WorldWideScience

Sample records for permanent resident populations

  1. Estimates of the Legal Permanent Resident Population: 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report presents estimates of the legal permanent resident (LPR) population living in the United States on January 1, 2009. The LPR population includes persons...

  2. Estimates of the Legal Permanent Resident Population: 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report presents estimates of the legal permanent resident (LPR) population living in the United States on January 1, 2011. The LPR population includes persons...

  3. Estimates of the Legal Permanent Resident Population: 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report presents estimates of the legal permanent resident (LPR) population living in the United States on January 1, 2012. The LPR population includes persons...

  4. Estimates of the Lawful Permanent Resident Population in the United States: January 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report presents estimates of the lawful permanent resident (LPR) population living in the United States on January 1, 2013. The LPR population includes persons...

  5. Estimates of the Lawful Permanent Resident Population in the United States: January 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report presents estimates of the lawful permanent resident (LPR) population living in the United States on January 1, 2014. The LPR population includes persons...

  6. Permanent resident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Fisher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The training of physicians in the past century was based primarily on responsibility and the chain-of-command. Those with the bulk of that responsibility in the fields of pediatrics and internal medicine were residents. Residents trained the medical students and supervised them carefully in caring for patients. Most attending physicians supervised their teams at arm's length, primarily serving as teachers of the finer points of diagnosis and treatment during set periods of the day or week with a perfunctory signature on write-ups or progress notes. Residents endeavored to protect the attending physician from being heavily involved unless they were unsure about a clinical problem. Before contacting the attending physician, a more senior resident would be called. Responsibility was the ultimate teacher. The introduction of diagnosis-related groups by the federal government dramatically changed the health care delivery system, placing greater emphasis on attending physician visibility in the medical record, ultimately resulting in more attending physician involvement in day-to-day care of patients in academic institutions. Without specified content in attending notes, hospital revenues would decline. Although always in charge technically, attending physicians increasingly have assumed the role once dominated by the resident. Using biographical experiences of more than 40 years, the author acknowledges and praises the educational role of responsibility in his own training and laments its declining role in today's students and house staff.

  7. Lawful Permanent Residents - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  8. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2014 Country

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  9. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2011 State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  10. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2015 Country

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  11. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2016 State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  12. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2014 State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  13. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2015 State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  14. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2011 Country

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanet residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been gratned the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  15. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States. [61 FR 37386, July 18...

  16. U.S. Lawful Permanent Residents: Fiscal Year 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  17. U.S. Legal Permanent Residents: Fiscal Year 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A legal permanent resident (LPR) or “green card” recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  18. U.S. Legal Permanent Residents: Fiscal Year 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A legal permanent resident (LPR) or “green card” recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  19. U.S. Legal Permanent Residents: Fiscal Year 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A legal permanent resident (LPR) or “green card” recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  20. U.S. Legal Permanent Residents: Fiscal Year 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A legal permanent resident (LPR) or “green card” recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  1. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2015 Core Based Statistical Area (CBSA) of Residence

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  2. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2011 Core Based Statistical Area (CBSA) of Residence

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  3. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2014 Core Based Statistical Area (CBSA) of Residence

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  4. U.S. Lawful Permanent Residents: Fiscal Year 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs), also known as “green card” holders, are non-citizens who are lawfully authorized to live permanently within the United States.

  5. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2016 Core Based Statistical Area (CBSA) of Residence

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanet residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been gratned the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  6. U.S. Legal Permanent Residents: Fiscal Year 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Every year, hundreds of thousands of persons become legal permanent residents (LPRs) or “green card” recipients of the United States. LPRs, as defined by immigration...

  7. The Prevalence of Injury in Permanent Residences of Duzce City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Senih Mayda

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM/BACKGROUND: Objective of this cross-sectional study is to determine the prevalence of injury and risk factors in permanent residences of Duzce. METHODS: The sample size of this study is calculated as 715 people when population of the region is 13565, injury prevalence is 20.9% taken from a study in Duzce, expected lowest frequency as 18% and in 95% confidence interval. Number of people could be reached was designed as 1170 when 300 house was visited as mean household was 3.9 people which was taken from a study carried out in this region. Data is collected in 15-30 April in the year 2006. Totally, reached sample is 767 people. Injury status, status after injury are dependant variables and age, gender, education status, profession, chronic illness, tobacco-alcohol consumption, marital status are independent variables. RESULTS: Distribution of the group as gender was male 352 (45.9%, female 415 (54. %1. Mean education year of male (4.5±1.5 year was higher than female (4.2±1.6 year (t= 2.97, p=0.03. Injury prevalence was 10.0% (n=767. Sort of injury was fall 31 people (40.2%, cut 11 (14. %3, burn 10 (13.0%. Place that injury take place was house 41 (55.4%, road 17 (23.0%, school 4 (5.4%. Lesions were; cut-wounded injury in 20 people (28.2%, rotten in 10 (14.1%, sprain in 8 (11.3%. Number of injured people was 77 and 28 (36.4% of them applied to hospital. CONCLUSION: Valid prevalance of injuries can be indicated by field studies as quarter of injured people applied to health departments. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 133-136

  8. 21 CFR 316.22 - Permanent-resident agent for foreign sponsor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ORPHAN DRUGS Designation of an Orphan Drug § 316.22 Permanent-resident agent for foreign sponsor. Every foreign sponsor that seeks orphan-drug designation shall name a permanent resident of the United States as the sponsor's agent upon whom service of all processes, notices...

  9. 8 CFR 214.15 - Certain spouses and children of lawful permanent residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., subsequent to filing, USCIS returns the petition to the applicant for any reason or makes a request for... status to that of lawful permanent residence; (iv) The V-1 spouse's divorce from the LPR becomes final...

  10. Permanent health education based on research with professionals of a multidisciplinary residency program: case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Trivisiol da Silva

    Full Text Available This research aims to identify the perception of professional members of a multi-professional residency program on Permanent Health Education. It is a case study research using a qualitative approach, with sixteen members of a multi-professional residency program. The data were collected from January to May 2012, through semi-structured interviews, document analysis and systematic observation, and analyzed according to Thematic Content Analysis. Two categories were identified: Permanent Health Education establishing collective spaces of reflection of practices and Permanent Health Education that promotes integration between disciplines. The members of the multiprofessional residency team were found to be aware that permanent education permeates their training and enables reflection on their clinical practices and multidisciplinary action as producers of health actions.

  11. Cytogenetic abnormalities of the descendants of permanent residents of heavily contaminated East Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaizhunusova, Nailya; Madiyeva, Madina; Tanaka, Kimio; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kawano, Noriyuki; Noso, Yoshihiro; Takeichi, Nobuo; Rakhypbekov, Tolebay; Urazalina, Nailya; Dovgal, Galina; Rymbaeva, Tamara; Tokanova, Sholpan; Beisengazina, Meruert; Kembayeva, Kulypash; Inoue, Ken

    2017-11-01

    More than 400 nuclear explosion tests were conducted at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) and significant radioactive substances were released. The long-term consequences of the activities at the SNTS and the appearance of any hereditary effects remain insufficiently studied about 25 years after the test site was closed. The population living in villages near the SNTS are considered to have been heavily exposed to external and internal radiation. This study aims to perform an assessment and comprehensive cytogenetic analysis of the inhabitants living near the SNTS, and their first-(F1) and second-(F2) generation children. Residents of the East Kazakhstan region living in the area covered by the former SNTS were included in the study. To evaluate the hereditary effects of nuclear testing, comprehensive chromosome analyses were performed in lymphocytes using conventional Giemsa and fluorescent in situ hybridization methods in 115 F1 and F2 descendants in the villages of Dolon and Sarzhal, which were heavily contaminated. The parents of the subjects had permanently lived in the villages. A higher number of stable-type chromosome aberrations such as translocations was found in these residents than in 80 residents of the control area, Kokpecty, which indicates the possibility that radiation had biological effects on the exposed subjects.

  12. Morphometrics of Permanent Dentition in Chennai Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sridhar

    2011-01-01

    The study is helpful in establishling Bolton′s standards for assessing tooth size discrepancy and also in application of mixed dentition model analysis and bracket positioning chart for preadjusted edgewise appliance for the local population.

  13. Students of migration: Indian overseas students and the question of permanent residency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, M.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the motives of students from India who have enrolled in Australian universities as overseas students. It shows that their main objective is to obtain a permanent residence visa in Australia and that they tailor their choice of course and university with this end in mind. As a

  14. Exploring the concurrent validity of the nationwide assessment of permanent nursing home residence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bebe, Anna; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Willadsen, Tora Grauers

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many register studies make use of information about permanent nursing home residents. Statistics Denmark (StatD) identifies nursing home residents by two different indirect methods, one based on reports from the municipalities regarding home care in taken place in a nursing home...... Danish Region, we randomly selected one municipality reporting to Stat D (Method 1) and one not reporting where instead an algorithm created by StatD was used to discover nursing home residents (Method 2). Method 1 means that municipalities reported to Stat D whether home care has taken place......, and the other based on an algorithm created by StatD.The aim of the present study was to validate StatD’s nursing home register using dedicated administrative municipality records on individual nursing home residents as gold standard. Methods: In total, ten Danish municipalities were selected. Within each...

  15. Child health insurance coverage: a survey among temporary and permanent residents in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mingshan; Zhang, Jing; Ma, Jin; Li, Bing; Quan, Hude

    2008-11-17

    Under the current healthcare system in China, there is no government-sponsored health insurance program for children. Children from families who move from rural and interior regions to large urban centres without a valid residency permit might be at higher risk of being uninsured due to their low socioeconomic status. We conducted a survey in Shanghai to describe children's health insurance coverage according to their migration status. Between 2005 and 2006, we conducted an in-person health survey of the adult care-givers of children aged 7 and under, residing in five districts of Shanghai. We compared uninsurance rates between temporary and permanent child residents, and investigated factors associated with child health uninsurance. Even though cooperative insurance eligibility has been extended to temporary residents of Shanghai, the uninsurance rate was significantly higher among temporary (65.6%) than permanent child residents (21.1%, adjusted odds ratio (OR): 5.85, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 4.62-7.41). For both groups, family income was associated with having child health insurance; children in lower income families were more likely to be uninsured (OR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.40-2.96). Children must rely on their parents to make the insurance purchase decision, which is constrained by their income and the perceived benefits of the insurance program. Children from migrant families are at even higher risk for uninsurance due to their lower socioeconomic status. Government initiatives specifically targeting temporary residents and providing health insurance benefits for their children are urgently needed.

  16. Mesiodistal Crown Dimensions of Permanent Teeth in Bangladeshi Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Hossain Khan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Variation in tooth size is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Several studies have reported tooth size variation between and within different racial groups. In order to improve the quality of dental care available, there is a great need for data on the mesiodistal crown dimensions of the individual teeth of Bangladeshi population. Objectives: To find nominative data on the mesiodistal crown dimensions of permanent teeth in Bangladeshi population and to compare the findings with those reported in other populations. Methods: This observational study was done from January, 2008 to June, 2010 in the Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University. A total of 244 Bangladeshi subjects (77 males and 167 females, aged 7 – 36 years (mean 18.3 years with no age limit who attended at the above mentioned place for treatment were included in the study. Main outcome measure was mesiodistal crown dimension of each tooth class of permanent dentition. Mesiodistal crown dimensions were measured from dental casts of the permanent teeth. Results: Males had significantly larger teeth than females for maxillary central incisors (p < 0.05 and for the mandibular second premolars (p < 0.001. In both sexes, the maxillary lateral incisors showed the greatest variability [coefficient of variation (CV 10.7%] and the maxillary canines the least (CV 6.9% in mesiodistal crown dimension. Mandibular canines displayed greater sexual dimorphism in mesiodistal crown size than in any other tooth classes. Comparisons of the mesiodistal crown dimensions between population groups showed that Bangladeshis have tooth sizes close to those of North Indians, Icelanders and Jordanians but larger than those of North American Whites. Conclusions: From this study, a standard for the mesiodistal crown dimensions of permanent dentition of Bangladeshi males and females are obtained. Key Words: Crown dimension; Mesio

  17. A comparison of health access between permanent residents, undocumented immigrants and refugee claimants in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ruth M; Klei, A G; Hodges, Brian D; Fisman, David; Kitto, Simon

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the immigrant experience accessing healthcare is essential to improving their health. This qualitative study reports on experiences seeking healthcare for three groups of immigrants in Toronto, Canada: permanent residents, refugee claimants and undocumented immigrants. Undocumented immigrants who are on the Canadian Border Services Agency deportation list are understudied in Canada due to their precarious status. This study will examine the vulnerabilities of this particular subcategory of immigrant and contrast their experiences seeking healthcare with refugee claimants and permanent residents. Twenty-one semi-structured, one-on-one qualitative interviews were conducted with immigrants to identify barriers and facilitators to accessing healthcare. The open structure of the interviews enabled the participants to share their experiences seeking healthcare and other factors that were an integral part of their health. This study utilized a community-based participatory research framework. The study identifies seven sections of results. Among them, immigration status was the single most important factor affecting both an individual's ability to seek out healthcare and her experiences when trying to access healthcare. The healthcare seeking behaviour of undocumented immigrants was radically distinct from refugee claimants or immigrants with permanent resident status, with undocumented immigrants being at a greater disadvantage than permanent residents and refugee claimants. Language barriers are also noted as an impediment to healthcare access. An individual's immigration status further complicates their ability to establish relationships with family doctors, access prescriptions and medications and seek out emergency room care. Fear of authorities and the complications caused by the above factors can lead to the most disadvantaged to seek out informal or black market sources of healthcare. This study reaffirmed previous findings that fear of deportation

  18. Efforts to reduce the disparity between permanent residents and temporary migrants: Stop TB experiences in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Chen, Jing; Wang, Wei; Wu, Laiwa; Shen, Xin; Yuan, Zhengan; Yan, Fei

    2015-08-01

    Eight of 17 districts of Shanghai have offered transportation and living allowances subsidies to patients with tuberculosis (TB) among the migrant population. The study aimed to assess the impact of the subsidising initiative on the treatment success rate (TSR) and identify the social determinants of treatment outcomes. The participants included 7072 residents and 5703 migrants who were registered in the TB Information Management System with smear-positive pulmonary TB from January 2006 to December 2010. The Cochran-Armitage test was employed to test the trends of TSR and logistic regressions to identify the factors associated with treatment outcome. Without subsidies, migrant TB cases had lower odds of successful treatment [OR = 0.20 (95% CI 0.18-0.23)] than resident cases. Subsidisation was associated with a 65% increased odds ratio of success [1.65 (1.40-1.95)] among migrant cases. The TSR has stabilised at 87% for both permanent residents and temporary migrants since 2009. Living in districts with a population density ≥20,000/km(2) was associated with a low odds ratio [0.42 (0.26-0.68)] among resident cases, whereas among migrant cases those living in districts out of central downtown had a higher odds ratio of treatment success [peripheral downtown: 1.73 (1.36-2.20), suburban: 1.69 (1.16-2.46)]. The TB cases in districts with 2.0-2.9 TB specialists/100 cases had a higher odds ratio [2.99 (1.91-4.69)] of successful treatment than cases from districts with fewer specialists. Besides free medical services, transport and living allowance subsidies to migrant patients with TB improved the treatment outcome significantly. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Civil Surgeon Tuberculosis Evaluations for Foreign-Born Persons Seeking Permanent U.S. Residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemis, Kelley; Thornton, Andrew; Rodriguez-Lainz, Alfonso; Lowenthal, Phil; Escobedo, Miguel; Sosa, Lynn E; Tibbs, Andrew; Sharnprapai, Sharon; Moser, Kathleen S; Cochran, Jennifer; Lobato, Mark N

    2016-04-01

    Foreign-born persons in the United States seeking to adjust their status to permanent resident must undergo screening for tuberculosis (TB) disease. Screening is performed by civil surgeons (CS) following technical instructions by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. From 2011 to 2012, 1,369 practicing CS in California, Texas, and New England were surveyed to investigate adherence to the instructions. A descriptive analysis was conducted on 907 (66%) respondents. Of 907 respondents, 739 (83%) had read the instructions and 565 (63%) understood that a chest radiograph is required for status adjustors with TB symptoms; however, only 326 (36%) knew that a chest radiograph is required for immunosuppressed status adjustors. When suspecting TB disease, 105 (12%) would neither report nor refer status adjustors to the health department; 91 (10%) would neither start treatment nor refer for TB infection. Most CS followed aspects of the technical instructions; however, educational opportunities are warranted to ensure positive patient outcomes.

  20. The Spillover of US Immigration Policy on Citizens and Permanent Residents of Mexican Descent: How Internalizing ‘Illegality’ Impacts Public Health in the Borderlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha eSabo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The militarization of the U.S.-Mexico border region exacerbates the process of ‘Othering’ Latino immigrants—as illegal aliens. The internalization of ‘illegality’ can manifest as a sense of undeservingness of legal protection in the population and be detrimental on a biopsychological level. Objective: We explore the impacts of ‘illegality’ among a population of US citizen and permanent resident farmworkers of Mexican descent. We do so through the lens of immigration enforcement-related stress and the ability to file formal complaints of discrimination and mistreatment perpetrated by local immigration enforcement agents, including local police authorized to enforce immigration law. Methods: Drawing from cross-sectional data gathered through the National Institute of Occupation Safety and Health, Challenges to Farmworker Health at the US-Mexico Border study, a community-based participatory research project conducted at the Arizona-Sonora border, we compared Arizona resident farmworkers (N=349 to Mexico-based farmworkers (N=140 or Transnational farmworkers who cross the US-Mexico border daily or weekly to work in US agriculture. Results: Both samples of farmworkers experience significant levels of stress in anticipation of encounters with immigration officials. Fear was cited as the greatest factor preventing individuals from reporting immigration abuses. The groups varied slightly in the relative weight attributed to different types of fear. Conclusion: The militarization of the border has consequences for individuals who are not the target of immigration enforcement. These spillover effects cause harm to farmworkers in multiple ways. Multi institutional and community-centered systems for reporting immigration related victimization is required. Applied participatory research with affected communities can mitigate the public health effects of state-sponsored immigration discrimination and violence among US citizen and

  1. Vitamin D Status in Population of Bukovyna and Subcarpathia Depending on Residence above Sea Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Povoroznyuk

    2016-04-01

    ding on the residence above sea level. Objective: to determine the level of vitamin D in the blood serum of people, who live in different regions of the Subcarpathia and Bukovyna, depending on the location of the settlement above sea le-vel. Material and methods. In the cross-sectional study, we have examined 353 individuals, aged 18 to 86 years, permanently residing in different parts of the Subcarpathia (Kolomyia, Kosiv, Verhovyna districts and Bukovyna (Vyzhny-tsia district. Results. Only in 28 cases (7.9 %, the content of 25(OHD in the blood serum was in the normal range, and in other cases (92.1 %, there was a deficiency and a lack of vitamin D. The severe form of vitamin D deficiency has been detected in 7 (1.9 % patients. When comparing the performance of 25(OHD in the areas of inspection, it was found that the level of vitamin D in the blood serum was significantly higher in residents of Verkhovyna and Kosiv districts (located higher than 450 meters above sea level as compared with residents of Vyzhnytsia and Kolomyia. Conclusion. The average level of vitamin D in the blood serum of the adult population depends on residence and increases with height above sea level.

  2. Eruption age of permanent mandibular first molars and central incisors in the south Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rakhi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The existing eruption schedules for permanent and deciduous dentition are based on studies in the Western population. Since Indians differ from Westerners racially, genetically, and environmentally, these studies fail to provide relevant guidance on the eruption schedule in the Indian population. This study aims at determining the eruption pattern of permanent mandibular molars and central incisors in the south Indian population. Materials and Methods: 10,156 apparently healthy Indian children in the age-group of 6-9 years were examined with mouth mirror and probe under adequate illumination for the status of the eruption of the permanent mandibular first molar and permanent mandibular central incisor. Pearson′s Chi-square test with Yates′ continuity correction was used to calculate the P -value for comparison of proportion between girls and boys. The values obtained in our study were compared with the standard values. The Z-test with continuity correction was used to calculate the P -value. Results: As per our study, the permanent mandibular first molars and central incisors erupted one to two years later compared to the values reported in Westerners. The earlier eruption of the permanent mandibular first molars compared to the permanent mandibular central incisors, as well as the earlier eruption of both the teeth in girls compared to boys, were in accordance with the existing literature. Conclusion: The eruption age reported by us may form a standard reference for eruption age in Indians.

  3. Is there any change in the prevalence of intestinal and urinary parasitosis among "non-permanent resident" students in Tunisia ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Sonia; Bouchakoua, Myiram; Aouinet, Amira; Sellami, Amira; Khaled, Samira

    2012-07-01

    Intestinal parasitosis are cosmopolitan affections, often related to the fecal peril. However urinary bilharziosis is a disease eliminated in Tunisia. As part of monitoring the emergence and re-emergence of intestinal parasitosis and urinary bilharziasis, foreign students benefit from parasitological systematic monitoring stool and urine during their enrollment to the University. To study the prevalence of various intestinal parasitosis and urinary bilharziasis among non permanent resident students in Tunisia. A retrospective survey was carried at the Laboratory of Parasitology- Mycology of Charles Nicolle Hospital of Tunis during the inscription period of 6 university years 2005-2010. 328 students profited from a parasitological examination of stool and urine. 144 students (43.9%) harbored intestinal parasites. More than one parasite was detected in 69 students (47.9%). Intestinal protozoa were the majority of identified parasites (96.9%). 9.7% of identified parasites were pathogenic. Three cases (0.91%) of urinary bilharziasis were diagnosed. The prevalence of intestinal and urinary parasitism among the "non-permanent residents" students in Tunisia has not changed. This justifies a systematic parasitologic monitoring for students coming from areas of high endemicity of parasitosis in order to avoid the introduction of these.

  4. Exploring the concurrent validity of the nationwide assessment of permanent nursing home residence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bebe, Anna; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Willadsen, Tora Grauers

    2017-01-01

    , and the other based on an algorithm created by StatD. The aim of the present study was to validate StatD's nursing home register using dedicated administrative municipality records on individual nursing home residents as gold standard. METHODS: In total, ten Danish municipalities were selected. Within each...... in a nursing home or in a private home. Method 2 is based on an algorithm created by Stat D for the municipalities where Method 1 is not applicable. Our gold standard was the information from the local administrative system in all ten selected municipalities. Each municipality provided a list with all...... directly from the municipalities, which was used as our gold Standard 3821 individuals were identified as nursing home residents. The StatD register identified 6,141 individuals as residents. Additionally, 556 of the individuals identified by the municipalities were not identified in the StatD register...

  5. Generic Skills Development and Satisfaction with Groupwork among Business Students: Effect of Country of Permanent Residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Stephen T. T.; Segal, Naomi; Morgan, Adam C.; Kandlbinder, Peter; Wang, Karen Y.; Hingorani, Anurag

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine variables explaining students' positive and negative experiences of groupwork and connect country of residence with the perception of generic skills development and self-reported satisfaction with groupwork. It also aims to examine the effect of prior training in groups from the perspective of…

  6. The Impact of Including Immigrants without Permanent Residence Status in the Public Health Insurance System in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tepperová Jana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Whether an individual can or cannot participate in the Czech public health insurance system depends on several characteristics, one of which is whether he/she has permanent residence status in the Czech Republic, and a second whether he/she is employed. This means that those without permanent residence status, including self-employed migrants from third countries, their dependent relatives, and the dependent relatives of third country employees in the Czech Republic, cannot participate in the public health insurance system. Some argue that such migrants should be included in the system, since commercial health insurance is disadvantageous and the contributions they would pay into the public health insurance system would increase the public health insurance agencies’ income. We estimate the value of the contributions to public health insurance that would be paid by third country self-employed and non-working immigrants, if they were insured based on data from 2011 to 2013, and compare this to the assumed costs of their medical care. To calculate the contributions for self-employed migrants we use data on the distribution of the tax base for self-employed persons from personal income tax returns. Our estimation results in an overall negative balance of 22 million CZK on the data for 2012 and 2013. In the current system this deficit would be covered by the state, which would pay contributions to the system for certain (state insured persons amounting to 97 million CZK; overall therefore the inclusion of these immigrants would result in a positive balance of 75 million CZK.

  7. Evaluation of sexual dimorphism using permanent maxillary first molar in Sri Ganganagar population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Mehta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of Study: The aim is to evaluate existence of sexual dimorphism by variation in right and left permanent maxillary molars using buccolingual width (BLW and mesio-distal width (MDW measured intraorally and on study casts among Sri Ganganagar population. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients (25 males and 25 females with 17–25 years of age were selected. Impressions of maxillary arch were taken and the BLW and MDW were measured using digital Vernier calipers on study casts and intraorally. Results: Highly significant correlation was found between MDW and BLW of both the maxillary permanent first molars for both genders (P < 0.05 intraorally. The MDW and BLW on study cast of both sides in both gender were more on left side in males while on right side in females. Conclusion: Left maxillary permanent first molar showed minimum mean difference of measurements on study cast and introrally than right, thus better predictor for gender dimorphism in forensics.

  8. Establishment of sexual dimorphism in north indian population by odontometric study of permanent maxillary canine teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate whether sexual dimorphism can be established by odontometric study of permanent maxillary canine teeth as well as inter-canine width in north Indian population. Study Design: The study was carried out at department of oral and maxillofacial pathology, King George′s Medical University, Lucknow, India on students and patients reporting at OPD. Out of total 180 subjects examined 90 subjects were female and 90 were male. Impressions of the upper arch were made using alginate and casts poured in dental stone. The mesiodistal diameter (MD of the crown of permanent maxillary canine both on right and left sides and inter-canine width were measured. From these measurements, maxillary canine index was calculated. The percentage of sexual dimorphism (SD was assessed for all the parameters. Results: In the present study, the MD of maxillary canine for both right (P = 0.001 and left side (P = 0.005 was significantly higher among male subjects than females, Similar observation was found for inter-canine width too (P = 0.0001. However, the maxillary canine index for right and left was almost similar (P > 0.05 for both male and female subjects. The SD in right and left MDs of maxillary canine was 4.2% and 3.6% respectively. For, inter-canine width it was maximum (13.7%. However, SD in right and left canine index showed negative values (−2.1% and -0.9% respectively. Conclusion: There was SD in MD and inter-canine width of permanent maxillary canine teeth. SD was more on right permanent maxillary canine teeth than left permanent maxillary canine.

  9. Prevalence of radix entomolaris in mandibular permanent first molars: a study in a South Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Saurabh S; Chandra, Supriya; Shankar, Padmanabhan; Indira, Rajamani

    2011-09-01

    Anatomical racial variations are an acknowledged characteristic in permanent molars. Generally, mandibular first molars have 2 roots; however, the presence of a third root, radix entomolaris (RE), is a major anatomic variant among many population groups. This study evaluated the prevalence of permanent mandibular first molars featuring a distolingual root in a South Indian population. Five hundred patients of South Indian origin possessing bilateral mandibular first molars were selected. The radiographs of these patients were evaluated under optimal conditions. A total of 1000 mandibular first molars were screened and the incidence of 3-rooted mandibular first molars and the correlation between left and right side occurrence and between either gender was recorded. The prevalence of 3-rooted mandibular first molars was 18.6% of the patients examined and 13.3% of the teeth examined. There was no statistically significant difference between genders or side of occurrence (P > .05). The bilateral incidence of a symmetric distribution was 43.01%. RE is considered an Asiatic trait. The occurrence of this macrostructure in the South Indian population was 13.3%, which was lower than that of other patients of Mongoloid origin. The clinician must thoroughly examine the radiograph before initiation of endodontic therapy. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Intestinal parasitosis among non-permanent resident students in Tunisia: a review of 23 years of monitoring in the department of Parasitology-Mycology at the Rabta Hospital of Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dridi, Kalthoum; Fakhfakh, Najla; Belhadj, Sleh; Kaouech, Emira; Kallel, Kalthoum; Chaker, Emna

    2015-07-01

    In order to fight digestive parasitism in Tunisia, a national program of surveillance of non-permanent resident students in Tunisia has been found to detect these parasitosis in this target population. To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among non-permanent resident students in Tunisia, to identify the different parasitic species founded and to show the interest of this screening. During a period of 23 years (1990-2012), 7386 parasitological examinations of stools has been made among students essentially from or had visited tropical Africa, Maghreb and Middle-East, at the laboratory of Parasitology-Mycology at the Rabta Hospital of Tunis. The prevalence of intestinal parasitism found was 34.45% (i.e. 2545 infested students). Among the protozoa that have been isolated in the majority of cases (78.75%), amoebae were most frequently found (86.4%) represented mainly by Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nanus in respectively, 25.62 and 23.33% of parasites isolated; while Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, only pathogenic Amoeba was found in 8.05% of the total of parasites isolated. Regarding helminths, found in 21.25% of parasites isolated, Ankylostome was predominant (34.5%) represented by the species of Necator americanus. A single case of Ancylostom duodenale has been isolated. Among the identified parasite species, 38.7% were known parasitic pathogens for humans. These results note the interest of the control of the non-permanent resident students in Tunisia. The precocious tracking and treatment of affected subjects permits to avoid the introduction and the dissemination of parasites already rare and virulent strains in our country.

  11. Variability in permanent tooth size of three ancient populations in Xi'an, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi-You; Kang, Ting; Liu, Dai-Yun; Duan, Yin-Zhong; Shao, Jin-Ling

    2012-11-01

    This paper compares permanent dental dimensions between three ancient populations that belonged to the same biological population throughout a temporal range of 2000 years to detect temporal trends and metric variation in dentition. The samples analysed were dental remains of 4502 permanent teeth from 321 individuals, which were excavated from three archaeological sites: Chang'an (1000-1300 years BP), Shanren (2200 years BP) and Shaolingyuan (3000 years BP) in the Xi'an region (northern China). For each tooth three standard measurements were taken: Mesiodistal (MD) diameter of crown, labiolingual or buccolingual (BL) diameter of crown and length of root (LR). Three ancient population samples generally displayed the same dental dimensions (p>0.05), whereas some tooth types varied. The Shaolingyuan had larger canine and the smallest maxillary second molars and the Chang'an had the largest mandibular first molars in the MD dimension. The Shanren had the smallest maxillary third molars and mandibular central incisors, and the Chang'an had the smallest maxillary lateral incisors in the BL dimension. In the LR measures, statistically significant differences of five tooth types showed that the Chang'an were smaller than the Shaolingyuan and the Shanren. Comparisons of coefficients of variation for teeth showed that the length of root and third molar usually displayed greater variation. Decreasing or increasing trend for crown size does not occur between the ancient populations, while changes in crown size of a few tooth types fluctuate. The root size is more variable than the crown size and is likely to reflect a degenerated trend in a few tooth types. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of three rooted permanent mandibular first molars in Haryana (North Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpa Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mandibular first molars typically have two roots but sometimes a supernumerary root presents distolingually called as radix entomolaris (RE. Aim: The present study evaluated the prevalence of permanent mandibular first molars featuring a distolingual root in Haryana (North India. Materials and Methods: Five hundred patients possessing bilateral mandibular first molars were selected for this study. The intraoral periapical radiographs were taken. The radiographs of these patients were evaluated under optimal conditions. A total of 1000 mandibular first molars were screened, and the incidence of three-rooted mandibular first molars, RE and the correlation between left and right side occurrence and between either gender were recorded. Statistical Analysis: The binary logistic regression test and Pearson's Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The prevalence of three-rooted permanent mandibular first molars was 13% of the patients examined and 8.3% of the teeth examined. There was no statistically significant difference between gender and side of occurrence (P ≥ 0.05. The bilateral incidence of a symmetric distribution was 27.6 (18/65 among the RE teeth examined. Conclusion: RE is considered as an Asiatic trait. The occurrence of this macrostructure in the Haryana (North India population was found to be 13%. The clinician must thoroughly examine the radiographs before the initiation of endodontic therapy.

  13. Root Canal Configuration of Maxillary First Permanent Molars in an Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Rahimi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and aims. It is critical to have a proper knowledge of the normal anatomy of the pulp and its variations for the success of endodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate variations in the root canal system of maxillary first permanent molars in an Iranian population.

    Materials and methods. In this study, 137 maxillary first molars were decalcified, dye-injected, cleared and studied.

    Results. The results demonstrated that 37.96% of the maxillary first molars under study had three canals, 58.4% had four canals and 3.64% had five canals.

    Conclusion. According to the results of this study and considering variations in the root canal systems of maxillary first molars, it seems that great care should be taken in the root canal treatment of these teeth.

  14. What's the agreement between self-reported and biochemical verification of drug use? A look at permanent supportive housing residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Alexis; Livingston, Melvin; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Hill, Whitney; Walters, Scott

    2017-07-01

    Self-reported substance use is commonly used as an outcome measure in treatment research. We evaluated the validity of self-reported drug use in a sample of 334 adults with mental health problems who were residing in supportive housing programs. The primary analysis was the calculation of the positive predictive values (PPVs) of self-report compared to an oral fluid test taken at the same time. A sensitivity analysis compared the positive predictive values of two self-reported drug use histories: biological testing window (ranging between the past 96h to 30days depending on drug type) or the full past 90-day comparison window (maximum length recorded during interview). A multivariable logistic regression was used to predict discordance between self-report and the drug test for users. Self-reported drug use and oral fluid drug tests were compared to determine the positive predictive value for amphetamines/methamphetamines/PCP (47.1% agreement), cocaine (43.8% agreement), and marijuana (69.7% agreement) drug tests. Participants who misreported their drug use were more likely to be older, non-White, have no medical insurance, and not report any alcohol use. In general, amphetamine/methamphetamine/PCP and cocaine use was adequately captured by the biological test, while marijuana use was best captured by a combination of self-report and biological data. Using the full past 90day comparison window resulted in higher concordance with the oral fluid drug test, indicating that self-reported drug use in the past 90days may be a proxy for drug use within the biological testing window. Self-report has some disadvantages when used as the sole measure of drug use in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Communication received from the resident representative of Italy on behalf of the European Community. A communication dated 28 June 1996 from the Permanent Mission of Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of a note verbale dated 28 June 1996 and received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Permanent Mission of Sweden on 28 June 1996 informing about the adoption, by the Government of Sweden, of the common policy declaration adopted on 20 November 1984 by the ministers for foreign affairs of the then ten members of the European Community which was transmitted to the Director General by the Resident Representative of Italy on behalf of the Community on 22 march 1985 (INFCIRC/322). The declaration deals with transfer of nuclear material, equipment and technology between the Member States of the European Union

  16. Communication received from the resident representative of Italy on behalf of the European Community. A communication dated 17 June 1996 from the Permanent Mission of Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of a note verbale dated 17 June 1996 and received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Permanent Mission of Austria on 19 June 1996 informing about the adoption, by the Government of Austria, of the common policy declaration adopted on 20 November 1984 by the ministers for foreign affairs of the then ten members of the European Community which was transmitted to the Director General by the Resident Representative of Italy on behalf of the Community on 22 march 1985 (INFCIRC/322). The declaration deals with transfer of nuclear material, equipment and technology between the Member States of the European Union

  17. Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report provides estimates of the size of the unauthorized immigrant population residing in the United States as of January 2012 by period of entry, region and...

  18. Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report provides estimates of the size of the unauthorized immigrant population residing in the United States as of January 2011 by period of entry, region and...

  19. Estimates of the Resident Nonimmigrant Population in the United States: 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report presents estimates on the size and characteristics of the resident nonimmigrant population in the United States in 2008.1 The estimates were based on...

  20. Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report provides estimates of the size of the unauthorized immigrant population residing in the United States as of January 2010 by period of entry, region and...

  1. 8 CFR 1216.4 - Joint petition to remove conditional basis of lawful permanent resident status for alien spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the termination of the marriage through annulment, divorce, or the death of the petitioning spouse, or... concurrently with the parent, the death of the parent, or other reasons may file a separate Petition to Remove... residence. The alien shall be provided with written notification of the termination and the reasons therefor...

  2. 8 CFR 216.6 - Petition by entrepreneur to remove conditional basis of lawful permanent resident status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... investment requirement of the statute and continuously maintained his or her capital investment over the two... has, in good faith, substantially met the capital investment requirement of the statute and continuously maintained his or her capital investment over the two years of conditional residence. (iv) The...

  3. 8 CFR 1216.6 - Petition by entrepreneur to remove conditional basis of lawful permanent resident status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... investment requirement of the statute and continuously maintained his or her capital investment over the two..., substantially met the capital investment requirement of the statute and continuously maintained his or her capital investment over the two years of conditional residence. (iv) The alien created or can be expected...

  4. A population-based study of rectal cancer: permanent colostomy as an outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paszat, Lawrence F.; Brundage, Michael D.; Groome, Patti A.; Schulze, Karleen; Mackillop, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The objectives of this study are to describe the utilization of surgery and of radiotherapy in the treatment of newly diagnosed rectal cancer in Ontario between 1982 and 1994, and to describe the probability of permanent colostomy at any time after the diagnosis of rectal cancer, as an outcome of the treatment of newly diagnosed rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Electronic records of rectal cancer (International Classification of Diseases code 154) from the Ontario Cancer Registry (n = 18,695, excluding squamous, basaloid, cloacogenic, and carcinoid histology) were linked to surgical records from all Ontario hospitals, and radiotherapy (RT) records from Ontario cancer centers. Procedures occurring within 4 months of diagnosis, or within 4 months of another procedure for rectal cancer, were considered part of initial treatment. Multivariate analyses controlled for age, sex, and year of diagnosis. Results: Resection plus permanent colostomy was performed in 33.1% of cases, whereas local excision or resection without permanent colostomy was performed in 38.2%. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated higher odds ratios (OR) for resection plus permanent colostomy in all regions of Ontario relative to Toronto. The OR for postoperative RT following local excision or resection without permanent colostomy varied among the regions relative to Toronto (e.g., OR Ottawa = 0.59, OR Hamilton 0.76, OR London = 1.25). The relative risk (RR) of colostomy conditional upon survival within 5 years from diagnosis varied among regions relative to Toronto (e.g., RR Ottawa = 1.21, RR Hamilton = 1.20). Conclusions: There is regional variation in the utilization of resection with permanent colostomy, and in the utilization of postoperative RT among cases not undergoing permanent colostomy. Regions with higher initial rates of resection plus permanent colostomy continue to experience higher probability of permanent colostomy 5 years after diagnosis of rectal cancer. Higher

  5. Parental immigration status is associated with children's health care utilization: findings from the 2003 new immigrant survey of US legal permanent residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Katherine; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Curry, Leslie A; Krumholz, Harlan M; Desai, Mayur M

    2013-12-01

    Our objective was to examine the association between parental immigration status and child health and health care utilization. Using data from a national sample of immigrant adults who had recently become legal permanent residents (LPR), children (n = 2,170) were categorized according to their parents' immigration status prior to LPR: legalized, mixed-status, refugee, temporary resident, or undocumented. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to compare child health and health care utilization by parental immigration status over the prior 12 months. Nearly all children in the sample were reported to be in good to excellent health. Children whose parents had been undocumented were least likely to have had an illness that was reported to have required medical attention (5.4 %). Children whose parents had been either undocumented or temporary residents were most likely to have a delayed preventive annual exam (18.2 and 18.7 %, respectively). Delayed dental care was most common among children whose parents had come to the US as refugees (29.1 %). Differences in the preventive annual exam remained significant after adjusting for socioeconomic characteristics. Parental immigration status before LPR was not associated with large differences in reported child health status. Parental immigration status before LPR was associated with the use of preventive annual exams and dental services. However, no group of children was consistently disadvantaged with respect to all measures.

  6. Eruption of supernumerary permanent teeth in a sample of urban primary school population in Genoa, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, G; Mondani, P M; Parodi, V

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this epidemiological study was to describe the incidence and distribution of hyperdontia in the primary school population in Genoa (Italy) and to check its influence on the development of orthodontic problems in children. The collected data should also help to find out what is the best age range among children to direct a program for early diagnosis and prevention of malocclusion and oral diseases related to hyperdontia. The participating children (total number 1577, 814 males and 763 females, between 6 and 10 years of age) chosen in 19 public primary schools in Genoa have been examined by the same specialist through year 2004. Erupted permanent teeth, presence, position and form of supernumerary teeth, malocclusion presence and class, presence of orthodontic devices, age and sex have been noted down for each child. The global percentage of hyperdontia was 0.38%, more frequent in males (0.49%) than in females (0.26%). The most common kind of supernumerary tooth was mesiodens (83%). A significant increase of hyperdontia prevalence (from 0.64% to 1.06%) was noticed in children 9 years old. The incidence of malocclusion among children presenting hyperdontia was 83.3%, while the global incidence of malocclusion was 40%. An orthodontic treatment had been planned and started for 20% of children presenting malocclusion. The study has revealed an incidence of hyperdontia much more frequent in males than in females (2:1). The most common site of eruption of supernumerary teeth is maxillary anterior region. Hyperdontia is strictly related with dental malocclusion. The best age range to direct a program of early diagnosis and prevention of malocclusion and hyperdontia is 9 years old children.

  7. Evaluation of the expert patient program in a Chinese population with permanent colostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang; Xu, Qin; Dai, Xiao-dong; Yang, Lin-li

    2012-01-01

    A colostomy can negatively impact patients' quality of life. Recent research findings suggest that self-efficacy and psychosocial adjustment are positively associated with quality of life, but there are few research reports about the self-efficacy and psychosocial adjustment of patients with a permanent colostomy. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of a 3-week Expert Patient Program (EPP) on colostomy knowledge, stoma care self-efficacy, self-management, and psychosocial adjustment in Chinese patients who had a permanent colostomy. Eleven patients with permanent colostomy volunteered to be trained to be expert patients. Eighty-one patients with permanent colostomy were recruited and participated in the 3-week EPP courses. Questionnaires with items about knowledge on colostomy, stoma care self efficacy, self-management, and psychosocial adjustment were administered before and at 4 weeks following the EPP courses. Each EPP participant also completed a verbal interview at the end of the program. The EPP participants demonstrated statistically significant improvement (P colostomy (mean [SD]: 51.89 [11.45] vs 89.22 [19.90], 71.56 [5.93] vs 85.61 [14.32], 125.44 [19.27] vs 140.78 [15.34], 47.59 [9.64] vs 53.37 [10.68], respectively). Most participants gave positive ratings to the EPP. This study showed that the EPP was applied effectively in patients with permanent colostomy. This study highlights the importance of psychosocial support for patients with permanent colostomy. It offers a model of self-help practice in colostomy patients, supported by community that can benefit more patients with permanent colostomy.

  8. Permanent Central Diabetes Insipidus as a Complication of S. pneumoniae Meningitis in the Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statz, Hannah; Hsu, Benson S

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes insipidus is a rare but recognized complication of meningitis. The occurrence of diabetes insidipus has been previously attributed to Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) in a handful of patients and only once within the pediatric subpopulation. We present the clinical course of a previously healthy 2-year, 8-month-old male child ultimately diagnosed with central diabetes insipidus (CDI) secondary to S. pneumoniae meningitis. Permanent CDI following S. pneumoniae meningitis is unique to our case and has not been previously described. Following the case presentation, we describe the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of CDI. The mechanism proposed for this clinical outcome is cerebral herniation for a sufficient duration and subsequent ischemia leading to the development of permanent CDI. Providers should be aware of CDI resulting from S. pneumoniae meningitis as prompt diagnosis and management may decrease the risk of permanent hypothalamo-pituitary axis damage. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  9. Partial migration and transient coexistence of migrants and residents in animal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navinder J; Leonardsson, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    Partial migration, whereby a proportion of the population migrates, is common across the animal kingdom. Much of the focus in the literature has been on trying to explain the underlying mechanisms for the coexistence of migrants and residents. In addition, there has been an increasing number of reports on the prevalence and frequency of partially migratory populations. One possible explanation for the occurrence of partial migration, which has received no attention in the literature, is that of 'transient coexistence' during the invasion phase of a superior behaviour. In this study we develop a theoretical basis for explaining partial migration as a transient coexistence and derive a method to predict the frequency of residents and migrants in partially migrating populations. This method is useful to predict the frequencies of migrants and residents in a small set of populations as a complementing hypothesis to 'an Evolutionary Stable Strategy (ESS)'. We use the logistic growth equation to derive a formula for predicting the frequencies of residents and migrants. We also use simulations and empirical data from white perch (Morone americana), moose (Alces alces) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) to demonstrate our approach. We show that the probability of detecting partial migration due to transient coexistence depends upon a minimum number of tracked or marked individuals for a given number of populations. Our approach provides a starting point in searching for explanations to the observed frequencies, by contrasting the observed pattern with both the predicted transient and the uniform random pattern. Aggregating such information on observed patterns (proportions of migrants and residents) may eventually lead to the development of a quantitative theory for the equilibrium (ESS) populations as well.

  10. Partial migration and transient coexistence of migrants and residents in animal populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navinder J Singh

    Full Text Available Partial migration, whereby a proportion of the population migrates, is common across the animal kingdom. Much of the focus in the literature has been on trying to explain the underlying mechanisms for the coexistence of migrants and residents. In addition, there has been an increasing number of reports on the prevalence and frequency of partially migratory populations. One possible explanation for the occurrence of partial migration, which has received no attention in the literature, is that of 'transient coexistence' during the invasion phase of a superior behaviour. In this study we develop a theoretical basis for explaining partial migration as a transient coexistence and derive a method to predict the frequency of residents and migrants in partially migrating populations. This method is useful to predict the frequencies of migrants and residents in a small set of populations as a complementing hypothesis to 'an Evolutionary Stable Strategy (ESS'. We use the logistic growth equation to derive a formula for predicting the frequencies of residents and migrants. We also use simulations and empirical data from white perch (Morone americana, moose (Alces alces and red deer (Cervus elaphus to demonstrate our approach. We show that the probability of detecting partial migration due to transient coexistence depends upon a minimum number of tracked or marked individuals for a given number of populations. Our approach provides a starting point in searching for explanations to the observed frequencies, by contrasting the observed pattern with both the predicted transient and the uniform random pattern. Aggregating such information on observed patterns (proportions of migrants and residents may eventually lead to the development of a quantitative theory for the equilibrium (ESS populations as well.

  11. Tissue-resident adult stem cell populations of rapidly self-renewing organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker, N.; Bartfeld, S.; Clevers, H.

    2010-01-01

    The epithelial lining of the intestine, stomach, and skin is continuously exposed to environmental assault, imposing a requirement for regular self-renewal. Resident adult stem cell populations drive this renewal, and much effort has been invested in revealing their identity. Reliable adult stem

  12. Health state of the population residing in the vicinity of Eleshnitsa Uranium Deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliznakov, V.; Panova, D.; Bakalov, M.; Stateva, E.; Nuryan, L.; Sultanov, E.; Ivanov, Z.; Tomov, P.; Krystev, D.; Madoleva, S.; Bulev, A.

    1993-01-01

    Disease prevalence rate was studied in residents of Eleshnitsa village, Bulgaria, situated in an immediate vicinity of two uranium mines and one uranium flotation plant. Determinations were made of gamma radiation dose rate in the open and within some premises, and of the level of 'hidden energy' at some outdoor sites. The investigation was performed by physicians and assistant personnel specialized in eight different medical fields. A total of 186 children and 257 adults residing in Eleshnitsa were examined. The control group included residents of the 'clear' Dobrinishte village, Razlog district. The evidence from statistical data processing indicated the health impairments to be more frequent among the control group population. No disorders that might be related to exposure to environmental radiation factors were revealed. (author)

  13. Population genetics of drifting (Calanus spp.) and resident (Acartia clausi) plankton in Norwegian fjords

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bucklin, A.; Kaartvedt, S.; Guarnieri, M.; Goswami, U.

    fjords may be determined by local production (Aksnes and Magnesen, 1983). Thus, closed and open fjords may differ in zooplankton species’ composi- tion and in the degree to which populations of a given species are resident (i.e. self.... Introduction Fjords differ in their degree of exchange with open coastal waters. The biological and physical dynamics of open fjords are thought to be determined largely by advection (Aksnes et al., 1989; Giske et al., 1991), while abundances in more closed...

  14. Socioeconomic Position, Rural Residence, and Marginality Influences on Obesity Status in the Adult Mexican Population

    OpenAIRE

    Sparks, P. Johnelle; Sparks, Corey S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses individual and social environment determinants of obesity in the adult Mexican population based on socioeconomic position, rural residence, and areal deprivation. Using a nationally representative health and nutrition survey, this analysis considers individual and structural determinants of obesity from a socioeconomic position and health disparities conceptual framework using multilevel logistic regression models. We find that more than thirty percent of Mexican adults we...

  15. Frequency and distribution of developmental anomalies in the permanent teeth of a Turkish orthodontic patient population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Kazanci

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of developmental dental anomalies was higher in females than males. Impacted teeth were the most common developmental dental anomaly in this Turkish orthodontic population, followed by hypodontia.

  16. Prevalence and characteristics of Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) in the child population residing in Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, D R; Ganesh, M; Bhaskar, V

    2012-02-01

    Most prevalence studies on Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) have been carried out in European countries and data from Asia especially south Asian populations are lacking. To investigate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of MIH in children residing in a western region of India. A cross-sectional survey including 1,366 children from 5 age cohorts, 8-12 years, studying in primary schools or attending the University Department, was carried out in the area of Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India. The dental examination was performed by a single well-trained and calibrated examiner in day light conditions. Full mouth inspection of wet teeth was conducted using the EAPD 2003 criteria for diagnosis of MIH. Results were recorded and statistically analysed using Chi-square test, independent sample t-test and Pearson correlations. Prevalence of MIH was 9.2% in the examined population. Males and females were equally affected. Among 12 index teeth involved in the examination, the most commonly affected were in descending order 46, 36, 16, 11 [FDI] and the least 42, 32, and 22. 17.4% of the cases revealed only molars involved, the remaining 72.6% having both molars and incisors affected; all four first permanent molars showed in 23% of the cases while no cases of only affected incisors were found. Of the MIH teeth 77.3% revealed mild defects and 22.7% severe defects. All incisors were mildly affected, as compared with only 67.1% of the molars, the remaining 32.9% being severely affected. As age increased, a statistically significant larger total number and severity level of affected teeth were recorded. Prevalence of MIH using EAPD 2003 criteria was found to be similar to other studies evaluating children in different geographic locations such as Europe, South America etc. Using the EAPD standardised criteria, more studies should be conducted in other Indian regions, in order to further evaluate prevalence, characteristics and treatment needs for this clinically demanding

  17. Permanent Genetic Access to Transiently Active Neurons via TRAP: Targeted Recombination in Active Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Guenthner, Casey J.; Miyamichi, Kazunari; Yang, Helen H.; Heller, H. Craig; Luo, Liqun

    2013-01-01

    Targeting genetically encoded tools for neural circuit dissection to relevant cellular populations is a major challenge in neurobiology. We developed a new approach, Targeted Recombination in Active Populations (TRAP), to obtain genetic access to neurons that were activated by defined stimuli. This method utilizes mice in which the tamoxifen-dependent recombinase CreERT2 is expressed in an activity-dependent manner from the loci of the immediate early genes Arc and Fos. Active cells that expr...

  18. Population control of resident and immigrant microglia by mitosis and apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirenfeldt, Martin; Dissing-Olesen, Lasse; Babcock, Alicia

    2007-01-01

    microglia often occurred in clusters, some having recently incorporated bromodeoxyuridine, showing that proliferation had occurred. Annexin V labeling and staining for activated caspase-3 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling showed that apoptotic mechanisms participate...... in dissolution of the microglial response. Using bone marrow chimeric mice, we found that the lesion-induced proliferative capacity of resident microglia superseded that of immigrant microglia, whereas lesion-induced kinetics of apoptosis were comparable. Microglial numbers and responses were severely reduced...... in bone marrow chimeric mice. These results broaden our understanding of the microglial response to neural damage by demonstrating that simultaneously occurring mitosis and apoptosis regulate expansion and reduction of both resident and immigrant microglial cell populations....

  19. Digitized morphometric analysis of dental pulp of permanent mandibular second molar for age estimation of Davangere population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nerella Narendra; Panchaksharappa, Mamatha Gowda; Annigeri, Rajeshwari G

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to estimate the age of Davangere population by evaluating the pulp to tooth area ratio (PTR) by using digitized intraoral periapical radiographs of permanent mandibular second molar. 400 intraoral periapical radiograph (IOPA) of permanent mandibular 2nd molar of both the sexes aged 14-60 years were used. Digital camera was used to image the radiographs. Images were computed and PTR was calculated by AUTOCAD software. Intra and Inter observer variability was also assessed. Regression analysis was used to estimate the age of an individual by taking PTR as dependent variable. The mean PTR of males and females was 0.10 ± 0.02 and 0.09 ± 0.02 respectively. Negative correlation was observed, when age was compared with PTR {r = -0.441, -0.406 & -0.419 among males, females and total subjects (p AUTOCAD software. Also high differences were observed between estimated and chronological age of 12 years which is not in the acceptable range. But it provides a new window for research in the forensic sciences in estimating the adult age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. Defining a target population at high risk of long-term foster care: barriers to permanency for families of children with serious emotional disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Becci A; Bryson, Stephanie A; McDonald, Tom; Walker, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Long-term foster care (LTFC) is an enduring problem that lacks evidence of effective strategies for practice or policy. This article describes initial activities of a statewide project of the national Permanency Innovations Initiative. The authors sought to: (1) verify the relevance of children's mental health as a predictor of LTFC, (2) describe critical barriers encountered by parents of children with serious emotional disturbances, and (3) identify systems barriers that hinder permanency for this target population.

  1. Population control of resident and immigrant microglia by mitosis and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirenfeldt, Martin; Dissing-Olesen, Lasse; Anne Babcock, Alicia; Nielsen, Marianne; Meldgaard, Michael; Zimmer, Jens; Azcoitia, Iñigo; Leslie, Robert Graham Quinton; Dagnaes-Hansen, Frederik; Finsen, Bente

    2007-08-01

    Microglial population expansion occurs in response to neural damage via processes that involve mitosis and immigration of bone marrow-derived cells. However, little is known of the mechanisms that regulate clearance of reactive microglia, when microgliosis diminishes days to weeks later. We have investigated the mechanisms of microglial population control in a well-defined model of reactive microgliosis in the mouse dentate gyrus after perforant pathway axonal lesion. Unbiased stereological methods and flow cytometry demonstrate significant lesion-induced increases in microglial numbers. Reactive microglia often occurred in clusters, some having recently incorporated bromodeoxyuridine, showing that proliferation had occurred. Annexin V labeling and staining for activated caspase-3 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling showed that apoptotic mechanisms participate in dissolution of the microglial response. Using bone marrow chimeric mice, we found that the lesion-induced proliferative capacity of resident microglia superseded that of immigrant microglia, whereas lesion-induced kinetics of apoptosis were comparable. Microglial numbers and responses were severely reduced in bone marrow chimeric mice. These results broaden our understanding of the microglial response to neural damage by demonstrating that simultaneously occurring mitosis and apoptosis regulate expansion and reduction of both resident and immigrant microglial cell populations.

  2. Monitoring larval populations of the Douglas-fir tussock moth and the western spruce budworm on permanent plots: sampling methods and statistical properties of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.R. Mason; H.G. Paul

    1994-01-01

    Procedures for monitoring larval populations of the Douglas-fir tussock moth and the western spruce budworm are recommended based on many years experience in sampling these species in eastern Oregon and Washington. It is shown that statistically reliable estimates of larval density can be made for a population by sampling host trees in a series of permanent plots in a...

  3. U.S. Census Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Selected Age Groups by Sex for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2010-2015. U.S. Census Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Selected Age Groups by Sex for the United States. The estimates are based on the 2010 Census...

  4. Estimates of the Size and Characteristics of the Resident Nonimmigrant Population in the United States: January 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report presents estimates of the size and characteristics of the resident nonimmigrant population in the United States. The estimates are daily averages for the...

