WorldWideScience

Sample records for peritrophic membrane pm

  1. Molecular characterization of a peritrophic membrane protein from the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaolong; Chen, Lin; Yang, Rui; Xiang, Xingwei; Wu, Xiaofeng

    2013-02-01

    The peritrophic membrane lines the gut of most insects at one or more stages of their life cycles. It facilitates the digestive processes in the guts and protects from invasion by pathogens or food particles. In the current study, a novel PM protein, designated as BmMtch, was identified from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The open reading frame of BmMtch is 888 bp in length, encoding 295 amino acid residues consisting of two domains (Mito_carr domains) and three transmembrane regions. They are localized on the 11th chromosome as single copy with one exon only. Quantitative real time PCR analysis (qRT-PCR) revealed that BmMtch was mainly expressed in larval fat bodies, Malpighian tubules, testis and ovaries, and could be detected through all stages of the life cycle of silkworm. Immuno-fluorescence analysis indicated that BmMtch was localized within the goblet cell of larval midgut. Western blotting analysis showed that BmMtch were detected in total proteins of PM and larval midgut. The characteristics of BmMtch indicated that BmMtch represents a novel member of insect PM proteins, without chitin-binding domains.

  2. Histological study of SlNPV infection on body weight and peritrophic membrane damage of Spodoptera litura larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NANIN DIAH KURNIAWATI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sanjaya, Machmudin D, Kurniawati ND. 2010. Histological study of SlNPV infection on body weight and peritrophic membrane damage of Spodoptera litura larvae. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 135-140. The effect of SlNPV infection on body weight and peritrophic membrane damage of Spodoptera litura Fab. larvae has been carried out. The method was used Probit analysis, and based on LD 50 the virus was infected to know body weight and post infection damage.The damage of histological structure caused by SlNPV (0, 315, 390, 465, 540 dan 615 PIB/mL was investigated after 0, 12, 24, 72 and 96 hours post infection. The histological material was prepared by using parafin method after fixation with Bouin Solution, then slice into 7 um and colored with Hematoxilin-Eosin. The result showed that the exposure SlNPV cause decreasing food consumption especially on 540 PIB/mL give average rate as amount of 0.1675 mg. The descriptive obsevation on structural intact of peritrophic membrane histology caused by SlNPV infection shows a tendency to decrease, while in control, there was no damage at all. The longer the exposition of virion in the midgut lumen the more damage on peritrophic membrane occurred. The severest damage occurred 96 hour after infection. The result prove that haNPV virion can destroy hystological structure of midgut.

  3. Development of myiasis vaccine: In vitro detection of immunoprotective responses of peritrophic membrane protein, first instar larva Ll supernatant and pellet antigen of fly Chrysomyia bezziana in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukarsih

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis control by means of individual treatment of animals which are mainly rised extensively is time consumed and expensive. The alternative way to control this disease by vaccination is considered effective and economically accepted. However the expected vaccine is now still being developed under a collaborative project between CSIRO, Inter-University Centre on Biotechnology-ITB and Research Institute for Veterinary Science and funded by ACIAR. There are several antigens have been identified as vaccine candidates and an in vitro bioassay technique has been developed for assessing the immunoresponses of vaccine in sheep. Three antigens were used for vaccines in this study, these included protein peritrophic membrane (PM, soluble extract (SE and pellet extract (PE of 1st instar larvae of Chrysomya bezziana. Twenty four experimental sheep were divided into 4 groups of 6 animals, 3 groups of animals were injected with PM, SE and PE vaccines with the dose rate of 0.5 g PM/head, 0.8 g PE/head and 4.2 ml LE/head respectively, and the other one group was injected with 4 ml PBS/head as a control group. Vaccination with the same dose was repeated 4 weeks after the 1st vaccination as a booster, and 2 weeks after the booster the sheep were challenged with live larvae, 3 days after challenge animals were killed. Sera were collected at the day of vaccination, 4 weeks after vaccination, 2 weeks after booster, and 3 days after challenge. An in vitro bioassay technique was conducted by culturing 1st instar larvae on five media containing sera collected from each experimental animal. The effects of sera on cultivated larvae were assessed by means of larval weight and larval mortality rate. The results indicated that the growth rate and survival of cultivated larvae in media containing anti-PM sera were significantly lower (P<0.01 compared to the larvae cultivated on media with sera on the day of vaccination. The larval weight depression by anti- PM sera

  4. Per os infectivity of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in white-legged shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) and role of peritrophic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuong, Khuong Van; Tuan, Vo Van; Li, Wenfeng; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; Nauwynck, Hans

    2016-02-29

    As earlier observations on peroral infectivity of WSSV in white-legged shrimp are conflicting, here, a standardized peroral intubation technique was used to examine (i) the role of the physical composition of the viral inoculum and (ii) the barrier function of the PM. In a first experiment, the infectivity of a WSSV stock was compared by determining the SID50 by intramuscular injection, peroral inoculation or via feeding. The following titers were obtained: 10(8.77) SID50/g by intramuscular injection, 10(1.23) SID50/g by peroral inoculation and 10(0.73) SID50/g by feeding. These results demonstrated that 10(7.54)-10(8.03) infectious virus is needed to infect shrimp by peroral inoculation and via feeding. Next, it was examined if damage of the PM may increase the susceptibility for WSSV by peroral route. The infectivity of a virus stock was tested upon peroral inoculation of shrimp with and without removal of the PM and compared with the infectivity upon intramuscular inoculation. The virus titers obtained upon intramuscular injection and peroral inoculation of shrimp with and without PM were 10(8.63), 10(1.13) and 10(1.53) SID50/mL, respectively. This experiment confirmed the need of 10(7.1)-10(7.5) infectious virus to infect shrimp via peroral route and showed that the removal of the PM slightly but not significantly (p > 0.05) facilitated the infection of shrimp. This study indicated that WSSV contaminated feed is poorly infectious via peroral route, whereas it is highly infectious when injected into shrimp. The PM plays a minor role as internal barrier of shrimp against WSSV infection.

  5. Impact of viral enhancin genes on potency of Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus in L. dispar following disruption of the peritrophic matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelli Hoover; Merideth A. Humphries; Alyssa R. Genfron; James M. Slavicek

    2010-01-01

    Enhancins are metalloproteases found in many betabaculoviruses and several alphabaculoviruses, which enhance alphabaculovirus potency by degrading a protein component of the peritrophic matrix (PM), facilitating passage of virions through this structure. Earlier studies on betabaculovirus enhancins within heterologous systems suggested that enhancins facilitate virion...

  6. Localization and cloning of the gene(s) of bacteriophage PM2 responsible for membrane morphogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Proteins implicated in membrane morphogenesis (sp6.6 and sp13) have been previously identified by analysis of membrane proteins in the membrane of the purified phage. Analysis of a ts viral mutant that produces empty membrane vesicles also indicated the unique presence of viral structural protein sp6.6. In this work the gene for sp6.6 was localized on the PM2 genome by in vitro coupled transcription-translation directed by restriction endonuclease fragments of PM2 DNA. A Hind III fragment containing the sp6.6 gene among others was cloned into pBR322 in E. coli. Examination with the electron microscope revealed the production of new membrane vesicles whose size were similar to that of the natural membrane of PM2. Clones were then constructed in the pUC family of plasmids which uses the Lac promoter and pPL-lambda which uses the promoter left of lambda. pUC clones were unable to produce vesicles or detectable sp6.6. A pPL-lambda clone was produced 3.5 Kbp in size, that produced p6.6 as detected by SDS-PAGE of radiolabeled protein and immunoblotting

  7. Variations in the Peritrophic Matrix Composition of Heparan Sulphate from the Tsetse Fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Rogerson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies are the principal insect vectors of African trypanosomes—sleeping sickness in humans and Nagana in cattle. One of the tsetse fly species, Glossina morsitans morsitans, is host to the parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, a major cause of African trypanosomiasis. Precise details of the life cycle have yet to be established, but the parasite life cycle involves crossing the insect peritrophic matrix (PM. The PM consists of the polysaccharide chitin, several hundred proteins, and both glycosamino- and galactosaminoglycan (GAG polysaccharides. Owing to the technical challenges of detecting small amounts of GAG polysaccharides, their conclusive identification and composition have not been possible until now. Following removal of PMs from the insects and the application of heparinases (bacterial lyase enzymes that are specific for heparan sulphate (HS GAG polysaccharides, dot blots with a HS-specific antibody showed heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPGs to be present, consistent with Glossina morsitans morsitans genome analysis, as well as the likely expression of the HSPGs syndecan and perlecan. Exhaustive HS digestion with heparinases, fluorescent labeling of the resulting disaccharides with BODIPY fluorophore, and separation by strong anion exchange chromatography then demonstrated the presence of HS for the first time and provided the disaccharide composition. There were no significant differences in the type of disaccharide species present between genders or between ages (24 vs. 48 h post emergence, although the HS from female flies was more heavily sulphated overall. Significant differences, which may relate to differences in infection between genders or ages, were evident, however, in overall levels of 2-O-sulphation between sexes and, for females, between 24 and 48 h post-emergence, implying a change in expression or activity for the 2-O-sulphotransferase enzyme. The presence of significant quantities of disaccharides containing the

  8. The PM2.5 capture of poly (lactic acid)/nano MOFs eletrospinning membrane with hydrophilic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yating; Dai, Xiu; Li, Xu; Wang, Xinlong

    2018-03-01

    In this article, metal organic frameworks (MOFs) material is introduced in the poly (lactic acid) (PLA) by electrospinning to fabricate the nanocomposite membrane. The acrylic acid (AA) is grafted onto the membrane under UV light. The prepared membrane is studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG), contact angle test and tensile strength test. The SEM image and XRD indicate that nano MOFs particles adhere to the membrane. Contact angle test shows that grafting AA on the composite fiber membrane improves its hydrophilicity effectively. TG analyses show that the particulate matter (PM) capture capacity of PLA membrane with 2 wt% ZIF-8 content is 22%, which rises to 37% after grafting.

  9. Comparison of Bloodmeal Digestion and the Peritrophic Matrix in Four Sand Fly Species Differing in Susceptibility to Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruzinova, Katerina; Sadlova, Jovana; Seblova, Veronika; Homola, Miroslav; Votypka, Jan; Volf, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The early stage of Leishmania development in sand flies is closely connected with bloodmeal digestion. Here we compared various parameters of bloodmeal digestion in sand flies that are either susceptible (Phlebotomus argentipes and P. orientalis) or refractory (P. papatasi and Sergentomyia schwetzi) to Leishmania donovani, to study the effects on vector competence. The volume of the bloodmeal ingested, time of defecation of bloodmeal remnants, timing of formation and degradation of the peritrophic matrix (PM) and dynamics of proteolytic activities were compared in four sand fly species. Both proven vectors of L. donovani showed lower trypsin activity and slower PM formation than refractory species. Interestingly, the two natural L. donovani vectors strikingly differed from each other in secretion of the PM and midgut proteases, with P. argentipes possessing fast bloodmeal digestion with a very high peak of chymotrypsin activity and rapid degradation of the PM. Experimental infections of P. argentipes did not reveal any differences in vector competence in comparison with previously studied P. orientalis; even the very low initial dose (2×103 promastigotes/ml) led to fully developed late-stage infections with colonization of the stomodeal valve in about 40% of females. We hypothesise that the period between the breakdown of the PM and defecation of the bloodmeal remnants, i.e. the time frame when Leishmania attach to the midgut in order to prevent defecation, could be one of crucial parameters responsible for the establishment of Leishmania in the sand fly midgut. In both natural L. donovani vectors this period was significantly longer than in S. schwetzi. Both vectors are equally susceptible to L. donovani; as average bloodmeal volumes taken by females of P. argentipes and P. orientalis were 0.63 μl and 0.59 μl, respectively, an infective dose corresponding to 1-2 parasites was enough to initiate mature infections.

  10. No Evidence for Spontaneous Lipid Transfer at ER-PM Membrane Contact Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merklinger, Elisa; Schloetel, Jan-Gero; Spitta, Luis; Thiele, Christoph; Lang, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Non-vesicular lipid transport steps play a crucial role in lipid trafficking and potentially include spontaneous exchange. Since membrane contact facilitates this lipid transfer, it is most likely to occur at membrane contact sites (MCS). However, to date it is unknown whether closely attached biological membranes exchange lipids spontaneously. We have set up a system for studying the exchange of lipids at MCS formed between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the plasma membrane. Contact sites were stably anchored and the lipids cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine (PC) were not capable of transferring spontaneously into the opposed bilayer. We conclude that physical contact between two associated biological membranes is not sufficient for transfer of the lipids PC and cholesterol.

  11. Crosslinking of a Peritrophic Matrix Protein Protects Gut Epithelia from Bacterial Exotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Toshio; Maki, Kouki; Hadano, Jinki; Fujikawa, Takumi; Kitazaki, Kazuki; Koshiba, Takumi; Kawabata, Shun-ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Transglutaminase (TG) catalyzes protein-protein crosslinking, which has important and diverse roles in vertebrates and invertebrates. Here we demonstrate that Drosophila TG crosslinks drosocrystallin, a peritrophic matrix protein, to form a stable fiber structure on the gut peritrophic matrix. RNA interference (RNAi) of the TG gene was highly lethal in flies and induced apoptosis of gut epithelial cells after oral infection with Pseudomonas entomophila. Moreover, AprA, a metalloprotease secreted by P. entomophila, digested non-crosslinked drosocrystallin fibers, but not drosocrystallin fibers crosslinked by TG. In vitro experiments using recombinant drosocrystallin and monalysin proteins demonstrated that monalysin, a pore-forming exotoxin of P. entomophila, was adsorbed on the crosslinked drosocrystallin fibers in the presence of P. entomophila culture supernatant. In addition, gut-specific TG-RNAi flies had a shorter lifespan than control flies after ingesting P. entomophila, whereas the lifespan after ingesting AprA-knockout P. entomophila was at control levels. We conclude that drosocrystallin fibers crosslinked by TG, but not non-crosslinked drosocrystallin fibers, form an important physical barrier against exotoxins of invading pathogenic microbes. PMID:26506243

  12. Crosslinking of a Peritrophic Matrix Protein Protects Gut Epithelia from Bacterial Exotoxins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Shibata

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Transglutaminase (TG catalyzes protein-protein crosslinking, which has important and diverse roles in vertebrates and invertebrates. Here we demonstrate that Drosophila TG crosslinks drosocrystallin, a peritrophic matrix protein, to form a stable fiber structure on the gut peritrophic matrix. RNA interference (RNAi of the TG gene was highly lethal in flies and induced apoptosis of gut epithelial cells after oral infection with Pseudomonas entomophila. Moreover, AprA, a metalloprotease secreted by P. entomophila, digested non-crosslinked drosocrystallin fibers, but not drosocrystallin fibers crosslinked by TG. In vitro experiments using recombinant drosocrystallin and monalysin proteins demonstrated that monalysin, a pore-forming exotoxin of P. entomophila, was adsorbed on the crosslinked drosocrystallin fibers in the presence of P. entomophila culture supernatant. In addition, gut-specific TG-RNAi flies had a shorter lifespan than control flies after ingesting P. entomophila, whereas the lifespan after ingesting AprA-knockout P. entomophila was at control levels. We conclude that drosocrystallin fibers crosslinked by TG, but not non-crosslinked drosocrystallin fibers, form an important physical barrier against exotoxins of invading pathogenic microbes.

  13. A subset of neurons controls the permeability of the peritrophic matrix and midgut structure in Drosophila adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenmoku, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Hiroki; Ote, Manabu; Kuraishi, Takayuki; Kurata, Shoichiro

    2016-08-01

    The metazoan gut performs multiple physiological functions, including digestion and absorption of nutrients, and also serves as a physical and chemical barrier against ingested pathogens and abrasive particles. Maintenance of these functions and structures is partly controlled by the nervous system, yet the precise roles and mechanisms of the neural control of gut integrity remain to be clarified in Drosophila Here, we screened for GAL4 enhancer-trap strains and labeled a specific subsets of neurons, using Kir2.1 to inhibit their activity. We identified an NP3253 line that is susceptible to oral infection by Gram-negative bacteria. The subset of neurons driven by the NP3253 line includes some of the enteric neurons innervating the anterior midgut, and these flies have a disorganized proventricular structure with high permeability of the peritrophic matrix and epithelial barrier. The findings of the present study indicate that neural control is crucial for maintaining the barrier function of the gut, and provide a route for genetic dissection of the complex brain-gut axis in adults of the model organism Drosophila. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. The Dynamics of Plasma Membrane, Metabolism and Respiration (PM-M-R in Penicillium ochrochloron CBS 123824 in Response to Different Nutrient Limitations—A Multi-level Approach to Study Organic Acid Excretion in Filamentous Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Vrabl

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous fungi are important cell factories. In contrast, we do not understand well even basic physiological behavior in these organisms. This includes the widespread phenomenon of organic acid excretion. One strong hurdle to fully exploit the metabolic capacity of these organisms is the enormous, highly environment sensitive phenotypic plasticity. In this work we explored organic acid excretion in Penicillium ochrochloron from a new point of view by simultaneously investigating three essential metabolic levels: the plasma membrane H+-ATPase (PM; energy metabolism, in particular adenine and pyridine nucleotides (M; and respiration, in particular the alternative oxidase (R. This was done in strictly standardized chemostat culture with different nutrient limitations (glucose, ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate. These different nutrient limitations led to various quantitative phenotypes (as represented by organic acid excretion, oxygen consumption, glucose consumption, and biomass formation. Glucose-limited grown mycelia were used as the reference point (very low organic acid excretion. Both ammonium and phosphate grown mycelia showed increased organic acid excretion, although the patterns of excreted acids were different. In ammonium-limited grown mycelia amount and activity of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase was increased, nucleotide concentrations were decreased, energy charge (EC and catabolic reduction charge (CRC were unchanged and alternative respiration was present but not quantifiable. In phosphate-limited grown mycelia (no data on the H+-ATPase nucleotide concentrations were still lower, EC was slightly decreased, CRC was distinctly decreased and alternative respiration was present and quantifiable. Main conclusions are: (i the phenotypic plasticity of filamentous fungi demands adaptation of sample preparation and analytical methods at the phenotype level; (ii each nutrient condition is unique and its metabolic situation must be considered

  15. PM 10 Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for PM 10 and have been...

  16. Asthma and PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmour M Ian

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract PM10 (the mass of particles present in the air having a 50% cutoff for particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm is the standard measure of particulate air pollution used worldwide. Epidemiological studies suggest that asthma symptoms can be worsened by increases in the levels of PM10. Epidemiological evidence at present indicates that PM10 increases do not raise the chances of initial sensitisation and induction of disease, although further research is warranted. PM10 is a complex mixture of particle types and has many components and there is no general agreement regarding which component(s could lead to exacerbations of asthma. However pro-inflammatory effects of transition metals, hydrocarbons, ultrafine particles and endotoxin, all present to varying degrees in PM10, could be important. An understanding of the role of the different components of PM10 in exacerbating asthma is essential before proper risk assessment can be undertaken leading to advice on risk management for the many asthmatics who are exposed to air pollution particles.

  17. Membrane-membrane interactions in a lipid-containing bacteriophage system. Progress report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, W.

    1979-06-01

    Progress is reported on research on two aspects of the life cycle of PM2, a lipid-containing bacteriophage. The first concerns the initial interaction of PM2 with the outer membrane of its host cell, Pseudomonas BAL-31. The second concerns the assembly of PM2 in infected cells and the structural features of hydrophobic membrane perturbers that inhibit PM2 assembly. Several other projects have been completed: distribution of PM2 receptors; effects of adamantance derivatives on PM2 production; hydrophobic membrane perturbers as antiviral and virucidal agents; hydrophobic photosensitizers; and other technique development

  18. Micro filtration membrane sieve with silicon micro machining for industrial and biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, C.J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    1995-01-01

    With the use of silicon micromachining an inorganic membrane sieve for microfiltration is constructed, having a siliconnitride membrane layer with thickness typically 1 pm and perforations typically between 0.5 pm and 10 pm in diameter. As a support a -silicon wafer with openings of loo0 pm in

  19. Physicochemical properties, in vitro cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of PM1.0 and PM2.5 from Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yajuan; Wu, Yizhao; Wang, Yali; Li, Yinsheng; Jin, Chengyu

    2017-08-01

    Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) links with a variety of respiratory diseases. However, compared with coarse particles (PM 10 ) and fine particles (PM 2.5 ), submicrometer particles (PM 1.0 ) may be a more important indicator of human health risks. In this study, the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of PM 1.0 samples from Shanghai were examined using A549 cells, and compared with the effects of PM 2.5 , to better understand the health effects of PM 1.0 in this area. The PM 1.0 and PM 2.5 samples were characterized for morphology, water-soluble inorganic ions, organic and elemental carbon, and metal elements. The cytotoxicity of PMs was measured using cell viability and cell membrane damage assays. The genotoxic effects of PMs were determined using the comet assay, and DNA damage was quantified using olive tail moment (OTM) values. The physicochemical characterization indicated that PM 1.0 was enriched in carbonaceous elements and hazardous metals (Al, Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, and V), whereas PM 2.5 was more abundant in large, irregular mineral particles. The biological results revealed that both PM 1.0 and PM 2.5 could induce significant cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in A549 cells, and that exposure to PM 1.0 caused more extensive toxic effects than exposure to PM 2.5 . The greater cytotoxic effects of PM 1.0 can be attributed to the combined effects of size and chemical composition, whereas the genotoxic effects of PM 1.0 may be mainly associated with chemical species.

  20. LHCb: Evidence of CP violation in charmless three-body decays $B^\\pm\\rightarrow K^\\pm\\pi^+\\pi^-$, $B^\\pm\\rightarrow K^\\pm K^+K^-$, $B^\\pm\\rightarrow K^+ K^-\\pi^\\pm$ and $B^\\pm\\rightarrow \\pi^\\pm\\pi^+\\pi^-$

    CERN Multimedia

    Lopes, J H

    2013-01-01

    Evidence of CP violation in charmless three-body decays $B^\\pm\\rightarrow K^\\pm\\pi^+\\pi^-$, $B^\\pm\\rightarrow K^\\pm K^+K^-$, $B^\\pm\\rightarrow K^+ K^-\\pi^\\pm$ and $B^\\pm\\rightarrow \\pi^\\pm\\pi^+\\pi^-$

  1. Isolation of plasma membrane-associated membranes from rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suski, Jan M; Lebiedzinska, Magdalena; Wojtala, Aleksandra; Duszynski, Jerzy; Giorgi, Carlotta; Pinton, Paolo; Wieckowski, Mariusz R

    2014-02-01

    Dynamic interplay between intracellular organelles requires a particular functional apposition of membrane structures. The organelles involved come into close contact, but do not fuse, thereby giving rise to notable microdomains; these microdomains allow rapid communication between the organelles. Plasma membrane-associated membranes (PAMs), which are microdomains of the plasma membrane (PM) interacting with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, are dynamic structures that mediate transport of proteins, lipids, ions and metabolites. These structures have gained much interest lately owing to their roles in many crucial cellular processes. Here we provide an optimized protocol for the isolation of PAM, PM and ER fractions from rat liver that is based on a series of differential centrifugations, followed by the fractionation of crude PM on a discontinuous sucrose gradient. The procedure requires ∼8-10 h, and it can be easily modified and adapted to other tissues and cell types.

  2. Placental and lactating transfer of 147Pm in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Feng; Zhu Shoupeng

    1990-08-01

    The placental and lactating transfer of 147 Pm in late pregnant mice and lactating mice as well as the distribution of 147 Pm in some organs of mother mice were studied and compared. The pregnant mice and lactating mice had intravenous injection with 147 Pm nitrate at the 17th day of gestation and the next day of parturition respectively. The two groups were sacrified at the 1st, 4th, 9th, 14th and 21st day after the injection. The retentions of 147 Pm in the liver, right femur, uterus, spleen, placenta, fetal membrane and litter were determined by the method of liquid scintillation. The results showed that the amount of 147 Pm in litters of both groups was increasing with the days after injection. In the 1st and 4th day of injection the amount of 147 Pm in litters of lactating mice was 20 times higher than those in litters of pregnant mice. The amount of 147 Pm in livers and skeletons and the half-retention time of prenant and lactating dams were much greater than those of control group

  3. 40 CFR 1065.690 - Buoyancy correction for PM sample media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mass, use a sample media density of 920 kg/m3. (3) For PTFE membrane (film) media with an integral... media. 1065.690 Section 1065.690 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Buoyancy correction for PM sample media. (a) General. Correct PM sample media for their buoyancy in air if...

  4. Search for $CP$ violation in $D^{\\pm}\\rightarrow K^0_S K^{\\pm}$ and $D^{\\pm}_{s}\\rightarrow K^0_S \\pi^{\\pm}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves Jr, A.A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J.E.; Appleby, R.B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J.J.; Badalov, A.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R.J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjornstad, P.M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N.H.; Brown, H.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carranza-Mejia, H.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Garcia, L.Castillo; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H.V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G.A.; Craik, D.C.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P.; David, P.N.Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; de Miranda, J.M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Deleage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suarez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Farber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, RF.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gavrilov, G.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Giani', S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V.V.; Gobel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gordon, H.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gandara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L.A.; Grauges, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grunberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S.C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S.T.; Harrison, J.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J.A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hess, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C.R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T.M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I.R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R.F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V.N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R.W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.P.; Lefevre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrancois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lowdon, P.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I.V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J.F.; Marconi, U.; Benito, C.Marin; Marino, P.; Marki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martin Sanchez, A.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D.A.; Minard, M.N.; Moggi, N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Morda, A.; Morello, M.J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A.B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Muller, K.; Muresan, R.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A.D.; Nguyen, T.D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D.P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, G.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J.M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B.K.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C.J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G.D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perez Trigo, E.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pescatore, L.; Pesen, E.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilar, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J.H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M.S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M.M.; dos Reis, A.C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, A.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Roa Romero, D.A.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A.B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Vidal, A.Romero; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, H.; Valls, P.Ruiz; Sabatino, G.; Saborido Silva, J.J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sapunov, M.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Savrie, M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Coutinho, R.Silva; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N.A.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M.D.; Soler, F.J.P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spradlin, P.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Subbiah, V.K.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szilard, D.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M.T.; Tresch, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Garcia, M.Ubeda; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vazquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J.J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voss, C.; Voss, H.; de Vries, J.A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D.R.; Watson, N.K.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M.P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F.F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S.A.; Wright, S.; Wu, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W.C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.

    2014-10-03

    A search for $CP$ violation in Cabibbo-suppressed $D^{\\pm}\\rightarrow K^0_S K^{\\pm}$ and $D^{\\pm}_{s}\\rightarrow K^0_S \\pi^{\\pm}$ decays is performed using $pp$ collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3~fb$^{-1}$, recorded by the LHCb experiment. The individual $CP$-violating asymmetries are measured to be \\begin{eqnarray*} \\mathcal{A}_{CP}^{D^{\\pm}\\rightarrow K^0_S K^{\\pm}} & = & (+0.03 \\pm 0.17 \\pm 0.14) \\% \\\\ \\mathcal{A}_{CP}^{D^{\\pm}_s\\rightarrow K^0_S \\pi^{\\pm}} & = & (+0.38 \\pm 0.46 \\pm 0.17) \\%, \\end{eqnarray*} assuming that $CP$ violation in the Cabibbo-favoured decays is negligible. A combination of the measured asymmetries for the four decay modes $D^{\\pm}_{(s)}\\rightarrow K^0_S K^{\\pm}$ and $D^{\\pm}_{(s)}\\rightarrow K^0_S \\pi^{\\pm}$ gives the sum \\[ \\mathcal{A}_{CP}^{D^{\\pm}\\rightarrow K^0_S K^{\\pm}}+ \\mathcal{A}_{CP}^{D^{\\pm}_s\\rightarrow K^0_S \\pi^{\\pm}} = (+0.41 \\pm 0.49 \\pm 0.26) \\%. \\] In all cases, the first uncertainties are statistical and the second sys...

  5. Membrane Contact Sites: Complex Zones for Membrane Association and Lipid Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quon, Evan; Beh, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    Lipid transport between membranes within cells involves vesicle and protein carriers, but as agents of nonvesicular lipid transfer, the role of membrane contact sites has received increasing attention. As zones for lipid metabolism and exchange, various membrane contact sites mediate direct associations between different organelles. In particular, membrane contact sites linking the plasma membrane (PM) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) represent important regulators of lipid and ion transfer. In yeast, cortical ER is stapled to the PM through membrane-tethering proteins, which establish a direct connection between the membranes. In this review, we consider passive and facilitated models for lipid transfer at PM–ER contact sites. Besides the tethering proteins, we examine the roles of an additional repertoire of lipid and protein regulators that prime and propagate PM–ER membrane association. We conclude that instead of being simple mediators of membrane association, regulatory components of membrane contact sites have complex and multilayered functions. PMID:26949334

  6. Membrane Contact Sites: Complex Zones for Membrane Association and Lipid Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Evan Quon; Christopher T. Beh

    2016-01-01

    Lipid transport between membranes within cells involves vesicle and protein carriers, but as agents of nonvesicular lipid transfer, the role of membrane contact sites has received increasing attention. As zones for lipid metabolism and exchange, various membrane contact sites mediate direct associations between different organelles. In particular, membrane contact sites linking the plasma membrane (PM) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) represent important regulators of lipid and ion transfer...

  7. Regulation of the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falhof, Janus

    The plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase is responsible for generating the electrochemical gradientthat drives the secondary transport of nutrients across the cellular membrane. It belongs to a familyof cation and lipid transporters that are vital to many organisms. PM H+-ATPases are Type P3AATPases...

  8. Winter mass concentrations of carbon species in PM10, PM 2.5 and PM1 in Zagreb air, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godec, Ranka; Čačković, Mirjana; Šega, Krešimir; Bešlić, Ivan

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to examine the mass concentrations of EC, OC and TC (EC + OC) in PM(10), PM(2.5) and PM(1) particle fractions. Daily PM(10), PM(2.5) and PM(1) samples were collected at an urban background monitoring site in Zagreb during winter 2009. Average OC and EC mass concentrations were 11.9 and 1.8 μg m(-3) in PM(10), 9.0 and 1.4 μg m(-3) in PM(2.5), and 5.5 and 1.1 μg m(-3) in PM(1). Average OC/EC ratios in PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1) were 7.4, 6.9 and 5.4, respectively.

  9. Observation of $C\\!P$ violation in $B^\\pm \\to D K^\\pm$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palacios, J; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rosello, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of $B^{\\pm}\\to DK^{\\pm}$ and $B^{\\pm}\\to D\\pi^{\\pm}$ decays is presented where the $D$ meson is reconstructed in the two-body final states:$K^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\mp}$, $K^+K^-$, $\\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $\\pi^{\\pm}K^{\\mp}$. Using $1.0{\\rm \\,fb}^{-1}$ of LHCb data, measurements of several observables are made including the first observation of the suppressed mode $B^{\\pm}\\to[\\pi^{\\pm}K^{\\mp}]_DK^{\\pm}$. $C\\!P$ violation in $B^{\\pm}\\to DK^{\\pm}$ decays is observed with $5.8\\,\\sigma$ significance.

  10. Lifetime measurement in 136Pm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toney, D.; Zhong, Q.; De Angelis, G.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the electromagnetic transition probabilities in the doublet bands of 136 Pm. These two bands have been observed up to Iπ = (21 + ). Contrary to the case of 134 Pr, the B(M1)/B(E2) ratios take similar values within the error bars in 136 Pm. This is a strong indication that there is considerable difference between the two nuclei. However, a lifetime measurement in 136 Pm is needed to shed light on the scale and the origin of the difference

  11. Measurement of the charge asymmetry in $B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi K^{\\pm}$ and search for $B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi \\pi^{\\pm}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Cheung, S -F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorbounov, P; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Martynov, A; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2014-01-01

    The CP-violating charge asymmetry in $B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi K^{\\pm}$ decays is measured in a sample of $pp$ collisions at 7 TeV centre-of-mass energy, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$ collected by the LHCb experiment. The result is $\\mathcal{A}_{CP}(B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi K^{\\pm}) = \\rm 0.022\\pm 0.021 \\pm 0.009$, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. In addition, a search for the $B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi \\pi^{\\pm}$ decay mode is performed, using the $B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi K^{\\pm}$ decay rate for normalization. An upper limit on the branching fraction $\\mathcal{B}(B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi \\pi^{\\pm})< 1.5\\times 10^{-7}$ is set at 90% confidence level.

  12. Plasma membrane protein trafficking in plant–microbe interactions: a plant cell point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Leborgne-Castel,; Bouhidel, Karim

    2014-01-01

    In order to ensure their physiological and cellular functions, plasma membrane (PM) proteins must be properly conveyed from their site of synthesis, i.e., the endoplasmic reticulum, to their final destination, the PM, through the secretory pathway. PM protein homeostasis also relies on recycling and/or degradation, two processes that are initiated by endocytosis. Vesicular membrane trafficking events to and from the PM have been shown to be altered when plant cells are exposed to mutualistic ...

  13. Indoor PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations in primary schools in Sari, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadyan, Mahmoud; Shabankhani, Bijan

    2013-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine the distribution of particles in classrooms in primary schools located in the centre of the city of Sari, Iran and identify the relationship between indoor classroom particle levels and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations. Outdoor PM2.5 and indoor PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 were monitored using a real-time Micro Dust Pro monitor and a GRIMM monitor, respectively. Both monitors were calibrated by gravimetric method using filters. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed that all indoor and outdoor data fitted normal distribution. Mean indoor PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations for all of the classrooms were 17.6 μg m(-3), 46.6 μg m(-3), 400.9 μg m(-3), and 36.9 μg m(-3), respectively. The highest levels of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations were measured at the Shahed Boys School (69.1 μg m(-3) and 115.8 μg m(-3), respectively). The Kazemi school had the lowest levels of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 (29.1 μg m(-3) and 15.5 μg m(-3), respectively). In schools located near both main and small roads, the association between indoor fine particle (PM2.5 and PM1) and outdoor PM2.5 levels was stronger than that between indoor PM10 and outdoor PM2.5 levels. Mean indoor PM2.5 and PM10 and outdoor PM2.5 were higher than the standards for PM2.5 and PM10, and there was a good correlation between indoor and outdoor fine particle concentrations.

  14. Involvement of C-Terminal Histidines in Soybean PM1 Protein Oligomerization and Cu2+ Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guobao; Liu, Ke; Gao, Yang; Zheng, Yizhi

    2017-06-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are widely distributed among plant species, where they contribute to abiotic stress tolerance. LEA proteins can be classified into seven groups according to conserved sequence motifs. The PM1 protein from soybean, which belongs to the Pfam LEA_1 group, has been shown previously to be at least partially natively unfolded, to bind metal ions and potentially to stabilize proteins and membranes. Here, we investigated the role of the PM1 C-terminal domain and in particular the multiple histidine residues in this half of the protein. We constructed recombinant plasmids expressing full-length PM1 and two truncated forms, PM1-N and PM1-C, which represent the N- and C-terminal halves of the protein, respectively. Immunoblotting and cross-linking experiments showed that full-length PM1 forms oligomers and high molecular weight (HMW) complexes in vitro and in vivo, while PM1-C, but not PM1-N, also formed oligomers and HMW complexes in vitro. When the histidine residues in PM1 and PM1-C were chemically modified, oligomerization was abolished, suggesting that histidines play a key role in this process. Furthermore, we demonstrated that high Cu2+ concentrations promote oligomerization and induce PM1 and PM1-C to form HMW complexes. Therefore, we speculate that PM1 proteins not only maintain ion homeostasis in the cytoplasm, but also potentially stabilize and protect other proteins during abiotic stress by forming a large, oligomeric molecular shield around biological targets. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Membrane dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    Current topics include membrane-protein interactions with regard to membrane deformation or curvature sensing by BAR domains. Also, we study the dynamics of membrane tubes of both cells and simple model membrane tubes. Finally, we study membrane phase behavior which has important implications...... for the lateral organization of membranes as wells as for physical properties like bending, permeability and elasticity...

  16. PM levels in urban area of Bejaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaissa, Fatima; Maesano, Cara Nichole; Alkama, Rezak; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution is not routinely measured in Bejaia City, Algeria, an urban area of around 200,000 inhabitants. We present first time measurements of particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations for this city (PM10, PM7, PM4, PM2.5 and PM1) over the course of one week, from July 8 to July 14, 2015. This study covered eight urban sampling sites and 169 measurements were obtained to determine mass concentration levels. Air pollution is not routinely measured in Bejaia City, Algeria, an urban area of around 200,000 inhabitants. We present first time measurements of particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations for this city (PM10, PM7, PM4, PM2.5 and PM1) over the course of one week, from July 8 to July 14, 2015. This study covered eight urban sampling sites and 169 measurements were obtained to determine mass concentration levels. The average city-wide PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations measured during this sampling were 87.8 ± 33.9 and 28.7 ± 10.6 µg/m3 respectively. These results show that particulate matter levels are high and exceed Algerian ambient air quality standards (maximum 80 µg/m3, without specifying the particle size). Further, PM10 and PM2.5 averages were well above the prescribed 24-hour average World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines (WHO AQG) (50 µg/m3 for PM10 and 25 µg/m3 for PM2.5). The PM1, PM2,5, PM4 and PM7 fractions accounted for 15%, 32 %, 56% and 78% respectively of the PM10 measurements. Our analysis reveals that PM concentration variations in the study region were influenced primarily by traffic. In fact, lower PM10 concentrations (21.7 and 33.1 µg/m3) were recorded in residential sites while higher values (53.1, and 45.2 µg/m3) were registered in city centers. Keywords: Particulate matter, Urban area, vehicle fleet, Bejaia.

  17. Biosensors Based on Ultrathin Film Composite Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-25

    composite membranes should have a number C •’ of potential advantages including fast response time, simplicity of construction, and applicability to a number...The support membrane for the ultrathin film composite was an Anopore ( Alltech Associates) microporous alumina filter, these membranes are 55 Pm thick...constant 02 concentration in this solution. Finally, one of the most important potential advantage of a sensor based on an ultrathin film composite

  18. Leadership PM: Theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misumi, J.

    1997-01-01

    A leadership concept which is designed to overcome the limitations of the commonly used behavioral classification scheme is presented. In this PM concept, P stands for performance and M for maintenance. Measuring each characteristic on an axis between ''high'' and ''low'', four distinct types of leadership could be identified. The model was tested in laboratory studies and field surveys of different organizations. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  19. PM Raman fiber laser at 1679 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Ask Sebastian; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a PM Raman fiber laser emitting light at 1679 nm. The laser has an slope efficiency of 67 % and an output power of more than 275mWwith a 27 pm linewidth.......We demonstrate a PM Raman fiber laser emitting light at 1679 nm. The laser has an slope efficiency of 67 % and an output power of more than 275mWwith a 27 pm linewidth....

  20. CARDIOVASCULAR MORTALITY IN PHOENIX: PM1 IS A BETTER INDICATOR THAN PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has obtained a 3-year database of particulate matter (PM) in Phoenix, AZ from 1995 - 1997 that includes elemental analysis by XRF of daily PM2.5. During this time period PM1 and PM2.5 TEOMs were run simultaneously for about 7 months during two periods of the year. Regressio...

  1. Indoor pollution: PM2.5 and PM10 from cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chianese, E.; Barone, G.; Castaldo, R.M.; Riccio, A.

    2009-01-01

    This work is aimed to establishing the temporal and spatial dispersion of PM 10 and PM 2.5 particulate matter fractions generated by cigarettes smoking in an indoor ambient. To this purpose, PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations were collected with a mobile instrument positioned in a room accommodating a smoking machine. [it

  2. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Plasma Membrane Contact Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheki, Yasunori; De Camilli, Pietro

    2017-06-20

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has a broad localization throughout the cell and forms direct physical contacts with all other classes of membranous organelles, including the plasma membrane (PM). A number of protein tethers that mediate these contacts have been identified, and study of these protein tethers has revealed a multiplicity of roles in cell physiology, including regulation of intracellular Ca 2+ dynamics and signaling as well as control of lipid traffic and homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the cross talk between the ER and the PM mediated by direct contacts. We review factors that tether the two membranes, their properties, and their dynamics in response to the functional state of the cell. We focus in particular on the role of ER-PM contacts in nonvesicular lipid transport between the two bilayers mediated by lipid transfer proteins.

  3. Congruence between PM H+-ATPase and NADPH oxidase during root growth: a necessary probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Arkajo; Kar, Rup Kumar

    2018-07-01

    Plasma membrane (PM) H + -ATPase and NADPH oxidase (NOX) are two key enzymes responsible for cell wall relaxation during elongation growth through apoplastic acidification and production of ˙OH radical via O 2 ˙ - , respectively. Our experiments revealed a putative feed-forward loop between these enzymes in growing roots of Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek seedlings. Thus, NOX activity was found to be dependent on proton gradient generated across PM by H + -ATPase as evident from pharmacological experiments using carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP; protonophore) and sodium ortho-vanadate (PM H + -ATPase inhibitor). Conversely, H + -ATPase activity retarded in response to different ROS scavengers [CuCl 2 , N, N' -dimethylthiourea (DMTU) and catalase] and NOX inhibitors [ZnCl 2 and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI)], while H 2 O 2 promoted PM H + -ATPase activity at lower concentrations. Repressing effects of Ca +2 antagonists (La +3 and EGTA) on the activity of both the enzymes indicate its possible mediation. Since, unlike animal NOX, the plant versions do not possess proton channel activity, harmonized functioning of PM H + -ATPase and NOX appears to be justified. Plasma membrane NADPH oxidase and H + -ATPase are functionally synchronized and they work cooperatively to maintain the membrane electrical balance while mediating plant cell growth through wall relaxation.

  4. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  5. Hydrophobic and porous cellulose nanofibrous screen for efficient particulate matter (PM2.5) blocking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liping; Guo, Yi; Peng, Xinsheng

    2017-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution in air seriously affects public health. However, both bulk thickness and the accumulation of PM particles typically lead to a quick decline in the air permeability and large pressure drops of the conventional air clean membranes. In this work, we choose cellulose nanofibers (CNFs, a low cost, biodegradable and sustainable material) to form a hydrophobic and porous CNF thin layer on a stainless steel screen (300 mesh with pore size of 48 µ m) through a simple filtration-assisted gelation process and subsequent polydimethylsiloxane modification. The prepared hydrophobic CNFs/stainless steel screen demonstrates highly efficient PM2.5 blocking based on size-sieving effect, fast air permeability and long-term durability under natural ventilation conditions in the relative humidity range from 45% to 93%. This technique holds great potential for indoor PM2.5 blocking under natural ventilation conditions. (paper)

  6. Hydrophobic and porous cellulose nanofibrous screen for efficient particulate matter (PM2.5) blocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liping; Guo, Yi; Peng, Xinsheng

    2017-10-01

    Particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution in air seriously affects public health. However, both bulk thickness and the accumulation of PM particles typically lead to a quick decline in the air permeability and large pressure drops of the conventional air clean membranes. In this work, we choose cellulose nanofibers (CNFs, a low cost, biodegradable and sustainable material) to form a hydrophobic and porous CNF thin layer on a stainless steel screen (300 mesh with pore size of 48 µm) through a simple filtration-assisted gelation process and subsequent polydimethylsiloxane modification. The prepared hydrophobic CNFs/stainless steel screen demonstrates highly efficient PM2.5 blocking based on size-sieving effect, fast air permeability and long-term durability under natural ventilation conditions in the relative humidity range from 45% to 93%. This technique holds great potential for indoor PM2.5 blocking under natural ventilation conditions.

  7. Search for direct CP violating charge asymmetries in $K^\\pm\\to\\pi^\\pm\\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $K^\\pm\\to\\pi^\\pm\\pi^0\\pi^0$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Batley, J Richard; Kalmus, George Ernest; Lazzeroni, C; Munday, D J; Slater, M W; Wotton, S A; Arcidiacono, R; Bocquet, G; Cabibbo, Nicola; Ceccucci, A; Cundy, Donald C; Falaleev, V; Fidecaro, Maria; Gatignon, L; Gonidec, A; Kubischta, Werner; Norton, A; Maier, A; Patel, M; Peters, A; Balev, S; Frabetti, P L; Goudzovski, E; Khristov, P Z; Kekelidze, V D; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Madigozhin, D T; Marinova, E; Molokanova, N A; Polenkevich, I; Potrebenikov, Yu K; Stoynev, S; Zinchenko, A I; Monnier, E; Swallow, E; Winston, R; Rubin, P; Walker, A; Baldini, W; Cotta-Ramusino, A; Dalpiaz, P; Damiani, C; Fiorini, M; Gianoli, A; Martini, M; Petrucci, F; Savrié, M; Scarpa, M; Wahle, H; Bizzeti, A; Calvetti, M; Celeghini, E; Iacopini, E; Lenti, M; Martelli, F; Ruggiero, G; Veltri, M; Behler, M; Eppard, K; Kleinknecht, K; Marouelli, P; Masetti, L; Moosbrugger, U; Morales-Morales, C; Renk, B; Wache, M; Wanke, R; Winhart, A; Coward, D; Dabrowski, A; Fonseca-Martin, T; Shieh, M; Szleper, M; Velasco, M; Wood, M D; Anzivino, Giuseppina; Cenci, P; Imbergamo, E; Nappi, A; Pepé, M; Petrucci, M C; Piccini, M; Raggi, M; Valdata-Nappi, M; Cerri, C; Collazuol, G; Costantini, F; Di Lella, L; Doble, N; Fantechi, R; Fiorini, L; Giudici, S; Lamanna, G; Mannelli, I; Michetti, A; Pierazzini, G M; Sozzi, M; Bloch-Devaux, B; Cheshkov, C; Chèze, J B; De Beer, M; Derré, J; Marel, Gérard; Mazzucato, E; Peyaud, B; Vallage, B; Holder, M; Ziolkowski, M; Bifani, S; Biino, C; Cartiglia, N; Clemencic, M; Goy-Lopez, S; Marchetto, F; Dibon, Heinz; Jeitler, Manfred; Markytan, Manfred; Mikulec, I; Neuhofer, G; Widhalm, L

    2007-01-01

    A measurement of the direct CP violating charge asymmetries of the Dalitz plot linear slopes $A_g=(g^+-g^-)/(g^++g^-)$ in $K^\\pm\\to\\pi^\\pm\\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $K^\\pm\\to\\pi^\\pm\\pi^0\\pi^0$ decays by the NA48/2 experiment at CERN SPS is presented. A new technique of asymmetry measurement involving simultaneous $K^+$ and $K^-$ beams and a large data sample collected allowed a result of an unprecedented precision. The charge asymmetries were measured to be $A^c_g=(-1.5\\pm2.1)\\times10^{-4}$ with $3.11\\times 10^9$ $K^{\\pm}\\to\\pi^\\pm\\pi^+\\pi^-$ decays, and $A^n_g=(1.8\\pm1.8)\\times10^{-4}$ with $9.13\\times 10^7$ $K^{\\pm}\\to\\pi^\\pm\\pi^0\\pi^0$ decays. The precision of the results is limited mainly by the size of the data sample.

  8. Chemical composition and sources of PM1 and PM2.5 in Beijing in autumn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyun; Lang, Jianlei; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Li, Shengyue; Zhou, Ying; Chen, Dongsheng; Zhang, Hanyu; Wang, Haiyan

    2018-02-20

    Beijing, the capital of China, suffers from severe atmospheric aerosol pollution; nevertheless, a comprehensive study of the constituents and sources of PM 1 is still lacking, and the differences between PM 1 and PM 2.5 are still unclear. In this study, an intensive observation was conducted to reveal the pollution characteristics of PM 1 and PM 2.5 in Beijing in autumn. Positive matrix factorization (PMF), backward trajectories and a potential source contribution function (PSCF) model were used to identify the source categories and source areas of PM 1 and PM 2.5 . The results showed that the average concentrations of PM 1 and PM 2.5 reached 78.20μg/m 3 and 95.47μg/m 3 during the study period, respectively. PM 1 contributed greatly to PM 2.5 . The PM 1 /PM 2.5 value increased from 73.6% to 90.1% with PM 1 concentration growing from 150μg/m 3 . Higher secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) proportions (31.3%-70.8%) were found in PM 1 . The higher fraction of SIA, OC, EC and typical elements in PM 1 illustrated that anthropogenic components accumulated more in smaller size particles. Three typical weather patterns causing the heavy pollution in autumn were found as follows: (1) Siberian high and uniform high pressure field, (2) cold front and low-voltage system, and (3) uniform low pressure field. A PMF analysis indicated that secondary aerosols and coal combustion, vehicle, industry, biomass burning, and dust were the important sources of PM, accounting for 53.8%, 8.0%, 13.0%, 13.2% and 12.0% of PM 1 , respectively, and for 47.5%, 9.9%, 12.4%, 8.4% and 21.8% of PM 2.5 , respectively. The HYSPLIT and chemical components analysis indicated the potential contribution from biomass burning and fertilization ammonia emissions to PM 1 in autumn. The source areas were similar for PM 1 and PM 1-2.5 under general polluted conditions, but during the heavily polluted periods, the source areas were distributed in farther regions from Beijing for PM 1 than for PM 1-2.5 . Copyright

  9. EBIT spectroscopy of Pm-like tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, R.; Zou, Y.; Reyna Almandos, J.; Biedermann, C.; Radtke, R.; Greier, A.; Neu, R.

    2003-01-01

    Methods of VUV electron beam ion trap (EBIT) spectroscopy are applied to the study of Pm-like tungsten (W 13+ ). These data show that theory appears well capable of dealing with these multi-electron (61) ions, at least for high ionization stages. A comparison of other spectroscopic methods applied to the study of other ions of the Pm I sequence is also given, and finally a search for the Pm-like W lines at the ASDEX Upgrade Tokamak is mentioned

  10. Development of a continuous monitoring system for PM10 and components of PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, M; Xiong, J Q; Li, W

    2000-01-01

    While particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters below 10 and 2.5 microns (PM10 and PM2.5) correlate with excess mortality and morbidity, there is evidence for still closer epidemiological associations with sulfate ion, and experimental exposure-response studies suggest that the hydrogen ion and ultrafine (PM0.15) concentrations may be important risk factors. Also, there are measurement artifacts in current methods used to measure ambient PM10 and PM2.5, including negative artifacts because of losses of sampled semivolatile components (ammonium nitrate and some organics) and positive artifacts due to particle-bound water. To study such issues, we are developing a semi-continuous monitoring system for PM10, PM2.5, semivolatiles (organic compounds and NH4NO3), particle-bound water, and other PM2.5 constituents that may be causal factors. PM10 is aerodynamically sorted into three size-fractions: (1) coarse (PM10-PM2.5); (2) accumulation mode (PM2.5-PM0.15); and (3) ultrafine (PM0.15). The mass concentration of each fraction is measured in terms of the linear relation between accumulated mass and pressure drop on polycarbonate pore filters. The PM0.15 mass, being highly correlated with the ultrafine number concentration, provides a good index of the total number concentration in ambient air. For the accumulation mode (PM2.5-PM0.15), which contains nearly all of the semivolatiles and particle-bound water by mass, aliquots of the aerosol stream flow into system components that continuously monitor sulfur (by flame photometry), ammonium and nitrate (by chemiluminescence following catalytic transformations to NO), organics (by thermal-optical analysis) and particle-bound water (by electrolytic hygrometer after vacuum evaporation of sampled particles). The concentration of H+ can be calculated (by ion balance using the monitoring data on NO3-, NH4+, and SO4=).

  11. Local contribution of wood combustion to PM10 and PM2.5; Lokale bijdrage van houtverbranding aan PM10 en PM2,5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kos, G.; Weijers, E. [ECN Biomassa, Kolen en Milieuonderzoek, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    In February 2009 the concentration of wood smoke in a residential area in Schoorl (Noord-Holland, Netherlands) was investigated over a period of three weeks. The aim was to assess the effect of local particulate matter (PM) emissions - caused by heating with wood stoves in this area - on local PM concentration. [Dutch] In februari 2009 zijn in Schoorl in Noord-Holland concentraties houtrook bepaald door levoglucosanmetingen (een voor houtrook kenmerkende koolwaterstofverbinding). Lokale houtrook draagt daar significant bij aan de concentratie fijn stof: tussen 9% en 27% voor PM10 en tussen 30% en 39% voor PM2,5.

  12. The local contribution of wood burning to PM10 and PM2.5; De lokale bijdrage van houtverbranding aan PM10 en PM2,5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kos, G.; Weijers, E. [ECN Biomassa, Kolen en Milieuonderzoek, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    In January 2009, the concentrations of wood smoke in Schoorl, the Netherlands, were established by means of levoglucosan measurements (a hydrocarbon compound that is characteristic for wood smoke). Local wood smoke contributes significantly to the concentration of particulate matter: between 9% and 27% for PM10 and between 30% and 29% for PM2.5. [Dutch] In februari 2009 zijn in Schoorl in Noord-Holland concentraties houtrook bepaald door levoglucosanmetingen (een voor houtrook kenmerkende koolwaterstofverbinding). Lokale houtrook draagt daar significant bij aan de concentratie fijn stof: tussen 9% en 27% voor PM10 en tussen 30% en 39% voor PM2,5.

  13. MODULATION OF H+-ATPASE ACTIVITY BY FUSICOCCIN IN PLASMA-MEMBRANE VESICLES FROM OAT (AVENA-SATIVA L) ROOTS - A COMPARISON OF MODULATION BY FUSICOCCIN, TRYPSIN, AND LYSOPHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LANFERMEIJER, FC; PRINS, HBA

    The fungal phytotoxin fusicoccin affects various transport processes in the plasma membrane of plant cells. The plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase (EC 3.6.1.35) seems to be the primary target of fusicoccin action. The kinetics of the stimulation of the PM H+-ATPase by fusicoccin was studied in PM

  14. Knowns and unknowns of plasma membrane protein degradation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanliang; Shen, Wenjin; Yang, Chao; Zeng, Lizhang; Gao, Caiji

    2018-07-01

    Plasma membrane (PM) not only creates a physical barrier to enclose the intracellular compartments but also mediates the direct communication between plants and the ever-changing environment. A tight control of PM protein homeostasis by selective degradation is thus crucial for proper plant development and plant-environment interactions. Accumulated evidences have shown that a number of plant PM proteins undergo clathrin-dependent or membrane microdomain-associated endocytic routes to vacuole for degradation in a cargo-ubiquitination dependent or independent manner. Besides, several trans-acting determinants involved in the regulation of endocytosis, recycling and multivesicular body-mediated vacuolar sorting have been identified in plants. More interestingly, recent findings have uncovered the participation of selective autophagy in PM protein turnover in plants. Although great progresses have been made to identify the PM proteins that undergo dynamic changes in subcellular localizations and to explore the factors that control the membrane protein trafficking, several questions remain to be answered regarding the molecular mechanisms of PM protein degradation in plants. In this short review article, we briefly summarize recent progress in our understanding of the internalization, sorting and degradation of plant PM proteins. More specifically, we focus on discussing the elusive aspects underlying the pathways of PM protein degradation in plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel PM motor with hybrid PM excitation and asymmetric rotor structure for high torque performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaohong Xu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel permanent magnet (PM motor for high torque performance, in which hybrid PM material and asymmetric rotor design are applied. The hybrid PM material is adopted to reduce the consumption of rare-earth PM because ferrite PM is assisted to enhance the torque production. Meanwhile, the rotor structure is designed to be asymmetric by shifting the surface-insert PM (SPM, which is used to improve the torque performance, including average torque and torque ripple. Moreover, the reasons for improvement of the torque performance are explained by evaluation and analysis of the performances of the proposed motor. Compared with SPM motor and V-type motor, the merit of high utilization ratio of rare-earth PM is also confirmed, showing that the proposed motor can offer higher torque density and lower torque ripple simultaneously with less consumption of rare-earth PM.

  16. Model independent measurement of the leptonic kaon decay $K^\\pm \\to \\mu^\\pm \

    CERN Document Server

    Bizzeti, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Two recent results on rare kaon decays are presented, based on $\\sim 2 \\times 10^{11} K^{\\pm}$ decays recorded by the NA48/2 experiment at CERN SPS in 2003 and 2004. The branching ratio of the rare leptonic decay $K^{\\pm} \\to \\mu^{\\pm} \

  17. Analysis of Particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentration in Khorramabad city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hamed Mirhosseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In this study, the concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 in eight station of Khorramabad city was analyzed. Materials and Methods: For this study, the data were taken from April 2010 to March 2011. The eight sampling point were chosen in account to Khorramabad maps. During this period, 240 daily PM samples including coarse particle (PM 10 and fine particle (PM 2.5 were collected. A two-part sampler was used to collect samples of PM. According to one-way ANOVA, multiple comparisons Scheffe, the obtained data were analyzed and then compared with the Environment protection organization standard rates. Khorramabad Results: The results revealed that during measuring the maximum concentration of PM 10 and PM 2.5 was respectively 120.9 and 101.09 μ/m 3 at Shamshirabad station. There was a significant difference between the mean values of PM 10 concentration (μg/m 3 in the seasons of summer. In addition, the mean concentrations of PM 10 in warmer months exceeded to the maximum permissible concentration. Conclusions: Year comparison of PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentration with standard were revealed particle matter concentration in summer season was higher than standard. Although total mean of particle matter was less than standard concentration.

