distribution within a linear plasma wakefield. Second, a time resolving high energy Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) will be implemented. Among others it is designed to allow for living cell imaging. Both experiments require strong focusing magnets inside the new target chamber at REGAE. Permanent magnetic solenoids (PMSs) can provide the needed focusing strength due to their enormous surface current density, while having compact dimensions at the same time. The present thesis deals with the design of such strong focusing PMSs. Since short and strong solenoids, as required for REGAE, exhibit a distinct non-linearity, the induced emittance growth is relatively large. This emittance growth is investigated and minimized for different set-ups with axially and radially magnetized annular magnets. Furthermore a magnetic shielding is developed. Together with a mechanical lifting system it assures that magnetic leakage fields do not disturb experiments, where the PMSs are removed from the beamline.

  18. Rare earth elements and permanent magnets (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Peter C.

    2012-04-01

    Rare earth (RE) magnets have become virtually indispensible in a wide variety of industries such as aerospace, automotive, electronics, medical, and military. RE elements are essential ingredients in these high performance magnets based on intermetallic compounds RECo5, RE2TM17 (TM: transition metal), and RE2TM14B. Rare earth magnets are known for their superior magnetic properties—high induction, and coercive force. These properties arise due to the extremely high magnetocrystalline anisotropy made possible by unique 3d-4f interactions between transition metals and rare earths. For more than 40 years, these magnets remain the number one choice in applications that require high magnetic fields in extreme operating conditions—high demagnetization forces and high temperature. EEC produces and specializes in RECo5 and RE2TM17 type sintered magnets. Samarium and gadolinium are key RE ingredients in the powder metallurgical magnet production processes which include melting, crushing, jet milling, pressing, sintering, and heat treating. The magnetic properties and applications of these magnets will be discussed. We will also briefly discuss the past, current, and future of the permanent magnet business. Currently, over 95% of all pure rare earth oxides are sourced from China, which currently controls the market. We will provide insights regarding current and potential new magnet technologies and designer choices, which may mitigate rare earth supply chain issues now and into the future.

  19. Elastic Moduli of Permanently Densified Silica Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, T.; Margueritat, J.; Martinet, C.; Mermet, A.; Champagnon, B.

    2014-01-01

    Modelling the mechanical response of silica glass is still challenging, due to the lack of knowledge concerning the elastic properties of intermediate states of densification. An extensive Brillouin Light Scattering study on permanently densified silica glasses after cold compression in diamond anvil cell has been carried out, in order to deduce the elastic properties of such glasses and to provide new insights concerning the densification process. From sound velocity measurements, we derive phenomenological laws linking the elastic moduli of silica glass as a function of its densification ratio. The found elastic moduli are in excellent agreement with the sparse data extracted from literature, and we show that they do not depend on the thermodynamic path taken during densification (room temperature or heating). We also demonstrate that the longitudinal sound velocity exhibits an anomalous behavior, displaying a minimum for a densification ratio of 5%, and highlight the fact that this anomaly has to be distinguished from the compressibility anomaly of a-SiO2 in the elastic domain. PMID:25431218

  20. Plasma sprayed samarium--cobalt permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, M.C.; Janowiecki, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    Samarium--cobalt permanent magnets were fabricated by arc plasma spraying. This process involves the injection of relatively coarse powder particles into a high-temperature gas for melting and spraying onto a substrate. The technique is being investigated as an economical method for fabricating cobalt--rare earth magnets for advanced traveling wave tubes and cross-field amplifiers. Plasma spraying permits deposition of material at high rates over large areas with optional direct bonding to the substrate, and offers the ability to fabricate magnets in a variety of shapes and sizes. Isotropic magnets were produced with high coercivity and good reproducibility in magnetic properties. Post-spray thermal treatments were used to enhance the magnetic properties of sprayed deposits. Samarium--cobalt magnets, sprayed from samarium-rich powder and subjected to post-spray heat treatment, displayed energy products in excess of 9 million gauss-oersteds and coercive forces of approximately 6000 oersteds. Bar magnet arrays were constructed by depositing magnets on ceramic substrates. (auth)

  1. Plasma sprayed samarium--cobalt permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, M.C.; Janowiecki, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    Samarium--Co permanent magnets were fabricated by arc plasma spraying. This process involves the injection of relatively coarse powder particles into a high temperature gas for melting and spraying onto a substrate. The technique is being investigated as an economical method for fabricating Co--rare earth magnets for advanced traveling wave tubes and cross-field amplifiers. Plasma spraying permits deposition of material at high rates over large areas with optional direct bonding to the substrate, and offers the ability to fabricate magnets in a variety of shapes and sizes. Isotropic magnets were produced with high coercivity and good reproducibility in magnetic properties. Post-spray thermal treatments were used to enhance the magnetic properties of sprayed deposits. Samarium--Co magnets, sprayed from Sm-rich powder and subjected to post-spray heat treatment, displayed energy products in excess of 9 million G-Oe and coercive forces of approximately 6000 Oe. Bar magnet arrays were constructed by depositing magnets on ceramic substrates

  2. Design of permanent magnetic solenoids for REGAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, Tim

    2013-10-01

    The Relativistic Electron Gun for Atomic Exploration (REGAE) is a small linear accelerator at DESY in Hamburg, which produces short, low emittance electron bunches. It is originally designed and built for ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) within the framework of the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL). Additionally, two future experiments are planned at REGAE. First, an external injection experiment for Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWA) will be performed in the framework of the LAOLA collaboration (LAboratory fOr Laser- and beam-driven plasma Acceleration). This experiment will provide a method for the reconstruction of the electric field distribution within a linear plasma wakefield. Second, a time resolving high energy Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) will be implemented. Among others it is designed to allow for living cell imaging. Both experiments require strong focusing magnets inside the new target chamber at REGAE. Permanent magnetic solenoids (PMSs) can provide the needed focusing strength due to their enormous surface current density, while having compact dimensions at the same time. The present thesis deals with the design of such strong focusing PMSs. Since short and strong solenoids, as required for REGAE, exhibit a distinct non-linearity, the induced emittance growth is relatively large. This emittance growth is investigated and minimized for different set-ups with axially and radially magnetized annular magnets. Furthermore a magnetic shielding is developed. Together with a mechanical lifting system it assures that magnetic leakage fields do not disturb experiments, where the PMSs are removed from the beamline.

  3. Detection of reciprocal chromosome translocations as an indicator of organism exposure to ionizing radiation by FISH-WCP method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holeckova, B.; Sivikova, K.; Dianovsky, J.; Piesova, E.; Lakatosova, M.

    2006-01-01

    Chromosome translocations are considered to be the gold standard for assessing ionizing radiation exposure. Because translocations are inherently more stable through cell division than dicentrics, translocations have become the aberration of choice for evaluating many types of exposure. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with whole chromosome painting probes (FISH-WCP) has been shown to be a rapid method of detecting chromosomal rearrangements, and appears to be especially useful for analysis of induced translocations. The present paper shortly describes FISH-WCP method for detection of reciprocal translocations as indicators of exposure to ionizing radiation. (authors)

  4. Safety effects of permanent running lights for bicycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Chr. Overgaard; Andersen, T.; Lahrmann, Harry

    2013-01-01

    , including all recorded bicycle accidents with personal injury to the participating cyclist, is 19% lower for cyclists with permanent running lights mounted; indicating that the permanent bicycle running light significantly improves traffic safety for cyclists. The study shows that use of permanent bicycle......Making the use of daytime running lights mandatory for motor vehicles is generally documented to have had a positive impact upon traffic safety. Improving traffic safety for bicyclists is a focal point in the road traffic safety work in Denmark. In 2004 and 2005 a controlled experiment including...... 3845 cyclists was carried out in Odense, Denmark in order to examine, if permanent running lights mounted to bicycles would improve traffic safety for cyclists. The permanent running lights were mounted to 1845 bicycles and the accident rate was recorded through 12 months for this treatment group...

  5. The chromosomal risk in sperm from heterozygous Robertsonian translocation carriers is related to the sperm count and the translocation type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferfouri, Fatma; Selva, Jacqueline; Boitrelle, Florence; Gomes, Denise Molina; Torre, Antoine; Albert, Martine; Bailly, Marc; Clement, Patrice; Vialard, François

    2011-12-01

    To study the chromosomal risk in sperm from Robertsonian translocation (RobT) carriers as a function of the sperm count and translocation type. Prospective study. Departments of reproductive biology, cytogenetics, gynecology, and obstetrics. A total of 29 RobT patients (8 normozoospermic and 21 oligozoospermic) and 20 46,XY patients (10 normozoospermic and 10 oligozoospermic). Sperm fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes for translocation malsegregation and chromosome 13, 18, 21, X, and Y probes for studying the interchromosomal effect (ICE). Translocation malsegregation and ICE aneuploidy rates. In RobT carriers, the sperm translocation malsegregation rate was significantly lower in normozoospermic patients (9.7%) than in oligozoospermic patients (18.0%). Considering only oligozoospermic patients, sperm malsegregation rates were significantly lower for rob(14;21) than for rob(13;14) (11.4% vs. 18.9%). In turn, the rates were significantly lower for rob(13;14) than for rare RobTs (18.9% vs. 25.3%). In sperm from normozoospermic RobT, an ICE was suggested by higher chromosome 13 and 21 aneuploidy rates than in control sperm. Conversely, chromosome 13 and 21 sperm aneuploidy rates were lower in oligozoospermic RobT patients than in oligozoospermic 46,XY patients, but higher than in control subjects. Both translocation type and sperm count influence the RobT malsegregation risk. Of the chromosomes analyzed (13, 18, 21, X, and Y), only chromosomes 13 and 21 were found to be associated with an ICE. Relative to the RobT effect, idiopathic alterations in spermatogenesis in 46,XY patients appear to be more harmful for meiosis. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Permanent uncoupling of male-specific CYP2C11 transcription/translation by perinatal glutamate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Sarmistha; Das, Rajat Kumar; Giffear, Kelly A.; Shapiro, Bernard H., E-mail: shapirob@vet.upenn.edu