  5. Canal Configuration of Mesiobuccal Roots in Permanent Maxillary First Molars in Iranian Population: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Mandana; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Hosseinpour, Sepanta

    2016-11-01

    It is essential for clinicians to have adequate knowledge about root canal configurations; although its morphology varies largely in different ethnicities and even in different individuals with the same ethnic background. The current study aims to review the root canal configurations of mesiobuccal roots of maxillary first molars in an Iranian population based on different epidemiological studies. A comprehensive search was conducted to retrieve articles related to root canal configuration and prevalence of each type of root canal based on Vertucci's classification for the mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molars. An electronic search was conducted in Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar from January 1984 to September 2015. The articles were evaluated and methods, population, number of teeth and percentage of each root canal type evaluated in each study were summarized in the data table. Websites such as http://www.magiran.com/ , http://health.barakatkns.com/journal-internal-list and www.sid.ir were used to search all related studies published in Persian. Totally, out of nine studies conducted on the Iranian populations in nine provinces of Iran and 798 teeth, the Vertucci's type I was the most common type (35.70%), followed by type II (30.37%), type IV (16.66%), type III (7.93%) and type V (2.61%). From this review article, it is concluded that the root canal morphology of mesiobuccal roots of maxillary first molars in the Iranian population predominantly has more than one canal. Therefore, careful evaluation of radiographs and anatomy of the pulp chamber is essential in order to achieve a successful root canal therapy.

  6. Analysis of the concept of Ministry of Public Health of the former USSR (35 rem) and republic concept of population residence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Concept of safe population residence at the contaminated territories accepted by Ministry of Public Health of the USSR in November, 1988 following the Chernobyl accident is discussed. Groundlessness of the introduced 'dose for life' equal 35 rem is marked as well as incompetence of the approach to population residence at contaminated territories. Republic concept of population residence at Belarussian contaminated territories is presented

  7. Seroprevalence of antibodies against chikungunya virus in Singapore resident adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Li Wei; Kam, Yiu Wing; Lin, Cui; Krishnan, Prabha Unny; Tay, Joanne; Ng, Lee Ching; James, Lyn; Lee, Vernon J M; Goh, Kee Tai; Ng, Lisa F P; Lin, Raymond T P

    2017-12-01

    We determined the seroprevalence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection in the adult resident population in Singapore following local outbreaks of chikungunya fever (CHIKF) in 2008-2009. Our cross-sectional study involved residual sera from 3,293 adults aged 18-79 years who had participated in the National Health Survey in 2010. Sera were tested for IgG antibodies against CHIKV and dengue virus (DENV) and neutralizing antibodies against CHIKV. The prevalence of CHIKV-neutralizing antibodies among Singapore residents aged 18-79 years was 1.9% (95% confidence interval: 1.4%- 2.3%). The CHIKV seroprevalence was highest in the elderly aged 70-79 years at 11.5%, followed by those aged 30-39 years at 3.1%. Men had significantly higher CHIKV seroprevalence than women (2.5% versus 1.3%, p = 0.01). Among the three main ethnic groups, Indians had the highest seroprevalence (3.5%) compared to Chinese (1.6%) and Malays (0.7%) (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). Multivariable logistic regression identified adults aged 30-39 years and 70-79 years, men, those of Indian ethnicity and ethnic minority groups, and residence on ground floor of public and private housing apartments as factors that were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of exposure to CHIKV. The overall prevalence of anti-DENV IgG antibodies was 56.8% (95% CI: 55.1%- 58.5%), while 1.5% (95% CI: 1.1%- 2.0%) of adults possessed both neutralizing antibodies against CHIKV and IgG antibodies against DENV. Singapore remains highly susceptible to CHIKV infection. There is a need to maintain a high degree of vigilance through disease surveillance and vector control. Findings from such serological study, when conducted on a regular periodic basis, could supplement surveillance to provide insights on CHIKV circulation in at-risk population.

  8. Food and fluid intake of the SENECA population residing in Romans, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, M; Hininger-Favier, I; Sidobre, B; Mathey, M F

    2001-01-01

    to provide information and data on food and fluid intake of free-living elderly aged of 81-86 years old residing in the south of France. using standardised methods data were collected from a random sample born between 1913 and 1918. The French study protocol again included data collection on dietary intake using a standardised modified dietary history consisting of a food frequency list and a 3-day estimated dietary record. Total dietary intake was generally low as compared to the recommended daily intake for elderly subjects. This descriptive part of the SENECA study gives the opportunity to have information on this growing segment of the population. These results should help to adapt the dietary guidelines for this category of the population.

  9. Permanent genetic access to transiently active neurons via TRAP: targeted recombination in active populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenthner, Casey J; Miyamichi, Kazunari; Yang, Helen H; Heller, H Craig; Luo, Liqun

    2013-06-05

    Targeting genetically encoded tools for neural circuit dissection to relevant cellular populations is a major challenge in neurobiology. We developed an approach, targeted recombination in active populations (TRAP), to obtain genetic access to neurons that were activated by defined stimuli. This method utilizes mice in which the tamoxifen-dependent recombinase CreER(T2) is expressed in an activity-dependent manner from the loci of the immediate early genes Arc and Fos. Active cells that express CreER(T2) can only undergo recombination when tamoxifen is present, allowing genetic access to neurons that are active during a time window of less than 12 hr. We show that TRAP can provide selective access to neurons activated by specific somatosensory, visual, and auditory stimuli and by experience in a novel environment. When combined with tools for labeling, tracing, recording, and manipulating neurons, TRAP offers a powerful approach for understanding how the brain processes information and generates behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Root surface area measurement of permanent dentition in Indian population – CBCT analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Lakhani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The area of the root surface of human teeth has been investigated extensively in the dental literature. All previous attempts mainly rely on the use of physical methods to calculate surface area on extracted teeth or use virtual 3D Models for the same. The aim is to develop an algorithm using MATLAB software that estimates the dimensions of 3-D image produced with the help of CBCT so that the same can be utilized to calculate the root surface area of teeth among Indian population. Present research utilizes CBCT images of samples of extracted teeth mounted on a customized jpg. A descriptive chart for statistical analysis has been prepared to obtain average root surface area of each tooth type. The currently developed algorithm has been successfully applied to the CBCT images of complete sample of teeth to obtain their root surface area. The algorithm developed to calculate root surface area of the teeth holds wide spread application in the field of dentistry pursuing its high expediency in even various specializations of dentistry including orthodontics, prosthodontics, periodontology and implantalogy. It is concluded that it has now become a reality to accurately determine the surface area of the root of human teeth without extracting them using the CBCT radiographs of the patients.

  11. The Association between Natural Amenities, Rural Population Growth, and Long-Term Residents' Economic Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lori M; Boardman, Jason D.; Saint Onge, Jarron M.

    2005-01-01

    Population growth in rural areas characterized by high levels of natural amenities has recently received substantial research attention. A noted concern with amenity-driven rural population growth is its potential to raise local costs-of-living while yielding only low-wage service sector employment for long-term residents. The work presented here…

  12. Analysis of population development and effectiveness of mnagement in resident greylag geese Anser anser in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, T.C.; Turnhout, van C.; Willems, F.; Voslamber, B.

    2010-01-01

    The resident Greylag goose population in the Netherlands has strongly increased in number which led to conflict with agricultural interests, public concern on goose hunting and legal debate on the need to regulate geese. Such a debate can be facilitated by insight in population development and the

  13. Prevalence of intellectual dysfunctioning and its correlates in a community-residing elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, N; Tatara, K; Shinsho, F; Takatorige, T; Murakami, S; Fukuda, H

    1998-09-01

    To examine the prevalence of intellectual dysfunctioning and its correlates in community-residing elderly people, a randomly selected sample of 1,405 people aged 65 and over living in Settsu, Osaka, were investigated in October 1992. Data for assessing intellectual dysfunctioning were obtained from 1,364 people (97.1%), excluding 21 clinically demented people (1.5%); 17.6/100, 5.6/100, and 3.3/100 of the population showed minor, moderate, and appreciable intellectual dysfunctioning, respectively, and the prevalence of intellectual dysfunctioning increased with age. By multivariate analyses using logistic regression, age over 75, poor general health, including current medical treatment, and psychosocial conditions such as no participation in social activities, no life worth living (no Ikigai), and anxiety about the future were independent risk factors for intellectual dysfunctioning. We conclude that intellectual dysfunctioning is closely associated with health and psychosocial conditions.

  14. Variations in the Root Form and Root Canal Morphology of Permanent Mandibular First Molars in a Sri Lankan Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Peiris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the number of roots and morphology of the root canal system of permanent mandibular first molars (M1 in a Sri Lankan population. Sample of 529 M1 teeth was used. The number of roots was examined and the lengths of the mesial and distal roots were measured to the nearest 0.01 mm. Vacuum injection protocol was used to inject China ink into the root canal system, making it transparent. Root canal morphology was recorded using Vertucci’s classification. Presence of furcation canals, position of lateral canals, intercanal communications, level of bifurcation, and convergence of the root canal system were recorded. M1 showed three roots in 4.1% of the sample. Commonest root canal morphology of the mesial root was type IV and the distal root was type I. The level of bifurcation of the root canals was commonly observed in the cervical one-third of the root while convergence was observed in the apical one-third in both roots. Prevalence of three rooted mandibular first molars is less than 5%. Mesial root showed the most variable canal morphology. Prevalence of furcation canals was 1.5% while that of middle mesial canals was 0.2%.

  15. Demographic and health characteristics of the population residing within the 30-km area around the Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, P.; Bliznakov, V.

    1993-01-01

    Based on detailed analysis of data on demographic and health state of the population residing within the 30-km zone around the Kozloduj NPP, an attempt was made to detect any impact of the power plant on population health under normal NPP operational conditions. The health characteristics of the population revealed no unfavorable trends. Particular attention was given to diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs, malignant new growths, complications of pregnancy, and congenital anomalies. (author)

  16. Optimal Vitamin D Status in a Middle-Aged and Elderly Population Residing in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleteng, Qiqige; Zhao, Lin; Lin, Huandong; Xia, Mingfeng; Ma, Hui; Gao, Jian; Pan, Baishen; Gao, Xin

    2017-12-19

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal vitamin D status in the middle-aged and elderly population residing in Shanghai, China. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 1,829 males and postmenopausal females older than 45 years of age in the Changfeng community of Shanghai were included in this study. The optimal vitamin D level was determined according to the suppression of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the highest bone mineral density (BMD). Locally weighted scatter plot smoothing (LOWESS) was performed to study the correlations of 25(OH)D with PTH and BMD in the lumbar spine and total hip, adjusting for gender, age, weight, use of calcium and vitamin D supplements, eGFR, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. RESULTS The mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 48.0±19.2 nmol/L for the whole study population. The circulating PTH was maximally suppressed by the serum 25(OH)D of 55 nmol/L in the total population (60 nmol/L for males and 50 nmol/L for females). The 25(OH)D concentrations corresponding to the highest BMD at lumbar spine (L1-L4) and total hip were 53 nmol/L and 75 nmol/L, respectively, for the whole population. These values were also higher in males than females. CONCLUSIONS The optimal 25(OH)D concentration of 55 nmol/L is sufficient to maintain the bone health and metabolic status in middle-aged and elderly individuals living in Shanghai. Males probably need higher vitamin D concentration than females. There are differences between vitamin D status based on lumbar spine BMD and total hip BMD.

  17. Composition and Dynamics of Migratory and Resident Avian Population in Wintering Wetlands from Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushalendra Kumar JHA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Twelve wetlands occurring in four different ecozones in Uttar Pradesh (UP, India, were selected for studying the winter composition and dynamics of avian populations. Wetland information was collected from office records of the UP Forest department. Bird populations were estimated by transect method and block-in-flock-in-sector method for woodland and aquatic birds, respectively. Across the twelve selected wetlands a total of 486,182 individuals belonging to 161 species of birds on 15,592 ha were recorded during the winter of 2010-11. The data were analyzed to assess the relationship between wetland characteristics and avian populations. Aquatic vegetation, surrounding vegetation, water availability and climate were found as important factors related to avian populations. January was found to be the peak of bird assemblage, while winter times before and after January were the waxing and waning period, respectively. Species richness and species diversity of aquatic birds varied between 18-58 and 1.90-3.20, respectively, and of all bird species between 23-109, and 1.73-3.81, respectively. The density of aquatic birds ranged between 17-384 ha-1. The most common migratory birds in wetlands were Northern Pintail, Common Teal and Greylag Goose. Common resident birds included Asian Openbill, Darter, Little Egret, Common Coot, Little Cormorant, Grey Heron, Purple Heron, Indian Pond Heron, Common Moorhen, Purple Swamphen, Cattle Egret, Indian Sarus Crane and White-throated Kingfisher. For improved conservation of aquatic avian fauna, management prescriptions are suggested for wetlands under current management which could also be extended to other wetlands, whereas conservation of avian fauna to be the emphasis.

  18. Role of resident CNS cell populations in HTLV-1-associated neuroinflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepoutre, Veronique; Jain, Pooja; Quann, Kevin; Wigdahl, Brian; Khan, Zafar K

    2009-01-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), the first human retrovirus discovered, is the etiologic agent for a number of disorders; the two most common pathologies include adult T cell leukemia (ATL) and a progressive demyelinating neuroinflammatory disease, HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The neurologic dysfunction associated with HAM/TSP is a result of viral intrusion into the central nervous system (CNS) and the generation of a hyperstimulated host response within the peripheral and central nervous system that includes expanded populations of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This robust, yet detrimental immune response likely contributes to the death of myelin producing oligodendrocytes and degeneration of neuronal axons. The mechanisms of neurological degeneration in HAM/TSP have yet to be fully delineated in vivo and may involve the immunogenic properties of the HTLV-1 transactivator protein Tax. This comprehensive review characterizes the available knowledge to date concerning the effects of HTLV-1 on CNS resident cell populations with emphasis on both viral and host factors contributing to the genesis of HAM/TSP.

  19. Prevalência de dermatoses em idosos residentes em instituição de longa permanência Prevalence of dermatoses in residents of institutions for the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lopes Mattos e Dinato

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a prevalência das afecções dermatológicas em 75 idosos residentes em instituição de longa permanência na cidade de Santos-SP, e confrontar os achados com revisão da literatura. MÉTODOS: Setenta e cinco idosos foram submetidos a exame dermatológico. Com os dados obtidos calculou-se a prevalência, o número médio por paciente e a freqüência de dermatoses. Foi ainda analisado a distribuição nos subgrupos sexo, raça, faixa etária e nos subgrupos principais de dermatoses. RESULTADOS: O número total de dermatoses diagnosticadas foi 280, o número médio por paciente foi 3,73 e o número total de tipos de dermatoses foi 32. A prevalência das principais dermatoses encontradas foi: melanose solar (53,3%, queratose seborréica (46,6%, onicomicose (37,3%, nevo rubi (33,3%, púrpura senil (29,3%, xerose (14,6%, escabiose (12,0% e neoplasia maligna (1,3%. A distribuição das dermatoses foi 70% (IC95%: 59% a 81% maior no sexo feminino do que no masculino. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar da pequena casuística, os dados obtidos são compatíveis com os poucos relatos disponíveis na literatura. Este estudo de prevalência definiu a distribuição de dermatoses em uma fração da população de idosos. Entretanto, os dados agregados de casuísticas subseqüentes podem permitir tornar os dados mais precisos, cuja relevância é indiscutível na orientação de medidas de saúde individual e coletiva.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of dermatoses in 75 elderly residents in an institution of long permanence in the city of Santos, and to compare findings with those in literature. METHODS: Seventy five healthy elderly persons were submitted to a dermatological exam. The prevalence, the average number per elderly person and the frequency of dermatoses were calculated from the data collected. An analysis was then made of the distribution in the subgroups of, gender, race, age bracket as well as of dermatosis in the main sub

  20. Urinary and fecal incontinence in a community-residing older population in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, N; Tatara, K; Naramura, H; Fujiwara, H; Takashima, Y; Fukuda, H

    1997-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence and risk factors of urinary and fecal incontinence among a community-residing older population in Japan. Population-based cross-sectional study. A randomly selected sample of 1473 people aged 65 years and older living in the City of Settsu, Osaka, in 1992. Data collected via in-home visits were used to estimate the prevalence of urinary and fecal incontinence and to provide information regarding potential risk factors of urinary and fecal incontinence. Data were obtained from 1405 older adults, a response rate of 95.4%. The prevalence of any degree of urinary incontinence was 98/1000 in both sexes, and 87/ 1000 men and 66/1000 women admitted to some degree of fecal incontinence. Daily, 34/1000 and 20/1000 of the population were incontinent of urine and feces, respectively. There was an increasing prevalence of urinary and fecal incontinence with age in both sexes, but the expected greater prevalence in women was not found. By univariate analyses, age older than 75 years, poor general health as measured by Activities of Daily Living, stroke, dementia, no participation in social activities, and lack of life worth living (Ikigai) were associated significantly with both urinary and fecal incontinence. In the multivariate analyses using logistic regression, age older than 75 years, poor general health, and stroke were independent risk factors for any type of incontinence. Diabetes was an independent risk factor for isolated fecal incontinence, and dementia and no participation in social activities were independent risk factors for double incontinence. Incontinence of urine and feces is a prevalent condition among very old people living in the community in Japan and is associated highly with health and psychosocial conditions.

  1. Burden of Clostridium difficile-associated disease among patients residing in nursing homes: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Holly; Baser, Onur; Wang, Li

    2016-11-25

    Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection (CDI) is the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea in the United States. This study aimed to examine the incidence of CDI and evaluate mortality and economic burden of CDI in an elderly population who reside in nursing homes (NHs). This was a population-based retrospective cohort study focusing on US NHs by linking Medicare 5% sample, Medicaid, Minimum Data Set (MDS) (2008-10). NH residents aged ≥65 years with continuous enrollment in Medicare and/or Medicaid Fee-for-Service plan for ≥12 months and ≥2 quarterly MDS assessments were eligible for the study. The incidence rate was calculated as the number of CDI episodes by 100,000 person-years. A 1:4 propensity score matched sample of cohorts with and without CDI was generated to assess mortality and health care costs following the first CDI. Among 32,807 NH residents, 941 residents had ≥1 episode of CDI in 2009, with an incidence of 3359.9 per 100,000 person-years. About 30% CDI episodes occurred in the hospital setting. NH residents with CDI (vs without CDI) were more likely to have congestive heart failure, renal disease, cerebrovascular disease, hospitalizations, and outpatient antibiotic use. During the follow-up period, the 30-day (14.7% vs 4.3%, P CDI residents vs non-CDI residents. Total health care costs within 2 months following the first CDI episode were also significantly higher for CDI residents ($28,621 vs $13,644, P CDI presents a serious public health issue in NHs. Mortality, health care utilization, and associated costs were significant following incident CDI episodes.

  2. Population monitoring: three generation study of residents living in the vicinity of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bersimbaev, R.I.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this work are as follows: to establish a Blood Bio-sample Database of three generations families living close to the Semipalatinsk test site (STS) and control families in three generation from clean areas; to determine the mini-satellite mutations rates in the three generation of radiation exposed people and control families of the same ethnic origin; to definition the chromosomal translocation frequencies by FISH chromosome painting in the lymphocytes of the exposed and control people in order to determine the radiation exposure. The following criteria for select to examined groups were used: the people from control group should be permanently living at clean area (far from STS or any places where the nuclear tests occur and far from any chemical industrial plants), e.g. they should not been exposed to radiation during their life (including a radiotherapy and cytostatics); the people of both examined groups should be matched regard to structure of families, age, ethnic background, parental age of P 0 and F 1 to the moment children birth, smoking habit, lifestyle and occupation. The maximum of available families by appropriate criteria in villages were chosen. As exposed inhabitation serves residents of following villages: Dolon, Mostik, Bodene, Cheremushki, Kanonerka, Karamyrza (all these villages are situated in Beskargai district). The inhabitants of Dzerzhinsk, Zhanatalap and Ushtobe villages of former Taldy-Kurgan oblast were included for study as a control group. The Bio-sample Bank consists of the frozen EDTA blood (at - 20 deg C), and isolated whole blood DNA (at - 70 deg C), the fixated erythrocytes (at - 70 deg C), isolated lymphocytes (in liquid nitrogen container) and lymphocyte cultures (at - 20 deg C). The Bio-sample Bank is supplement with a computerized database identifying the samples and number of vial stored, and information on individuals studied (all questionnaire data) and family tree. Results from the translocation FISH

  3. Burnout among U.S. medical students, residents, and early career physicians relative to the general U.S. population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrbye, Liselotte N; West, Colin P; Satele, Daniel; Boone, Sonja; Tan, Litjen; Sloan, Jeff; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2014-03-01

    To compare the prevalence of burnout and other forms of distress across career stages and the experiences of trainees and early career (EC) physicians versus those of similarly aged college graduates pursuing other careers. In 2011 and 2012, the authors conducted a national survey of medical students, residents/fellows, and EC physicians (≤ 5 years in practice) and of a probability-based sample of the general U.S. population. All surveys assessed burnout, symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation, quality of life, and fatigue. Response rates were 35.2% (4,402/12,500) for medical students, 22.5% (1,701/7,560) for residents/fellows, and 26.7% (7,288/27,276) for EC physicians. In multivariate models that controlled for relationship status, sex, age, and career stage, being a resident/fellow was associated with increased odds of burnout and being a medical student with increased odds of depressive symptoms, whereas EC physicians had the lowest odds of high fatigue. Compared with the population control samples, medical students, residents/fellows, and EC physicians were more likely to be burned out (all P prevalence of burnout, depressive symptoms, and recent suicidal ideation are relatively small. At each stage, burnout is more prevalent among physicians than among their peers in the U.S. population.

  4. Place of Residence and Cognitive Function among the Adult Population in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hanzhang; Ostbye, Truls; Vorderstrasse, Allison A; Dupre, Matthew E; Wu, Bei

    2018-03-07

    The place of residence has been linked to cognitive function among adults in developed countries. This study examined how urban and rural residence was associated with cognitive function among adults in India. The World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health data was used to examine cognition among 6,244 community-residing adults age 50+ in 6 states in India. Residential status was categorized as urban, rural, urban-to-urban, rural-to-urban, rural-to-rural, and urban-to-rural. Cognition was assessed by immediate and delayed recall tests, digit span test, and verbal fluency test. Multilevel models were used to account for state-level differences and adjusted for individual-level sociodemographic, psychosocial, and health-related factors. Urban residents and urban-to-urban migrants had the highest levels of cognition, whereas rural residents and those who migrated to (or within) rural areas had the lowest cognition. The differences largely persisted after adjustment for multiple covariates; however, rural-to-urban migrants had no difference in cognition from urban residents once socioeconomic factors were taken into account. Cognition among adults in India differed significantly according to their current and past place of residence. Socioeconomic factors played an important role in the cognitive function of adults in urban areas. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Prevalence of plaque and dental decay in the first permanent molar in a school population of south Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada-Aranza, Olga; Rodríguez-Nieto, Karen

    2018-01-01

    The first permanent molar is susceptible to acquire tooth decay since its eruption, due to its anatomy and because it has been exposed before other teeth. An observational, prolective, transversal and comparative study in 194 students, with an average age of 9.9 ± 1.8 years. The evaluation of the dentobacterial plate (DBP) was analyzed using the O'Leary index and the tooth decay experience with the DMFS (sum of decayed, missing, extracted and filling dental surfaces) and DMFT (sum of decayed, missing, extracted and filling per tooth) indexes. The prevalence of DBP in the first permanent molar was of 99.4% and tooth decay of 57.2%. The value of DMFT was 1.4 ± 1.4. The tooth decay experience was higher in children from 7.10 years old with a value of 2.2 ± 2.3, who are 7.9 times more likely to develop lesions than younger children (odds ratio: 8.9; 95% confidence interval: 4.1-19.5; p tooth decay experience indexes; even though these were weak in the case of DMF (r = 0.439), the model allowed to explain 19% of the association, and 22% for DMFT (r = 0.464). Tooth decay develops rapidly in the first permanent molars; however, it does not receive the necessary care because it is usually unknown that it is a permanent tooth. Copyright: © 2018 Permanyer.

  6. Characterization of a resident population of adventitial macrophage progenitor cells in postnatal vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psaltis, Peter J; Puranik, Amrutesh S; Spoon, Daniel B; Chue, Colin D; Hoffman, Scott J; Witt, Tyra A; Delacroix, Sinny; Kleppe, Laurel S; Mueske, Cheryl S; Pan, Shuchong; Gulati, Rajiv; Simari, Robert D

    2014-07-18

    Macrophages regulate blood vessel structure and function in health and disease. The origins of tissue macrophages are diverse, with evidence for local production and circulatory renewal. We identified a vascular adventitial population containing macrophage progenitor cells and investigated their origins and fate. Single-cell disaggregates from adult C57BL/6 mice were prepared from different tissues and tested for their capacity to form hematopoietic colony-forming units. Aorta showed a unique predilection for generating macrophage colony-forming units. Aortic macrophage colony-forming unit progenitors coexpressed stem cell antigen-1 and CD45 and were adventitially located, where they were the predominant source of proliferating cells in the aortic wall. Aortic Sca-1(+)CD45(+) cells were transcriptionally and phenotypically distinct from neighboring cells lacking stem cell antigen-1 or CD45 and contained a proliferative (Ki67(+)) Lin(-)c-Kit(+)CD135(-)CD115(+)CX3CR1(+)Ly6C(+)CD11b(-) subpopulation, consistent with the immunophenotypic profile of macrophage progenitors. Adoptive transfer studies revealed that Sca-1(+)CD45(+) adventitial macrophage progenitor cells were not replenished via the circulation from bone marrow or spleen, nor was their prevalence diminished by depletion of monocytes or macrophages by liposomal clodronate treatment or genetic deficiency of macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Rather adventitial macrophage progenitor cells were upregulated in hyperlipidemic ApoE(-/-) and LDL-R(-/-) mice, with adventitial transfer experiments demonstrating their durable contribution to macrophage progeny particularly in the adventitia, and to a lesser extent the atheroma, of atherosclerotic carotid arteries. The discovery and characterization of resident vascular adventitial macrophage progenitor cells provides new insight into adventitial biology and its participation in atherosclerosis and provokes consideration of the broader existence of local macrophage

  7. Alcohol Trajectories over Three Years in a Swedish Residence Hall Student Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriettae Ståhlbrandt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although it is known that college students have a high alcohol consumption, less is known about the long-term drinking trajectories amongst college students and, in particular, students living in residence halls, known to be high-risk drinkers. Over four consecutive years, the drinking habits of 556 Swedish residence hall students were analyzed. The main instruments for measuring outcome were AUDIT (Alcohol Use Identification Disorders Test, SIP (Short Index of Problems and eBAC (estimated Blood Alcohol Concentration. The drinking trajectories among Swedish residence hall students showed stable and decreasing drinking patterns, with age and gender being predictors of group membership.

  8. Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report provides estimates of the number of unauthorized immigrants residing in the United States as of January 2008 by period of entry, region and country of...

  9. Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report provides estimates of the number of unauthorized immigrants residing in the United States as of January 2007 by period of entry, region and country of...

  10. Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report provides estimates of the number of unauthorized immigrants residing in the United States as of January 2009 by period of entry, region and country of...

  11. Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report provides estimates of the number of unauthorized immigrants residing in the United States as of January 2006 by period of entry, region and country of...

  12. Human skin is protected by four functionally and phenotypically discrete populations of resident and recirculating memory T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Rei; Gehad, Ahmed; Yang, Chao; Campbell, Laura; Teague, Jessica E.; Schlapbach, Christoph; Elco, Christopher; Huang, Victor; Matos, Tiago R.; Kupper, Thomas S.; Clark, Rachael A.

    2015-01-01

    The skin of an adult human contains approximately 20 billion memory T cells. Epithelial barrier tissues are infiltrated by a combination of resident and recirculating T cells in mice but the relative proportions and functional activities of resident versus recirculating T cells have not been evaluated in human skin. We discriminated resident from recirculating T cells in human engrafted mice and lymphoma patients using alemtuzumab, a medication that depletes recirculating T cells from skin, and then analyzed these T cell populations in healthy human skin. All non-recirculating resident memory T cells (TRM) expressed CD69, but the majority were CD4+, CD103− and located in the dermis, in contrast to studies in mice. Both CD4+ and CD8+ CD103+ TRM were enriched in the epidermis, had potent effector functions and had a limited proliferative capacity compared to CD103− TRM. TRM of both types had more potent effector functions than recirculating T cells. Induction of CD103 on human T cells was enhanced by keratinocyte contact, depended on TGFβ and was independent of T cell keratinocyte adhesive interactions. We observed two distinct populations of recirculating T cells, CCR7+/L-selectin+ central memory T cells (TCM) and CCR7+/L-selectin− T cells, which we term migratory memory T cells (TMM). Circulating skin-tropic TMM were intermediate in cytokine production between TCM and effector memory T cells. In patients with cutaneous T cell lymphoma, malignant TCM and TMM induced distinct inflammatory skin lesions and TMM were depleted more slowly from skin after alemtuzumab, suggesting TMM may recirculate more slowly. In summary, human skin is protected by four functionally distinct populations of T cells, two resident and two recirculating, with differing territories of migration and distinct functional activities. PMID:25787765

  13. Burden of Clostridium difficile-associated disease among patients residing in nursing homes: a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium difficile (C. difficile infection (CDI is the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea in the United States. This study aimed to examine the incidence of CDI and evaluate mortality and economic burden of CDI in an elderly population who reside in nursing homes (NHs. Methods This was a population-based retrospective cohort study focusing on US NHs by linking Medicare 5% sample, Medicaid, Minimum Data Set (MDS (2008–10. NH residents aged ≥65 years with continuous enrollment in Medicare and/or Medicaid Fee-for-Service plan for ≥12 months and ≥2 quarterly MDS assessments were eligible for the study. The incidence rate was calculated as the number of CDI episodes by 100,000 person-years. A 1:4 propensity score matched sample of cohorts with and without CDI was generated to assess mortality and health care costs following the first CDI. Results Among 32,807 NH residents, 941 residents had ≥1 episode of CDI in 2009, with an incidence of 3359.9 per 100,000 person-years. About 30% CDI episodes occurred in the hospital setting. NH residents with CDI (vs without CDI were more likely to have congestive heart failure, renal disease, cerebrovascular disease, hospitalizations, and outpatient antibiotic use. During the follow-up period, the 30-day (14.7% vs 4.3%, P < 0.001, 60-day (22.7% vs 7.5%, P < 0.001, 6-month (36.3% vs 18.3%, P < 0.001, and 1-year mortality rates (48.2% vs 31.1%, P < 0.001 were significantly higher among the CDI residents vs non-CDI residents. Total health care costs within 2 months following the first CDI episode were also significantly higher for CDI residents ($28,621 vs $13,644, P < 0.001. Conclusions CDI presents a serious public health issue in NHs. Mortality, health care utilization, and associated costs were significant following incident CDI episodes.

  14. General population exposure of stable lead and 210Pb to residents of New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, D.C.; Welford, G.A.; Morse, R.

    1975-12-01

    Stable lead and 210 Pb intake, ingestion, and inhalation by residents of New York City were determined. Measurement of excreta samples provided data to establish a mass balance of stable lead and 210 Pb. These results indicate that no more than 5 μg of stable lead and 0.1 pCi of 210 Pb are retained daily by residents of New York City. Analyses of bone samples have provided estimates of the skeletal burden of stable lead and 210 Pb. Using the ICRP model, intake data, and assuming 100 percent skeletal deposition, the calculated stable lead and 210 Pb values are in good agreement with the experimental results. The data indicate that inhalation is the principle source of stable lead to residents in New York City

  15. Late effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Studies of the resident population in the Semipalatinsk area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenson, R.I.; Tchaijunusova, N.J.; Gusev, B.I.; Katoh, O.; Kimura, A.; Hoshi, M.; Kamada, N.; Satow, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The early and late radiation effects on residents of the nuclear test site in Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, were studied. In Semipalatinsk area hundreds of on-the-ground and underground nuclear tests had been conducted between 1949 and 1989. The collected biological data was investigated in terms of the following points, i.e., cancer incidence, mortality rates from malignant tumors, infant mortality and congenital anomalies, overall mortality, hemopoiesis, chromosomal aberrations in the somatic cells, immune system parameters, cardiovascular system findings, and thyroid gland disorders. The individual points were investigated according to the exposure level, resident areas, years after exposure, age, and sex. The significant findings are given and discussed. (S.Y.)

  16. The colostomy impact score: development and validation of a patient reported outcome measure for rectal cancer patients with a permanent colostomy. A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyø, A; Emmertsen, K J; Pinkney, T D; Christensen, P; Laurberg, S

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to develop and validate a simple scoring system evaluating the impact of colostomy dysfunction on quality of life (QOL) in patients with a permanent stoma after rectal cancer treatment. In this population-based study, 610 patients with a permanent colostomy after previous rectal cancer treatment during the period 2001-2007 completed two questionnaires: (i) the basic stoma questionnaire consisting of 22 items about stoma function with one anchor question addressing the overall stoma impact on QOL and (ii) the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ) C30. Answers from half of the cohort were used to develop the score and subsequently validated on the remaining half. Logistic regression analyses identified and selected items for the score and multivariate analysis established the score value allocated to each item. The colostomy impact score includes seven items with a total range from 0 to 38 points. A score of ≥ 10 indicates major colostomy impact (Major CI). The score has a sensitivity of 85.7% for detecting patients with significant stoma impact on QOL. Using the EORTC QLQ scales, patients with Major CI experienced significant impairment in their QOL compared to the Minor CI group. This new scoring system appears valid for the assessment of the impact on QOL from having a permanent colostomy in a Danish rectal cancer population. It requires validation in non-Danish populations prior to its acceptance as a valuable patient-reported outcome measure for patients internationally. Colorectal Disease © 2016 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  17. Involvement of Religious Factors on the Attitude Toward Organs Donation Among the Ecuadorian Population Resident in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, A; Lopez-Navas, A; Iniesta, A; Mikla, M; Martinez-Alarcón, L; Ramis, G; Ramirez, P; Parrilla, P

    2015-11-01

    The attitude toward cadaveric organ donation is modulated by different factors, such as religious beliefs. This study sought to analyze the attitude of nationals of Ecuador resident in Spain regarding deceased organ donation depending on their religious beliefs. A sample of Ecuadorian population resident in Spain (n = 461) stratified by age and sex was selected. We used a validated questionnaire of psychosocial aspects (PCID-DTO Rios), which is self-administered and anonymous. The χ(2) test, Student t test, and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze data. Of the 461 survey respondents, 86% (n = 395) were Catholic, 7% (n = 31) were believers of other faiths, and 7% (n = 35) declared themselves agnostic or atheist. A significant association between the religious beliefs and attitude toward organ donation among those tested can be objectified: 61% of Catholics (n = 241), 42% of believers in non-Catholic doctrines (n = 13), and 49% of atheists/agnostics (n = 17) were in favor of donation (P = .05). Among religious people, 77% of respondents believed their religion was favorable toward donation and 35%, although in favor of organ cadaveric donation, consider their religion contrary to donation (P organ donation among the Ecuadorian population resident in Spain is influenced by religious beliefs and considers what their religion says regarding organ donation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Asthma exacerbation and proximity of residence to major roads: a population-based matched case-control study among the pediatric Medicaid population in Detroit, Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahl Robert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between asthma and traffic-related pollutants has received considerable attention. The use of individual-level exposure measures, such as residence location or proximity to emission sources, may avoid ecological biases. Method This study focused on the pediatric Medicaid population in Detroit, MI, a high-risk population for asthma-related events. A population-based matched case-control analysis was used to investigate associations between acute asthma outcomes and proximity of residence to major roads, including freeways. Asthma cases were identified as all children who made at least one asthma claim, including inpatient and emergency department visits, during the three-year study period, 2004-06. Individually matched controls were randomly selected from the rest of the Medicaid population on the basis of non-respiratory related illness. We used conditional logistic regression with distance as both categorical and continuous variables, and examined non-linear relationships with distance using polynomial splines. The conditional logistic regression models were then extended by considering multiple asthma states (based on the frequency of acute asthma outcomes using polychotomous conditional logistic regression. Results Asthma events were associated with proximity to primary roads with an odds ratio of 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94, 0.99 for a 1 km increase in distance using conditional logistic regression, implying that asthma events are less likely as the distance between the residence and a primary road increases. Similar relationships and effect sizes were found using polychotomous conditional logistic regression. Another plausible exposure metric, a reduced form response surface model that represents atmospheric dispersion of pollutants from roads, was not associated under that exposure model. Conclusions There is moderately strong evidence of elevated risk of asthma close to major roads based on the results obtained

  19. Asthma exacerbation and proximity of residence to major roads: a population-based matched case-control study among the pediatric Medicaid population in Detroit, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The relationship between asthma and traffic-related pollutants has received considerable attention. The use of individual-level exposure measures, such as residence location or proximity to emission sources, may avoid ecological biases. Method This study focused on the pediatric Medicaid population in Detroit, MI, a high-risk population for asthma-related events. A population-based matched case-control analysis was used to investigate associations between acute asthma outcomes and proximity of residence to major roads, including freeways. Asthma cases were identified as all children who made at least one asthma claim, including inpatient and emergency department visits, during the three-year study period, 2004-06. Individually matched controls were randomly selected from the rest of the Medicaid population on the basis of non-respiratory related illness. We used conditional logistic regression with distance as both categorical and continuous variables, and examined non-linear relationships with distance using polynomial splines. The conditional logistic regression models were then extended by considering multiple asthma states (based on the frequency of acute asthma outcomes) using polychotomous conditional logistic regression. Results Asthma events were associated with proximity to primary roads with an odds ratio of 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94, 0.99) for a 1 km increase in distance using conditional logistic regression, implying that asthma events are less likely as the distance between the residence and a primary road increases. Similar relationships and effect sizes were found using polychotomous conditional logistic regression. Another plausible exposure metric, a reduced form response surface model that represents atmospheric dispersion of pollutants from roads, was not associated under that exposure model. Conclusions There is moderately strong evidence of elevated risk of asthma close to major roads based on the results obtained in this population

  20. Markers of Impaired Decision Making in Nursing Home Residents: Assessment by Nursing Home Staff in a Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Kevin M; Rosenberg, Paul B; Pirard, Sandrine; Bogunovic, Olivera; Spira, Adam P

    2015-07-01

    Many nursing home residents have cognitive impairment that affects their decision making. In order to identify potential markers of impaired decision making, we investigated the association between a range of nursing home resident characteristics and impaired decision making in a population-based sample. Participants were 13,013 residents in the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey. We used logistic regression to determine the association between resident characteristics (ie, gender, age, race, mood, recent pain, falls, fractures, or hospitalizations, length of stay, number of activities of daily living (ADL) requiring help, and diagnoses of dementia, anxiety disorders, and depression) and impaired (vs independent) decision making. After controlling for depression and anxiety diagnoses, as well as gender, age, race, and recent hospitalization or pain, characteristics associated with impaired decision making included depressed, sad, or anxious mood ["mild" odds ratio (OR) = 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.23-1.58; "severe" OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 2.27-3.20); diagnosed dementia or living on a dementia hall (OR = 5.07, 95% CI = 4.52-5.67); number of ADL requiring assistance (with 5 ADL, OR = 10.69, 95% CI = 6.82-16.75); length of nursing home stay [101-365 days (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.36-1.89); 366 days-2 years (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.34-1.90); >2 years (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.92-2.63)]; and history of falls or fractures in the last 6 months (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.07-1.32)]. Residents reporting pain in the last week were less likely to have impaired decision making (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.52-0.66). We found several independent markers of impaired decision making in nursing home residents, including depressed, sad, or anxious mood (independent of depression or anxiety diagnosis); dementia; and greater need for ADL assistance. Some of these factors, in particular mood, are modifiable and addressing them may help improve decision making. These markers should be explored

  1. Permanent education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardien, S.; Kirsch, R.

    1998-01-01

    The permanent education of the IPN-Lyon inscribes itself completely in the priorities of the tri-annual plan of education of CNRS. These priorities contribute to evolution of research, evaluation of the professions, integration during the professional carriers of the personnel and form the frame for new management practice implementation

  2. [Geographic Altitude of Residence and Alcohol Dependence in a Peruvian Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones-Laveriano, Dante Manuel; Espinoza-Chiong, César; Scarsi-Mejia, Ottavia; Rojas-Camayo, José; Mejia, Christian Richard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between alcohol dependence and altitude of residence in 11 villages in two high altitude areas of Peru. An analytical cross-sectional study was performed using a survey conducted by physicians in primary health care in 11 villages until 2013, that were divided into low altitude (≤2500m asl (above sea level)), and high altitude (>2500m asl) areas. The CAGE test for alcoholism (cut point, ≥2) was applied to those who responded positively when asked if they consumed alcohol. Statistical associations were obtained with generalised linear models Of the 737 participants, 51% were women and the median age was 36 years [interquartile range, 25-50], 334 (45%) lived at low altitude, and 113 (15%) had alcohol dependence. The highest frequency of alcoholism was positively associated with being a village considered extremely poor (Likelihood Ratio (LP)=2.42; 95%CI, 1.40-4.19), while being female (LP=0.44; 95%CI, 0.23-0.89) and residing at high altitude (LP=0.15; 95%CI, 0.07-0.31) were negatively associated. These were adjusted for nine socio-occupational and pathological variables. According to these data, there is a higher frequency of alcohol dependence in being, male, extremely poor, and residing at low altitude. These results should be taken into account by professionals who work in primary care and those involved in mental health care, because of their implications in society. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic and Phenotypic Catalog of Native Resident Trout of the Interior Columbia River Basin; Populations of the Upper Yakima Basin, 1997-1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trotter, Patrick C. (Fishery Science Consultant, Seattle, WA); McMillan, Bill; Gayeski, Nick (Washington Trout, Duvall, WA)

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this project is to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique.

  4. Prevalence of sarcopenia in a population of nursing home residents according to their frailty status: results of the SENIOR cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckinx, F.; Reginster, J-Y.; Brunois, T.; Lenaerts, C.; Beaudart, C.; Croisier, J-L.; Petermans, J.; Bruyère, O.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between frailty and sarcopenia, by evaluating the prevalence of sarcopenia among frail, pre-frail and robust elderly nursing home residents in Belgium. Methods: This is an analysis of baseline data collected from the SENIOR (Sample of Elderly Nursing home Individuals: an Observational Research) cohort. All subjects received a sarcopenia evaluation, based on the definition proposed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). The frailty evaluation was primarily based on FRIED’s definition but also on 9 other operational definitions. Results: A total of 662 subjects (73.1% of women) were included in this analysis (mean age: 83.2±8.99 years). The prevalence of sarcopenia was 38.1% whereas the prevalence of frail and pre-frail persons was respectively 24.7% and 61.4%. Among frail, pre-frail and robust subjects, respectively 47%, 38.9% and 16.3% were diagnosed sarcopenic. The prevalence of sarcopenia according to ten different operational definitions of frailty ranged between 32.8 % (i.e. Frail scale Status and Frailty Index) and 47% (i.e. Fried definition). Conclusion: This research highlights that over a third of nursing home residents are sarcopenic and the percentage is almost 50% among frail subjects; those latter constitute about 1 in 4 of the population of nursing home residents studied here. PMID:28860423

  5. Identifying county characteristics associated with resident well-being: A population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Brita; Riley, Carley; Herrin, Jeph; Spatz, Erica S; Arora, Anita; Kell, Kenneth P; Welsh, John; Rula, Elizabeth Y; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2018-01-01

    Well-being is a positively-framed, holistic assessment of health and quality of life that is associated with longevity and better health outcomes. We aimed to identify county attributes that are independently associated with a comprehensive, multi-dimensional assessment of individual well-being. We performed a cross-sectional study examining associations between 77 pre-specified county attributes and a multi-dimensional assessment of individual US residents' well-being, captured by the Gallup-Sharecare Well-Being Index. Our cohort included 338,846 survey participants, randomly sampled from 3,118 US counties or county equivalents. We identified twelve county-level factors that were independently associated with individual well-being scores. Together, these twelve factors explained 91% of the variance in individual well-being scores, and they represent four conceptually distinct categories: demographic (% black); social and economic (child poverty, education level [divorced); clinical care (% eligible women obtaining mammography, preventable hospital stays per 100,000, number of federally qualified health centers); and physical environment (% commuting by bicycle and by public transit). Twelve factors across social and economic, clinical care, and physical environmental county-level factors explained the majority of variation in resident well-being.

  6. Identifying county characteristics associated with resident well-being: A population based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brita Roy

    Full Text Available Well-being is a positively-framed, holistic assessment of health and quality of life that is associated with longevity and better health outcomes. We aimed to identify county attributes that are independently associated with a comprehensive, multi-dimensional assessment of individual well-being.We performed a cross-sectional study examining associations between 77 pre-specified county attributes and a multi-dimensional assessment of individual US residents' well-being, captured by the Gallup-Sharecare Well-Being Index. Our cohort included 338,846 survey participants, randomly sampled from 3,118 US counties or county equivalents.We identified twelve county-level factors that were independently associated with individual well-being scores. Together, these twelve factors explained 91% of the variance in individual well-being scores, and they represent four conceptually distinct categories: demographic (% black; social and economic (child poverty, education level [resident well-being.

  7. Biomarker of chronic cadmium exposure in a population residing in the vicinity of a zinc producing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratveit, Magne; Mageroy, Nils; Gundersen, Hilde; Vahter, Marie; Moen, Bente E.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of cadmium (Cd) in air, soil and moss have shown elevated concentrations in residential areas close to a zinc smelter in Norway. This study aimed to evaluate whether men and women residing in the area with elevated Cd concentrations in air and soil had increased levels of Cd and microproteins in urine. An invitation to participate was mailed to 200 persons residing close to the zinc smelter and to 200 controls from an area more than 4 km away from the smelter. They were asked to complete a questionnaire, and to deliver a urine sample for analysis of cadmium (CdU), mercury (HgU), lead (PbU) and α1-microglobulin (ProteinHC). Two hundred and six participants (response rate 52%), between 19 and 88 years of age, were included. Results were analysed by multiple-adjusted linear and logistic regression. CdU was not significantly different between individuals in the two residence areas. Only ten individuals had CdU concentrations exceeding European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) critical value of 1 μg/g creatinine, whereas 35 persons (22% of the women vs. 11% of the men) had CdU concentrations higher than 0.66 μg/g creatinine, which EU suggested to be sufficiently protective for the general population. Smoking was the predominant contributing factor to values of elevated CdU. There was a tendency of higher CdU, although not statistically significant, amongst people regularly consuming fruit, berries and vegetables grown in their own garden near the smelter area. Home address in the polluted area was not a significant determinant. There was a positive correlation between CdU and ProteinHC in urine, but no significant difference was found for ProteinHC between residents from polluted area and controls. In spite of demonstrated industrial emissions of cadmium, the results do not indicate elevated cadmium exposure or kidney damage in the polluted area compared to the control area. - Highlights: → Cadmium in air and soil is elevated in the residential area close

  8. [Consumption to feed of resident adult population in rural area of the city of Ibatiba (ES, Brazil)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Edilaine Oliveira; da Rocha, Emersom Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    It is a transverse study where a questionnaire of alimentary frequency was applied (QAF) in 150 adults resident of the rural area of the city of Ibatiba (ES, Brazil). QAF classified the alimentary consumption as: habitual (>4 times in the week), not habitual (chayote, carrot, beet, pumpkin, juice of fruits, banana, orange, guava, mango and tangerine. It can be concluded that the feeding habit presented by the studied population it can come to increase in a medium or long period the prevalence and occurrences of chronic-degenerative diseases as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and coronary diseases. The alimentary consumption of this population needs concern, because when compared with the national patterns, it is observed some inadequacies, and it is known that this picture comes to every day causing damages the public health.

  9. [The residents of mental health services in 1994. Population characteristics and its opinions about graduation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrest, M

    1995-09-01

    Departing from two surveys that took place during a Mental Health Meeting of the Health Residents from Buenos Aires, the main features and their opinions upon their education and work are analyzed. The results are discriminated by profession. Two problems are highlighted: one of them refers to the general insatisfaction of this group with their theoretical learning; the other, shows the exit of prepared human resources from public hospitals. The data suggest that, despite sharing most of their activities, psychologists and psychiatrists have significant different opinions about the clinic education they think are getting. Further research is suggested in order to have a deeper comprehension of what is going on in these training programs.

  10. Root canal configuration of human permanent mandibular first molars of an indo-dravidian population based in Southern India: An In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J V Karunakaran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to analyze root canal configuration of human permanent mandibular first molars of an indo-Dravidian population based in southern India. Materials and Methods: A total of 1147 mandibular first permanent molars were collected, cleansed, and stored. The number of roots was recorded, access preparations made, pattern of orifices recorded after pulpal floor debridement, dye injected into the canals using apical negative pressure and subjected to a clearing technique. They were then analyzed using a stereo microscope and the canal configurations recorded (Vertucci. The number of roots, the pattern of orifices and canal configuration were recorded. Results: The pattern of orifices was triangular (87.9%, rectangular (8.5%, C-shaped (3.0%, and two orifice pattern (0.6%. About 95.6% of teeth had two roots, and 4.4% had three roots. The most common canal system configuration in mesial root was Vertucci type IV (52.3%, followed by type II (35%. Root canal configuration of the distal root revealed type I configuration in 62.7%, followed by types II (14.5% and IV (12.4%. The distolingual root had a type I configuration. Conclusion: Awareness of canal configuration, adequate clinical skills, use of specialized techniques of diagnosis, debridement and obturation will pave the way for successful treatment outcomes.

  11. Root Canal Configuration of Human Permanent Mandibular First Molars of an Indo-Dravidian Population Based in Southern India: An In vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, J V; Samuel, Leo Sujith; Rishal, Yousef; Joseph, M Derick; Suresh, K Rahul; Varghese, Sam T

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to analyze root canal configuration of human permanent mandibular first molars of an indo-Dravidian population based in southern India. A total of 1147 mandibular first permanent molars were collected, cleansed, and stored. The number of roots was recorded, access preparations made, pattern of orifices recorded after pulpal floor debridement, dye injected into the canals using apical negative pressure and subjected to a clearing technique. They were then analyzed using a stereo microscope and the canal configurations recorded (Vertucci). The number of roots, the pattern of orifices and canal configuration were recorded. The pattern of orifices was triangular (87.9%), rectangular (8.5%), C-shaped (3.0%), and two orifice pattern (0.6%). About 95.6% of teeth had two roots, and 4.4% had three roots. The most common canal system configuration in mesial root was Vertucci type IV (52.3%), followed by type II (35%). Root canal configuration of the distal root revealed type I configuration in 62.7%, followed by types II (14.5%) and IV (12.4%). The distolingual root had a type I configuration. Awareness of canal configuration, adequate clinical skills, use of specialized techniques of diagnosis, debridement and obturation will pave the way for successful treatment outcomes.

  12. Population growth is limited by nutritional impacts on pregnancy success in endangered Southern Resident killer whales (Orcinus orca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, Samuel K; Lundin, Jessica I; Ayres, Katherine; Seely, Elizabeth; Giles, Deborah; Balcomb, Kenneth; Hempelmann, Jennifer; Parsons, Kim; Booth, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    The Southern Resident killer whale population (Orcinus orca) was listed as endangered in 2005 and shows little sign of recovery. These fish eating whales feed primarily on endangered Chinook salmon. Population growth is constrained by low offspring production for the number of reproductive females in the population. Lack of prey, increased toxins and vessel disturbance have been listed as potential causes of the whale's decline, but partitioning these pressures has been difficult. We validated and applied temporal measures of progesterone and testosterone metabolites to assess occurrence, stage and health of pregnancy from genotyped killer whale feces collected using detection dogs. Thyroid and glucocorticoid hormone metabolites were measured from these same samples to assess physiological stress. These methods enabled us to assess pregnancy occurrence and failure as well as how pregnancy success was temporally impacted by nutritional and other stressors, between 2008 and 2014. Up to 69% of all detectable pregnancies were unsuccessful; of these, up to 33% failed relatively late in gestation or immediately post-partum, when the cost is especially high. Low availability of Chinook salmon appears to be an important stressor among these fish-eating whales as well as a significant cause of late pregnancy failure, including unobserved perinatal loss. However, release of lipophilic toxicants during fat metabolism in the nutritionally deprived animals may also provide a contributor to these cumulative effects. Results point to the importance of promoting Chinook salmon recovery to enhance population growth of Southern Resident killer whales. The physiological measures used in this study can also be used to monitor the success of actions aimed at promoting adaptive management of this important apex predator to the Pacific Northwest.

  13. Population growth is limited by nutritional impacts on pregnancy success in endangered Southern Resident killer whales (Orcinus orca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel K Wasser

    Full Text Available The Southern Resident killer whale population (Orcinus orca was listed as endangered in 2005 and shows little sign of recovery. These fish eating whales feed primarily on endangered Chinook salmon. Population growth is constrained by low offspring production for the number of reproductive females in the population. Lack of prey, increased toxins and vessel disturbance have been listed as potential causes of the whale's decline, but partitioning these pressures has been difficult. We validated and applied temporal measures of progesterone and testosterone metabolites to assess occurrence, stage and health of pregnancy from genotyped killer whale feces collected using detection dogs. Thyroid and glucocorticoid hormone metabolites were measured from these same samples to assess physiological stress. These methods enabled us to assess pregnancy occurrence and failure as well as how pregnancy success was temporally impacted by nutritional and other stressors, between 2008 and 2014. Up to 69% of all detectable pregnancies were unsuccessful; of these, up to 33% failed relatively late in gestation or immediately post-partum, when the cost is especially high. Low availability of Chinook salmon appears to be an important stressor among these fish-eating whales as well as a significant cause of late pregnancy failure, including unobserved perinatal loss. However, release of lipophilic toxicants during fat metabolism in the nutritionally deprived animals may also provide a contributor to these cumulative effects. Results point to the importance of promoting Chinook salmon recovery to enhance population growth of Southern Resident killer whales. The physiological measures used in this study can also be used to monitor the success of actions aimed at promoting adaptive management of this important apex predator to the Pacific Northwest.

  14. PARTIAL REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION OF A RECENTLY DERIVED RESIDENT-FRESHWATER POPULATION OF THREESPINE STICKLEBACK (GASTEROSTEUS ACULEATUS) FROM ITS PUTATIVE ANADROMOUS ANCESTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furin, Christoff G.; Von Hippel, Frank A.; Bell, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    We used no-choice mating trials to test for assortative mating between a newly derived resident-freshwater population (8 – 22 generations since founding) of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in Loberg Lake, Alaska and its putative anadromous ancestor as well as a morphologically convergent but distantly related resident-freshwater population. Partial reproductive isolation has evolved between the Loberg Lake population and its ancestor within a remarkably short time period. However, Loberg stickleback readily mate with morphologically similar, but distantly related resident-freshwater stickleback. Partial pre-mating isolation is asymmetrical; anadromous females and smaller, resident-freshwater males from Loberg Lake readily mate, but the anadromous males and smaller Loberg females do not. Our results indicate that pre-mating isolation can begin to evolve in allopatry within a few generations after isolation as a correlated effect of evolution of reduced body size. PMID:23025615

  15. Odontometric Data and New Regression Equations for Predicting the Size of Unerupted Permanent Canine and Premolars for Chennai Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S V Soumya

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The observations obtained from our study would not only pave the way in predicting the mesiodistal width of unerupted canine and premolar in Chennai population but also give normative odontometric data which can be used for anthropological use and for diagnosis and treatment planning

  16. The importance of resident environmental awareness in conservation of urban wildlife populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The proximity of humans and wildlife to each other along the wildland-urban interface results in constant potential conflict between human activity and wildlife populations. Since 2002, California biologists have observed a drastic increase in carnivore mortalities that are asso...