  18. Investigation of Air Quality Index and PM10 and PM2.5 in Arak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Fazelinia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: In this study, the air quality index and concentration of particles such as PM10 and PM2.5 were investigated in Arak. Materials and Methods: To determine the concentration of PM10 and PM2.5, 60 samples were collected by laser TSI model 8520 in summer and winter 2012. The collection site was around Arak city center. Results: during the sampling period, as a matter of PM10, the cleanest and the most polluted month were December and June with the average of 34.33 µg m-3 and 100.1 µg m-3, respectively. The concentration of PM2.5 was 12.93 and 53.17 µg m-3 for December and June, respectively. Meanwhile, in terms of air quality index (AQI, in 98.3% and 70% of cases, the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5, respectively were less than normal (AQI100. Conclusion: The concentration of PM10 in the study period was less than Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 2006 guideline. Meanwhile, the concentrations of PM2.5 in 30% of air samples were greater than EPA guideline. The average PM2.5/PM10 ratio during the sampling period was 0.41 compared to range 0.15 to 0.25 reported by EPA.

  19. Model independent measurement of the leptonic kaon decay $K^\\pm \\to \\mu^\\pm \

    CERN Document Server

    Bizzeti, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Two recent results on rare kaon decays are presented, based on $\\sim 2 \\times 10^{11} K^{\\pm}$ decays recorded by the NA48/2 experiment at CERN SPS in 2003 and 2004. The branching ratio of the rare leptonic decay $K^{\\pm} \\to \\mu^{\\pm} \

  20. Spatiotemporal patterns of particulate matter (PM and associations between PM and mortality in Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengying Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies on air pollution exposure and its associations with human health in China have focused on the heavily polluted industrial areas and/or mega-cities, and studies on cities with comparatively low air pollutant concentrations are still rare. Only a few studies have attempted to analyse particulate matter (PM for the vibrant economic centre Shenzhen in the Pearl River Delta. So far no systematic investigation of PM spatiotemporal patterns in Shenzhen has been undertaken and the understanding of pollution exposure in urban agglomerations with comparatively low pollution is still limited. Methods We analyze daily and hourly particulate matter concentrations and all-cause mortality during 2013 in Shenzhen, China. Temporal patterns of PM (PM2.5 and PM10 with aerodynamic diameters of 2.5 (10 μm or less (or less (including particles with a diameter that equals to 2.5 (10 μm are studied, along with the ratio of PM2.5 to PM10. Spatial distributions of PM10 and PM2.5 are addressed and associations of PM10 or PM2.5 and all-cause mortality are analyzed. Results Annual average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 61.3 and 39.6 μg/m3 in 2013. PM2.5 failed to meet the Class 2 annual limit of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard. PM2.5 was the primary air pollutant, with 8.8 % of days having heavy PM2.5 pollution. The daily PM2.5/PM10 ratios were high. Hourly PM2.5 concentrations in the tourist area were lower than downtown throughout the day. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were higher in western parts of Shenzhen than in eastern parts. Excess risks in the number of all-cause mortality with a 10 μg/m3 increase of PM were 0.61 % (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.50–0.72 for PM10, and 0.69 % (95 % CI: 0.55–0.83 for PM2.5, respectively. The greatest ERs of PM10 and PM2.5 were in 2-day cumulative measures for the all-cause mortality, 2-day lag for females and the young (0–65 years, and L02 for males and the elder (>65

  1. Biogenesis of the demarcation membrane system (DMS) in megakaryocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckly, A.; Heijnen, H.F.G.; Pertuy, F.; Geerts, W.J.C.; Proamer, F.; Rinckel, J.Y.; Leon, C.; Lanza, F; Gachet, C.

    2014-01-01

    The demarcation membrane system (DMS) in megakaryocytes forms the plasma membrane (PM) of future platelets. Using confocal microscopy, electron tomography, and large volume focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), we determined the sequential steps of DMS formation. We identified a

  2. Observation of photon polarization in $B^\\pm \\to K^\\pm\\pi^\\mp\\pi^\\pm\\gamma$ decays

    CERN Multimedia

    Veneziano, G

    2014-01-01

    A study of the flavor-changing neutral current radiative $B^{\\pm} \\to K^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\mp}\\pi^{\\pm}\\gamma$ decays performed using data collected in proton-proton collisions with the LHCb detector at $7$ and $8\\,$TeV center-of-mass energies is presented. In this sample, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3\\,\\text{fb}^{-1}$, nearly $14\\,000$ signal events are reconstructed and selected, containing all possible intermediate resonances with a $K^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\mp}\\pi^{\\pm}$ final state in the $[1.1, 1.9]$\\,GeV/$c^{2}$ mass range. The distribution of the angle of the photon direction with respect to the plane defined by the final-state hadrons in their rest frame is studied in intervals of $K^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\mp}\\pi^{\\pm}$ mass and the asymmetry between the number of signal events found on each side of the plane is obtained. The first direct observation of the photon polarization in the $b \\to s\\gamma$ transition is reported with a significance of $5.2\\,\\sigma$.

  3. Membrane Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ashrafuzzaman, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Physics, mathematics and chemistry all play a vital role in understanding the true nature and functioning of biological membranes, key elements of living processes. Besides simple spectroscopic observations and electrical measurements of membranes we address in this book the phenomena of coexistence and independent existence of different membrane components using various theoretical approaches. This treatment will be helpful for readers who want to understand biological processes by applying both simple observations and fundamental scientific analysis. It provides a deep understanding of the causes and effects of processes inside membranes, and will thus eventually open new doors for high-level pharmaceutical approaches towards fighting membrane- and cell-related diseases.

  4. Measurement of $C\\!P$ violation in the phase space of $B^{\\pm} \\to K^{\\pm} \\pi^{+} \\pi^{-}$ and $B^{\\pm} \\to K^{\\pm} K^{+} K^{-}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00258707; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Di Ruscio, F; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Holtrop, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; Mc Skelly, B; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Sirendi, M; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Van Dijk, M; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-01-01

    The charmless decays $B^{\\pm}\\to K^{\\pm}\\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $B^{\\pm}\\to K^{\\pm}K^+K^-$ are reconstructed using data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$, collected by LHCb in 2011. The inclusive charge asymmetries of these modes are measured as $A_{C\\!P}(B^{\\pm}\\to K^{\\pm}\\pi^+\\pi^-) = 0.032 \\pm 0.008 {\\mathrm{\\,(stat)}} \\pm 0.004 {\\mathrm{\\,(syst)}} \\pm 0.007 (J/\\psi K^{\\pm})$ and $A_{C\\!P}(B^{\\pm}\\to K^{\\pm}K^+K^-) = -0.043 \\pm 0.009 {\\mathrm{\\,(stat)}} \\pm 0.003 {\\mathrm{\\,(syst)}} \\pm 0.007 (J/\\psi K^{\\pm})$, where the third uncertainty is due to the $C\\!P$ asymmetry of the $B^{\\pm}\\to J/\\psi K^{\\pm}$ reference mode. The significance of $A_{C\\!P}(B^{\\pm}\\to K^{\\pm}K^+K^-)$ exceeds three standard deviations and is the first evidence of an inclusive $C\\!P$ asymmetry in charmless three-body $B$ decays. In addition to the inclusive $C\\!P$ asymmetries, larger asymmetries are observed in localised regions of phase space.

  5. Variations of PM2.5, PM10 mass concentration and health assessment in Islamabad, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memhood, Tariq; Tianle, Z.; Ahmad, I.; Li, X.; Shen, F.; Akram, W.; Dong, L.

    2018-04-01

    Sparse information appears in lack of awareness among the people regarding the linkage between particulate matter (PM) and mortality in Pakistan. The current study is aimed to investigate the seasonal mass concentration level of PM2.5 and PM10 in ambient air of Islamabad to assess the health risk of PM pollution. The sampling was carried out with two parallel medium volume air samplers on Whatman 47 mm quartz filter at a flow rate of 100L/min. Mass concentration was obtained by gravimetric analysis. A noticeable seasonal change in PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration was observed. In case of PM2.5, the winter was a most polluted and spring was the cleanest season of 2017 in Islamabad with 69.97 and 40.44 μgm‑3 mean concentration. Contrary, highest (152.42 μgm‑3) and lowest (74.90 μgm‑3) PM10 mass concentration was observed in autumn and summer respectively. Air Quality index level for PM2.5 and PM10 was remained moderated to unhealthy and good to sensitive respectively. Regarding health risk assessment, using national data for mortality rates, the excess mortality due to PM2.5 and PM10 exposure has been calculated and amounts to over 198 and 98 deaths annually for Islamabad. Comparatively estimated lifetime risk for PM2.5 (1.16×10-6) was observed higher than PM10 (7.32×10-8).

  6. Partitioning of magnetic particles in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 aerosols in the urban atmosphere of Barcelona (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revuelta, María Aránzazu; McIntosh, Gregg; Pey, Jorge; Pérez, Noemi; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    A combined magnetic-chemical study of 15 daily, simultaneous PM 10 –PM 2.5 –PM 1 urban background aerosol samples has been carried out. The magnetic properties are dominated by non-stoichiometric magnetite, with highest concentrations seen in PM 10 . Low temperature magnetic analyses showed that the superparamagnetic fraction is more abundant when coarse, multidomain particles are present, confirming that they may occur as an oxidized outer shell around coarser grains. A strong association of the magnetic parameters with a vehicular PM 10 source has been identified. Strong correlations found with Cu and Sb suggests that this association is related to brake abrasion emissions rather than exhaust emissions. For PM 1 the magnetic remanence parameters are more strongly associated with crustal sources. Two crustal sources are identified in PM 1 , one of which is of North African origin. The magnetic particles are related to this source and so may be used to distinguish North African dust from other sources in PM 1 . - Highlights: • Magnetic properties of PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PM 1 defined for a Mediterranean urban site. • Vehicular source of magnetic particles dominates in PM 10 . • Crustal source of magnetic particles dominates in PM 1 . • Magnetic remanence may distinguish between North African and regional dust in PM 1 . - Capsule abstract two sources of magnetic atmospheric particles have been identified in Barcelona, a vehicular source which dominates in PM 10 and a crustal source that dominates in PM 1

  7. PM 2.5 Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for PM 2.5 and have been...

  8. 2006 PM-2.5 Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for 2006 PM-2.5 standards....

  9. 40 CFR Table C-4 to Subpart C of... - Test Specifications for PM10, PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test Specifications for PM10, PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Table C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of Environment... Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-4 Table C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Specifications for PM10, PM2.5 and...

  10. Measurement of CP violation in the phase space of $B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow K^{+} K^{-} \\pi^{\\pm}$ and $B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+} \\pi^{-} \\pi^{\\pm}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Adrover, Cosme; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Bauer, Thomas; Bay, Aurelio; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Mar-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Callot, Olivier; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carranza-Mejia, Hector; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coca, Cornelia; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bonis, Isabelle; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Dogaru, Marius; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; van Eijk, Daan; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farry, Stephen; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garofoli, Justin; Garosi, Paola; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorbounov, Petr; Gordon, Hamish; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hartmann, Thomas; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hicks, Emma; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Huse, Torkjell; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Iakovenko, Viktor; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Kaballo, Michael; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Wallaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Kochebina, Olga; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanciotti, Elisa; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Li Gioi, Luigi; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Liu, Bo; Liu, Guoming; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Ian; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luisier, Johan; Luo, Haofei; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Maratas, Jan; Marconi, Umberto; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Martynov, Aleksandr; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Maurice, Emilie; Mazurov, Alexander; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Moran, Dermot; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Mountain, Raymond; Mous, Ivan; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Muresan, Raluca; Muryn, Bogdan; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Nomerotski, Andrey; Novoselov, Alexey; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrick, Glenn; Patrignani, Claudia; Pavel-Nicorescu, Carmen; Pazos Alvarez, Antonio; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Pessina, Gianluigi; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Phan, Anna; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Polok, Grzegorz; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Powell, Andrew; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redford, Sophie; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Alexander; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Roberts, Douglas; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Sabatino, Giovanni; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sapunov, Matvey; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Savrie, Mauro; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Seco, Marcos; Semennikov, Alexander; Senderowska, Katarzyna; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Oksana; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szilard, Daniela; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Teodorescu, Eliza; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; Voss, Helge; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Webber, Adam Dane; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiechczynski, Jaroslaw; Wiedner, Dirk; Wiggers, Leo; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The charmless decays $B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow K^{+}K^{-}\\pi^{\\pm}$ and $B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{\\pm}$ are reconstructed in a data set, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$ of pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, collected by LHCb in 2011. The inclusive charge asymmetries of these modes are measured to be $A_{CP}(B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow K^{+}K^{-}\\pi^{\\pm}) =-0.141 \\pm 0.040 (stat) \\pm 0.018 (syst) \\pm 0.007 (J/\\psi K^{\\pm})$ and $A_{CP}(B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{\\pm}) = 0.117 \\pm 0.021 (stat) \\pm 0.009 (syst) \\pm 0.007 (J/\\psi K^{\\pm})$, where the third uncertainty is due to the CP asymmetry of the $B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow J/\\psi K^{\\pm}$ reference mode. In addition to the inclusive CP asymmetries, larger asymmetries are observed in localized regions of phase space.

  11. Membrane raft association is a determinant of plasma membrane localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Rohrer, Blanca B; Levental, Kandice R; Simons, Kai; Levental, Ilya

    2014-06-10

    The lipid raft hypothesis proposes lateral domains driven by preferential interactions between sterols, sphingolipids, and specific proteins as a central mechanism for the regulation of membrane structure and function; however, experimental limitations in defining raft composition and properties have prevented unequivocal demonstration of their functional relevance. Here, we establish a quantitative, functional relationship between raft association and subcellular protein sorting. By systematic mutation of the transmembrane and juxtamembrane domains of a model transmembrane protein, linker for activation of T-cells (LAT), we generated a panel of variants possessing a range of raft affinities. These mutations revealed palmitoylation, transmembrane domain length, and transmembrane sequence to be critical determinants of membrane raft association. Moreover, plasma membrane (PM) localization was strictly dependent on raft partitioning across the entire panel of unrelated mutants, suggesting that raft association is necessary and sufficient for PM sorting of LAT. Abrogation of raft partitioning led to mistargeting to late endosomes/lysosomes because of a failure to recycle from early endosomes. These findings identify structural determinants of raft association and validate lipid-driven domain formation as a mechanism for endosomal protein sorting.

  12. Validation of PM6 & PM7 semiempirical methods on polarizability calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, P. A.; Babu, R. Ramesh; Ramamurthi, K.

    2015-06-01

    Modern semiempirical methods such as PM6 and PM7 are often used to explore the electronic structure dependent properties of molecules. In this work we report the evaluation of PM6 and PM7 methods towards linear and nonlinear optical polarizability calculations for different molecules and solid nanoclusters. The results are compared with reported experimental results as well as theoretical results from other high level theories for the same systems. It is found that both methods produce accurate results for small molecules and the accuracy increases with the increase in asymmetry of the medium sized organic molecules and accuracy reduces for solid nanoclusters.

  13. Validation of PM6 & PM7 semiempirical methods on polarizability calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen, P. A.; Babu, R. Ramesh, E-mail: rampap2k@yahoo.co.in [Crystal Growth and Thin film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli-620024, Tamilnadu (India); Ramamurthi, K. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, SRM University, Kattankulathur – 603 203, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2015-06-24

    Modern semiempirical methods such as PM6 and PM7 are often used to explore the electronic structure dependent properties of molecules. In this work we report the evaluation of PM6 and PM7 methods towards linear and nonlinear optical polarizability calculations for different molecules and solid nanoclusters. The results are compared with reported experimental results as well as theoretical results from other high level theories for the same systems. It is found that both methods produce accurate results for small molecules and the accuracy increases with the increase in asymmetry of the medium sized organic molecules and accuracy reduces for solid nanoclusters.

  14. Validation of PM6 & PM7 semiempirical methods on polarizability calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praveen, P. A.; Babu, R. Ramesh; Ramamurthi, K.

    2015-01-01

    Modern semiempirical methods such as PM6 and PM7 are often used to explore the electronic structure dependent properties of molecules. In this work we report the evaluation of PM6 and PM7 methods towards linear and nonlinear optical polarizability calculations for different molecules and solid nanoclusters. The results are compared with reported experimental results as well as theoretical results from other high level theories for the same systems. It is found that both methods produce accurate results for small molecules and the accuracy increases with the increase in asymmetry of the medium sized organic molecules and accuracy reduces for solid nanoclusters

  15. Plasma Membrane H(+)-ATPase Regulation in the Center of Plant Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falhof, Janus; Pedersen, Jesper Torbøl; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe; Palmgren, Michael

    2016-03-07

    The plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase is an important ion pump in the plant cell membrane. By extruding protons from the cell and generating a membrane potential, this pump energizes the PM, which is a prerequisite for growth. Modification of the autoinhibitory terminal domains activates PM H(+)-ATPase activity, and on this basis it has been hypothesized that these regulatory termini are targets for physiological factors that activate or inhibit proton pumping. In this review, we focus on the posttranslational regulation of the PM H(+)-ATPase and place regulation of the pump in an evolutionary and physiological context. The emerging picture is that multiple signals regulating plant growth interfere with the posttranslational regulation of the PM H(+)-ATPase. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Plasma membrane is the site of productive HIV-1 particle assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolwenn Jouvenet

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently proposed models that have gained wide acceptance posit that HIV-1 virion morphogenesis is initiated by targeting the major structural protein (Gag to late endosomal membranes. Thereafter, late endosome-based secretory pathways are thought to deliver Gag or assembled virions to the plasma membrane (PM and extracellular milieu. We present several findings that are inconsistent with this model. Specifically, we demonstrate that HIV-1 Gag is delivered to the PM, and virions are efficiently released into the extracellular medium, when late endosome motility is abolished. Furthermore, we show that HIV-1 virions are efficiently released when assembly is rationally targeted to the PM, but not when targeted to late endosomes. Recently synthesized Gag first accumulates and assembles at the PM, but a proportion is subsequently internalized via endocytosis or phagocytosis, thus accounting for observations of endosomal localization. We conclude that HIV-1 assembly is initiated and completed at the PM, and not at endosomal membranes.

  17. Evidence for a plasma-membrane-bound nitrate reductase involved in nitrate uptake of Chlorella sorokiniana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischner, R.; Ward, M. R.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Anti-nitrate-reductase (NR) immunoglobulin-G (IgG) fragments inhibited nitrate uptake into Chlorella cells but had no affect on nitrate uptake. Intact anti-NR serum and preimmune IgG fragments had no affect on nitrate uptake. Membrane-associated NR was detected in plasma-membrane (PM) fractions isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning. The PM-associated NR was not removed by sonicating PM vesicles in 500 mM NaCl and 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and represented up to 0.8% of the total Chlorella NR activity. The PM NR was solubilized by Triton X-100 and inactivated by Chlorella NR antiserum. Plasma-membrane NR was present in ammonium-grown Chlorella cells that completely lacked soluble NR activity. The subunit sizes of the PM and soluble NRs were 60 and 95 kDa, respectively, as determined by sodium-dodecyl-sulfate electrophoresis and western blotting.

  18. Capturing PM2.5 emissions from 3D printing via nanofiber-based air filter

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Chengchen; Gu, Fu; Zhao, Peng; Sharmin, Nusrat; Gu, Haibing; Fu, Jianzhong

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber-based air filters to capture PM2.5 particles emitted from fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing. Generation and aggregation of emitted particles were investigated under different testing environments. The results show that: (1) the PCL nanofiber membranes are capable of capturing particle emissions from 3D printing, (2) relative humidity plays a signification role in aggregation of the captured particles, ...

  19. Plasma membrane protein trafficking in plant-microbe interactions: a plant cell point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie eLeborgne-Castel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure their physiological and cellular functions, plasma membrane (PM proteins must be properly conveyed from their site of synthesis, i.e. the endoplasmic reticulum, to their final destination, the PM, through the secretory pathway. PM protein homeostasis also relies on recycling and/or degradation, two processes that are initiated by endocytosis. Vesicular membrane trafficking events to and from the PM have been shown to be altered when plant cells are exposed to mutualistic or pathogenic microbes. In this review, we will describe the fine-tune regulation of such alterations, and their consequence in PM protein activity. We will consider the formation of intracellular perimicrobial compartments, the PM protein trafficking machinery of the host, and the delivery or retrieval of signaling and transport proteins such as pattern-recognition receptors, producers of reactive oxygen species, and sugar transporters.

  20. The role of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in plant-microbe interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, James Mitch; Coaker, Gitta

    2011-05-01

    Plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPases are the primary pumps responsible for the establishment of cellular membrane potential in plants. In addition to regulating basic aspects of plant cell function, these enzymes contribute to signaling events in response to diverse environmental stimuli. Here, we focus on the roles of the PM H+-ATPase during plant-pathogen interactions. PM H+-ATPases are dynamically regulated during plant immune responses and recent quantitative proteomics studies suggest complex spatial and temporal modulation of PM H+-ATPase activity during early pathogen recognition events. Additional data indicate that PM H+-ATPases cooperate with the plant immune signaling protein RIN4 to regulate stomatal apertures during bacterial invasion of leaf tissue. Furthermore, pathogens have evolved mechanisms to manipulate PM H+-ATPase activity during infection. Thus, these ubiquitous plant enzymes contribute to plant immune responses and are targeted by pathogens to increase plant susceptibility.

  1. Membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The membrane paradigm is a modified frozen star approach to modeling black holes, with particles and fields assuming a complex, static, boundary-layer type structure (membrane) near the event horizon. The membrane has no effects on the present or future evolution of particles and fields above itself. The mathematical representation is a combination of a formalism containing terms for the shear and bulk viscosity, surface pressure, momentum, temperature, entropy, etc., of the horizon and the 3+1 formalism. The latter model considers a family of three-dimensional spacelike hypersurfaces in one-dimensional time. The membrane model considers a magnetic field threading the hole and undergoing torque from the hole rotation. The field is cleaned by the horizon and distributed over the horizon so that ohmic dissipation is minimized. The membrane paradigm is invalid inside the horizon, but is useful for theoretically probing the properties of slowly evolving black holes

  2. Membrane processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The membrane processes have played important role in the industrial separation process. These technologies can be found in all industrial areas such as food, beverages, metallurgy, pulp and paper, textile, pharmaceutical, automotive, biotechnology and chemical industry, as well as in water treatment for domestic and industrial application. Although these processes are known since twentieth century, there are still many studies that focus on the testing of new membranes' materials and determining of conditions for optimal selectivity, i. e. the optimum transmembrane pressure (TMP) or permeate flux to minimize fouling. Moreover the researchers proposed some calculation methods to predict the membrane processes properties. In this article, the laboratory scale experiments of membrane separation techniques, as well their validation by calculation methods are presented. Because membrane is the "heart" of the process, experimental and computational methods for its characterization are also described.

  3. Autoinhibitory Regulation of Plasma Membrane H+-ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Torbøl

    Electrochemical gradients across cell membranes are essential for nutrient uptake. In plant and fungal cells the electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane (PM) can build much higher than in mammalian cells. The protein responsible for this gradient is the essential PM H+-ATPase that uses...... resolution 3D structure the mechanism behind is only poorly understood. This thesis aimed at illuminating the autoinhibitory mechanism in plant and yeast PM H+-ATPases and below some of our main findings will be highlighted. The two terminal domains of the PM H+-ATPases have several amino acid residues...... that can be phosphorylated, and it has been demonstrated that these phosphorylation sites in both plant and yeast are highly involved in the regulation of terminal autoinhibition. In this study we used a phylogenetic analysis to investigate the evolutionary development of these phosphorylation sites...

  4. Chemical characterization and mass closure of PM10 and PM2.5 at an urban site in Karachi - Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Imran; Kistler, Magdalena; Mukhtar, Azam; Ghauri, Badar M.; Ramirez-Santa Cruz, Carlos; Bauer, Heidi; Puxbaum, Hans

    2016-03-01

    A mass balance method is applied to assess main source contributions to PM2.5 and PM10 levels in Karachi. Carbonaceous species (elemental carbon, organic carbon, carbonate carbon), soluble ions (Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, SO4-), saccharides (levoglucosan, galactosan, mannosan, sucrose, fructose, glucose, arabitol and mannitol) were determined in atmospheric fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) aerosol samples collected under pre-monsoon conditions (March-April 2009) at an urban site in Karachi (Pakistan). The concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were found to be 75 μg/m3 and 437 μg/m3 respectively. The large difference between PM10 and PM2.5 originated predominantly from mineral dust. "Calcareous dust" and "siliceous dust" were the over all dominating material in PM, with 46% contribution to PM2.5 and 78% to PM10-2.5. Combustion particles and secondary organics (EC + OM) comprised 23% of PM2.5 and 6% of PM10-2.5. EC, as well as OC ambient levels were higher (59% and 56%) in PM10-2.5 than in PM2.5. Biomass burning contributed about 3% to PM2.5, and had a share of about 13% of ;EC + OM; in PM2.5. The impact of bioaerosol (fungal spores) was minor and had a share of 1 and 2% of the OC in the PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 size fractions. In case of secondary inorganic aerosols, ammonium sulphate (NH4)2SO4 contributes 4.4% to PM2.5 and no detectable quantity were found in fraction PM10-2.5. The sea salt contribution is about 2% both to PM2.5 and PM10-2.5.

  5. A study of CP violation in $B^\\pm \\to D K^\\pm$ and $B^\\pm \\to D \\pi^\\pm$ decays with $D \\to K^0_{\\rm S} K^\\pm \\pi^\\mp$ final states

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Bauer, Thomas; Bay, Aurelio; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Callot, Olivier; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carranza-Mejia, Hector; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coca, Cornelia; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bonis, Isabelle; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dorosz, Piotr; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Esen, Sevda; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farry, Stephen; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Giani', Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gordon, Hamish; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Hafkenscheid, Tom; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hartmann, Thomas; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Iakovenko, Viktor; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kaballo, Michael; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Wallaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Kochebina, Olga; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanciotti, Elisa; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Guoming; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Ian; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luisier, Johan; Luo, Haofei; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manzali, Matteo; Maratas, Jan; Marconi, Umberto; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Moran, Dermot; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Muresan, Raluca; Muryn, Bogdan; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pavel-Nicorescu, Carmen; Pazos Alvarez, Antonio; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Pessina, Gianluigi; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Polok, Grzegorz; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Powell, Andrew; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redford, Sophie; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Alexander; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Roberts, Douglas; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Sabatino, Giovanni; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sapunov, Matvey; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Savrie, Mauro; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Seco, Marcos; Semennikov, Alexander; Senderowska, Katarzyna; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Oksana; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spinella, Franco; Spradlin, Patrick; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szilard, Daniela; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teodorescu, Eliza; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; Voss, Helge; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Webber, Adam Dane; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiechczynski, Jaroslaw; Wiedner, Dirk; Wiggers, Leo; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    A first study of CP violation in the decay modes $B^\\pm\\to [K^0_{\\rm S} K^\\pm \\pi^\\mp]_D h^\\pm$ and $B^\\pm\\to [K^0_{\\rm S} K^\\mp \\pi^\\pm]_D h^\\pm$, where $h$ labels a $K$ or $\\pi$ meson and $D$ labels a $D^0$ or $\\overline{D}^0$ meson, is performed. The analysis uses the LHCb data set collected in $pp$ collisions, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb$^{-1}$. The analysis is sensitive to the CP-violating CKM phase $\\gamma$ through seven observables: one charge asymmetry in each of the four modes and three ratios of the charge-integrated yields. The results are consistent with measurements of $\\gamma$ using other decay modes.

  6. Wintertime indoor air levels of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 at public places and their contributions to TSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangsheng; Chen, Rui; Shen, Xingxing; Mao, Xiaoling

    2004-04-01

    From 26 October 2002 to 8 March 2003, particulate matter (PM) concentrations (total suspended particles [TSP], PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) were measured at 49 public places representing different environments in the urban area of Beijing. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the indoor PM concentrations in public places, (2) to evaluate the potential indoor sources and (3) to investigate the contribution of PM10 to TSP and the contributions of PM2.5 and PM1 to PM10. Additionally, The indoor and outdoor particle concentrations in the same type of indoor environment were employed to investigate the I/O level, and comparison was made between I/O levels in different types of indoor environment. Construction activities and traffic condition were the major outdoor sources to influence the indoor particle levels. The contribution of PM10 to TSP was even up to 68.8%, while the contributions of PM2.5 and PM1 to PM10 were not as much as that of PM10 to TSP.

  7. PmVRP15, a Novel Viral Responsive Protein from the Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon, Promoted White Spot Syndrome Virus Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatanavicharn, Tipachai; Prapavorarat, Adisak; Jaree, Phattarunda; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2014-01-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization of Penaeus monodon hemocytes challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has identified the viral responsive gene, PmVRP15, as the highest up-regulated gene ever reported in shrimps. Expression analysis by quantitative real time RT-PCR revealed 9410–fold up-regulated level at 48 h post WSSV injection. Tissue distribution analysis showed that PmVRP15 transcript was mainly expressed in the hemocytes of shrimp. The full-length cDNA of PmVRP15 transcript was obtained and showed no significant similarity to any known gene in the GenBank database. The predicted open reading frame of PmVRP15 encodes for a deduced 137 amino acid protein containing a putative transmembrane helix. Immunofluorescent localization of the PmVRP15 protein revealed it accumulated around the nuclear membrane in all three types of shrimp hemocytes and that the protein was highly up-regulated in WSSV-infected shrimps. Double-stranded RNA interference-mediated gene silencing of PmVRP15 in P. monodon significantly decreased WSSV propagation compared to the control shrimps (injected with GFP dsRNA). The significant decrease in cumulative mortality rate of WSSV-infected shrimp following PmVRP15 knockdown was observed. These results suggest that PmVRP15 is likely to be a nuclear membrane protein and that it acts as a part of WSSV propagation pathway. PMID:24637711

  8. The Human ABCG1 Transporter Mobilizes Plasma Membrane and Late Endosomal Non-Sphingomyelin-Associated-Cholesterol for Efflux and Esterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward B. Neufeld

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that GFP-tagged human ABCG1 on the plasma membrane (PM and in late endosomes (LE mobilizes sterol on both sides of the membrane lipid bilayer, thereby increasing cellular cholesterol efflux to lipid surfaces. In the present study, we examined ABCG1-induced changes in membrane cholesterol distribution, organization, and mobility. ABCG1-GFP expression increased the amount of mobile, non-sphingomyelin(SM-associated cholesterol at the PM and LE, but not the amount of SM-associated-cholesterol or SM. ABCG1-mobilized non-SM-associated-cholesterol rapidly cycled between the PM and LE and effluxed from the PM to extracellular acceptors, or, relocated to intracellular sites of esterification. ABCG1 increased detergent-soluble pools of PM and LE cholesterol, generated detergent-resistant, non-SM-associated PM cholesterol, and increased resistance to both amphotericin B-induced (cholesterol-mediated and lysenin-induced (SM-mediated cytolysis, consistent with altered organization of both PM cholesterol and SM. ABCG1 itself resided in detergent-soluble membrane domains. We propose that PM and LE ABCG1 residing at the phase boundary between ordered (Lo and disordered (Ld membrane lipid domains alters SM and cholesterol organization thereby increasing cholesterol flux between Lo and Ld, and hence, the amount of cholesterol available for removal by acceptors on either side of the membrane bilayer for either efflux or esterification.

  9. Measurements of the branching fractions and $C\\!P$ asymmetries of $B^{\\pm} \\to J\\!/\\!\\psi\\, \\pi^{\\pm}$ and $B^{\\pm} \\to \\psi(2S) \\pi^{\\pm}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palacios, J; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rosello, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    A study of $B^{\\pm} \\to J\\!/\\!\\psi\\, \\pi^{\\pm}$ and $B^{\\pm} \\to \\psi(2S) \\pi^{\\pm}$ decays is performed with data corresponding to $0.37\\,{\\rm fb}^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7\\,\\mathrm{Te\\kern -0.1em V}$. Their branching fractions are found to be \\begin{eqnarray*} \\mathcal{B}(B^{\\pm} \\to J\\!/\\!\\psi\\, \\pi^{\\pm}) &=& (3.88 \\pm 0.11 \\pm 0.15) \\times 10^{-5}\\ {\\rm and}\\\\ \\mathcal{B}(B^{\\pm} \\to \\psi(2S) \\pi^{\\pm}) &=& (2.52 \\pm 0.26 \\pm 0.15) \\times 10^{-5}, \\end{eqnarray*} where the first uncertainty is related to the statistical size of the sample and the second quantifies systematic effects. The measured $C\\!P$ asymmetries in these modes are \\begin{eqnarray*} A_{CP}^{J\\!/\\!\\psi\\, \\pi} &=& 0.005 \\pm 0.027 \\pm 0.011\\ {\\rm and} \\\\ A_{CP}^{\\psi(2S) \\pi} &=& 0.048 \\pm 0.090 \\pm 0.011 \\end{eqnarray*} with no evidence of direct $C\\!P$ violation seen.

  10. Spatiotemporal variation of PM1 pollution in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gongbo; Morawska, Lidia; Zhang, Wenyi; Li, Shanshan; Cao, Wei; Ren, Hongyan; Wang, Boguang; Wang, Hao; Knibbs, Luke D.; Williams, Gail; Guo, Jianping; Guo, Yuming

    2018-04-01

    Understanding spatiotemporal variation of PM1 (mass concentrations of particles with aerodynamic diameter health, which is potentially more severe for its deeper penetrating capability into human bodies compared with larger particles. This study aimed to quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of PM1 across China as well as its ratio with PM2.5 (additive models were employed to examine the relationships between PM1 and meteorological parameters. We showed that PM1 concentrations were the lowest in summer and the highest in winter. Across China, the PM1/PM2.5 ratios ranged from 0.75-0.88, reaching higher levels in January and lower in August. For spatial distribution, higher PM1/PM2.5 ratios (>0.9) were observed in North-Eastern China, North China Plain, coastal areas of Eastern China and Sichuan Basin while lower ratios (<0.7) were present in remote areas in North-Western and Northern China (e.g., Xinjiang, Tibet and Inner Mongolia). Higher PM1/PM2.5 ratios were observed on heavily polluted days and lower ratios on clean days. The high PM1/PM2.5 ratios observed in China suggest that smaller particles, PM1 fraction, are key drivers of air pollution, and that they effectively account for the majority of PM2.5 concentrations. This emphasised the role of combustion process and secondary particle formation, the sources of PM1, and the significance of controlling them.

  11. PM2.5 and PM10 Emission from agricultural soils by wind erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil tillage and wind erosion are a major source of particulate matter less than 2.5 and 10 µm (PM2.5 and PM10) emission from cultivated soil. Fifteen cultivated soils collected from 5 states were tested as crushed (<2.0 mm) and uncrushed (natural aggregation) at 8, 10, and 13 m s-1 wind velocity in...

  12. New measurement of the $K^{\\pm} \\to \\pi^{\\pm}\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Batley, J.R.; Lazzeroni, C.; Munday, D.J.; Slater, M.W.; Wotton, S.A.; Arcidiacono, R.; Bocquet, G.; Cabibbo, N.; Ceccucci, A.; Cundy, D.; Falaleev, V.; Fidecaro, M.; Gatignon, L.; Gonidec, A.; Kubischta, W.; Norton, A.; Maier, A.; Patel, M.; Peters, A.; Balev, S.; Frabetti, P.L.; Goudzovski, E.; Hristov, P.; Kekelidze, V.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Madigozhin, D.; Marinova, E.; Molokanova, N.; Polenkevich, I.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Stoynev, S.; Zinchenko, A.; Monnier, E.; Swallow, E.; Winston, R.; Rubin, P.; Walker, A.; Baldini, W.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Damiani, C.; Fiorini, M.; Gianoli, A.; Martini, M.; Petrucci, F.; Savrie, M.; Scarpa, M.; Wahl, H.; Bizzeti, A.; Lenti, M.; Veltri, M.; Calvetti, M.; Celeghini, E.; Iacopini, E.; Ruggiero, G.; Behler, M.; Eppard, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Marouelli, P.; Masetti, L.; Moosbrugger, U.; Morales Morales, C.; Renk, B.; Wache, M.; Wanke, R.; Winhart, A.; Coward, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Shieh, M.; Szleper, M.; Velasco, M.; Wood, M.D.; Cenci, P.; Pepe, M.; Petrucci, M.C.; Anzivino, G.; Imbergamo, E.; Nappi, A.; Piccini, M.; Raggi, M.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Cerri, C.; Fantechi, R.; Collazuol, G.; Di Lella, L.; Lamanna, G.; Mannelli, I.; Michetti, A.; Costantini, F.; Doble, N.; Fiorini, L.; Giudici, S.; Pierazzini, G.; Sozzi, M.; Venditti, S.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheze, J.B.; De Beer, M.; Derre, J.; Marel, G.; Mazzucato, E.; Peyaud, B.; Vallage, B.; Holder, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Marchetto, F.; Bifani, S.; Clemencic, M.; Goy Lopez, S.; Dibon, H.; Jeitler, M.; Markytan, M.; Mikulec, I.; Neuhofer, G.; Widhalm, L.

    2011-01-01

    A sample of 3120 $K^\\pm\\to\\pi^\\pm\\mu^+\\mu^-$ decay candidates with $(3.3\\pm0.7)$% background contamination has been collected by the NA48/2 experiment at the CERN SPS, allowing a detailed study of the decay properties. The branching ratio was measured to be ${\\rm BR}=(9.62\\pm0.25)\\times 10^{-8}$. The form factor $W(z)$, where $z=(M_{\\mu\\mu}/M_K)^2$, was parameterized according to several models. In particular, the slope of the linear form factor $W(z)=W_0(1+\\delta z)$ was measured to be $\\delta=3.11\\pm0.57$. Upper limits of $2.9\\times 10^{-2}$ and $2.3\\times 10^{-2}$ on possible charge asymmetry and forward-backward asymmetry were established at 90% CL. An upper limit ${\\rm BR}(K^\\pm\\to\\pi^\\mp\\mu^\\pm\\mu^\\pm)<1.1\\times 10^{-9}$ was established at 90% CL for the rate of the lepton number violating decay.

  13. Primordial membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin M; Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    2017-01-01

    Cellular membranes, which are self-assembled bilayer structures mainly composed of lipids, proteins and conjugated polysaccharides, are the defining feature of cell physiology. It is likely that the complexity of contemporary cells was preceded by simpler chemical systems or protocells during...... the various evolutionary stages that led from inanimate to living matter. It is also likely that primitive membranes played a similar role in protocell 'physiology'. The composition of such ancestral membranes has been proposed as mixtures of single hydrocarbon chain amphiphiles, which are simpler versions...

  14. Video Views and Reviews: Golgi Export, Targeting, and Plasma Membrane Caveolae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews videos from "Molecular Biology of the Cell (MBC)" depicting various aspects of plasma membrane (PM) dynamics, including the targeting of newly synthesized components and the organization of those PM invaginations called caveolae. The papers accompanying these videos describe, respectively, the constitutive…

  15. Hospital indoor PM10/PM2.5 and associated trace elements in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinhua; Bi Xinhui; Sheng Guoying; Fu Jiamo

    2006-01-01

    PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected in the indoor environments of four hospitals and their adjacent outdoor environments in Guangzhou, China during the summertime. The concentrations of 18 target elements in particles were also quantified. The results showed that indoor PM2.5 levels with an average of 99 μg m -3 were significantly higher than outdoor PM2.5 standard of 65 μg m -3 recommended by USEPA [United States Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Fact Sheet. EPA's Revised Particulate Matter Standards, 17, July 1997] and PM2.5 constituted a large fraction of indoor respirable particles (PM10) by an average of 78% in four hospitals. High correlation between PM2.5 and PM10 (R 2 of 0.87 for indoors and 0.90 for outdoors) suggested that PM2.5 and PM10 came from similar particulate emission sources. The indoor particulate levels were correlated with the corresponding outdoors (R 2 of 0.78 for PM2.5 and 0.67 for PM10), demonstrating that outdoor infiltration could lead to direct transportation into indoors. In addition to outdoor infiltration, human activities and ventilation types could also influence indoor particulate levels in four hospitals. Total target elements accounted for 3.18-5.56% of PM2.5 and 4.38-9.20% of PM10 by mass, respectively. Na, Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and Ti were found in the coarse particles, while K, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Pb, As and Se existed more in the fine particles. The average indoor concentrations of total elements were lower than those measured outdoors, suggesting that indoor elements originated mainly from outdoor emission sources. Enrichment factors (EF) for trace element were calculated to show that elements of anthropogenic origins (Zn, Pb, As, Se, V, Ni, Cu and Cd) were highly enriched with respect to crustal composition (Al, Fe, Ca, Ti and Mn). Factor analysis was used to identify possible pollution source-types, namely street dust, road traffic and

  16. Hospital indoor PM10/PM2.5 and associated trace elements in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhua; Bi, Xinhui; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2006-07-31

    PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected in the indoor environments of four hospitals and their adjacent outdoor environments in Guangzhou, China during the summertime. The concentrations of 18 target elements in particles were also quantified. The results showed that indoor PM2.5 levels with an average of 99 microg m(-3) were significantly higher than outdoor PM2.5 standard of 65 microg m(-3) recommended by USEPA [United States Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Fact Sheet. EPA's Revised Particulate Matter Standards, 17, July 1997] and PM2.5 constituted a large fraction of indoor respirable particles (PM10) by an average of 78% in four hospitals. High correlation between PM2.5 and PM10 (R(2) of 0.87 for indoors and 0.90 for outdoors) suggested that PM2.5 and PM10 came from similar particulate emission sources. The indoor particulate levels were correlated with the corresponding outdoors (R(2) of 0.78 for PM2.5 and 0.67 for PM10), demonstrating that outdoor infiltration could lead to direct transportation into indoors. In addition to outdoor infiltration, human activities and ventilation types could also influence indoor particulate levels in four hospitals. Total target elements accounted for 3.18-5.56% of PM2.5 and 4.38-9.20% of PM10 by mass, respectively. Na, Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and Ti were found in the coarse particles, while K, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Pb, As and Se existed more in the fine particles. The average indoor concentrations of total elements were lower than those measured outdoors, suggesting that indoor elements originated mainly from outdoor emission sources. Enrichment factors (EF) for trace element were calculated to show that elements of anthropogenic origins (Zn, Pb, As, Se, V, Ni, Cu and Cd) were highly enriched with respect to crustal composition (Al, Fe, Ca, Ti and Mn). Factor analysis was used to identify possible pollution source-types, namely street dust, road traffic

  17. Correction of SiPM temperature dependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, A.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of a high granular analogue hadronic calorimeter (AHCAL) using scintillator tiles with built-in Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) readout is reported. A muon beam is used for the minimum ionizing particle (MIP) based calibration of the single cells. The calibration chain including corrections for the non-linearity of the SiPM is presented. The voltage and temperature dependencies of the SiPM signal have been investigated using the versatile LED system of the AHCAL. Monitoring and correction methods are discussed. Measurements from the operation 2006 and 2007 at the CERN SPS test beam and data provided by the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) in Moscow are compared.

  18. Membranous nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin-lightening creams Systemic lupus erythematosus , rheumatoid arthritis, Graves disease, and other autoimmune disorders The disorder occurs at ... diagnosis. The following tests can help determine the cause of membranous nephropathy: Antinuclear antibodies test Anti-double- ...

  19. Source contributions to PM2.5 and PM10 at an urban background and a street location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuken, M. P.; Moerman, M.; Voogt, M.; Blom, M.; Weijers, E. P.; Rockmann, T.; Dusek, U.

    The contribution of regional, urban and traffic sources to PM2.5 and PM10 in an urban area was investigated in this study. The chemical composition of PM2.5 and PM10 was measured over a year at a street location and up- and down-wind of the city of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The C-14 content in EC

  20. Source contributions to PM2.5 and PM10 at an urban background and a street location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuken, M.P.; Moerman, M.M.; Voogt, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of regional, urban and traffic sources to PM2.5 and PM10 in an urban area was investigated in this study. The chemical composition of PM2.5 and PM10 was measured over a year at a street location and up- and down-wind of the city of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The 14C content in EC

  1. Danish emission inventory for particular matter (PM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M; Winther, M; Illerup, J B; Hjort Mikkelsen, M

    2003-11-01

    The first Danish emission inventory that was reported in 2002 was a provisional-estimate based on data presently available. This report documents methodology, emission factors and references used for an improved Danish emission inventory for particulate matter. Further results of the improved emission inventory for the year 2000 are shown. The particulate matter emission inventory includes TSP, PM,, and PM, The report covers emission inventories for transport and stationary combustion. An appendix covering emissions from agriculture is also included. For the transport sector, both exhaust and non-exhaust emission such as tyre and break wear and road abrasion are included. (au)

  2. LHCb: Observation of CP violation in $B^{\\pm} \\to D^0 K^{\\pm}$ decays at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Johnson, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of $B^\\pm \\to DK^\\pm$ and $B^\\pm \\to D\\pi^\\pm$ decays is presented where the D meson is reconstructed in the two-body final states: $K^\\pm \\pi^\\mp$, $K^+K^−$ and $\\pi^+\\pi^-$. Using 1.0 fb$^{−1}$ of LHCb data, measurements of several observables are made including the first observation of the suppressed mode $B^\\pm \\to [\\pi^\\pm K^\\mp] DK^\\pm$. CP violation in $B^\\pm \\to DK^\\pm$ decays is observed with $5.8\\sigma$ significance. We also comment on the prospects for similar measurements using different final states.

  3. Characteristics of PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10, and Their Relation to Black Carbon in Wuhan, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hourly average monitoring data for mass concentrations of PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and black carbon (BC were measured in Wuhan from December 2013 to December 2014, which has a flourishing steel industry, to analyze the characteristics of PM and their relation to BC, using statistical methods. The results indicate that variations in the monthly average mass concentrations of PM have similar concave parabolic shapes, with the highest values occurring in January and the lowest values appearing in August or September. The correlation coefficient of the linear regression model between PM1 and PM2.5 is quite high, reaching 0.99. Furthermore, the proportion of PM1 contained within PM2.5 is roughly 90%, directly proving that ultrafine particles whose diameter less than 1 μm may be a primary component of PM2.5 in Wuhan. Additionally, better seasonal correlation between PM and BC occurs only in summer and autumn, due to multiple factors such as topography, temperature, and the atmosphere in winter and spring. Finally, analysis of the diurnal variation of PM and BC demonstrates that the traffic emissions during rush hour, exogenous pollutants, and the shallow PBLH with stagnant atmosphere, all contribute to the severe pollution of Wuhan in winter.

  4. PM1-Alpha ELISA: the assay of choice for the detection of anti-PM/Scl autoantibodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Michael; Fritzler, Marvin J

    2009-03-01

    A characteristic serological feature of patients suffering from the overlap polymyositis and scleroderma (PM/Scl) syndrome are antibodies to the human counterpart of the yeast exosome referred to as the PM/Scl complex. Historically, the detection of anti-PM/Scl antibodies was laborious and relied largely on indirect immunofluorescence and immunodiffusion techniques. In 1992 the major autoantigen PM/Scl-100 was identified and cloned. Subsequently, the major epitopes were mapped and one of these, termed PM1-Alpha, became the antigen for a novel ELISA exhibiting high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of anti-PM/Scl antibodies. Comparative studies with other methods using other PM/Scl autoantigens have shown that the PM1-Alpha ELISA has higher sensitivity and specificity than assays that employed recombinant PM/Scl-75c and PM/Scl-100. Anti-PM1-Alpha antibodies were identified in 55.0% of sera from PM/Scl overlap syndrome patients, but were also seen in 7.9% of SSc and in 7.5% of PM patients. The frequency in other systemic autoimmune diseases and in infectious diseases was significant lower. In summary, the data derived from individual studies suggest that PM1-Alpha may become the "gold standard" for the detection of anti-PM/Scl antibodies.

  5. Conjugation of silica nanoparticles with cellulose acetate/polyethylene glycol 300 membrane for reverse osmosis using MgSO4 solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Aneela; Shafiq, Muhammad; Islam, Atif; Jabeen, Faiza; Shafeeq, Amir; Ahmad, Adnan; Zahid Butt, Muhammad Taqi; Jacob, Karl I; Jamil, Tahir

    2016-01-20

    Thermally-induced phase separation (TIPS) method was used to synthesize polymer matrix (PM) membranes for reverse osmosis from cellulose acetate/polyethylene glycol (CA/PEG300) conjugated with silica nanoparticles (SNPs). Experimental data showed that the conjugation of SNPs changed the surface properties as dense and asymmetric composite structure. The results were explicitly determined by the permeability flux and salt rejection efficiency of the PM-SNPs membranes. The effect of SNPs conjugation on MgSO4 salt rejection was more significant in magnitude than on permeation flux i.e. 2.38 L/m(2)h. FTIR verified that SNPs were successfully conjugated on the surface of PM membrane. DSC of PM-SNPs shows an improved Tg from 76.2 to 101.8 °C for PM and PM-S4 respectively. Thermal stability of the PM-SNPs membranes was observed by TGA which was significantly enhanced with the conjugation of SNPs. The micrographs of SEM and AFM showed the morphological changes and increase in the valley and ridges on membrane surface. Experimental data showed that the PM-S4 (0.4 wt% SNPs) membrane has maximum salt rejection capacity and was selected as an optimal membrane. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Decay of Pm151

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H. Loft; Bertelsen, U.; Ewan, G. T.

    1964-01-01

    The disintegration scheme of Pm151 has been studied by conversion electron-gamma and beta-gamma coincidence techniques using a six-gap β-ray spectrometer. The internal conversion electron spectrum has also been studied at 0.05% resolution in a 180° magnetic spectrograph. Fifty-seven transitions...

  7. High spin states of 141Pm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sarmishtha; Chanda, Somen; Bhattacharjee, Tumpa; Basu, Swapan Kumar; Bhowmik, R. K.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Ghugre, S. S.

    2004-01-01

    The high spin states in the N=80 odd- A141Pm nucleus have been investigated by in-beam γ-spectroscopic techniques following the reaction 133Cs( 12C, 4n) 141Pm at E=65 MeV using a modest γ detector array, consisting of seven Compton-suppressed high purity germanium detectors and a multiplicity ball of 14 bismuth germanate elements. Thirty new γ rays have been assigned to 141Pm on the basis of γ-ray singles and γγ-coincidence data. The level scheme of 141Pm has been extended upto an excitation energy of 5.2 MeV and spin {35}/{2}ℏ and 16 new levels have been proposed. Spin-parity assignments for most of the newly proposed levels have been made on the basis of the deduced directional correlation orientation ratios for strong transitions. The meanlives of a few excited states have been determined from the pulsed beam- γγ coincidence data using the generalised centroid-shift method. The level structure is discussed in the light of known systematics of neighbouring N=80 isotonic nuclei.

  8. Preparation of 147Pm ceramic source core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielcarski, M.

    1989-01-01

    Preparation of ceramic pellets containing fixed promethium-147 is described. Incorporation rate of 147 Pm into the ceramic material was determined. The leachability and vaporization of promethium from the obtained ceramics was investigated. The ceramic pellets prepared by the described procedure, mounted in special holders, can be applied as point sources in beta backscatter thickness gauges. (author)

  9. Airborne urban particles (Milan winter-PM2.5) cause mitotic arrest and cell death: Effects on DNA, mitochondria, AhR binding and spindle organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gualtieri, Maurizio [Applied Cell Biology and Particles Effects, Department of Environmental Science, University Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Ovrevik, Johan [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Mollerup, Steen [Section for Toxicology, National Institute of Occupational Health, N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Asare, Nana [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Longhin, Eleonora [Applied Cell Biology and Particles Effects, Department of Environmental Science, University Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Dahlman, Hans-Jorgen [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Camatini, Marina [Applied Cell Biology and Particles Effects, Department of Environmental Science, University Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Centre Research POLARIS, Department of Environmental Science, University Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Holme, Jorn A., E-mail: jorn.holme@fhi.no [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway)

    2011-08-01

    Highlights: {yields} PM2.5 induces mitotic arrest in BEAS-2B cells. {yields} PM2.5 induces DNA damage and activates DNA damage response. {yields} AhR regulated genes (Cyp1A1, Cyp1B1 and AhRR) are upregulated after PM exposure. {yields} Mitotic spindle assembly is perturbed in PM exposed cells. - Abstract: Airborne particulate matter (PM) is considered to be an important contributor to lung diseases. In the present study we report that Milan winter-PM2.5 inhibited proliferation in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) by inducing mitotic arrest. The cell cycle arrest was followed by an increase in mitotic-apoptotic cells, mitotic slippage and finally an increase in 'classical' apoptotic cells. Exposure to winter-PM10 induced only a slight effect which may be due to the presence of PM2.5 in this fraction while pure combustion particles failed to disturb mitosis. Fewer cells expressing the mitosis marker phospho-histone H3 compared to cells with condensed chromosomes, suggest that PM2.5 induced premature mitosis. PM2.5 was internalized into the cells and often localized in laminar organelles, although particles without apparent plasma membrane covering were also seen. In PM-containing cells mitochondria and lysosomes were often damaged, and in mitotic cells fragmented chromosomes often appeared. PM2.5 induced DNA strands breaks and triggered a DNA-damage response characterized by increased phosphorylation of ATM, Chk2 and H2AX; as well as induced a marked increase in expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-regulated genes, CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and AhRR. Furthermore, some disturbance of the organization of microtubules was indicated. It is hypothesized that the induced mitotic arrest and following cell death was due to a premature chromosome condensation caused by a combination of DNA, mitochondrial and spindle damage.

  10. The powdery mildew resistance gene Pm8 derived from rye is suppressed by its wheat ortholog Pm3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurni, Severine; Brunner, Susanne; Stirnweis, Daniel; Herren, Gerhard; Peditto, David; McIntosh, Robert A; Keller, Beat

    2014-09-01

    The powdery mildew resistance gene Pm8 derived from rye is located on a 1BL.1RS chromosome translocation in wheat. However, some wheat lines with this translocation do not show resistance to isolates of the wheat powdery mildew pathogen avirulent to Pm8 due to an unknown genetically dominant suppression mechanism. Here we show that lines with suppressed Pm8 activity contain an intact and expressed Pm8 gene. Therefore, the absence of Pm8 function in certain 1BL.1RS-containing wheat lines is not the result of gene loss or mutation but is based on suppression. The wheat gene Pm3, an ortholog of rye Pm8, suppressed Pm8-mediated powdery mildew resistance in lines containing Pm8 in a transient single-cell expression assay. This result was further confirmed in transgenic lines with combined Pm8 and Pm3 transgenes. Expression analysis revealed that suppression is not the result of gene silencing, either in wheat 1BL.1RS translocation lines carrying Pm8 or in transgenic genotypes with both Pm8 and Pm3 alleles. In addition, a similar abundance of the PM8 and PM3 proteins in single or double homozygous transgenic lines suggested that a post-translational mechanism is involved in suppression of Pm8. Co-expression of Pm8 and Pm3 genes in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves followed by co-immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the two proteins interact. Therefore, the formation of a heteromeric protein complex might result in inefficient or absent signal transmission for the defense reaction. These data provide a molecular explanation for the suppression of resistance genes in certain genetic backgrounds and suggest ways to circumvent it in future plant breeding. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Axionic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurilia, A.; Spallucci, E.

    1992-01-01

    A metal ring removed from a soap-water solution encloses a film of soap which can be mathematically described as a minimal surface having the ring as its only boundary. This is known to everybody. In this letter we suggest a relativistic extension of the above fluidodynamic system where the soap film is replaced by a Kalb-Ramand gauge potential B μν (x) and the ring by a closed string. The interaction between the B μν field and the string current excites a new configuration of the system consisting of a relativistic membrane bounded by the string. We call such a classical solution of the equation of motion an axionic membrane. As a dynamical system, the axionic membrane admits a Hamilton-Jacobi formulation which is an extension of the HJ theory of electromagnetic strings. (orig.)