    2015-04-01

    Perinatal exposure of rats and mice to the typically reported 4 mg/g bd wt dose of monosodium glutamate (MSG) results in a complete block in GH secretion as well as obesity, growth retardation and a profound suppression of several cytochrome P450s, including CYP2C11, the predominant male-specific isoform — all irreversible effects. In contrast, we have found that a lower dose of the food additive, 2 mg/g bd wt on alternate days for the first 9 days of life results in a transient neonatal depletion of plasma GH, a subsequent permanent overexpression of CYP2C11 as well as subnormal (mini) GH pulse amplitudes in an otherwise normal adult masculine episodic GH profile. The overexpressed CYP2C11 was characterized by a 250% increase in mRNA, but only a 40 to 50% increase in CYP2C11 protein and its catalytic activity. Using freshly isolated hepatocytes as well as primary cultures exposed to the masculine-like episodic GH profile, we observed normal induction, activation, nuclear translocation and binding to the CYP2C11 promoter of the GH-dependent signal transducers required for CYP2C11 transcription. The disproportionately lower expression levels of CYP2C11 protein were associated with dramatically high expression levels of an aberrant, presumably nontranslated CYP2C11 mRNA, a 200% increase in CYP2C11 ubiquitination and a 70–80% decline in miRNAs associated, at normal levels, with a suppression of CYP2C expression. Whereas the GH-responsiveness of CYP2C7 and CYP2C6 as well as albumin was normal in the MSG-derived hepatocytes, the abnormal expression of CYP2C11 was permanent and irreversible. - Highlights: • A “low” neonatal dose of MSG causes an immediate but transient growth hormone depletion. • Adult circulating growth hormone contains mini pulses in an otherwise male profile. • CYP2C11 is permanently overexpressed > 250%; CYP2C6, 2C7 and albumin remain normal. • The bulk of the overexpressed CYP2C11 mRNA consists of an intron-retained form. • SOCS2

  7. Permanent uncoupling of male-specific CYP2C11 transcription/translation by perinatal glutamate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Sarmistha; Das, Rajat Kumar; Giffear, Kelly A.; Shapiro, Bernard H.

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal exposure of rats and mice to the typically reported 4 mg/g bd wt dose of monosodium glutamate (MSG) results in a complete block in GH secretion as well as obesity, growth retardation and a profound suppression of several cytochrome P450s, including CYP2C11, the predominant male-specific isoform — all irreversible effects. In contrast, we have found that a lower dose of the food additive, 2 mg/g bd wt on alternate days for the first 9 days of life results in a transient neonatal depletion of plasma GH, a subsequent permanent overexpression of CYP2C11 as well as subnormal (mini) GH pulse amplitudes in an otherwise normal adult masculine episodic GH profile. The overexpressed CYP2C11 was characterized by a 250% increase in mRNA, but only a 40 to 50% increase in CYP2C11 protein and its catalytic activity. Using freshly isolated hepatocytes as well as primary cultures exposed to the masculine-like episodic GH profile, we observed normal induction, activation, nuclear translocation and binding to the CYP2C11 promoter of the GH-dependent signal transducers required for CYP2C11 transcription. The disproportionately lower expression levels of CYP2C11 protein were associated with dramatically high expression levels of an aberrant, presumably nontranslated CYP2C11 mRNA, a 200% increase in CYP2C11 ubiquitination and a 70–80% decline in miRNAs associated, at normal levels, with a suppression of CYP2C expression. Whereas the GH-responsiveness of CYP2C7 and CYP2C6 as well as albumin was normal in the MSG-derived hepatocytes, the abnormal expression of CYP2C11 was permanent and irreversible. - Highlights: • A “low” neonatal dose of MSG causes an immediate but transient growth hormone depletion. • Adult circulating growth hormone contains mini pulses in an otherwise male profile. • CYP2C11 is permanently overexpressed > 250%; CYP2C6, 2C7 and albumin remain normal. • The bulk of the overexpressed CYP2C11 mRNA consists of an intron-retained form. • SOCS2

  8. SIRT1 interacts with and protects glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from nuclear translocation: Implications for cell survival after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Hyun-Yoo; Woo, Seon Rang; Shen, Yan-Nan; Yun, Mi Yong; Shin, Hyun-Jin; Park, Eun-Ran; Kim, Su-Hyeon; Park, Jeong-Eun; Ju, Yeun-Jin; Hong, Sung Hee; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Cho, Myung-Haing; Kim, Joon; Lee, Kee-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► SIRT1 serves to retain GAPDH in the cytosol, preventing GAPDH nuclear translocation. ► When SIRT1 is depleted, GAPDH translocation occurs even in the absence of stress. ► Upon irradiation, SIRT1 interacts with GAPDH. ► SIRT1 prevents irradiation-induced nuclear translocation of GAPDH. ► SIRT1 presence rather than activity is essential for inhibiting GAPDH translocation. -- Abstract: Upon apoptotic stimulation, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a cytosolic enzyme normally active in glycolysis, translocates into the nucleus and activates an apoptotic cascade therein. In the present work, we show that SIRT1 prevents nuclear translocation of GAPDH via interaction with GAPDH. SIRT1 depletion triggered nuclear translocation of cytosolic GAPDH even in the absence of apoptotic stress. Such translocation was not, however, observed when SIRT1 enzymatic activity was inhibited, indicating that SIRT1 protein per se, rather than the deacetylase activity of the protein, is required to inhibit GAPDH translocation. Upon irradiation, SIRT1 prevented irradiation-induced nuclear translocation of GAPDH, accompanied by interaction of SIRT1 and GAPDH. Thus, SIRT1 functions to retain GAPDH in the cytosol, protecting the enzyme from nuclear translocation via interaction with these two proteins. This serves as a mechanism whereby SIRT1 regulates cell survival upon induction of apoptotic stress by means that include irradiation.

  9. A case of posttraumatic splenic translocation into the thorax; Przypadek pourazowego przemieszczenia sledziony do klatki piersiowej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosnowski, P.; Sikorski, L.; Ziemianski, A. [Akademia Medyczna, Poznan (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    A case of the left diaphragmatic hernia due to blunt thoracic and abdominal trauma is presented. Characteristic radiological signs of splenic translocation into the thorax contributed to quick diagnosis and immediate surgical intervention. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs.

  10. A Brownian motor mechanism of translocation and strand separation by hepatitis C virus helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Mikhail K; Gurjar, Madhura; Patel, Smita S

    2005-05-01

    Helicases translocate along their nucleic acid substrates using the energy of ATP hydrolysis and by changing conformations of their nucleic acid-binding sites. Our goal is to characterize the conformational changes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) helicase at different stages of ATPase cycle and to determine how they lead to translocation. We have reported that ATP binding reduces HCV helicase affinity for nucleic acid. Now we identify the stage of the ATPase cycle responsible for translocation and unwinding. We show that a rapid directional movement occurs upon helicase binding to DNA in the absence of ATP, resulting in opening of several base pairs. We propose that HCV helicase translocates as a Brownian motor with a simple two-stroke cycle. The directional movement step is fueled by single-stranded DNA binding energy while ATP binding allows for a brief period of random movement that prepares the helicase for the next cycle.

  11. Variants forms of Philadelphia translocation in two patients with chronic myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valent, A.; Zamecnikova, A.; Krizan, P.; Karlic, H.; Nowotny, H.

    1996-01-01

    During a 4-year period (December 1990-December 1994), among other diagnoses hundred cases of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) were analyzed in our departments. We focused our attention on two cases with a variant form of Philadelphia translocation. Cytogenetic and molecular genetic studies were performed to resolve the status of BCR and ABL in the bone marrow or peripheral blood cells of the two CML patients with complex translocations involving chromosomes, 3, 9, 22 and 9, 12, 22 respectively. In the first case the presence of Ph chromosome was detected cytogenetically, BCR-ABL translocation was detected by Southern hybridization. In the second phase, only the PCR method showed BCR-ABL rearrangement. The second case, with a random variant form of Ph translocation, could be detected using different methods of clinical molecular genetics. (author)

  12. Complex Variant t(9;22 Chromosome Translocations in Five Cases of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Valencia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Philadelphia (Ph1 chromosome arising from the reciprocal t(9;22 translocation is found in more than 90% of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML patients and results in the formation of the chimeric fusion gene BCR-ABL. However, a small proportion of patients with CML have simple or complex variants of this translocation, involving various breakpoints in addition to 9q34 and 22q11. We report five CML cases carrying variant Ph translocations involving both chromosomes 9 and 22 as well as chromosomes 3, 5, 7, 8, or 10. G-banding showed a reciprocal three-way translocation involving 3q21, 5q31, 7q32, 8q24, and 10q22 bands. BCR-ABL fusion signal on der(22 was found in all of the cases by FISH.