  17. More than 500 million Chinese urban residents (14% of the global urban population) are imperiled by fine particulate hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunyang; Han, Lijian; Zhang, Robin Q

    2016-11-01

    China's urbanization and the subsequent public vulnerability to degenerated environment is important to global public health. Among the environmental problems, fine particulate (PM 2.5 ) pollution has become a serious hazard in rapidly urbanizing China. However, quantitative information remains inadequate. We thus collected PM 2.5 concentrations and population census records, to illustrate the spatial patterns and changes in the PM 2.5 hazard levels in China, and to quantify public vulnerability to the hazard during 2000-2010, following the air quality standards of World Health Organization. We found that 28% (2.72 million km 2 ) of China's territory, including 78% of cities (154 cities) with a population of >1 million, was exposed to PM 2.5 hazard in 2010; a 15% increase (1.47 million km 2 ) from 2000 to 2010. The hazards potentially impacted the health of 72% of the total population (942 million) in 2010, including 70% of the young (206 million) and 76% of the old (71 million). This was a significant increase from the 42% of total the population (279 million) exposed in 2000. Of the total urban residents, 76% (501 million) were affected in 2010. Along with PM 2.5 concentration increase, massive number of rural to urban migration also contributed greatly to China's urban public health vulnerability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Current selection for lower migratory activity will drive the evolution of residency in a migratory bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Francisco; Berthold, Peter

    2010-04-20

    Global warming is impacting biodiversity by altering the distribution, abundance, and phenology of a wide range of animal and plant species. One of the best documented responses to recent climate change is alterations in the migratory behavior of birds, but the mechanisms underlying these phenotypic adjustments are largely unknown. This knowledge is still crucial to predict whether populations of migratory birds will adapt to a rapid increase in temperature. We monitored migratory behavior in a population of blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) to test for evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Using a common garden experiment in time and captive breeding we demonstrated a genetic reduction in migratory activity and evolutionary change in phenotypic plasticity of migration onset. An artificial selection experiment further revealed that residency will rapidly evolve in completely migratory bird populations if selection for shorter migration distance persists. Our findings suggest that current alterations of the environment are favoring birds wintering closer to the breeding grounds and that populations of migratory birds have strongly responded to these changes in selection. The reduction of migratory activity is probably an important evolutionary process in the adaptation of migratory birds to climate change, because it reduces migration costs and facilitates the rapid adjustment to the shifts in the timing of food availability during reproduction.

  19. Differences in health-related quality of life between older nursing home residents without cognitive impairment and the general population of Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drageset, Jorunn; Natvig, Gerd Karin; Eide, Geir Egil; Clipp, Elizabeth C; Bondevik, Margareth; Nortvedt, Monica W; Nygaard, Harald A

    2008-05-01

    To advance the understanding of health-related quality of life among older nursing home residents by assessing their health-related quality of life and comparing this with norms from the general population. The study used a two-group cross-sectional comparative design. The samples comprised 227 nursing home residents aged 65-102 years with at least six months' residence and a representative population sample of 1137 Norwegian citizens aged 65-102 years. All nursing home residents had a Clinical Dementia Rating Scale score > or =0.5 and were capable of conversing. The respondents provided demographic information and were surveyed using the SF-36 Health Survey. We used univariate and multivariate linear models to identify possible differences in health-related quality of life between the nursing home residents and the general population, controlled for age, sex, marital status and education. After adjustment for age, group, sex, marital status and education, the nursing home residents scored significantly higher on bodily pain and on physical and emotional role limitation and significantly lower on the other SF-36 subscales, except social functioning, with the largest differences for physical functioning (mean nursing home 23.2 and mean general population 62.9). The general population scores on all subscales generally increased with increasing education but not among the nursing home residents. The mean SF-36 scale scores differed markedly between the nursing home residents and the general population, with the nursing home residents generally scoring lower. The association with background variables known to be related to health-related quality of life differed between the groups. Healthcare professionals should increase attention to health-related quality of life among nursing home residents, periodically assess health-related quality of life and consider interventions that may improve health-related quality of life in older institutionalised populations. This study

  20. Some Genetic Characteristics of the Population Residing Nearby Nuclear Power Plant. The First Step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkheidze, M.

    2007-01-01

    There is Sosnovy Bor with 60 thousands of inhabitants located 80 km to the west from the centre of St. Petersburg. Here is the greatest and the oldest nuclear power plant, LNPP, with four reactors of the RMBK-1000 (Chernobyl) type. In fact every Sosnovy Bor inhabitant is connected with nuclear technologies. The strategy of the city development is formed and controlled by the policy of federal bodies. It is very difficult to have access to any demographic data and documents reflecting status of population health. Low doses of ionizing radiation are known to cause mutations in germ cells. A great part of the population of Sosnovy Bor works in the NPP and is exposed to low dose ionizing radiation. This paper presents some genetic characteristics of Sosnovy Bor inhabitants including monogenic diseases (phenylketonuria, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, lysosomal diseases, hypothyroidism etc), chromosomal pathology (Down syndrome, Turner and Klinefelter diseases), multiple malformation syndromes and results of aFP screening of pregnant women with high rate of abnormal values of aFP and hHG. These results are obligatory basis and the first step to conduct a study on possible genetic effects of LNPP on genetic structure of Sosnovy Bor population.(author)

  1. Consumption of locally grown foods by the populations residing near nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, P.Y.

    1980-01-01

    The studies carried out by the Geographical Institute of Aix-en-Provence and the B.E.G.E.A. are in three forms: the first studies the local rural production (farming, animal rearing and fishing); the second is concerned with the food intake of the population within a radius of 5 to 10 km around the site; the third consists in working out a soil utilization map covering an area of about 2500 hectares around the site in order to determine the agricultural and urban areas as well as the open spaces, and the exact sort of cultivation carried out, plot by plot. The map also represents all the phenomena concerning hydrography, irrigation, watering and the supply of potable water. All these studies concern only a few parishes and enable an accurate knowledge of the environment to be acquired. The food studies seek an order of magnitude of the amount of local produce consumed by the populations of the nuclear power station sites with a view to determining radioactive contamination levels. The results show the specific food consumption features of a population bearing the deep stamp of its environment and its rural origin [fr

  2. The prevalence of urinary incontinence in pregnancy among a multi-ethnic population resident in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bø, K; Pauck Øglund, G; Sletner, L; Mørkrid, K; Jenum, A K

    2012-10-01

    To investigate prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) in a multi-ethnic population of pregnant women, and to analyse for possible associations of the known risk factors for UI in such a population. Population-based cross-sectional study. All pregnant women in three administrative city districts attending the Child Health Clinics. Out of 823 women identified in the [corrected] first trimester, 772 (94%) [corrected] agreed to participate in the study at 28 weeks of gestation. Inclusion criteria were: healthy women at 20 weeks of gestation or less and able to communicate in Norwegian, Arabic, English, Sorani, Somali, Tamil, Turkish, Urdu or Vietnamese. Differences between ethnic groups were tested by simple descriptive statistics. Associations were estimated by logistic regression analysis and presented as crude (cOR) and adjusted (aOR) odds ratios. Prevalence of UI as ascertained using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-urinary incontinence-short form. Prevalence rates of UI at 28 weeks of gestation were 26% for women of African origin, 36% for women of Middle Eastern origin, 40% for women of East Asian origin, 43% for women of South Asian origin and 45% for women of European/North American origin. The difference was significant between women of African and European/North American origins (P = 0.011) and between women of African and South Asian origins (P = 0.035). Age (aOR 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.09) and parity (aOR 2.34; 95% CI 1.66-3.28) were positively associated with the prevalence of UI in pregnancy. Women of African origin had significantly reduced odds for UI (aOR 0.42; 95% CI 0.20-0.87). East Asian and African women reported the highest perceived impact of UI in pregnancy. A high prevalence of UI was found in a multi-ethnic pregnant population. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  3. Evaluation of the Root and Canal Morphology of Mandibular Permanent Anterior Teeth in an Iranian Population by Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Aminsobhani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate differences in the root and canal configurations of mandibular permanent anterior incisors and canines in an Iranian population by means of Cone Beam CT (CBCT images.Materials and Methods: Four hundred CBCT images of mandibular permanent incisors and canines that met the inclusion criteria were evaluated. Vertucci´s classification was used to evaluate the number of roots, number of root canals, root lengths, root curvatures and canal types.Results: Totally 632 central incisors, 614 lateral incisors and 608 canines were evaluated. The average length of the mandibular central, lateral incisors and canines was 21.3±0.10, 21.9± 0.13 and 25.1± 0.11 mm, respectively. All of the mandibular central and lateral incisors had one root, but the incidence of single-rooted mandibular canines and two-rooted mandibular canines was 96.3% and 4.7%, respectively. The majority of mandibular central, lateral incisors and canines had one canal (72.7%, 70.6% and 71.8%, respectively. Five types of Vertucci canal configurations were seen in the evaluated teeth. Type 1 Vertucci configuration was the most prevalent configuration (72.3%, 70.6% and 71.8% for the central, lateral incisors and canines, respectively, and type 5 Vertucci canal configuration was the least prevalent type seen (3.3%, 3.2% and 2.3% for the central, lateral incisors and canines, respectively. The most frequent root curvatures in these teeth were distally and buccally. No significant difference was seen between male and female patients regarding any of the parameters evaluated in this study (p>0.05.Conclusion: More attention should be given to the detection of additional canals and the recognition of canal curvature in Iranian patients.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION: BENEFITS TO RESIDENT POPULATION IN THE GARDEN MARABÁ, CAMPO GRANDE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Duarte

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the records of cases of diarrhea recorded in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases after the implementation of sewage system in Maraba Garden, Campo Grande, Brazil. The Garden Maraba had a degraded area, characterized by exhaustion open. We searched the records of SINAN in the period before and after the environmental changes that community. The results showed that there is an asymmetry in the indicators recorded, where it was hoped that the disease had greater control due to the deployment of exhaustion, especially in cases of diarrhea that persist at levels considerably. The conclusion points to the need to expand the study to address this knowledge gap, so important and what influence and compromises the quality of life of the population, especially in matters related to environmental education.

  5. Rheumatoid arthritis disease activity and vitamin D deficiency in an Asian resident population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quraishi, Mohammed K; Badsha, Humeira

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its association with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in a UAE population. Forty-five consecutive subjects were prospectively recruited during the early summer with their clinical examination and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) being recorded at a clinic appointment, along with their blood sample being taken for the 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) total test. Thirty-five (76%) patients claimed to be exposed to sunlight for Disease Activity Score (DAS28) or HAQ scores. A direct relationship was observed between HAQ scores and DAS28 scores (P culture. No association was observed between vitamin D and disease activity. However, the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency may negatively impact on bone health of these patients in the future. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. A population-based study on health-related quality of life among urban community residents in Shenyang, Northeast of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tian; Ding, Yan-wei; Sun, Yan; He, Yi-Ni; Qi, Dian-Jun; Wu, Ying; Wu, Bin; Lang, Lang; Yu, Kai; Zhao, Xin; Zhu, Liang-liang; Wang, Shuang; Yu, Xiao-Song

    2015-09-19

    Due to the rising standard of living environment and advances in public health and medical care in China, it has been a tendency in recent years that health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been increasingly acknowledged in community health management. However, large-scale population-based study on evaluating HQRoL in northeast of China was not conducted. This article aims to investigate the HRQoL in community residents in Northeast China and explore the associated factors. Stratified multiple-stage sampling method was used in the cross-sectional survey to investigate HRQoL of community residents in northeast of China. Univariate analysis and multiple linear regressions were used to analyze the factors associated to HRQoL of the community residents. The results were confirmed that HRQoL in general population was well performed for the first time in northeast of China in a large scale population. Community residents had better mental health than physical health. The factors influencing HRQoL included gender, age, educational level, marital status, ethnic group, chronic disease status, having breakfast frequency weekly and sleep quality. However, drinking and smoking habits did not affect residents' HRQoL. In this study, the result of the large-scale survey was satisfactory in northeast of China, providing HRQoL status of community residents. Policies on specific health management in community public health would emphasize on lifestyle behaviors especially eating habits in order to improving HRQoL.

  7. The effect of community-acquired bacteraemia on return to workforce, risk of sick leave, permanent disability pension and death: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalager-Pedersen, Michael; Koch, Kristoffer; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Nielsen, Henrik

    2014-01-29

    Little is known about the prognosis of community-acquired bacteraemia (CAB) in workforce adults. We assessed return to workforce, risk for sick leave, disability pension and mortality within 1 year after CAB in workforce adults compared with blood culture-negative controls and population controls. Population-based cohort study. North Denmark, 1996-2011. We used population-based healthcare registries to identify all patients aged 20-58 years who had first-time blood cultures obtained within 48 h of medical hospital admission, and who were part of the workforce (450 bacteraemia exposed patients and 6936 culture-negative control patients). For each bacteraemia patient, we included up to 10 matched population controls. Return to workforce, risk of sick leave, permanent disability pension and mortality within 1 year after bacteraemia. Regression analyses were used to compute adjusted relative risks (RRs) with 95% CIs. One year after admission, 78% of patients with CAB, 85.7% of culture-negative controls and 96.8% of population controls were alive and in the workforce, and free from sick leave or disability pension. Compared with culture-negative controls, bacteraemia was associated with an increased risk for long-term sick leave (4-week duration, 40.2% vs 23.9%, adjusted RR, 1.51; CI 1.34 to 1.70) and an increased risk for mortality (30-day mortality, 4% vs 1.4%, adjusted RR, 2.34, CI 1.22 to 4.50; 1-year mortality, 8% vs 3.9%, adjusted RR, 1.73; CI 1.18 to 2.55). Bacteraemia patients had a risk for disability pension similar to culture-negative controls (2.7% vs 2.6%, adjusted RR, 0.99, CI 0.48 to 2.02) but greater than population controls (adjusted RR, 5.20; 95% CI 2.16 to 12.50). CAB is associated with long duration of sick leave and considerable mortality in working-age adults when compared with blood culture-negative controls, and an increased 1-year risk for disability pension when compared with population controls.

  8. Resident and parental perceptions of adolescent problems and family communications in a low socioeconomic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, L E; Shear, C L; Stark, A M; Goodman, P R

    1984-11-01

    This cross-sectional survey of a low socioeconomic patient group was designed to determine the prevalence and severity of parentally perceived behavioral problems in adolescents as well as to investigate the correlation between such problems and single parenting, family communications, and medical care delivered. The sample population consisted of 79 parents and 121 teenagers selected from a family practice center. The medical record and telephone interview were the sources of information. Results include a parental perception of a high prevalence of problems with school grades (48 percent), school attendance (38 percent), and household problems (chores and sibling rivalry). Of low prevalence but high severity were perceived problems related to suicidal ideation, running away, sexual activity, and gang membership. Single-parent homes had a threefold higher incidence of behavioral problems, a greater degree of communication, and a lower use of community resources than two-parent families. None of the approximately 400 perceived behavioral problems listed by parents was found in the family physicians' master problem list. The results indicate the need for physician education of low socioeconomic and single-parent patients with regard to communication and coping style. In addition, it appears that training programs should provide more education in the care of adolescents.

  9. Biological effects of high level natural background radiation on human population residing in Kerala coast, South West India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    The populations residing in Kerala coast are exposed to elevated natural background radiation since many generations. Extensive studies conducted by Bio-Medical group, Bhabha Atomic Research Center have generated wealth of data from this area dealing with epidemiology, monitoring the newborns for malformations, Health Audit Survey, Dosimetry and biological studies using cytogenetic and molecular biology techniques. Our studies on congenital malformations and chromosomal anomalies in children born to parents residing in High Level Natural Radiation Areas in Kerala have not shown any significant difference from normal radiation areas. Screening of over 1,25,000 consecutively born children showed an incidence rate which is comparable in both areas. Other factors such as consanguinity, maternal age and gravida status are more significant contributors than radiation dose to the risk for having malformation in child. Radiation prevalent in the HLNRA is in the dose range of above 1.5 to about 50 mGy per year which translates to doses in the range of nGy per hour. This clearly indicate the number of cells exposed to radiations will be one in few thousand or ten thousands. This throws up challenges in our capability to investigate the effects of radiation on cells. It has become imperative to develop and exploit techniques which will detect responses in single cells and would be able screen large number of cells at a time. Developments in cell biology and molecular biology are now giving us these capabilities. Use of flowcytometer and next generation sequencing would enable us to address many of these questions and provide meaningful approaches to understand the effects of such low dose radiation

  10. Estimating seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 among different Middle East and North African male populations residing in Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrallah, Gheyath K.; Dargham, Soha R.; Mohammed, Layla I.

    2017-01-01

    HSV‐1 epidemiology in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) remains poorly understood. Our study aimed to measure HSV‐1 antibody prevalence (seroprevalence) and its age‐distribution among select MENA populations residing in Qatar. Sera were collected from male blood donors attending Hamad Medical Corporation 2013‐2015. A total of 2,077 sera were tested for anti‐HSV‐1 antibodies using HerpeSelect® 1 ELISA IgG kits (Focus Diagnostics, Cypress, CA). Robust Poisson regression was conducted to estimate adjusted infection prevalence ratios. Country‐specific HSV‐1 seroprevalence was estimated for 10 national populations: 97.5% among Egyptians, 92.6% among Yemenis, 90.7% among Sudanese, 88.5% among Syrians, 86.5% among Jordanians, 82.3% among Qataris, 81.4% among Iranians, 81.4% among Lebanese, 80.5% among Palestinians, and 77.0% among Pakistanis. Age‐specific HSV‐1 seroprevalence was estimated for Egypt, the Fertile Crescent (Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, and Syria), and Qatar. Seroprevalence increased with age among Fertile Crescent and Qatari nationals. Seroprevalence increased from 70.0% among those aged ≤ 24 years up to 98.0% among those aged ≥55 years among Fertile Crescent nationals. Seroprevalence was consistently above 90% for all ages among Egyptians. HSV‐1 seroprevalence is high in MENA, though with some variation across countries. The seroprevalence appears to have declined among current young age cohorts compared to its levels a few decades ago. PMID:28817197

  11. Population attributable risk for chlamydia infection in a cohort of young international travellers (backpackers) and residents in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wand, Handan; Guy, Rebecca; Donovan, Basil; McNulty, Anna

    2011-02-23

    To estimate the population attributable risk (PAR) for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in young men and women in Sydney, Australia. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between demographic, sexual behaviour and other potential risk factors and chlamydia positivity in young (≤ 30 years) heterosexual international travellers (backpackers) and Australian residents attending a sexual health clinic. Point and interval estimates of PAR were calculated to quantify the proportion of chlamydia infections that can theoretically be prevented if a combination of risk factors is eliminated from a target population. In males, the PAR associated with inconsistent condom use in the past 3 months was 65% (95% CI 56% to 71%) in backpackers compared to 50% (95% CI 41% to 56%) in non-backpackers and the PAR associated with reporting three or more female sexual partners in the past 3 months was similar between male backpackers and non-backpackers (33% (95% CI 28% to 40%) and 36% (95% CI 32% to 41%), respectively). In females, the PAR associated with inconsistent condom use in the past 3 months was 51% (95% CI 42% to 59%) in backpackers compared to 41% (95% CI 31% to 51%) in non-backpackers, and the PAR associated with reporting three or more male sexual partners in the past 3 months was 14% (95% CI 11% to 18%) in backpackers compared to 30% (95% CI 25% to 37%) in non-backpackers. These findings suggest that the largest number of chlamydia infections could be avoided by increasing condom use, particularly in backpackers. Reporting multiple partners was also associated with a large proportion of infections and the risk associated with this behaviour should be considered in health promotion strategies.

  12. Population attributable risk for chlamydia infection in a cohort of young international travellers (backpackers) and residents in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Rebecca; Donovan, Basil; McNulty, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Aim To estimate the population attributable risk (PAR) for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in young men and women in Sydney, Australia. Method Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between demographic, sexual behaviour and other potential risk factors and chlamydia positivity in young (≤30 years) heterosexual international travellers (backpackers) and Australian residents attending a sexual health clinic. Point and interval estimates of PAR were calculated to quantify the proportion of chlamydia infections that can theoretically be prevented if a combination of risk factors is eliminated from a target population. Results In males, the PAR associated with inconsistent condom use in the past 3 months was 65% (95% CI 56% to 71%) in backpackers compared to 50% (95% CI 41% to 56%) in non-backpackers and the PAR associated with reporting three or more female sexual partners in the past 3 months was similar between male backpackers and non-backpackers (33% (95% CI 28% to 40%) and 36% (95% CI 32% to 41%), respectively). In females, the PAR associated with inconsistent condom use in the past 3 months was 51% (95% CI 42% to 59%) in backpackers compared to 41% (95% CI 31% to 51%) in non-backpackers, and the PAR associated with reporting three or more male sexual partners in the past 3 months was 14% (95% CI 11% to 18%) in backpackers compared to 30% (95% CI 25% to 37%) in non-backpackers. Conclusion These findings suggest that the largest number of chlamydia infections could be avoided by increasing condom use, particularly in backpackers. Reporting multiple partners was also associated with a large proportion of infections and the risk associated with this behaviour should be considered in health promotion strategies. PMID:22021720

  13. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Print Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of Essure ...

  14. Genetic and Phenotypic Catalog of Native Resident Trout of the interior Columbia River Basin : FY-2001 Report : Populations in the Wenatchee, Entiat, Lake Chelan and Methow River Drainages.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trotter, Patrick C.

    2001-10-01

    The 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council specifies the recovery and preservation of population health of native resident fishes of the Columbia River Basin. Among the native resident species of concern are interior rainbow trout of the Columbia River redband subspecies Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri 1 and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi. The westslope cutthroat trout has been petitioned for listing under the U. S. Endangered Species Act (American Wildlands et al. 1997). Before at-risk populations can be protected, their presence and status must be established. Where introgression from introduced species is a concern, as in the case of both westslope cutthroat trout and redband rainbow trout, genetic issues must be addressed as well. As is true with native trout elsewhere in the western United States (Behnke 1992), most of the remaining pure populations of these species in the Columbia River Basin are in relatively remote headwater reaches. The objective of this project was to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique. FY-2001 was year three (and final year) of a project in which we conducted field visits to remote locations to seek out and catalog these populations. In FY-2001 we worked in collaboration with the Wenatchee National Forest to catalog populations in the Wenatchee, Entiat, Lake Chelan, and Methow River drainages of Washington State.

  15. Factors associated with physiotherapy provision in a population of elderly nursing home residents; a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribbe Miel W

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physiotherapy (PT plays an important role in improving activities of daily living (ADL functioning and discharge rates, it is unclear how many nursing home residents receive treatment. Furthermore, there is a lack of insight into the determinants that influence the decision for treatment. In this study, we investigated how many nursing home residents receive PT. In addition, we analysed the factors that contribute to the variation in the provision of PT both between nursing homes and between residents. Methods A random sample of 600 elderly residents was taken from a random sample of 15 nursing homes. Residents had to be admitted for rehabilitation or for long-term care. Data were collected through interviews with the nursing home physician and the physiotherapist. Multilevel analysis was used to define the variation in the provision of PT and the factors that are associated with the question whether a resident receives PT or not. Furthermore the amount of PT provided was analysed and the factors that are associated with this. Results On average 69% of the residents received PT. The percentage of patients receiving treatment differed significantly across nursing homes, and especially the number of physiotherapists available, explained this difference between nursing homes. Residents admitted to a somatic ward for rehabilitation, and male residents in general, were most likely to receive PT. Residents who were treated by a physiotherapist received on average 55 minutes (sd 41 treatment a week. Residents admitted for rehabilitation received more PT a week, as were residents with a status after a total hip replacement. Conclusion PT is most likely to be provided to residents on a somatic ward, recently admitted for rehabilitation to a nursing home, which has a relatively large number of physiotherapists. This suggests a potential under-use of PT for long-term residents with cognitive problems. It is recommended that

  16. Factors associated with physiotherapy provision in a population of elderly nursing home residents; a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemrijse, Chantal J; de Boer, Marike E; van den Ende, Cornelia H M; Ribbe, Miel W; Dekker, Joost

    2007-04-04

    Although physiotherapy (PT) plays an important role in improving activities of daily living (ADL functioning) and discharge rates, it is unclear how many nursing home residents receive treatment. Furthermore, there is a lack of insight into the determinants that influence the decision for treatment. In this study, we investigated how many nursing home residents receive PT. In addition, we analysed the factors that contribute to the variation in the provision of PT both between nursing homes and between residents. A random sample of 600 elderly residents was taken from a random sample of 15 nursing homes. Residents had to be admitted for rehabilitation or for long-term care. Data were collected through interviews with the nursing home physician and the physiotherapist. Multilevel analysis was used to define the variation in the provision of PT and the factors that are associated with the question whether a resident receives PT or not. Furthermore the amount of PT provided was analysed and the factors that are associated with this. On average 69% of the residents received PT. The percentage of patients receiving treatment differed significantly across nursing homes, and especially the number of physiotherapists available, explained this difference between nursing homes. Residents admitted to a somatic ward for rehabilitation, and male residents in general, were most likely to receive PT. Residents who were treated by a physiotherapist received on average 55 minutes (sd 41) treatment a week. Residents admitted for rehabilitation received more PT a week, as were residents with a status after a total hip replacement. PT is most likely to be provided to residents on a somatic ward, recently admitted for rehabilitation to a nursing home, which has a relatively large number of physiotherapists. This suggests a potential under-use of PT for long-term residents with cognitive problems. It is recommended that physiotherapists reconsider which residents may benefit from

  17. Chronic diseases among older people and co-resident psychological morbidity: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honyashiki, Mina; Ferri, Cleusa P; Acosta, Daisy; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K S; Llibre-Rodrigues, Juan J; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph; Prince, Martin J

    2011-11-01

    This is the first study to investigate the associations between chronic health conditions of older people and their impact on co-resident psychological morbidity using population-based samples in low and middle income countries (LAMICs). Single-phase cross-sectional catchment area surveys were undertaken in urban sites in Cuba, Dominican Republic and Venezuela, and in rural and urban catchment areas in Mexico, Peru, India and China. All residents aged 65 years and over were interviewed with a co-resident key informant. Exposures were structured clinical diagnoses (10/66 and DSM-IV dementia and ICD-10 depression), self-reported diagnosis (stroke) and physical impairments. Mediating variables were dependence and disability (WHODAS 2.0), and the outcome was co-resident psychological morbidity assessed using SRQ-20. Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate the prevalence ratios (PRs) for the associations between health conditions and psychological morbidity in each site, and meta-analysis was used to pool the estimates. 11,988 pairs comprising a participant and a co-resident informant were included in the analysis. After meta-analysis, independent effects were noted for depression (PR2.11; 95% CI 1.82-2.45), dementia (PR 1.98; 95% CI 1.72-2.28), stroke (PR 1.42; 95% CI 1.17-1.71) and physical impairments (PR 1.17; 95% CI 1.13-1.21). The effects were partly mediated through disability and dependence. The mean population attributable fraction of total chronic conditions was 30.1%. The prevalence of co-resident psychological morbidity is higher among co-residents of older people with chronic conditions. This effect was prominent for, but not confined to, depression and dementia. Attention needs to be directed to chronic conditions.

  18. Human skin is protected by four functionally and phenotypically discrete populations of resident and recirculating memory T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watanabe, Rei; Gehad, Ahmed; Yang, Chao; Scott, Laura L.; Teague, Jessica E.; Schlapbach, Christoph; Elco, Christopher P.; Huang, Victor; Matos, Tiago R.; Kupper, Thomas S.; Clark, Rachael A.

    2015-01-01

    The skin of an adult human contains about 20 billion memory T cells. Epithelial barrier tissues are infiltrated by a combination of resident and recirculating T cells in mice, but the relative proportions and functional activities of resident versus recirculating T cells have not been evaluated in

  19. Results of study of Sr-90 and Cs-137 content in organism and effective doses of internal and external irradiation of Ukrainian population residing in different regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmykov, L.; Gur, E.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have studied effective doses of internal and external radiation for 1992-1994 in the residents of Chernigov and Kharkov Regions of Ukraine, i.e. those who live in the zone of strict radioecologic control and in relatively ''clean'' zones, respectively. In 95% of the investigated residents of Chernigov Region Cs-137 activity in the organism was lower than 1500 Bq, maximum amount being 11 kBq. Conditioned Cs-137 effective dose of internal radiation did not exceed 250 micro Sv per year, in 96% of the investigated subjects it was less than 30 micro Sv per year. Mean amount of this radionuclide in the organisms of both adults and children aged 3-6 years residing in Kharkov Region was 90 and 6 Bq respectively, dose being 2 and 0.4 micro Sv per year. Sr-90 amount in the bone tissue decreases with the age and for the residents of Chernigov region it was 7-23 Bq/kg of bone, for the adult residents of Kharkov region it was about 3 Bq/kg of bone. Mean effective dose of internal radiation due to Sr-90 incorporation for the residents of both Kharkov and Chernigov Regions was 0.7 and 1.9 micro Sv per year. Effective dose of external radiation for the residents of Kharkov Region has not changed since the Chernobyl accident. Total effective dose of external and internal radiation in various professional groups for the residents of Chernigov region increased by 80 micro Sv per year which makes up 14% of mean population dose in Ukraine. (author). 11 refs, 5 tabs

  20. National Interests and Common Ground in the US Immigration Debate: How to Legalize the US Immigration System and Permanently Reduce Its Undocumented Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Kerwin

    2017-04-01

    analysis, and vests the executive with appropriate discretion in administering the law. The paper also argues that the United States should anticipate and accommodate the needs of persons compelled to migrate by its military, trade, development, and other commitments. In addition, the US immigration system needs to be able to distinguish between undocumented immigrants, and refugees and asylum seekers, and to treat these two populations differently. The paper assumes that there will be continued bipartisan support for immigration enforcement. However, even with a strong enforcement apparatus in place and an adaptable, coherent, evidence-based legal immigration system that closely aligns with US interests, some (reduced level of illegal migration will persist. The paper offers a sweeping, historical analysis of how this population emerged, why it has grown and contracted, and how estimates of its size have been politically exploited. Legalization is often viewed as the third rail of immigration reform. Yet, Congress has regularly legalized discrete undocumented populations, and the combination of a well-structured legalization program, strengthened legal immigration system, and strong enforcement policies can prevent the reemergence of a large-scale undocumented population. In contrast, the immense US enforcement apparatus will work at cross-purposes to US interests and values, absent broader reform. The paper ends with a series of recommendations to reform the legal immigration system, downsize the current undocumented population, and ensure its permanent reduction. It proposes that the United States “reissue” (or reuse the visas of persons who emigrate, as a way to promote legal immigration reform without significantly increasing annual visa numbers. [1] Effective legal immigration policies constitute the cornerstone of reform because, without them, the immigration enforcement system and any eventual legalization program will not be able to deliver on their promises

  1. Suicide among nursing home residents in Australia: A national population-based retrospective analysis of medico-legal death investigation information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Briony J; Bugeja, Lyndal C; Pilgrim, Jennifer L; Ibrahim, Joseph E

    2018-05-01

    Suicide among nursing home residents is a growing public health concern, currently lacking in empirical research. This study aims to describe the frequency and nature of suicide among nursing home residents in Australia. This research comprised a national population-based retrospective analysis of suicide deaths among nursing home residents in Australia reported to the Coroner between July 2000 and December 2013. Cases were identified using the National Coronial Information System, and data collected from paper-based coroners' records on individual, incident, and organizational factors, as well as details of the medico-legal death investigation. Data analysis comprised univariate and bivariate descriptive statistical techniques; ecological analysis of incidence rates using population denominators; and comparison of age and sex of suicide cases to deaths from other causes using logistic regression. The study identified 141 suicides among nursing home residents, occurring at a rate of 0.02 deaths per 100 000 resident bed days. The ratio of deaths from suicide to deaths from any other cause was higher in males than females (OR = 3.56, 95%CI = 2.48-5.12, P = home for less than 12 months (n = 71, 50.3%). Common major life stressors identified in suicide cases included the following: health deterioration (n = 112, 79.4%); isolation and loneliness (n = 60, 42.6%); and maladjustment to nursing home life (n = 42, 29.8%). This research provides a foundational understanding of suicide among nursing home residents in Australia and contributes important new information to the international knowledge base. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Are slum dwellers at heightened risk of HIV infection than other urban residents? Evidence from population-based HIV prevalence surveys in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madise, Nyovani J; Ziraba, Abdhalah K; Inungu, Joseph; Khamadi, Samoel A; Ezeh, Alex; Zulu, Eliya M; Kebaso, John; Okoth, Vincent; Mwau, Matilu

    2012-09-01

    In 2008, the global urban population surpassed the rural population and by 2050 more than 6 billion will be living in urban centres. A growing body of research has reported on poor health outcomes among the urban poor but not much is known about HIV prevalence among this group. A survey of nearly 3000 men and women was conducted in two Nairobi slums in Kenya between 2006 and 2007, where respondents were tested for HIV status. In addition, data from the 2008/2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey were used to compare HIV prevalence between slum residents and those living in other urban and rural areas. The results showed strong intra-urban differences. HIV was 12% among slum residents compared with 5% and 6% among non-slum urban and rural residents, respectively. Generally, men had lower HIV prevalence than women although in the slums the gap was narrower. Among women, sexual experience before the age of 15 compared with after 19 years was associated with 62% higher odds of being HIV positive. There was ethnic variation in patterns of HIV infection although the effect depended on the current place of residence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [STUDY OF HEALTH LITERACY OF RURAL RESIDENTS OF ALMATY OBLAST (REGION), KAZAKHSTAN: ROLE OF FINANCIAL WELLBEING IN THE FORMATION OF HEALTH LITERACY OF POPULATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisunova, G; Turdaliyeva, B; Tulebayev, K; Zagulova, D

    2016-10-01

    Aim of the study was to explore the relationships between health literacy (HL) and financial wellbeing in residents of Almaty oblast (region). The survey was conducted among 826 residents of Almaty region aged 18 y.o. Over 56.5% were female residents. To estimate health literacy, self assessed health, financial wellbeing and attitude towards health /work -questionnaire HLS-EU-Q was used. The results confirmed a significant relationship between financial wellbeing, health literacy and health outcomes residents of Almaty region. Relationships between HL and self- assessed health and attitudes towards health /work balance were observed only in respondents with low financial deprivation index, in respondents with low financial wellbeing (high financial deprivation index) no such relationships were observed. Higher financial deprivation index and lower health literacy were observed in respondents for whom work meant more than health. Lower financial deprivation index and higher health literacy were in those respondents for whom health meant more than work. Improvement of HL and motivation for healthy behavior are important challenges for public health. To answer them population's financial wellbeing improvement alone is not enough, as complex change of consumer behavior in healthcare system is needed. HL enhancing in disadvantaged population groups should inform about possibilities of free healthcare services, medications and about the structure of public healthcare service.

  4. Prevalence and regional correlates of road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents: A 21-city population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockett, Ian R H; Jiang, Shuhan; Yang, Qian; Yang, Tingzhong; Yang, Xiaozhao Y; Peng, Sihui; Yu, Lingwei

    2017-08-18

    This study estimated the prevalence of road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents and examined individual and regional-level correlates. A cross-sectional multistage process was used to sample residents from 21 selected cities in China. Survey respondents reported their history of road traffic injury in the past 12 months through a community survey. Multilevel, multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify injury correlates. Based on a retrospective 12-month reporting window, road traffic injury prevalence among urban residents was 13.2%. Prevalence of road traffic injury, by type, was 8.7, 8.7, 8.5, and 7.7% in the automobile, bicycle, motorcycle, and pedestrian categories, respectively. Multilevel analysis showed that prevalence of road traffic injury was positively associated with minority status, income, and mental health disorder score at the individual level. Regionally, road traffic injury was associated with geographic location of residence and prevalence of mental health disorders. Both individual and regional-level variables were associated with road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents, a finding whose implications transcend wholesale imported generic solutions. This descriptive research demonstrates an urgent need for longitudinal studies across China on risk and protective factors, in order to inform injury etiology, surveillance, prevention, treatment, and evaluation.

  5. Are white storks addicted to junk food? Impacts of landfill use on the movement and behaviour of resident white storks (Ciconia ciconia) from a partially migratory population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Nathalie I; Correia, Ricardo A; Silva, João Paulo; Pacheco, Carlos; Catry, Inês; Atkinson, Philip W; Gill, Jenny A; Franco, Aldina M A

    2016-01-01

    The migratory patterns of animals are changing in response to global environmental change with many species forming resident populations in areas where they were once migratory. The white stork (Ciconia ciconia) was wholly migratory in Europe but recently guaranteed, year-round food from landfill sites has facilitated the establishment of resident populations in Iberia. In this study 17 resident white storks were fitted with GPS/GSM data loggers (including accelerometer) and tracked for 9.1 ± 3.7 months to quantify the extent and consistency of landfill attendance by individuals during the non-breeding and breeding seasons and to assess the influence of landfill use on daily distances travelled, percentage of GPS fixes spent foraging and non-landfill foraging ranges. Resident white storks used landfill more during non-breeding (20.1 % ± 2.3 of foraging GPS fixes) than during breeding (14.9 % ± 2.2). Landfill attendance declined with increasing distance between nest and landfill in both seasons. During non-breeding a large percentage of GPS fixes occurred on the nest throughout the day (27 % ± 3.0 of fixes) in the majority of tagged storks. This study provides first confirmation of year-round nest use by resident white storks. The percentage of GPS fixes on the nest was not influenced by the distance between nest and the landfill site. Storks travelled up to 48.2 km to visit landfills during non-breeding and a maximum of 28.1 km during breeding, notably further than previous estimates. Storks nesting close to landfill sites used landfill more and had smaller foraging ranges in non-landfill habitat indicating higher reliance on landfill. The majority of non-landfill foraging occurred around the nest and long distance trips were made specifically to visit landfill. The continuous availability of food resources on landfill has facilitated year-round nest use in white storks and is influencing their home ranges and movement behaviour. White

  6. The effect of metal pollution on the population genetic structure of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) residing in the River Hayle, Cornwall, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrant, Christopher J. [King' s College London, Metals Metabolism Group, Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences, Franklin Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Stevens, Jamie R. [University of Exeter, Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Geoffrey Pope Building, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom); Hogstrand, Christer [King' s College London, Metals Metabolism Group, Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences, Franklin Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Bury, Nicolas R., E-mail: nic.bury@kcl.ac.uk [King' s College London, Metals Metabolism Group, Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences, Franklin Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    The River Hayle in south-west England is impacted with metals and can be divided into three regions depending on the copper and zinc concentrations: a low-metal upper section; a highly-contaminated middle section and a moderately contaminated lower section. Hayle river water is toxic to metal-naive brown trout, but brown trout are found in the upper and lower regions. The study aimed to evaluate the population genetic structure of River Hayle brown trout and to determine if the highly-contaminated section acts as a chemical barrier to migration. Population genetic analysis indicated that metals were not a barrier to gene flow within the river, but there was a high level of differentiation observed between fish sampled at two sites in the upper region, despite being separated by only 1 km. The metal tolerance trait exhibited by this brown trout population may represent an important component of the species genetic diversity in this region. - Highlights: > River Hayle, Cornwall, UK, water is toxic to metal-naive brown trout. > Some brown trout populations resident in the River Hayle are tolerant of elevated metals (e.g. copper and zinc). > Elevated metals do not affect the gene flow between sites on the river. > The population genetic structure of the brown trout in the River Hayle appears unaffected by elevated metals. - Aquatic metal pollution does not affect the gene flow between brown trout resident below and above a metal mining waste discharge point in the River Hayle, Cornwall, UK.

  7. Wheat cultivar-specific selection of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing Pseudomonas species from resident soil populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzola, M.; Funnell, D.L.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    An emerging body of evidence indicates a role for plant genotype as a determinant of the species and genetic composition of the saprophytic microbial community resident to the rhizosphere. In this study, experiments were conducted to determine the capacity of five different wheat cultivars to

  8. Marxism as permanent revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that the 'permanent revolution' represented the dominant element in Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels' political discourse, and that it tended to overrule considerations encapsulated in 'historical materialism'. In Marx and Engels's understanding, permanent revolution did not

  9. Retention of Ag-specific memory CD4+ T cells in the draining lymph node indicates lymphoid tissue resident memory populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Clare L; Dutton, Emma E; Tomura, Michio; Withers, David R

    2017-05-01

    Several different memory T-cell populations have now been described based upon surface receptor expression and migratory capabilities. Here we have assessed murine endogenous memory CD4 + T cells generated within a draining lymph node and their subsequent migration to other secondary lymphoid tissues. Having established a model response targeting a specific peripheral lymph node, we temporally labelled all the cells within draining lymph node using photoconversion. Tracking of photoconverted and non-photoconverted Ag-specific CD4 + T cells revealed the rapid establishment of a circulating memory population in all lymph nodes within days of immunisation. Strikingly, a resident memory CD4 + T cell population became established in the draining lymph node and persisted for several months in the absence of detectable migration to other lymphoid tissue. These cells most closely resembled effector memory T cells, usually associated with circulation through non-lymphoid tissue, but here, these cells were retained in the draining lymph node. These data indicate that lymphoid tissue resident memory CD4 + T-cell populations are generated in peripheral lymph nodes following immunisation. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Vitamin D and Calcium supplementation prevents severe falls in elderly community dwelling residents: a pragmatic population-based 3-year intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Roj; Mosekilde, Leif; Foldspang, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Background and aims: We evaluated the effect of two programs for the prevention of falls leading to acute hospital admission in a population of elderly community-dwelling Danish residents. Methods: This was a factorial, pragmatic, intervention study. We included 9605 community-dwelling city......, or no intervention. Results: The Calcium and Vitamin D program was followed by 50.3% and the Environmental and Health Program by 46.4%. According to a multivariate analysis including age, marital status and intervention program, female residents who followed the Calcium and Vitamin D Program had a 12% risk reduction...... in severe falls (RR 0.88; 95% CI 0.79-0.98; pfalls leading to acute hospitalization in communitydwelling elderly females in a northern European region known to be deficient in vitamin D....

  11. Connectedness to nature and public (skin) health perspectives: results of a representative, population-based survey among Austrian residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Höltge, Jan; Cervinka, Renate; Moshammer, Hanns

    2014-01-20

    Connectedness to nature (CN) influences motivation to have contact with outdoor natural environments. Spending leisure time in natural environments is beneficial for human health and well-being. Besides these positive effects, health risks of open-air activities are mainly related to unprotected sun light exposure-associated acute and chronic skin hazards. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional, representative telephone survey among Austrian residents to study the association of perceived CN level with sun-exposure knowledge, tanning habits, and sun protective behaviour. In total, 1,500 study subjects (50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Although knowledge about tanning and motives to tan were similar among genders, females performed more photoprotective measures and were more connected to nature (all p nature connectedness and skin health-relevant recreational habits of Austrian residents. The findings suggest to integrate hitherto neglected gender-specific Public (Skin) Health promotion when counselling on the manifold health advantages of outdoor activities.

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the serum and breast milk of the resident population from production area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun; Wang, Ying; Yang, Congqiao; Hu, Jicheng; Liu, Weizhi; Cui, Jian; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2009-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been produced in the south coast area of Laizhou Bay, Shandong Province in China, but little is known about the PBDE exposure level of residents to these compounds. We set out to assess potential health risks of PBDEs in the south coast area of the Laizhou Bay by determining the concentrations of PBDEs in serum and breast milk. We measured concentrations of eight PBDE congeners in serum and breast milk. The arithmetic means of Sigma(8)PBDE in pooled serum and breast milk were 613 ng/g lipid and 81.5 ng/g lipid, respectively. The highest concentration for Sigma(8)PBDE in all serum pools was 1830 ng/g lipid from the 41-50 year old female group. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, with the mean concentrations of 403 ng/g lipid in serum and 45.6 ng/g lipid in breast milk, respectively. BDE-209 averagely accounted for 65.8% and 54.2% of the total PBDEs, respectively. Our results suggest that high exposures to PBDEs have led to very high PBDE concentrations in serum and breast milk from the residents living in the south coast area of Laizhou Bay. High PBDE concentrations in human serum, particularly in women, pose a potential public health threat to local residents.

  13. EPR DOSIMETRY STUDY FOR POPULATION RESIDING IN THE VICINITY OF FALLOUT TRACE FOR NUCLEAR TEST ON 7 AUGUST 1962.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhumadilov, Kassym Sh; Ivannikov, Alexander I; Stepanenko, Valeriy F; Toyoda, Shin; Skvortsov, Valeriy G; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2016-12-01

    The method of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry using extracted teeth has been applied to human tooth enamel to obtain individual absorbed doses of residents of settlements in the vicinity of the central axis of radioactive fallout trace from the contaminating surface nuclear test on 7 August 1962. Most of the settlements (Kurchatov, Akzhar, Begen, Buras, Grachi, Mayskoe, Semenovka) are located from 70 to 120 km to the North-East from the epicenter of the explosion at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS). This region is basically an agricultural region. A total of 57 teeth samples were collected from these sites. Eight teeth from residents of the Kokpekty settlement, which was not subjected to any radioactive contamination and located 400 km to the Southeast from SNTS, were chosen as a control. The principal findings, using this method, were that the average excess dose obtained after subtraction of the natural background radiation was 13 mGy and ranged up to about 100 mGy all for residents in this region. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for intestinal protozoa infection in elderly residents at Long Term Residency Institutions in Southeastern Brazil Prevalência e fatores de risco para infecção por protozoários intestinais em idosos residentes nas Instituições de Longa Permanência no Sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katymilla Guimarães Girotto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the prevalence of intestinal protozoa in Long Term Residency Institutions for the Elderly (ILPI in elders, nurses and food handlers, identifying the risk factors associated with the infections. Stool samples taken from the elderly (n = 293, nurses (63 and food handlers (19 were studied. Questionnaires were used with questions related to sociodemographic variables, health, behavior and health characteristics. Stool samples were examined using the techniques of Faust and Ziehl Neelsen, and the prevalence of G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica/dispar in the elderly was 4.0%, 1.0% and 0.3% respectively. Nurses and food handlers showed 4.8% and 5.2% positivity only for G. duodenalis, respectively. The origin of the individuals and contact with domestic animals has been associated with infection by G. duodenalis in the elderly, and contact with domestic animals was considered a risk factor for infection. The last stool examinations were related to Cryptosporidium spp.. None of the variables were associated with E. histolytica/dispar. The frequency of hand washing was significantly associated with G. duodenalis among nurses. The frequency of positive samples of G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica/dispar showed that ILPIs environments are conducive to this occurring due to contact between the elderly, nurses and food handlers, which are often poorly trained in hygiene procedures and food handling.Este estudo determinou a prevalência de protozoários intestinais em Instituições de Longa Permanência para Idosos (ILPI, enfermeiros, manipuladores de alimentos identificando fatores de risco associados às infecções. Amostras de fezes de idosos (n = 293, enfermeiros (63, manipuladores de alimentos (19 foram estudadas. Foram aplicados questionários relacionados a variáveis sociodemográficas, de higiene, comportamento e características de saúde. As amostras de fezes foram examinadas pelas t

  15. A biological evaluation of DNA damage detected by comet assay in healthy populations residing in areas that differ in lung cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heepchantree, Worapa; Paratasilpin, Thipmani; Kangwanpong, Daoroong

    2006-06-01

    The comet assay was performed to evaluate the effect of environmental exposure between human populations residing in two areas that differ in lung cancer incidence, Saraphi (n = 91) and Chom Thong (n = 94). Three parameters, the tail length, tail intensity, and tail moment, were used to detect DNA damage in peripheral blood and stimulated lymphocytes with and without the DNA repair inhibitor, aphidicolin. Internal standards, cryopreserved isolated lymphocytes, and isolated lymphocytes irradiated with 2 Gy gamma rays, were used to correct the interexperimental variability. Results revealed a significant difference between two populations only when the tail length was used to measure DNA damage. The evaluation of various potential confounding factors, such as gender, pesticide exposure, smoking, alcohol drinking, and fermented tea leaf or betel nut chewing, indicated no significant influence in DNA damage. In conclusion, significant difference in DNA damage, detected only by tail length between the two populations residing in the areas with different incidence of lung cancer, may reflect a nonhazardous level of exposure to toxic substances.

  16. Population structure and residency patterns of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, at a provisioning site in Cebu, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Gonzalo; Lucey, Anna; Labaja, Jessica; So, Catherine Lee; Snow, Sally; Ponzo, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This study represents the first description of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, occurring at a provisioning site in Oslob, Cebu, Philippines. Frequent observations of sharks are often difficult, even at tourism sites, giving rise to provisioning activities to attract them. The present study provides repeated longitudinal data at a site where daily provisioning activities took place, and whale sharks were present every day. A total of 158 individual whale sharks were photographically identified between Mar 2012 and Dec 2013, with 129 males (82%), 19 females (12%) and 10 (6%) of undetermined sex. Mean estimated total length was 5.5 m (±1.3 m S.D.). Twenty individuals were measured with laser photogrammetry to validate researchers' estimated sizes, yielding a good correlation (r (2) = 0.83). Fifty-four (34%) individuals were observed being hand-fed by local fishermen (provisioned), through in-water behavioural observations. Maximum likelihood methods were used to model mean residency time of 44.9 days (±20.6 days S.E.) for provisioned R. typus contrasting with 22.4 days (±8.9 days S.E.) for non-provisioned individuals. Propeller scars were observed in 47% of the animals. A mean of 12.7 (±4.3 S.D.) R. typus were present in the survey area daily, with a maximum of 26 individuals (Aug 10 2013) and a minimum of 2 (Dec 6 2012). Twelve (8%) individuals were seen on at least 50% of survey days (n = 621), with a maximum residency of 572 days for one individual (P-396). Twenty four individuals were photographically identified across regional hotsposts, highlighting the species' migratory nature and distribution. Extended residency and differences in lagged identification rates suggest behavioural modification on provisioned individuals, underlying the necessity for proper management of this tourism activity.

  17. Population structure and residency patterns of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, at a provisioning site in Cebu, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Araujo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study represents the first description of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, occurring at a provisioning site in Oslob, Cebu, Philippines. Frequent observations of sharks are often difficult, even at tourism sites, giving rise to provisioning activities to attract them. The present study provides repeated longitudinal data at a site where daily provisioning activities took place, and whale sharks were present every day. A total of 158 individual whale sharks were photographically identified between Mar 2012 and Dec 2013, with 129 males (82%, 19 females (12% and 10 (6% of undetermined sex. Mean estimated total length was 5.5 m (±1.3 m S.D.. Twenty individuals were measured with laser photogrammetry to validate researchers’ estimated sizes, yielding a good correlation (r2 = 0.83. Fifty-four (34% individuals were observed being hand-fed by local fishermen (provisioned, through in-water behavioural observations. Maximum likelihood methods were used to model mean residency time of 44.9 days (±20.6 days S.E. for provisioned R. typus contrasting with 22.4 days (±8.9 days S.E. for non-provisioned individuals. Propeller scars were observed in 47% of the animals. A mean of 12.7 (±4.3 S.D. R. typus were present in the survey area daily, with a maximum of 26 individuals (Aug 10 2013 and a minimum of 2 (Dec 6 2012. Twelve (8% individuals were seen on at least 50% of survey days (n = 621, with a maximum residency of 572 days for one individual (P-396. Twenty four individuals were photographically identified across regional hotsposts, highlighting the species’ migratory nature and distribution. Extended residency and differences in lagged identification rates suggest behavioural modification on provisioned individuals, underlying the necessity for proper management of this tourism activity.

  18. The effect of metal pollution on the population genetic structure of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) residing in the River Hayle, Cornwall, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrant, Christopher J.; Stevens, Jamie R.; Hogstrand, Christer; Bury, Nicolas R.

    2011-01-01

    The River Hayle in south-west England is impacted with metals and can be divided into three regions depending on the copper and zinc concentrations: a low-metal upper section; a highly-contaminated middle section and a moderately contaminated lower section. Hayle river water is toxic to metal-naive brown trout, but brown trout are found in the upper and lower regions. The study aimed to evaluate the population genetic structure of River Hayle brown trout and to determine if the highly-contaminated section acts as a chemical barrier to migration. Population genetic analysis indicated that metals were not a barrier to gene flow within the river, but there was a high level of differentiation observed between fish sampled at two sites in the upper region, despite being separated by only 1 km. The metal tolerance trait exhibited by this brown trout population may represent an important component of the species genetic diversity in this region. - Highlights: → River Hayle, Cornwall, UK, water is toxic to metal-naive brown trout. → Some brown trout populations resident in the River Hayle are tolerant of elevated metals (e.g. copper and zinc). → Elevated metals do not affect the gene flow between sites on the river. → The population genetic structure of the brown trout in the River Hayle appears unaffected by elevated metals. - Aquatic metal pollution does not affect the gene flow between brown trout resident below and above a metal mining waste discharge point in the River Hayle, Cornwall, UK.

  19. [The possibility of provision of hygienically safe residing for the population in residential construction located closely to air transport enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildenskiold, R S; Tatyanyuk, T K; Savelyev, S I; Rekis, V K

    Operation of the modern heavy aircraft on the surrounding vast territory is associated with the appearance of high levels of sound pressure generated by the powerful engines, especially during takeoff and landing operations. Currently, the elimination or significant reduction of noise pollution on the environment technically does not yet have a radical solution and the possible reduction of the impact ofnoise pollution on the residents ofnearby settlements is achievedfor residents of building by the optimal location of the runway, changing in conditions for the takeoff and landing of aircrafts, the ordering of the regimen of the airport, the introduction of the package sufficiently effective anti-noise diverse - engineering, planning activities, in some cases, the creation ofprotective noise shield on the border of the residential area and the construction ofprotective awnings over the children’s and sports fields with fencing shields converted in the direction of the runway. An example of a positive decision, taking into account the complexity and variety of aspects of the problem, it is possible to consider the development of the project plan of the new microdistrict «Eletsky» in the Soviet district of the city of Lipetsk, falling under the impact of aircraft noise of plying aircrafts of the military airfield.

  20. Causes of permanent childhood hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korver, Anna M H; Admiraal, Ronald J C; Kant, Sarina G; Dekker, Friedo W; Wever, Capi C; Kunst, Henricus P M; Frijns, Johan H M; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie

    2011-02-01

    The causes of Permanent Childhood Hearing Impairment (PCHI) are often quoted as being hereditary in 50%, acquired in 25%, and unknown in 25% of cases. Interest in the causes of PCHI has grown recently due to increasing diagnostic possibilities. We investigated the evidence for the reported distribution of these causes. Population-based study and a systematic review. Inclusion criteria for population-based study: children born between 2003 and 2005, resident in The Netherlands at birth, known at an Audiology Center with PCHI at the age of 3-5 years. The causes of PCHI were determined prospectively by detection of congenital cytomegalovirus on dried blood spots and/or genetic diagnostic investigations in addition to reviewing data from medical records. A systematic review was carried out using three terms (hearing loss, infant, and etiology) and limited to articles published between January 1997 and July 2009. Main outcome measures were: the (weighted) proportions of the various causes of PCHI following diagnostic investigations. In the study-population (n = 185) a hereditary cause was found in 38.9%, acquired cause in 29.7%, miscellaneous cause in 7.1%, and the cause remained unknown in 24.3%. The systematic review of the literature (n = 9 articles) resulted in a weighted mean of 30.4% hereditary, 19.2% acquired, and 48.3% unknown causes of PCHI. The systematic review and the results of the population-based study provided little support for the generally accepted distribution of causes of PCHI. Copyright © 2010 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at the...

  2. Evaluation of quantitative imaging methods for organ activity and residence time estimation using a population of phantoms having realistic variations in anatomy and uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Bin; Du Yong; Segars, W. Paul; Wahl, Richard L.; Sgouros, George; Jacene, Heather; Frey, Eric C.