  12. Precise measurement of the $K^{\\pm} \\to \\pi^{\\pm}e^{+}e^{−}$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Batley, J.R.; Kalmus, G.; Lazzeroni, C.; Munday, D.J.; Slater, M.W.; Wotton, S.A.; Arcidiacono, R.; Bocquet, G.; Cabibbo, N.; Ceccucci, A.; Cundy, D.; Falaleev, V.; Fidecaro, M.; Gatignon, L.; Gonidec, A.; Kubischta, W.; Norton, A.; Maier, A.; Patel, M.; Peters, A.; Balev, S.; Frabetti, P.L.; Goudzovski, E.; Hristov, P.; Kekelidze, V.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Madigozhin, D.; Marinova, E.; Molokanova, N.; Polenkevich, I.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Stoynev, S.; Zinchenko, A.; Monnier, E.; Swallow, E.; Winston, R.; Rubin, P.; Walker, A.; Baldini, W.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Damiani, C.; Fiorini, M.; Gianoli, A.; Martini, M.; Petrucci, F.; Savrie, M.; Scarpa, M.; Wahl, H.; Bizzeti, A.; Calvetti, M.; Celeghini, E.; Iacopini, E.; Lenti, M.; Martelli, F.; Ruggiero, G.; Veltri, M.; Behler, M.; Eppard, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Marouelli, P.; Masetti, L.; Moosbrugger, U.; Morales Morales, C.; Renk, B.; Wache, M.; Wanke, R.; Winhart, A.; Coward, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Shieh, M.; Szleper, M.; Velasco, M.; Wood, M.D.; Anzivino, G.; Cenci, P.; Imbergamo, E.; Nappi, A.; Pepe, M.; Petrucci, M.C.; Piccini, M.; Raggi, M.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Cerri, C.; Fantechi, R.; Collazuol, G.; DiLella, L.; Lamanna, G.; Mannelli, I.; Michetti, A.; Costantini, F.; Doble, N.; Fiorini, L.; Giudici, S.; Pierazzini, G.; Sozzi, M.; Venditti, S.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheze, J.B.; De Beer, M.; Derre, J.; Marel, G.; Mazzucato, E.; Peyaud, B.; Vallage, B.; Holder, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Bifani, S.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Clemencic, M.; Goy Lopez, S.; Marchetto, F.; Dibon, H.; Jeitler, M.; Markytan, M.; Mikulec, I.; Neuhofer, G.; Widhalm, L.

    2009-01-01

    A sample of 7253 $K^\\pm\\to\\pi^\\pm e^+e^-(\\gamma)$ decay candidates with 1.0% background contamination has been collected by the NA48/2 experiment at the CERN SPS, allowing a precise measurement of the decay properties. The branching ratio in the full kinematic range was measured to be ${\\rm BR}=(3.11\\pm0.12)\\times 10^{-7}$, where the uncertainty includes also the model dependence. The shape of the form factor $W(z)$, where $z=(M_{ee}/M_K)^2$, was parameterized according to several models, and, in particular, the slope $\\delta$ of the linear form factor $W(z)=W_0(1+\\delta z)$ was determined to be $\\delta=2.32\\pm0.18$. A possible CP violating asymmetry of $K^+$ and $K^-$ decay widths was investigated, and a conservative upper limit of $2.1\\times 10^{-2}$ at 90% CL was established.

  13. Metamaterial membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan Manuel; Maldovan, Martin

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new class of metamaterial device to achieve separation of compounds by using coordinate transformations and metamaterial theory. By rationally designing the spatial anisotropy for mass diffusion, we simultaneously concentrate different compounds in different spatial locations, leading to separation of mixtures across a metamaterial membrane. The separation of mixtures into their constituent compounds is critically important in biophysics, biomedical, and chemical applications. We present a practical case where a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen diffusing through a polymeric planar matrix is separated. This work opens doors to new paradigms in membrane separations via coordinate transformations and metamaterials by introducing novel properties and unconventional mass diffusion phenomena. (paper)

  14. Source Apportionment and Elemental Composition of PM2.5 and PM10 in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodeir, Mamdouh; Shamy, Magdy; Alghamdi, Mansour; Zhong, Mianhua; Sun, Hong; Costa, Max; Chen, Lung-Chi; Maciejczyk, Polina

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the first comprehensive investigation of PM2.5 and PM10 composition and sources in Saudi Arabia. We conducted a multi-week multiple sites sampling campaign in Jeddah between June and September, 2011, and analyzed samples by XRF. The overall mean mass concentration was 28.4 ± 25.4 μg/m 3 for PM2.5 and 87.3 ± 47.3 μg/m 3 for PM10, with significant temporal and spatial variability. The average ratio of PM2.5/PM10 was 0.33. Chemical composition data were modeled using factor analysis with varimax orthogonal rotation to determine five and four particle source categories contributing significant amount of for PM2.5 and PM10 mass, respectively. In both PM2.5 and PM10 sources were (1) heavy oil combustion characterized by high Ni and V; (2) resuspended soil characterized by high concentrations of Ca, Fe, Al, and Si; and (3) marine aerosol. The two other sources in PM2.5 were (4) Cu/Zn source; (5) traffic source identified by presence of Pb, Br, and Se; while in PM10 it was a mixed industrial source. To estimate the mass contributions of each individual source category, the CAPs mass concentration was regressed against the factor scores. Cumulatively, resuspended soil and oil combustion contributed 77 and 82% mass of PM2.5 and PM10, respectively.

  15. Basic statistics of PM2.5 and PM10 in the atmosphere of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, E; Reyes, E; Sánchez, G; Ortiz, E; Ruiz, M; Chow, J; Watson, J; Edgerton, S

    2002-03-27

    The high levels of fine particulate matter in Mexico City are of concern since they may induce severe public health effects as well as the attenuation of visible light. Sequential filter samplers were used at six different sites from 23 February to 22 March 1997. The sampling campaign was carried out as part of the project 'Investigación sobre Materia Particulada y Deterioro Atmosferico-Aerosol and Visibility Evaluation Research'. This research was a cooperative project sponsored by PEMEX and by the US Department of Energy. Sampling sites represent the different land uses along the city, the northwest station, Tlalnepantla, is located in a mixed medium income residential and industrial area. The northeast station, Xalostoc, is located in a highly industrialized area, Netzahualcoyotl is located in a mixed land use area, mainly commercial and residential. Station La Merced is located in the commercial and administrative district downtown. The southwest station is located in the Pedregal de San Angel, in a high-income neighborhood, and the southeast station located in Cerro de la Estrella is a mixed medium income residential and commercial area. Samples were collected four times a day in Cerro de la Estrella (CES), La Merced (MER) and Xalostoc (XAL) with sampling periods of 6 h. In Pedregal (PED), Tlalnepantla (TLA) and Netzahualcoyot1 (NEZ) sampling periods were every 24 h. In this paper the basic statistics of PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations are presented. The average results showed that 49, 61, 46, 57, 51 and 44% of the PM10 consisted of PM2.5 for CES, MER, XAL, PED, TLA and NEZ, respectively. The 24-h average highest concentrations of PM25 and PM10 were registered at NEZ (184 and 267 microg/m3) and the lowest at PED (22 and 39 microg/m3). The highest PM10 correlations were between XAL-CES (0.79), PED-TLA (0.80). In contrast, the highest PM2.5 correlations were between CES-PED (0.74), MER-CES (0.73) and TLA-PED (0.72), showing a lower correlation than the PM10

  16. Advanced Fluorescence Microscopy Approaches to Understand the Dynamic Organization of the Plasma Membrane in Eukaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziomkiewicz, Iwona

    signaling in plants. Furthermore, it was established that ENODL9 clustering affects the organization of the PM and distribution of other PM proteins. Analysis of the phenotype of mutant lines revealed that ENODL9 has an important role for plant development and the adaptation to osmotic stress. This resulted......The plasma membrane (PM) is a physical barrier that defines the boundaries of a cell. It not only isolates the cell interior from the environment, but also enables cell communication and a selective exchange of solutes. To serve those contrasting functions, the PM has a dynamic structure consisting...

  17. Characterization of PAHs and metals in indoor/outdoor PM10/PM2.5/PM1 in a retirement home and a school dormitory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Naddafi, Kazem; Faridi, Sasan; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Momeniha, Fatemeh; Gholampour, Akbar; Arhami, Mohammad; Kashani, Homa; Zare, Ahad; Niazi, Sadegh; Rastkari, Noushin; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Ghani, Maryam; Yunesian, Masud

    2015-09-15

    In the present work, we investigated the characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metal(loid)s in indoor/outdoor PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 in a retirement home and a school dormitory in Tehran from May 2012 to May 2013. The results indicated that the annual levels of indoor and outdoor PM10 and PM2.5 were much higher than the guidelines issued by the World Health Organization (WHO). The most abundant detected metal(loid)s in PM were Si, Fe, Zn, Al, and Pb. We found higher percentages of metal(loid)s in smaller size fractions of PM. Additionally, the results showed that the total PAHs (ƩPAHs) bound to PM were predominantly (83-88%) found in PM2.5, which can penetrate deep into the alveolar regions of the lungs. In general, carcinogenic PAHs accounted for 40-47% of the total PAHs concentrations; furthermore, the smaller the particle size, the higher the percentage of carcinogenic PAHs. The percentages of trace metal(loid)s and carcinogenic PAHs in PM2.5 mass were almost twice as high as those in PM10. This can most likely be responsible for the fact that PM2.5 can cause more adverse health effects than PM10 can. The average BaP-equivalent carcinogenic (BaP-TEQ) levels both indoors and outdoors considerably exceeded the maximum permissible risk level of 1 ng/m(3) of BaP. The enrichment factors and diagnostic ratios indicated that combustion-related anthropogenic sources, such as gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles as well as natural gas combustion, were the major sources of PAHs and trace metal(loid)s bound to PM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Using support vector regression to predict PM10 and PM2.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weizhen, Hou; Zhengqiang, Li; Yuhuan, Zhang; Hua, Xu; Ying, Zhang; Kaitao, Li; Donghui, Li; Peng, Wei; Yan, Ma

    2014-01-01

    Support vector machine (SVM), as a novel and powerful machine learning tool, can be used for the prediction of PM 10 and PM 2.5 (particulate matter less or equal than 10 and 2.5 micrometer) in the atmosphere. This paper describes the development of a successive over relaxation support vector regress (SOR-SVR) model for the PM 10 and PM 2.5 prediction, based on the daily average aerosol optical depth (AOD) and meteorological parameters (atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, air temperature, wind speed), which were all measured in Beijing during the year of 2010–2012. The Gaussian kernel function, as well as the k-fold crosses validation and grid search method, are used in SVR model to obtain the optimal parameters to get a better generalization capability. The result shows that predicted values by the SOR-SVR model agree well with the actual data and have a good generalization ability to predict PM 10 and PM 2.5 . In addition, AOD plays an important role in predicting particulate matter with SVR model, which should be included in the prediction model. If only considering the meteorological parameters and eliminating AOD from the SVR model, the prediction results of predict particulate matter will be not satisfying

  19. The plasma membrane proteome of Medicago truncatula roots as modified by arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, Achref; Recorbet, Ghislaine; Lemaître-Guillier, Christelle; Mounier, Arnaud; Balliau, Thierry; Zivy, Michel; Wipf, Daniel; Dumas-Gaudot, Eliane

    2018-01-01

    In arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) roots, the plasma membrane (PM) of the host plant is involved in all developmental stages of the symbiotic interaction, from initial recognition to intracellular accommodation of intra-radical hyphae and arbuscules. Although the role of the PM as the agent for cellular morphogenesis and nutrient exchange is especially accentuated in endosymbiosis, very little is known regarding the PM protein composition of mycorrhizal roots. To obtain a global overview at the proteome level of the host PM proteins as modified by symbiosis, we performed a comparative protein profiling of PM fractions from Medicago truncatula roots either inoculated or not with the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. PM proteins were isolated from root microsomes using an optimized discontinuous sucrose gradient; their subsequent analysis by liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometry (MS) identified 674 proteins. Cross-species sequence homology searches combined with MS-based quantification clearly confirmed enrichment in PM-associated proteins and depletion of major microsomal contaminants. Changes in protein amounts between the PM proteomes of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots were monitored further by spectral counting. This workflow identified a set of 82 mycorrhiza-responsive proteins that provided insights into the plant PM response to mycorrhizal symbiosis. Among them, the association of one third of the mycorrhiza-responsive proteins with detergent-resistant membranes pointed at partitioning to PM microdomains. The PM-associated proteins responsive to mycorrhization also supported host plant control of sugar uptake to limit fungal colonization, and lipid turnover events in the PM fraction of symbiotic roots. Because of the depletion upon symbiosis of proteins mediating the replacement of phospholipids by phosphorus-free lipids in the plasmalemma, we propose a role of phosphate nutrition in the PM composition of mycorrhizal roots.

  20. On the performance of the semiempirical quantum mechanical PM6 and PM7 methods for noncovalent interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostaš, Jiří; Řezáč, Jan; Hobza, Pavel

    2013-05-01

    In this Letter, we compare the recently released semiempirical method PM7 with its predecessor, PM6 with post-SCF corrections. These corrections were introduced in order to improve the description of noncovalent interactions (dispersion, hydrogen bonds and halogen bonds) and have become an integral part of PM7. A large collection of data on noncovalent interactions, covering not only interaction energies but also conformational changes and geometries, is used as a benchmark. Among the methods tested, PM6 with the latest corrections (PM6-D3H4X) yields the best results. PM7 yields only slightly worse results but brings additional improvements in the description of other molecular properties.

  1. Simplified Enrichment of Plasma Membrane Proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana Seedlings Using Differential Centrifugation and Brij-58 Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Carina A; Leslie, Michelle E; Peck, Scott C; Heese, Antje

    2017-01-01

    The plasma membrane (PM) forms a barrier between a plant cell and its environment. Proteins at this subcellular location play diverse and complex roles, including perception of extracellular signals to coordinate cellular changes. Analyses of PM proteins, however, are often limited by the relatively low abundance of these proteins in the total cellular protein pool. Techniques traditionally used for enrichment of PM proteins are time consuming, tedious, and require extensive optimization. Here, we provide a simple and reproducible enrichment procedure for PM proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings starting from total microsomal membranes isolated by differential centrifugation. To enrich for PM proteins, total microsomes are treated with the nonionic detergent Brij-58 to decrease the abundance of contaminating organellar proteins. This protocol combined with the genetic resources available in Arabidopsis provides a powerful tool that will enhance our understanding of proteins at the PM.

  2. Chelating polymeric membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Villalobos Vazquez de la Parra, Luis Francisco; Hilke, Roland

    2015-01-01

    microporous chelating polymeric membrane. Embodiments include, but are not limited to, microporous chelating polymeric membranes, device comprising the membranes, and methods of using and making the same.

  3. Observation of the suppressed ADS modes $B^\\pm \\to [\\pi^\\pm K^\\mp \\pi^+\\pi^-]_D K^\\pm$ and $B^\\pm \\to [\\pi^\\pm K^\\mp \\pi^+\\pi^-]_D \\pi^\\pm$

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00258707; Abellan Beteta, C; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Oyanguren Campos, M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lohn, S; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNulty, R; Mcnab, A; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of $B^{\\pm}\\to DK^{\\pm}$ and $B^{\\pm}\\to D\\pi^{\\pm}$ decays is presented where the $D$ meson is reconstructed in the four-body final state $K^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\mp} \\pi^+ \\pi^-$. Using LHCb data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $1.0{\\rm \\,fb}^{-1}$, first observations are made of the suppressed ADS modes $B^{\\pm}\\to [\\pi^{\\pm} K^{\\mp}\\pi^+\\pi^-]_D K^{\\pm}$ and $B^{\\pm}\\to [\\pi^{\\pm} K^{\\mp} \\pi^+\\pi^- ]_D\\pi^{\\pm}$ with a significance of $5.1\\sigma$ and greater than $10\\sigma$, respectively. Measurements of $CP$ asymmetries and $CP$-conserving ratios of partial widths from this family of decays are also performed. The magnitude of the ratio between the suppressed and favoured $B^{\\pm}\\to DK^{\\pm}$ amplitudes is determined to be $r^K_B = 0.097 \\pm{0.011}$.

  4. 20 CFR 411.230 - What is a PM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... is a PM? A program manager (PM) is an organization in the private or public sector that has entered into a contract to assist us in administering the Ticket to Work program. We will use a competitive...

  5. VIIRS satellite and ground pm2.5 monitoring data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — contains all satellite, pm2.5, and meteorological data used in statistical modeling effort to improve prediction of pm2.5. This dataset is associated with the...

  6. Related Rules and Programs that Help States Attain PM Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s national and regional rules to reduce emissions of pollutants that form particle pollution will help state and local governments meet the PM NAAQS. A number of voluntary programs also are helping areas reduce fine PM pollution.

  7. STIM proteins and the endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Silvia; Meyer, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic organelles can interact with each other through stable junctions where the two membranes are kept in close apposition. The junction that connects the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane (ER-PM junction) is unique in providing a direct communication link between the ER and the PM. In a recently discovered signaling process, STIM (stromal-interacting molecule) proteins sense a drop in ER Ca(2+) levels and directly activate Orai PM Ca(2+) channels across the junction space. In an inverse process, a voltage-gated PM Ca(2+) channel can directly open ER ryanodine-receptor Ca(2+) channels in striated-muscle cells. Although ER-PM junctions were first described 50 years ago, their broad importance in Ca(2+) signaling, as well as in the regulation of cholesterol and phosphatidylinositol lipid transfer, has only recently been realized. Here, we discuss research from different fields to provide a broad perspective on the structures and unique roles of ER-PM junctions in controlling signaling and metabolic processes.

  8. DATEP: 120 channel PM HV regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centro, S.; Giorgi, M. de

    1981-01-01

    DATEP (Distributore Alta Tensione Programmabile) has been designed to distribute high voltage to some 1500 PM's for the gamma detectors (part C) of EHS. Each unit has its own microprocessor controller which performs continuous checking of the 120 channels and allows operator interaction. Channel regulators are based on a specially developed thick film hybrid circuit that allows to get on overall temperature coefficient better than 50 ppm/ 0 C. (orig.)

  9. Membrane association and localization dynamics of the Ebola virus matrix protein VP40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gc, Jeevan B; Gerstman, Bernard S; Chapagain, Prem P

    2017-10-01

    The Ebola virus matrix protein VP40 is a major structural protein that provides the scaffolding for new Ebola virus particles. For this, VP40 is first trafficked to the lower leaflet of the plasma membrane (PM) in its dimeric form. Once associated with the PM, the VP40 dimers undergo structural rearrangements and oligomerize into hexamers and filaments that make up the virus matrix. Therefore, association of the VP40 dimers and their stabilization at the PM is a crucial step in the Ebola life-cycle. To understand the molecular details of the VP40 dimer-PM interactions, we investigated the dimer association with the inner leaflet of the PM using detailed all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The formation of the dimer-PM complex is facilitated by the interactions of the VP40 lysine residues and the anionic lipids POPS, POPI, and PIP 2 in the PM. In contrast, the dimer fails to associate with a membrane without POPS, POPI, or PIP 2 lipids. We explored the mechanisms of the association and identified important residues and lipids involved in localization and stabilization of VP40 dimers at the PM. MD simulations elucidate the role of a C-terminal α-helix alignment parallel to the lipid bilayer surface as well as the creation of membrane defects that allow partial insertion of the hydrophobic residue V276 into the membrane to further stabilize the VP40 dimer-PM complex. Understanding the mechanisms of the VP40 dimer-PM association that facilitate oligomerization can be important for potentially targeting the VP40 for small molecules that can interfere with the virus life-cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemical characteristics and influence of continental outflow on PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 measured at Tuoji island in the Bohai Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junmei; Yang, Lingxiao; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Wen, Liang; Yang, Yumeng; Gao, Ying; Jiang, Pan; Li, Yanyan; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-12-15

    To investigate the chemical characteristics and sources of size-segregated particles in the background region, PM 1.0 , PM 2.5 and PM 10 samples were collected in Tuoji Island (TI) during the winter of 2014. Water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) including Na + , NH 4 + , K + , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Cl - , NO 3 - and SO 4 2- , organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) were analysed. The average mass concentrations of PM 1.0 , PM 2.5 and PM 10 were 44.5μg/m 3 , 62.0μg/m 3 and 94.4μg/m 3 , respectively, and particles were importantly enriched in PM 1.0 . Secondary WSIIs (NH 4 + , NO 3 - and SO 4 2- ) were the most abundant species, and their contribution was highest in PM 1.0 . The average values of NOR and SOR were more than 0.1 in PM 1.0 , suggesting that secondary formation of SO 4 2- and NO 3 - from the gas precursors SO 2 and NO 2 occurred in PM 1.0 . Secondary organic carbon accounted for 62.3% in PM 1.0 , 61.9% in PM 1.0-2.5 and 48.9% in PM 2.5-10 of OC, formed mainly in the fine mode. The particles concentrations were mainly affected by air mass from the North China Plain, especially the air mass from the southwest of Shandong province, which had low speed and altitude. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Steric exclusion and protein conformation determine the localization of plasma membrane transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, Frans; Syga, Łukasz; Moiset, Gemma; Spakman, Dian; Schavemaker, Paul E; Punter, Christiaan M; Seinen, Anne-Bart; van Oijen, Antoine M; Robinson, Andrew; Poolman, Bert

    2018-01-01

    The plasma membrane (PM) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains membrane compartments, MCC/eisosomes and MCPs, named after the protein residents Can1 and Pma1, respectively. Using high-resolution fluorescence microscopy techniques we show that Can1 and the homologous transporter Lyp1 are able to

  12. Performance characteristics of a low-volume PM10 sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four identical PM10 pre-separators, along with four identical low-volume (1m3 hr-1) total suspended particulate (TSP) samplers were tested side-by-side in a controlled laboratory particulate matter (PM) chamber. The four PM10 and four TSP samplers were also tested in an oil pipe-cleaning field to ev...

  13. The HTR-PM Plant Full Scope Training Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junsan; Wang Yuding; Zhou Shuyong; Cai Ruizhong; Cao Jianting

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the technical aspects of the Full Scope Training Simulator developed for HTR-PM Plant in Shidao Bay, Shandong Province, China. An overview of the HTR-PM plant and simulator structure is presented. The models developed for the simulator are discussed in detail. Some important verification tests have been conducted on the HTR-PM Plant Training Simulator. (author)

  14. Measurement of Ambient Air Particle (TSP, PM10, PM2,5) Around Candidate Location of PLTN Semenanjung Lemahabang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AgusGindo S; Budi Hari H

    2008-01-01

    Measurement analysis of ambient air particle (TSP, PM 10 , PM 2,5 ) around location candidate of PLTN (Power Station of Nuclear Energy) Semenanjung Lemahabang has been carried out. The measurement was conducted in May 2007 with a purpose to providing information about concentration of ambient air particle (TSP, PM 10 , PM 2,5 ) and diameter distribution of its air particle. The measurement was conducted in three locations i.e. 1). Balong village 2). Bayuran 3). Bondo. Concentration of TSP, PM 10 , and PM 2,5 per 24 hours in all measured locations in area candidate of PLTN exceed quality standard of national ambient air is specified by government. All measurement locations for the TSP, PM 10 , and PM 2,5 was include category of ISPU (Standard Index of Air Pollution) moderate. (author)

  15. The Concentrations and Reduction of Airborne Particulate Matter (PM10, PM2.5, PM1 at Shelterbelt Site in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungang Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter is a serious source of air pollution in urban areas, where it exerts adverse effects on human health. This article focuses on the study of subduction of shelterbelts for atmospheric particulates. The results suggest that (1 the PM mass concentration is higher in the morning or both morning and noon inside the shelterbelts and lower mass concentrations at other times; (2 the particle mass concentration inside shelterbelt is higher than outside; (3 the particle interception efficiency of the two forest belts over the three months in descending order was PM10 > PM1 > PM2.5; and (4 the two shelterbelts captured air pollutants at rates of 1496.285 and 909.075 kg/month and the major atmospheric pollutant in Beijing city is PM10. Future research directions are to study PM mass concentration variation of shelterbelt with different tree species and different configuration.

  16. Reduction of power consumption in motor-driven applications by using PM motors; PM = Permanent Magnet; Reduktion af elforbrug til motordrift ved anvendelse af PM motorer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvenegaard, C.M.; Hansen, Mads P.R.; Groenborg Nikolaisen, C. (Teknologisk Institut, Taastrup (Denmark)); Nielsen, Sandie B. (Teknologisk Institut, AArhus (Denmark)); Ritchie, E.; Leban, K. (Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark))

    2009-12-15

    The traditional asynchronous motor with aluminum rotor is today by far the most widespread and sold electric motor, but a new and more energy efficient type of engine - the permanent magnet motor (PM motor) - is expected in the coming years to win larger and larger market shares. Several engine manufacturers in Europe, USA and Asia are now beginning to market the PM motors, which can replace the traditional asynchronous motor. The project aims to uncover the pros and cons of replacing asynchronous motors including EFF1 engines with PM motors, including the price difference. Furthermore, it is identified how the efficiency of PM motors is affected by low load levels and at various forms of control. Finally, the energy savings potential is analysed, by replacing asynchronous motors with PM motors. The study includes laboratory tests of PM motors, made in a test stand at Danish Technological Institute. (ln)

  17. Fluidity of pea root plasma membranes under altered gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymchuk, D. O.; Baranenko, V. V.; Vorobyova, T. V.; Dubovoy, V. D.

    This investigation aims to determine whether clinorotation 2 rev min of pea Pisum sativum L seedlings induces the alterations in the physical-chemical properties of cellular membranes including the plasma membrane fluidity The last is an important regulator of functional activity of membrane enzymes The plasma membranes were isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning from roots of 6-day old pea seedlings The membrane fluidity was examined by fluorescence spectroscopy using pyrene probe The plasma membrane vesicles with known protein concentration were added to the incubation buffer to a final concentration of 50 mu g of protein per ml A small amount by 1 mu l of pyrene solution in 2-propanol was added to the incubation mixture to a final probe concentration 5 mu M at constant mixing Fluorescence spectra were measured using a Perkin-Elmer LS-50 spectrofluorometer Perkin-Elmer England Pyrene was excited at 337 nm and fluorescence intensity of monomers I M and excimers I E were measured at 393 and 470 nm respectively The I E I M ratios were 0 081 pm 0 003 and 0 072 pm 0 004 in preparations obtained from clinorotated and the control seedlings respectively This fact indicates that rotation on the clinostat increases the membrane fluidity Compared with controls clinorotated seedlings have also showed a reduced growth and a higher level of total unsaturated fatty acids determined by gas chromatography The factors that influence on the fluidity of membrane lipids in bilayer appear to be the

  18. Monitoring of PM10 and PM2.5 around primary particulate anthropogenic emission sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Rodriguez, Sergio; Plana, Felicià; Mantilla, Enrique; Ruiz, Carmen R.

    Investigations on the monitoring of ambient air levels of atmospheric particulates were developed around a large source of primary anthropogenic particulate emissions: the industrial ceramic area in the province of Castelló (Eastern Spain). Although these primary particulate emissions have a coarse grain-size distribution, the atmospheric transport dominated by the breeze circulation accounts for a grain-size segregation, which results in ambient air particles occurring mainly in the 2.5-10 μm range. The chemical composition of the ceramic particulate emissions is very similar to the crustal end-member but the use of high Al, Ti and Fe as tracer elements as well as a peculiar grain-size distribution in the insoluble major phases allow us to identify the ceramic input in the bulk particulate matter. PM2.5 instead of PM10 monitoring may avoid the interference of crustal particles without a major reduction in the secondary anthropogenic load, with the exception of nitrate. However, a methodology based in PM2.5 measurement alone is not adequate for monitoring the impact of primary particulate emissions (such as ceramic emissions) on air quality, since the major ambient air particles derived from these emissions are mainly in the range of 2.5-10 μm. Consequently, in areas characterised by major secondary particulate emissions, PM2.5 monitoring should detect anthropogenic particulate pollutants without crustal particulate interference, whereas PM10 measurements should be used in areas with major primary anthropogenic particulate emissions.

  19. Preliminary analysis of variability in concentration of fine particulate matter - PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 in area of Poznań city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sówka Izabela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly known, that suspended particulate matter pose a threat to human life and health, negatively influence the flora, climate and also materials. Especially dangerous is the presence of high concentration of particulate matter in the area of cities, where density of population is high. The research aimed at determining the variability of suspended particulate matter concentration (PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 in two different thermal seasons, in the area of Poznań city. As a part of carried out work we analyzed the variability of concentrations and also performed a preliminary analysis of their correlation. Measured concentrations of particulate matter were contained within following ranges: PM10 – 8.7-69.6 μg/m3, PM2.5 – 2.2-88.5 μg/m3, PM1.0 – 2.5-22.9 μg/m3 in the winter season and 1.0-42.8 μg/m3 (PM10, 1.2-40.3 μg/m3 (PM2.5 and 2.7-10.4 (PM1.0 in the summer season. Preliminary correlative analysis indicated interdependence between the temperature of air, the speed of wind and concentration of particulate matter in selected measurement points. The values of correlation coefficients between the air temperature, speed of wind and concentrations of particulate matter were respectively equal to: for PM10: -0.59 and -0.55 (Jana Pawła II Street, -0.53 and -0.53 (Szymanowskiego Street, for PM2.5: -0.60 and -0.53 (Jana Pawła II Street and for PM1.0 -0.40 and -0.59 (Jana Pawła II Street.

  20. Diagnosis of Dust- and Pollution- Impacted PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 Aerosols Observed at Gosan Climate Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, X.; Lee, M.; LIM, S.; Gustafsson, O.; Lee, G.; Chang, L.

    2017-12-01

    In East Asia, dust is prevalent and used to be mixed with various pollutants during transportation, causing a large uncertainty in estimating the climate forcing of aerosol and difficulty in making environmental policy. In order to diagnose the influence of dust particles on aerosol, we conducted a long-term measurement of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 for mass, water-soluble ions, and carbonaceous compounds at Gosan Climate Observatory, South Korea from August 2007 to February 2012. The result of principle component analysis reveals that anthropogenic, typical soil dust, and saline dust impact explain 46 %, 16 %, and 9 % of the total variance for all samples, respectively. The mode analysis of mass distributions provides the criteria to distinguish these principle factors. The anthropogenic impact was most pronounced in PM1 and diagnosed by the PM1 mass higher than mean+σ. If PM10 mass was greater than mean+σ, it was highly likely to be affected by typical soil dust. This criterion is also applicable for PM2.5 mass, which was enhanced by both haze and dust particles, though. In the present study, saline dust was recognized by relatively high concentrations of Na and Cl ions in PM1.0. However, their existence was not manifested by increased mass in any of three PM types.

  1. Assessment of annual air pollution levels with PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and associated heavy metals in Algiers, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbi, Abdelhamid; Kerchich, Yacine; Kerbachi, Rabah; Boughedaoui, Ménouèr

    2018-01-01

    Concentrations of particulate matter less than 1  μm, 2.5  μm, 10 μm and their contents of heavy metals were investigated in two different stations, urban and roadside at Algiers (Algeria). Sampling was conducted during two years by a high volume samplers (HVS) equipped with a cascade impactor at four levels stage, for one year sampling. The characterization of the heavy metals associated to the particulate matter (PM) was carried out by X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (XRF). The annual average concentration of PM 1 , PM 2.5 and PM 10 in both stations were 18.24, 32.23 and 60.01 μg m -3 respectively. The PM 1 , PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations in roadside varied from 13.46 to 25.59 μg m -3 , 20.82-49.85 μg m -3 and 45.90-77.23 μg m -3 respectively. However in the urban station, the PM 1 , PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations varied from 10.45 to 26.24 μg m -3 , 18.53-47.58 μg m -3 and 43.8-91.62 μg m -3 . The heavy metals associated to the PM were confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-Ray analyses (SEM-EDX). The different spots of PM 2.5 analysis by SEM-EDX shows the presence of nineteen elements with anthropogenic and natural origins, within the heavy metal detected, the lead was found with maximum of 5% (weight percent). In order to determine the source contributions of PM levels at the two sampling sites sampling, principal compound analysis (PCA) was applied to the collected data. Statistical analysis confirmed anthropogenic source with traffic being a significant source and high contribution of natural emissions. At both sites, the PM 2.5 /PM 10 ratio is lower than that usually recorded in developed countries. The study of the back-trajectories of the air masses starting from Sahara shows that desert dust influences the concentration and the composition of the PM measured in Algiers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Indoor air quality modeling for PM 10, PM 2.5, and PM 1.0 in naturally ventilated classrooms of an urban Indian school building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Radha; Khare, Mukesh

    2011-05-01

    Assessment of indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms of school buildings is of prime concern due to its potential effects on student's health and performance as they spend a substantial amount of their time (6-7 h per day) in schools. A number of airborne contaminants may be present in urban school environment. However, respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) is of great significance as they may significantly affect occupants' health. The objectives of the present study are twofold, one, to measure the concentrations of PM(10) (building located near a heavy-traffic roadway (9,755 and 4,296 vehicles/hour during weekdays and weekends, respectively); and second, to develop single compartment mass balance-based IAQ models for PM(10) (NVIAQM(pm10)), PM(2.5) (NVIAQM(pm2.5)), and PM(1.0) (NVIAQM(pm1.0)) for predicting their indoor concentrations. Outdoor RSPM levels and classroom characteristics, such as size, occupancy level, temperature, relative humidity, and CO(2) concentrations have also been monitored during school hours. Predicted indoor PM(10) concentrations show poor correlations with observed indoor PM(10) concentrations (R (2) = 0.028 for weekdays, and 0.47 for weekends). However, a fair degree of agreement (d) has been found between observed and predicted concentrations, i.e., 0.42 for weekdays and 0.59 for weekends. Furthermore, NVIAQM(pm2.5) and NVIAQM(pm1.0) results show good correlations with observed concentrations of PM(2.5) (R(2) = 0.87 for weekdays and 0.9 for weekends) and PM(1.0) (R(2) = 0.86 for weekdays and 0.87 for weekends). NVIAQM(pm10) shows the tendency to underpredict indoor PM(10) concentrations during weekdays as it does not take into account the occupant's activities and its effects on the indoor concentrations during the class hours. Intense occupant's activities cause resuspension or delayed deposition of PM(10). The model results further suggests conductance of experimental and physical simulation studies on dispersion of

  3. The plasma membrane transport systems and adaptation to salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Mohamed Magdy F

    2014-11-15

    Salt stress represents one of the environmental challenges that drastically affect plant growth and yield. Evidence suggests that glycophytes and halophytes have a salt tolerance mechanisms working at the cellular level, and the plasma membrane (PM) is believed to be one facet of the cellular mechanisms. The responses of the PM transport proteins to salinity in contrasting species/cultivars were discussed. The review provides a comprehensive overview of the recent advances describing the crucial roles that the PM transport systems have in plant adaptation to salt. Several lines of evidence were presented to demonstrate the correlation between the PM transport proteins and adaptation of plants to high salinity. How alterations in these transport systems of the PM allow plants to cope with the salt stress was also addressed. Although inconsistencies exist in some of the information related to the responses of the PM transport proteins to salinity in different species/cultivars, their key roles in adaptation of plants to high salinity is obvious and evident, and cannot be precluded. Despite the promising results, detailed investigations at the cellular/molecular level are needed in some issues of the PM transport systems in response to salinity to further evaluate their implication in salt tolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Repeated intratracheal instillation of PM10 induces lipid reshaping in lung parenchyma and in extra-pulmonary tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Rizzo

    Full Text Available Adverse health effects of air pollution attributed mainly to airborne particulate matter have been well documented in the last couple of decades. Short term exposure, referring to a few hours exposure, to high ambient PM10 concentration is linked to increased hospitalization rates for cardiovascular events, typically 24 h after air pollution peaks. Particulate matter exposure is related to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, with increased oxidative stress and inflammatory status. Previously, we have demonstrated that repeated intratracheal instillation of PM10sum in BALB/c mice leads to respiratory tract inflammation, creating in lung a condition which could potentially evolve in a systemic toxic reaction. Additionally, plasma membrane and tissue lipids are easily affected by oxidative stress and directly correlated with inflammatory products. With this aim, in the present investigation using the same model, we analyzed the toxic potential of PM10sum exposure on lipid plasma membrane composition, lipid peroxidation and the mechanisms of cells protection in multiple organs such as lung, heart, liver and brain. Obtained results indicated that PM10 exposure led to lung lipid reshaping, in particular phospholipid and cholesterol content increases; concomitantly, the generation of oxidative stress caused lipid peroxidation. In liver we found significant changes in lipid content, mainly due to an increase of phosphatidylcholine, and in total fatty acid composition with a more pronounced level of docosahexaenoic acid; these changes were statistically correlated to lung molecular markers. Heart and brain were similarly affected; heart was significantly enriched in triglycerides in half of the PM10sum treated mice. These results demonstrated a direct involvement of PM10sum in affecting lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in peripheral tissues that might be related to the serious systemic air-pollution effects on human health.

  5. Respiratory hospitalizations in association with fine PM and its ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite observed geographic and temporal variation in particulate matter (PM)-related health morbidities, only a small number of epidemiologic studies have evaluated the relation between PM2.5 chemical constituents and respiratory disease. Most assessments are limited by inadequate spatial and temporal resolution of ambient PM measurements and/or by their approaches to examine the role of specific PM components on health outcomes. In a case-crossover analysis using daily average ambient PM2.5 total mass and species estimates derived from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and available observations, we examined the association between the chemical components of PM (including elemental and organic carbon, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and other remaining) and respiratory hospitalizations in New York State. We evaluated relationships between levels (low, medium, high) of PM constituent mass fractions, and assessed modification of the PM2.5–hospitalization association via models stratified by mass fractions of both primary and secondary PM components. In our results, average daily PM2.5 concentrations in New York State were generally lower than the 24-hr average National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). Year-round analyses showed statistically significant positive associations between respiratory hospitalizations and PM2.5 total mass, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium concentrations at multiple exposure lags (0.5–2.0% per interquartile range [IQR

  6. Structure of odd-A Pm nuclei (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piiparinen, M.; Kortelahti, M.; Pakkanen, A.; Komppa, T.; Komu, R.

    1977-12-01

    The level structures of 141 Pm and 145 Pm were studied by methods of in-beam γ-ray and electron spectroscopy using the reactions 142 Nd(p,2n) 141 Pm, 141 Pr( 3 He,3n) 141 Pm and 146 Nd(p,2n) 145 Pm. Nineteen new levels with spins up to (19/2) were observed in 141 Pm and twenty-two new levels with spins up to 15/2 in 145 Pm. In both nuclei, a group of positive-parity levels have been identified which can be interpreted as members of multiplets of d 5 / 2 and g 7 / 2 protons coupled to the quadrupole vibrations of the core. Transition probabilities of the decay modes of isomeric h 11 / 2 states have been determined. (author)

  7. The impact of long-range-transport on PM1 and PM2.5 at a Central Mediterranean site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, M. R.; Becagli, S.; Garcia Orza, J. A.; Vecchi, R.; Dinoi, A.; Udisti, R.; Cabello, M.

    2013-06-01

    Water soluble ions, methanesulfonate, organic and elemental carbon, and metals in PM2.5 and PM1 samples were analysed by Positive Matrix Factorization to identify and quantify major sources of fine particles at a Central Mediterranean site. The cluster analysis of four-day back trajectories was used to determine the dependence of PM2.5 and PM1 levels and composition on air-flows. The cluster analysis has identified six, six, and seven distinct air-flow types arriving at 500, 1500, and 3000 m above sea level (asl), respectively. Slow-west (Wslow) and north-eastern (NE) flows at 500 and 1500 m asl were the most frequent and were associated with the highest PM2.5 and PM1 concentrations. The PM concentrations from combustion sources including biomass burning were at their maximum under north-western (NW) flows. Similarly, the ammonium sulphate source was enhanced under Wslow and NE flows. South-eastern Mediterranean Sea air-flows were associated with the highest PM2.5 concentrations due to the heavy-oil-combustion source and the highest PM2.5 and PM1 concentrations due to the secondary marine source. PM2.5 concentrations due to the reacted dust and traffic source and PM1 concentrations due to the nitrate with reacted dust and mixed anthropogenic source showed no clear dependence on air-flows. This work highlights the different impact of aerosol sources on PM2.5 and PM1 fractions, being PM1 more adequate to control anthropogenic emissions from combustion sources.

  8. Reduction of PM emissions from specific sources reflected on key components concentrations of ambient PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillon, M. C.; Querol, X.; Monfort, E.; Alastuey, A.; Escrig, A.; Celades, I.; Miro, J. V.

    2009-04-01

    The relationship between specific particulate emission control and ambient levels of some PM10 components (Zn, As, Pb, Cs, Tl) was evaluated. To this end, the industrial area of Castellón (Eastern Spain) was selected, where around 40% of the EU glazed ceramic tiles and a high proportion of EU ceramic frits (middle product for the manufacture of ceramic glaze) are produced. The PM10 emissions from the ceramic processes were calculated over the period 2000 to 2007 taking into account the degree of implementation of corrective measures throughout the study period. Abatement systems (mainly bag filters) were implemented in the majority of the fusion kilns for frit manufacture in the area as a result of the application of the Directive 1996/61/CE, leading to a marked decrease in PM10 emissions. On the other hand, ambient PM10 sampling was carried out from April 2002 to July 2008 at three urban sites and one suburban site of the area and a complete chemical analysis was made for about 35 % of the collected samples, by means of different techniques (ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Ion Chromatography, selective electrode and elemental analyser). The series of chemical composition of PM10 allowed us to apply a source contribution model (Principal Component Analysis), followed by a multilinear regression analysis, so that PM10 sources were identified and their contribution to bulk ambient PM10 was quantified on a daily basis, as well as the contribution to bulk ambient concentrations of the identified key components (Zn, As, Pb, Cs, Tl). The contribution of the sources identified as the manufacture and use of ceramic glaze components, including the manufacture of ceramic frits, accounted for more than 65, 75, 58, 53, and 53% of ambient Zn, As, Pb, Cs and Tl levels, respectively (with the exception of Tl contribution at one of the sites). The important emission reductions of these sources during the study period had an impact on ambient key components levels, such that there was a high

  9. Measurement of the CKM angle $\\gamma$ from a combination of $B^{\\pm} \\to Dh^{\\pm}$ analyses

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00258707; Abellan Beteta, C; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; Mc Skelly, B; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-01-01

    A combination of three LHCb measurements of the CKM angle $\\gamma$ is presented. The decays $B^\\pm\\to DK^\\pm$ and $B^\\pm\\to D\\pi^\\pm$ are used, where $D$ denotes an admixture of $D^0$ and $\\overline{D^0}$ mesons, decaying into $K^+K^-$, $\\pi^+\\pi^-$, $K^\\pm \\pi^\\mp$, $K^\\pm \\pi^\\mp \\pi^\\pm \\pi^\\mp$, $K_S\\pi^+\\pi^-$, or $K_S K^+K^-$ final states. All measurements use a dataset corresponding to 1.0 fb$^{-1}$ of data. Combining results from $B^\\pm\\to DK^\\pm$ decays alone a best-fit value of $\\gamma = 72.0^\\circ$ is found, and confidence intervals are set \\begin{align*} \\gamma \\in [56.4,86.7]^\\circ \\quad &{\\rm at\\ 68\\%\\,CL}\\,,\\\\ \\gamma \\in [42.6,99.6]^\\circ \\quad &{\\rm at\\ 95\\%\\,CL}\\,. \\end{align*} The best-fit value of $\\gamma$ found from a combination of results from $B^\\pm\\to D\\pi^\\pm$ decays alone, is $\\gamma = 18.9^\\circ$, and the confidence intervals \\begin{align*} \\gamma \\in [7.4,99.2]^\\circ \\quad \\cup \\quad [167.9,176.4]^\\circ \\quad &{\\rm at\\ 68\\%\\,CL}\\, \\end{align*} are set, without constrai...

  10. Spatial distribution of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) in Seoul Metropolitan Subway stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Youn; Kim, Yoon Shin; Roh, Young Man; Lee, Cheol Min; Kim, Chi Nyon

    2008-06-15

    The aims of this study are to examine the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in areas within the Seoul Metropolitan Subway network and to provide fundamental data in order to protect respiratory health of subway workers and passengers from air pollutants. A total of 22 subway stations located on lines 1-4 were selected based on subway official's guidance. At these stations both subway worker areas (station offices, rest areas, ticket offices and driver compartments) and passengers areas (station precincts, subway carriages and platforms) were the sites used for measuring the levels of PM. The mean concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were relatively higher on platforms, inside subway carriages and in driver compartments than in the other areas monitored. The levels of PM10 and PM2.5 for station precincts and platforms exceeded the 24-h acceptable threshold limits of 150 microg/m3 for PM10 and 35 microg/m3 for PM2.5, which are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). However, levels measured in station and ticket offices fell below the respective threshold. The mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations on platforms located underground were significantly higher than those at ground level (p<0.05).

  11. Relationships of relative humidity with PM2.5 and PM10 in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Cairong; Liu, Hongyu; Li, Yufeng; Peng, Yan; Wang, Juan; Dai, Lingjun

    2017-10-23

    Severe particulate matter (PM, including PM 2.5 and PM 10 ) pollution frequently impacts many cities in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in China, which has aroused growing concern. In this study, we examined the associations between relative humidity (RH) and PM pollution using the equal step-size statistical method. Our results revealed that RH had an inverted U-shaped relationship with PM 2.5 concentrations (peaking at RH = 45-70%), and an inverted V-shaped relationship (peaking at RH = 40 ± 5%) with PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 . The trends of polluted-day number significantly changed at RH = 70%. The very-dry (RH humidity (RH = 60-70%) conditions positively affected PM 2.5 and exerted an accumulation effect, while the mid-humidity (RH = 70-80%), high-humidity (RH = 80-90%), and extreme-humidity (RH = 90-100%) conditions played a significant role in reducing particle concentrations. For PM 10 , the accumulation and reduction effects of RH were split at RH = 45%. Moreover, an upward slope in the PM 2.5 /PM 10 ratio indicated that the accumulation effects from increasing RH were more intense on PM 2.5 than on PM 10 , while the opposite was noticed for the reduction effects. Secondary transformations from SO 2 and NO 2 to sulfate and nitrate were mainly responsible for PM 2.5 pollution, and thus, controlling these precursors is effective in mitigating the PM pollution in the YRD, especially during winter. The conclusions in this study will be helpful for regional air-quality management.

  12. SiPM properties at cryogenic temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biroth, Maik; Achenbach, Patrick; Thomas, Andreas [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Downie, Evangeline [George Washington University, DC (United States); Collaboration: A2-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    At the electron accelerator Mainzer Mikrotron (MAMI) an active target build of polarizable scintillators will be operated at approximately 25 mK. To read out the scintillation light, the photodetectors have to withstand cryogenic temperatures of 4 K and high count rates. Therefore the properties of different types of silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) were studied at cryogenic temperatures. In liquid nitrogen at 77 K, problems with quenching in Hamamatsu SiPMs and with the protective epoxy layer covering Zecotek SiPMs were observed. Tests with one Zecotek SiPM were successful after removal of the epoxy layer in liquid helium at 4 K and no after-pulses could be observed. Fundamental parameters like break-down voltage, single-pixel gain, crosstalk probability and the dark-count rate were measured and compared to room temperature. The photon detection efficiency was estimated by SiPMs response to short LED pulses. All these parameters were extracted by curve-fitting of SiPM charge spectra with a new analytical function.

  13. A multivariate study for characterizing particulate matter (PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1)) in Seoul metropolitan subway stations, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon-Bark; Jeong, Wootae; Park, Duckshin; Kim, Ki-Tae; Cho, Kyung Hwa

    2015-10-30

    Given that around eight million commuters use the Seoul Metropolitan Subway (SMS) each day, the indoor air quality (IAQ) of its stations has attracted much public attention. We have monitored the concentration of particulate matters (PMx) (i.e., PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) in six major transfer stations per minute for three weeks during the summer, autumn, and winter in 2014 and 2015. The data were analyzed to investigate the relationship between PMx concentration and multivariate environmental factors using statistical methods. The average PM concentration observed was approximately two or three times higher than outdoor PM10 concentration, showing similar temporal patterns at concourses and platforms. This implies that outdoor PM10 is the most significant factor in controlling indoor PM concentration. In addition, the station depth and number of trains passing through stations were found to be additional influences on PMx. Principal component analysis (PCA) and self-organizing map (SOM) were employed, through which we found that the number of trains influences PM concentration in the vicinity of platforms only, and PMx hotspots were determined. This study identifies the external and internal factors affecting PMx characteristics in six SMS stations, which can assist in the development of effective IAQ management plans to improve public health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Partitioning of magnetic particles in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 aerosols in the urban atmosphere of Barcelona (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelta, María Aránzazu; McIntosh, Gregg; Pey, Jorge; Pérez, Noemi; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés

    2014-05-01

    A combined magnetic-chemical study of 15 daily, simultaneous PM10-PM2.5-PM1 urban background aerosol samples has been carried out. The magnetic properties are dominated by non-stoichiometric magnetite, with highest concentrations seen in PM10. Low temperature magnetic analyses showed that the superparamagnetic fraction is more abundant when coarse, multidomain particles are present, confirming that they may occur as an oxidized outer shell around coarser grains. A strong association of the magnetic parameters with a vehicular PM10 source has been identified. Strong correlations found with Cu and Sb suggests that this association is related to brake abrasion emissions rather than exhaust emissions. For PM1 the magnetic remanence parameters are more strongly associated with crustal sources. Two crustal sources are identified in PM1, one of which is of North African origin. The magnetic particles are related to this source and so may be used to distinguish North African dust from other sources in PM1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preliminary PM2.5 and PM10 fractions source apportionment complemented by statistical accuracy determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samek Lucyna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Samples of PM10 and PM2.5 fractions were collected between the years 2010 and 2013 at the urban area of Krakow, Poland. Numerous types of air pollution sources are present at the site; these include steel and cement industries, traffic, municipal emission sources and biomass burning. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the concentrations of the following elements: Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, As and Pb within the collected samples. Defining the elements as indicators, airborne particulate matter (APM source profiles were prepared by applying principal component analysis (PCA, factor analysis (FA and multiple linear regression (MLR. Four different factors identifying possible air pollution sources for both PM10 and PM2.5 fractions were attributed to municipal emissions, biomass burning, steel industry, traffic, cement and metal industry, Zn and Pb industry and secondary aerosols. The uncertainty associated with each loading was determined by a statistical simulation method that took into account the individual elemental concentrations and their corresponding uncertainties. It will be possible to identify two or more sources of air particulate matter pollution for a single factor in case it is extremely difficult to separate the sources.

  16. A study of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations in the atmosphere of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Due to rapid economic growth of the country in the last 25 years, particulate matter (PM) has become a topic of ... created by pollution, as well as by high levels of urbanization. In 2012, the ...... for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of.

  17. Assessment of microbial communities in PM1 and PM10 of Urumqi during winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou, Huange; Lu, Jianjiang; Li, Shanman; Tong, Yanbin; Xie, Chunbin; Zheng, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    Recently, inhalable particulate matter has been reported to carry microorganisms responsible for human allergy and respiratory disease. The unique geographical environment and adverse weather conditions of Urumqi cause double pollution of dust and smog, but research on the microbial content of the atmosphere has not been commenced. In this study, 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequencing were conducted to investigate the microbial composition of Urumqi's PM 1 and PM 10 pollutants in winter. Results showed that the bacterial community is mainly composed of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria accounted for the most proportion which was significant difference in some aforementioned studies. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota constitute the main part of the fungal microbial community. The difference of bacterial relative abundance in sample point is greater than in particle sizes. The sequences of several pathogenic bacteria and opportunistic pathogens were also detected, such as Acinetobacter, Delftia, Serratia, Chryseobacterium, which may impact on immunocompromised populations (elderly, children and postoperative convalescence patients), and some fungal genera may cause several plant diseases. Our findings may serve an important reference value in the global air microbial propagation and air microbial research in desert. - Highlights: • Using 16 s rDNA double variable region (V3 + V4) sequencing to elucidate the bacterial communities. • Several potential microbial allergens and pathogens present in PM 1 and PM 10 were found. • Providing a great supplement to environmental science and human health assessment.

  18. In vitro investigations of platinum, palladium, and rhodium mobility in urban airborne particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) using simulated lung fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zereini, Fathi; Wiseman, Clare L S; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2012-09-18

    Environmental concentrations of platinum group elements (PGE) have been increasing since the introduction of automotive catalytic converters to control harmful emissions. Assessments of the human health risks of exposures to these elements, especially through the inhalation of PGE-associated airborne particulate matter (PM), have been hampered by a lack of data on their bioaccessibility. The purpose of this study is to apply in vitro methods using simulated human lung fluids [artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF) and Gamble's solution] to assess the mobility of the PGE, platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), and rhodium (Rh) in airborne PM of human health concern. Airborne PM samples (PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1)) were collected in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. For comparison, the same extraction experiments were conducted using the standard reference material, Used Auto Catalyst (monolith) (NIST 2557). Pt and Pd concentrations were measured using isotope dilution ICP-Q-MS, while Rh was measured directly with ICP-Q-MS (in collision mode with He), following established matrix separation and enrichment procedures, for both solid (filtered residues) and extracted sample phases. The mobilized fractions measured for PGE in PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1) were highly variable, which can be attributed to the heterogenic nature of airborne PM and its composition. Overall, the mobility of PGE in airborne PM samples was notable, with a mean of 51% Rh, 22% Pt, and 29% Pd present in PM(1) being mobilized by ALF after 24 h. For PM(1) exposed to Gamble's solution, a mean of 44% Rh, 18% Pt, and 17% Pd was measured in solution after 24 h. The mobility of PGE associated with airborne PM was also determined to be much higher compared to that measured for the auto catalyst standard reference material. The results suggest that PGE emitted from automotive catalytic converters are likely to undergo chemical transformations during and/or after being emitted in the environment. This study highlights the need

  19. Building a patchwork - The yeast plasma membrane as model to study lateral domain formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuberth, Christian; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland

    2015-04-01

    The plasma membrane (PM) has to fulfill a wide range of biological functions including selective uptake of substances, signal transduction and modulation of cell polarity and cell shape. To allow efficient regulation of these processes many resident proteins and lipids of the PM are laterally segregated into different functional domains. A particularly striking example of lateral segregation has been described for the budding yeast PM, where integral membrane proteins as well as lipids exhibit very slow translational mobility and form a patchwork of many overlapping micron-sized domains. Here we discuss the molecular and physical mechanisms contributing to the formation of a multi-domain membrane and review our current understanding of yeast PM organization. Many of the fundamental principles underlying membrane self-assembly and organization identified in yeast are expected to equally hold true in other organisms, even for the more transient and elusive organization of the PM in mammalian cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Nanoscale membrane organisation and signalling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Capturing PM2.5 Emissions from 3D Printing via Nanofiber-based Air Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Chengchen; Gu, Fu; Zhao, Peng; Sharmin, Nusrat; Gu, Haibing; Fu, Jianzhong

    2017-09-04

    This study investigated the feasibility of using polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber-based air filters to capture PM2.5 particles emitted from fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing. Generation and aggregation of emitted particles were investigated under different testing environments. The results show that: (1) the PCL nanofiber membranes are capable of capturing particle emissions from 3D printing, (2) relative humidity plays a signification role in aggregation of the captured particles, (3) generation and aggregation of particles from 3D printing can be divided into four stages: the PM2.5 concentration and particles size increase slowly (first stage), small particles are continuously generated and their concentration increases rapidly (second stage), small particles aggregate into more large particles and the growth of concentration slows down (third stage), the PM2.5 concentration and particle aggregation sizes increase rapidly (fourth stage), and (4) the ultrafine particles denoted as "building unit" act as the fundamentals of the aggregated particles. This work has tremendous implications in providing measures for controlling the particle emissions from 3D printing, which would facilitate the extensive application of 3D printing. In addition, this study provides a potential application scenario for nanofiber-based air filters other than laboratory theoretical investigation.

  1. Robotic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between digital and analogue is often constructed as one of opposition. The perception that the world is permeated with underlying patterns of data, describing events and matter alike, suggests that information can be understood apart from the substance to which it is associated......, and that its encoded logic can be constructed and reconfigured as an isolated entity. This disembodiment of information from materiality implies that an event like a thunderstorm, or a material like a body, can be described equally by data, in other words it can be read or written. The following prototypes......, Vivisection and Strange Metabolisms, were developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen as a means of engaging intangible digital data with tactile physical material. As robotic membranes, they are a dual examination...

  2. Recrystallization of the ODS superalloy PM-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandim, H.R.Z.; Hayama, A.O.F.; Raabe, D.