  13. High positive end-expiratory pressure levels promote bacterial translocation in experimental pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lachmann, Robert A.; van Kaam, Anton H.; Haitsma, Jack J.; Lachmann, Burkhard

    2007-01-01

    A previous study in piglets with experimental pneumonia showed that reducing atelectasis by means of open lung ventilation attenuated bacterial translocation compared to conventional ventilation settings. This study examined the effect of open lung ventilation with higher than necessary positive

  14. Characterization of uptake and translocation of radioactive herbicides in a parasitic-host system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz S, Jorge; Lopez G, Francisca; Garcia T, Luis

    1999-01-01

    Uptake and translocation of [14C]-propyzamide applied to the sunflower seed by coating or soaking, of [14C]-imazapyr and [14C]-glyphosate both applied at post emergence, were studied in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) parasitising or not by nodding broom rape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.). Sunflower seed absorbed 9.8 and 3.4% of [14C]-propyzamide applied by coating or soaking, respectively, and less than 1% was translocated to the nodding broom rape. In sunflower plants infested and not infested with nodding broom rape, nearly 90% of [14C]-imazapyr was absorbed and 26% was translocated to the parasitic weed. Uptake of [14C]-glyphosate was similar (50%) for infested or not infested sunflower plants and only the 6% was translocated to the nodding broom rape

  15. Transport of radiocesium in mycelium and its translocation to fruitbodies of a saprophytic macromycete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazala, Michal A.; Golda, Katarzyna [Isotope Laboratory, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warsaw (Poland); Bystrzejewska-Piotrowska, Grazyna [Isotope Laboratory, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail: byst@biol.uw.edu.pl

    2008-07-15

    We present a new protocol to study fluxes of radionuclides and other xenobiotics in saprophytic fungi. This simple method has successfully been used to evaluate transport of radiocesium in hyphae of Pleurotus eryngii and its translocation to fruitbodies.

  16. Nectar reabsorption and sugar translocation in male and female flowers of Cucurbita pepo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stpiczynska, M.; Nepi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The production and secretion of nectar has an energy cost that can be a substantial part of the energy economy of the plant. Plants may therefore recover part of the energy allocated to nectar secretion by reabsorbing nectar not collected by pollinators. This energy-saving strategy has been demonstrated by several authors by different methods. Here we demonstrate nectar reabsorption and sugar translocation in Cucurbita pepo by means of microautoradiography. Our results confirm that the dynamics of nectar reabsorption is different in male and female flowers. Differences in the dynamics of nectar reabsorption and sugar translocation were also found in pollinated and unpollinated female flowers. Pollinated female flowers reabsorbed sugar very quickly and translocated it to developing fruits in which ovules were the main sugar sink. Sugar translocation was slower and ovules did not label in unpollinated female flowers. (author)

  17. Robertsonian translocation 13/14 associated with rRNA genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Robertsonian translocation 13/14 associated with rRNA genes overexpression and intellectual disability. Alexander A. Dolskiy, Natalya A. Lemskaya, Yulia V. Maksimova, Asia R. Shorina, Irina S. Kolesnikova, Dmitry V. Yudkin ...

  18. Study of the frequency of translocations and dicentrics in human spermatozoid using fluorescent in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, R.; Ponsa, I.; Tusell, L.; Genesca, A.; Miro, R.; Egozcue, J.

    1998-01-01

    Present study has intended to analyze the induction translocations and dicentrics in human sperms irradiated in vitro to the dose 4Gy by means of the use technical in situ hybridization with probes marked fluorescently

  19. High-performance analysis of single interphase cells with custom DNA probes spanning translocation break points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weier, Heinz-Ulli G.; Munne, S.; Lersch, Robert A.; Marquez, C.; Wu, J.; Pedersen, Roger A.; Fung, Jingly

    1999-06-01

    The chromatin organization of interphase cell nuclei, albeit an object of intense investigation, is only poorly understood. In the past, this has hampered the cytogenetic analysis of tissues derived from specimens where only few cells were actively proliferating or a significant number of metaphase cells could be obtained by induction of growth. Typical examples of such hard to analyze cell systems are solid tumors, germ cells and, to a certain extent, fetal cells such as amniocytes, blastomeres or cytotrophoblasts. Balanced reciprocal translocations that do not disrupt essential genes and thus do not led to disease symptoms exit in less than one percent of the general population. Since the presence of translocations interferes with homologue pairing in meiosis, many of these individuals experience problems in their reproduction, such as reduced fertility, infertility or a history of spontaneous abortions. The majority of translocation carriers enrolled in our in vitro fertilization (IVF) programs carry simple translocations involving only two autosomes. While most translocations are relatively easy to spot in metaphase cells, the majority of cells biopsied from embryos produced by IVF are in interphase and thus unsuitable for analysis by chromosome banding or FISH-painting. We therefore set out to analyze single interphase cells for presence or absence of specific translocations. Our assay, based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of breakpoint-spanning DNA probes, detects translocations in interphase by visual microscopic inspection of hybridization domains. Probes are prepared so that they span a breakpoint and cover several hundred kb of DNA adjacent to the breakpoint. On normal chromosomes, such probes label a contiguous stretch of DNA and produce a single hybridization domain per chromosome in interphase cells. The translocation disrupts the hybridization domain and the resulting two fragments appear as physically separated hybridization domains in

  20. Carbon 14 absorption and translocation in sugar cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, R.M.M.; Sampaio, E.V.S.; Salcedo, I.H.

    1990-01-01

    Plant-cane stools were labelled with sup(14) CO sub(2), in the field, at Goiana-PE, Brazil, when 3, 7 and 11 months old. Each stool was enclosed in a chamber with sup(14) CO sub(2) for 90 minutes. The sub(14) C photosynthetic were measured in leaves, stalks, roots and soil 24 hours after labelling. Roots were divided into alive and dead and soil into rhizosphere and outer soil. At the end of the labelling period at 3, 7 and 11 months, 2, 19 and 1% of the initial sup(14) CO sub(2) were recovered in the plant and the soil. The low recovery of sub(14) C at 3 months could be attribute to losses by respiration and lack of sampling of the top growing point. The low CO sub(2) fixation and losses at first sampling in the 7 month old labelling were attributed to low light intensity during the day of labelling. Most of the recovered sub(14) C (>80%) was founded in the leaves but all plant parts received labelled photosynthetic. At 3 months, most of the sub(14) C translocated from the leaves went to the living roots (83%); at 7 and 11 months it went to the stalks (69 and 66%). While the roots received less than 2%. Root masses did not vary consistently along the plant cycle and dead root masses were always less than 10% of the total root mass. Radioactivity in the dead roots was always very low. These results suggest that the root system have a low turnover rate after 3 months old. (author)

  1. Chromosomal translocation in a mongoloid male child and his normal mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Beçak

    1963-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a translocation 21/13-15 is related in 46 chromosomes, karyotypes of a mongoloid male child (Down's syndrome. The abnormal chromosome was transmitted by the mother of the patient. The possible deficiency of translocated chromosome 21 and the possible origin of the anomaly in the family was discussed and the presence of a markedly large Y chromosome in the karyotypes of the patient as in those of his father was also noted.

  2. Primary vitreoretinal dysplasia resembling Norrie's disease in a female: association with X autosome chromosomal translocation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohba, N.; Yamashita, T.

    1986-01-01

    A female infant with the typical clinical and histopathological features of vitreoretinal dysplasia is described. She had an apparently balanced reciprocal chromosomal translocation 46XX,t(X;10) with the X chromosome breakpoint being on the short arm. Since the parents' karyotypes were normal, it is most plausible that a de novo chromosomal translocation disrupted the vitreoretinal dysplasia gene itself. The severe clinical symptoms of this heterozygous female patient were explained by non-ra...

  3. Short-Term Space-Use Patterns of Translocated Mojave Desert Tortoise in Southern California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Farnsworth

    Full Text Available Increasingly, renewable energy comprises a larger share of global energy production. Across the western United States, public lands are being developed to support renewable energy production. Where there are conflicts with threatened or endangered species, translocation can be used in an attempt to mitigate negative effects. For the threatened Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii, we sought to compare habitat- and space-use patterns between short-distance translocated, resident, and control groups. We tested for differences in home range size based on utilization distributions and used linear mixed-effects models to compare space-use intensity, while controlling for demographic and environmental variables. In addition, we examined mean movement distances as well as home range overlap between years and for male and female tortoises in each study group. During the first active season post-translocation, home range size was greater and space-use intensity was lower for translocated tortoises than resident and control groups. These patterns were not present in the second season. In both years, there was no difference in home range size or space-use intensity between control and resident groups. Translocation typically resulted in one active season of questing followed by a second active season characterized by space-use patterns that were indistinguishable from control tortoises. Across both years, the number of times a tortoise was found in a burrow was positively related to greater space-use intensity. Minimizing the time required for translocated tortoises to exhibit patterns similar to non-translocated individuals may have strong implications for conservation by reducing exposure to adverse environmental conditions and predation. With ongoing development, our results can be used to guide future efforts aimed at understanding how translocation strategies influence patterns of animal space use.