    2009-01-01

    Estimating organ residence times is an essential part of patient-specific dosimetry for radioimmunotherapy (RIT). Quantitative imaging methods for RIT are often evaluated using a single physical or simulated phantom but are intended to be applied clinically where there is variability in patient anatomy, biodistribution, and biokinetics. To provide a more relevant evaluation, the authors have thus developed a population of phantoms with realistic variations in these factors and applied it to the evaluation of quantitative imaging methods both to find the best method and to demonstrate the effects of these variations. Using whole body scans and SPECT/CT images, organ shapes and time-activity curves of 111In ibritumomab tiuxetan were measured in dosimetrically important organs in seven patients undergoing a high dose therapy regimen. Based on these measurements, we created a 3D NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT)-based phantom population. SPECT and planar data at realistic count levels were then simulated using previously validated Monte Carlo simulation tools. The projections from the population were used to evaluate the accuracy and variation in accuracy of residence time estimation methods that used a time series of SPECT and planar scans. Quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) reconstruction methods were used that compensated for attenuation, scatter, and the collimator-detector response. Planar images were processed with a conventional (CPlanar) method that used geometric mean attenuation and triple-energy window scatter compensation and a quantitative planar (QPlanar) processing method that used model-based compensation for image degrading effects. Residence times were estimated from activity estimates made at each of five time points. The authors also evaluated hybrid methods that used CPlanar or QPlanar time-activity curves rescaled to the activity estimated from a single QSPECT image. The methods were evaluated in terms of mean relative error and standard deviation of the

  3. Is There Association Between Changes in eGFR Value and the Risk of Permanent Type of Atrial Fibrillation? - Analysis of Valvular and Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Mlodawska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: There are no data concerning renal function in population with valvular and non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF. To assess renal function in patients with AF, the association between eGFR and AF perpetuation, in-hospital mortality. Methods: We studied 1523 patients with AF. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD were compared to population with preserved renal function. Results: CKD was more frequently observed in patients with valvular AF(p=0.009. In non-valvular AF patients eGFR 2 had more often permanent AF(p2DS2VASc score was 4.1±1.5 and HAS-BLED score was 2.1±1.2 and it was higher as compared to population with preserved renal function (p75 years old(OR=3.70,p=0.01,95%CI1.33-10.28, with CKD (OR=2.61,p=0.03,95%CI1.09-6.23. The type of AF had no significant influence on in-hospital mortality(OR=0.71,p=0.45,95%CI0.30-1.70. Conclusions: CKD is more often observed in patients with valvular AF. In population with non-valvular AF decreased eGFR is associated with permanent type of AF and with higher CHA2DS2VASc and HAS-BLED score. Among valvular AF patients there are no differences in type of AF between patients with and without CKD. There is the correlation between CKD and AF perpetuation but only in non-valvular population.

  4. The permanent process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; McCullagh, Peter

    We extend the boson process first to a large class of Cox processes and second an even larger class of infinitely divisible point processes. Density and moment results are studied in detail. These results are obtained in closed form as weighted permanents, so the extension is called a permanent...... process. Temporal extensions and a particularly tractable case of the permanent process are also studied. Extensions of the ferminon process along similar lines, leading to so-called determinant processes, are discussed at the end. While the permanent process is attractive, the determinant process...

  5. Ethnicity and health care in cervical cancer survival: comparisons between a Filipino resident population, Filipino-Americans, and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redaniel, Maria Theresa; Laudico, Adriano; Mirasol-Lumague, Maria Rica; Gondos, Adam; Uy, Gemma Leonora; Toral, Jean Ann; Benavides, Doris; Brenner, Hermann

    2009-08-01

    Few studies have assessed and compared cervical cancer survival between developed and developing countries, or between ethnic groups within a country. Fewer still have addressed how much of the international or interracial survival differences can be attributed to ethnicity or health care. To determine the role of ethnicity and health care, 5-year survival of patients with cervical cancer was compared between patients in the Philippines and Filipino-Americans, who have the same ethnicity, and between Filipino-Americans and Caucasians, who have the same health care system. Cervical cancer databases from the Manila and Rizal Cancer Registries and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 13 were used. Age-adjusted 5-year survival estimates were computed and compared between the three patient groups. Using Cox proportional hazards modeling, potential determinants of survival differences were examined. Overall 5-year relative survival was similar in Filipino-Americans (68.8%) and Caucasians (66.6%), but was lower for Philippine residents (42.9%). Although late stage at diagnosis explained a large proportion of the survival differences between Philippine residents and Filipino-Americans, excess mortality prevailed after adjustment for stage, age, and morphology in multivariate analysis [relative risk (RR), 2.07; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.68-2.55]. Excess mortality decreased, but persisted, when treatments were included in the multivariate models (RR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.41-2.23). A moderate, marginally significant excess mortality was found among Caucasians compared with Filipino-Americans (adjusted RR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.01-1.47). The differences in cervical cancer survival between patients in the Philippines and in the United States highlight the importance of enhanced health care and access to diagnostic and treatment facilities in the Philippines.

  6. Psychiatry residents in a milieu participatory democracy: a resident's view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersten, D

    1978-11-01

    Psychiatry residents respond with a variety of coping mechanisms to the lack of traditional structure in a milieu participatory democracy. To incorporate themselves into the system they must accept such democratic ideals as equality among staff and patients, group decision making, and free self-expression and give up some of their traditional ideas about staff and patient roles, treatment modalities, and the therapeutic environment. The author was a first-year resident in psychiatry on a university hospital inpatient therapeutic community; he discusses the conflicts between residents, who often adopt a "we-they" attitude, and the permanent staff, whose protectiveness of the ward community reflects their personal commitment to its ideals.

  7. Population Genomics Reveals Seahorses (Hippocampus erectus) of the Western Mid-Atlantic Coast to Be Residents Rather than Vagrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, J. T.; Waldman, John; Robinson, John D.; Hickerson, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding population structure and areas of demographic persistence and transients is critical for effective species management. However, direct observational evidence to address the geographic scale and delineation of ephemeral or persistent populations for many marine fishes is limited. The Lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus) can be commonly found in three western Atlantic zoogeographic provinces, though inhabitants of the temperate northern Virginia Province are often considered tropical vagrants that only arrive during warm seasons from the southern provinces and perish as temperatures decline. Although genetics can locate regions of historical population persistence and isolation, previous evidence of Virginia Province persistence is only provisional due to limited genetic sampling (i.e., mitochondrial DNA and five nuclear loci). To test alternative hypotheses of historical persistence versus the ephemerality of a northern Virginia Province population we used a RADseq generated dataset consisting of 11,708 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) sampled from individuals collected from the eastern Gulf of Mexico to Long Island, NY. Concordant results from genomic analyses all infer three genetically divergent subpopulations, and strongly support Virginia Province inhabitants as a genetically diverged and a historically persistent ancestral gene pool. These results suggest that individuals that emerge in coastal areas during the warm season can be considered “local” and supports offshore migration during the colder months. This research demonstrates how a large number of genes sampled across a geographical range can capture the diversity of coalescent histories (across loci) while inferring population history. Moreover, these results clearly demonstrate the utility of population genomic data to infer peripheral subpopulation persistence in difficult-to-observe species. PMID:25629166

  8. Population genomics reveals seahorses (Hippocampus erectus of the western mid-Atlantic coast to be residents rather than vagrants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J T Boehm

    Full Text Available Understanding population structure and areas of demographic persistence and transients is critical for effective species management. However, direct observational evidence to address the geographic scale and delineation of ephemeral or persistent populations for many marine fishes is limited. The Lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus can be commonly found in three western Atlantic zoogeographic provinces, though inhabitants of the temperate northern Virginia Province are often considered tropical vagrants that only arrive during warm seasons from the southern provinces and perish as temperatures decline. Although genetics can locate regions of historical population persistence and isolation, previous evidence of Virginia Province persistence is only provisional due to limited genetic sampling (i.e., mitochondrial DNA and five nuclear loci. To test alternative hypotheses of historical persistence versus the ephemerality of a northern Virginia Province population we used a RADseq generated dataset consisting of 11,708 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP sampled from individuals collected from the eastern Gulf of Mexico to Long Island, NY. Concordant results from genomic analyses all infer three genetically divergent subpopulations, and strongly support Virginia Province inhabitants as a genetically diverged and a historically persistent ancestral gene pool. These results suggest that individuals that emerge in coastal areas during the warm season can be considered "local" and supports offshore migration during the colder months. This research demonstrates how a large number of genes sampled across a geographical range can capture the diversity of coalescent histories (across loci while inferring population history. Moreover, these results clearly demonstrate the utility of population genomic data to infer peripheral subpopulation persistence in difficult-to-observe species.

  9. Effects of a community health promotion program on social factors in a vulnerable older adult population residing in social housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Gina; Brydges, Madison

    2018-04-16

    Supporting older adults' health and wellbeing in the community is an important policy goal that can be supported by health promotion. Despite widespread acceptance of the biopsychosocial model of health and its relation to health, many health promotion programs fail to realize this model in program design. Further, there is limited evidence to support program design targeting social determinants of health such as social isolation or connectedness. To fill this gap, we aimed to understand older adult's experiences participating in cardiovascular health promotion program in a subsidized residential building to capture unintended 'spin-off' psychosocial effects. This study took a constructivist, ethnographic approach utilizing participant observation and semi-structured interviews with participants of the program to understand participant's lived experiences of a health promotion program. In total, we conducted eighty hours of field work and fifteen semi-structured interviews with participants of the program. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Four themes emerged. First, the health promotion program filled a perceived gap caused by a constrained and impersonal health care system. Secondly, the program connected older adults with resources and provided regular and secure access to health information and support. Third, for some residents, the program facilitated social relationships between older adults, leaving participants feeling more socially connected to other residents. Lastly, a paradox of loneliness emerged where older adults talked openly about feelings of loneliness, however not in relation to themselves, but rather regarding their peers. Psychosocial aspects of health, such as loneliness, social connectedness, and social support may be of equal value as the physical health benefits to the older adults who participate in health promotion programs. Incorporating these elements into programming is a complex goal, and the complexity of targeting

  10. Assessment of annual intake of thorium from animal origin food consumed by population residing in monazite rich area of southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyapriya, R.S.; Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai; Prabhath, R.K.; Rao, D.D.; Acharya, R.

    2017-01-01

    Thorium ( 232 Th) concentration was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in animal origin food groups widely consumed by population residing in monazite rich area of Tamil Nadu, India. The annual intake was evaluated based on market basket study method for female and male population for different age groups. Annual committed effective dose due to 232 Th intake from the ingestion was evaluated for different age groups of individuals, using the ICRP ingestion dose coefficients and annual consumption rate obtained from National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB). Annual intake values of 232 Th for adult members of the population were obtained from food items as, fish from 0.2 to 0.8; flesh food (meat, beef and chicken), from 0.03 to 0.12; and milk from 0.2 to 0.3 Bq year -1 . The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotope in these food groups was 0.2 µSv year -1 for male adult population. (author)

  11. Value orientations of the population of the Republic of Tuva (a study of an opinion poll of urban and rural residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana P. Tatarova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the system of value orientations and cultural preferences in post-Soviet Russia are of highest importance for contemporary researchers. This article examines the value orientations of the residents of the Republic of Tuva (a constituent subject of Russian Federation both in toto and by generation and along the urban/rural divide. Our analysis utilized the outcomes of our empirical studies titled “The current state of sociocultural institutions in the Republic of Tuva and their role in preventing social problems” (2011 and “The rural culture of the Republic of Tuva” (2011-2012. I am grateful to students of the Tuva Branch of East Siberian State Academy of Culture and Fine Arts for their aid in conducting the study. The study showed that the system of value orientations in Tuva features certain distinctions between those of urban and rural residents, and along the generational divide. The urban population’s vital values are health, personal security and success (for the elder generation and health, money and personal success (for the younger generation. Among the social values the elder generations most frequently name respect from others, integrity, good family relations, while the younger generation focuses on respect from others, good friendship and integrity. Rural population places family and health above everything else. Studying leisure time of the urban population in Tuva showed that the list of top activities includes spending time with friends and/or family, watching TV and a day outdoors. The outcomes of our study do not completely match the hierarchy of leisure time activities in other regions of Russia and the national average. There is a certain danger in contemporary urban environment’s trend towards leaning down the variety of leisure activities. Our study showed that the urban and rural populations have almost identical TV watching habits, with the majority preferring newscasts, music shows and crime reports

  12. 42 CFR 436.403 - State residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Definition. For purposes of this section—Institution has the same meaning as Institution and Medical... intention to remain there permanently or for an indefinite period. (2) For any individual not residing in an... of residence is the State where the individual is— (i) Living with the intention to remain there...

  13. Current selection for lower migratory activity will drive the evolution of residency in a migratory bird population

    OpenAIRE

    Pulido, Francisco; Berthold, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Global warming is impacting biodiversity by altering the distribution, abundance, and phenology of a wide range of animal and plant species. One of the best documented responses to recent climate change is alterations in the migratory behavior of birds, but the mechanisms underlying these phenotypic adjustments are largely unknown. This knowledge is still crucial to predict whether populations of migratory birds will adapt to a rapid increase in temperature. We monitored migratory behavior in...

  14. Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Asthma Prevalence in Different Population Groups Residing in Eastern Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, Amit Kr.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Tuluri, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution has been an on-going research focus due to its detrimental impact on human health. However, its specific effects on asthma prevalence in different age groups, genders and races are not well understood. Thus, the present study was designed to examine the association between selected air pollutants and asthma prevalence in different population groups during 2010 in the eastern part of Texas, USA.The pollutants considered were particulate matter (PM2.5 with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometers) and surface ozone. The population groups were categorized based on age, gender, and race. County-wise asthma hospital discharge data for different age, gender, and racial groups were obtained from Texas Asthma Control Program, Office of Surveillance, Evaluation and Research, Texas Department of State Health Services. The annual means of the air pollutants were obtained from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA)’s air quality system data mart program. Pearson correlation analyzes were conducted to examine the relationship between the annual mean concentrations of pollutants and asthma discharge rates (ADR) for different age groups, genders, and races. The results reveal that there is no significant association or relationship between ADR and exposure of air pollutants (PM2.5, and O3). The study results showed a positive correlation between PM2.5 and ADR and a negative correlation between ADR and ozone in most of the cases. These correlations were not statistically significant, and can be better explained by considering the local weather conditions. The research findings facilitate identification of hotspots for controlling the most affected populations from further environmental exposure to air pollution, and for preventing or reducing the health impacts. PMID:27043587

  15. [An evaluation of the clinical competence of a population of specialist physicians educated by the medical internship and residency system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, R; Busquet, J; Feliu, E; Castellsague, J; Gómez Sáez, J M; Martínez Carretero, J M; Rozman, C

    1995-10-21

    The quality of physicians who have undergone resident official training (MIR) should logically be better than that of the remaining physicians who were not able to enter into this official training. The present study was designed with the aim of verifying this hypothesis. A sample of physicians who underwent the MIR examination in 1982 and who upon passing the same were permitted to initiate the MIR training in 1983 was selected. The group was subdivided into MIR and no MIR and according to the specialty followed. When the physicians were practicing as specialists two types of surveys were carried out with one being by telephone and the other personal in which the personal characteristics, preparation for the MIR test, professional satisfaction and personal motivation were analyzed. The pharmaceutic prescriptions of both groups were analyzed according to indicators of the Servei Català de la Salut (Catalonian Health Service) and the opinion of colleagues of each of the members of each group was evaluated with another questionnaire. The written resolution of hypothetical clinical cases were given to each of the individuals included. A level of global competence defined as a percentage for the following components was identified using: curricular evaluation (10%), professional satisfaction (20%), personal motivation (10%), hypothetical case resolution (35%) and peer opinion (25%). The global competence of the physicians trained under the MIR system was greater than that of the no MIR group (p < 0.01). On analysis by sections the differences of greatest note were observed in the resolution of hypothetical cases (p < 0.0001), curricular evaluation (p < 0.0001) and the quality of pharmaceutical prescription (p < 0.0001). The differences were less of note in comparison of personal motivation (p < 0.02) and professional satisfaction (p < 0.02). No differences were observed in peer opinion. The professional quality of physicians trained by MIR who presented for the 1982

  16. Permanences GAG-EPA

    CERN Document Server

    GAC-EPA

    2015-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 5 mai de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 2 juin, 1er septembre, 6 octobre, 3 novembre et 1er décembre 2015. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires.

  17. Permanent quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, E.D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A family of quadrupole magnets using a soft iron return yoke and circular cross-section permanent magnet poles were fabricated to investigate the feasibility for use in ion or electron beam focusing applications in accelerators and transport lines. Magnetic field measurements yielded promising results. In fixed-field applications, permanent magnets with sufficient gradients would be a low cost substitute for conventional electromagnets, eliminating the need for power supplies, associated wiring, and cooling. Based on preliminary tests, it was seen that permanent quadrupole magnets can offer a low cost, reliable solution in applications requiring small, fixed-field focusing devices for use in ion or electron-beam transport systems. Permanent magnets do require special considerations in design, fabrication, handling, and service that are different than encountered in conventional quadrupole magnets. If these basic conditions are satisfied, the resulting beam-focusing device would be stable, maintenance free, with virtually an indefinite lifetime

  18. Permanent quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, E.D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A family of quadrupole magnets using a soft iron return yoke and circular cross-section permanent magnet poles were fabricated to investigate the feasibility for use in ion or electron beam focusing applications in accelerators and transport lines. Magnetic field measurements yielded promising results. In fixed-field applications, permanent magnets with sufficient gradients would be a low cost substitute for conventional electromagnets, eliminating the need for power supplies, associated wiring, and cooling. (author)

  19. Marxism as permanent revolution

    OpenAIRE

    van Ree, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that the 'permanent revolution' represented the dominant element in Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels' political discourse, and that it tended to overrule considerations encapsulated in 'historical materialism'. In Marx and Engels's understanding, permanent revolution did not represent a historical shortcut under exceptional circumstances, but the course revolutions in the modern era would normally take. Marx and Engels traced back the pattern to the sixteenth century. It is ...

  20. Study of peristomal skin disorders in patients with permanent stomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlufsen, P; Olsen, A G; Carlsen, B

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the frequency, severity and diversity of peristomal skin disorders among individuals with a permanent stoma in a community population. All individuals with a permanent stoma (n=630) in a Danish community population were invited to participate in a cross-...

  1. The osteo-inductive activity of bone-marrow-derived mononuclear cells resides within the CD14+ population and is independent of the CD34+ population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, D; Seebach, C; Verboket, R; Schaible, A; Marzi, I; Bonig, H

    2018-03-06

    Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMC) seeded on a scaffold of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) promote bone healing in a critical-size femur defect model. Being BMC a mixed population of predominantly mature haematopoietic cells, which cell type(s) is(are) instrumental for healing remains elusive. Although clinical therapies using BMC are often dubbed as stem cell therapies, whether stem cells are relevant for the therapeutic effects is unclear and, at least in the context of bone repair, seems dubious. Instead, in light of the critical contribution of monocytes and macrophages to tissue development, homeostasis and injury repair, in the current study it was hypothesised that BMC-mediated bone healing derived from the stem cell population. To test this hypothesis, bone remodelling studies were performed in an established athymic rats critical-size femoral defect model, with β-TCP scaffolds augmented with complete BMC or BMC immunomagnetically depleted of stem cells (CD34+) or monocytes/macrophages (CD14+). Bone healing was assessed 8 weeks after transplantation. Compared to BMC-augmented controls, when CD14- BMC, but not CD34- BMC were transplanted into the bone defect, femora possessed dramatically decreased biomechanical stability and new bone formation was markedly reduced, as measured by histology. The degree of vascularisation did not differ between the two groups. It was concluded that the monocyte fraction within the BMC provided critical osteo-inductive cues during fracture healing. Which factors were responsible at the molecular levels remained elusive. However, this study marked a significant progress towards elucidating the mechanisms by which BMC elicit their therapeutic effects, at least in bone regeneration.

  2. Morbidity pattern and health-seeking behavior of aged population residing in Shimla hills of north India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population aging is a global phenomenon. In India, the size of the elderly population is growing fast. Many older adults have multiple medical conditions. Understanding elderly health problems and health-seeking behavior is prerequisite for proving comprehensive geriatric care to them. Objectives: To assess the morbidity pattern and study the health-seeking behavior of the elderly people of Shimla district in Himachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 elderly people aged 60 years and above were selected from urban and rural areas of Shimla hills in North India by simple random sampling. Statistical software Epi info software version 3.2 was used for analyzing data. Descriptive statistics were used to describe sociodemographic and morbidity variables. Results: The most common morbidity identified among them were musculoskeletal problems (55.0% followed by hypertension (40.5%. Two third were seeking treatment for their health problems. Among older persons not seeking treatment for their medical condition, most considered these morbidities as an age-related phenomenon. Many perceived that the health services were too far. Conclusion: The high morbidity load among elderly in the present study stresses for efforts to provide better health care to them and thus ensure that they remain active members of our society. Residence emerged out to be most significant determinant of healthcare-seeking behavior. Policy makers must focus on rural elderly and their beliefs which prevent them from seeking healthcare.

  3. CENSUS OF THE POPULATION, BUILDINGS AND HOUSING IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Relation with the Host States Service; Tel. 72848

    2000-01-01

    A census of the population, buildings and housing is to be conducted on the whole territory of the Swiss Confederation on 5 December 2000. For this purpose, those residing in Switzerland will receive a personal questionnaire at their place of residence plus a questionnaire on buildings and housing if they own real estate in Switzerland. The Swiss Permanent Mission to the International Organizations in Geneva has requested CERN to invite members of its personnel to complete these questionnaires and either to hand them to the census agents when they call at their places of residence on 5 December 2000 or to post them to the address indicated on the questionnaire.

  4. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-1 - Resident alien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resident alien. 301.7701(b)-1 Section 301.7701... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701(b)-1 Resident alien. (a) Scope. Section 301.7701(b)-1(b) provides rules for determining whether an alien individual is a lawful permanent resident...

  5. Introduction to permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijlstra, H.

    1985-01-01

    Some general considerations concerning the application of permanent magnets are developed. The relevant magnet properties are discussed, with particular reference to Nd-Fe-B alloy. The author comes to the following conclusions; the air gap field B should be high, for high electrical efficiency; the magnet should face the air gap, for efficient use of the magnet material; the magnet material should therefore have a high remanence; and the new Nd-Fe-B magnet fits in nicely, having (potentially) the highest remanence ever reported in permanent magnets, combined with sufficient coercivity to sustain it

  6. Prevalence of orthodontic treatment need in permanent dentition of Iranian population: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamipour, Faezeh; Afshari, Zohreh; Najimi, Arash

    2018-01-01

    Malocclusion is a common oral health problem and can affect the psychosocial well-being in the long term. Therefore, in the recent decades, demand for orthodontic treatment to correct malocclusion has greatly increased worldwide. This systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to assess existing evidence on the prevalence of orthodontic treatment need in Iran. National and international databases were searched for articles on the prevalence of orthodontic treatment need using index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN) and dental aesthetic index (DAI). The required data were completed by hand-searching. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the quality of articles was checked by a professional checklist. Data extraction and meta-analysis were performed. A random effects model was employed, and publication bias was checked. From a total of 443 articles that reported orthodontic treatment need in Iran, 24 articles were included in the meta-analysis process. Meta-analysis was performed on components of IOTN and DAI. The pooled prevalence of orthodontic treatment need based on Dental Health Component and Aesthetic Component of IOTN and DAI was 23.8% (19.5%-28.7%), 4.8% (3.3%-7%), and 16.1% (12.3%-20.8%). The results were found to be heterogeneous ( P orthodontic treatment need was not high in the Iranian population. Considering the differing prevalence of orthodontic treatment need based on normative index and self-perceived index, it is essential to improve the people's awareness of malocclusion and its side effects on their oral and general health.

  7. Workplace bullying a risk for permanent employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuskamp, Dominic; Ziersch, Anna M; Baum, Fran E; Lamontagne, Anthony D

    2012-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the risk of experiencing workplace bullying was greater for those employed on casual contracts compared to permanent or ongoing employees. A cross-sectional population-based telephone survey was conducted in South Australia in 2009. Employment arrangements were classified by self-report into four categories: permanent, casual, fixed-term and self-employed. Self-report of workplace bullying was modelled using multiple logistic regression in relation to employment arrangement, controlling for sex, age, working hours, years in job, occupational skill level, marital status and a proxy for socioeconomic status. Workplace bullying was reported by 174 respondents (15.2%). Risk of workplace bullying was higher for being in a professional occupation, having a university education and being separated, divorced or widowed, but did not vary significantly by sex, age or job tenure. In adjusted multivariate logistic regression models, casual workers were significantly less likely than workers on permanent or fixed-term contracts to report bullying. Those separated, divorced or widowed had higher odds of reporting bullying than married, de facto or never-married workers. Contrary to expectation, workplace bullying was more often reported by permanent than casual employees. It may represent an exposure pathway not previously linked with the more idealised permanent employment arrangement. A finer understanding of psycho-social hazards across all employment arrangements is needed, with equal attention to the hazards associated with permanent as well as casual employment. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  8. Object permanence in lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Anja M; Wright, Patricia C; Szelistowski, William A

    2009-03-01

    Object permanence, the ability to mentally represent objects that have disappeared from view, should be advantageous to animals in their interaction with the natural world. The objective of this study was to examine whether lemurs possess object permanence. Thirteen adult subjects representing four species of diurnal lemur (Eulemur fulvus rufus, Eulemur mongoz, Lemur catta and Hapalemur griseus) were presented with seven standard Piagetian visible and invisible object displacement tests, plus one single visible test where the subject had to wait predetermined times before allowed to search, and two invisible tests where each hiding place was made visually unique. In all visible tests lemurs were able to find an object that had been in clear view before being hidden. However, when lemurs were not allowed to search for up to 25-s, performance declined with increasing time-delay. Subjects did not outperform chance on any invisible displacements regardless of whether hiding places were visually uniform or unique, therefore the upper limit of object permanence observed was Stage 5b. Lemur species in this study eat stationary foods and are not subject to stalking predators, thus Stage 5 object permanence is probably sufficient to solve most problems encountered in the wild.

  9. Genetic and Phenotype [Phenotypic] Catalog of Native Resident Trout of the interior Columbia River Basin : FY-99 Report : Populations of the Pend Oreille, Kettle, and Sanpoil River Basins of Colville National Forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trotter, Patrick C.

    2001-05-01

    The 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council specifies the recovery and preservation of population health of native resident fishes of the Columbia River Basin. Among the native resident species of concern are interior rainbow trout of the Columbia River redband subspecies Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri 1 and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi. The westslope cutthroat trout has been petitioned for listing under the U. S. Endangered Species Act (American Wildlands et al. 1997). Before at-risk populations can be protected, their presence and status must be established. Where introgression from introduced species is a concern, as in the case of both westslope cutthroat trout and redband rainbow trout, genetic issues must be addressed as well. As is true with native trout elsewhere in the western United States (Behnke 1992), most of the remaining pure populations of these species in the Columbia River Basin are in relatively remote headwater reaches. The objective of this project is to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique. FY-99 was year two of a five-year project in which we conducted field visits to remote locations to seek out and catalog these populations. In FY-99 we worked in collaboration with the Colville National Forest and Kalispel Indian Tribe to catalog populations in the northeastern corner of Washington State.

  10. Genetic and phenotype catalog of native resident trout of the interior Columbia River Basin: FY-99 report: populations of the Pend Oreille, Kettle, and Sanpoil River Basins of Colville National Forest/ fiscal year 1999 report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotter, Patrick C.

    2001-01-01

    The 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council specifies the recovery and preservation of population health of native resident fishes of the Columbia River Basin. Among the native resident species of concern are interior rainbow trout of the Columbia River redband subspecies Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri 1 and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi. The westslope cutthroat trout has been petitioned for listing under the U. S. Endangered Species Act (American Wildlands et al. 1997). Before at-risk populations can be protected, their presence and status must be established. Where introgression from introduced species is a concern, as in the case of both westslope cutthroat trout and redband rainbow trout, genetic issues must be addressed as well. As is true with native trout elsewhere in the western United States (Behnke 1992), most of the remaining pure populations of these species in the Columbia River Basin are in relatively remote headwater reaches. The objective of this project is to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique. FY-99 was year two of a five-year project in which we conducted field visits to remote locations to seek out and catalog these populations. In FY-99 we worked in collaboration with the Colville National Forest and Kalispel Indian Tribe to catalog populations in the northeastern corner of Washington State

  11. U.S. Legal Permanent Residents: Fiscal Year 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data presented in this report consist of demographic information taken from the applications for LPR status submitted by foreign nationals. This information is...

  12. 8 CFR 235.11 - Admission of conditional permanent residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... alien entrepreneur (as defined in section 216A(f)(1) of the Act) or the spouse or unmarried minor child of an alien entrepreneur shall be admitted conditionally for a period of 2 years. At the time of admission, the alien shall be notified that the principal alien (entrepreneur) must file a Form I-829...

  13. 8 CFR 1235.11 - Admission of conditional permanent residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... immigrant visa as an alien entrepreneur (as defined in section 216A(f)(1) of the Act) or the spouse or unmarried minor child of an alien entrepreneur shall be admitted conditionally for a period of 2 years. At the time of admission, the alien shall be notified that the principal alien (entrepreneur) must file a...

  14. The Question of Decalage Between Object Permanence and Person Permanence

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Jackson, Elaine

    1978-01-01

    Presents a study of decalage between object permanence and person permanence. Decalage was influenced by environmental as well as stimulus factors with infants tested between 6- and 81/4-months/of-age. (BD)

  15. Variable Permanent Magnet Quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, T.; Iwashita, Y.; Kyoto U.; Kumada, M.; NIRS, Chiba; Spencer, C.M.; SLAC

    2007-01-01

    A permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) is one of the candidates for the final focus lens in a linear collider. An over 120 T/m strong variable permanent magnet quadrupole is achieved by the introduction of saturated iron and a 'double ring structure'. A fabricated PMQ achieved 24 T integrated gradient with 20 mm bore diameter, 100 mm magnet diameter and 20 cm pole length. The strength of the PMQ is adjustable in 1.4 T steps, due to its 'double ring structure': the PMQ is split into two nested rings; the outer ring is sliced along the beam line into four parts and is rotated to change the strength. This paper describes the variable PMQ from fabrication to recent adjustments

  16. Leadership in a (permanent) crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heifetz, Ronald; Grashow, Alexander; Linsky, Marty

    2009-01-01

    The current economic crisis is not just another rough spell. Today's mix of urgency, high stakes, and uncertainty will continue even after the recession ends. The immediate crisis--which we will get through with policy makers' expert technical adjustments--sets the stage for a sustained, or even permanent, crisis, a relentless series of challenges no one has encountered before. Instead of hunkering down and relying on their familiar expertise to deal with the sustained crisis, people in positions of authority--whether they are CEOs or managers heading up a company initiative--must practice what the authors call adaptive leadership. They must, of course, tackle the underlying causes of the crisis, but they must also simultaneously make the changes that will allow their organizations to thrive in turbulent environments. Adaptive leadership is an improvisational and experimental art, requiring some new practices. Like Julie Gilbert, who overcame internal resistance to reorient Best Buy toward female purchasers, adaptive leaders get things done to meet today's challenges and then modify those things to thrive in tomorrow's world. They also embrace disequilibrium, using turbulence as an opportunity to build crucial new capacities, as Paul Levy did to rescue Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center from a profound financial crisis. Finally, adaptive leaders, such as Egon Zehnder, the founder of an executive search firm, draw out the leadership skills that reside deep in the organization, recognizing the interdependence of all employees and mobilizing everyone to generate solutions.

  17. Superconducting permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wipf, S.L.; Laquer, H.L.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of superconducting permanent magnets with fields trapped in shells or cylinders of Type II superconductors is an old one. Unfortunately, the low values of 0.5 to 1T for the first flux jump field, which is independent of the actual current density, have frustrated its implementation with classical Type II superconductors. The fact that the flux jump fields for high temperature superconductors should be an order of magnitude larger at liquid nitrogen temperatures allows us to reconsider these options. Analysis of the hysteresis patterns, based on the critical state model, shows that, if the dimensions are chosen so that the sample is penetrated at a field B/sub p/, which is equal to or just less than the first flux jump field, B/sub fj/, a temporarily applied field of 2B/sub fj/ will trap 0.5 B/sub fj/. Thus for a 90 K superconductor with a B/sub fj/ of 6T, a permanent field of 3 T should be trapped, with an energy product of 1.8 MJ/m/sup 3/ (225 MG . Oe). This is five times as large as for the best permanent magnet materials. The authors discuss means to verify the analysis and the limitations imposed by the low critical current densities in presently available high temperature superconductors

  18. Outcomes of intraventricular hemorrhage and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in a population-based cohort of very preterm infants born to residents of Nova Scotia from 1993 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radic, Julia A E; Vincer, Michael; McNeely, P Daniel

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Intraventicular hemorrhage (IVH) is a common complication of preterm birth, and the prognosis of IVH is incompletely characterized. The objective of this study was to describe the outcomes of IVH in a population-based cohort with minimal selection bias. METHODS All very preterm (≥ 30 completed weeks) patients born in the province of Nova Scotia were included in a comprehensive database. This database was screened for infants born to residents of Nova Scotia from January 1, 1993, to December 31, 2010. Among very preterm infants successfully resuscitated at birth, the numbers of infants who died, were disabled, developed cerebral palsy, developed hydrocephalus, were blind, were deaf, or had cognitive/language scores assessed were analyzed by IVH grade. The relative risk of each outcome was calculated (relative to the risk for infants without IVH). RESULTS Grades 2, 3, and 4 IVH were significantly associated with an increased overall mortality, primarily in the neonatal period, and the risk increased with increasing grade of IVH. Grade 4 IVH was significantly associated with an increased risk of disability (RR 2.00, p < 0.001), and the disability appeared to be primarily due to cerebral palsy (RR 6.07, p < 0.001) and cognitive impairment (difference in mean MDI scores between Grade 4 IVH and no IVH: -19.7, p < 0.001). No infants with Grade 1 or 2 IVH developed hydrocephalus, and hydrocephalus and CSF shunting were not associated with poorer outcomes when controlling for IVH grade. CONCLUSIONS Grades 1 and 2 IVH have much better outcomes than Grades 3 or 4, including a 0% risk of hydrocephalus in the Grade 1 and 2 IVH cohort. Given the low risk of selection bias, the results of this study may be helpful in discussing prognosis with families of very preterm infants diagnosed with IVH.

  19. Health-care-seeking patterns in the emerging private sector in Burkina Faso: a population-based study of urban adult residents in Ouagadougou.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrissa Beogo

    Full Text Available The private medical care sector is expanding in urban cities in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. However, people's health-care-seeking behaviors in this new landscape remain poorly understood; furthermore, distinguishing between public and private providers and among various types of private providers is critical in this investigation. This study assessed, by type, the healthcare providers urban residents in Burkina Faso visit, and their choice determinants.We conducted a population-based survey of a representative sample of 1,600 households in Ouagadougou from July to November 2011, consisting of 5,820 adults. We assessed the types of providers people typically sought for severe and non-severe conditions. We applied generalized estimating equations in this study.Among those surveyed, 97.7% and 53.1% indicated that they seek a formal provider for treating severe and non-severe conditions, respectively. Among the formal provider seekers, 20.5% and 17.0% chose for-profit (FP providers for treating severe and non-severe conditions, respectively. Insurance coverage was held by 2.0% of those surveyed. Possessing insurance was the strongest predictor for seeking FP, for both severe (odds ratio [OR]  = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.28, and non-severe conditions (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.07-1.39. Other predictors included being a formal jobholder and holding a higher level education. By contrast, we observed no significant difference in predisposing, enabling, or need characteristics between not-for-profit (NFP provider seekers and public provider seekers. Proximity was the primary reason for choosing a provider.The results suggested that FP providers play a crucial role in the urban healthcare market in SSA. Socioeconomic status and insurance status are significant predictors of provider choice. The findings can serve as a crucial reference for policymakers in response to the emergence of FP providers in SSA.

  20. Common variants of the TCF7L2 gene are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a UK-resident South Asian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sudhesh

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have implicated variants of the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2 gene in genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus in several different populations. The aim of this study was to determine whether variants of this gene are also risk factors for type 2 diabetes development in a UK-resident South Asian cohort of Punjabi ancestry. Methods We genotyped four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of TCF7L2 (rs7901695, rs7903146, rs11196205 and rs12255372 in 831 subjects with diabetes and 437 control subjects. Results The minor allele of each variant was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes; the greatest risk of developing the disease was conferred by rs7903146, with an allelic odds ratio (OR of 1.31 (95% CI: 1.11 – 1.56, p = 1.96 × 10-3. For each variant, disease risk associated with homozygosity for the minor allele was greater than that for heterozygotes, with the exception of rs12255372. To determine the effect on the observed associations of including young control subjects in our data set, we reanalysed the data using subsets of the control group defined by different minimum age thresholds. Increasing the minimum age of our control subjects resulted in a corresponding increase in OR for all variants of the gene (p ≤ 1.04 × 10-7. Conclusion Our results support recent findings that TCF7L2 is an important genetic risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes in multiple ethnic groups.

  1. Federal census of the population in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2011-01-01

    A federal census of the 2010 population has been underway since January 2011. The objective is to provide important insights into the composition of the resident population, households and families in Switzerland and identify trends. The census methods have been modernised so that it covers only information that is not already contained in Federal, Cantonal and municipal registries of persons; the information will be gathered via questionnaires issued to approximately 3% of the population residing in Switzerland. In order to obtain representative information about the local population, the Canton of Geneva has requested that questionnaires be issued to international civil servants and members of their families aged 15 and over who live in the Canton. They will be invited to respond to the questionnaire on a strictly voluntary basis. If they choose not to respond to the questionnaire, they will not be contacted again. The Permanent Swiss Mission to the International Organizations in Geneva wishes in advance t...

  2. Children without Permanent Parents: Research, Practice, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Bos, Karen; Bunkers, Kelley McCreery; Dobrova-Krol, Natasha A.; Engle, Patrice L.; Fox, Nathan A.; Gamer, Gary N.; Goldman, Philip; Groark, Christina J.; Greenberg, Aaron; Grotevant, Harold D.; Groza, Victor K.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Johnson, Dana E.; Juffer, Femmie; Kreppner, Jana M.; Le Mare, Lucy; McCall, Robert B.; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J.; Nelson, Charles A., III; Palacios, Jesus; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Steele, Howard; Steele, Miriam; Tieman, Wendy; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vorria, Panayiota; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    This monograph reviews literature pertaining to children without permanent parents. Chapters review (1) the development of children while institutional residents; (2) the development of postinstitutionalized children transitioned to family environments (i.e., adoption); the effects of institutionalization on (3) attachment behaviors, (4) physical…

  3. Alimentação institucionalizada e suas representações sociais entre moradores de instituições de longa permanência para idosos em São Paulo, Brasil Social representations of eating and nutrition by residents of homes for the elderly in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odete Santelle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas representações sociais sobre alimentação entre moradores de instituições de longa permanência para idosos, para identificar condicionantes do comportamento alimentar que podem interferir no estado nutricional destes indivíduos. Realizada pesquisa qualitativa e exploratória em cinco asilos de São Paulo, Brasil. Participaram quarenta idosos de ambos os gêneros, sem distúrbios cognitivos, residentes nas instituições há seis meses ou mais. Foram selecionados vinte sujeitos desnutridos ou em risco de desnutrição e vinte sem risco de desnutrição. Foram utilizadas entrevistas com roteiro semi-estruturado e os dados analisados pela técnica do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo. Os resultados apontaram que, na percepção dos idosos, a rotina alimentar institucionalizada, os cardápios rotineiros e a oferta insuficiente de hortaliças e frutas interferem negativamente no processo de alimentação. Os idosos reconhecem que a alimentação equilibrada melhora a saúde e a qualidade de vida. Revelam que a inapetência de alguns está relacionada a comidas que não agradam ao paladar, problemas de saúde e à assistência inadequada durante as refeições. Este estudo contribuiu para identificar fatores psicológicos e sociais que podem concorrer para a maior freqüência de desnutrição entre idosos institucionalizados.This study analyzed social representations of institutional eating and nutritional patterns among residents of long-term homes for the elderly, in order to identify conditioning factors for eating behavior that may interfere in their nutritional status. A qualitative exploratory study was performed in five homes for the elderly in São Paulo, Brasil, including 40 elderly participants of both sexes, without cognitive disorders, residing in these institutions for at least six months. The study selected 20 subjects who were undernourished or at risk of malnutrition and 20 without risk of malnutrition. Semi

  4. A Multiple Watershed Approach to Assessing the Effects of Habitat Restoration Actions on Anadromous and Resident Fish Populations, Technical Report 2003-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmorek, David

    2004-03-01

    Habitat protection and restoration is a cornerstone of current strategies to restore ecosystems, recover endangered fish species, and rebuild fish stocks within the Columbia River Basin. Strategies featuring habitat restoration include the 2000 Biological Opinion on operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS BiOp) developed by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the 2000 Biological Opinion on Bull Trout developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Sub-Basin Plans developed under the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NWPCC). There is however little quantitative information about the effectiveness of different habitat restoration techniques. Such information is crucial for helping scientists and program managers allocate limited funds towards the greatest benefits for fish populations. Therefore, it is critical to systematically test the hypotheses underlying habitat restoration actions for both anadromous and resident fish populations. This pilot project was developed through a proposal to the Innovative Projects fund of the NWPCC (ESSA 2002). It was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) following reviews by the Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP 2002), the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority (CBFWA 2002), the NWPCC and BPA. The study was designed to respond directly to the above described needs for information on the effectiveness of habitat restoration actions, including legal measures specified in the 2000 FCRPS BiOp (RPA 183, pg. 9-133, NMFS 2000). Due to the urgency of addressing these measures, the timeline of the project was accelerated from a duration of 18 months to 14 months. The purpose of this pilot project was to explore methods for evaluating past habitat restoration actions and their effects on fish populations. By doing so, the project will provide a foundation of retrospective analyses, on which to build prospective, multi-watershed designs

  5. How does Australia's largest dolphin-watching industry affect the behaviour of a small and resident population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckenreuter, Andre; Möller, Luciana; Harcourt, Robert

    2012-04-30

    The small, genetically distinct population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Port Stephens, New South Wales (NSW), is the target of the largest dolphin-watching industry in Australia and is located within the Port Stephens - Great Lakes Marine Park that was created in 2005. The effects of this industry have been identified as of significant management importance by the Marine Parks Authority NSW. Accordingly, the impact of commercial dolphin-watching boats was investigated from boat-based surveys from August 2008 to August 2009. Presence of dolphin-watching boats altered both the dolphins' behavioural states and activity budgets. Dolphins spent 66.5% less time feeding and 44.2% less time socialising, spent four times more milling, and were never observed to rest in the presence of dolphin-watching boats. Moreover, dolphin groups were more cohesive during dolphin-watching boat encounters and dolphins tended to avoid tour boats. These effects were exacerbated as the number of boats increased and the distance from boats decreased. The rate of approach was high with boats approaching each dolphin group three times per day in winter and six times in summer. Moreover, groups of dolphins with newborns were approached closer than state regulated minimum approach distances in nine out of ten encounters. Globally, dolphin-watching industries frequent small resident groups of coastal dolphins and effects are likely to be similar. We suggest that existing controls are inadequate and that these together with additional regulations be enforced by a regular presence of authorities. We suggest no more than one dolphin-watching boat within 50 m of a group of dolphins, or 100 m if calves are present. Operating times of dolphin-watching boats should be restricted in numbers after 1 pm, i.e., during preferred foraging times for dolphins. Additionally, exclusion zones should be considered to reduce pressure on dolphins undertaking critical activities such as

  6. New permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K.-H.; Krabbes, G.; Fink, J.; Gruß, S.; Kirchner, A.; Fuchs, G.; Schultz, L.

    2001-05-01

    Permanent magnets play an important role and are widely spread in daily-life applications. Due to their very low costs, large availability of the row materials and their high chemical stability, hard ferrites are still dominant in the permanent magnet market although their relatively poor magnetic properties are a distinct disadvantage. Today's high-performance magnets are mostly made from Nd 2Fe 14B. The aim of research is to combine the large spontaneous magnetization of 3d metals with strong anisotropy fields known from rare-earth transition-metal compounds and, at the same time, to maintain a high value of the Curie temperature. However, the number of iron-rich rare-earth intermetallics is very limited and, consequently, not much success can be noted in this field for the last 10 years. One alternative concept is to use magnetic fields trapped in type II superconductors where much higher fields can be achieved compared to conventional rare-earth magnets. Very recently, we obtained a trapped field as high as 14.4 T in a melt-textured YBCO bulk sample of a few centimeters in diameter. This is the highest value ever achieved in a bulk superconductor. The trapped field of a superconductor is not governed by the Laplace equation and, therefore, levitation works without any additional (active) stabilization. The disadvantage of these magnets is their low working temperature (of liquid nitrogen and below).

  7. Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, J.; Lebec, G.; Penel, C.; Revol, F.; Kitegi, C.

    2010-01-01

    For an in-vacuum undulator operated at small gaps the permanent magnet material needs to be highly resistant to possible electron beam exposure. At room temperature, one generally uses Sm 2 Co 17 or high coercivity NdFeB magnets at the expense of a limited field performance. In a cryogenic permanent magnet undulator (CPMU), at a temperature of around 150 K, any NdFeB grade reveals a coercivity large enough to be radiation resistant. In particular, very high remanence NdFeB material can be used to build undulators with enhanced field and X-ray brilliance at high photon energy provided that the pre-baking of the undulator above 100 deg. C can be eliminated. The ESRF has developed a full scale 2 m long CPMU with a period of 18 mm. This prototype has been in operation on the ID6 test beamline since January 2008. A significant effort was put into the characterization of NdFeB material at low temperature, the development of dedicated magnetic measurement systems and cooling methods. The measured heat budget with beam is found to be larger than expected without compromising the smooth operation of the device. Leading on from this first experience, new CPMUs are currently being considered for the upgrade of the ESRF.

  8. Characteristic of intraocular pressure distribution in population of 1115 Tibetan aged 40 years old or more

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Qin Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze of characteristic of intraocular pressure(IOPdistribution in population of 1115 Tibetan aged 40 years old or more and its correlative factors such as ages, gender and anterior chamber depth in Tibetan plateau area. METHODS: A total of 1115 Tibetan permanent residents aged 40 years or older from the towns and villages of Qushui County were divided into four age groups: ≥40~RESULTS: The mean IOP of 1115(2145 eyesTibetan permanent residents aged 40 years or older was 12.9±2.7mmHg, 13.2±2.8mmHg in men and 12.7±2.5mmHg in women. The results showed that the participants with anterior chamber depth of 1/2 corneal thickness had 68.8% in 1115(2128 eyesTibetan permanent residents and anterior chamber depth decreases significantly with age(PPCONCLUSION: The mean IOP of plateau subjects was significantly lower from that of plain subjects by approximately 3 mmHg. There are lower pressure, deeper anterior chamber depth in this population of 1115 Tibetan permanent residents. The more attention should be paid to screening for glaucoma in high plateau.

  9. Smoking Policy Change Within Permanent Supportive Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Anne Berit; Stewart, Holly C; Walters, Jon; Vijayaraghavan, Maya

    2018-04-01

    Smoke-free policies effectively reduce secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among non-smokers, and reduce consumption, encourage quit attempts, and minimize relapse to smoking among smokers. Such policies are uncommon in permanent supportive housing (PSH) for formerly homeless individuals. In this study, we collaborated with a PSH provider in San Diego, California to assess a smoke-free policy that restricted indoor smoking. Between August and November 2015, residents completed a pre-policy questionnaire on attitudes toward smoke-free policies and exposure to secondhand smoke, and then 7-9 months after policy implementation residents were re-surveyed. At follow-up, there was a 59.7% reduction in indoor smoking. The proportion of residents who identified as current smokers reduced by 13% (95% CI: -38, 10.2). The proportion of residents who reported never smelling SHS indoors (apartment 24.2%, 95% CI: 4.2, 44.1; shared areas 17.2%, 95% CI: 1.7, 32.7); in outdoor areas next to the living unit (porches or patio 56.7%, 95% CI: 40.7, 72.8); and in other outdoor areas (parking lot 28.6%, 95% CI: 8.3, 48.9) was lower post-policy compared with pre-policy. Overall, resident support increased by 18.7%; however, the greatest increase in support occurred among current smokers (from 14.8 to 37.5%). Fewer current smokers reported that the policy would enable cessation at post-policy compared to pre-policy. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of implementing smoke-free policies in PSH for formerly homeless adults. However, policy alone appears insufficient to trigger change in smoking behavior, highlighting the need for additional cessation resources to facilitate quitting.

  10. Ovarian cancer survival population differences: a "high resolution study" comparing Philippine residents, and Filipino-Americans and Caucasians living in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redaniel, Maria Theresa M; Laudico, Adriano; Mirasol-Lumague, Maria Rica; Gondos, Adam; Uy, Gemma Leonora; Toral, Jean Ann; Benavides, Doris; Brenner, Hermann

    2009-09-24

    In contrast to most other forms of cancer, data from some developing and developed countries show surprisingly similar survival rates for ovarian cancer. We aimed to compare ovarian cancer survival in Philippine residents, Filipino-Americans and Caucasians living in the US, using a high resolution approach, taking potential differences in prognostic factors into account. Using databases from the SEER 13 and from the Manila and Rizal Cancer Registries, age-adjusted five-year absolute and relative survival estimates were computed using the period analysis method and compared between Filipino-American ovarian cancer patients with cancer patients from the Philippines and Caucasians in the US. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to determine factors affecting survival differences. Despite more favorable distribution of age and cancer morphology and similar stage distribution, 5-year absolute and relative survival were lower in Philippine residents (Absolute survival, AS, 44%, Standard Error, SE, 2.9 and Relative survival, RS, 49.7%, SE, 3.7) than in Filipino-Americans (AS, 51.3%, SE, 3.1 and RS, 54.1%, SE, 3.4). After adjustment for these and additional covariates, strong excess risk of death for Philippine residents was found (Relative Risk, RR, 2.45, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 1.99-3.01). In contrast, no significant differences were found between Filipino-Americans and Caucasians living in the US. Multivariate analyses disclosed strong survival disadvantages of Philippine residents compared to Filipino-American patients, for which differences in access to health care might have played an important role. Survival is no worse among Filipino-Americans than among Caucasians living in the US.

  11. [The Object Permanence Fallacy.] Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Ben S.

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that Greenberg's challenge to the centrality of object permanence in developmental thinking reveals that developmentalists' theories about childhood speak about their own self-images. Notes that developmentalists have been guilty of not only the object permanence fallacy but also the genetic fallacy, or the mistaken belief that describing…

  12. Utilization Trends in Diagnostic Imaging for a Commercially Insured Population: A Study of Massachusetts Residents 2009 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Stephen; Mortele, Koenraad J; Young, Gary J

    2018-06-01

    To report utilization trends in diagnostic imaging among commercially insured Massachusetts residents from 2009 to 2013. Current Procedural Terminology codes were used to identify diagnostic imaging claims in the Massachusetts All-Payer Claims Database for the years 2009 to 2013. We reported utilization and spending annually by imaging modality using total claims, claims per 1,000 individuals, total expenditures, and average per claim payments. The number of diagnostic imaging claims per insured MA resident increased only 0.6% from 2009 to 2013, whereas nonradiology claims increased by 6% annually. Overall diagnostic imaging expenditures, adjusted for inflation, were 27% lower in 2009 than 2013, compared with an 18% increase in nonimaging expenditures. Average payments per claim were lower in 2013 than 2009 for all modalities except nuclear medicine. Imaging procedure claims per 1,000 MA residents increased from 2009 to 2013 by 13% in MRI, from 147 to 166; by 17% in ultrasound, from 453 to 530; and by 12% in radiography (x-ray), from 985 to 1,100. However, CT claims per 1,000 fell by 37%, from 341 to 213, and nuclear medicine declined 57%, from 89 claims per 1,000 to 38. Diagnostic imaging utilization exhibited negligible growth over the study period. Diagnostic imaging expenditures declined, largely the result of falling payments per claim in most imaging modalities, in contrast with increased utilization and spending on nonimaging services. Utilization of MRI, ultrasound, and x-ray increased from 2009 to 2013, whereas CT and nuclear medicine use decreased sharply, although CT was heavily impacted by billing code changes. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lower obesity rate during residence at high altitude among a military population with frequent migration: a quasi experimental model for investigating spatial causation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameson D Voss

    Full Text Available We sought to evaluate whether residence at high altitude is associated with the development of obesity among those at increased risk of becoming obese. Obesity, a leading global health priority, is often refractory to care. A potentially novel intervention is hypoxia, which has demonstrated positive long-term metabolic effects in rats. Whether or not high altitude residence confers benefit in humans, however, remains unknown. Using a quasi-experimental, retrospective study design, we observed all outpatient medical encounters for overweight active component enlisted service members in the U.S. Army or Air Force from January 2006 to December 2012 who were stationed in the United States. We compared high altitude (>1.96 kilometers above sea level duty assignment with low altitude (<0.98 kilometers. The outcome of interest was obesity related ICD-9 codes (278.00-01, V85.3x-V85.54 by Cox regression. We found service members had a lower hazard ratio (HR of incident obesity diagnosis if stationed at high altitude as compared to low altitude (HR 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.65; p<0.001. Using geographic distribution of obesity prevalence among civilians throughout the U.S. as a covariate (as measured by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the REGARDS study also predicted obesity onset among service members. In conclusion, high altitude residence predicts lower rates of new obesity diagnoses among overweight service members in the U.S. Army and Air Force. Future studies should assign exposure using randomization, clarify the mechanism(s of this relationship, and assess the net balance of harms and benefits of high altitude on obesity prevention.

  14. Resident Peritoneal NK cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, Rosemary; Matzinger, Polly; Perez-Diez, Ainhoa

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe a new population of NK cells that reside in the normal, un-inflamed peritoneal cavity. Phenotypically, they share some similarities with the small population of CD49b negative, CD27 positive immature splenic NK cells, and liver NK cells but differ in their expression of CD62L, TRAIL and EOMES. Functionally, the peritoneal NK cells resemble the immature splenic NK cells in their production of IFN-γ, GM-CSF and TNF-α and in the killing of YAC-1 target cells. We also found that the peritoneum induces different behavior in mature and immature splenic NK cells. When transferred intravenously into RAGγcKO mice, both populations undergo homeostatic proliferation in the spleen, but only the immature splenic NK cells, are able to reach the peritoneum. When transferred directly into the peritoneum, the mature NK cells survive but do not divide, while the immature NK cells proliferate profusely. These data suggest that the peritoneum is not only home to a new subset of tissue resident NK cells but that it differentially regulates the migration and homeostatic proliferation of immature versus mature NK cells. PMID:22079985

  15. Topology optimized permanent magnet systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørk, R.; Bahl, C. R. H.; Insinga, A. R.

    2017-09-01

    Topology optimization of permanent magnet systems consisting of permanent magnets, high permeability iron and air is presented. An implementation of topology optimization for magnetostatics is discussed and three examples are considered. The Halbach cylinder is topology optimized with iron and an increase of 15% in magnetic efficiency is shown. A topology optimized structure to concentrate a homogeneous field is shown to increase the magnitude of the field by 111%. Finally, a permanent magnet with alternating high and low field regions is topology optimized and a Λcool figure of merit of 0.472 is reached, which is an increase of 100% compared to a previous optimized design.

  16. Topology optimized permanent magnet systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian; Insinga, Andrea Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Topology optimization of permanent magnet systems consisting of permanent magnets, high permeability iron and air is presented. An implementation of topology optimization for magnetostatics is discussed and three examples are considered. The Halbach cylinder is topology optimized with iron...... and an increase of 15% in magnetic efficiency is shown. A topology optimized structure to concentrate a homogeneous field is shown to increase the magnitude of the field by 111%. Finally, a permanent magnet with alternating high and low field regions is topology optimized and a ΛcoolΛcool figure of merit of 0...

  17. Periodic permanent magnet focused klystron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Patrick; Read, Michael; Ives, R Lawrence

    2015-04-21

    A periodic permanent magnet (PPM) klystron has beam transport structures and RF cavity structures, each of which has permanent magnets placed substantially equidistant from a beam tunnel formed about the central axis, and which are also outside the extent of a cooling chamber. The RF cavity sections also have permanent magnets which are placed substantially equidistant from the beam tunnel, but which include an RF cavity coupling to the beam tunnel for enhancement of RF carried by an electron beam in the beam tunnel.