    2006-01-01

    The primary recrystallization of a -fiber textured coarse-grained oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-based superalloy (PM-1000) has been investigated by high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction. The annealing behavior of this alloy is quite complex. Even at high annealing temperatures (e.g. 1200 deg. C), recrystallization is only partial. The microstructure of this superalloy in the annealed state consists of a blurred subgrain structure, coarse grains with sizes of about 10-20 μm at the pre-existing grain boundaries and a significant fraction of small crystals in the interior of the recovered grains. These small grains are elongated and display anisotropic growth. In the present paper we present a detailed explanation for this peculiar microstructure. Particular focus is placed on the origin of the new grains in the recovered structure in a [1 0 0]-oriented grain

  3. Characterization of protein phosphatase 2A acting on phosphorylated plasma membrane aquaporin of tulip petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shibata, Hitoshi

    2004-05-01

    A protein phosphatase holo-type enzyme (38, 65, and 75 kDa) preparation and a free catalytic subunit (38 kDa) purified from tulip petals were characterized as protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) by immunological and biochemical approaches. The plasma membrane containing the putative plasma membrane aquaporin (PM-AQP) was prepared from tulip petals, phosphorylated in vitro, and used as the substrate for both of the purified PP2A preparations. Although both preparations dephosphorylated the phosphorylated PM-AQP at 20 degrees C, only the holo-type enzyme preparation acted at 5 degrees C on the phosphorylated PM-AQP with higher substrate specificity, suggesting that regulatory subunits are required for low temperature-dependent dephosphorylation of PM-AQP in tulip petals.

  4. PM1 steganographic algorithm using ternary Hamming Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Kaczyński

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available PM1 algorithm is a modification of well-known LSB steganographic algorithm. It has increased resistance to selected steganalytic attacks and increased embedding efficiency. Due to its uniqueness, PM1 algorithm allows us to use of larger alphabet of symbols, making it possible to further increase steganographic capacity. In this paper, we present the modified PM1 algorithm which utilizies so-called syndrome coding and ternary Hamming code. The modified algorithm has increased embedding efficiency, which means fewer changes introduced to carrier and increased capacity.[b]Keywords[/b]: steganography, linear codes, PM1, LSB, ternary Hamming code

  5. Non-exhaust PM emissions from electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Victor R. J. H.; Achten, Peter A. J.

    2016-06-01

    Particulate matter (PM) exposure has been linked to adverse health effects by numerous studies. Therefore, governments have been heavily incentivising the market to switch to electric passenger cars in order to reduce air pollution. However, this literature review suggests that electric vehicles may not reduce levels of PM as much as expected, because of their relatively high weight. By analysing the existing literature on non-exhaust emissions of different vehicle categories, this review found that there is a positive relationship between weight and non-exhaust PM emission factors. In addition, electric vehicles (EVs) were found to be 24% heavier than equivalent internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). As a result, total PM10 emissions from EVs were found to be equal to those of modern ICEVs. PM2.5 emissions were only 1-3% lower for EVs compared to modern ICEVs. Therefore, it could be concluded that the increased popularity of electric vehicles will likely not have a great effect on PM levels. Non-exhaust emissions already account for over 90% of PM10 and 85% of PM2.5 emissions from traffic. These proportions will continue to increase as exhaust standards improve and average vehicle weight increases. Future policy should consequently focus on setting standards for non-exhaust emissions and encouraging weight reduction of all vehicles to significantly reduce PM emissions from traffic.

  6. Ecotoxicity of water-soluble PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 aerosols at Gosan Climate Observatory (GCO) in Jeju, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. A.; Lee, M.; Yoon, H. O.; Bae, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    The water-soluble components of aerosols are rapidly permeated to various biosurfaces through the deposition process due to their high solubility and have profound effects on ecosystem functioning as well as human health. In this context, the ecotoxicity of atmospheric aerosol was assessed, particularly for water-soluble components. For measurements of ecotoxicity of water soluble components, ambient aerosols of PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 were collected on filters at Gosan Climate Observatory (GCO), Jeju, Korea in May, August, October 2010, March and July 2011. The ecotoxicity was estimated using Vibrio fischeri based on bioluminescence inhibition bioassay. In this study, EC10 (10% effective concentration) value was used as an ecotoxicity indicator. The EC10 value was generally in good relation with major water-soluble constituents such as SO42-, NH4+, and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). The characteristics of ecotoxicity was different in PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 aerosols. The EC10 of PM10 was correlated well with SO42- (r=-0.53) and Mg2+(r=-0.52). The ecotoxicity was relatively high in smaller particles with either high NO3-/SO42- ratio or WSOC concentration. The high ecotoxicity was found in outflows mostly from nearby lands especially under stagnant condition.

  7. Water soluble organic carbon in aerosols (PM1, PM2.5, PM10) and various precipitation forms (rain, snow, mixed) over the southern Baltic Sea station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, Agnieszka; Lewandowska, Anita U

    2016-12-15

    In the urbanized coastal zone of the Southern Baltic, complex measurements of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) were conducted between 2012 and 2015, involving atmospheric precipitation in its various forms (rain, snow, mixed) and PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 aerosols. WSOC constituted about 60% of the organic carbon mass in aerosols of various sizes. The average concentration of WSOC was equal to 2.6μg∙m -3 in PM1, 3.6μg∙m -3 in PM2.5 and 4.4μg∙m -3 in PM10. The lowest concentration of WSOC was noted in summer as a result of effective removal of this compound with rainfall. The highest WSOC concentrations in PM2.5 and PM10 aerosols were measured in spring, which should be associated with developing vegetation on land and in the sea. On the other hand, the highest WSOC concentrations in PM1 occurred in winter at low air temperatures and greatest atmospheric stability, when there were increased carbon emissions from fuel combustion in the communal-utility sector and from transportation. WSOC concentrations in precipitation were determined by its form. Mixed precipitation turned out to be the richest in soluble organic carbon (5.1mg·dm -3 ), while snow contained the least WSOC (1.7mg·dm -3 ). Snow and rain cleaned carbon compounds from the atmosphere more effectively when precipitation lasted longer than 24h, while in the case of mixed precipitation WSOC was removed most effectively within the first 24h. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of plasma membrane surface charges in dictating the feasibility of membrane-nanoparticle interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shayandev; Jing, Haoyuan; Sachar, Harnoor Singh; Das, Siddhartha

    2017-12-01

    Receptor-ligand (R-L) binding mediated interactions between the plasma membrane (PM) and a nanoparticle (NP) require the ligand-functionalized NPs to come to a distance of separation (DOS) of at least dRL (length of the R-L complex) from the receptor-bearing membranes. In this letter, we establish that the membrane surface charges and the surrounding ionic environment dictate whether or not the attainment of such a critical DOS is possible. The negatively charged membrane invariably induces a negative electrostatic potential at the NP surface, repelling the NP from the membrane. This is countered by the attractive influences of the thermal fluctuations and van der Waals (vdw) interactions that drive the NP close to the membrane. For a NP approaching the membrane from a distance, the ratio of the repulsive (electrostatic) and attractive (thermal and vdW) effects balances at a critical NP-membrane DOS of dg,c. For a given set of parameters, there can be two possible values of dg,c, namely, dg,c,1 and dg,c,2 with dg,c,1 ≫ dg,c,2. We establish that any R-L mediated NP-membrane interaction is possible only if dRL > dg,c,1. Therefore, our study proposes a design criterion for engineering ligands for a NP that will ensure the appropriate length of the R-L complex in order to ensure the successful membrane-NP interaction in the presence of a given electrostatic environment. Finally, we discuss the manner in which our theory can help designing ligand-grafted NPs for targeted drug delivery, design biomimetics NPs, and also explain various experimental results.

  9. Membrane trafficking pathways and their roles in plant-microbe interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Noriko; Ueda, Takashi

    2014-04-01

    Membrane trafficking functions in the delivery of proteins that are newly synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to their final destinations, such as the plasma membrane (PM) and the vacuole, and in the internalization of extracellular components or PM-associated proteins for recycling or degradative regulation. These trafficking pathways play pivotal roles in the rapid responses to environmental stimuli such as challenges by microorganisms. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of plant membrane trafficking and its roles in plant-microbe interactions. Although there is little information regarding the mechanism of pathogenic modulation of plant membrane trafficking thus far, recent research has identified many membrane trafficking factors as possible targets of microbial modulation.

  10. Localization of ras antigenicity in rat hepatocyte plasma membrane and rough endoplasmic reticulum fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, J.M.; Lanoix, J.; Paiement, J.

    1991-01-01

    We have examined the antigenicity of plasma membrane (PM) and rough microsomal (RM) fractions from rat liver using anti-ras monoclonal antibodies 142-24EO5 and Y13-259 and immunochemistry as well as electron microscope immunocytochemistry. Proteins immunoprecipitated with monoclonal antibody 142-24E05 were separated using single-dimensional gradient-gel electrophoresis. The separated proteins were then blotted onto nitrocellulose sheets and incubated with [alpha-32P]GTP. Radioautograms of blots indicated the presence of specific 21.5- and 22-kDa labeled proteins in the PM fraction. A 23.5-kDa [alpha- 32 P] GTP-binding protein was detected in immunoprecipitates of both PM and RM fractions. Monoclonal antibody Y13-259 reacted only with the 21.5-kDa [alpha- 32 P] GTP-binding protein in the plasma membrane fraction. When anti-ras monoclonal antibody 142-24E05 and the immunogold technique were applied to membrane fractions using a preembedding immunocytochemical method, specific labeling was observed in association with both vesicular structures and membrane sheets in the PM fraction but only with electron-dense vesicular structures in the RM fraction. Thus ras antigenicity is associated with hepatocyte plasma membranes and ras-like antigenicity is probably associated with vesicular (secretory/endocytic) elements in both plasma membrane and rough microsomal preparations

  11. 40 CFR 93.116 - Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). 93.116 Section 93.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....116 Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). (a) This paragraph... hot-spot analysis in PM10 and PM2.5 nonattainment and maintenance areas for FHWA/FTA projects that are...

  12. Influence of PM1 and PM2.5 on lung function parameters in healthy schoolchildren-a panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwozdziak, A; Sówka, I; Willak-Janc, E; Zwozdziak, J; Kwiecińska, K; Balińska-Miśkiewicz, W

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate lung function responses to short-term indoor PM 1 and PM 2.5 concentrations, we conducted a panel study of healthy schoolchildren aged 13-14 years. The following lung function parameters FVC, FEV 1 , PEF, and mid expiratory flows MEF 25 , MEF 50 , and MEF 75 were measured in 141 schoolchildren of the secondary school in Wroclaw, Poland in years 2009-2010. On days when spirometry tests were conducted, simultaneously, PM 1 and PM 2.5 samples were collected inside the school premises. Information about differentiating factors for children including smoking parents, sex, living close to busy streets, dust, mold, and pollen allergies were collected by means of questionnaires. To account for repeated measurements, the method of generalized estimating equations (GEE) was used. The GEE models for the entire group of children revealed the adverse effects (p < 0.05) of PM 1 and PM 2.5 . Small differences in effects estimates per interquartile range (IQR) of PM 1 and PM 2.5 on MEF 25 (5.1 and 4.8 %), MEF 50 (3.7 and 3.9 %), MEF 75 (3.5 and 3.6 %) and FEV 1 (1.3 and 1.0 %) imply that PM 1 was likely the component of PM 2.5 that might have a principal health effect on these lung function parameters. However, the reduction of FVC and PEF per IQR for PM 2.5 (2.1 and 5.2 %, respectively) was higher than for PM 1 (1.0 and 4.4 %, respectively). Adjustment for potential confounders did not change the unadjusted analysis.

  13. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Charles E. Kolb

    2008-03-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants designed to understand the atmospheric chemistry and aerosol particle microphysics impacting air quality in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its urban plume. The overall effort, titled MCMA- 2006, focused on: 1) the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles and 2) the measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine particular matter (PM) production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA). MCAM-2006 pursued it goals through three main activities: 1) performance and publication of detailed analyses of extensive MCMA trace gas and fine PM measurements made by the collaborating groups and others during earlier MCMA field campaigns in 2002 and 2003; 2) deployment and utilization of extensive real-time trace gas and fine PM instrumentation at urban and downwind MCMA sites in support of the MAX-Mex/MILAGRO field measurements in March, 2006; and, 3) analyses of the 2006 MCMA data sets leading to further publications that are based on new data as well as insights from analysis and publication of the 2002/2003 field data. Thirteen archival publications were coauthored with other MCMA-2003 participants. Documented findings included a significantly improved speciated emissions inventory from on-road vehicles, a greatly enhanced understanding of the sources and atmospheric loadings of volatile organic compounds, a unique analysis of the high fraction of ambient formaldehyde from primary emission sources, a much more extensive knowledge of the composition, size distributions and atmospheric mass loadings of both primary and secondary fine PM, including the fact that the rate of MCMA SOA production greatly exceeded that predicted by current atmospheric models, and evaluations of significant errors that can arise from standard air quality monitors for ozone and nitrogen

  14. Dynamic trafficking and delivery of connexons to the plasma membrane and accretion to gap junctions in living cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauf, Undine; Giepmans, Ben N G; Lopez, Patricia; Braconnot, Sebastien; Chen, Shu-Chih; Falk, Matthias M

    2002-01-01

    Certain membrane channels including acetylcholine receptors, gap junction (GJ) channels, and aquaporins arrange into large clusters in the plasma membrane (PM). However, how these channels are recruited to the clusters is unknown. To address this question, we have investigated delivery of GJ channel

  15. Induction of IL-6 and inhibition of IL-8 secretion in the human airway cell line Calu-3 by urban particulate matter collected with a modified method of PM sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro-Moreno, Ernesto; Torres, Victor; Miranda, Javier; Martinez, Leticia; Garcia-Cuellar, Claudia; Nawrot, Tim S.; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Hoet, Peter; Ramirez-Lopez, Pavel; Rosas, Irma; Nemery, Benoit; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro Roman

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) induces inflammatory cytokines. In the present study, we evaluated the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by an airway cell line exposed to PM with a mean aerodynamic size equal to or less than 10 or 2.5 μm (PM 10 and PM 2.5 , respectively) collected in Mexico City, using a modified high-volume sampling method avoiding the use of solvents or introducing membrane components into the samples. PM was collected on cellulose-nitrate (CN) membranes modified for collection on high-volume samplers. Composition of the particles was evaluated by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and scanning electron microscopy. The particles (10-160 μg/cm 2 ) were tested on Calu-3 cells. Control cultures were exposed to LPS (10 ng/mL to 100 μg/mL) or silica (10-160 μg/cm 2 ). IL-6 and IL-8 secretions were evaluated by ELISA. An average of 10 mg of PM was recovered form each cellulose-nitrate filter. No evidence of contamination from the filter was found. Cells exposed to PM 10 presented an increase in the secretion of IL-6 (up to 400%), while IL-8 decreased (from 40% to levels below the detection limit). A similar but weaker effect was observed with PM 2.5 . In conclusion, our modified sampling method provides a large amount of urban PM free of membrane contamination. The urban particles induce a decrease in IL-8 secretion that contrasts with the LPS and silica effects. These results suggest that the regulation of IL-8 expression is different for urban particles (complex mixture containing combustion-related particles, soil and biologic components) than for biogenic compounds or pure mineral particles.

  16. Induction of IL-6 and inhibition of IL-8 secretion in the human airway cell line Calu-3 by urban particulate matter collected with a modified method of PM sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro-Moreno, Ernesto, E-mail: ealfaro.incan@gmail.com [Lung Toxicology Unit, Pneumology Section, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Subdireccion de Investigacion Basica, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Avenida San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Torres, Victor [Departamento Farmacologia, Facultad de Medicina, U.N.A.M. (Mexico); Miranda, Javier [Departamento de Fisica Experimental, Instituto de Fisca, U.N.A.M. (Mexico); Martinez, Leticia [Deparatmento de Aerobiologia, Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera - Facultad de Medicina, U.N.A.M. (Mexico); Garcia-Cuellar, Claudia [Subdireccion de Investigacion Basica, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Avenida San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Nawrot, Tim S.; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Hoet, Peter [Lung Toxicology Unit, Pneumology Section, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Ramirez-Lopez, Pavel [Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas, I.P.N. (Mexico); Rosas, Irma [Deparatmento de Aerobiologia, Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera - Facultad de Medicina, U.N.A.M. (Mexico); Nemery, Benoit [Lung Toxicology Unit, Pneumology Section, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro Roman [Subdireccion de Investigacion Basica, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Avenida San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) induces inflammatory cytokines. In the present study, we evaluated the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by an airway cell line exposed to PM with a mean aerodynamic size equal to or less than 10 or 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}, respectively) collected in Mexico City, using a modified high-volume sampling method avoiding the use of solvents or introducing membrane components into the samples. PM was collected on cellulose-nitrate (CN) membranes modified for collection on high-volume samplers. Composition of the particles was evaluated by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and scanning electron microscopy. The particles (10-160 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}) were tested on Calu-3 cells. Control cultures were exposed to LPS (10 ng/mL to 100 {mu}g/mL) or silica (10-160 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}). IL-6 and IL-8 secretions were evaluated by ELISA. An average of 10 mg of PM was recovered form each cellulose-nitrate filter. No evidence of contamination from the filter was found. Cells exposed to PM{sub 10} presented an increase in the secretion of IL-6 (up to 400%), while IL-8 decreased (from 40% to levels below the detection limit). A similar but weaker effect was observed with PM{sub 2.5}. In conclusion, our modified sampling method provides a large amount of urban PM free of membrane contamination. The urban particles induce a decrease in IL-8 secretion that contrasts with the LPS and silica effects. These results suggest that the regulation of IL-8 expression is different for urban particles (complex mixture containing combustion-related particles, soil and biologic components) than for biogenic compounds or pure mineral particles.

  17. The PM-Assisted Reluctance Synchronous Starter/Generator (PM-RSM): Generator Experimental Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitic, Cristian Ilie; Tutelea, Lucian; Boldea, Ion

    2004-01-01

    and the parameters of the machine have to be known precisely. The present paper introduces a series of the tests for parameters and efficiency determination of a PM-assisted RSM in the generator mode. The testing methods consist of standstill tests (dc decay), generator no load testing with capacitor and on load ac...... and diode-rectifier dc tests. Satisfactory results are obtained but some unresolved questions are also raised....

  18. Source contributions to PM2.5 and PM10 at an urban background and a street location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuken, M. P.; Moerman, M.; Voogt, M.; Blom, M.; Weijers, E. P.; Röckmann, T.; Dusek, U.

    2013-06-01

    The contribution of regional, urban and traffic sources to PM2.5 and PM10 in an urban area was investigated in this study. The chemical composition of PM2.5 and PM10 was measured over a year at a street location and up- and down-wind of the city of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The 14C content in EC and OC concentrations was also determined, to distinguish the contribution from "modern" carbon (e.g., biogenic emissions, biomass burning and wildfires) and fossil fuel combustion. It was concluded that the urban background of PM2.5 and PM10 is dominated by the regional background, and that primary and secondary PM emission by urban sources contribute less than 15%. The 14C analysis revealed that 70% of OC originates from modern carbon and 30% from fossil fuel combustion. The corresponding percentages for EC are, respectively 17% and 83%. It is concluded that in particular the urban population living in street canyons with intense road traffic has potential health risks. This is due to exposure to elevated concentrations of a factor two for EC from exhaust emissions in PM2.5 and a factor 2-3 for heavy metals from brake and tyre wear, and re-suspended road dust in PM10. It follows that local air quality management may focus on local measures to street canyons with intense road traffic.

  19. A third-generation dispersion and third-generation hydrogen bonding corrected PM6 method: PM6-D3H+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy C. Kromann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present new dispersion and hydrogen bond corrections to the PM6 method, PM6-D3H+, and its implementation in the GAMESS program. The method combines the DFT-D3 dispersion correction by Grimme et al. with a modified version of the H+ hydrogen bond correction by Korth. Overall, the interaction energy of PM6-D3H+ is very similar to PM6-DH2 and PM6-DH+, with RMSD and MAD values within 0.02 kcal/mol of one another. The main difference is that the geometry optimizations of 88 complexes result in 82, 6, 0, and 0 geometries with 0, 1, 2, and 3 or more imaginary frequencies using PM6-D3H+ implemented in GAMESS, while the corresponding numbers for PM6-DH+ implemented in MOPAC are 54, 17, 15, and 2. The PM6-D3H+ method as implemented in GAMESS offers an attractive alternative to PM6-DH+ in MOPAC in cases where the LBFGS optimizer must be used and a vibrational analysis is needed, e.g., when computing vibrational free energies. While the GAMESS implementation is up to 10 times slower for geometry optimizations of proteins in bulk solvent, compared to MOPAC, it is sufficiently fast to make geometry optimizations of small proteins practically feasible.

  20. Elemental composition of PM 10 and PM 2.5 in urban environment in South Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, C. F.; Teixeira, E. C.; Meira, L.; Wiegand, F.; Yoneama, M. L.; Dias, J. F.

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze the elemental composition and the concentrations of PM 10 and PM 2.5 in the Guaíba Hydrographic Basin with HV PM 10 and dichotomous samplers. Three sampling sites were selected: 8° Distrito, CEASA and Charqueadas. The sampling was conducted from October 2001 to December 2002. The mass concentrations of the samplers were evaluated, while the elemental concentrations of Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn were determined using the Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. Factor Analysis and Canonical Correlation Analysis were applied to the chemical and meteorological variables in order to identify the sources of particulate matter. Industrial activities such as steel plants, coal-fired power plants, hospital waste burning, vehicular emissions and soil were identified as the sources of the particulate matter. Concentration levels higher than the daily and the annual average air quality standards (150 and 50 μg m -3, respectively) set by the Brazilian legislation were not observed.

  1. Biogenesis of the demarcation membrane system (DMS) in megakaryocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckly, Anita; Heijnen, Harry; Pertuy, Fabien; Geerts, Willie; Proamer, Fabienne; Rinckel, Jean-Yves; Léon, Catherine; Lanza, François; Gachet, Christian

    2014-02-06

    The demarcation membrane system (DMS) in megakaryocytes forms the plasma membrane (PM) of future platelets. Using confocal microscopy, electron tomography, and large volume focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), we determined the sequential steps of DMS formation. We identified a pre-DMS that initiated at the cell periphery and was precisely located between the nuclear lobes. At all developmental stages, the DMS remained continuous with the cell surface. The number of these connections correlated well with the nuclear lobulation, suggesting a relationship with cleavage furrow formation and abortive cytokinesis. On DMS expansion, Golgi complexes assembled around the pre-DMS, and fusion profiles between trans-golgi network-derived vesicles and the DMS were observed. Brefeldin-A reduced DMS expansion, indicating that the exocytic pathway is essential for DMS biogenesis. Close contacts between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the DMS were detected, suggesting physical interaction between the 2 membrane systems. FIB/SEM revealed that the DMS forms an intertwined tubular membrane network resembling the platelet open canalicular system. We thus propose the following steps in DMS biogenesis: (1) focal membrane assembly at the cell periphery; (2) PM invagination and formation of a perinuclear pre-DMS; (3) expansion through membrane delivery from Golgi complexes; and (4) ER-mediated lipid transfer.

  2. Preparation of wheat root plasma membrane vesicles and effect of water stress on 45Ca2+ transport activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jinyin; Gao Junfeng; Cao Cuiling

    1998-01-01

    The wheat roots plasma membrane (PM) vesicles were obtained by sucrose gradient centrifugation. The experiment results shows that the wheat roots of Zhengyin No.1 PM H + -ATPase latent activity was 24%, and PM inside-out vesicle (IOV) accounts for 76%. With -1.0 MPa stress of 24h, PM Ca 2+ -ATPase activity of both orientation wheat roots were increased. Under normal water condition and PEG stress, 62% and 53% of the enzyme activity was inhibited respectively by EGTA, radioactive calcium-45 transport amount was 22.09 nmol/mg pro and 4.17 nmol/mg pro. respectively with PM-IOV.PEG stress results in a decrease of 45 Ca 2+ transport amount of wheat roots PM-IOV by 81%

  3. ER-to-plasma membrane tethering proteins regulate cell signaling and ER morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manford, Andrew G; Stefan, Christopher J; Yuan, Helen L; Macgurn, Jason A; Emr, Scott D

    2012-12-11

    Endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane (ER-PM) junctions are conserved structures defined as regions of the ER that tightly associate with the plasma membrane. However, little is known about the mechanisms that tether these organelles together and why such connections are maintained. Using a quantitative proteomic approach, we identified three families of ER-PM tethering proteins in yeast: Ist2 (related to mammalian TMEM16 ion channels), the tricalbins (Tcb1/2/3, orthologs of the extended synaptotagmins), and Scs2 and Scs22 (vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated proteins). Loss of all six tethering proteins results in the separation of the ER from the PM and the accumulation of cytoplasmic ER. Importantly, we find that phosphoinositide signaling is misregulated at the PM, and the unfolded protein response is constitutively activated in the ER in cells lacking ER-PM tether proteins. These results reveal critical roles for ER-PM contacts in cell signaling, organelle morphology, and ER function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Preliminary analysis of levels of arsenic and other metalic elements in PM10 sampled near Copper Smelter Bor (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kovačević

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the levels of twenty one elements (Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, S, Se, Sr and Zn in PM10 are presented, as well as SO2 concentration, measured at the sampling site in an urban area of the town of Bor (40,000 inhabitants in eastern Serbia. The sampling site was located in a densely populated city center about 0.65 km away from one of the largest copper mines and copper smelters in Europe. For the first time PM10 was collected using the European standard sampler, during a preliminary campaign in duration of 7 days in early spring 2009. PM10 were sampled on PTFE membrane filters and element concentrations were quantified by GF AAS and ICP AES. Concentration levels and correlations within trace elements, PM10 and SO2 indicated that industrial activities underpinned with meteorological conditions of low wind speed (calm are the main factors that influence air pollution in a densely populated area. It was evident that both PM10 mass concentration and SO2 concentration once exceeded the daily limit values during a measuring period of seven days. Strong relationship was found between PM10 and Mn, Mg, Ca and B daily average concentrations. On the other hand, SO2 correlated strongly with As, Pb, Cd, Cu and S daily average concentrations. These results confirm the relationship between emissions of SO2 from the Copper Smelter Bor and calm meteorological conditions (wind speed less than 0.5 m/sec with the concentration levels of carcinogenic substances of arsenic, lead and cadmium in ambient air.

  5. Redox enzymes in the plant plasma membrane and their possible roles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berczi, A.; Møller, I.M.

    2000-01-01

    Purified plasma membrane (PM) vesicles from higher plants contain redox proteins with low-molecular-mass prosthetic groups such as flavins (both FMN and FAD), hemes, metals (Cu, Fe and Mn), thiol groups and possibly naphthoquinone (vitamin K-1), all of which are likely to participate in redox...... protein which has been partially purified from plant PM so far is a high-potential and ascorbate-reducible b-type cytochrome. In co-operation with vitamin K-1 and an NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase, it may participate in trans-PM electron transport....

  6. 40 CFR 1065.290 - PM gravimetric balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PM gravimetric balance. 1065.290... balance. (a) Application. Use a balance to weigh net PM on a sample medium for laboratory testing. (b) Component requirements. We recommend that you use a balance that meets the specifications in Table 1 of...

  7. Modelling a linear PM motor including magnetic saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polinder, H.; Slootweg, J.G.; Compter, J.C.; Hoeijmakers, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of linear permanent-magnet (PM) actuators increases in a wide variety of applications because of the high force density, robustness and accuracy. The paper describes the modelling of a linear PM motor applied in, for example, wafer steppers, including magnetic saturation. This is important

  8. PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) INHIBITS NEUROTROPHIN RELEASE FROM A549 CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several investigations have linked PM exposure to the exacerbation of allergic lung diseases. Many PM effects are mediated by cells within the lung including the airway epithelium, eosinophils, and lymphocytes. These cells also produce neurotophins such as NGF and/or express neur...

  9. Scenario Study on PM emission Reduction in Cement Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qian; Chen, Xiaojun; Xia, Xin; Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Huili; Jin, Ling; Yan, Zhen

    2018-01-01

    Cement industry is one of the high pollution industries in China. Evaluation of the primary particulate matter (PM) emission status and the reduction potential is not only important for our understanding of the effectiveness of current pollution control measures but also vital for future policy design. In this study, PM emitted from cement producing process in 2014 was calculated using an emission factor method. Three PM emission control scenarios were set up considering source control, process management and end-of-pipe treatment, and the PM emission reduction by 2020 under the three scenarios was predicted, respectively. In 2014, the primary PM emission from cement industry was 1.95 million tons. By 2020, the productions of cement and clinker were expected to increase by 12% and 7%, respectively, and the PM emission would increase by about 10%. By implementation of GB4915-2013 and comprehensive control of fugitive PM emission, the PM emission would probably be reduced by 34%. Another 7% decrease would be expected from source control. The second scenario can be considered as an assessment of the effectiveness of the revised emission standard, and this research can be used as a technical support to the environmental management authorities to make relevant policies.

  10. Determination of trace elements in urban airborne particulates (PM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the air quality in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK was performed by determining the trace element content in airborne particulates (PM10). Samples were collected over a 12 month period (March 2011 to April 2012) using two high volume air sampler provided with a PM10 size selective inlet. The concentrations of ...

  11. 40 CFR 52.378 - Control strategy: PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: PM10 52.378 Section 52.378 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.378 Control strategy: PM10 (a) Approval...

  12. Air Pollution Quality Index (AQI and Density of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 in the Air of Qom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safdari M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Air pollution has broad social, economical, political and technical aspects. one of the major issues in this regard is taking measures to prevent its increase. Since suspended particles are among the standard pollutants, the present study was carried out with the aim of measuring the amounts of these particles.Methods: In the present study, the suspended particles ( PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 were measured at two sites in Qom city. For each of them, 60 samples were selected with the Enviro Check during five consecutive months during summer (2 months and fall.Results: During sampling, PM10 in the period between October 22'th to November 22nd 2007 had the maximum amount with the mean of 117µg/m3 and in the period between September 22'th to October 22nd 2007 it had the minimum amount with the mean of 83µg/m3. PM2.5 in the period between November 22nd to December 22nd 2007 with the mean of 33µg/m3 had the maximum amount and in the period between July 22nd to October 22nd 2007 it had the minimum amount with the mean of 8µg/m3. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, the densities of suspended particles PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 were below the standard levels on most occasions. The amounts of AQI for them were normal and acceptable.

  13. PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 1.0—Emissions from industrial plants—Results from measurement programmes in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, C.; Noll, G.; Kalkoff, W.-D.; Baumbach, G.; Dreiseidler, A.

    Emission measurement programmes were carried out at industrial plants in several regions of Germany to determine the fine dust in the waste gases; the PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 fractions were sampled using a cascade impactor technique. The installations tested included plants used for: combustion (brown coal, heavy fuel oil, wood), cement production, glass production, asphalt mixing, and processing plants for natural stones and sand, ceramics, metallurgy, chemical production, spray painting, wood processing/chip drying, poultry farming and waste treatment. In addition waste gas samples were taken from small-scale combustion units, like domestic stoves, firing lignite briquettes or wood. In total 303 individual measurement results were obtained during 106 different measurement campaigns. In the study it was found that in more than 70% of the individual emission measurement results from industrial plants and domestic stoves the PM 10 portion amounted to more than 90% and the PM 2.5 portion between 50% and 90% of the total PM (particulate matter) emission. For thermal industrial processes the PM 1.0 portion constituted between 20% and 60% of the total PM emission. Typical particle size distributions for different processes were presented as cumulative frequency distributions and as frequency distributions. The particle size distributions determined for the different plant types show interesting similarities and differences depending on whether the processes are thermal, mechanical, chemical or mixed. Consequently, for the groups of plant investigated, a major finding of this study has been that the particle size distribution is a characteristic of the industrial process. Attempts to correlate particle size distributions of different plants to different gas cleaning technologies did not lead to usable results.

  14. Recent advances on polymeric membranes for membrane reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Buonomenna, M. G.; Choi, Seung Hak

    2012-01-01

    . The successful use of membranes in membrane reactors is primary the result of two developments concerning: (i) membrane materials and (ii) membrane structures. The selection of a suited material and preparation technique depends on the application the membrane

  15. MUTAGENIC AND CYTOTOXIC FACTORS IN PM10 AND PM2.5 FRACTIONS IN ATMOSPHERE IN SOSNOWIEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozłowska

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Air dust pollution enters human body via respiratory system. Its cytotoxic effect is surveyed using cell lines of mononuclear or pulmonary epithelial cell origins. Mutagenic properties are assessed using short-term assay on Salmonella typhimurium bacterial strains. Mutagenic and cytotoxic properties of air dust pollution – fractions PM10 and PM2.5, which were collected in autumn and in winter, were assessed using Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium strains and MTT cytoxicity assay on mononuclear cell line RAW 264.7, respectively. Samples of dust were collected on glass fiber filters by (Harvard impactor with air flow ca. 9 l/min, splitting samples to the fraction PM10 and PM2.5. Extraction of pollution was carried out using dichlorometane. Extracted samples were dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO before analyses. The highest value of mutagenicity ratio (MR was observed in YG1041 strain with metabolic activation by S9 extract in the PM10 sample of dust collected in winter. The lowest one was observed in TA98 strain without activation in the PM2.5 sample of dust collected in autumn. Winter dust samples, both the fractions PM10 and PM2,5, were toxic for TA98 strain in both test conditions (5S9. MTT cytotoxicity assay using mononuclear cell line RAW 264.7 showed that fractions PM10 and PM2.5 collected in winter were of highest toxic properties. The viability of cells, which were treated with samples of 0,312 m3 air, were 1,7% and 1,6%, respectively, while for autumn samples for PM2,5 the viability was 63%.

  16. Plasma membrane order and fluidity are diversely triggered by elicitors of plant defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Roman; Der, Christophe; Grosjean, Kevin; Anca, Iulia; Noirot, Elodie; Leborgne-Castel, Nathalie; Lochman, Jan; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia

    2016-09-01

    Although plants are exposed to a great number of pathogens, they usually defend themselves by triggering mechanisms able to limit disease development. Alongside signalling events common to most such incompatible interactions, modifications of plasma membrane (PM) physical properties could be new players in the cell transduction cascade. Different pairs of elicitors (cryptogein, oligogalacturonides, and flagellin) and plant cells (tobacco and Arabidopsis) were used to address the issue of possible modifications of plant PM biophysical properties induced by elicitors and their links to other events of the defence signalling cascade. We observed an increase of PM order whatever the elicitor/plant cell pair used, provided that a signalling cascade was induced. Such membrane modification is dependent on the NADPH oxidase-mediated reactive oxygen species production. Moreover, cryptogein, which is the sole elicitor able to trap sterols, is also the only one able to trigger an increase in PM fluidity. The use of cryptogein variants with altered sterol-binding properties confirms the strong correlation between sterol removal from the PM and PM fluidity enhancement. These results propose PM dynamics as a player in early signalling processes triggered by elicitors of plant defence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  17. Phosphorylation-dependent trafficking of plasma membrane proteins in animal and plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offringa, Remko; Huang, Fang

    2013-09-01

    In both unicellular and multicellular organisms, transmembrane (TM) proteins are sorted to and retained at specific membrane domains by endomembrane trafficking mechanisms that recognize sorting signals in the these proteins. The trafficking and distribution of plasma membrane (PM)-localized TM proteins (PM proteins), especially of those PM proteins that show an asymmetric distribution over the PM, has received much attention, as their proper PM localization is crucial for elementary signaling and transport processes, and defects in their localization often lead to severe disease symptoms or developmental defects. The subcellular localization of PM proteins is dynamically regulated by post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation and ubiquitination. These modificaitons mostly occur on sorting signals that are located in the larger cytosolic domains of the cargo proteins. Here we review the effects of phosphorylation of PM proteins on their trafficking, and present the key examples from the animal field that have been subject to studies for already several decades, such as that of aquaporin 2 and the epidermal growth factor receptor. Our knowledge on cargo trafficking in plants is largely based on studies of the family of PIN FORMED (PIN) carriers that mediate the efflux of the plant hormone auxin. We will review what is known on the subcellular distribution and trafficking of PIN proteins, with a focus on how this is modulated by phosphorylation, and identify and discuss analogies and differences in trafficking with the well-studied animal examples. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Surface charges promote nonspecific nanoparticle adhesion to stiffer membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shayandev; Jing, Haoyuan; Sachar, Harnoor Singh; Das, Siddhartha

    2018-04-01

    This letter establishes the manner in which the electric double layer induced by the surface charges of the plasma membrane (PM) enhances the nonspecific adhesion (NSA) of a metal nanoparticle (NP) to stiffer PMs (i.e., PMs with larger bending moduli). The NSA is characterized by the physical attachment of the NP to the membrane and occurs when the decrease in the surface energy (or any other mechanism) associated with the attachment process provides the energy for bending the membrane. Such an attachment does not involve receptor-ligand interactions that characterize the specific membrane-NP adhesion. Here, we demonstrate that a significant decrease in the electrostatic energy caused by the NP-attachment-induced destruction of the charged-membrane-electrolyte interface is responsible for providing the additional energy needed for bending the membrane during the NP adhesion to stiffer membranes. A smaller salt concentration and a larger membrane charge density augment this effect, which can help to design drug delivery to cells with stiffer membranes due to pathological conditions, fabricate NPs with biomimetic cholesterol-rich lipid bilayer encapsulation, etc.

  19. Metallurgical optimisation of PM superalloy N19

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locq Didier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microstructures of the new PM superalloy N19 have been investigated for various heat treatments in order to reach the best compromise between static strength and cyclic resistance. One subsolvus and several supersolvus heat treatments were applied to produce fine (7 μm and medium (25 μm grain sizes, respectively. The alloy is shown to be quite sensitive to the cooling conditions after solutioning as the γ′ hardening precipitates, both secondary and tertiary, have a direct influence on mechanical properties. Two cooling conditions after solutioning produce a high crack propagation resistance at 650 °C with dwell time cycles, which is one of the basic requirements. The low cycle fatigue behaviour appears to be correlated to the grain size, which determines the origin of crack initiation (from ceramic inclusions or not. The other mechanical properties (tensile, creep remain above target levels. Despite the medium size grain microstructure in the supersolvus condition, a high level of mechanical strength is observed in N19 at elevated temperature. It is understood that further improvement in properties can be achieved by developing coarse grain microstructures.

  20. Historical Trends in Pm2.5-Related Premature Mortality ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Air quality across the northern hemisphere over the past two decades has witnessed dramatic changes, with continuous improvement in developed countries in North America and Europe, but a contrasting sharp deterioration in developing regions of Asia. Objective: This study investigates the historical trend in the long-term exposure to PM2.5 and PM2.5-related premature mortality (PM2.5-mortality) and its response to changes in emission that occurred during 1990-2010 across the northern hemisphere. Implications for future trends in human exposure to air pollution in both developed and developing regions of the world are discussed. Methods: We employed the integrated exposure-response model developed by Health Effects Institute to estimate the PM2.5-mortality. The 1990-2010 annual-average PM2.5 concentrations were obtained from the simulations using WRF-CMAQ model. Emission mitigation efficiencies of SO2, NOx, NH3 and primary PM are estimated from the PM2.5-mortality responses to the emission variations. Results: Estimated PM2.5-mortalities in East Asia and South Asia increased by 21% and 85% respectively, from 866,000 and 578,000 in 1990, to 1,048,000 and 1,068,000 in 2010. PM2.5-mortalities in developed regions, i.e., Europe and high-income North America decreased substantially by 67% and 58% respectively. Conclusions: Over the past two decades, correlations between population and PM2.5 have become weaker in Europe and North America due to air pollu

  1. Magnetically controlled permeability membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jurgen

    2013-10-31

    A bioactive material delivery system can include a thermoresponsive polymer membrane and nanowires distributed within the thermoresponsive polymer membrane. Magnetic activation of a thermoresponsive polymer membrane can take place via altering the magnetization or dimensions of nanowires dispersed or ordered within the membrane matrix.

  2. Magnetically controlled permeability membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jü rgen; Khashab, Niveen M.; Zaher, Amir

    2013-01-01

    A bioactive material delivery system can include a thermoresponsive polymer membrane and nanowires distributed within the thermoresponsive polymer membrane. Magnetic activation of a thermoresponsive polymer membrane can take place via altering the magnetization or dimensions of nanowires dispersed or ordered within the membrane matrix.

  3. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions data on air pollutants from large open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas (USA). Vertical particulate concentr...

  4. Spatiotemporal estimation of historical PM2.5 concentrations using PM10, meteorological variables, and spatial effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianfa; Wu, Anna H.; Cheng, Iona; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Wu, Jun

    2017-10-01

    Monitoring of fine particulate matter with diameter health outcomes such as cancer. In this study, we aimed to design a flexible approach to reliably estimate historical PM2.5 concentrations by incorporating spatial effect and the measurements of existing co-pollutants such as particulate matter with diameter additive non-linear model. The spatiotemporal model was evaluated, using leaving-one-site-month-out cross validation. Our final daily model had an R2 of 0.81, with PM10, meteorological variables, and spatial autocorrelation, explaining 55%, 10%, and 10% of the variance in PM2.5 concentrations, respectively. The model had a cross-validation R2 of 0.83 for monthly PM2.5 concentrations (N = 8170) and 0.79 for daily PM2.5 concentrations (N = 51,421) with few extreme values in prediction. Further, the incorporation of spatial effects reduced bias in predictions. Our approach achieved a cross validation R2 of 0.61 for the daily model when PM10 was replaced by total suspended particulate. Our model can robustly estimate historical PM2.5 concentrations in California when PM2.5 measurements were not available.

  5. Variability of levels and composition of PM10 and PM2.5 in the Barcelona metro system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. de Miguel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available From an environmental perspective, the underground metro system is one of the cleanest forms of public transportation in urban agglomerations. Current studies report contradicting results regarding air quality in the metro systems: whereas some reveal poor air quality, others report PM levels which are lower or of the same order of magnitude than those measured in traffic sites above ground level. The present work assesses summer and winter indoor air quality and passenger exposure in the Barcelona metro, focusing on PM levels and their metal contents. In addition, the impact on indoor air quality of platform screen door systems (automated systems consisting of closed rail track and platforms is evaluated, to determine whether these systems reduce passenger exposure to PM when compared with conventional systems (open tracks and platforms. In the Barcelona metro PM levels inside the trains in summer are amongst the lowest reported for worldwide metro systems (11–32 μg m−3 PM2.5. This is most likely due to the air conditioning system working in all carriages of the Barcelona metro during the whole year. Levels were considerably higher on the platforms, reaching mean levels of 46 and 125 μg m3 in the new (L9 and old (L3 lines, respectively. PM10 data are also reported in the present study, but comparison with other metro systems is difficult due to the scarcity of data compared with PM2.5. Results showed distinct PM daily cycles, with a drastic increase from 06:00 to 07:00 a.m., a diurnal maximum from 07:00 to 10:00 p.m., and marked decrease between 10:00 p.m. and 05:00 a.m. The elements with the highest enrichment were those associated with wheel or brake abrasion products (Ba, Fe, Cu, Mn, Cr, Sb, As, Mo, Co, Sr, among others. Laminar hematite (Fe2O3 was the dominant particle type, being mainly originated by mechanical abrasion of the rail track and wheels. Regarding passenger exposure to PM, the contribution of commuting by metro was

  6. Study of the $K^{\\pm} \\rightarrow \\pi^{\\pm} \\gamma \\gamma$ decay by the NA62 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00100355; Romano, A.; Ceccucci, A.; Danielsson, H.; Falaleev, V.; Gatignon, L.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hallgren, B.; Maier, A.; Peters, A.; Piccini, M.; Riedler, P.; Frabetti, P.L.; Gersabeck, E.; Kekelidze, V.; Madigozhin, D.; Misheva, M.; Molokanova, N.; Movchan, S.; Shkarovskiy, S.; Zinchenko, A.; Rubin, P.; Baldini, W.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Fiorini, M.; Gianoli, A.; Norton, A.; Petrucci, F.; Savrie, M.; Wahl, H.; Bizzeti, A.; Bucci, F.; Iacopini, E.; Lenti, M.; Veltri, M.; Antonelli, A.; Moulson, M.; Raggi, M.; Spadaro, T.; Eppard, K.; Hita-Hochgesand, M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Renk, B.; Wanke, R.; Winhart, A.; Winston, R.; Bolotov, V.; Duk, V.; Gushchin, E.; Ambrosino, F.; Di Filippo, D.; Massarotti, P.; Napolitano, M.; Palladino, V.; Saracino, G.; Anzivino, G.; Imbergamo, E.; Piandani, R.; Sergi, A.; Cenci, P.; Pepe, M.; Costantini, F.; Doble, N.; Giudici, S.; Pierazzini, G.; Sozzi, M.; Venditti, S.; Balev, S.; Collazuol, G.; Di, L.; Gallorini, S.; Goudzovski, E.; Lamanna, G.; Mannelli, I.; Ruggiero, G.; Cerri, C.; Fantechi, R.; Kholodenko, S.; Kurshetsov, V.; Obraztsov, V.; Semenov, V.; Yushchenko, O.; D'Agostini, G.; Leonardi, E.; Serra, M.; Valente, P.; Fucci, A.; Salamon, A.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Peyaud, B.; Engelfried, J.; Coward, D.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Arcidiacono, R.; Bifani, S.; Biino, C.; Dellacasa, G.; Marchetto, F.; Numao, T.; Retiere, F.

    2014-05-01

    A study of the dynamics of the rare decay $K^\\pm\\to\\pi^\\pm\\gamma\\gamma$ has been performed on a sample of 232 decay candidates, with an estimated background of $17.4\\pm1.1$ events, collected by the NA62 experiment at CERN in 2007. The results are combined with those from a measurement conducted by the NA48/2 collaboration at CERN. The combined model-independent branching ratio in the kinematic range $z=(m_{\\gamma\\gamma}/m_K)^2>0.2$ is ${\\cal B}_{\\rm MI}(z>0.2) = (0.965 \\pm 0.063) \\times 10^{-6}$, and the combined branching ratio in the full kinematic range assuming a Chiral Perturbation Theory description is ${\\cal B}(K_{\\pi\\gamma\\gamma}) = (1.003 \\pm 0.056) \\times 10^{-6}$. A detailed comparison of the results with the previous measurements is performed.

  7. Trends in arsenic levels in PM10 and PM 2.5 aerosol fractions in an industrialized area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Aleix, J R; Delgado-Saborit, J M; Verdú-Martín, G; Amigó-Descarrega, J M; Esteve-Cano, V

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic element that affects human health and is widely distributed in the environment. In the area of study, the main Spanish and second largest European industrial ceramic cluster, the main source of arsenic aerosol is related to the impurities in some boracic minerals used in the ceramic process. Epidemiological studies on cancer occurrence in Spain points out the study region as one with the greater risk of cancer. Concentrations of particulate matter and arsenic content in PM10 and PM2.5 were measured and characterized by ICP-MS in the area of study during the years 2005-2010. Concentrations of PM10 and its arsenic content range from 27 to 46 μg/m(3) and from 0.7 to 6 ng/m(3) in the industrial area, respectively, and from 25 to 40 μg/m(3) and from 0.7 to 2.8 ng/m(3) in the urban area, respectively. Concentrations of PM2.5 and its arsenic content range from 12 to 14 μg/m(3) and from 0.5 to 1.4 ng/m(3) in the urban background area, respectively. Most of the arsenic content is present in the fine fraction, with ratios of PM2.5/PM10 in the range of 0.65-0.87. PM10, PM2.5, and its arsenic content show a sharp decrease in recent years associated with the economic downturn, which severely hit the production of ceramic materials in the area under study. The sharp production decrease due to the economic crisis combined with several technological improvements in recent years such as substitution of boron, which contains As impurities as raw material, have reduced the concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and As in air to an extent that currently meets the existing European regulations.

  8. Membrane proteins involved in transport, vesicle traffic and Ca(2+) signaling increase in beetroots grown in saline soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, Bárbara; Chagolla, Alicia; E González de la Vara, Luis

    2016-07-01

    By separating plasma membrane proteins according to their hydropathy from beetroots grown in saline soils, several proteins probably involved in salt tolerance were identified by mass spectrometry. Beetroots, as a salt-tolerant crop, have developed mechanisms to cope with stresses associated with saline soils. To observe which plasma membrane (PM) proteins were more abundant in beet roots grown in saline soils, beet root plants were irrigated with water or 0.2 M NaCl. PM-enriched membrane preparations were obtained from these plants, and their proteins were separated according to their hydropathy by serial phase partitioning with Triton X-114. Some proteins whose abundance increased visibly in membranes from salt-grown beetroots were identified by mass spectrometry. Among them, there was a V-type H(+)-ATPase (probably from contaminating vacuolar membranes), which increased with salt at all stages of beetroots' development. Proteins involved in solute transport (an H(+)-transporting PPase and annexins), vesicle traffic (clathrin and synaptotagmins), signal perception and transduction (protein kinases and phospholipases, mostly involved in calcium signaling) and metabolism, appeared to increase in salt-grown beetroot PM-enriched membranes. These results suggest that PM and vacuolar proteins involved in transport, metabolism and signal transduction increase in beet roots adapted to saline soils. In addition, these results show that serial phase partitioning with Triton X-114 is a useful method to separate membrane proteins for their identification by mass spectrometry.

  9. Urban aerosol in Oporto, Portugal: Chemical characterization of PM10 and PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio, Danilo; Ferreira, Catarina; Alves, Célia; Duarte, Mácio; Nunes, Teresa; Cerqueira, Mário; Pio, Casimiro; Frosini, Daniele; Colombi, Cristina; Gianelle, Vorne; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Querol, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    Several urban and industrial areas in Southern Europe are not capable of meeting the implemented EU standards for particulate matter. Efficient air quality management is required in order to ensure that the legal limits are not exceeded and that the consequences of poor air quality are controlled and minimized. Many aspects of the direct and indirect effects of suspended particulate matter on climate and public health are not well understood. The temporal variation of the chemical composition is still demanded, since it enables to adopt off-set strategies and to better estimate the magnitude of anthropogenic forcing on climate. This study aims to provide detailed information on concentrations and chemical composition of aerosol from Oporto city, an urban center in Southern Europe. This city is located near the coast line in the North of Portugal, being the country's second largest urban area. Moreover, Oporto city economic prospects depend heavily on a diversified industrial park, which contribute to air quality degradation. Another strong source of air pollution is traffic. The main objectives of this study are: 1) to characterize the chemical composition of PM10 and PM2.5 by setting up an orchestra of aerosol sampling devices in a strategic place in Oporto; 2) to identify the sources of particles exploring parameters such as organic and inorganic markers (e.g. sugars as tracers for biomass burning; metals and elemental carbon for industrial and vehicular emissions); 3) to evaluate long range transport of pollutants using back trajectory analysis. Here we present data obtained between January 2013 and January 2014 in a heavy traffic roadside sampling site located in the city center. Different PM10 and PM2.5 samplers were operated simultaneously in order to collect enough mass on different filter matrixes and to fulfill the requirements of analytical methodologies. More than 100 aerosol samples were collected and then analysed for their mass concentration and

  10. Vertical characteristics and source identification of PM10 in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhimei Xiao; Jianhui Wu; Suqin Han; Yufen Zhang; Hong Xu; Xiaoyong Zhang; Guoliang Shi; Yinchang Feng

    2012-01-01

    Ambient PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm) concentrations were measured on a 255 meter tower in Tianjin,China.The samples were collected at four vertical levels (10,40,120 and 220 m).Vertical characteristics for PM10 samples were studied.The results showed that the concentrations of PM10 and constituent species had a negative correlation with the sampling height.The highest concentrations of PM10 and species were obtained at the 10 m level,and the lowest concentrations were measured at the 220 m level.For the fractions of species to total mass,SO42- and NO3- had higher values (fraction) at greater height; while Ca had a higher fraction at lower height.Possible source categories for the PM10 ambient dataset were identified by the principal component analysis method.The possible source categories included crustal dust,vehicles,cement dust,and incineration as well as secondary sulfate and nitrate sources.Analysis of meteorological factors on PM10 concentrations indicated that wind speed and inversion may be the main factors contributing to different concentrations of PM10 at different heights.

  11. Will PM control undermine China's efforts to reduce soil acidification?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yu; Duan Lei; Lei Yu; Xing Jia; Nielsen, Chris P.; Hao Jiming

    2011-01-01

    China's strategies to control acidifying pollutants and particulate matter (PM) may be in conflict for soil acidification abatement. Acidifying pollutant emissions are estimated for 2005 and 2020 with anticipated control policies. PM emissions including base cations (BCs) are evaluated with two scenarios, a base case applying existing policy to 2020, and a control case including anticipated tightened measures. Depositions of sulfur (S), nitrogen (N) and BCs are simulated and their acidification risks are evaluated with critical load (CL). In 2005, the area exceeding CL covered 15.6% of mainland China, with total exceedance of 2.2 Mt S. These values decrease in the base scenario 2020, implying partial recovery from acidification. Under more realistic PM control, the respective estimates are 17.9% and 2.4 Mt S, indicating increased acidification risks due to abatement of acid-neutralizing BCs. China's anthropogenic PM abatement will have potentially stronger chemical implications for acidification than developed countries. - Highlights: → We model the emission and deposition of base cations and acid precursors in China. → Soil acidification in China is analyzed with exceedance of critical load. → China's PM control increases the acidification risk even with reduced SO 2 emission. → The impact of PM for acidification is stronger than that in developed countries. - The control of anthropogenic PM emission in China will increase the risk of soil acidification even with reduced SO 2 emission. Such implication is stronger than that in developed countries.

  12. Bias caused by water adsorption in hourly PM measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kiss

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Beta-attenuation monitors are used worldwide to monitor PM mass concentration with high temporal resolution. Hourly PM10 and PM2. 5 dry mass concentrations are publicly available with the tacit assumption that water is effectively removed prior to the measurement. However, as both the filter material of the monitor and the aerosol particles are capable of retaining a significant amount of water even at low relative humidities, the basic assumption may not be valid, resulting in significant bias in reported PM10 and PM2. 5 concentrations. Here we show that in PM10 measurement, particle-free air can produce apparent hourly average PM concentrations in the range of −13–+21 µg m−3 under conditions of fluctuating relative humidity. Positive and negative apparent readings are observed with increasing and decreasing relative humidities, respectively. Similar phenomena have been observed when the instrument filter was previously loaded with atmospheric aerosol. As a result the potential measurement biases in hourly readings arising from the interaction with water may be in the range of −53… + 69 %.

  13. Bias caused by water adsorption in hourly PM measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Gyula; Imre, Kornélia; Molnár, Ágnes; Gelencsér, András

    2017-07-01

    Beta-attenuation monitors are used worldwide to monitor PM mass concentration with high temporal resolution. Hourly PM10 and PM2. 5 dry mass concentrations are publicly available with the tacit assumption that water is effectively removed prior to the measurement. However, as both the filter material of the monitor and the aerosol particles are capable of retaining a significant amount of water even at low relative humidities, the basic assumption may not be valid, resulting in significant bias in reported PM10 and PM2. 5 concentrations. Here we show that in PM10 measurement, particle-free air can produce apparent hourly average PM concentrations in the range of -13-+21 µg m-3 under conditions of fluctuating relative humidity. Positive and negative apparent readings are observed with increasing and decreasing relative humidities, respectively. Similar phenomena have been observed when the instrument filter was previously loaded with atmospheric aerosol. As a result the potential measurement biases in hourly readings arising from the interaction with water may be in the range of -53… + 69 %.

  14. Measurements of $C\\!P$ violation in the three-body phase space of charmless $B^{\\pm}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gavrilov, Gennadii; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Giani', Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kaballo, Michael; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pazos Alvarez, Antonio; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrie, Mauro; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Seco, Marcos; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szilard, Daniela; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; Voss, Helge; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The charmless three-body decay modes $B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow K^{\\pm} \\pi^{+} \\pi^{-}$, $B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow K^{\\pm} K^{+} K^{-}$, $B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow \\pi^{\\pm} K^{+} K^{-}$ and $B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow \\pi^{\\pm} \\pi^{+} \\pi^{-}$ are reconstructed using data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb$^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb detector. The inclusive $C\\!P$ asymmetries of these modes are measured to be \\begin{eqnarray} A_{C\\!P}(B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow K^{\\pm} \\pi^{+} \\pi^{-})= +0.025 \\pm 0.004 \\pm 0.004 \\pm 0.007, \\end{eqnarray} \\begin{eqnarray} A_{C\\!P}(B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow K^{\\pm} K^{+} K^{-}) = -0.036 \\pm 0.004 \\pm 0.002 \\pm 0.007, \\end{eqnarray} \\begin{eqnarray} A_{C\\!P}(B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow \\pi^{\\pm} \\pi^{+} \\pi^{-})= +0.058 \\pm 0.008 \\pm 0.009 \\pm 0.007, \\end{eqnarray} \\begin{eqnarray} A_{C\\!P}(B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow \\pi^{\\pm} K^{+} K^{-})= -0.123 \\pm 0.017 \\pm 0.012 \\pm 0.007, \

  15. Transport of sterols to the plasma membrane of leek seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, P.; Hartmann, M.A.; Perret, A.M.; Sturbois-Balcerazak, B.; Cassagne, C.