  4. Effects of age and sex ratios on offspring recruitment rates in translocated black rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedir, Jay V; Law, Peter R; du Preez, Pierre; Linklater, Wayne L

    2018-06-01

    Success of animal translocations depends on improving postrelease demographic rates toward establishment and subsequent growth of released populations. Short-term metrics for evaluating translocation success and its drivers, like postrelease survival and fecundity, are unlikely to represent longer-term outcomes. We used information theory to investigate 25 years of data on black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) translocations. We used the offspring recruitment rate (ORR) of translocated females-a metric integrating survival, fecundity, and offspring recruitment at sexual maturity-to detect determinants of success. Our unambiguously best model (AICω = 0.986) predicted that ORR increases with female age at release as a function of lower postrelease adult rhinoceros sex ratio (males:females). Delay of first postrelease reproduction and failure of some females to recruit any calves to sexual maturity most influenced the pattern of ORRs, and the leading causes of recruitment failure were postrelease female death (23% of all females) and failure to calve (24% of surviving females). We recommend translocating older females (≥6 years old) because they do not exhibit the reproductive delay and low ORRs of juveniles (recruitment failure of juveniles and young adults (4-5.9 years old). Where translocation of juveniles is necessary, they should be released into female-biased populations, where they have higher ORRs. Our study offers the unique advantage of a long-term analysis across a large number of replicate populations-a science-by-management experiment as a proxy for a manipulative experiment, and a rare opportunity, particularly for a large, critically endangered taxon such as the black rhinoceros. Our findings differ from previous recommendations, reinforce the importance of long-term data sets and comprehensive metrics of translocation success, and suggest attention be shifted from ecological to social constraints on population growth and species recovery, particularly

  5. Increased frequency of chromosome translocations in airline pilots with long-term flying experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, L C; Sigurdson, A J; Ward, E M; Waters, M A; Whelan, E A; Petersen, M R; Bhatti, P; Ramsey, M J; Ron, E; Tucker, J D

    2009-01-01

    Chromosome translocations are an established biomarker of cumulative exposure to external ionising radiation. Airline pilots are exposed to cosmic ionising radiation, but few flight crew studies have examined translocations in relation to flight experience. We determined the frequency of translocations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 83 airline pilots and 50 comparison subjects (mean age 47 and 46 years, respectively). Translocations were scored in an average of 1039 cell equivalents (CE) per subject using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) whole chromosome painting and expressed per 100 CE. Negative binomial regression models were used to assess the relationship between translocation frequency and exposure status and flight years, adjusting for age, diagnostic x ray procedures, and military flying. There was no significant difference in the adjusted mean translocation frequency of pilots and comparison subjects (0.37 (SE 0.04) vs 0.38 (SE 0.06) translocations/100 CE, respectively). However, among pilots, the adjusted translocation frequency was significantly associated with flight years (p = 0.01) with rate ratios of 1.06 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.11) and 1.81 (95% CI 1.16 to 2.82) for a 1- and 10-year incremental increase in flight years, respectively. The adjusted rate ratio for pilots in the highest compared to the lowest quartile of flight years was 2.59 (95% CI 1.26 to 5.33). Our data suggests that pilots with long-term flying experience may be exposed to biologically significant doses of ionising radiation. Epidemiological studies with longer follow-up of larger cohorts of pilots with a wide range of radiation exposure levels are needed to clarify the relationship between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk.

  6. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis by fluorescence in situ hybridization of reciprocal and Robertsonian translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Kai; Wu, Dennis; Yu, Hsing-Tse; Lin, Chieh-Yu; Wang, Mei-Li; Yeh, Hsin-Yi; Huang, Hong-Yuan; Wang, Hsin-Shin; Soong, Yung-Kuei; Lee, Chyi-Long

    2014-03-01

    The presence of reciprocal and Robertsonian chromosomal rearrangement is often related to recurrent miscarriage. Using preimplantation genetic diagnosis, the abortion rate can be decreased. Cases treated at our center were reviewed. A retrospective analysis for either Robertsonian or reciprocal translocations was performed on all completed cycles of preimplantation genetic diagnosis at our center since the first reported case in 2004 until the end of 2010. Day 3 embryo biopsies were carried out, and the biopsied cell was checked by fluorescent in situ hybridization using relevant informative probes. Embryos with a normal or balanced translocation karyotype were transferred on Day 4. Thirty-eight preimplantation genetic diagnosis cycles involving 17 couples were completed. A total of 450 (82.6%) of the total oocytes were MII oocytes, and 158 (60.0%) of the two-pronuclei embryos were biopsied. In 41.4% of the fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses, the results were either normal or balanced. Embryos were transferred back after 21 cycles. Three babies were born from Robertsonian translocation carriers and another two from reciprocal translocation carriers. The miscarriage rate was 0%. Among the reciprocal translocation group, the live delivery rate was 8.3% per ovum pick-up cycle and 18.2% per embryo transfer cycle. Among the Robertsonian translocation group, the live delivery rate was 14.3% per ovum pick-up cycle and 20.0% per embryo transfer cycle. There is a trend whereby the outcome for Robertsonian translocation group carriers is better than that for reciprocal translocation group carriers. Aneuploidy screening may possibly be added in order to improve the outcome, especially for individuals with an advanced maternal age. The emergence of an array-based technology should help improve this type of analysis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Production and identification of wheat - Agropyron cristatum (1.4P) alien translocation lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Hua; Luan, Yang; Wang, Jing-Chang; Wang, Xiao-Guang; Su, Jun-Ji; Zhang, Jin-Peng; Yang, Xin-Ming; Gao, Ai-Nong; Li, Li-Hui

    2010-06-01

    The P genome of Agropyron Gaertn., a wild relative of wheat, contains an abundance of desirable genes that can be utilized as genetic resources to improve wheat. In this study, wheat - Aegilops cylindrica Host gametocidal chromosome 2C addition lines were crossed with wheat - Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. disomic addition line accession II-21 with alien recombinant chromosome (1.4)P. We successfully induced wheat - A. cristatum alien chromosomal translocations for the first time. The frequency of translocation in the progeny was 3.75%, which was detected by molecular markers and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). The translocation chromosomes were identified by dual-color GISH /fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The P genomic DNA was used as probe to detect the (1.4)P chromosome fragment, and pHvG39, pAs1, or pSc119.2 repeated sequences were used as probes to identify wheat translocated chromosomes. The results showed that six types of translocations were identified in the three wheat - A. cristatum alien translocation lines, including the whole arm or terminal portion of a (1.4)P chromosome. The (1.4)P chromosome fragments were translocated to wheat chromosomes 1B, 2B, 5B, and 3D. The breakpoints were located at the centromeres of 1B and 2B, the pericentric locations of 5BS, and the terminals of 5BL and 3DS. In addition, we obtained 12 addition-deletion lines that contained alien A. cristatum chromosome (1.4)P in wheat background. All of these wheat - A. cristatum alien translocation lines and addition-deletion lines would be valuable for identifying A. cristatum chromosome (1.4)P-related genes and providing genetic resources and new germplasm accessions for the genetic improvement of wheat. The specific molecular markers of A. cristatum (1.4)P chromosome have been developed and used to track the (1.4)P chromatin.

  8. Preclinical Testing of a Translocator Protein Ligand for the Treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    investigated the neuroprotective effect and therapeutic value of a drug : the translocator protein (TSPO) ligand PK11195 (PK), which we found to be...Translocator protein (TSPO) ligand Neuroprotective drugs In vitro models of neurodegeneration Axon preservation Neuromuscular junctions 5 3...pharmacokinetic data of the JNK study were showing that daily gavage (30 mg/kg/day) allowed an efficient delivery of the drugs in the brain and the spinal

  9. Erectile function after permanent prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrick, Gregory S.; Butler, Wayne M.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Stipetich, Robin L.; Abel, Laurie J.; Lief, Jonathan H.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of potency preservation after permanent prostate brachytherapy using a validated patient-administered questionnaire and to evaluate the effect of multiple clinical and treatment parameters on penile erectile function. Methods and Materials: Four hundred twenty-five patients underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy from April 1995 to October 1999. Two hundred nine patients who were potent before brachytherapy and who at the time of the survey were not receiving hormonal therapy were mailed the specific erectile questions of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire with a self-addressed stamped envelope. The questionnaire consisted of 5 questions, with a maximal score of 25. Of the 209 patients, 181 (87%) completed and returned the questionnaire. The mean and median follow-up was 40.4±14.9 and 40.6 months, respectively (range 19-75). Preimplant erectile function was assigned using a three-tiered scoring system (2 = erections always or nearly always sufficient for vaginal penetration; 1 = erections sufficient for vaginal penetration but considered suboptimal; 0 = the inability to obtain erections and/or erections inadequate for vaginal penetration). Postimplant potency was defined as an IIEF score ≥11. The clinical parameters evaluated for erectile function included patient age, preimplant potency, clinical T-stage, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level, Gleason score, elapsed time after implantation, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and tobacco consumption. Treatment parameters included radiation dose to the prostate gland, use of hormonal manipulation, use of supplemental external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), choice of isotope, prostate volume, and planning volume. The efficacy of sildenafil citrate in brachytherapy-induced erectile dysfunction (ED) was also evaluated. Results: Pretreatment erectile function scores of 2 and 1 were assigned to 125 and 56 patients, respectively. With a 6-year follow

  10. Radiation exposure after permanent prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattani, Federica; Vavassori, Andrea; Polo, Alfredo; Rondi, Elena; Cambria, Raffaella; Orecchia, Roberto; Tosi, Giampiero