  18. Elaboração de prontuário do residente em uma instituição de longa permanência para idosos Elaboración de la ficha del residente en una institución de larga permanencia para ancianos Development of a medical record for residents in a long-stay institution for the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Sidney Costa Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Elaborar o prontuário do residente em uma instituição de longa permanência para idosos (ILPI no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de pesquisa-ação, realizada em uma ILPI, no Rio Grande do Sul/Brasil. Participaram dois pesquisadores e 14 trabalhadores: um enfermeiro, um médico, uma nutricionista, uma assistente social, quatro técnicas de enfermagem, duas cuidadoras e quatro administradores. Foram utilizadas as reuniões grupais com os participantes da pesquisa, durante as quais foram refletidos/discutidos quatro temas: finalidade do prontuário; composição do prontuário; contribuições do prontuário à ILPI; sugestões a respeito do prontuário. RESULTADOS: O prontuário do residente foi elaborado conjuntamente entre pesquisadores e trabalhadores da ILPI, atendendo às necessidades contextuais, sendo, posteriormente, implantado. Ficou composto pelos: dados pessoais do idoso; anamnese médica; evolução da equipe multiprofissional; prescrição médica e anotação da técnica de enfermagem; sistematização da assistência de enfermagem; avaliações cognitiva, afetiva, funcional e social. CONCLUSÃO: O prontuário elaborado trouxe melhor sistematização do cuidado para os trabalhadores e contribuição para melhoria da assistência aos idosos.OBJETIVO: Elaborar la ficha médica del residente en una Institución de Larga Permanencia para Ancianos (ILPA en el Estado de Rio Grande do Sul. MÉTODOS: Se trata de investigación-acción, realizada en una ILPA, no estado de Rio Grande do Sul, en Brasil. Participaron dos investigadores y 14 trabajadores (un enfermero, un médico, una nutricionista, una asistente social, cuatro técnicas de enfermería, dos cuidadoras y cuatro administradores. Fueron utilizadas las reuniones grupales con los participantes de la investigación, durante las cuales se hicieron reflexiones y discusiones sobre cuatro temas: 1 finalidad de la ficha; 2 composición de la ficha; 3

  19. Residency Allocation Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Residency Allocation Database is used to determine allocation of funds for residency programs offered by Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). Information...

  20. A small population of resident limb bud mesenchymal cells express few MSC-associated markers, but the expression of these markers is increased immediately after cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Llera, Jessica Cristina; Chimal-Monroy, Jesús

    2018-05-01

    Skeletal progenitors are derived from resident limb bud mesenchymal cells of the vertebrate embryos. However, it remains poorly understood if they represent stem cells, progenitors, or multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). Derived-MSC of different adult tissues under in vitro experimental conditions can differentiate into the same cellular lineages that are present in the limb. Here, comparing non-cultured versus cultured mesenchymal limb bud cells, we determined the expression of MSC-associated markers, the in vitro differentiation capacity and their gene expression profile. Results showed that in freshly isolated limb bud mesenchymal cells, the proportion of cells expressing Sca1, CD44, CD105, CD90, and CD73 is very low and a low expression of lineage-specific genes was observed. However, recently seeded limb bud mesenchymal cells acquired Sca1 and CD44 markers and the expression of the key differentiation genes Runx2 and Sox9, while Scx and Pparg genes decreased. Also, their chondrogenic differentiation capacity decreased through cellular passages while the osteogenic increased. Our findings suggest that the modification of the cell adhesion process through the in vitro method changed the limb mesenchymal cell immunophenotype leading to the expression and maintenance of common MSC-associated markers. These findings could have a significant impact on MSC study and isolation strategy because they could explain common variations observed in the MSC immunophenotype in different tissues. © 2018 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  1. [REAL AND UNREAL BACKLASHES OF AEROSPACE ACTIVITY FOR THE HEALTH OF POPULATION RESIDING NEAR AREAS OF FALL OF BEING SEPARATED PARTS OF CARRIER ROCKETS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkov, N A; Valtseva, E A; Kharlamova, E N; Kulikova, A Z

    2015-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, the ongoing debate about the consequences of the rocket-space activities for the health of people residing near areas offall ofseparatingfrom parts of rockets. Some scientists (Kolyado IB et al., 2001, 2013; Shoikhet YN et al., 2005, 2008; Skrebtsova NV 2005, 2006, Sidorov PI et al., 2007) argue that the main cause of morbidity is the effect of unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH). However, environmentalists find it only in areas offalling fragments of separated parts of carrier rockets. Presented in the article data were obtained as a result of perennial epidemiological and hygienic research. There was performed a hygienic assessment of the content of chemical substances in water soil andfood, nutritional status and health risk near areas of the district of falling 310 and 326. There were studied conditions of work and the health of military personnel at the sites of storage of propellant components. The relationship between revealed diseases and UDMH was not established, but there was their causality due to the influence of environmental factors characteristic of territories and living conditions. In the settlements near the area of falling district 310 the share of extremely anxious persons was shown to be 1.8 times higher than in controls, which is caused by cases of falling fragments stages of carrier rockets in the territory of settlements.

  2. Respiratory infections in elderly people: Viral role in a resident population of elderly care centers in Lisbon, winter 2013–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Jesus Chasqueira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the etiology and clinical consequences of viral respiratory infections in 18 elderly care centers (ECC in Lisbon, which housed a total of 1022 residents. Methods: Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected whenever an elderly had symptoms of acute respiratory infections (ARI. PCR and RT-PCR were performed for influenza A/B, human parainfluenza virus 1–4, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus (HMPV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, rhinovirus, enterovirus, human coronavirus and human Bocavirus (HBoV. Array cards for atypical bacteria were also used in severe cases. Results: In total, 188 episodes of ARI were reported, being rhinovirus the most frequently detected (n = 53, followed by influenza A(H3 (n = 19 and HBoV (n = 14. Severe infections were reported in 19 patients, 11 of which were fatal, Legionela pneumophila, rhinovirus, HMPV and RSV associated with these fatalities. Nine influenza strains were analyzed, all antigenically dissimilar from vaccine strain 2013/14. “Age”, “HMPV” and “Respiratory disease” showed an association with severe infection. Conclusions: In this study an etiologic agent could be found in 60% of the acute respiratory episodes. These data provides information about the circulating viruses in ECC and highlights the importance of searching both viruses and atypical bacteria in severe ARI. Keywords: Elderly, Respiratory infections, Respiratory viruses, Legionella pneumophila, Elderly care centers, Real time PCR

  3. Quality of life among older adults resident in long-stay care facilities Calidad de vida de mayores en institución de larga permanencia Qualidade de vida de idosos em instituição de longa permanência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Magalhães Vitorino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the older adults' perceptions of their quality of life (QoL in two long-stay care facilities in Pouso Alegre and Santa Rita in Sapucaí, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil , and to identify the sociodemographic and health variables which interfere in this perception. METHOD: a cross-sectional epidemiological study of 77 older adults resident in institutions. The instruments used were: personal characterization; WHOQOL-bref and WHOQOL OLD. RESULT: the highest average obtained in the instruments was: the "Social Relationships" domain in the WHOQOL-bref (68% and the "Sensory abilities" aspect in the WHOQOL-OLD (73.7%. The variables age, sex, physical activity and level of schooling have a significant correlation with the WHOQOL-bref and the variables sex and leisure have the same with the WHOQOL OLD. CONCLUSION: older adults who are younger, with higher levels of schooling and who undertake physical and leisure activity have, on average, better perceptions of their QoL. The older adults' QoL in this study had higher rates than that reported in the literature and was similar to that in the community. The results suggest the need to train those involved with older adults in institutions so that they may develop strategies which promote the adaptation, adjustment and maintenance of QoL.OBJETIVOS: evaluar la percepción de la calidad de vida de los mayores de dos instituciones de larga permanencia de Pouso Alegre y Santa Rita do Sapucaí, MG; Brasil e identificar los variables sociodemográficos y de salud que interfieren en esta percepción. MÉTODO: se trata de un estudio epidemiológico transversal con 77 mayores institucionalizados. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron: caracterización personal; WHOQOL-bref y WHOQOL OLD. RESULTADOS: la mayor media lograda en los instrumentos fue: WHOQOL-bref en el dominio "relaciones sociales" (68% y WHQOL-OLD en la faceta "funcionamiento sensorial"(73,7%. Los variables edad, sexo

  4. Transient or permanent fisheye views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mikkel Rønne; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Transient use of information visualization may support specific tasks without permanently changing the user interface. Transient visualizations provide immediate and transient use of information visualization close to and in the context of the user’s focus of attention. Little is known, however......, about the benefits and limitations of transient visualizations. We describe an experiment that compares the usability of a fisheye view that participants could call up temporarily, a permanent fisheye view, and a linear view: all interfaces gave access to source code in the editor of a widespread...... programming environment. Fourteen participants performed varied tasks involving navigation and understanding of source code. Participants used the three interfaces for between four and six hours in all. Time and accuracy measures were inconclusive, but subjective data showed a preference for the permanent...

  5. Genomic population structure of freshwater-resident and anadromous ide (Leuciscus idus) in north-western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovrind, Mikkel; Olsen, Morten Tange; Garrett Vieira, Filipe Jorge

    2016-01-01

    to become increasingly affected by changes in salinity is the ide (Leuciscus idus). The ide is a stenohaline freshwater fish that primarily inhabits rivers, with frequent anadromous behavior when sea salinity does not exceed 15%. Unlike most other anadromous Baltic Sea fish species, the ide has yet......Climate change experts largely agree that future climate change and associated rises in oceanic water levels over the upcoming decades, will affect marine salinity levels. The subsequent effects on fish communities in estuarine ecosystems however, are less clear. One species that is likely...... to be subjected to large-scale stocking programs, and thus provides an excellent opportunity for studying the natural population structure across the current salinity gradient in the Danish Belts. To explore this, we used Genotyping-by-Sequencing to determine genomic population structure of both freshwater...

  6. Effects of chronic low level radiation in the population residing in the high level natural radiation area in Kerala, India: employing heritable DNA mutation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shazia; Koya, P K M; Seshadri, M

    2013-03-18

    To study the effect of chronic low level radiation, 4040 meiosis were screened at eight microsatellite and five minisatellite (2485 and 1555 meiosis respectively) marker loci in people residing in high and normal level natural radiation areas of Kerala. Variants in the repeat length of allele were considered as mutants. Mutation rates (expressed as the number of mutations observed in the total number of meiosis) were 6.4×10(-3) (16/2485) and 2.6×10(-3) (4/1555) at microsatellite and minisatellite respectively. The germline microsatellite mutation frequency of father was 1.78 times higher at 7.52×10(-3) (8/1064) compared to 4.22×10(-3) (6/1421) of mother (P=0.292, Fisher's Exact two-sided test). The paternal and maternal mutation rates at minisatellite loci were more or less similar at 2.78×10(-3) (2/719) and 2.39×10(-3) (2/836), respectively (P=1.0, Fisher's Exact two-sided test). Higher but statistically non-significant microsatellite mutation frequency was observed in HLNRA compared to NLNRA (7.25×10(-3) vs 3.64×10(-3); P=0.547). The apparent increase in the mutation rate of microsatellite loci with the increase in radiation dose was also not statistically significant. All the four minisatellite mutation observed were from HLNRA (1198 meiosis) and no mutation was observed among 357 meiosis screened from NLNRA families. All the markers used in the present study were in the non-coding region and hence mutations in these regions may not cause adverse health effects, but the study is important in understanding the effect of chronic low level radiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of Emergency Medicine Malpractice Cases Involving Residents to Non-Resident Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurley, Kiersten L; Grossman, Shamai A; Janes, Margaret; Yu-Moe, C Winnie; Song, Ellen; Tibbles, Carrie D; Shapiro, Nathan I; Rosen, Carlo L

    2018-04-17

    (permanent, grave disability or death) (p=0.05). Procedures involved were identified in 32% (36) of resident and 26% (188) of non-resident cases (p=0.17). The final diagnoses in resident cases were more often cardiac related 19% (21) vs 10% (71), pvs 3% (3), pvs 76% (p=0.24); communication 27% vs 30% (p=0.46); and documentation 20% vs 21% (p=0.95). Technical skills contributed to 20% (22) of resident versus 13% (96) of non-resident cases (p=0.07) but those procedures involving vascular access 2.7% (3) vs 0.1% (1) and spinal procedures 3.5% (4) vs 1.1% (8) were more prevalent in resident cases (p<0.05 for each). There are higher total incurred losses in non-resident cases. There are higher severity scores in resident cases. The overall case profiles, including allegation categories, final diagnoses and contributing factors between resident and non-resident cases are similar. Cases involving residents are more likely to involve certain technical skills, specifically vascular access and spinal procedures, which may have important implications regarding supervision. Clinical judgment, communication and documentation are the most prevalent contributing factors in all cases and should be targets for risk-reduction strategies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Connecting Temporary and Permanent Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjerne, Iben Sandal; Velikova, Silviya Svejenova

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between a permanent organization and a series of temporary organizations. It draws on an in-depth study of the process through which a Danish film production company, seeking to balance innovation and persistence in a troubled industry, struggles to realize...... a novel children’s film and its sequels. The study reveals tensions at different levels as well as boundary work and boundary roles that address them, bringing in shadows of past and future projects. The study extends the understanding of the dialectic between temporary and permanent organizing...

  9. How do urology residents manage personal finances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichman, J M; Bernheim, B D; Espinosa, E A; Cecconi, P P; Meyer, J; Pearle, M S; Preminger, G M; Leveillee, R J

    2001-05-01

    To examine personal financial management among residents to answer three research questions: do residents make reasonable financial choices; why do some residents not save; and what steps can be taken to improve residents' personal financial decisions. Portions of the Federal Reserve Board's Survey of Consumer Finances were modified and piloted to elicit demographic, expense, saving, and income data. The final questionnaire was completed by 151 urology residents at 20 programs. Comparing residents with the general population in the same age and income categories, the median debt/household income ratio was 2.38 versus 0.64. Residents had greater educational debt, greater noneducational debt, and lower savings. Resident participation in retirement accounts was 100% at institutions with employer-matching 401k or 403b plans, 63% at institutions with nonmatching 401k or 403b plans, and 48% at institutions without retirement plans for residents (P = 0.002). Fifty-nine percent of residents budgeted expenses, 27% had cash balances below $1000, 51% had paid interest charges on credit cards within the previous year, and 12% maintained unpaid credit card balances greater than $10,000. The median resident income was $38,400. A significant minority of residents appear not to make reasonable financial choices. Some residents save little because of a failure to budget, indebtedness, high projected income growth, or insufficient attention to personal financial management. Residents save more when they are eligible for tax-deferred retirement plans, particularly when their institution matches their contributions. Many residents would benefit from instruction concerning prudent financial management.

  10. Incidence of cancer in children residing in ten jurisdictions of the Mexican Republic: importance of the Cancer registry (a population-based study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo; Juárez-Ocaña, Servando; González-Miranda, Guadalupe; Palma-Padilla, Virginia; Carreón-Cruz, Rogelio; Ortega-Alvárez, Manuel Carlos; Mejía-Arangure, Juan Manuel

    2007-01-01

    In 1996, Mexico started to register cases of childhood cancer. Here, we describe the incidence of cancer in children, residing in ten Mexican jurisdictions, who were treated by the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). New cases of childhood cancer, which were registered prospectively in nine principal Medical Centers of IMSS during the periods 1998–2000 (five jurisdictions) and 1996–2002 (five jurisdictions), were analyzed. Personnel were specifically trained to register, capture, and encode information. For each of these jurisdictions, the frequency, average annual age-standardized incidence (AAS) and average annual incidence per period by sex and, age, were calculated (rates per 1,000,000 children/years). In total 2,615 new cases of cancer were registered, with the male/female ratio generally >1, but in some tumors there were more cases in females (retinoblastoma, germ cells tumors). The principal groups of neoplasms in seven jurisdictions were leukemias, central nervous system tumors (CNS tumors), and lymphomas, and the combined frequency for these three groups was 62.6 to 77.2%. Most frequently found (five jurisdictions) was the North American-European pattern (leukemias-CNS tumors-lymphomas). Eight jurisdictions had AAS within the range reported in the world literature. The highest incidence was found for children underless than five year of age. In eight jurisdictions, leukemia had high incidence (>50). The AAS of lymphomas was between 1.9 to 28.6. Chiapas and Guerrero had the highest AAS of CNS tumors (31.9 and 30.3, respectively). The frequency and incidence of neuroblastoma was low. Chiapas had the highest incidence of retinoblastoma (21.8). Germ-cell tumors had high incidence. The North American-European pattern of cancers was the principal one found; the overall incidence was within the range reported worldwide. In general but particularly in two jurisdictions (Yucatán and Chiapas), it will be necessary to carry out studies concerning the

  11. Diversity in Dermatology Residency Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhees, Abby S; Enos, Clinton W

    2017-10-01

    Given the change in our population to one that is more racially and ethnically diverse, the topic of diversity in dermatology residency programs has gained attention. In a field that has become highly competitive, diversity is lagging behind. What are the reasons for this? The existing diversity among medical school matriculants is reflective of the applicant pool, and although modest, there has been an increase in applications and acceptances from minority populations. However, these proportions do not carry through to the population applying to dermatology residency. Making sense of this and planning how to recruit a more diverse applicant pool will improve the quality and cultural competency of future dermatologists. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Long Term Recovery of New Orleans' Population after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussell, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    Hurricane Katrina created a catastrophe in the city of New Orleans when the storm surge caused the levee system to fail on August 29, 2005. The destruction of housing displaced hundreds of thousands of residents for varying lengths of time, often permanently. It also revealed gaps in our knowledge of how population is recovered after a disaster causes widespread destruction of urban infrastructure, housing and workplaces, and how mechanisms driving housing recovery often produce unequal social, spatial and temporal population recovery. In this article, I assemble social, spatial and temporal explanatory frameworks for housing and population recovery and then review research on mobility - both evacuation and migration - after Hurricane Katrina. The review reveals a need for a comprehensive social, spatial and temporal framework for explaining inequality in population recovery and displacement. It also shows how little is known about in-migrants and permanent out-migrants after a disaster.

  13. Recurring Necrotic Enteritis Outbreaks in Commercial Broiler Chicken Flocks Strongly Influence Toxin Gene Carriage and Species Richness in the Resident Clostridium perfringens Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher, Marie-Lou; Perron, Gabriel G.; Arsenault, Julie; Letellier, Ann; Boulianne, Martine; Quessy, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Extensive use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in food animals has been questioned due to the globally increasing problem of antibiotic resistance. For the poultry industry, digestive health management following AGP withdrawal in Europe has been a challenge, especially the control of necrotic enteritis. Much research work has focused on gut health in commercial broiler chicken husbandry. Understanding the behavior of Clostridium perfringens in its ecological niche, the poultry barn, is key to a sustainable and cost-effective production in the absence of AGPs. Using polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we evaluated how the C. perfringens population evolved in drug-free commercial broiler chicken farms, either healthy or affected with recurring clinical necrotic enteritis outbreaks, over a 14-month period. We show that a high genotypic richness was associated with an increased risk of clinical necrotic enteritis. Also, necrotic enteritis-affected farms had a significant reduction of C. perfringens genotypic richness over time, an increase in the proportion of C. perfringens strains harboring the cpb2 gene, the netB gene, or both. Thus, necrotic enteritis occurrence is correlated with the presence of an initial highly diverse C. perfringens population, increasing the opportunity for the selective sweep of particularly virulent genotypes. Disease outbreaks also appear to largely influence the evolution of this bacterial species in poultry farms over time. PMID:28567032

  14. Recurring Necrotic Enteritis Outbreaks in Commercial Broiler Chicken Flocks Strongly Influence Toxin Gene Carriage and Species Richness in the Resident Clostridium perfringens Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Lou Gaucher

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Extensive use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs in food animals has been questioned due to the globally increasing problem of antibiotic resistance. For the poultry industry, digestive health management following AGP withdrawal in Europe has been a challenge, especially the control of necrotic enteritis. Much research work has focused on gut health in commercial broiler chicken husbandry. Understanding the behavior of Clostridium perfringens in its ecological niche, the poultry barn, is key to a sustainable and cost-effective production in the absence of AGPs. Using polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we evaluated how the C. perfringens population evolved in drug-free commercial broiler chicken farms, either healthy or affected with recurring clinical necrotic enteritis outbreaks, over a 14-month period. We show that a high genotypic richness was associated with an increased risk of clinical necrotic enteritis. Also, necrotic enteritis-affected farms had a significant reduction of C. perfringens genotypic richness over time, an increase in the proportion of C. perfringens strains harboring the cpb2 gene, the netB gene, or both. Thus, necrotic enteritis occurrence is correlated with the presence of an initial highly diverse C. perfringens population, increasing the opportunity for the selective sweep of particularly virulent genotypes. Disease outbreaks also appear to largely influence the evolution of this bacterial species in poultry farms over time.

  15. Recurring Necrotic Enteritis Outbreaks in Commercial Broiler Chicken Flocks Strongly Influence Toxin Gene Carriage and Species Richness in the Resident Clostridium perfringens Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher, Marie-Lou; Perron, Gabriel G; Arsenault, Julie; Letellier, Ann; Boulianne, Martine; Quessy, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Extensive use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in food animals has been questioned due to the globally increasing problem of antibiotic resistance. For the poultry industry, digestive health management following AGP withdrawal in Europe has been a challenge, especially the control of necrotic enteritis. Much research work has focused on gut health in commercial broiler chicken husbandry. Understanding the behavior of Clostridium perfringens in its ecological niche, the poultry barn, is key to a sustainable and cost-effective production in the absence of AGPs. Using polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we evaluated how the C. perfringens population evolved in drug-free commercial broiler chicken farms, either healthy or affected with recurring clinical necrotic enteritis outbreaks, over a 14-month period. We show that a high genotypic richness was associated with an increased risk of clinical necrotic enteritis. Also, necrotic enteritis-affected farms had a significant reduction of C. perfringens genotypic richness over time, an increase in the proportion of C. perfringens strains harboring the cpb2 gene, the netB gene, or both. Thus, necrotic enteritis occurrence is correlated with the presence of an initial highly diverse C. perfringens population, increasing the opportunity for the selective sweep of particularly virulent genotypes. Disease outbreaks also appear to largely influence the evolution of this bacterial species in poultry farms over time.

  16. High performance permanent magnet materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, S.G.; Herbst, J.F.; Koon, N.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 25 selections. Some of the titles are: Initial magnetization behavior of rapidly quenched neodymium-iron-boron magnets; Optimization of liquid dynamic compaction for Fe-Nd-B magnet alloys; Misch-metal and/or aluminum substitutions in Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets; and NdFeB magnets with improved temperature characteristics

  17. OAS :: Member States : Permanent Representatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rights Actions against Corruption C Children Civil Registry Civil Society Contact Us Culture Cyber Barbados Belize Bolivia Brazil Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba 1 Dominica (Commonwealth of) Dominican Gutierez Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Belize Diego Pary Rodríguez Bolivia Diego Pary Rodríguez

  18. Uranium concentrations in the water consumed by the resident population in the vicinity of the Lagoa Real uranium province, Bahia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luciana S. [State University of Bahia (UNEB), Campus Caetite, BA (Brazil); Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.; Sarkis, Jorge; Nisti, Marcelo B., E-mail: brigitte@ipen.br, E-mail: jesarkis@ipen.br, E-mail: mbnisti@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Lagoa Real Uranium Province, situated in South Central Bahia in the region of Caetite and Lagoa Real, is considered the most important monomineralic province of Brazil. The urban population who lives in the proximities of this uranium province in the cities of Caetite, Lagoa Real and Livramento uses public supply water, while the inhabitants of the rural area due to long terms of dry weather use water from wells, cisterns, small dams, reservoirs and dikes which are supplied with the rains. In this work it was determined the concentration of uranium in the water consumed by the rural and urban population living in the proximities of the Lagoa Real Uranium Province. The study comprehends 32 sampling spots spread throughout the region of interest. Samples were collected in January and July 2010, covering superficial, underground and public supply water from the region. The uranium concentrations were determined by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Preliminary results showed that the uranium concentrations in the water from the Lagoa Real Uranium Province varied from 0.064 {+-} 0.005 {mu}g.L{sup -1} to 90 {+-} 1,5 {+-}g.L{sup -1}. It was observed that only two of them obtained values higher than the World Health Organization's recommended limit (2011) of 30 {mu}g.L{sup -1} for maximum uranium concentration in the water for human consumption. For a conclusive evaluation, the uranium concentrations results will be analyzed together with total alpha and beta concentrations determined elsewhere for the same samples. (author)

  19. Uranium concentrations in the water consumed by the resident population in the vicinity of the Lagoa Real uranium province, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luciana S.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.; Sarkis, Jorge; Nisti, Marcelo B.

    2011-01-01

    The Lagoa Real Uranium Province, situated in South Central Bahia in the region of Caetite and Lagoa Real, is considered the most important monomineralic province of Brazil. The urban population who lives in the proximities of this uranium province in the cities of Caetite, Lagoa Real and Livramento uses public supply water, while the inhabitants of the rural area due to long terms of dry weather use water from wells, cisterns, small dams, reservoirs and dikes which are supplied with the rains. In this work it was determined the concentration of uranium in the water consumed by the rural and urban population living in the proximities of the Lagoa Real Uranium Province. The study comprehends 32 sampling spots spread throughout the region of interest. Samples were collected in January and July 2010, covering superficial, underground and public supply water from the region. The uranium concentrations were determined by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Preliminary results showed that the uranium concentrations in the water from the Lagoa Real Uranium Province varied from 0.064 ± 0.005 μg.L -1 to 90 ± 1,5 ±g.L -1 . It was observed that only two of them obtained values higher than the World Health Organization's recommended limit (2011) of 30 μg.L -1 for maximum uranium concentration in the water for human consumption. For a conclusive evaluation, the uranium concentrations results will be analyzed together with total alpha and beta concentrations determined elsewhere for the same samples. (author)

  20. Determination of the frequency of polymorphisms in genes related to the genome stability maintenance of the population residing at Monte Alegre, PA (Brazil) municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozumi, Cristiny Gomes

    2010-01-01

    The human exposure to ionizing radiation coming from natural sources is an inherent feature of human life on earth, for man and all living things have always been exposed to these sources. Ionizing radiation is a known genotoxic agent which can affect the genomic stability and genes related to DNA repair may play a role when they have committed certain polymorphism. This study aimed to analyze the frequency of polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of DNA repair and cell cycle control: hOGG1 (Ser326Cys), XRCC3 (Thr241 Met) and p53 (Arg72Pro) in saliva samples from a population located Monte Alegre, state of Para were collected in August 2008 and 40 samples of men and 46 samples of women, adding a total of 86 samples. By RFLP was determined the frequency of homozygous genotypes and / or heterozygous for polymorphic genes. The I)OGG1 gene was 5% of the allele 326Cys, XRCC3 gene found about 21 % of the allele 241 Met and p53 gene showed 40.8% of the 72Pro allele. And the genotype frequencies of individuals for the three genes were 91.04%, 88.06% and 59.7% for homozygous wild genotype, 5.97%, 11.94% and 22.39% for heterozygote genotype and 2,99%, zero and 17:91% for homozygous polymorphic hOGG1 genes respectively, XRCC3, p53. These values are similar to those found in previous studies. The influence of these polymorphisms, which are involved in DNA repair and consequent genotoxicity induced by radiation depends on dose and exposure factors such as smoking, which is statistically a factor in public health surveillance in the region. This study gathered information and molecular epidemiology in Monte Alegre, that help to characterization of local population. (author)

  1. [Part-time residency training in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbain, Dana; Levi, Baruch; Borow, Malke; Ashkenazi, Shai; Lindner, Arie

    2012-08-01

    Full-time work has long been perceived as a cornerstone of medical residency, the consensus being that a resident must apply the bulk of his time and attention to his professional training. Demographic and cultural changes that have taken place over the last several years, specifically the rise in the number of female doctors and the importance of leisure time to the younger generation, have intensified the need to find new and innovative ways to deal with the plight of the resident population. One idea, already in effect in many Western countries, is the institution of part-time residency programs. The possibility of fulfilling residency requirements on a part-time basis is intended to assist medical residents in integrating their professional development with their personal and family life, without compromising the quality of their training. A number of research studies conducted over the last several years in countries that allow part-time residency, among them the United States, England and Switzerland, aimed to examine the quality of part-time training. The various studies evinced a high level of satisfaction from the program both by the residents themselves and their supervisors, and in many aspects those doing residency part-time received higher appraisals than their full-time colleagues. Some of the residents polled noted that they would have totally foregone the practice of medicine had there not been an option to complete residency part-time. In light of the experience throughout the world and the changing landscape in Israel, the Scientific Council of the Israeli Medical Association decided to examine the issue and its various aspects, and weighed all the considerations in favor and against part-time residency. Recently, the Scientific Council approved the launch of a pilot program to allow part-time residency in several fields that were carefully selected according to specific criteria. Once the Ministry of Health completes the LegisLation process, part

  2. Results of the 2003 Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO) surveys of residents and chief residents in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagsi, Reshma; Buck, David A.; Singh, Anurag K.; Engleman, Mark; Thakkar, Vipul; Frank, Steven J.; Flynn, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To document demographic characteristics of current residents, career motivations and aspirations, and training program policies and resources. Methods: In 2003, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO) conducted two nationwide surveys: one of all U.S. radiation oncology residents and one of chief residents. Results: The Chief Residents' Survey was completed by representatives from all 77 programs (response rate, 100%). The Residents' Survey was returned by 229 respondents (response rate, 44%). In each, 32% of respondents were female. The most popular career after residency was private practice (46%), followed by permanent academic practice (28%). Changes that would entice those choosing private practice to consider an academic career included more research experience as a resident (76%), higher likelihood of tenure (69%), lesser time commitment (66%), and higher salary (54%). Although the majority of respondents were satisfied with educational experience overall, a number of programs were reported to provide fewer resources than required. Conclusions: Median program resources and numbers of outliers are documented to allow residents and program directors to assess the relative adequacy of experience in their own programs. Policy-making bodies and individual programs should consider these results when developing interventions to improve educational experiences of residents and to increase retention of radiation oncologists in academic practice

  3. The Permanently Shadowed Regions of Dwarf Planet Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorghofer, Norbert; Mazarico, Erwan; Platz, Thomas; Preusker, Frank; Schroeder, Stefan E.; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2016-01-01

    Ceres has only a small spin axis tilt (4 deg), and craters near its rotational poles can experience permanent shadow and trap volatiles, as is the case on Mercury and on Earth's Moon. Topography derived from stereo imaging by the Dawn spacecraft is used to calculate direct solar irradiance that defines the extent of the permanently shadowed regions (PSRs). In the northern polar region, PSRs cover approximately 1800 sq km or 0.13% of the hemisphere, and most of the PSRs are cold enough to trap water ice over geological time periods. Based on modeling of the water exosphere, water molecules seasonally reside around the winter pole and ultimately an estimated 0.14% of molecules get trapped. Even for the lowest estimates of the amount of available water, this predicts accumulation rates in excess of loss rates, and hence, there should be fresh ice deposits in the cold traps.

  4. Resident Characteristics Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Resident Characteristics Report summarizes general information about households who reside in Public Housing, or who receive Section 8 assistance. The report...

  5. Consumo alimentar de população adulta residente em área rural da cidade de Ibatiba (ES, Brasil Consumption to feed of resident adult population in rural area of the city of Ibatiba (ES, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilaine Oliveira Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo transversal no qual foi aplicado um questionário de frequência alimentar (QFCA em 150 adultos residentes em área rural da cidade de Ibatiba (ES. O QFCA classificou o consumo alimentar como: habitual (> 4 vezes na semana, não habitual (It is a transverse study where a questionnaire of alimentary frequency was applied (QAF in 150 adults resident of the rural area of the city of Ibatiba (ES, Brazil. QAF classified the alimentary consumption as: habitual (> 4 times in the week, not habitual (<4 times in the week and rarely (1 time a month, with objective of correlating the alimentary consumption with the chronic-degenerative diseases. The results evidenced a habitual consumption of rice, breads, stalk, bean, cow milk, animal fat, margarine, sugar and coffee, and a non habitual consumption of cake, potato, cookies, manioc, sweet potato, chayote, carrot, beet, pumpkin, juice of fruits, banana, orange, guava, mango and tangerine. It can be concluded that the feeding habit presented by the studied population it can come to increase in a medium or long period the prevalence and occurrences of chronic-degenerative diseases as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and coronary diseases. The alimentary consumption of this population needs concern, because when compared with the national patterns, it is observed some inadequacies, and it is known that this picture comes to every day causing damages the public health.

  6. Automated phenotyping of permanent crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeek, K. Thomas; Steddom, Karl; Zamudio, Joseph; Pant, Paras; Mullenbach, Tyler

    2017-05-01

    AGERpoint is defining a new technology space for the growers' industry by introducing novel applications for sensor technology and data analysis to growers of permanent crops. Serving data to a state-of-the-art analytics engine from a cutting edge sensor platform, a new paradigm in precision agriculture is being developed that allows growers to understand the unique needs of each tree, bush or vine in their operation. Autonomous aerial and terrestrial vehicles equipped with multiple varieties of remote sensing technologies give AGERpoint the ability to measure key morphological and spectral features of permanent crops. This work demonstrates how such phenotypic measurements combined with machine learning algorithms can be used to determine the variety of crops (e.g., almond and pecan trees). This phenotypic and varietal information represents the first step in enabling growers with the ability to tailor their management practices to individual plants and maximize their economic productivity.

  7. Permanently calibrated interpolating time counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jachna, Z; Szplet, R; Kwiatkowski, P; Różyc, K

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new architecture of an integrated time interval counter that provides its permanent calibration in the background. Time interval measurement and the calibration procedure are based on the use of a two-stage interpolation method and parallel processing of measurement and calibration data. The parallel processing is achieved by a doubling of two-stage interpolators in measurement channels of the counter, and by an appropriate extension of control logic. Such modification allows the updating of transfer characteristics of interpolators without the need to break a theoretically infinite measurement session. We describe the principle of permanent calibration, its implementation and influence on the quality of the counter. The precision of the presented counter is kept at a constant level (below 20 ps) despite significant changes in the ambient temperature (from −10 to 60 °C), which can cause a sevenfold decrease in the precision of the counter with a traditional calibration procedure. (paper)

  8. Risk factors for coronary heart disease in two similar Indian population groups, one residing in India, and the other in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, D; Bermingham, M A

    2004-05-01

    To identify the prevalence of coronary risk factors among South Asian Indians in Australia and India. Cross-sectional intercountry comparison. Healthy volunteers aged 23-75 y recruited from the Indian community in Sydney Australia (n=125), and their nominated relatives in India, (n=125). The two groups were of similar background with over 90% of the group in India being siblings, parents or relatives of the group in Australia. There was no difference in the populations between India and Australia with regard to mean age (40+/-11.5 vs 39+/-10.3 y), body mass index (BMI) (25+/-3.3 vs 25+/-3.5 kg/m(2)), lipoprotein (a) (178 vs 202 mg/l), total cholesterol (5.3+/-1.3 vs 5.3+/-1.2 mmol/l) or triglyceride (1.7+/-0.8 vs 1.7+/-0.8 mmol/l). The group in India had higher insulin (median values) (139 vs 83 pmol/l, P=0.0001), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (0.88+/-0.08 vs 0.85+/-0.09, P=0.01), exercise time (23.7+/-32.7 vs 17.2+/-23.2 h/week, P=0.07), lower waist (83+/-10.0 vs 85+/-11.1 cm, P=0.05) and high-density lipoprotein (0.9+/-0.3 vs 1.1+/-0.6 mmol/l, P=0.02). Women in India had lower BMI (22.7+/-2.9 vs 25.3+/-4.2 kg/m(2), P0.8, 73 vs 23%, P90 cm=2.3, PIndia had the same BMI, lower waist (85.5+/-8.8 vs 92.9+/-7.2 cm, PIndia. The fact that the groups are of such similar background and partly related, make it unlikely that changes due to migration have a strong genetic bias. In contrast to other studies, the absence here of excessive weight gain on migration may be a key factor in disease risk prevention.

  9. 8 CFR 1216.3 - Termination of conditional resident status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 1216.3 Section 1216.3 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONDITIONAL BASIS OF LAWFUL PERMANENT RESIDENCE STATUS § 1216.3.... Prior to issuing the notice of termination, the director shall provide the alien with an opportunity to...

  10. 8 CFR 216.3 - Termination of conditional resident status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., whichever is applicable, are true, or it becomes known to the government that an alien entrepreneur who was... applicable, are true, or that an alien entrepreneur who was admitted pursuant to section 203(b)(5) of the Act... immigration laws or an alien entrepreneur obtained permanent resident status through a commercial enterprise...

  11. The cycloid Permanent Magnetic Gear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Andersen, Torben Ole; Jørgensen, Frank T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new permanent-magnet gear based on the cycloid gearing principle. which normally is characterized by an extreme torque density and a very high gearing ratio. An initial design of the proposed magnetic gear was designed, analyzed, and optimized with an analytical model...... regarding torque density. The results were promising as compared to other high-performance magnetic-gear designs. A test model was constructed to verify the analytical model....

  12. Income from immovable property - Preserving the situs and the permanent establishment principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanghavi, Dhruv

    2016-01-01

    It is accepted that tax treaties should allocate primary taxing rights over immovable property and income from immovable property to the situs state; the state in which a taxpayer has a permanent establishment (PE) should have priority over the state of its residence in so far as the taxation of

  13. Evaluation of the frequency of polymorphisms in XRCC1 (Arg399Gln) and XPD (Lys751Gln) genes related to the genome stability maintenance in individuals of the resident population from Monte Alegre, PA/Brazil municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Isabelle Magliano

    2010-01-01

    The human exposure to ionizing radiation coming from natural sources is an inherent feature of human life on Earth. Ionizing radiation is a known genotoxic agent, which can affect biological molecules, causing DNA damage and genomic instability. The cellular system of DNA repair plays an important role in maintaining genomic stability by repairing DNA damage caused by genotoxic agents. However, genes related to DNA repair may have their role committed when presenting a certain polymorphism. This study intended to analyze the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of DNA repair XRCC1 (Arg39-9Gln) and XPD (Lys751Gln) in a: population of the city of Monte Alegre, that resides in an area of high exposure to natural radioactivity. Samples of saliva were collected from individuals of the population of Monte Alegre, in which 40 samples were of male and 46 female. Through the use of RFLP (length polymorphism restriction fragment) the frequency of homozygous genotypes and / or heterozygous was determined for polymorphic genes. The XRCC1 gene had 65.4% of the presence of the allele 399Gln and XPD gene had 32.9% of the 751Gln allele. These values are similar to those found in previous studies for the XPD gene, whereas XRCC1 showed a frequency much higher than described in the literature. The. influence of these polymorphisms, which are involved in DNA repair and consequent genotoxicity induced by radiation depends on dose and exposure factors such as smoking, statistically a factor in public health surveillance in the region. This study gathered information and molecular epidemiology for risk assessment of cancer in the population of Monte Alegre. (author)

  14. Teaching Object Permanence: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Susan M.; Vargas, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    "Object permanence," also known as "object concept" in the field of visual impairment, is one of the most important early developmental milestones. The achievement of object permanence is associated with the onset of representational thought and language. Object permanence is important to orientation, including the recognition of landmarks.…

  15. 21 CFR 886.4445 - Permanent magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permanent magnet. 886.4445 Section 886.4445 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4445 Permanent magnet. (a) Identification. A permanent magnet is a nonelectric device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and remove metallic...

  16. Robust permanence for ecological equations with internal and external feedbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Swati; Schreiber, Sebastian J

    2018-07-01

    Species experience both internal feedbacks with endogenous factors such as trait evolution and external feedbacks with exogenous factors such as weather. These feedbacks can play an important role in determining whether populations persist or communities of species coexist. To provide a general mathematical framework for studying these effects, we develop a theorem for coexistence for ecological models accounting for internal and external feedbacks. Specifically, we use average Lyapunov functions and Morse decompositions to develop sufficient and necessary conditions for robust permanence, a form of coexistence robust to large perturbations of the population densities and small structural perturbations of the models. We illustrate how our results can be applied to verify permanence in non-autonomous models, structured population models, including those with frequency-dependent feedbacks, and models of eco-evolutionary dynamics. In these applications, we discuss how our results relate to previous results for models with particular types of feedbacks.

  17. Permanent magnets including undulators and wigglers

    CERN Document Server

    Bahrdt, J

    2010-01-01

    After a few historic remarks on magnetic materials we introduce the basic definitions related to permanent magnets. The magnetic properties of the most common materials are reviewed and the production processes are described. Measurement techniques for the characterization of macroscopic and microscopic properties of permanent magnets are presented. Field simulation techniques for permanent magnet devices are discussed. Today, permanent magnets are used in many fields. This article concentrates on the applications of permanent magnets in accelerators starting from dipoles and quadrupoles on to wigglers and undulators.

  18. Communication dated 26 September 2008, copied to the Agency by the Permanent Mission of India regarding the Middle East and South Asia area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a copy of a communication dated 26 September 2008 from the Permanent Mission of India to the Permanent Mission of Kazakhstan regarding the Middle East and South Asia Area. As requested by the Resident Representative of India to the Agency, during the meeting of the Board of Governors on 6 October 2008, the communication is herewith circulated for information

  19. Optimally segmented permanent magnet structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bjørk, Rasmus; Smith, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We present an optimization approach which can be employed to calculate the globally optimal segmentation of a two-dimensional magnetic system into uniformly magnetized pieces. For each segment the algorithm calculates the optimal shape and the optimal direction of the remanent flux density vector......, with respect to a linear objective functional. We illustrate the approach with results for magnet design problems from different areas, such as a permanent magnet electric motor, a beam focusing quadrupole magnet for particle accelerators and a rotary device for magnetic refrigeration....

  20. From Residency to Lifelong Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Keith

    2015-11-01

    The residency training experience is the perfect environment for learning. The university/institution patient population provides a never-ending supply of patients with unique management challenges. Resources abound that allow the discovery of knowledge about similar situations. Senior teachers provide counseling and help direct appropriate care. Periodic testing and evaluations identify deficiencies, which can be corrected with future study. What happens, however, when the resident graduates? Do they possess all the knowledge they'll need for the rest of their career? Will medical discovery stand still limiting the need for future study? If initial certification establishes that the physician has the skills and knowledge to function as an independent physician and surgeon, how do we assure the public that plastic surgeons will practice lifelong learning and remain safe throughout their career? Enter Maintenance of Certification (MOC). In an ideal world, MOC would provide many of the same tools as residency training: identification of gaps in knowledge, resources to correct those deficiencies, overall assessment of knowledge, feedback about communication skills and professionalism, and methods to evaluate and improve one's practice. This article discusses the need; for education and self-assessment that extends beyond residency training and a commitment to lifelong learning. The American Board of Plastic Surgery MOC program is described to demonstrate how it helps the diplomate reach the goal of continuous practice improvement.

  1. Residence in Proximity of a Coal-Oil-Fired Thermal Power Plant and Risk of Lung and Bladder Cancer in North-Eastern Italy. A Population-Based Study: 1995-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collarile, Paolo; Bidoli, Ettore; Barbone, Fabio; Zanier, Loris; Del Zotto, Stefania; Fuser, Simonetta; Stel, Fulvio; Panato, Chiara; Gallai, Irene; Serraino, Diego

    2017-07-31

    This study investigated the risk of lung and bladder cancers in people residing in proximity of a coal-oil-fired thermal power plant in an area of north-eastern Italy, covered by a population-based cancer registry. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) by sex, age, and histology were computed according to tertiles of residential exposure to benzene, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particular matter, and sulfur dioxide (SO2) among 1076 incident cases of lung and 650 cases of bladder cancers. In men of all ages and in women under 75 years of age, no significant associations were observed. Conversely, in women aged ≥75 years significantly increased risks of lung and bladder cancers were related to high exposure to benzene (IRR for highest vs. lowest tertile: 2.00 for lung cancer and 1.94 for bladder cancer) and NO2 (IRR: 1.72 for lung cancer; and 1.94 for bladder cancer). In these women, a 1.71-fold higher risk of lung cancer was also related to a high exposure to SO2. Acknowledging the limitations of our study, in particular that we did not have information regarding cigarette smoking habits, the findings of this study indicate that air pollution exposure may have had a role with regard to the risk of lung and bladder cancers limited to women aged ≥75 years. Such increased risk warrants further analytical investigations.

  2. [Burnout in nursing residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Gianfábio Pimentel; de Barros, Alba Lúcia Bottura Leite; Nogueira-Martins, Luiz Antônio; Zeitoun, Sandra Salloum

    2011-03-01

    Nursing residents may experience physical and emotional exhaustion from the daily life of attending the Program. The aim of this study was to determine the Burnout incidence among Nursing Residents. An investigative, descriptive, analytical, longitudinal-prospective study was conducted with 16 Residents over two years. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used, translated and validated for Brazil, as well as a sociodemographic/occupational data tool. Of all residents, 17.2% showed high rates in Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization; 18.8% showed impaired commitment in Personal Accomplishment, 75% of which belonged to specialty areas, such as Emergency Nursing, Adult and Pediatric Intensive Care. Age and specialty area were positively correlated with Personal Accomplishment. One of the Residents was identified with changes in three subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, thus characterized as a Burnout Syndrome patient. Nursing Residents have profiles of disease. Knowing these factors can minimize health risks of these workers.

  3. Permanent magnet-based MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David Mitchell

    1997-10-01

    The principal goal of this project is to design and build a low-cost, imaging quality permanent magnet, together with the requisite shim, gradient, and radiofrequency coils, and to integrate the magnet with an existing imaging station. There are commercial products presently available that are very similar to this imager, but information about these products is proprietary. We present here all of the details concerning the design and the manufacturing process for constructing the permanent magnet, and include suggestions for improvement. Specifically, the prototype has a mass of about 150 kilograms and is therefore portable. It's C-type geometry allows maximum access to the imaging region, which is an oblate sphere about 0.5 inches in diameter centered in a 4.7 inch air gap between two seven-inch diameter polefaces. It is hoped that this imaging magnet will serve as the prototype for a series of larger versions that will be clinically useful and affordable to physicians in developing nations. To this end, scientists in the United States and Mexico have begun to collaborate with the intention to create an MRI institute in Mexico that will train new students in this discipline, and fabricate improved imagers. The prototype resulting from this work will seed the creation of this institute, and is intended to entice students into the study of MRI by enabling hands-on interaction with an otherwise prohibitively expensive instrument.

  4. Permanent burying method for product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Goro; Sakata, Noboru; Hironaka, Yoshikazu; Shigematsu, Kazuo; Yurugi, Masahiro; Minami, Masayoshi; Yoshisaki, Masato.

    1995-01-01

    In a method of permanently burying an object by filling and solidifying a cement mortar in gaps between each of objects to be buried underground, cement mortar is filled into gaps, which comprises water at a unit amount determined as from 200 to 250kg/m 3 , a cement at low water/cement ratio (%) of from 70 to 400%, and contains fine powder having an average grain size of not greater than 100μm (not containing cement) of 50 to 800kg/m 3 , fine aggregates of 800 to 1200kg/m 3 , UERAN gum (a bio-gum powder produced by aerobic fermentation of alcaligenes-bacteria) of 20g/m 3 to 1.3kg/m 3 , a dispersing agent of 0 to 40kg/m 3 , a swelling agent of 0 to 40kg/m 3 . Then if the mortar blended with the UERAN gum is injected, any gaps can be filled tightly, no breeding is caused and since the amount of cement is small, it does not suffer from temperature cracking. Therefore, the state of filling is kept permanently, and environmental pollution caused by radioactive wastes can be prevented. (N.H.)

  5. COMMENTS OF THE OCDE 2008MODEL CONVENTION ON ESTABLISHING THE TAX RESIDENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Lect. Mihail Antonescu Ph. D; Ligia Antonescu Ph. D

    2010-01-01

    In the fiscal field, the competition between countries develops as a growing phenomenon, and results in the permanent improvement of the legislation to attract the investments and implicitly, the incomes to be taxed. Most developed countries set the limits of their tax jurisdiction, by defining the concept of resident. In the Romanian legislation, there are transposed the provisions of the OECD Model Convention on defining the residence, both in terms of residence and period of actual presenc...

  6. A basis of settlement: Economic foundations of permanent pioneer communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Eric M.

    1992-01-01

    High transport costs will dominate the course of lunar development. During the earliest phases, when lunar facilities consist of a research and resource development complex with staff serving tours of a few months, transport costs will encourage local production of fuel, food, and building materials. Once these capabilities are in place and the number of personnel grows to a few hundred, staff rotation might well dominate transport budgets. At that point it would make economic sense to encourage some members of staff to become permanent residents. By analogy with early British settlement in Australia, a vigorous private sector economy could emerge if the lunar organization provided quasi-export earnings through its role as the community's major employer and as the major buyer of locally produced goods. By providing such a market for goods and services, the lunar organization would not only provide a means whereby permanent residents could support themselves, but could also accelerate the process of replacing imported goods with local manufacturers, thereby reducing the cost of operations. By analogy with recent Alaskan experience, if the resource development activity started making money from sales to orbital customers, export taxes and/or royalty payments could also provide means by which a lunar community could support itself.

  7. [Relationship between alcohol dependence and new detected hypertension in adult residents of Xuzhou city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zongmei; Lou, Pei'an; Zhang, Pan; Chen, Peipei; Qiao, Cheng; Li, Ting

    2015-12-01

    To observe the relationship between alcohol dependence and new detected hypertension in adult residents of Xuzhou city. Participants were sampled by stratified multi-stage randomly cluster sampling method from February 2013 to June 2013 among permanent residents aged 18 and more in Xuzhou city. The alcohol dependence was defined with Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST). Other information was obtained by questionnaire. Spearman correlation analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to identify the relationship between alcohol dependence and new detected hypertension. The alcohol dependence rate was 11.56% on the whole cohort (n=36 157), and 22.02%(3 854/17 501) for male and 1.74%(324/18 656) for female(Pdependence (Pdependence was positively correlated with systemic blood pressure(r=0.071, Pphysical activity level, educational level, income level and region, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that alcohol dependence was an independent risk factor for hypertension (low alcohol dependence: OR=1.44, 95%CI 1.14-1.81, Pdependence: OR=1.35, 95%CI 1.11-1.64, Pdependence: OR=1.83, 95%CI 1.40-2.41, Pdependence is an independent risk factor for new detected hypertension in adult residents of Xuzhou city. Intensive hypertension prevention and treatment strategies should be performed on this population based on our results.

  8. Negotiations of Acknowledgement among Middle Class Residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of communication processes between residents, between residents and people in the broader societal context as well as of media coverage of a fireworks disaster in a Danish suburb. It demonstrates how residents (all members of the Danish middle class) were able......, ethnicity, class or other social categories normally recognized as influential in case of disastrous events. Since the population in the area was very homogenous, the axis of differentiation was instead linked to the social category of affectedness, and a hierarchy of affectedness was identified within...

  9. Communication dated 2 February 2006 received from the Permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 2 February 2006 from the Permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran), attaching a letter to the Director General from the Resident Representative of Iran, conveying the text of a message to the Director General from Dr. Larijani, Secretary of the Supreme Security Council of Iran. The Note Verbale and, in accordance with the request of the Permanent Mission, its attachment are reproduced herein for the information of Member States

  10. LOCAL IMMUNITY BY TISSUE-RESIDENT CD8+ MEMORY T CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eGebhardt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Microbial infection primes a CD8+ cytotoxic T cell response that gives rise to a long-lived population of circulating memory cells able to provide protection against systemic reinfection. Despite this, effective CD8+ T cell surveillance of barrier tissues such as skin and mucosa typically wanes with time, resulting in limited T cell-mediated protection in these peripheral tissues. However, recent evidence suggests that a specialized subset of CD103+ memory T cells can permanently lodge and persist in peripheral tissues, and that these cells can compensate for the loss of peripheral immune surveillance by circulating memory T cells. Here, we review evolving concepts regarding the generation and long-term persistence of these tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM in epithelial and neuronal tissues. We further discuss the role of TRM cells in local infection control and their contribution to localized immune phenomena, in both mice and humans.

  11. Advance and permanent public information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    d'Oleon, C.

    1990-01-01

    The accident at CHERNOBYL highlighted one of the major problems facing the nuclear industry at present and during the years to come: the need to provide information. There are two aspects to this requirement: information at a time of crisis issued when an accident such as that at CHERNOBYL takes place, but which has to be based on a procedure set up before the crisis, and advance and permanent information which prepares the ground for information at a time of crisis. The requirement for information is of particular importance in France, given the preponderance of nuclear energy in the electricity generating industry. The procedure covers the principles which were forcefully asserted by the French public authorities during the CHERNOBYL crisis, the resources strengthened or established at that time, and finally, the introduction of a policy of wider-ranging communication which is based on the idea that one can never compromise with safety

  12. CHALLENGES OF PERMANENT TEACHER TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Manuela Valles-Ornelas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The new challenges for teachers and managers require to assume permanent formation as a tool for responding effectively and efficiently to them, different perspective to strengthen from the initial teacher education programs. The research was done in a primary school in the state of Chihuahua. The method used was research action, the question was: How can we encourage the lifelong learning and training of the staff of this school, with the purpose to assist them in these processes to improve the service that the school provides to students. The school group is the center of the process, the cooperative and collaborative work accompanied by educational leadership and persuasive provide better results, and all accompanied by the professional selfinvitation.

  13. Modern permanent magnetic materials - preparation and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodewald, W.

    1989-01-01

    First of all, the basic properties of the classical (steel, AlNiCo) permanent magnetic materials and the modern rare-earth (RE) permanent magnetic materials are compared. Since the properties of RE permanent magnets depend on the particular production process, the fundamentals of the main industrial processes (powder metallurgy, rapid-solidification technique) are described and the typical properties are explained. Furthermore the production processes in development such as mechanical alloying, melt spinning technique and extrusion upsetting are briefly outlined. For applying the permanent magnets, they have to be completely magnetized. The magnetization behaviour of the various RE permanent magnets is discussed by means of the internal demagnetization curve. Finally the various influences on the temperature stability of RE permanent magnets are compiled. (orig./MM) [de

  14. Intrusive luxation of 60 permanent incisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsilingaridis, Georgios; Malmgren, Barbro; Andreasen, Jens O

    2012-01-01

      Intrusive luxation in the permanent dentition is an uncommon injury but it is considered one of the most severe types of dental trauma because of the risk for damage to the periodontal ligament, pulp and alveolar bone. Management of intrusive luxation in the permanent dentition is controversial....... The purpose of this study was to evaluate pulp survival and periodontal healing in intrusive luxated permanent teeth in relation to treatment alternatives, degree of intrusion and root development....

  15. Evolution of the Pathology Residency Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Y. Naritoku MD, PhD

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The required medical knowledge and skill set for the pathologist of 2020 are different than in 2005. Pathology residency training curriculum must accordingly change to fulfill the needs of these ever-changing requirements. In order to make rational curricular adjustments, it is important for us to know the current trajectory of resident training in pathology—where we have been, what our actual current training curriculum is now—to understand how that might change in anticipation of meeting the needs of a changing patient and provider population and to fit within the evolving future biomedical and socioeconomic health-care setting. In 2013, there were 143 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited pathology residency training programs in the United States, with approximately 2400 residents. There is diversity among residency training programs not only with respect to the number of residents but also in training venue(s. To characterize this diversity among pathology residency training programs, a curriculum survey was conducted of pathology residency program directors in 2013 and compared with a similar survey taken almost 9 years previously in 2005 to identify trends in pathology residency curriculum. Clinical pathology has not changed significantly in the number of rotations over 9 years; however, anatomic pathology has changed dramatically, with an increase in the number of surgical pathology rotations coupled with a decline in stand-alone autopsy rotations. With ever-expanding medical knowledge that the graduating pathology resident must know, it is necessary to (1 reflect upon what are the critical need subjects, (2 identify areas that have become of lesser importance, and then (3 prioritize training accordingly.