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the intracellular transport of sterols in etiolated leek (Allium porrum L.) seedlings, in vivo pulse-chase experiments with [1-14C]acetate were performed. Then, endoplasmic reticulum-, Golgi-, and plasma membrane (PM)-enriched fractions were prepared and analyzed for the radioactivity incorporated into free sterols. In leek seedlings sterols are present as a mixture in which (24R)-24-ethylcholest-5-en-3beta-ol is by far the major compound (around 60%). The other sterols are represented by cholest-5-en-3beta-ol, 24-methyl-cholest-5-en-3beta-ol, (24S)-24-ethylcholesta-5,22E-dien-3beta-ol, and stigmasta-5,24(24(1))Z-dien-3Beta-ol. These compounds are shown to reside mainly in the PM. Our results clearly indicate that free sterols are actively transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the PM during the first 60 min of chase, with kinetics very similar to that of phosphatidylserine. Such a transport was found to be decreased at low temperature (12 degrees C) and following treatment with monensin and brefeldin A. These data are consistent with a membrane-mediated process for the intracellular transport of sterols to the PM, which likely involves the Golgi apparatus

  16. Seasonal Variations and Correlation Analysis of Water-Soluble Inorganic Ions in PM2.5 in Wuhan, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Daily PM2.5 and water-soluble inorganic ions (NH4+, SO42−, NO3−, Cl−, Ca2+, Na+, K+, Mg2+ were collected at the Hongshan Air Monitoring Station at the China University of Geosciences (Wuhan (30°31′N, 114°23′E, Wuhan, from 1 January to 30 December 2013. A total of 52 effective PM2.5 samples were collected using medium flow membrane filter samplers, and the anionic and cationic ions were determined by ion chromatography and ICP, respectively. The results showed that the average mass concentration of the eight ions was 40.96 µg/m3, which accounted for 62% of the entire mass concentration. In addition, the order of the ion concentrations was SO42− > NO3− > NH4+ > Cl− >K+ > Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+. The secondary inorganic species SO42−, NO3− and NH4+ were the major components of water-soluble ions in PM2.5, with a concentration of 92% of the total ions of PM2.5, and the total concentrations of the three ions in the four seasons in descending order as follows: winter, spring, autumn, and summer. NH4+ had a significant correlation with SO42− and NO3−, and the highest correlation coefficients were 0.943 and 0.923 (in winter, while the minimum coefficients were 0.683 and 0.610 (in summer. The main particles were (NH42SO4 and NH4NO3 in PM2.5. The charge of the water-soluble ions was nearly balanced in PM2.5, and the pertinence coefficients of water-soluble anions and cations were more than 0.9. The highest pertinence coefficients were in the spring (0.9887, and the minimum was in summer (0.9459. That is, there were more complicated ions in PM2.5 in the summer. The mean value of NO3−/SO42− was 0.64, indicating that stationary sources of PM2.5 had a greater contribution in Wuhan.

  17. Phenylarsine Oxide Inhibits the Fusicoccin-Induced Activation of Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivari, Claudio; Albumi, Cristina; Pugliarello, Maria Chiara; De Michelis, Maria Ida

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism by which fusicoccin (FC) induces the activation of the plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase, we used phenylarsine oxide (PAO), a known inhibitor of protein tyrosine-phosphatases. PAO was supplied in vivo in the absence or presence of FC to radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings and cultured Arabidopsis cells prior to PM extraction. Treatment with PAO alone caused a slight decrease of PM H+-ATPase activity and, in radish, a decrease of PM-associated 14-3-3 proteins. When supplied prior to FC, PAO drastically inhibited FC-induced activation of PM H+-ATPase, FC binding to the PM, and the FC-induced increase of the amount of 14-3-3 associated with the PM. On the contrary, PAO was completely ineffective on all of the above-mentioned parameters when supplied after FC. The H+-ATPase isolated from PAO-treated Arabidopsis cells maintained the ability to respond to FC if supplied with exogenous, nonphosphorylated 14-3-3 proteins. Altogether, these results are consistent with a model in which the dephosphorylated state of tyrosine residues of a protein(s), such as 14-3-3 protein, is required to permit FC-induced association between the 14-3-3 protein and the PM H+-ATPase. PMID:10677439

  18. Analysis of PM10, PM2.5, and PM2 5-10 concentrations in Santiago, Chile, from 1989 to 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrakis, Petros; Sax, Sonja N; Sarnat, Jeremy A; Coull, Brent; Demokritou, Phil; Oyola, Pedro; Garcia, Javier; Gramsch, Ernesto

    2005-03-01

    Daily particle samples were collected in Santiago, Chile, at four urban locations from January 1, 1989, through December 31, 2001. Both fine PM with da Ambient Air Quality Standards and the European Union concentration limits. Mean PM2.5 levels during the cold season (April through September) were more than twice as high as those observed in the warm season (October through March); whereas coarse particle levels were similar in both seasons. PM concentration trends were investigated using regression models, controlling for site, weekday, month, wind speed, temperature, and RH. Results showed that PM2.5 concentrations decreased substantially, 52% over the 12-year period (1989-2000), whereas PM2.5-10 concentrations increased by approximately 50% in the first 5 years and then decreased by a similar percentage over the following 7 years. These decreases were evident even after controlling for significant climatic effects. These results suggest that the pollution reduction programs developed and implemented by the Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente (CONAMA) have been effective in reducing particle levels in the Santiago Metropolitan region. However, particle levels remain high and it is thus imperative that efforts to improve air quality continue.

  19. Assessment of microbial communities in PM1 and PM10 of Urumqi during winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Huange; Lu, Jianjiang; Li, Shanman; Tong, Yanbin; Xie, Chunbin; Zheng, Xiaowu

    2016-07-01

    Recently, inhalable particulate matter has been reported to carry microorganisms responsible for human allergy and respiratory disease. The unique geographical environment and adverse weather conditions of Urumqi cause double pollution of dust and smog, but research on the microbial content of the atmosphere has not been commenced. In this study, 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequencing were conducted to investigate the microbial composition of Urumqi's PM1 and PM10 pollutants in winter. Results showed that the bacterial community is mainly composed of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria accounted for the most proportion which was significant difference in some aforementioned studies. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota constitute the main part of the fungal microbial community. The difference of bacterial relative abundance in sample point is greater than in particle sizes. The sequences of several pathogenic bacteria and opportunistic pathogens were also detected, such as Acinetobacter, Delftia, Serratia, Chryseobacterium, which may impact on immunocompromised populations (elderly, children and postoperative convalescence patients), and some fungal genera may cause several plant diseases. Our findings may serve an important reference value in the global air microbial propagation and air microbial research in desert. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inhalable microorganisms in Beijing's PM2.5 and PM10 pollutants during a severe smog event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chen; Jiang, Wenjun; Wang, Buying; Fang, Jianhuo; Lang, Jidong; Tian, Geng; Jiang, Jingkun; Zhu, Ting F

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution poses a formidable public health threat to the city of Beijing. Among the various hazards of PM pollutants, microorganisms in PM2.5 and PM10 are thought to be responsible for various allergies and for the spread of respiratory diseases. While the physical and chemical properties of PM pollutants have been extensively studied, much less is known about the inhalable microorganisms. Most existing data on airborne microbial communities using 16S or 18S rRNA gene sequencing to categorize bacteria or fungi into the family or genus levels do not provide information on their allergenic and pathogenic potentials. Here we employed metagenomic methods to analyze the microbial composition of Beijing's PM pollutants during a severe January smog event. We show that with sufficient sequencing depth, airborne microbes including bacteria, archaea, fungi, and dsDNA viruses can be identified at the species level. Our results suggested that the majority of the inhalable microorganisms were soil-associated and nonpathogenic to human. Nevertheless, the sequences of several respiratory microbial allergens and pathogens were identified and their relative abundance appeared to have increased with increased concentrations of PM pollution. Our findings may serve as an important reference for environmental scientists, health workers, and city planners.

  1. Local PM10 and PM2.5 emission inventories from agricultural tillage and harvest in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Tong, Daniel Q; Zhang, Shichun; Zhang, Xuelei; Zhao, Hongmei

    2017-07-01

    Mineral particles or particulate matters (PMs) emitted during agricultural activities are major recurring sources of atmospheric aerosol loading. However, precise PM inventory from agricultural tillage and harvest in agricultural regions is challenged by infrequent local emission factor (EF) measurements. To understand PM emissions from these practices in northeastern China, we measured EFs of PM 10 and PM 2.5 from three field operations (i.e., tilling, planting and harvesting) in major crop production (i.e., corn and soybean), using portable real-time PM analyzers and weather station data. County-level PM 10 and PM 2.5 emissions from agricultural tillage and harvest were estimated, based on local EFs, crop areas and crop calendars. The EFs averaged (107±27), (17±5) and 26mg/m 2 for field tilling, planting and harvesting under relatively dry conditions (i.e., soil moisture agricultural dust emissions to regional air quality in northeastern China. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Inhalable Microorganisms in Beijing’s PM2.5 and PM10 Pollutants during a Severe Smog Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution poses a formidable public health threat to the city of Beijing. Among the various hazards of PM pollutants, microorganisms in PM2.5 and PM10 are thought to be responsible for various allergies and for the spread of respiratory diseases. While the physical and chemical properties of PM pollutants have been extensively studied, much less is known about the inhalable microorganisms. Most existing data on airborne microbial communities using 16S or 18S rRNA gene sequencing to categorize bacteria or fungi into the family or genus levels do not provide information on their allergenic and pathogenic potentials. Here we employed metagenomic methods to analyze the microbial composition of Beijing’s PM pollutants during a severe January smog event. We show that with sufficient sequencing depth, airborne microbes including bacteria, archaea, fungi, and dsDNA viruses can be identified at the species level. Our results suggested that the majority of the inhalable microorganisms were soil-associated and nonpathogenic to human. Nevertheless, the sequences of several respiratory microbial allergens and pathogens were identified and their relative abundance appeared to have increased with increased concentrations of PM pollution. Our findings may serve as an important reference for environmental scientists, health workers, and city planners. PMID:24456276

  3. The direct influence of ship traffic on atmospheric PM2.5, PM10 and PAH in Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, D; Gambaro, A; Belosi, F; De Pieri, S; Cairns, W R L; Donateo, A; Zanotto, E; Citron, M

    2011-09-01

    The direct influence of ship traffic on atmospheric levels of coarse and fine particulate matter (PM(2.5), PM(10)) and fifteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been estimated in the urban area of Venice. Data analysis has been performed on results collected at three sites over the summer, when ship traffic is at a maximum. Results indicate that monitoring of the PM daily concentrations is not sufficiently detailed for the evaluation of this contribution, even though it could be useful for specific markers such as PAHs. Therefore a new methodology, based on high temporal resolution measurements coupled with wind direction information and the database of ship passages of the Harbour Authority of Venice has been developed. The sampling sites were monitored with optical detectors (DustTrack(®) and Mie pDR-1200) operating at a high temporal resolution (20s and 1s respectively) for PM(2.5) and PM(10). PAH in the particulate and gas phases were recovered from quartz fibre filters and polyurethane foam plugs using pressurised solvent extraction, the extracts were then analysed by gas chromatography- high-resolution mass spectrometry. Our results shows that the direct contribution of ships traffic to PAHs in the gas phase is 10% while the contribution to PM(2.5) and to PM(10) is from 1% up to 8%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Measurements of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 at Nordic background stations using low-cost equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferm, Martin; Areskoug, Hans; Makkonen, Ulla

    Mass concentrations of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 in air were measured at four EMEP stations in the Nordic countries during 2006. All stations used the same low-cost equipment for sampling PM1, but used different techniques for the other size fractions. The PM1 filters were analysed for inorganic ions...... for the first half of June. PM1 constituted on average more than half of the PM2.5 concentrations, but was on average less than half of the PM10 concentrations. There were two episodes of high PM1 concentrations during the year, one in May-June and another one in August-September. The highest PM1 concentrations...... on a daily basis. The PM2.5 concentration, which is the parameter that should be measured within EU, correlated fairly well with the concentration of accumulation mode particles (PM1). In June only a minor fraction of PM1 consisted of inorganic ions. Only ammonium and sulphate ions of the measured ions in PM...

  5. Towards structural and functional analysis of the plant plasma membrane proton pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Bo Højen

    The plasma membrane H+-ATPase is a proton pump essential for several physiological important processes in plants. Through the extrusion of protons from the cell, the PM H+-ATPase establishes and maintains a proton gradient used by proton coupled transporters and secondary active transport...... of nutrients and metabolites across the plasma membrane. Additional processes involving the PM H+-ATPase includes plant growth, development, and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Extensive efforts have been made in attempts to elucidate the detailed physiological role and biochemical characteristics...... of plasma membrane H+-ATPases. Studies on the plasma membrane H+-ATPases have involved both in vivo and in vitro approaches, with the latter employing either solubilisation by detergent micelles, or reconstitution into lipid vesicles. Despite resulting in a large body of information on structure, function...

  6. Human health risk due to variations in PM10-PM2.5 and associated PAHs levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Beatriz S.; Porta, Andrés; Colman Lerner, Jorge Esteban; Banda Noriega, Roxana; Massolo, Laura

    2017-07-01

    WHO (2012) reports that chronic exposure to air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM), causes the death of 7 million people, constituting the most important environmental risk for health in the world. IARC classifies contaminated outdoor air as carcinogenic, Group 1 category. However, in our countries there are few studies regarding air pollution levels and possible associated effects on public health. The current study determined PM and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels in outdoor air, identified their possible emission sources and analysed health risks in the city of Tandil (Argentina). PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected using a low volume sampler (MiniVol TAS) in three areas: city centre, industrial and residential. Concentrations were determined by gravimetric methods and the content of the US EPA 16 priority PAHs was found by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Description of the main emission sources and selection of monitoring sites resulted from spatial analysis and the IVE (International Vehicle Emissions) model was used in the characterisation of the traffic flow. Median values of 35.7 μgm-3 and 9.6 μgm-3 in PM10 and PM2.5 respectively and characteristic profiles were found for each area. Local values PAHs associated to PM10 and PM2.5, in general, were lower than 10ngm-3. The estimated Unit Risk for the three areas exceeds US EPA standards (9 × 10-5). The number of deaths attributable to short term exposure to outdoor PM10 was 4 cases in children under 5 years of age, and 21 cases in total population, for a relative risk of 1.037.

  7. Ergosterol is mainly located in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the yeast plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanko, Lukasz M; Sullivan, David P; Sere, Yves Y; Szomek, Maria; Lunding, Anita; Solanko, Katarzyna A; Pizovic, Azra; Stanchev, Lyubomir D; Pomorski, Thomas Günther; Menon, Anant K; Wüstner, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Transbilayer lipid asymmetry is a fundamental characteristic of the eukaryotic cell plasma membrane (PM). While PM phospholipid asymmetry is well documented, the transbilayer distribution of PM sterols such as mammalian cholesterol and yeast ergosterol is not reliably known. We now report that sterols are asymmetrically distributed across the yeast PM, with the majority (~80%) located in the cytoplasmic leaflet. By exploiting the sterol-auxotrophic hem1Δ yeast strain we obtained cells in which endogenous ergosterol was quantitatively replaced with dehydroergosterol (DHE), a closely related fluorescent sterol that functionally and accurately substitutes for ergosterol in vivo. Using fluorescence spectrophotometry and microscopy we found that membrane-impermeant collisional quenchers (spin-labeled phosphatidylcholine and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid). Efficient quenching was seen only after the cells were disrupted by glass-bead lysis or repeated freeze-thaw to allow quenchers access to the cell interior. The extent of quenching was unaffected by treatments that deplete cellular ATP levels, collapse the PM electrochemical gradient or affect the actin cytoskeleton. However, alterations in PM phospholipid asymmetry in cells lacking phospholipid flippases resulted in a more symmetric transbilayer distribution of sterol. Similarly, an increase in the quenchable pool of DHE was observed when PM sphingolipid levels were reduced by treating cells with myriocin. We deduce that sterols comprise up to ~45% of all inner leaflet lipids in the PM, a result that necessitates revision of current models of the architecture of the PM lipid bilayer. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Development of gamma spectrometer using silicon photomultiplier (SiPM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Kyu

    2011-02-01

    Gamma spectroscopy is used to determine the identity and quantity of gamma-emitters in nuclear physics, geochemistry and astrophysics. The scintillation detectors are being used as a gamma spectrometer generally, because of their higher gamma-ray detection efficiency and cheaper price than germanium semi-conductor detectors. A typical scintillation detector is composed of a scintillator, a window, and a photodetector. The photomultiplier (PM) tube has been the most widely used as a photodetector because of its advantages like high sensitivity, high signal-to-noise ratio, and wide dynamic range. Recently, the Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) is being studied as a substitute of PM tube. The SiPM has almost same performance compared to PM tube but it has additional advantages; low operating voltage, small volume, and cheap production cost. In this research, the gamma spectrometer using SiPM instead of PM tube is developed. The use of SiPM as a photodetector makes the gamma spectrometer smaller, cheaper, easier to use. For photon transport and collection from the large area scintillator to the small area SiPM, a light guide is applied in this gamma spectrometer system. Before fabrication of light guide, DETECT simulation is performed to study and prospect characteristics of light guide structure. And actual light guides are fabricated on the basis of this simulation result. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is chosen as material of light guide, 5 sample light guides are fabricated in different lengths and coatings. As a scintillator crystal, same NaI(Tl) crystal is chosen. For measurement and analysis of gamma spectrometer system, 3 gamma spectrometer systems are composed: PM tube-based system, PM tube-based system with the light guide, SiPM-based system with the light guide. Through comparison between the results of each gamma spectrometer, the performances of gamma spectrometer system are analyzed by each component. Measurement results of the second system is well

  9. Enhanced PM10 bounded PAHs from shipping emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpiachan, S.; Hattayanone, M.; Choochuay, C.; Mekmok, R.; Wuttijak, N.; Ketratanakul, A.

    2015-05-01

    Earlier studies have highlighted the importance of maritime transport as a main contributor of air pollutants in port area. The authors intended to investigate the effects of shipping emissions on the enhancement of PM10 bounded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mutagenic substances in an industrial area of Rayong province, Thailand. Daily PM10 speciation data across two air quality observatory sites in Thailand during 2010-2013 were collected. Diagnostic binary ratios of PAH congeners, analysis of variances (ANOVA), and principal component analysis (PCA) were employed to evaluate the enhanced genotoxicity of PM10 during the docking period. Significant increase of PAHs and mutagenic index (MI) of PM10 were observed during the docking period in both sampling sites. Although stationary sources like coal combustions from power plants and vehicular exhausts from motorway can play a great role in enhancing PAH concentrations, regulating shipping emissions from diesel engine in the port area like Rayong is predominantly crucial.

  10. Fine Particle Matter (PM2.5) Design Value

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Fine particulate matter or PM2.5 (total mass of particles below 2.5 micron is diameter) is known to cause adverse health effects in humans.See the following websites...

  11. Using a developed PM in order to optimize the production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    production productivity is preventive maintenance (PM). It helps to protect assets, increase the useful life of equipment ... Production planning models seek typically to balance the costs of .... clinker. In this work the effect of reactions contained.

  12. Surface Monitoring Data for PM2.5 and Ozone

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — AIRNOW is an EPA program in collaboration with the States to gather and distribute hourly near-realtime data from several hundred continuous PM2.5 and ozone monitors.

  13. 2012 PM-2.5 NAAQS Nonattainment Areas-2014 designations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for the 2012 PM-2.5 National...

  14. Weekly cycle of magnetic characteristics of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHI, M.; Wu, H.; Zhang, S.; Li, H.; Yang, T.

    2013-12-01

    In urban areas,fine particle matter with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 um and 10 um (PM2.5-10), and 2.5 um (PM2.5), as an important source of urban particulate matter (PM) pollutants, have significant negative effects on health, atmospheric visibility and climate. PM has increasingly become a significant index of indicating the atmospheric pollution of city. In recent years, Beijing, China has been listed as one of the most serious air pollution city in the world. In order to investigate the sources of air pollutants, a total of 283 pairs of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 samples were collected daily from July, 2010 to June, 2011 in Beijing. Mineral magnetic properties and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were measured to verify the magnetic materials. Magnetic measures for PM indicated that the major magnetic phase was coarse-grained magnetite-like material. The χlf, χarm, SIRM and χarm/SIRM series of the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 show seasonal dependences: high values in winter and low values in summer. In additional the parameters analyzed by Time-series methods show a strong cycle about 7 days above 95% confidence level. Weekly cycle of magnetic characteristics of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 show different pattern: the concentration of magnetic particles in PM2.5-10 show high values in mid-week, and particle sizes is steady, while the concentration of magnetic particles in PM2.5 show reverse a weekly cycle pattern, and particle sizes is smaller in the mid-week.Microscopy analyses reveal basically three morphologies of magnetic grains: aggregate, spherules and angular particles. The ultrafine carbonaceous particles which tend to form complex clusters and chain-like structures, most likely come from coal burning and motor vehicle exhaust. Spherical particles in PM2.5 are dominantly composed of Fe, O and C, grain-diameters of particles range from 0.3 to 2 um. Angular particles of Fe

  15. [Preliminary study of source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 in three cities of China during spring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shen; Pan, Xiao-chuan; Madaniyazi, Li-na; Xie, Juan; He, Ya-hui

    2013-09-01

    To study source apportionment of atmospheric PM10 (particle matter ≤ 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter) and PM2.5 (particle matter ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter) in Beijing,Urumqi and Qingdao, China. The atmospheric particle samples of PM10 and PM2.5 collected from Beijing between May 17th and June 18th, 2005, from Urumqi between April 20th and June 1st, 2006 and from Qingdao between April 4th and May 15th, 2005, were detected to trace the source apportionment by factor analysis and enrichment factor methods. In Beijing, the source apportionment results derived from factor analysis model for PM10 were construction dust and soil sand dust (contributing rate of variance at 45.35%), industry dust, coal-combusted smoke and vehicle emissions (contributing rate at 31.83%), and biomass burning dust (13.57%). The main pollution element was Pb, while the content (median (minimum value-maximum value)was 0.216 (0.040-0.795) µg/m(3)) . As for PM2.5, the sources were construction dust and soil sand dust (38.86%), industry dust, coal-combusted smoke and vehicle emissions (25.73%), biomass burning dust (13.10%) and burning oil dust (11.92%). The main pollution element was Zn (0.365(0.126-0.808) µg/m(3)).In Urumqi, source apportionment results for PM10 were soil sand dust and coal-combusted dust(49.75%), industry dust, vehicle emissions and secondary particles dust (30.65%). The main characteristic pollution element was Cd (0.463(0.033-1.351) ng/m(3)). As for PM2.5, the sources were soil sand dust and coal-combusted dust (43.26%), secondary particles dust (22.29%), industry dust and vehicle emissions (20.50%). The main characteristic pollution element was As (14.599 (1.696-36.741) µg/m(3)).In Qingdao, source apportionment results for PM10 were construction dust (30.91%), vehicle emissions and industry dust (29.65%) and secondary particles dust (28.99%). The main characteristic pollution element was Pb (64.071 (5.846-346.831) µg/m(3)). As for PM2.5, the sources were

  16. Simultaneous monitoring and compositions analysis of PM1 and PM2.5 in Shanghai: Implications for characterization of haze pollution and source apportionment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Ting; Zhao, Mengfei; Xiu, Guangli; Yu, Jianzhen

    2016-07-01

    A year-long simultaneous observation of PM1 and PM2.5 were conducted at ECUST campus in Shanghai, the compositions were analyzed and compared. Results showed that PM2.5 was dominated by PM1 on clear days while the contribution of PM1-2.5 to PM2.5 increased on haze days, indicating that PM2.5 should be given priority to characterize or predict haze pollution. On haze days, accumulation of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and primary organic carbon (POC) in PM1-2.5 was faster than that in PM1. Humic-like substances carbon (Hulis-C) in both PM2.5 and PM1 formed faster than water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) on haze days, hence Hulis-C/WSOC increased with the intensification of haze pollution. In terms of water soluble ions, NO3(-)/SO4(2-) in PM1 increased with the aggravation of haze pollution, implying that mobile sources dominated on haze days, so is nitrogen oxidation ratio (NOR). Liquid water content (LWC) in both PM1 and PM2.5 had positive correlations with relative humidity (RH) but negative correlations with visibility, implying that hygroscopic growth might be a factor for visibility impairment, especially LWC in PM1. By comparison with multi-linear equations of LWC in PM1 and PM2.5, NO3(-) exerted a higher influence on hygroscopicity of PM1 than PM2.5, while RH, WSOC, SO4(2-) and NH4(+) had higher effects on PM2.5, especially WSOC. Source apportionment of PM2.5 was also investigated to provide reference for policy making. Cluster analysis by HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model showed that PM2.5 originated from marine aerosols, middle-scale transportation and large-scale transportation. Furthermore, PM2.5 on haze days was dominated by middle-scale transportation. In line with source apportionment by positive matrix factorization (PMF) model, PM2.5 was attributed to secondary inorganics, aged sea salt, combustion emissions, hygroscopic growth and secondary organics. Secondary formation was the principle source of

  17. A study on experimental toxicology of 147Pm in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jingyong; Lao Qinhua

    1988-11-01

    The absorb law of 147 Pm by pulmonary compartment, intestines and skin of rat is reported. The metabolic pattern of 147 Pm in rat and its dose model are worked out on the basis of measured data. The injurious effects of the nuclide were observed by using LD 50/60 , micro-nucleus rates of lymphocytes in peripheral blood and activity of SGPT in serum as indices

  18. HTR-PM Safety requirement and Licensing experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fu; Zhang Zuoyi; Dong Yujie; Wu Zongxin; Sun Yuliang

    2014-01-01

    HTR-PM is a 200MWe modular pebble bed high temperature reactor demonstration plant which is being built in Shidao Bay, Weihai, Shandong, China. The main design parameters of HTR-PM were fixed in 2006, the basic design was completed in 2008. The review of Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) of HTR-PM was started in April 2008, completed in September 2009. In general, HTR- PM design complies with the current safety requirement for nuclear power plant in China, no special standards are developed for modular HTR. Anyway, Chinese Nuclear Safety Authority, together with the designers, developed some dedicated design criteria for key systems and components and published the guideline for the review of safety analysis report of HTR-PM, based on the experiences from licensing of HTR-10 and new development of nuclear safety. The probabilistic safety goal for HTR-PM was also defined by the safety authority. The review of HTR-PM PSAR lasted for one and a half years, with 3 dialogues meetings and 8 topics meetings, with more than 2000 worksheets and answer sheets. The heavily discussed topics during the PSAR review process included: the requirement for the sub-atmospheric ventilation system, the utilization of PSA in design process, the scope of beyond design basis accidents, the requirement for the qualification of TRISO coating particle fuel, and etc. Because of the characteristics of first of a kind for the demonstration plant, the safety authority emphasized the requirement for the experiment and validation, the PSAR was licensed with certain licensing conditions. The whole licensing process was under control, and was re-evaluated again after Fukushima accident to be shown that the design of HTR-PM complies with current safety requirement. This is a good example for how to license a new reactor. (author)

  19. Safety and efficacy assessment of standardized herbal formula PM012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the herbal formula PM012 on an Alzheimer's disease model, human presenilin 2 mutant transgenic mice (hPS2m), and also to evaluate the toxicity of PM012 in Sprague-Dawely rats after 4 or 26 weeks treatment with repeated oral administration. Methods Spatial learning and memory capacities of hPS2m transgenic mice were evaluated using the Morris Water Maze. Simultaneously, PM012 was repeatedly administered orally to male and female SD rats (15/sex/group) at doses of 0 (vehicle control), 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg/day for 4 or 26 weeks. To evaluate the recovery potential, 5 animals of each sex were assigned to vehicle control and 2,000 mg/kg/day groups during the 4-week recovery period. Results The results showed that PM012-treated hPS2m transgenic mice showed significantly reduced escape latency when compared with the hPS2m transgenic mice. The repeated oral administration of PM012 over 26 weeks in male and female rats induced an increase and increasing trend in thymus weight in the female treatment groups (main and recovery groups), but the change was judged to be toxicologically insignificant. In addition, the oral administration of the herbal medicine PM012 did not cause adverse effects as assessed by clinical signs, mortality, body weight, food and water consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, blood clotting time, organ weights and histopathology. The No Observed Adverse Effects Levels of PM012 was determined to be 2,000 mg/kg/day for both sexes, and the target organ was not identified. Conclusion These results suggest that PM012 has potential for use in the treatment of the Alzheimer's disease without serious adverse effects. PMID:22458507

  20. Air Pollution Quality Index (AQI and Density of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 in the Air of Qom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Azizifar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Air pollution has broad social, economical, political and technical aspects. one of the major issues in this regard is taking measures to prevent its increase. Since suspended particles are among the standard pollutants, the present study was carried out with the aim of measuring the amounts of these particles.

     

    Methods: In the present study, the suspended particles ( PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 were measured at two sites in Qom city. For each of them, 60 samples were selected with the Enviro Check during five consecutive months during summer (2 months and fall.

     

    Results: During sampling, PM10 in the period between October 22'th to November 22nd 2007 had the maximum amount with the mean of 117µg/m3 and in the period between September 22'th to October 22nd 2007 it had the minimum amount with the mean of 83µg/m3. PM2.5 in the period between November 22nd to December 22nd 2007 with the mean of 33µg/m3 had the maximum amount and in the period  between July 22nd to October 22nd 2007 it had the minimum amount with the mean of 8µg/m3.

     

    Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, the densities of suspended particles PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 were below the standard levels on most occasions. The amounts of AQI for them were normal and acceptable.

  1. Characterization of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in outdoor/indoor PM10/PM2.5/PM1.0 in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huiting; Gao, Lirong; Xia, Dan; Qiao, Lin; Wang, Runhua; Su, Guijin; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui

    2017-06-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were listed in the Stockholm Convention, because of their adverse health effects, persistence, bioaccumulation and ubiquitous presence in the environment. Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), chlorinated derivatives of n-alkanes, have been listed as candidate POPs under Stockholm Convention. Inhalation uptake was an important exposure pathway for non-occupational adult human and the pollution of particle matter has caused great concern. There are some studies focused on POPs such as polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in different size particles. However, there were no studies that discussed CP concentrations in particulate matter (PM) with different sizes. In this study, a total of 30 PM samples were collected both outdoors and indoors at a sampling site in Beijing. These samples were used to investigate the concentrations and distributions of SCCPs and medium chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) in PM fractions of different sizes, and to evaluate inhalation exposure risks. The results showed that the average SCCPs and MCCPs in the outdoor PM 10 were 23.9 and 3.6 ng m -3 , while the mean values in indoor were 61.1 and 6.9 ng m -3 , respectively. The levels of SCCPs and MCCPs in indoor and outdoor were relatively high. SCCP and MCCP concentrations in the indoor PM 10 /PM 2.5 /PM 1.0 samples were higher than the corresponding values in the outdoor, because of the using of some products containing CPs in the indoors, like paints and coatings, leather and rubber products. In both outdoor and indoor air, CPs are mainly associated with particles ≤2.5 μm in diameter. The main homolog groups for both SCCPs and MCCPs were C 10-11 Cl 7-8 . It is assumed that SCCPs in the outdoor and indoor PM samples may mainly derive from the production and use of CP-42 and CP-52. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anomalous elevated radiocarbon measurements of PM2.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, Bruce A.; Fallon, Stewart J.; Zermeño, Paula; Bench, Graham; Schichtel, Bret A.

    2013-01-01

    Two-component models are often used to determine the contributions made by fossil fuel and natural sources of carbon in airborne particulate matter (PM). The models reduce thousands of actual sources to two end members based on isotopic signature. Combustion of fossil fuels produces PM free of carbon-14 ( 14 C). Wood or charcoal smoke, restaurant fryer emissions, and natural emissions from plants produce PM with the contemporary concentration of 14 C approximately 1.2 × 10 −1214 C/C. Such data can be used to estimate the relative contributions of fossil fuels and biogenic aerosols to the total aerosol loading and radiocarbon analysis is becoming a popular source apportionment method. Emissions from incinerators combusting medical or biological wastes containing tracer 14 C can skew the 14 C/C ratio of PM, however, so critical analysis of sampling sites for possible sources of elevated PM needs to be completed prior to embarking on sampling campaigns. Results are presented for two ambient monitoring sites in different areas of the United States where 14 C contamination is apparent. Our experience suggests that such contamination is uncommon but is also not rare (∼10%) for PM sampling sites.

  3. Introduction of HTR-PM Operation and Fuel Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fucheng; Luo Yong; Gao Qiang

    2014-01-01

    There is a big difference between High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Pebble-modules Demonstration Project(HTR-PM) and PWR in operation mode. HTR-PM is a continually refuelled reactor, and the operation and fuel management of it, which affect each other, are inseparable. Therefore, the analysis of HTR-PM fuel management needs to be carried out “in real time”. HTR-PM operation and fuel management system is developed for on-power refuelling mode of HTR-PM. The system, which calculates the core neutron flux and power distribution, taking high-temperature reactor physics analysis software-VSOP as a basic tool, can track and predict the core state online, and it has the ability to restructure core power distribution online, making use of ex-core detectors to correct and check tracking calculation. Based on the ability to track and predict, it can compute the core parameters to provide support for the operation of the reactor. It can also predict the operation parameters of the reactor to provide reference information for the fuel management.The contents of this paper include the development purposes, architecture, the main function modules, running process, and the idea of how to use the system to carry out HTR-PM fuel management. (author)

  4. Implementation and evaluation of PM2.5 source contribution ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Source culpability assessments are useful for developing effective emissions control programs. The Integrated Source Apportionment Method (ISAM) has been implemented in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to track contributions from source groups and regions to ambient levels and deposited amounts of primary and secondary inorganic PM2.5. Confidence in this approach is established by comparing ISAM source contribution estimates to emissions zero-out simulations recognizing that these approaches are not always expected to provide the same answer. The comparisons are expected to be most similar for more linear processes such as those involving primary emissions of PM2.5 and most different for non-linear systems like ammonium nitrate formation. Primarily emitted PM2.5 (e.g. elemental carbon), sulfur dioxide, ammonia, and nitrogen oxide contribution estimates compare well to zero-out estimates for ambient concentration and deposition. PM2.5 sulfate ion relationships are strong, but nonlinearity is evident and shown to be related to aqueous phase oxidation reactions in the host model. ISAM and zero-out contribution estimates are less strongly related for PM2.5 ammonium nitrate, resulting from instances of non-linear chemistry and negative responses (increases in PM2.5 due to decreases in emissions). ISAM is demonstrated in the context of an annual simulation tracking well characterized emissions source sectors and boundary conditions shows source contri

  5. Phosphorylation of plasma membrane aquaporin regulates temperature-dependent opening of tulip petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shibata, Hitoshi

    2004-05-01

    The opening and closing of tulip petals was reproduced in the dark by changing the temperature from 5 degrees C to 20 degrees C for opening and 20 degrees C to 5 degrees C for closing. The opening process was accompanied by (3)H(2)O transport through the stem from the incubation medium to the petals. A Ca(2+)-channel blocker and a Ca(2+)-chelator inhibited petal opening and (3)H(2)O transport. Several proteins in the isolated plasma membrane fraction were phosphorylated in the presence of 25 micro M Ca(2+) at 20 degrees C. The 31-kDa protein that was phosphorylated, was suggested immunologically as the putative plasma membrane aquaporin (PM-AQP). This phosphorylated PM-AQP clearly reacted with the anti-phospho-Ser. In-gel assay revealed the presence of a 45-kDa Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase in the isolated plasma membrane. Phosphorylation of the putative PM-AQP was thought to activate the water channel composed of PM-AQP. Dephosphorylation of the phosphorylated PM-AQP was also observed during petal closing at 5 degrees C, suggesting the inactivation of the water channel.

  6. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  7. Premature rupture of membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000512.htm Premature rupture of membranes To use the sharing features on this page, ... water that surrounds your baby in the womb. Membranes or layers of tissue hold in this fluid. ...

  8. Oxygen transport membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  9. Membrane with integrated spacer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balster, J.H.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Wessling, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Many membrane processes are severely influenced by concentration polarisation. Turbulence promoting spacers placed in between the membranes can reduce the diffusional resistance of concentration polarisation by inducing additional mixing. Electrodialysis (ED) used for desalination suffers from

  10. On the origin and variability of suspended particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5 and PM10) concentrations in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikridas, Michael; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Kizas, Christos; Savvides, Chrysanthos; Sciare, Jean

    2017-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean (EM) lies at the crossroad of three different continents (Europe, Asia, and Africa). EM is a densely populated region including several cities with 3M inhabitants or more (e.g. Athens, Istanbul, Izmir, and Cairo). It has been identified as the most polluted area in Europe with respect to particulate matter (PM) mainly due to the combination of high photochemical activity, which causes pollutants to oxidize and partitioning in the particle phase, with the elevated pollutants emissions from neighboring regions. In addition, the proximity to Africa and the Middle East allows frequent transport of dust particles. At the center of the Eastern Mediterranean lies the island of Cyprus, which has received very little attention regarding its PM levels despite being the location in Europe most frequently impacted by air masses from the Middle East. Herewith, we present a historical PM archive that spans 2 decades. It involves ongoing monitoring on a daily basis of particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 μm (PM10), 2.5 μm (PM2.5), and 1 μm (PM1) conducted in at least one, of the 12 currently existing air quality stations in Cyprus since 1997, 2005, and 2009, respectively. The most extended PM datasets correspond a) to the Agia Marina Xyliatou (AMX) monitoring station established at a remote area at the foothills of mount Troodos and b) that of the inland capital, Nicosia. Based on this long-term dataset, the diurnal, temporal and annual variability is assessed. Prior to 2010, PM10 concentration at all sites remained relatively constant, but at different levels, violating the annual EU legislated PM10 limit of 40 μg m-3. Since 2010, coarse mode levels have decreased at all sites. The reported decrease was equal to 30% at AMX. As a result, since 2010 the observed levels comply with the EU legislation threshold. Satellite observations of Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard NASA

  11. Ionic and carbonaceous compositions of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 at Gosan ABC Superstation and their ratios as source signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kim

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10 were sampled at Gosan ABC Superstation on Jeju Island from August 2007 to September 2008. The carbonaceous aerosols were quantified with the thermal/optical reflectance (TOR method, which produced five organic carbon (OC fractions, OC1, OC2, OC3, OC4, and pyrolyzed organic carbon (OP, and three elemental carbon (EC fractions, EC1, EC2, and EC3. The mean mass concentrations of PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10 were 13.7 μg m−3, 17.2 μg m−3, and 28.4 μg m−3, respectively. The averaged mass fractions of OC and EC were 23.0% and 10.4% for PM1.0, 22.9% and 9.8% for PM2.5, and 16.4% and 6.0% for PM10. Among the OC and EC sub-components, OC2 and EC2+3 were enriched in the fine mode, but OC3 and OC4 in the coarse mode. The filter-based PM1.0 EC agreed well with black carbon (BC measured by an Aethalometer, and PM10 EC was higher than BC, implying less light absorption by larger particles. EC was well correlated with sulfate, resulting in good relationships of sulfate with both aerosol scattering coefficient measured by Nephelometer and BC concentration. Our measurements of EC confirmed the definition of EC1 as char-EC emitted from smoldering combustion and EC2+3 as soot-EC generated from higher-temperature combustion such as motor vehicle exhaust and coal combustion (Han et al., 2010. In particular, EC1 was strongly correlated with potassium, a traditional biomass burning indicator, except during the summer, when the ratio of EC1 to EC2+3 was the lowest. We also found the ratios of major chemical species to be a useful tool to constrain the main sources of aerosols, by which the five air masses were well distinguished: Siberia, Beijing, Shanghai, Yellow Sea, and East Sea types. Except Siberian air, the continental background of the study region, Beijing plumes showed the highest EC1 (and OP to sulfate ratio, which implies that this air mass had the highest net warming by aerosols of the four air masses. Shanghai-type air, which was

  12. Household air pollution and personal inhalation exposure to particles (TSP/PM2.5/PM1.0/PM0.25) in rural Shanxi, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ye; Du, Wei; Chen, Yuanchen; Shen, Guofeng; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Shen, Huizhong; Zhu, Dan; Yuan, Chenyi; Duan, Yonghong; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Tao, Shu

    2017-01-01

    Personal exposure to size-segregated particles among rural residents in Shanxi, China in summer, 2011 were investigated using portable carried samplers (N = 84). Household air pollution was simultaneously studied using stationary samplers in nine homes. Information on household fuel types, cooking activity, smoking behavior, kitchen ventilation conditions etc., were also collected and discussed. The study found that even in the summer period, the daily average concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 in the kitchen were as high as 376 ± 573 and 288 ± 397 μg/m 3 (N = 6), that were nearly 3 times of 114 ± 81 and 97 ± 77 μg/m 3 in the bedroom (N = 8), and significantly higher than those of 64 ± 28 and 47 ± 21 μg/m 3 in the outdoor air (N = 6). The personal daily exposure to PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 were 98 ± 52 and 77 ± 47 μg/m 3 , respectively, that were lower than the concentrations in the kitchen but higher than the outdoor levels. The mass fractions of PM 2.5 in TSP were 90%, 72%, 65% and 68% on average in the kitchen, bedroom, outdoor air and personal inhalation exposure, respectively, and moreover, a majority of particles in PM 2.5 had diameters less than 1.0 μm. Calculated time-weighted average exposure based on indoor and outdoor air concentrations and time spent indoor and outdoor were positively correlated but, was ∼33% lower than the directly measured exposure. The daily exposure among those burning traditional solid fuels could be lower by ∼41% if the kitchen was equipped with an outdoor chimney, but was still 8–14% higher than those household using cleaning energies, like electricity and gas. With a ventilator in the kitchen, the exposure among the population using clean energies could be further reduced by 10–24%. - Highlights: • High inhalation exposure of fine PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 among rural residents. • Smoking prevails on cooking in increasing exposure to finer particles. • PM exposure could be reduced by

  13. Establishing a link between vehicular PM sources and PM measurements in urban street canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Alfred D; Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Wiener, Russell W; Hahn, Intaek; Drake-Richman, Zora E; Ellenson, William D

    2009-12-01

    The Brooklyn Traffic Real-Time Ambient Pollutant Penetration and Environmental Dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study, conducted in Brooklyn, NY, USA, in 2005, was designed with multiple goals in mind, two of which were contaminant source characterization and street canyon transport and dispersion monitoring. In the portion of the study described here, synchronized wind velocity and azimuth as well as particulate matter (PM) concentrations at multiple locations along 33rd Street were used to determine the feasibility of using traffic emissions in a complex urban topography as a sole tracer for studying urban contaminant transport. We demonstrate in this paper that it is possible to link downwind concentrations of contaminants in an urban street canyon to the vehicular traffic cycle using Eigen-frequency analysis. In addition, multivariable circular histograms are used to establish directional frequency maxima for wind velocity and contaminant concentration.

  14. Source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 in a desert region in northern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorquera, Héctor; Barraza, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Estimating contributions of anthropogenic sources to ambient particulate matter (PM) in desert regions is a challenging issue because wind erosion contributions are ubiquitous, significant and difficult to quantify by using source-oriented, dispersion models. A receptor modeling analysis has been applied to ambient PM 10 and PM 2.5 measured in an industrial zone ∼ 20 km SE of Antofagasta (23.63°S, 70.39°W), a midsize coastal city in northern Chile; the monitoring site is within a desert region that extends from northern Chile to southern Perú. Integrated 24-hour ambient samples of PM 10 and PM 2.5 were taken with Harvard Impactors; samples were analyzed by X Ray Fluorescence, ionic chromatography (NO 3 − and SO 4 = ), atomic absorption (Na + , K + ) and thermal optical transmission for elemental and organic carbon determination. Receptor modeling was carried out using Positive Matrix Factorization (US EPA Version 3.0); sources were identified by looking at specific tracers, tracer ratios, local winds and wind trajectories computed from NOAA's HYSPLIT model. For the PM 2.5 fraction, six contributions were found — cement plant, 33.7 ± 1.3%; soil dust, 22.4 ± 1.6%; sulfates, 17.8 ± 1.7%; mineral stockpiles and brine plant, 12.4 ± 1.2%; Antofagasta, 8.5 ± 1.3% and copper smelter, 5.3 ± 0.8%. For the PM 10 fraction five sources were identified — cement plant, 38.2 ± 1.5%; soil dust, 31.2 ± 2.3%; mineral stockpiles and brine plant, 12.7 ± 1.7%; copper smelter, 11.5 ± 1.6% and marine aerosol, 6.5 ± 2.4%. Therefore local sources contribute to ambient PM concentrations more than distant sources (Antofagasta, marine aerosol) do. Soil dust is enriched with deposition of marine aerosol and calcium, sulfates and heavy metals from surrounding industrial activities. The mean contribution of suspended soil dust to PM 10 is 50 μg/m 3 and the peak daily value is 104 μg/m 3 . For the PM 2.5 fraction, suspended soil dust contributes with an average of 9.3

  15. Empirical parameterization of the $K^{\\pm} \\to \\pi^{\\pm}\\pi^{0}\\pi^{0}$ decay Dalitz plot

    CERN Document Server

    Batley, J R

    2010-01-01

    As first observed by the NA48/2 experiment at the CERN SPS, the $\\pi^{0}\\pi^{0}$ invariant mass ($M_{00}$) distribution from $K^{\\pm} \\rightarrow \\pi^{\\pm}\\pi^{0}\\pi^{0}$ decay shows a cusp-like anomaly at $M_{00}=2m_{+}$, where $m_{+}$ is the charged pion mass. An analysis to extract the $\\pi\\pi$ scattering lengths in the isospin $I=0$ and $I=2$ states, $a_{0}$ and $a_{2}$, respectively, has been recently reported. In the present work the Dalitz plot of this decay is fitted to a new empirical parameterization suitable for practical purposes, such as Monte Carlo simulations of $K^{\\pm} \\rightarrow \\pi^{\\pm}\\pi^{0}\\pi^{0}$ decays.

  16. Gel layer formation on membranes in Membrane Bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Brink, P.F.H.

    2014-01-01

    The widespread application of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for municipal wastewater treatment is hampered by membrane fouling. Fouling increases energy demand, reduces process performance and creates the need for more frequent (chemical) membrane cleaning or replacement. Membrane fouling in MBRs is

  17. Smart membranes for monitoring membrane based desalination processes

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Karam, Ayman M.

    2017-01-01

    Various examples are related to smart membranes for monitoring membrane based process such as, e.g., membrane distillation processes. In one example, a membrane, includes a porous surface and a plurality of sensors (e.g., temperature, flow and

  18. Monetary Valuation of PM10-Related Health Risks in Beijing China: The Necessity for PM10 Pollution Indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hao; Xu, Linyu; Cai, Yanpeng

    2015-08-21

    Severe health risks caused by PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm) pollution have induced inevitable economic losses and have rendered pressure on the sustainable development of society as a whole. In China, with the "Polluters Pay Principle", polluters should pay for the pollution they have caused, but how much they should pay remains an intractable problem for policy makers. This paper integrated an epidemiological exposure-response model with economics methods, including the Amended Human Capital (AHC) approach and the Cost of Illness (COI) method, to value the economic loss of PM10-related health risks in 16 districts and also 4 functional zones in Beijing from 2008 to 2012. The results show that from 2008 to 2012 the estimated annual deaths caused by PM10 in Beijing are around 56,000, 58,000, 63,000, 61,000 and 59,000, respectively, while the economic losses related to health damage increased from around 23 to 31 billion dollars that PM10 polluters should pay for pollution victims between 2008 and 2012. It is illustrated that not only PM10 concentration but also many other social economic factors influence PM10-related health economic losses, which makes health economic losses show a time lag discrepancy compared with the decline of PM10 concentration. In conclusion, health economic loss evaluation is imperative in the pollution indemnity system establishment and should be considered for the urban planning and policy making to control the burgeoning PM10 health economic loss.

  19. Multifaceted health impacts of Particulate Matter (PM and its management: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban air quality is becoming a serious public health concern at global scale. Particulate matter (PM pollution is intimately linked with human health. Present review describes the different human health implications associated with PM pollution. PM may derive its origin from natural and anthropogenic sources. Vehicle derived pollutants as well as industrial emissions simultaneously release deleterious fine-grained PM into the atmosphere. Fine PM especially PM2.5 and PM10 are particularly deleterious to human health. Air pollution PM is an important environmental health risk factor for several respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Further, PM is inextricably linked with genotoxicity and mutations. Literature review of the cellular and molecular basis of adverse effects associated with PM is presented in this paper. Finally, management, existing technologies and policy options to reduce or mitigate the adverse health impacts of PM pollution is discussed as an eco-sustainable approach.

  20. Model cell membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther-Pomorski, Thomas; Nylander, Tommy; Cardenas Gomez, Marite

    2014-01-01

    The high complexity of biological membranes has motivated the development and application of a wide range of model membrane systems to study biochemical and biophysical aspects of membranes in situ under well defined conditions. The aim is to provide fundamental understanding of processes control...

  1. Idiopathic epiretinal membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bu, Shao-Chong; Kuijer, Roelof; Li, Xiao-Rong; Hooymans, Johanna M M; Los, Leonoor I

    2014-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM) is a fibrocellular membrane that proliferates on the inner surface of the retina at the macular area. Membrane contraction is an important sight-threatening event and is due to fibrotic remodeling. Methods: Analysis of the current literature

  2. Meniscus Membranes For Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C.; Jorgensen, Betty; Pesiri, David R.

    2005-09-20

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  3. Meniscus membranes for separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C [Irvine, CA; Jorgensen, Betty [Jemez Springs, NM; Pesiri, David R [Aliso Viejo, CA

    2004-01-27

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  4. Chemical profiling of PM10 from urban road dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, C A; Evtyugina, M; Vicente, A M P; Vicente, E D; Nunes, T V; Silva, P M A; Duarte, M A C; Pio, C A; Amato, F; Querol, X

    2018-09-01

    Road dust resuspension is one of the main sources of particulate matter with impacts on air quality, health and climate. With the aim of characterising the thoracic fraction, a portable resuspension chamber was used to collect road dust from five main roads in Oporto and an urban tunnel in Braga, north of Portugal. The PM 10 samples were analysed for: i) carbonates by acidification and quantification of the evolved CO 2 , ii) carbonaceous content (OC and EC) by a thermo-optical technique, iii) elemental composition by ICP-MS and ICP-AES after acid digestion, and iv) organic speciation by GC-MS. Dust loadings of 0.48±0.39mgPM 10 m -2 were obtained for asphalt paved roads. A much higher mean value was achieved in a cobbled pavement (50mgPM 10 m -2 ). In general, carbonates were not detected in PM 10 . OC and EC accounted for PM 10 mass fractions up to 11% and 5%, respectively. Metal oxides accounted for 29±7.5% of the PM 10 mass from the asphalt paved roads and 73% in samples from the cobbled street. Crustal and anthropogenic elements, associated with tyre and brake wear, dominated the inorganic fraction. PM 10 comprised hundreds of organic constituents, including hopanoids, n-alkanes and other aliphatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), alcohols, sterols, various types of acids, glycerol derivatives, lactones, sugars and derivatives, phenolic compounds and plasticizers. In samples from the cobbled street, these organic classes represented only 439μgg -1 PM 10 , while for other pavements mass fractions up to 65mgg -1 PM 10 were obtained. Except for the cobbled street, on average, about 40% of the analysed organic fraction was composed of plasticizers. Although the risk via inhalation of PAH was found to be insignificant, the PM 10 from some roads can contribute to an estimated excess of 332 to 2183 per million new cancer cases in adults exposed via ingestion and dermal contact. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Design of a PM Vernier Machine with Consideration for Modulation Flux and Comparison with Conventional PM motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byungtaek Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the core design of a PM vernier machine considering modulation flux effects, and the comparative investigation on volume and performance characteristics of the vernier over conventional PM machines are addressed. To these ends, for a PM vernier machine in operation at the base-speed, the flux density equations for teeth and yokes considering the flux modulation effects are derived, where the air gap harmonic permeance function is used. Using the derived equations, a PM vernier motor with specified yoke flux densities is designed. To identify the predicted flux yoke densities, the flux distribution and iron losses in core parts are analyzed through time-step finite element (FE simulations. Through Fourier series expansion of the air gap flux waves obtained by FE analysis at several specified times, the harmonic components constituting the flux waves are investigated and their speeds are also evaluated in numerical ways. Finally, to estimate the competitiveness of vernier machines versus conventional machines, the designed PM vernier motor is compared against two different conventional PM motors designed through the same design procedures in various aspects such as volume, torque capacity, efficiency, and power factor, in which, in particular, the core losses are included in efficiency calculation.

  6. Battery condenser system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, EPA finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additi...

  7. Membrane orientation and lateral diffusion of BODIPY-cholesterol as a function of probe structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solanko, Lukasz Michal; Wüstner, Daniel; Lund, Frederik Wendelboe

    2013-01-01

    -24 of cholesterol (B-P-Chol). Using two-photon fluorescence polarimetry in giant unilamellar vesicles and in the plasma membrane (PM) of living intact and actin-disrupted cells, we show that the BODIPY-groups in B-Chol and B-P-Chol are oriented perpendicular and almost parallel to the bilayer normal...

  8. Nanoscale Electric Characteristics and Oriented Assembly of Halobacterium salinarum Membrane Revealed by Electric Force Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denghua Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purple membranes (PM of the bacteria Halobacterium salinarum are a unique natural membrane where bacteriorhodopsin (BR can convert photon energy and pump protons. Elucidating the electronic properties of biomembranes is critical for revealing biological mechanisms and developing new devices. We report here the electric properties of PMs studied by using multi-functional electric force microscopy (EFM at the nanoscale. The topography, surface potential, and dielectric capacity of PMs were imaged and quantitatively measured in parallel. Two orientations of PMs were identified by EFM because of its high resolution in differentiating electrical characteristics. The extracellular (EC sides were more negative than the cytoplasmic (CP side by 8 mV. The direction of potential difference may facilitate movement of protons across the membrane and thus play important roles in proton pumping. Unlike the side-dependent surface potentials observed in PM, the EFM capacitive response was independent of the side and was measured to be at a dC/dz value of ~5.25 nF/m. Furthermore, by modification of PM with de novo peptides based on peptide-protein interaction, directional oriented PM assembly on silicon substrate was obtained for technical devices. This work develops a new method for studying membrane nanoelectronics and exploring the bioelectric application at the nanoscale.

  9. The development of training based on the PM leadership theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Michio [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Education; Misumi, Jyuji; Yamada, Akira; Misumi, Emiko; Sakurai, Yukihiro; Kinjo, Akira; Matsuda, Ryosuke; Matsuo, Hidehisa; Tokudome, Eiji

    1995-09-01

    The PM leadership theory developed by Misumi, et al., basically identifies leadership behavior in terms of two dimensions, i.e., P(Performance) behavior and M(Maintenance) behavior, and divides it into four types, PM, M, P and pm, depending on the degree to which each of them performs its behavior. Thus, it has been verified that the differences between these types have an effect on various variables, such as subordinates` morale, productivity and reduced incidence of accidents. To be more concrete, it has been consistently found as a result of a number of studies that what brings about the most desirable results in the eyes of organizations is the PM type, followed by M, P and pm in the order mentioned. The most basic premise for the PM theory is that leadership lies not in the leader`s personal traits but in his behavior. Consequently, any leadership type is not `carved in stone`, and it can change according to the leader`s behavior. From this, it follows that leadership can be improved and upgraded. As the PM leadership theory has become well-established, the development research and implementation of leadership training aimed at improving and upgrading leadership was launched. In this paper, the leadership training that is now in progress will be discussed, with particular reference to its purpose, current status of its overall progress and its typical training schedule. That done, the history of development of the leadership training will be reviewed, and at the same time, its effects will be examined on the basis of some empirical data. Also some proposals will be presented concerning the relationship between organizational development and training as well as some problems to be addressed in the future. (author)

  10. The development of training based on the PM leadership theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Michio; Misumi, Jyuji; Yamada, Akira; Misumi, Emiko; Sakurai, Yukihiro; Kinjo, Akira; Matsuda, Ryosuke; Matsuo, Hidehisa; Tokudome, Eiji.