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Limited information is available on the true radiation exposure and associated risks for the relatives of the patients submitted to prostate brachytherapy with permanent implant of radioactive sources and for any other people coming into contact with them. In order to provide appropriate information, we analyzed the radiation exposure data from 216 prostate cancer patients who underwent 125 I or 103 Pd implants at the European Institute of Oncology of Milan, Italy. Patients and methods: Between October 1999 and October 2004, 216 patients with low risk prostate carcinoma were treated with 125 I (200 patients) or 103 Pd (16 patients) permanent seed implantation. One day after the procedure, radiation exposure measurements around the patients were performed using an ionization chamber survey meter (Victoreen RPO-50) calibrated in dose rate at an accredited calibration center (calibration Centre SIT 104). Results: The mean dose rate at the posterior skin surface (gluteal region) following 125 I implants was 41.3 μSv/h (range: 6.2-99.4 μSv/h) and following 103 Pd implants was 18.9 μSv/h (range 5.0-37.3 μSv/h). The dose rate at 50 cm from the skin decreased to the mean value of 6.4 μSv/h for the 125 I implants and to the mean value of 1.7 μSv/h for the 103 Pd implants. Total times required to reach the annual dose limit (1 mSv/year) recommended for the general population by the European Directive 96/29/Euratom and by the Italian law (Decreto Legislativo 241/2000) at a distance of 50 cm from the posterior skin surface of the implanted patient would be 7.7 and 21.6 days for 125 I and for 103 Pd. Good correlation between the measured dose rates and both the total implanted activity and the distance between the most posteriorly implanted seed and the skin surface of the patients was found. Conclusions: Our data show that the dose rates at 50 cm away from the prostate brachytherapy patients are very low and that the doses possibly absorbed by the

  11. Smoking Policy Change Within Permanent Supportive Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Anne Berit; Stewart, Holly C; Walters, Jon; Vijayaraghavan, Maya

    2018-04-01

    Smoke-free policies effectively reduce secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among non-smokers, and reduce consumption, encourage quit attempts, and minimize relapse to smoking among smokers. Such policies are uncommon in permanent supportive housing (PSH) for formerly homeless individuals. In this study, we collaborated with a PSH provider in San Diego, California to assess a smoke-free policy that restricted indoor smoking. Between August and November 2015, residents completed a pre-policy questionnaire on attitudes toward smoke-free policies and exposure to secondhand smoke, and then 7-9 months after policy implementation residents were re-surveyed. At follow-up, there was a 59.7% reduction in indoor smoking. The proportion of residents who identified as current smokers reduced by 13% (95% CI: -38, 10.2). The proportion of residents who reported never smelling SHS indoors (apartment 24.2%, 95% CI: 4.2, 44.1; shared areas 17.2%, 95% CI: 1.7, 32.7); in outdoor areas next to the living unit (porches or patio 56.7%, 95% CI: 40.7, 72.8); and in other outdoor areas (parking lot 28.6%, 95% CI: 8.3, 48.9) was lower post-policy compared with pre-policy. Overall, resident support increased by 18.7%; however, the greatest increase in support occurred among current smokers (from 14.8 to 37.5%). Fewer current smokers reported that the policy would enable cessation at post-policy compared to pre-policy. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of implementing smoke-free policies in PSH for formerly homeless adults. However, policy alone appears insufficient to trigger change in smoking behavior, highlighting the need for additional cessation resources to facilitate quitting.

  12. Supporting veterans' transitions from permanent supportive housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Cusack, Meagan C; Gabrielian, Sonya

    2017-12-01

    Little research has assessed the nature of veterans' departures from permanent supportive housing (PSH), which may be of positive valence (e.g., moving into more independent housing). This study aimed to identify participants appropriate for "graduation" from PSH and how to support their transitions. This mixed methods study used qualitative data from PSH program staff, 445 PSH participants' responses to a survey assessing their experiences and administrative records, and qualitative data from a subsample of 10 participants who graduated from the program. Participants were classified as "stayers" (retained in PSH for at least 600 days); "graduates" (exited with improvement in community integration); or "involuntary leavers" (exited for reasons of negative valence). Template analysis of qualitative data from PSH staff described graduation processes; qualitative data from participants were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. The study compared veterans' characteristics using chi-square and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests; a multinomial logistic regression assessed correlates of graduates' and involuntary leavers' exits from PSH. Approximately one half of participants who exited the program were graduates. Processes used by program staff to identify potential graduates varied. Participants' self-report of substance use and mental health problems was associated with involuntary leaver status. Frequency of case management, a trusting relationship between participant and case manager, and participants' receipt of compensation related to disability incurred during military service were associated with graduation. To support successful transitions from PSH, programs should focus on providing high-quality case management that may respond flexibly to participants' varying recovery needs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Procedure for estimating permanent total enclosure costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukey, M.E.; Prasad, C.; Toothman, D.A.; Kaplan, N.

    1999-07-01

    Industries that use add-on control devices must adequately capture emissions before delivering them to the control device. One way to capture emissions is to use permanent total enclosures (PTEs). By definition, an enclosure which meets the US Environmental Protection Agency's five-point criteria is a PTE and has a capture efficiency of 100%. Since costs play an important role in regulatory development, in selection of control equipment, and in control technology evaluations for permitting purposes, EPA has developed a Control Cost Manual for estimating costs of various items of control equipment. EPA's Manual does not contain any methodology for estimating PTE costs. In order to assist environmental regulators and potential users of PTEs, a methodology for estimating PTE costs was developed under contract with EPA, by Pacific Environmental Services, Inc. (PES) and is the subject of this paper. The methodology for estimating PTE costs follows the approach used for other control devices in the Manual. It includes procedures for sizing various components of a PTE and for estimating capital as well as annual costs. It contains verification procedures for demonstrating compliance with EPA's five-point criteria. In addition, procedures are included to determine compliance with Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards. Meeting these standards is an important factor in properly designing PTEs. The methodology is encoded in Microsoft Exel spreadsheets to facilitate cost estimation and PTE verification. Examples are given throughout the methodology development and in the spreadsheets to illustrate the PTE design, verification, and cost estimation procedures.

  14. Sensitivity of permanent meadows areas. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourcelot, L.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work proposed in the framework of the S.E.N.S.I.B. project on the permanent meadows areas is to compare the sensitivity of these surfaces and cheese maker sector which are associated with them, and to identify the processes which determine this sensitivity. The realization of this objective will lean on certain data of activities acquired recently by the I.R.S.N. (compartments: soils, herb, milk and cheese), as well as on new measures, on three sites: Saint-Laurent-de-Geris ( West), Beaune-Le-Froid ( center), and Massif of Jura (East). Two scales of transfers observation and sensitivity are retained. In a first time, the sensitivity of meadows areas will studied at the regional scale, from data acquired in the Massif du Jura ( between 300 and 1200 metres up). In a second time, a study will allow to compare the sensitivity of three areas retained (West, Center, East) at the national scale. The expertise will be focused on the factors of sensitivity of the transfer soil-herb and the factors of sensitivity bound to the cheese makers sectors. The data of the already available zones of study create strong variabilities of the rates of 137 Cs transfer in the interfaces soil / herb and herb / milk, letting suppose that the nature of soils, the quantity and the quality of food ingested by the cattle constitutes dominating factors of sensitivity. Besides, the size of the basin of milk collection, extremely variable from a site of study in the other one, has to influence the contamination of cheeses and as such, it establishes an important factor of sensitivity of the cheese makers sector. (N.C.)

  15. The Agency's permanent headquarters in the Donaupark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Early in 1967 the Government of Austria announced to the Board of Governors that it was making offers to the IAEA and UNIDO to establish Permanent Headquarters on 'the Donaupark site' to include office buildings, conference rooms required for the performance of the organizations' functions, as well as buildings for common services. The site of 160,000 square meters on the banks of the Danube River is 7 km from the centre of Vienna An International Architects' Competition was held in 1969. The Federal Government selected the plans of Architect Johann Staber in December 1970 and commissioned him with the work. A company, the IAKW (Internationales Amtssitzund Konferenzzentrum Wien AG), was founded in May 1971 and charged with the administrative, financial, and co-ordinating functions for the entire project. The construction of the office towers began in April 1973 and the shell of these towers was completed in the spring of 1975, the completed facades having already been placed on certain towers during that time. The conference building and the common services buildings are presently under construction. Completion of the whole complex is scheduled for the latter part of 1978 and work is progressing according to schedule. The actual building costs for the whole project are estimated at 6.8 billion Austrian schillings with an additional 6.2 billion schillings financing cost, and are shared between the Federal Government (65%) and the City of Vienna (35%); in addition, the City of Vienna has provided the land. Included in the total costs are the costs for traffic lanes within and leading to the area

  16. Causes of permanent childhood hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korver, Anna M H; Admiraal, Ronald J C; Kant, Sarina G; Dekker, Friedo W; Wever, Capi C; Kunst, Henricus P M; Frijns, Johan H M; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie

    2011-02-01

    The causes of Permanent Childhood Hearing Impairment (PCHI) are often quoted as being hereditary in 50%, acquired in 25%, and unknown in 25% of cases. Interest in the causes of PCHI has grown recently due to increasing diagnostic possibilities. We investigated the evidence for the reported distribution of these causes. Population-based study and a systematic review. Inclusion criteria for population-based study: children born between 2003 and 2005, resident in The Netherlands at birth, known at an Audiology Center with PCHI at the age of 3-5 years. The causes of PCHI were determined prospectively by detection of congenital cytomegalovirus on dried blood spots and/or genetic diagnostic investigations in addition to reviewing data from medical records. A systematic review was carried out using three terms (hearing loss, infant, and etiology) and limited to articles published between January 1997 and July 2009. Main outcome measures were: the (weighted) proportions of the various causes of PCHI following diagnostic investigations. In the study-population (n = 185) a hereditary cause was found in 38.9%, acquired cause in 29.7%, miscellaneous cause in 7.1%, and the cause remained unknown in 24.3%. The systematic review of the literature (n = 9 articles) resulted in a weighted mean of 30.4% hereditary, 19.2% acquired, and 48.3% unknown causes of PCHI. The systematic review and the results of the population-based study provided little support for the generally accepted distribution of causes of PCHI. Copyright © 2010 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Image fusion techniques in permanent seed implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Polo

    2010-10-01

    image fusion for permanent seed implantation.