  16. Evolution of the Pathology Residency Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Suzanne Z.; Black-Schaffer, W. Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The required medical knowledge and skill set for the pathologist of 2020 are different than in 2005. Pathology residency training curriculum must accordingly change to fulfill the needs of these ever-changing requirements. In order to make rational curricular adjustments, it is important for us to know the current trajectory of resident training in pathology—where we have been, what our actual current training curriculum is now—to understand how that might change in anticipation of meeting the needs of a changing patient and provider population and to fit within the evolving future biomedical and socioeconomic health-care setting. In 2013, there were 143 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited pathology residency training programs in the United States, with approximately 2400 residents. There is diversity among residency training programs not only with respect to the number of residents but also in training venue(s). To characterize this diversity among pathology residency training programs, a curriculum survey was conducted of pathology residency program directors in 2013 and compared with a similar survey taken almost 9 years previously in 2005 to identify trends in pathology residency curriculum. Clinical pathology has not changed significantly in the number of rotations over 9 years; however, anatomic pathology has changed dramatically, with an increase in the number of surgical pathology rotations coupled with a decline in stand-alone autopsy rotations. With ever-expanding medical knowledge that the graduating pathology resident must know, it is necessary to (1) reflect upon what are the critical need subjects, (2) identify areas that have become of lesser importance, and then (3) prioritize training accordingly. PMID:28725779

  17. Psychopathology and resident status - comparing asylum seekers, refugees, illegal migrants, labor migrants, and residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeren, Martina; Wittmann, Lutz; Ehlert, Ulrike; Schnyder, Ulrich; Maier, Thomas; Müller, Julia

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to describe, compare, and predict mental health outcomes of different migrant groups and native residents in Switzerland. Asylum seekers (n=65); refugees holding permanent protection visas (n=34); illegal migrants (n=21); labor migrants (n=26); and residents (n=56) completed an assessment by questionnaire. Main outcome variables were symptoms of posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depression. It was tested whether resident status predicted psychopathology over and above the influence of control variables including social desirability, traumatic event types and post-migration resources. Asylum seekers (54.0%) and refugees (41.4%) fulfilled criteria of PTSD most frequently. Clinically relevant symptoms of anxiety and depression were most frequently reported by asylum seekers (84.6% and 63.1%, resp.) and illegal migrants (both 47.6%). Resident status contributed to psychopathology over and above the influence of control variables. Overall, asylum seekers, refugees, and illegal migrants showed high psychiatric morbidity. Differences in resident status appear to be specifically associated with mental health outcomes. This association persists even when controlling for social desirability, post-migration resources and traumatic events. This emphasizes the importance of current socio-political living conditions for mental health, even with respect to the psychopathological sequelae of past traumatic experiences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 3-D analysis of eddy current in permanent magnet of interior permanent magnet motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawase, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Fukanaga, Hiromu; Ito, Shokichi

    2002-01-01

    Interior permanent magnet motors are widely used in various fields. However, in high-speed operations, it is important to decrease the eddy current loss in the permanent magnet. In order to decrease the eddy current loss, we propose to divide the permanent magnet. In this paper, we clarified the effect of division of permanent magnet on the eddy current loss using the 3-D finite element method. (Author)

  19. Corporate Policies with Permanent and Transitory Shocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J-P. Decamps (Jean-Paul); S. Gryglewicz (Sebastian); E. Morellec (Erwan); S. Villeneuve (Stephane)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe model the financing, cash holdings, and hedging policies of a firm facing financing frictions and subject to permanent and transitory cash flow shocks. We show that permanent and transitory shocks generate distinct, sometimes opposite, effects on corporate policies and use the model

  20. OAS :: Authorities : Permanent Representatives to the OAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rights Actions against Corruption C Children Civil Registry Civil Society Contact Us Culture Cyber Representative of Belize Diego Pary Rodríguez Bolivia Diego Pary Rodríguez Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Bolivia José Luiz Machado Brazil José Luiz Machado e Costa Ambassador, Permanent Representative

  1. Guidelines for removing permanent makeup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Bettina Rümmelein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Permanent makeup (PMU is a frequently implemented cosmetic procedure performed by beauticians. From a technical point, PMU is considered a facial tattoo. Failed procedures or a change of mind can lead to the desire for removal. The purpose of this retrospective evaluation of patients who came to the clinic with the desire to remove PMU between 2011 and 2015 was to explore the problems, side effects, and results in order to define treatment guidelines for other doctors. We evaluated 87 individual cases in total. In treatable cases, i.e. 52 out of the 87 cases, laser treatments were performed using a nanosecond Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG laser. It takes between 1-12 treatments to remove the PMU. In three cases, the colour of the PMU could not be removed by laser and remained after the treatment. In two cases, laser treatment had to be terminated due to colour changes towards the green-blue spectrum. Before PMU removal, laser test shots are urgently recommended as unforeseeable colour changes can cause severe aesthetically unpleasant results. Covered up PMU (skin colour is particularly susceptible to changes in colour. Heat-induced shrinking of the eye area can cause an ectropium. Surgical solutions also have to be taken into consideration. The use of proper eye protection with intraocular eye shields is mandatory. This article is an attempt to set up some guidelines for the treatment of PMU removal.

  2. Residents in difficulty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; O'Neill, Lotte; Hansen, Dorthe Høgh

    2016-01-01

    Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world such as the Scand...... in a healthcare system. From our perspective, further sociological and pedagogical investigations in educational cultures across settings and specialties could inform our understanding of and knowledge about pitfalls in residents’ and doctors’ socialization into the healthcare system....

  3. Tourist Activity of Senior Citizens (60+ Residing in Urban and Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelan Aneta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of place of permanent residence (urban or rural on the tourist activity of senior citizens (60+ of different socioeconomic statuses. The study involved 380 senior citizens (305 female and 75 male aged 60 years and older who were permanent residents of the region of Warmia and Mazury, Poland. In this group, 244 subjects resided in urban areas and 136 participants were rural dwellers. The respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their socioeconomic status (place of permanent residence, age, gender, educational attainment, financial status, membership in senior organizations, marital status, and professional activity and tourist activity. A significance test of two structure coefficients (α=0.05 was applied. Factors such as gender, professional activity, and marital status were not related with the travel propensity of seniors from different groups (urban and rural, but were significant when rural residents were compared with urban dwellers. Seniors residing in urban areas of Warmia and Mazury, Poland, were significantly more likely to travel for leisure than those residing in rural areas. The tourist activity of seniors decreased significantly (p<0.05 with the age (60-74 years and financial status of rural residents. The travel propensity of elderly people increased significantly (p<0.05 with educational attainment and membership in senior organizations. The study revealed considerable differences in the socioeconomic status and social characteristics of seniors residing in rural and urban areas, and those variations significantly influenced their propensity for travel: urban residents traveled more frequently than rural residents. It can be concluded that place of residence was a crucial factor determining the tourist behavior of senior citizens, and urban dwellers were more likely to travel.

  4. Burnout Syndrome During Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Namigar; Karacalar, Serap; Polat, Cengiz; Kıran, Özlem; Gültop, Fethi; Kalyon, Seray Türkmen; Sinoğlu, Betül; Zincirci, Mehmet; Kaya, Ender

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is identified the degree of Burnout Syndrome (BOS) and find out its correlation with years of recidency and sociodemograpfic chareacteristics, training, sleeping habits, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. After approval from the Hospital Ethics Committee and obtaining informed consent, First, second, third, fourth and fifth year of recidency staff (n=127) working in our hospital were involved in this study. The standardized Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used in this study. Fifty six male (44.1%) and seventy one female (55.9%) residents were enroled in this study (Coranbach Alfa(α)=0.873). 57% of the first year residents smokes cigaret and 54% of them use alcohol. 2% of them gets one day off after hospital night shift, 61% of them suffers from disturbed sleep. 60% of them had been stated that they willingly selected their profession. 61% of them prefers talking to friends and 32% of them prefers shopping to overcome stress. There were statistical difference acording to years of recidency in MBI, Emotional Burnout (EB) and desensitisation scale (DS) points. EB scale points of the second year of residency group was statisticaly higher than fourth year of residency group. DS points of second year of residency group was also statisticaly higher than the third and fourth year of residency group. There was no statistical difference between any groups in Personal Success. BOS is a frequent problem during residency in anaesthesia. Appropriate definition and awareness are the first important steps to prevent this syndrome. Further administrative approaches should be evaluated with regard to their effects.

  5. Liver-resident NK cells and their potential functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui; Sun, Rui

    2017-09-18

    Natural killer (NK) cells represent a heterogeneous population of innate lymphocytes with phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets. In particular, recent studies have identified a unique subset of NK cells residing within the liver that are maintained as tissue-resident cells, confer antigen-specific memory responses and exhibit different phenotypical and developmental characteristics compared with conventional NK (cNK) cells. These findings have encouraged researchers to uncover tissue-resident NK cells at other sites, and detailed analyses have revealed that these tissue-resident NK cells share many similarities with liver-resident NK cells and tissue-resident memory T cells. Here, we present a brief historical perspective on the discovery of liver-resident NK cells and discuss their relationship to cNK cells and other emerging NK cell subsets and their potential functions.Cellular &Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 18 September 2017; doi:10.1038/cmi.2017.72.

  6. Changes in medicine: residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The most important time in a physician’s educational development is residency, especially the first year. However, residency work and responsibility have come under the scrutiny of a host of agencies and bureaucracies, and therefore, is rapidly changing. Most important in the alphabet soup of regulatory agencies is the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME which accredits residencies and ultimately makes the governing rules.Resident work hours have received much attention and are clearly decreasing. However, the decline in work hours began in the 1970’s before the present political push to decrease work hours. The residency I entered in 1976 had every third night call during the first year resident’s 6-9 months on general medicine or wards. It had changed from every other night the year before. On wards, we normally were in the hospital for our 24 hours of call and followed this with a 10-12 hour day before …

  7. Communication dated 10 March 1994 received from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The text of the aide memoire, dated 10 March 1994, of the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) to the IAEA is being circulated for the information of all Member States at the request of the Alternate Resident Representative of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)

  8. Permanent multipole magnets with adjustable strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbach, K.

    1983-01-01

    Preceded by a short discussion of the motives for using permanent magnets in accelerators, a new type of permanent magnet for use in accelerators is presented. The basic design and most important properties of a quadrople will be described that uses both steel and permanent magnet material. The field gradient produced by this magnet can be adjusted without changing any other aspect of the field produced by this quadrupole. The generalization of this concept to produce other multipole fields, or combination of multipole fields, will also be presented

  9. Nanocrystalline permanent magnets with enhanced properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonowicz, M.

    2002-01-01

    Parameters of permanent magnets result from the combination of intrinsic properties such as saturation magnetization, magnetic exchange, and magnetocrystalline energy, as well as microstructural parameters such as phase structure, grain size, and orientation. Reduction of grain size into nanocrystalline regime (∼ 50 nm) leads to the enhanced remanence which derives from ferromagnetic exchange coupling between highly refined grains. In this study the fundamental phenomena, quantities, and structure parameters, which define nanophase permanent magnets are presented and discussed. The theoretical considerations are confronted with experimental data for nanocrystalline Sm-Fe-N type permanent magnets. (author)

  10. Permanent molars: Delayed development and eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathi R

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Delayed development and eruption of all the permanent molars is a rare phenomenon, which can cause disturbance in the developing occlusion. The eruption of permanent first and second molars is very important for the coordination of facial growth and for providing sufficient occlusal support for undisturbed mastication. In the case described, the first permanent molars were delayed in their development and were seen erupting at the age of nine and a half years. Severe disparity between the left and the right side of the dentition with respect to the rate of development of molars were also present.

  11. Reactor safety review of permanent changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, K.F.

    1997-01-01

    Operational compliance engineers review all changes as part of a change control process. Each change, permanent or temporary, is required to undergo an intricate review process to ensure that the benefits associated with the change outweigh the risk. For permanent changes, it is necessary to ensure that the proposed design meets the nuclear safety requirements, conforms to the licensing requirements and complies with regulatory requirements. In addition, during installation of the permanent change and prior to in-service, a configuration management process is in place to align the change with operating and maintenance documents. (author)

  12. Permanent multipole magnets with adjustable strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbach, K.

    1983-03-01

    Preceded by a short discussion of the motives for using permanent magnets in accelerators, a new type of permanent magnet for use in accelerators is presented. The basic design and most important properties of a quadrupole will be described that uses both steel and permanent magnet material. The field gradient produced by this magnet can be adjusted without changing any other aspect of the field produced by this quadrupole. The generalization of this concept to produce other multipole fields, or combination of multipole fields, will also be presented

  13. Radioecological sensitivity of permanent grasslands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, Benoit

    2009-01-01

    The project 'SENSIB' of the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) aims at characterizing and classifying parameters with significant impact on the transfer of radioactive contaminants in the environment. This thesis is focused on permanent grassland areas. Its objectives are the analysis of the activity variations of two artificial radionuclides ( 137 Cs and 90 Sr) in the chain from soil to dairy products as well as the categorization of ecological and anthropogenic parameters, which determine the sensitivity of the studied area. For this study, in situ sampling is carried out in 15 farms in 3 different French regions (Charente, Puy-de-Dome and Jura). The sampling sites are chosen according to their natural variations (geology, altitude and climate) and the soil types. Additionally to the radiologic measurements, geographic, soil and vegetation data as well as data concerning cattle-rearing and cheese manufacturing processes are gathered. From the soil to the grass vegetation, 137 Cs transfer factors vary between 3 x 10-3 and 148 x 10-3 Bq kg-1 (dry weight) per Bq kg-1 (dry weight) (N = 73). Theses transfer factors are significantly higher in the Puy-de-Dome region than in the Jura region. The 137 Cs transfer factor from cattle feed to milk varies from 5.9 x 10-3 to 258 x 10-3 Bq kg-1 (fresh weight) per Bq kg-1 (dry weight) (N = 28). Statistically, it is higher in the Charente region. Finally, the 90 Sr transfer factor from milk to cheese ranges from 3.9 to 12.1. The studied site with the highest factor is the Jura (N = 25). The link between milk and dairy products is the stage with the most 137 Cs and 90 Sr transfers. A nonlinear approach based on a discretization method of the transfer factor with multiple comparison tests admits a classification of the sensitivity factors from soil to grass vegetation. We can determine 20 factors interfering in the 137 Cs transfer into the vegetation, for instance, the clay rate of the soils or a marker

  14. Use and utility of Web-based residency program information: a survey of residency applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embi, Peter J; Desai, Sima; Cooney, Thomas G

    2003-01-01

    The Internet has become essential to the residency application process. In recent years, applicants and residency programs have used the Internet-based tools of the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP, the Match) and the Electronic Residency Application Service (ERAS) to process and manage application and Match information. In addition, many residency programs have moved their recruitment information from printed brochures to Web sites. Despite this change, little is known about how applicants use residency program Web sites and what constitutes optimal residency Web site content, information that is critical to developing and maintaining such sites. To study the use and perceived utility of Web-based residency program information by surveying applicants to an internal medicine program. Our sample population was the applicants to the Oregon Health & Science University Internal Medicine Residency Program who were invited for an interview. We solicited participation using the group e-mail feature available through the Electronic Residency Application Service Post-Office application. To minimize the possibility for biased responses, the study was confined to the period between submission of National Residency Matching Program rank-order lists and release of Match results. Applicants could respond using an anonymous Web-based form or by reply to the e-mail solicitation. We tabulated responses, calculated percentages for each, and performed a qualitative analysis of comments. Of the 431 potential participants, 218 responded (51%) during the study period. Ninety-nine percent reported comfort browsing the Web; 52% accessed the Web primarily from home. Sixty-nine percent learned about residency Web sites primarily from residency-specific directories while 19% relied on general directories. Eighty percent found these sites helpful when deciding where to apply, 69% when deciding where to interview, and 36% when deciding how to rank order programs for the Match. Forty

  15. Factors Influencing the Gender Breakdown of Academic Radiology Residency Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James C; Yoon, Sora C; Cater, Sarah Wallace; Grimm, Lars J

    2017-07-01

    To determine the gender distribution of radiology residency programs and identify associations with radiology departmental factors. The residency programs affiliated with the top 50 research medical school from US News and World Report were identified. The gender of all radiology residency graduates from each program from 2011 to 2015 were collected. Radiology departmental factors were collected: gender of chairperson, gender of program director, gender of faculty, geographic location, and city population of the residency program. The median percentage of female radiology faculty and residents were calculated and classified as above or below the median. Comparisons were made between residency programs and departmental factors via a Pearson χ 2 univariate test or logistic regression. There were 618 (27.9%) female and 1,598 (72.1%) male residents in our study, with a median female representation of 26.4% in each program. Programs with a female residency program director were significantly more likely to have an above-median percentage of female residents versus a male program director (68.4% versus 38.7%, P = .04). Programs in the Northeast (70.6%) and West (70.0%) had higher above-median female representation than the South (10.0%) and Midwest (38.5%, P < .01). There was no association with city population size (P = .40), gender of faculty (P = .40), residency size (P = .91), or faculty size (P = .15). Radiology residency programs with a female residency program director and those in the Northeast or West have a greater concentration of female residents. Residency programs that aim to increase female representation should investigate modifiable factors that can improve their recruitment practices. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Iraqi Population Displacement Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    relationship of population size of origin and destination countries inverse to the distance traveled between the locations to calculate an attraction for a...provinces). 2) IDP camps will attract no more than ~30% of the IDP population. 3) More IDPs reside in paid accommodations than any other type of...CAA-2015098 ii (3) IDP camps will attract no more than ~30% of the IDP population. (4) More IDPs reside in paid accommodations than in any

  17. SRKW seasonal occurence - Patterns of seasonal occurrence of Southern Resident Killer Whales

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Patterns of seasonal occurrence of Southern Resident Killer Whales (SRKW) throughout their range. Southern Resident Killer Whales are listed as a Distinct Population...

  18. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danly, C R; Merrill, F E; Barlow, D; Mariam, F G

    2014-08-01

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL's pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

  19. Macroscopic simulation of isotropic permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckner, Florian; Abert, Claas; Vogler, Christoph; Heinrichs, Frank; Satz, Armin; Ausserlechner, Udo; Binder, Gernot; Koeck, Helmut; Suess, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Accurate simulations of isotropic permanent magnets require to take the magnetization process into account and consider the anisotropic, nonlinear, and hysteretic material behaviour near the saturation configuration. An efficient method for the solution of the magnetostatic Maxwell equations including the description of isotropic permanent magnets is presented. The algorithm can easily be implemented on top of existing finite element methods and does not require a full characterization of the hysteresis of the magnetic material. Strayfield measurements of an isotropic permanent magnet and simulation results are in good agreement and highlight the importance of a proper description of the isotropic material. - Highlights: • Simulations of isotropic permanent magnets. • Accurate calculation of remanence magnetization and strayfield. • Comparison with strayfield measurements and anisotropic magnet simulations. • Efficient 3D FEM–BEM coupling for solution of Maxwell equations.

  20. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G.

    2014-01-01

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components

  1. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AL. Update on mutations in glucokinase (GCK), which cause maturity-onset diabetes of the young, permanent neonatal diabetes, and hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Hum Mutat. 2009 Nov;30(11):1512-26. ...

  3. [Permanent education in health: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccas, Fernanda Luppino; Batista, Sylvia Helena Souza da Silva

    2014-02-01

    To undertake a meta-synthesis of the literature on the main concepts and practices related to permanent education in health. A bibliographical search was conducted for original articles in the PubMed, Web of Science, LILACS, IBECS and SciELO databases, using the following search terms: "public health professional education", "permanent education", "continuing education", "permanent education health". Of the 590 articles identified, after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 48 were selected for further analysis, grouped according to the criteria of key elements, and then underwent meta-synthesis. The 48 original publications were classified according to four thematic units of key elements: 1) concepts, 2) strategies and difficulties, 3) public policies and 4) educational institutions. Three main conceptions of permanent education in health were found: problem-focused and team work, directly related to continuing education and education that takes place throughout life. The main strategies for executing permanent education in health are discussion, maintaining an open space for permanent education , and permanent education clusters. The most limiting factor is mainly related to directly or indirect management. Another highlight is the requirement for implementation and maintenance of public policies, and the availability of financial and human resources. The educational institutions need to combine education and service aiming to form critical-reflexive graduates. The coordination between health and education is based as much on the actions of health services as on management and educational institutions. Thus, it becomes a challenge to implement the teaching-learning processes that are supported by critical-reflexive actions. It is necessary to carry out proposals for permanent education in health involving the participation of health professionals, teachers and educational institutions. To undertake a meta-synthesis of the literature on the main concepts and

  4. Radioelement gauges. Appliances intended for permanent installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-08-01

    The present norm defines for radioelement gauges intended for permanent installation: a classification of instruments and beam shutter devices; recommended construction techniques which satisfy health physics requirements; monitoring and test methods; information which must appear on the instruments [fr

  5. Canadian Eskimo permanent tooth emergence timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhall, J T; Belier, P L; Mayhall, M F

    1978-08-01

    To identify the times of emergence of the permanent teeth of Canadian Eskimos (Inuit), 368 children and adolescents were examined. The presence or absence of all permanent teeth except the third molars was recorded and these data subjected to probit analysis. Female emergence times were advanced over males. Generally, the Inuit of both sexes showed statistically significant earlier emergence times than Montreal children, except for the incisors. The present results do not support hypotheses indicating that premature extraction of the deciduous teeth advances the emergence of their succedaneous counterparts. There is some indication the controls of deciduous tooth emergence continue to play some part in emergence of the permanent dentition, especially the first permanent teeth that emerge.

  6. Multiple Unerupted Permanent Teeth Associated with Noonan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [2] Oral findings in patients with NS include a high arched palate ... the atypical dental anomalies such as multiple unerupted permanent ... clinical features in a child with NS. .... Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

  7. Magnetic spring based on two permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsivilitsin, V.Yu.; Mil'man, Yu.V.; Goncharuk, V.A.; Bondar, I.B.

    2011-01-01

    A new type of the magnetic spring construction 'two permanent magnets' has been considered. A mathematical expression for the estimation of a pulling-in force has been offered. This expression is verified experimentally on the produced operating magnetic spring. The theoretical and experimental data are in good accordance. A number of advantages of the magnetic spring over the construction 'permanent magnet - magnetic circuit' such as an insignificant friction force between two magnets and a higher pulling force are discussed.

  8. Permanent Magnet Dipole for DIRAC Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Vorozhtsov, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    Two dipole magnets including one spare unit are needed for the for the DIRAC experiment. The proposed design is a permanent magnet dipole. The design based on Sm2Co17 blocks assembled together with soft ferromagnetic pole tips. The magnet provides integrated field strength of 24.6 10-3 T×m inside the aperture of 60 mm. This Design Report summarizes the main magnetic and mechanic design parameters of the permanent dipole magnets.

  9. Screening for Psychopathology Symptoms in Mexican Psychiatry Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Francisco Javier Mesa; Munoz, Maria Del Carmen Lara

    2011-01-01

    Background: Various rates of alcoholism, drug abuse, mental illness, and suicide among physician have been reported, generally higher than those in the general population. Psychiatry residents, as other specializing physicians, seem to be prone to suffering them. The prevalence of psychological symptoms among psychiatry residents has not been…

  10. Residence as a Factor in Longevity: A Study of Louisianians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Yui-Huen; Bertrand, Alvin L.

    In order to test the hypothesis that the longevity of aged persons differs according to residence and by sex, race, and marital status, data from every third year between 1962 and 1974 in the Louisiana State Bureau of Vital Statistics were examined. Criteria for population inclusion were: people over 65 years of age; Louisiana residents at time of…

  11. Radiation exposure after permanent prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattani, Federica; Vavassori, Andrea; Polo, Alfredo; Rondi, Elena; Cambria, Raffaella; Orecchia, Roberto; Tosi, Giampiero

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Limited information is available on the true radiation exposure and associated risks for the relatives of the patients submitted to prostate brachytherapy with permanent implant of radioactive sources and for any other people coming into contact with them. In order to provide appropriate information, we analyzed the radiation exposure data from 216 prostate cancer patients who underwent 125 I or 103 Pd implants at the European Institute of Oncology of Milan, Italy. Patients and methods: Between October 1999 and October 2004, 216 patients with low risk prostate carcinoma were treated with 125 I (200 patients) or 103 Pd (16 patients) permanent seed implantation. One day after the procedure, radiation exposure measurements around the patients were performed using an ionization chamber survey meter (Victoreen RPO-50) calibrated in dose rate at an accredited calibration center (calibration Centre SIT 104). Results: The mean dose rate at the posterior skin surface (gluteal region) following 125 I implants was 41.3 μSv/h (range: 6.2-99.4 μSv/h) and following 103 Pd implants was 18.9 μSv/h (range 5.0-37.3 μSv/h). The dose rate at 50 cm from the skin decreased to the mean value of 6.4 μSv/h for the 125 I implants and to the mean value of 1.7 μSv/h for the 103 Pd implants. Total times required to reach the annual dose limit (1 mSv/year) recommended for the general population by the European Directive 96/29/Euratom and by the Italian law (Decreto Legislativo 241/2000) at a distance of 50 cm from the posterior skin surface of the implanted patient would be 7.7 and 21.6 days for 125 I and for 103 Pd. Good correlation between the measured dose rates and both the total implanted activity and the distance between the most posteriorly implanted seed and the skin surface of the patients was found. Conclusions: Our data show that the dose rates at 50 cm away from the prostate brachytherapy patients are very low and that the doses possibly absorbed by the

  12. EDITORIAL: Permanent revolution - or evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-03-01

    Honorary Editor It was that temporary Bolshevik Leon Trotsky who developed the principle of `permanent revolution', a principle that perhaps characterizes the recent history of education in (south) Britain more than does, say, principles traditionally associated with the Conservative or Labour parties. As this editorial is being written, changes are being made to primary school education, and the long-awaited details of the post-Dearing reorganizing of post-16 education are yet to hit the overful bookshelves and filing cabinets of school heads and examination board officials. But something unique has happened recently which might have surprised even Trotsky. The Secretary of State for Education has set up targets for primary school pupils' attainment and threatened (or promised) to resign if they are not met within the lifetime of our newly elected parliament. Of course, if Mr Blunkett is still in a position to resign at that stage he will have been the longest serving Secretary of State since time immemorial. But we should not carp: this is truly a revolutionary idea. Not the promise to resign - although this idea is not so fashionable now as it once was. The revolutionary idea is that a major change to an educational process is actually being made that carries with it a predicted and testable outcome. By contrast, when school physics was refreshed a generation ago by the introduction of Nuffield courses at both pre- and post-16 stages, no `targets' were set. I and many other physics teachers certainly preferred teaching these to teaching their predecessor syllabuses, and might even dare to assert that the pupils liked them too. But we still don't really know whether or not they learned more - or even better - physics. Very little happened as far as the outside world was concerned: the usual fraction of students gave up physics at the usual ages, and those who were examined didn't really get a better reward for their more up-to-date and more enjoyably learned

  13. Resident fatigue in otolaryngology residents: a Web based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nida, Andrew M; Googe, Benjamin J; Lewis, Andrea F; May, Warren L

    2016-01-01

    Resident fatigue has become a point of emphasis in medical education and its effects on otolaryngology residents and their patients require further study. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the prevalence and nature of fatigue in otolaryngology residents, evaluate various quality of life measures, and investigate associations of increased fatigue with resident safety. Anonymous survey. Internet based. United States allopathic otolaryngology residents. None. The survey topics included demographics, residency structure, sleep habits and perceived stress. Responses were correlated with a concurrent Epworth Sleep Scale questionnaire to evaluate effects of fatigue on resident training and quality of life. 190 residents responded to the survey with 178 completing the Epworth Sleep Scale questionnaire. Results revealed a mean Epworth Sleep Scale score of 9.9±5.1 with a median of 10.0 indicating a significant number of otolaryngology residents are excessively sleepy. Statistically significant correlations between Epworth Sleep Scale and sex, region, hours of sleep, and work hours were found. Residents taking in-house call had significantly fewer hours of sleep compared to home call (p=0.01). Residents on "head and neck" (typically consisting of a large proportion of head and neck oncologic surgery) rotations tended to have higher Epworth Sleep Scale and had significantly fewer hours of sleep (p=.003) and greater work hours (potolaryngology residents are excessively sleepy. Our data suggest that the effects of fatigue play a role in resident well-being and resident safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Leadership Training in Otolaryngology Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, John P; Fried, Marvin P; Smith, Richard V; Hsueh, Wayne; Choi, Karen

    2017-06-01

    Although residency training offers numerous leadership opportunities, most residents are not exposed to scripted leadership instruction. To explore one program's attitudes about leadership training, a group of otolaryngology faculty (n = 14) and residents (n = 17) was polled about their attitudes. In terms of self-perception, more faculty (10 of 14, 71.4%) than residents (9 of 17, 52.9%; P = .461) considered themselves good leaders. The majority of faculty and residents (27 of 31) thought that adults could be taught leadership ability. Given attitudes about leadership ability and the potential for improvement through instruction, consideration should be given to including such training in otolaryngology residency.

  15. The academic adjustment scale : Measuring the adjustment of permanent resident or sojourner students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Joel R.; Guan, Yao; Koc, Yasin

    In this paper we developed and validated the Academic Adjustment Scale (AAS) - a new scale for measuring academic adjustment, which was developed with a focus on student sojourners who temporarily relocate to a new culture for the purpose of tertiary education, but also is validated for use with

  16. 8 CFR 245a.3 - Application for adjustment from temporary to permanent resident status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... designated school or program official attesting to the applicant's satisfactory pursuit of the course of... records; (vi) Photocopy of signed “Certificate of Satisfactory Pursuit” issued to the student. (10... California State Department of Education with the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS). The...

  17. 78 FR 63236 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Replace Permanent Resident Card, Form...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services [OMB Control Number 1615... of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the... online screenshots for viewing and comment in e-Docket ID number USCIS-USCIS- 2009-0002. DATES: The...

  18. The TGT Estimation of the Social Behavior Characteristics for Permanent Resident around NPPs in KOREA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Sun-Young; Lee, Gab-Bock; Chung, Yang-Geun

    2006-01-01

    The most strong protection method of radiation emergency preparedness is the evacuation when a great deal of radionuclide materials is released to environment. NRC(Nuclear Regulation Committee) made the evacuation time estimation to be necessary condition of emergency plan as the basis technology through the NUREG-0654 and has performed the research of the evacuation using traffic analysis continuously. In KOREA, The Notice 2004-11 of Ministry of Science and Technology nuclear enterprise must estimate evacuation time through the consultation with local autonomous entities and the result of the consultation must be appended in emergency plan. But evacuation estimation method in KOREA was based on simple assumption which did not consider evacuation characteristics and traffic analysis; therefore it could not reflect actual accident adequately. Besides technical aspect, the characteristics of personal and social behavior must be considered in evaluation of the evacuation time. These characteristics of behavior emerged in the research of natural and human disaster rather than nuclear accident which has little experience. So, the characteristics of personal and social behavior must be considered in evacuation time estimation

  19. 78 FR 26647 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Replace Permanent Resident Card, Form I...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submission of responses. Overview of... Biometric Processing at an estimated 1 hour and 10 minutes (1.17 hours) per response. (6) An estimate of the...

  20. Permanent magnet materials and their application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, P.

    1994-01-01

    Permanent magnets are of great industrial importance in industrial drives, consumer products, computers, and automobiles. Since 1970, new classes of magnet materials have been developed. This book reviews the older and newer materials and is presented as a comprehensive design text for permanent magnets and their applications. After an initial chapter on the fundamentals of magnetism, the author discusses magnetic physics considerations specific to permanent magnets and describes the fabrications and characteristics of commercial materials: alnico, samarium-cobalt, ferrite, and neodymium-iron-boron. Thermal stability, magnet design procedures, magnetic field analysis methods, and measurement methods are discussed in subsequent chapters, followed by a concluding chapter reviewing commercial and industrial products that use permanent magnets. The chapter on thermal properties of magnet materials is of particular interest, bringing together information not readily found elsewhere. The review of applications is also deserving of attention, specifically the sections on motors and actuators. Although particle accelerator applications are discussed, the use of permanent magnet sextuples in modern ECR ion sources is not mentioned

  1. Cylindrical Hall Thrusters with Permanent Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Merino, Enrique; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of permanent magnets instead of electromagnet coils for low power Hall thrusters can offer a significant reduction of both the total electric power consumption and the thruster mass. Two permanent magnet versions of the miniaturized cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) of different overall dimensions were operated in the power range of 50W-300 W. The discharge and plasma plume measurements revealed that the CHT thrusters with permanent magnets and electromagnet coils operate rather differently. In particular, the angular ion current density distribution from the permanent magnet thrusters has an unusual halo shape, with a majority of high energy ions flowing at large angles with respect to the thruster centerline. Differences in the magnetic field topology outside the thruster channel and in the vicinity of the channel exit are likely responsible for the differences in the plume characteristics measured for the CHTs with electromagnets and permanent magnets. It is shown that the presence of the reversing-direction or cusp-type magnetic field configuration inside the thruster channel without a strong axial magnetic field outside the thruster channel does not lead to the halo plasma plume from the CHT.

  2. The impact of local black residents' socioeconomic status on white residents' racial views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Marylee C; Reyes, Adriana M

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends the study of contextual influences on racial attitudes by asking how the SES of the local black community shapes the racial attitudes of local whites. Using responses to the 1998-2002 General Social Surveys merged with year 2000 census data, we compare the influences of black educational and economic composition on white residents' attitudes. Finally, the independence of these effects from the impact of white contextual SES is assessed. Across three dimensions of racial attitudes, white residents' views are more positive in localities where the black population contains more college graduates. However, such localities tend also to have highly educated white populations, as well as higher incomes among blacks and whites, and the multiple influences are inseparable. In contrast, many racial attitude measures show an independent effect of black economic composition, white residents reporting more negative views where the local African American community is poorer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Resident cats in small animal veterinary hospitals carry multi-drug resistant enterococci and are likely involved in cross-contamination of the hospital environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha eGhosh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the U.S., small animal veterinary hospitals (SAVHs commonly keep resident cats living permanently as pets within their facilities. Previously, multi-drug resistant (MDR enterococci were found as a contaminant of multiple surfaces within such veterinary hospitals, and nosocomial infections are a concern. The objectives of this study were to determine whether resident cats carry MDR enterococci and if they potentially play a role in the contamination of the hospital environment. Enterococcal strains (n=180 were isolated from the feces of six healthy resident cats from different SAVHs. The concentration of enterococci ranged from 1.1 x 105 to 6.0 x 108 CFU g-1 of feces, and the population comprised E. hirae (38.3±18.6%, E. faecium (35.0±14.3%, E. faecalis (23.9±11.0%, and E. avium (2.8±2.2%. Testing of phenotypic resistance to 14 antimicrobial agents revealed multi-drug resistance (≥3 antimicrobials in 48.9% of all enterococcal isolates with most frequent resistance to tetracycline (72.8%, erythromycin (47.8%, and rifampicin (35.6%. Vancomycin resistant E. faecalis (3.9% with vanB not horizontally transferable in in vitro conjugation assays were detected from one cat. Genotyping (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated a host-specific clonal population of MDR E. faecalis and E. faecium. Importantly, several feline isolates were genotypically identical or closely related to isolates from surfaces of cage door, thermometer, and stethoscope of the corresponding SAVHs. These data demonstrate that healthy resident cats at SAVHs carry MDR enterococci and likely contribute to contamination of the SAVH environment. Proper disposal and handling of fecal material and restricted movement of resident cats within the ward is recommended.

  4. 13 CFR 120.900 - Sources of permanent financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sources of permanent financing... Development Company Loan Program (504) Permanent Financing § 120.900 Sources of permanent financing. Permanent financing for each Project must come from three sources: the Borrower's contribution, Third-Party Loans, and...

  5. Static devices with new permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, J.; Laforest, J.; Pauthenet, R.

    1987-01-01

    The high remanence and coercivity of the new permanent magnet materials are of special interest in the static applications. High ordering temperature and are uniaxial anisotropy at the origin of their good permanent magnet properties are obtained in rare earth-transition metal compounds. Binary SmCo/sub 5/ and Sm/sub 2/Co/sub 17/ and ternary Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 14/B compounds are the basis materials of the best permanent magnets. new concepts of calculations of static devices with these magnets can be applied: the magnetization can be considered as ridig, the density of the surface Amperian current is constant, the relative permeability is approximately 1 and the induction calculations are linear. Examples of hexapoles with Sm-Co and NdFeB magnets are described and the performances are compared. The problems of temperature behavior and corrosion resistance are underlined

  6. The history of permanent magnet materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Permanent-magnet materials play a large and growing, but largely unseen, role in today's technology. Many common devices in the home and elsewhere, including appliances, computers and printers, contain permanent-magnet motors and actuators. The growth of applications for permanent magnets results in large part from the improvements in magnetic properties, which allow the engineer to design smaller, lighter and more efficient devices. The properties of the greatest technological interest are remanence, coercivity and maximum energy product. All are non-equilibrium and high structure-sensitive. Coercivity is particularly sensitive to microstructure, while remanence is sensitive to texture (crystallographic alignment). The energy product depends on both coercivity and remanence. The more than one hundredfold increase in the available energy product in this century, and the corresponding amount of magnet required for a specific application, are shown

  7. Iowa Population Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, John L.; Johnson, Arthur H.

    The trends in population distribution and the composition of Iowa's population are reported in this document in order to provide the leaders and citizens of Iowa with information to assist them in making decisions relating to growth and development. Birth and death rates, rural and urban residence, population by race, and age structure are…

  8. Analysis of a spherical permanent magnet actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Jewell, G.W.; Howe, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a new form of actuator with a spherical permanent magnet rotor and a simple winding arrangement, which is capable of a high specific torque by utilizing a rare-earth permanent magnet. The magnetic-field distribution is established using an analytical technique formulated in spherical coordinates, and the results are validated by finite element analysis. The analytical field solution allows the prediction of the actuator torque and back emf in closed forms. In turn, these facilitate the characterization of the actuator and provide a firm basis for design optimization, system dynamic modeling, and closed-loop control law development. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  9. Treatment of ectopic first permanent molar teeth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hennessy, Joe

    2012-11-01

    Ectopic eruption of the first permanent molar is a relatively common occurence in the developing dentition. A range of treatment options are available to the clinician provided that diagnosis is made early. Non-treatment can result in premature exfoliation of the second primary molar, space loss and impaction of the second premolar. This paper will describe the management of ectopic first permanent molars, using clinical examples to illustrate the available treatment options. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This paper is relevant to every general dental practitioner who treats patients in mixed dentition.

  10. Permanent isolation surface barrier: Functional performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, N.R.

    1993-10-01

    This document presents the functional performance parameters for permanent isolation surface barriers. Permanent isolation surface barriers have been proposed for use at the Hanford Site (and elsewhere) to isolate and dispose of certain types of waste in place. Much of the waste that would be disposed of using in-place isolation techniques is located in subsurface structures, such as solid waste burial grounds, tanks, vaults, and cribs. Unless protected in some way, the wastes could be transported to the accessible environment via transport pathways, such as water infiltration, biointrusion, wind and water erosion, human interference, and/or gaseous release

  11. Magnetic guns with cylindrical permanent magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vokoun, David; Beleggia, Marco; Heller, Luděk

    2012-01-01

    The motion of a cylindrical permanent magnet (projectile) inside a tubular permanent magnet, with both magnets magnetized axially, illustrates nicely the physical principles behind the operation of magnetic guns. The force acting upon the projectile is expressed semi-analytically as derivative...... of the magnetostatic interaction energy. For comparison, the forces involved are also calculated numerically using finite elements methods. Based on the conservation of the magnetostatic and kinetic energies, the exit and asymptotic velocities are determined. The derived formulas can be used to optimize the generated...... forces and motion of the inner cylindrical magnet....

  12. Treatment of ectopic first permanent molar teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Joe; Al-Awadhi, E A; Dwyer, Lian O; Leith, Rona

    2012-11-01

    Ectopic eruption of the first permanent molar is a relatively common occurence in the developing dentition. A range of treatment options are available to the clinician provided that diagnosis is made early. Non-treatment can result in premature exfoliation of the second primary molar, space loss and impaction of the second premolar. This paper will describe the management of ectopic first permanent molars, using clinical examples to illustrate the available treatment options. This paper is relevant to every general dental practitioner who treats patients in mixed dentition.

  13. Hobit and Blimp1 instruct a universal transcriptional program of tissue residency in lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackay, Laura K.; Minnich, Martina; Kragten, Natasja A. M.; Liao, Yang; Nota, Benjamin; Seillet, Cyril; Zaid, Ali; Man, Kevin; Preston, Simon; Freestone, David; Braun, Asolina; Wynne-Jones, Erica; Behr, Felix M.; Stark, Regina; Pellicci, Daniel G.; Godfrey, Dale I.; Belz, Gabrielle T.; Pellegrini, Marc; Gebhardt, Thomas; Busslinger, Meinrad; Shi, Wei; Carbone, Francis R.; van Lier, René A. W.; Kallies, Axel; van Gisbergen, Klaas P. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue-resident memory T (Trm) cells permanently localize to portals of pathogen entry, where they provide immediate protection against reinfection. To enforce tissue retention, Trm cells up-regulate CD69 and down-regulate molecules associated with tissue egress; however, a Trm-specific

  14. Residents as teachers: psychiatry and family medicine residents' self-assessment of teaching knowledge, skills, and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Michael W; Ekambaram, Vijayabharathi; Tucker, Phebe; Aggarwal, Ruchi

    2013-09-01

    understanding of teaching techniques, and report spending less time educating patients than do family medicine residents. The differences might be due to different patient populations and treatment settings. The study suggests that psychiatry residents may have difficulty adapting the One-Minute Preceptor technique in psychiatric settings. Results serve as a benchmarking study in a performance-improvement program to enhance psychiatry residents' teaching skills.

  15. The Prevalence of Burnout Among US Neurosurgery Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Hakeem J; McPheeters, Matthew J; Shallwani, Hussain; Pittari, Joseph E; Reynolds, Renée M

    2017-10-27

    Burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Its prevalence among US physicians exceeds 50% and is higher among residents/fellows. This is important to the practice of neurosurgery, as burnout is associated with adverse physical health, increased risk of substance abuse, and increased medical errors. To date, no study has specifically addressed the prevalence of burnout among neurosurgery residents. To determine and compare the prevalence of burnout among US neurosurgery residents with published rates for residents/fellows and practicing physicians from other specialties. We surveyed 106 US neurosurgery residency training programs to perform a descriptive analysis of the prevalence of burnout among residents. Data on burnout among control groups were used to perform a cross-sectional analysis. Nonparametric tests assessed differences in burnout scores among neurosurgery residents, and the 2-tailed Fisher's exact test assessed burnout between neurosurgery residents and control populations. Of approximately 1200 US neurosurgery residents, 255 (21.3%) responded. The prevalence of burnout was 36.5% (95% confidence interval: 30.6%-42.7%). There was no significant difference in median burnout scores between gender (P = .836), age (P = .183), or postgraduate year (P = .963) among neurosurgery residents. Neurosurgery residents had a significantly lower prevalence of burnout (36.5%) than other residents/fellows (60.0%; P burnout than other residents/fellows and practicing physicians. The underlying causes for these findings were not assessed and are likely multifactorial. Future studies should address possible causes of these findings. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  16. Resident cross-cultural training, satisfaction, and preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frintner, Mary Pat; Mendoza, Fernando S; Dreyer, Benard P; Cull, William L; Laraque, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    To describe the diversity of pediatric residents and examine relationships of cross-cultural training experiences with training satisfaction, perceived preparedness for providing culturally effective care, and attitudes surrounding care for underserved populations. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of a national random sample of graduating pediatric residents and an additional sample of minority residents. Using weighted analysis, we used multivariate regression to test for differences in satisfaction, preparedness, and attitudes between residents with more and less cross-cultural experiences during residency, controlling for residents' characteristics and experiences before training. The survey response rate was 57%. Eleven percent were Hispanic, 61% white, 21% Asian, 9% African American, 9% other racial/ethnic groups; 34% grew up in a bi- or multilingual family. Ninety-three percent of residents were satisfied with their residency training, 81% with the instruction they received on health and health care disparities, and 54% on global health issues. Ninety-six percent of residents felt they were prepared to care for patients from diverse backgrounds, but fewer felt prepared to care for families with beliefs at odds with Western medicine (49%) and families who receive alternative or complementary care (37%). Residents with more cross-cultural experiences during residency reported being better prepared than those with less experience to care for families with limited English proficiency (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40-3.17), new immigrants (aOR 1.91; 95% CI 1.32-2.75), and with religious beliefs that might affect clinical care (aOR 1.62; 95% CI 1.13-2.32). Pediatric residents begin their training with diverse cross-cultural backgrounds and experiences. Residency experiences in cross-cultural care contribute to feelings of preparedness to care for diverse US children. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published

  17. Impact of Residency Training Redesign on Residents' Clinical Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Elaine; Eiff, M Patrice; Dexter, Eve; Rinaldo, Jason C B; Marino, Miguel; Garvin, Roger; Douglass, Alan B; Phillips, Robert; Green, Larry A; Carney, Patricia A

    2017-10-01

    The In-training Examination (ITE) is a frequently used method to evaluate family medicine residents' clinical knowledge. We compared family medicine ITE scores among residents who trained in the 14 programs that participated in the Preparing the Personal Physician for Practice (P4) Project to national averages over time, and according to educational innovations. The ITE scores of 802 consenting P4 residents who trained in 2007 through 2011 were obtained from the American Board of Family Medicine. The primary analysis involved comparing scores within each academic year (2007 through 2011), according to program year (PGY) for P4 residents to all residents nationally. A secondary analysis compared ITE scores among residents in programs that experimented with length of training and compared scores among residents in programs that offered individualized education options with those that did not. Release of ITE scores was consented to by 95.5% of residents for this study. Scores of P4 residents were higher compared to national scores in each year. For example, in 2011, the mean P4 score for PGY1 was 401.2, compared to the national average of 386. For PGY2, the mean P4 score was 443.1, compared to the national average of 427, and for PGY3, the mean P4 score was 477.0, compared to the national PGY3 score of 456. Scores of residents in programs that experimented with length of training were similar to those in programs that did not. Scores were also similar between residents in programs with and without individualized education options. Family medicine residency programs undergoing substantial educational changes, including experiments in length of training and individualized education, did not appear to experience a negative effect on resident's clinical knowledge, as measured by ITE scores. Further research is needed to study the effect of a wide range of residency training innovations on ITE scores over time.

  18. Migration and risk of HIV acquisition in Rakai, Uganda: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olawore, Oluwasolape; Tobian, Aaron A R; Kagaayi, Joseph; Bazaale, Jeremiah M; Nantume, Betty; Kigozi, Grace; Nankinga, Justine; Nalugoda, Fred; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Kigozi, Godfrey; Gray, Ronald H; Wawer, Maria J; Ssekubugu, Robert; Santelli, John S; Reynolds, Steven J; Chang, Larry W; Serwadda, David; Grabowski, Mary K

    2018-04-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, migrants typically have higher HIV prevalence than non-migrants; however, whether HIV acquisition typically precedes or follows migration is unknown. We aimed to investigate the risk of HIV after migration in Rakai District, Uganda. In a prospective population-based cohort of HIV-negative participants aged 15-49 years in Rakai, Uganda, between April 6, 1999, and Jan 30, 2015, we assessed the association between migration and HIV acquisition. Individuals were classified as recent in-migrants (≤2 years in community), non-recent in-migrants (>2 years in community), or permanent residents with no migration history. The primary outcome was incident HIV infection. We used Poisson regression to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of HIV associated with residence status with adjustment for demographics, sexual behaviours, and time. Data were also stratified and analysed within three periods (1999-2004, 2005-11, and 2011-15) in relation to the introduction of combination HIV prevention (CHP; pre-CHP, early CHP, and late CHP). Among 26 995 HIV-negative people who participated in the Rakai Community Cohort Study survey, 15 187 (56%) contributed one or more follow-up visits (89 292 person-years of follow-up) and were included in our final analysis. 4451 (29%) were ever in-migrants and 10 736 (71%) were permanent residents. 841 incident HIV events occurred, including 243 (29%) among in-migrants. HIV incidence per 100 person-years was significantly increased among recent in-migrants compared with permanent residents, for both women (1·92, 95% CI 1·52-2·43 vs 0·93, 0·84-1·04; IRR adjusted for demographics 1·75, 95% CI 1·33-2·33) and men (1·52, 0·99-2·33 vs 0·84, 0·74-0·94; 1·74, 1·12-2·71), but not among non-recent in-migrants (IRR adjusted for demographics 0·94, 95% CI 0·74-1·19 for women and 1·28, 0·94-1·74 for men). Between the pre-CHP and late-CHP periods, HIV incidence declined among permanent resident men (p

  19. Tubular permanent magnet actuators: cogging forces characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulides, J.J.H.; Janssen, J.L.G.; Encica, L.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Tubular permanent magnet actuators are evermore used in demanding industrial and automotive applications. However, these actuators can suffer from large cogging forces, which have a destabilizing effect on the servo control system and compromise position and speed control accuracy. This paper

  20. Laced permanent magnet quadrupole drift tube magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinberg, B.; Behrsing, G.U.; Halbach, K.; Marks, J.S.; Morrison, M.E.; Nelson, D.H.

    1988-10-01

    A laced permanent magnet quadrupole drift tube magnet has been constructed for a proof-of-principle test. The magnet is a conventional tape-wound quadrupole electromagnet, using iron pole- pieces, with the addition of permanent magnet material (neodymium iron) between the poles to reduce the effects of saturation. The iron is preloaded with magnetic flux generated by the permanent magnet material, resulting in an asymmetrical saturation curve. Since the polarity of the quadrupole magnets in a drift tube linac is not reversed we can take advantage of this asymmetrical saturation to provide greater focusing strength. The magnet configuration has been optimized and the vanadium permendur poles needed in a conventional quadrupole have been replaced with iron poles. The use of permanent magnet material has allowed us to increase the focusing strength of the magnet by about 20% over that of a conventional tape-wound quadrupole. Comparisons will be made between this magnet and the conventional tape-wound quadrupole. 3 refs., 5 figs

  1. Standards on the permanence of recording materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, Peter Z.

    1996-02-01

    The permanence of recording materials is dependent upon many factors, and these differ for photographic materials, magnetic tape and optical disks. Photographic permanence is affected by the (1) stability of the material, (2) the photographic processing and (3) the storage conditions. American National Standards on the material and the processing have been published for different types of film and standard test methods have been established for color film. The third feature of photographic permanence is the storage requirements and these have been established for photographic film, prints and plates. Standardization on the permanence of electronic recording materials is more complicated. As with photographic materials, stability is dependent upon (1) the material itself and (2) the storage environment. In addition, retention of the necessary (3) hardware and (4) software is also a prerequisite. American National Standards activity in these areas has been underway for the past six years. A test method for the material which determines the life expectancy of CD-ROMs has been standardized. The problems of determining the expected life of magnetic tape have been more formidable but the critical physical properties have been determined. A specification for the storage environment of magnetic tape has been finalized and one on the storage of optical disks is being worked on. Critical but unsolved problems are the obsolescence of both the hardware and the software necessary to read digital images.

  2. resonant inverter supplied interior permanent magnet (ipm)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    [5] Zhenyue Hong, “DC-voltage link resonant inverters”, Department of Electrical and. Electronic Engineering University of. Canterbury, New Zealand. [6] Kalyan Kumar Halder, Naruttam Kumar Roy and B.C. Ghosh, “Position Sensorless. Control for an Interior Permanent Magnet. Synchronous Motor SVM Drive with ANN.

  3. 78 FR 14122 - Revocation of Permanent Variances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... Douglas Fir planking had to have at least a 1,900 fiber stress and 1,900,000 modulus of elasticity, while the Yellow Pine planking had to have at least 2,500 fiber stress and 2,000,000 modulus of elasticity... the permanent variances, and affected employees, to submit written data, views, and arguments...

  4. Sexism and Permanent Exclusion from School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Focussing on narratives collected during a two year participant observation research project in the children's services department of an urban local authority, this article addresses the intersection between incidents of permanent exclusion from school and assumptions made on the basis of a young person's gender. The article considers gendered…

  5. Pupil Dilation and Object Permanence in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois, Sylvain; Jackson, Iain R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relative merits of looking time and pupil diameter measures in the study of early cognitive abilities of infants. Ten-month-old infants took part in a modified version of the classic drawbridge experiment used to study object permanence (Baillargeon, Spelke, & Wasserman, 1985). The study involved a factorial design where…

  6. Risk factors for permanent hypernasality after adenoidectomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To investigate the causes of persistent, apparently permanent hypernasal speech following adenoidectomy in 10 subjects without overt cleft palates, and to establish a protocol to be followed before this operation is perfonmed. Design. Retrospective and descriptive design. Participants. Ten subjects, fulfilling the ...

  7. Radionuclides gauges. Gauges designed for permanent installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This present norm determines, for radionuclides gauges designed for permanent installation, the characteristics that these gauges should satisfied in their construction and performance to respect the prescriptions. It indicates the testing methods which permit to verify the agreement, gives a classification of gauges and specifies the indications to put on the emitter block [fr

  8. Dovetail spoke internal permanent magnet machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, James Pellegrino [Ballston Lake, NY; EL-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Lokhandwalla, Murtuza [Clifton Park, NY; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad [Latham, NY; VanDam, Jeremy Daniel [West Coxsackie, NY

    2011-08-23

    An internal permanent magnet (IPM) machine is provided. The IPM machine includes a stator assembly and a stator core. The stator core also includes multiple stator teeth. The stator assembly is further configured with stator windings to generate a stator magnetic field when excited with alternating currents and extends along a longitudinal axis with an inner surface defining a cavity. The IPM machine also includes a rotor assembly and a rotor core. The rotor core is disposed inside the cavity and configured to rotate about the longitudinal axis. The rotor assembly further includes a shaft. The shaft further includes multiple protrusions alternately arranged relative to multiple bottom structures provided on the shaft. The rotor assembly also includes multiple stacks of laminations disposed on the protrusions and dovetailed circumferentially around the shaft. The rotor assembly further includes multiple pair of permanent magnets for generating a magnetic field, which magnetic field interacts with the stator magnetic field to produce a torque. The multiple pair of permanent magnets are disposed between the stacks. The rotor assembly also includes multiple middle wedges mounted between each pair of the multiple permanent magnets.

  9. Permanent downhole seismic sensors in flowing wells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaques, P.; Ong, H.; Jupe, A.; Brown, I.; Jansenns, M.

    2003-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the 'Oilfield of the Future' will incorporate distributed permanent downhole seismic sensors in flowing wells. However the effectiveness of these sensors will be limited by the extent to which seismic signals can be discriminated, or de-coupled, from flow induced

  10. Causes of permanent childhood hearing impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, Anna M. H.; Admiraal, Ronald J. C.; Kant, Sarina G.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Wever, Capi C.; Kunst, Henricus P. M.; Frijns, Johan H. M.; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; Oudesluys-Murphy, A. M.; Korver, A. M. H.; Frijns, J. H. M.; Wever, C. C.; Konings, S.; Beers, W.; Dekker, F. W.; de Vries, J. J. C.; Vossen, A. C. T. M.; Kant, S. G.; van den Akker-van Marle, M. E.; Rieffe, C.; Ens-Dokkum, M. H.; van Straaten, H. L. M.; Uilenburg, N. N.; Elvers, B.; Loeber, G.; Meuwese-Jongejeugd, J.; Maré, M. J.; Van Zanten, G. A.; Goedegebure, A.; Coster, F.; Goverts, S. T.; Admiraal, R. J. C.; Cremers, C. W. R. J.; Kunst, H. P. M.; de Leeuw, M.; Dijkhuizen, J.; Scharloo, M.; Hoeben, D.; Rijpma, G.; Graef, W.; Linschoten, D.; Kuijper, J.; Hof, N. J.; Pans, D.; Jorritsma, F.; van Beurden, M.; ter Huurne, C. T.; Brienesse, P.; Koldewijn, G. J.; Letourneur, K. G.