    1995-01-01

    The PM leadership theory developed by Misumi, et al., basically identifies leadership behavior in terms of two dimensions, i.e., P(Performance) behavior and M(Maintenance) behavior, and divides it into four types, PM, M, P and pm, depending on the degree to which each of them performs its behavior. Thus, it has been verified that the differences between these types have an effect on various variables, such as subordinates' morale, productivity and reduced incidence of accidents. To be more concrete, it has been consistently found as a result of a number of studies that what brings about the most desirable results in the eyes of organizations is the PM type, followed by M, P and pm in the order mentioned. The most basic premise for the PM theory is that leadership lies not in the leader's personal traits but in his behavior. Consequently, any leadership type is not 'carved in stone', and it can change according to the leader's behavior. From this, it follows that leadership can be improved and upgraded. As the PM leadership theory has become well-established, the development research and implementation of leadership training aimed at improving and upgrading leadership was launched. In this paper, the leadership training that is now in progress will be discussed, with particular reference to its purpose, current status of its overall progress and its typical training schedule. That done, the history of development of the leadership training will be reviewed, and at the same time, its effects will be examined on the basis of some empirical data. Also some proposals will be presented concerning the relationship between organizational development and training as well as some problems to be addressed in the future. (author)

  11. Predictability Analysis of PM10 Concentrations in Budapest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenczi, Zita

    2013-04-01

    Climate, weather and air quality may have harmful effects on human health and environment. Over the past few hundred years we had to face the changes in climate in parallel with the changes in air quality. These observed changes in climate, weather and air quality continuously interact with each other: pollutants are changing the climate, thus changing the weather, but climate also has impacts on air quality. The increasing number of extreme weather situations may be a result of climate change, which could create favourable conditions for rising of pollutant concentrations. Air quality in Budapest is determined by domestic and traffic emissions combined with the meteorological conditions. In some cases, the effect of long-range transport could also be essential. While the time variability of the industrial and traffic emissions is not significant, the domestic emissions increase in winter season. In recent years, PM10 episodes have caused the most critical air quality problems in Budapest, especially in winter. In Budapest, an air quality network of 11 stations detects the concentration values of different pollutants hourly. The Hungarian Meteorological Service has developed an air quality prediction model system for the area of Budapest. The system forecasts the concentration of air pollutants (PM10, NO2, SO2 and O3) for two days in advance. In this work we used meteorological parameters and PM10 data detected by the stations of the air quality network, as well as the forecasted PM10 values of the air quality prediction model system. In this work we present the evaluation of PM10 predictions in the last two years and the most important meteorological parameters affecting PM10 concentration. The results of this analysis determine the effect of the meteorological parameters and the emission of aerosol particles on the PM10 concentration values as well as the limits of this prediction system.

  12. Targeting of a Nicotiana plumbaginifolia H+ -ATPase to the plasma membrane is not by default and requires cytosolic structural determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Benoit; Batoko, Henri; Duby, Geoffrey; Boutry, Marc

    2004-07-01

    The structural determinants involved in the targeting of multitransmembrane-span proteins to the plasma membrane (PM) remain poorly understood. The plasma membrane H+ -ATPase (PMA) from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, a well-characterized 10 transmembrane-span enzyme, was used as a model to identify structural elements essential for targeting to the PM. When PMA2 and PMA4, representatives of the two main PMA subfamilies, were fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP), the chimeras were shown to be still functional and to be correctly and rapidly targeted to the PM in transgenic tobacco. By contrast, chimeric proteins containing various combinations of PMA transmembrane spanning domains accumulated in the Golgi apparatus and not in the PM and displayed slow traffic properties through the secretory pathway. Individual deletion of three of the four cytosolic domains did not prevent PM targeting, but deletion of the large loop or of its nucleotide binding domain resulted in GFP fluorescence accumulating exclusively in the endoplasmic reticulum. The results show that, at least for this polytopic protein, the PM is not the default pathway and that, in contrast with single-pass membrane proteins, cytosolic structural determinants are required for correct targeting.

  13. To what extent can aerosol water explain the discrepancy between model calculated and gravimetric PM10 and PM2.5?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Tsyro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Inter-comparisons of European air quality models show that regional transport models, including the EMEP (Co-operative Programme for monitoring and evaluation of the long-range transmission of air pollutants in Europe aerosol model, tend to underestimate the observed concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5. Obviously, an accurate representation of the individual aerosol constituents is a prerequisite for adequate calculation of PM concentrations. On the other hand, available measurements on the chemical characterization of ambient particles reveal that full chemical PM mass closure is rarely achieved. The fraction unaccounted for by chemical analysis can comprise as much as 30-40% of gravimetric PM10 or PM2.5 mass. The unaccounted PM mass can partly be due to non-C atoms in organic aerosols and/or due to sampling and measurement artefacts. Moreover, a part of the unaccounted PM mass is likely to consist of water associated with particles. Thus, the gravimetrically measured particle mass does not necessarily represent dry PM10 and PM2.5 mass. This is thought to be one of the reasons for models under-prediction of observed PM, if calculated dry PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations are compared with measurements. The EMEP aerosol model has been used to study to what extent particle-bound water can explain the chemically unidentified PM mass in filter-based particle samples. Water content of PM2.5 and PM10 has been estimated with the model for temperature 20°C and relative humidity 50%, which are conditions required for equilibration of dust-loaded filters according to the Reference method recommended by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN. Model calculations for Europe show that, depending on particle composition, particle-bound water constitutes 20-35% of the annual mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations, which is consistent with existing experimental estimates. At two Austrian sites, in Vienna and Streithofen, where daily measurements of PM2.5 mass

  14. Separation membrane development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.W. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    A ceramic membrane has been developed to separate hydrogen from other gases. The method used is a sol-gel process. A thin layer of dense ceramic material is coated on a coarse ceramic filter substrate. The pore size distribution in the thin layer is controlled by a densification of the coating materials by heat treatment. The membrane has been tested by permeation measurement of the hydrogen and other gases. Selectivity of the membrane has been achieved to separate hydrogen from carbon monoxide. The permeation rate of hydrogen through the ceramic membrane was about 20 times larger than Pd-Ag membrane.

  15. Specific membrane lipid composition is important for plasmodesmata function in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, Magali S; Brocard, Lysiane; Fouillen, Laetitia; Nicolas, William; Wewer, Vera; Dörmann, Peter; Nacir, Houda; Benitez-Alfonso, Yoselin; Claverol, Stéphane; Germain, Véronique; Boutté, Yohann; Mongrand, Sébastien; Bayer, Emmanuelle M

    2015-04-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are nano-sized membrane-lined channels controlling intercellular communication in plants. Although progress has been made in identifying PD proteins, the role played by major membrane constituents, such as the lipids, in defining specialized membrane domains in PD remains unknown. Through a rigorous isolation of "native" PD membrane fractions and comparative mass spectrometry-based analysis, we demonstrate that lipids are laterally segregated along the plasma membrane (PM) at the PD cell-to-cell junction in Arabidopsis thaliana. Remarkably, our results show that PD membranes display enrichment in sterols and sphingolipids with very long chain saturated fatty acids when compared with the bulk of the PM. Intriguingly, this lipid profile is reminiscent of detergent-insoluble membrane microdomains, although our approach is valuably detergent-free. Modulation of the overall sterol composition of young dividing cells reversibly impaired the PD localization of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins Plasmodesmata Callose Binding 1 and the β-1,3-glucanase PdBG2 and altered callose-mediated PD permeability. Altogether, this study not only provides a comprehensive analysis of the lipid constituents of PD but also identifies a role for sterols in modulating cell-to-cell connectivity, possibly by establishing and maintaining the positional specificity of callose-modifying glycosylphosphatidylinositol proteins at PD. Our work emphasizes the importance of lipids in defining PD membranes. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  16. Positive zeta potential of a negatively charged semi-permeable plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shayandev; Jing, Haoyuan; Das, Siddhartha

    2017-08-01

    The negative charge of the plasma membrane (PM) severely affects the nature of moieties that may enter or leave the cells and controls a large number of ion-interaction-mediated intracellular and extracellular events. In this letter, we report our discovery of a most fascinating scenario, where one interface (e.g., membrane-cytosol interface) of the negatively charged PM shows a positive surface (or ζ) potential, while the other interface (e.g., membrane-electrolyte interface) still shows a negative ζ potential. Therefore, we encounter a completely unexpected situation where an interface (e.g., membrane-cytosol interface) that has a negative surface charge density demonstrates a positive ζ potential. We establish that the attainment of such a property by the membrane can be ascribed to an interplay of the nature of the membrane semi-permeability and the electrostatics of the electric double layer established on either side of the charged membrane. We anticipate that such a membrane property can lead to such capabilities of the cell (in terms of accepting or releasing certain kinds of moieties as well regulating cellular signaling) that was hitherto inconceivable.

  17. RIN4 functions with plasma membrane H+-ATPases to regulate stomatal apertures during pathogen attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jun; Elmore, James M.; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Pathogen perception by the plant innate immune system is of central importance to plant survival and productivity. The Arabidopsis protein RIN4 is a negative regulator of plant immunity. In order to identify additional proteins involved in RIN4- mediated immune signal transduction, we...... purified components of the RIN4 protein complex. We identified six novel proteins that had not previously been implicated in RIN4 signaling, including the plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPases AHA1 and/or AHA2. RIN4 interacts with AHA1 and AHA2 both in vitro and in vivo. RIN4 overexpression and knockout lines...... exhibit differential PM H+-ATPase activity. PM H+-ATPase activation induces stomatal opening, enabling bacteria to gain entry into the plant leaf; inactivation induces stomatal closure thus restricting bacterial invasion. The rin4 knockout line exhibited reduced PM H+-ATPase activity and, importantly, its...

  18. Microporous silica membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2012-01-01

    Hydrothermal stability is a crucial factor for the application of microporous silica-based membranes in industrial processes. Indeed, it is well established that steam exposure may cause densification and defect formation in microporous silica membranes, which are detrimental to both membrane...... permeability and selectivity. Numerous previous studies show that microporous transition metal doped-silica membranes are hydrothermally more stable than pure silica membranes, but less permeable. Here we present a quantitative study on the impact of type and concentration of transition metal ions...... on the microporous structure, stability and permeability of amorphous silica-based membranes, providing information on how to design chemical compositions and synthetic paths for the fabrication of silica-based membranes with a well accessible and highly stabile microporous structure....

  19. Clustering on Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannes, Ludger; Pezeshkian, Weria; Ipsen, John H

    2018-01-01

    Clustering of extracellular ligands and proteins on the plasma membrane is required to perform specific cellular functions, such as signaling and endocytosis. Attractive forces that originate in perturbations of the membrane's physical properties contribute to this clustering, in addition to direct...... protein-protein interactions. However, these membrane-mediated forces have not all been equally considered, despite their importance. In this review, we describe how line tension, lipid depletion, and membrane curvature contribute to membrane-mediated clustering. Additional attractive forces that arise...... from protein-induced perturbation of a membrane's fluctuations are also described. This review aims to provide a survey of the current understanding of membrane-mediated clustering and how this supports precise biological functions....

  20. Application of dynamic membranes in anaerobic membranes in anaerobic membrane bioreactor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erşahin, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) physically ensure biomass retention by the application of a membrane filtration process. With growing application experiences from aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs), the combination of membrane and anaerobic processes has received much attention and become

  1. Meteorological factors for PM10 concentration levels in Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurtún, Ana; Mínguez, Roberto; Villar-Fernández, Alejandro; González Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Zarrabeitia, María Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is made up of a mixture of solid and aqueous species which enter the atmosphere by anthropogenic and natural pathways. The levels and composition of ambient air PM depend on the climatology and on the geography (topography, soil cover, proximity to arid zones or to the coast) of a given region. Spain has particular difficulties in achieving compliance with the limit values established by the European Union (based on recommendations from the World Health Organization) for particulate matter on the order of 10 micrometers of diameter or less (PM10), but not only antropogenical emissions are responsible for this: some studies show that PM10 concentrations originating from these kinds of sources are similar to what is found in other European countries, while some of the geographical features of the Iberian Peninsula (such as African mineral dust intrusion, soil aridity or rainfall) are proven to be a factor for higher PM concentrations. This work aims to describe PM10 concentration levels in Cantabria (Northern Spain) and their relationship with the following meteorological variables: rainfall, solar radiation, temperature, barometric pressure and wind speed. Data consists of daily series obtained from hourly data records for the 2000-2010 period, of PM10 concentrations from 4 different urban-background stations, and daily series of the meteorological variables provided by Spanish National Meteorology Agency. The method used for establishing the relationships between these variables consists of several steps: i) fitting a non-stationary probability density function for each variable accounting for long-term trends, seasonality during the year and possible seasonality during the week to distinguish between work and weekend days, ii) using the marginal distribution function obtained, transform the time series of historical values of each variable into a normalized Gaussian time series. This step allows using consistently time series

  2. P2X7 receptors regulate multiple types of membrane trafficking responses and non-classical secretion pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yan; Dubyak, George R

    2009-06-01

    Activation of the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) triggers a remarkably diverse array of membrane trafficking responses in leukocytes and epithelial cells. These responses result in altered profiles of cell surface lipid and protein composition that can modulate the direct interactions of P2X7R-expressing cells with other cell types in the circulation, in blood vessels, at epithelial barriers, or within sites of immune and inflammatory activation. Additionally, these responses can result in the release of bioactive proteins, lipids, and large membrane complexes into extracellular compartments for remote communication between P2X7R-expressing cells and other cells that amplify or modulate inflammation, immunity, and responses to tissue damages. This review will discuss P2X7R-mediated effects on membrane composition and trafficking in the plasma membrane (PM) and intracellular organelles, as well as actions of P2X7R in controlling various modes of non-classical secretion. It will review P2X7R regulation of: (1) phosphatidylserine distribution in the PM outer leaflet; (2) shedding of PM surface proteins; (3) release of PM-derived microvesicles or microparticles; (4) PM blebbing; (5) cell-cell fusion resulting in formation of multinucleate cells; (6) phagosome maturation and fusion with lysosomes; (7) permeability of endosomes with internalized pathogen-associated molecular patterns; (8) permeability/integrity of mitochondria; (9) exocytosis of secretory lysosomes; and (10) release of exosomes from multivesicular bodies.

  3. Interactions between lipids and proteins are critical for organization of plasma membrane-ordered domains in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosjean, Kevin; Der, Christophe; Robert, Franck; Thomas, Dominique; Mongrand, Sébastien; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia

    2018-06-27

    The laterally heterogeneous plant plasma membrane (PM) is organized into finely controlled specialized areas that include membrane-ordered domains. Recently, the spatial distribution of such domains within the PM has been identified as playing a key role in cell responses to environmental challenges. To examine membrane order at a local level, BY-2 tobacco suspension cell PMs were labelled with an environment-sensitive probe (di-4-ANEPPDHQ). Four experimental models were compared to identify mechanisms and cell components involved in short-term (1 h) maintenance of the ordered domain organization in steady-state cell PMs: modulation of the cytoskeleton or the cell wall integrity of tobacco BY-2 cells; and formation of giant vesicles using either a lipid mixture of tobacco BY-2 cell PMs or the original lipid and protein combinations of the tobacco BY-2 cell PM. Whilst inhibiting phosphorylation or disrupting either the cytoskeleton or the cell wall had no observable effects, we found that lipids and proteins significantly modified both the abundance and spatial distribution of ordered domains. This indicates the involvement of intrinsic membrane components in the local physical state of the plant PM. Our findings support a major role for the 'lipid raft' model, defined as the sterol-dependent ordered assemblies of specific lipids and proteins in plant PM organization.

  4. Plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein and mitochondrial glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase of rat liver are related

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, P.D.; Potter, B.J.; Sorrentino, D.; Zhou, S.L.; Isola, L.M.; Stump, D.; Kiang, C.L.; Thung, S.; Wada, H.; Horio, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The hepatic plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein (h-FABP PM ) and the mitochondrial isoenzyme of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (mGOT) of rat liver have similar amino acid compositions and identical amino acid sequences for residues 3-24. Both proteins migrate with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa on SDS/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, have a similar pattern of basic charge isomers on isoelectric focusing, are eluted similarly from four different high-performance liquid chromatographic columns, have absorption maxima at 435 nm under acid conditions and 354 nm at pH 8.3, and bind oleate. Sinusoidally enriched liver plasma membranes and purified h-FABP PM have GOT enzymatic activity. Monospecific rabbit antiserum against h-FABP PM reacts on Western blotting with mGOT, and vice versa. Antisera against both proteins produce plasma membrane immunofluorescence in rat hepatocytes and selectively inhibit the hepatocellular uptake of [ 3 H]oleate but not that of [ 35 S]sulfobromophthalein or [ 14 C]taurocholate. The inhibition of oleate uptake produced by anti-h-FABP PM can be eliminated by preincubation of the antiserum with mGOT; similarly, the plasma membrane immunofluorescence produced by either antiserum can be eliminated by preincubation with the other antigen. These data suggest that h-FABP PM and mGOT are closely related

  5. Plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein and mitochondrial glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase of rat liver are related

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, P.D.; Potter, B.J.; Sorrentino, D.; Zhou, S.L.; Isola, L.M.; Stump, D.; Kiang, C.L.; Thung, S. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA)); Wada, H.; Horio, Y. (Univ. of Osaka (Japan))

    1990-05-01

    The hepatic plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein (h-FABP{sub PM}) and the mitochondrial isoenzyme of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (mGOT) of rat liver have similar amino acid compositions and identical amino acid sequences for residues 3-24. Both proteins migrate with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa on SDS/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, have a similar pattern of basic charge isomers on isoelectric focusing, are eluted similarly from four different high-performance liquid chromatographic columns, have absorption maxima at 435 nm under acid conditions and 354 nm at pH 8.3, and bind oleate. Sinusoidally enriched liver plasma membranes and purified h-FABP{sub PM} have GOT enzymatic activity. Monospecific rabbit antiserum against h-FABP{sub PM} reacts on Western blotting with mGOT, and vice versa. Antisera against both proteins produce plasma membrane immunofluorescence in rat hepatocytes and selectively inhibit the hepatocellular uptake of ({sup 3}H)oleate but not that of ({sup 35}S)sulfobromophthalein or ({sup 14}C)taurocholate. The inhibition of oleate uptake produced by anti-h-FABP{sub PM} can be eliminated by preincubation of the antiserum with mGOT; similarly, the plasma membrane immunofluorescence produced by either antiserum can be eliminated by preincubation with the other antigen. These data suggest that h-FABP{sub PM} and mGOT are closely related.

  6. Effects of gamma-irradiation on the electrokinetic properties of purple membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doltchinkova, V.; Baldjiiska, M.; Stoilova, S.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation (5, 10 and 15 Gy) on the kinetic surface charge of purple membranes (PM) was followed by means of particle microelectrophoresis. The changes in electrophoretic mobility (EPM) were examined at 2, 5 and 26 h, respectively, following irradiation of native PM, and at 2, 26, 50 h and 5 days following irradiation of delipidated PM. It was concluded that the high inhomogeneity of the suspension, even after sonication, largely affects the measured zeta-potential. The 15-Gy treatment significantly increased the net negative surface charge density at 5 and 26 h after irradiation of native PM. However, the opposite effect of approximately twofold reduction of EPM values was derived from simultaneous studies concerning their delipidated form. Low irradiation doses clearly induced an enhancement of negative surface charge density at 2 h post-exposure as well as the formation of unstable structures of delipidated PM. The changes in electrokinetic properties might reflect the specific aggregate formation in both native and delipidated PM. It was suggested that the effect observed of both types of PM was mainly a structural phenomenon possibly related to the modification of functionally active residues. (orig.)

  7. Plasma membrane partitioning: from macro-domains to new views on plasmodesmata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohann eBoutté

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Compartmentalization of cellular functions relies on partitioning of domains of diverse sizes within the plasma membrane (PM. Macro-domains measure several micrometers and contain specific proteins concentrated to specific sides (apical, basal and lateral of the PM conferring a polarity to the cell. Cell polarity is one of the driving forces in tissue and growth patterning. To maintain macro-domains within the PM, eukaryotic cells exert diverse mechanisms to counteract the free lateral diffusion of proteins. Protein activation/inactivation, endocytosis, PM recycling of transmembrane proteins and the role of diffusion barriers in macro-domains partitioning at PM will be discussed. Moreover, as plasmodesmata (PDs are domains inserted within the PM which also mediate tissue and growth patterning, it is essential to understand how segregation of specific set of proteins is maintained at PDs while PDs domains are smaller in size compared to macro-domains. Here, we will present mechanisms allowing restriction of proteins at PM macrodomains, but for which molecular components have been found in PDs proteome. We will explore the hypothesis that partitioning of macro-domains and PDs may be ruled by similar mechanisms.

  8. Determination of Dynamics of Plant Plasma Membrane Proteins with Fluorescence Recovery and Raster Image Correlation Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laňková, Martina; Humpolíčková, Jana; Vosolsobě, Stanislav; Cit, Zdeněk; Lacek, Jozef; Čovan, Martin; Čovanová, Milada; Hof, Martin; Petrášek, Jan

    2016-04-01

    A number of fluorescence microscopy techniques are described to study dynamics of fluorescently labeled proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and whole organelles. However, for studies of plant plasma membrane (PM) proteins, the number of these techniques is still limited because of the high complexity of processes that determine the dynamics of PM proteins and the existence of cell wall. Here, we report on the usage of raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) for studies of integral PM proteins in suspension-cultured tobacco cells and show its potential in comparison with the more widely used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching method. For RICS, a set of microscopy images is obtained by single-photon confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Fluorescence fluctuations are subsequently correlated between individual pixels and the information on protein mobility are extracted using a model that considers processes generating the fluctuations such as diffusion and chemical binding reactions. As we show here using an example of two integral PM transporters of the plant hormone auxin, RICS uncovered their distinct short-distance lateral mobility within the PM that is dependent on cytoskeleton and sterol composition of the PM. RICS, which is routinely accessible on modern CLSM instruments, thus represents a valuable approach for studies of dynamics of PM proteins in plants.

  9. Modular PM Motor Drives for Automotive Traction Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents modular permanent magnet (PM) motor drives for automotive traction applications. A partially modularized drive system consisting of a single PM motor and multiple inverters is described. The motor has multiple three-phase stator winding sets and each winding set is driven with a separate three-phase inverter module. A truly modularized inverter and motor configuration based on an axial-gap PM motor is then introduced, in which identical PM motor modules are mounted on a common shaft and each motor module is powered by a separate inverter module. The advantages of the modular approach for both inverter and motor include: (1) power rating scalability-one design meets different power requirements by simply stacking an adequate number of modules, thus avoiding redesigning and reducing the development cost, (2) increased fault tolerance, and (3) easy repairing. A prototype was constructed by using two inverters and an axial-gap PM motor with two sets of three-phase stat or windings, and it is used to assist the diesel engine in a hybrid electric vehicle converted from a Chevrolet Suburban. The effect of different pulse-width-modulation strategies for both motoring and regenerative modes on current control is analyzed. Torque and regenerative control algorithms are implemented with a digital signal processor. Analytical and initial testing results are included in the paper

  10. EPRI spearheads generic PM recommendations for infrastructure equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, David H.; Hinchcliffe, Glenn R.; Benak, Mark S.; Bridges, Martin

    2007-01-01

    All companies have at their core a vast amount of similar equipment that would benefit from solid preventive maintenance (PM) recommendations that are generic and easily adapted to meet operational conditions. The re-emergence of PM optimization methods like Reliability Centered Maintenance, further illustrates that companies in all industries recognize the positive influence that a well-focused maintenance program has on the corporate bottom line. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has long been a leader in providing universally adaptable maintenance solutions to meet the evolving needs of its membership. Nearly ten years ago, EPRI began developing the PM Basis Database, a one-of-a-kind repository of PM recommendations for basic infrastructure components (such as pumps, motors, valves, compressors), derived from equipment experts. EPRI has now made available this comprehensive body of knowledge to all industries. This paper will explore the origins and structure of the database, how these generic PM recommendations benefit every industry, and how they may be obtained. (author)

  11. SiPM as photon counter for Cherenkov detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, B.J.; Orth, H.; Schwarz, C.; Wilms, A.; Peters, K.

    2009-01-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are very new type of photon counting devices that show great promise to be used as detection device in combination with scintillators/ Cherenkov radiators. SiPM is essentially an avalanche photo-diode operated in limited Geiger mode. They have been considered as potential readout devices for DIRC counter of the PANDA detector which is one of the large experiment at FAIR- the new international facility to be built at GSI, Darmstadt. In addition, the potential use of SiPM includes medical diagnosis, fluorescence measurement and high energy physics experiments. The SiPM module is a photon counting device capable of low light level detection. It is essentially an opto-semiconductor device with excellent photon counting capability and possesses great advantages over the conventional PMTs because of low voltage operation and insensitivity to magnetic fields. In many of the high energy physics experiments, the photon sensors are required to operate in high magnetic fields precluding the use of conventional PMTs. This problem can be over come with the use of SiPMs. With this motivation in mind, we have developed a SiPM test facility and have tested several commercially available SiPM for their performance study and comparison with other photon counting devices

  12. Oxidative potential of subway PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Teresa; Kelly, Frank J.; Dunster, Chrissi; Oliete, Ana; Martins, Vânia; Reche, Cristina; Minguillón, Maria Cruz; Amato, Fulvio; Capdevila, Marta; de Miguel, Eladio; Querol, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Air quality in subway systems is of interest not only because particulate matter (PM) concentrations can be high, but also because of the peculiarly metalliferous chemical character of the particles, most of which differ radically from those of outdoor ambient air. We report on the oxidative potential (OP) of PM2.5 samples collected in the Barcelona subway system in different types of stations. The PM chemical composition of these samples showed typically high concentrations of Fe, Total Carbon, Ba, Cu, Mn, Zn and Cr sourced from rail tracks, wheels, catenaries, brake pads and pantographs. Two toxicological indicators of oxidative activity, ascorbic acid (AA) oxidation (expressed as OPAA μg-1 or OPAA m-3) and glutathione (GSH) oxidation (expressed as OPGSH μg-1 or OPGSH m-3), showed low OP for all samples (compared with outdoor air) but considerable variation between stations (0.9-2.4 OPAA μg-1; 0.4-1.9 OPGSH μg-1). Results indicate that subway PM toxicity is not related to variations in PM2.5 concentrations produced by ventilation changes, tunnel works, or station design, but may be affected more by the presence of metallic trace elements such as Cu and Sb sourced from brakes and pantographs. The OP assays employed do not reveal toxic effects from the highly ferruginous component present in subway dust.

  13. Production of $D^{\\pm}$ Mesons in $K^+$ Nucleon Collisions at 250 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Motta Filho, Helio [Rio de Janeiro, CBPF

    1993-11-01

    The $X_f$, $P^2_t$ and $p_t$ distribution of $D^{\\pm}$ mesons produced by 250 GeV $K^+$-nucleon interactions are measured through the decay channel $D^{\\pm} \\to K^{\\mp}\\pi^{\\pm} \\pi^{\\pm}$....

  14. Temporal variations and spatial distribution of ambient PM2.2 and PM1 concentrations in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K.; Hopke, Philip K.

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations and characteristics of airborne particulate matter (PM 1 , PM 2.2 and BC) on air quality have been studied at two air quality-monitoring stations in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. One site is at the Farm Gate area, a hot spot with very high pollutant concentrations because of its proximity to major roadways. The other site is at a semi-residential area located at the Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka Campus, (AECD) with relatively less traffic. The samples were collected using a 'Gent' stacked filter unit in two fractions of 0-2.2 μm and 2.2-10 μm sizes. Samples of fine (PM 2.2 ) and coarse (PM 2.2-1 ) airborne particulate matter fractions collected from 2000 to 2003 were studied. It has been observed that fine particulate matter has a decreasing trend, from prior year measurements, because of Government policy interventions like phase-wise plans to take two-stroke three-wheelers off the roads in Dhaka and finally banned from January 1, 2003. Other policy interventions were banning of old buses and trucks to ply on Dhaka city promotion of the using compressed natural gas (CNG), introducing air pollution control devices in vehicles, etc. It was found that both local (mostly from vehicular emissions) and possibly some regional emission sources are responsible for high PM 2.2 and BC concentrations in Dhaka. PM 2.2 , PM 2.2-1 and black carbon concentration levels depend on the season, wind direction and wind speed. Transport related emissions are the major source of BC and long-range transportation from fossil fuel related sources and biomass burning could be another substantial source of BC

  15. Temporal variations and spatial distribution of ambient PM2.2 and PM10 concentrations in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Bilkis A; Biswas, Swapan K; Hopke, Philip K

    2006-04-01

    Concentrations and characteristics of airborne particulate matter (PM(10), PM(2.2) and BC) on air quality have been studied at two air quality-monitoring stations in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. One site is at the Farm Gate area, a hot spot with very high pollutant concentrations because of its proximity to major roadways. The other site is at a semi-residential area located at the Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka Campus, (AECD) with relatively less traffic. The samples were collected using a 'Gent' stacked filter unit in two fractions of 0-2.2 mum and 2.2-10 mum sizes. Samples of fine (PM(2.2)) and coarse (PM(2.2-10)) airborne particulate matter fractions collected from 2000 to 2003 were studied. It has been observed that fine particulate matter has a decreasing trend, from prior year measurements, because of Government policy interventions like phase-wise plans to take two-stroke three-wheelers off the roads in Dhaka and finally banned from January 1, 2003. Other policy interventions were banning of old buses and trucks to ply on Dhaka city promotion of the using compressed natural gas (CNG), introducing air pollution control devices in vehicles, etc. It was found that both local (mostly from vehicular emissions) and possibly some regional emission sources are responsible for high PM(2.2) and BC concentrations in Dhaka. PM(2.2), PM(2.2-10) and black carbon concentration levels depend on the season, wind direction and wind speed. Transport related emissions are the major source of BC and long-range transportation from fossil fuel related sources and biomass burning could be another substantial source of BC.

  16. Comparison of the chemical composition of PM10 and PM2.5 particles collected in urban environments and volcanic areas of metropolitan Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PM10 and PM2,5 were sampled simultaneously in urban and volcanic environments in the Metropolitan Area of Costa Rica from October to November 2012. Higher mass concentrations (42-29 μgm-3 of PM10 and PM2,5 were found at industrial and commercial areas with high traffic flow (La Uruca, Heredia and Belen compared with those found in the volcanic areas. The daily concentrations of PM10 and PM2,5 obtained in the Poas Volcano ranged from 3 -14 μgm-3 and 2-11 μgm-3, respectively. However the acidity of the collected particles in the Poas volcano was higher than those sampled in urban environments probably due to a lower occurrence rate of neutralization. The contribution of secondary ions was more important to the volcanic PM10 composition (around 40%, unlike the PM10 collected in urban areas.

  17. Arabidopsis protein kinase PKS5 inhibits the plasma membrane H+ -ATPase by preventing interaction with 14-3-3 protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Anja Thoe; Guo, Yan; Cuin, Tracey A.

    2007-01-01

    Regulation of the trans-plasma membrane pH gradient is an important part of plant responses to several hormonal and environmental cues, including auxin, blue light, and fungal elicitors. However, little is known about the signaling components that mediate this regulation. Here, we report...... that an Arabidopsis thaliana Ser/Thr protein kinase, PKS5, is a negative regulator of the plasma membrane proton pump (PM Hþ-ATPase). Loss-of-function pks5 mutant plants are more tolerant of high external pH due to extrusion of protons to the extracellular space. PKS5 phosphorylates the PM Hþ-ATPase AHA2 at a novel...

  18. Household air pollution and personal inhalation exposure to particles (TSP/PM2.5/PM1.0/PM0.25) in rural Shanxi, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ye; Du, Wei; Chen, Yuanchen; Shen, Guofeng; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Shen, Huizhong; Zhu, Dan; Yuan, Chenyi; Duan, Yonghong; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Tao, Shu

    2017-12-01

    Personal exposure to size-segregated particles among rural residents in Shanxi, China in summer, 2011 were investigated using portable carried samplers (N = 84). Household air pollution was simultaneously studied using stationary samplers in nine homes. Information on household fuel types, cooking activity, smoking behavior, kitchen ventilation conditions etc., were also collected and discussed. The study found that even in the summer period, the daily average concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 in the kitchen were as high as 376 ± 573 and 288 ± 397 μg/m 3 (N = 6), that were nearly 3 times of 114 ± 81 and 97 ± 77 μg/m 3 in the bedroom (N = 8), and significantly higher than those of 64 ± 28 and 47 ± 21 μg/m 3 in the outdoor air (N = 6). The personal daily exposure to PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 were 98 ± 52 and 77 ± 47 μg/m 3 , respectively, that were lower than the concentrations in the kitchen but higher than the outdoor levels. The mass fractions of PM 2.5 in TSP were 90%, 72%, 65% and 68% on average in the kitchen, bedroom, outdoor air and personal inhalation exposure, respectively, and moreover, a majority of particles in PM 2.5 had diameters less than 1.0 μm. Calculated time-weighted average exposure based on indoor and outdoor air concentrations and time spent indoor and outdoor were positively correlated but, was ∼33% lower than the directly measured exposure. The daily exposure among those burning traditional solid fuels could be lower by ∼41% if the kitchen was equipped with an outdoor chimney, but was still 8-14% higher than those household using cleaning energies, like electricity and gas. With a ventilator in the kitchen, the exposure among the population using clean energies could be further reduced by 10-24%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A role for protein kinase C in the regulation of membrane fluidity and Ca²(+) flux at the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membranes of HEK293 and Jurkat cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lihong; Meng, Qingli; Jing, Xian; Xu, Pingxiang; Luo, Dali

    2011-02-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) plays a prominent role in the regulation of a variety of cellular functions, including Ca²(+) signalling. In HEK293 and Jurkat cells, the Ca²(+) release and Ca²(+) uptake stimulated by several different activators were attenuated by activation of PKC with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG) and potentiated by PKC inhibition with Gö6983 or knockdown of PKCα or PKCβ using shRNA. Immunostaining and Western blotting analyses revealed that PKCα and PKCβII accumulated at the plasma membrane (PM) and that these isoforms, along with PKCβI, also translocated to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) upon activation with PMA. Measurements of membrane fluidity showed that, like the cell membrane stabilizers bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ursodeoxycholate (UDCA), PMA and OAG significantly reduced the fluidity of both the PM and ER membranes; these effects were blocked in PKC-knockdown cells. Interestingly, both BSA and UDCA inhibited the Ca²(+) responses to agonists to the same extent as PMA, whereas Tween 20, which increases membrane fluidity, raised the internal Ca²(+) concentration. Thus, activation of PKC induces both translocation of PKC to the PM and ER membranes and downregulation of membrane fluidity, thereby negatively modulating Ca²(+) flux. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Direct and Indirect Effects of PM on the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelin, Timothy D.; Joseph, Allan M.; Gorr, Matthew W.; Wold, Loren E.

    2011-01-01

    Human exposure to particulate matter (PM) elicits a variety of responses on the cardiovascular system through both direct and indirect pathways. Indirect effects of PM on the cardiovascular system are mediated through the autonomic nervous system, which controls heart rate variability, and inflammatory responses, which augment acute cardiovascular events and atherosclerosis. Recent research demonstrates that PM also affects the cardiovascular system directly by entry into the systemic circulation. This process causes myocardial dysfunction through mechanisms of reactive oxygen species production, calcium ion interference, and vascular dysfunction. In this review, we will present key evidence in both the direct and indirect pathways, suggest clinical applications of the current literature, and recommend directions for future research. PMID:22119171

  1. Plasma membrane cholesterol level and agonist-induced internalization of δ-opioid receptors; colocalization study with intracellular membrane markers of Rab family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brejchova, Jana; Vosahlikova, Miroslava; Roubalova, Lenka; Parenti, Marco; Mauri, Mario; Chernyavskiy, Oleksandr; Svoboda, Petr

    2016-08-01

    Decrease of cholesterol level in plasma membrane of living HEK293 cells transiently expressing FLAG-δ-OR by β-cyclodextrin (β-CDX) resulted in a slight internalization of δ-OR. Massive internalization of δ-OR induced by specific agonist DADLE was diminished in cholesterol-depleted cells. These results suggest that agonist-induced internalization of δ-OR, which has been traditionally attributed exclusively to clathrin-mediated pathway, proceeds at least partially via membrane domains. Identification of internalized pools of FLAG-δ-OR by colocalization studies with proteins of Rab family indicated the decreased presence of receptors in early endosomes (Rab5), late endosomes and lysosomes (Rab7) and fast recycling vesicles (Rab4). Slow type of recycling (Rab11) was unchanged by cholesterol depletion. As expected, agonist-induced internalization of oxytocin receptors was totally suppressed in β-CDX-treated cells. Determination of average fluorescence lifetime of TMA-DPH, the polar derivative of hydrophobic membrane probe diphenylhexatriene, in live cells by FLIM indicated a significant alteration of the overall PM structure which may be interpreted as an increased "water-accessible space" within PM area. Data obtained by studies of HEK293 cells transiently expressing FLAG-δ-OR by "antibody feeding" method were extended by analysis of the effect of cholesterol depletion on distribution of FLAG-δ-OR in sucrose density gradients prepared from HEK293 cells stably expressing FLAG-δ-OR. Major part of FLAG-δ-OR was co-localized with plasma membrane marker Na,K-ATPase and β-CDX treatment resulted in shift of PM fragments containing both FLAG-δ-OR and Na,K-ATPase to higher density. Thus, the decrease in content of the major lipid constituent of PM resulted in increased density of resulting PM fragments.

  2. Probing lipid membrane electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi

    The electrostatic properties of lipid bilayer membranes play a significant role in many biological processes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is highly sensitive to membrane surface potential in electrolyte solutions. With fully characterized probe tips, AFM can perform quantitative electrostatic analysis of lipid membranes. Electrostatic interactions between Silicon nitride probes and supported zwitterionic dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayer with a variable fraction of anionic dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS) were measured by AFM. Classical Gouy-Chapman theory was used to model the membrane electrostatics. The nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation was numerically solved with finite element method to provide the potential distribution around the AFM tips. Theoretical tip-sample electrostatic interactions were calculated with the surface integral of both Maxwell and osmotic stress tensors on tip surface. The measured forces were interpreted with theoretical forces and the resulting surface charge densities of the membrane surfaces were in quantitative agreement with the Gouy-Chapman-Stern model of membrane charge regulation. It was demonstrated that the AFM can quantitatively detect membrane surface potential at a separation of several screening lengths, and that the AFM probe only perturbs the membrane surface potential by external field created by the internai membrane dipole moment. The analysis yields a dipole moment of 1.5 Debye per lipid with a dipole potential of +275 mV for supported DOPC membranes. This new ability to quantitatively measure the membrane dipole density in a noninvasive manner will be useful in identifying the biological effects of the dipole potential. Finally, heterogeneous model membranes were studied with fluid electric force microscopy (FEFM). Electrostatic mapping was demonstrated with 50 nm resolution. The capabilities of quantitative electrostatic measurement and lateral charge density mapping make AFM a unique and powerful

  3. Emulsification using microporous membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran T. Vladisavljević

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Membrane emulsification is a process of injecting a pure dispersed phase or pre-emulsion through a microporous membrane into the continuous phase. As a result of the immiscibility of the two phases, droplets of the dispersed phase are formed at the outlets of membrane pores. The droplets formed in the process are removed from the membrane surface by applying cross-flow or stirring of the continuous phase or using a dynamic (rotating or vibrating membrane. The most commonly used membrane for emulsification is the Shirasu Porous Glass (SPG membrane, fabricated through spinodal decomposition in a melt consisting of Japanese volcanic ash (Shirasu, boric acid and calcium carbonate. Microsieve membranes are increasingly popular as an alternative to highly tortuous glass and ceramic membranes. Microsieves are usually fabricated from nickel by photolithography and electroplating or they can be manufactured from silicon nitride via Reactive Ion Etching (RIE. An advantage of microsieves compared to the SPG membrane is in much higher transmembrane fluxes and higher tolerance to fouling by the emulsion ingredients due to the existence of short, straight through pores. Unlike conventional emulsification devices such as high-pressure valve homogenisers and rotor-stator devices, membrane emulsification devices permit a precise control over the mean pore size over a wide range and during the process insignificant amount of energy is dissipated as heat. The drop size is primarily determined by the pore size, but it depends also on other parameters, such as membrane wettability, emulsion formulation, shear stress on the membrane surface, transmembrane pressure, etc.

  4. Joint measurements of PM2. 5 and light-absorptive PM in woodsmoke-dominated ambient and plume environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K. Max; Allen, George; Yang, Bo; Chen, Geng; Gu, Jiajun; Schwab, James; Felton, Dirk; Rattigan, Oliver

    2017-09-01

    DC, also referred to as Delta-C, measures enhanced light absorption of particulate matter (PM) samples at the near-ultraviolet (UV) range relative to the near-infrared range, which has been proposed previously as a woodsmoke marker due to the presence of enhanced UV light-absorbing materials from wood combustion. In this paper, we further evaluated the applications and limitations of using DC as both a qualitative and semi-quantitative woodsmoke marker via joint continuous measurements of PM2. 5 (by nephelometer pDR-1500) and light-absorptive PM (by 2-wavelength and 7-wavelength Aethalometertext">®) in three northeastern US cities/towns including Rutland, VT; Saranac Lake, NY and Ithaca, NY. Residential wood combustion has shown to be the predominant source of wintertime primary PM2. 5 emissions in both Rutland and Saranac Lake, where we conducted ambient measurements. In Ithaca, we performed woodsmoke plume measurements. We compared the pDR-1500 against a FEM PM2. 5 sampler (BAM 1020), and identified a close agreement between the two instruments in a woodsmoke-dominated ambient environment. The analysis of seasonal and diurnal trends of DC, black carbon (BC, 880 nm) and PM2. 5 concentrations supports the use of DC as an adequate qualitative marker. The strong linear relationships between PM2. 5 and DC in both woodsmoke-dominated ambient and plume environments suggest that DC can reasonably serve as a semi-quantitative woodsmoke marker. We propose a DC-based indicator for woodsmoke emission, which has shown to exhibit a relatively strong linear relationship with heating demand. While we observed reproducible PM2. 5-DC relationships in similar woodsmoke-dominated ambient environments, those relationships differ significantly with different environments, and among individual woodsmoke sources. Our analysis also indicates the potential for PM2. 5-DC relationships to be utilized to distinguish different combustion and operating conditions of woodsmoke sources, and

  5. Dynamic potential and surface morphology study of sertraline membrane sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, M.M.; Issa, Y.M.; Hassib, H.B.; Mohammed, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    New rapid, sensitive and simple electrometric method was developed to determine sertraline hydrochloride (Ser-Cl) in its pure raw material and pharmaceutical formulations. Membrane sensors based on heteropolyacids as ion associating material were prepared. Silicomolybdic acid (SMA), silicotungstic acid (STA) and phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) were used. The slope and limit of detection are 50.00, 60.00 and 53.24 mV/decade and 2.51, 5.62 and 4.85 μmol L−1 for Ser-ST, Ser-PM and Ser-SM membrane sensors, respectively. Linear range is 0.01–10.00 for the three sensors. These new sensors were used for the potentiometric titration of Ser-Cl using sodium tetraphenylborate as titrant. The surface morphologies of the prepared membranes with and without the modifier (ion-associate) were studied using scanning and atomic force microscopes. PMID:26257944

  6. Exposure of bakery and pastry apprentices to airborne flour dust using PM2.5 and PM10 personal samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounier-Geyssant, Estelle; Barthélemy, Jean-François; Mouchot, Lory; Paris, Christophe; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

    2007-11-01

    This study describes exposure levels of bakery and pastry apprentices to flour dust, a known risk factor of occupational asthma. Questionnaires on work activity were completed by 286 students. Among them, 34 performed a series of two personal exposure measurements using a PM2.5 and PM10 personal sampler during a complete work shift, one during a cold ("winter") period, and the other during a hot ("summer") period. Bakery apprentices experience greater average PM2.5 and PM10 exposures than pastry apprentices (p < 0.006). Exposure values for both particulate fractions are greater in winter (average PM10 values among bakers = 1.10 mg.m-3 [standard deviation: 0.83]) than in summer (0.63 mg.m-3 [0.36]). While complying with current European occupational limit values, these exposures exceed the ACGIH recommendations set to prevent sensitization to flour dust (0.5 mg.m-3). Over half the facilities had no ventilation system. Young bakery apprentices incur substantial exposure to known airways allergens, a situation that might elicit early induction of airways inflammation.

  7. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavala, Miguel; Velasco, Erik; Molina; Mario J.

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation.

  8. UVSiPM: A light detector instrument based on a SiPM sensor working in single photon counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sottile, G.; Russo, F.; Agnetta, G. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, IASF-Pa/INAF, Palermo (Italy); Belluso, M.; Billotta, S. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, OACT/INAF, Catania (Italy); Biondo, B. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, IASF-Pa/INAF, Palermo (Italy); Bonanno, G. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, OACT/INAF, Catania (Italy); Catalano, O.; Giarrusso, S. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, IASF-Pa/INAF, Palermo (Italy); Grillo, A. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, OACT/INAF, Catania (Italy); Impiombato, D.; La Rosa, G.; Maccarone, M.C.; Mangano, A. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, IASF-Pa/INAF, Palermo (Italy); Marano, D. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, OACT/INAF, Catania (Italy); Mineo, T.; Segreto, A.; Strazzeri, E. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, IASF-Pa/INAF, Palermo (Italy); Timpanaro, M.C. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, OACT/INAF, Catania (Italy)

    2013-06-15

    UVSiPM is a light detector designed to measure the intensity of electromagnetic radiation in the 320–900 nm wavelength range. It has been developed in the framework of the ASTRI project whose main goal is the design and construction of an end-to-end Small Size class Telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The UVSiPM instrument is composed by a multipixel Silicon Photo-Multiplier detector unit coupled to an electronic chain working in single photon counting mode with 10 nanosecond double pulse resolution, and by a disk emulator interface card for computer connection. The detector unit of UVSiPM is of the same kind as the ones forming the camera at the focal plane of the ASTRI prototype. Eventually, the UVSiPM instrument can be equipped with a collimator to regulate its angular aperture. UVSiPM, with its peculiar characteristics, will permit to perform several measurements both in lab and on field, allowing the absolute calibration of the ASTRI prototype.

  9. Revealing driving factors of China's PM2.5 pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Zhao, H.; Zhang, Q.; Geng, G.; Tong, D.; Peng, L.; He, K.

    2017-12-01

    China's rapid economic development and intensive energy consumption are deteriorating the air quality significantly. Understanding the key driving factors behind China's growing emissions of air pollutants and the accompanying PM2.5 pollution is critical for the development of China's clean air policies and also provides insight into how other emerging economies may develop a clear sky future. Here we reveal the socioeconomic drivers of the variations of China's PM2.5 concentrations during 2002-2012 by using an interdisciplinary framework that integrates an emission inventory model, an index decomposition analysis model, and a regional air quality model. The decomposition results demostrate that the improvements in emission efficiency and energy efficiency failed to offset the increased emissions of both primary PM2.5 and gaseous PM2.5 precursors (including SO2 NOx, and volatile organic compounds) triggered by the surging economic growth during 2002-2012. During the same time, the effects of energy structure, production structure and population growth were relatively less significant to all pollutants, which indicates the potential of large emission abatements through energy structure and production structure adjustment. Sensitivity simulations by the air quality model based on the provincial decomposition results also show that the economic growth have outpaced efficiency improvements in the increments of PM2.5 concentrations during the study years. As China continues to develop rapidly, future policies should promote further improvements in efficiency and accelerate the adjustments toward clean energy and production structures, which are critical for reducing China's emissions and alleviating the severe PM2.5 pollution.

  10. Health benefits of PM10 reduction in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouni, Mohammad Bagherian; Moradi, Mahsa; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Akbaripoor, Shayan; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Neisi, Abdolkazem; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Mohammadi, Mohammad Javad; Sheikhi, Reza; Kermani, Majid; Shirmardi, Mohammad; Naimabadi, Abolfazl; Gholami, Moeen; Mozhdehi, Saeed Pourkarim; Esmaeili, Mehdi; Barari, Kian

    2017-08-01

    Air pollution contains a complex mixture of poisonous compounds including particulate matter (PM) which has wide spectrum of adverse health effects. The main purpose of this study was to estimate the potential health impacts or benefits due to any changes in annual PM10 level in four major megacities of Iran. The required data of PM10 for AirQ software was collected from air quality monitoring stations in four megacities of Iran. The preprocessing was carried out using macro coding in excel environment. The relationship between different presumptive scenarios and health impacts was determined. We also assessed the health benefits of reducing PM10 to WHO Air Quality Guidelines (WHO-AQGs) and National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQSs) levels with regard to the rate of mortality and morbidity in studied cities. We found that the 10 μg/m3 increase in annual PM10 concentration is responsible for seven (95% CI 6-8) cases increase in total number of deaths per 2 × 105 person. We also found that 10.7, 7.2, 5.7, and 5.3% of total death is attributable to short-term exposure to air pollution for Ahvaz, Isfahan, Shiraz, and Tehran, respectively. We found that by attaining the WHO's proposed value for PM10, the potential health benefits of 89, 84, 79, and 78% were obtained in Ahvaz, Isfahan, Shiraz, and Tehran, respectively. The results also indicated that 27, 10, 3, and 1% of health impacts were attributed to dust storm days for Ahvaz, Isfahan, Shiraz, and Tehran, respectively.

  11. A PtdIns(4)P-driven electrostatic field controls cell membrane identity and signalling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Mathilde Laetitia Audrey; Platre, Matthieu Pierre; Marquès-Bueno, Maria Mar; Armengot, Laia; Stanislas, Thomas; Bayle, Vincent; Caillaud, Marie-Cécile; Jaillais, Yvon

    2016-06-20

    Many signalling proteins permanently or transiently localize to specific organelles. It is well established that certain lipids act as biochemical landmarks to specify compartment identity. However, they also influence membrane biophysical properties, which emerge as important features in specifying cellular territories. Such parameters include the membrane inner surface potential, which varies according to the lipid composition of each organelle. Here, we found that the plant plasma membrane (PM) and the cell plate of dividing cells have a unique electrostatic signature controlled by phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PtdIns(4)P). Our results further reveal that, contrarily to other eukaryotes, PtdIns(4)P massively accumulates at the PM, establishing it as a critical hallmark of this membrane in plants. Membrane surface charges control the PM localization and function of the polar auxin transport regulator PINOID as well as proteins from the BRI1 KINASE INHIBITOR1 (BKI1)/MEMBRANE ASSOCIATED KINASE REGULATOR (MAKR) family, which are involved in brassinosteroid and receptor-like kinase signalling. We anticipate that this PtdIns(4)P-driven physical membrane property will control the localization and function of many proteins involved in development, reproduction, immunity and nutrition.

  12. Evidence of electroweak production of $W^{\\pm}W^{\\pm}jj$ in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Dwuznik, Michal; Dyndal, Mateusz; Ebke, Johannes; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Heisterkamp, Simon; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matsushita, Takashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Moeller, Victoria; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petteni, Michele; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2014-10-03

    This Letter presents the first study of $W^{\\pm}W^{\\pm}jj$, same-electric-charge diboson production in association with two jets, using 20.3~fb$^{-1}$ of proton--proton collision data at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Events with two reconstructed same-charge leptons ($e^\\pm e^\\pm$, $e^\\pm \\mu^\\pm$, and $\\mu^\\pm \\mu^\\pm$) and two or more jets are analyzed. Production cross sections are measured in two fiducial regions, with different sensitivities to the electroweak and strong production mechanisms. First evidence for $W^{\\pm}W^{\\pm}jj$ production and electroweak-only $W^{\\pm}W^{\\pm}jj$ production is observed with a significance of $4.5$ and $3.6$ standard deviations respectively. The measured production cross sections are in agreement with Standard Model predictions. Limits at 95\\% confidence level are set on anomalous quartic gauge couplings.

  13. Investigation of air pollution of Shanghai subway stations in ventilation seasons in terms of PM2.5 and PM10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Erbao; Shen, Henggen; He, Lei; Zhang, Jiawen

    2017-07-01

    In November 2015, the PM 2.5 and PM 10 particulate matter (PM) levels in platforms, station halls, and rail areas of the Shangcheng and Jiashan Road Station were monitored to investigate air pollution in the Shanghai subway system. The results revealed that in subway stations, PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations were significantly higher than those in outdoor environments. In addition, particle concentrations in the platforms exceeded maximum levels that domestic safety standards allowed. Particularly on clear days, PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations in platforms were significantly higher than maximum standards levels. Owing to the piston effect, consistent time-varying trends were exhibited by PM 2.5 concentrations in platforms, station halls, and rail areas. Platform particle concentrations were higher than the amount in station halls, and they were higher on clear days than on rainy days. The time-varying trends of PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations in platforms and station halls were similar to each other. Activities within the station led to most of the inhalable particles within the station area. The mass concentration ratios of PM 2.5 and PM 10 in platforms were within 0.65-0.93, and fine particles were the dominant components.

  14. LHCb: Measurement of $D^{\\pm}$ Production Asymmetry at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Xing, Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Heavy quark production in 7 TeV pp collisions at the LHC need not be flavour symmetric. Here the production asymmetry, $A_p$ , between $D_s^+$ and $D_s^-$ mesons is measured using the $\\phi\\pi$ decay mode. The difference between $\\pi^+$ and $\\pi^-$ detection efficiencies is measured using the ratio of fully reconstructed to partially reconstructed $D^*$ decays. Using 1 fb$^{-1}$ of data collected with the LHCb detector, we find $A_p = (-0.39 \\pm 0.22 \\pm 0.08)$%.

  15. PM alloy 625M for high strength corrosion resistant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, F.J.; Floreen, S.

    1997-06-01

    In applications where the combination of high strength and good corrosion resistance are required, there have been only a few alloys of choice. A new powder metallurgy alloy has been developed, PM 625M, a niobium modification of Alloy 625, as a material to fill this need. One area of particular interest is the nuclear power industry, where many problems have been encountered with bolts, springs, and guidepins. Mechanical properties and stress corrosion cracking data of PM 625M are presented in this paper

  16. Progress Toward Sequestering Carbon Nanotubes in PmPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bley, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Sequestration of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in molecules of poly(m-phenylenevinylene-co-2,5-diocty-loxy-p-phenylenevinylene) [PmPV] is a candidate means of promoting dissolution of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) into epoxies for making strong, lightweight epoxy-matrix/carbon-fiber composite materials. Bare SWNTs cannot be incorporated because they are not soluble in epoxies. In the present approach, one exploits the tendency of PmPV molecules to wrap themselves around SWNTs without chemically bonding to them.

  17. Spatio-temporal characteristics of PM10 concentration across Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneng, Liew; Latif, Mohd Talib; Tangang, Fredolin T.; Mansor, Haslina

    The recurrence of forest fires in Southeast Asia and associated biomass burning, has contributed markedly to the problem of trans-boundary haze and the long-range movement of pollutants in the region. Air pollutants, specifically particulate matter in the atmosphere, have received extensive attention, mainly because of their adverse effect on people's health. In this study, the spatial and temporal variability of the PM10 concentration across Malaysia was analyzed by means of the rotated principal component analysis. The results suggest that the variability of the PM10 concentration can be decomposed into four dominant modes, each characterizing different spatial and temporal variations. The first mode characterizes the southwest coastal region of the Malaysian Peninsular with the PM10 showing a peak concentration during the summer monsoon i.e. when the winds are predominantly southerlies or southwesterlies, and a minimal concentration during the winter monsoon. The second mode features the region of western Borneo with the PM10 exhibiting a concentration surge in August-September, which is likely to be the result of the northward shift of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the subsequent rapid arrival of the rainy season. The third mode delineates the northern region of the Malaysian Peninsular with strong bimodality in the PM10 concentration. Seasonally, this component exhibits two concentration maxima during the late winter and summer monsoons, as well as two minima during the inter-monsoon periods. The fourth dominant mode characterizes the northern Borneo region which exhibits weaker seasonality of the PM10 concentration. Generally, the seasonal fluctuation of the PM10 concentration is largely associated with the seasonal variation of rainfall in the country. However, in addition to this, the PM10 concentration also fluctuates markedly in two timescale bands i.e. 10-20 days quasi-biweekly (QBW) and 30-60 days lower frequency (LF) band of the intra

  18. Trafficking of plant plasma membrane aquaporins: multiple regulation levels and complex sorting signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Adrien S; Chaumont, François

    2015-05-01

    Aquaporins are small channel proteins which facilitate the diffusion of water and small neutral molecules across biological membranes. Compared with animals, plant genomes encode numerous aquaporins, which display a large variety of subcellular localization patterns. More specifically, plant aquaporins of the plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) subfamily were first described as plasma membrane (PM)-resident proteins, but recent research has demonstrated that the trafficking and subcellular localization of these proteins are complex and highly regulated. In the past few years, PIPs emerged as new model proteins to study subcellular sorting and membrane dynamics in plant cells. At least two distinct sorting motifs (one cytosolic, the other buried in the membrane) are required to direct PIPs to the PM. Hetero-oligomerization and interaction with SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor protein attachment protein receptors) also influence the subcellular trafficking of PIPs. In addition to these constitutive processes, both the progression of PIPs through the secretory pathway and their dynamics at the PM are responsive to changing environmental conditions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Ion-conducting membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Sajjad, Syed Dawar; Gao, Yan; Liu, Zengcai; Chen, Qingmei

    2017-12-26

    An anion-conducting polymeric membrane comprises a terpolymer of styrene, vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s and vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x. R.sub.s is a positively charged cyclic amine group. R.sub.x is at least one constituent selected from the group consisting Cl, OH and a reaction product between an OH or Cl and a species other than a simple amine or a cyclic amine. The total weight of the vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x groups is greater than 0.3% of the total weight of the membrane. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is a Helper Membrane that increases the faradaic efficiency of an electrochemical cell into which the membrane is incorporated, and also allows product formation at lower voltages than in cells without the Helper Membrane.