  18. Comparative human cellular radiosensitivity: I. The effect of SV40 transformation and immortalisation on the gamma-irradiation survival of skin derived fibroblasts from normal individuals and from ataxia-telangiectasia patients and heterozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlett, C F; Green, M H; Priestley, A; Harcourt, S A; Mayne, L V

    1988-12-01

    We have compared cell killing following 60Co gamma irradiation in 22 primary human fibroblast strains, nine SV40-immortalized human fibroblast lines and seven SV40-transformed pre-crisis human fibroblast cultures. We have examined material from normal individuals, from ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) patients and from A-T heterozygotes. We have confirmed the greater sensitivity of A-T derived cells to gamma radiation. The distinction between A-T and normal cells is maintained in cells immortalized by SV40 virus but the immortal cells are more gamma radiation resistant than the corresponding primary fibroblasts. Cells transformed by plasmids (pSV3gpt and pSV3neo) expressing SV40 T-antigen, both pre- and post-crisis, show this increased resistance, indicating that it is expression of SV40 T-antigen, rather than immortalization per se which is responsible for the change. We use D0, obtained from a straight line fit, and D, estimated from a multitarget curve, as parameters to compare radiosensitivity. We suggest that both have their advantages; D0 is perhaps more reproducible, but D is more realistic when comparing shouldered and non-shouldered data.

  19. Stability of the translocation frequency following whole-body irradiation measured in rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, J. N.; Hill, F. S.; Burk, C. E.; Cox, A. B.; Straume, T.

    1996-01-01

    Chromosome translocations are persistent indicators of prior exposure to ionizing radiation and the development of 'chromosome painting' to efficiently detect translocations has resulted in a powerful biological dosimetry tool for radiation dose reconstruction. However, the actual stability of the translocation frequency with time after exposure must be measured before it can be used reliably to obtain doses for individuals exposed years or decades previously. Human chromosome painting probes were used here to measure reciprocal translocation frequencies in cells from two tissues of 8 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) irradiated almost three decades previously. Six of the monkeys were exposed in 1965 to whole-body (fully penetrating) radiation and two were unexposed controls. The primates were irradiated as juveniles to single doses of 0.56, 1.13, 2.00, or 2.25 Gy. Blood lymphocytes (and skin fibroblasts from one individual) were obtained for cytogenetic analysis in 1993, near the end of the animals' lifespans. Results show identical dose-response relationships 28 y after exposure in vivo and immediately after exposure in vitro. Because chromosome aberrations are induced with identical frequencies in vivo and in vitro, these results demonstrate that the translocation frequencies induced in 1965 have not changed significantly during the almost three decades since exposure. Finally, our emerging biodosimetry data for individual radiation workers are now confirming the utility of reciprocal translocations measured by FISH in radiation dose reconstruction.

  20. Long-distance translocations to create a second millerbird population and reduce extinction risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly Freifeld,; Sheldon Plentovich,; Chris Farmer,; Charles Kohley,; Peter Luscomb,; Work, Thierry M.; Daniel Tsukayama,; George Wallace,; Mark MacDonald,; Sheila Conant,

    2016-01-01

    Translocation is a conservation tool used with increasing frequency to create additional populations of threatened species. In addition to following established general guidelines for translocations, detailed planning to account for unique circumstances and intensive post-release monitoring to document outcomes and guide management are essential components of these projects. Recent translocation of the critically endangered Nihoa millerbird (Acrocephalus familiaris kingi) provides an example of this planning and monitoring. The Nihoa millerbird is a passerine bird endemic to Nihoa Island in the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. The closely related, ecologically similar Laysan millerbird (Acrocephalus familiaris familiaris) went extinct on Laysan Island in the early 20th century when the island was denuded by introduced rabbits. To reduce extinction risk, we translocated 50 adult Nihoa millerbirds more than 1000 km by sea to Laysan, which has recovered substantially in the past century and has ample habitat and a rich prey-base for millerbirds. Following five years of intensive background research and planning, including development of husbandry techniques, fundraising, and regulatory compliance, translocations occurred in 2011 and 2012. Of 11 females in each cohort, 8 (2011 cohort) and 11 (2012 cohort) produced at least one brood of fledglings during their first year on Laysan. At the conclusion of monitoring in September 2014, 37 of the translocated birds were known to survive, and the population was estimated at 164 birds. The reintroduction of millerbirds to Laysan represents a milestone in the island's ongoing restoration.

  1. Connecting the kinetics and energy landscape of tRNA translocation on the ribosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Whitford

    Full Text Available Functional rearrangements in biomolecular assemblies result from diffusion across an underlying energy landscape. While bulk kinetic measurements rely on discrete state-like approximations to the energy landscape, single-molecule methods can project the free energy onto specific coordinates. With measures of the diffusion, one may establish a quantitative bridge between state-like kinetic measurements and the continuous energy landscape. We used an all-atom molecular dynamics simulation of the 70S ribosome (2.1 million atoms; 1.3 microseconds to provide this bridge for specific conformational events associated with the process of tRNA translocation. Starting from a pre-translocation configuration, we identified sets of residues that collectively undergo rotary rearrangements implicated in ribosome function. Estimates of the diffusion coefficients along these collective coordinates for translocation were then used to interconvert between experimental rates and measures of the energy landscape. This analysis, in conjunction with previously reported experimental rates of translocation, provides an upper-bound estimate of the free-energy barriers associated with translocation. While this analysis was performed for a particular kinetic scheme of translocation, the quantitative framework is general and may be applied to energetic and kinetic descriptions that include any number of intermediates and transition states.

  2. Genetic analysis of γ-ray induced W-translocation strain on Bombyx nori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, Akio; Murakami, Akio

    1976-01-01

    In the process of analyzing a γ-ray induced mutant of Bombyx nori oo cyte, new type translocation strains of W chromosomes and No.5 chromosomes were detected. The constitution of their translocated chromosomes was assumed to be Z/(W-V) + sup(pe)-V + sup(oc)/v. Owing to such chromosome constitution, it was considered that non-disjunction was induced at meiosis, and Z/(W-V) + sup(pe)/V, Z/(W-V) + sup(pe), V/V were produced besides Z/(W-V) + sup(pe)-V + sup(oc)/V in the female chromosomes (gene) of the next progeny, while V/V and Z/Z, V + sup(oc)/V were produced besides Z/Z, V/V in male. Death of some male eggs in this translocation strain was also observed. No dissociated individual of translocated chromosomes was segregated in the next progeny of the female moth with Z/(W-V) + sup(pe), V/V chromosome constitution and the marker stock male moth, while a few dissociated individuals appeared in the next progeny of Z/(W-V) + sup(pe)-V + sup(oc)/V female moth group. This fact seemed to be resulted from the complicated translocated chromosome constitution of the translocation strain. (Kobatake, H.)

  3. Correlation of leaf damage with uptake and translocation of glyphosate in velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, P.C.C.; Ryerse, J.S.; Sammons, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    Uptake and translocation of glyphosate in three commercial formulations were examined in velvetleaf, a dicotyledonous weed that is commonly treated with glyphosate. The formulations included Roundup(R) (MON35085), Roundup Ultra, and Touchdown(R) as sold in Canada. A minimal amount of 14C-glyphosate was spiked into a lethal rate of each formulation, and the short-term (3 to 72 h) uptake into the treated leaf and subsequent translocation into the plant were measured. Time-course studies showed very rapid uptake and translocation of glyphosate in the Ultra formulation. In comparison, the uptake and translocation of glyphosate in Touchdown was much slower but continued throughout the 72-h period. Glyphosate in the Roundup formulation showed intermediate uptake and translocation. Tissue necrosis at the application sites of Ultra and Roundup was visible within 24 h after treatment. Examinations using stereo and fluorescence microscopy revealed extensive cell death and tissue disruption. Tissue necrosis from Ultra and Roundup was also observed in blank formulations containing no glyphosate and therefore was likely caused by the surfactants. In contrast, the application sites of Touchdown produced little to no leaf damage. Our results demonstrated a direct correlation between tissue necrosis and rapid rates of glyphosate uptake and translocation. (author)

  4. Effects of an attractive wall on the translocation of polymer under driving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Weiping; Wang Chao; Sun Lizhen; Luo Mengbo

    2012-01-01

    The effects of an attractive wall at the trans side on the translocation of an eight-site bond-fluctuation model (BFM) polymer through a pore in a membrane under driving are simulated by the dynamic Monte Carlo method. The attractive wall shows two contrary effects: its excluded volume effect reduces configuration entropy and thus hinders the translocation of the polymer, while its attraction decreases the energy and thus accelerates the translocation. At a critical polymer-wall interaction ε* ≈- 1, we find that the two effects compensate each other and the translocation time τ is roughly independent of the separation distance between the wall and the pore. The value ε* ≈- 1 is roughly equal to the critical adsorption point for the BFM polymer. Moreover, the value of the critical attraction is roughly independent of chain length N and chemical potential difference Δμ. At last, a scaling relation τ ∼ N α is observed for polymer translocation at a high value of NΔμ. Though the translocation time is highly dependent on the polymer-wall interaction and pore-wall separation distance, the exponent α is always about 1.30 ± 0.05 so long as NΔμ is large enough. (paper)