    2011-01-01

    The causes of Permanent Childhood Hearing Impairment (PCHI) are often quoted as being hereditary in 50%, acquired in 25%, and unknown in 25% of cases. Interest in the causes of PCHI has grown recently due to increasing diagnostic possibilities. We investigated the evidence for the reported

  11. Causes of permanent childhood hearing impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, A.M.; Admiraal, R.J.C.; Kant, S.G.; Dekker, F.W.; Wever, C.; Kunst, H.P.M.; Frijns, J.H.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The causes of Permanent Childhood Hearing Impairment (PCHI) are often quoted as being hereditary in 50%, acquired in 25%, and unknown in 25% of cases. Interest in the causes of PCHI has grown recently due to increasing diagnostic possibilities. We investigated the evidence for the

  12. Permanent magnet motor technology design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gieras, Jacek F

    2009-01-01

    Demonstrates the construction of permanent magnet (PM) motor drives and supplies ready-to-implement solutions to common roadblocks along the way. This book also supplies fundamental equations and calculations for determining and evaluating system performance, efficiency, reliability, and cost. It explores modern computer-aided design of PM motors.

  13. Constant force linear permanent magnet actuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulides, J.J.H.; Encica, L.; Meessen, K.J.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    In applications, such as vibration isolation, gravity compensation, pick-and-place machines, etc., there is a need for (long-stroke) passive constant force actuators combined with tubular permanent magnet actuators to minimize the power consumption, hence, passively counteract the gravitational

  14. Preparedness of Entering Pediatric Dentistry Residents: Advanced Pediatric Program Directors' and First-Year Residents' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkauskas, John; Seale, N Sue; Casamassimo, Paul; Rutkauskas, John S

    2015-11-01

    For children to receive needed oral health care, adequate training at both the predoctoral and postdoctoral levels of dental education is required, but previous studies have found inadequacies in predoctoral education that lead to general dentists' unwillingness to treat certain young populations. As another way of assessing predoctoral preparation, the aim of this study was to determine the perspectives of first-year residents and pediatric program directors about residents' preparedness to enter advanced education programs in pediatric dentistry. Surveys were sent to all 74 U.S. program directors and 360 first-year residents. The survey focused on procedures related to prevention, behavior management, restorative procedures, pulp therapy, sedation, and surgery, as well as treating patients funded by Medicaid and with special health care needs. Among the first-year residents, 173 surveys were returned for a 48% response rate; 61 directors returned surveys for an 82% response rate. Only half of the residents (55%) reported feeling adequately prepared for their first year in residency; less than half cited adequate preparation to place stainless steel crowns (SSCs) (42%) and perform pulpotomies (45%). Far fewer felt adequately prepared to provide treatment for children six months to three years of age, including examinations (29%), infant oral exams (27%), and children with severe caries (37%). The program directors were even less positive about the adequacy of residents' preparation. Only 17% deemed them adequately prepared to place SSCs and 13% to perform pulpotomies. Approximately half reported their first-year residents were inadequately prepared to treat very young children and children with severe caries (55% each). This study found that the perceived inadequacy of predoctoral education in pediatric dentistry was consistent at both the learner and educator levels, supporting previous studies identifying inadequacies in this area.

  15. A Permanent Automated Real-Time Passive Acoustic Monitoring System for Bottlenose Dolphin Conservation in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Brunoldi

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the EU Life+ project named LIFE09 NAT/IT/000190 ARION, a permanent automated real-time passive acoustic monitoring system for the improvement of the conservation status of the transient and resident population of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus has been implemented and installed in the Portofino Marine Protected Area (MPA, Ligurian Sea. The system is able to detect the simultaneous presence of dolphins and boats in the area and to give their position in real time. This information is used to prevent collisions by diffusing warning messages to all the categories involved (tourists, professional fishermen and so on. The system consists of two gps-synchronized acoustic units, based on a particular type of marine buoy (elastic beacon, deployed about 1 km off the Portofino headland. Each one is equipped with a four-hydrophone array and an onboard acquisition system which can record the typical social communication whistles emitted by the dolphins and the sound emitted by boat engines. Signals are pre-filtered, digitized and then broadcast to the ground station via wi-fi. The raw data are elaborated to get the direction of the acoustic target to each unit, and hence the position of dolphins and boats in real time by triangulation.

  16. Permanent isolation surface barrier development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    The exhumation and treatment of wastes may not always be the preferred alternative in the remediation of a waste site. In-place disposal alternatives, under certain circumstances, may be the most desirable alternatives to use in the protection of human health and the environment. The implementation of an in-place disposal alternative will likely require some type of protective covering that will provide long-term isolation of the wastes from the accessible environment. Even if the wastes are exhumed and treated, a long-term barrier may still be needed to adequately dispose of the treated wastes or any remaining waste residuals. Currently, no open-quotes provenclose quotes long-term barrier is available. The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site. The permanent isolation barrier technology also could be used at other sites. Permanent isolation barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with redundant protective features. Drawings of conceptual permanent isolation surface barriers are shown. The natural construction materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity. The objective of current designs is to use natural materials to develop a maintenance-free permanent isolation surface barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1,000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling the exhalation of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion-related problems

  17. Permanent isolation surface barrier development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wing, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    The exhumation and treatment of wastes may not always be the preferred alternative in the remediation of a waste site. In-place disposal alternatives, under certain circumstances, may be the most desirable alternatives to use in the protection of human health and the environment. The implementation of an in-place disposal alternative will likely require some type of protective covering that will provide long-term isolation of the wastes from the accessible environment. Even if the wastes are exhumed and treated, a long-term barrier may still be needed to adequately dispose of the treated wastes or any remaining waste residuals. Currently, no {open_quotes}proven{close_quotes} long-term barrier is available. The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site. The permanent isolation barrier technology also could be used at other sites. Permanent isolation barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with redundant protective features. Drawings of conceptual permanent isolation surface barriers are shown. The natural construction materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity. The objective of current designs is to use natural materials to develop a maintenance-free permanent isolation surface barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1,000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling the exhalation of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion-related problems.

  18. Diagnosis and Management of a Patient with Congenitally Missing Maxillary First Permanent Molars: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenitally missing teeth are the most commonly seen dental anomalies. Agenesis of the permanent first molar has the least frequency of all the tooth types, and it usually occurs in association with oligodontia or anodontia. Thus, agenesis of the bilateral maxillary first permanent molar is an extremely rare occurrence, and no such case has been reported in ethnic Saudi Arabian population. We hereby report a case of nonsyndromic bilateral congenitally missing maxillary first permanent molar in an eight-year-old Saudi female patient. Comprehensive oral rehabilitation was done for the patient. The implications of the tooth agenesis are also discussed. The prognosis of this case is presented.

  19. The pregnant female surgical resident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifflette V

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Vanessa Shifflette,1 Susannah Hambright,2 Joseph Darryl Amos,1 Ernest Dunn,3 Maria Allo4 1Associates in Surgical Acute Care, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 2Methodist Surgical Associates, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 3Graduate Medical Education - General Surgery, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 4Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, CA, USA Background: Surgery continues to be an intense, time-consuming residency. Many medical students decide against surgery as a profession due to the long work hours and family strain. The pregnant female surgical resident has an added stress factor compared to her male counterpart. Methods: We distributed an electronic, online 26-question survey to 32 general surgery programs in the southwestern region of the United States. Each program distributed our survey to the female surgical residents who had been pregnant during residency in the last 5 years. Each program was re-contacted 6 weeks after the initial contact. Most questions were in a 5-point Likert scale format. The responses were collected and analyzed using the Survey Monkey website. Results: An unvalidated survey was sent to 32 general surgery programs and 26 programs responded (81%. Each program was asked for the total number of possible responses from female residents that met our criteria (60 female residents. Seven of the programs (27% stated that they have had zero residents pregnant. We had 22 residents respond (37%. Over half of the residents (55% were pregnant during their 2nd or 3rd year of residency, with only 18% pregnant during a research year. Thirty-one percent had a lower American Board of Surgery In-Training Exam (ABSITE score. Ninety percent of the residents were able to take 4 weeks or more for maternity leave. Most of the residents (95% stated that they would do this again during residency given the opportunity, but many of the residents felt that returning back to work

  20. Severe diarrhea-dehydration in infancy permanently alters auditory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, N Wendell

    2012-02-01

    Of the myriad etiologies of sensorineural hearing impairment, metabolic stress is rarely considered. I posit that severe dehydration in conjunction with hypoxia, at least during infancy, prompts permanent changes in the cochlea. In a population-based prospective study of otitis media, children without otitis were found to have at age 4-8 years, worse auditory thresholds if as an infant had been hospitalized for diarrhea-dehydration. What is more, stapedius reflex thresholds tended to be lower in children who had been hospitalized for diarrhea-dehydration: that is, less acoustic energy for arousal or to be frightening. The hypothesis that the transient metabolic stress of dehydration with hypoxia prompts permanent sensorineural hearing impairment with reduced uncomfortable loudness thresholds, is both (1) consistent in an evolutionary sense with a subsequent survival advantage, and (2) subject to verification both by descriptive studies of children undergoing ECMO (ExtraCorporeal Membrane Oxygenation) or care for congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and by animal studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mixed messages: residents' experiences learning cross-cultural care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Elyse R; Betancourt, Joseph R; Kim, Minah K; Maina, Angela W; Blumenthal, David; Weissman, Joel S

    2005-09-01

    An Institute of Medicine report issued in 2002 cited cross-cultural training as a mechanism to address racial and ethnic disparities in health care, but little is known about residents' training and capabilities to provide quality care to diverse populations. This article explores a select group of residents' perceptions of their preparedness to deliver quality care to diverse populations. Seven focus groups and ten individual interviews were conducted with 68 residents in locations nationwide. Qualitative analysis of focus-group and individual interview transcripts was performed to assess residents' perceptions of (1) preparedness to deliver care to diverse patients; (2) educational climate; and (3) training experiences. Most residents in this study noted the importance of cross-cultural care yet reported little formal training in this area. Residents wanted more formal training yet expressed concern that culture-specific training could lead to stereotyping. Most residents had developed ad hoc, informal skills to care for diverse patients. Although residents perceived institutional endorsement, they sensed it was a low priority due to lack of time and resources. Residents in this study reported receiving mixed messages about cross-cultural care. They were told it is important, yet they received little formal training and did not have time to treat diverse patients in a culturally sensitive manner. As a result, many developed coping behaviors rather than skills based on formally taught best practices. Training environments need to increase training to enhance residents' preparedness to deliver high-quality cross-cultural care if the medical profession is to achieve the goals set by the Institute of Medicine.

  2. Development of cryogenic permanent magnet undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Toru; Tanaka, Takashi; Shirasawa, Katsutoshi; Kitamura, Hideo; Bizen, Teruhiko; Seike, Takamitsu; Marechal, Xavier; Tsuru, Rieko; Iwaki, Daisuke

    2005-01-01

    A short period undulator increases not only the photon energy of undulator radiation, but also the brilliance due to its increased number of undulator periods. As a result, brilliant undulator radiation becomes available in the photon energy range, which is currently covered by wigglers. In order to develop a short period undulator, high performance magnets are indispensable and superconductive undulators have been actively investigated in recent years. In this paper, however, we propose a new approach, so called a cryogenic permanent magnet undulator using NdFeB magnets at the temperatures around 150 K. The current status of this cryogenic permanent magnet undulator development at SPring-8 is presented including the results of the magnetic field measurements on a prototype undulator. (author)

  3. Autistic children and the object permanence task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrien, J L; Tanguay, P; Barthélémy, C; Martineaú, J; Perrot, A; Hameury, L; Sauvage, D

    1993-01-01

    Many mentally retarded autistic children can understand the concept of object permanence, but, in comparison to developmental-age matched normal children, the behavioral strategies they employ in carrying out the Casati-Lezine Object Permanence Test are deficient and lead to failure. These deficiencies appear unrelated to interference of stereotypic or other bizarre behavior in task performance. Similar problem-solving deficiencies can be found in mentally retarded children who are not autistic, suggesting that the deficiencies themselves are less related to the social-communication deficits of autistic children, but more to the general problem-solving difficulties found in children with a lower developmental quotient. Nevertheless, the qualitative analysis of results shows a tendency in autistic children, despite their better developmental level, to use less coordinated and regular sequences to solve the task than normal or mentally retarded children.

  4. Design and construction of permanent magnetic gears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frank Thorleif

    /l]. Measurement from this gear has resulted in a measured total torque density of 23 [Nm/l]. Mechanical versions of this gear type are found with total torque density in the 16 to 31 [Nm/l] range. The third and last gear technology that is investigated is a gear that reminds of a planetary gear. Research shows......This thesis deals with design and development of permanent magnetic gears. The goal of this thesis is to develop knowledge and calculation software for magnetic gears. They use strong NdFeB permanent magnets and a new magnetic gear technology, which will be a serious alternative to classical...... mechanical gears. The new magnetic gear will have a high torque density1 relationship –high efficiency and are maintenance free. In this project was manufactured two test gears which is tested and verified with models developed in this project. Present technological status for magnetic gears is introduced...

  5. Robotized Surface Mounting of Permanent Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hultman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Using permanent magnets on a rotor can both simplify the design and increase the efficiency of electric machines compared to using electromagnets. A drawback, however, is the lack of existing automated assembly methods for large machines. This paper presents and motivates a method for robotized surface mounting of permanent magnets on electric machine rotors. The translator of the Uppsala University Wave Energy Converter generator is used as an example of a rotor. The robot cell layout, equipment design and assembly process are presented and validated through computer simulations and experiments with prototype equipment. A comparison with manual assembly indicates substantial cost savings and an improved work environment. By using the flexibility of industrial robots and a scalable equipment design, it is possible for this assembly method to be adjusted for other rotor geometries and sizes. Finally, there is a discussion on the work that remains to be done on improving and integrating the robot cell into a production line.

  6. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2010-01-12

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has a ferromagnetic outer stator mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. Pluralities of top and bottom stator poles are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the ferromagnetic outer stator. A ferromagnetic inner rotor is coupled to the shaft and has i) a rotor core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second discs having respective outer edges with first and second pluralities of permanent magnets (PMs) mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the rotor core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  7. Regulation of fields excited by permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchenko, I.S.

    1989-01-01

    Two methods of fast regulation of fields excited by permanent magnets in salient-pole electron-optical lenses are described: 1)the hybrid method realized using the additional electromagnet introduced to a magnetic chain sequentially its field being composed or substracted with magnetosolid exciter field; 2)the method with saturation of a part of a magnetic circuit, with saturation being achievable at the begining or in the end of a regulation cycle. In the second method it is proposed to direct orthogonally the main flux excited by permanent magnets and the flux in the saturated part of the magnetic circuit excited using an electromagnet. It is shown that the second method allows one to reduce the required ampere-coils by more than an order as compared to the first method at one and the same regulation range and other equal conditions. The frequency of field regulation in the experimental mock-up was 10 kHz. 3 refs.; 2 figs

  8. Sensorless Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Torben N.

    Permanent magnet machines, with either surface mounted or embedded magnets on the rotor, are becoming more common due to the key advantages of higher energy conversion efficiency and higher torque density compared to the classical induction machine. Besides energy efficiency the permanent magnet...... the synchronous machine requires knowledge of the rotor shaft position due to the synchronous and undamped nature of the machine. The rotor position may be measured using a mechanical sensor, but the sensor reduces reliability and adds cost to the system and for this reason sensorless control methods started...... are dependent on the phase currents and rotor position. Based on the flux linkages the differential inductances are determined and used to establish the inductance saliency in terms of ratio and orientation. The orientation and its dependence on the current and rotor position are used to analyse the behaviour...

  9. Characterizing permanent magnet blocks with Helmholtz coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, D. W.; Timpf, J.

    1992-08-01

    Most of the insertion devices to be installed at the Advanced Photon Source will utilize permanent magnets in their magnetic structures. The quality of the spectral output is sensitive to the errors in the field of the device which are related to variations in the magnetic properties of the individual blocks. The Advanced Photon Source will have a measurement facility to map the field in the completed insertion devices and equipment to test and modify the magnetic strength of the individual magnet blocks. One component of the facility, the Helmholtz coil permanent magnet block measurement system, has been assembled and tested. This system measures the total magnetic moment vector of a block with a precision better than 0.01% and a directional resolution of about 0.05°. The design and performance of the system will be presented.

  10. Urethral alarm probe for permanent prostate implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutajar, D.; Lerch, M.; Takacs, G.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a urethral dosimetry system for real time dose verification along the urethra during permanent implant prostate brachytherapy. The urethral alarm uses 'spectroscopic dosimetry' to calculate the dose rate along the urethra in real time. The application of spectroscopic dosimetry for the urethral alarm probe was verified using Monte Carlo calculations. In phantom depth dose measurements as well as isotropy measurements were performed to verify the usefulness of the urethra alarm probe as an in vivo real time dosimeter. (author)

  11. Neutron induced permanent damage in Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, G.P.; Rosen, M.

    1982-01-01

    14 MeV neutron induced permanent changes in the critical current density of Josephson junctions due to displacement damage in the junction barrier are estimated using a worst case model and the binary collision simulation code MARLOWE. No likelihood of single event hard upsets is found in this model. It is estimated that a fluence of 10 18 -10 19 neutrons/cm 2 are required to change the critical current density by 5%

  12. High-field permanent-magnet structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leupoid, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a permanent magnet structure. It comprises an azimuthally circumscribed section of a hollow hemispherical magnetic flux source, the magnetic orientation in the section with respect to the polar axis being substantially equal to twice the polar angle, a superconducting planar sheet abutting one flat face of the section along a longitudinal meridian, and at least one other planar sheet of selected material abutting another flat face of the section and perpendicular to the first-mentioned sheet

  13. Magnetic guns with cylindrical permanent magnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vokoun, David; Beleggia, M.; Heller, Luděk

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 324, č. 9 (2012), s. 1715-1719 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP107/11/0391; GA AV ČR IAA100100920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : permanent magnet * cylindrical magnet * Earnshaw's theorem * magnetic gun * magnetostatic interaction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.826, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304885311008997

  14. Permanent Quadriplegia Following Replacement of Voice Prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Kayhan; Erdur, Omer; Kibar, Ertugrul

    2016-11-01

    The authors presented a patient with quadriplegia caused by cervical spine abscess following voice prosthesis replacement. The authors present the first reported permanent quadriplegia patient caused by voice prosthesis replacement. The authors wanted to emphasize that life-threatening complications may be faced during the replacement of voice prosthesis. Care should be taken during the replacement of voice prosthesis and if some problems have been faced during the procedure patients must be followed closely.

  15. Axial flux permanent magnet brushless machines

    CERN Document Server

    Gieras, Jacek F; Kamper, Maarten J

    2008-01-01

    Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) brushless machines are modern electrical machines with a lot of advantages over their conventional counterparts. They are being increasingly used in consumer electronics, public life, instrumentation and automation system, clinical engineering, industrial electromechanical drives, automobile manufacturing industry, electric and hybrid electric vehicles, marine vessels and toys. They are also used in more electric aircrafts and many other applications on larger scale. New applications have also emerged in distributed generation systems (wind turbine generators

  16. Permanents, Determinants, and Generalized Complementary Basic Matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiedler, Miroslav; Hall, F.J.; Stroev, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2014), s. 1041-1051 ISSN 1846-3886 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0473 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : factorization * GCB-matrix * permanent * intrinsic product Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.583, year: 2014 http://files.ele-math.com/abstracts/oam-08-57-abs.pdf

  17. ERUPTION PATTERN OF PERMANENT TEETH -IN TANZANIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was visible in the oral vacity. Generally permanent teeth erupted earlier in girls than in boys. The differences were 0.1 - 0.2 years for incisors and first molars, 0.2 - 0.4 years for canines and premolars and 0.3 - 0.5 years for second molars. Except for the second premolars, mandibular teeth erupted earlier than the maxillary in ...

  18. Education Research: Neurology resident education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayans, David; Schneider, Logan; Adams, Nellie; Khawaja, Ayaz M.; Engstrom, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To survey US-trained graduating neurology residents who are American Academy of Neurology members, in an effort to trend perceived quality and completeness of graduate neurology education. Methods: An electronic survey was sent to all American Academy of Neurology members graduating from US neurology residency programs in the Spring of 2014. Results: Of 805 eligible respondents, 24% completed the survey. Ninety-three percent of adult neurology residents and 56% of child neurology residents reported plans to pursue fellowship training after residency. Respondents reported a desire for additional training in neurocritical care, neuro-oncology, neuromuscular diseases, botulinum toxin injection, and nerve blocks. There remains a clear deficit in business training of neurology residents, although there was notable improvement in knowledge of coding and office management compared to previous surveys. Discussion: Although there are still areas of perceived weakness in neurology training, graduating neurology residents feel generally well prepared for their chosen careers. However, most still pursue fellowship training for reasons that are little understood. In addition to certain subspecialties and procedures, practice management remains deficient in neurology training and is a point of future insecurity for most residents. Future curriculum changes should consider resident-reported gaps in knowledge, with careful consideration of improving business training. PMID:26976522

  19. Financing of permanent working capital in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Branko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we attempted to present the problem of establishing adequate structure of financing medium agricultural enterprises and to point out the necessity for permanent working capital in those agricultural enterprises which can’t cover fixed assets, long-term placements and portion of inventories (raw material and spare parts, production in process with own equity and long-term sources of financing. For the purpose of analysing adequate structure of financing medium agricultural enterprises, we will use one of the most popular methods, such as case study and ratio analysis. Results of the research show that in primary agricultural production, next to standard long-term investment loans and short-term loans for investment in agricultural production, there is a necessity for financing in the permanent working capital which could assist continuity of production process and enable conditions for more profitable business in agriculture. It also should be noted that real and book value on this level of permanent working capital differs substantially.

  20. 76 FR 78698 - Proposed Revocation of Permanent Variances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... Administration (``OSHA'' or ``the Agency'') granted permanent variances to 24 companies engaged in the... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration [Docket No. OSHA-2011-0054] Proposed Revocation of Permanent Variances AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA...

  1. sizing of wind powered axial flux permanent magnet alternator using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-10-04

    Oct 4, 2016 ... Keywords: Wind-Power, Axial flux, Axial Flux Permanent Machines (AFPM), Axial Flux Permanent Magnet ... energy for power generation, a high constraint is the .... arrangements as Single-Rotor Single-Stator Structure.

  2. Analysis of Hall Probe Precise Positioning with Cylindrical Permanent Magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belicev, P.; Vorozhtsov, A.S.; Vorozhtsov, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    Precise positioning of a Hall probe for cyclotron magnetic field mapping, using cylindrical permanent magnets, was analyzed. The necessary permanent magnet parameters in order to achieve ±20 μm position precision, were determined. (author)

  3. Medical Student Interest in Flexible Residency Training Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Madison; Stulberg, Debra; Egan, Mari

    2018-05-01

    Medical residents continue to experience high rates of burnout during residency training even after implementation of the 2003 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education duty-hour restrictions. The purpose of this study is to determine medical student interest in flexible residency training options. Researchers developed an 11-question survey for second through fourth-year medical students. The populations surveyed included medical students who were: (1) attending the 2015 American Academy of Family Physicians National Conference, the 2015 Family Medicine Midwest Conference, and (2) enrolled at University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago, Drexel University College of Medicine, and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. The survey was completed by 789 medical students. Over half of medical students surveyed indicated that they would be interested in working part-time during some portion of their residency training (51%), and that access to part-time training options would increase their likelihood of applying to a particular residency program (52%). When given the option of three residency training schedules of varying lengths, 41% of male students and 60% of female students chose a 60-hour workweek, even when that meant extending the residency length by 33% and reducing their yearly salary to $39,000. There is considerable interest among medical students in access to part-time residency training options and reduced-hour residency programs. This level of interest indicates that offering flexible training options could be an effective recruitment tool for residency programs and could improve students' perception of their work-life balance during residency.

  4. Meeting the Housing and Care Needs of Older Homeless Adults: A Permanent Supportive Housing Program Targeting Homeless Elders

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Rebecca T.; Thomas, M. Lori; Cutler, Deborah F.; Hinderlie, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The homeless population is aging faster than the general population in the United States. As this vulnerable population continues to age, addressing complex care and housing needs will become increasingly important. This article reviews the often-overlooked issue of homelessness among older adults, including their poor health status and unique care needs, the factors that contribute to homelessness in this population, and the costs of homelessness to the U.S. health care system. Permanent sup...

  5. Communication dated 2 March 2007 from the Permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the Agency concerning the nuclear activities of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 2 March 2007 from the Permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran), attaching a letter dated 19 February 2007 addressed to the Director General from the Resident Representative of Iran concerning the nuclear activities of Iran. The Note Verbale and, as requested therein, its attachment, are circulated herewith

  6. Milton Friedman and the Emergence of the Permanent Income Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiang-Ke Chao

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the evolution of MiltonFriedman's permanent income hypothesis from the 1940s to 1960s, andhow it became the paradigm of modern consumption theory. Modellingunobservables, such as permanent income and permanent consumption, isa long-standing issue in economics and econometrics. While theconventional approach has been to set an empirical model to make"permanent income" measurable, the historical change in the meaningof that theoretical construct is al...

  7. Incorporating resident research into the dermatology residency program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard F; Raimer, Sharon S; Kelly, Brent C

    2013-01-01

    Programmatic changes for the dermatology residency program at The University of Texas Medical Branch were first introduced in 2005, with the faculty goal incorporating formal dermatology research projects into the 3-year postgraduate training period. This curriculum initially developed as a recommendation for voluntary scholarly project activity by residents, but it evolved into a program requirement for all residents in 2009. Departmental support for this activity includes assignment of a faculty mentor with similar interest about the research topic, financial support from the department for needed supplies, materials, and statistical consultation with the Office of Biostatistics for study design and data analysis, a 2-week elective that provides protected time from clinical activities for the purpose of preparing research for publication and submission to a peer-reviewed medical journal, and a departmental award in recognition for the best resident scholarly project each year. Since the inception of this program, five classes have graduated a total of 16 residents. Ten residents submitted their research studies for peer review and published their scholarly projects in seven dermatology journals through the current academic year. These articles included three prospective investigations, three surveys, one article related to dermatology education, one retrospective chart review, one case series, and one article about dermatopathology. An additional article from a 2012 graduate about dermatology education has also been submitted to a journal. This new program for residents was adapted from our historically successful Dermatology Honors Research Program for medical students at The University of Texas Medical Branch. Our experience with this academic initiative to promote dermatology research by residents is outlined. It is recommended that additional residency programs should consider adopting similar research programs to enrich resident education. PMID:23901305

  8. Incorporating resident research into the dermatology residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard F; Raimer, Sharon S; Kelly, Brent C

    2013-01-01

    Programmatic changes for the dermatology residency program at The University of Texas Medical Branch were first introduced in 2005, with the faculty goal incorporating formal dermatology research projects into the 3-year postgraduate training period. This curriculum initially developed as a recommendation for voluntary scholarly project activity by residents, but it evolved into a program requirement for all residents in 2009. Departmental support for this activity includes assignment of a faculty mentor with similar interest about the research topic, financial support from the department for needed supplies, materials, and statistical consultation with the Office of Biostatistics for study design and data analysis, a 2-week elective that provides protected time from clinical activities for the purpose of preparing research for publication and submission to a peer-reviewed medical journal, and a departmental award in recognition for the best resident scholarly project each year. Since the inception of this program, five classes have graduated a total of 16 residents. Ten residents submitted their research studies for peer review and published their scholarly projects in seven dermatology journals through the current academic year. These articles included three prospective investigations, three surveys, one article related to dermatology education, one retrospective chart review, one case series, and one article about dermatopathology. An additional article from a 2012 graduate about dermatology education has also been submitted to a journal. This new program for residents was adapted from our historically successful Dermatology Honors Research Program for medical students at The University of Texas Medical Branch. Our experience with this academic initiative to promote dermatology research by residents is outlined. It is recommended that additional residency programs should consider adopting similar research programs to enrich resident education.

  9. CERN CERTIFICATE REQUIRED FOR AN APPLICATION FOR A FRENCH RESIDENCE PERMIT ISSUED BY A PREFECTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    All non-French nationals who reside in France for more than three consecutive months or who, in the case of intermittent periods of residence, are effectively present in France for more than three months in any six-month period must obtain a residence or stay permit (titre de séjour). If members of the CERN personnel and members of their families fulfil those conditions inter alia, they normally receive a legitimation document, which is valid as a residence or stay permit, from the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Carte spéciale FI or AT, Carte d'assimilé à un membre de mission diplomatique). However, members of the personnel with permanent resident status (résident permanent) are not, by virtue of that status, entitled to a legitimation document and must obtain a residence permit issued by a Prefecture. For the latter purpose, with the agreement of the Prefecture de l'Ain, CERN (i.e. the Personnel Records Office, Human Resources Division, office 33/1-...

  10. Permanent magnet design for high-speed superconducting bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John R.; Uherka, Kenneth L.; Abdoud, Robert G.

    1996-01-01

    A high temperature superconducting bearing including a permanent magnet rotor levitated by a high temperature superconducting structure. The rotor preferably includes one or more concentric permanent magnet rings coupled to permanent magnet ring structures having substantially triangular and quadrangular cross-sections. Both alternating and single direction polarity magnet structures can be used in the bearing.

  11. Permanent magnet design for high-speed superconducting bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, J.R.; Uherka, K.L.; Abdoud, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    A high temperature superconducting bearing including a permanent magnet rotor levitated by a high temperature superconducting structure is disclosed. The rotor preferably includes one or more concentric permanent magnet rings coupled to permanent magnet ring structures having substantially triangular and quadrangular cross-sections. Both alternating and single direction polarity magnet structures can be used in the bearing. 9 figs

  12. Generation of magnetic fields for accelerators with permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinander, T.

    1994-01-01

    Commercially available permanent magnet materials and their properties are reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of using permanent magnets as compared to electromagnets for the generation of specific magnetic fields are discussed. Basic permanent magnet configurations in multipole magnets and insertion devices are presented. (orig.)

  13. 6 CFR 7.29 - Documents of permanent historical value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Documents of permanent historical value. 7.29... NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.29 Documents of permanent historical value. The... contained in records determined to have permanent historical value under 44 U.S.C. 2107 before they are...

  14. Space missiles start-up impact on environment and dermatosis distribution for population residing areas adjacent to the 'Baikanur' space spot and to that of worked out stages of missile carriers fall: development and immunoprophylaxis measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlovskij, V.A.; Mukhamedzhanov, Eh.K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents review of literary data of missile start-ups impact on environment and human health, condition of dermatological diseases in the regions adjacent to 'Baikanur' missile-space complex. It is reported that in-depth study upon assessment of dermatosis distribution for adults and children, development mechanisms of a number dermatological diseases under effect of excess ultraviolet radiation condition and that of asymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (heptyl) in the regions of possible impact of missile carrier's start-ups on dermatosis development epidemic process will be carried out. The study results will be compared with assessment of general level of population life within the last 20 years and adequacy of medicine, including dermatological care for the population. (author)

  15. Loss of the First Permanent Molar: Risk Factors and Adolescent Oral Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daraí Bárbara Sánchez Montero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Foundation: the replacement of the primary dentition begins with the eruption of the first permanent molars that will be subjected to various risk factors.Objective: to determine the existing relation between the first permanent molar loss and the risk factors in adolescents from 12 to 14 years old. Method: a cross descriptive study was developed between October 20011 and March 2012. On a universe of 560 students, a simple random sampling was done and a sample of 185 patients was selected. On school visits dental exams were performed to determine the Clune index dental caries index, filled and missing teeth and the simplified index of oral hygiene. The estimated relative risk was used with prevalence odd ratio and prevalence ratio was calculated. The studied variables were: sex, oral hygiene habits, and habits of cariogenic diet bucodental health. Results: the loss of the first permanent molar predominated in the male sex with a 14.1 %. The prevailing risk factor was cariogenic diet which affected 57.3 of the population, where 80.6 of those who had a high consumption showed loss of the first permanent molar. Clune index (53,4 % in the female and 40 % in the male sex, dental caries, filled and lost teeth (1.7 % in female and 2.9 in the male sex were calculated. Conclusion: there is a direct relation between risk factors, poor oral hygiene and cariogenic feeding with the loss of the first permanent molar.

  16. Surgical residency: A tenant's view

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'To sleep: perchance to dream', is the frequent mantra of the surgical resident. However, unlike. Hamlet, there is no ensuing speculation as to what dreams may come as there are seldom any!! Surgical residency has been both vilified and immortalized, but the fact remains that it is one of the most challenging, provocative ...

  17. Burnout among Dutch medical residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, J.T.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.; Van De Wiel, H.B.; Gazendam-Donofrio, S.M.; Sprangers, F.; Jaspers, F.C.; van der Heijden, F.M.

    2007-01-01

    We examined levels of burnout and relationships between burnout, gender, age, years in training, and medical specialty in 158 medical residents working at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. Thirteen percent of the residents met the criteria for burnout, with the highest

  18. Results of the 2004 Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO) Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Shilpen; Jagsi, Reshma; Wilson, John; Frank, Steven; Thakkar, Vipul V.; Hansen, Eric K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to document adequacy of training, career plans after residency, use of the in-service examination, and motivation for choice of radiation oncology as a specialty. Methods and Materials: In 2004, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO) conducted a nationwide survey of all radiation oncology residents in the United States. Results: The survey was returned by 297 residents (response rate, 54%). Of the respondents, 29% were female and 71% male. The most popular career choice was joining an established private practice (38%), followed by a permanent academic career (29%). Residents for whom a permanent academic career was not their first choice were asked whether improvements in certain areas would have led them to be more likely to pursue an academic career. The most commonly chosen factors that would have had a strong or moderate influence included higher salary (81%), choice of geographic location (76%), faculty encouragement (68%), and less time commitment (68%). Of respondents in the first 3 years of training, 78% believed that they had received adequate training to proceed to the next level of training. Of those in their fourth year of training, 75% believed that they had received adequate training to enter practice. Conclusions: Multiple factors affect the educational environment of physicians in training. Data describing concerns unique to resident physicians in radiation oncology are limited. The current survey was designed to explore a variety of issues confronting radiation oncology residents. Training programs and the Residency Review Committee should consider these results when developing new policies to improve the educational experiences of residents in radiation oncology

  19. Early resident-to-resident physics education in diagnostic radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansagra, Akash P

    2014-01-01

    The revised ABR board certification process has updated the method by which diagnostic radiology residents are evaluated for competency in clinical radiologic physics. In this work, the author reports the successful design and implementation of a resident-taught physics course consisting of 5 weekly, hour-long lectures intended for incoming first-year radiology residents in their first month of training. To the author's knowledge, this is the first description of a course designed to provide a very early framework for ongoing physics education throughout residency without increasing the didactic burden on faculty members. Twenty-six first-year residents spanning 2 academic years took the course and reported subjective improvement in their knowledge (90%) and interest (75%) in imaging physics and a high level of satisfaction with the use of senior residents as physics educators. Based on the success of this course and the minimal resources required for implementation, this work may serve as a blueprint for other radiology residency programs seeking to develop revised physics curricula. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Needs Assessment for Incoming PGY-1 Residents in Neurosurgical Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandman, David M; Haji, Faizal A; Matte, Marie C; Clarke, David B

    2015-01-01

    Residents must develop a diverse range of skills in order to practice neurosurgery safely and effectively. The purpose of this study was to identify the foundational skills required for neurosurgical trainees as they transition from medical school to residency. Based on the CanMEDS competency framework, a web-based survey was distributed to all Canadian academic neurosurgical centers, targeting incoming and current PGY-1 neurosurgical residents as well as program directors. Using Likert scale and free-text responses, respondents rated the importance of various cognitive (e.g. management of raised intracranial pressure), technical (e.g. performing a lumbar puncture) and behavioral skills (e.g. obtaining informed consent) required for a PGY-1 neurosurgical resident. Of 52 individuals contacted, 38 responses were received. Of these, 10 were from program directors (71%), 11 from current PGY-1 residents (58%) and 17 from incoming PGY-1 residents (89%). Respondents emphasized operative skills such as proper sterile technique and patient positioning; clinical skills such as lesion localization and interpreting neuro-imaging; management skills for common scenarios such as raised intracranial pressure and status epilepticus; and technical skills such as lumbar puncture and external ventricular drain placement. Free text answers were concordant with the Likert scale results. We surveyed Canadian neurosurgical program directors and PGY-1 residents to identify areas perceived as foundational to neurosurgical residency education and training. This information is valuable for evaluating the appropriateness of a training program's goals and objectives, as well as for generating a national educational curriculum for incoming PGY-1 residents.

  1. Does Residency Selection Criteria Predict Performance in Orthopaedic Surgery Residency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Tina; Alrabaa, Rami George; Sood, Amit; Maloof, Paul; Benevenia, Joseph; Berberian, Wayne

    2016-04-01

    More than 1000 candidates applied for orthopaedic residency positions in 2014, and the competition is intense; approximately one-third of the candidates failed to secure a position in the match. However, the criteria used in the selection process often are subjective and studies have differed in terms of which criteria predict either objective measures or subjective ratings of resident performance by faculty. Do preresidency selection factors serve as predictors of success in residency? Specifically, we asked which preresidency selection factors are associated or correlated with (1) objective measures of resident knowledge and performance; and (2) subjective ratings by faculty. Charts of 60 orthopaedic residents from our institution were reviewed. Preresidency selection criteria examined included United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 and Step 2 scores, Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores, number of clinical clerkship honors, number of letters of recommendation, number of away rotations, Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) honor medical society membership, fourth-year subinternship at our institution, and number of publications. Resident performance was assessed using objective measures including American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery (ABOS) Part I scores and Orthopaedics In-Training Exam (OITE) scores and subjective ratings by faculty including global evaluation scores and faculty rankings of residents. We tested associations between preresidency criteria and the subsequent objective and subjective metrics using linear correlation analysis and Mann-Whitney tests when appropriate. Objective measures of resident performance namely, ABOS Part I scores, had a moderate linear correlation with the USMLE Step 2 scores (r = 0.55, p communication skills" subsection of the global evaluations. We found that USMLE Step 2, number of honors in medical school clerkships, and AOA membership demonstrated the strongest correlations with resident performance. Our

  2. Permanent magnet based dipole magnets for next generation light sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Watanabe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We have developed permanent magnet based dipole magnets for the next generation light sources. Permanent magnets are advantageous over electromagnets in that they consume less power, are physically more compact, and there is a less risk of power supply failure. However, experience with electromagnets and permanent magnets in the field of accelerators shows that there are still challenges to replacing main magnets of accelerators for light sources with permanent magnets. These include the adjustability of the magnetic field, the temperature dependence of permanent magnets, and the issue of demagnetization. In this paper, we present a design for magnets for future light sources, supported by experimental and numerical results.

  3. Rare earth permanent magnet with easy magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.S.; Camp, F.E.

    1998-01-01

    Rare earth permanent magnets have high energy products and coercivities, and thus the volume miniaturization of magnetic devices has been possible with improved magnetic performance. Although the high energy products of these rare earth permanent magnets provide substantial advantages for magnetic design and application, the strong magnetic force of the magnetized magnets makes assembly difficult. Therefore, a special device is needed to assemble the magnetized magnets. On the other hand, unmagnetized magnets are assembled and then they are magnetized. The assembled magnets are generally more difficult to magnetize than unassembled magnets because a much less effective magnetic field may be applied to them. This is particularly true for the rare earth permanent magnets because they usually need a much higher magnetic field to be fully magnetized than alnico or ferrite magnets. To obtain optimum magnetic properties, the required minimum magnetizing fields for SmCo 5 , Sm 2 TM 17 and Nd 2 Fe 14 B magnets were reported as 25-30 kOe, 45-60 kOe and 25-30 kOe, respectively. If the required magnetizing field for full saturation could be lowered, the effective utilization of magnetic properties would be maximized and the magnetic design option could be expanded with reduced restrictions. To meet this demand, we have sought to lower the field required for full magnetic saturation, and found that an increase in Dy content in R-(Fe,Co,Cu)-B type magnets lowers the field required for full saturation as well as improves the temperature stability. By increasing the H ci with Dy addition from 14 kOe to 24 and 34 kOe, the field required for full magnetic saturation decreases from about 20 to 15 and 10 kOe, respectively. This dual benefit will open up new application areas with more freedom for magnet design options. The mechanism for the lower magnetizing fields will be discussed. (orig.)

  4. Derivaciones al Servicio de Urgencias del hospital en una población de ancianos residentes: Estudio retrospectivo sobre sus causas y adecuación Hospital transfers from a population of elderly residents: A retrospective study about the causes and suitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Bermejo Higuera

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: analizar las causas y la adecuación de las derivaciones de ancianos institucionalizados al Servicio de Urgencias del hospital. Método: estudio descriptivo retrospectivo transversal sobre la población de una residencia de la Comunidad de Madrid. Se recogieron datos de 45 pacientes derivados durante el año 2008, con un total de 62 derivaciones. Derivación adecuada o pertinente fue aquella que cumpliera uno de los siguientes criterios: 1 el paciente ingresó o estuvo en observación más de 24 horas; 2 precisó ser valorado por un especialista y/o requirió pruebas diagnósticas no disponibles en el centro; y 3 necesitó tratamiento no disponible en el centro. Análisis estadístico descriptivo. Resultados: el 98,4% de las derivaciones cumplió los criterios de adecuación; 67% Criterio 1,21% Criterio 2 y no otros, y 77,4% Criterio 3. La causa más frecuente de derivación fue la sospecha de fractura poscaída (32,3%. El porcentaje anual de fallecidos (22,38% fue menor que el observado en otras residencias madrileñas, de ellos, el 15,55% falleció en el hospital.Aim: to analyse the causes and suitability of elderly resident transfers to hospital emergencies service. Methods: a retrospective and descriptive study about the resident population in a Residence of Comunidad de Madrid. We recorded data from 45 patients transferred in 2008, out of a total of 62 transfers. A suitable or appropriate derivation was one fulfilling at least one of the following criteria: 1-the patient was admitted to hospital or stayed in observation for more than 24 hours, 2- the patient had to be seen by a specialist or required a diagnosis test that was not available in the centre, 3- the patient needed treatment that was not available in the centre. The statistical analysis was descriptive. Results: 98.4% of the transfers complied with the suitability criteria: 67% criterion 1,21% criterion 2 but not other and 77% criterion 3. The most frequent cause for

  5. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shweiki, Ehyal; Martin, Niels D; Beekley, Alec C; Jenoff, Jay S; Koenig, George J; Kaulback, Kris R; Lindenbaum, Gary A; Patel, Pankaj H; Rosen, Matthew M; Weinstein, Michael S; Zubair, Muhammad H; Cohen, Murray J

    2015-01-01

    Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education.

  6. Tunable high-gradient permanent magnet quadrupoles

    CERN Document Server

    Shepherd, B J A; Marks, N; Collomb, N A; Stokes, D G; Modena, M; Struik, M; Bartalesi, A

    2014-01-01

    A novel type of highly tunable permanent magnet (PM) based quadrupole has been designed by the ZEPTO collaboration. A prototype of the design (ZEPTO-Q1), intended to match the specification for the CLIC Drive Beam Decelerator, was built and magnetically measured at Daresbury Laboratory and CERN. The prototype utilises two pairs of PMs which move in opposite directions along a single vertical axis to produce a quadrupole gradient variable between 15 and 60 T/m. The prototype meets CLIC's challenging specification in terms of the strength and tunability of the magnet.

  7. Patients with atrial fibrillation and permanent pacemaker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Frederik; Ruwald, Martin H; Lindhardt, Tommi Bo

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The management of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) with rate-lowering or anti-arrhythmic drugs has markedly changed over the last decade, but it is unknown how these changes have affected patients with NVAF with a permanent pacemaker (PPM). METHODS: Through Danish......,261. Thus, the proportional amount of NVAF patients with a PPM decreased from 1.3% to 1.1% (p = 0.015). Overall 45.9% had atrial fibrillation (AF) duration less than one year and the proportion declined from 55.5% to 42.4% (p

  8. Planar permanent magnet multipoles: Measurements and configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremer, T.; Tatchyn, R.

    1995-05-01

    Biplanar arrays of N rectangular permanent magnet (PM) blocks can be used to generate high quality N-pole fields in close proximity to the array axis. In applications featuring small-diameter charged particle beams, N-poles of adequate quality can be realized at relatively low cost using small volumes of PM material. In this paper we report on recent measurements performed on planar PM multipoles, and discuss techniques for improving the field quality of such devices at distances appreciably far away from the axis. Applications to hybrid/PM insertion device designs for linac-driven Free Electron Laser (FEL) operation in the x-ray range are described

  9. Permanent phonetic identification code for radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatua, R.; Somasundaram, S.; Srivastava, D.N.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes a system of self-checking short and easily memorisable 4-digit 'Permanent Phonetic Radiation Code' (PPRC) using radix 128 for Indians occupationally exposed to radiation, to facilitate entry of all radiation dose data pertaining to an individual in a single record of a file. The logic of PPRC is computer compatible. The necessary computer program has been developed in Health Physics Division for printing the PPRCs in Devanagari script through dot-matrix printers for making it understandable to the majority of the persons concerned. (author)

  10. Tuning permanent magnets with adjustable field clamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schermer, R.I.

    1987-01-01

    The effective length of a permanent-magnet assembly can be varied by adjusting the geometrical parameters of a field clamp. This paper presents measurements on a representative dipole and quadrupole as the field clamp is withdrawn axially or radially. The detailed behavior depends upon the magnet multipolarity and geometry. As a rule-of-thumb, a 3-mm-thick iron plate placed at one end plane of the magnet will shorten the length by one-third of the magnet bore radius

  11. Permanent-magnet-less synchronous reluctance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S

    2012-09-11

    A permanent magnet-less synchronous system includes a stator that generates a magnetic revolving field when sourced by an alternating current. An uncluttered rotor is disposed within the magnetic revolving field and spaced apart from the stator to form an air gap relative to an axis of rotation. The rotor includes a plurality of rotor pole stacks having an inner periphery biased by single polarity of a north-pole field and a south-pole field, respectively. The outer periphery of each of the rotor pole stacks are biased by an alternating polarity.

  12. Finite element analysis of permanent magnet motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boglietti, A.; Chiampi, M.; Tartaglia, M.; Chiarabaglio, D.

    1989-01-01

    The analysis of permanent magnet D.C. brushless motors, supplied by current control inverters, is developed employing a finite element package tailored for such devices. The study is devoted to predicting the performance of a set of four poles machines, under different operating conditions (no-load, rated load). The over-load conditions are also considered including the saturation effect. Moreover the influence of such design parameters, as the tooth shape and the number of magnet segments, is investigated. Computed results are found in satisfactory agreement with experimental ones

  13. Permanent Commission for Health and Safety

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2007-01-01

    The mandate of the Staff Association's permanent commission for Health and Safety is to examine all aspects of health and safety related to the working environment at CERN. In no way does it wish to be a substitute for the official bodies that are responsible for these matters. The Commission's aim is to formulate remarks on and make proposals about these questions to the relevant bodies and the CERN Management. Its main focus is the safety of the CERN staff but it is also concerned with the safety of the installations and of the CERN environment. The Commission reports to the Staff Council and the Executive Committee of the Staff Association.

  14. [Permanent constrictions of the jaws (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, A; Michaud, J

    1981-01-01

    Permanent constrictions of the jaws are of various types depending on the site of the lesion: temporomaxillary ankylosis, extra-articular constrictions of bone, skin, muscle, or mucosal origin, and those arising from tumors. The commonest cause is injury, those due to infection being currently less frequently observed, which cannot be said for those of tumoral origin. The consequences are difficulty in taking foud and poor buccodental hygiene, while temporomaxillary ankylosis in children provokes mandibular growth disturbances. Surgical treatment is aimed at removing the constriction. Total resection of the ankylosed block is essential to avoid recurrences, while reeducation of buccal opening must be started early and continued for long periods in all cases.

  15. Permanent Magnet Eddy Current Loss Analysis of a Novel Motor Integrated Permanent Magnet Gear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yuqiu; Lu, Kaiyuan; Ye, Yunyue

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new motor integrated permanent magnet gear (MIPMG) is discussed. The focus is on eddy current loss analysis associated to permanent magnets (PMs). A convenient model of MIPMG is provided based on 2-D field-motion coupled time-stepping finite element method for transient eddy...... current analysis. The model takes the eddy current effect of PMs into account in determination of the magnetic field in the air-gap and in the magnet regions. The eddy current losses generated in the magnets are properly interpreted. Design improvements for reducing the eddy current losses are suggested...

  16. Personal finances of urology residents in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichman, J M; Tongco, W; MacNeily, A E; Smart, M

    2000-12-01

    We examined how Urology residents in Canada manage their personal finances. A survey instrument was designed to elicit information on demographics, expenses, savings and incomes. The questionnaire was completed by 40 Urology residents attending the 2000 Queen's Urology Exam Skills Training (QUEST) program. Twenty-eight residents (70%) had educational debt (median debt $50 000). Seventeen residents (45%) paid credit card interest charges within the last year. Four residents (10%) maintained an unpaid credit card balance > $7500 at 17% annual interest rate. Twenty-six residents (67%) contributed to Registered Retirement Savings Program (RRSP) accounts. Seventeen residents (44%) contributed to non-RRSP retirement accounts. Nineteen residents (50%) budgeted expenses. Median resident income was $45 000. Thirteen residents (34%) had cash reserves < $250. Many residents save little, and incur substantial debt over and above educational loans. Many residents would benefit from instruction concerning prudent financial management. Residents should be informed of the consequences of low saving and high debt.

  17. Population structure of a whale shark Rhincodon typus aggregation in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Cochran, Jesse; Hardenstine, Royale; Braun, C. D.; Skomal, G. B.; Thorrold, S. R.; Xu, K.; Genton, Marc G.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of whale sharks Rhincodon typus were recorded around Shib Habil, a small, coastal reef off the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia, from 2010 to 2015. A total of 267 suitable photographs resulting in the identification of 136 individuals, were documented from 305 encounters. Sharks were divided evenly between the sexes with no evidence of temporal or spatial segregation. All individuals were immature based on size estimates and, for males, juvenile clasper morphology. Scars were reported for 57% of R. typus with 15% showing evidence of propeller trauma. Estimates of population size and patterns of residency were calculated by modelling the lagged identification rate. Multiple models were run simultaneously and compared using the Akaike information criterion. An open population model was found to best represent the data and estimates a daily abundance between 15 and 34 R. typus during the aggregation season, with local residence times ranging from 4 to 44 days. Residence times away from Shib Habil range from 15 to 156 days with a permanent emigration–death rate between 0·07 and 0·58 individuals year−1. These results are broadly similar to those from other aggregations of R. typus, although the observed sexual parity and integration found at this site is unique for the species and needs further study. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles

  18. Population structure of a whale shark Rhincodon typus aggregation in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Cochran, Jesse

    2016-07-12

    The presence of whale sharks Rhincodon typus were recorded around Shib Habil, a small, coastal reef off the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia, from 2010 to 2015. A total of 267 suitable photographs resulting in the identification of 136 individuals, were documented from 305 encounters. Sharks were divided evenly between the sexes with no evidence of temporal or spatial segregation. All individuals were immature based on size estimates and, for males, juvenile clasper morphology. Scars were reported for 57% of R. typus with 15% showing evidence of propeller trauma. Estimates of population size and patterns of residency were calculated by modelling the lagged identification rate. Multiple models were run simultaneously and compared using the Akaike information criterion. An open population model was found to best represent the data and estimates a daily abundance between 15 and 34 R. typus during the aggregation season, with local residence times ranging from 4 to 44 days. Residence times away from Shib Habil range from 15 to 156 days with a permanent emigration–death rate between 0·07 and 0·58 individuals year−1. These results are broadly similar to those from other aggregations of R. typus, although the observed sexual parity and integration found at this site is unique for the species and needs further study. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles

  19. Perspectives on healthy eating among Appalachian residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Howell, Britteny M; Swanson, Mark; Grosh, Christopher; Bardach, Shoshana

    2013-08-01

    Extensive attention has been focused on improving the dietary intake of Americans. Such focus is warranted due to increasing rates of overweight, obesity, and other dietary-related disease. To address suboptimal dietary intake requires an improved, contextualized understanding of the multiple and intersecting influences on healthy eating, particularly among those populations at greatest risk of and from poor diet, including rural residents. During 8 focus groups (N = 99) and 6 group key informant interviews (N = 20), diverse Appalachian rural residents were queried about their perceptions of healthy eating, determinants of healthy food intake, and recommendations for improving the dietary intake of people in their communities. Participants included church members and other laypeople, public health officials, social service providers, health care professionals, and others. Participants offered insights on healthy eating consistent with the categories of individual, interpersonal, community, physical, environmental, and society-level influences described in the socioecological model. Although many participants identified gaps in dietary knowledge as a persistent problem, informants also identified extraindividual factors, including the influence of family, fellow church members, and schools, policy, advertising and media, and general societal trends, as challenges to healthy dietary intake. We highlight Appalachian residents' recommendations for promoting healthier diets, including support groups, educational workshops, cooking classes, and community gardening. We discuss the implications of these findings for programmatic development in the Appalachian context. © 2013 National Rural Health Association.

  20. [Snacks consumption among residents in Shenzhen City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Qinggang; Cao, Keke; Xu, Jiazhang; Yuan, Xueli; Zhuo, Zhipeng; Xu, Jian; Pan, Peng

    2014-07-01

    To describe the status of snacks consumption among residents in Shenzhen. By a multiple stage probability proportionate to size sampling, 12 communities were randomly selected from 8 districts of Shenzhen based on population proportion. In the second stage, 30 households were randomly selected from each community. In each household, 2 years or older were invited to take dietary survey. There were 66.1% residents consuming snacks. More girls ate snacks than boys (chi2 = 11.552, P snacks than adults (chi2 = 27.207, P snacks were 107.8 kcal (451.5 kJ), 1.7 g, 0.8 g, 22.0 g, 1.1 g, 23.1 microg, 8.3 mg, 1.1 mg,17.0 mg, 9.3 mg, 21.0 mg, 0.8 mg and 0.4 mg. Food categories the most frequently consumed as snacks were fruit, pastry, milk and products, beverages and grains. It's important to strengthen the diet education among residents in Shenzhen, especially the knowledge how to select snacks correctly and rationally.

  1. Variable high gradient permanent magnet quadrupole (QUAPEVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteau, F.; Ghaith, A.; N'Gotta, P.; Benabderrahmane, C.; Valléau, M.; Kitegi, C.; Loulergue, A.; Vétéran, J.; Sebdaoui, M.; André, T.; Le Bec, G.; Chavanne, J.; Vallerand, C.; Oumbarek, D.; Cosson, O.; Forest, F.; Jivkov, P.; Lancelot, J. L.; Couprie, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Different applications such as laser plasma acceleration, colliders, and diffraction limited light sources require high gradient quadrupoles, with strength that can reach up to 200 T/m for a typical 10 mm bore diameter. We present here a permanent magnet based quadrupole (so-called QUAPEVA) composed of a Halbach ring and surrounded by four permanent magnet cylinders. Its design including magnetic simulation modeling enabling us to reach 201 T/m with a gradient variability of 45% and mechanical issues are reported. Magnetic measurements of seven systems of different lengths are presented and confirmed the theoretical expectations. The variation of the magnetic center while changing the gradient strength is ±10 μm. A triplet of QUAPEVA magnets is used to efficiently focus a beam with large energy spread and high divergence that is generated by a Laser Plasma Acceleration source for a free electron laser demonstration and has enabled us to perform beam based alignment and control the dispersion of the beam.