  20. Gas separation with membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, G.; Michele, H.; Werner, U.

    1982-01-01

    Gas separation with membranes has already been tested in numerous fields of application, e.g. uranium enrichment of H 2 separation. In many of these processes the mass transfer units, so-called permeators, have to be connected in tandem in order to achieve high concentrations. A most economical operating method provides for each case an optimization of the cascades with regard to the membrane materials, construction and design of module. By utilization of the concentration gradient along the membrane a new process development has been accomplished - the continuously operating membrane rectification unit. Investment and operating costs can be reduced considerably for a number of separating processes by combining a membrane rectification unit with a conventional recycling cascade. However, the new procedure requires that the specifications for the module construction, flow design, and membrane properties be reconsidered. (orig.) [de

  1. Comparisons of urban and rural PM10−2.5 and PM2.5 mass concentrations and semi-volatile fractions in northeastern Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Clements

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Coarse (PM10−2.5 and fine (PM2.5 particulate matter in the atmosphere adversely affect human health and influence climate. While PM2.5 is relatively well studied, less is known about the sources and fate of PM10−2.5. The Colorado Coarse Rural-Urban Sources and Health (CCRUSH study measured PM10−2.5 and PM2.5 mass concentrations, as well as the fraction of semi-volatile material (SVM in each size regime (SVM2.5, SVM10−2.5, from 2009 to early 2012 in Denver and comparatively rural Greeley, Colorado. Agricultural operations east of Greeley appear to have contributed to the peak PM10−2.5 concentrations there, but concentrations were generally lower in Greeley than in Denver. Traffic-influenced sites in Denver had PM10−2.5 concentrations that averaged from 14.6 to 19.7 µg m−3 and mean PM10−2.5 ∕ PM10 ratios of 0.56 to 0.70, higher than at residential sites in Denver or Greeley. PM10−2.5 concentrations were more temporally variable than PM2.5 concentrations. Concentrations of the two pollutants were not correlated. Spatial correlations of daily averaged PM10−2.5 concentrations ranged from 0.59 to 0.62 for pairs of sites in Denver and from 0.47 to 0.70 between Denver and Greeley. Compared to PM10−2.5, concentrations of PM2.5 were more correlated across sites within Denver and less correlated between Denver and Greeley. PM10−2.5 concentrations were highest during the summer and early fall, while PM2.5 and SVM2.5 concentrations peaked in winter during periodic multi-day inversions. SVM10−2.5 concentrations were low at all sites. Diurnal peaks in PM10−2.5 and PM2.5 concentrations corresponded to morning and afternoon peaks of traffic activity, and were enhanced by boundary layer dynamics. SVM2.5 concentrations peaked around noon on both weekdays and weekends. PM10−2.5 concentrations at sites located near highways generally increased with wind speeds above about 3 m s−1. Little wind speed dependence was

  2. Chelating polymeric membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2015-01-22

    The present application offers a solution to the current problems associated with recovery and recycling of precious metals from scrap material, discard articles, and other items comprising one or more precious metals. The solution is premised on a microporous chelating polymeric membrane. Embodiments include, but are not limited to, microporous chelating polymeric membranes, device comprising the membranes, and methods of using and making the same.

  3. Gas separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, William J.

    1979-01-01

    A dry, fabric supported, polymeric gas separation membrane, such as cellulose acetate, is prepared by casting a solution of the polymer onto a shrinkable fabric preferably formed of synthetic polymers such as polyester or polyamide filaments before washing, stretching or calendering (so called griege goods). The supported membrane is then subjected to gelling, annealing, and drying by solvent exchange. During the processing steps, both the fabric support and the membrane shrink a preselected, controlled amount which prevents curling, wrinkling or cracking of the membrane in flat form or when spirally wound into a gas separation element.

  4. Anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  5. Photoresponsive nanostructured membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Madhavan, Poornima

    2016-07-26

    The perspective of adding stimuli-response to isoporous membranes stimulates the development of separation devices with pores, which would open or close under control of environment chemical composition, temperature or exposure to light. Changes in pH and temperature have been previously investigated. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the preparation of photoresponsive isoporous membranes, applying self-assembly non-solvent induced phase separation to a new light responsive block copolymer. First, we optimized the membrane formation by using poly(styrene-b-anthracene methyl methacrylate-b-methylmethacrylate) (PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA) copolymer, identifying the most suitable solvent, copolymer block length, and other parameters. The obtained final triblock copolymer membrane morphologies were characterized using atomic force and electron microscopy. The microscopic analysis reveals that the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer can form both lamellar and ordered hexagonal nanoporous structures on the membrane top layer in appropriate solvent compositions. The nanostructured membrane emits fluorescence due to the presence of the anthracene mid-block. On irradiation of light the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer membranes has an additional stimuli response. The anthracene group undergoes conformational changes by forming [4 + 4] cycloadducts and this alters the membrane\\'s water flux and solute retention. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. Isolation and characterization of plasma membranes from guinea pig ileum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    A plasma membrane fraction from guinea pig ileum has been isolated by extraction of a crude microsomal fraction with a low ionic strength buffer containing ATP and Ca 2+ . The extracted microsomes were subjected to sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation in the presence of 0.6 M KCl. The plasma membranes were substantially free from contamination with contractile proteins, mitochondria and sarco-plasmic reticulum. The plasma membrane vesicles were enriched 30-to-40-fold in Na + -K + -ATPase and 5'-nucleotidase activities. The plasma membrane vesicles accumulated Ca 2+ in the presence of ATP. The addition of Ca 2+ ionophore A23187 to vesicles loaded with Ca 2+ in the presence of ATP removed Ca 2+ completely from the vesicles in one minute. The Km values for the Ca 2+ -dependent phosphorylated intermediates of Ca 2+ -Mg 2+ -ATPase and Ca 2+ uptake were approximately 0.8 μM indicating that the phosphorylated intermediates represent phosphorylation of Ca 2+ pump ATPase. The 3 H-nitrendipine binding to plasma membranes was characterized by high affinity with Kd of 185 pM and B/sub max/ 1280 fmol/mg protein. The plasma membrane vesicles prepared by these procedures can prove useful for the study of ion transport

  7. Gel-based and gel-free search for plasma membrane proteins in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) augments the comprehensive data sets of membrane protein repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Pragya; Subba, Pratigya; Lande, Nilesh Vikram; Mangalaparthi, Kiran K; Prasad, T S Keshava; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2016-06-30

    Plasma membrane (PM) encompasses total cellular contents, serving as semi-porous barrier to cell exterior. This living barrier regulates all cellular exchanges in a spatio-temporal fashion. Most of the essential tasks of PMs including molecular transport, cell-cell interaction and signal transduction are carried out by their proteinaceous components, which make the PM protein repertoire to be diverse and dynamic. Here, we report the systematic analysis of PM proteome of a food legume, chickpea and develop a PM proteome reference map. Proteins were extracted from highly enriched PM fraction of four-week-old seedlings using aqueous two-phase partitioning. To address a population of PM proteins that is as comprehensive as possible, both gel-based and gel-free approaches were employed, which led to the identification of a set of 2732 non-redundant proteins. These included both integral proteins having bilayer spanning domains as well as peripheral proteins associated with PMs through posttranslational modifications or protein-protein interactions. Further, the proteins were subjected to various in-silico analyses and functionally classified based on their gene ontology. Finally an inventory of the complete set of PM proteins, identified in several monocot and dicot species, was created for comparative study with the generated PM protein dataset of chickpea. Chickpea, a rich source of dietary proteins, is the second most cultivated legume, which is grown over 10 million hectares of land worldwide. The annual global production of chickpea hovers around 8.5 million metric tons. Recent chickpea genome sequencing effort has provided a broad genetic basis for highlighting the important traits that may fortify other crop legumes. Improvement in chickpea varieties can further strengthen the world food security, which includes food availability, access and utilization. It is known that the phenotypic trait of a cultivar is the manifestation of the orchestrated functions of its

  8. Constraints on the CKM angle $\\gamma$ and extensions with $B^\\pm$ $\\to DK^{\\ast} {^\\pm}$ decays at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Nandi, Anita Katharine

    2016-01-01

    CKM angle $\\gamma$ is the least well know of the unitary triangle angles. The most common decay modes studied to determine $\\gamma$ are of the form $B \\to DK$. These have been extensively looked at in Run 1 at LHCb. Another possibility for LHCb are decays of the type $B^{\\pm} \\to DK^{*\\pm}$. A preliminary look at this final state in the Cabibbo favoured decay of the $D$, $D \\to K\\pi$ is presented. Data from Run1 and Run2 are used. Further analysis of the other $D \\to hh$ modes will give sensitivity to the CKM angle $\\gamma$.

  9. Fine PM measurements: personal and indoor air monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantunen, M; Hänninen, O; Koistinen, K; Hashim, J H

    2002-12-01

    This review compiles personal and indoor microenvironment particulate matter (PM) monitoring needs from recently set research objectives, most importantly the NRC published "Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter (1998)". Techniques and equipment used to monitor PM personal exposures and microenvironment concentrations and the constituents of the sampled PM during the last 20 years are then reviewed. Development objectives are set and discussed for personal and microenvironment PM samplers and monitors, for filter materials, and analytical laboratory techniques for equipment calibration, filter weighing and laboratory climate control. The progress is leading towards smaller sample flows, lighter, silent, independent (battery powered) monitors with data logging capacity to store microenvironment or activity relevant sensor data, advanced flow controls and continuous recording of the concentration. The best filters are non-hygroscopic, chemically pure and inert, and physically robust against mechanical wear. Semiautomatic and primary standard equivalent positive displacement flow meters are replacing the less accurate methods in flow calibration, and also personal sampling flow rates should become mass flow controlled (with or without volumetric compensation for pressure and temperature changes). In the weighing laboratory the alternatives are climatic control (set temperature and relative humidity), and mechanically simpler thermostatic heating, air conditioning and dehumidification systems combined with numerical control of temperature, humidity and pressure effects on flow calibration and filter weighing.

  10. The construction of control chart for PM10 functional data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaadan, Norshahida; Jemain, Abdul Aziz; Deni, Sayang Mohd

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a statistical procedure to construct a control chart for monitoring air quality (PM10) using functional data is proposed. A set of daily indices that represent the daily PM10 curves were obtained using Functional Principal Component Analysis (FPCA). By means of an iterative charting procedure, a reference data set that represented a stable PM10 process was obtained. The data were then used as a reference for monitoring future data. The application of the procedure was conducted using seven-year (2004-2010) period of recorded data from the Klang air quality monitoring station located in the Klang Valley region of Peninsular Malaysia. The study showed that the control chart provided a useful visualization tool for monitoring air quality and was capable in detecting abnormality in the process system. As in the case of Klang station, the results showed that with reference to 2004-2008, the air quality (PM10) in 2010 was better than that in 2009.

  11. On Power Refueling Management of HTR-PM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Furui; Luo Yong; Gao Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The refueling management is an important work of nuclear power plant , directly affecting its safety and economy. At present, the ordinary commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has developed more mature in the refueling management, and formed a set of relatively complete system and methods.The High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Pebble-modules Demonstration Project(HTR-PM) has significant differences with the ordinary PWR nuclear power plant in the fuel morphology and the refueling mode. It adopts the spherical fuel element and the on-power refueling. Therefore, the HTR-PM refueling management has its own unique characteristics, but currently there is no mature experience to use for reference across the world. This paper gives a brief introduction to the HTR-PM on power refueling management, including the refueling management system construction, the refueling strategy, the fuel element internal transportation,charging and discharging, etc. It aims at finding the befitting HTR-PM refueling management methods in view of its own unique characteristics in order to ensure the orderly development of the refueling management and the refueling safety. (author)

  12. Assesment of Pb concentration in PM{sub 2,5} and PM{sub 10} at Serpong area; Asesmen konsentrasi Pb pada PM{sub 2,5} dan PM{sub 10} di kawasan Serpong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rita,; Hamonangan, Esrom; Halimah Syafrul, E-mail: ritaiim@yahoo.com [Pusat Sarana Pengendalian Dampak Lingkungan, Kemenneg Lingkungan Hidup, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 (Indonesia); Santoso, Muhayatun; Lestian, Diah Dwiana [Pusat Tenaga Nuklir Bahan dan Radiometri (PTNBR) - BATAN, JI. Tamansari NO.71 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2010-11-15

    Ambient air pollution, especially Pb, in Serpong area has been detected since 1996. Pollution caused by heavy metals Pb deserve serious attention because of the impact is very influential on health such as reduced levels of intelligence, learning disability, symptoms of anemia, barriers to growth, poor cognitive development, weakened immune system, symptoms of autism, and even premature death. This study was conducted to determine Pb concentration of PM{sub 2,5} and PM{sub 10} in four residential locations in Serpong area as part of a series of comprehensive studies for the characterization and identification of sources pollution. Particulates were sampled using Gent Stacked Filter Unit Sampler at 3 housing locations and 1 office location in the period of August 25 to November 3, 2008, Samples were analyzed using nuclear analytical techniques, Proton Induced X-ray Emission. The results showed that the activity concentration of Pb in PM{sub 2,5} for the location of Setu, Pusarpedal, Batan Indah, and BSD were in the range of 33-388, 12-254, 6-282, and 5-332 ng/m{sup 3}, while for PM{sub 10} were 69-732, 59-647, 31-810, and 28718 ng/m{sup 3}, respectively, In general, Pb concentrations in Serpong area were higher than those in some other cities in Asia region. These results are expected to be used as scientific based reference in formulating, taking action, and appropriate policies to overcome environmental problems. (author)

  13. Transient thermal analysis of flux switching PM machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilhan, E.; Kremers, M.F.J.; Motoasca, T.E.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.

    2013-01-01

    Flux switching permanent magnet (FSPM) machines bring together the merits of switched reluctance and PM synchronous motors. FSPM employs armature windings and PMs together in the stator region, therefore the proximity of the windings PMs makes a thermal model mandatory. In literature, thermal

  14. PM2.5 in Dutch dwellings due to cooking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Borsboom, W.A.; Kemp, R.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Cooking emissions have long been seen as an odour problem. However recent studies showed that Particulate Matter (PM) is the main health risk of indoor air and cooking can be a major source. A small field study within 9 Dutch dwellings indicates that depending on the conditions cooking can have a

  15. Development of ambient PM 2.5 management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    "Using analyzed and modeled field data on air quality and meteorology, researchers identified major contributors of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Fairbanks. This : project was an effort to help the city meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ...

  16. Health and Environmental Effects of Particulate Matter (PM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter pose the greatest problems, because they can get deep into your lungs, and some may even get into your bloodstream. Fine particles (PM2.5) are the main cause of reduced visibility (haze).

  17. FINE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) AND ORGANIC SPECIATION OF FIREPLACE EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents a summary of fireplace particle size and organic speciation data gathered to date in an on-going project. Tests are being conducted in a residential wood combustion (RWC) laboratory on three factory-built fireplaces. RWC wood smoke particles <10?m (PM10) con...

  18. Sensorless Control of PM Synchronous Motors and Brushless DC Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesinos, D.; Galceran, Samuel; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the literature addressing sensorless operation methods of PM brushless machines. The methods explained are state-of-the-art of open and closed loop control strategies. The closed loop review includes those methods based on voltage and current measurements, those me...

  19. PM2.5 measurement protocol for offices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Voogt, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    People are more than 80% of their time indoors. However, in contrast to ambient air, no (legal) limits for indoor particulate matter exist. This paper describes a measurement protocol to determine the yearly averaged indoor PM2,5 concentration and gives reference values for five quality classes:

  20. PM10 source apportionment study in Pleasant Valley, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egami, R.T.; Chow, J.C.; Watson, J.G.; DeLong, T.

    1990-01-01

    A source apportionment study was conducted between March 18 and April 4, 1988, at Pleasant Valley, Nevada, to evaluate air pollutant concentrations to which community residents were exposed and the source contributions to those pollutants. Daily PM 10 samples were taken for chemical speciation of 40 trace elements, ions, and organic and elemental carbon. This paper reports that the objectives of this case study are: to determine the emissions source composition of the potential upwind source, a geothermal plant; to measure the ambient particulate concentration and its chemical characteristics in Pleasant Valley; and to estimate the contributions of different emissions sources to PM 10 . The study found that: particulate emissions from the geothermal cooling-tower plume consisted primarily of sulfate, ammonia, chloride, and trace elements; no significant quantities of toxic inorganic species were found in the ambient air; ambient PM 10 concentrations in Pleasant Valley were within Federal standards; and source contribution to PM 10 were approximately 60% geological material; 20% motor vehicle exhaust; and 10% cooling-tower plume

  1. TreePM Method for Two-Dimensional Cosmological Simulations ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    We discuss the integration of the equations of motion that we use in the 2d TreePM code in section 7. .... spaced values of r in order to keep interpolation errors in control. .... hence we cannot use the usual leap-frog method. We recast the ...

  2. Effect of nitrate supply and mycorrhizal inoculation on characteristics of tobacco root plasma membrane vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moche, Martin; Stremlau, Stefanie; Hecht, Lars; Göbel, Cornelia; Feussner, Ivo; Stöhr, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Plant plasma membrane (pm) vesicles from mycorrhizal tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun) roots were isolated with negligible fungal contamination by the aqueous two-phase partitioning technique as proven by fatty acid analysis. Palmitvaccenic acid became apparent as an appropriate indicator for fungal membranes in root pm preparations. The pm vesicles had a low specific activity of the vanadate-sensitive ATPase and probably originated from non-infected root cells. In a phosphate-limited tobacco culture system, root colonisation by the vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus mosseae, is inhibited by external nitrate in a dose-dependent way. However, detrimental high concentrations of 25 mM nitrate lead to the highest colonisation rate observed, indicating that the defence system of the plant is impaired. Nitric oxide formation by the pm-bound nitrite:NO reductase increased in parallel with external nitrate supply in mycorrhizal roots in comparison to the control plants, but decreased under excess nitrate. Mycorrhizal pm vesicles had roughly a twofold higher specific activity as the non-infected control plants when supplied with 10-15 mM nitrate.

  3. Latent nitrate reductase activity is associated with the plasma membrane of corn roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M. R.; Grimes, H. D.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Latent nitrate reductase activity (NRA) was detected in corn (Zea mays L., Golden Jubilee) root microsome fractions. Microsome-associated NRA was stimulated up to 20-fold by Triton X-100 (octylphenoxy polyethoxyethanol) whereas soluble NRA was only increased up to 1.2-fold. Microsome-associated NRA represented up to 19% of the total root NRA. Analysis of microsomal fractions by aqueous two-phase partitioning showed that the membrane-associated NRA was localized in the second upper phase (U2). Analysis with marker enzymes indicated that the U2 fraction was plasma membrane (PM). The PM-associated NRA was not removed by washing vesicles with up to 1.0 M NACl but was solubilized from the PM with 0.05% Triton X-100. In contrast, vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity was not solubilized from the PM by treatment with 0.1% Triton X-100. The results show that a protein capable of reducing nitrate is embedded in the hydrophobic region of the PM of corn roots.

  4. Membrane fusion and exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, R; Südhof, T C

    1999-01-01

    Membrane fusion involves the merger of two phospholipid bilayers in an aqueous environment. In artificial lipid bilayers, fusion proceeds by means of defined transition states, including hourglass-shaped intermediates in which the proximal leaflets of the fusing membranes are merged whereas the distal leaflets are separate (fusion stalk), followed by the reversible opening of small aqueous fusion pores. Fusion of biological membranes requires the action of specific fusion proteins. Best understood are the viral fusion proteins that are responsible for merging the viral with the host cell membrane during infection. These proteins undergo spontaneous and dramatic conformational changes upon activation. In the case of the paradigmatic fusion proteins of the influenza virus and of the human immunodeficiency virus, an amphiphilic fusion peptide is inserted into the target membrane. The protein then reorients itself, thus forcing the fusing membranes together and inducing lipid mixing. Fusion of intracellular membranes in eukaryotic cells involves several protein families including SNAREs, Rab proteins, and Sec1/Munc-18 related proteins (SM-proteins). SNAREs form a novel superfamily of small and mostly membrane-anchored proteins that share a common motif of about 60 amino acids (SNARE motif). SNAREs reversibly assemble into tightly packed helical bundles, the core complexes. Assembly is thought to pull the fusing membranes closely together, thus inducing fusion. SM-proteins comprise a family of soluble proteins that bind to certain types of SNAREs and prevent the formation of core complexes. Rab proteins are GTPases that undergo highly regulated GTP-GDP cycles. In their GTP form, they interact with specific proteins, the effector proteins. Recent evidence suggests that Rab proteins function in the initial membrane contact connecting the fusing membranes but are not involved in the fusion reaction itself.

  5. Climatology of atmospheric PM10 concentration in the Po Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigi, A.; Ghermandi, G.

    2014-01-01

    The limits to atmospheric pollutant concentration set by the European Commission provide a challenging target for the municipalities in the Po Valley, because of the characteristic climatic conditions and high population density of this region. In order to assess climatology and trends in the concentration of atmospheric particles in the Po Valley, a dataset of PM10 data from 41 sites across the Po Valley have been analysed, including both traffic and background sites (either urban, suburban or rural). Of these 41 sites, 18 with 10 yr or longer record have been analysed for long term trend in de-seasonalized monthly means, in annual quantiles and in monthly frequency distribution. A widespread significant decreasing trend has been observed at most sites, up to few percent per year, by Generalised Least Square and Theil-Sen method. All 41 sites have been tested for significant weekly periodicity by Kruskal-Wallis test for mean anomalies and by Wilcoxon test for weekend effect magnitude. A significant weekly periodicity has been observed for most PM10 series, particularly in summer and ascribed mainly to anthropic particulate emissions. A cluster analysis has been applied in order to highlight stations sharing similar pollution conditions over the reference period. Five clusters have been found, two gathering the metropolitan areas of Torino and Milano and their respective nearby sites and the other three clusters gathering north-east, north-west and central Po Valley sites respectively. Finally the observed trends in atmospheric PM10 have been compared to trends in provincial emissions of particulates and PM precursors, and analysed along with data on vehicular fleet age, composition and fuel sales. Significant basin-wide drop in emissions occurred for gaseous pollutants, contrarily to emissions of PM10 and PM2.5, whose drop resulted low and restricted to few provinces. It is not clear whether the decrease for only gaseous emissions is sufficient to explain the

  6. Fine particulate matter (PM) and organic speciation of fireplace emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvis, C.R.; McCrillis, R.C.; Kariher, P.H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of fireplace particle size and organic speciation data gathered to date in an ongoing project. Tests are being conducted in a residential wood combustion (RWC) laboratory on three factory-built fireplaces. RWC wood smoke particles <10 microm (PM10) consist primarily of a mixture of organic compounds that have condensed into droplets; therefore, the size distribution and total mass are influenced by temperature of the sample during its collection. During the series 1 tests (15 tests), the dilution tunnel used to cool and dilute the stack gases gave an average mixed gas temperature of 47.3 C and an average dilution ration of 4.3. Averages for the PM2.5 (particles <2.5 microm) and PM10 fractions were 74 and 84%, respectively. For the series 2 tests, the dilution tunnel was modified, reducing the average mixed gas temperatures to 33.8 C and increasing the average dilution ratio to 11.0 in tests completed to date. PM2.5 and PM10 fractions were 83 and 91%, respectively. Since typical winter-time mixed gas temperatures would usually be less than 10 C, these size fraction results probably represent the lower bound; the PM10 and PM2.5 size fraction results might be higher at typical winter temperatures. The particles collected on the first stage were light gray and appeared to include inorganic ash. Particles collected on the remainder of the stages were black and appeared to be condensed organics because there was noticeable lateral bleeding of the collected materials into the filter substrate. Total particulate emission rates ranged from 10.3 to 58.4 g/h; corresponding emission factors ranged from 3.3 to 14.9 g/kg of dry wood burned. A wide range of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 8270 semivolatile organic compounds were found in the emissions; of the 17 target compounds quantified, major constituents are phenol, 2-methylphenol, 4-methylphenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, and naphthalene

  7. Crosstalk of PmCBFs and PmDAMs Based on the Changes of Phytohormones under Seasonal Cold Stress in the Stem of Prunus mume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants facing the seasonal variations always need a growth restraining mechanism when temperatures turn down. C-repeat binding factor (CBF genes work essentially in the cold perception. Despite lots of researches on CBFs, the multiple crosstalk is still interesting on their interaction with hormones and dormancy-associated MADS (DAM genes in the growth and dormancy control. Therefore, this study highlights roles of PmCBFs in cold-induced dormancy from different orgens. And a sense-response relationship between PmCBFs and PmDAMs is exhibited in this process, jointly regulated by six PmCBFs and PmDAM4–6. Meantime, GA3 and ABA showed negative and positive correlation with PmCBFs expression levels, respectively. We also find a high correlation between IAA and PmDAM1–3. Finally, we display the interaction mode of PmCBFs and PmDAMs, especially PmCBF1-PmDAM1. These results can disclose another view of molecular mechanism in plant growth between cold-response pathway and dormancy regulation together with genes and hormones.

  8. The PM2.5 threshold for aerosol extinction in the Beijing megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingbin; Xin, Jinyuan; Liu, Zirui; Zhang, Kequan; Tang, Guiqian; Zhang, Wenyu; Wang, Yuesi

    2017-10-01

    Particulate pollution has remained at a high level in the megacity of Beijing in the past decade. The PM2.5, PM10, aerosol optical depth (AOD), Angstrom exponent(α), and PM2.5/PM10 ratio (the proportion of PM2.5 in PM10) in Beijing were 70±6 μg m-3, 128±6 μg m-3, 0.57 ± 0.05, 1.10 ± 0.08, 45 ± 4%, respectively, from 2005 to 2014. The annual means of PM concentration, AOD, α, and PM2.5/PM10 ratio decreased slightly during this decade, meanwhile PM concentration increased in the winter. Furthermore, we found there were thresholds of PM2.5 concentration for aerosol extinction. When the PM concentration was lower than a certain threshold, AOD decreased quickly with the decline of PM concentration. To make the improvement of the particle pollution more noticeable, the PM concentration should be controlled under the threshold. The annual averaged threshold is 63 μg m-3, and the threshold values reached the maximum of 74 μg m-3 in spring, ranged from 54 to 56 μg m-3 in the three other seasons. The threshold values ranged from 55 to 77 μg m-3 under other relevant factors, including air masses directions and relative humidity.

  9. The variability in iron speciation in size fractionated residual oil fly ash particulate matter (ROFA PM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanaik, Sidhartha; Huggins, Frank E; Huffman, Gerald P

    2016-08-15

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) containing iron can catalyze Fenton reaction leading to the production of reactive oxygen species in cells. It can also catalyze atmospheric redox reaction. These reactions are governed by the physicochemical characteristics of iron in ambient PM. As a surrogate for ambient PM, we prepared residual oil fly ash PM (ROFA PM) in a practical fire tube boiler firing residual oils with varying sulfur and ash contents. The ROFA particles were resolved into fine PM or PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter (AD)iron speciation in PM2.5+ was ascertained using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and leaching method while that in PM2.5 was reported earlier. The results of both studies are compared to get an insight into the variability in the iron speciation in different size fractions. The results show the predominance of ferric sulfate, with a minor spinal ferrite in both PM (i.e. ZnxNi1-xFe2O4 in PM2.5, ZnFe2O4 in PM2.5+). The iron solubility in ROFA PM depends on its speciation, mode of incorporation of iron into particle's carbonaceous matrix, the grade and composition of oils, and pH of the medium. The soluble fraction of iron in PM is critical in assessing its interaction with the biological systems and its toxic potential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Plasma membrane ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael Broberg; Bækgaard, Lone; Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    2011-01-01

    The plasma membrane separates the cellular contents from the surrounding environment. Nutrients must enter through the plasma membrane in order to reach the cell interior, and toxic metabolites and several ions leave the cell by traveling across the same barrier. Biological pumps in the plasma me...

  11. Polymide gas separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yong; Bikson, Benjamin; Nelson, Joyce Katz

    2004-09-14

    Soluble polyamic acid salt (PAAS) precursors comprised of tertiary and quaternary amines, ammonium cations, sulfonium cations, or phosphonium cations, are prepared and fabricated into membranes that are subsequently imidized and converted into rigid-rod polyimide articles, such as membranes with desirable gas separation properties. A method of enhancing solubility of PAAS polymers in alcohols is also disclosed.

  12. Enantioseparation with liquid membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gössi, Angelo; Riedl, Wolfgang; Schuur, Boelo

    Chiral resolution of racemic products is a challenging and important task in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical, flavor, polymer and fragrances industries. One of the options for these challenging separations is to use liquid membranes. Although liquid membranes have been known for almost four decades

  13. Silicon nitride nanosieve membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tong, D.H.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Gadgil, V.J.; Bostan, C.G.; Berenschot, Johan W.; van Rijn, C.J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2004-01-01

    An array of very uniform cylindrical nanopores with a pore diameter as small as 25 nm has been fabricated in an ultrathin micromachined silicon nitride membrane using focused ion beam (FIB) etching. The pore size of this nanosieve membrane was further reduced to below 10 nm by coating it with

  14. Membrane capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Wal, van der A.

    2010-01-01

    Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is an ion-removal process based on applying an electrical potential difference across an aqueous solution which flows in between oppositely placed porous electrodes, in front of which ion-exchange membranes are positioned. Due to the applied potential, ions

  15. Photoresponsive nanostructured membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Madhavan, Poornima; Sutisna, Burhannudin; Sougrat, Rachid; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The perspective of adding stimuli-response to isoporous membranes stimulates the development of separation devices with pores, which would open or close under control of environment chemical composition, temperature or exposure to light. Changes in pH and temperature have been previously investigated. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the preparation of photoresponsive isoporous membranes, applying self-assembly non-solvent induced phase separation to a new light responsive block copolymer. First, we optimized the membrane formation by using poly(styrene-b-anthracene methyl methacrylate-b-methylmethacrylate) (PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA) copolymer, identifying the most suitable solvent, copolymer block length, and other parameters. The obtained final triblock copolymer membrane morphologies were characterized using atomic force and electron microscopy. The microscopic analysis reveals that the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer can form both lamellar and ordered hexagonal nanoporous structures on the membrane top layer in appropriate solvent compositions. The nanostructured membrane emits fluorescence due to the presence of the anthracene mid-block. On irradiation of light the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer membranes has an additional stimuli response. The anthracene group undergoes conformational changes by forming [4 + 4] cycloadducts and this alters the membrane's water flux and solute retention. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. Challenges in evaluating PM concentration levels, commuting exposure, and mask efficacy in reducing PM exposure in growing, urban communities in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Disa; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Wilson, James; Maidin, Alimin

    2016-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) contributes to an increased risk of respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses, cancer, and preterm birth complications. This project assessed PM exposure in Eastern Indonesia's largest city, where air quality has not been comprehensively monitored. We examined the efficacy of wearing masks as an individual intervention effort to reduce in-transit PM exposures. Handheld particulate counters were used to investigate ambient air quality for spatial analysis, as well as the differences in exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 (μg/m(3)) by different transportation methods [e.g. motorcycle (n=97), pete-pete (n=53), and car (n=55); note: n=1 means 1m(3) of air sample]. Mask efficacy to reduce PM exposure was evaluated [e.g. surgical masks (n=39), bandanas (n=52), and motorcycle masks (n=39)]. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to provide a range of uncertainty in exposure assessment. Overall PM10 levels (91±124 μg/m(3)) were elevated compared to the World Health Organization (WHO)'s 24-hour air quality guideline (50 μg/m(3)). While average PM2.5 levels (9±14 μg/m(3)) were below the WHO's guideline (25 μg/m(3)), measurements up to 139 μg/m(3) were observed. Compared to cars, average motorcycle and pete-pete PM exposures were four and three times higher for PM2.5, and 13 and 10 times higher for PM10, respectively. Only surgical masks were consistent in lowering PM2.5 and PM10 (pmasks. Individual interventions can effectively reduce individual PM exposures; however, policy interventions will be needed to improve the overall air quality and create safer transportation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of PM-PEMS for in-use measurements conducted during validation testing for the PM-PEMS measurement allowance program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Yusuf; Johnson, Kent C.; Durbin, Thomas D.; Jung, Heejung; Cocker, David R.; Bishnu, Dipak; Giannelli, Robert

    2012-08-01

    This study provides an evaluation of the latest Particulate Matter-Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PM-PEMS) under different environmental and in-use conditions. It characterizes four PM measurement systems based on different measurement principles. At least three different units were tested for each PM-PEMS to account for variability. These PM-PEMS were compared with a UC Riverside's mobile reference laboratory (MEL). PM measurements were made from a class 8 truck with a 2008 Cummins diesel engine with a diesel particulate filter (DPF). A bypass around the DPF was installed in the exhaust to achieve a brake specific PM (bsPM) emissions level of 25 mg hp-1h-1. PM was dominated by elemental carbon (EC) during non-regeneration conditions and by hydrated sulfate (H2SO4.6H2O) during regeneration. The photo-acoustic PM-PEMS performed best, with a linear regression slope of 0.90 and R2 of 0.88 during non-regenerative conditions. With the addition of a filter, the photo-acoustic PM-PEMS slightly over reported than the total PM mass (slope = 1.10, R2 = 0.87). Under these same non-regeneration conditions, a PM-PEMS equipped with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technology performed the poorest, and had a slope of 0.22 and R2 of 0.13. Re-tests performed on upgraded QCM PM-PEMS showed a better slope (0.66), and a higher R2 of 0.25. In the case of DPF regeneration, all PM-PEMS performed poorly, with the best having a slope of 0.20 and R2 of 0.78. Particle size distributions (PSD) showed nucleation during regeneration, with a shift of particle size to smaller diameters (˜64 nm to ˜13 nm) with elevated number concentrations when compared to non-regeneration conditions.

  18. The fabrication and testing of electrospun silica nanofiber membranes for the detection of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsou, P-H; Kameoka, J; Chou, C-K; Saldana, S M; Hung, M-C

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated electrospun silica nanofiber membranes and investigated their use in biomolecular sensing. The diameter, porosity and surface-to-volume ratio of nanofiber membranes were investigated under different fabrication conditions. Using this type of nanofiber membrane, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed, and the results were compared with those obtained with conventional ELISA using polystyrene well plates. The minimum detectable concentration was determined as 0.19 ng ml -1 (1.6 pM), which is 32 times lower than that of conventional ELISA. In addition, the detection time for all processes for the nanofiber membrane was reduced to 1 h, compared with 1 day for conventional ELISA. The increased sensitivity, faster reaction time, and affordability of the nanofiber membrane make it well suited for bio-chip use.

  19. Molecular Interactions at Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagalski, Vivien

    . Today, we know more than ever before about the properties of biological membranes. Advanced biophysical techniques and sophisticated membrane models allow us to answer specific questions about the structure of the components within membranes and their interactions. However, many detailed structural...... the surface-immobilization of LeuT by exchanging the detergent with natural phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids. Various surface sensitive techniques, including neutron reflectometry (NR), are employed and finally enabled us to confirm the gross structure of LeuT in a lipid environment as predicted by molecular...... dynamic simulations. In a second study, the co-localization of three toxic plant-derived diterpene resin acids (RAs) within DPPC membranes was investigated. These compounds are reported to disrupt the membrane and increase its fluidity. The RAs used in this study vary in their toxicity while...

  20. Membrane technology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, F.H.

    1997-01-01

    The main purpose of this dissertation is to prepare and characterize some synthetic membranes obtained by radiation-induced graft copolymerization of and A Am unitary and binary system onto nylon-6 films. The optimum conditions at which the grafting process proceeded homogeneously were determined. Some selected properties of the prepared membranes were studied. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), x-ray diffraction (XRD), mechanical properties and U.V./vis, instruments and techniques were used to characterize the prepared membranes. The use of such membranes for the decontamination of radioactive waste and some heavy metal ions as water pollutants were investigated. These grafted membranes showed good cation exchange properties and may be of practical interest in waste water treatment whether this water was radioactive or not. 4 tabs., 68 figs., 146 refs

  1. Particulate pollution of PM10 and PM2.5 due to strong anthropopressure in Sosnowiec city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Cembrzyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Air contamination with particulate matter causes a serious problem in large cities and urban-industrial agglomerations both in Poland and Europe. Anthropogenic sources of air pollution in urban areas are emissions from municipal, industrial and transportation sector. Many epidemiological studies have revealed that exposure to air pollution, especially the fine particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2,5 micrometer, can pose a threat to human health exposed to exceedingly high concentrations of particulate matter. Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to evaluate PM10 and PM2,5 mass concentrations in autumn and winter season in the city of Sosnowiec, in relation to ambient air quality standards in Poland and the European Union. Results: The average concentrations of PM10 and PM2,5 in autumn-winter seasons in Sosnowiec city 2010–2011 were 2,1 to 2,7 times higher than limit values, specified in the legislation acts.

  2. Exposure of bakery and pastry apprentices to airborne flour dust using PM2.5 and PM10 personal samplers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paris Christophe

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes exposure levels of bakery and pastry apprentices to flour dust, a known risk factor of occupational asthma. Methods Questionnaires on work activity were completed by 286 students. Among them, 34 performed a series of two personal exposure measurements using a PM2.5 and PM10 personal sampler during a complete work shift, one during a cold ("winter" period, and the other during a hot ("summer" period. Results Bakery apprentices experience greater average PM2.5 and PM10 exposures than pastry apprentices (p 10 values among bakers = 1.10 mg.m-3 [standard deviation: 0.83] than in summer (0.63 mg.m-3 [0.36]. While complying with current European occupational limit values, these exposures exceed the ACGIH recommendations set to prevent sensitization to flour dust (0.5 mg.m-3. Over half the facilities had no ventilation system. Conclusion Young bakery apprentices incur substantial exposure to known airways allergens, a situation that might elicit early induction of airways inflammation.

  3. Fugitive emission rates assessment of PM2.5 and PM10 from open storage piles in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yiqi; Liu, Tao; He, Jiao

    2018-03-01

    An assessment of the fugitive emission rates of PM2.5 and PM10 from an open static coal and mine storage piles. The experiment was conducted at a large union steel enterprises in the East China region to effectively control the fugitive particulate emissions pollution on daily work and extreme weather conditions. Wind tunnel experiments conducted on the surface of static storage piles, and it generated specific fugitive emission rates (SERs) at ground level of between ca.10-1 and ca.102 (mg/m2·s) for PM2.5 and between ca.101 and ca.103 (mg/m2·s) for PM10 under the u*(wind velocity) between ca.3.0 (m/s) and 10.0 (m/s). Research results show that SERs of different materials differ a lot. Material particulate that has lower surface moisture content generate higher SER and coal material generate higher SER than mine material. For material storage piles with good water infiltrating properties, aspersion is a very effective measure for control fugitive particulate emission.

  4. Assesment of Pb concentration in PM_2_,_5 and PM_1_0 at Serpong area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rita; Esrom Hamonangan; Halimah Syafrul; Muhayatun Santoso; Diah Dwiana Lestian

    2010-01-01

    Ambient air pollution, especially Pb, in Serpong area has been detected since 1996. Pollution caused by heavy metals Pb deserve serious attention because of the impact is very influential on health such as reduced levels of intelligence, learning disability, symptoms of anemia, barriers to growth, poor cognitive development, weakened immune system, symptoms of autism, and even premature death. This study was conducted to determine Pb concentration of PM_2_,_5 and PM_1_0 in four residential locations in Serpong area as part of a series of comprehensive studies for the characterization and identification of sources pollution. Particulates were sampled using Gent Stacked Filter Unit Sampler at 3 housing locations and 1 office location in the period of August 25 to November 3, 2008, Samples were analyzed using nuclear analytical techniques, Proton Induced X-ray Emission. The results showed that the activity concentration of Pb in PM_2_,_5 for the location of Setu, Pusarpedal, Batan Indah, and BSD were in the range of 33-388, 12-254, 6-282, and 5-332 ng/m"3, while for PM_1_0 were 69-732, 59-647, 31-810, and 28718 ng/m"3, respectively, In general, Pb concentrations in Serpong area were higher than those in some other cities in Asia region. These results are expected to be used as scientific based reference in formulating, taking action, and appropriate policies to overcome environmental problems. (author)

  5. PIXE characterization of PM10 and PM2.5 particulate matter collected during the winter season in Shanghai city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanxun; Wang Yingsong; Li Delu; Li Aiguo; Li Yan; Zhang Guilin

    2006-01-01

    The samples of PM2.5 and PM10 inhalable particulate matter had been collected during the period of December 2002-January 2003 at nineteen representative sites of Shanghai urban and suburb area in order to investigate the chemical characterization of aerosol particle in winter. The samples were analyzed to determine the average concentrations for up to twenty elements by means of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). It was found that the average elemental concentrations in the urban center are higher than those in the suburb, except for Ti and P. The particulate mass data demonstrate that the ratio range of PM2.5/PM10 is from 0.32 to 0.85 and its average ratio is 0.6. The result of the enrichment factor shows that the inhalable particles may be divided into two categories, i.e., soil elements from the earth crust and anthropogenic pollution elements. It is noticed that toxic or harmful elements such as S, As, Pb, Ni, Mn and Se are enriched mainly in fine particles with diameter less than 2.5 μm. The fingerprints of major pollution sources such as coal (or oil) burning, vehicle exhaust emission and industry are also presented and discussed. (author)

  6. Enrichment and proteomic analysis of plasma membrane from rat dorsal root ganglions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yong

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons are primary sensory neurons that conduct neuronal impulses related to pain, touch and temperature senses. Plasma membrane (PM of DRG cells plays important roles in their functions. PM proteins are main performers of the functions. However, mainly due to the very low amount of DRG that leads to the difficulties in PM sample collection, few proteomic analyses on the PM have been reported and it is a subject that demands further investigation. Results By using aqueous polymer two-phase partition in combination with high salt and high pH washing, PMs were efficiently enriched, demonstrated by western blot analysis. A total of 954 non-redundant proteins were identified from the plasma membrane-enriched preparation with CapLC-MS/MS analysis subsequent to protein separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE or shotgun digestion. 205 (21.5% of the identified proteins were unambiguously assigned as PM proteins, including a large number of signal proteins, receptors, ion channel and transporters. Conclusion The aqueous polymer two-phase partition is a simple, rapid and relatively inexpensive method. It is well suitable for the purification of PMs from small amount of tissues. Therefore, it is reasonable for the DRG PM to be enriched by using aqueous two-phase partition as a preferred method. Proteomic analysis showed that DRG PM was rich in proteins involved in the fundamental biological processes including material exchange, energy transformation and information transmission, etc. These data would help to our further understanding of the fundamental DRG functions.

  7. Seasonal variation of the metal composition in particulate matter (PM) in Graz determined with ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartl, M.; Raber, G.; Goessler, W.; Licbinsky, R.; Pongratz, T.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Graz, the 2 nd biggest city of Austria, is not only famous for its cultural heritage but is also well known as one of the most heavily air-polluted cities of Austria. Samples of particulate matter (PM 1.0 , PM 2.5 , and PM 10 ), collected in Graz over a one year period, were analyzed for 36 metals by ICPMS following microwave-assisted acid digestion. Accumulation of PM in the city (Graz is located in a basin) and additional emissions (e.g. domestic combustion) during winter caused not only higher PM concentrations but also marked changes in the PM metal composition. (author)

  8. Near-membrane dynamics and capture of TRPM8 channels within transient confinement domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A Veliz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cold and menthol receptor, TRPM8, is a non-selective cation channel expressed in a subset of peripheral neurons that is responsible for neuronal detection of environmental cold stimuli. It was previously shown that members of the transient receptor potential (TRP family of ion channels are translocated toward the plasma membrane (PM in response to agonist stimulation. Because the spatial and temporal dynamics of cold receptor cell-surface residence may determine neuronal activity, we hypothesized that the movement of TRPM8 to and from the PM might be a regulated process. Single particle tracking (SPT is a useful tool for probing the organization and dynamics of protein constituents in the plasma membrane. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used SPT to study the receptor dynamics and describe membrane/near-membrane behavior of particles containing TRPM8-EGFP in transfected HEK-293T and F-11 cells. Cells were imaged using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF microscopy and the 2D and 3D trajectories of TRPM8 molecules were calculated by analyzing mean-square particle displacement against time. Four characteristic types of motion were observed: stationary mode, simple Brownian diffusion, directed motion, and confined diffusion. In the absence of cold or menthol to activate the channel, most TRPM8 particles move in network covering the PM, periodically lingering for 2-8 s in confined microdomains of about 800 nm radius. Removing cholesterol with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MβCD stabilizes TRPM8 motion in the PM and is correlated with larger TRPM8 current amplitude that results from an increase in the number of available channels without a change in open probability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results reveal a novel mechanism for regulating TRPM8 channel activity, and suggest that PM dynamics may play an important role in controlling electrical activity in cold-sensitive neurons.

  9. PM Origin or Exposure Duration? Health Hazards from PM-Bound Mercury and PM-Bound PAHs among Students and Lecturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Grzegorz; Widziewicz, Kamila; Rogula-Kozłowska, Wioletta; Rogula-Kopiec, Patrycja; Kociszewska, Karolina; Rozbicki, Tomasz; Majder-Łopatka, Małgorzata; Niemczyk, Mariusz

    2018-01-01

    This study assessed inhalation exposure to particulate matter (PM1)-bound mercury (Hgp) and PM1-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among university students. For this purpose, simultaneous indoor (I) and outdoor (O) measurements were taken from two Polish technical universities (in Gliwice and Warsaw) located in distinct areas with respect to ambient concentrations and major sources of PM. The indoor geometric mean concentrations of Hgp were found to be 1.46 pg·m−3 and 6.38 pg·m−3 in Warsaw and Gliwice, while the corresponding outdoor concentrations were slightly lower at 1.38 pg·m−3 and 3.03 pg·m−3, respectively. A distinct pattern was found with respect to PAH concentrations with estimated I/O values of 22.2 ng·m−3/22.5 ng·m−3 in Gliwice and 10.9 ng·m−3/11.12 ng·m−3 in Warsaw. Hazard quotients (HQs) as a result of exposure to Hgp for students aged 21 ranged from 3.47 × 10−5 (Warsaw) to 1.3 × 10−4 (Gliwice) in terms of reasonable maximum exposure (RME). The non-cancer human health risk value related to Hgp exposure was thus found to be below the acceptable risk level value of 1.0 given by the US EPA. Daily exposure values for lecture hall occupants, adjusted to the benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) toxicity equivalent (BaPeq), were 2.9 and 1.02 ng·m−3 for the Gliwice and Warsaw students, respectively. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) values with respect to exposure to PM1-bound PAHs during the students’ time of study were 5.49 × 10−8 (Warsaw) and 1.43 × 10−7 (Gliwice). Thus, students’ exposure to indoor PAHs does not lead to increased risk of lung cancer. PMID:29439524

  10. PM Origin or Exposure Duration? Health Hazards from PM-Bound Mercury and PM-Bound PAHs among Students and Lecturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Majewski

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed inhalation exposure to particulate matter (PM1-bound mercury (Hgp and PM1-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs among university students. For this purpose, simultaneous indoor (I and outdoor (O measurements were taken from two Polish technical universities (in Gliwice and Warsaw located in distinct areas with respect to ambient concentrations and major sources of PM. The indoor geometric mean concentrations of Hgp were found to be 1.46 pg·m−3 and 6.38 pg·m−3 in Warsaw and Gliwice, while the corresponding outdoor concentrations were slightly lower at 1.38 pg·m−3 and 3.03 pg·m−3, respectively. A distinct pattern was found with respect to PAH concentrations with estimated I/O values of 22.2 ng·m−3/22.5 ng·m−3 in Gliwice and 10.9 ng·m−3/11.12 ng·m−3 in Warsaw. Hazard quotients (HQs as a result of exposure to Hgp for students aged 21 ranged from 3.47 × 10−5 (Warsaw to 1.3 × 10−4 (Gliwice in terms of reasonable maximum exposure (RME. The non-cancer human health risk value related to Hgp exposure was thus found to be below the acceptable risk level value of 1.0 given by the US EPA. Daily exposure values for lecture hall occupants, adjusted to the benzo(apyrene (BaP toxicity equivalent (BaPeq, were 2.9 and 1.02 ng·m−3 for the Gliwice and Warsaw students, respectively. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR values with respect to exposure to PM1-bound PAHs during the students’ time of study were 5.49 × 10−8 (Warsaw and 1.43 × 10−7 (Gliwice. Thus, students’ exposure to indoor PAHs does not lead to increased risk of lung cancer.

  11. Elemental characterization and source apportionment of PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} in the western coastal area of central Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chin-Yu; Chiang, Hung-Che [National Environmental Health Research Center, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan (China); Lin, Sheng-Lun [Super Micro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Rd., Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan (China); Chen, Mu-Jean; Lin, Tzu-Yu [National Environmental Health Research Center, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yu-Cheng, E-mail: yucheng@nhri.org.tw [National Environmental Health Research Center, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan (China); Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-15

    ABSTRACT: This study investigated seasonal variations in PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} mass and associated trace metal concentrations in a residential area in proximity to the crude oil refinery plants and industrial parks of central Taiwan. Particle measurements were conducted during winter, spring and summer in 2013 and 2014. Twenty-six trace metals in PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} were analyzed using ICP-MS. Multiple approaches of the backward trajectory model, enrichment factor (EF), Lanthanum enrichment and positive matrix fraction (PMF) were used to identify potential sources of particulate metals. Mean concentrations of PM{sub 10} in winter, spring and summer were 76.4 ± 22.6, 33.2 ± 9.9 and 37.4 ± 17.0 μg m{sup −3}, respectively, while mean levels of PM{sub 2.5} in winter, spring and summer were 47.8 ± 20.0, 23.9 ± 11.2 and 16.3 ± 8.2 μg m{sup −3}, respectively. The concentrations of carcinogenic metals (Ni, As and adjusted Cr(VI)) in PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} exceeded the guideline limits published by WHO. The result of EF analysis confirmed that Mo, Sb, Cd, Zn, Mg, Cr, As, Pb, Cu, Ni and V were attributable to anthropogenic emission. PMF analysis demonstrated that trace metals in PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} were from the similar sources, such as coal combustion, oil combustion and traffic-related emission, except for soil dust and crustal element emissions only observed in PM{sub 10} and secondary aluminum smelter only observed in PM{sub 2.5}. Considering health-related particulate metals, the traffic-related emission and coal combustion for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}, respectively, are important to control for reducing potential carcinogenic risk. The results could aid efforts to clarify the impact of source-specific origins on human health. - Highlights: • Multiple approaches to identify sources of PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} metals were used. • Four similar sources contributed to metals in PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} in the study area. • Six

  12. Distribution and change patterns of free IAA, ABP 1 and PM H⁺-ATPase during ovary and ovule development of Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan; Deng, Yingtian; Zhao, Jie

    2012-01-15

    Auxin plays key roles in flower induction, embryogenesis, seed formation and seedling development, but little is known about whether auxin regulates the development of ovaries and ovules before pollination. In the present report, we measured the content of free indole-3-acetic (IAA) in ovaries of Nicotiana tabacum L., and localized free IAA, auxin binding protein 1 (ABP1) and plasma membrane (PM) H⁺-ATPase in the ovaries and ovules. The level of free IAA in the developmental ovaries increased gradually from the stages of ovular primordium to the functional megaspore, but slightly decreased when the embryo sacs formed. Immunoenzyme labeling clearly showed that both IAA and ABP1 were distributed in the ovules, the edge of the placenta, vascular tissues and the ovary wall, while PM H⁺-ATPase was mainly localized in the ovules. By using immunogold labeling, the subcellular distributions of IAA, ABP1 and PM H⁺-ATPase in the ovules were also shown. The results suggest that IAA, ABP1 and PM H⁺-ATPase may play roles in the ovary and ovule initiation, formation and differentiation. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. A measurement of the ratio of branching fractions: $\\frac{\\mathcal{B}(B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow D K^{\\pm})}{\\mathcal{B}(B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow D\\pi^{\\pm})}$ for $D\\rightarrow K\\pi$, $KK$, $K\\pi\\pi\\pi$ and $K^0_S\\pi\\pi$

    CERN Document Server

    The LHCb Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    Using the 36.5~pb$^{-1}$ of data collected by the LHCb experiment in 2010, the ratio of two $B_u$ hadronic branching fractions: ${\\cal B}(B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow D K^{\\pm})\\ /\\ {\\cal B}(B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow D \\pi^{\\pm})$ is measured for events in which the $D$ meson is reconstructed in one of four final states. In the Cabibbo-favoured decays $D^0\\rightarrow K^{-}\\pi^{+}$ and $D^{0}\\rightarrow K^{-}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{+}$, this ratio is measured as $(6.30\\pm0.38\\pm0.40)\\%$. It is determined to be $(9.31\\pm1.89\\pm0.53)\\%$ in the $CP$ eigenstate mode $D\\rightarrow K^{+} K^{-}$ and $(12\\,^{+6}_{-5}\\pm1)\\%$ in the $D\\rightarrow K^0_{\\rm\\scriptscriptstyle S}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ channel. From this work, two observables are measured: \\begin{eqnarray*} R_{CP+} &=& 1.48 \\pm 0.31 (stat.) \\pm 0.12 (syst.)\\\\ A_{CP+} &=& 0.07 \\pm 0.18 (stat.) \\pm 0.07 (syst.) \\end{eqnarray*}

  14. Inward cholesterol gradient of the membrane system in P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes involves a dilution effect from parasite-produced lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyuki Tokumasu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum (Pf infection remodels the human erythrocyte with new membrane systems, including a modified host erythrocyte membrane (EM, a parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM, a tubulovesicular network (TVN, and Maurer's clefts (MC. Here we report on the relative cholesterol contents of these membranes in parasitized normal (HbAA and hemoglobin S-containing (HbAS, HbAS erythrocytes. Results from fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM experiments with a cholesterol-sensitive fluorophore show that membrane cholesterol levels in parasitized erythrocytes (pRBC decrease inwardly from the EM, to the MC/TVN, to the PVM, and finally to the parasite membrane (PM. Cholesterol depletion of pRBC by methyl-β-cyclodextrin treatment caused a collapse of this gradient. Lipid and cholesterol exchange data suggest that the cholesterol gradient involves a dilution effect from non-sterol lipids produced by the parasite. FLIM signals from the PVM or PM showed little or no difference between parasitized HbAA vs HbS-containing erythrocytes that differed in lipid content, suggesting that malaria parasites may regulate the cholesterol contents of the PVM and PM independently of levels in the host cell membrane. Cholesterol levels may affect raft structures and the membrane trafficking and sorting functions that support Pf survival in HbAA, HbAS and HbSS erythrocytes.

  15. 78 FR 65590 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Indiana PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Indiana's state implementation plan as requested by the Indiana Department of Environmental Management....5 ) by establishing definitions related to PM 2.5 , defining PM 2.5 increment levels, and setting PM... changes define ``direct PM 2.5 ,'' addresses precursors to ozone and PM 2.5 , and revises existing...

  16. Microfabricated hydrogen sensitive membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naddaf, A.; Kraetz, L. [Lehrstuhl fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik, Technische Universitaet Kaiserslautern (Germany); Detemple, P.; Schmitt, S.; Hessel, V. [Institut fuer Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH, Mainz (Germany); Faqir, N. [University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Bart, H.J.

    2009-01-15

    Thin, defect-free palladium, palladium/copper and palladium/silver hydrogen absorbing membranes were microfabricated. A dual sputtering technique was used to deposit the palladium alloy membranes of only 1 {mu}m thickness on a nonporous silicon substrate. Advanced silicon etching (ASE) was applied on the backside to create a mechanically stable support structure for the thin films. Performance evaluation was carried out for different gases in a temperature range of 20 C to 298 C at a constant differential pressure of 110 kPa at the two sides of the membrane. The composite membranes show an excellent permeation rate of hydrogen, which appears to be 0.05 Pa m{sup 3} s{sup -1} and 0.01.10{sup -3} Pa m{sup 3} s{sup -1} at 20 C for the microfabricated 23 % silver and the 53 % copper composite membranes, respectively. The selectivity to hydrogen over a gas mixture containing, in addition to hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen was measured. The mass spectrometer did not detect any CO{sub 2} or CO, showing that the membrane is completely hydrogen selective. The microfabricated membranes exhibit both high mechanical strength (they easily withstand pressures up to 4 bar) and high thermal stability (up to 650 C). (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellin, Michael J; Hryn, John N; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-27

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features Including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity. Also provided is a method for producing a catalytic membrane having flow-through pores and discreet catalytic clusters adhering to the inside surfaces of the pores.

  18. Rotating bubble membrane radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Brent J.; Coomes, Edmund P.

    1988-12-06

    A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

  19. Bipolar Plasma Membrane Distribution of Phosphoinositides and Their Requirement for Auxin-Mediated Cell Polarity and Patterning in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tejos, R.; Sauer, M.; Vanneste, S.; Palacios-Gomez, M.; Li, H.; Heilmann, M.; van Wijk, R.; Vermeer, J.E.M.; Heilmann, I.; Munnik, T.; Friml, J.