  5. Chromosome translocations in chinese medical X-ray workers analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yuanming; Li Jin; Wang Qin; Tang Weisheng; Wang Zhiquan

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study long-term radiation effect in occupational workers exposed to low dose X-rays using the method of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Method: Chromosome translocations of 25 medical X-ray workers were analyzed by FISH with chromosome No. 4 and No. 7 probes according to PAINT (The Protocol for Aberration Identification and Nomenclature Terminology) system. Results: The frequency of genome translocation in X-ray workers was (13.14 ± 1.23)/1000 cells. The rate of complete and incomplete translocation was 1:1.7. According to the calendar year of entry before/after the year of 1965 as the border, the data showed that the incomplete translocation of the after 1965 group was obviously higher than those of the controls (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion: The chromosome translocation in early Chinese medical X-ray workers is mainly the incomplete one, the frequency of translocation does not dependent on chromosomal DNA content, and incomplete and complete ones increase along with prolongation of working years in their position

  6. Physiological control of the distribution of translocated amino acids and amides in young soybean plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C D; Gorham, P R

    1959-01-01

    Each of 10 C/sup 14/-labelled amino acids or amides was introduced into young soybean plants through the cut petiole of one primary leaf. The compounds used were asparagine, glutamine, urea, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, serine, alanine, norleucine, and arginine. The rates of uptake of all the solutions except arginine were in the range 1.0 to 1.5 ..mu..l per minute. After 1 to 5 minutes, the distribution of C/sup 14/ throughout the plants was determined. Each amino acid was translocated as such without conversion to other compounds. From the point of introduction, translocation of each amino acid or amide was mainly downward toward the root; very little was translocated upward. The amount of asparagine or glutamine that was translocated into the primary leaf opposite the cut petiole increased as the leaf aged, while the amount of the other eight compounds decreased as the leaf aged. When asparagine and serine were administered together, serine moved into the young primary leaf while asparagine was excluded. Both excision of the roots and chilling the roots decreased the velocity of downward translocation of aspartic acid indicating that the roots exert a strong demand which favors translocation in a downward direction more than an upward direction in the stem. 17 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  7. Uptake and translocation of imidacloprid, clothianidin and flupyradifurone in seed-treated soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Mitchell D; Heng-Moss, Tiffany M; Baxendale, Frederick P; Siegfried, Blair D; Blankenship, Erin E; Nauen, Ralf

    2016-06-01

    Seed treatment insecticides have become a popular management option for early-season insect control. This study investigated the total uptake and translocation of seed-applied [(14) C]imidacloprid, [(14) C]clothianidin and [(14) C]flupyradifurone into different plant parts in three soybean vegetative stages (VC, V1 and V2). The effects of soil moisture stress on insecticide uptake and translocation were also assessed among treatments. We hypothesized that (1) uptake and translocation would be different among the insecticides owing to differences in water solubility, and (2) moisture stress would increase insecticide uptake and translocation. Uptake and translocation did not follow a clear trend in the three vegetative stages. Initially, flupyradifurone uptake was greater than clothianidin uptake in VC soybeans. In V1 soybeans, differences in uptake among the three insecticides were not apparent and unaffected by soil moisture stress. Clothianidin was negatively affected by soil moisture stress in V2 soybeans, while imidacloprid and flupyradifurone were unaffected. Specifically, soil moisture stress had a positive effect on the distribution of flupyradifurone in leaves. This was not observed with the neonicotinoids. This study enhances our understanding of the uptake and distribution of insecticides used as seed treatments in soybean. The uptake and translocation of these insecticides differed in response to soil moisture stress. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Connecting the dots: could microbial translocation explain commonly reported symptoms in HIV disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Natalie L; Vance, David E; Moneyham, Linda D; Raper, James L; Mugavero, Michael J; Heath, Sonya L; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette

    2014-01-01

    Microbial translocation within the context of HIV disease has been described as one of the contributing causes of inflammation and disease progression in HIV infection. HIV-associated symptoms have been related to inflammatory markers and sCD14, a surrogate marker for microbial translocation, suggesting a plausible link between microbial translocation and symptom burden in HIV disease. Similar pathophysiological responses and symptoms have been reported in inflammatory bowel disease. We provide a comprehensive review of microbial translocation, HIV-associated symptoms, and symptoms connected with inflammation. We identify studies showing a relationship among inflammatory markers, sCD14, and symptoms reported in HIV disease. A conceptual framework and rationale to investigate the link between microbial translocation and symptoms is presented. The impact of inflammation on symptoms supports recommendations to reduce inflammation as part of HIV symptom management. Research in reducing microbial translocation-induced inflammation is limited, but needed, to further promote positive health outcomes among HIV-infected patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Changes In water translocation in the vascular tissue of grape during fruit development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhaosen, X.; Forney, C.F.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between vascular water translocation in grapes and berry growth was investigated. Berry growth, firmness and turgor were measured, and the structure and function of the vascular bundles for water translocation was observed. During phase I fruit development, the dorsal and central vascular bundles rapidly translocated introduced dye in the pedicle. The speed of dye translocation was highest in the dorsal vascular bundles of phase I fruit with a speed of 0.97cm/h. After phase II, both the distribution of dye and the speed of dye translocation in the fruit vascular tissue decreased, with speeds in the dorsal and central vascular bundles being 0.08 cm/h and 0.72 cm/h, respectively. During phase III, the distribution of dye was still lower than phase I. After phase II, the walls of some xylem vessels were indistinct and broken. After phase III, even though the water translocation efficiency of the xylem decreased, sugar accumulation in the berry as well as osmoregulation increased. (author)

  10. Nuchal translucency thickness and outcome in chromosome translocation diagnosed in the first trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, W; Be, C; Youlton, R; Carstens, E; Reyes, M

    2001-09-01

    In order to determine the significance of nuchal translucency thickness on the subsequent natural history of first-trimester fetuses with a chromosome translocation, seven consecutive cases diagnosed between 11 and 13 weeks of gestation were reviewed. Nuchal translucency measurements were successfully obtained before chorionic villus sampling (CVS) in all cases. Three fetuses had an unbalanced translocation and all were associated with increased nuchal translucency and multiple anomalies at the detailed second-trimester scan. There were no survivors in this group. The remaining four fetuses had a balanced translocation; all had normal nuchal translucency thickness and no structural anomalies were detected in the second trimester. Three of these fetuses were born at > or =35 weeks of gestation and were phenotypically normal. However, an unexpected single fetal demise occurred in a dichorionic twin pregnancy at 28 weeks of gestation. It is concluded that nuchal translucency measurements provide important prognostic information on pregnancy outcome in first-trimester fetuses with a chromosome translocation. In parents with a known balanced translocation, the detection of increased nuchal translucency at 11-14 weeks of gestation is associated with unbalanced translocations, structural anomalies and poor pregnancy outcome. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Movements and survival of black-footed ferrets associated with an experimental translocation in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, D.E.; Godbey, J.L.; Horton, B.M.; Livieri, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) apparently were extirpated from all native habitats by 1987, and their repatriation requires a combination of captive breeding, reintroductions, and translocations among sites. Improvements in survival rates of released ferrets have resulted from experience in quasi-natural environments during their rearing. Reestablishment of a self-sustaining wild population by 1999 provided the 1st opportunity to initiate new populations by translocating wild-born individuals. Using radiotelemetry, we compared behaviors and survival of 18 translocated wild-born ferrets and 18 pen-experienced captive-born ferrets after their release into a prairie dog colony not occupied previously by ferrets. Translocated wild-born ferrets moved significantly less and had significantly higher short-term survival rates than their captive-born counterparts. Using markrecapture methods, we also assessed potential impacts to the established donor population of removing 37% of its estimated annual production of kits. Annual survival rates for 30 ferret kits remaining at the donor subcomplex were higher than rates for 54 ferret kits at the control subcomplex (unmanipulated) for males (+82%) and females (+32%). Minimum survival of translocated kits did not differ significantly from survival of those at the control subcomplex. Direct translocation of young, wild-born ferrets from site to site appears to be an efficient method to establish new populations. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  12. Investigations on the question of radiation-induced intracellular ion translocations in the liver of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenning, J

    1975-01-01

    Radiation-induced ion translocations in cellular and/or subcellular units can be detected in the course of the examination of whole organs. The present paper attempts to study this problem in the liver of rats. The size and ion composition of the extracellular space and its subunits (interstice, intravascular space, biliary discharge system) must therefore be known in order to obtain purely cellular electrolyte values. They can be determined with the aid of dilution methods and by applying Donnan's law. For measuring radiation-induced ion translocations in nuclei and mitochondria, they must be isolated in an aqueous phase. Processing in 0.25 mol l/sup -1/ saccharose yields the best results with regard to ion losses, since the vitality of the membranes is largely preserved when using this method. During suspension, some of the nuclei and mitochondria obtained in sacharose solution show considerable ion translocations, depending on the composition of the medium. Irradiation up to 10 kR showed that relatively low doses (100 R) already cause further changes of the electrolyte concentrations of nuclei and mitochondria. In-vivo irradiation of the liver also caused definite potassium-sodium translocations in the nucleus and the mitochondria at doses as low as 100 R. These intracellular electrolyte translocations cannot be detected in examinations of the whole organ. All in all, it is shown that intracellular ion translocations can be found at relatively low radiation doses already. The present paper discusses the possible methods by which they can be detected.