  2. Influence of relief on permanent preservation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Alexandre Rosa; Chimalli, Tessa; Peluzio, João Batista Esteves; da Silva, Aderbal Gomes; Dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino Alves; Lorenzon, Alexandre Simões; Teixeira, Thaisa Ribeiro; de Castro, Nero Lemos Martins; Soares Ribeiro, Carlos Antonio Alvares

    2016-01-15

    Many countries have environmental legislation to protecting natural resources on private property. In Brazil, the Brazilian Forestry Code determines specific areas to maintain with natural vegetation cover, known as areas of permanent preservation (APP). Currently, there are few studies that relate topographic variables on APP. In this context, we sought to evaluate the influence of relief on the conservation of areas of permanent preservation (APP) in the areas surrounding Caparaó National Park, Brazil. By using the chi-squared statistical test, we verified that the presence of forest cover is closely associated with altitude. The classes of APP in better conservation status are slopes in addition to hilltops and mountains, whereas APP streams and springs are among the areas most affected by human activities. The most deforested areas are located at altitudes below 1100.00 m and on slopes less than 45°. All orientations of the sides were significant for APP conservation status, with the southern, southeastern, and southwestern sides showing the lower degrees of impact. The methodology can be adjusted to environmental legislation to other countries.

  3. Introduction to the permanent magnet motor market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawa, Toshihiro; Hamada, Kaneyuki [Yaskawa Electric Corp. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    According to the Kyoto summit on global warming (COP3) in December 1997, the green-house gas emission level has to be reduced to 92-94% of the 1990 green-house gas level by the year 2014-2018. This would require conserving energy. An efficient means of achieving this voluntary goal is by employing high-efficiency drives, since motors consume 70% of all electricity for industrial use in Japan. As adjustable speed drives become popular, interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors, lately, have been recognized for high-efficiency performance. Due to the progress in permanent magnet technology combined with modern control methods, especially vector control with and without speed-sensors, the IPM motor is gaining in popularity. Compact size and high-efficiency performance is furthering the IPM motor as the preferred motor in many applications. This paper describes the principle and operation of IPM motors and compares its performance with that of an induction motor. Important features and practical control methods for IPM motors are presented. Various application examples highlighting the advantages of employing an IPM motor system are discussed. The applications include, but are not limited to, machine tools, fans, pumps, elevators, cranes, etc. (orig.)

  4. Permanent synchronization of camcorders via LANC protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancic, Damir; Smith, Steven L.

    2006-02-01

    A device, which keeps two camcorders permanently in synchronization, has been developed. The mentioned device uses LANC (CONTROL-L) camcorder's inputs for synchronization. It enables controlling of two camcorders simultaneously via built-in buttons, by using external LANC remote controller and/or by the PC via serial (RS232) communication. Since device requires LANC inputs on camcorders or ACC inputs on still cameras, it can be used on some camcorders produced by manufacturers Sony and Canon or some still cameras produced by Sony. The device initially synchronizes camcorders or still cameras by applying arbitrarily delayed power-up pulses on LANC (ACC) inputs. Then, on user demand, the camcorders can be permanently synchronized (valid only for some camcorders produced by Sony). The effectiveness of the proposed device is demonstrated by several experiments on three types of camcorders (DCR-TRV900E, HDR-HC1, HVR-Z1U) and one type of still camera (DSC-V1). The electronic schemes, PCB layouts, firmware and communication programs are freely available (under GPL licence).

  5. Automatic design of permanent magnet coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonnet, J.-P.; Pandele, P.; Coutel, C.; Wurtz, F.

    1998-01-01

    Up to now, two main methods have been used to design permanent magnet couplings : finite element calculation, and analytical expressions of the forces between the magnets. The two methods use the same starting point, the permanent magnet coupling dimensions. The calculated parameters are the forces and the torques. The optimization of the couplings shape is generally done by using different curves describing torque variations as a function of the different geometrical parameters. We have developed a very new approach solving the reverse problem. Choosing the value of the torque, the airgap and an optimization criterium, the new method automatically calculates the size of the magnets and the ideal number of poles. It is based on a software, PASCOSMA, using an analytical model of the coupling which can be eventually corrected by a finite element method like FLUX2D. The coupling optimization is automatically made, keeping the parameters between predefined values. For a given application, it is very easy to obtain the best design, for example with the minimum magnet volume. (orig.)

  6. Sealing Occlusal Dentin Caries in Permanent Molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Vibeke; Borum, Mette Kit; Møller, Kirsten Dynes

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of postponing restorative intervention of manifest occlusal caries in young, permanent dentition by non-invasive sealing. This RCT-designed study included 521 occlusal lesions in 521 patients aged 6 to 17 y. Based on clinical and radiog......The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of postponing restorative intervention of manifest occlusal caries in young, permanent dentition by non-invasive sealing. This RCT-designed study included 521 occlusal lesions in 521 patients aged 6 to 17 y. Based on clinical...... longevity of sealings and restorations until retreatments, and 3) compare effectiveness of sealings and restorations to halt caries progression in sealed lesions and beneath restorations. Furthermore, we aimed to identify factors influencing longevity and the effectiveness of sealings and restorations.......001). The median survival time for sealings not replaced by restorations was 7.3 y (CI, 6.4 y to NA). Survival of sealings was increased in patients with low caries risk and/or excellent oral hygiene, second molars compared with first molars, and lesions not extending the middle one-third of the dentin. Survival...

  7. Comparison of torque capability of three-phase permanent magnet synchronous motors with different permanent magnet arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumberger, Bojan; Stumberger, Gorazd; Hadziselimovic, Miralem; Hamler, Anton; Gorican, Viktor; Jesenik, Marko; Trlep, Mladen

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a comparison of torque capability of three-phase permanent magnet synchronous motors with different permanent magnet arrangement. Motors with the following permanent magnet topologies were accounted for in the comparison: the surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous motor (SMPMSM), the interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM), the permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance motor (PMASRM) and the flux reversal permanent magnet motor (FRPMM). Finite element method analysis is employed to determine the performance of each motor. Calculated performance of four-pole IPMSM determined by finite element method calculation is confirmed with the measurements at nearly constant nominal output power in the range of speed 3000-10,000 rpm

  8. Doll therapy: an intervention for nursing home residents with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Juh Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The use of dolls as a therapeutic intervention for nursing home residents with dementia is relatively new. The current article describes a research study implemented with nursing home residents in Korea to examine the effects of doll therapy on their mood, behavior, and social interactions. A one-group, pretest-posttest design was used to measure the impact of doll therapy on 51 residents with dementia. Linear regression demonstrated statistically significant differences in aggression, obsessive behaviors, wandering, negative verbalization, negative mood, and negative physical appearance after introduction of the doll therapy intervention. Interactions with other individuals also increased over time. Findings support the benefits of doll therapy for nursing home residents with dementia; however, further research is needed to provide more empirical evidence and explore ethical considerations in the use of doll therapy in this vulnerable population. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Diagnostics Systems for Permanent Hall Thrusters Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Santos, Jean; Miranda, Rodrigo; Possa, M. Gabriela

    This work describes the development of Permanent Magnet Hall Effect Plasma Thruster (PHALL) and its diagnostic systems at The Plasma Physics Laboratory of University of Brasilia. The project consists on the construction and characterization of plasma propulsion engines based on the Hall Effect. Electric thrusters have been employed in over 220 successful space missions. Two types stand out: the Hall-Effect Thruster (HET) and the Gridded Ion Engine (GIE). The first, which we deal with in this project, has the advantage of greater simplicity of operation, a smaller weight for the propulsion subsystem and a longer shelf life. It can operate in two configurations: magnetic layer and anode layer, the difference between the two lying in the positioning of the anode inside the plasma channel. A Hall-Effect Thruster-HET is a type of plasma thruster in which the propellant gas is ionized and accelerated by a magneto hydrodynamic effect combined with electrostatic ion acceleration. So the essential operating principle of the HET is that it uses a J x B force and an electrostatic potential to accelerate ions up to high speeds. In a HET, the attractive negative charge is provided by electrons at the open end of the Thruster instead of a grid, as in the case of the electrostatic ion thrusters. A strong radial magnetic field is used to hold the electrons in place, with the combination of the magnetic field and the electrostatic potential force generating a fast circulating electron current, the Hall current, around the axis of the Thruster, mainly composed by drifting electrons in an ion plasma background. Only a slow axial drift towards the anode occurs. The main attractive features of the Hall-Effect Thruster are its simple design and operating principles. Most of the Hall-Effect Thrusters use electromagnet coils to produce the main magnetic field responsible for plasma generation and acceleration. In this paper we present a different new concept, a Permanent Magnet Hall

  10. Minimum Data Set Active Resident Information Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The MDS Active Resident Report summarizes information for residents currently in nursing homes. The source of these counts is the residents MDS assessment record....

  11. Monosodium Urate Crystals Induce Upregulation of NK1.1-Dependent Killing by Macrophages and Support Tumor-Resident NK1.1+ Monocyte/Macrophage Populations in Antitumor Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Stefanie; Kuhn, Sabine; Ronchese, Franca; Harper, Jacquie L

    2015-12-01

    Macrophages display phenotypic and functional heterogeneity dependent on the changing inflammatory microenvironment. Under some conditions, macrophages can acquire effector functions commonly associated with NK cells. In the current study, we investigated how the endogenous danger signal monosodium urate (MSU) crystals can alter macrophage functions. We report that naive, primary peritoneal macrophages rapidly upregulate the expression of the NK cell-surface marker NK1.1 in response to MSU crystals but not in response to LPS or other urate crystals. NK1.1 upregulation by macrophages was associated with mechanisms including phagocytosis of crystals, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and autocrine proinflammatory cytokine signaling. Further analysis demonstrated that MSU crystal-activated macrophages exhibited NK cell-like cytotoxic activity against target cells in a perforin/granzyme B-dependent manner. Furthermore, analysis of tumor hemopoietic cell populations showed that effective, MSU-mediated antitumor activity required coadministration with Mycobacterium smegmatis to induce IL-1β production and significant accumulation of monocytes and macrophages (but not granulocytes or dendritic cells) expressing elevated levels of NK1.1. Our findings provide evidence that MSU crystal-activated macrophages have the potential to develop tumoricidal NK cell-like functions that may be exploited to boost antitumor activity in vivo. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  12. Selection criteria of residents for residency programs in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwan, Yousef; Ayed, Adel

    2013-01-19

    In Kuwait, 21 residency training programs were offered in the year 2011; however, no data is available regarding the criteria of selecting residents for these programs. This study aims to provide information about the importance of these criteria. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from members (e.g. chairmen, directors, assistants …etc.) of residency programs in Kuwait. A total of 108 members were invited to participate. They were asked to rate the importance level (scale from 1 to 5) of criteria that may affect the acceptance of an applicant to their residency programs. Average scores were calculated for each criterion. Of the 108 members invited to participate, only 12 (11.1%) declined to participate. Interview performance was ranked as the most important criteria for selecting residents (average score: 4.63/5.00), followed by grade point average (average score: 3.78/5.00) and honors during medical school (average score: 3.67/5.00). On the other hand, receiving disciplinary action during medical school and failure in a required clerkship were considered as the most concerning among other criteria used to reject applicants (average scores: 3.83/5.00 and 3.54/5.00 respectively). Minor differences regarding the importance level of each criterion were noted across different programs. This study provided general information about the criteria that are used to accept/reject applicants to residency programs in Kuwait. Future studies should be conducted to investigate each criterion individually, and to assess if these criteria are related to residents' success during their training.

  13. Permanent scatterer InSAR processing: Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehls, John F.

    2006-04-01

    It has been speculated that slow, aseismic movement may be occurring along some of the fracture zones crosscutting the Forsmark area. The purpose of this study is to determine if it is possible to measure such movement using dInSAR. Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) is a technique that compares the phases of multiple radar images of an area to measure surface change. The method has the potential to detect millimetric surface deformation along the sensor - target line-of-sight. Differences in phase between two images are easily viewed by combining, or interfering, the two phase-images. In the resulting image, the waves will either reinforce or cancel one another, depending upon the relative phases. The resulting image is called an interferogram and contains concentric bands of colour, or fringes, that are related to topography and/or surface deformation. New algorithms use many images acquired over a long time period to determine the movement history of individual objects, referred to as permanent scatterers. In the current project, standard PSInSAR processing was performed on 40 ERS-1 and ERS-2 scenes. The total area processed is approximately 1,500 km 2 . Slightly less than 20,000 permanent scatterers were identified.The highest densities were obtained along the coast and on the islands, where natural outcrops are more abundant. Two main classes of objects act as permanent scatterers in this area. The first are natural reflectors, such as rocks. The second are man-made reflectors, such as parts of buildings. Numerous local movements were found in the study area, relating to building subsidence, or compaction of anthropogenic fill. The dataset was divided into three groups for analysis, based upon the location of regional lineaments provided by SKB. Both statistical and geostatistical techniques were used. The median velocity of the three blocks did not differ by more than 0.2 mm/yr. This is not considered significant, given the possible magnitude of errors

  14. Permanent scatterer InSAR processing: Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehls, John F [Geological Survey of Norway, Trondheim (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    It has been speculated that slow, aseismic movement may be occurring along some of the fracture zones crosscutting the Forsmark area. The purpose of this study is to determine if it is possible to measure such movement using dInSAR. Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) is a technique that compares the phases of multiple radar images of an area to measure surface change. The method has the potential to detect millimetric surface deformation along the sensor - target line-of-sight. Differences in phase between two images are easily viewed by combining, or interfering, the two phase-images. In the resulting image, the waves will either reinforce or cancel one another, depending upon the relative phases. The resulting image is called an interferogram and contains concentric bands of colour, or fringes, that are related to topography and/or surface deformation. New algorithms use many images acquired over a long time period to determine the movement history of individual objects, referred to as permanent scatterers. In the current project, standard PSInSAR processing was performed on 40 ERS-1 and ERS-2 scenes. The total area processed is approximately 1,500 km{sup 2}. Slightly less than 20,000 permanent scatterers were identified.The highest densities were obtained along the coast and on the islands, where natural outcrops are more abundant. Two main classes of objects act as permanent scatterers in this area. The first are natural reflectors, such as rocks. The second are man-made reflectors, such as parts of buildings. Numerous local movements were found in the study area, relating to building subsidence, or compaction of anthropogenic fill. The dataset was divided into three groups for analysis, based upon the location of regional lineaments provided by SKB. Both statistical and geostatistical techniques were used. The median velocity of the three blocks did not differ by more than 0.2 mm/yr. This is not considered significant, given the possible magnitude of

  15. Control of permanent magnet synchronous motors

    CERN Document Server

    Vaez-Zadeh, Sadegh

    2018-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive, coherent, and up-to-date book devoted solely to the control of permanent magnet synchronous (PMS) motors, as the fastest growing AC motor. It covers a deep and detailed presentation of major PMS motor modeling and control methods. The readers can find rich materials on the fundamentals of PMS motor control in addition to new motor control methods, which have mainly been developed in the last two decades, including recent advancements in the field in a systematic manner. These include extensive modeling of PMS motors and a full range of vector control and direct torque control schemes, in addition to predictive control, deadbeat control, and combined control methods. All major sensorless control and parameter estimation methods are also studied. The book covers about 10 machine models in various reference frames and 70 control and estimation schemes with sufficient analytical and implementation details including about 200 original figures. A great emphasis is placed on energy-s...

  16. Object permanence tests on gibbons (Hylobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, Anna; Skollár, Gabriella; Szerencsy, Nóra; Ujhelyi, Mária

    2008-11-01

    Ten gibbons of various species (Symphalangus syndactylus, Hylobates lar, Nomascus gabriellae, and Nomascus leucogenys) were tested on object permanence tasks. Three identical wooden boxes, presented in a linear line, were used to hide pieces of food. The authors conducted single visible, single invisible, double invisible, and control displacements, in both random and nonrandom order. During invisible displacements, the experimenter hid the object in her hand before putting it into a box. The performance of gibbons was better than expected by chance in all the tests, except for the randomly ordered double displacement. However, individual analysis of performance showed great variability across subjects, and only 1 gibbon is assumed to have solved single visible and single invisible displacements without recourse to a strategy that the control test eliminated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Object permanence in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Natacha; Huber, Ludwig

    2004-03-01

    A series of 9 search tasks corresponding to the Piagetian Stages 3-6 of object permanence were administered to 11 common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Success rates varied strongly among tasks and marmosets, but the performances of most subjects were above chance level on the majority of tasks of visible and invisible displacements. Although up to 24 trials were administered in the tests, subjects did not improve their performance across trials. Errors were due to preferences for specific locations or boxes, simple search strategies, and attentional deficits. The performances of at least 2 subjects that achieved very high scores up to the successive invisible displacement task suggest that this species is able to represent the existence and the movements of unperceived objects. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  18. Distributed generation induction and permanent magnet generators

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, L

    2007-01-01

    Distributed power generation is a technology that could help to enable efficient, renewable energy production both in the developed and developing world. It includes all use of small electric power generators, whether located on the utility system, at the site of a utility customer, or at an isolated site not connected to the power grid. Induction generators (IGs) are the cheapest and most commonly used technology, compatible with renewable energy resources. Permanent magnet (PM) generators have traditionally been avoided due to high fabrication costs; however, compared with IGs they are more reliable and productive. Distributed Generation thoroughly examines the principles, possibilities and limitations of creating energy with both IGs and PM generators. It takes an electrical engineering approach in the analysis and testing of these generators, and includes diagrams and extensive case study examples o better demonstrate how the integration of energy sources can be accomplished. The book also provides the ...

  19. Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorn, Colette S. van, E-mail: cvandoorn@gmail.com; De Boo, Diederick W., E-mail: d.w.deboo@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Weersink, Els J. M., E-mail: e.j.m.weersink@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonology (Netherlands); Delden, Otto M. van, E-mail: o.m.vandelden@amc.uva.nl; Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: j.a.reekers@amc.uva.nl; Lienden, Krijn P. van, E-mail: k.p.vanlienden@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

  20. Forces between permanent magnets: experiments and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Manuel I

    2017-01-01

    This work describes a very simple, low-cost experimental setup designed for measuring the force between permanent magnets. The experiment consists of placing one of the magnets on a balance, attaching the other magnet to a vertical height gauge, aligning carefully both magnets and measuring the load on the balance as a function of the gauge reading. A theoretical model is proposed to compute the force, assuming uniform magnetisation and based on laws and techniques accessible to undergraduate students. A comparison between the model and the experimental results is made, and good agreement is found at all distances investigated. In particular, it is also found that the force behaves as r −4 at large distances, as expected. (paper)

  1. Electrical energy supply with permanent energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    It can be shown that there are no chances for solar and wind power plants in Northern Europe when estimating the investment costs and the floor space required. However, the decentralized utilization of the plants which is likely to become very interesting in a few years shows other results. As a complete annual balance by traditional stores would cause a considerably uneconomic increase of the investment costs supplementary energy sources are inevitable. The author points out how the various primary energy sources in question can be utilized and combined with each other. He describes the converters for the permanent (regenerative) energy sources, the available electrochemical stores and their application as well as the fundamental structures of the energy supply systems. Finally some advice is given regarding the recycling of energy and the operation by the consumers.

  2. Experience with the SLC permanent magnet multipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, G.; Spencer, J.

    1994-06-01

    Permanent magnets have been used in the SLC Damping Rings and their injection and extraction lines since 1985. Recent upgrades of the DR vacuum chambers provided an opportunity to check DR magnets prior to higher beam current operation. Several PM sextupoles downstream of the injection kickers in the electron ring had exceeded their thermal stabilization values of 80 degrees C and some showed serious mechanical deformations and radiation >1 R at contact. We discuss our observations, measurements and a few inexpensive modifications that should improve these magnets under such conditions. A new, block matching algorithm allowed us to use magnet blocks that had been considered unusable because of very different remament field strengths and easy axis errors

  3. Temporality and permanence in Romanian public art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Judit Balko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between permanent monuments and temporary art projects, as temporality is one of the strategies employed by Romanian artists to counterbalance the support that the Romanian state has shown only towards monuments and memorials dedicated to affirming its value. The complex nature of public art requires a careful consideration of the different dimensions this practice employs, and for that the Western debate on this matter can be a reference point in understanding Romanian public art. We will be looking at possible aspects of the functions of these two main directions in Romanian public art, as they stand methodically one in opposition to the other, in connection with the texts of Piotr Piotrowski (Art and Democracy in Post-communist Europe, 2012 and Boris Groys (Art Power, 2008.

  4. Permanent automatic recalibration system for scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auphan, Michel.

    1974-01-01

    A permanent automatic recalibration system for a scintillation camera, of the type consisting chiefly of a collimator if necessary, a scintillator, a light guide and a network of n photomultipliers coupled to a display system, is described. It uses a device to form a single reference light signal common to all the photomultiplication lines, integrated to these latter and associated with a periodic calibration control generator. By means of associated circuits governed by the control generator the gain in each line is brought to and/or maintained at a value between fixed upper and lower limits. Steps are taken so that any gain variation in a given line is adjusted with respect to the reference light signal common to all the lines. The light signal falls preferably in the same part of the spectrum as the scintillations formed in the scintillator [fr

  5. Inherited retarded eruption in the permanent dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, P; Kotsaki, A

    1997-01-01

    The term retarded eruption, may be used in cases where eruption is inhibited, causing an interruption in the coordination of tooth formation and tooth eruption. The phenomenon may be local or general, and several etiological factors for retarded eruption have been listed, comprising a lack of space, ankylosis, cysts, supernumerary teeth, hormone and vitamin deficiencies and several developmental disturbances and syndromes. The present paper describes several cases of retarded eruption where no factors other than inheritance have been evident. So far 14 cases have been evaluated, 9 boys and 5 girls. In addition several cases have been registered among parents and grandparents of the probands. Typical features are: retarded eruption, defined as more than 3 SD beyond mean eruption figures, comprises all teeth in the permanent dentition, and in 5 cases also second primary molars. The chronology of tooth formation are within normal limits. Consequently the teeth finish development still laying deeply buried in the jaws, often in aberrant positions and with curves or hooks on the roots. When the teeth finally get the "signal" for eruption, 5-15 years beyond normal eruption time, they move rather quickly into right positions, despite the long eruption paths and the hooked roots. Permanent teeth without, as well as with predecessors, are affected. Extraction of predecessors does not seem to provoke eruption. The main features in management are to take care of the primary teeth, to improve-esthetics, and offer surgery and orthodontics when needed. Analyses of pedigrees indicates that the genetic transmittance may be autosomal dominant as both sexes are affected, about half of the siblings show the trait, and the trait shows continuity through generations.

  6. Water systems, sanitation, and public health risks in remote communities: Inuit resident perspectives from the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Kiley; Castleden, Heather; Jamieson, Rob; Furgal, Chris; Ell, Lorna

    2015-06-01

    Safe drinking water and wastewater sanitation are universally recognized as critical components of public health. It is well documented that a lack of access to these basic services results in millions of preventable deaths each year among vulnerable populations. Water and wastewater technologies and management practices are frequently tailored to local environmental conditions. Also important, but often overlooked in water management planning, are the social, cultural and economic contexts in which services are provided. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to identify and understand residents' perceptions of the functionality of current water and wastewater sanitation systems in one vulnerable context, that of a remote Arctic Aboriginal community (Coral Harbour, Nunavut), and to identify potential future water related health risks. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 Inuit residents and 9 key informants in 2011 and 2012. Findings indicate that the population's rapid transition from a semi-nomadic hunting and gathering lifestyle to permanent settlements with municipally provided utilities is influencing present-day water usage patterns, public health perceptions, and the level of priority decision-makers place on water and wastewater management issues. Simultaneously environmental, social and cultural conditions conducive to increased human exposure to waterborne health risks were also found to exist and may be increasing in the settlements. While water and wastewater system design decisions are often based on best practices proven suitable in similar environmental conditions, this study reinforces the argument for inclusion of social, cultural, and economic variables in such decisions, particularly in remote and economically challenged contexts in Canada or elsewhere around the world. The results also indicate that the addition of qualitative data about water and wastewater systems users' behaviours to technical knowledge of systems and

  7. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweiki E

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ehyal Shweiki,1 Niels D Martin,2 Alec C Beekley,1 Jay S Jenoff,1 George J Koenig,1 Kris R Kaulback,1 Gary A Lindenbaum,1 Pankaj H Patel,1 Matthew M Rosen,1 Michael S Weinstein,1 Muhammad H Zubair,2 Murray J Cohen1 1Department of Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education. Keywords: learning, education, achievement

  8. A 15-year review of the Stanford Internal Medicine Residency Program: predictors of resident satisfaction and dissatisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahn JS

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available James S Kahn,1–3 Ronald M Witteles,3,4 Kenneth W Mahaffey,3–5 Sumbul A Desai,2,3 Errol Ozdalga,2,3 Paul A Heidenreich1,3 1Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, 2Division of Primary Care and Population Health, 3Department of Medicine, 4Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, 5Stanford Center for Clinical Research, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA Introduction: Satisfaction with training and with educational experiences represents important internal medicine (IM programmatic goals. Graduates from IM residency programs are uniquely poised to provide insights into their educational and training experiences and to assess whether these experiences were satisfactory and relevant to their current employment. Methods: We surveyed former IM residents from the training program held during the years 2000–2015 at the Department of Medicine, Stanford University. The first part of the survey reviewed the IM residency program and the second part sought identifying data regarding gender, race, ethnicity, work, relationships, and financial matters. The primary outcome was satisfaction with the residency experience. Results: Of the 405 individuals who completed the Stanford IM residency program in the study period, we identified 384 (95% former residents with a known email address. Two hundred and one (52% former residents responded to the first part and 185 (48% answered both the parts of the survey. The mean age of the respondents was 36.9 years; 44% were female and the mean time from IM residency was 6.1 (±4.3 years. Fifty-eight percent reported extreme satisfaction with their IM residency experience. Predictors associated with being less than extremely satisfied included insufficient outpatient experience, insufficient international experience, insufficient clinical research experience, and insufficient time spent with family and peers. Conclusion: The residents expressed an overall high satisfaction rate with

  9. Discussions on performance of two types of permanent multipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jianming; Xu Qing; Yin Zhaosheng

    1987-01-01

    The field distributions of MMD type and MW type multipole permanent magnets are calculated by means of programme POISCR and the results are summarized and discussed in this paper. The resutls show that, considering the nonlinearity of the real demagnetization curve of permanent magnet material, the field distributions of both types of permanent magnets with the same aperature are about the same but the field strength of MW type magnet with soft iron shield is higher than that of MMD type magnet

  10. Object permanence in adults : a cross-cultural perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Subbotski, Eugene; Trommsdorff, Gisela

    1992-01-01

    Soviet and German adult subjects observed the phenomenon of object non-permanence (destruction, reconstruction, or transformation of a physical object). Both samples attributed an equal degree of probability to real existence of object non-permanence. However, Soviet subjects attributed a significantly higher probability to the existence of "religion-independent" non-permanent mysterious phenomena, (e.g., "unidentified flying objects", "abominable snowman", "Loch Ness monster") while attribut...

  11. Design of permanent magnet synchronous motor within minimum cost

    OpenAIRE

    Півняк, Геннадій Григорович; Бешта, Олександр Степанович; Фурса, Сергій Григорійович; Neuberger, Nikolaus; Nolle, N.

    2010-01-01

    The article describes design and simulation experience of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The design goal is to develop PMSM of the least possible cost. For that purpose the standard induction motor stator was applied as a basic solution and permanent magnets were installed in rotor. Simulation results are presented, the dependence of efficiency and total loss on magnet material mass are obtained. The optimal value of permanent magnets is estimated for the given electric motor frame.

  12. Permanent challenge for a healthy environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Teresinha Gimeniz Galvão

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available For over a century, Florence Nightingale, a precursor of modern nursing, promulgated the importance of the adequate environment for disease prevention, treatment of diseased and their recovery. He highlighted, among others, the importance of clean air and environmental hygiene. Concerning the disease prevention, considered necessary care residences about air, water, sewerage, cleaning and illumination. In current times, the concepts expanded, the wounds arising from lack of water and sanitation, demonstrated care urgently in the wide mode environment, and prevention in the residential areas and peridomicile.

  13. Communication dated 6 March 2013 received from the Permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the Agency regarding the Report of the Director General on the Implementation of Safeguards in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a communication dated 6 March 2013 from the Permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the Agency enclosing an explanatory note by the Permanent Mission dated 6 March 2013, on the report of the Director General on ''Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement and relevant provisions of Security Council resolutions in the Islamic Republic of Iran'' contained in GOV/2013/6 (21 February 2013) and three letters from the Resident Representative of Iran addressed to the Director General. The communication and, as requested by the Permanent Mission, the explanatory note and the letters are circulated herewith for information.

  14. Evaluating Dermatology Residency Program Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashack, Kurt A; Burton, Kyle A; Soh, Jonathan M; Lanoue, Julien; Boyd, Anne H; Milford, Emily E; Dunnick, Cory; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2016-03-16

    Internet resources play an important role in how medical students access information related to residency programs.Evaluating program websites is necessary in order to provide accurate information for applicants and provide information regarding areas of website improvement for programs. To date, dermatology residency websites (D  WS) have not been evaluated.This paper evaluates dermatology residency websites based on availability of predefined measures. Using the FREIDA (Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database) Online database, authors searched forall accredited dermatology program websites. Eligible programs were identified through the FREIDA Online database and had a functioning website. Two authors independently extracted data with consensus or third researcher resolution of differences. This data was accessed and archived from July 15th to July 17th, 2015.Primary outcomes measured were presence of content on education, resident and faculty information, program environment, applicant recruitment, schedule, salary, and website quality evaluated using an online tool (WooRank.com). Out of 117 accredited dermatology residencies, 115 had functioning webpages. Of these, 76.5% (75) had direct links found on the FRIEDA Online database. Most programs contained information on education, faculty, program environment, and applicant recruitment. However, website quality and marketing effectiveness were highly variable; most programs were deemed to need improvements in the functioning of their webpages. Also, additional information on current residents and about potential away rotations were lacking from most websites with only 52.2% (60) and 41.7% (48) of programs providing this content, respectively. A majority of dermatology residency websites contained adequate information on many of the factors we evaluated. However, many were lacking in areas that matter to applicants. We hope this report will encourage dermatology residencyprograms

  15. Impacts of Educational Tourism on the Residents of Famagusta

    OpenAIRE

    Mohul, Elif

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to explore the social, cultural, economical and environmental impacts of educational tourism on the host population of Gazimağusa (Famagusta) in North Cyprus. The most attention is paid to the perceptions of the residents in assessing the nature of impacts on host population. The quantitative research method was used in order to obtain the necessary information. The quantitative survey, which was prepared in detail and fastidiously; provided important and unique data ...

  16. City of Rhodes: residents' attitudes toward tourism impacts and development

    OpenAIRE

    Pappas, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important issues of research in tourism is the exploration of residents' attitudes in local communities, since viable and sustainable tourism development can only be successful when it serves the actual needs and demands of the destination’s population, and any tourism evolution is directly dependant on locals’ acceptance and support. The purpose of this paper is to examine the host population perceptions in the city of Rhodes toward economic, social, and environmental tourism...

  17. Age at menarche and eruption of permanent second molars: an investigation to determine a possible correlation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taaniya Akhter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Downward shifts in the mean menarcheal age and earlier emergence of permanent second molars have been observed worldwide during the past few decades. A positive correlation between the two would make menarche a biomarker for permanent second molar eruption or vice versa, making it a simple tool for monitoring oral status of adolescent girls. This study was conducted to find a correlation between attainment of menarche and eruption status of permanent second molars in girls aged 10-13 years. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 470 female students from six randomly selected schools who consented to participate in the interview and oral examination. Data were analyzed using the Chi square (X2 test with a p-value of < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: Significant differences existed within the age groups with regard to attainment of menarche (p = 0.000 and eruption status of second molars (p = 0.000 for all four teeth. However, no correlation could be found between attainment of menarche and eruption status of the permanent second molars. Conclusion: Although this study failed to find a correlation between the two variables, a population based multicentric survey may give a concrete conclusion on this issue. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(4.000: 210-214

  18. [Caries of permanent dentition in medieval inhabitants of Wrocław].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniowski, Tomasz; Dabrowski, Paweł; Gawlikowska-Sroka, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    The study of dentition plays an important role in the reconstruction of the diet and in assessment of the overall health and living conditions of paleopopulations. The aim of this study was to determine the condition of permanent dentition of medieval inhabitants of Wrocław basing on the prevalence and intensity of caries in permanent dentition. The material consisted of 1156 permanent teeth from 118 skulls recovered from two medieval cemeteries in Wrocław: the parish cemetery at the St. Elisabeth Church (13th-14th century) and the cemetery in Ołbin (12th-13th century). Two age classes were formed taking into account anthropologic assessment and group size. The younger class consisted of material up to the age of 35 years; the remaining skulls were assigned to the older class. The prevalence and incidence of caries was determined. The prevalence and intensity of caries was 56.91% and 15.7%, respectively. Carious lesions predominated in males and in the older age class. The prevalence and intensity of caries in permanent dentition did not differ from other medieval populations and increased with age. High prevalence of caries reflects a high proportion of carbohydrates in the diet of medieval inhabitants of Wrocław, their high socioeconomic status, and poor oral hygiene.

  19. Mobility of Non Permanent Mobility and Remmitance, Case in Tanjung Municipality, Juwiring, Klaten District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umrotun Umrotun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study Non Permanent Mobility and Remmitance was conducted in Tanjung Village Juwiring Subdistrict Klaten entral Java. Non Permanent Mobility in the village was due to the outcome of the development, particularly the transportation facilities permitting the public transport to reach the depth of the village. The mobility of going back and from village to town was the consequence of the increasing job opportunities in town and the decreasing job opportunities in the village, as well as the striking difference of wages between what the people got in the village and that in town. The mobility of the commuting people also influenced the development in the village an addition to reducing the population density in town because the people did not stay permanently. The study was that mobile agents had better income than those who were not. The study showed that the working term, the working hours per week, and the level of education did not have  significant influence on the income. This was due the fact that most of the commuting people worked in the marginal sectors. The remmitance that the people brought from town constituted the main contribution to the life of the migrants. The remmitance was mainly spent for primary needs. Based on the research outcome, it is advisable that the transportation facilities be improved so that the commutation becomes easier since non permanent mobility of is proved to have increased the quality of their life and social environment.

  20. Identification and clonal characterisation of a progenitor cell sub-population in normal human articular cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Williams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Articular cartilage displays a poor repair capacity. The aim of cell-based therapies for cartilage defects is to repair damaged joint surfaces with a functional replacement tissue. Currently, chondrocytes removed from a healthy region of the cartilage are used but they are unable to retain their phenotype in expanded culture. The resulting repair tissue is fibrocartilaginous rather than hyaline, potentially compromising long-term repair. Mesenchymal stem cells, particularly bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC, are of interest for cartilage repair due to their inherent replicative potential. However, chondrocyte differentiated BMSCs display an endochondral phenotype, that is, can terminally differentiate and form a calcified matrix, leading to failure in long-term defect repair. Here, we investigate the isolation and characterisation of a human cartilage progenitor population that is resident within permanent adult articular cartilage. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Human articular cartilage samples were digested and clonal populations isolated using a differential adhesion assay to fibronectin. Clonal cell lines were expanded in growth media to high population doublings and karyotype analysis performed. We present data to show that this cell population demonstrates a restricted differential potential during chondrogenic induction in a 3D pellet culture system. Furthermore, evidence of high telomerase activity and maintenance of telomere length, characteristic of a mesenchymal stem cell population, were observed in this clonal cell population. Lastly, as proof of principle, we carried out a pilot repair study in a goat in vivo model demonstrating the ability of goat cartilage progenitors to form a cartilage-like repair tissue in a chondral defect. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we propose that we have identified and characterised a novel cartilage progenitor population resident in human articular cartilage which will greatly benefit future cell

  1. Assessing and counseling the obese patient: Improving resident obesity counseling competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Shwetha; Jay, Melanie; Southern, William; Schlair, Sheira

    To evaluate obesity counseling competence among residents in a primary care training program METHODS: We delivered a 3h obesity curriculum to 28 Primary Care residents and administered a pre-curriculum and post curriculum survey looking specifically at self-assessed obesity counseling competence. Nineteen residents completed both the pre curriculum survey and the post curriculum survey. The curriculum had a positive impact on residents' ability to ascertain patient's stage of change, use different methods to obtain diet history (including 24h recall, food record or food frequency questionnaire), respond to patient's questions regarding treatment options, assist patients in setting realistic goals for weight loss based on making permanent lifestyle changes, and use of motivational interviewing to change behavior. When looking at the 5As domains, there was a significant improvement in the domains of Assess, Advise, and Assist. The proportion of residents with a lower level of self-assessed obesity counseling competence reduced from 75% before the curriculum to 37.5% (p=0.04) after the curriculum. Our curriculum addressing weight loss counseling using the 5As model increased obesity counseling competence among residents in a primary care internal medicine residency program. Copyright © 2018 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. City Size, Housing Price and Resident Income Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-zhong; ZHANG Ting; LI Ming-liang

    2014-01-01

    Taking the urban population size and urban housing price as the proxy variable of city size,this paper conducts an empirical analysis with the data of CHIPS 2002 and 2008.It is found that the rising of city size and housing prices has important promotion effects on income inequality of city residents.The main reason is that the wage of migrant workers is separated from the housing price of the cities in which they reside;while their wage level can balance the wage level of the ordinary workers of city residents,making it separate from the urban housing price.But the wage of high quality worker of city residents is closely connected with the housing price.The combined action of the multy sizes in China's urban labor market leads to such a result that the greater the size of cities,the higher the urban housing prices,and the larger the income gap between urban residents.This means that in the construction of the new urbanization,to limit the over-expansion of such mega-cities as Beijing,Shanghai and so on and to develop the middle and small cities is an effective way to narrow the income gap between urban residents in China.

  3. Sexual function after permanent prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galbreath, R.W.; Merrick, G.S.; Butler, W.M.; Stipetich, R.L.; Abel, L.J.; Lief, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of potency preservation following permanent prostate brachytherapy and to evaluate the effect of multiple clinical and treatment parameters on penile erectile function. Materials and Methods: 425 patients underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy from April 1995 to October 1999. 209 patients who were potent prior to brachytherapy and currently not receiving hormonal manipulation were mailed an International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire with a pre-addressed stamped envelope. 180 patients completed and returned the questionnaire. Median patient follow-up was 39 months (range 18-74 months). Pre-implant erectile function was assigned using a three-tiered scoring system (2 = erections always or nearly always sufficient for vaginal penetration; 1 = erections sufficient for vaginal penetration but considered suboptimal; 0 = the inability to obtain erections and/or erections inadequate for vaginal penetration). Post-implant potency was defined as an IIEF score >11. Clinical parameters evaluated for sexual function included patient age, clinical T stage, elapsed time since implantation, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and tobacco consumption. Evaluated treatment parameters included the utilization of neoadjuvant hormonal manipulation and the choice of isotope. The efficacy of sildenafil citrate in brachytherapy induced erectile dysfunction (ED) was also evaluated. Results: A pre-treatment erectile function score of 2 and 1 were assigned to 126 and 54 patients respectively. With 6 year follow up, 39% of patients maintained potency following prostate brachytherapy with a plateau on the curve. Post-implant preservation of potency (IIEF>11) correlated with pre-implant erectile function (50% versus 14% for pre-implant scores of 2 and 1 respectively, p≤0.0001), patient age (56%, 38%, and 23% for patients <60 years of age, 60-69 years of age, and ≥70 years of age respectively, p=0.012) and a history of diabetes mellitus

  4. Quality of life after permanent prostate implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arterbery, V. Elayne; Frazier, Arthur; Dalmia, Praveen; Porter, Arthur

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To report on the quality of life in patients who have received a permanent transperineal ultrasound guide prostate implant. There is increasing recognition that prostate cancer therapy impacts significantly on the patients ability to pursue relational, occupational and social interests. With the substantially expanded patient role in directing treatment for prostate cancer, the importance of examining quality of life outcomes in addition to survival has been underscored. Materials and Methods: 51 sequential patients with clinically localized prostate cancer who underwent permanent prostate implantation from September 1995 to October 1996 were evaluated. All patients were clinically staged as T1c or T2a and received implant with Iodine 125 or Palladium 103 as definitive treatment. Data was collected using the EORTC genitourinary group questionnaire and supplemental questions during an interview. Results: Urinary symptoms such as nocturia, frequency and dysuria were the most pronounced in the first two months after implant and then decreased in the majority of patients. The EORTC questionnaire was administered at 6 months and examined urinary quality, sexual quality and perception of symptoms. With regard to urinary quality, 17% had mild dysuria at 6 months and 40% noted that they urinated more frequently than pre implant. No patient had hematuria and 0 % were incontinent. 3% stated that they had occasional loss of minimal urine with severe urgency. Only 2% required intermittent self catheterization after implant secondary to obstructive symptoms. Over 90% were on an alpha blocker post implant for a minimum of 6 weeks. 0% reported psychological distress and 3% noted a disruption in social or family life. 15% experienced some fatigue and 10% noted a decreased functional status but only 1% a decreased role function. Additional questions addressed lifestyle and work issues. 100% would have an implant again as definitive treatment and 98% would recommend the

  5. Plagiarism in residency application essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Scott; Gelfand, Brian J; Hurwitz, Shelley; Berkowitz, Lori; Ashley, Stanley W; Nadel, Eric S; Katz, Joel T

    2010-07-20

    Anecdotal reports suggest that some residency application essays contain plagiarized content. To determine the prevalence of plagiarism in a large cohort of residency application essays. Retrospective cohort study. 4975 application essays submitted to residency programs at a single large academic medical center between 1 September 2005 and 22 March 2007. Specialized software was used to compare residency application essays with a database of Internet pages, published works, and previously submitted essays and the percentage of the submission matching another source was calculated. A match of more than 10% to an existing work was defined as evidence of plagiarism. Evidence of plagiarism was found in 5.2% (95% CI, 4.6% to 5.9%) of essays. The essays of non-U.S. citizens were more likely to demonstrate evidence of plagiarism. Other characteristics associated with the prevalence of plagiarism included medical school location outside the United States and Canada; previous residency or fellowship; lack of research experience, volunteer experience, or publications; a low United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 score; and non-membership in the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society. The software database is probably incomplete, the 10%-match threshold for defining plagiarism has not been statistically validated, and the study was confined to applicants to 1 institution. Evidence of matching content in an essay cannot be used to infer the applicant's intent and is not sensitive to variations in the cultural context of copying in some societies. Evidence of plagiarism in residency application essays is more common in international applicants but was found in those by applicants to all specialty programs, from all medical school types, and even among applicants with significant academic honors. No external funding.

  6. Simulation Activity in Otolaryngology Residencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Ellen S; Wiet, Gregory J; Seidman, Michael; Hussey, Heather M; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Fried, Marvin P

    2015-08-01

    Simulation has become a valuable tool in medical education, and several specialties accept or require simulation as a resource for resident training or assessment as well as for board certification or maintenance of certification. This study investigates current simulation resources and activities in US otolaryngology residency programs and examines interest in advancing simulation training and assessment within the specialty. Web-based survey. US otolaryngology residency training programs. An electronic web-based survey was disseminated to all US otolaryngology program directors to determine their respective institutional and departmental simulation resources, existing simulation activities, and interest in further simulation initiatives. Descriptive results are reported. Responses were received from 43 of 104 (43%) residency programs. Simulation capabilities and resources are available in most respondents' institutions (78.6% report onsite resources; 73.8% report availability of models, manikins, and devices). Most respondents (61%) report limited simulation activity within otolaryngology. Areas of simulation are broad, addressing technical and nontechnical skills related to clinical training (94%). Simulation is infrequently used for research, credentialing, or systems improvement. The majority of respondents (83.8%) expressed interest in participating in multicenter trials of simulation initiatives. Most respondents from otolaryngology residency programs have incorporated some simulation into their curriculum. Interest among program directors to participate in future multicenter trials appears high. Future research efforts in this area should aim to determine optimal simulators and simulation activities for training and assessment as well as how to best incorporate simulation into otolaryngology residency training programs. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  7. Object permanence in young infants: further evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillargeon, R; DeVos, J

    1991-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that 4.5- and even 3.5-month-old infants realize that objects continue to exist when hidden. The goal of the present experiments was to obtain converging evidence of object permanence in young infants. Experiments were conducted using paradigms previously used to demonstrate object permanence in 5.5-month-old infants and 6.5-month-old infants. In one experiment, 3.5-month-old infants watched a short or a tall carrot slide along a track. The track's center was hidden by a screen with a large window in its upper half. The short carrot was shorter than the window's lower edge and so did not appear in the window when passing behind the screen; the tall carrot was taller than the window's lower edge and hence should have appeared in the window but did not. The infants looked reliably longer at the tall than at the short carrot event, suggesting that they (a) represented the existence, height, and trajectory of each carrot behind the screen and (b) expected the tall carrot to appear in the screen window and were surprised that it did not. Control trials supported this interpretation. In another experiment, 4.0-month-old infants saw a toy car roll along a track that was partly hidden by a screen. A large toy mouse was placed behind the screen, either on top or in back of the track. The female infants looked reliably longer when the mouse stood on top as opposed to in back of the track, suggesting that they (a) represented the existence and trajectory of the car behind the screen, (b) represented the existence and location of the mouse behind the screen, and (c) were surprised to see the car reappear from behind the screen when the mouse stood in its path. A second experiment supported this interpretation. The results of these experiments provide further evidence that infants aged 3.5 months and older are able to represent and to reason about hidden objects.

  8. Mentorship in orthopaedic and trauma residency training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mentorship is important in residency training as it is necessary for personal and professional development of the resident trainees. Objectives: This study documents mentorship in orthopaedic residency training programme in Nigeria by assessing the awareness of orthopaedic residents on the role of a mentor, ...

  9. The resident's view of residency training in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, D G

    1966-04-09

    In the view of residents in their last year of specialty training, the Fellowship is now becoming the operative standard for obtaining hospital privileges in urban centres and they felt that this implied that the two standards, the Certificate and the Fellowship of the Royal College, were not achieving the purpose for which they were designed. Although 80% of the residents intended to write the Fellowship, few viewed a year in a basic science department or in research as of intrinsic value in terms of their future practice.The examinations of the Royal College were the subject of criticism, most residents feeling that the examinations did not test the knowledge and ability gained in training. Most expressed a desire for ongoing evaluation during the training period.Service responsibilities were generally regarded as too heavy.Despite the criticism of both training and examination, most residents felt that their training had provided them with the experience and background they needed to practise as specialists.

  10. An Analysis of Publication Productivity During Residency for 1506 Neurosurgical Residents and 117 Residency Departments in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nickalus R; Saad, Hassan; Oravec, Chesney S; Norrdahl, Sebastian P; Fraser, Brittany; Wallace, David; Lillard, Jock C; Motiwala, Mustafa; Nguyen, Vincent N; Lee, Siang Liao; Jones, Anna V; Ajmera, Sonia; Kalakoti, Piyush; Dave, Pooja; Moore, Kenneth A; Akinduro, Olutomi; Nyenwe, Emmanuel; Vaughn, Brandy; Michael, L Madison; Klimo, Paul

    2018-05-30

    Bibliometrics is defined as the study of statistical and mathematical methods used to quantitatively analyze scientific literature. The application of bibliometrics in neurosurgery continues to evolve. To calculate a number of publication productivity measures for almost all neurosurgical residents and departments within North America. These measures were correlated with survey results on the educational environment within residency programs. During May to June 2017, data were collected from departmental websites and Scopus to compose a bibliometric database of neurosurgical residents and residency programs. Data related to authorship value and study content were collected on all articles published by residents. A survey of residency program research and educational environment was administered to program directors and coordinators; results were compared with resident academic productivity. The median number of publications in residency was 3; median h-index and Resident index were 1 and 0.17 during residency, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in academic productivity among male neurosurgical residents compared with females. The majority of articles published were tier 1 clinical articles. Residency program research support was significantly associated with increased resident productivity (P productivity. This study represents the most comprehensive bibliometric assessment of neurosurgical resident academic productivity during training to date. New benchmarks for individual and department academic productivity are provided. A supportive research environment for neurosurgical residents is associated with increased academic productivity, but a scholarly activity requirement was, surprisingly, not shown to have a positive effect.

  11. Conversations with Holocaust survivor residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Sandra P; LeNavenec, Carole Lynne; Aldiabat, Khaldoun

    2011-03-01

    Traumatic events in one's younger years can have an impact on how an individual copes with later life. One traumatic experience for Jewish individuals was the Holocaust. Some of these people are moving into long-term care facilities. It was within this context that the research question emerged: What are Holocaust survivor residents' perceptions of a life lived as they move into a long-term care facility? For this qualitative study, Holocaust survivors were individually interviewed. Findings emphasize that nursing care needs to ensure that Holocaust survivor residents participate in activities, receive timely health care, and receive recognition of their life experiences. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Internal Medicine Residents' Perceptions of Cross-Cultural Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Elyse R; Betancourt, Joseph R; Miller, Elizabeth; Nathan, Michael; MacDonald, Ellie; Ananeh-Firempong, Owusu; Stone, Valerie E

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Physicians increasingly face the challenge of managing clinical encounters with patients from a range of cultural backgrounds. Despite widespread interest in cross-cultural care, little is known about resident physicians' perceptions of what will best enable them to provide quality care to diverse patient populations. OBJECTIVES To assess medicine residents' (1) perceptions of cross-cultural care, (2) barriers to care, and (3) training experiences and recommendations. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS Qualitative individual interviews were conducted with 26 third-year medicine residents at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston (response rate = 87%). Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. RESULTS Despite significant interest in cross-cultural care, almost all of the residents reported very little training during residency. Most had gained cross-cultural skills through informal learning. A few were skeptical about formal training, and some expressed concern that it is impossible to understand every culture. Challenges to the delivery of cross-cultural care included managing patients with limited English proficiency, who involve family in critical decision making, and who have beliefs about disease that vary from the biomedical model. Residents cited many implications to these barriers, ranging from negatively impacting the patient-physician relationship to compromised care. Training recommendations included making changes to the educational climate and informal and formal training mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS If cross-cultural education is to be successful, it must take into account residents' perspectives and be focused on overcoming residents' cited barriers. It is important to convey that cross-cultural education is a set of skills that can be taught and applied, in a time-efficient manner, rather than requiring an insurmountable knowledge base. PMID:16704391

  13. Microgeographic and temporal genetic variation in populations of the bluetongue virus vector Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, W J

    1992-05-01

    Seven Colorado populations of the bluetongue virus vector Culicoides varipennis (Coquillett) were analyzed for genetic variation at 19-21 isozyme loci. Permanent populations, which overwinter as larvae, showed little temporal genetic change at 19 loci. PGD and MDH showed seasonal changes in gene frequencies, attributable to selection at two permanent populations. Two temporary populations showed low heterozygosity compared with permanent populations. Independent estimates of gene flow, calculated using FST and the private allele method, were Nm* = 2.15 and 6.95, respectively. Colorado C. variipennis permanent populations showed high levels of gene flow which prevented significant genetic differentiation due to genetic drift. Temporary populations showed significant gene frequency differences from nearby permanent populations due to the "founder effect" associated with chance colonization.

  14. Risk behavior and access to HIV/AIDS prevention services in a community sample of homeless persons entering permanent supportive housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Suzanne L; Rhoades, Harmony; Harris, Taylor; Winetrobe, Hailey; Rice, Eric; Henwood, Ben

    2017-05-01

    Homeless persons suffer disproportionately high rates of HIV infection, and moving into permanent supportive housing (PSH) can provide a stable base from which to access needed prevention services. However, little is known about HIV risk or prevention behavior during this critical time of transition. The current study investigated STI and HIV risk and prevention behavior and recent use of prevention and treatment services (i.e., education, testing, medication) among homeless persons preparing to move into PSH. Data come from interviews with 421 homeless adults before they moved into PSH. Thirty-seven percent of the respondents were sexually active; of those, 75.7% reported unprotected sex. Nearly two-thirds (64%) reported past year HIV testing and 40% reported testing for another STI. Fewer than one-third (31%) of respondents reported receiving posttest counseling at their last HIV test. HIV seropositivity was self-reported by 10%. Among those persons who were HIV-positive, 57.1% reported less than 100% antiretroviral (ARV) adherence. Among HIV-negative respondents, less than 1% had been prescribed preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Less than half (46.4%) of the sample reported any HIV prevention education in the past year. This population of homeless adults about to move into PSH report high rates of HIV risk behavior, but low rates of HIV prevention education and very little PrEP utilization. Further, low rates of ARV adherence among HIV-positive respondents indicate significant risk for HIV transmission and acquisition. Entering PSH is a period of transition for homeless persons when integrated care is critically important to ensure positive health outcomes, but these data suggest that PrEP and other HIV prevention services are poorly accessed among this population. As such, multipronged services that integrate PrEP and other HIV prevention services are needed to prevent transmission and acquisition of HIV in this high-risk, vulnerable population and ensure the

  15. Elevated hair cortisol concentrations in recently fled asylum seekers in comparison to permanently settled immigrants and non-immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, R; Reich, H; Skoluda, N; Seele, F; Nater, U M

    2017-03-07

    Recently fled asylum seekers generally live in stressful conditions. Their residency status is mostly insecure and, similar to other immigrants, they experience stress due to acculturation. Moreover, they often suffer from traumatization and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). All of these factors can result in chronic maladaptive biological stress responses in terms of hyper- or hypocortisolism and, ultimately, illness. We believe the current study is the first to compare hair cortisol concentration (HCC) of recently fled asylum seekers with PTSD to those without PTSD, and to compare HCC of asylum seekers to HCC of permanently settled immigrants and non-immigrant individuals. HCC of the previous 2 months was compared between 24 asylum seekers without PTSD, 32 asylum seekers with PTSD, 24 permanently settled healthy Turkish immigrants and 28 non-immigrant healthy Germans as the reference group. Statistical comparisons were controlled for age, sex and body mass index. No significant difference in HCC was found between asylum seekers with and without PTSD. However, the asylum seekers showed a 42% higher HCC than the reference group. In contrast, the permanently settled immigrants exhibited a 23% lower HCC than the reference group. We found relative hypercortisolism in recently fled asylum seekers, but no difference between persons with and without PTSD. These findings add to the very few studies investigating HCC in groups with recent traumatization and unsafe living conditions. Contrary to the findings in asylum seekers, permanently settled immigrants showed relative hypocortisolism. Both hyper- and hypocortisolism may set the stage for the development of stress-related illnesses.

  16. Hanford Area 2000 Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Douglas B.; Scott, Michael J.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office, Surface Environmental Surveillance Project, to provide demographic data required for ongoing environmental assessments and safety analyses at the DOE Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. This document includes 2000 Census estimates for the resident population within an 80-kilometer (50-mile) radius of the Hanford Site. Population distributions are reported relative to five reference points centered on meteorological stations within major operating areas of the Hanford Site - the 100 F, 100 K, 200, 300, and 400 Areas. These data are presented in both graphical and tabular format, and are provided for total populations residing within 80 km (50 mi) of the reference points, as well as for Native American, Hispanic and Latino, total minority, and low-income populations

  17. Some economic aspects of rare-earth permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijlstra, H.

    1978-01-01

    The commercial feasibility of RE permanent magnets is analyzed in terms of price per unit of magnetostatic energy. The availability of the raw materials is also taken into consideration. The conclusion is that RE magnets are and remain relatively expensive as compared with other permanent magnets, and will find only limited application. (author)

  18. Modeling demagnetization effects in permanent magnet synchronous machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kral, C.; Sprangers, R.L.J.; Waarma, J.; Haumer, A.; Winter, O.; Lomonova, E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a permanent magnet model which takes temperature dependencies and demagnetization effects into account. The proposed model is integrated into a magnetic fundamental wave machine model using the model- ing language Modelica. For different rotor types permanent magnet models are

  19. Modeling of ironless permanent magnet planar motor structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeij, de J.; Lomonova, E.A.; Vandenput, A.J.A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an analytical model that includes end effects for ironless synchronous permanent-magnet planar actuators. Because of its flexibility, the model can be used to predict the performance of various permanent-magnet array and coil array topologies and commutation schemes. Moreover,

  20. Permanent tracheostomy: Its social impacts and their management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Upper respiratory tract obstruction resulting from bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve damage is commonly managed with permanent tracheostomy in our environment. Objective: To evaluate the social impacts of permanent tracheostomy and its management in Ondo State, Southwest Nigeria. Materials and ...