    2014-01-01

    Cell polarity manifested by asymmetric distribution of cargoes, such as receptors and transporters, within the plasma membrane (PM) is crucial for essential functions in multicellular organisms. In plants, cell polarity (re)establishment is intimately linked to patterning processes. Despite the

  20. Level structures in 156Pm from 156Nd β - decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, P.C.; Gowrishankar, R.; Sainath, M.; Singh, B.

    2012-01-01

    Level energies in two-quasiparticle (2qp) structures in 156 61 Pm 95 are evaluated using the phenomenological rotor-particle model for odd-odd deformed nuclei with the inclusion of the residual p-n interaction contribution. Using these results as location guides, the experimental data from a recent 156 Nd decay study are used to construct a level scheme for 156 Pm with excitation energies upto 550 keV, wherein 26 (out of 30) γ's reported in 156 Nd decay are incorporated. Spin-parities and configuration assignments are suggested for 15 levels, in addition to the two isomers, in this energy domain. These investigations point to the need for information on higher-energy γ's and on β-γ and γ-γ coincidence data from 156 Nd β-decay to confirm these assignments. (orig.)

  1. Measurement of 147Pm in-vivo using phoswich detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.

    1977-10-01

    Recently an individual was suspected of having inhaled significant amounts of the almost pure beta emitter, 147 Pm. Urine analysis confirmed that contaminations had occurred but these results could not be used to evaluate the amount of material deposited in the lungs because an acceptable model of promethium clearance from the lung to blood and hence to urine has not been developed. Therefore another method of evaluation, that of the measurement, using phoswich detectors, of the soft photons emitted by the deposited 147 Pm was used. This paper describes the calibrations and measurements that were done in order that an upper limit on the deposited activity, and hence limits for committed dose to the various organs, could be assigned. (author)

  2. Network modeling of PM10 concentration in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supian, Muhammad Nazirul Aiman Abu; Bakar, Sakhinah Abu; Razak, Fatimah Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Air pollution is not a new phenomenon in Malaysia. The Department of Environment (DOE) monitors the country's ambient air quality through a network of 51 stations. The air quality is measured using the Air Pollution Index (API) which is mainly recorded based on the concentration of particulate matter, PM10 readings. The Continuous Air Quality Monitoring (CAQM) stations are located in various places across the country. In this study, a network model of air quality based on PM10 concen tration for selected CAQM stations in Malaysia has been developed. The model is built using a graph formulation, G = (V, E) where vertex, V is a set of CAQM stations and edges, E is a set of correlation values for each pair of vertices. The network measurements such as degree distributions, closeness centrality, and betweenness centrality are computed to analyse the behaviour of the network. As a result, a rank of CAQM stations has been produced based on their centrality characteristics.

  3. Characterization of the GENT PM10 sampler. Appendix 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopke, Philip K.; Xie Ying; Raunemaa, Taisto; Biegalski, Steven; Landsberger, Sheldon

    1995-01-01

    An integral part of the Co-ordinated Research Programme: Applied Research on Air Pollution using Nuclear-Related Analytical Techniques is the PM 10 sampler that was designed by Dr. W. Maenhaut of the University of Gent. Each participant was provided with such a sampler so that comparable samples will be obtained by each of the participating groups. Thus, in order to understand the characteristics of this sampler, we have undertaken several characterization studies in which we have examine the aerodynamic collection characteristics of the impactor inlet and the reproducibility of the sample mass collection. The sampler does provide a collection efficiency that follows the guidelines for a PM 10 sampler. Comparing one of the original samplers built at the University of Gent with a unit built from the same plans at Clarkson University showed good reproducibility in mass collection. (author)

  4. A search for $W\\pm H \\to\\mu\

    CERN Document Server

    Anastasoaie, Mirunna; Filthaut, F

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes a search for the Higgs boson in $D0$ data taken between April 2002 and February 2006. The search focuses on associated $W^{\\pm} H$ production, where the $W^{\\pm}$ decays to a muon and a neutrino and the Higgs boson into a $b\\overline{b}$ pair. Chapter 2 introduces the Standard Model and the Higgs mechanism. Chapter 3 describes the Tevatron particle accelerator and the $D0$ detector. The methods and algorithms used to acquire and reconstruct the data used in the analysis are presented in Chapter 4. Since the Higgs boson most often decays into a bb pair, the identification of jets originating from bottom quarks is very important. Chapter 5 describes in detail a Neural Net-based tool used for the identification of b-jets. The tool uses information from previously developed tagging algorithms used in $D0$ and improves the efficiency for finding b-jets.

  5. Timing resolution performance comparison of different SiPM devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolinsky, Sergei, E-mail: dolinsky@ge.com; Fu, Geng; Ivan, Adrian

    2015-11-21

    Silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) devices with improved parameters were recently introduced by several vendors. In addition to published manufacturer performance specifications, different research groups have reported on measurements of the available SiPMs in different operating conditions and using different test setups. In this work we performed a consistent set of test procedures for SiPM devices from various vendors, with focus on Time-of-Flight (TOF) PET detectors applications. SiPMs from Hamamatsu (HPK), SensL, Ketek, and Excelitas were tested. The same experimental setup and procedures were used for comparison of timing resolution for small (3×3 mm{sup 2}) and large (6×6 mm{sup 2} or 4×6 mm{sup 2}) devices coupled to short (3×3×10 mm{sup 3}) and long (4×4×25 mm{sup 3}) LYSO crystals. The potential opportunities for TOF PET detectors are also evaluated.

  6. Data Fusion approach for spatial analysis of speciated PM2.5 across time

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — speciated pm2.5 monitoring data and total pm2.5 monitoring data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Rundel, C., E. Schliep, A. Gelfand, and...

  7. US EPA Nonattainment Areas and Designations-Annual PM2.5 (1997 NAAQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service contains the following layers: PM2.5 Annual 1997 NAAQS State Level and PM2.5 Annual 1997 NAAQS National . It also contains the following tables:...

  8. PM10 Sampling and AOD Trends during 2016 Winter Fog Season in the Islamabad Region

    KAUST Repository

    Bulbul, Gufran; Shahid, Imran; Chishtie, Farrukh; Shahid, Muhammad Zeeshaan; Hundal, Rabia Ali; Zahra, Fatima; Shahzad, Muhammad Imran

    2017-01-01

    PM samples were collected during intensive fog days in Islamabad, Pakistan, to investigate the impact of particulate matter on fog formation. The PM concentrations were monitored at the Institute of Space Technology site using a high-volume air

  9. Air pollution studies in terms of PM2.5, PM2.5-10, PM10, lead and black carbon in urban areas of Antananarivo-Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasoazanany, E. O.; Andriamahenina, N. N.; Ravoson, H. N.; Raoelina Andriambololona; Randriamanivo, L. V.; Ramaherison, H.; Ahmed, H.; Harinoely, M.

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols or particulate matters are chemically complex and dynamic mixtures of solid and liquid particles. Sources of particulate matters include both natural and anthropogenic processes. The present work consists in determining the concentrations of existing elements in the aerosols collected in Andravoahangy and in Ambodin Isotry in Antananarivo city (Madagascar). The size distribution of these elements and their main sources are also studied.The Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer is used for the qualitative and quantitative analyses. The results show that the concentrations of the airborne particulate matters PM 2.5-10 are higher than those of PM 2.5 .The identified elements in the aerosol samples are Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr and Pb. The average concentrations of these elements are also higher in the coarse particles than in the fine particles. The calculation of the enrichment factors by Mason's model shows that Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb are of anthropogenic origins. The average concentrations of lead (2.8 ng.m -3 , 31.3 ng.m -3 and 19.6 ng.m -3 respectively in aerosols collected in Andravoahangy in 2007 and in 2008 and in Ambodin Isotry in 2008) are largely lower than the average concentration of 1.8 μg.m -3 obtained in 2000 in the Antananarivo urban areas. The concentration of black carbon is higher in the fine particles. The Air Quality Index category is variable in the two sites.

  10. The verification basis of the PM-ALPHA code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theofanous, T.G.; Yuen, W.W.; Angelini, S. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Center for Risk Studies and Safety

    1998-01-01

    An overall verification approach for the PM-ALPHA code is presented and implemented. The approach consists of a stepwise testing procedure focused principally on the multifield aspects of the premixing phenomenon. Breakup is treated empirically, but it is shown that, through reasonable choices of the breakup parameters, consistent interpretations of existing integral premixing experiments can be obtained. The present capability is deemed adequate for bounding energetics evaluations. (author)

  11. SPECIEUROPE: The European data base for PM source profiles

    OpenAIRE

    PERNIGOTTI DENISE; BELIS CLAUDIO; SPANO' LUCA

    2015-01-01

    A database of atmospheric particulate matter emission source profiles in Europe (SPECIEUROPE) was developed by the Joint Research Center in the framework of the Forum for air quality modeling in Europe (FAIRMODE, Working Group 3). It contains the chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) emission sources reported in the scientific literature and reports drafted by competent authorities. The first release of SPECIEUROPE consists of 151 measured profiles (original), 13 composite (merging ...

  12. Emissions of NO, NO2 and PM from inland shipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kurtenbach

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter (PM and nitrogen oxides NOx (NOx =  NO2+ NO are key species for urban air quality in Europe and are emitted by mobile sources. According to European recommendations, a significant fraction of road freight should be shifted to waterborne transport in the future. In order to better consider this emission change pattern in future emission inventories, in the present study inland water transport emissions of NOx, CO2 and PM were investigated under real world conditions on the river Rhine, Germany, in 2013. An average NO2 ∕ NOx emission ratio of 0.08 ± 0.02 was obtained, which is indicative of ship diesel engines without exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. For all measured motor ship types and operation conditions, overall weighted average emission indices (EIs, as emitted mass of pollutant per kg burnt fuel of EINOx =  54 ± 4 g kg−1 and a lower limit EIPM1 ≥  2.0 ± 0.3 g kg−1, were obtained. EIs for NOx and PM1 were found to be in the range of 20–161 and  ≥  0.2–8.1 g kg−1 respectively. A comparison with threshold values of national German guidelines shows that the NOx emissions of all investigated motor ship types are above the threshold values, while the obtained lower limit PM1 emissions are just under. To reduce NOx emissions to acceptable values, implementation of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems is recommended.

  13. STUDY OF THE HIGH-SPIN STRUCTURE OF PM-146

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RZACAURBAN, T; DURELL, JL; PHILLIPS, WR; VARLEY, BJ; HESS, CP; PEARSON, CJ; VERMEER, WJ; VIEU, C; DIONISIO, JS; PAUTRAT, M; Urban, W

    1995-01-01

    Excited states in Pm-146 have been investigated through the Xe-136(N-15,5n) and the Nd-146(d,xn) compound-nucleus reactions. A level scheme extending up to 6.9 MeV of excitation energy and (I = 25HBAR) is proposed. Most of the high-spin levels are interpreted in terms of multi-particle-hole states

  14. A CMOS ASIC Design for SiPM Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Samrat; Banks, Lushon; Chen, Shaw-Pin; Xu, Wenbin; Lewellen, Thomas K; Miyaoka, Robert S; Rudell, Jacques C

    2011-12-01

    Our lab has previously reported on novel board-level readout electronics for an 8×8 silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) array featuring row/column summation technique to reduce the hardware requirements for signal processing. We are taking the next step by implementing a monolithic CMOS chip which is based on the row-column architecture. In addition, this paper explores the option of using diagonal summation as well as calibration to compensate for temperature and process variations. Further description of a timing pickoff signal which aligns all of the positioning (spatial channels) pulses in the array is described. The ASIC design is targeted to be scalable with the detector size and flexible to accommodate detectors from different vendors. This paper focuses on circuit implementation issues associated with the design of the ASIC to interface our Phase II MiCES FPGA board with a SiPM array. Moreover, a discussion is provided for strategies to eventually integrate all the analog and mixed-signal electronics with the SiPM, on either a single-silicon substrate or multi-chip module (MCM).

  15. Hardfacing and welding rods by P/M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayar, H.S.

    1977-01-01

    Certain hardfacing and welding rods are very hard and non-deformable. They are, as it is well known, generally produced by casting processes. Airco has developed a P/M process for producing these rods. The process is already practiced on a semi-production scale. In this process, the powder is poured into suitably designed and prepared molds, vibrated to pack the powder, and sintered at a temperature between the solidus and the liquidus temperatures of the alloy to produce rods with 85% or more of the theoretical density. The P/M process has some distinct advantages over the conventional casting processes. These advantages are highlighted. The process is suitable for producing Fe-, Ni-, Co-, and Cu-base hardfacing and welding rods with and without second phase hard particles such as WC. Microstructures, dimensional and density controls, weld-evaluations and hardness data are included to present evidence that the rods produced by the P/M process are suitable for various welding and hardfacing applications

  16. Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) as novel photodetectors for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Guerra, Alberto; Belcari, Nicola; Giuseppina Bisogni, Maria; Corsi, Francesco; Foresta, Maurizio; Guerra, Pedro; Marcatili, Sara; Santos, Andres; Sportelli, Giancarlo

    2011-01-01

    Next generation PET scanners should fulfill very high requirements in terms of spatial, energy and timing resolution. Modern scanner performances are inherently limited by the use of standard photomultiplier tubes. The use of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) is proposed for the construction of a 4D-PET module of 4.8x4.8 cm 2 aimed to replace the standard PMT based PET block detector. The module will be based on a LYSO continuous crystal read on two faces by Silicon Photomultipliers. A high granularity detection surface made by SiPM matrices of 1.5 mm pitch will be used for the x-y photon hit position determination with submillimetric accuracy, while a low granularity surface constituted by 16 mm 2 SiPM pixels will provide the fast timing information (t) that will be used to implement the Time of Flight technique (TOF). The spatial information collected by the two detector layers will be combined in order to measure the Depth of Interaction (DOI) of each event (z). The use of large area multi-pixel Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) detectors requires the development of a multichannel Data Acquisition system (DAQ) as well as of a dedicated front-end in order not to degrade the intrinsic detector capabilities and to manage many channels. The paper describes the progress made on the development of the proof of principle module under construction at the University of Pisa.

  17. SiPM response to long and intense light pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinogradov, S., E-mail: Sergey.Vinogradov@liverpool.ac.uk [University of Liverpool and Cockcroft Institute, Sci-Tech Daresbury, Keckwick Lane, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991 Leninskiy prospekt 53, Moscow (Russian Federation); Arodzero, A. [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); RadiaBeam Technologies Inc., 1717 Stewart St., Santa Monica, CA 90404 (United States); Lanza, R.C. [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Welsch, C.P. [University of Liverpool and Cockcroft Institute, Sci-Tech Daresbury, Keckwick Lane, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    Recently Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) have become well recognized as the detector of choice for various applications which demand good photon number resolution and time resolution of short weak light pulses in the nanosecond time scale. In the case of longer and more intensive light pulses, SiPM performance gradually degrades due to dark noise, afterpulsing, and non-instant cell recovering. Nevertheless, SiPM benefits are expected to overbalance their drawbacks in applications such as X-ray cargo inspection using Scintillation-Cherenkov detectors and accelerator beam loss monitoring with Cherenkov fibres, where light pulses of a microsecond time scale have to be detected with good amplitude and timing resolution in a wide dynamic range of 10{sup 5}–10{sup 6}. This report is focused on transient characteristics of a SiPM response on a long rectangular light pulse with special attention to moderate and high light intensities above the linear dynamic range. An analytical model of the transient response and an initial consideration of experimental results in comparison with the model are presented.

  18. Assessment of PM10 in Aurangabad City of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjali Kaushik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Almost 670 million people comprising 54.5% of our population reside in regions that do not meet the Indian NAAQS for fine particulate matter. Numerous studies have revealed a consistent correlation for particulate matter concentration with health than any other air pollutant. Aurangabad city a rapidly growing city with population of 1.5 million is home to five major industrial areas, the city is also known for its historical monuments which might also be adversely affected from air pollution. Therefore, this research aims at estimating PM10 concentrations at several locations across Aurangabad. The concentration of PM10 was highest at the Railway Station followed by Waluj (an industrial zone and City chowk is the centre of the city which has high population, tall buildings, few open spaces which causes high congestion and does not allow the particulates to disperse. Other locations with high concentrations of PM are Mill corner, Harsul T-point, Kranti Chowk, Seven Hill, TV centre and Beed Bye pass. All these locations have narrow roads, high traffic density, poor road condition with pot holes and few crossing points which cause congestion and vehicle idling which are responsible for high pollution. Therefore, it is evident that air pollution is a serious issue in the city which may be further aggravated if it is not brought under control. Hence, strategies have to be adopted for combating the menace of air pollution.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTVolume-5, Issue-2, March-May 2016, Page :61-74

  19. Elemental characterization of PM1 in a heavy traffic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambade, Balram

    Eight hours samples of airborne aerosols PM1 were collected during summer (August-September) and winter (October-November) form one year 2010- 2011 in a intense traffic area of Rajnandgaon city, India. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy was employed to measure heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Ni, Pb, As). Water-soluble ions (Na+, NH4 +, K+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO3 -, and SO42-) and carbonaceous mass (elemental and organic carbon) were detected using ion chromatograph and CHN analyzer, respectively. The results indicate that the composition of PM10 on intense traffic area is highly affected by automobile emissions. Based on the chemical information, positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to identify PM sources. A total of five source types were identified, including soil dust, vehicle emissions, sea salt, industrial emissions and secondary aerosols, and their contributions were estimated using PMF. The crustal enrichment factors (EF) were calculated using Al as a reference for the trace metal species to identify the sources

  20. Sparkle/PM7 Lanthanide Parameters for the Modeling of Complexes and Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Dutra, José Diogo L.; Filho, Manoel A. M.; Rocha, Gerd B.; Freire, Ricardo O.; Simas, Alfredo M.; Stewart, James J. P.

    2013-01-01

    The recently published Parametric Method number 7, PM7, is the first semiempirical method to be successfully tested by modeling crystal structures and heats of formation of solids. PM7 is thus also capable of producing results of useful accuracy for materials science, and constitutes a great improvement over its predecessor, PM6. In this article, we present Sparkle Model parameters to be used with PM7 that allow the prediction of geometries of metal complexes and materials which contain lanth...

  1. Motion Sensorless Control of BLDC PM Motor with Offline FEM Info Assisted State Observer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stirban, Alin; Boldea, Ion; Andreescu, Gheorghe-Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a new offline FEM assisted position and speed observer, for brushless dc (BLDC) PM motor drive sensorless control, based on the line-to-line PM flux linkage estimation. The zero-crossing of the line-to-line PM flux linkage occurs right in the middle of two commutation points...... identification. Digital simulations and experimental results are shown, demonstrating the reliability of the FEM assisted position and speed observer for BLDC PM motor sensorless control operation....

  2. Developmental distribution of the plasma membrane-enriched proteome in the maize primary root growth zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe eZhang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the growth zone of the maize primary root, there are well-defined patterns of spatial and temporal organization of cell division and elongation. However, the processes underlying this organization remain poorly understood. To gain additional insights into the differences amongst the defined regions, we performed a proteomic analysis focusing on fractions enriched for plasma membrane (PM proteins. The PM is the interface between the plant cell and the apoplast and/or extracellular space. As such, it is a key structure involved in the exchange of nutrients and other molecules as well as in the integration of signals that regulate growth and development. Despite the important functions of PM-localized proteins in mediating these processes, a full understanding of dynamic changes in PM proteomes is often impeded by low relative concentrations relative to total proteins. Using a relatively simple strategy of treating microsomal fractions with Brij-58 detergent to enrich for PM proteins, we compared the developmental distribution of proteins within the root growth zone which revealed a number of previously known as well as novel proteins with interesting patterns of abundance. For instance, the quantitative proteomic analysis detected a gradient of PM aquaporin proteins similar to that previously reported using immunoblot analyses, confirming the veracity of this strategy. Cellulose synthases increased in abundance with increasing distance from the root apex, consistent with expected locations of cell wall deposition. The similar distribution pattern for Brittle-stalk-2-like protein 3 implicate that this protein may also have cell wall related functions. These results show that the simplified PM enrichment method previously demonstrated in Arabidopsis can be successfully applied to completely unrelated plant tissues and provide insights into differences in the PM proteome throughout growth and development zones of the maize primary root.

  3. Developmental distribution of the plasma membrane-enriched proteome in the maize primary root growth zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe; Voothuluru, Priyamvada; Yamaguchi, Mineo; Sharp, Robert E; Peck, Scott C

    2013-01-01

    Within the growth zone of the maize primary root, there are well-defined patterns of spatial and temporal organization of cell division and elongation. However, the processes underlying this organization remain poorly understood. To gain additional insights into the differences amongst the defined regions, we performed a proteomic analysis focusing on fractions enriched for plasma membrane (PM) proteins. The PM is the interface between the plant cell and the apoplast and/or extracellular space. As such, it is a key structure involved in the exchange of nutrients and other molecules as well as in the integration of signals that regulate growth and development. Despite the important functions of PM-localized proteins in mediating these processes, a full understanding of dynamic changes in PM proteomes is often impeded by low relative concentrations relative to total proteins. Using a relatively simple strategy of treating microsomal fractions with Brij-58 detergent to enrich for PM proteins, we compared the developmental distribution of proteins within the root growth zone which revealed a number of previously known as well as novel proteins with interesting patterns of abundance. For instance, the quantitative proteomic analysis detected a gradient of PM aquaporin proteins similar to that previously reported using immunoblot analyses, confirming the veracity of this strategy. Cellulose synthases increased in abundance with increasing distance from the root apex, consistent with expected locations of cell wall deposition. The similar distribution pattern for Brittle-stalk-2-like protein implicates that this protein may also have cell wall related functions. These results show that the simplified PM enrichment method previously demonstrated in Arabidopsis can be successfully applied to completely unrelated plant tissues and provide insights into differences in the PM proteome throughout growth and development zones of the maize primary root.

  4. Search for the lepton-flavor violating decays $B^0_s \\rightarrow e^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\mp}$ and $B^0 \\rightarrow e^{\\pm} \\mu^{\\mp}$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R.; Adinolfi, M.; Adrover, C.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves Jr, A.A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andrews, J.E.; Appleby, R.B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J.J.; Baesso, C.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R.J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P.M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brook, N.H.; Brown, H.; Burducea, I.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carranza-Mejia, H.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chen, P.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H.V.; Closier, J.; Coca, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G.A.; Craik, D.C.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; David, P.; David, P.N.Y.; Davis, A.; De Bonis, I.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J.M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Dogaru, M.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; van Eijk, D.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Fardell, G.; Farinelli, C.; Farry, S.; Fave, V.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Furcas, S.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garofoli, J.; Garosi, P.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gordon, H.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L.A.; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S.C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S.T.; Harrison, J.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Hernando Morata, J.A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hicheur, A.; Hicks, E.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hopchev, P.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Huse, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Iakovenko, V.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C.R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T.M.; Kenyon, I.R.; Ketel, T.; Keune, A.; Khanji, B.; Kochebina, O.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R.F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V.N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R.W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luisier, J.; Luo, H.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I.V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Maratas, J.; Marconi, U.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martín Sánchez, A.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Maurice, E.; Mazurov, A.; Mc Skelly, B.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D.A.; Minard, M.-N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Moran, D.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M.J.; Mountain, R.; Mous, I.; Muheim, F.; Müller, K.; Muresan, R.; Muryn, B.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Nguyen, A.D.; Nguyen, T.D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Nomerotski, A.; Novoselov, A.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J.M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B.K.; Palano, A.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C.J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G.D.; Patel, M.; Patrick, G.N.; Patrignani, C.; Pavel-Nicorescu, C.; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perez Trigo, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pescatore, L.; Pessina, G.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Phan, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Polok, G.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Powell, A.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rademacker, J.H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rangel, M.S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redford, S.; Reid, M.M.; dos Reis, A.C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, A.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Roa Romero, D.A.; Robbe, P.; Roberts, D.A.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Sabatino, G.; Saborido Silva, J.J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Salzmann, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Sannino, M.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sapunov, M.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Savrie, M.; Savrina, D.; Schaack, P.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Senderowska, K.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shatalov, P.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, O.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Sirendi, M.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N.A.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Sokoloff, M.D.; Soler, F.J.P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spradlin, P.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Subbiah, V.K.; Sun, L.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Teodorescu, E.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M.T.; Tresch, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Ukleja, A.; Urner, D.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Van Dijk, M.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J.J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; Voss, H.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D.R.; Watson, N.K.; Webber, A.D.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wiggers, L.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M.P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F.F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Witek, M.; Wotton, S.A.; Wright, S.; Wu, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Yang, Z.; Young, R.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W.C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.

    2013-01-01

    A search for the lepton-flavour violating decays $B^0_s \\rightarrow e^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\mp}$ and $B^0 \\rightarrow e^{\\pm} \\mu^{\\mp}$ is performed with a data sample, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$, TeV, collected by the LHCb experiment. The observed number of $B^0_s \\to e^{\\pm} \\mu^{\\mp}$ and $B^0 \\to e^{\\pm} \\mu^{\\mp}$ candidates is consistent with background expectations. Upper limits on the branching fractions of both decays are determined to be $BR(B^0_s \\to e^{\\pm} \\mu^{\\mp} 107$ TeV/c$^2$ and $M_{\\rm LQ} (B^0 \\to e^{\\pm} \\mu^{\\mp}) > 126$ TeV/c$^2$ at 95% C.L., and are a factor of two higher than the previous bounds.

  5. Membrane Assisted Enzyme Fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Linfeng

    to the variation in size of the proteins and a reasonable separation factor can be observed only when the size difference is in the order of 10 or more. This is partly caused by concentration polarization and membrane fouling which hinders an effective separation of the proteins. Application of an electric field...... across the porous membrane has been demonstrated to be an effective way to reduce concentration polarization and membrane fouling. In addition, this technique can also be used to separate the proteins based on difference in charge, which to some extent overcome the limitations of size difference...... of proteins on the basis of their charge, degree of hydrophobicity, affinity or size. Adequate purity is often not achieved unless several purification steps are combined thereby increasing cost and reducing product yield. Conventional fractionation of proteins using ultrafiltration membranes is limited...

  6. Fuel cell membrane humidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1999-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell assembly has an anode side and a cathode side separated by the membrane and generating electrical current by electrochemical reactions between a fuel gas and an oxidant. The anode side comprises a hydrophobic gas diffusion backing contacting one side of the membrane and having hydrophilic areas therein for providing liquid water directly to the one side of the membrane through the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing. In a preferred embodiment, the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing are formed by sewing a hydrophilic thread through the backing. Liquid water is distributed over the gas diffusion backing in distribution channels that are separate from the fuel distribution channels.

  7. Wrinkles in reinforced membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Atsushi; Brau, Fabian; Roman, Benoît; Bico, José.

    2012-02-01

    We study, through model experiments, the buckling under tension of an elastic membrane reinforced with a more rigid strip or a fiber. In these systems, the compression of the rigid layer is induced through Poisson contraction as the membrane is stretched perpendicularly to the strip. Although strips always lead to out-of-plane wrinkles, we observe a transition from out-of-plane to in plane wrinkles beyond a critical strain in the case of fibers embedded into the elastic membranes. The same transition is also found when the membrane is reinforced with a wall of the same material depending on the aspect ratio of the wall. We describe through scaling laws the evolution of the morphology of the wrinkles and the different transitions as a function of material properties and stretching strain.

  8. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project that will focus on the development and application of nonporous high gas flux perfluoro membranes with high temperature rating and excellent chemical resistance.

  9. Myosin IIA participates in docking of Glut4 storage vesicles with the plasma membrane in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Le Thi Kim; Hosaka, Toshio; Harada, Nagakatsu; Jambaldorj, Bayasgalan; Fukunaga, Keiko; Nishiwaki, Yuka; Teshigawara, Kiyoshi; Sakai, Tohru; Nakaya, Yutaka; Funaki, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    In adipocytes and myocytes, insulin stimulation translocates glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) storage vesicles (GSVs) from their intracellular storage sites to the plasma membrane (PM) where they dock with the PM. Then, Glut4 is inserted into the PM and initiates glucose uptake into these cells. Previous studies using chemical inhibitors demonstrated that myosin II participates in fusion of GSVs and the PM and increase in the intrinsic activity of Glut4. In this study, the effect of myosin IIA on GSV trafficking was examined by knocking down myosin IIA expression. Myosin IIA knockdown decreased both glucose uptake and exposures of myc-tagged Glut4 to the cell surface in insulin-stimulated cells, but did not affect insulin signal transduction. Interestingly, myosin IIA knockdown failed to decrease insulin-dependent trafficking of Glut4 to the PM. Moreover, in myosin IIA knockdown cells, insulin-stimulated binding of GSV SNARE protein, vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2) to PM SNARE protein, syntaxin 4 was inhibited. These data suggest that myosin IIA plays a role in insulin-stimulated docking of GSVs to the PM in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through SNARE complex formation.

  10. Isomeric structures in neutron-rich odd-odd Pm (Z = 61) isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, P.C.; Singh, B.; Jain, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    Each of the heavier odd-odd isotopes, namely, 152 Pm, 154 Pm and 156 Pm, have multiple low-lying isomers, almost all of them with undefined configuration and also undefined energy placement. Present investigations attempt credible characterization of the isomers using a simplified two-quasiparticle rotor model which has been widely employed for description of odd-odd deformed nuclei

  11. Temperature responsive track membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omichi, H.; Yoshido, M.; Asano, M.; Tamada, H.

    1994-01-01

    A new track membrane was synthesized by introducing polymeric hydrogel to films. Such a monomer as amino acid group containing acryloyl or methacryloyl was either co-polymerized with diethylene glycol-bis-ally carbonate followed by on beam irradiation and chemical etching, or graft co-polymerized onto a particle track membrane of CR-39. The pore size was controlled in water by changing the water temperature. Some films other than CR-39 were also examined. (author). 11 refs, 7 figs

  12. Characterization of carbonaceous materials in PM2.5 and PM10 size fractions in Morogoro, Tanzania, during 2006 wet season campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkoma, Stelyus L.; Chi Xuguang; Maenhaut, Willy

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol samples in PM10 and PM2.5 size fractions were collected in parallel at a rural site in Morogoro during wet season in March and April 2006. All samples were analysed for the particulate matter mass, for organic, elemental, and total carbon (OC, EC, and TC), and for water-soluble OC (WSOC). The average PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentrations and associated standard deviations were 14 ± 13 μg/m 3 and 7.3 ± 4 μg/m 3 respectively. On average, TC accounted for 33% of the PM10 mass and 44% of the PM2.5 mass for the campaign. The average OC/PM percentage ratios were 27% and 33% in PM10 and PM2.5 size fractions respectively and a larger fraction of the OC was water-soluble. The observed low EC/TC mean percentage ratios of 10-14% respectively for PM10 and PM2.5 fractions indicate that the carbonaceous aerosol originates mainly from biogenic aerosols and/or biomass burning. A simple source apportionment approach was used to apportion the OC to biofuel and charcoal burning. On average, 93% of the PM10 OC was attributed to biofuel and 7% to charcoal burning in the 2006 wet season campaign. However, it is suggested that a contribution to the OC at Morogoro could also come from other natural biogenic matter, and/or biomass burning aerosols. The results for the sources of OC at Morogoro should therefore be considered with great caution.

  13. Gamma-ray-induced changes in hypodermal mesocarp tissue plasma membrane of pre- and post-storage muskmelon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, G.E.; Whitaker, B.D.

    1996-01-01

    Gamma irradiation (1.0 kGy) of intact, newly harvested, mature muskmelon fruit (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud.) appears to have an immediate deleterious effect, but also a long-term beneficial effect, on the integrity and function of the plasma membrane (PM) of hypodermal mesocarp tissue. The initial consequences of gamma irradiation included an increase in the free sterol:phospholipid ratio, resulting at least in part from deglycosylation of steryl glycosides, a decrease in the spinasterol:7-stigmastenol ratio in each of the PM steryl lipids (free sterols, steryl glycosides, and acylated steryl glycosides), and a decrease in H+-ATPase activity. Irradiation did not increase protein loss, suggesting that the decrease in H+-ATPase activity resulted from either direct inactivation of the enzyme or altered PM ordering caused by the steryl lipid modifications. The long-term beneficial effects of irradiation, observed following 10 days of commercial storage, included greater retention of total PM protein, a diminished decline in total PM phospholipids (PL) and in the PL:protein ratio, and maintenance of greater overall H-ATPase activity (activity was the same as in controls on a per mg protein basis, but there was gt 30% more protein in the PM of stored irradiated fruit). These results indicate that 1 kGy gamma irradiation administered prior to storage slowes the progression of two key parameters of senescence, PM protein loss and PL catabolism

  14. Inverse colloidal crystal membranes for hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Anh T; Wang, Xinying; Wickramasinghe, S Ranil; Yu, Bing; Yuan, Hua; Cong, Hailin; Luo, Yongli; Tang, Jianguo

    2015-08-01

    Hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography has gained interest due to its excellent performance in the purification of humanized monoclonal antibodies. The membrane material used in hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography has typically been commercially available polyvinylidene fluoride. In this contribution, newly developed inverse colloidal crystal membranes that have uniform pores, high porosity and, therefore, high surface area for protein binding are used as hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography membranes for humanized monoclonal antibody immunoglobulin G purification. The capacity of the inverse colloidal crystal membranes developed here is up to ten times greater than commercially available polyvinylidene fluoride membranes with a similar pore size. This work highlights the importance of developing uniform pore size high porosity membranes in order to maximize the capacity of hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Fabrication of electrospun nanofibrous membranes for membrane distillation application

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2013-02-01

    Nanofibrous membranes of Matrimid have been successfully fabricated using an electrospinning technique under optimized conditions. Nanofibrous membranes are found to be highly hydrophobic with a high water contact angle of 130°. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and pore size distribution analysis revealed the big pore size structure of electrospun membranes to be greater than 2 μm and the pore size distribution is found to be narrow. Flat sheet Matrimid membranes were fabricated via casting followed by phase inversion. The morphology, pore size distribution, and water contact angle were measured and compared with the electrospun membranes. Both membranes fabricated by electrospinning and phase inversion techniques were tested in a direct contact membrane distillation process. Electrospun membranes showed high water vapor flux of 56 kg/m2-h, which is very high compared to the casted membrane as well as most of the fabricated and commercially available highly hydrophobic membranes. ©2013 Desalination Publications.

  16. KANDUNGAN TSP DAN PM-10 DI UDARA JAKARTA DAN SEKITARNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendro Martono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A survey was performed to assess the quality of ambient air in Jakarta, Bogor,Depok,  Tangerang  and Bekasi.  Ambient air samples were collected from 33 sampling points at a distance of 0meter and 120 meters from each main roads respectively. The highest average content of TSP in ambientair at 0 meter was found in West Jakarta (652.02 p.g/cu.m and that of 120 meters from the main road was in Bekasi (445.46µg/cu.m . The highest difference of the TSP content between the two sampling pointswas in Kebon  Jeruk, West Jakarta (96.62 %,  and the lowest one was inCikarang, Bekasi (1.63 %.  Furthermore, the highest difference of the PM-10 content between the two sampling points was inJalan  Raya Bogor, Depok  (96.86 %,  and the lowest one was in Cikarang,  Bekasi (17.26%. In the whole areasof study, the average content of TSP  was 522.44.tg/cu.m  (0 meter, and178.09µg/cu.m (120 meters,  so the difference of the pollutant content between the two sampling points was 65.91%. Meanwhile, theaverage content of PM-10 was 326.25µg/cu.m  (0 meter, and97.09µg/cu.m (120 meters, so the difference of the pollutant content between the two sampling points was 70.24 %. The difference of the means ofboth TSP  and PM-10 content levels between the two sampling sites were significant. The percentages ofsampling points complying withTSP level standard were 9.52 %  (0 meter and 75.76% (120 meters from the road sides. While that of PM-10 were 18.18%  (road side sampling and 78.79% (120 meters from theroad sides.Crusial  measure for controlling theTSP  and PM-10 pollution should also be addressed tomobile sources, such as reducing diesel motorized-vehicles and providing proper mass transportation.

  17. Impacts of Stratospheric Sulfate Geoengineering on PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.; Xia, L.; Tilmes, S.; Mills, M. J.; Richter, J.; Kravitz, B.; MacMartin, D.

    2017-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) includes sulfate, nitrate, organic carbon, elemental carbon, soil dust, and sea salt. The first four components are mostly present near the ground as fine particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5), and these are of the most concern for human health. PM is efficiently scavenged by precipitation, which is its main atmospheric sink. Here we examine the impact of stratospheric climate engineering on this important pollutant and health risk, taking advantage of two sets of climate model simulations conducted at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. We use the full tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry version of the Community Earth System Model - Community Atmospheric Model 4 (CESM CAM4-chem) with a horizontal resolution of 0.9° x 1.25° lat-lon to simulate a stratospheric sulfate injection climate intervention of 8 Tg SO2 yr-1 combined with an RCP6.0 global warming forcing, the G4 Specified Stratospheric Aerosol (G4SSA) scenario. We also analyze the output from a 20-member ensemble of Community Earth System Model, version 1 with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model as its atmospheric component (CESM1(WACCM)) simulations, also at 0.9° x 1.25° lat-lon resolution, with sulfur dioxide injection at 15°N, 15°S, 30°N, and 30°S varying in time to balance RCP8.5 forcing. While the CESM CAM4-chem model has full tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry, CESM1(WACCM) has an internally generated quasi-biennial oscillation and a comprehensive tropospheric and stratospheric sulfate aerosol treatment, but only stratospheric chemistry. For G4SSA, there are a global temperature reduction of 0.8 K and global averaged precipitation decrease of 3% relative to RCP6.0. The global averaged surface PM2.5 reduces about 1% compared with RCP6.0, mainly over Eurasian and East Asian regions in Northern Hemisphere winter. The PM2.5 concentration change is a combination of effects from tropospheric chemistry and precipitation

  18. Far Western: probing membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarson, Margret B; Pugacheva, Elena N; Orlinick, Jason R

    2007-08-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe far-Western technique described in this protocol is fundamentally similar to Western blotting. In Western blots, an antibody is used to detect a query protein on a membrane. In contrast, in a far-Western blot (also known as an overlay assay) the antibody is replaced by a recombinant GST fusion protein (produced and purified from bacteria), and the assay detects the interaction of this protein with target proteins on a membrane. The membranes are washed and blocked, incubated with probe protein, washed again, and subjected to autoradiography. The GST fusion (probe) proteins are often labeled with (32)P; alternatively, the membrane can be probed with unlabeled GST fusion protein, followed by detection using commercially available GST antibodies. The nonradioactive approach is substantially more expensive (due to the purchase of antibody and detection reagents) than using radioactively labeled proteins. In addition, care must be taken to control for nonspecific interactions with GST alone and a signal resulting from antibody cross-reactivity. In some instances, proteins on the membrane are not able to interact after transfer. This may be due to improper folding, particularly in the case of proteins expressed from a phage expression library. This protocol describes a way to overcome this by washing the membrane in denaturation buffer, which is then serially diluted to permit slow renaturation of the proteins.

  19. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2000-10-01

    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  20. Bacterial membrane proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poetsch, Ansgar; Wolters, Dirk

    2008-10-01

    About one quarter to one third of all bacterial genes encode proteins of the inner or outer bacterial membrane. These proteins perform essential physiological functions, such as the import or export of metabolites, the homeostasis of metal ions, the extrusion of toxic substances or antibiotics, and the generation or conversion of energy. The last years have witnessed completion of a plethora of whole-genome sequences of bacteria important for biotechnology or medicine, which is the foundation for proteome and other functional genome analyses. In this review, we discuss the challenges in membrane proteome analysis, starting from sample preparation and leading to MS-data analysis and quantification. The current state of available proteomics technologies as well as their advantages and disadvantages will be described with a focus on shotgun proteomics. Then, we will briefly introduce the most abundant proteins and protein families present in bacterial membranes before bacterial membrane proteomics studies of the last years will be presented. It will be shown how these works enlarged our knowledge about the physiological adaptations that take place in bacteria during fine chemical production, bioremediation, protein overexpression, and during infections. Furthermore, several examples from literature demonstrate the suitability of membrane proteomics for the identification of antigens and different pathogenic strains, as well as the elucidation of membrane protein structure and function.

  1. Pulmonary toxicity study in rats with PM 10 and PM 2.5: Differential responses related to scale and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Lei, Tian; Lin, Zhi-Qing; Zhang, Hua-Shan; Yang, Dan-Feng; Xi, Zhu-Ge; Chen, Jian-Hua; Wang, Wei

    2011-02-01

    ObjectionTo study the pollution of atmospheric particles at winter in Beijing and compare the lung toxicity which induced by particle samples from different sampling sites. MethodWe collected samples from two sampling points during the winter for toxicity testing and chemical analysis. Wistar rats were administered with particles by intratracheal instillation. After exposure, biochemically index, esimmunity indexes, histopathology and DNA damage were detected in rat pulmonary cells. ResultThe elements with enrichment factors (EF) larger than 10 were As, Cd, Cu, Zn, S and Pb in the four experiment groups. The priority control of the total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM 10 and PM 2.5 of Near-traffic source was much higher than that of Far-traffic source, it demonstrated that near the traffic source of PAHs pollution was heavier than that of Far-traffic source, as it was close to main roads Beiyuan Road, motor vehicle emissions were much higher. The pathology of lung showed that the degree of inflammation was increased with the particle diameter minished, it was the same as the detection of biochemical parameters such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Total antioxidant status(T-AOC) and total protein (TP) in BALF and inflammation cytokine(interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) in lung homogenate. The indexes of DNA damage including the content of DNA and Olive empennage of PM 2.5 were significant higher than that of PM 10 at the same surveillance point ( P < 0.05), near-traffic particles were higher than the far-traffic particles at the same diameter, ( P < 0.05). ConclusionNear-traffic area particles had certain pollution at winter in Beijing. Meanwhile, atmospheric particulate matters on lung toxicity were related to the particles size and distance related sites which were exposed: smaller size, more toxicity; nearer from traffic, more toxicity.

  2. [Characterization of water-soluble inorganic ions in PM2.5 and PM1.0 in summer in Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jun; Zhang, Ren-jian; Dong, Lin; Zhang, Tao; Zhu, Li-hua; Han, Jing-lei; Xu, Zhen-cheng

    2010-07-01

    PM2.5 and PM1.0 samples were collected simultaneously during July of 2008 in Guangzhou. The concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, F-, Cl-, NO3-, and SO4(2-)) were determined by ion chromatography. Meteorological parameters, atmospheric scattering, visibility, and concentrations of trace gases (SO2, NO2, and O3) for this period were also recorded. The results showed the total water-soluble inorganic ions concentrations were (25.5 +/- 10.9) microg x m(-1) and (22. 7 +/- 10.5) microg x m(-3) in PM2.5 and PM1.0, which occupied (47.9 +/- 4.3)% and (49.3 +/- 4.3)% of PM mass respectively. Sulfate was the most abundant ion and contributed (25.8 +/- 4.0)% of PM2.5 mass and (27.5 +/- 4.5)% of PM1.0 mass respectively. High temperature and high ozone level favored the formation of sulfate from sulfur dioxide, while the high relative humidity favored the formation of nitrate were observed. Moreover, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium in PM2.5 and PM1.0 had great impact on the scattering coefficient and visibility degradation.

  3. First observation and study of $K^\\pm \\to \\pi^\\pm \\pi^0 e^+ e^-$ decay at the NA48/2 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Misheva, M H; Arcidiacono, R; Balev, S; Batley, J R; Behler, M; Bi­fani, S; Biino, C; Bizzeti, A; Bloch-Devaux, B; Bocquet, G; Cabibbo, N; Calvetti, M; Cartiglia, N; Ceccucci, A; Cenci, P; Cerri, C; Cheshkov, C; Cheze, J B; Ciemencic, M; Collazuol, G; Costantini, F; Cotta Ramusino, A; Coward, D; Cundy, D; Dabrowski, A; Dalpiaz, P; Damiani, C; De Beer, M; Derre, J; Dibon, H; Dilella, L; Doble, N; Eppard, K; Falaleev, V; Fantechi, R; Fidecaro, M; Fiorini, L; Fiorini, M; Fonseca, T; Martin, M; Frabetti, P L; Gatignon, L; Gersabeck, E; Gianoli, A; Giudici, S; Gonidec, A; Goudzovski, E; Goy Lopez, S; Holder, M; Hris­, P; Iacopini, E; Imbergamo, E; Jeitler, M; Kalmus, G; Kekelidze, V; Kleinknecht, K; Kozhuharov, V; Kubis­, W; Lamanna, G; Lazzeroni, C; Lenti, M; Litov, L; Madigozhin, D; Maier, A; Mannelli, I; Marchetto, F; Mare, G; Markytan, M; Marouelli, P; Martini, M; Masetti, L; Mazzucato, E; Michetti, A; Mikulec, I; Molokanova, N; Monnier, E; Moosbrugger, U; Morales Morales, C; Munday, D J; Nappi, A; Neuhofer, G; Norton, A; Pa­, M; Pepe, M; Peters, A; Petrucci, F; Petrucci, M C; Peyaud, B; Piccini, M; Pierazzini, G; Polenkevich, I; Potrebenikov, Yu; Raggi, M; Renk, B; Rubin, P; Ruggiero, G; Savrie, M; Scarpa, M; Shieh, M; Slater, M W; Sozzi, M; Stoynev, S; Swallow, E; Szleper, M; Valdata-Nappi, M; Vallage, B; Velasco, M; Veltri, M; Venditti, S; Wache, M; Wahl, H; Walker, A; Wanke, R; Widhalm, L; Winhart, A; Winston, R; Wood, M D; Wotton, S A; Yushchenko, A; Zinchenko, M; Ziolkowski, M

    2015-01-01

    A sample of almost 2000 $K^\\pm \\to \\pi^\\pm \\pi^0 e^+ e^-$ rare decays with a background contamination below 3% is observed for the first time by the NA48/2 experiment at CERN/SPS. The preliminary branching ratio in the full kinematic region is obtained to be $BR(K^\\pm \\to \\pi^\\pm \\pi^0 e^+ e^-)$ = (4.06 ± 0.17) x $10^{-6}$ by analyzing the data set recorded in 3-month NA48/2 run during 2003. The measured value is in agreement with the theoretical prediction within one standard deviation.

  4. Source contributions to PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} at an urban background and a street location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keuken, M.; Voogt, M.; Moerman, M. [TNO, Utrecht (Netherlands); Blom, M.; Weijers, E.P. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Roeckmann, T.; Dusek, U. [Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research IMAU, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    The contribution of regional, urban and traffic sources to PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} in an urban area was investigated in this study. The chemical composition of PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} was measured over a year at a street location and up- and down-wind of the city of Rotterdam, Netherlands. The {sup 14}C content in EC and OC concentrations was also determined, to distinguish the contribution from 'modern' carbon (e.g., biogenic emissions, biomass burning and wildfires) and fossil fuel combustion. It was concluded that the urban background of PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} is dominated by the regional background, and that primary and secondary PM emission by urban sources contribute less than 15%. The {sup 14}C analysis revealed that 70% of OC originates from modern carbon and 30% from fossil fuel combustion. The corresponding percentages for EC are, respectively 17% and 83%. It is concluded that in particular the urban population living in street canyons with intense road traffic has potential health risks. This is due to exposure to elevated concentrations of a factor two for EC from exhaust emissions in PM{sub 2.5} and a factor 2-3 for heavy metals from brake and tyre wear, and re-suspended road dust in PM{sub 10}. It follows that local air quality management may focus on local measures to street canyons with intense road traffic.

  5. Levels of PM2.5/PM10 and associated metal(loid)s in rural households of Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fuyong; Wang, Wei; Man, Yu Bon; Chan, Chuen Yu; Liu, Wenxin; Tao, Shu; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-04-15

    Although a majority of China's rural residents use solid fuels (biomass and coal) for household cooking and heating, clean energy such as electricity and liquid petroleum gas is becoming more popular in the rural area. Unfortunately, both solid fuels and clean energy could result in indoor air pollution. Daily respirable particulate matter (PM≤10 μm) and inhalable particulate matter (PM≤2.5 μm) were investigated in kitchens, sitting rooms and outdoor area in rural Henan during autumn (Sep to Oct 2012) and winter (Jan 2013). The results showed that PM (PM2.5 and PM10) and associated metal(loid)s varied among the two seasons and the four types of domestic energy used. Mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in kitchens during winter were 59.2-140.4% and 30.5-145.1% higher than those during autumn, respectively. Similar with the trends of PM2.5 and PM10, concentrations of As, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni and Mn in household PM2.5 and PM10 were apparently higher in winter than those in autumn. The highest mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 (368.5 and 588.7 μg m(-3)) were recorded in sitting rooms in Baofeng during winter, which were 5.7 and 3.9 times of corresponding health based guidelines for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. Using coal can result in severe indoor air pollutants including PM and associated metal(loid)s compared with using crop residues, electricity and gas in rural Henan Province. Rural residents' exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 would be roughly reduced by 13.5-22.2% and 8.9-37.7% via replacing coal or crop residues with electricity. The present study suggested that increased use of electricity as domestic energy would effectively improve indoor air quality in rural China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biomimetic membranes and methods of making biomimetic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempe, Susan; Brinker, Jeffrey C.; Rogers, David Michael; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Yang, Shaorong

    2016-11-08

    The present disclosure is directed to biomimetic membranes and methods of manufacturing such membranes that include structural features that mimic the structures of cellular membrane channels and produce membrane designs capable of high selectivity and high permeability or adsorptivity. The membrane structure, material and chemistry can be selected to perform liquid separations, gas separation and capture, ion transport and adsorption for a variety of applications.

  7. Polyurethane Nanofiber Membranes for Waste Water Treatment by Membrane Distillation

    OpenAIRE

    Jiříček, T.; Komárek, M.; Lederer, T.

    2017-01-01

    Self-sustained electrospun polyurethane nanofiber membranes were manufactured and tested on a direct-contact membrane distillation unit in an effort to find the optimum membrane thickness to maximize flux rate and minimize heat losses across the membrane. Also salt retention and flux at high salinities up to 100 g kg−1 were evaluated. Even though the complex structure of nanofiber layers has extreme specific surface and porosity, membrane performance was surprisingly predictable; the highest ...

  8. PM sources in a highly industrialised area in the process of implementing PM abatement technology. Quantification and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Minguillón, María; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Monfort, Eliseo; Vicente Miró, José

    2007-10-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) coupled with a multilinear regression analysis (MLRA) was applied to PM(10) speciation data series (2002-2005) from four sampling sites in a highly industrialised area (ceramic production) in the process of implementing emission abatement technology. Five common factors with similar chemical profiles were identified at all the sites: mineral, regional background (influenced by the industrial estate located on the coast: an oil refinery and a power plant), sea spray, industrial 1 (manufacture and use of glaze components, including frit fusion) and road traffic. The contribution of the regional background differs slightly from site to site. The mineral factor, attributed to the sum of several sources (mainly the ceramic industry, but also with minor contributions from soil resuspension and African dust outbreaks) contributes between 9 and 11 microg m(-3) at all the sites. Source industrial 1 entails an increase in PM(10) levels between 4 and 5 microg m(-3) at the urban sites and 2 microg m(-3) at the suburban background site. However, after 2004, this source contributed less than 2 microg m(-3) at most sites, whereas the remaining sources did not show an upward or downward trend along the study period. This gradual decrease in the contribution of source industrial 1 coincides with the implementation of PM abatement technology in the frit fusion kilns of the area. This relationship enables us to assess the efficiency of the implementation of environmental technologies in terms of their impact on air quality.

  9. EVALUATION OF THE SMPS-APS SYSTEM AS A CONTINUOUS MONITOR FOR MEASURING PM2.5, PM10 AND COARSE (PM2.5-10) CONCENTRATIONS. (R827352C011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respirable particulate matter (PM) has been linked to mortality and morbidity by a variety of epidemiological studies. This research has led to the creation of a new PM standard for particles with diameters 2.5). Since the conclusion of these studie...

  10. Growth, extracellular alkaline phosphatase activity, and kinetic characteristic responses of the bloom-forming toxic cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa, to atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5, PM2.5-10, and PM>10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ziran; Wang, Shoubing; Wang, Yuanan; Zhang, Jie

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (APM), commonly seen and widely excited in environment, appears great enough to influence the biochemical processes in aquatic microorganisms and phytoplankton. Understanding the response of cyanobacteria to various factors is fundamental for eutrophication control. To clarify the response of cyanobacteria to APM, the effects of PM 2.5 , PM 2.5-10 , and PM >10 on Microcystis aeruginosa were researched. Variabilities in cell density, chlorophyll a, soluble protein, malondialdehyde, extracellular activity, and kinetic parameters of alkaline phosphatase were evaluated by lab-cultured experiments. Results showed that the PM 2.5 had a slight stimulation impact on the growth and enhanced both of the 48- and 72-h extracellular alkaline phosphatase activity (APA), the affinity of alkaline phosphatase for substrate, and the 72-h maximum enzymatic reaction velocity (V max ). Moreover, the stimulations in extracellular APA and V max enhanced with the increasing exposure concentrations. We also found there were no obvious distinctions on the effects of growth and alkaline phosphatase in M. aeruginosa between PM 2.5-10 and PM >10 exposure groups. Obviously, inhibitory effects on growth existed in 4.0 and 8.0 mg/L PM 2.5-10 and 8.0 mg/L PM >10 at 120 h. Furthermore, PM 2.5-10 and PM >10 exerted inhibitory effects on the extracellular APA during the 72-h exposure. Simultaneously, the V max was notably inhibited and the affinity of alkaline phosphatase for substrate was more inseparable compared with control in PM 2.5-10 and PM >10 treatments. Nevertheless, the inhibitors in extracellular APA and kinetic parameters were unrelated to PM 2.5-10 and PM >10 exposure concentrations. Two-way ANOVA results revealed that there were significant interactions between exposure concentration and diameter of APM on the 120-h cell density, soluble protein content, APA, and 72 h APA of M. aeruginosa. These results in our study would be meaningful to further

  11. Exposure to urban PM1 in rats: development of bronchial inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filep, Ágnes; Fodor, Gergely H; Kun-Szabó, Fruzsina; Tiszlavicz, László; Rázga, Zsolt; Bozsó, Gábor; Bozóki, Zoltán; Szabó, Gábor; Peták, Ferenc

    2016-03-10

    Several epidemiological and laboratory studies have evidenced the fact that atmospheric particulate matter (PM) increases the risk of respiratory morbidity. It is well known that the smallest fraction of PM (PM1 - particulate matter having a diameter below 1 μm) penetrates the deepest into the airways. The ratio of the different size fractions in PM is highly variable, but in industrial areas PM1 can be significant. Despite these facts, the health effects of PM1 have been poorly investigated and air quality standards are based on PM10 and PM2.5 (PM having diameters below 10 μm and 2.5 μm, respectively) concentrations. Therefore, this study aimed at determining whether exposure to ambient PM1 at a near alert threshold level for PM10 has respiratory consequences in rats. Rats were either exposed for 6 weeks to 100 μg/m(3) (alert threshold level for PM10 in Hungary) urban submicron aerosol, or were kept in room air. End-expiratory lung volume, airway resistance (Raw) and respiratory tissue mechanics were measured. Respiratory mechanics were measured under baseline conditions and following intravenous methacholine challenges to characterize the development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AH). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed and lung histology was performed. No significant differences were detected in lung volume and mechanical parameters at baseline. However, the exposed rats exhibited significantly greater MCh-induced responses in Raw, demonstrating the progression of AH. The associated bronchial inflammation was evidenced by the accumulation of inflammatory cells in BALF and by lung histology. Our findings suggest that exposure to concentrated ambient PM1 (mass concentration at the threshold level for PM10) leads to the development of mild respiratory symptoms in healthy adult rats, which may suggest a need for the reconsideration of threshold limits for airborne PM1.

  12. Transgenic Pm3 multilines of wheat show increased powdery mildew resistance in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Susanne; Stirnweis, Daniel; Diaz Quijano, Carolina; Buesing, Gabriele; Herren, Gerhard; Parlange, Francis; Barret, Pierre; Tassy, Caroline; Sautter, Christof; Winzeler, Michael; Keller, Beat

    2012-05-01

    Resistance (R) genes protect plants very effectively from disease, but many of them are rapidly overcome when present in widely grown cultivars. To overcome this lack of durability, strategies that increase host resistance diversity have been proposed. Among them is the use of multilines composed of near-isogenic lines (NILs) containing different disease resistance genes. In contrast to classical R-gene introgression by recurrent backcrossing, a transgenic approach allows the development of lines with identical genetic background, differing only in a single R gene. We have used alleles of the resistance locus Pm3 in wheat, conferring race-specific resistance to wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici), to develop transgenic w