  13. Breeding few-seed/seedless watermelon via chromosome reciprocal translocation induced by gamma-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming, W.; Xingping, Z.; Xian, Z.; Kechi, N.; Shuai, Z.; Juenlian, Z.

    1988-01-01

    The development of autotriploid watermelon was a great advance in the field of watermelon breeding. However, some disadvantages still existed with this type of seedless watermelon. Partial sterility may be induced in diploid watermelon via chromosome reciprocal translocation. We used gamma-rays to irradiate the seeds of homozygous translocation strains with one translocation ring composed of 4 chromosomes (symbol (4) ). Watermelon strains were 'Asahi Yamato', 'Mioyaka', and 'Fumin' saent to us by H. Kihara in 1977. In order to further induce multiple reciprocal translocations for developing new few-seed/seedless watermelon strains, the seeds of the above 3 strains were sown for further selfing in 1978. The seeds of each selfed fruit were grown as a single plant line in 1979 for evaluation of their characters. In addition, some crosses between common diploid watermelon cultivars and translocations were carried out to test the seed setting rate of the heterozygous translocation strains. Some of the crosses were 'Sugar Baby' x 'Asahi Yamato AT-1' and 'Akakotama' x Asahi Yamato AT-2'. The plump seed setting rate of the F1 of these crosses were ca. 50%

  14. A kinetic Monte Carlo approach to investigate antibiotic translocation through bacterial porins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccarelli, Matteo; Ruggerone, Paolo; Vargiu, Attilio V

    2012-01-01

    Many relevant biological processes take place on time scales not reachable by standard all-atom computer simulations. The translocation of antibiotics through non-specific bacterial porins is an example. Microscopic effects compete to determine penetration routes and, consequently, free energy barriers to be overcome. Since bacteria can develop resistance to treatment also by reducing their antibiotic permeability, to understand the microscopic aspects of antibiotic translocation is an important step to rationalize drug design. Here, to investigate the translocation we propose a complete numerical model that combines the diffusion-controlled rate theory and a kinetic Monte Carlo scheme based on both experimental data and microscopically well-founded all-atom simulations. Within our model, an antibiotic translocating through an hour-glass-shaped channel can be described as a molecule moving on a potential of mean force featuring several affinity sites and a high central barrier. The implications of our results for the characterization of antibiotic translocation at in vivo concentrations are discussed. The presence of an affinity site close to the mouth of the channel seems to favor the translocation of antibiotics, the affinity site acting as a particle reservoir. Possible connections between results and the appearance of mutations in clinical strains are also outlined. (paper)

  15. Translocation of Candida albicans is related to the blood flow of individual intestinal villi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, L; Alexander, J W; Fukushima, R; Childress, C P

    1993-08-01

    Splanchnic ischemia is associated with increased bacterial translocation, but previous observations showed that translocation of Candida albicans did not occur uniformly among individual intestinal villi. This study was performed to investigate the relationship between the degree of Candida translocation and the microcirculation of individual villi. Thiry-Vella intestinal loops were created in eight guinea pigs. One week later, the distal aorta and right carotid artery were cannulated, and systemic blood pressure was recorded throughout the entire experiment. C. albicans (1 x 10(10)) was introduced into the Thiry-Vella loop, and the animals underwent a 40% full-thickness burn. Systolic hypotension was observed in the first 75 minutes postburn; then the systemic blood pressure returned to a normal range. Four hours after burn, 8 x 10(7) microspheres (10 microns) were injected into the aorta. The animals were sacrificed, and the Thiry-Vella loops were harvested and processed for light microscopy. At the microscopic level, within each villus, both the number of beads trapped in the arterioles and the number of Candida translocated into the enterocytes were counted. An inverse linear correlation between number of beads and number of translocated yeast per individual villus was found (r = -0.78; P flow is an important determinant of the magnitude of microbial translocation, even within individual villi.

  16. Miscoding-induced stalling of substrate translocation on the bacterial ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, Jose L; Blanchard, Scott C

    2017-10-10

    Directional transit of the ribosome along the messenger RNA (mRNA) template is a key determinant of the rate and processivity of protein synthesis. Imaging of the multistep translocation mechanism using single-molecule FRET has led to the hypothesis that substrate movements relative to the ribosome resolve through relatively long-lived late intermediates wherein peptidyl-tRNA enters the P site of the small ribosomal subunit via reversible, swivel-like motions of the small subunit head domain within the elongation factor G (GDP)-bound ribosome complex. Consistent with translocation being rate-limited by recognition and productive engagement of peptidyl-tRNA within the P site, we now show that base-pairing mismatches between the peptidyl-tRNA anticodon and the mRNA codon dramatically delay this rate-limiting, intramolecular process. This unexpected relationship between aminoacyl-tRNA decoding and translocation suggests that miscoding antibiotics may impact protein synthesis by impairing the recognition of peptidyl-tRNA in the small subunit P site during EF-G-catalyzed translocation. Strikingly, we show that elongation factor P (EF-P), traditionally known to alleviate ribosome stalling at polyproline motifs, can efficiently rescue translocation defects arising from miscoding. These findings help reveal the nature and origin of the rate-limiting steps in substrate translocation on the bacterial ribosome and indicate that EF-P can aid in resuming translation elongation stalled by miscoding errors.

  17. Recombinase, chromosomal translocations and lymphoid neoplasia: targeting mistakes and repair failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marculescu, Rodrig; Vanura, Katrina; Montpellier, Bertrand; Roulland, Sandrine; Le, Trang; Navarro, Jean-Marc; Jäger, Ulrich; McBlane, Fraser; Nadel, Bertrand

    2006-09-08

    A large number of lymphoid malignancies is characterized by specific chromosomal translocations, which are closely linked to the initial steps of pathogenesis. The hallmark of these translocations is the ectopic activation of a silent proto-oncogene through its relocation at the vicinity of an active regulatory element. Due to the unique feature of lymphoid cells to somatically rearrange and mutate receptor genes, and to the corresponding strong activity of the immune enhancers/promoters at that stage of cell development, B- and T-cell differentiation pathways represent propitious targets for chromosomal translocations and oncogene activation. Recent progress in the understanding of the V(D)J recombination process has allowed a more accurate definition of the translocation mechanisms involved, and has revealed that V(D)J-mediated translocations result both from targeting mistakes of the recombinase, and from illegitimate repair of the V(D)J recombination intermediates. Surprisingly, V(D)J-mediated translocations turn out to be restricted to two specific sub-types of lymphoid malignancies, T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias, and a restricted set of mature B-cell Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.

  18. Use of FISH-translocations analyses for retrospective biological dosimetry: How stable are stable chromosome aberrations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darroudi, F.

    2000-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations, in particular dicentrics, in peripheral blood lymphocytes are used to estimate the absorbed dose immediately following a radiation accident. However, difficulties for dose estimation arise with old exposures, due to a decline of cells containing unstable dicentric aberrations. The fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) technique employing chromosome specific DNA libraries to 'paint' individual human chromosomes has opened new perspectives for rapid and reliable detection of stable chromosome aberrations such as translocations. The inherent stability of translocations over cell generations has enabled them to be used as a biodosemeter. However, due to the limited life of circulating T-lymphocytes, a level of uncertainty exists on the long-term persistence of stable translocations. The objectives of the present work are to present the current state of knowledge on the stability of translocations detected by FISH. The following aspects have been considered; (1) experience so far of retrospective biological dosimetry in humans following accidental and occupational over-exposure, (2) animal studies using mice and monkeys, (3) the influence of subsequent cell divisions on the yield and persistence of translocations following in vitro irradiation of human lymphocytes, and (4) the needs for further work to standardise and validate the use of FISH as a biological dosemeter, and to investigate the influence of various parameters such as radiation quality, dose rate and the discrimination of sub-types of translocations on persistence. (author)

  19. A translocator-specific export signal establishes the translocator-effector secretion hierarchy that is important for type III secretion system function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomalka, Amanda G.; Stopford, Charles M.; Lee, Pei-Chung; Rietsch, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Summary Type III secretion systems are used by many Gram-negative pathogens to directly deliver effector proteins into the cytoplasm of host cells. To accomplish this, bacteria secrete translocator proteins that form a pore in the host-cell membrane through which the effector proteins are then introduced into the host cell. Evidence from multiple systems indicates that the pore-forming translocator proteins are exported before effectors, but how this secretion hierarchy is established is unclear. Here we used the P. aeruginosa translocator protein PopD as a model to identify its export signals. The amino-terminal secretion signal and chaperone, PcrH, are required for export under all conditions. Two novel signals in PopD, one proximal to the chaperone-binding site and one at the very C-terminus of the protein, are required for export of PopD before effector proteins. These novel export signals establish the translocator-effector secretion hierarchy, which in turn, is critical for the delivery of effectors into host cells. PMID:23121689

  20. Three-dimensional quadrupole lenses made with permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of accelerator systems with quadrupole magnets can be improved by using permanent magnets in quadrupole lenses. This requires better methods for treating the three-dimensional nature of the magnetic fields and the nonlinear characteristics of the magnets. A numerical method is described for simulating three-dimensional magnetic fields and used to analyze quadrupole lenses and doublets with permanent magnets. The results, which are confirmed experimentally, indicate that both the quadrupole magnetic gradient and the effective field length are changed in permanent-magnet quadrupole lenses when the pole lengths and the gap between the lenses are varied while the other characteristics of the magnets remain unchanged